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Sample records for subantarctic macquarie island

  1. Permeable bio-reactive barriers to address petroleum hydrocarbon contamination at subantarctic Macquarie Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidman, Benjamin L; Terry, Deborah; Wilkins, Dan; Spedding, Tim; Gras, Sally L; Snape, Ian; Stevens, Geoffrey W; Mumford, Kathryn A

    2017-05-01

    A reliance on diesel generated power and a history of imperfect fuel management have created a legacy of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination at subantarctic Macquarie Island. Increasing environmental awareness and advances in contaminant characterisation and remediation technology have fostered an impetus to reduce the environmental risk associated with legacy sites. A funnel and gate permeable bio-reactive barrier (PRB) was installed in 2014 to address the migration of Special Antarctic Blend diesel from a spill that occurred in 2002, as well as older spills and residual contaminants in the soil at the Main Power House. The PRB gate comprised of granular activated carbon and natural clinoptilolite zeolite. Petroleum hydrocarbons migrating in the soil water were successfully captured on the reactive materials, with concentrations at the outflow of the barrier recorded as being below reporting limits. The nutrient and iron concentrations delivered to the barrier demonstrated high temporal variability with significant iron precipitation observed across the bed. The surface of the granular activated carbon was largely free from cell attachment while natural zeolite demonstrated patchy biofilm formation after 15 months following PRB installation. This study illustrates the importance of informed material selection at field scale to ensure that adsorption and biodegradation processes are utilised to manage the environmental risk associated with petroleum hydrocarbon spills. This study reports the first installation of a permeable bio-reactive barrier in the subantarctic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The effects of a spillage of diesel fuel on a rocky shore in the sub-Antarctic region (Macquarie Island)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, R.D.; Smith, S.D.A.; Pople, A.R. [University of New England, Armidale (Australia). Dept. of Zoology

    1995-04-01

    On 3 December 1987, the supply ship Nella Dan ran aground at Macquarie island (54{sup o}29`S. 158{sup o}58`E) releasing about 270 000 1 of oil, mostly light marine diesel, into the sea. At the time of the incident, many marine invertebrates were washed up dead along 2 km of shoreline. Twelve months later, the shore community was investigated using (1) algal and invertebrate populations of the littoral and sublittoral rocky shore, and (2) the invertebrate communities living in the holdfasts of the giant kelp Durvillaea antarctica, which were collected for later examination. Investigations were undertaken at both affected and control locations. Analyses of differences in community structure involved nested ANOVA and multi-dimensional scaling techniques. On the rocky substrate, the effect of the spill was restricted to some biota of the lower littoral and sublittoral zones -particularly echinoderms and the patellid limpet Nacella macquariensis. There were differences in cover for some algal species between locations. Within the kelp holdfasts, communities were dominated by peracarid crustaceans at control locations and by polychaetes (particularly the opportunistic groups - capitellids, cirratulids and spionids) at oil-affected locations. The communities have recently been re-surveyed (in the summer of 1994-95) to assist in the interpretation of the results and to gauge the extent of recovery of the affected biota. (author)

  3. Resupinate fungi (Basidiomycetes, Aphyllophoraies) of Macquarie Island, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary A. Laursen; Harold H. Burdsall; Rodney D. Seppelt

    2002-01-01

    Fourteen collections of resupinate higher fungi in the order Aphyllophorales (Basidiomycetes) were made on Subantarctic Macquarie Island (54°30'S, 158°57' E) in 1995. Of the 14, three proved to lack species-determining characteristic basidiospores and 12 were determined to belong to three species in two genera; Athelopsis lembospora (Bourdot)Oberwinkler,...

  4. Crustose corallinaceous algae (Rhodophyta) of the New Zealand and United States scientific expedition to the Ross Sea, Balleny Islands, and Macquarie Ridge, 1965

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaneveld, Jacques S.; Sanford, Robert B.

    1980-01-01

    Fourteen taxa of crustose Corallinaceae are described from a collection of marine algae picked up in Antarctic and sub-Antarctic waters along a Ross Sea — Balleny IslandsMacquarie Island traject aboard the USS Glacier in 1965. Three of these taxa are newly described, i.e. Lithothamnium

  5. The Quarantine Protection of Sub-Antarctic Australia: Two Islands, Two Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Potter

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Sub-Antarctic Heard Island and Macquarie Island are among Australia’s offshore properties susceptible to colonization by species introduced by humans. While both islands share World Heritage status and are IUCN Category Ia Protected Areas (Strict Nature Reserves, different quarantine protection regimes are in operation. Macquarie Island’s biosecurity appears to be less catered for while the means and likelihood of introductions are greater. The administrative, political, practical and geographical contexts within which quarantine management planning takes place variously impact on the level of quarantine protection provided to both islands. These and other remote sites of high conservation value are unlikely to receive heightened protection until the issues associated with such management contexts receive greater attention.

  6. King penguin population on Macquarie Island recovers ancient DNA diversity after heavy exploitation in historic times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heupink, Tim H; van den Hoff, John; Lambert, David M

    2012-08-23

    Historically, king penguin populations on Macquarie Island have suffered greatly from human exploitation. Two large colonies on the island were drastically reduced to a single small colony as a result of harvesting for the blubber oil industry. However, recent conservation efforts have resulted in the king penguin population expanding in numbers and range to recolonize previous as well as new sites. Ancient DNA methods were used to estimate past genetic diversity and combined with studies of modern populations, we are now able to compare past levels of variation with extant populations on northern Macquarie Island. The ancient and modern populations are closely related and show a similar level of genetic diversity. These results suggest that the king penguin population has recovered past genetic diversity in just 80 years owing to conservation efforts, despite having seen the brink of extinction.

  7. A statistical seasonal analysis of winter decreases in ozone at Macquarie Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, P. [Bureau of Meteorology, Melbourne (Australia)

    1994-03-01

    The change in total ozone between the seasonal periods April to June and July to September at Macquarie Island (Australia, 55 deg S, 159 deg E) are shown to be highly statistically significant during the latter half of the 1980s when compared to the seasonal changes observed over the period 1963-79. These results support a previous analysis by the author which indicated significant winter ozone decreases using a less rigorous method and a shorter time series.

  8. The Bryozoa of subantarctic Marion and Prince Edward Islands ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Bryozoa of subantarctic Marion and Prince Edward Islands were sampled over the period 1982–1989 by dredging, SCUBA-diving and intertidal surveys. This paper comprises illustrated keys to all 82 species of Bryozoa collected during these and previous surveys, including 15 new species, 17 new records and 8 ...

  9. A tale of two islands: contrasting fortunes for Subantarctic skuas at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subantarctic skuas Catharacta antarctica are key predators of burrowing petrels at sub-Antarctic islands, and can be used to monitor the health of burrowing petrel populations. A survey of skuas at the Prince Edward Islands was conducted during December 2008, repeating a previous survey in December 2001.

  10. Lichens of sub-Antarctic Heard Island

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Øvstedal, D.O.; Gremmen, N.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    A tota1 of 71 lichen species in 42 genera are listed for the island. Three species are described as new: “Arctomia” latispora Øvstedal, Fellhaneropsis subantarctica Øvstedal and Stereocaulon heardii Øvstedal. More than half of the species are restricted to the southern cold zone (Antarctica and

  11. Analysis of Ionospheric Scintillation Characteristics in Sub-Antarctica Region with GNSS Data at Macquarie Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kai; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Jinling

    2017-01-12

    Ionospheric scintillation has a great impact on radio propagation and electronic system performance, thus is extensively studied currently. The influence of scintillation on Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is particularly evident, making GNSS an effective medium to study characteristics of scintillation. Ionospheric scintillation varies greatly in relation with temporal and spatial distribution. In this paper, both temporal and spatial characteristics of scintillation are investigated based on Macquarie Island's GNSS scintillation data collected from 2011 to 2015. Experiments demonstrate that occurrence rates of amplitude scintillation have a close relationship with solar activity, while phase scintillation is more likely to be generated by geomagnetic activity. In addition, scintillation distribution behaviors related to elevation and azimuth angles are statistically analyzed for both amplitude and phase scintillation. The proposed work is valuable for a deeper understanding of theoretical mechanisms of ionospheric scintillation in this region, and provides a reference for GNSS applications in certain regions around sub-Antarctica.

  12. Moss-inhabiting diatom communities from Heard Island, sub-Antarctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VandeVijver, B.; Beyens, L.; Vincke, S.; Gremmen, N.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we list 192 diatom taxa, collected from bryophyte samples from Heard Island (52degrees05'S, 73degrees30'E). The Heard Island diatom flora shows a marked similarity to those of the Crozet and Kerguelen archipelagos, and is quite dissimilar to the moss-dwelling diatom flora of Macquarie

  13. Additions and corrections to the lichen mycobiota of the subantarctic Prince Edward Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Øvstedal, D.O.; Gremmen, N.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Fifteen species are reported as new to the subantarctic Prince Edward Islands (47 degrees S, 38 degrees E). Of these 12 are added to the known lichens of Prince Edward Island, and four are added to the Marion Island species list. Two species are new to science, viz. Gyalecta azorellae Ovstedal, with

  14. Geology and geochronology of the Sub-Antarctic Snares Islands/Tini Heke, New Zealand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, JM; Turnbull, IM; Sagar, MW

    2015-01-01

    The first comprehensive geological map, a summary of lithologies and new radiogenic isotope data (U–Pb, Rb–Sr) are presented for crystalline rocks of the Sub-Antarctic Snares Islands/Tini Heke, 150 km south of Stewart Island. The main lithology is Snares Granite (c. 109 Ma from U–Pb dating...

  15. Summer diet of the Salvin's prion at sub-Antarctic Marion Island ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty-nine food samples were collected from Salvin's prions Pachyptila salvini at sub-Antarctic Marion Island, Prince Edward Islands. The diet was dominated by crustaceans which formed 44,2% of the mass, 99,7% of prey items and occurred in 97,4% of the samples. Amphipods were of particular importance, the most ...

  16. Thuidium delicatulum (Hedw.) Schimp. (Thuidiaceae) another bipolar moss disjunct from Subantarctic Marion Island

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ochyra, R.; Smith, V.; Gremmen, N.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Thuidium delicatulum (Hedw.) Schimp. is recorded from Marion Island in the Prince Edward Islands Archipelago in the Subantarctic. This is the first report of the genus Thuidium Schimp. from the subpolar region of the Southern Hemisphere and establishes Th. delicatulum as a bipolar species with

  17. Diet of the blue petrel at sub-Antarctic Marion Island | Steele | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food samples were collected from 49 blue petrels Halobaena caerulea at Marion Island in the sub-Antarctic region. These were analysed and the results compared with previously published data collected at other islands. Crustaceans formed the major prey by mass (59,5%) and frequency (100%), with Euphausia vallentini ...

  18. Summer diet of the Salvin's prion at sub-Antarctic Marion Island

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-02-14

    Feb 14, 1988 ... Zoo!. 1988,23(4). 309. Summer diet of the Salvin's prion at sub-Antarctic Marion Island. N.A. Gartshore and W.K. Steele*. Percy FitzPatrick Institute of African Ornithology, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, 7700 Republic of South Africa. N.T. Klages. Port Elizabeth Museum, P.O. Box 13147, Humewood, ...

  19. New records of Acari from the sub-Antarctic Prince Edward Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marshall, D.J.; Gremmen, N.J.M.; Coetzee, L.; Oconnor, B.M.; Pugh, P.J.A.; Theron, P.D.; Ueckermann, E.A.

    1999-01-01

    Sixty species of Acari are recorded from the sub-Antarctic Marion and Prince Edward Islands (the Prince Edward archipelago). Twenty of the 45 species collected on recent expeditions are new and currently undescribed. Other new taxa include a family of Mesostigmata, four new genera, and the first

  20. Evolution and biogeography of Pleurophyllum (Astereae, Asteraceae), a small genus of megaherbs endemic to the subantarctic islands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steven J. Wagstaff; Ilse Breitwieser; Motomi Ito

    2011-01-01

    ... played a pivotal role in shaping plant distributions in the southern hemisphere. Although the Antarctic flora was largely erased by glaciation during the Pleistocene, at least some Antarctic plant species found refuge on the subantarctic islands. Methods...

  1. Aeolian processes and landforms in the sub-Antarctic: preliminary observations from Marion Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Hedding

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sub-Antarctic Marion Island has a hyperoceanic climate, with cold and wet conditions and consistently strong wind velocities throughout the year. Recent observations recognized the increasing role of aeolian processes as a geomorphic agent, and this paper presents the first data for transport by aeolian processes on a sub-Antarctic island. Data were collected through an intensive and high-resolution measurement campaign at three study sites using Big Spring Number Eight sediment traps and surface sediment samplers in conjunction with an array of climatic and soil logger sensors. Observed aeolian landforms are megaripples, and the data suggest that aeolian processes are also modifying solifluction landforms. The sediment traps and sediment samplers collected wind-blown scoria at all three study sites, and the annual (horizontal aeolian sediment flux extrapolated from this preliminary data is estimated at 0.36–3.85 kg cm−2 y−1. Importantly, plant material of various species was trapped during the study that suggests the efficiency of wind for the dispersal of plants in this sub-Antarctic environment may be underestimated. This paper advocates long-term monitoring of aeolian processes and that the link between aeolian processes and synoptic climate must be established. Furthermore, wind as a means to disperse genetic material on Marion Island should be investigated.

  2. Freshwater invertebrates of sub-Antarctic Marion Island | Dartnall ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antarctic Marion Island were examined for invertebrates. Sixty-eight species were found, including 45 new records for the Island. Of these 56 were bona fide aquatic invertebrates, the rest being terrestrial or brackish interlopers that had fallen or been ...

  3. Cytotoxic activity of marine sponge extracts from the sub-Antarctic Islands and the Southern Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth K. Olsen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 50 years, marine invertebrates, especially sponges, have proven to be a valuable source of new and/or bioactive natural products that have the potential to be further developed as lead compounds for pharmaceutical applications. Although marine benthic invertebrate communities occurring off the coast of South Africa have been explored for their biomedicinal potential, the natural product investigation of marine sponges from the sub-Antarctic Islands in the Southern Ocean for the presence of bioactive secondary metabolites has been relatively unexplored thus far. We report here the results for the biological screening of both aqueous and organic extracts prepared from nine specimens of eight species of marine sponges, collected from around Marion Island and the Prince Edward Islands in the Southern Ocean, for their cytotoxic activity against three cancer cell lines. The results obtained through this multidisciplinary collaborative research effort by exclusively South African institutions has provided an exciting opportunity to discover cytotoxic compounds from sub-Antarctic sponges, whilst contributing to our understanding of the biodiversity and geographic distributions of these cold-water invertebrates. Therefore, we acknowledge here the various contributions of the diverse scientific disciplines that played a pivotal role in providing the necessary platform for the future natural products chemistry investigation of these marine sponges from the sub- Antarctic Islands and the Southern Ocean.

  4. Postglacial Records of Southern Hemisphere Westerly Wind Variability From the New Zealand Subantarctic Auckland Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, C. M.; Vandergoes, M.; Gilmer, G. J.; Nichols, J. E.; Dagg, B. J.; Wilson, G. S.; Browne, I. M.; Curtin, L. G.; Aebig, C.; McGlone, M.

    2015-12-01

    The strength and latitudinal position of the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds (SHWW) play a fundamental role in influencing mid latitude climate and carbon dioxide exchange between the Southern Ocean and the atmosphere. Despite their importance, our understanding of past changes in the SHWW is limited by few paleoclimate records from the modern wind maximum that are often not in agreement. The New Zealand subantarctic Auckland Islands are located within the core of the modern wind belt (50°S) where the ocean-atmospheric linkages between the Antarctic and middle latitudes are strong. In contrast to other subantarctic islands on the Campbell Plateau, the Auckland Islands have protected fjord sub-basins, deep lakes, and peatlands that are advantageous for the development of high-resolution paleoclimate records. We will present ongoing work towards the establishment of multi-proxy and multi-site reconstructions of past SHWW variability from the Auckland Islands. Modern process and paleoclimate results from two research cruises in 2014 and 2015 suggest that in lacustrine and fjord settings, the degree of water column mixing, the stable isotopic composition of n-alkanes and benthic foraminifera, the influx of terrestrial organic matter are good indicators of wind-induced mixing of the water column or precipitation-driven erosion within catchments. In ombrotrophic peatlands, hydrogen isotope ratios of specific organic molecules allow reconstructions of the hydrogen isotope ratios of precipitation, which is related to precipitation source area and the latitudinal position of the SHWW. Using macrofossil counts paired with abundances of leaf wax biomarkers, we are able to estimate the moisture balance at peatland coring sites. Early results indicate an overall strengthening of the SHWW at the Auckland Islands through the Holocene. We will discuss these results within the context of complimentary records developed from New Zealand and southern South America to ultimately

  5. Spatial dynamics of two introduced species of carabid beetles on the sub-Antarctic island of South Georgia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandjes, G.J.; Block, W.; Ernsting, G.

    1999-01-01

    On the sub-Antarctic island of South Georgia two species of predatory beetle, Trechisibus antarcticus and Oopterus soledadinus (Coleoptera, Carabidae), were accidentally introduced. The colonisation process offers unique opportunities for testing ecological hypotheses in the field. As a basis for

  6. Submarine geology and geomorphology of active Sub-Antarctic volcanoes: Heard and McDonald Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, S. J.; Coffin, M. F.; Whittaker, J. M.; Lucieer, V.; Fox, J. M.; Carey, R.; Arculus, R. J.; Bowie, A. R.; Chase, Z.; Robertson, R.; Martin, T.; Cooke, F.

    2016-12-01

    Heard and McDonald Islands (HIMI) are World Heritage listed sub-Antarctic active volcanic islands in the Southern Indian Ocean. Built atop the Kerguelen Plateau by Neogene-Quaternary volcanism, HIMI represent subaerial exposures of the second largest submarine Large Igneous Province globally. Onshore, processes influencing island evolution include glaciers, weathering, volcanism, vertical tectonics and mass-wasting (Duncan et al. 2016). Waters surrounding HIMI are largely uncharted, due to their remote location. Hence, the extent to which these same processes shape the submarine environment around HIMI has not been investigated. In early 2016, we conducted marine geophysical and geologic surveys around HIMI aboard RV Investigator (IN2016_V01). Results show that volcanic and sedimentary features prominently trend east-west, likely a result of erosion by the eastward flowing Antarctic Circumpolar Current and tidal currents. However, spatial patterns of submarine volcanism and sediment distribution differ substantially between the islands. >70 sea knolls surround McDonald Island suggesting substantial submarine volcanism. Geophysical data reveals hard volcanic seafloor around McDonald Island, whereas Heard Island is characterised by sedimentary sequences tens of meters or more thick and iceberg scours - indicative of glacial processes. Differences in submarine geomorphology are likely due to the active glaciation of Heard Island and differing rock types (Heard: alkali basalt, McDonald: phonolite), and dominant products (clastics vs. lava). Variations may also reflect different magmatic plumbing systems beneath the two active volcanoes (Heard produces larger volumes of more focused lava, whilst McDonald extrudes smaller volumes of more evolved lavas from multiple vents across the edifice). Using geophysical data, corroborated with new and existing geologic data, we present the first geomorphic map revealing the processes that shape the submarine environment around HIMI.

  7. Surface destabilisation by the invasive burrowing engineer Mus musculus on a sub-Antarctic island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Bert; Eldridge, David J.

    2014-10-01

    Invasive species are known to have substantial trophic effects on ecosystems and ecosystem processes. The invasion of the house mouse (Mus musculus) onto sub-Antarctic islands has had a devastating effect on plants, invertebrates, and birds with substantial changes in ecosystem functions. Less well understood, however, are the nontrophic, geomorphic effects of mice resulting from their burrowing activities. We examined the extent of burrow construction by M. musculus across an area of about 20 ha on Marion Island and the effects of burrows on water flow and sediment movement. We recorded a density of 0.59 ± 0.48 (mean ± SD) burrows m- 2, with more burrows at lower altitudes and shallower slopes, and twice the density in the solifluction risers (0.86 ± 0.54 m- 2) than the intervening terraces or treads (0.40 ± 0.51 m- 2). Most burrows were dug horizontally into the slope and tended to extend about 20 cm deep before turning. A very conservative estimate of sediment removed from burrows from this depth is 2.4 t ha- 1. However, taking into account more detailed data on burrow morphology based on excavations, actual amounts may be closer to 8.4 t ha- 1. Average soil displacement rate for a single burrow, measured over 5 days, was 0.18 kg burrow- 1 day- 1. Burrows acted as conduits for water and warmer air. Stones at burrow entrances were moved eight times farther by water (10.4 cm) than those not associated with burrows. Similarly, temperatures adjacent to burrow entrances were 4.1 °C higher than sites 10 cm away. Together our data indicate that mice are having substantial deleterious and geomorphic effects on sub-Antarctic ecosystems through their burrowing. With lower rates of mouse mortality resulting from warmer climates predicted under global climate models, we can expect an increase in damage resulting from mouse activity.

  8. Air mass characteristics, aerosol particle number concentrations, and number size distributions at Macquarie Island during the First Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brechtel, Fred J.; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; Swan, Hilton B.

    1998-01-01

    During the First Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE 1), continuous measurements were made of the particle number size distribution (between 18 and 540 nm diameter (Dp)) and total particle number concentration (Dp > 3 nm and Dp > 12 nm) on Macquarie Island, Tasmania (54°30'S, 158°57'E, 7 m above sea level). Periodic real-time measurements of dimethyl sulfide were also made. Sampled air masses were separated into clean marine and those influenced by Tasmania or Antarctica. Observations were compared to those from a southern hemisphere midlatitude site (Cape Grim) and to sites on the Antarctic continent. It was found that the average total number concentration observed during clean marine conditions, 675 cm-3, was about 21% higher than values observed at Cape Grim during ACE 1 and was similar to the high end of the historical range of number concentrations reported by Gras [1995] for Cape Grim during the same time of year. During both clean marine and influenced conditions, the Aitken and accumulation modes dominate the number size distribution, with a Young Aitken mode observed less often. The number size distribution between 18 and 540 nm exhibited two and three modes 75% and 25% of the time, respectively, during clean marine conditions, more consistent with previous observations at Cape Grim than with those from coastal Antarctica. The typical bimodal number distribution at Macquarie Island exhibited average modal diameters of 33 and 113 nm during clean marine conditions, corresponding to the smaller Aitken mode and larger accumulation mode, respectively. The 50 to 70 nm diameter range corresponds to the minimum in the bimodal size distribution at Macquarie Island, except for continentally influenced periods when the size distribution exhibits an Aitken mode near 50 nm and an accumulation mode near 128 nm. The Young Aitken mode appeared most often during or immediately after periods of precipitation associated with both warm and cold fronts, when the Aitken

  9. Terrestrial invasions on sub-Antarctic Marion and Prince Edward Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Greve

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The sub-Antarctic Prince Edward Islands (PEIs, South Africa’s southernmost territories have high conservation value. Despite their isolation, several alien species have established and become invasive on the PEIs. Objectives: Here we review the invasion ecology of the PEIs. Methods: We summarise what is known about the introduction of alien species, what influences their ability to establish and spread, and review their impacts. Results: Approximately 48 alien species are currently established on the PEIs, of which 26 are known to be invasive. Introduction pathways for the PEIs are fairly well understood – species have mainly been introduced with ship cargo and building material. Less is known about establishment, spread and impact of aliens. It has been estimated that less than 5% of the PEIs is covered by invasive plants, but invasive plants have attained circuminsular distributions on both PEIs. Studies on impact have primarily focussed on the effects of vertebrate invaders, of which the house mouse, which is restricted to Marion Island, probably has the greatest impact on the biodiversity of the islands. Because of the risk of alien introductions, strict biosecurity regulations govern activities at the PEIs. These are particularly aimed at stemming the introduction of alien species, and are likely to have reduced the rates of new introductions. In addition, some effort is currently being made to eradicate selected range-restricted species. However, only one species that had established and spread on the PEIs, the cat, has been successfully eradicated from the islands. Conclusion: Given the ongoing threat of introductions, and the impacts of invaders, it is essential that future invasions to the PEIs are minimised, that the islands’ management policies deal with all stages of the invasion process and that a better understanding of the risks and impacts of invasions is obtained.

  10. Pseudoisotachis Pocsii Váňa, A New Genus and Species of Liverwort from the Subantarctic Marion Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Váňa Jiří

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A new genus and new species of liverwort, Pseudoisotachis Váňa and Pseudoisotachis pocsii Váňa, is described from Marion Island, part of the Prince Edward Islands, a subantarctic archipelago situated in the Kerguelen Province of the southern Indian Ocean. Family placement of the new genus and species is uncertain due to absence of androecia, gynoecia and sporophytes; morphologically it is compared with some genera of Isotachidaceae and with the genus Orthocaulis of Anastrophyllaceae. The new species is described and illustrated.

  11. A preliminary synoptic assessment of soil frost on Marion Island and the possible consequences of climate change in a maritime sub-Antarctic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Nel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Located in the sub-Antarctic, Marion Island (46° 54′ S, 37° 45′ E has a distinct periglacial environment that is sensitive to climate change. Diurnal soil frost is the most important geomorphic process occurring on the island and this paper aims to understand the synoptic weather circulation pattern associated with summer soil frost occurrence in a sub-Antarctic environment. Preliminary results from automated microclimate measurements in the interior of Marion Island show that summer soil frost is dependent on Antarctic air mass circulation. This occurs exclusively during post-cyclonic airflow after the passage of a cold front connected to a mid-latitudinal cyclone and subsequent ridging in of the South Atlantic Anticyclone behind the cold front, or when a series of low pressure systems passes over the island. The duration and intensity of soil frost cycles are dependent on the duration of post-cyclonic Antarctic air mass circulation. Summer soil frost on Marion Island is driven by a complex interaction between the latitudinal position of the passing cyclone, the latitudinal position of the ridging anticyclone as well as the trajectory of the air mass circulation. The data suggest that predicted trends in synoptic climate change in the sub-Antarctic may lead to non-linear responses in soil frost dynamics.

  12. Gene flow and hybridization between numerically imbalanced populations of two duck species on the subantarctic island of South Georgia.

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    Kevin G McCracken

    Full Text Available Hybridization is common between species of animals, particularly in waterfowl (Anatidae. One factor shown to promote hybridization is restricted mate choice, which can occur when 2 species occur in sympatry but one is rare. According to the Hubbs principle, or "desperation hypothesis," the rarer species is more likely to mate with heterospecifics. We report the second of 2 independent examples of hybridization between 2 species of ducks inhabiting island ecosystems in the Subantarctic and South Atlantic Ocean. Yellow-billed pintails (Anas georgica and speckled teal (Anas flavirostris are abundant in continental South America, where they are sympatric and coexist in mixed flocks. But on South Georgia, an isolated island in the Subantarctic, the pintail population of approximately 6000 pairs outnumbers a small breeding population of speckled teal 300∶1. Using 6 genetic loci (mtDNA and 5 nuclear introns and Bayesian assignment tests coupled with coalescent analyses, we identified hybrid-origin speckled teal alleles in 2 pintails on South Georgia. While it is unclear whether introgression has also occurred into the speckled teal population, our data suggest that this hybridization was not a recent event, but occurred some time ago. We also failed to identify unequivocal evidence of introgression in a much larger sample of pintails and speckled teal from Argentina using a 3-population "Isolation-with-Migration" coalescent analysis. Combined with parallel findings of hybridization between these same 2 duck species in the Falkland Islands, where population ratios are reversed and pintails are outnumbered by speckled teal 1:10, our results provide further support for the desperation hypothesis, which predicts that scarcity in one population and abundance of another will often lead to hybridization. While the South Georgia pintail population appears to be thriving, it's possible that low density of conspecific mates and inverse density dependence

  13. Late Holocene intensification of the westerly winds at the subantarctic Auckland Islands (51° S, New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Browne

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Southern Hemisphere westerly winds (SHWWs play a major role in controlling wind-driven upwelling of Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW and outgassing of CO2 in the Southern Ocean, on interannual to glacial–interglacial timescales. Despite their significance in the global carbon cycle, our understanding of millennial- and centennial-scale changes in the strength and latitudinal position of the westerlies during the Holocene (especially since 5000 yr BP is limited by a scarcity of palaeoclimate records from comparable latitudes. Here, we reconstruct middle to late Holocene SHWW variability using a fjord sediment core collected from the subantarctic Auckland Islands (51° S, 166° E, located in the modern centre of the westerly wind belt. Changes in drainage basin response to variability in the strength of the SHWW at this latitude are interpreted from downcore variations in magnetic susceptibility (MS and bulk organic δ13C and atomic C ∕ N, which monitor influxes of lithogenous and terrestrial vs. marine organic matter, respectively. The fjord water column response to SHWW variability is evaluated using benthic foraminifer δ18O and δ13C, both of which are influenced by the isotopic composition of shelf water masses entering the fjord. Using these data, we provide marine and terrestrial-based evidence for increased wind strength from  ∼  1600 to 900 yr BP at subantarctic latitudes that is broadly consistent with previous studies of climate-driven vegetation change at the Auckland Islands. Comparison with a SHWW reconstruction using similar proxies from Fiordland suggests a northward migration of the SHWW over New Zealand during the first half of the last millennium. Comparison with palaeoclimate and palaeoceanographic records from southern South America and West Antarctica indicates a late Holocene strengthening of the SHWW after  ∼  1600 yr BP that appears to be broadly symmetrical across the Pacific Basin

  14. Late Holocene intensification of the westerly winds at the subantarctic Auckland Islands (51° S), New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Imogen M.; Moy, Christopher M.; Riesselman, Christina R.; Neil, Helen L.; Curtin, Lorelei G.; Gorman, Andrew R.; Wilson, Gary S.

    2017-10-01

    The Southern Hemisphere westerly winds (SHWWs) play a major role in controlling wind-driven upwelling of Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) and outgassing of CO2 in the Southern Ocean, on interannual to glacial-interglacial timescales. Despite their significance in the global carbon cycle, our understanding of millennial- and centennial-scale changes in the strength and latitudinal position of the westerlies during the Holocene (especially since 5000 yr BP) is limited by a scarcity of palaeoclimate records from comparable latitudes. Here, we reconstruct middle to late Holocene SHWW variability using a fjord sediment core collected from the subantarctic Auckland Islands (51° S, 166° E), located in the modern centre of the westerly wind belt. Changes in drainage basin response to variability in the strength of the SHWW at this latitude are interpreted from downcore variations in magnetic susceptibility (MS) and bulk organic δ13C and atomic C / N, which monitor influxes of lithogenous and terrestrial vs. marine organic matter, respectively. The fjord water column response to SHWW variability is evaluated using benthic foraminifer δ18O and δ13C, both of which are influenced by the isotopic composition of shelf water masses entering the fjord. Using these data, we provide marine and terrestrial-based evidence for increased wind strength from ˜ 1600 to 900 yr BP at subantarctic latitudes that is broadly consistent with previous studies of climate-driven vegetation change at the Auckland Islands. Comparison with a SHWW reconstruction using similar proxies from Fiordland suggests a northward migration of the SHWW over New Zealand during the first half of the last millennium. Comparison with palaeoclimate and palaeoceanographic records from southern South America and West Antarctica indicates a late Holocene strengthening of the SHWW after ˜ 1600 yr BP that appears to be broadly symmetrical across the Pacific Basin. Contemporaneous increases in SHWW at localities on either

  15. Marinomonas polaris sp. nov., a psychrohalotolerant strain isolated from coastal sea water off the subantarctic Kerguelen islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pratima; Chaturvedi, Preeti; Pradhan, Suman; Delille, Daniel; Shivaji, Sisinthy

    2006-02-01

    Two aerobic, psychrohalotolerant, motile bacterial isolates, CK13T and CK16, isolated from sea-water samples collected off the subantarctic Kerguelen island, were characterized by using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence data, the strains were 99.6% similar and exhibited 93-97% similarity with the seven recognized species of Marinomonas. The most closely related species were Marinomonas pontica and Marinomonas primoryensis, with 97 and 96 % similarity at the 16S rRNA gene sequence level, respectively. DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain CK13T and M. pontica and M. primoryensis were only 58 and 40%, respectively. The major fatty acids present in strain CK13T were iso-C(16:0), C(16:0), C(16:1)omega7c and C(18:1)omega7c. The DNA G+C content of strain CK13T was 41.2 mol%. Phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol were identified as the predominant phospholipids. All the above characteristics support the affiliation of strain CK13T to the genus Marinomonas. Phylogenetic analysis and phenotypic and genotypic distinctiveness confirmed that strains CK13T and CK16 are members of a novel species of the genus Marinomonas, for which the name Marinomonas polaris sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CK13T (=MTCC 6645T=DSM 16579T=JCM 12522T).

  16. Diatom communities from the sub-Antarctic Prince Edward Islands: diversity and distribution patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Vijver, B.; Gremmen, N.J.M.; Smith, V.

    2008-01-01

    During an extensive survey of the freshwater and moss-inhabiting diatoms of the Prince Edward Islands, a total of 214 taxa belonging to 60 genera were found. Three main communities can be found on the two islands. A large part of the samples was grouped into an aquatic group, bringing together all

  17. New records of alien vascular plants from Marion and Prince Edward Islands, sub-Antarctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gremmen, N.J.M.; Smith, V.

    1999-01-01

    A survey was made of the distribution of introduced vascular plants on Marion and Prince Edward Islands. The results of this survey were compared to results of previous surveys (1965/66, 1975, 1981, 1989). Four new introductions to Marion Island have taken place, three of which involved species that

  18. A tale of two islands: contrasting fortunes for Subantarctic skuas at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prince Edward Island (46 km2) remains free of introduced mammals, whereas Marion Island (290 km2) had a feral population of cats from the 1950s to 1980s, and still supports a large population of introduced house mice Mus musculus. Breeding skuas were more widespread, occurred at greater densities and extended to ...

  19. Habitat associations and distribution of the hyperbenthic shrimp, Nauticaris marionis, around the sub-Antarctic Prince Edward Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Craig; von der Meden, Charles; Atkinson, Lara; Reed, Cecile

    2017-09-01

    The association of organisms with particular habitats and habitat-forming organisms, can strongly influence species distributions, interactions and wider ecosystem services. At the sub-Antarctic Prince Edward Islands, the caridean shrimp Nauticaris marionis is a principal part of the benthic ecosystem, occurring between ca. 50 m and 600 m. Its role as a trophic link between the primary productivity and higher predators is established, but little is understood of its in situ habitat usage and associations or of how these structure patterns of abundance. We investigated these aspects directly using a benthic camera sled, sampling 27 stations between 50 m and 500 m. Substratum type was characterised, and estimates of percentage cover of the 13 main groups of habitat-forming epibenthic taxa were made, alongside absolute counts of N. marionis within 'digital quadrats' drawn from 300 m transects. The distribution of N. marionis was influenced by depth, substratum type and overall biogenic cover, being limited to habitats between 50 and 160 m depth on mud or gravel substrata only, and having > 50% biogenic cover. The presence/absence of N. marionis related to significantly different epibenthic assemblages (termed biogenic habitats), but this effect was contingent on depth. Likewise, densities of N. marionis were significantly affected by biogenic habitat type, identifying an association with two biogenic habitat groups, one dominated by red-algae, the other by structurally complex bryozoan species. These associations likely relate to the structural complexity of the two habitat groups, rather than the specific taxa involved. The apparent absence of N. marionis at depths > 160 m contrasts with earlier records and poses questions about the trophic importance of the shrimp in deeper habitats.

  20. Satellite tagging and biopsy sampling of killer whales at subantarctic Marion Island: effectiveness, immediate reactions and long-term responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan R Reisinger

    Full Text Available Remote tissue biopsy sampling and satellite tagging are becoming widely used in large marine vertebrate studies because they allow the collection of a diverse suite of otherwise difficult-to-obtain data which are critical in understanding the ecology of these species and to their conservation and management. Researchers must carefully consider their methods not only from an animal welfare perspective, but also to ensure the scientific rigour and validity of their results. We report methods for shore-based, remote biopsy sampling and satellite tagging of killer whales Orcinus orca at Subantarctic Marion Island. The performance of these methods is critically assessed using 1 the attachment duration of low-impact minimally percutaneous satellite tags; 2 the immediate behavioural reactions of animals to biopsy sampling and satellite tagging; 3 the effect of researcher experience on biopsy sampling and satellite tagging; and 4 the mid- (1 month and long- (24 month term behavioural consequences. To study mid- and long-term behavioural changes we used multievent capture-recapture models that accommodate imperfect detection and individual heterogeneity. We made 72 biopsy sampling attempts (resulting in 32 tissue samples and 37 satellite tagging attempts (deploying 19 tags. Biopsy sampling success rates were low (43%, but tagging rates were high with improved tag designs (86%. The improved tags remained attached for 26±14 days (mean ± SD. Individuals most often showed no reaction when attempts missed (66% and a slight reaction-defined as a slight flinch, slight shake, short acceleration, or immediate dive-when hit (54%. Severe immediate reactions were never observed. Hit or miss and age-sex class were important predictors of the reaction, but the method (tag or biopsy was unimportant. Multievent trap-dependence modelling revealed considerable variation in individual sighting patterns; however, there were no significant mid- or long-term changes

  1. Satellite tagging and biopsy sampling of killer whales at subantarctic Marion Island: effectiveness, immediate reactions and long-term responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisinger, Ryan R; Oosthuizen, W Chris; Péron, Guillaume; Cory Toussaint, Dawn; Andrews, Russel D; de Bruyn, P J Nico

    2014-01-01

    Remote tissue biopsy sampling and satellite tagging are becoming widely used in large marine vertebrate studies because they allow the collection of a diverse suite of otherwise difficult-to-obtain data which are critical in understanding the ecology of these species and to their conservation and management. Researchers must carefully consider their methods not only from an animal welfare perspective, but also to ensure the scientific rigour and validity of their results. We report methods for shore-based, remote biopsy sampling and satellite tagging of killer whales Orcinus orca at Subantarctic Marion Island. The performance of these methods is critically assessed using 1) the attachment duration of low-impact minimally percutaneous satellite tags; 2) the immediate behavioural reactions of animals to biopsy sampling and satellite tagging; 3) the effect of researcher experience on biopsy sampling and satellite tagging; and 4) the mid- (1 month) and long- (24 month) term behavioural consequences. To study mid- and long-term behavioural changes we used multievent capture-recapture models that accommodate imperfect detection and individual heterogeneity. We made 72 biopsy sampling attempts (resulting in 32 tissue samples) and 37 satellite tagging attempts (deploying 19 tags). Biopsy sampling success rates were low (43%), but tagging rates were high with improved tag designs (86%). The improved tags remained attached for 26±14 days (mean ± SD). Individuals most often showed no reaction when attempts missed (66%) and a slight reaction-defined as a slight flinch, slight shake, short acceleration, or immediate dive-when hit (54%). Severe immediate reactions were never observed. Hit or miss and age-sex class were important predictors of the reaction, but the method (tag or biopsy) was unimportant. Multievent trap-dependence modelling revealed considerable variation in individual sighting patterns; however, there were no significant mid- or long-term changes following

  2. Caterpillars benefit from thermal ecosystem engineering by wandering albatrosses on sub-Antarctic Marion Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Brent J; Chown, Steven L

    2005-01-01

    Wandering albatrosses (Diomedea exulans) nest on Southern Ocean islands, building elevated nests upon which they incubate eggs and raise chicks, and which the chicks occupy through winter. The nests support high invertebrate biomass, including larvae of the flightless moth Pringleophaga marioni. Here we argue that high biomass of P. marioni in the nests is not associated with nutrient loading as previously suspected, but that higher temperatures in the nests increase growth and feeding rate, and decrease deleterious repeated cold exposure, providing fitness advantages for P. marioni. Thus, wandering albatrosses may be serving as thermal engineers, modifying temperature and therefore enabling better resource use by P. marioni. PMID:17148324

  3. [Myxomatosis in the sub-antarctic islands of Kerguelen, without vectors, thirty years after its introduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapuis, J L; Chantal, J; Bijlenga, G

    1994-02-01

    Myxoma virus was introduced into the Kerguelen archipelago in 1955-1956. Thirty years after its introduction, the virus is present in most areas inhabited by rabbits. Rabbit fleas and mosquitoes are absent from this group of islands and the disease is transmitted by contact. The timing of the beginning of new myxomatosis outbreaks, the absence of real epizootics as well as the higher percentage of infected males over females are specific observations in favour of this mode of transmission. The majority of 34 isolates tested between 1984 and 1988 are of intermediate virulence (Grades IIIA-IIIB). In these conditions, the impact of myxomatosis virus on rabbit populations estimated on two sites is low. Myxomatosis therefore plays only a minor role in the regulation of rabbit populations.

  4. Observed Temporal and Spatial Variability in the Marine Environment at the Sub-Antarctic Prince Edward Islands - Evidence of a Changing Climate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asdar, S.; Deshayes, J.; Ansorge, I. J.

    2016-02-01

    The sub-Antarctic Prince Edward Islands (PEI) (47°S,38°E) are classified as isolated, hostile, impoverished regions, in which the terrestrial and marine ecosystems are relatively simple and extremely sensitive to perturbations. Their location between the Sub-Antarctic Front (SAF) and the Antarctic Polar Front (APF), bordering the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) provides an ideal natural laboratory for studying how organisms, ecological processes and ecosystems respond to a changing ocean climate in the Southern Ocean. Recent studies have proposed that climate changes reported at the PEI may correspond in time to a southward shift of the ACC and in particular of the SAF. This southward migration in the geographic position is likely to coincide with dramatic changes in the distribution of species and total productivity of this region. This study focuses on the inter-comparison of observations available at these islands. Using spectral analysis which is a study of the frequency domain characteristics of a process, we first determine the dominant characteristics of both the temporal and spatial variability of physical and biogeochemical properties. In doing so the authors are able to determine whether and how these indices of variability interact with one another in order to understand better the mechanisms underpinning this variability, i.e. the seasonal zonal migrations associated with the SAF. Additionally, we include in our analysis recent data from 2 ADCP moorings deployed between the islands from 2014 to 2015. These in-situ observations of circulation and hydrography in the vicinity of the islands provide a unique opportunity to establish a better understanding of how large scale climatic variability may impact local conditions, and more importantly its influence on the fragile ecosystem surrounding the PEI.

  5. On the biogeography of Cumacea (Crustacea, Malacostraca. A comparison between South America, the Subantarctic Islands and Antarctica: present state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute Mühlenhardt-Siegel

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Cumacea (Crustacea were collected during the Joint Magellan expedition in November 1994, by means of an epibenthic sledge from RV Victor Hensen. The cumaceans were well represented, the second abundant order after the amphipods, among the other Peracarida in depth ranges between 25 and 665 m. Twenty-five species were found in the samples mainly from the Beagle Channel, nine of them were already known for this region. 14 species were recorded for the first time for this region, 2 of them were known from the northern Argentinian coast and one from Antarctica. The most important in terms of species richness and abundance were the families Diastylidae, Nannastacidae and Leuconidae. In the Beagle Channel an almost completely different cumacean fauna was found compared to the Subantarctic Islands, the Antarctic Peninsula and eastern Antarctic (Prydz Bay regions. Comparison of published data and the present results show moderate overlap in the cumacean fauna at the species level between the periantarctic South Georgian shelf / Antarctic Peninsula (48%. Little correspondence at the species level was found between Antarctica / Subantarctic Kerguelen (14 %, South Georgia / Kerguelen (13 % and Magellan / Antarctica (11 %. Interestingly, the Magellan region and South Georgia show very little species overlap (5 %. It is concluded that the Antarctic shelf regions were not colonized from the Magellan region via the Scotia Arc.

  6. Photosynthesis in a sub-Antarctic shore-zone lichen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, V.; Gremmen, N.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Photosynthetic responses to moisture, light, temperature, salinity and inorganic nitrogen fertilization are reported for a shore-zone lichen Turgidiusculum complicatulum (formerly Mastodia tesselata), a possible recent introduction to sub-Antarctic Marion Island. Optimum moisture contents for net

  7. Building the Sustainable Library at Macquarie University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Maxine

    2012-01-01

    This article explores a number of current issues and challenges in sustainability, both of and in academic libraries of the future, using as a case study the new library opened at Macquarie University, Sydney in 2011. Issues covered include sustainable design and operation of library buildings, sustainability in relation to library collections,…

  8. Diversity and extracellular enzymatic activities of yeasts isolated from King George Island, the sub-Antarctic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrasco Mario

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antarctica has been successfully colonized by microorganisms despite presenting adverse conditions for life such as low temperatures, high solar radiation, low nutrient availability and dryness. Although these “cold-loving” microorganisms are recognized as primarily responsible for nutrient and organic matter recycling/mineralization, the yeasts, in particular, remain poorly characterized and understood. The aim of this work was to study the yeast microbiota in soil and water samples collected on King George Island. Results A high number of yeast isolates was obtained from 34 soil and 14 water samples. Molecular analyses based on rDNA sequences revealed 22 yeast species belonging to 12 genera, with Mrakia and Cryptococcus genera containing the highest species diversity. The species Sporidiobolus salmonicolor was by far the most ubiquitous, being identified in 24 isolates from 13 different samples. Most of the yeasts were psychrotolerant and ranged widely in their ability to assimilate carbon sources (consuming from 1 to 27 of the 29 carbon sources tested. All species displayed at least 1 of the 8 extracellular enzyme activities tested. Lipase, amylase and esterase activity dominated, while chitinase and xylanase were less common. Two yeasts identified as Leuconeurospora sp. and Dioszegia fristingensis displayed 6 enzyme activities. Conclusions A high diversity of yeasts was isolated in this work including undescribed species and species not previously isolated from the Antarctic region, including Wickerhamomyces anomalus, which has not been isolated from cold regions in general. The diversity of extracellular enzyme activities, and hence the variety of compounds that the yeasts may degrade or transform, suggests an important nutrient recycling role of microorganisms in this region. These yeasts are of potential use in industrial applications requiring high enzyme activities at low temperatures.

  9. The macaroni penguin Eudyptes chrysolophus has a subantarctic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    The macaroni penguin Eudyptes chrysolophus has a subantarctic distribution in the south-eastern Pacific, south Atlantic and south-western Indian oceans, breeding at several localities between southern Chile and Heard and McDonald Islands, including South. Africa's Prince Edward Islands (Marchant and Higgins. 1990).

  10. The seasonal evolution of shelf water masses around Bouvetøya, a sub-Antarctic island in the mid-Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean, determined from an instrumented southern elephant seal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Lowther

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Our study makes use of a fortuitous oceanographic data set collected around the remote sub-Antarctic island of Bouvetøya by a conductivity–temperature–depth recorder (CTD integrated with a satellite-relayed data logger deployed on an adult female southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina to describe the seasonal evolution of the western shelf waters. The instrumented seal remained in waters over the shelf for 259 days, collecting an average of 2.6 (±0.06 CTD profiles per day, providing hydrographic data encompassing the late austral summer and the entire winter. These data document the thermal stratification of the upper water layer due to summer surface heating of the previous year's Antarctic Surface Water, giving way to a cold subsurface layer at about 100 m as the austral winter progressed, with a concomitant increase in salinity of the upper layer. Upper Circumpolar Deep Water was detected at a depth of approximately 200 m along the western shelf of Bouvetøya throughout the year. These oceanographic data represent the only seasonal time series for this region and the second such animal–instrument oceanographic time series in the sub-Antarctic domain of the Southern Ocean.

  11. Kelp gulls Larus dominicanus nest in Antarctica, at subantarctic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Kelp gulls Larus dominicanus nest in Antarctica, at subantarctic islands, in South America, New Zealand,. Australia and in southern Africa (Burger and Gochfield. 1996). All populations, except that in southern. Africa, are of the nominate race L. d. dominicanus. That in southern Africa comprises an endemic sub- species, L. d.

  12. Endoparasites of the subantarctic fur seal Arctocephalus tropicalis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-03-03

    Mar 3, 1989 ... A. tropicalis is a new host record for the tetraphyllidean cestode ... of the subantarctic fur seal population of Gough Island. Necropsies were .... Seals of the world. British Mus. (Nat. Hist.) London. PAULIAN, P. 1964. Contribution a I'etude de I'otarie de l'ile Amsterdam. Mammalia 28: 1-146. SHAUGHNESSY ...

  13. Recovering greater fungal diversity from pristine and diesel fuel contaminated Sub-Antarctic soil through cultivation using a high and a novel low nutrient approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Carlene Ferrari

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Novel cultivation strategies for bacteria are widespread and are well described for recovering greater diversity from the hitherto unculturable majority. While similar approaches have not been demonstrated for fungi it has been suggested that of the 1.5 million estimated species less than 5% have been recovered into pure culture. Fungi are known to be involved in many degradative processes, including the breakdown of hydrocarbons, and it has been speculated that in Polar Regions they contribute significantly to bioremediation of soils contaminated with hydrocarbons. Given the biotechnological potential of fungi there is a need to increase efforts for greater species recovery, particularly from extreme environments such as sub-Antarctic Macquarie Island. In this study, like the hitherto unculturable bacteria, high concentrations of nutrients selected for predominantly different species to that recovered using low nutrient media. By combining both approaches to cultivation from contaminated and non-contaminated soils, 99 fungal species were recovered, including 42 yet unidentified species, several of which were isolated from soils containing high concentrations of diesel fuel. These novel species will now be characterized for their potential role in hydrocarbon degradation.

  14. Recovering greater fungal diversity from pristine and diesel fuel contaminated sub-antarctic soil through cultivation using both a high and a low nutrient media approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Belinda C; Zhang, Chengdong; van Dorst, Josie

    2011-01-01

    Novel cultivation strategies for bacteria are widespread and well described for recovering greater diversity from the "hitherto" unculturable majority. While similar approaches have not yet been demonstrated for fungi it has been suggested that of the 1.5 million estimated species less than 5% have been recovered into pure culture. Fungi are known to be involved in many degradative processes, including the breakdown of petroleum hydrocarbons, and it has been speculated that in Polar Regions they contribute significantly to bioremediation of contaminated soils. Given the biotechnological potential of fungi there is a need to increase efforts for greater species recovery, particularly from extreme environments such as sub-Antarctic Macquarie Island. In this study, like the yet-to-be cultured bacteria, high concentrations of nutrients selected for predominantly different fungal species to that recovered using a low nutrient media. By combining both media approaches to the cultivation of fungi from contaminated and non-contaminated soils, 91 fungal species were recovered, including 63 unidentified species. A preliminary biodegradation activity assay on a selection of isolates found that a high proportion of novel and described fungal species from a range of soil samples were capable of hydrocarbon degradation and should be characterized further.

  15. Insular endemism in Recent Southern Ocean benthic Ostracoda from Marion Island: palaeozoogeographical and evolutionary implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dingle, R.V.

    2002-01-01

    benthic ostracods, subantarctic, endemism, insularity, Marion Island, Southern Ocean, colonisation, quaternary, eyes, ocular-rejuvenation, dormant genes, evolution......benthic ostracods, subantarctic, endemism, insularity, Marion Island, Southern Ocean, colonisation, quaternary, eyes, ocular-rejuvenation, dormant genes, evolution...

  16. Macquarie Island Cloud and Radiation Experiment (MICRE) Science Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchand, RT [University of Washington; Protat, A [Australian Bureau of Meterology; Alexander, SP [Australian Antarctic Division

    2015-12-01

    Clouds over the Southern Ocean are poorly represented in present day reanalysis products and global climate model simulations. Errors in top-of-atmosphere (TOA) broadband radiative fluxes in this region are among the largest globally, with large implications for modeling both regional and global scale climate responses (e.g., Trenberth and Fasullo 2010, Ceppi et al. 2012). Recent analyses of model simulations suggest that model radiative errors in the Southern Ocean are due to a lack of low-level postfrontal clouds (including clouds well behind the front) and perhaps a lack of supercooled liquid water that contribute most to the model biases (Bodas-Salcedo et al. 2013, Huang et al. 2014). These assessments of model performance, as well as our knowledge of cloud and aerosol properties over the Southern Ocean, rely heavily on satellite data sets. Satellite data sets are incomplete in that the observations are not continuous (i.e., they are acquired only when the satellite passes nearby), generally do not sample the diurnal cycle, and view primarily the tops of cloud systems (especially for the passive instruments). This is especially problematic for retrievals of aerosol, low-cloud properties, and layers of supercooled water embedded within (rather than at the top of) clouds, as well as estimates of surface shortwave and longwave fluxes based on these properties.

  17. Distribution of Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV in the Sub-Antarctic Kerguelen Islands and Characterization of Two New Luteovirus Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Svanella-Dumas

    Full Text Available A systematic search for viral infection was performed in the isolated Kerguelen Islands, using a range of polyvalent genus-specific PCR assays. Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV was detected in both introduced and native grasses such as Poa cookii. The geographical distribution of BYDV and its prevalence in P. cookii were analyzed using samples collected from various sites of the archipelago. We estimate the average prevalence of BYDV to be 24.9% in P. cookii, with significant variability between sites. BYDV genetic diversity was assessed using sequence information from two genomic regions: the P3 open reading frame (ORF (encoding the coat protein and the hypervariable P6 ORF region. The phylogenetic analysis in the P3 region showed that BYDV sequences segregate into three major lineages, the most frequent of which (Ker-I cluster showed close homology with BYDV-PAV-I isolates and had very low intra-lineage diversity (0.6%. A similarly low diversity was also recorded in the hypervariable P6 region, suggesting that Ker-I isolates derive from the recent introduction of BYDV-PAV-I. Divergence time estimation suggests that BYDV-PAV-I was likely introduced in the Kerguelen environment at the same time frame as its aphid vector, Rhopalosiphum padi, whose distribution shows good overlap with that of BYDV-Ker-I. The two other lineages show more than 22% amino acid divergence in the P3 region with other known species in the BYDV species complex, indicating that they represent distinct BYDV species. Using species-specific amplification primers, the distribution of these novel species was analyzed. The high prevalence of BYDV on native Poaceae and the presence of the vector R. padi, raises the question of its impact on the vulnerable plant communities of this remote ecosystem.

  18. Prey and seasonal abundance of killer whales at sub-Antarctic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diet of killer whales Orcinus orca was investigated from 48 predation events observed during sightings at sub-Antarctic Marion Island between 2006 and 2009. From these events, there were 10 cases where prey could be identified. Killer whales fed on fur seals Arctocephalus tropicalis, elephant seals Mirounga leonina ...

  19. Kelp genes reveal effects of subantarctic sea ice during the Last Glacial Maximum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Ceridwen I; Nikula, Raisa; Spencer, Hamish G; Waters, Jonathan M

    2009-03-03

    The end of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) dramatically reshaped temperate ecosystems, with many species moving poleward as temperatures rose and ice receded. Whereas reinvading terrestrial taxa tracked melting glaciers, marine biota recolonized ocean habitats freed by retreating sea ice. The extent of sea ice in the Southern Hemisphere during the LGM has, however, yet to be fully resolved, with most palaeogeographic studies suggesting only minimal or patchy ice cover in subantarctic waters. Here, through population genetic analyses of the widespread Southern Bull Kelp (Durvillaea antarctica), we present evidence for persistent ice scour affecting subantarctic islands during the LGM. Using mitochondrial and chloroplast genetic markers (COI; rbcL) to genetically characterize some 300 kelp samples from 45 Southern Ocean localities, we reveal a remarkable pattern of recent recolonization in the subantarctic. Specifically, in contrast to the marked phylogeographic structure observed across coastal New Zealand and Chile (10- to 100-km scales), subantarctic samples show striking genetic homogeneity over vast distances (10,000-km scales), with a single widespread haplotype observed for each marker. From these results, we suggest that sea ice expanded further and ice scour during the LGM impacted shallow-water subantarctic marine ecosystems more extensively than previously suggested.

  20. Isolation and characterization of Campylobacter jejuni subsp jejuni from macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus) in the subantarctic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broman, T.; Bergstrom, S.; On, Stephen L.W.

    2000-01-01

    On Bird Island, South Georgia, albatrosses (n = 140), penguins (n = 100), and fur seals (n = 206) were sampled for Campylobacter jejuni. C. jejuni subsp. jejuni was recovered from three macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus). These isolates, the first reported for the subantarctic region, showed...

  1. Controls and variability of solute and sedimentary fluxes in Antarctic and sub-Antarctic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwolinski, Zbigniew

    2015-04-01

    The currently prepared SEDIBUD Book on "Source-to-Sink Fluxes in Undisturbed Cold Environments" (edited by Achim A. Beylich, John C. Dixon and Zbigniew Zwolinski and published by Cambridge University Press) is summarizing and synthesizing the achievements of the International Association of Geomorphologists` (I.A.G./A.I.G.) Working Group SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments), which has been active since 2005 (http://www.geomorph.org/wg/wgsb.html). The book comprises five parts. One of them is part about sub-Antarctic and Antarctic Environments. This part "Sub-Antarctic and Antarctic Environments" describes two different environments, namely oceanic and continental ones. Each part contains results of research on environmental drivers and rates of contemporary solute and sedimentary fluxes in selected sites. Apart from describing the environmental conditions of the whole continent of Antarctica and sub-Antarctic islands (Zb.Zwolinski, M.Kejna, A.N.Lastochkin, A.Zhirov, S.Boltramovich) this part of the book characterizes terrestrial polar oases free from multi-year ice and snow covers (Zb.Zwolinski). The detailed results of geoecological and sedimentological research come from different parts of Antarctica. Antarctic continental shelf (E.Isla) is an example of sub-Antarctic oceanic environment. South Shetlands, especially King George Island (Zb.Zwolinski, M.Kejna, G.Rachlewicz, I.Sobota, J.Szpikowski), is an example of sub-Antarctic terrestrial environment. Antarctic Peninsula (G.Vieira, M.Francelino, J.C.Fernandes) and surroundings of McMurdo Dry Valleys (W.B.Lyons, K.A.Welch, J.Levy, A.Fountain, D.McKnight) are examples of Antarctic continental environments. The key goals of the Antarctic and sub-Antarctic book chapters are following: (i) identify the main environmental drivers and rates of contemporary solute and sedimentary fluxes, and (ii) model possible effects of projected climate change on solute and sedimentary fluxes in cold climate environments

  2. The kinematic evolution of the Macquarie Plate: A case study for the fragmentation of oceanic lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hakkyum; Kim, Seung-Sep; Dyment, Jérôme; Granot, Roi; Park, Sung-Hyun; Hong, Jong Kuk

    2017-11-01

    The tectonic evolution of the Southeast Indian Ridge (SEIR), and in particular of its easternmost edge, has not been constrained by high-resolution shipboard data and therefore the kinematic details of its behavior are uncertain. Using new shipboard magnetic data obtained by R/VIB Araon and M/V L'Astrolabe along the easternmost SEIR and available archived magnetic data, we estimated the finite rotation parameters of the Macquarie-Antarctic and Australian-Antarctic motions for eight anomalies (1o, 2, 2Ay, 2Ao, 3y, 3o, 3Ay, and 3Ao). These new finite rotations indicate that the Macquarie Plate since its creation ∼6.24 million years ago behaved as an independent and rigid plate, confirming previous estimates. The change in the Australian-Antarctic spreading direction from N-S to NW-SE appears to coincide with the formation of the Macquarie Plate at ∼6.24 Ma. Analysis of the estimated plate motions indicates that the initiation and growth stages of the Macquarie Plate resemble the kinematic evolution of other microplates and continental breakup, whereby a rapid acceleration in angular velocity took place after its initial formation, followed by a slow decay, suggesting that a decrease in the resistive strength force might have played a significant role in the kinematic evolution of the microplate. The motions of the Macquarie Plate during its growth stages may have been further enhanced by the increased subducting rates along the Hjort Trench, while the Macquarie Plate has exhibited constant growth by seafloor spreading.

  3. Leaf and floral heating in cold climates: do sub-Antarctic megaherbs resemble tropical alpine giants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna Little

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available High latitude and altitude floras are characterized by low-statured, small, wind-pollinated plants, which mainly reproduce by self-pollination or asexual reproduction. However, at odds with this are some sub-Antarctic islands that have plant species with giant growth forms and large, brightly coloured flowers which require insect visitation for pollination. The size, colour and shape of the inflorescences and leaves of these megaherbs suggest thermal benefits similar to giant tropical alpine plants of equatorial Africa, South America and Hawaii. We evaluated whether heating occurs in sub-Antarctic megaherbs, and to what extent it is related to environmental variables. We measured leaf and inflorescence temperature in six sub-Antarctic megaherb species on Campbell Island, latitude 52.3°S, New Zealand Biological Region. Using thermal imaging techniques, in combination with measurement of solar radiation, ambient air temperature, wind speed, wind chill and humidity, we assessed environmental influences on leaf and floral heating. We found that leaf and inflorescence temperatures of all megaherbs were higher than simultaneously measured ambient temperatures. Greatest heating was seen in Pleurophyllum speciosum, with observed leaves 9°C higher, and inflorescences nearly 11°C higher, than ambient temperature. Heating was highly correlated with brief, unpredictable periods of solar radiation, and occurred most rapidly in species with hairy, corrugated leaves and darkly pigmented, densely packed inflorescences. This is the first evidence that floral and leaf heating occurs in sub-Antarctic megaherbs, and suggests that leaf hairiness, flower colour and shape could provide thermal benefits like those seen in tropical alpine megaherbs.

  4. Epilithic macrolichen vegetation of the Argentine Islands, Antarctic Peninsula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gremmen, N.J.M.; Huiskes, A.H.L.; Francke, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    The population trend over the last decade for subantarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus tropicalis) on Amsterdam and St. Paul islands and on Possession Island (Crozet Archipelago) and Antarctic fur seals (A. gazella) on Possession Island are analysed. At Amsterdam Island, based on pup counts, the

  5. Historical sites at the Prince Edward islands

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, J

    1986-07-01

    Full Text Available This report gives the results of a workshop held on historical sites at the sub-Antarctic Prince Edward islands, southern Indian Ocean. All known visits and sojourns on the Prince Edward islands up to 1948 are tabulated. All known historical sites...

  6. The subantarctic Prince Edward Islands are globally important ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    3 Marine & Coastal Management, Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Private Bag X2, Rogge Bay 8012, South. Africa. 4 Mammal Research Institute, Department of Zoology and ...... World. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK; Lynx Edicions and. BirdLife International: 852 pp. CHUPIN, I. 1997 — Human impact and ...

  7. Adjustment of pigment composition in Desmarestia (Desmarestiaceae species along a sub-Antarctic to Antarctic latitudinal gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Mansilla

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthesis at high latitudes demands efficient strategies of light utilization to maintain algal fitness and performance. The fitness, and physiological adaptation, of a plant or algae species depends in part on the abundance and efficiency of the pigments it can produce to utilize the light resource from its environment. We quantified pigment composition and concentration in six species of the brown macroalgal genus Desmarestia, collected from sub-Antarctic sites (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel–Cape Horn Province and sites on the Antarctic Peninsula and adjacent islands. Sub-Antarctic Desmarestia species exhibited lower concentrations of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c and fucoxanthin than endemic Antarctic species. Antarctic samples of D. menziesii and D. antarctica collected along a decreasing latitudinal gradient showed spatial and interspecific differences in light-harvesting pigment composition. Our results suggest distinct physiological adjustments in Desmarestia species in response to heterogeneous abiotic environmental conditions. The marine sub-Antarctic and Antarctic ecosystems are characterized by harsh environments (e.g., extreme irradiance, photoperiod, temperature, salinity to which the physiology of macroalgal species must adapt.

  8. First records of aphid-pathogenic Entomophthorales in the sub-Antarctic archipelagos of Crozet and Kerguelen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Papierok

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the 20th century, the sub-Antarctic islands have suffered an increasing number of biological invasions. Despite the large number of publications on this topic, there is a lack of knowledge on parasitism rates of invasive species and on the role of parasites and pathogens to regulate their populations. Six aphid species have been introduced in the archipelagos of Crozet (Île de la Possession, 46° 25’ S–51° 51’ E and Kerguelen (49° 21’ S–70° 13’ E. Five of these species were found infected by entomopathogenic fungi of the order Entomophthorales. All these fungal species are cosmopolitan. Conidiobolus obscurus and Entomophthora planchoniana were the most frequently observed on Île de la Possession and in Archipel des Kerguelen, respectively. This is the first report of pathogenic fungi of aphids on the sub-Antarctic islands. We discuss these results in the light of our current knowledge of these insect pathogens. Their introduction by aphids surviving on plants during transportation is the most likely hypothesis to explain their presence on these remote islands.

  9. Submesoscale processes promote seasonal restratification in the Subantarctic Ocean

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, M

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available compare 5 months of glider data in the Subantarctic Zone to simulations of a 1-D mixing model to show that the magnitude of restratification of the ML cannot be explained by heat, freshwater, and momentum fluxes alone. During early spring, we estimate...

  10. Skull morphometrics of male Subantarctic fur seals ( Arctocephalus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Skull morphometrics of two populations of Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis) were compared in order to identify possible geographic variation as an indicator of gene flow between the populations, as well as a potential tool to identify the source of vagrant seals. Nineteen metric variables were recorded from ...

  11. population numbers of fur seals at prince edward island, southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the period 17–22 December 2001, the onshore distribution and the abundance of Antarctic fur seals Arctocephalus gazella and Subantarctic fur seals A. tropicalis were determined for Prince Edward Island. Two breeding colonies of Antarctic fur seals were located on the south-east coast of the island; the first a mixed ...

  12. conserving surface-nesting seabirds at the prince edward islands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa's subantarctic Prince Edward Islands support substantial proportions of the global populations of a number of surface-nesting seabirds. Populations of most of these have decreased at the islands since the 1980s and 12 of 16 species are regarded as Threatened or Near Threatened regionally or internationally.

  13. Plant dispersal in the sub-Antarctic inferred from anisotropic genetic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Céline; Le Roux, Peter C; Spohr, Colin; McGeoch, Melodie A; Van Vuuren, Bettine Jansen

    2012-01-01

    Climatic conditions and landscape features often strongly affect species' local distribution patterns, dispersal, reproduction and survival and may therefore have considerable impacts on species' fine-scale spatial genetic structure (SGS). In this study, we demonstrate the efficacy of combining fine-scale SGS analyses with isotropic and anisotropic spatial autocorrelation techniques to infer the impact of wind patterns on plant dispersal processes. We genotyped 1304 Azorella selago (Apiaceae) specimens, a wind-pollinated and wind-dispersed plant, from four populations distributed across sub-Antarctic Marion Island. SGS was variable with Sp values ranging from 0.001 to 0.014, suggesting notable variability in dispersal distance and wind velocities between sites. Nonetheless, the data supported previous hypotheses of a strong NW-SE gradient in wind strength across the island. Anisotropic autocorrelation analyses further suggested that dispersal is strongly directional, but varying between sites depending on the local prevailing winds. Despite the high frequency of gale-force winds on Marion Island, gene dispersal distance estimates (σ) were surprisingly low (<10 m), most probably because of a low pollen dispersal efficiency. An SGS approach in association with isotropic and anisotropic analyses provides a powerful means to assess the relative influence of abiotic factors on dispersal and allow inferences that would not be possible without this combined approach. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Muscle growth in Antarctic and Subantarctic notothenioid fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Alfredo Fernández

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The suborder Notothenioidei comprises 122 species divided into 8 families, with members of 6 of the families living outside Antarctic waters. The Antarctic species underwent an extensive radiation from a small demersal ancestor to occupy different ecological niches and levels in the water column. The axial muscle of Antarctic and some Subantarctic notothenioids is unusual in containing very large diameter muscle fibres and a low muscle fibre number. Maximum fibre diameters are greater than 500 mm in many species. There is no indication of systematic differences in fibre number, fibre type composition, ATPase activity, time of cessation of fibre recruitment (hyperplasia and swimming performance between Antarctic and Subantarctic species. Instead, fibre number is significantly decreased in species belonging to the most derived families relative to the more basal families (a trend that also correlates with an increase in the diameter of the fibres. The length of the cell cycle of the muscle fibres shows cold compensation in the Antarctic species H. antarcticus relative to the closely related Subantarctic one (H. bispinis. Feeding after a starvation period results in a strong stimulation of the proliferation of muscle fiber progenitors in H. bispinis. Similar studies have not yet been performed on any Antarctic species.

  15. Submesoscale processes promote seasonal restratification in the Subantarctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Plessis, M.; Swart, S.; Ansorge, I. J.; Mahadevan, A.

    2017-04-01

    Traditionally, the mechanism driving the seasonal restratification of the Southern Ocean mixed layer (ML) is thought to be the onset of springtime warming. Recent developments in numerical modeling and North Atlantic observations have shown that submesoscale ML eddies (MLE) can drive a restratifying flux to shoal the deep winter ML prior to solar heating at high latitudes. The impact of submesoscale processes on the intraseasonal variability of the Subantarctic ML is still relatively unknown. We compare 5 months of glider data in the Subantarctic Zone to simulations of a 1-D mixing model to show that the magnitude of restratification of the ML cannot be explained by heat, freshwater, and momentum fluxes alone. During early spring, we estimate that periodic increases in the vertical buoyancy flux by MLEs caused small increases in stratification, despite predominantly down-front winds that promote the destruction of stratification. The timing of seasonal restratification was consistent between 1-D model estimates and the observations. However, during up-front winds, the strength of springtime stratification increased over twofold compared to the 1-D model, with a rapid shoaling of the MLD from >200 m to Ekman buoyancy flux during down-front winds, resulting in the destruction of ML stratification and deepening of the MLD. These results propose the importance of submesoscale buoyancy fluxes enhancing seasonal restratification and mixing of the Subantarctic ML.

  16. Impact of the introduced grass Agrostis stolonifera on vegetation and soil fauna communities at Marion Island, sub- Antarctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gremmen, N.J.M.; Chown, S.L.; Marshall, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    The grass Agrostis stolonifera L. is the most successful introduced vascular plant at sub-Antarctic Marion Island. Since its accidental introduction, probably in the 1950s, it has spread over the northern half of the island, and presumably will eventually reach all parts of the island. It invades

  17. Species composition and biogeography of diatoms in antarctic and subantarctic (Argentine shelf) waters (37-76°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olguín, Héctor F.; Alder, Viviana A.

    2011-03-01

    isolated sites, most of them located next to different Antarctic islands. Such differences are attributed to the high relative density of Fragilariopsis kerguelensis in Argentine shelf and Drake Passage waters and of Porosira glacialis and species of Chaetoceros and Thalasiosira in the Weddell Sea and near the Antarctic Peninsula. From a total of 84 taxa recorded in antarctic waters, only 17 were found exclusively in this region, and the great majority (67) was also present in subantarctic waters but in extremely low (species reported for surface sediments.

  18. A record of the sub-Antarctic fur seal Arctocephalus tropicalis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A record of the sub-Antarctic fur seal Arctocephalus tropicalis in Angola. T Carr, Nicole Carr, J.H.M. David. Abstract. Two individuals of the sub-Antarctic fur seal, Arctocephalus tropicalis, one of which was photographed, were seen on the beach 1 km south of the mouth of the Kwanza River, Angola, on 2 October 1983.

  19. Macquarie Surgical Innovation Identification Tool (MSIIT): a study protocol for a usability and pilot test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Brette; Selwood, Amanda; Rogers, Wendy A; Clay-Williams, Robyn

    2016-11-18

    Medicine relies on innovation to continually improve. However, innovation is potentially risky, and not all innovations are successful. Therefore, it is important to identify innovations prospectively and provide support, to make innovation as safe and effective as possible. The Macquarie Surgical Innovation Identification Tool (MSIIT) is a simple checklist designed as a practical tool for hospitals to identify planned surgical innovations. This project aims to test the usability and pilot the use of the MSIIT in a surgical setting. The project will run in two phases at two Australian hospitals, one public and one private. Phase I will involve interviews, focus groups and a survey of hospital administrators and surgical teams to assess the usability and system requirements for the use of the MSIIT. Current practice regarding surgical innovation within participating hospitals will be mapped, and the best implementation strategy for MSIIT completion will be established. Phase II will involve trialling the MSIIT for each surgery within the trial period by various surgical personnel. Follow-up interviews, focus groups and a survey will be conducted with trial participants to collect feedback on their experience of using the MSIIT during the trial period. Comparative data on rates of surgical innovation during the trial period will also be gathered from existing hospital systems and compared to the rates identified by the MSIIT. Ethical approval has been obtained. The results of this study will be presented to interested health services and other stakeholders, presented at conferences and published in a peer-reviewed MEDLINE-indexed journal. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. Mass of weaned elephant seal pups in areas of low and high human presence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhard, GH; van den Hoff, J; Broekman, M; Baarspul, ANJ; Field, [No Value; Burton, HR; Reijnders, PJH

    On sub-Antarctic Macquarie Island, we examined pup weaning mass of southern elephant seals in relation to human presence. Pup weaning mass was previously found to be positively associated with 1st-year survivorship. Weaned pups were weighed in a remote area, Middle Beach, and in an area of

  1. Mass of weaned elephant seal pups in areas of low and high human presence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhard, G.H.; Hoff, van den J.; Broekman, M.; Baarspul, A.N.J.; Field, I.; Burton, H.R.; Reijnders, P.J.H.

    2001-01-01

    On sub-Antarctic Macquarie Island, we examined pup weaning mass of southern elephant seals in relation to human presence. Pup weaning mass was previously found to be positively associated with 1st-year survivorship. Weaned pups were weighed in a remote area, Middle Beach, and in an area of

  2. Entanglement of pinnipeds at Marion Island | Hofmeyr | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the period April 1991–March 1996, 10 entangled Antarctic fur seals Arctocephalus gazella, 28 entangled Subantarctic fur seals A. tropicalis and one entangled southern elephant seal Mirounga leonina were observed at Marion Island, Southern Ocean. Entanglement of fur seals was estimated at between 0.01 and ...

  3. A Framework for the Ecogeomorphological Modelling of the Macquarie Marshes, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, J. F.; Seoane Salazar, M.; Sandi Rojas, S.; Saco, P. M.; Riccardi, G.; Saintilan, N.; Wen, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Macquarie Marshes is a system of permanent and semi-permanent marshes, swamps and lagoons interconnected by braided channels. The Marshes are located in the semi-arid region in north western NSW, Australia, and constitute part of the northern Murray-Darling Basin. The wetland complex serves as nesting place and habitat for many species of water birds, fish, frogs and crustaceans, and portions of the Marshes was listed as internationally important under the Ramsar Convention. Over the last four decades, some of the wetlands have undergone degradation, which has been attributed to flow abstraction and regulation at Burrendong Dam upstream of the marshes. Among the many characteristics that make this wetland system unique is the occurrence of channel breakdown and channel avulsion, which are associated with decline of river flow in the downstream direction typical of dryland streams. Decrease in river flow can lead to sediment deposition, decrease in channel capacity, vegetative invasion of the channel, overbank flows, and ultimately result in channel breakdown and changes in marsh formation. A similar process on established marshes may also lead to channel avulsion and marsh abandonment. All the previous geomorphological evolution processes have an effect on the established ecosystem, which will produce feedbacks on the hydrodynamics of the system and affect the geomorphology in return. In order to simulate the complex dynamics of the marshes we have developed an ecogeomorphological framework that combines hydrodynamic, vegetation and channel evolution modules. The hydrodynamic simulation provides spatially distributed values of inundation extent, duration, depth and recurrence to drive a vegetation model based on species preference to hydraulic conditions. It also provides velocities and shear stresses to assess geomorphological changes. Regular updates of stream network, floodplain surface elevations and vegetation coverage provide feedbacks to the hydrodynamic

  4. Characterisation of the swimming muscles of two Subantarctic notothenoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Alfredo Fernández

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The histochemical characteristics and distribution of muscle fibre types have been investigated in the swimming muscles of the róbalo, Eleginops maclovinus and the lorcho, Patagonotothen tessellata, Subantarctic notothenioids that inhabit the Beagle Channel. The fibre types were differentiated on the basis of glycogen and lipid contents and succinate dehydrogenase and myofibrillar ATPase (mATPase activities. White, red, intermediate and tonic fibres were present in the axial muscle of both species. The same fibre types were identified in the pectoral fin adductor muscles, although the intermediate type was absent. The mATPase technique performed at room temperature (21ºC allowed a good differentiation of fibre types, overcoming the problems found by previous researchers when applying this technique to Antarctic notothenioids. Four different zones (peripheral, mosaic, main and adjacent to the bone were found in the adductor profundis muscle. The proportion of the zones varied along the length of the adductor muscle. For both species, the percentage of red fibres found in the axial muscles was less than 5%, indicating that sustained swimming ability is not dependent on these muscles. The pectoral muscle mass/carcase mass ratio was significantly greater in E. maclovinus than in P. tessellata, reflecting a greater capacity for sustained swimming using pectoral fins.

  5. Mesoscale eddies in the Subantarctic Front-Southwest Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo D. Glorioso

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Satellite and ship observations in the southern southwest Atlantic (SSWA reveal an intense eddy field and highlight the potential for using continuous real-time satellite altimetry to detect and monitor mesoscale phenomena with a view to understanding the regional circulation. The examples presented suggest that mesoscale eddies are a dominant feature of the circulation and play a fundamental role in the transport of properties along and across the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC. The main ocean current in the SSWA, the Falkland-Malvinas Current (FMC, exhibits numerous embedded eddies south of 50°S which may contribute to the patchiness, transport and mixing of passive scalars by this strong, turbulent current. Large eddies associated with meanders are observed in the ACC fronts, some of them remaining stationary for long periods. Two particular cases are examined using a satellite altimeter in combination with in situ observations, suggesting that cross-frontal eddy transport and strong meandering occur where the ACC flow intensifies along the sub-Antarctic Front (SAF and the Southern ACC Front (SACCF.

  6. unusual breeding by seabirds at marion island during 1997/98

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 1997/98, breeding at subantarctic Marion Island was exceptionally good for five species of seabirds capable of foraging over wide areas and for a tern. The number of king penguin Aptenodytes patagonicus chicks surviving to the start of spring in 1997 was considerably more than previously recorded. Greater numbers of ...

  7. The distribution and spread of alien vascular plants on Prince Edward Island

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryan, P.G.; Smith, V.; Gremmen, N.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Surveys of alien plants at subantarctic Prince Edward Island in 2001 show that the ranges of all three introduced species have increased since the last survey in 1998. Poa annua, the longest-established species, increased its range substantially after 1987, prior to which it was confined to a single

  8. Summer survey of fur seals at Prince Edward Island, southern Indian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The onshore distributions and the abundances of Antarctic fur sealsArctocephalus gazella and Subantarctic fur seals A. tropicalis were determined at Prince Edward Island during 16–20 December 2008. This repeats a survey conducted in December 2001 and extends the area surveyed to include the entire south-west ...

  9. Deglacial palaeoclimate at Puerto del Hambre, subantarctic Patagonia, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusser, Calvin J.; Heusser, Linda E.; Lowell, Thomas V.; Moreira M., Andrés; Moreira M., Simón

    2000-02-01

    The primary objective of this study is to further substantiate multistep climatic forcing of late-glacial vegetation in southern South America. A secondary objective is to establish the age of deglaciation in Estrecho de Magallanes-Bahía Inútil. Pollen assemblages at 2-cm intervals in a core of the mire at Puerto del Hambre (53°3621S, 70°5553W) provide the basis for reconstructing the vegetation and a detailed account of palaeoclimate in subantarctic Patagonia. Chronology over the 262-cm length of core is regulated by 20 AMS radiocarbon dates between 14 455 and 10 089 14C yr BP. Of 13 pollen assemblage zones, the earliest representing the Oldest Dryas chronozone (14 455-13 000 14C yr BP) records impoverished steppe with decreasing frequencies and loss of southern beech (Nothofagus). Successive 100-yr-long episodes of grass/herbs and of heath (Empetrum/Ericaceae) before 14 000 14C yr BP infer deglacial successional communities under a climate of increased continentality prior to the establishment of grass-dominated steppe. The Bølling-Allerød (13 000-11 000 14C yr BP) is characterised by mesic grassland under moderating climate that with abrupt change to heath dominance after 12 000 14C yr BP was warmer and not as humid. At the time of the Younger Dryas (11 000-10 000 14C yr BP), grass steppe expanded with a return of colder, more humid climate. Later, with gradual warming, communities were invaded by southern beech. The Puerto del Hambre record parallels multistep, deglacial palaeoclimatic sequences reported elsewhere in the Southern Andes and at Taylor Dome in Antarctica. Deglaciation of Estrecho de Magallanes-Bahía Inútil is dated close to 14 455 14C yr BP, invalidating earlier dates of between 15 800 and 16 590 14C yr BP.

  10. Dispersal in the sub-Antarctic: king penguins show remarkably little population genetic differentiation across their range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clucas, Gemma V; Younger, Jane L; Kao, Damian; Rogers, Alex D; Handley, Jonathan; Miller, Gary D; Jouventin, Pierre; Nolan, Paul; Gharbi, Karim; Miller, Karen J; Hart, Tom

    2016-10-13

    Seabirds are important components of marine ecosystems, both as predators and as indicators of ecological change, being conspicuous and sensitive to changes in prey abundance. To determine whether fluctuations in population sizes are localised or indicative of large-scale ecosystem change, we must first understand population structure and dispersal. King penguins are long-lived seabirds that occupy a niche across the sub-Antarctic zone close to the Polar Front. Colonies have very different histories of exploitation, population recovery, and expansion. We investigated the genetic population structure and patterns of colonisation of king penguins across their current range using a dataset of 5154 unlinked, high-coverage single nucleotide polymorphisms generated via restriction site associated DNA sequencing (RADSeq). Despite breeding at a small number of discrete, geographically separate sites, we find only very slight genetic differentiation among colonies separated by thousands of kilometers of open-ocean, suggesting migration among islands and archipelagos may be common. Our results show that the South Georgia population is slightly differentiated from all other colonies and suggest that the recently founded Falkland Island colony is likely to have been established by migrants from the distant Crozet Islands rather than nearby colonies on South Georgia, possibly as a result of density-dependent processes. The observed subtle differentiation among king penguin colonies must be considered in future conservation planning and monitoring of the species, and demographic models that attempt to forecast extinction risk in response to large-scale climate change must take into account migration. It is possible that migration could buffer king penguins against some of the impacts of climate change where colonies appear panmictic, although it is unlikely to protect them completely given the widespread physical changes projected for their Southern Ocean foraging grounds

  11. Landscape mapping at sub-Antarctic South Georgia provides a protocol for underpinning large-scale marine protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, Oliver T.; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.; Griffiths, Huw J.; Dorschel, Boris; Linse, Katrin

    2016-10-01

    Global biodiversity is in decline, with the marine environment experiencing significant and increasing anthropogenic pressures. In response marine protected areas (MPAs) have increasingly been adopted as the flagship approach to marine conservation, many covering enormous areas. At present, however, the lack of biological sampling makes prioritising which regions of the ocean to protect, especially over large spatial scales, particularly problematic. Here we present an interdisciplinary approach to marine landscape mapping at the sub-Antarctic island of South Georgia as an effective protocol for underpinning large-scale (105-106  km2) MPA designations. We have developed a new high-resolution (100 m) digital elevation model (DEM) of the region and integrated this DEM with bathymetry-derived parameters, modelled oceanographic data, and satellite primary productivity data. These interdisciplinary datasets were used to apply an objective statistical approach to hierarchically partition and map the benthic environment into physical habitats types. We assess the potential application of physical habitat classifications as proxies for biological structuring and the application of the landscape mapping for informing on marine spatial planning.

  12. Underwater Optics in Sub-Antarctic and Antarctic Coastal Ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirjo Huovinen

    Full Text Available Understanding underwater optics in natural waters is essential in evaluating aquatic primary production and risk of UV exposure in aquatic habitats. Changing environmental conditions related with global climate change, which imply potential contrasting changes in underwater light climate further emphasize the need to gain insights into patterns related with underwater optics for more accurate future predictions. The present study evaluated penetration of solar radiation in six sub-Antarctic estuaries and fjords in Chilean North Patagonian region (39-44°S and in an Antarctic bay (62°S. Based on vertical diffuse attenuation coefficients (Kd, derived from measurements with a submersible multichannel radiometer, average summer UV penetration depth (z1% in these water bodies ranged 2-11 m for UV-B (313 nm, 4-27 m for UV-A (395 nm, and 7-30 m for PAR (euphotic zone. UV attenuation was strongest in the shallow Quempillén estuary, while Fildes Bay (Antarctica exhibited the highest transparency. Optically non-homogeneous water layers and seasonal variation in transparency (lower in winter characterized Comau Fjord and Puyuhuapi Channel. In general, multivariate analysis based on Kd values of UV and PAR wavelengths discriminated strongly Quempillén estuary and Puyuhuapi Channel from other study sites. Spatial (horizontal variation within the estuary of Valdivia river reflected stronger attenuation in zones receiving river impact, while within Fildes Bay a lower spatial variation in water transparency could in general be related to closeness of glaciers, likely due to increased turbidity through ice-driven processes. Higher transparency and deeper UV-B penetration in proportion to UV-A/visible wavelengths observed in Fildes Bay suggests a higher risk for Antarctic ecosystems reflected by e.g. altered UV-B damage vs. photorepair under UV-A/PAR. Considering that damage repair processes often slow down under cool temperatures, adverse UV impact could be

  13. Global Collembola on Deception Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Penelope; Potapov, Mikhail; Russell, David; Convey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Three new non-indigenous springtail species are recorded in recent collections made on Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, maritime Antarctic: Deuteraphorura (Deuteraphorura) cebennaria (Gisin) (Collembola: Onychiuridae), Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek (Tullbergiidae), and Proisotoma minuta Axelson (Isotomidae). One of these, D. (D.) cebennaria, is described. Additionally, two new indigenous species, Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek and Proisotoma minuta Axelson, are also recorded. The total number of Collembola species now known from the island is 14, comprised of eight native species and six non-indigenous species. This number of non-indigenous species recorded at Deception Island compares with only a single non-indigenous springtail recorded at any other maritime or continental Antarctic location. The reason underlying this high level of occurrence of non-indigenous species on Deception Island is likely to be a combination of the island's high level of human visitation and the presence of relatively benign terrestrial habitats associated with areas of geothermal activity. Two of the new records represent species recently assessed as being of the highest risk to become invaders in the less extreme environments of the subantarctic, thereby emphasising the importance and urgency of adopting and applying effective biosecurity measures to protect the unique and vulnerable ecosystems of this region. Also documented are the impacts on the soil fauna of the island from human trampling, which drastically reduced densities of both native and non-indigenous species to 1% of the abundance typical of non-trampled sites. PMID:23438196

  14. Assessing climate change impacts on wetlands in a flow regulated catchment: A case study in the Macquarie Marshes, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Baihua; Pollino, Carmel A; Cuddy, Susan M; Andrews, Felix

    2015-07-01

    Globally wetlands are increasingly under threat due to changes in water regimes as a result of river regulation and climate change. We developed the Exploring CLimAte Impacts on Management (EXCLAIM) decision support system (DSS), which simulates flow-driven habitat condition for 16 vegetation species, 13 waterbird species and 4 fish groups in the Macquarie catchment, Australia. The EXCLAIM DSS estimates impacts to habitat condition, considering scenarios of climate change and water management. The model framework underlying the DSS is a probabilistic Bayesian network, and this approach was chosen to explicitly represent uncertainties in climate change scenarios and predicted ecological outcomes. The results suggest that the scenario with no climate change and no water resource development (i.e. flow condition without dams, weirs or water license entitlements, often regarded as a surrogate for 'natural' flow) consistently has the most beneficial outcomes for vegetation, waterbird and native fish. The 2030 dry climate change scenario delivers the poorest ecological outcomes overall, whereas the 2030 wet climate change scenario has beneficial outcomes for waterbird breeding, but delivers poor outcomes for river red gum and black box woodlands, and fish that prefer river channels as habitats. A formal evaluation of the waterbird breeding model showed that higher numbers of observed nest counts are typically associated with higher modelled average breeding habitat conditions. The EXCLAIM DSS provides a generic framework to link hydrology and ecological habitats for a large number of species, based on best available knowledge of their flood requirements. It is a starting point towards developing an integrated tool for assessing climate change impacts on wetland ecosystems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A New Stable Isotope Record From the Subantarctic Southeastern Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, L. M.; Hendy, I. L.; Moore, T. C.; Lyle, M. W.

    2007-12-01

    Few stable isotope records exist from the southeast Pacific Ocean due to its remote location, low sedimentation rates, and shallow carbonate compensation depth (CCD). The CCD in the southeast Pacific, however, has been found to be unusually deep (~4750 m), thereby allowing for the preservation of Neogene carbonates at abyssal depths. Herein we present stable isotope results from MV0502-4JC, which was recently recovered from the subantarctic region of the Southwest Pacific (50°20S, 148°08W, 4286 m). Dating the record with radiolarian biostratigraphy, we have generated a benthic stable isotope record back to the Middle Miocene from Cibicidoides spp. and a planktic record from Globigerina bulloides into the Late Pliocene. These stable isotope records, in conjunction with carbonate contents and counts of ice-rafted debris (IRD) and manganese micronodules show the effect of global ice sheet build up on this poorly understood region. A prominent negative δ13C shift of ~1‰ (from ~1 to ~0.2‰) in the benthic record occurs at ~15.3 MBSF (Middle Miocene) as carbonate contents in the core decrease from ~80% to ~20%, and significant changes in the bottom water are indicated by changes in the dominant Cibicidoides spp. at the site from C. robertsonianus to C. wuellerstorfi. Trace amounts of IRD and abundant manganese micronodules also appear at the site at this time. A significant hiatus (from the Late Miocene to the Middle Pliocene) occurs somewhere between 11.4 and 9.8 MBSF. From 9.8 to 8 MBSF (Late Pliocene) benthic δ18O increases and δ13C decreases by ~1‰. Also, IRD increases, manganese micronodules decrease, and there is a dramatic increase in the preservation of planktic foraminifera at the site. A planktic δ13C shift of >1‰ (from 0 to 1‰) occurs at ~5 MBSF (Pleistocene) coincident with a 20% increase in carbonate concentration. After this interval, the variability in both benthic δ18O and δ13C and planktic δ18O increases significantly. We interpret the

  16. Diet of the blue petrel at sub-Antarctic Marion Island

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E) in the southern Indian Ocean. Methods. Blue petrels ... to collect samples using a 300 mm diameter plastic funnel with a plastic bag attached to the bottom by an elastic band (see Prince 1980). In many cases the birds began to regurgitate as ...

  17. Bone-Eating Worms Spread: Insights into Shallow-Water Osedax (Annelida, Siboglinidae) from Antarctic, Subantarctic, and Mediterranean Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboada, Sergi; Riesgo, Ana; Bas, Maria; Arnedo, Miquel A; Cristobo, Javier; Rouse, Greg W; Avila, Conxita

    2015-01-01

    Osedax, commonly known as bone-eating worms, are unusual marine annelids belonging to Siboglinidae and represent a remarkable example of evolutionary adaptation to a specialized habitat, namely sunken vertebrate bones. Usually, females of these animals live anchored inside bone owing to a ramified root system from an ovisac, and obtain nutrition via symbiosis with Oceanospirillales gamma-proteobacteria. Since their discovery, 26 Osedax operational taxonomic units (OTUs) have been reported from a wide bathymetric range in the Pacific, the North Atlantic, and the Southern Ocean. Using experimentally deployed and naturally occurring bones we report here the presence of Osedax deceptionensis at very shallow-waters in Deception Island (type locality; Antarctica) and at moderate depths near South Georgia Island (Subantarctic). We present molecular evidence in a new phylogenetic analysis based on five concatenated genes (28S rDNA, Histone H3, 18S rDNA, 16S rDNA, and cytochrome c oxidase I-COI-), using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian inference, supporting the placement of O. deceptionensis as a separate lineage (Clade VI) although its position still remains uncertain. This phylogenetic analysis includes a new unnamed species (O. 'mediterranea') recently discovered in the shallow-water Mediterranean Sea belonging to Osedax Clade I. A timeframe of the diversification of Osedax inferred using a Bayesian framework further suggests that Osedax diverged from other siboglinids during the Middle Cretaceous (ca. 108 Ma) and also indicates that the most recent common ancestor of Osedax extant lineages dates to the Late Cretaceous (ca. 74.8 Ma) concomitantly with large marine reptiles and teleost fishes. We also provide a phylogenetic framework that assigns newly-sequenced Osedax endosymbionts of O. deceptionensis and O. 'mediterranea' to ribospecies Rs1. Molecular analysis for O. deceptionensis also includes a COI-based haplotype network indicating that individuals from Deception

  18. Bone-Eating Worms Spread: Insights into Shallow-Water Osedax (Annelida, Siboglinidae from Antarctic, Subantarctic, and Mediterranean Waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Taboada

    Full Text Available Osedax, commonly known as bone-eating worms, are unusual marine annelids belonging to Siboglinidae and represent a remarkable example of evolutionary adaptation to a specialized habitat, namely sunken vertebrate bones. Usually, females of these animals live anchored inside bone owing to a ramified root system from an ovisac, and obtain nutrition via symbiosis with Oceanospirillales gamma-proteobacteria. Since their discovery, 26 Osedax operational taxonomic units (OTUs have been reported from a wide bathymetric range in the Pacific, the North Atlantic, and the Southern Ocean. Using experimentally deployed and naturally occurring bones we report here the presence of Osedax deceptionensis at very shallow-waters in Deception Island (type locality; Antarctica and at moderate depths near South Georgia Island (Subantarctic. We present molecular evidence in a new phylogenetic analysis based on five concatenated genes (28S rDNA, Histone H3, 18S rDNA, 16S rDNA, and cytochrome c oxidase I-COI-, using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian inference, supporting the placement of O. deceptionensis as a separate lineage (Clade VI although its position still remains uncertain. This phylogenetic analysis includes a new unnamed species (O. 'mediterranea' recently discovered in the shallow-water Mediterranean Sea belonging to Osedax Clade I. A timeframe of the diversification of Osedax inferred using a Bayesian framework further suggests that Osedax diverged from other siboglinids during the Middle Cretaceous (ca. 108 Ma and also indicates that the most recent common ancestor of Osedax extant lineages dates to the Late Cretaceous (ca. 74.8 Ma concomitantly with large marine reptiles and teleost fishes. We also provide a phylogenetic framework that assigns newly-sequenced Osedax endosymbionts of O. deceptionensis and O. 'mediterranea' to ribospecies Rs1. Molecular analysis for O. deceptionensis also includes a COI-based haplotype network indicating that individuals from

  19. Bone-Eating Worms Spread: Insights into Shallow-Water Osedax (Annelida, Siboglinidae) from Antarctic, Subantarctic, and Mediterranean Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboada, Sergi; Riesgo, Ana; Bas, Maria; Arnedo, Miquel A.; Cristobo, Javier; Rouse, Greg W.; Avila, Conxita

    2015-01-01

    Osedax, commonly known as bone-eating worms, are unusual marine annelids belonging to Siboglinidae and represent a remarkable example of evolutionary adaptation to a specialized habitat, namely sunken vertebrate bones. Usually, females of these animals live anchored inside bone owing to a ramified root system from an ovisac, and obtain nutrition via symbiosis with Oceanospirillales gamma-proteobacteria. Since their discovery, 26 Osedax operational taxonomic units (OTUs) have been reported from a wide bathymetric range in the Pacific, the North Atlantic, and the Southern Ocean. Using experimentally deployed and naturally occurring bones we report here the presence of Osedax deceptionensis at very shallow-waters in Deception Island (type locality; Antarctica) and at moderate depths near South Georgia Island (Subantarctic). We present molecular evidence in a new phylogenetic analysis based on five concatenated genes (28S rDNA, Histone H3, 18S rDNA, 16S rDNA, and cytochrome c oxidase I–COI–), using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian inference, supporting the placement of O. deceptionensis as a separate lineage (Clade VI) although its position still remains uncertain. This phylogenetic analysis includes a new unnamed species (O. ‘mediterranea’) recently discovered in the shallow-water Mediterranean Sea belonging to Osedax Clade I. A timeframe of the diversification of Osedax inferred using a Bayesian framework further suggests that Osedax diverged from other siboglinids during the Middle Cretaceous (ca. 108 Ma) and also indicates that the most recent common ancestor of Osedax extant lineages dates to the Late Cretaceous (ca. 74.8 Ma) concomitantly with large marine reptiles and teleost fishes. We also provide a phylogenetic framework that assigns newly-sequenced Osedax endosymbionts of O. deceptionensis and O. ‘mediterranea’ to ribospecies Rs1. Molecular analysis for O. deceptionensis also includes a COI-based haplotype network indicating that individuals from

  20. Statistically integrated flow and flood modelling compared to hydrologically integrated quantity and quality model for annual flows in the regulated Macquarie river in arid Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Shiquan; Kingsford, Richard T

    2011-07-01

    Water resource management traditionally depends on use of highly complex hydrological models designed originally to manage water for abstraction but increasingly relied on to determine ecological impacts and test ecological rehabilitation opportunities. These models are rarely independently tested. We compared a relatively simple statistical model, integrated flow and flood modelling (IFFM), with a complex hydrological model, the integrated quality and quantity model (IQQM), on the highly regulated Macquarie River of the Murray-Darling Basin, southeastern Australia. We compared annual flows (1891-2007) at three gauges to actual data and modelled output: before dams and diversions (unregulated) and after river regulation (regulated), using the goodness of fit (Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency) and nonparametric tests. IQQM underestimated impacts of river regulation respectively on median and average flows at the Macquarie Marshes (Oxley gauge) by about 10% and 16%, compared to IFFM. IFFM model output more closely matched actual unregulated and regulated flows than IQQM which tended to underestimate unregulated flows and overestimate regulated flows at the Ramsar-listed wetland. Output was reasonably similar for the two models at the other two flow gauges. Relatively simple statistical models could more reliably estimate ecological impact at floodplains of large river systems, as well as an independent assessment tool compared to complex hydrological models. Finally, such statistical models may be valuable for predicting ecological responses to environmental flows, given their simplicity and relative ease to run.

  1. Sub-Antarctic glacier extensions in the Kerguelen region (49°S, Indian Ocean) over the past 24,000 years constrained by 36Cl moraine dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomelli, Vincent; Mokadem, Fatima; Schimmelpfennig, Irene; Chapron, Emmanuel; Rinterknecht, Vincent; Favier, Vincent; Verfaillie, Deborah; Brunstein, Daniel; Legentil, Claude; Michel, Elisabeth; Swingedouw, Didier; Jaouen, Alain; Aumaitre, Georges; Bourlès, Didier L.; Keddadouche, Karim

    2017-04-01

    Similar to many other regions in the world, glaciers in the southern sub-polar regions are currently retreating. In the Kerguelen Islands (49°S, 69°E), the mass balance of the Cook Ice Cap (CIC), the largest ice cap in this region, experienced dramatic shrinking between 1960 and 2013 with retreat rates among the highest in the world. This observation needs to be evaluated in a long-term context. However, data on the past glacier extents are sparse in the sub-Antarctic regions. To investigate the deglaciation pattern since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) period, we present the first 13 cosmogenic 36Cl surface exposure ages from four sites in the Kerguelen Islands. The 36Cl ages from erratic and moraine boulders span from 24.4 ± 2.7 ka to 0.3 ± 0.1 ka. We combined these ages with existing glacio-marine radiocarbon ages and bathymetric data to document the temporal and spatial changes of the island's glacial history. Ice began to retreat on the main island before 24.4 ± 2.7 ka until around the time of the Antarctic Cold Reversal (ACR) period (∼14.5-12.9 ka), during which the Bontemps moraine was formed by the advance of a CIC outlet glacier. Deglaciation continued during the Holocene probably until 3 ka with evidence of minor advances during the last millennium. This chronology is in pace with major changes in δ18O in a recent West Antarctica ice core record, showing that Kerguelen Islands glaciers are particularly sensitive and relevant to document climate change in the southern polar regions.

  2. Iron fertilization of the Subantarctic ocean during the last ice age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, Alfredo; Sigman, Daniel M; Ren, Haojia; Anderson, Robert F; Straub, Marietta; Hodell, David A; Jaccard, Samuel L; Eglinton, Timothy I; Haug, Gerald H

    2014-03-21

    John H. Martin, who discovered widespread iron limitation of ocean productivity, proposed that dust-borne iron fertilization of Southern Ocean phytoplankton caused the ice age reduction in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). In a sediment core from the Subantarctic Atlantic, we measured foraminifera-bound nitrogen isotopes to reconstruct ice age nitrate consumption, burial fluxes of iron, and proxies for productivity. Peak glacial times and millennial cold events are characterized by increases in dust flux, productivity, and the degree of nitrate consumption; this combination is uniquely consistent with Subantarctic iron fertilization. The associated strengthening of the Southern Ocean's biological pump can explain the lowering of CO2 at the transition from mid-climate states to full ice age conditions as well as the millennial-scale CO2 oscillations.

  3. Extended hatching periods in the subantarctic lithodid crabs Lithodes santolla and Paralomis granulosa (Crustacea: Decapoda: Lithodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatje, S.; Calcagno, J. A.; Lovrich, G. A.; Sartoris, F. J.; Anger, K.

    2003-06-01

    Temporal pattern of hatching was studied in the subantarctic lithodid crabs Lithodes santolla (Molina) and Paralomis granulosa (Jaquinot) from the Argentine Beagle Channel. In both species, larval hatching occurred in low daily numbers over an extended period of up to several weeks, depending on hatch size. Low daily hatching activity and low oxygen-consumption rates in freshly hatched P. granulosa larvae are discussed as life history adaptations to, and/or physiological constraints by, the environmental conditions of high latitudes.

  4. Magellan Bryozoa: a review of the diversity and of the Subantarctic and Antarctic zoogeographical links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. I. Moyano G.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Based principally on previous work by the author, the Magellan Bryozoa are reviewed in terms of endemism, specific diversity, zoarial diversity and polymorphism. The Magellan, Atlantic, Pacific, Subantarctic and Antarctic zoogeographical relationships are reevaluated. New data related to the distribution of Magellanic and Antarctic species along the archipelagos of the Scotia Arc and new data on Bryozoa from the Magellan continental slope are added.

  5. Kelp genes reveal effects of subantarctic sea ice during the Last Glacial Maximum

    OpenAIRE

    Fraser, Ceridwen I.; Nikula, Raisa; Spencer, Hamish G.; Waters, Jonathan M.

    2009-01-01

    The end of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) dramatically reshaped temperate ecosystems, with many species moving poleward as temperatures rose and ice receded. Whereas reinvading terrestrial taxa tracked melting glaciers, marine biota recolonized ocean habitats freed by retreating sea ice. The extent of sea ice in the Southern Hemisphere during the LGM has, however, yet to be fully resolved, with most palaeogeographic studies suggesting only minimal or patchy ice cover in subantarctic waters. H...

  6. Winter Climate Limits Subantarctic Low Forest Growth and Establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsch, Melanie A.; McGlone, Matt S.; Wilmshurst, Janet M.

    2014-01-01

    Campbell Island, an isolated island 600 km south of New Zealand mainland (52°S, 169°E) is oceanic (Conrad Index of Continentality  = −5) with small differences between mean summer and winter temperatures. Previous work established the unexpected result that a mean annual climate warming of c. 0.6°C since the 1940's has not led to upward movement of the forest limit. Here we explore the relative importance of summer and winter climatic conditions on growth and age-class structure of the treeline forming species, Dracophyllum longifolium and Dracophyllum scoparium over the second half of the 20th century. The relationship between climate and growth and establishment were evaluated using standard dendroecological methods and local climate data from a meteorological station on the island. Growth and establishment were correlated against climate variables and further evaluated within hierarchical regression models to take into account the effect of plot level variables. Winter climatic conditions exerted a greater effect on growth and establishment than summer climatic conditions. Establishment is maximized under warm (mean winter temperatures >7 °C), dry winters (total winter precipitation <400 mm). Growth, on the other hand, is adversely affected by wide winter temperature ranges and increased rainfall. The contrasting effect of winter warmth on growth and establishment suggests that winter temperature affects growth and establishment through differing mechanisms. We propose that milder winters enhance survival of seedlings and, therefore, recruitment, but increases metabolic stress on established plants, resulting in lower growth rates. Future winter warming may therefore have complex effects on plant growth and establishment globally. PMID:24691026

  7. Biological response to millennial variability of dust and nutrient supply in the Subantarctic South Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Robert F; Barker, Stephen; Fleisher, Martin; Gersonde, Rainer; Goldstein, Steven L; Kuhn, Gerhard; Mortyn, P Graham; Pahnke, Katharina; Sachs, Julian P

    2014-07-13

    Fluxes of lithogenic material and fluxes of three palaeo-productivity proxies (organic carbon, biogenic opal and alkenones) over the past 100,000 years were determined using the (230)Th-normalization method in three sediment cores from the Subantarctic South Atlantic Ocean. Features in the lithogenic flux record of each core correspond to similar features in the record of dust deposition in the EPICA Dome C ice core. Biogenic fluxes correlate with lithogenic fluxes in each sediment core. Our preferred interpretation is that South American dust, most probably from Patagonia, constitutes a major source of lithogenic material in Subantarctic South Atlantic sediments, and that past biological productivity in this region responded to variability in the supply of dust, probably due to biologically available iron carried by the dust. Greater nutrient supply as well as greater nutrient utilization (stimulated by dust) contributed to Subantarctic productivity during cold periods, in contrast to the region south of the Antarctic Polar Front (APF), where reduced nutrient supply during cold periods was the principal factor limiting productivity. The anti-phased patterns of productivity on opposite sides of the APF point to shifts in the physical supply of nutrients and to dust as cofactors regulating productivity in the Southern Ocean. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Aspects of reproductive ecology and benthic-pelagic coupling in the sub-antarctic sea cucumber Pseudostichopus mollis (Theel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Andrew; Neal, Lance

    2012-07-01

    For deeper regions of the continental shelf environmental cues entraining reproduction in echinoderms are often absent, which contributes to adoption of continuous reproduction, having larger eggs, and a lecithotrophic mode of larval development. In the present study the sub-Antarctic sea cucumber Pseudostichopus mollis from the family Synallactidae was obtained during June (winter) and September (spring) from a depth of approximately 300 m north of the Auckland Islands in an area abundant in biogenic sediments. Samples were processed for body indices and gonad development. Features characteristic of non-continuous reproduction were exhibited. Although a larger egg size was found (212±14 μm), two distinct winter cohorts of oocytes occurred (41-81 and 161-201 μm) and body wall weight fluctuations (7.6% increase in males and 27.5% reduction in females) coincided with changes in gonad indices between sample dates. For males gonad as a proportion of body wall weight decreased from 3.31±0.9 to 2.11±0.37% and for females it increased from 1.59±0.28 to 2.5±0.30%. For both sample dates the gonad of males maintained mature spermatozoa whereas female gonad shifted from mainly recovery and growth of oocytes to growth and advanced growth of mature oocytes. In habitats with low or variable food availability intermittent reproduction is predicted as resources are too low for a high reproductive effort and too erratic for synchrony. A pattern of reproduction where fluctuations in seasonal organic input into an accumulated benthic food source initiates and synchronises gametogenesis for future spawning is proposed.

  9. Iron fertilization of the Subantarctic Ocean during the last ice age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Garcia, A.

    2015-12-01

    Dust has the potential to modify global climate by influencing the radiative balance of the atmosphere and by supplying iron and other essential limiting micronutrients to the ocean. The scarcity of iron limits marine productivity and carbon uptake in one-quarter of the world ocean where the concentration of major nutrients (phosphorus and nitrogen) is perennially high. The Southern Ocean is the region where variations in iron availability can have the largest effect on Earth's carbon cycle through its fertilizing effect on marine ecosystems. Paleoceanographic records from the Subantarctic Atlantic have revealed a remarkable correlation between phytoplankton productivity and aeolian iron flux during glacial periods supporting the iron fertilization hypothesis. In addition, a recent study has shown that peak glacial times and millennial cold events were nearly universally associated not only with increases in dust flux and export production, but also with an increase in nutrient consumption (the last indicated by higher foraminifera-bound δ15N) (Martinez-Garcia et al. 2014). This combination of changes is uniquely consistent with ice age iron fertilization of the Subantarctic Atlantic. The strengthening of the biological pump associated with the observed increase in Subantarctic nutrient consumption during the high-dust intervals of the last two ice ages can explain up to ~40 ppm of the CO2 decrease that characterizes the transitions from mid-climate states to full ice age conditions. However, the impact of iron fertilization in other sectors of the Southern Ocean characterized by lower ice age dust fluxes than the Atlantic remains unclear. A series of recently published records from the Subantarctic Pacific indicate that dust deposition and marine export production were three times higher during glacial periods than during interglacials (Lamy et al. 2014). Here we present new measurements of foraminifera-bound nitrogen isotopes in a sediment core located in the

  10. Effects of summer frost exposures on the cold tolerance strategy of a sub-Antarctic beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, J S.; Worland, M R.; Block, W

    2001-09-01

    The sub-Antarctic beetle Hydromedion sparsutum (Coleoptera, Perimylopidae) is common locally on the island of South Georgia where sub-zero temperatures can be experienced in any month of the year. Larvae were known to be weakly freeze tolerant in summer with a mean supercooling point (SCP) around -4 degrees C and a lower lethal temperature of -10 degrees C (15min exposure). This study investigated the effects of successive freezing exposures on the SCP and subsequent survival of summer acclimatised larvae. The mean SCP of field fresh larvae was -4.2+/-0.2 degrees C with a range from -1.0 to -6.1 degrees C. When larvae were cooled to -6.5 degrees C on 10 occasions at intervals of 30min and one and four days, survival was 44, 70 and 68%, respectively. The 'end of experiment' SCP of larvae surviving 10 exposures at -6.5 degrees C showed distinct changes and patterns from the original field population depending on the interval between exposure. In the 30min interval group, most larvae froze between -6 and -8 degrees C, a depression of up to 6 degrees C from the original sample; all larvae were dead when cooling was continued below the SCP to -12 degrees C. In the one and four day interval groups, most larvae froze above -6 degrees C, showing no change as a result of the 10 exposures at -6.5 degrees C. As with the 30min interval group, some larvae froze below -6 degrees C, but with a wider range, and again, all were dead when cooled to -12 degrees C. However, in the one and four day interval groups, some larvae remained unfrozen when cooled to -12 degrees C, a depression of their individual SCP of at least 6 degrees C, and were alive 24h after cooling. In a further experiment, larvae were cooled to their individual SCP temperature at daily intervals on 10 occasions to ensure that every larva froze every day. Most larvae which showed a depression of their SCP of 2-4 degrees C from their day one value became moribund or died after six or seven freezing events. Survival

  11. Sub-Antarctic marine aerosol: dominant contributions from biogenic sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schmale

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic influences on the composition and characteristics of aerosol were investigated on Bird Island (54°00' S, 38°03' W in the South Atlantic during November and December 2010. This remote marine environment is characterised by large seabird and seal colonies. The chemical composition of the submicron particles, measured by an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS, was 21% non-sea-salt sulfate, 2% nitrate, 8% ammonium, 22% organics and 47% sea salt including sea salt sulfate. A new method to isolate the sea spray signature from the high-resolution AMS data was applied. Generally, the aerosol was found to be less acidic than in other marine environments due to the high availability of ammonia, from local fauna emissions. By positive matrix factorisation five different organic aerosol (OA profiles could be isolated: an amino acid/amine factor (AA-OA, 18% of OA mass, a methanesulfonic acid OA factor (MSA-OA, 25%, a marine oxygenated OA factor (M-OOA, 41%, a sea spray OA fraction (SS-OA, 7% and locally produced hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA, 9%. The AA-OA was dominant during the first two weeks of November and found to be related with the hatching of penguins in a nearby colony. This factor, rich in nitrogen (N : C ratio = 0.13, has implications for the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen in the area as particulate matter is often transported over longer distances than gaseous N-rich compounds. The MSA-OA was mainly transported from more southerly latitudes where phytoplankton bloomed. The bloom was identified as one of three sources for particulate sulfate on Bird Island, next to sea salt sulfate and sulfate transported from South America. M-OOA was the dominant organic factor and found to be similar to marine OA observed at Mace Head, Ireland. An additional OA factor highly correlated with sea spray aerosol was identified (SS-OA. However, based on the available data the type of mixture, internal or external, could not be determined. Potassium was not

  12. Directional Analysis of Sub-Antarctic Climate Change on South Georgia 1905-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto Ferranti, Emma Jayne; Solera Garcia, Maria Angeles; Timmis, Roger James; Gerrard McKenna, Paul; Whyatt, James Duncan

    2010-05-01

    Directional analysis has been used to study changes in the sub-polar climate of the mountainous and glacierised sub-Antarctic island of South Georgia (54-55°S, 36-38°W). Significantly for climate change studies, South Georgia lies in the Scotia Sea between polar and temperate latitudes, and approximately 1000 km northeast and downwind of the Antarctic Peninsula - one of the fastest-warming regions on Earth (Vaughan et al., 2001). South Georgia was chosen for directional analysis because its climate is substantially advected by predominantly westerly circulations, and because it has a long (since 1905) meteorological record from King Edward Point (KEP) on its eastern side. Additional shorter records from Bird Island at the northwest tip of South Georgia allow comparison between windward (Bird Island) and leeward (KEP) climate regimes. The variation of mountain barrier heights with direction from KEP allows climate changes to be studied under different amounts of orographic influence (from ~700 m to ~2200 m). Records of glacier advance and retreat provide further independent evidence of climate change for comparison with the meteorological record. Directional climate analysis is based on a series of monthly-mean pressure fields defining the orientation and strength of synoptic-scale air-mass advection over the Scotia Sea. These fields are used to define directional climatologies for six 30° sectors with bearings from 150-180° to 300-330°; these sectors encompass 99% of recorded months since 1905. The climatologies summarise the frequencies of air masses from each sector, and the accompanying temperatures and precipitation. The 6 sectors can be broadly associated with 4 air-mass types and source regions: (i) sectors 150-210° advect cold polar maritime air that originated over the Antarctic continent before passing over the Weddell Sea, (ii) sectors 210-270° advect warmer, more stable polar maritime air from the Bellingshausen Sea/Antarctic Peninsula region

  13. Reconstructing Export Production in the Subantarctic South Pacific during the Last Ice Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. W.; Winckler, G.; Anderson, R. F.; Schwartz, R.; Lamy, F.; Gersonde, R.; Pahnke, K.

    2016-02-01

    Despite high concentration of major nutrients in the Southern Ocean, nutrient utilization is inefficient because the scarcity of iron limits phytoplankton growth and primary productivity. Input of eolian dust into the ocean may supply iron, leading to increased export production and nutrient utilization, and potentially affect the Earth's carbon cycle through its fertilizing effect on marine ecosystem. Recent studies (Martínez-Garcia et al., 2009, 2011, 2014) suggest that iron fertilization in the Subantarctic South Atlantic may have contributed to reducing atmospheric CO2 by 40ppm over the last glacial cycle. While most of current observations on the Southern Ocean come from the South Atlantic, the Pacific sector covers the largest surface area of the Southern Ocean, indicating its potential to store the largest fraction of carbon. Dust fluxes to the South Atlantic are generally stronger than those to the South Pacific, but the glacial-interglacial pattern of dust deposition is similar. A recent study (Lamy et al., 2014) suggests a threefold increase of dust deposition over glacial periods than over interglacial periods in the South Pacific, and show a correlation between dust records and preliminary export production. In this study, we examine a set of cores from the Subantarctic South Pacific at higher temporal resolution to observe variability of export production in response to changing dust flux. We present proxy records for paleoproductivity from excess Ba, biogenic opal and authigenic Uranium. The results will allow us to evaluate the importance of iron fertilization in the Subantarctic Pacific Ocean over glacial/interglacial timescale and its potential effect on the global carbon cycle.

  14. A 450 000 kyr Surface Hydrography History From the Subantarctic Atlantic Ocean (ODP Site 1089)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, G.; Abelmann, A.; Gersonde, R.

    2002-12-01

    We established a palaeo sea surface temperature (SST) record, by using a radiolarian-based transfer function, for the northern subantarctic Atlantic Ocean (ODP Site 1089, 400 56' S; 90 54 E), in order to reconstruct its surface hydrography and interocean heat exchange history during the last five climate cycles (ca. 450 ka). The produced record has a centennial scale time resolution, which makes it unique (in length and resolution) for the subantarctic zone. At this location, close to the subtropical front, ocean/atmosphere interactions, interoceanic exchange processes, and mesoscale eddy mixing play an important role in shaping the characteristics of sea water eventually advected to the North Atlantic. The centennial resolution allows to recognize millennial scale climatic events, similar to the Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles (originally described from Greenland ice cores), both during Marine Isotopic Stage (MIS) 3 and 6. Similar to observations from Termination I (Antarctic Cold Reversal), rapid cooling rebounds were encountered at Terminations II to V, and are not therefore limited either to the circum-Atlantic area or to last Termination. A comparison of SST and ice volume proxies suggests a lead of a few kyrs between SST and the minimum extent of global ice volume, indicating that temperatures rose substantially at subantarctic latitudes before any considerable northern hemisphere continental ice volume change was recorded. The climatic history of ODP Site 1089 displays good correlation to other records (e.g. Vostok) with the exception of MIS 10, where a warm SST anomaly was recognized. This anomaly is also present in oceanic records along the thermohaline circulation belt path, but absent in both Polar Zone and Vostok climatic records. The implications of our record for interhemispheric climate connecting mechanisms and the role played by the Southern Ocean in steering global climatic change will be discussed.

  15. Subantarctic Pacific hiatuses as clues to periods of enhanced oceanic circulation during the late Neogene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, L. M.; Hendy, I. L.; Moore, T. C.; Lyle, M. W.

    2009-12-01

    New stable isotope records from cores MV0502-4JC (50°20’S, 148°08’W, 4286m), ELT 25-11 (50°02’S, 127°31’W, 3969m), and ELT 20-11 (49°00’S, 144°50’W, 4517 m) obtained in close proximity to the Subantarctic Front in the southeast Pacific show a consistent pattern of hiatuses that could be related to late Neogene changes in the strength of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). These subantarctic Pacific records show three hiatuses that we have dated to 1) the early Pliocene-early late Pliocene, 2) ~1.57-0.68 Ma, and 3) ~0.53-0.19 Ma. These hiatuses correspond well with the timing of the Pliocene Warm Period and the climatic transitions of the Mid-Pleistocene Revolution and the Mid-Brunhes, as well as with periods of reduced or non-deposition on the Maurice Ewing Bank, also located in the path of the ACC (Ciesielski, 1982). Interestingly, sediment cores recovered from regions outside of the ACC that experience significant bottom water flow (e.g. fracture zones and the western margins of continents), including the Vema Channel (Ledbetter et al., 1978), the South Australia Basin (Ledbetter, 1981), and the continental margin of Northwest Africa (Stein et al., 1986), also show intervals of reduced or non-deposition that correlate well with the timing of hiatuses in the subantarctic Pacific. This correlation could indicate that the Pliocene Warm Period and the climatic transitions of the Mid-Pleistocene Revolution and Mid-Brunhes were characterized not only by a more vigourous ACC but also by a stronger and more globally-distributed overturning circulation than the present day.

  16. The Xanthophyceae and Chlorophyceae of the Western Ross Sea, Victoria Land, Antarctica and Macquarie Island collected under the direction of Prof. Dr. J. S. Zaneveld (1963—1967)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, H.P.; Zaneveld, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    During the austral summer seasons of 1963-1964 and 1964-1965, and during the austral winter season of 1967 Prof. Dr. J.S. Zaneveld made collection expeditions to the western Ross Sea. In 1965 collections were also made from the U.S.C.G. icebreaker ‘Glacier’, around the western Ross Sea and around

  17. The role of anthropogenic vs. natural in-stream structures in determining connectivity and genetic diversity in an endangered freshwater fish, Macquarie perch (Macquaria australasica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulks, Leanne K; Gilligan, Dean M; Beheregaray, Luciano B

    2011-07-01

    Habitat fragmentation is one of the leading causes of population declines, threatening ecosystems worldwide. Freshwater taxa may be particularly sensitive to habitat loss as connectivity between suitable patches of habitat is restricted not only by the natural stream network but also by anthropogenic factors. Using a landscape genetics approach, we assessed the impact of habitat availability on population genetic diversity and connectivity of an endangered Australian freshwater fish Macquarie perch, Macquaria australasica (Percichthyidae). The relative contribution of anthropogenic versus natural in-stream habitat structures in shaping genetic structure and diversity in M. australasica was quite striking. Genetic diversity was significantly higher in locations with a higher river slope, a correlate of the species preferred habitat - riffles. On the other hand, barriers degrade preferred habitat and impede dispersal, contributing to the degree of genetic differentiation among populations. Our results highlight the importance of landscape genetics to understanding the environmental factors affecting freshwater fish populations and the potential practical application of this approach to conservation management of other freshwater organisms.

  18. Recent history of sediment metal contamination in Lake Macquarie, Australia, and an assessment of ash handling procedure effectiveness in mitigating metal contamination from coal-fired power stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Larissa; Maher, William; Potts, Jaimie; Gruber, Bernd; Batley, Graeme; Taylor, Anne; Chariton, Anthony; Krikowa, Frank; Zawadzki, Atun; Heijnis, Henk

    2014-08-15

    This study assessed historical changes in metal concentrations in sediments of southern Lake Macquarie resulting from the activities of coal-fired power stations, using a multi-proxy approach which combines (210)Pb, (137)Cs and metal concentrations in sediment cores. Metal concentrations in the lake were on average, Zn: 67 mg/kg, Cu: 15 mg/kg, As: 8 mg/kg, Se: 2mg/kg, Cd: 1.5 mg/kg, Pb: 8 mg/kg with a maximum of Zn: 280 mg/kg, Cu: 80 mg/kg, As: 21 mg/kg, Se: 5 mg/kg, Cd: 4 mg/kg, Pb: 48 mg/kg. The ratios of measured concentrations in sediment cores to their sediment guidelines were Cd 1.8, As 1.0, Cu 0.5, Pb 0.2 and Zn 0.2, with the highest concern being for cadmium. Of special interest was assessment of the effects of changes in ash handling procedures by the Vales Point power station on the metal concentrations in the sediments. Comparing sediment layers before and after ash handling procedures were implemented, zinc concentrations have decreased 10%, arsenic 37%, selenium 20%, cadmium 38% and lead 14%. An analysis of contaminant depth profiles showed that, after implementation of new ash handling procedures in 1995, selenium and cadmium, the main contaminants in Australian black coal had decreased significantly in this estuary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Heat Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  20. Head Kidney Transcriptome Analysis and Characterization for the Sub-Antarctic Notothenioid Fish Eleginops maclovinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danixa Martínez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes de novo transcriptome sequencing and annotation analyses for the head kidney of the sub-Antarctic notothenioid fish Eleginops maclovinus, a sister group of the Antarctic notothenioid fish clade. Moreover, E. maclovinus is one of the most eurythermal and euryhaline representatives of the Notothenioidei suborder. RNA-seq data were generated by the 454 GS Junior system, resulting in 11,207 contigs that were then assembled by the Genomic Workbench CLC software. The transcriptome was annotated by BLASTing each sequence against the universal, non-redundant NCBI database (National Center for Biotechnology Information using the AUSTRAL-omics computer cluster. A significant number of transcripts related to innate and adaptive immunity were found in the sequences, which could be used as references in future immunological studies in E. maclovinus.

  1. Late Pliocene Changes in Abyssal Southern Ocean Ventilation: New Insights from the Subantarctic Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, L. M.; Hendy, I. L.; Moore, T. C.; Lyle, M. W.

    2008-12-01

    New stable isotope records from subantarctic southeast Pacific cores MV0502-4JC (50°20'S, 148°08'W, 4286m) and ELT 25-11 (50°02'S, 127°31'W, 3969m) suggest that the late Pliocene climate transition (LPCT) at ~2.75 Ma marked a dramatic increase in cold, poorly ventilated water in the deepest portion of the Southern Ocean. This conclusion is based on a striking vertical stable isotopic gradient that developed between MV0502-4JC and shallower South Atlantic ODP Site 704 (46°52'S, 7°5'E, 2532 m) in the late Pliocene, a sharp contrast to the comparable benthic δ13C and δ18O values recorded at the two sites during the late Miocene. Similar to existing shallower records from the South Atlantic, benthic stable isotope records from MV0502-4JC and ELT 25-11 record a significant decrease in δ13C accompanied by an increase in δ18O in the Late Pliocene. While the δ13C decrease and δ18O increase recorded at the South Atlantic sites appears to represent the onset of a glacial pattern of oxygen isotope enrichment and reduced deep water ventilation in the Southern Ocean, the transition in MV0502-4JC and ELT 25-11 signals a far more dramatic shift in conditions at abyssal depths. First, the benthic δ13C shift appears to be more extensive and prolonged in the deep subantarctic Pacific than in the South Atlantic, and second, the δ13C decrease was accompanied by an equally dramatic increase in benthic δ18O that stands out amongst other deep sea records prior to the late Pleistocene. In MV0502-4JC these δ13C and δ18O shifts amount to -1.05‰ and +1.1‰, respectively, over the period ~2.7 to 1.9 Ma (9.6-7.3 MBSF) and are followed by a dramatic return of the benthic δ13C values to pre-LPCT values after ~1.7 Ma that is also recorded in the planktonic record. These benthic δ13C and δ18O shifts likely indicate the accumulation of an ever-larger percentage of cold, poorly-ventilated AABW in the abyssal Southern Ocean during the late Pliocene, probably due to sea ice

  2. Different adaptations of Chinese winter-over expeditioners during prolonged Antarctic and sub-Antarctic residence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nan; Wu, Quan; Li, Hao; Zhang, Tao; Xu, Chengli

    2016-05-01

    Prolonged residence in Antarctica is characterized by exposure to isolated, confined, and extreme (ICE) environment. Winter-over expeditioners at research stations often exhibit a complex of psychophysiological symptoms, which varied by stations and sociocultural backgrounds. To understand the different patterns of psychophysiological responses provoked by environmental stress, we conducted a longitudinal assessment of mood and endocrine function in two groups of Chinese expeditioners who were deployed to sub-Antarctic (Great Wall Station, 62°S, N = 12) and Antarctic (Zhongshan Station, 66°S, N = 16) from December 2003 to 2005. Measures of mood, thyroid function, the levels of plasma catecholamine, and circulating interleukins were obtained at departure from China, mid-winter (Antarctica), end of winter (Antarctica), and return to China, respectively. The Zhongshan Station crew experienced significant increases in fatigue, anger, tension, confusion, and decrease in free thyroxine (FT4), norepinephrine (NE), and epinephrine (E) during the winter, increase in thyrotropin (TSH) and total triiodothyronine (TT3) when returning, whereas their counterparts at Great Wall Station only experienced increased TT3 after deployment. Moreover, compared with the Great Wall Station crew, the Zhongshan Station crew exhibited greater increase in anger, greater decrease in FT4, total thyroxine (TT4), NE and E over the winter, and greater increase in TSH when returning. Chinese expeditioners who lived and worked at the Antarctic station and the sub-Antarctic station for over a year showed different change patterns in mood and endocrine hormones. Negative mood and endocrine dysfunction were positively associated with the severity of environment. The study is a supplement to scientific knowledge on psychophysiological variation under ICE environment, which has certain applied value for the development of preventive countermeasures or interventions.

  3. Islands, Island Studies, Island Studies Journal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Baldacchino

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Islands are sites of innovative conceptualizations, whether of nature or human enterprise, whether virtual or real. The study of islands on their own terms today enjoys a growing and wide-ranging recognition. This paper celebrates the launch of Island Studies Journal in the context of a long and thrilling tradition of island studies scholarship.

  4. Recent wind-driven change in Subantarctic Mode Water and its impact on ocean heat storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Libao; Rintoul, Stephen R.; Yu, Weidong

    2018-01-01

    The subduction and export of Subantarctic Mode Water (SAMW) supplies the upper limb of the overturning circulation and makes an important contribution to global heat, freshwater, carbon and nutrient budgets1-5. Upper ocean heat content has increased since 2006, helping to explain the so-called global warming hiatus between 1998 and 2014, with much of the ocean warming concentrated in extratropical latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere in close association with SAMW and Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW)6,7. Here we use Argo observations to assess changes in the thickness, depth and heat content of the SAMW layer. Between 2005 and 2015, SAMW has thickened (3.6 ± 0.3 m yr-1), deepened (2.4 ± 0.2 m yr-1) and warmed (3.9 ± 0.3 W m-2). Wind forcing, rather than buoyancy forcing, is largely responsible for the observed trends in SAMW. Most (84%) of the increase in SAMW heat content is the result of changes in thickness; warming by buoyancy forcing (increased heat flux to the ocean) accounts for the remaining 16%. Projected increases in wind stress curl would drive further deepening of SAMW and increase in heat storage in the Southern Hemisphere oceans.

  5. Assessing Sub-Antarctic Zone primary productivity from fast repetition rate fluorometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Wee; McMinn, Andrew; Griffiths, F. Brian; Westwood, Karen J.; Wright, Simon W.; Molina, Ernesto; Webb, Jason P.; van den Enden, Rick

    2011-11-01

    In situ primary productivity (PP) in the Sub-Antarctic Zone (SAZ) and the Polar Frontal Zone (PFZ) south of Australia was estimated using fast repetition rate fluorometry (FRRF). FRRF-derived PP at Process station 3 (P3) southeast of Tasmania (46°S, 153°E) were higher than P1 in the southwest of Tasmania (46°S, 140°E) and P2 in the Polar Frontal Zone (54°S, 146°E). The FRRF-derived PP rates were well correlated with 14C-uptake rates from one-hour incubations ( r2=0.85, slope=1.23±0.05, plight-limited conditions in deeper waters. Under light-saturated conditions near the surface (0-45 m), the relationship was less clear. This was likely associated with the effects of physiological processes such as cyclic electron flow and the Mehler reaction, which are stimulated at high irradiance. Our results indicate that FRRF can be used to estimate photosynthesis rates in the SAZ and PFZ but to derive an accurate estimation of C-fixation requires a detailed understanding of the physiological properties of the cells and their response to oceanographic parameters under different environmental conditions.

  6. Energy density of sub-Antarctic fishes from the Beagle Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, D A; Lattuca, M E; Boy, C C; Pérez, A F; Ceballos, S G; Vanella, F A; Morriconi, E R; Malanga, G F; Aureliano, D R; Rimbau, S; Calvo, J

    2009-03-01

    The energy density (ED) of nine species of sub-Antarctic fishes was estimated by calorimetry. The fish, seven notothenioids, one atherinopsid and one galaxiid, represents some of the more abundant species in the ichthyofauna of the Beagle Channel. Principal-components analysis (PCA) of the ED of the different organs/tissues indicated that PC(1) and PC(2) accounted for 87% of the variability. Separation along PC(1) corresponded to differences in muscle and liver energy densities whereas separation along PC(2) corresponded to differences in the ED of the gonads. Differences between species were significant except for P. sima. Inclusion of the gonadosomatic index (GSI) as an explanatory variable enabled us to establish the existence of energy transfer from muscle and liver to the gonads in ripe P. tessellata females. Total ED values varied between 4.21 and 6.26 kJ g(-1), the pelagic Odontesthes sp. being the species with the highest ED. A significant relationship between ED and muscle dry weight (DW(M)) was found for all the species except P. tessellata. These data are the first direct estimates of ED of fishes from the Beagle Channel.

  7. Metagenomic Survey of Viral Diversity Obtained from Feces of Subantarctic and South American Fur Seals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Kluge

    Full Text Available The Brazilian South coast seasonally hosts numerous marine species, observed particularly during winter months. Some animals, including fur seals, are found dead or debilitated along the shore and may harbor potential pathogens within their microbiota. In the present study, a metagenomic approach was performed to evaluate the viral diversity in feces of fur seals found deceased along the coast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The fecal virome of two fur seal species was characterized: the South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis and the Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis. Fecal samples from 10 specimens (A. australis, n = 5; A. tropicalis, n = 5 were collected and viral particles were purified, extracted and amplified with a random PCR. The products were sequenced through Ion Torrent and Illumina platforms and assembled reads were submitted to BLASTx searches. Both viromes were dominated by bacteriophages and included a number of potentially novel virus genomes. Sequences of picobirnaviruses, picornaviruses and a hepevirus-like were identified in A. australis. A rotavirus related to group C, a novel member of the Sakobuvirus and a sapovirus very similar to California sea lion sapovirus 1 were found in A. tropicalis. Additionally, sequences of members of the Anelloviridae and Parvoviridae families were detected in both fur seal species. This is the first metagenomic study to screen the fecal virome of fur seals, contributing to a better understanding of the complexity of the viral community present in the intestinal microbiota of these animals.

  8. Late Holocene intensification of the westerly winds at the subantarctic Auckland Islands (51° S), New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    I. M. Browne; Moy, C. M.; Riesselman, C.R.; H. L. Neil; L. G. Curtin; Gorman, A. R.; Wilson, G. S.

    2017-01-01

    The Southern Hemisphere westerly winds (SHWWs) play a major role in controlling wind-driven upwelling of Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) and outgassing of CO2 in the Southern Ocean, on interannual to glacial–interglacial timescales. Despite their significance in the global carbon cycle, our understanding of millennial- and centennial-scale changes in the strength and latitudinal position of the westerlies during the Holocene (especially since 5000 yr BP) is limited by a scarcit...

  9. Interannual variability in reproductive traits of the Patagonian toothfish Dissostichus eleginoides around the sub-Antarctic island of South Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigden, K E; Marshall, C T; Scott, B E; Young, E F; Brickle, P

    2017-07-01

    Commercial fisheries data, collected as part of an observer programme and covering the period 1997-2014, were utilized in order to define key reproductive traits and spawning dynamics of the Patagonian toothfish Dissostichus eleginoides at South Georgia. Multi-year spawning site fidelity of D. eleginoides was revealed through the identification of previously unknown spawning hotspots. Timing of female spawning was shown to have shifted later, leading to a shorter spawning duration. A decrease in length and mass of female and male spawning fish and a reduced number of large spawning fish was found, evidence of a change in size structure of spawning D. eleginoides. During the study period fewer later maturity stage females (including spawning stage) were observed in conjunction with increased proportions of early stage female D. eleginoides. The findings are discussed in the context of reproductive success, with consideration of the possible effects such spawning characteristics and behaviours may have on egg and larval survival. This work presents the first long-term assessment of D. eleginoides spawning dynamics at South Georgia and provides valuable knowledge for both the ecology of the species and for future fisheries management of this commercially important species. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  10. Time budgets and activity patterns of sub-Antarctic fur seals at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1993-04-15

    Antarctic fur seals at Gough Island. M,N, Bester* and ... breeding colony site at Gough Island (40"20'S, gOS4'W) during summer. Time budgets of adult males were ...... The Galapagos sea lion. J. Mammal. 48: 62-69. RAND, R.W. 1967.

  11. A new species of Abyssocladia (Porifera, Demospongiae, Poecilosclerida, Cladorhizidae) and other carnivorous sponges from the far eastern Solomon Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacelet, Jean; Kelly, Michelle

    2014-06-16

    Two species, one each of Abyssocladia Lévi, 1964, and Asbestopluma Topsent, 1901, are recorded from the far eastern Solomon Islands for the first time. Abyssocladia lakwollii sp. nov. is characterized by the pedunculate disc-shape of the body, the unusually large size of the isochelae I microscleres, and by the shape of the cleistochelae with crossed central teeth. Asbestopluma (A.) desmophora Kelly & Vacelet, 2011, first described from a seamount on Macquarie Ridge (Australia EEZ) and eastern waters to the north and south of New Zealand, is also recorded from the far eastern Solomon Islands. The specimens differ only slightly from their southern counterparts in dimensions of some spicules, and in the ornamentation detail of the basal teeth of the large and small anisochelae. 

  12. Millennial-scale variability in dust deposition, marine export production, and nutrient consumption in the glacial subantarctic ocean (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Garcia, A.; Sigman, D. M.; Anderson, R. F.; Ren, H. A.; Hodell, D. A.; Straub, M.; Jaccard, S.; Eglinton, T. I.; Haug, G. H.

    2013-12-01

    Based on the limitation of modern Southern Ocean phytoplankton by iron and the evidence of higher iron-bearing dust fluxes to the ocean during ice ages, it has been proposed that iron fertilization of Southern Ocean phytoplankton contributed to the reduction in atmospheric CO2 during ice ages. In the Subantarctic zone of the Atlantic Southern Ocean, glacial increases in dust flux and export production have been documented, supporting the iron fertilization hypothesis. However, these observations could be interpreted alternatively as resulting from the equatorward migration of Southern Ocean fronts during ice ages if the observed productivity rise was not accompanied by an increase in major nutrient consumption. Here, new 230Th-normalized lithogenic and opal fluxes are combined with high-resolution biomarker measurements to reconstruct millennial-scale changes in dust deposition and marine export production in the subantarctic Atlantic over the last glacial cycle. In the same record foraminifera-bound nitrogen isotopes are used to reconstruct ice age changes in surface nitrate utilization, providing a comprehensive test of the iron fertilization hypothesis. Elevation in foraminifera-bound δ15N, indicating more complete nitrate consumption, coincides with times of surface cooling and greater dust flux and export production. These observations indicate that the ice age Subantarctic was characterized by iron fertilized phytoplankton growth. The resulting strengthening of the Southern Ocean's biological pump can explain the ~40 ppm lowering of CO2 that characterizes the transitions from mid-climate states to full ice age conditions as well as the millennial-scale atmospheric CO2 fluctuations observed within the last ice age

  13. Investigation into the impact of storms on sustaining summer primary productivity in the Sub-Antarctic Ocean

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nicholson, Sarah-Anne

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available of such phenomena for ocean-biogeochemical models. 1. Introduction An unexplained peculiarity of phytoplankton blooms in the Southern Ocean (SO) is the regional-scale occur- rence of prolonged blooms into late summer [Swart et al., 2015; Carranza and Gille, 2015...]. Observations of chlorophyll a show that summer blooms are widespread and occur annually [Carranza and Gille, 2015], are prominent within the Sub-Antarctic Zone (SAZ), and may be several months in duration (e.g., ~16weeks in Racault et al. [2012]), typically...

  14. Diverse Bacterial Groups Contribute to the Alkane Degradation Potential of Chronically Polluted Subantarctic Coastal Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guibert, Lilian M.; Loviso, Claudia L.; Borglin, Sharon; Jansson, Janet K.; Dionisi, Hebe M.; Lozada, Mariana

    2015-11-07

    We aimed to gain insight into the alkane degradation potential of microbial communities from chronically polluted sediments of a subantarctic coastal environment using a combination of metagenomic approaches. A total of 6178 sequences annotated as alkane-1-monooxygenases (EC 1.14.15.3) were retrieved from a shotgun metagenomic dataset that included two sites analyzed in triplicate. The majority of the sequences binned with AlkB described in Bacteroidetes (32 ± 13 %) or Proteobacteria (29 ± 7 %), although a large proportion remained unclassified at the phylum level. Operational taxonomic unit (OTU)-based analyses showed small differences in AlkB distribution among samples that could be correlated with alkane concentrations, as well as with site-specific variations in pH and salinity. A number of low-abundance OTUs, mostly affiliated with Actinobacterial sequences, were found to be only present in the most contaminated samples. On the other hand, the molecular screening of a large-insert metagenomic library of intertidal sediments from one of the sampling sites identified two genomic fragments containing novel alkB gene sequences, as well as various contiguous genes related to lipid metabolism. Both genomic fragments were affiliated with the phylum Planctomycetes, and one could be further assigned to the genus Rhodopirellula due to the presence of a partial sequence of the 23S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. This work highlights the diversity of bacterial groups contributing to the alkane degradation potential and reveals patterns of functional diversity in relation with environmental stressors in a chronically polluted, high-latitude coastal environment. In addition, alkane biodegradation genes are described for the first time in members of Planctomycetes.

  15. Hormonal responses to extreme fasting in subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis) pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrier, Delphine; Atkinson, Shannon; Guinet, Christophe; Groscolas, René; Arnould, John P Y

    2012-04-15

    Surviving prolonged fasting implies closely regulated alterations in fuel provisioning to meet metabolic requirements, while preserving homeostasis. Little is known, however, of the endocrine regulations governing such metabolic adaptations in naturally fasting free-ranging animals. The hormonal responses to natural prolonged fasting and how they correlate to the metabolic adaptations observed, were investigated in subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis) pups, which, because of the intermittent pattern of maternal attendance, repeatedly endure exceptionally long fasting episodes throughout their development (1-3 mo). Phase I fasting was characterized by a dramatic decrease in plasma insulin, glucagon, leptin, and total l-thyroxine (T(4)) associated with reductions in mass-specific resting metabolic rate (RMR), plasma triglycerides, glycerol, and urea-to-creatine ratio, while nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and β-OHB increased. In contrast, the metabolic steady-state of phase II fasting reached within 6 days was associated with minimal concentrations of insulin, glucagon, and leptin; unchanged cortisol and triiodothyronine (T(3)); and moderately increased T(4). The early fall in insulin and leptin may mediate the shift to the strategy of energy conservation, protein sparing, and primary reliance on body lipids observed in response to the cessation of feeding. In contrast to the typical mammalian starvation response, nonelevated cortisol and minimal glucagon levels may contribute to body protein preservation and downregulation of catabolic pathways, in general. Furthermore, thyroid hormones may be involved in a process of energy conservation, independent of pups' nutritional state. These original hormonal settings might reflect an adaptation to the otariid repeated fasting pattern and emphasize the crucial importance of a tight physiological control over metabolism to survive extreme energetic constraints.

  16. Soil calcium availability influences shell ecophenotype formation in the sub-antarctic land snail, Notodiscus hookeri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryvonne Charrier

    Full Text Available Ecophenotypes reflect local matches between organisms and their environment, and show plasticity across generations in response to current living conditions. Plastic responses in shell morphology and shell growth have been widely studied in gastropods and are often related to environmental calcium availability, which influences shell biomineralisation. To date, all of these studies have overlooked micro-scale structure of the shell, in addition to how it is related to species responses in the context of environmental pressure. This study is the first to demonstrate that environmental factors induce a bi-modal variation in the shell micro-scale structure of a land gastropod. Notodiscus hookeri is the only native land snail present in the Crozet Archipelago (sub-Antarctic region. The adults have evolved into two ecophenotypes, which are referred to here as MS (mineral shell and OS (organic shell. The MS-ecophenotype is characterised by a thick mineralised shell. It is primarily distributed along the coastline, and could be associated to the presence of exchangeable calcium in the clay minerals of the soils. The Os-ecophenotype is characterised by a thin organic shell. It is primarily distributed at high altitudes in the mesic and xeric fell-fields in soils with large particles that lack clay and exchangeable calcium. Snails of the Os-ecophenotype are characterised by thinner and larger shell sizes compared to snails of the MS-ecophenotype, indicating a trade-off between mineral thickness and shell size. This pattern increased along a temporal scale; whereby, older adult snails were more clearly separated into two clusters compared to the younger adult snails. The prevalence of glycine-rich proteins in the organic shell layer of N. hookeri, along with the absence of chitin, differs to the organic scaffolds of molluscan biominerals. The present study provides new insights for testing the adaptive value of phenotypic plasticity in response to spatial

  17. Oxidative stress and antioxidant defences generated by solar UV in a Subantarctic marine phytoflagellate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Pablo Hernando

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of the Antarctic stratospheric ozone resulted in significant increases in ultraviolet B radiation (UV-B, 280-320 nm reaching the surface of the ocean. The main objective of this work was to study long-term (growth rate scale, days stress responses (lipid oxidative damage, TBARS, and lipid soluble antioxidants to UV-B and UV-A of a phytoflagellate species (Asteromonas sp. isolated from a natural phytoplankton community of the Subantarctic Beagle Channel. The growth rate was inhibited by UV-B and UV-A radiation during the exponential phase. A marked increase in the TBARS content was observed on day 1 of the experiment, with significant differences between algae subjected to UV-B and UV-A treatments, thus suggesting high damage to the cell membrane. During the second day of the experiment TBARS in UV-A treatments were higher than under photosynthetically active radiation (PAR. The concentration of TBARS decreased to the level of the PAR control on day 3, remaining low until the end of the experiment. Lipid antioxidant concentrations (?-tocopherol and ?-carotene were delayed with respect to variations in TBARS, showing maximum values on day 3 of the experiment. This coincided with the minimum TBARS concentrations in all treatments. The content of both antioxidants increased significantly in cultures exposed to UV-B and UV-A on days 3 and 4. In Antarctic species (phytoflagellate Asteromonas sp., AP and diatom Thalassiosira sp., AT a-tocopherol was more abundant than b-carotene. The phytoflagellate species showed a lag in reaching the maximum content of both antioxidants in relation to AT, which reached the maximum concentration within a short time scale (3 h suggesting a more rapid response to oxidative stress. AT was more resistant to UVR stress than the phytoflagellate species. Overall, our results show that UVR damage/repair balance involves the combined action of several internal factors in the cell.

  18. Prioritizing islands for the eradication of invasive vertebrates in the United Kingdom overseas territories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Jeffrey; Oppel, Steffen; Cuthbert, Richard J; Holmes, Nick; Bird, Jeremy P; Butchart, Stuart H M; Spatz, Dena R; Tershy, Bernie

    2015-02-01

    Invasive alien species are one of the primary threats to native biodiversity on islands worldwide. Consequently, eradicating invasive species from islands has become a mainstream conservation practice. Deciding which islands have the highest priority for eradication is of strategic importance to allocate limited resources to achieve maximum conservation benefit. Previous island prioritizations focused either on a narrow set of native species or on a small geographic area. We devised a prioritization approach that incorporates all threatened native terrestrial vertebrates and all invasive terrestrial vertebrates occurring on 11 U.K. overseas territories, which comprise over 2000 islands ranging from the sub-Antarctic to the tropics. Our approach includes eradication feasibility and distinguishes between the potential and realistic conservation value of an eradication, which reflects the benefit that would accrue following eradication of either all invasive species or only those species for which eradication techniques currently exist. We identified the top 25 priority islands for invasive species eradication that together would benefit extant populations of 155 native species including 45 globally threatened species. The 5 most valuable islands included the 2 World Heritage islands Gough (South Atlantic) and Henderson (South Pacific) that feature unique seabird colonies, and Anegada, Little Cayman, and Guana Island in the Caribbean that feature a unique reptile fauna. This prioritization can be rapidly repeated if new information or techniques become available, and the approach could be replicated elsewhere in the world. © 2014 Crown copyright. Conservation Biology © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  19. The skin of Commerson's dolphins (Cephalorhynchus commersonii) as a biomonitor of mercury and selenium in Subantarctic waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres-Saez, Iris; Goodall, R Natalie P; Dellabianca, Natalia A; Cappozzo, H Luis; Ribeiro Guevara, Sergio

    2015-11-01

    The skin of bycaught Commerson's dolphins was tested for mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) biomonitoring in Subantarctic environments. The correlation of levels detected in the skin with those found in internal tissues - lung, liver, kidney and muscle - was assessed to evaluate how skin represents internal Hg and Se distribution for monitoring purposes. Mercury in skin had a concentration range of 0.68-3.11 μg g(-1) dry weight (DW), while Se had a higher concentration range of 74.3-124.5 μg g(-1) DW. There was no significant correlation between selenium levels in any of the analyzed tissues. Thus, the skin selenium concentration did not reflect the tissular Se levels and did not provide information for biomonitoring. The lack of correlation is explained by the biological role of Se, provided that each tissue regulates Se levels according to physiological needs. However, the skin Hg level had significant positive correlation with the levels in internal tissues (ANOVA pdolphins for Hg biomonitoring in the waters of the Subantarctic, which is a poorly studied region regarding Hg levels, sources and processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet

    2015-01-01

    An update introduction including recent legislative changes on the Folkchurch of the Faroe Islands......An update introduction including recent legislative changes on the Folkchurch of the Faroe Islands...

  1. The seasonal cycle of mixed layer dynamics and phytoplankton biomass in the Sub-Antarctic Zone: A high-resolution glider experiment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Swart, S

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available -resolution glider data (3 hourly, 2 km horizontal resolution), from~6 months of sampling (spring through summer) in the Sub-Antarctic Zone, is used to assess 1) the different forcing mechanisms driving variability in upper ocean physics and 2) how thesemay...

  2. Biogeografía histórica de la familia Curculionidae (Coleoptera en las subregiones Subantártica y Chilena Central Historical biogeography of family Curculionidae (Coleoptera on Subantarctic and Central Chilean subregions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Posadas

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available El análisis de los patrones de distribución y la información filogenética de 71 especies de Curculionidae, distribuidas en las subregiones Subantártica y Chilena Central, aplicando los métodos biogeográficos de los árboles reconciliados y análisis de parsimonia de Brooks (BPA, resulta en un único cladograma general de áreas: ((Chile Central (Maule, Bosque Valdiviano (Islas Malvinas (Páramo Magallánico, Bosque Magallánico. La aplicación del análisis de dispersión-vicarianza (DIVA muestra que el evento vicariante más frecuente es el que separa las Islas Malvinas de las otras dos provincias subantárticas meridionales. Por otra parte, de acuerdo con los resultados del DIVA, se evidencia que las relaciones entre el Maule, Bosque Valdiviano y Chile Central no se deberían a eventos de vicarianza sino a eventos de dispersión, ya que el 61% del total de los eventos de dispersión implica a estas tres áreas. Aún más, los eventos de dispersión más frecuentes implican al Maule, ya sea en relación con Chile Central o con el Bosque Valdiviano, por lo que se deduce que la aparente complejidad de las relaciones biogeográficas del Maule podría estar relacionada con dichos eventos de dispersión.The application of the historical biogeographic techniques of reconciled trees and Brooks parsimony analysis (BPA to the distributional and phylogenetic information of 71 species of Curculionidae ranged in the Subantarctic and Central Chilean subregions results in a single general area cladogram: ((Central Chile (Maule, Valdivian Forest (Malvinas Islands (Magellanic Moorland, Magellanic Forest. The application of dispersal-vicariance analysis (DIVA to the same data set shows as the most frequent vicariant event the split of Islas Malvinas from the two southern Subantarctic provinces. In addition, DIVA results evidenced that the relationship among Maule, Valdivian Forest, and Central Chile did not arise from vicariance events (common history

  3. Climate change leads to increasing population density and impacts of a key island invader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Gregory T W; Altwegg, Res; van Aarde, Rudi J; Ferreira, Sam; Burger, Alan E; Chown, Steven L

    2017-10-20

    The considerable threats of invasive rodents to island biodiversity are likely to be compounded by climate change. Forecasts for such interactions have been most pronounced for the Southern Ocean islands where ameliorating conditions are expected to decrease thermal and resource restrictions on rodents. Firm evidence for changing rodent populations in response to climate change, and demonstrations of associated impacts on the terrestrial environment, are nonetheless entirely absent for the region. Using data collected over three decades on sub-Antarctic Marion Island, we tested empirically whether mouse populations have changed through time and whether these changes can be associated significantly with changing abiotic conditions. Changes in invertebrate populations, which have previously been attributed to mouse predation, but with little explicit demographic analysis, were also examined to determine whether they can be associated with changing mouse populations. The total number of mice on the island at annual peak density increased by 530.0% between 1979-80 and 2008-11. This increase was due to an advanced breeding season, which was robustly related to the number of precipitation-free days during the non-breeding season. Mice directly reduced invertebrate densities, with biomass losses of up to two orders of magnitude in some habitats. Such invertebrate declines are expected to have significant consequences for ecosystem processes over the long term. Our results demonstrate that as climate change continues to create ameliorating conditions for invasive rodents on sub-Antarctic islands, the severity of their impacts will increase. They also emphasize the importance of rodent eradication for the restoration of invaded islands. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Contrasting nurse plants and nurse rocks: The spatial distribution of seedlings of two sub-Antarctic species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haussmann, N. S.; McGeoch, M. A.; Boelhouwers, J. C.

    2010-05-01

    Positive plant interactions, such as those associated with nurse plants, have been suggested to dominate over negative interactions in environments with high abiotic stress. Here we demonstrate that the sub-Antarctic cushion plant species, Azorella selago (Apiaceae), positively affects the distribution of both its own seedlings and those of the perennial grass, Agrostis magellanica (Poaceae). As a result of the light weight and small size of seeds of both species, coupled with strong winds experienced in the study area, we consider it unlikely that these patterns are the result of very localized seed dispersal from the study cushions themselves. Instead, we suggest that both cushions and rocks act as seed traps, trapping seeds dispersed by wind, runoff and/or downslope sediment transport through frost creep. In addition, increased A. selago seedling numbers around cushions, but not around rocks, suggest that cushions provide a biological nurse effect, such as improving soil nutrient status or providing mychorrizae, to seedlings of their own kind.

  5. The influence of iron and light on net community production in the Subantarctic and Polar Frontal Zones

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    N. Cassar

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The roles of iron and light in controlling biomass and primary productivity are clearly established in the Southern Ocean. However, their influence on net community production (NCP and carbon export remains to be quantified. To improve our understanding of NCP and carbon export production in the Subantarctic Zone (SAZ and the northern reaches of the Polar Frontal Zone (PFZ, we conducted continuous onboard determinations of NCP as part of the Sub-Antarctic Sensitivity to Environmental Change (SAZ-Sense study, which occurred in January–February 2007. Biological O2 supersaturation was derived from measuring O2/Ar ratios by equilibrator inlet mass spectrometry. Based on these continuous measurements, NCP during the austral summer 2007 in the Australian SAZ was approximately 43 mmol O2 m−2 d−1. NCP showed significant spatial variability, with larger values near the Subtropical front, and a general southward decrease. For shallower mixed layers (<50 m, dissolved Fe concentrations and Fe sufficiency, estimated from variable fluorescence, correlated strongly with NCP. The strong correlation between NCP and dissolved Fe may be difficult to interpret because of the correlation of dissolved Fe to MLD and because the concentration of iron may not be a good indicator of its availability. At stations with deeper mixed layers, NCP was consistently low, regardless of iron sufficiency, consistent with light availability also being an important control of NCP. Our new observations provide independent evidence for the critical roles of iron and light in mediating carbon export from the Southern Ocean mixed layer.

  6. Biological physical interactions and pelagic productivity at the Prince Edward Islands, Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perissinotto, R.; Lutjeharms, J. R. E.; van Ballegooyen, R. C.

    2000-03-01

    The Prince Edward Islands lie in the subantarctic zone of the Southern Ocean, just north of the Antarctic Polar Front (APF). Recent investigations have shown enhanced primary productivity in its immediate environment due to an island effect. An extensive cruise, covering ≈10 5 km 2 around the island group was carried out to study this supposed island effect in a wider setting. We report here on the biological productivity relative to the physico-chemical environment during the period 7-19 April 1989. Overall, the chlorophyll- a (chl- a) values as well as primary productivity were substantially lower on this occasion than those observed previously. The distribution of terrigenous urea and ammonia clearly demarcated the geographical limits of the immediate island effect, which did not extend further than 80 km off-shore. The hydrography exhibited strong flow past the islands and a distinct wake downstream of the archipelago. Vortices associated with this wake showed some degree of spatial covariance with the distribution of chl- a. No region of enhanced primary productivity was observed between the islands, a conspicuous feature observed during previous cruises to the area.

  7. Pacific Island Polygons, Pacific Islands, NAVTEQ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NAVTEQ Islands for the United States. The Islands layer contains all islands within a NAVSTREETS coverage area. An island is represented as a polygonal feature. The...

  8. The biodiversity and species composition of the spider community of Marion Island, a recent survey (Arachnida: Araneae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.T. Khoza

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Marion Island, the larger of the Prince Edward Islands, lies in the sub-Antarctic biogeographic region in the southern Indian Ocean. From previous surveys, four spider species are known from Marion. The last survey was undertaken in 1968. During this study a survey was undertaken over a period of four weeks on the island to determine the present spider diversity and to record information about the habitat preferences and general behaviour of the species present. Three collection methods (active search, Tullgren funnels and pitfall traps were used, and spiders were sampled from six habitat sites. A total of 430 spiders represented by four families were collected, Myro kerguelenesis crozetensis Enderlein, 1909 and M. paucispinosus Berland, 1947 (Desidae, Prinerigone vagans (Audouin, 1826 (Linyphiidae, Cheiracanthium furculatum Karsch, 1879 (Miturgidae and an immature Salticidae. The miturgid and salticid are first records. Neomaso antarticus (Hickman, 1939 (Linyphiidae was absent from samples, confirming that the species might have been an erroneous record.

  9. The hydrography and dynamics of the ocean environment of the Prince Edward Islands (Southern Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansorge, I. J.; Lutjeharms, J. R. E.

    2002-11-01

    The Prince Edward Islands lie in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean at 47°S and 38°E. They lie in the path of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), between the Subantarctic Front (SAF) to the north and the Antarctic Polar Front (APF) to the south. Two extensive hydrographic surveys (MOES 2 and MIOS 2) have been carried out to establish for the first time the mesoscale hydrography and dynamics of the oceanic surroundings of these islands. During the MOES 2, the SAF was deflected northward around the islands, while the APF lay south of the survey grid and south of the islands. Water masses in the region changed gradually from Subantarctic Surface Water (SASW) to Antarctic Surface Water (AASW) on crossing the Polar Frontal Zone (PFZ). Downstream of the islands, a wake, resulting in the generation of broad meanders, was formed. As a consequence, water masses, in particular warm SASW, were displaced from north of the SAF across the PFZ, while cooler waters, which have been modified in the transitional band of the PFZ, were displaced northwards. In contrast, during MIOS 2, the surface expression of the SAF formed an intensive frontal band. On approaching the islands, the SAF split into two branches, with a branch deflected northwards around the islands, while a second branch meandered southward. In the downstream region, an intense cold eddy consisting of AASW was observed within the PFZ, displacing the SAF northwards. South of this eddy, a warm patch of SASW water was encountered, its position possibly controlled by the meandering SAF. Evidence from both these surveys demonstrates that the ACC exhibits high degrees of mesoscale variability in the vicinity of the Prince Edward Islands. The displacement of the SAF in both instances was apparent, resulting in the advection or the entrapment of neighbouring water masses into and across the PFZ. The speed of the incident current on approaching the islands may play a role in the degree of mesoscale mixing downstream

  10. Biogeography of Crustacea and Mollusca of the Subantarctic and Antarctic regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Brandt

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The Joint Magellan Victor Hensen Campaign in 1994 focused on the biogeographic relationships of the Antarctic and Magellan fauna. The Peracarida and Mollusca sampled at 18 stations in the Beagle Channel by means of an epibenthic sledge were compared with the knowledge about the distribution of species data from the Falkland Islands, South Georgia, Antarctica and the Kerguelen. Peracarida were an important fraction of the macrobenthos and sampled in high numbers. About 105,000 individuals were collected with the epibenthic sledge. Until now about 40 species of Amphipoda, about 42 species of Isopoda, 24 species of Cumacea, eight species of Mysidacea, and 16 species of Tanaidacea were found. 118 mollusc taxa were identified, nine species of Aplacophora, 52 of Gastropoda, five of Scaphopoda and 52 of Bivalvia. Although the species present different distribution trends, the zoogeographic comparison for six larger taxa (four Mollusca and two Peracarida showed that the species similarities decreased from the Magellan region towards the Falkland Islands and from South Georgia to Antarctica. The Magellanic Gastropoda showed similarities with the fauna of the Falkland Islands and South Georgia (31-37 %, whereas the Bivalvia were more similar to the Antarctic fauna (29 %. With regard to Crustacea, 10% of Antarctic Isopoda species were also found in the Magellan region; the Weddell Sea and East Antarctica, and South Georgia and the Antarctic Peninsula shared most species of both Cumacea and Isopoda, whereas the lowest similarities were shown between Bellingshausen and Weddell Sea for the Isopoda, and interestingly between the Magellan region and South Georgia for the Cumacea. The highest degree of endemism of the Isopoda and Cumacea was found in the Magellan region, where as a consequence of the opening of the Drake Passage many new species seem to have evolved in these taxa.

  11. The effects of body size and climate on post-weaning survival of elephant seals at Heard Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Clive R; New, Leslie; Fairley, E.J.; Hindell, M.A.; Burton, H.R.

    2015-01-01

    The population size of southern elephant seals in the southern Indian and Pacific Oceans decreased precipitously between the 1950s and 1990s. To investigate the reasons behind this, we studied the population of southern elephant seals at Heard Island between 1949 and 1954, using data collected by the early Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions. Seals were marked and measured (lengths) as weaned pups, and resighted at Heard and Marion islands and in the Vestfold Hills, Antarctica in subsequent years. Bayesian state-space mark-recapture models were used to determine post-weaning survival. Yearling survival was consistently lower (ϕy: 0.28–0.40) than sub-adult survival (ϕs: 0.79–0.83). We found evidence for constant sub-adult survival and time-dependent resight probabilities. Weaning length was an important determinate of yearling survival, with the probability of survival increasing with individual length. There was some suggestion that the Southern Annular Mode influenced yearling survival but this evidence was not strong. Nonetheless, our results provide further support showing that size at independence affects yearling survival. Given the known sensitivity of southern elephant seal populations to survival early in life, it is possible that the decline in population size at Heard Island between the 1950s and 1990s like that at Macquarie Island was due to low yearling survival mediated through maternal ability to produce large pups and the dominant environmental conditions mothers experience during pregnancy.

  12. [History of Polish botanical and mycological researches on sheets of land of Antarctic and Sub-Antarctic in the years 1977-2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Piotr; Olech, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The work includes a description of the period from the moment of setting up Polish Polar Station on King George Island (1977) to the end of International Polar Year IV in 2009. Researches on flower plants focused, among others, on plants' morphology, morphological composition of the pollen and anatomical ultra-structure of the leaves. There were also carried out biochemical and other searches for the internal mutability. Within physiological studies one concentrated on the problem of reaction to temperature stress. Biological researches focused mainly on solving taxonomic and bio-geographic problems. Finally, were published several monographs and, among others, the first in history complete description of moss' flora of the whole of Antarctic (2008). Research works over algae included also such issues as floristics, bio-geography, taxonomy and ecology (for instance, the rookery's impact on distribution of algae, or the influence of inanimate factors on dynamics of condensing the Diatoma in different water and soil-bound tanks). Up till now, within mycological investigations has been identified a variety of lichen fungi that for the most part of Antarctic are a novelty. There were scientifically described new for science genera and species of Western Antarctic. Lichenological studies were made in the field of taxonomy, geography, lichenometry, biochemistry of lichens, lichenoindication, ecophysiology and from the point of analysis of base metals' content. There were also described new for science species. Since 1991, were published the results of searches for the base metals' content and vestigial chemical elements in lichens' thallus. Ecophysiological researches concerned both micro-climatic conditions' impact on primary production and lichens' adaptation to a very cold climate. One discovered a mechanism of two-phase hydratization/dehydratization of lichens' thallus. On the ground of palaeobotanical analyzes was reconstructed a development of flora in Western

  13. Massive salp outbreaks in the inner sea of Chiloé Island (Southern Chile: possible causes and ecological consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Giesecke

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available During 2010 several massive salp outbreaks of the Subantarctic species Ihlea magalhanica were recorded in the inner sea of Chiloé Island (ISCh, Southern Chile, affecting both phytoplankton abundance and salmon farmers by causing high fish mortality. First outbreaks were recorded during February 2010 when Ihlea magalhanica reached up to 654,000 ind m-3 close to the net pens in Maillen Island and consecutive outbreaks could be followed during March and from October to November 2010. One month prior to the first recorded salp outbreak, the adjacent oceanic region and ISCh showed a sharp decline of ca. 1.0°C in sea surface temperature and an atypical pattern of oceanic sea surface currents, changing from a predominantly meridional (northward to a zonal (eastward direction, probably causing a massive Subantarctic Water parcel to enter the ISCh. During the outbreaks, surface chlorophyll concentration decreased from an historical mean of 13.8 to less than 4 mg Chl-a m-3, and did not return to normal conditions throughout the entire year, and similar results were also observed in phytoplankton abundance. The abundance of salp aggregations were highest close to the salmon net pens, which acted as physical barriers, and may have favored the successful reproduction and persistence of the outbreaks during 2010. The possible impact of these outbreaks on phytoplankton quality and quantity, as well as potential scenarios for the development of further outbreaks is discussed.

  14. Sea-level pressure variability around Antarctica since A.D. 1750 inferred from subantarctic tree-ring records

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villalba, R. [Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States). Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory]|[Departamento de Dendrocronologia e Historia Ambientol, IANIGLA, CONICET, C.C. 330, 5500 Mena (Argentina); Cook, E.R.; D`Arrigo, R.D.; Jacoby, G.C. [Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States). Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory; Jones, P.D. [Climatic Research Unit, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Salinger, M.J. [National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, P O Box 109-695, New market, Auckland (New Zealand); Palmer, J. [Department of Plant Science, Lincoln University, P O Box 84, Canterbury (New Zealand)

    1997-07-01

    A tree-ring chronology network recently developed from the subantarctic forests provides an opportunity to study long-term climatic variability at higher latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere. Fifty long (1911-1985), homogeneous records of monthly mean sea-level pressure (MSLP) from the southern latitudes (15-65 S) were intercorrelated on a seasonal basis to establish the most consistent, long-term transpolar teleconnections during this century. Variations in summer MSLP between the South America-Antarctic Peninsula and the New Zealand sectors of the Southern Ocean are significantly correlated in a negative sense (r=-0.53, P<0.001). Climatically sensitive chronologies from Tierra del Fuego (54-55 ) and New Zealand (39-47 ) were used to develop verifiable reconstructions of summer (November to February) MSLP for both sectors of the Southern Ocean. These reconstructions, which explain between 37 and 43% of the instrumentally recorded pressure variance, indicate that inverse trends in MSLP from diametrically opposite sides of Antarctica have prevailed during the past two centuries. However, the strength of this relationship varies over time. Differences in normalized MSLP between the New Zealand and the South America-Antarctic Peninsula sectors were used to develop a summer transpolar index (STPI), which represents an index of sea-level pressure wavenumber one in the Southern Hemisphere higher latitudes. Tree-ring based reconstructions of STPI show significant differences in large-scale atmospheric circulation between the nineteenth and the twentieth centuries. (orig.). With 18 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Response of phytoplankton photophysiology to varying environmental conditions in the Sub-Antarctic and Polar Frontal Zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wee Cheah

    Full Text Available Climate-driven changes are expected to alter the hydrography of the Sub-Antarctic Zone (SAZ and Polar Frontal Zone (PFZ south of Australia, in which distinct regional environments are believed to be responsible for the differences in phytoplankton biomass in these regions. Here, we report how the dynamic influences of light, iron and temperature, which are responsible for the photophysiological differences between phytoplankton in the SAZ and PFZ, contribute to the biomass differences in these regions. High effective photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (F'(q/F'(m0.4, maximum photosynthesis rate (P(B(max, light-saturation intensity (E(k, maximum rate of photosynthetic electron transport (1/[Symbol: see text]PSII, and low photoprotective pigment concentrations observed in the SAZ correspond to high chlorophyll a and iron concentrations. In contrast, phytoplankton in the PFZ exhibits low F'(q/F'(M (~ 0.2 and high concentrations of photoprotective pigments under low light environment. Strong negative relationships between iron, temperature, and photoprotective pigments demonstrate that cells were producing more photoprotective pigments under low temperature and iron conditions, and are responsible for the low biomass and low productivity measured in the PFZ. As warming and enhanced iron input is expected in this region, this could probably increase phytoplankton photosynthesis in this region. However, complex interactions between the biogeochemical processes (e.g. stratification caused by warming could prevent mixing of nutrients, which control phytoplankton biomass and productivity, remain uncertain.

  16. Ventilation of the abyssal Southern Ocean during the late Neogene: A new perspective from the subantarctic Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Lindsey M.; Hendy, Ingrid L.; Moore, Theodore C.; Lyle, Mitchell W.

    2009-09-01

    Benthic foraminiferal stable carbon isotope records from the South Atlantic show significant declines toward more "Pacific-like" values at ˜7 and ˜2.7 Ma, and it has been posited that these shifts may mark steps toward increased CO2 sequestration in the deep Southern Ocean as climate cooled over the late Neogene. We generated new stable isotope records from abyssal subantarctic Pacific cores MV0502-4JC and ELT 25-11. The record from MV0502-4JC suggests that the Southern Ocean remained well mixed and free of vertical or interbasinal δ13C gradients following the late Miocene carbon shift (LMCS). According to the records from MV0502-4JC and ELT 25-11, however, cold, low δ13C bottom waters developed in the Southern Ocean in the late Pliocene and persisted until ˜1.7 Ma. These new data suggest that while conditions in the abyssal Southern Ocean following the LMCS were comparable to the present day, sequestration of respired CO2 may have increased in the deepest parts of the Southern Ocean during the late Pliocene, a critical period for the growth and establishment of the Northern Hemisphere ice sheets.

  17. Temporal variability in the physico-biological environment of the Prince Edward Islands (Southern Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhomov, E. A.; Froneman, P. W.; Ansorge, I. J.; Lutjeharms, J. R. E.

    2000-09-01

    Oceanographic environment, chlorophyll- a (chl-a), plankton composition and spatial dynamics were investigated during two large-scale surveys conducted in April/May 1989 and 1997 within the Antarctic Polar Front Zone (APFZ) around the Prince Edward Islands. On both occasions, substantial disturbances in the flow pattern of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) were demonstrated particularly downstream of the islands. In this region, enhanced cross frontal and zonal mixing were generated by the intrusion of foreign water masses from outside the APFZ. This may have been promoted by the differences in the flow intensity of the ACC in the vicinity of the islands which is affected by the Subantarctic Front (SAF) location near the island plateau. Distribution of chl-a was generally uniform throughout both surveys with values ranging from 0.1 to 0.2 and from 0.2 to 0.3 mg m -3 during 1989 and 1997, respectively. Although a single phytoplankon community was identified during both surveys, quantitative distribution of the surface phytoplankton showed a good consistency with spatial patterns of water masses. Community structure and distribution of meso- and macrozooplankton/micronekton confirmed that extensive cross-frontal mixing occurred in the downstream region of the islands. While no substantial differences between the inter-island and offshore assemblages of mesozooplankton were found, a distinct inter-island macroplankton community was identified. Zooplankton community structure clearly indicated the intrusion of subtropical species into the region during the 1997 survey. The extent of modifications in the APFZ planktonic realms in the vicinity of the Prince Edward Islands may be influenced by the effect of the flow regime, in particular by the speed at which the incident current, the ACC, approaches and interacts with the island group.

  18. Island biogeography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whittaker, Robert James; Fernández-Palacios, José María; Matthews, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    older to younger land masses, and syndromes including loss of dispersability and secondary woodiness in herbaceous plant lineages. Further developments in Earth system science, molecular biology, and trait data for islands hold continued promise for unlocking many of the unresolved questions...

  19. Air-sea interaction regimes in the sub-Antarctic Southern Ocean and Antarctic marginal ice zone revealed by icebreaker measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lisan; Jin, Xiangze; Schulz, Eric W.; Josey, Simon A.

    2017-08-01

    This study analyzed shipboard air-sea measurements acquired by the icebreaker Aurora Australis during its off-winter operation in December 2010 to May 2012. Mean conditions over 7 months (October-April) were compiled from a total of 22 ship tracks. The icebreaker traversed the water between Hobart, Tasmania, and the Antarctic continent, providing valuable in situ insight into two dynamically important, yet poorly sampled, regimes: the sub-Antarctic Southern Ocean and the Antarctic marginal ice zone (MIZ) in the Indian Ocean sector. The transition from the open water to the ice-covered surface creates sharp changes in albedo, surface roughness, and air temperature, leading to consequential effects on air-sea variables and fluxes. Major effort was made to estimate the air-sea fluxes in the MIZ using the bulk flux algorithms that are tuned specifically for the sea-ice effects, while computing the fluxes over the sub-Antarctic section using the COARE3.0 algorithm. The study evidenced strong sea-ice modulations on winds, with the southerly airflow showing deceleration (convergence) in the MIZ and acceleration (divergence) when moving away from the MIZ. Marked seasonal variations in heat exchanges between the atmosphere and the ice margin were noted. The monotonic increase in turbulent latent and sensible heat fluxes after summer turned the MIZ quickly into a heat loss regime, while at the same time the sub-Antarctic surface water continued to receive heat from the atmosphere. The drastic increase in turbulent heat loss in the MIZ contrasted sharply to the nonsignificant and seasonally invariant turbulent heat loss over the sub-Antarctic open water.Plain Language SummaryThe icebreaker Aurora Australis is a research and supply vessel that is regularly chartered by the Australian Antarctic Division during the southern summer to operate in waters between Hobart, Tasmania, and Antarctica. The vessel serves as the main lifeline to three permanent research stations on the

  20. Investigating the turbulence response of a 1-D idealized water column located in the sub-Antarctic zone with focus on the upper ocean dynamics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Boodhraj, Kirodh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available discussed. 40 41 Data and Method 42 This study focussed on the sub-Antarctic zone of the 43 Southern Ocean region off the coast of South Africa (47ºS 44 4.5ºE), chosen due to the availability of in situ glider data. 45 A configuration (named SAZ1D... 107 of glider data (Swart et al. 2015) obtained from the region. 108 The winter deep mixing penetrates down to 150 𝑚 (above 109 the permanent pycnocline) while during the summer 110 stratification, high temperatures penetrate down to 100 𝑚. 111...

  1. Egg masses of the Patagonian squid Doryteuthis (Amerigo gahi attached to giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera in the sub-Antarctic ecoregion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Rosenfeld

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Egg masses of the Patagonian squid Doryteuthis (Amerigo gahi attached to giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera in the Magellanic channels of the sub-Antarctic ecoregion in southern South America is documented for the first time. Of seven egg masses observed between 2008 and 2011, one was taken to the laboratory to be analysed and photographed. Comprising long transparent capsules containing eggs, the masses were strongly attached to the stipes of M. pyrifera. This macroalgae is a potentially important economic resource due to its multiple industrial uses; this study shows that it also serves an important ecological role as a spawning substrate for D. gahi.

  2. Biogeochemical flux and phytoplankton succession: A year-long sediment trap record in the Australian sector of the Subantarctic Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Jessica V.; Rigual-Hernández, Andrés S.; Trull, Thomas W.; Bray, Stephen G.; Flores, José-Abel; Armand, Leanne K.

    2017-03-01

    The Subantarctic Zone (SAZ) plays a crucial role in global carbon cycling as a significant sink for atmospheric CO2. In the Australian sector, the SAZ exports large quantities of organic carbon from the surface ocean, despite lower algal biomass accumulation in surface waters than other Southern Ocean sectors. We present the first analysis of diatom and coccolithophore assemblages and seasonality, as well as the first annual quantification of bulk organic components of captured material at the base of the mixed layer (500 m depth) in the SAZ. Sediment traps were moored in the SAZ southwest of Tasmania as part of the long-term SAZ Project for one year (September 2003 to September 2004). Annual mass flux at 500 m and 2000 m was composed mainly of calcium carbonate, while biogenic silica made up on average <10% of material captured in the traps. Organic carbon flux was estimated at 1.1 g m-2 y-1 at 500 m, close to the estimated global mean carbon flux. Low diatom fluxes and high fluxes of coccoliths were consistent with low biogenic silica and high calcium carbonate fluxes, respectively. Diatoms and coccoliths were identified to species level. Diatom and coccolithophore sinking assemblages reflected some seasonal ecological succession. A theoretical scheme of diatom succession in live assemblages is compared to successional patterns presented in sediment traps. This study provides a unique, direct measurement of the biogeochemical fluxes and their main biological carbon vectors just below the winter mixed layer depth at which effective sequestration of carbon occurs. Comparison of these results with previous sediment trap deployments at the same site at deeper depths (i.e. 1000, 2000 and 3800 m) documents the changes particle fluxes experience in the lower ;twilight zone; where biological processes and remineralisation of carbon reduce the efficiency of carbon sequestration.

  3. Thermal preference and performance in a sub-Antarctic caterpillar: A test of the coadaptation hypothesis and its alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, Tanya M; Sinclair, Brent J; Chown, Steven L

    2017-04-01

    Physiological ecologists have long assumed that thermoregulatory behaviour will evolve to optimise physiological performance. The coadaptation hypothesis predicts that an animal's preferred body temperature will correspond to the temperature at which its performance is optimal. Here we use a strong inference approach to examine the relationship between thermal preference and locomotor performance in the caterpillars of a wingless sub-Antarctic moth, Pringleophaga marioni Viette (Tineidae). The coadaptation hypothesis and its alternatives (suboptimal is optimal, thermodynamic effect, trait variation) are tested. Compared to the optimal movement temperature (22.5°C for field-fresh caterpillars and 25, 20, 22.5, 25 and 20°C following seven day acclimations to 0, 5, 10, 15 and 5-15°C respectively), caterpillar thermal preference was significantly lower (9.2°C for field-fresh individuals and 9.4, 8.8, 8.1, 5.2 and 4.6°C following acclimation to 0, 5, 10, 15 and 5-15°C, respectively). Together with the low degree of asymmetry observed in the performance curves, and the finding that acclimation to high temperatures did not result in maximal performance, all, but one of the above hypotheses (i.e. 'trait variation') was rejected. The thermal preference of P. marioni caterpillars more closely resembles temperatures at which survival is high (5-10°C), or where feeding is optimal (10°C), than where locomotion speed is maximal, suggesting that thermal preference may be optimised for overall fitness rather than for a given trait. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Island Lives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Heinz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2010-2011, the Vancouver Island Transgender Needs Assessment, a community-based, applied research project, sought to identify the health and social needs of trans people on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. An advisory board consisting of trans-identified community members and trans-service providers guided this descriptive analysis. A total of 54 individuals identifying as transgender participated in a survey modeled after the TransPULSE Ontario instrument. Of the participants, 43% identified on the transmasculine spectrum, 39% on the transfeminine spectrum, and 18% as transgender/genderqueer only. Participants were surveyed in regard to education, employment, and income; housing; health care needs and services; suicidality; violence; life satisfaction and attitudes toward self; posttransition experiences; and community belonging. They reported health care, social support, and public education/acceptance as top needs. The article concludes with a specific needs profile and a community-generated set of recommendations stressing the need for an island-based information and resourcing center.

  5. Nutritional Immunity Triggers the Modulation of Iron Metabolism Genes in the Sub-Antarctic Notothenioid Eleginops maclovinus in Response to Piscirickettsia salmonis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danixa Martínez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Iron deprivation is a nutritional immunity mechanism through which fish can limit the amount of iron available to invading bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the modulation of iron metabolism genes in the liver and brain of sub-Antarctic notothenioid Eleginops maclovinus challenged with Piscirickettsia salmonis. The specimens were inoculated with two P. salmonis strains: LF-89 (ATCC® VR-1361™ and Austral-005 (antibiotic resistant. Hepatic and brain samples were collected at intervals over a period of 35 days. Gene expression (by RT-qPCR of proteins involved in iron storage, transport, and binding were statistically modulated in infected fish when compared with control counterparts. Specifically, the expression profiles of the transferrin and hemopexin genes in the liver, as well as the expression profiles of ferritin-M, ferritin-L, and transferrin in the brain, were similar for both experimental groups. Nevertheless, the remaining genes such as ferritin-H, ceruloplasmin, hepcidin, and haptoglobin presented tissue-specific expression profiles that varied in relation to the injected bacterial strain and sampling time-point. These results suggest that nutritional immunity could be an important immune defense mechanism for E. maclovinus against P. salmonis injection. This study provides relevant information for understanding iron metabolism of a sub-Antarctic notothenioid fish.

  6. The Prince Edward Islands pelagic ecosystem, south Indian Ocean: a review of achievements, 1976 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhomov, E. A.; Froneman, P. W.

    1999-01-01

    This review summarizes the main research findings of the multi-year oceanographic and biological studies conducted in the vicinity of the Prince Edward Archipelago during the period 1976 to 1990. The Prince Edward Islands represent a flow-through system on the mainstream of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Although there are no taxonomic differences between the pelagic communities of the upstream, inter-island and downstream regions, these mesoscale subsystems may operate differently. The mesoscale oceanographic and biological processes appear to be affected by the position of the Subantarctic Front (SAF) in the vicinity of the islands. Both the rich benthic community, which is supported by the local enhancement of primary production, and the strong advection of zooplankton/micronekton from the upstream region provide the food resources necessary for the survival of the huge community of land-based predators present on the islands. Collectively this is termed the `life-support system'. Future studies should concentrate on the meridional shifts in the position of the SAF and its influence on background productivity upstream and downstream of the Prince Edward Archipelago.

  7. Diel feeding patterns and daily ration estimates of three subantarctic euphausiids in the vicinity of the Prince Edward Islands (Southern Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, L. J.; Froneman, P. W.; Pakhomov, E. A.; McQuaid, C. D.

    The feeding biology of three euphausiid species, Euphausia vallentini (adults and juveniles), Euphausia longirostris, and Nematoscelis megalops, was investigated in the vicinity of the Prince Edward Archipelago during austral autumn (April/May) of 1998 and 1999, using the gut fluorescence and gut fullness techniques, to assess diel feeding patterns and estimate daily rations. The results showed clear diel feeding patterns for both E. vallentini adults and juveniles. High feeding activity occurred during dark hours in E. longirostris, while N. megalops did not show distinct diel feeding pattern. E. longirostris had the highest gut pigment levels, averaging 15.2 and 57.1 ng pigm ind -1 in 1998 and 1999, respectively. A similar pattern was observed for E. vallentini: 3.2 versus 6.5 ng pigm ind -1 in juveniles and 4.4 versus 21.9 ng pigm ind -1 in adults. Low average gut pigment levels were found for N. megalops during both years (range 2.0-4.5 ng pigm ind -1). Gut evacuation rates varied between 0.45 and 0.99 h -1 for E. vallentini adults, 0.47 and 1.36 h -1 for E. vallentini juveniles, 0.41 and 1.08 h -1 for N. megalops. A single measurement of 0.94 h -1 was made for E. longirostris. Ingestion rates for E. vallentini ranged from 0.24 to 1.82 μg pigm ind -1 d -1 for adults and from 0.98 to 1.92 μg pigm ind -1 d -1 for juveniles. The highest individual ingestion rates were found for E. longirostris (between 1.24 and 3.65 μg pigm ind -1 d -1), and the lowest for N. megalops (0.23 μg pigm ind -1 d -1). These ingestion rates were combined with data from the gut fullness technique to estimate the contribution of herbivory to the total daily carbon uptake.

  8. Island Formation: Constructing a Coral Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Heather; Edd, Amelia

    2009-01-01

    The process of coral island formation is often difficult for middle school students to comprehend. Coral island formation is a dynamic process, and students should have the opportunity to experience this process in a synergistic context. The authors provide instructional guidelines for constructing a coral island. Students play an interactive role…

  9. Extensive lake sediment coring survey on Sub-Antarctic Indian Ocean Kerguelen Archipelago (French Austral and Antarctic Lands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Fabien; Fanget, Bernard; Malet, Emmanuel; Poulenard, Jérôme; Støren, Eivind; Leloup, Anouk; Bakke, Jostein; Sabatier, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Recent paleo-studies revealed climatic southern high latitude climate evolution patterns that are crucial to understand the global climate evolution(1,2). Among others the strength and north-south shifts of westerlies wind appeared to be a key parameter(3). However, virtually no lands are located south of the 45th South parallel between Southern Georgia (60°W) and New Zealand (170°E) precluding the establishment of paleoclimate records of past westerlies dynamics. Located around 50°S and 70°E, lost in the middle of the sub-Antarctic Indian Ocean, Kerguelen archipelago is a major, geomorphologically complex, land-mass that is covered by hundreds lakes of various sizes. It hence offers a unique opportunity to reconstruct past climate and environment dynamics in a region where virtually nothing is known about it, except the remarkable recent reconstructions based on a Lateglacial peatbog sequence(4). During the 2014-2015 austral summer, a French-Norwegian team led the very first extensive lake sediment coring survey on Kerguelen Archipelago under the umbrella of the PALAS program supported by the French Polar Institute (IPEV). Two main areas were investigated: i) the southwest of the mainland, so-called Golfe du Morbihan, where glaciers are currently absent and ii) the northernmost Kerguelen mainland peninsula so-called Loranchet, where cirque glaciers are still present. This double-target strategy aims at reconstructing various independent indirect records of precipitation (glacier advance, flood dynamics) and wind speed (marine spray chemical species, wind-borne terrigenous input) to tackle the Holocene climate variability. Despite particularly harsh climate conditions and difficult logistics matters, we were able to core 6 lake sediment sites: 5 in Golfe du Morbihan and one in Loranchet peninsula. Among them two sequences taken in the 4km-long Lake Armor using a UWITEC re-entry piston coring system by 20 and 100m water-depth (6 and 7m-long, respectively). One

  10. Long-term variability of iron supply, marine export production, and sea surface temperature in the subantarctic Atlantic, implications for atmospheric CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Garcia, A.; Rosell-Mele, A.; Geibert, W.; Gersonde, R.; Masque, P.; Gaspari, V.; Barbante, C.

    2008-12-01

    Paleoclimatic reconstructions have provided a unique dataset to test the sensitivity of climate system to changes in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, the mechanisms behind glacial/interglacial (G/IG) variations in atmospheric CO2 concentrations observed in the Antarctic ice cores over the last 800 ky are still not completely understood. Here we present a multiproxy dataset of sea surface temperatures (SST), dust and iron supply, and marine export production, from the marine sediment core PS2489-2/ODP Site 1090 located in the subantarctic Atlantic (SA). This dataset allows us to evaluate various hypotheses focussing on the role of the Southern Ocean (SO) in modulating atmospheric CO2 over the last 800ky, and provides new information on SST, dust, and export production back to the Pliocene. The close correlation observed between iron inputs and marine export production in our record suggests that the process of iron fertilization has been a recurrent process operating in the SA over the G/IG cycles of the last 1.1 My. However, our data indicates that marine productivity in the present Subantarctic Zone can only explain a fraction of atmospheric CO2 changes occurring at glacial maxima in each glacial stage. Moreover, the good correlation of our SST to the EPICA Dome C records (EDC) temperature reconstruction over the last 800ka, suggest that physical processes, possibly related to changes in Antarctic sea-ice extent, surface water stratification and westerly winds position have also played an important role in modulating atmospheric CO2 over the last 800ky. On the long-term, our paleo-SST record reveals a major cooling event around 1.2-1.5 Ma that may have caused a profound impact on atmospheric CO2 and hence in the transition to a 100 kyr world during the Middle Pleistocene Climatic Transition.

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyls in freshwater salmonids from the Kerguelen Islands in the Southern Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaffal, A. [Laboratoire d' Eco-Toxicologie, EA 2069 Vignes et Vins de Champagne, Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, F51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Givaudan, N. [UMR8079, CNRS, Orsay F-91405 (France); Univ Paris-Sud, Ecologie Systematique et Evolution, Orsay F-91405 (France); Betoulle, S. [Laboratoire d' Eco-Toxicologie, EA 2069 Vignes et Vins de Champagne, Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, F51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Terreau, A. [IPEV Institut Polaire Francais, F29280 Plouzane (France); Paris-Palacios, S.; Biagianti-Risbourg, S. [Laboratoire d' Eco-Toxicologie, EA 2069 Vignes et Vins de Champagne, Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, F51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Beall, E. [ECOBIOP, UMR 1224 INRA-Universite de Pau-Pays de l' Adour F63310 St-Pee-sur-Nivelle (France); Roche, H., E-mail: helene.roche@u-psud.fr [UMR8079, CNRS, Orsay F-91405 (France); Univ Paris-Sud, Ecologie Systematique et Evolution, Orsay F-91405 (France)

    2011-05-15

    The Subantarctic Kerguelen Islands (49{sup o}S, 70{sup o}E) contain freshwater ecosystems among the most isolated in the world. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were assessed in the muscle of 48 brook trout and 38 brown trout caught during summer and spring 2006 in the rivers, lakes and ponds of Kerguelen. The sum of 29 PCBs averaged 404 and 358 ng g{sup -1} lipid, and dioxin-like PCB was 19 and 69 ng g{sup -1} lipid, in brook and brown trout, respectively. The values showed a high variability and some fish accumulated PCBs at levels similar to those of fish from impacted areas. While inter-sex differences were limited, the season and the morphotype appeared to have the most influence. Fish captured in summer had muscle PCB concentrations about three times higher than those caught in spring and the 'river' morphotype of brook trout showed the highest PCB levels. - Highlights: > First assessment of PCB contamination of biota in Kerguelen Islands, Sub-Antarctica. > PCB bioaccumulation level in trout varies from very high to undetectable. > Habitat and morphotype are the most influential factors on the variability. > Distribution pattern of PCBs in the muscle of fish is morphotype dependent. - Salmonids in hydrosystems of the Kerguelen Islands (Southern Ocean) show a high PCB bioaccumulation.

  12. Systematics and distribution of cumaceans collected during BENTAR-95 cruise around South Shetland Islands (Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Corbera

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available During the BENTART-95 cruise, 24 stations around the South Shetland Islands and Trinity Island, ranging from 45 to 649 m bottom depth, were sampled using a Macer-GIROQ sledge. Alltogether, 1236 specimens of cumaceans belonging to 25 species were captured. Four of them are new species named Cumella emergens, Procampylaspis halei, Campylaspis heterotuberculata and Leucon (Crymoleucon costatus. Distribution of cumaceans in this area is depth-dependent and the highest diversity was observed at the deeper station. A total of 68 species have been recorded from Antarctic and Subantarctic waters, the greatest part (47 species were found between 50 and 300 m depth; only 3 species inhabit below 2,500 m depth. Antarctic cumacean fauna shows a high degree of endemism at a specific level (91%, however, only one genus of 19 is endemic. By regions, the Kerguelen Islands have the highest percentage of endemic species (56%. Antarctic cumaceans do not seem to have a common origin, some species could have colonized Antarctica through Scotia Arc (as the genus Campylaspis or emerged from deep-sea while others may be radiated from Antarctica to lower latitudes (as the species of subgenus Crymoleucon.

  13. Organic matter characterization and decomposition dynamics in sub-Antarctic streams impacted by invasive beavers Caracterización de la materia orgánica y la dinámica de descomposición en arroyos subantárticos impactados por castores invasores

    OpenAIRE

    Erica Ulloa; Anderson, Christopher B.; Marcelo Ardón; Silvia Murcia; Alejandro E.J Valenzuela

    2012-01-01

    Despite being a relatively remote and well conserved area, the sub-Antarctic ecoregion faces pressing global threats from climate change, the ozone hole and introduced species. Its freshwater ecosystems are one of the least studied components of this biome, but they are known to confront a host of invasive taxa including trout and beavers. We set out to understand the basic characterization and dynamics of organic matter processing and decomposition in sub-Antarctic streams under natural fore...

  14. Classifying Pacific islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Patrick D.; Kumar, Lalit; Eliot, Ian; McLean, Roger F.

    2016-12-01

    An earth-science-based classification of islands within the Pacific Basin resulted from the preparation of a database describing the location, area, and type of 1779 islands, where island type is determined as a function of the prevailing lithology and maximum elevation of each island, with an island defined as a discrete landmass composed of a contiguous land area ≥1 ha (0.01 km2) above mean high-water level. Reefs lacking islands and short-lived (vulnerability to various disasters, coastal erosion, or ocean pollution as well as human populations, built infrastructure and natural resources.

  15. Description of Pseudingolfiella possessionis n. sp. (Crustacea, Amphipoda) from sub-Antarctic Île de La Possession, Crozet archipelago: the second freshwater amphipod known from the Antarctic biome, a human introduction of Gondwanan ancestry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smet, Willem H De

    2015-03-31

    A new species of freshwater amphipod, Pseudingolfiella possessionis n. sp. (Senticaudata, Pseudingolfiellidae), is described from the submerged moss vegetation of small brooklets at sub-Antarctic Île de La Possession, Crozet archipelago. It constitutes the second freshwater amphipod species known for the sub-Antarctic and Antarctic region, and the fourth member of the genus. The main characters distinguishing it from all congeners are: the spine on the posterior margin of the dactylus, incisor and lamina mobilis of mandible each with 5 teeth, the setation of the maxilliped, the vestigial second article of pleopod 3 in the female, the undulate and laterally notched posterolateral margin of the external ramus of uropods 1 and 2 in the male, the spinulate dorsomedian projection of the telson.

  16. Marion Island and Prince Edward Island

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    yellow-nosed albatross Thalassarche carteri breed at. Marion Island. Of the remaining species, the lesser or black-faced sheathbill Chionis minor breeds at both islands, but is not strictly a seabird. It is one of two sheathbills that to- gether constitute the family Chionidae. Sheathbills for- age within seabird, especially penguin, ...

  17. Researching Pacific island livelihoods:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund Christensen, Andreas; Mertz, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Small island literature is vast in focus and aim, and is rooted in many different disciplines. The challenge is to find common grounds for researching small islands conceptually and theoretically. The aim of this article is to comment on how to research small islands, including a discussion...... and interdisciplinary in focus and link socio-economic and ecological processes of small island societies at temporal and analytical scales....

  18. A Multiproxy Reconstruction of Holocene Southern Westerlies from the Auckland Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, J. E.; Moy, C. M.; Peteet, D. M.; Weiss, A.; Curtin, L. G.

    2015-12-01

    The strength and position of the Southern Hemisphere Westerly Wind belt plays an important role in our understanding of the global carbon cycle and glacial-interglacial climate change. We present a paleoclimate record that is primarily influenced by the strength and latitudinal position of the Southern Hemisphere Westerly Winds from a late Holocene lake sediment core and a peat core that spans the last 13,000 years, both obtained from New Zealand's subantarctic Auckland Islands (50°S, 166°E). Several proxy indicators contribute to our reconstruction. Hydrogen isotope ratios of specific organic molecules allow us to reconstruct the hydrogen isotope ratios of precipitation. Using macrofossil counts and the abundances of leaf wax biomarkers, we are able to estimate the moisture balance at our sites. Model simulations of the Westerlies and the rate and isotope ratios of precipitation allow us to interpret our proxy data as changes in the strength and position of the Westerly Winds. In our lacustrine sediment, we found that the Westerlies have been shifting southward since the Little Ice Age, consistent with modern observations of a southward shift. In the peatland sediment, we found a multi-millennial northward shift in the Westerlies during the middle Holocene. We will present further ongoing work that strengthens the chronology of Auckland Islands environmental change and integrates these results with vegetation shifts identified in pollen and macrofossil data.

  19. New findings and a new species of the genus Ammothea (Pycnogonida, Ammotheidae), with an updated identification key to all Antarctic and sub-Antarctic species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-Sánchez, E.; López-González, P. J.

    2014-03-01

    Specimens of the pycnogonid genus Ammothea collected during the Polarstern cruise XXIII/8 (23 November 2006-30 January 2007) were studied. Nine species were recognized in this collection: Ammothea bentartica, A. bicorniculata, A. carolinensis, A. clausi, A. longispina, A. minor, A. spinosa, A. striata and A. tibialis. Three of them ( A. bentartica, A. bicorniculata and A. tibialis) are reported for the second time, enlarging their known geographical and bathymetric range. In the present contribution, the observed morphological variability of all collected Ammothea species is described and discussed. For the identification and description of the material, different museum specimens were consulted. Among them, we have consulted part of the Discovery collection housed at the Natural History Museum in London. That material was initially identified by Isabella Gordon, a reputed author in the field of pycnogonid taxonomy. A new species, based on a museum specimen previously highly confused in the literature, is proposed in the present contribution as Ammothea isabellae n. sp. The new taxon is compared with its closest congeners, especially with A. longispina and A. stylirostris. Finally, we propose an updated dichotomous key to species covering all currently known Antarctic and sub-Antarctic Ammothea species.

  20. Extraction and characterization of collagen from Antarctic and Sub-Antarctic squid and its potential application in hybrid scaffolds for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Rui C G; Marques, Ana L P; Oliveira, Sara M; Diogo, Gabriela S; Pirraco, Rogério P; Moreira-Silva, Joana; Xavier, José C; Reis, Rui L; Silva, Tiago H; Mano, João F

    2017-09-01

    Collagen is the most abundant protein found in mammals and it exhibits a low immunogenicity, high biocompatibility and biodegradability when compared with others natural polymers. For this reason, it has been explored for the development of biologically instructive biomaterials with applications for tissue substitution and regeneration. Marine origin collagen has been pursued as an alternative to the more common bovine and porcine origins. This study focused on squid (Teuthoidea: Cephalopoda), particularly the Antarctic squid Kondakovia longimana and the Sub-Antarctic squid Illex argentinus as potential collagen sources. In this study, collagen has been isolated from the skins of the squids using acid-based and pepsin-based protocols, with the higher yield being obtained from I. argentinus in the presence of pepsin. The produced collagen has been characterized in terms of physicochemical properties, evidencing an amino acid profile similar to the one of calf collagen, but exhibiting a less preserved structure, with hydrolyzed portions and a lower melting temperature. Pepsin-soluble collagen isolated from I. argentinus was selected for further evaluation of biomedical potential, exploring its incorporation on poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) 3D printed scaffolds for the development of hybrid scaffolds for tissue engineering, exhibiting hierarchical features. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Silicic acid enrichment of subantarctic surface water from continental inputs along the Patagonian archipelago interior sea (41-56°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Rodrigo; Silva, Nelson; Reid, Brian; Frangopulos, Máximo

    2014-12-01

    We estimated Si∗, the surplus or deficit of orthosilicic acid (DSi) relative to nitrate available for diatom growth, in the Chilean Patagonian Archipelago Interior Sea (PAIS). Si∗ and salinity were negatively correlated in the PAIS because of the mixing of high nitrate, low DSi subantarctic surface water and high DSi, low nitrate continental freshwater runoff. Both the slope and the intercept of this relationship decreased from northern to southern Patagonia, which was likely a consequence of reduced DSi inputs from several overlapping hydrological, biological and geological drivers along this gradient. In general, lower freshwater DSi concentrations were expected below 46°S, and a lower total DSi load was expected from reduced runoff below 51°S. The north-south decreasing DSi concentration trend may be linked to dilutions from a higher proportion of runoff in latitudes with higher precipitation rates (45-53°S), the transition to more resistant granitic rocks and glacial melt-water from the Northern and Southern Patagonia Ice Fields (46-51°S) and a reduced density of volcanoes active during the Holocene (48-56°S). The intensification of a southward DSi deficit may be a forcing factor involved in the reported southward reductions in plankton biomass and a more frequent occurrence of non-diatom blooms in southern PAIS.

  2. Paradise Islands? Island States and Environmental Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverker C. Jagers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Island states have been shown to outperform continental states on a number of large-scale coordination-related outcomes, such as levels of democracy and institutional quality. The argument developed and tested in this article contends that the same kind of logic may apply to islands’ environmental performance, too. However, the empirical analysis shows mixed results. Among the 105 environmental outcomes that we analyzed, being an island only has a positive impact on 20 of them. For example, island states tend to outcompete continental states with respect to several indicators related to water quality but not in aspects related to biodiversity, protected areas, or environmental regulations. In addition, the causal factors previously suggested to make islands outperform continental states in terms of coordination have weak explanatory power in predicting islands’ environmental performance. We conclude the paper by discussing how these interesting findings can be further explored.

  3. Tanzania - Mafia Island Airport

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation design and subsequent data gathering activities will address the following key research questions: a) Has the Mafia Island Airport Upgrade Project...

  4. Back to Treasure Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriki, Atara

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the Treasure Island problem and some inquiry activities derived from the problem. Trying to find where pirates buried a treasure leads to a surprising answer, multiple solutions, and a discussion of problem solving. The Treasure Island problem is an example of an inquiry activity that can be implemented in…

  5. Effects of temperature and fertilization on the structure of total versus active bacterial communities from sub-Antarctic seawater exposed to crude oil and diesel fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Rodríguez-Blanco

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Polar environments are exposed to the risk of oil pollution. However, there is limited knowledge regarding how the variation of physicochemical factors influencing biodegradation may affect bacterial community structure. The effects of temperature (4, 10 and 20°C and organic fertilization (Inipol EAP 22 on community structure and diversity of bacteria inhabiting Kerguelen sub-Antarctic waters were studied in crude- and diesel-amended microcosms. Dynamics of total (i.e., 16S rDNA-based and metabolically active (i.e., 16S rRNA-based bacterial community structure and diversity were monitored using capillary-electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism. Results showed that total and active community structures were differently influenced by temperature and fertilization in the presence of hydrocarbons. Both fertilization and temperature induced changes in total community structure in the presence of crude oil and diesel. However, temperature showed a limited influence on active community structure, and fertilization induced changes in the presence of crude oil only. Simpson's index decreased for total bacterial communities at all temperatures in the presence of crude oil and diesel, whereas a lower reduction was observed for active bacterial populations. In the presence of fertilizer, the diversity of the whole community approached control values after seven incubation weeks; this was not observed for the active bacterial community. This study evidenced qualitative differences in total and active bacterial community structures of Kerguelen seawaters in the presence of hydrocarbons and different responses relative to variation in temperature and fertilization. These factors and hydrocarbons composition have to be taken into account to understand bacterial community dynamics after an oil spill.

  6. Euphotic zone variations in bulk and compound-specific δ13C of suspended organic matter in the Subantarctic Ocean, south of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, T.; Trull, T. W.; Griffiths, F. B.; Tilbrook, B.; Revill, A. T.

    2001-12-01

    The carbon isotopic compositions of suspended organic matter δ13CPOC collected from Subantarctic Zone surface waters south of Australia in November 1995 decrease southward from -20 to -26‰ and display strong correlations with aqueous carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]aq), consistent with previous studies. In contrast, vertical profiles through the euphotic zone (top ˜100 m) of δ13CPOC at six stations display decreases with depth of up to 2.4‰. These decreases in δ13CPOC cannot be fully explained by the small vertical variations in [CO2]aq or its 13C content. Carbon 13 analyses of several individual sterols revealed similar isotopic changes with depth, suggesting that they derive from a fundamental depth control on primary production, rather than from algal community variations or remineralization processes. Growth rate μ appears to be the most likely source of the depth variations. The relationship between μ/[CO2]aq and δ13CPOC derived from surface water samples can explain the vertical variations of δ13CPOC within the mixed layer, provided integrated mixed layer growth rates are used. Below the mixed layer, differences between the observed δ13CPOC and the growth rate model can be explained by recent shallowing in mixed layer depth and the subsequent effect on growth rates. These results suggest that δ13CPOC determinations can be used to provide some information on the recent history of mixed layer processes and that interpretation of sedimentary δ13CPOC records should include consideration of possible growth rate and mixed layer depth variations.

  7. Marion Island and Prince Edward Island

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    . Surveys were undertaken from 19 November to 13 December 1997 and from 18 to 31 December 2001. At Marion Island, eggs are laid between 23 October and 19 December, with 70% laid from 2 to 14 November (Williams 1980). The area.

  8. Hybridization and back-crossing in giant petrels (Macronectes giganteus and M. halli at Bird Island, South Georgia, and a summary of hybridization in seabirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth M Brown

    Full Text Available Hybridization in natural populations provides an opportunity to study the evolutionary processes that shape divergence and genetic isolation of species. The emergence of pre-mating barriers is often the precursor to complete reproductive isolation. However, in recently diverged species, pre-mating barriers may be incomplete, leading to hybridization between seemingly distinct taxa. Here we report results of a long-term study at Bird Island, South Georgia, of the extent of hybridization, mate fidelity, timing of breeding and breeding success in mixed and conspecific pairs of the sibling species, Macronectes halli (northern giant petrel and M. giganteus (southern giant petrel. The proportion of mixed-species pairs varied annually from 0.4-2.4% (mean of 1.5%, and showed no linear trend with time. Mean laying date in mixed-species pairs tended to be later than in northern giant petrel, and always earlier than in southern giant petrel pairs, and their breeding success (15.6% was lower than that of conspecific pairs. By comparison, mixed-species pairs at both Marion and Macquarie islands always failed before hatching. Histories of birds in mixed-species pairs at Bird Island were variable; some bred previously or subsequently with a conspecific partner, others subsequently with a different allospecific partner, and some mixed-species pairs remained together for multiple seasons. We also report the first verified back-crossing of a hybrid giant petrel with a female northern giant petrel. We discuss the potential causes and evolutionary consequences of hybridization and back-crossing in giant petrels and summarize the incidence of back-crossing in other seabird species.

  9. EARTH ISLAND PROJECT NEWS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

      The section features Earth Island's Dolphin Safe tuna . label (asking readers to look for tuna cans without the Dolphin Safe label and alert us so we can have the cans removed from store shelves...

  10. Heat Island Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat islands can be mitigated through measures like planting trees and vegetation, installing green roofs and cool roofs, and using cool pavements. The compendium describes all of these strategies and shows how communities around the country are being used

  11. Small islands adrift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petherick, Anna

    2015-07-01

    With the charismatic former president of the Maldives, Mohamed Nasheed, behind bars on a widely derided terrorism charge, Anna Petherick asks whether small island states can really make themselves heard in Paris.

  12. 78 FR 58880 - Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing... Island. DATES: This rule will be effective and enforced from 7:50 p.m. until 8:30 p.m. on October 5, 2013...

  13. A role for oxygen delivery and extracellular magnesium in limiting cold tolerance of the sub-antarctic stone crab Paralomis granulosa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Astrid C; Pörtner, Hans O; Sartoris, Franz J

    2012-01-01

    A low capacity for regulation of extracellular Mg(2+) has been proposed to exclude reptant marine decapod crustaceans from temperatures below 0°C and thus to exclude them from the high Antarctic. To test this hypothesis and to elaborate the underlying mechanisms in the most cold-tolerant reptant decapod family of the sub-Antarctic, the Lithodidae, thermal tolerance was determined in the crab Paralomis granulosa (Decapoda, Anomura, Lithodidae) using an acute stepwise temperature protocol (-1°, 1°, 4°, 7°, 10°, and 13°C). Arterial and venous oxygen partial pressures (Po(2)) in hemolymph, heartbeat and ventilation beat frequencies, and hemolymph cation composition were measured at rest and after a forced activity (righting) trial. Scopes for heartbeat and ventilation beat frequencies and intermittent heartbeat and scaphognathite beat rates at rest were evaluated. Hemolymph [Mg(2+)] was experimentally reduced from 30 mmol L(-1) to a level naturally observed in Antarctic caridean shrimps (12 mmol L(-1)) to investigate whether the animals remain more active and tolerant to cold (-1°, 1°, and 4°C). In natural seawater, righting speed was significantly slower at -1° and 13°C, compared with acclimation temperature (4°C). Arterial and venous hemolymph Po(2) increased in response to cooling even though heartbeat and ventilation beat frequencies as well as scopes decreased. At rest, ionic composition of the hemolymph was not affected by temperature. Activity induced a significant increase in hemolymph [K(+)] at -1° and 1°C. Reduction of hemolymph [Mg(2+)] did not result in an increase in activity, an increase in heartbeat and ventilation beat frequencies, or a shift in thermal tolerance to lower temperatures. In conclusion, oxygen delivery in this cold-water crustacean was not acutely limiting cold tolerance, and animals may have been constrained more by their functional capacity and motility. In contrast to earlier findings in temperate and subpolar brachyuran

  14. Seal Island and Franklin Island National Wildlife Refuges Trip Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of visits to both Seal Island National Wildlife Refuge and Franklin Island National Wildlife Refuge on August 14, 15, 16, 1982.

  15. Small Island Visitor Attractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haven Allahar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a process framework for developing and managing visitor attractions (VA in small island developing states with Trinidad and Tobago, a two-island state in the Caribbean, as the case study. An extensive literature review was conducted, supported by field observations, individual depth interviews, and small and large focus group meetings. The process framework identified four sets of processes: national policy formulation and legislation; inventory, classification, evaluation, and ranking of VA; general operations management involving project management activities; and site specific activities of development, operations, and maintenance. The value of the framework lies in the fact that no similar framework applicable to small islands was covered in the literature and validation was obtained from a panel of experts and a cross section of tourism stakeholders in Tobago.

  16. 78 FR 48668 - PSEG Long Island LLC, Long Island Electric Utility Servco LLC, Long Island Power Authority, Long...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission PSEG Long Island LLC, Long Island Electric Utility Servco LLC, Long Island Power Authority, Long Island Lighting Company; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice that...) Rules of Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.207, PSEG Long Island LLC (PSEG LI), Long Island Electric...

  17. Island in the Air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Dorthe Gert

    2017-01-01

    mobility and convert the sky into a sovereign territory was especially pronounced in Britain. But the challenge of creating a sovereign space out of mobile and transparent air was an intricate problem both in legal and practical terms. This article shows how geopolitical interests called for an upward...... extension of the Island Kingdom, extrapolating its coastal borders into the sky. However, even as Parliament passed the Aerial Navigation Act in 1913, this legal construction of an island in the air could not endure the agency of airplanes. The formation of airspace, I argue, is a history particularly well...

  18. Long Island Solar Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  19. Chatham Islands Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullan, B.; Salinger, J.; Thompson, C.; Ramsay, D.; Wild, M.

    2005-06-15

    This brief report provides guidance on climate change specific to the Chatham Islands, to complement the information recently produced for local government by the Ministry for the Environment in 'Climate Change Effects and Impacts Assessment: A guidance manual for Local Government in New Zealand' and 'Coastal Hazards and Climate Change: A guidance manual for Local Government in New Zealand'. These previous reports contain a lot of generic information on climate change, and how to assess associated risks, that is relevant to the Chatham Islands Council.

  20. Archaeoastronomy of Easter Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Edmundo

    Astronomer priests or "skywatchers" on Easter Island lived in stone towers that were used as observatories and built stone markers in the periphery that indicated the heliacal rising of certain stars that served to indicate the arrival of marine birds, turtles, the offshore fishing season, and times for planting and harvest. Petroglyphs related to such sites depict outriggers, fishhooks, pelagic fish, and turtles and supposedly represented a star map. In this chapter, we analyze a set of such skywatchers dwellings, and stone markers located upon the North coast of Easter Island that have astronomic orientations, its related petroglyphs, and the relations between these directions with their yearly activities and their ritual calendar.

  1. 1957 Aleutian Islands, USA Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The magnitude 8.6 (Mw) earthquake occurred south of the Andreanof Islands, in the Aleutian Islands. It generated an 8-meter tsunami that did great damage on Adak...

  2. Pacific Island Pharmacovigilance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEwen, John; Vestergaard, Lasse S.; Sanburg, Amanda L C

    2016-01-01

    Many Pacific Island countries (PICs) are recipients of funding support from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund). However, most of these countries cannot be expected to meet Global Fund and World Health Organization (WHO) minimum requirements for a functioning...

  3. Prince Edward Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmons, Vianne

    2003-01-01

    This article profiles the educational system of Prince Edward Island and discusses initiatives for students who are at-risk. It describes programs and services for students who are at-risk, relevant educational legislation, areas of strength, challenges that need to be overcome, and areas of action. (Contains references.) (CR)

  4. Mauritius - a Sustainable Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    The Government of Mauritius has a long-term vision of transforming Mauritius into a sustainable Island. One important element towards the achievement of this vision is to increase the country's renewable energy usage and thereby reducing dependence on fossil fuels. Democratisation of energy...

  5. Bone island and leprosy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpintero, P.; Garcia-Frasquet, A. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cordoba University, Medical School, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Tarradas, E. [Department of Imaging, Cordoba University, Medical School, Cordoba (Spain); Logrono, C. [Department of Dermatology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Carrascal, A. [Department of Radiology, Infanta Elena Hospital, Huelva (Spain); Carreto, A. [Department of Radiology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain)

    1998-06-01

    Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen`s disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen`s disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen`s disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen`s disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen`s disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.) With 4 figs., 2 tabs., 9 refs.

  6. Holocene glacier activity on Kerguelen Island: preliminary results from a novel proglacial lake sediment record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Støren, Eivind; Bakke, Jostein; Arnaud, Fabien; Poulenard, Jérôme; Fanget, Bernard; Malet, Emmanuel; Sabatier, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    The Polar-regions are changing rapidly as greenhouse warming is continuing with huge impact on e.g. sea ice extent and snow cover. This change triggers teleconnections to low latitude areas challenging societies and human activity. We have, however, very little quantitative information of past climate in the Polar-regions that can be used to evaluate the potential responses and the response patterns to forcing changes and changes in boundary conditions. Whatever anthropogenic changes may occur in the future, they will be superimposed on, and interact with, natural climate variations due to all the forcing we are aware of. This means we need to better document past climate/environmental variability of the Polar-regions. Especially in the Southern Ocean there are few time series recording past climate due to few suitable land areas and the few Sub-Antarctic Islands is remote and has cumbersome logistics. Continuous terrestrial records from this region are therefore urgently needed for constraining future scenarios from earth system models. Glaciers and ice caps are still ubiquitous in the Polar-regions, although they are rapidly shrinking due to the on-going warming. The continuous sedimentary records produced by glaciers, which are stored in downstream lakes, represent supreme archives of past variability wherefrom quantitative information of key climate system components can be extracted. Kerguelen Island is located within the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the Southern Westerly wind belt and contains several glaciers and smaller ice caps. Terrestrial archives recording past history of the glaciers at Kerguelen thus have a unique potential to record past changes in oceanic and atmospheric circulation patterns from southern mid-latitudes. Here we present preliminary results from the first distal glacier-fed lake that is sampled from Kerguelen Island. A 2.8 m long sediment core was obtained from Lac Guynemer (121masl.) located at the Peninsule Loranchet at the

  7. Landscapes of Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, R. Randall; Minor, Scott A.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Pigati, Jeffery S.

    2014-01-01

    Santa Rosa Island (SRI) is the second-largest of the California Channel Islands. It is one of 4 east–west aligned islands forming the northern Channel Islands chain, and one of the 5 islands in Channel Islands National Park. The landforms, and collections of landforms called landscapes, of Santa Rosa Island have been created by tectonic uplift and faulting, rising and falling sea level, landslides, erosion and deposition, floods, and droughts. Landscape features, and areas delineating groups of related features on Santa Rosa Island, are mapped, classified, and described in this paper. Notable landscapes on the island include beaches, coastal plains formed on marine terraces, sand dunes, and sand sheets. In this study, the inland physiography has been classified into 4 areas based on relief and degree of fluvial dissection. Most of the larger streams on the island occupy broad valleys that have been filled with alluvium and later incised to form steep- to vertical-walled arroyos, or barrancas, leaving a relict floodplain above the present channel. A better understanding of the processes and mechanisms that created these landscapes enhances visitors’ enjoyment of their surroundings and contributes to improving land and resource management strategies in order to optimize and balance the multiple goals of conservation, preservation, restoration, and visitor experience.

  8. Island solution; Inselloesung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bah, Isaac

    2013-06-15

    On the Azores island Graciosa the Berlin-based company Younicos has installed a new electricity system with advanced storage technology, which will make the islanders independent from fossil fuels. With an energy mix of wind power, photovoltaics and biomass the dependence on fossil fuels should be terminated. In the center of the flagship project specifically developed hybrid batteries are used (combination of sodium-sulfur- and lithium-ion batteries) with 2.7 MW of power and a storage capacity of ten megawatts hours. [German] Auf der Azoren-Insel Graciosa installiert das Berliner Unternehmen Younicos ein neues Stromsystem mit modernster Speichertechnologie, das die Bewohner unabhaengig von fossilen Energietraegern machen soll. Mit einem Energiemix aus Windkraft, Photovoltaik und Biomasse soll die Abhaengigkeit von fossilen Brennstoffen beendet werden. Im Zentrum des Vorzeigeprojekts stehen speziell fuer den Inseleinsatz entwickelte Hybridbatterien (Kombination aus Natrium-Schwefel- und Lithium-Ionen-Akkus) mit 2,7 Megawatt Leistung und eine Speicherkapazitaet von zehn Megawattestunden.

  9. Developmental and spatial variations in the diet signatures of hyperbenthic shrimp Nauticaris marionis at the Prince Edward Islands based on stable isotope ratios and fatty acid profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richoux, Nicole B.; Allan, E. Louise; Froneman, P. William

    2016-04-01

    The caridean shrimp Nauticaris marionis is an ecologically important species in the benthic community around the sub-Antarctic Prince Edward Islands (PEI) as it represents a key prey item for a variety of top predators breeding on the islands. We hypothesized that the diet of N. marionis shifts during its development, and that spatial variability in food availability results in differentiation in the diet signatures of specimens collected from various locations of the shelf waters around the PEI. Specimens were collected from nine stations (depth range 70 to 240 m) around the PEI at inter-island shelf (from west to east: upstream, between and downstream) and nearshore regions during austral autumn 2009. Stable isotope and fatty acid data both revealed spatial and developmental variations in the shrimp diet. Nearshore shrimp were more 13C-enriched than those from the inter-island region, suggesting increased kelp detritus entered the food web in the nearshore regions. The shrimp showed increases in δ13C and δ15N signatures (and trophic position) with an increase in body size, resulting in distinctions between size classes that reflected shifts in their trophic niche through development. The fatty acid profiles similarly indicated distinctions in diet with increased shrimp size (in the deep regions), and spatial variability was evident in relation to region and depth. All shrimp contained large proportions of polyunsaturated and essential fatty acids, indicating that the quality of food consumed was similar between regions despite the diet variability. Our results provide new dietary information about a key species operating near the base of the food web at the highly productive PEI, and show that there were no areas of enhanced nutrition available to the shrimp. As such, there was no nutritional advantage to shrimp inhabiting any specific region around the PEI.

  10. Urban heat island 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Oliver; Jensen, Marina Bergen; Petersen, Karen Sejr

    2010-01-01

    Urban Heat Island beskriver det forhold, at temperaturen i byområder er højere end temperaturen i tilgrænsede landområder. Årsagen hertil ligger i den urbane arealanvendelse, hvor en mindre andel af arealerne er dækket af vegetation, og en større andel består af forseglede arealer....

  11. and Prince Edward Island

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    1998). At Marion. Island, mean surface air temperature increased by 1.2°C between 1969 and 1999 and annual precipitation de- creased after the mid 1960s (Smith 2002). Mean sea surface temperature (SST) increased by 1.4°C between. 1949 and 2002 (Mélice et al. in press). At the same time, there was growing concern ...

  12. Modeling Study for Tangier Island Jetties, Tangier Island, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    transmission caused by structures are approximated in this class of wave models. 1.5.3 Task 3. Modeling channel hydrodynamics The Tangier Island boat ...the Tangier Island Boat Canal 2.1 Purpose A numerical modeling study investigated waves and hydrodynamics in and adjacent to the western portion of...fishing fleet, the U.S. Army Engineer District, Norfolk (CENAO) maintains the Tangier Island boat canal. CENAO is considering the construction of

  13. Islands and non-islands in native and heritage Korean

    OpenAIRE

    Boyoung eKim; Grant eGoodall

    2016-01-01

    To a large extent, island phenomena are cross-linguistically invariable, but English and Korean present some striking differences in this domain. English has wh-movement and Korean does not, and while both languages show sensitivity to wh-islands, only English has island effects for adjunct clauses. Given this complex set of differences, one might expect Korean/English bilinguals, and especially heritage Korean speakers (i.e., early bilinguals whose L2 became their dominant language during ch...

  14. The Intertidal Biota of Volcanic Yankich Island (Middle Kuril Islands)

    OpenAIRE

    Kussakin, Oleg G.; Kostina, Elena E.

    1996-01-01

    A description of the intertidal biota of volcanic Yankich Island (Ushishir Islands, Kuril Islands) is given. The species composition and vertical distribution pattern of the intertidal communities at various localities are described in relation to environmental factors, such as nature of the substrate, surf conditions and volcanic vent water. The macrobenthos is poor in the areas directly influenced by high temperature (20-40°C) and high sulphur content. There are no marked changes in the int...

  15. MARICULTURE ON CROATIAN ISLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Šarušić

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The first attempts of intensive mariculture in Croatia commenced at the very beginning of 1980’s. The mid-eighties brought an expansion of mariculture production, which has been continuously increasing. A few different marine organisms are intensively cultured - both fish and shellfish. Among them commercially most important and highly valued species are sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax and sea bream Sparus aurata. Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and oyster Ostrea edulis are the most important shellfish. Fish species such as dentex Dentex dentex, red sea bream Pagrus major and sheepshead bream Puntazzo puntazzo are reared too, but in a rather small quantities. Only recently the rearing, on-growing- of bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus started in Croatia. The juveniles (70% are reared in a Croatian hatcheries, and 30% has to be imported mainly from Italy and France, due to a higher demand for this kind of culture among the small growers. Croatian part of Adriatic sea possesses a number of geomorfologicaly suitable sites and meteorological conditions which determined the choice - type - of intensive culture. All fish species are reared in a floating cages. The choice of cages i. e. semi off-shore or floating frames, size, rearing volume and design depend on the investors personal preference. The annual turnouf of a market size bass was about 600t and 300t bream in 1996., by 10 island farms which is 70% of total production in Croatia. Including other cultured fish species last year production was up to 1000t, and it™s being estimated to be about 1300t in the following year. The shellfish production on the islands is usually individual attempt of farmers, producing minor quantities mostly in polyculture. This production has bigger potential but it’s limited owing to the EU quality control regulations which do not allow the export, and by domestic market which has drastically decreased due to the collapse of tourism during the recent war. Almost 80

  16. Island biogeography of the Anthropocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmus, Matthew R; Mahler, D Luke; Losos, Jonathan B

    2014-09-25

    For centuries, biogeographers have examined the factors that produce patterns of biodiversity across regions. The study of islands has proved particularly fruitful and has led to the theory that geographic area and isolation influence species colonization, extinction and speciation such that larger islands have more species and isolated islands have fewer species (that is, positive species-area and negative species-isolation relationships). However, experimental tests of this theory have been limited, owing to the difficulty in experimental manipulation of islands at the scales at which speciation and long-distance colonization are relevant. Here we have used the human-aided transport of exotic anole lizards among Caribbean islands as such a test at an appropriate scale. In accord with theory, as anole colonizations have increased, islands impoverished in native species have gained the most exotic species, the past influence of speciation on island biogeography has been obscured, and the species-area relationship has strengthened while the species-isolation relationship has weakened. Moreover, anole biogeography increasingly reflects anthropogenic rather than geographic processes. Unlike the island biogeography of the past that was determined by geographic area and isolation, in the Anthropocene--an epoch proposed for the present time interval--island biogeography is dominated by the economic isolation of human populations.

  17. Renewable energy islands in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard, Iben [ed.

    1998-12-31

    This publication includes a compiled presentation of various aspects concerning the possible transformation of some European islands into renewable energy communities and these projects were presented by a selection of pioneer islands at the first European Seminar on Renewable Energy Islands, held on the Danish island of Samsoee, 29-30 June 1998. This issue has increased in importance with the presentation of the ambitious EU-White Paper: `Energy for the future: Renewable Sources of Energy` which was adopted in 1998. One of the key elements of the strategy for an accelerated implementation of renewable energy is to transform 100 localities within Europe into communities which are to be 100% self-sufficient with renewable energy before 2010. In line with this strategy, the Danish Government appointed the island of Samsoe towards the end of 1997 to be the first `official` Danish, renewable energy island. This is to serve as a demonstration project for other local communities, both in Denmark as well as in the rest Europe. Gothland, Madeira, Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Arki, Crete, Minorca and Orkney Islands were represented. Environmental advantages of wind, solar and wave power for distant island communities were indicated. Serious savings would be achieved by limitation of fossil fuel import and utilization of local resources. (EG)

  18. Cognitive Constraints and Island Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Philip; Sag, Ivan A

    2010-06-01

    Competence-based theories of island effects play a central role in generative grammar, yet the graded nature of many syntactic islands has never been properly accounted for. Categorical syntactic accounts of island effects have persisted in spite of a wealth of data suggesting that island effects are not categorical in nature and that non-structural manipulations that leave island structures intact can radically alter judgments of island violations. We argue here, building on work by Deane, Kluender, and others, that processing factors have the potential to account for this otherwise unexplained variation in acceptability judgments.We report the results of self-paced reading experiments and controlled acceptability studies which explore the relationship between processing costs and judgments of acceptability. In each of the three self-paced reading studies, the data indicate that the processing cost of different types of island violations can be significantly reduced to a degree comparable to that of non-island filler-gap constructions by manipulating a single non-structural factor. Moreover, this reduction in processing cost is accompanied by significant improvements in acceptability. This evidence favors the hypothesis that island-violating constructions involve numerous processing pressures that aggregate to drive processing difficulty above a threshold so that a perception of unacceptability ensues. We examine the implications of these findings for the grammar of filler-gap dependencies.

  19. Lake sediment-based Late Holocene glacier reconstruction reveals medieval retreat and two-phase Little Ice Age on subantarctic South Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Bilt, W. G. M.; Bakke, J.; Werner, J.; Paasche, O.; Rosqvist, G. N.; Vatle, S. S.

    2016-12-01

    Southern Ocean climate is rapidly changing. Yet beyond the instrumental period (± 100 years), our comprehension of climate variability in the region is restricted by a lack of high-resolution paleoclimate records. Alpine glaciers, ubiquitous on Southern Ocean islands, may provide such data as they rapidly respond to climate shifts, recording attendant changes in extent by variations in glacial erosion. Rock flour, the fine-grained fraction of this process, is suspended in meltwater streams and transfers this signal to the sediments of downstream lakes, continuously recording glacier history. Here, we use this relationship and present the first reconstruction of the Late Holocene (1250 cal. yr BP - present) glacier history of the Southern Ocean island of South Georgia, using sediments from the glacier-fed Middle Hamberg lake. Variations are resolved on multi-centennial scales due to robust chronological control. To fingerprint a glacial erosion signal, we employed a set of routinely used physical, geochemical and magnetic parameters. Using Titanium counts, validated against changes in sediment density and grain size distribution, we continuously reconstruct glacier variations over the past millennium. Refining local moraine evidence and supporting evidence from other Southern Hemisphere sites, this study shows a progressive diminishing of consecutive Late Holocene advances. These include a two-stage Little Ice Age, in agreement with other Southern Hemisphere glacier evidence. The presented record furthermore captures an unreported retreat phase behind present limits around 500 cal. yr BP.

  20. Islands and non-islands in native and heritage Korean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyoung eKim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To a large extent, island phenomena are cross-linguistically invariable, but English and Korean present some striking differences in this domain. English has wh-movement and Korean does not, and while both languages show sensitivity to wh-islands, only English has island effects for adjunct clauses. Given this complex set of differences, one might expect Korean/English bilinguals, and especially heritage Korean speakers (i.e. early bilinguals whose L2 became their dominant language during childhood to be different from native speakers, since heritage speakers have had more limited exposure to Korean, may have had incomplete acquisition and/or attrition, and may show significant transfer effects from the L2. Here we examine islands in heritage speakers of Korean in the U.S. Through a series of four formal acceptability experiments comparing these heritage speakers with native speakers residing in Korea, we show that the two groups are remarkably similar. Both show clear evidence for wh-islands and an equally clear lack of adjunct island effects. Given the very different linguistic environment that the heritage speakers have had since early childhood, this result lends support to the idea that island phenomena are largely immune to environmental influences and stem from deeper properties of the processor and/or grammar. Similarly, it casts some doubt on recent proposals that islands are learned from the input.

  1. Islands and Non-islands in Native and Heritage Korean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Boyoung; Goodall, Grant

    2016-01-01

    To a large extent, island phenomena are cross-linguistically invariable, but English and Korean present some striking differences in this domain. English has wh-movement and Korean does not, and while both languages show sensitivity to wh-islands, only English has island effects for adjunct clauses. Given this complex set of differences, one might expect Korean/English bilinguals, and especially heritage Korean speakers (i.e., early bilinguals whose L2 became their dominant language during childhood) to be different from native speakers, since heritage speakers have had more limited exposure to Korean, may have had incomplete acquisition and/or attrition, and may show significant transfer effects from the L2. Here we examine islands in heritage speakers of Korean in the U.S. Through a series of four formal acceptability experiments comparing these heritage speakers with native speakers residing in Korea, we show that the two groups are remarkably similar. Both show clear evidence for wh-islands and an equally clear lack of adjunct island effects. Given the very different linguistic environment that the heritage speakers have had since early childhood, this result lends support to the idea that island phenomena are largely immune to environmental influences and stem from deeper properties of the processor and/or grammar. Similarly, it casts some doubt on recent proposals that islands are learned from the input.

  2. Organizations as Designed Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Gagliardi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The literature and practice of organizational design are mostly based on simplistic conceptions which ignore recent theoretical developments in organizational studies. Conceiving of organizations as ‘designed islands’, it is argued, can contribute to a more solid theoretical foundation to organization theory, viewed as normative science. Relying on the work of Peter Sloterdijk, who describes the forms of life in space in terms of spheres, the heuristic power of the island metaphor is explored. What can be learnt from the art of isolating in order to construct lived organizational environments is then discussed, and the paradoxical relationship between connection and isolation is highlighted.

  3. Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Stroke Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... non-Hispanic white adults to die from a stroke in 2010. In general, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ...

  4. The Island Smart Energy System and Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Billanes, Joy Dalmacio; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2017-01-01

    developing island smart energy systems with the integration of renewable energy resources can increase the energy supply and address the global island energy issues. The island smart energy system operates either in a single-island or in multi-islands. However the island characteristics...... and influential factors impact on the development of the singleisland or multi-island smart energy system are different. This paper presents the influential factors of the island smart energy system development by the literature analysis. Meanwhile, taking Philippines as a case study to investigate...... the differences between the single-island and multi-island smart energy system, and examine the integration challenges of the multi-island smart energy system in the Philippines. The integration challenges of the national energy system with island smart energy development are discussed with suggestions....

  5. The Macquarie Dictionary, its His- tory and its Editorial Practices

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    database, from a single book to a lexicographic library. The rationale and the methodology ... (Australian Aborigines did not have citizenship, and neither they nor their lan- guages were counted in that census.) .... by a British lexicographer whose first concern was "to describe the vocabulary common to all or most brands of ...

  6. An Island Called Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Stubbs

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of: An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba. Ruth Behar, photographs by Humberto Mayol. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2007. xiii + 297 pp. (Cloth US$ 29.95 Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography. Fidel Castro & Ignacio Ramonet. New York: Scribner/Simon & Schuster, 2008. vii + 724 pp. (Paper US$ 22.00, e-book US$ 14.99 Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know. Julia E. Sweig. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. xiv + 279 pp. (Paper US$ 16.95 [First paragraph] These three ostensibly very different books tell a compelling story of each author’s approach, as much as the subject matter itself. Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography is based on a series of long interviews granted by the then-president of Cuba, Fidel Castro, to Spanish-Franco journalist Ignacio Ramonet. Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know, by U.S. political analyst Julia Sweig, is one of a set country series, and, like Ramonet’s, presented in question/answer format. An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba, with a narrative by Cuban-American anthropologist Ruth Behar and photographs by Cuban photographer Humberto Mayol, is a retrospective/introspective account of the Jewish presence in Cuba. While from Ramonet and Sweig we learn much about the revolutionary project, Behar and Mayol convey the lived experience of the small Jewish community against that backdrop.

  7. Opportunity at 'Cook Islands'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,825th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 12, 2009). North is at the top. The rover had driven half a meter (1.5 feet) earlier on Sol 1825 to fine-tune its location for placing its robotic arm onto an exposed patch of outcrop including a target area informally called 'Cook Islands.' On the preceding sol, Opportunity turned around to drive frontwards and then drove 4.5 meters (15 feet) toward this outcrop. The tracks from the SOl 1824 drive are visible near the center of this view at about the 11 o'clock position. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). Opportunity had previously been driving backward as a strategy to redistribute lubrication in a wheel drawing more electrical current than usual. The outcrop exposure that includes 'Cook Islands' is visible just below the center of the image. The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  8. Typologi of Island City in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulana, Alvaryan; Benita, Tania

    2017-07-01

    As an archipelagic country, Indonesia consist of thousands of island. Some of them are big enough to contain growth and become the center of settlement and activity in Indonesia. However, growth and habitation are not only mushrooming in main island. Several small island also experience growth and become densely population places and simply become a city within island. This study aims to identify island city in Indonesia and creating the typology of the island city. This study is using exploratory approach and heavily rely on statistical figure of every single autonomous region as data sources. Eventually, this study found twelve (12) island cities in Indonesia, and three distinctive typology of island cities.

  9. A roadmap for island biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patiño, Jairo; Whittaker, Robert James; Borges, Paulo A. V.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The 50th anniversary of the publication of the seminal book, The Theory of Island Biogeography, by Robert H. MacArthur and Edward O. Wilson, is a timely moment to review and identify key research foci that could advance island biology. Here, we take a collaborative horizon-scanning approach...... to identify 50 fundamental questions for the continued development of the field. Location: Worldwide. Methods: We adapted a well-established methodology of horizon scanning to identify priority research questions in island biology, and initiated it during the Island Biology 2016 conference held in the Azores......); global change (5); conservation and management policies (5); and invasive alien species (4). Main conclusions: Collectively, this cross-disciplinary set of topics covering the 50 fundamental questions has the potential to stimulate and guide future research in island biology. By covering fields ranging...

  10. Island tameness: living on islands reduces flight initiation distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, William E; Pyron, R Alexander; Garland, Theodore

    2014-02-22

    One of Darwin's most widely known conjectures is that prey are tame on remote islands, where mammalian predators are absent. Many species appear to permit close approach on such islands, but no comparative studies have demonstrated reduced wariness quantified as flight initiation distance (FID; i.e. predator-prey distance when the prey begins to flee) in comparison with mainland relatives. We used the phylogenetic comparative method to assess influence of distance from the mainland and island area on FID of 66 lizard species. Because body size and predator approach speed affect predation risk, we included these as independent variables. Multiple regression showed that FID decreases as distance from mainland increases and is shorter in island than mainland populations. Although FID increased as area increased in some models, collinearity made it difficult to separate effects of area from distance and island occupancy. FID increases as SVL increases and approach speed increases; these effects are statistically independent of effects of distance to mainland and island occupancy. Ordinary least-squares models fit the data better than phylogenetic regressions, indicating little or no phylogenetic signal in residual FID after accounting for the independent variables. Our results demonstrate that island tameness is a real phenomenon in lizards.

  11. Introduced organisms pose the most significant threat to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    to the conservation status of oceanic islands (e.g.. Williamson 1996). Subantarctic Prince Edward Island, ... factor determining the island's high conservation rank- ing among subantarctic islands (Chown et al. 2001). ..... and Cotula salt-spray communities along cliff tops on the east coast (Sites 1 and 2), inland mires (sites.

  12. Island in an island – The suggestions for transportation improvement plan for Haidian Island, Haikou, Hainan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sia Rosalind Juo Ling

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Haidian Island, which situated at the Northern part of Haikou City of Hainan Province, is an island within a city. Haidian Island is unique in term of it's development which centered around an university, the Hainan University, besides some others important landmarks, such as Haikou city hospital, Baishamen municipal park, Golf Driving Range etc. All commercials, residential, recreational activities etc are planned to serve Hainan University in particular. The study, taking ‘Haidian Island Area Development Control Plan’ as case study, would like to look into the importance of transportation and traffic planning. The study used observation, site investigation and traffic study methods to gather data needed. Firstly the study analyzed the current state of transportation system for Haidian Island in accordance to the Island Development Control plan and Haikou master plan and identified the problems. Then, the study made some recommendations for these problems. The study highlighted the important of non-motorized, cycling and walking as the main transportation system for an education-based island and as supportive to domestic tourism activities found. The transportation planning suggested by the study took ‘green and low-carbon’ approaches considered the role of University as the core activity in the island.

  13. Islands in the ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tina; Kjær, Kurt H.; Haile, James Seymour

    2012-01-01

    nunataks on the northern hemisphere - some 30 km from the nearest biological source. They constitute around 2 km(2) of ice-free land that was established in the early Holocene. We have investigated the changes in plant composition at these nunataks using both the results of surveys of the flora over......Nunataks are isolated bedrocks protruding through ice sheets. They vary in age, but represent island environments in 'oceans' of ice through which organism dispersals and replacements can be studied over time. The J.A.D. Jensen's Nunataks at the southern Greenland ice sheet are the most isolated...... where the botanical survey was exhaustive. As no animals and humans are found on the nunataks, this change in diversity over a period of just 42 years must relate to environmental changes probably being climate-driven. This suggests that even the flora of fairly small and isolated ice-free areas reacts...

  14. PIPS: pathogenicity island prediction software.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siomar C Soares

    Full Text Available The adaptability of pathogenic bacteria to hosts is influenced by the genomic plasticity of the bacteria, which can be increased by such mechanisms as horizontal gene transfer. Pathogenicity islands play a major role in this type of gene transfer because they are large, horizontally acquired regions that harbor clusters of virulence genes that mediate the adhesion, colonization, invasion, immune system evasion, and toxigenic properties of the acceptor organism. Currently, pathogenicity islands are mainly identified in silico based on various characteristic features: (1 deviations in codon usage, G+C content or dinucleotide frequency and (2 insertion sequences and/or tRNA genetic flanking regions together with transposase coding genes. Several computational techniques for identifying pathogenicity islands exist. However, most of these techniques are only directed at the detection of horizontally transferred genes and/or the absence of certain genomic regions of the pathogenic bacterium in closely related non-pathogenic species. Here, we present a novel software suite designed for the prediction of pathogenicity islands (pathogenicity island prediction software, or PIPS. In contrast to other existing tools, our approach is capable of utilizing multiple features for pathogenicity island detection in an integrative manner. We show that PIPS provides better accuracy than other available software packages. As an example, we used PIPS to study the veterinary pathogen Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, in which we identified seven putative pathogenicity islands.

  15. Groundwater vulnerability on small islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holding, S.; Allen, D. M.; Foster, S.; Hsieh, A.; Larocque, I.; Klassen, J.; van Pelt, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    The majority of naturally occurring freshwater on small islands is groundwater, which is primarily recharged by precipitation. Recharge rates are therefore likely to be impacted by climate change. Freshwater resources on small islands are particularly vulnerable to climate change because they are limited in size and easily compromised. Here we have compiled available aquifer system characteristics and water-use data for 43 small island developing states distributed worldwide, based on local expert knowledge, publications and regional data sets. Current vulnerability was assessed by evaluating the recharge volume per capita. For future vulnerability, climate change projections were used to estimate changes in aquifer recharge. We find that 44% of islands are in a state of water stress, and while recharge is projected to increase by as much as 117% on 12 islands situated in the western Pacific and Indian Ocean, recharge is projected to decrease by up to 58% on the remaining 31 islands. Of great concern is the lack of enacted groundwater protection legislation for many of the small island developing states identified as highly vulnerable to current and future conditions. Recharge indicators, shown alongside the state of legal groundwater protections, provide a global picture of groundwater supply vulnerability under current and future climate change conditions.

  16. Island biogeography of marine organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Hudson T.; Bernardi, Giacomo; Simon, Thiony; Joyeux, Jean-Christophe; Macieira, Raphael M.; Gasparini, João Luiz; Rocha, Claudia; Rocha, Luiz A.

    2017-09-01

    Studies on the distribution and evolution of organisms on oceanic islands have advanced towards a dynamic perspective, where terrestrial endemicity results from island geographical aspects and geological history intertwined with sea-level fluctuations. Diversification on these islands may follow neutral models, decreasing over time as niches are filled, or disequilibrium states and progression rules, where richness and endemism rise with the age of the archipelago owing to the splitting of ancestral lineages (cladogenesis). However, marine organisms have received comparatively little scientific attention. Therefore, island and seamount evolutionary processes in the aquatic environment remain unclear. Here we analyse the evolutionary history of reef fishes that are endemic to a volcanic ridge of seamounts and islands to understand their relations to island evolution and sea-level fluctuations. We also test how this evolutionary history fits island biogeography theory. We found that most endemic species have evolved recently (Pleistocene epoch), during a period of recurrent sea-level changes and intermittent connectivity caused by repeated aerial exposure of seamounts, a finding that is consistent with an ephemeral ecological speciation process. Similar to findings for terrestrial biodiversity, our data suggest that the marine speciation rate on islands is negatively correlated with immigration rate. However, because marine species disperse better than terrestrial species, most niches are filled by immigration: speciation increases with the random accumulation of species with low dispersal ability, with few opportunities for in situ cladogenesis and adaptive radiation. Moreover, we confirm that sea-level fluctuations and seamount location play a critical role in marine evolution, mainly by intermittently providing stepping stones for island colonization.

  17. Community structure of mesozooplankton in the Antarctic polar frontal zone in the vicinity of the Prince Edward Islands (Southern Ocean): small-scale distribution patterns in relation to physical parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, B. P. V.; Pakhomov, E. A.; McQuaid, C. D.

    Mesozooplankton community structure was investigated in four consecutive years from 1996 to 1999, during late austral summer (April/May), in the vicinity of the Prince Edward Islands. Sampling was carried out using a Bongo net with a mouth area of 0.25 m 2, and fitted with 300 μm mesh. Surveys were of high resolution, with net tows being separated by ±10-20 km. Zooplankton species composition demonstrated a high degree of similarity between net tows, containing a mix of sub-Antarctic and Antarctic species. However, variation in species abundance levels showed that within each year of study the region was characterised by the presence of different zooplankton communities. These communities differed by as much as an order of magnitude in total zooplankton density. Analysis of physical variables indicated that zooplankton communities were associated with different water masses, identifiable by their physical characteristics. Sea temperature was the most important physical variable, accounting for as much as 69% of the variation in community structure. Communities were often not spatially discrete, and many stations demonstrated a high degree of similarity despite wide spatial separation. The heterogeneity in the biological and oceanographic environment extended to a small scale, on the order of 10 km. This is indicative of the oceanographic complexity of the region. The complex oceanography associated with shallow topography, including seamounts, islands, and frontal zones, indicates that small-scale spatial heterogeneity in zooplankton communities may be an important factor to consider when modelling these ecosystems.

  18. Photosymbiotic ascidians from Pari Island (Thousand Islands, Indonesia)

    OpenAIRE

    Euichi Hirose; Budhi Hascaryo Iskandar; Yusli Wardiatno

    2014-01-01

    Photosymbiotic ascidian fauna were surveyed in the subtidal zone off Pari Island in the Thousand Islands (Java Sea, Indonesia). Nine species were recorded: Didemnum molle, Trididemnum miniatum, Lissoclinum patella, L. punctatum, L. timorense, Diplosoma gumavirens, D. simile, D. simileguwa, and D. virens. All of these species have been previously recorded in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Diplosoma gumavirens and D. simileguwa were originally described from the Ryukyu Archipelago in 2009 and 2...

  19. Equilibrium theory of island biogeography: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angela D. Yu; Simon A. Lei

    2001-01-01

    The topography, climatic pattern, location, and origin of islands generate unique patterns of species distribution. The equilibrium theory of island biogeography creates a general framework in which the study of taxon distribution and broad island trends may be conducted. Critical components of the equilibrium theory include the species-area relationship, island-...

  20. The Island Smart Energy System and Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Billanes, Joy Dalmacio; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2017-01-01

    the differences between the single-island and multi-island smart energy system, and examine the integration challenges of the multi-island smart energy system in the Philippines. The integration challenges of the national energy system with island smart energy development are discussed with suggestions....

  1. Glider Observations of Circulation Around an Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Glider Observations of Circulation Around an Island ...the coastal problem involves circulation around islands , which has been less studied over the years. Island circulation is distinguished from...processes include boundary currents, eddies shed in the island’s wake, and island coastally trapped waves. This project aims to improve the understanding

  2. 27 CFR 9.170 - Long Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Long Island. 9.170 Section... Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Long Island viticultural area are...

  3. 27 CFR 9.68 - Merritt Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Merritt Island. 9.68... Merritt Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Merritt Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Merritt Island...

  4. 21 CFR 808.89 - Rhode Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Rhode Island General Laws, Section 5-49-2.1, and...

  5. [Relationships between island characteristics and arthropod diversity in Thousand-Island Lake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Li-jun; Xu, Zhi-hong; Lu, Jian-bo; Zhao, Gai; Zhang, Qun

    2009-09-01

    In April, May, August, and October 2006, grid-based sampling method was adopted to investigate the diversity and abundance of arthropods on 50 islands in the Thousand-island Lake, with the effects of island area, island altitude, island shape, inter-island distance, and island-mainland distance on arthropod species richness analyzed. With the increase of island area, the richness of total arthropod species and that of the arthropod species with high- and low- dispersal ability all increased, and the relationships between island area and arthropod species richness corresponded to the classical island biogeography model. The island area, island altitude, and island shape had comprehensive effects on the arthropod species richness, while inter-island distance and island-mainland distance had less effects. The richness of total arthropod species had a significant positive correlation with island altitude and island shape, that of the arthropod species with high- dispersal ability was significantly positively correlated with island area and island altitude, while no significant relationship was observed between the richness of arthropod species with low-dispersal ability and the island characteristics.

  6. 77 FR 34894 - Safety Zone; Bostock 50th Anniversary Fireworks, Long Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... Island Sound in the vicinity of Manursing Island, NY for a fireworks display. This temporary safety zone.... This rule is intended to restrict all vessels from a portion of Long Island Sound before, during, and...

  7. Guest editorial introduction: Understanding island cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Grydehoj

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Island studies research has traditionally focused on relatively rural, peripheral, and isolated communities, yet island cities (strongly urbanized small islands or archipelagos or major population centres of large islands or archipelagos also represent an important research area. Island spatiality has a host of historical and continuing effects on urban development, influencing urban densification and agglomeration, zonal differentiation, and neighbourhood formation in cities both big and small. This special section of Island Studies Journal includes papers on the island cities and urban archipelagos of Peel (Isle of Man, British Isles, Nuuk (Greenland, Palma de Majorca (Spain, Belize City (Belize, and Mumbai (India. The Island Cities and Urban Archipelagos research network seeks to help enrich wider island studies scholarship and contribute to introducing the island dimension to urban studies.

  8. Wake Island Supplemental Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    and recreational purposes include groupers (Cephalapholis argus), porgy (Monotaxis grandoculis), and jacks (Carangidae). Sharks are abundant...Possibly Extinct on Wake Island Swiftlet, Guam; Yayaguak (Collecalia bartschi) Endangered Crow, Mariana; Aga (Corvus kubaryi) Endangered

  9. Papahanaumokuakea - Laysan Island Restoration 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Goal of the Laysan Island Restoration is to restore Laysan to a "Pristine" state which would require minimal monitoring and habitat for Endemic Endangered...

  10. Cat Island NWR Biological Review

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A summary report describing the discussion and recommendations resulting from a multidisciplinary review of the biological program at Cat Island NWR.

  11. Hawaiian Islands Wilderness proposal announcement

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a letter from the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife stating that documents pertaining to the Hawaiian Islands Wilderness proposal have been...

  12. Papahanaumokuakea - Laysan Island Restoration 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project supports restoration activities at Laysan Island. Staff and volunteers continue efforts to eradicate alien invasive species such as Indian dropseed...

  13. Papahanaumokuakea - Laysan Island Restoration 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project will support restoration activities at Laysan Island. Staff and volunteers continue efforts to eradicate alien invasive species such as Indian dropseed...

  14. Three Mile Island Accident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Three Mile Island Accident Data consists of mostly upper air and wind observations immediately following the nuclear meltdown occurring on March 28, 1979, near...

  15. Sediment Management Options for Galveston Island, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Galveston Island is a major tourist and commercial center on the Gulf of Mexico at the mouth of Galveston Bay, Texas, USA. The shoreline along the...approximately 235°. The island is bordered by the Gulf of Mexico , the Galveston Entrance Channel to the northeast, West Bay to the northwest, and San...plants on both ends of the island are the best strategies to widen the beaches of Galveston Island, improve tourism , and better protect the island

  16. The Pacific Island Health Care Project

    OpenAIRE

    Donald Ames Person

    2014-01-01

    Introduction/Background: US Associated/Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) include three freely associated states: Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, and three Territories: American Samoa, Guam, and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Objective: The Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP) provides humanitarian medical referral/consultation/care to >500,000 indigenous people of these remote islands. Methods: In the mid-1990s, we developed a simple store-...

  17. Island biodiversity conservation needs palaeoecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogué, Sandra; de Nascimento, Lea; Froyd, Cynthia A.

    2017-01-01

    to human activities. Consequently, even the most degraded islands are a focus for restoration, eradication, and monitoring programmes to protect the remaining endemic and/or relict populations. Here, we build a framework that incorporates an assessment of the degree of change from multiple baseline...... and the introduction of non-native species. We provide exemplification of how such approaches can provide valuable information for biodiversity conservation managers of island ecosystems....

  18. Aleutian Canada goose transplant from Buldir Island to Agattu Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, summer 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Geese were captured on Buldir Island by searching the upper and lower edge of the lowland tall plant association where tall plants offer cover and short plants offer...

  19. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line drawn... Island Light. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Amelia Island to latitude 30°29.4′ N...

  20. Bryophytes from Simeonof Island in the Shumagin Islands, southwestern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, W.B.; Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.

    2004-01-01

    Simeonof Island is located south of the Alaska Peninsula in the hyperoceanic sector of the middle boreal subzone. We examined the bryoflora of Simeonof Island to determine species composition in an area where no previous collections had been reported. This field study was conducted in sites selected to represent the spectrum of environmental variation within Simeonof Island. Data were analyzed using published reports to compare bryophyte distribution patterns at three levels, the Northern Hemisphere, North America, and Alaska. A total of 271 bryophytes were identified: 202 mosses and 69 liverworts. The annotated list of species for Simeonof Island expands the known range for many species and fills distribution gaps within Hulte??n's Western Pacific Coast district. Maps and notes on the distribution of 14 significant distribution records are presented. Compared with bryophyte distribution in the Northern Hemisphere, the bryoflora of Simeonof Island primarily includes taxa of boreal (55%), temperate (20%), arctic (10%), and cosmopolitan (8%) distribution; 6% of the moss flora are western North America endemics. A description of the bryophytes present in the vegetation and habitat types is provided as is a quantitative analysis of the most frequently occurring bryophytes in crowberry heath.

  1. Late Quaternary climate change shapes island biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weigelt, Patrick; Steinbauer, Manuel; Cabral, Juliano

    2016-01-01

    Island biogeographical models consider islands either as geologically static with biodiversity resulting from ecologically neutral immigration–extinction dynamics1, or as geologically dynamic with biodiversity resulting from immigration–speciation–extinction dynamics influenced by changes in island...... sea levels3, 4 and caused massive changes in island area, isolation and connectivity5, orders of magnitude faster than the geological processes of island formation, subsidence and erosion considered in island theory2, 6. Consequences of these oscillations for present biodiversity remain unassessed5, 7...

  2. Photosymbiotic ascidians from Pari Island (Thousand Islands, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euichi Hirose

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Photosymbiotic ascidian fauna were surveyed in the subtidal zone off Pari Island in the Thousand Islands (Java Sea, Indonesia. Nine species were recorded: Didemnum molle, Trididemnum miniatum, Lissoclinum patella, L. punctatum, L. timorense, Diplosoma gumavirens, D. simile, D. simileguwa, and D. virens. All of these species have been previously recorded in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Diplosoma gumavirens and D. simileguwa were originally described from the Ryukyu Archipelago in 2009 and 2005, respectively, and all of the observed species are potentially widely distributed in Indo-West Pacific coral reefs.

  3. Photosymbiotic ascidians from Pari Island (Thousand Islands, Indonesia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Euichi; Iskandar, Budhi Hascaryo; Wardiatno, Yusli

    2014-01-01

    Photosymbiotic ascidian fauna were surveyed in the subtidal zone off Pari Island in the Thousand Islands (Java Sea, Indonesia). Nine species were recorded: Didemnum molle, Trididemnum miniatum, Lissoclinum patella, L. punctatum, L. timorense, Diplosoma gumavirens, D. simile, D. simileguwa, and D. virens. All of these species have been previously recorded in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Diplosoma gumavirens and D. simileguwa were originally described from the Ryukyu Archipelago in 2009 and 2005, respectively, and all of the observed species are potentially widely distributed in Indo-West Pacific coral reefs.

  4. Adaptive Campaigning Applied: Australian Army Operations in Iraq and Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    territories, such as Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Christmas Island, Heard and McDonald Islands, Macquarie Island, Norfolk Island and also waters adjacent...threat to the population or the Land Force. 117 The infantry element of the Combat Team would then approach the “ Green Zone” in darkness in the early

  5. Aleutian Canada goose survey at Alaid and Nizki Islands, Near Island Group, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, spring 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Arctic foxes, introduced to Alaid and Nizki islands in 1911, 1920 and 1935, were removed from the two islands in 1975 and 1976 by means of shooting and trapping...

  6. Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges: Comprehensive Conservation Plan and San Juan Islands Wilderness Stewardship Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Protection Island and San Juan Islands NWRs for the next 15 years. This plan outlines...

  7. Parker River National Wildlife Refuge Plum Island (Pond Island, Thacher's Island Refuges): Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Parker River NWR, Pond Island NWR, and Tacher's Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1990 calendar year. The report...

  8. Bird and mammal abundance at Nizki Island with notes on observations at Alaid Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, spring 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To document migratory bird use and response following elimination of introduced Arctic foxes from an island in the western Aleutian Islands. Fox elimination from an...

  9. Parker River National Wildlife Refuge Plum Island (Pond Island, Thacher's Island Refuges): Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Parker River NWR, Pond Island NWR, and Tacher's Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1989 calendar year. The report...

  10. Showcasing bioscience in Rhode Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spero, Denice

    2013-02-01

    There are a number of well-recognized bioscience companies located in the greater Providence area. They represent a significant and growing source of jobs and future revenue, which promises to play a role in the revitalization and expansion of Rhode Island's economy. In an effort to support these companies and to showcase their research, the Rhode Island Medical Journal is highlighting five of these innovative enterprises in this issue. The companies selected are members of the Rhode Island BioScience Leaders organization, and their research spans a wide range of science, from biologics and informatics to innovative coatings for medical devices. They include ProThera Biologics, EpiVax, Tivorsan Pharmaceuticals, BioIntraface, and VeroScience.

  11. URBAN HEAT ISLAND AEROSPACE STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Grishchenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available  Modern cities are characterized by special urban landscape and special urban climate. Urban heat island is a phenomenon closely associated with urban territories. There are many methods developed for studying urban heat island, they can be combined into two groups: imagery-based methods and physicomathematical methods. Using spatial imagery can provide revealing thermal anomalies evolution in time and space, spatial distribution of various thermal anomalies, differences in quantitative measures of various thermal anomalies. Despite the fact that imagery-based methods are seemed to be very widespread among scientists all over the world, still there are some problems with using spatial imagery. The best spatial resolution of accessible thermal imagery is 60 m (ETM+ sensor, and sometimes it is not enough for urban studies (many urban objects have smaller dimensions. The problem of urban heat island is rather serious in modern world, and it needs data of very good quality.

  12. Penguins as bioindicators of mercury contamination in the Southern Ocean: birds from the Kerguelen Islands as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carravieri, Alice; Bustamante, Paco; Churlaud, Carine; Cherel, Yves

    2013-06-01

    Seabirds have been used extensively as bioindicators of mercury (Hg) contamination in the marine environment, although information on flightless species like penguins remains limited. In order to assess the use of penguins as bioindicators of Hg contamination in subantarctic and Antarctic marine ecosystems, Hg concentrations were evaluated in the feathers of the four species that breed on the Kerguelen Islands in the southern Indian Ocean. Compared to other seabirds, adult Kerguelen penguins had low to moderate feather Hg concentrations, with an average ranging from 1.96 ± 0.41 μgg(-1) dry weight in the southern rockhopper penguin to 5.85 ± 3.00 μg g(-1) dry weight in the gentoo penguin. The species was a major determinant of Hg contamination, with feather Hg concentrations being lower in the oceanic species (king and crested penguins) than in the coastal one (gentoo penguin). In all species however, feather Hg concentrations were higher in adults than in chicks, reflecting the different periods of Hg bioaccumulation in the internal tissues of the two age classes. The relationship between adult penguin trophic ecology and Hg burdens was investigated using stable isotopes. Feeding habits (reflected by δ(15)N values) had a greater effect on adult feather Hg concentrations when compared to foraging habitats (reflected by δ(13)C values), indicating Hg biomagnification in Kerguelen neritic and oceanic waters. Dietary preferences were crucial in explaining individual feather Hg concentrations, as highlighted by intra-specific variation in Hg levels of gentoo penguins sampled at two different breeding sites of the archipelago. Penguins appear to reflect Hg bioavailability reliably in their foraging environment and could serve as efficient bioindicators of Hg contamination in the Southern Ocean on different spatial and temporal scales. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Petit Manan National Wildlife Refuge and satellite stations Cross Island National Wildlife Refuge, Seal Island National Wildlife Refuge, Franklin Island National Wildlife Refuge, Pond Island National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Petit Manan NWR, Cross Island NWR, Seal Island NWR, Franklin Island NWR, and Pond Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during...

  14. Petit Manan National Wildlife Refuge and satellite stations Cross Island National Wildlife Refuge, Seal Island National Wildlife Refuge, Franklin Island National Wildlife Refuge, Pond Island National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Petit Manan NWR, Cross Island NWR, Seal Island NWR, Franklin Island NWR, and Pond Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during...

  15. The Big Island of Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Boasting snow-covered mountain peaks and tropical forest, the Island of Hawaii, the largest of the Hawaiian Islands, is stunning at any altitude. This false-color composite (processed to simulate true color) image of Hawaii was constructed from data gathered between 1999 and 2001 by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) instrument, flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. The Landsat data were processed by the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to develop a landcover map. This map will be used as a baseline to chart changes in land use on the islands. Types of change include the construction of resorts along the coastal areas, and the conversion of sugar plantations to other crop types. Hawaii was created by a 'hotspot' beneath the ocean floor. Hotspots form in areas where superheated magma in the Earth's mantle breaks through the Earth's crust. Over the course of millions of years, the Pacific Tectonic Plate has slowly moved over this hotspot to form the entire Hawaiian Island archipelago. The black areas on the island (in this scene) that resemble a pair of sun-baked palm fronds are hardened lava flows formed by the active Mauna Loa Volcano. Just to the north of Mauna Loa is the dormant grayish Mauna Kea Volcano, which hasn't erupted in an estimated 3,500 years. A thin greyish plume of smoke is visible near the island's southeastern shore, rising from Kilauea-the most active volcano on Earth. Heavy rainfall and fertile volcanic soil have given rise to Hawaii's lush tropical forests, which appear as solid dark green areas in the image. The light green, patchy areas near the coasts are likely sugar cane plantations, pineapple farms, and human settlements. Courtesy of the NOAA Coastal Services Center Hawaii Land Cover Analysis project

  16. Streamlined Islands in Ares Valles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 10 June 2002) The Science Although liquid water is not stable on the surface of Mars today, there is substantial geologic evidence that large quantities of water once flowed across the surface in the distant past. Streamlined islands, shown here, are one piece of evidence for this ancient water. The tremendous force of moving water, possibly from a catastrophic flood, carved these teardrop-shaped islands within a much larger channel called Ares Valles. The orientation of the islands can be used as an indicator of the direction the water flowed. The islands have a blunt end that is usually associated with an obstacle, commonly an impact crater. The crater is resistant to erosion and creates a geologic barrier around which the water must flow. As the water flows past the obstacle, its erosive power is directed outward, leaving the area in the lee of the obstacle relatively uneroded. However, some scientists have also argued that the area in the lee of the obstacle might be a depositional zone, where material is dropped out of the water as it briefly slows. The ridges observed on the high-standing terrain in the leeward parts of the islands may be benches carved into the rock that mark the height of the water at various times during the flood, or they might be indicative of layering in the leeward rock. As the water makes its way downstream, the interference of the water flow by the obstacle is reduced, and the water that was diverted around the obstacle rejoins itself at the narrow end of the island. Therefore, the direction of the water flow is parallel to the orientation of the island, and the narrow end of the island points downstream. In addition to the streamlined islands, the channel floor exhibits fluting that is also suggestive of flowing water. The flutes (also known as longitudinal grooves) are also parallel to the direction of flow, indicating that the water flow was turbulent and probably quite fast, which is consistent with the hypothesized

  17. Dredged Material Management in Long Island Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on Western and Central Long Island Sound Dredged Material Disposal Sites including the Dredged Material Management Plan and Regional Dredging Team. Information regarding the Eastern Long Island Sound Selected Site including public meetings.

  18. Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Immunizations Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders Asian/Pacific Islander ... 35 months reached the Healthy People goal for immunizations for hepatitis B, MMR (measles-mumps-rubella), polio ...

  19. Bair Island Restoration Project Monitoring Plan 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bair Island is located adjacent to the San Francisco Bay in Redwood City, San Mateo County, California (Figure 1). Historically, Bair Island was part of a large...

  20. Bartolome Island, Galapagos Stable Oxygen Calibration Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Galapagos Coral Stable Oxygen Calibration Data. Sites: Bartolome Island: 0 deg, 17'S, 90 deg 33' W. Champion Island: 1 deg, 15'S, 90 deg, 05' W. Urvina Bay (Isabela...

  1. Fire Island National Seashore : alternative transportation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-31

    As part of its General Management Plan (GMP) process, Fire Island National Seashore (FIIS) seeks to develop a long-term management model to protect Fire Islands resources, while facilitating a safe, rewarding, and relevant experience for the publi...

  2. Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Obesity Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...

  3. Benthic Mapping in Long Island Sound

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — QTCView is used with an incorporated depthfinder to create a sonar map of the bottom to the west of the Charles Island, in Long Island Sound in Connecticut waters....

  4. Libraries in Rhode Island: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/rhodeisland.html Libraries in Rhode Island To use the sharing features ... Island Hospital / a Lifespan Partner Peters Health Sciences Library 593 Eddy Street Providence, RI 02903-4971 401- ...

  5. Infant Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Immunizations Infant Health & Mortality Mental Health Obesity Organ and Tissue Donation Stroke ... Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders Among Asian/Pacific Islanders, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is the fourth leading cause of ...

  6. Bair Island Restoration Project Monitoring Plan 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bair Island is located adjacent to the San Francisco Bay in Redwood City, San Mateo County, California (Figure 1). Historically, Bair Island was part of a large...

  7. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - U.S. Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) - St. Thomas, St. John, and St. Croix. The Virgin Islands archipelago makes up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles and the western island group of the Leeward Islands, forming the border between the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea.

  8. 77 FR 51473 - Safety Zone; Bostock 50th Anniversary Fireworks, Long Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the navigable waters of Long Island Sound in the vicinity of Manursing Island, NY for a fireworks display. This temporary safety zone is necessary to protect...

  9. 33 CFR 80.720 - St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. 80.720 Section 80.720 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. (a) A line drawn from St. Simons Light to the northernmost tank on...

  10. Island Biogeography; ecology, evolution, and conservation

    OpenAIRE

    DJAMALI, Morteza

    2014-01-01

    The “Island Biogeography; ecology, evolution, and conservation” is an excellent textbook for the island biology. After a brief chapter “The natural laboratory paradigm”, in which the structure of the book is described, the second chapter gives a comprehensive description of the physical characteristics of the islands; their origin, formation, geological evolution, and natural physical disturbances. In chapter 3, the status of the global biodiversity distribution on the Earth’s islands is shor...

  11. Past, Present, Future Erosion at Locke Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjornstad, Bruce N.

    2006-08-08

    This report describes and documents the erosion that has occurred along the northeast side of Locke Island over the last 10 to 20 years. The principal cause of this erosion is the massive Locke Island landslide complex opposite the Columbia River along the White Bluffs, which constricts the flow of the river and deflects the river's thalweg southward against the island.

  12. The Limacidae of the Canary Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regteren Altena, van C.O.

    1950-01-01

    CONTENTS Introduction............... 3 Systematic survey of the Limacidae of the central and western Canary Islands 5 Biogeographical notes on the Limacidae of the Canary Islands . . . . 21 Alphabetical list of the persons who collected or observed Limacidae in the Canary Islands.............. 31

  13. Ecology and Evolution: Islands of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Richard

    This book was designed for middle and junior high school science classes and focuses on island biogeography, ecology, and evolution. Sections include: (1) "Galapagos: Frame of Reference"; (2) "Ecology and Islands"; and (3) "Evolution." Nineteen standards-based activities use the Galapagos Islands as a running theme…

  14. Unsupervised statistical identification of genomic islands using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We develop some statistical methods to determine these external genetic elements or genomic islands in genomes based on their differential oligonucleotide usage patterns compared to the rest of the genome. Genomic islands identified by these unsupervised statistical methods include integron and pathogenicity islands.

  15. 50 CFR 32.59 - Rhode Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rhode Island. 32.59 Section 32.59 Wildlife... § 32.59 Rhode Island. The following refuge units have been opened for hunting and/or fishing and are listed in alphabetical order with applicable refuge-specific regulations. Block Island National Wildlife...

  16. The island-mainland species turnover relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Yoel E; Losos, Jonathan B; Algar, Adam C

    2012-10-07

    Many oceanic islands are notable for their high endemism, suggesting that islands may promote unique assembly processes. However, mainland assemblages sometimes harbour comparable levels of endemism, suggesting that island biotas may not be as unique as is often assumed. Here, we test the uniqueness of island biotic assembly by comparing the rate of species turnover among islands and the mainland, after accounting for distance decay and environmental gradients. We modelled species turnover as a function of geographical and environmental distance for mainland (M-M) communities of Anolis lizards and Terrarana frogs, two clades that have diversified extensively on Caribbean islands and the mainland Neotropics. We compared mainland-island (M-I) and island-island (I-I) species turnover with predictions of the M-M model. If island assembly is not unique, then the M-M model should successfully predict M-I and I-I turnover, given geographical and environmental distance. We found that M-I turnover and, to a lesser extent, I-I turnover were significantly higher than predicted for both clades. Thus, in the first quantitative comparison of mainland-island species turnover, we confirm the long-held but untested assumption that island assemblages accumulate biodiversity differently than their mainland counterparts.

  17. On a Crowded Desert Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Samuel

    1989-01-01

    Suggests reference sources most appropriate for a desert island. In addition to "Robinson Crusoe" (Daniel Defoe) and a reference guide to the literature of travel, the list includes basic books on reference work, guides to reference sources, journals, an almanac, encyclopedias, a guide to English usage, and a book of quotations. (14 references)…

  18. Extinction debt on oceanic islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantis, Kostas A.; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Ladle, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    the magnitude of such future extinction events has been hampered by potentially inaccurate assumptions about the slope of species-area relationships, which are habitat- and taxon-specific. We overcome this challenge by applying a method that uses the historical sequence of deforestation in the Azorean Islands...

  19. 46 CFR 7.70 - Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. 7.70 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.70 Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Folly Island to latitude 32°35′ N. longitude 79°58.2′ W. (Stono Inlet Lighted Whistle...

  20. 46 CFR 7.80 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. 7.80 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.80 Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Savannah Beach on Tybee Island 255° true across Tybee Inlet to the shore of Little...

  1. Returning from the Horizon: Introducing Urban Island Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Barceló Pinya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Island studies tends to focus on peripheral, isolated, and marginal aspects of island communities, while urban studies has showed scant awareness of islandness: Although many people research cities on islands, there is little tradition of researching island cities or urban archipelagos per se. Island cities (densely populated small islands and population centres of larger islands and archipelagos nevertheless play import cultural, economic, political, and environmental roles on local, regional, and global scales. Many major cities and ports have developed on small islands, and even villages can fulfil important urban functions on lightly populated islands. Island concepts are also deployed to metaphorically describe developments in urban space. The journal Urban Island Studies explores island and urban processes around the world, taking an island approach to urban research and an urban approach to island research.

  2. Challenges, advances and perspectives in island biogeography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo A.V. Borges

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Island biogeographical research is becoming more and more fashionable, with the continuous identification of new challenges that are critical for the advancement of science. In this contribution we identify biases and limitations associated with island biogeographical studies, and also describe recent advances and propose new perspectives. The main proposals include: 1 downscaling island biogeographical studies to local/plot scale; 2 investigating geographical patterns of intra-specific genetic variation to infer dispersal processes among and within islands; 3 using applied biogeographical research to respond to the current island biodiversity crisis; and 4 applying new computer-intensive methods such as artificial intelligence (AI approaches.

  3. 75 FR 51098 - Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, Island, San Juan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... by the National Wildlife Refuge System Improvement Act of 1997, requires us to develop a CCP for each... libraries in northwestern Washington: Anacortes Public Library, Bellingham Public Library, Clinton Public Library, Coupeville Public Library, Evergreen State College Library, Island Public Library, Jefferson...

  4. Morphology and ecology of bivalve molluscs from Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresinha M. Absher

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Bivalve species were collected from shallow coastal areas of King George Island (Martel, Mackellar and Ezcurra Inlets of Admiralty Bay. Twenty one species belonging to 16 genera and 12 families were identified and their morphometric and morphological shell characteristics were described. Three main characteristics were found to be common to the majority of the bivalve species sampled: 1 thin fragile shells; 2 small size of individuals (76%, and 3 the lack of true cardinal teeth (72%. Comparison of calcium data from a tropical estuary and a subantarctic coastal shallow area suggested that the calcium in the sea water was not a constraint to shell building but shell thickness could be an adaptation to the efficiency of energy partitioning. Small individual size and the lack of true cardinal teeth are discussed in relation to a high deposition environment and widespread mud bottoms.Espécies de bivalves foram coletadas na região costeira rasa da Ilha Rei George (Enseadas Martel, Mackellar e Ezcurra da Baía do Almirantado. Vinte e uma espécies pertencentes a 16 gêneros e 12 famílias foram identificadas e as caractrísticas morfológicas e morfométricas das conchas descritas. Destacaram-se 3 características principais comuns à maioria das espécies: 1 conchas finas e frágeis; 2 pequeno tamanho dos indivíduos (76%, e 3 a ausência de dentes cardinais (72%. A comparação entre os dados de cálcio de um estuário tropical e uma região rasa costeira subantártica sugeriu que os valores de cálcio na água do mar não seriam uma restrição à formação das conchas, mas a espessura das conchas poderia ser uma adaptação à eficiência na distribuição da energia. Discute-se a ausência de dentes cardinais e pequeno tamanho dos indivíduos em ralação a um ambiente de alta deposição e abundância de fundos lodosos.

  5. Inverter Anti-Islanding with Advanced Grid Support in Single- and Multi-Inverter Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoke, Andy

    2016-08-16

    As PV and other DER systems are connected to the grid at increased penetration levels, island detection may become more challenging for two reasons: 1. In islands containing many DERs, active inverter-based anti-islanding methods may have more difficulty detecting islands because each individual inverter's efforts to detect the island may be interfered with by the other inverters in the island. 2. The increasing numbers of DERs are leading to new requirements that DERs ride through grid disturbances and even actively try to regulate grid voltage and frequency back towards nominal operating conditions. These new grid support requirements may directly or indirectly interfere with anti-islanding controls. This report describes a series of tests designed to examine the impacts of both grid support functions and multi-inverter islands on anti-islanding effectiveness.

  6. On the form of species–area relationships in habitat islands and true islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthews, Thomas J.; Guilhaumon, François; Triantis, Kostas A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: We undertook the largest comparative study to date of the form of the island species–area relationship (ISAR) using 207 habitat island datasets and 601 true island datasets. We also undertook analyses of (a) the factors influencing z- and c-values of the power (log–log) model and (b) how z...... and c vary between different island types. Location: Global. Methods: We used an information theoretic approach to compare the fit of 20 ISAR models to 207 habitat island datasets. Model performance was ranked according to pre-set criteria, including metrics of generality and efficiency. We also fitted......, and was the highest ranked model overall. In general, the more complex models performed badly. Average z-values were significantly lower for habitat island datasets than for true islands, and were higher for mountaintop and urban habitat islands than for other habitat island types. Average c-values were significantly...

  7. First record of the mycoheterotrophic orchid Gastrodia fontinalis (Orchidaceae from Takeshima Island, the Ryukyu Islands, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Suetsugu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We found Gastrodia fontinalis T. P. Lin in a bamboo forest from Takeshima Island, which is the northernmost island of the Ryukyu Islands in Japan. This species is apparently rare and was previously considered to be an endemic Taiwanese species. Because there are a few minor differences between the original description and our specimens collected in Takeshima Island, here we report Gastrodia fontinalis from Takeshima Island as the first record outside of Taiwan, with a description of the specimens from Takeshima Island.

  8. Penguins as bioindicators of mercury contamination in the Southern Ocean: Birds from the Kerguelen Islands as a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carravieri, Alice, E-mail: carravieri@cebc.cnrs.fr [Centre d' Etudes Biologiques de Chizé, UPR 1934 du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, BP 14, 79360 Villiers-en-Bois (France); Littoral Environnement et Sociétés (LIENSs), UMRi 7266 CNRS-Université de la Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, 17000 La Rochelle (France); Bustamante, Paco, E-mail: pbustama@univ-lr.fr [Littoral Environnement et Sociétés (LIENSs), UMRi 7266 CNRS-Université de la Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, 17000 La Rochelle (France); Churlaud, Carine [Littoral Environnement et Sociétés (LIENSs), UMRi 7266 CNRS-Université de la Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, 17000 La Rochelle (France); Cherel, Yves [Centre d' Etudes Biologiques de Chizé, UPR 1934 du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, BP 14, 79360 Villiers-en-Bois (France)

    2013-06-01

    Seabirds have been used extensively as bioindicators of mercury (Hg) contamination in the marine environment, although information on flightless species like penguins remains limited. In order to assess the use of penguins as bioindicators of Hg contamination in subantarctic and Antarctic marine ecosystems, Hg concentrations were evaluated in the feathers of the four species that breed on the Kerguelen Islands in the southern Indian Ocean. Compared to other seabirds, adult Kerguelen penguins had low to moderate feather Hg concentrations, with an average ranging from 1.96 ± 0.41 μg g{sup −1} dry weight in the southern rockhopper penguin to 5.85 ± 3.00 μg g{sup −1} dry weight in the gentoo penguin. The species was a major determinant of Hg contamination, with feather Hg concentrations being lower in the oceanic species (king and crested penguins) than in the coastal one (gentoo penguin). In all species however, feather Hg concentrations were higher in adults than in chicks, reflecting the different periods of Hg bioaccumulation in the internal tissues of the two age classes. The relationship between adult penguin trophic ecology and Hg burdens was investigated using stable isotopes. Feeding habits (reflected by δ{sup 15}N values) had a greater effect on adult feather Hg concentrations when compared to foraging habitats (reflected by δ{sup 13}C values), indicating Hg biomagnification in Kerguelen neritic and oceanic waters. Dietary preferences were crucial in explaining individual feather Hg concentrations, as highlighted by intra-specific variation in Hg levels of gentoo penguins sampled at two different breeding sites of the archipelago. Penguins appear to reflect Hg bioavailability reliably in their foraging environment and could serve as efficient bioindicators of Hg contamination in the Southern Ocean on different spatial and temporal scales. - Highlights: • Hg contamination was evaluated in 4 species of penguins at the Kerguelen Islands. • Adults

  9. Lodging Update: Providence, Rhode Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragel Roginsky

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Each quarter, Pinnacle Advisory Group prepares an analysis of the New England lodging industry, which provides a regional summary and then focuses in depth on a particular market. These reviews look at recent and proposed supply changes, factors affecting demand and growth rates, and the effects of interactions between such supply and demand trends. In this issue, the authors spotlight the lodging market in Providence, Rhode Island.

  10. Morphotectonics of the Mascarene Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Scheidegger

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available A study is made of the orientations (strikes/trends of joints, valleys, ridges and lineaments, i.e. of the (potentially morphotectonic features, of the Mascarene Islands (Reunion, Mauritius and Rodrigues in the Indian Ocean. It turns out that a connection exists between these features on all islands. For the joints alone, the results for Mauritius as a whole agree closely with those for Rodrigues as a whole, and also partially with those of Reunion. Inasmuch as the trends of the valleys, ridges and lineaments are related to the trends (strikes of the joints, a common morphotectonic predesign seems to be present for all features studied. The morphotectonic orientations on the island also agree closely with the trends of fracture zones, ridges and trenches in the nearby ocean bottom; which has had a bearing on the theories of the origin of the Mascarene Islands. Generally, a hot-spot origin is preferred for Reunion, and may be for Mauritius as well, although differing opinions have also been voiced. The dynamics of a hot-spot is hard to reconcile with the close fit of the joint strikes in Réunion with the trends of the Madagascar and Rodrigues fracture zones. The closely agreeing joint maxima in Mauritius and Rodrigues í across the deep Mauritius trench í also agree with the trend of that trench and with the trend of the Rodrigues fracture zone. Thus, it would appear as most likely that the trends of joints and of fracture zones are all part of the same pattern and are due to the same cause: viz. to action of the neotectonic stress field.

  11. Distribution patterns of chaetognata, polychaeta, pteropoda and salpidae off south georgia and south orkney islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina María Crelier

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The distribution pattern, frequency and density (ind./1000 m of different mesozooplankton species from the South Georgia Islands, South Orkney Islands and the Weddell-Scotia Confluence were analyzed using data obtained in 1994. The maximum densities of the species found were: Eukrohnia hamata (5330, Sagitta gazellae (1052, Clione limacina antarctica (450, Spongiobranchaea australis (375, Clio sulcata (100, Limacina helicina (4076 x 10³, Limacina retroversa (71 x 10(4, Pelagobia longicirrata (29170, Rhynchonereella bongraini (117, Tomopteris carpenterii (26, Tomopteris planktonis (498, Tomopteris septentrionales (498 and Salpa thompsoni (189. Species density and frequency decreased from South Georgia to the South Orkney Islands, recording intermediate values at the Weddell-Scotia Confluence. Species density in the South Orkney area seemed to be limited by variations in temperature and salinity. The southern area around South Georgia showed the highest density of species, probably due to the influence of the Southern Front of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. The presence of species characteristic of sub-Antarctic waters such as L. retroversa in the Confluence area could be related to the southward movements of eddies that originate in the Polar Front.Foram analisados os padrões de distribuição, freqüência e densidade (ind. 1000 m de diferentes espécies de mesozooplâncton encontradas em torno das ilhas Georgias e Orcadas del Sur no verão de 1994. As densidades máximas apresentadas pelas espécies principais foram: Eukrohnia hamata (5330, Sagitta gazellae (1052, Clione limacina antarctica (450, Spongiobranchaea australis (375, Clio sulcata (100, Limacina helicina (4076 x 10³, Limacina retroversa (71 x 10(4; Pelagobia longicirrata (29170, Rhynchonereella bongraini (117, Tomopteris carpenterii (26, Tomopteris planktonis (498, Tomopteris septentrionales (498 y Salpa thompsoni (189. A densidade e freqüência das espécies diminuíram das

  12. Island biology: looking towards the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueffer, Christoph; Drake, Donald R; Fernández-Palacios, José María

    2014-10-01

    Oceanic islands are renowned for the profound scientific insights that their fascinating biotas have provided to biologists during the past two centuries. Research presented at Island Biology 2014-an international conference, held in Honolulu, Hawaii (7-11 July 2014), which attracted 253 presenters and 430 participants from at least 35 countries(1)-demonstrated that islands are reclaiming a leading role in ecology and evolution, especially for synthetic studies at the intersections of macroecology, evolution, community ecology and applied ecology. New dynamics in island biology are stimulated by four major developments. We are experiencing the emergence of a truly global and comprehensive island research community incorporating previously neglected islands and taxa. Macroecology and big-data analyses yield a wealth of global-scale synthetic studies and detailed multi-island comparisons, while other modern research approaches such as genomics, phylogenetic and functional ecology, and palaeoecology, are also dispersing to islands. And, increasingly tight collaborations between basic research and conservation management make islands places where new conservation solutions for the twenty-first century are being tested. Islands are home to a disproportionate share of the world's rare (and extinct) species, and there is an urgent need to develop increasingly collaborative and innovative research to address their conservation requirements. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Pathogenicity island mobility and gene content.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Kelly Porter

    2013-10-01

    Key goals towards national biosecurity include methods for analyzing pathogens, predicting their emergence, and developing countermeasures. These goals are served by studying bacterial genes that promote pathogenicity and the pathogenicity islands that mobilize them. Cyberinfrastructure promoting an island database advances this field and enables deeper bioinformatic analysis that may identify novel pathogenicity genes. New automated methods and rich visualizations were developed for identifying pathogenicity islands, based on the principle that islands occur sporadically among closely related strains. The chromosomally-ordered pan-genome organizes all genes from a clade of strains; gaps in this visualization indicate islands, and decorations of the gene matrix facilitate exploration of island gene functions. A %E2%80%9Clearned phyloblocks%E2%80%9D method was developed for automated island identification, that trains on the phylogenetic patterns of islands identified by other methods. Learned phyloblocks better defined termini of previously identified islands in multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC BAA-2146, and found its only antibiotic resistance island.

  14. Introduced mammals on Western Indian Ocean islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C. Russell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of introduced mammals and their introduction history varies greatly across the Western Indian Ocean (WIO islands, from ancient introductions in the past millennia on islands off the East coast of Africa where extant terrestrial native mammal communities exist, to very recent invasions in the past decades on islands in the Mascarene archipelago. We compile the distribution of 16 introduced mammal taxa on 28 island groups comprising almost 2000 islands. Through an exhaustive literature review and expert consultation process we recorded all mammal eradications, and species recoveries which could be attributed to introduced mammal eradication or control. All island groups have been invaded by mammals, and invasive cats and rats in particular are ubiquitous, but cultural contingency has also led to regional invasions by other mammals such as lemurs, civets and tenrecs. Mammal eradications have been attempted on 45 islands in the WIO, the majority in the Seychelles and Mauritius, and where successful have resulted in spectacular recovery of species and ecosystems. Invasive mammalian predator eradication or control in association with habitat management has led to improved conservation prospects for at least 24 species, and IUCN red-list down-listing of eight species, in the Mascarene Islands. Future island conservation prioritisation in the region will need to take account of global climate change and predicted sea-level rises and coastal inundation. Greater investment and prioritisation in island conservation in the region is warranted, given its high biodiversity values and the extent of invasions.

  15. A global analysis of island pyrogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauernicht, C.; Murphy, B. P.

    2014-12-01

    Islands have provided insight into the ecological role of fire worldwide through research on the positive feedbacks between fire and nonnative grasses, particularly in the Hawaiian Islands. However, the global extent and frequency of fire on islands as an ecological disturbance has received little attention, possibly because 'natural fires' on islands are typically limited to infrequent dry lightning strikes and isolated volcanic events. But because most contemporary fires on islands are anthropogenic, islands provide ideal systems with which to understand the linkages between socio-economic development, shifting fire regimes, and ecological change. Here we use the density of satellite-derived (MODIS) active fire detections for the years 2000-2014 and global data sets of vegetation, climate, population density, and road development to examine the drivers of fire activity on islands at the global scale, and compare these results to existing pyrogeographic models derived from continental data sets. We also use the Hawaiian Islands as a case study to understand the extent to which novel fire regimes can pervade island ecosystems. The global analysis indicates that fire is a frequent disturbance across islands worldwide, strongly affected by human activities, indicating people can more readily override climatic drivers than on continental land masses. The extent of fire activity derived from local records in the Hawaiian Islands reveals that our global analysis likely underestimates the prevalence of fire among island systems and that the combined effects of human activity and invasion by nonnative grasses can create conditions for frequent and relatively large-scale fires. Understanding the extent of these novel fire regimes, and mitigating their impacts, is critical to reducing the current and rapid degradation of native island ecosystems worldwide.

  16. [Effects of islanding on plant species diversity in Thousand-island Lake region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianbo; Dung, Lizhong; Xu, Gaofu

    2005-09-01

    In this paper, the typical area of fragmentation in Thousand-island Lake region was selected to study the effects of islanding on plant species diversity after reservoir built. 26 quadrates were installed on 18 small, medium and large islands to investigate the species and number of trees and shrubs, with inland as the control One-way variance analysis (ANOVA) showed that the species richness of trees was significantly different (F = 13.055, P = 0.000) among all kinds of islands, which was significantly higher on large islands than on small and medium ones, but not significantly different from that on inland. The species richness of shrubs was not significantly different among all kinds of islands and inland. Spearman correlation analysis showed that the species richness of trees was significantly positively correlated with island area, while the correlation between specie richness of shrubs and island area was not significant. Shannon-Wiener Index (H) analysis suggested that the diversity of both trees and shrubs on large islands was the highest, followed by on inland, but the diversity of shrubs was larger on small than on medium islands. The analysis of Simpson index and Pielou index showed that the species evenness of trees was the highest, but the dominance was the lowest on medium and large islands, while the species evenness of shrubs was the highest on medium and small islands, but the dominance was the lowest on small islands.

  17. Island biogeography, the effects of taxonomic effort and the importance of island niche diversity to single-island endemic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Alan; Cavers, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Island biogeography theory is fundamentally reliant on measuring the number of species per island and hence has taxonomy at its foundation. Yet as a metric used in tests of the theory, island species richness (S) has varied with time according to the level of taxonomic effort (a function of the rate of finding and describing species). Studies using a derivative of S, single-island endemic species richness (SIE S), may be prone to change in taxonomic effort. Decreases or increases in species numbers resulting from taxonomic revision or increased sampling are likely to have a large effect on values of SIE S, as they tend to be smaller than total S for the same island. Using simple biogeography models, we analysed estimates of SIE S in plants, land snails, beetles, and fungi from comprehensive data sets for eight island groups, produced species accumulation curves and applied Bayesian regression over five time periods. Explanatory power differed across taxa, but area and island age were not always the best explanatory variables, and niche diversity appeared to be important. Changing levels of SIE S over time had different effects on models with different taxa and between island archipelagos. The results indicated that the taxonomic effort that determines SIE S is important. However, as this cannot often be quantified, we suggest Bayesian approaches should be more useful than frequentist methods in evaluating SIE S in island biogeography theory. Fundamentally, the article highlights the importance of taxonomy to theoretical biogeography.

  18. Molluscan fauna of Gueishan Island, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chih-Wei; Hsiung, Ta-Wei; Lin, Si-Min; Wu, Wen-Lung

    2013-01-01

    This dataset records the occurrence and inventory of molluscan fauna on Gueishan Island, the only active volcanic island in Taiwan, based on the literature survey and field investigation conducted between 2011 and 2012. The literature review involved seven studies published from 1934 to 2003, which collectively reported 112 species from 61 genera and 37 families of Mollusca on Gueishan Island. Through our field investigation, we identified 34 species from 28 genera and 23 families. Fourteen of these species were new records on Gueishan Island: Liolophura japonica, Lottia luchuana, Nerita costata, Nerita rumphii, Diplommatina suganikeiensis, Littoraria undulata, Solenomphala taiwanensis, Assiminea sp., Siphonaria laciniosa, Laevapex nipponica, Carychium hachijoensis, Succinea erythrophana, Zaptyx crassilamellata, and Allopeas pyrgula. In Total, there are 126 species from 71 genera and 45 families of Mollusca on Gueishan Island. These data have been published through GBIF [http://taibif.org.tw/ipt/resource.do?r=gueishan_island] and integrated into the Taiwan Malacofauna Database (http://shell.sinica.edu.tw/).

  19. Control and Operation of Islanded Distribution System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahat, Pukar

    with more than one generator connected to the same system. An isochronous controller with feedback has been developed in this research study. It performs relatively well in both islanded and grid connected conditions. Hence, if there is more than one DG unit in the distribution system, employing isochronous...... of power supply provided that various issues with islanding are properly addressed. Some of the issues with islanding are state (islanded or grid connected) detection, control of voltage and frequency, load control and protection. In this dissertation, some of the major technical issues with islanding...... power shift). However, the active technique is used only when the passive technique cannot clearly discriminate between islanded and grid connected conditions. DG units perform the best if they are operated with droop control and power factor control when they are operating parallel to the grid...

  20. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - British Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the British Virgin Islands (BVI), one of three sets of the Virgin Island territories in an archipelago making up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles.

  1. Progress report on field studies in the Aleutian Islands, Semidi Islands and Bering Sea, 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes work in the Aleutian Islands, Semidi Islands, and Bering Sea in support of work unit 953.10. Distribution and abundance of birds as seas (work...

  2. Pine Island, Matlacha Pass, Island Bay, and Caloosahatchee National Wildlife Refuges: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Pine Island, Matlacha Pass, Island Bay, and Caloosahatchee NWRs for the next 15 years....

  3. Proposing New Wilderness Areas: Okefenokee, Pelican Islands, Island Bay, Cedar Keys, Passage Key, and Wichita Mountains

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — President Transmittal on the proposal of wilderness additions that include Okefenokee, Pelican Islands, Island Bay, Cedar Keys, Passage Key, and Wichita Mountains.

  4. Backscatter 0.5m TIFF Mosaic of St. Croix (Buck Island), US Virgin Islands, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 0.5 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of the north shore of Buck Island, St. Croix, US Virgin Islands. NOAA's NOS/NCCOS/CCMA Biogeography...

  5. Introduced arctic fox eradication at Rat Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, summer 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Mechanical means similar to those employed on Amata Island during the summer of 1983 were used to attempt eradication of fox on Rat Island. These labor intensive...

  6. CRED 20m Gridded bathymetry of Necker Islands, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, USA (NetCDF format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Necker Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, Hawaii, USA. This netCDF includes multibeam bathymetry from...

  7. Reunion Island's Position in the southern African and the Indian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reunion Island is one of the islands in southeastern Africa. Like most other islands, it experienced colonisation and became part of the French colonial empire. What is interesting is that Reunion Island rather opted for continued dependency while other colonised territories opted for sovereignty; the island thus became

  8. The megazoobenthos of the Scotia Arc islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ramos

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Megabenthic epifauna composition and distribution from the Scotia Arc islands based on data collected during the Antarctic summer of 1986-87 is presented. Samples were taken from bottom trawl catches at 345 stations (29 at Shag Rocks, 104 at South Georgia, 8 at the South Sandwich Islands, 93 at the South Orkney Islands, 46 at Elephant Island, and 65 at the South Shetland Islands, from 26 to 643 m depth. Among the most striking features of the faunistic composition of the area, pointed out by multivariate analysis, are the singularity of Shag Rocks, closer to the Magellan region, and of the volcanic South Sandwich Islands, as well as the similarity of South Georgia and the South Orkney Islands and that of the islands nearest to the Antarctic continent, especially Elephant Island and the South Shetlands Islands. This similarity is due to the higher frequency and abundance of the most characteristic taxa in the Antarctic epibenthos, such as sessile suspension feeders (sponges, calcareous bryozoans, pennatulids, crinoids, and motile fauna with a wide variety of trophic strategies (asteroids, holothurians, pycnogonids, large isopods and gammarids. These data confirm the fact that the long-lived suspension-feeder communities, demosponges and hexactinellids, characteristic of the Antarctic epibenthos stretch to the eastern shelf of South Georgia without reaching the north-west of this island, the South Sandwich Islands, and Shag Rocks. Some of the zones with rich communities of sessile filter-feeders, long-lived sponges or reef formations of calcareous bryozoans or serpulids should be proposed as Specially Protected Areas.

  9. Different shades of green on small islands

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa Tiago; Sandra Dias Faria; João Luís Cogumbreiro; João Pedro Couto; Flávio Tiago

    2016-01-01

    Many small islands exist as tourism destinations worldwide. In the 1990s, the growth of environmental consciousness led some small islands to question their mass tourism offers and to refocus on more sustainable propositions. However, it remains unclear whether hospitality firms see these sustainability related efforts as drivers of success and whether tourists value this dimension when choosing or recommending a destination. This study chose a small island destination to address these questi...

  10. Concepts for Functional Restoration of Barrier Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    shrimp require tidal circulation and gradient in salinity within estuaries as a part of their juvenile growth cycle, which is promoted by the presence of...dynamically stable in that the barrier island is designed to allow morphologic evolution through time via migration and overwash, as long as the storm...island dimen- sions (width and elevation) required to maintain morphologic form and increase the potential for island recovery after a storm. For

  11. The evolution of birdsong on islands

    OpenAIRE

    Morinay, Jennifer; Cardoso, Gonçalo C; Doutrelant, Claire; Covas, Rita

    2013-01-01

    Islands are simplified, isolated ecosystems, providing an ideal set-up to study evolution. Among several traits that are expected to change on islands, an interesting but poorly understood example concerns signals used in animal communication. Islands are typified by reduced species diversity, increased population density, and reduced mate competition, all of which could affect communication signals. We used birdsong to investigate whether there are systematic changes in communication signals...

  12. Island Fox Veterinary And Pathology Services On San Clemente Island, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    focal species for conservation by the U.S. Navy. The Island Fox Veterinary and Pathology Services project was designed to assist the Navy in island fox...the U.S. Navy. The Island Fox Veterinary and Pathology Services project was designed to assist the Navy in island fox conservation and management...microscopes, centrifuges, autoclave, blood analysis machines, a -80° F freezer and a computer (Figure 1). It also had storage for medical supplies

  13. Renewable technologies for generation systems in islands and their application to Cozumel Island, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza Vizcaino, Javier; Sumper, Andreas; Sudrià Andreu, Antoni; Ramirez, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The electric generation systems on islands are based generally on fossil fuel. This fact and its supply make the electricity cost higher than in systems used in the continent. In this article, we present a review of the renewable energy generation systems on islands. To do it we analysed 77 islands from 45 different countries. This work will allow us to know how the implementation of renewable energy sources could help these islands in developing a renewable and sustainable energy sector, inc...

  14. The evolution of birdsong on islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinay, Jennifer; Cardoso, Gonçalo C; Doutrelant, Claire; Covas, Rita

    2013-12-01

    Islands are simplified, isolated ecosystems, providing an ideal set-up to study evolution. Among several traits that are expected to change on islands, an interesting but poorly understood example concerns signals used in animal communication. Islands are typified by reduced species diversity, increased population density, and reduced mate competition, all of which could affect communication signals. We used birdsong to investigate whether there are systematic changes in communication signals on islands, by undertaking a broad comparison based on pairs of closely related island-mainland species across the globe. We studied song traits related to complexity (number of different syllables, frequency bandwidth), to vocal performance (syllable delivery rate, song duration), and also three particular song elements (rattles, buzzes, and trills) generally implicated in aggressive communication. We also investigated whether song complexity was related to the number of similar sympatric species. We found that island species were less likely to produce broadband and likely aggressive song elements (rattles and buzzes). By contrast, various aspects of song complexity and performance did not differ between island and mainland species. Species with fewer same-family sympatric species used wider frequency bandwidths, as predicted by the character release hypothesis, both on continents and on islands. Our study supports the hypothesis of a reduction in aggressive behavior on islands and suggests that discrimination against closely related species is an important factor influencing birdsong evolution.

  15. Solid waste management on small islands: the case of Green Island, Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, M.C.; Ruijs, A.J.W.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2005-01-01

    Municipalities of small islands have limited capacities for waste disposal. In the case of Green Island, Taiwan, continuing with business as usual would only allow the disposal of waste on the island for another 8 years. Three alternatives for solid waste management (SWM) are compared. The

  16. 78 FR 27877 - Safety Zone; McAloon Wedding Fireworks, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; McAloon Wedding Fireworks, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking SUMMARY: The... is planned on Lake Erie in the vicinity of Catawba Island, OH. This fireworks display will be...

  17. 33 CFR 80.717 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. 80.717 Section 80.717 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Seventh District § 80.717 Tybee Island...

  18. 33 CFR 80.712 - Morris Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Morris Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. 80.712 Section 80.712 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Seventh District § 80.712 Morris Island...

  19. 33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation and Navigable... Areas § 110.6 Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). Beginning at the southeasterly corner of the wharf, at the most southerly point of Great Diamond Island at...

  20. 76 FR 72369 - Safety Zone; Marco Island Marriott Charity Fireworks Display, Gulf of Mexico, Marco Island, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... No. USCG-2011-0968] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Marco Island Marriott Charity Fireworks Display, Gulf of Mexico, Marco Island, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY... the vicinity of Marco Island Marriott Beach Resort in Marco Island, Florida during the Marco Island...

  1. Vegetation of eastern Unalaska Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Stephen S.; Schofield, Wilfred B.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Daniëls, Fred J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Plant communities of Unalaska Island in the eastern Aleutian Islands of western Alaska, and their relationship to environmental variables, were studied using a combined Braun-Blanquet and multivariate approach. Seventy relevés represented the range of structural and compositional variation in the matrix of vegetation and landform zonation. Eleven major community types were distinguished within six physiognomic–ecological groups: I. Dry coastal meadows: Honckenya peploides beach meadow, Leymus mollis dune meadow. II. Mesic meadows: Athyrium filix-femina – Aconitum maximum meadow, Athyrium filix-femina – Calamagrostis nutkaensis meadow, Erigeron peregrinus – Thelypteris quelpaertensis meadow. III. Wet snowbed meadow: Carex nigricans snowbed meadow. IV. Heath: Linnaea borealis – Empetrum nigrum heath, Phyllodoce aleutica heath, Vaccinium uliginosum – Thamnolia vermicularis fellfield. V. Mire: Carex pluriflora – Plantago macrocarpa mire. VI. Deciduous shrub thicket: Salix barclayi – Athyrium filix-femina thicket. These were interpreted as a complex gradient primarily influenced by soil moisture, elevation, and pH. Phytogeographical and syntaxonomical analysis of the plant communities indicated that the dry coastal meadows, most of the heaths, and the mire vegetation belonged, respectively, to the widespread classes Honckenyo–Elymetea, Loiseleurio–Vaccinietea, and Scheuchzerio–Caricetea, characterized by their circumpolar and widespread species. Amphi-Beringian species were likely diagnostic of amphi-Beringian syntaxa, many of these yet to be described.

  2. In or On? Island Words, Island Worlds: II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronstrom Owe

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The first part of the paper examines uses and meanings of the orientational metaphors ‘in’, ‘on’, ‘out’ and ‘off’. In the discussed languages in North Western Europe there are general principles of metaphoric entailment and underlying image schemas that guide the choice of positional metaphor: islands you are normally ‘on’, and mainlands ‘in’. The second part of the paper examines cases where this use is debated or contested. The author finds that these contestations seem to be fuelled by the different relations between subject and object that positional metaphors entail. Expressions with ‘in’ highlight belonging and collective identity, enlarge objects by conceptualizing them as encompassing containers, and reduce subjects to a part of the object. Expressions with ‘on’ highlight individuality and agency, reduce the object, and enlarge the subject by placing it above the object. Such differing entailments of positional metaphors may influence how islands are positioned and understood.

  3. Atmospheric Vortices near Guadalupe Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    These MISR images from June 11, 2000 (Terra orbit 2569) demonstrate a turbulent atmospheric flow pattern known as the von Karman vortex street. This phenomenon is named after aerodynamicist Theodore von Karman, who theoretically derived the conditions under which it occurs. The alternating double row of vortices can form in the wake of an obstacle, in this instance the eastern Pacific island of Guadalupe. The rugged terrain of this volcanic Mexican island reaches a maximum elevation of 1.3 kilometers. The island is about 35 kilometers long and is located 260 kilometers west of Baja California.The vortex pattern is made visible by the marine stratocumulus clouds around Guadalupe Island. The upper image is a color view obtained by MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. North is toward the left. The orientation of the vortex street indicates that the wind direction is from lower left to upper right (northwest to southeast). The areas within the vortex centers tend to be clear because the rotating motions induce a vertical wind component that can break up the cloud deck.The lower view is a stereo picture generated from data acquired by MISR's fore- and aft-viewing 70-degree cameras. A 3-D effect is obtained by viewing the image with red/blue glasses and placing the red filter over your left eye. Note how the downwelling atmospheric motion (change in elevation from high to low) is accompanied by a clearing in the center of the first vortex. As the vortices propagate downstream, their rotational velocities weaken. As a consequence, the induced vertical motion and cloud-clearing effect weakens as well.Theodore von Karman was a Professor of Aeronautics at Caltech and Director of Caltech's Guggenheim Aeronautical Laboratory from 1930-1949. He was one of the principal founders of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by

  4. St. Vincent Island White-Tailed Deer Monitoring Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The white tailed deer herd on St. Vincent Island represents an important part of the island's biotic community. To maintain the integrity of the island's deer...

  5. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - Grenada (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Grenada - a small island nation consisting of the island of Grenada and six smaller islands in the southeastern Caribbean Sea - three of which are inhabited: Grenada, Carriacou, and Petite Martinique.

  6. Palaeotsunamis in the Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, J.; Chague-Goff, C.; Dominey-Howes, D.; McAdoo, B.; Cronin, S.; Bonte-Grapetin, Michael; Nichol, S.; Horrocks, M.; Cisternas, M.; Lamarche, G.; Pelletier, B.; Jaffe, B.; Dudley, W.

    2011-01-01

    The recent 29 September 2009 South Pacific and 27 February 2010 Chilean events are a graphic reminder that the tsunami hazard and risk for the Pacific Ocean region should not be forgotten. Pacific Islands Countries (PICs) generally have short (events. However, our current state of knowledge of palaeotsunamis in PICs as opposed to their circum-Pacific counterparts is minimal at best. We briefly outline the limited extent of our current knowledge and propose an innovative methodology for future research in the Pacific. Each PIC represents a point source of information in the Pacific Ocean and this would allow their palaeotsunami records to be treated akin to palaeo-DART?? (Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis) buoys. Contemporaneous palaeotsunamis from local, regional and distant sources could be identified by using the spatial distribution of island records throughout the Pacific Ocean in conjunction with robust event chronologies. This would be highly innovative and, more importantly, would help provide the building blocks necessary to achieve more meaningful disaster risk reduction for PICs. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Eruption reported in Aleutian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    On November 29, an airplane pilot reported the start of an eruption on Mount Westdahl on Unimak Island in the Aleutian Islands (54.52°N, 164.65°W), according to the Smithsonian Institution's Global Volcanism Network. The pilot sighted an ash plume rising to more than 7 km altitude at 1705 local time ( = UT-11 hours). The main portion of the plume, at about 5 km altitude, extended 80-95 km east-northeast by 0930 the next morning.About noon, U.S. Coast Guard pilots observed a NE-SW fissure vent 5-8 km long, with at least one active lava flow traveling down the east flank. The area surrounding the vent was ash-covered, and increased runoff and possible mudflows were observed. Vigorous steam and ash emission was visible throughout the day from False Pass (90 km NE), which experienced a very fine dusting of ash. A strong sulfur odor at False Pass lasted into the night, and similar odors were reported by pilots up to several hundred kilometers inland. No ashfall has been reported in Cold Bay (145 km NE).

  8. Hydrogeology of the Hawaiian islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, Stephen B.; Oki, Delwyn S.; Cabrera, Maria del Carmen; Lambán, Luis Javier; Valverde, Margarida

    2011-01-01

    Volcanic-rock aquifers are the most extensive and productive aquifers in the Hawaiian Islands. These aquifers contain different types of groundwater systems depending on the geologic setting in which they occur. The most common groundwater systems include coastal freshwater-lens systems in the dike-free flanks of the volcanoes and dike-impounded systems within the dike-intruded areas of the volcanoes. In some areas, a thick (hundreds of meters) freshwater lens may develop because of the presence of a coastal confining unit, or caprock, that impedes the discharge of groundwater from the volcanic-rock aquifer, or because the permeability of the volcanic rocks forming the aquifer is low. In other areas with low groundwater-recharge rates and that lack a caprock, the freshwater lens may be thin or brackish water may exist immediately below the water table. Dike-impounded groundwater systems commonly have high water levels (hundreds of meters above sea level) and contribute to the base flow of streams where the water table intersects the stream. Recent numerical modeling studies have enhanced the conceptual understanding of groundwater systems in the Hawaiian Islands.

  9. Opportunity at 'Cook Islands' (Polar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,825th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 12, 2009). North is at the top. This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction. The rover had driven half a meter (1.5 feet) earlier on Sol 1825 to fine-tune its location for placing its robotic arm onto an exposed patch of outcrop including a target area informally called 'Cook Islands.' On the preceding sol, Opportunity turned around to drive frontwards and then drove 4.5 meters (15 feet) toward this outcrop. The tracks from the SOl 1824 drive are visible near the center of this view at about the 11 o'clock position. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). Opportunity had previously been driving backward as a strategy to redistribute lubrication in a wheel drawing more electrical current than usual. The outcrop exposure that includes 'Cook Islands' is visible just below the center of the image. The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  10. Geology of the Hawaiian islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, Harold T.

    1946-01-01

    A brief summary of the geography, climate, and geomorphology is given. Streams develop slowly after the extinction of a volcano because of the high permeability of the rock. Once established they cut rapidly because of the steep slopes and fractured condition of the rock. Stream erosion varies enormously on different slopes of the same mountain due to the great differences in rainfall and to other causes. Six reasons are given for the development of amphitheater-headed valleys. Marine erosion has formed cliffs as much as 1,000 feet high on the leeward side and 3,000 feet high on the windward side of some of the domes. The islands have undergone a complex series of emergences and submergences leaving marine fossiliferous limestone up to 1,070 feet above sea level and valleys drowned more than 1,200 feet. Twelve terrace levels are recognized. Some are definitely eustatic.A synopsis is given of the present knowledge of the geology of each volcanic mountain, as well as a table of the rock units, and geologic maps of all major islands. The volcanoes pass through four major phases between birth and extinction and are built around one minor and two major rift zones. The volcanoes began their history above sea level in the Tertiary. Most of them became dormant either before or during the early Quaternary. Activity was renewed in the late Quaternary. Mauna Kea was glaciated in the late Pleistocene. The character of each islet in the archipelago is tabulated.

  11. Diversity and distribution patterns in high southern latitude sponges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel V Downey

    Full Text Available Sponges play a key role in Antarctic marine benthic community structure and dynamics and are often a dominant component of many Southern Ocean benthic communities. Understanding the drivers of sponge distribution in Antarctica enables us to understand many of general benthic biodiversity patterns in the region. The sponges of the Antarctic and neighbouring oceanographic regions were assessed for species richness and biogeographic patterns using over 8,800 distribution records. Species-rich regions include the Antarctic Peninsula, South Shetland Islands, South Georgia, Eastern Weddell Sea, Kerguelen Plateau, Falkland Islands and north New Zealand. Sampling intensity varied greatly within the study area, with sampling hotspots found at the Antarctic Peninsula, South Georgia, north New Zealand and Tierra del Fuego, with limited sampling in the Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas in the Southern Ocean. In contrast to previous studies we found that eurybathy and circumpolar distributions are important but not dominant characteristics in Antarctic sponges. Overall Antarctic sponge species endemism is ∼43%, with a higher level for the class Hexactinellida (68%. Endemism levels are lower than previous estimates, but still indicate the importance of the Polar Front in isolating the Southern Ocean fauna. Nineteen distinct sponge distribution patterns were found, ranging from regional endemics to cosmopolitan species. A single, distinct Antarctic demosponge fauna is found to encompass all areas within the Polar Front, and the sub-Antarctic regions of the Kerguelen Plateau and Macquarie Island. Biogeographical analyses indicate stronger faunal links between Antarctica and South America, with little evidence of links between Antarctica and South Africa, Southern Australia or New Zealand. We conclude that the biogeographic and species distribution patterns observed are largely driven by the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the timing of past continent

  12. Diversity and Distribution Patterns in High Southern Latitude Sponges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Rachel V.; Griffiths, Huw J.; Linse, Katrin; Janussen, Dorte

    2012-01-01

    Sponges play a key role in Antarctic marine benthic community structure and dynamics and are often a dominant component of many Southern Ocean benthic communities. Understanding the drivers of sponge distribution in Antarctica enables us to understand many of general benthic biodiversity patterns in the region. The sponges of the Antarctic and neighbouring oceanographic regions were assessed for species richness and biogeographic patterns using over 8,800 distribution records. Species-rich regions include the Antarctic Peninsula, South Shetland Islands, South Georgia, Eastern Weddell Sea, Kerguelen Plateau, Falkland Islands and north New Zealand. Sampling intensity varied greatly within the study area, with sampling hotspots found at the Antarctic Peninsula, South Georgia, north New Zealand and Tierra del Fuego, with limited sampling in the Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas in the Southern Ocean. In contrast to previous studies we found that eurybathy and circumpolar distributions are important but not dominant characteristics in Antarctic sponges. Overall Antarctic sponge species endemism is ∼43%, with a higher level for the class Hexactinellida (68%). Endemism levels are lower than previous estimates, but still indicate the importance of the Polar Front in isolating the Southern Ocean fauna. Nineteen distinct sponge distribution patterns were found, ranging from regional endemics to cosmopolitan species. A single, distinct Antarctic demosponge fauna is found to encompass all areas within the Polar Front, and the sub-Antarctic regions of the Kerguelen Plateau and Macquarie Island. Biogeographical analyses indicate stronger faunal links between Antarctica and South America, with little evidence of links between Antarctica and South Africa, Southern Australia or New Zealand. We conclude that the biogeographic and species distribution patterns observed are largely driven by the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the timing of past continent connectivity. PMID

  13. Andrew shortens lifetime of Louisiana Barrier Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Susan

    Because the Isles Dernieres, a series of four barrier islands off the coast of Louisiana, have one of the most rapidly eroding shorelines in the world, geologists at the U.S. Geological Survey and the Louisiana Geological Survey have been monitoring erosion activity over the last several years, said Jeff Williams of the USGS in Reston, Va. Hurricane Andrew, which struck the state on August 26, caused severe erosional damage to these islands that has shortened their lifetimes.Before Andrew struck, geologists projected that Raccoon Island would disappear below sea level by the year 2001 and that Whiskey Island would disappear by 2016. Now, due to the severe erosion from Hurricane Andrew, the scientists claim that the islands may disappear before the turn of the century, and the other islands in the Dernieres chain are expected to follow suit within 2 decades. Raccoon, Whiskey, Trinity, and East islands make up the Isles Dernieres, which existed as one island, known as the Isle Derniere, before an 1856 hurricane and subsequent erosion.

  14. Pre-Deployment Handbook: Solomon Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Guadalcanal Island. Guadalcanal Island. 208 The Battle of Guadalcanal became one of the most important, and bloody campaigns, fought in the Pacific...sit in one chamber ) of 50 members, elected for four-year terms. However, Parliament may be dissolved by majority vote of its members before the

  15. The water landscapes of the Canary Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Gini; Braae, Ellen Marie; Diedrich, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Island environments, particularly small archipelagos such as the Canary Islands, are more visible subject to the vagaries of change wrought by ecological and climate dynamics, shifting social conditions and economic impacts subject to global markets, than is witnessed on continental worlds....

  16. The pacific island health care project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, Donald Ames

    2014-01-01

    US Associated/Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) include three freely associated states: Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, and three Territories: American Samoa, Guam, and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. The Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP) provides humanitarian medical referral/consultation/care to >500,000 indigenous people of these remote islands. In the mid-1990s, we developed a simple store-and-forward program to link the USAPI with Tripler Army Medical Center. This application allowed image attachment to email consultations. More than 8000 Pacific Islanders have benefited from the program. Three thousand Pacific Islanders prior to telemedicine (1990-1997) and since store-and-forward telemedicine (1997-present), the PIHCP has helped an additional 5000. Records post dynamically and are stored in an archival database. The PIHCP is the longest running telemedicine program in the world delivering humanitarian medical care. It has bridged the Developing World of the remote Pacific Islands with advanced medical and surgical care available at a major US military teaching hospital. (The opinions expressed here are those of the author and not that of the Army, Department of Defense, or the US Government.).

  17. African Journals Online: Turks and Caicos Islands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Turks and Caicos Islands. Home > African Journals Online: Turks and Caicos Islands. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This ...

  18. The Pacific Island Health Care Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Ames Person

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/BackgroundUS Associated/Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI include 3 Freely Associated States: Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau and 3 Territories: American Samoa, Guam, and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. ObjectiveThe Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP provides humanitarian medical referral/consultation/care to >500,000 indigenous people of these remote islands. Methods In the mid-1990s, we developed a simple store-and-forward program to link the USAPI with Tripler Army Medical Center (TAMC. This application allowed image attachment to email consultations. ResultsMore than 8000 Pacific Islanders have benefited from the program. 3000 Pacific Islanders prior to telemedicine (1990-1997 and since store-and-forward telemedicine (1997-present, the PIHCP has helped an additional 5000. Records post dynamically and are stored in an archival database. Conclusion The PIHCP is the longest running telemedicine program in the world delivering humanitarian medical care. It has bridged the Developing World of the remote Pacific islands with advanced medical and surgical care available at a major US military teaching hospital.(The opinions expressed here are those of the author and not that of the Army, Department of Defense, or the US Government.

  19. Distribution of Grimmia Hedw. on Mediterranean islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greven, H.C.

    1995-01-01

    On the six largest Mediterranean islands: Corsica, Crete, Cyprus, Mallorca, Sardinia and Sicily, the moss genus Grimmia (Grimmiaceae, Musci) is represented by 29 species. Many of these are newly recorded. The importance of the islands for bryophyte conservation is stressed. -Author

  20. Governance of ecosystem services on small islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polman, Nico; Reinhard, Stijn; Bets, van L.K.J.; Kuhlman, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Natural ecosystems provide an attractive focus for tourism on small islands. However, at the same time tourism and other human actions can be detrimental to these ecosystems especially because governance of the ecosystem may be difficult due to the limited resilience of small island ecosystems.

  1. Rhode Island School Terrorist Attack Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Michael W. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the state of safety and terrorist attack preparedness in Rhode Island Schools as determined by Rhode Island school leader perceptions. The study is descriptive in nature as it gathers data to describe a particular event or situation. Using a researcher generated survey based on terrorist preparedness guidelines and suggestions…

  2. 40 CFR 81.340 - Rhode Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rhode Island. 81.340 Section 81.340... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.340 Rhode Island. Rhode Island—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary standards Does not meet secondary standards...

  3. Long Island Sound Curricular Resource Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Diana, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Long Island Sound is an estuary of national significance and provides important economic, recreational, and aesthetic value to the citizens of Connecticut and New York. Investigations have been conducted regarding living marine resources and nutrient loading. However, Long Island Sound is often overlooked as an educational resource. This guide is…

  4. Champion Island, Galapagos Stable Oxygen Calibration Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Galapagos Coral Stable Oxygen Calibration Data. Sites: Bartolome Island: 0 deg, 17 min S, 90 deg 33 min W. Champion Island: 1 deg, 15 min S, 90 deg, 05 min W. Urvina...

  5. (Aves: Passerines: Pycnonotidae) from Rodrigues Island ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Hypsipetes bulbuls (Pycnonotidae) occur on Madagascar and oceanic islands throughout the Indian Ocean, as well as continental Asia. Endemic species are found on the Mascarene Islands of Mauritius and Réunion, but the genus was purportedly never reported from Rodrigues, the smallest and most isolated of the ...

  6. Tuppiap Qeqertaa (Tobias Island): a newly discovered island off northeast Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, O.; Mikkelsen, N.; Forsberg, René

    2006-01-01

    The small island of Tuppiap Qeqertaa, formerly known as Tobias circle divide or Tobias Island, is situated 80 km off the northeast Greenland coast. The island was discovered in 1993 and is approximately 2 km long and 1.5 km wide. Most of the island is covered by an ice cap that rises to 35 in above...... sea level, as determined by airborne laser scanning. High-quality geodetic GPS measurements determine the position of a small cairn erected on the island to 79 degrees 20'34.48" N, 15 degrees 46'31.23" W. Minor parts of the island are ice free, with small hills of gravel. Late Holocene shells...... of marine bivalves have been found and were presumably brought up by ice floe push. Shell fragments of southern extralimital marine invertebrates point to the presence of pre-Holocene deposits. Three species of moss are the only land plants that have been found on the island....

  7. Genomic island excisions in Bordetella petrii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levillain Erwan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the members of the genus Bordetella B. petrii is unique, since it is the only species isolated from the environment, while the pathogenic Bordetellae are obligately associated with host organisms. Another feature distinguishing B. petrii from the other sequenced Bordetellae is the presence of a large number of mobile genetic elements including several large genomic regions with typical characteristics of genomic islands collectively known as integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs. These elements mainly encode accessory metabolic factors enabling this bacterium to grow on a large repertoire of aromatic compounds. Results During in vitro culture of Bordetella petrii colony variants appear frequently. We show that this variability can be attributed to the presence of a large number of metastable mobile genetic elements on its chromosome. In fact, the genome sequence of B. petrii revealed the presence of at least seven large genomic islands mostly encoding accessory metabolic functions involved in the degradation of aromatic compounds and detoxification of heavy metals. Four of these islands (termed GI1 to GI3 and GI6 are highly related to ICEclc of Pseudomonas knackmussii sp. strain B13. Here we present first data about the molecular characterization of these islands. We defined the exact borders of each island and we show that during standard culture of the bacteria these islands get excised from the chromosome. For all but one of these islands (GI5 we could detect circular intermediates. For the clc-like elements GI1 to GI3 of B. petrii we provide evidence that tandem insertion of these islands which all encode highly related integrases and attachment sites may also lead to incorporation of genomic DNA which originally was not part of the island and to the formation of huge composite islands. By integration of a tetracycline resistance cassette into GI3 we found this island to be rather unstable and to be lost from

  8. Analysis of hybrid systems for La Graciosa Island (Canary Islands)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segura, L.; Gomez, A. [Departament of Process Engineering Industrial Enviromental Section, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria Campus Universitario of Tafira 35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Leon, V. [Red Electrica de Espana, Polygono de la Majuelos 38108 San Cristobal de La Laguna (Spain); Nuez, I. [Departament of Electronic and Automatic Engineering, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria Campus Universitario of Tafira 35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    The main objectives of the study are the integration of the renewable energies, the study of the production of the hydrogen and the utilization in areas where have a high potential of renewable origin sources and a low capacity of drinkable water and energy power. In this work, it has been done the study of the actual energy necessity of the island and it is posed a series of solutions to its energy system. It is analyzed three cases. In the first step, it is exposed an isolated system with renewable energies and hydrogen as energy storage; in the second step, it is studied a system with renewable energies, hydrogen and an electricity-generating group as support; and in the third step, it is analyzed a case with renewable energy and connexion to the network (in this case, it would already not be an isolated system). (authors)

  9. What are the Spratly Islands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Charles S.; Vijayan, V. R.

    2010-10-01

    Seismic records, combined with dredged samples and a core, indicate that the Spratly Islands of the Dangerous Ground Province are constructed of presently active carbonate build-ups, known to extend back continuously at least to the Pleistocene and presumed to have initiated in the Miocene, most likely upon the crests of sea-floor cuestas that trend north-east-south-west parallel to the sea-floor spreading magnetic anomalies of the contiguous abyssal plain of the southern part of the South China Sea. The cuestas range from spectacular to subdued, constructed of Triassic and Cretaceous strata and no older rocks have been identified from dredges. The cuesta axes plunge towards the south-west away from the islands, suggesting that the reefs began colonising their more elevated parts, but the timing is uncertain. The highest seismically recorded cuesta crest is in 440 m of water and the islands and reefs are generally closely surrounded by water deeper than 1500 m. Since the so-called Mid-Miocene Unconformity (MMU), the region has been undergoing post-rift thermal subsidence. However, the nearby seismic lines show no evidence of drowned carbonate reefs. It is suggested that the coral-algal reefs colonised the crests of the most elevated cuestas that have maintained stability as shown by the 165 m core of one reef indicating periodic exposure with caliche horizons. Deepening water has protected the build-ups from extinction by post-rift draping strata in contrast to the Central Luconia Province, and the build-ups have been able to keep up with regional thermal subsidence. The dredged Mesozoic strata indicate that the Dangerous Ground is not exotic and should be interpreted as an integral part of the pre-rift Sundaland continent that included South China, Vietnam, Peninsular Malaysia, western Sarawak and possibly part of Sabah. Igneous and metamorphic samples have been dredged. Although individual spot K/Ar dates cannot be accepted at face value, such rocks can also be

  10. Regional genetic diversity patterns in Antarctic hairgrass (Deschampsia antartica Desv.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wouw, M.J.; Van Dijk, P.J.; Huiskes, A.H.L.

    2008-01-01

    Aim To determine patterns in diversity of a major Antarctic plant species, including relationships of Antarctic populations with those outside the Antarctic zone. Location Antarctic Peninsula, Maritime Antarctica, sub-Antarctic islands, Falkland Islands and South America. Methods Amplified fragment

  11. The Kattegat Island of Anholt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Niels

    2015-01-01

    on the history of groundwater recharge and drainage, and the development of the salt-fresh groundwater interface under a sand island. The fact that the center of Anholt was covered by the sea 6,000 years ago, and consequently the freshwater lens, over 100 m below sea level, did not exist means that the present......Fluctuations in sea level influence the condition of many coastal groundwater aquifers. A rise in sea level can result in seawater intrusion in areas where the groundwater level is near the present sea level, and it may take a long time for the boundary between salt and fresh groundwater to reach...... equilibrium between the saltwater and freshwater lens has been established in less than 6,000 years. These results can be used to give guidelines for the future administration of the groundwater resources on Anholt, but hopefully they can also help us understand the dynamics of more complicated coastal...

  12. Urban 'Dry Island' in Moscow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokoshchenko, Mikhail A.

    2017-04-01

    The urban 'dry island' (UDI) phenomenon over Moscow city has been studied and analyzed for the period since the end of the 19th century till recent years using the data of the ground meteorological network. It concludes into less values of relative humidity in a city in the comparison with surrounding rural zone. The reason of this phenomenon is, firstly, limited areas of forest zones and less number of other water vapor sources inside a city and, besides, indirect influence of the urban heat island (UHI), i.e. higher air temperature T inside a city. Mean-annual water vapor pressure E doesn't demonstrate systematic changes in Moscow during the last 146 years. The linear regression coefficient K of its course is equal to only 0.0015 [hPa/year], thus since 1870 the average water content in the ground air layer above Moscow increased on average only a little: by 0.2 hPa; such a small difference seems to be negligible and statistically non-significant. Unlike this parameter mean-annual relative humidity F demonstrates quick and systematic (steady in time) fall with the average rate of K = -0.06 [%/year] during the last 146 years; in other words, it decreased from 81 % in 1870s to nearly 72 % in recent years. Inside the city it is the result of general T increase due to both global warming and, besides, intensification of Moscow UHI. Long-term changes of the F spatial field in Moscow city have been studied in details for separate periods since 1890s till recent years. As a result the urban 'dry island' is found as a real physical phenomenon which is closely connected with UHI; the absolute value of its intensity as well as for the UHI is increasing in time: from -4 % at the end of the 19th century to -8 ÷-9 % now. During last two decades UDI as well as UHI became much stronger in Moscow than before. For instance, on average of five years from 2010 to 2014 the F value at 'Balchug' station at the city centre (close to Moscow Kremlin) is the lowest among all other

  13. Opportunity at 'Cook Islands' (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11854 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11854 NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,825th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 12, 2009). North is at the top. This view combines images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera. It appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. The rover had driven half a meter (1.5 feet) earlier on Sol 1825 to fine-tune its location for placing its robotic arm onto an exposed patch of outcrop including a target area informally called 'Cook Islands.' On the preceding sol, Opportunity turned around to drive frontwards and then drove 4.5 meters (15 feet) toward this outcrop. The tracks from the SOl 1824 drive are visible near the center of this view at about the 11 o'clock position. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). Opportunity had previously been driving backward as a strategy to redistribute lubrication in a wheel drawing more electrical current than usual. The outcrop exposure that includes 'Cook Islands' is visible just below the center of the image. The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  14. Amchitka Island, Alaska, special sampling project 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-06-28

    This 1997 special sampling project represents a special radiobiological sampling effort to augment the 1996 Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program (LTHMP) for Amchitka Island in Alaska. Lying in the western portion of the Aleutian Islands arc, near the International Date Line, Amchitka Island is one of the southernmost islands of the Rat Island Chain. Between 1965 and 1971, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission conducted three underground nuclear tests on Amchitka Island. In 1996, Greenpeace collected biota samples and speculated that several long-lived, man-made radionuclides detected (i.e., americium-241, plutonium-239 and -240, beryllium-7, and cesium-137) leaked into the surface environment from underground cavities created during the testing. The nuclides of interest are detected at extremely low concentrations throughout the environment. The objectives of this special sampling project were to scientifically refute the Greenpeace conclusions that the underground cavities were leaking contaminants to the surface. This was achieved by first confirming the presence of these radionuclides in the Amchitka Island surface environment and, second, if the radionuclides were present, determining if the source is the underground cavity or worldwide fallout. This special sampling and analysis determined that the only nonfallout-related radionuclide detected was a low level of tritium from the Long Shot test, which had been previously documented. The tritium contamination is monitored and continues a decreasing trend due to radioactive decay and dilution.

  15. Bats of the Western Indian Ocean Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John O’Brien

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The natural colonisation of many remote oceanic islands by bats, including those of the western Indian Ocean, has been facilitated by their unique capability among mammals for powered flight. In the western Indian Ocean region, only the Malagasy islands of Madagascar and the Comoros archipelago have been naturally colonised by non-volant mammals. Despite their greater potential for inter-island dispersal, and thus gene transfer, endemicity of Chiroptera in the western Indian Ocean islands is high. Given their vulnerability to stochastic and anthropogenic disturbances, greater focus needs to be placed on investigating the demographic and ecological history of bats on Western Indian Ocean islands to safeguard not only their future, but also the ecosystem functioning on these islands, for which they are undoubtedly such an integral part. Here, I summarise the taxonomic and life history information available on bats from Western Indian Ocean islands and highlight knowledge gaps and conservation issues that threaten the continued persistence of some species.

  16. [Biodemographical study in the Island of Pascua].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazo, B; Campusano, C; Figueroa, H

    1993-06-01

    The aim of this study was to know the degree of miscegenation in the Easter Island population. One hundred two weddings carried out between 1987 and 1991 were recorded and the proportion of marriages between islanders and immigrants was analyzed. Also, ABO and Rh blood groups of all deliveries occurred between 1988 and 1991 were compiled. There was a particular tendency of islanders to marry with immigrants and the proportion of miscegenation was 75.5%. Additionally a decline in the frequency of A blood group is observed, comparing results from studies performed since 1932 up to date.

  17. Eleuthera Island, Bahamas seen from STS-66

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The striking views provided by the Bahama Islands lend insights into the important problems of limestone (CaCO3) production and transport. This photograph includes the southern part of Eleuthera Island in the northern Bahamas. The hook-shaped island encloses a relatively shallow platform (light blue) which is surrounded by deep water (dark blue). The feathery pattern along the western edge of Eleuthera's platform are sand bars and sand channels created by tidal currents sweeping on and off the platform. The channels serve to funnel large amounts of CaCO3 off the platform and into the deeper water.

  18. Isotopic investigation of an Australian island environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groecke, D.R. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Research School of Earth Sciences; Bocherens, H. [Paris-6 Univ., 75 (France)

    1996-12-31

    Collagen has been extracted from fossil bones of mega-fauna herbivores from Kangaroo Island, South Australia (Australia). Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses of collagen have provided an insight into the palaeo-ecology of these late Pleistocene herbivores. In comparison with continental fossil localities in South Australia, the island herbivores have elevated nitrogen isotopic abundances. Carbon isotopic abundances suggest that browsing species had a mixed diet of grasses and leaves on the island, in contrast to the specimens from mainland Australia. Possible causes regarding elevated nitrogen isotope abundances and dietary shifts in this palaeo-ecology are discussed. (authors). 24 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. FBSAB RECRUIT Reef Fish Belt Transect Survey at Hawaii Island (Big Island), Main Hawaiian Islands, 2009 (NODC Accession 0073870)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shore-based belt transects were conducted at 1 to ~ 5 m depths at a total two (2) sites on the leeward coast (South Kohala district) of the Big Island (Hawaii...

  20. FBSAD Recruit Reef Fish Belt Transect Survey at Hawaii Island (Big Island), Main Hawaiian Islands, 2005 (NODC Accession 0046935)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shore-based belt transects were conducted at 8-13 m depths at 3 longshore sites on the leeward coast (North and South Kohala districts) of the Big Island (Hawaii...

  1. The effects of island ontogeny on species diversity and phylogeny

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valente, Luis M.; Etienne, Rampal S.; Phillimore, Albert B.

    2014-01-01

    A major goal of island biogeography is to understand how island communities are assembled over time. However, we know little about the influence of variable area and ecological opportunity on island biotas over geological time-scales. Islands have limited life spans, and it has been posited that

  2. Adaptive radiation of island plants: Evidence from Aeonium (Crassulaceae) of the Canary Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, T.H.; Olesen, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    The presence of diverse and species-rich plant lineages on oceanic islands is most often associated with adaptive radiation. Here we discuss the possible adaptive significance of some of the most prominent traits in island plants, including woodiness, monocarpy and sexual dimorphisms. Indirect...... discussion of the mechanisms governing radiations on islands. Most examples are from the Hawaiian and Canarian floras, and in particular from studies on the morphological, ecological and molecular diversification of the genus Aeonium, the largest plant radiation of the Canarian Islands....... evidence that such traits have been acquired through convergent evolution on islands comes from molecular phylogenies; however, direct evidence of their selective value rarely is obtained. The importance of hybridization in the evolution of island plants is also considered as part of a more general...

  3. Studying Islands: On Whose Terms? Some Epistemological and Methodological Challenges to the Pursuit of Island Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Baldacchino

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The pursuit of nissology, or island studies, calls for a re-centering of focus from mainland to island, away from the discourse of conquest of mainlanders, giving voice and platform for the expression of island narratives. Yet, studying islands ‘on their own terms’, in spite of its predilection for “authenticity”, is fraught with epistemological and methodological difficulties. The insider/outsider distinction does not work all that well when it comes to islands, where hybridity is the norm. This paper seeks to extend this debate, grappling especially with the contributions of Grant McCall and Peter Hay to the sparse literature. Five dilemmas related to indigenous island geographies are presented and discussed, in a semi-autobiographical style.

  4. Oceanic island biogeography: Nomothetic science of the anecdotal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shai Meiri

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Islands get more than their fair share of attention from biogeographers, macroecologists and evolutionary biologists. Adding to this existing bias, I claim that oceanic islands, especially oceanic island archipelagos (and among them, especially the Hawaii, the Canaries, Azores and, of course, the Galapagos attract much more scientific attention than the insights they offer or warrant. This focus on oceanic islands ignores other island types that may be better heuristic tools for studies of general ecological, biogeographic and evolutionary dynamics. The evolutionary and ecological dynamics of landbridge and continental islands are often as fast, dramatic, interesting and insightful, and merit more attention from island biogeographers. 

  5. Researching Pacific island livelihoods: mobility, natural resource management and nissology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Andreas E; Mertz, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Small island literature is vast in focus and aim, and is rooted in many different disciplines. The challenge is to find common grounds for researching small islands conceptually and theoretically. The aim of this article is to comment on how to research small islands, including a discussion on contemporary theories of nissology and conceptual analytical frameworks for island research. Through a review of selected case-study-based island literature on changing livelihoods coming out of the South Pacific, we wish to illustrate and discuss advantages of finding common grounds for small island studies. The focus is on two dimensions of island livelihood, migration and natural resource management, both of which are significant contributors in making island livelihoods and shaping Pacific seascapes. We argue that there is still a substantial lack of studies targeting small island dynamics that are empirical and interdisciplinary in focus and link socio-economic and ecological processes of small island societies at temporal and analytical scales.

  6. Assessing vulnerability to climate change and socioeconomic stressors in the Reef Islands group, Solomon Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This article assesses the vulnerability to climatic and socioeconomic stresses in the Reef Islands, Solomon Islands, an atoll island group in the Southwest Pacific. Climate change and the associated sea-level rise are often seen as the most pressing challenges to atoll communities, yet this study...... infrastructure, economic marginalization and weak governance of Solomon Islands. Findings suggest that some of these non-climatic stresses are currently – and in the short term – more important determinants of local vulnerability than climate change and sea-level rise. Certainly, these stresses are likely...

  7. A new species of iguana Brachylophus Cuvier 1829 (Sauria: Iguania: Iguanidae) from Gau Island, Fiji Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Robert N; Niukula, Jone; Watling, Dick; Harlow, Peter S

    2017-06-06

    The south Pacific iguanas (Brachylophus) currently have three recognized living species in Fiji.  Recent surveys have uncovered more specific variation (morphological and genetic) within the genus and have better defined the geographic ranges of the named species.  One of these recent discoveries is a strikingly different iguana from all other island populations in Fiji which is restricted to Gau Island of the Lomaiviti Province.  Gau is the fifth largest island in Fiji and maintains excellent upland forests in the higher elevations.  We describe this population from Gau Island as a new species, Brachylophus gau sp. nov., in recognition of its type locality.

  8. Long Island Smart Energy Corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mui, Ming [Long Island Power Authority, Uniondale, NY (United States)

    2015-02-04

    The Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) has teamed with Stony Brook University (Stony Brook or SBU) and Farmingdale State College (Farmingdale or FSC), two branches of the State University of New York (SUNY), to create a “Smart Energy Corridor.” The project, located along the Route 110 business corridor on Long Island, New York, demonstrated the integration of a suite of Smart Grid technologies from substations to end-use loads. The Smart Energy Corridor Project included the following key features: -TECHNOLOGY: Demonstrated a full range of smart energy technologies, including substations and distribution feeder automation, fiber and radio communications backbone, advanced metering infrastructure (AM”), meter data management (MDM) system (which LIPA implemented outside of this project), field tools automation, customer-level energy management including automated energy management systems, and integration with distributed generation and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. -MARKETING: A rigorous market test that identified customer response to an alternative time-of-use pricing plan and varying levels of information and analytical support. -CYBER SECURITY: Tested cyber security vulnerabilities in Smart Grid hardware, network, and application layers. Developed recommendations for policies, procedures, and technical controls to prevent or foil cyber-attacks and to harden the Smart Grid infrastructure. -RELIABILITY: Leveraged new Smart Grid-enabled data to increase system efficiency and reliability. Developed enhanced load forecasting, phase balancing, and voltage control techniques designed to work hand-in-hand with the Smart Grid technologies. -OUTREACH: Implemented public outreach and educational initiatives that were linked directly to the demonstration of Smart Grid technologies, tools, techniques, and system configurations. This included creation of full-scale operating models demonstrating application of Smart Grid technologies in business and residential

  9. 78 FR 14185 - Safety Zone; MODU KULLUK; Kiliuda Bay, Kodiak Island, AK to Captains Bay, Unalaska Island, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; MODU KULLUK; Kiliuda Bay, Kodiak Island, AK to Captains Bay, Unalaska Island, AK AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY... in Kiliuda Bay, Kodiak Island, Alaska with planned towed transit into Captains Bay, Unalaska Island...

  10. Channel Islands, Kelp Forest Monitoring, Sea Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset from the Channel Islands National Park's Kelp Forest Monitoring Program has subtidal temperature data taken at permanent monitoring sites. Since 1993,...

  11. One-Dimensional Czedli-Type Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Eszter K.; Mader, Attila; Tepavcevic, Andreja

    2011-01-01

    The notion of an island has surfaced in recent algebra and coding theory research. Discrete versions provide interesting combinatorial problems. This paper presents the one-dimensional case with finitely many heights, a topic convenient for student research.

  12. Urban Heat Island Effect Actions - Neighborhood Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisville Metro Government — The urban heat island effect — defined as the difference in temperature between the core of Louisville and its suburbs — contributes to heat-related illnesses and...

  13. Inventory and Monitoring Plan for Howland Island, Baker Island, Jarvis Island National Wildlife Refuges; Units of the Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monuments

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan documents and prioritizes inventory and monitoring surveys and research currently conducted, and proposed to be conducted, at the Howland Island, Baker...

  14. Migrants on offshore islands of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezwan Siddiqui

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Riverbank erosion and the consequent formation of new islands in the Bay of Bengal cause frequent changes in the shape and size of the delta, forcing the inhabitants to migrate frequently.

  15. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Hawaii Island

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Hawaii Island. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  16. US Virgin Islands Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for US Virgin Islands. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of...

  17. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Midway Island, NWHI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Midway Island, NWHI. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of...

  18. Recent unrest at Canary Islands' Teide Volcano?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carracedo, Juan Carlos; Troll, Valentin R; Pérez, Francisco J; Badiola, Eduardo Rodríguez; Machín, Alex Hansen; Paris, Raphael; Guillou, Hervé; Scaillet, Stéphane

    2006-01-01

    ... that the volcanic unrest might culminate in renewed eruptive activity. Such was the situation for Teide volcano, located on Tenerife in the Canary Islands, when a mild seismic swarm during April...

  19. Nunivak Island caribou reindeer report 1929

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In July 1925 the Biological Survey established a crossbreeding experiment with reindeer and caribou on Nunivak Island by castrating the male reindeer and turning ten...

  20. Cat Island NWR Recreational Hunting Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A natural resource management plan describing the regulations and decision processes for sport hunting at Cat Island NWR. This plan has been replaced by a more...

  1. Long Island Sound Surficial Sediment Data (LISSEDDATA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Many scientific questions and policy issues related to sediments in Long Island Sound require data of historical, regional and interdisciplinary scope. Existent data...

  2. Marine investigations in the Lakshadweep Islands, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    to navigators through the ages. Recent discoveries made during marine archaeological exploration and excavations in the Lakshadweep have revealed evidences of early settlement and shipwrecks. The findings suggest that the islands had been inhabited much before...

  3. Gridded bathymetry of Kahoolawe Island, Hawaii, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry (10m) of Kahoolawe Island, Hawaii, USA. The data include multibeam bathymetry from the EM120, EM122, EM710, EM1020, and EM1002 multibeam sonar...

  4. Natural History of St. Vincent Island, Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A study proposal aiming to ascertain, list and describe the woody flora and vertebrate fauna of St. Vincent Island, and to describe the terrestrial and fresh water...

  5. Butterfly Survey on Pinckney Island NWR (2001)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Butterfly (adult Lepidoptera) survey conducted monthly (May-Nov 2001) at nine locations within Pinckney Island NWR. These nine locations include Ibis Pond, Woodstork...

  6. CRED REA Algal Assessments, Howland Island 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 4 sites at Howland Island in the...

  7. The Faroe Islands: Options for Independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ackren

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The Faroe Islands are currently at a crossroads in their constitutional status. Discussions concerning changes in the current constitutional status are ongoing and several analyses about possible trajectories of future development are being proposed. Argued in a context of Faroese nationalism, this article tries to assess these trajectories in the future jurisdictional and political development of the Faroe Islands in terms of three possible scenarios: independence or full sovereignty (as is Iceland; a freely associated statehood (as are Niue and the Cook Islands in relation to New Zealand; or a confederation, probably involving changes at both the central level of the Danish state and the European Union level. This article argues that the most likely future development is that of a state in free association with Denmark. Meanwhile, island politics can change very quickly and the traditional cleavages in Faroese politics are liable to changing degrees of public support.

  8. Principal Hawaiian Islands Geoid Heights (GEOID96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' geoid height grid for the Principal Hawaiian Islands is distributed as a GEOID96 model. The computation used 61,000 terrestrial and marine gravity data held...

  9. Poplar Island Environmental Restoration Project Nekton Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Poplar Island Environmental Restoration Project (PIERP) is a large scale 1,800 acres restoration project located in mid Chesapeake Bay. Fishery collections are...

  10. Rhode Island Piping Plover Restoration Project 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The recovery plan for Piping Plover on Rhode Island discusses the current status of the species, habitat requirements and limiting factors, recovery objectives and...

  11. Cross Island Evaluation and Management Plan 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this study is to provide Hurricane Island Outward Bound School with a document that to be used for internal planning purposes. In addition, it could...

  12. Vegetation of Long Island, Adams County, Illinois

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During the spring and early summer of 1994 most of Long Island, part of the Mark Twain NWR, was walked, and six east/west transects established. During July each...

  13. Pacific Islands Climate Change Virtual Library

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Virtual Library provides access to web based climate variability and climate change information and tools relevant to the Pacific Islands including case studies,...

  14. EAARL Topography-Fire Island National Seaashore

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first return elevation map (also known as a Digital Elevation Model or DEM) of Fire Island National Seashore was produced from remotely-sensed,...

  15. EAARL Topography-Padre Island National Seashore

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Elevation maps (also known as Digital Elevation Models or DEMs) of Padre Island National Seashore were produced from remotely-sensed, geographically-referenced...

  16. Seven Island Painting, Inc. Information Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven Island Painting, Inc. (the Company) is located in Daly City, California. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at property constructed prior to 1978, located in San Francisco, California.

  17. CRED REA Algal Assessments, Jarvis Island 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Jarvis Island in the US...

  18. Studies on littoral flora of Andaman Islands

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.

    Marine macrophytes of Andaman islands were qualitatively surveyed. In all 40 genera, 64 species of marine algae, 17 genera, 22 species of mangroves while 3 genera, 3 species of seagrasses are reported. There were 26 species of rhodophyta, 21 species...

  19. Hillshades for the main 8 Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These hillshade datasets were derived from USGS 7.5' DEM Quads for the main 8 Hawaiian Islands. Individual DEM quads were first converted to a common datum, and...

  20. Quantifying and interpreting nestedness in habitat islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthews, Thomas J.; Cottee-Jones, H. Eden W.; Whittaker, Robert James

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The concept of nestedness is important in determining the relative contribution to overall system diversity of different habitat patches within a fragmented system. Much of the previous work on nestedness has focused on islands within oceans (islands sensu stricto). The largest analysis...... with fragment area, suggesting that structured extinctions may be important in determining the composition of certain habitat island communities. We found that the degree of nestedness in an archipelago is an important consideration for systematic conservation planning. Main conclusions: Significant nestedness...... is considerably less common in habitat islands than previously reported. Strategic guidance for conservation planning should proceed on a case by case basis, and previous conservation recommendations based on the assumption of significant nestedness in most fragmented landscapes may need to be re-evaluated....

  1. CRED REA Algal Assessments, Baker Island 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 8 sites at Baker Island in the US...

  2. Storm impacts on small barrier islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroon, Aart; Fruergaard, Mikkel

    water levels. These storms induce collision, overwash or inundation of the barrier crest and generate wash-over fans and barrier breaching. In this presentation, we focus on the present-day morphologic evolution of these barrier islands, couple these to extreme events, and we will predict the potential......The shorelines of the Baltic Sea and the inner coastal waters in Denmark consist of many barrier islands. These sandy barrier islands were mainly formed in the Holocene and are still very dynamic. The present day changes in the morphology are dominantly governed by storm waves and associated high...... changes in this evolution due to changes in the climate and associated sea levels. We analyzed the morphologic evolution of a series of barrier islands over the last decades using maps, aerial photographs and satellite images. This decadal morphologic evolution was coupled to the frequency and intensity...

  3. Maritime archaeology of Lakshadweep Islands, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Vora, K.H.

    ) and National Institute of Oceanography (NIO) and different types of pottery, Roman coins, Buddha heads and stone anchors have been recovered from the following islands in Lakshadweep Chain: Androth, Kadmat, Kavaratti, Kalpeni and Minicoy In addition to inshore...

  4. Potential For Conflict in the Spratly Islands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chin, Chin

    2003-01-01

    This thesis examines the potential for conflict in the Spratly Islands and determines whether the Declaration of Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea signed between China and ASEAN on November 4...

  5. Marine mammal observations, Amchitka Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Three marine mammals were regularly observed at Amchitka Island: sea otters (Enhydra lutris), Steller's sea lions (Eumetopias jubata), and harbor seals (Phoca...

  6. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Lisianski Island, NWHI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Lisianski Island, NWHI. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction...

  7. Sensitivity to Islands in Korean-English Bilinguals

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Boyoung

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this dissertation is twofold : First, it examines whether Korean exhibits island effects, as the status of islands in Korean and typologically related wh- in-situ languages has been unclear. Second, it explores whether Korean-English bilinguals display native-like island effects in their two languages. While most accounts of island effects claim that the input is not directly involved and that islands stem from basic properties of grammar/processing that are available to all huma...

  8. Climate reconstruction from Barrow Island, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placzek, C.; Coningham, K.; Turner, L.; Veth, P.; Ditchfield, K.; Wurster, C. M.; Kendrick, P.

    2016-12-01

    Barrow Island ( 20.7°S) is ideally situated to register the first coastal occupations in Australia as well as peoples' responses to major changes in sea level, climate and eventual isolation from critical resources on the mainland. Its location in the arid region between monsoonal and extratropical rainfall belts also imply that Barrow Island may have experienced dramatic changes in precipitation over the period of human occupation. Boodie cave has been the focus of Barrow Island Archeological Project and records a rich record of human occupation. Also present at Boodie cave are significant quantities of water-lain cave carbonates (flowstones, stalactites, and stalagmites). Active (modern) deposition of such carbonates is limited to very small encrustations and consists primarily of stalactites that are less than 5 cm in diameter. This situation indicates that deposition of significant carbonates is indicative of wetter conditions at Barrow Island and dating of these carbonates using the U/Th method provides a record of wet intervals at Barrow Island over the last 120 thousand years. In addition to ages from flowstones, three complete speleothems were collected Ledge Cave for climatic reconstruction using stable isotopes. Ledge cave is large subterranean with high relative humidity (>98%) and abundant, but largely inactive speleothems. The wettest interval in our cave carbonate record predates stratigraphic units with cultural material, but indicates that wet intervals on Barrow Island were broadly coincidental with lake expansions on the Australian mainland. In particular, a very wet interval between 120 and 90 ka is recorded in two of the Ledge Cave speleothems. The Barrow Island speleothem record suggests that displacement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and the strength of the Indo-Australian monsoon may have been the most important influence on water balance at Barrow Island. Continued development of these climate archives will offer insights

  9. Island studies as a decolonial project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaso Nadarajah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of colonialism influenced the cultures, economies, and politics of the majority of the world’s population. The subsequent decolonization process has likewise had profound affects on colonized societies. Island societies undergoing decolonization face many of the same pressures and challenges as do mainland societies, yet island spatiality and the history of island colonization itself has left former and present-day island colonies with distinctive colonial legacies. From the Caribbean to the Arctic to the Pacific to the Indian Ocean to the Mediterranean, colonial and decolonial processes are creating tensions between maintenance of the culture of indigenous peoples, economic development, cultivation of cultural heritage, political modernization, status on the global stage, democratic governance, and educational achievement. We call for an island studies perspective on decolonization, emphasizing the importance of appropriately positioning expert knowledge relative to the needs of colonized and indigenous peoples and highlighting the pitfalls of neocolonialsim. We thus lay the groundwork for island studies as a decolonial project.

  10. The new record orchids from Wawonii Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIAH SULISTIARINI

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Wawonii Island is belonging to Province of South-east Sulawesi, which covers area of about 650 km2. The areas is divided into four forest zones that were protected forests, production forests, limited production forests and social forests. This island was selected as a study site with consideration that this island estimated to have unique flora as same as to Sulawesi Island in general. In addition, so far there is no information about flora in this area. The study was conducted by exploring where the forest area visited, in order to collected and inventoried of plant with special attention to orchid species. Out of this study there are about 80 species of orchid were recorded and three species of them were Anoectochilus cetaceus Bl., Cryptostylis javanica J.J. Sm. and Malaxis koordersii (J.J. Sm. Bakh. f., identified as new record from Wawonii Island. Those three species according to previous information were admitted as endemic of Java. Although morphologically those three species collected from Wawonii were little bit different to which occurred in Java, but based on the species character they unable to be considered as different species. Consequently since those three the species found in Wawonii Island, those species should be categorized as non endemic of Java.

  11. Molluscan fauna of Gueishan Island, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Wei Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This dataset records the occurrence and inventory of molluscan fauna on Gueishan Island, the only active volcanic island in Taiwan, based on the literature survey and field investigation conducted between 2011 and 2012. The literature review involved seven studies published from 1934 to 2003, which collectively reported 112 species from 61 genera and 37 families of Mollusca on Gueishan Island. Through our field investigation, we identified 34 species from 28 genera and 23 families. Fourteen of these species were new records on Gueishan Island: Liolophura japonica, Lottia luchuana, Nerita costata, Nerita rumphii, Diplommatina suganikeiensis, Littoraria undulata, Solenomphala taiwanensis, Assiminea sp., Siphonaria laciniosa, Laevapex nipponica, Carychium hachijoensis, Succinea erythrophana, Zaptyx crassilamellata, and Allopeas pyrgula. In Total, there are 126 species from 71 genera and 45 families of Mollusca on Gueishan Island. These data have been published through GBIF [http://taibif.org.tw/ipt/resource.do?r=gueishan_island] and integrated into the Taiwan Malacofauna Database (http://shell.sinica.edu.tw/.

  12. Of Africa and island nations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentein, J.; Jaremko, D.

    2009-06-15

    Trinidad and Tobago is now planning to develop its heavy oil and oil sands reserves. Officials with the state-owned energy company Petrotrin advised local media that its heavy oil reserves have the potential to double the country's total reserves. A licence has been issued to explore oil sands in the Parrylands and Guapo fields. Petrotrin is aiming to follow the example of Canadian oil sands producers, and hopes to limit the environmental impacts of production on the island. Government agencies will also conduct research to evaluate suitable technologies for oil sands production. New air pollution rules have recently been enforced, and studies are being conducted in order to determine how best to preserve the country's aquifers. The Congolese government has recently signed a contract with the Italy-based company Eni, who will explore and exploit oil sands resources of 2.5 billion barrels in the Tchikatanga and Tchikatanga-Makola regions. Madagascar Oil is now planning to develop 2.5 billion barrels of oil sands resources in Madagascar using cyclic steam stimulation (CSS) technologies. It was concluded that a continuous steam flood pilot program is being conducted in 2009. 1 fig.

  13. Stygofauna of the Canary Islands, 9. The amphipod genus Pseudoniphargus (Crustacea) in the Canary Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, Jan H.

    1988-01-01

    Pseudoniphargus was known from inland stygohabitats in the Iberian peninsula, the Azores, Madeira, N.W. Africa, and Bermuda, but not from the Canary Islands. Systematic sampling in six of the seven larger islands of the latter archipelago has revealed the presence of the genus in Tenerife (4

  14. The name of the white-eye from Rendova Island (Solomon Islands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, G.F.

    1955-01-01

    Of the various races of white-eyes that inhabit the central group of the Solomon Islands, the race from the island of Rendova was the first to become known to science. Tristram (1882) recorded this race, which he indentified with Tephras olivaceus Ramsay, described the previous year from the

  15. Islands erased by snow and ice: approaching the spatial philosophy of cold water island imaginaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Riquet

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Representations of islands in Western fiction typically revolve around tropical islands. Critical discourse tends to reproduce this tendency and rarely addresses the specific spatial poetics of cold-water island fictions. This paper discusses three texts that poetically deploy the geographical inventory of northern snow- and icescapes to challenge essentialist assumptions about islands: D. H. Lawrence’s short story “The man who loved islands”, Georgina Harding’s novel The solitude of Thomas Cave, and Michel Serres’s treatise Le passage du Nord-Ouest. It is argued that these texts reflect on the importance of the horizontal and vertical components of material and textual topographies for the conception and experience of islands. In all three, the physical transformation of the islandscapes by snow and ice serves to put the island concept itself into question. Serres’s philosophical text geopoetically portrays the Arctic archipelago of the Northwest Passage to explore the reciprocal relations between language and the material world. In Lawrence and Harding, the snow-covered islands cease to function as economically productive spaces and turn into complex spatial figures offering a philosophical meditation on islandness as a contradictory and multifaceted condition.

  16. Vegetation and checklist of Inaccessible Island, central South Atlantic Ocean, with notes on Nightingale Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Roux

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available The physiography and climate of Inaccessible and Nightingale Islands are briefly discussed. The vegetation and the major plant associations are described. Notes are given on the ecology and distribution of each taxon. Taxa newly recorded for Inaccessible Island include Agrostis goughensis, A.holgateana, A. wacei, Calamagrostis deschampsiiformis, Carex thouarsii var.  recurvata, Conyza albida, Elaphoglossum campylolepium and  Uncinia meridensis. One species, C.  albida, is alien to the Tristan group. Two native ferns Asplenium platybasis var.  subnudum and Blechnum australe were found on Nightingale Island for the first time, and the presence of introduced Malus domestica orchards was recorded. Two unidentified taxa were found that may represent new species:  Elaphoglossum sp. at Inaccessible Island and Apium sp. at both Inaccessible and Nightingale Islands. The total number of vascular plant species recorded at Inaccessible and Nightingale Islands now stands at 98 and 43, respectively, of which 26 (28% and seven (16% are introduced species. Only Airiplex plebeja and two species of Cotula occur at Nightingale Island but are absent from Inaccessible Island.

  17. Vegetation and checklist of Inaccessible Island, central South Atlantic Ocean, with notes on Nightingale Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Roux

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available The physiography and climate of Inaccessible and Nightingale Islands are briefly discussed. The vegetation and the major plant associations are described. Notes are given on the ecology and distribution of each taxon. Taxa newly recorded for Inaccessible Island include Agrostis goughensis, A.holgateana, A. wacei, Calamagrostis deschampsiiformis, Carex thouarsii var.  recurvata, Conyza albida, Elaphoglossum campylolepium and  Uncinia meridensis. One species, C.  albida, is alien to the Tristan group. Two native ferns Asplenium platybasis var.  subnudum and Blechnum australe were found on Nightingale Island for the first time, and the presence of introduced Malus domestica orchards was recorded. Two unidentified taxa were found that may represent new species:  Elaphoglossum sp. at Inaccessible Island and Apium sp. at both Inaccessible and Nightingale Islands. The total number of vascular plant species recorded at Inaccessible and Nightingale Islands now stands at 98 and 43, respectively, of which 26 (28% and seven (16% are introduced species. Only Airiplex plebeja and two species of Cotula occur at Nightingale Island but are absent from Inaccessible Island.

  18. CRED Gridded Bathymetry near Lisianski Island (100-001), Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — File 100-001b is a 60-m ASCII grid of depth data collected near Lisianski Island in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands as of May 2003. This grid has been produced as...

  19. CRED Gridded Bathymetry of Necker Island (100-021) in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — File 100-021b is a 60-m ASCII grid of depth data collected near Necker Island in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands as of May 2003. This grid has been produced as...

  20. CRED Gridded Bathymetry of Nihoa Island (100-025) in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — File 100-025b is a 60-m ASCII grid of depth data collected near Nihoa Island in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands as of May 2003. This grid has been produced as part...

  1. CRED Gridded Bathymetry near Laysan Island (100-006), Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — File 100-006b is a 60-m ASCII grid of depth data collected near Laysan Island in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands as of May 2003. This grid has been produced as...

  2. Large mainland populations of South Island robins retain greater genetic diversity than offshore island refuges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boessenkool, Sanne; Taylor, Sabrina S.; Tepolt, Carolyn K.; Komdeur, Jan; Jamieson, Ian G.

    For conservation purposes islands are considered safe refuges for many species, particularly in regions where introduced predators form a major threat to the native fauna, but island populations are also known to possess low levels of genetic diversity. The New Zealand archipelago provides an ideal

  3. Escape from the Island: Grammaticality and (Reduced) Acceptability of "Wh"-Island Violations in Danish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Ken Ramshoj; Kizach, Johannes; Nyvad, Anne Mette

    2013-01-01

    In the syntax literature, it is commonly assumed that a constraint on linguistic competence blocks extraction of "wh-"expressions (e.g. "what" or "which book") from embedded questions, referred to as "wh-"islands. Furthermore, it is assumed that there is an argument/adjunct asymmetry in extraction from "wh-"islands. We report results from two…

  4. CRED Gridded Bathymetry near Lisianski Island and Pioneer Bank (100-002), Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — File 100-002b is a 60-m ASCII grid of depth data collected near Lisianski Island and Pioneer Bank in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands as of May 2003. This grid has...

  5. Recent hydrogeologic study of the Vis island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janislav Kapelj

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The Vis Island belongs to the group of the Middle Dalmatian islands. It comprises an area of about 90.2 km2. Morphologically, three belts of highlands and two depressions with karst poljes are significant. The highest point on the island is Hum with 587 m a.s.l. theisland’s water supply is organized from the water-supply station “Korita”, situated in the central part of island, in tectonically formed depression. There are two additional capturedobjects: the well K-1 above the Komiža town and the spring “Pizdica”. The most important hydrogeological role on the island have two hydrogeological barriers, one in the KomižaBay, completely made of impermeable igneous and clastic rocks, and another one, the recently recognized relative barrier in the area of Dra~evo, Plisko and Velo polje. Since the island karst aquifer is in permanent dynamic relation with seawater, classical geologic,structural and hydrogeologic investigations have been performed with application of hydrogeochemical methods taking into account the natural chemical tracer content of groundwater and its variations in different hydrologic and vegetation conditions. Precipitationregime is very unfavorable with regard to the recharging of island’s aquifer, because dry periods are usually very long. During the summer tourist season, when the number of inhabitants and fresh water consumption considerably increase, amounts of island’sgroundwater suitable for water supply and irrigation rapidly decrease. Sometimes, insufficient quantity of fresh water on the Vis Island causes restrictions. Concerning the development of tourist potential and the present agricultural activities, summer lack ofwater is a serious restrictive factor. Some results of the performed hydrogeological study, important as a basis for island’s fresh water potential assessment, will be presented.

  6. Climate Change in the Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamnett, Michael P.

    Climate change have been a major concern among Pacific Islanders since the late 1990s. During that period, Time Magazine featured a cover story that read: Say Goodbye to the Marshall Islands, Kiribati, and Tuvalu from sea level rise. Since that time, the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, UN and government agencies and academic researchers have been assessing the impacts of long-term climate change and seasonal to inter-annual climate variability on the Pacific Islands. The consensus is that long-term climate change will result in more extreme weather and tidal events including droughts, floods, tropical cyclones, coastal erosion, and salt water inundation. Extreme weather events already occur in the Pacific Islands and they are patterned. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events impact rainfall, tropical cyclone and tidal patterns. In 2000, the first National Assessment of the Consequences of Climate Variability and Change concluded that long-term climate change will result in more El Niño events or a more El Niño like climate every year. The bad news is that will mean more natural disasters. The good news is that El Niño events can be predicted and people can prepare for them. The reallly bad news is that some Pacific Islands are already becoming uninhabitable because of erosion of land or the loss of fresh water from droughts and salt water intrusion. Many of the most vulnerable countries already overseas populations in New Zealand, the US, or larger Pacific Island countries. For some Pacific Islander abandoning their home countries will be their only option.

  7. Numerical modeling of atoll island hydrogeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, R T; Jenson, J W; Olsen, A E

    2009-01-01

    We implemented Ayers and Vachers' (1986) inclusive conceptual model for atoll island aquifers in a comprehensive numerical modeling study to evaluate the response of the fresh water lens to selected controlling climatic and geologic variables. Climatic factors include both constant and time-varying recharge rates, with particular attention paid to the effects of El Niño and the associated drought it brings to the western Pacific. Geologic factors include island width; hydraulic conductivity of the uppermost Holocene-age aquifer, which contains the fresh water lens; the depth to the contact with the underlying, and much more conductive, Pleistocene karst aquifer, which transmits tidal signals to the base of the lens; and the presence or absence of a semiconfining reef flat plate on the ocean side. Sensitivity analyses of steady-steady simulations show that lens thickness is most strongly sensitive to the depth to the Holocene-Pleistocene contact and to the hydraulic conductivity of the Holocene aquifer, respectively. Comparisons between modeling results and published observations of atoll island lens thicknesses suggest a hydraulic conductivity of approximately 50 m/d for leeward islands and approximately 400 m/d for windward islands. Results of transient simulations show that lens thickness fluctuations during average seasonal conditions and El Niño events are quite sensitive to island width, recharge rate, and hydraulic conductivity of the Holocene aquifer. In general, the depletion of the lens during drought conditions is most drastic for small, windward islands. Simulation results suggest that recovery from a 6-month drought requires about 1.5 years.

  8. Virtually Impossible: Deleuze and Derrida on the Political Problem of Islands (and Island Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Williams

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available It is commonplace to think of an island as a discreetly bounded unit. Selected writings on islands by the poststructuralist philosophers Gilles Deleuze and Jacques Derrida reveal the island variously to be both real and imaginary, mythological and scientific, but as most problematic when constituted in political terms as an indivisible, sovereign entity. These two thinkers’ more broadly developed concepts of the virtual and the impossible, respectively, are seen to disrupt any assumptions about the fixity and closure of the island polity. Instead they emphasize its actualization through processual relations that can be difficult yet dynamic and decisive in effecting the move from being to becoming-other. As the possibilities for instituting more ethical as well as different political relations open up, the question of island studies remaining in its currently coherent, familiar form is raised for consideration.

  9. Population Size and Decadal Trends of Three Penguin Species Nesting at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Michael J; Jackson, Jennifer A; Adlard, Stacey; Lynnes, Amanda S; Briggs, Dirk R; Fox, Derren; Waluda, Claire M

    2016-01-01

    We report long-term changes in population size of three species of sympatrically breeding pygoscelid penguins: Adélie (Pygoscelis adeliae), chinstrap (Pygoscelis antarctica) and gentoo (Pygoscelis papua ellsworthii) over a 38 year period at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands, based on annual counts from selected colonies and decadal all-island systematic counts of occupied nests. Comparing total numbers of breeding pairs over the whole island from 1978/79 to 2015/16 revealed varying fortunes: gentoo penguin pairs increased by 255%, (3.5% per annum), chinstrap penguins declined by 68% (-3.6% per annum) and Adélie penguins declined by 42% (-1.5% per annum). The chinstrap population has declined steadily over the last four decades. In contrast, Adélie and gentoo penguins have experienced phases of population increase and decline. Annual surveys of selected chinstrap and Adélie colonies produced similar trends from those revealed by island-wide surveys, allowing total island population trends to be inferred relatively well. However, while the annual colony counts of chinstrap and Adélie penguins showed a trend consistent in direction with the results from all-island surveys, the magnitude of estimated population change was markedly different between colony wide and all island counts. Annual population patterns suggest that pair numbers in the study areas partly reflect immigration and emigration of nesting birds between different parts of the island. Breeding success for all three species remained broadly stable over time in the annually monitored colonies. Breeding success rates in gentoo and chinstrap penguins were strongly correlated, despite the differing trends in population size. This study shows the importance of effective, standardised monitoring to accurately determine long-term population trajectories. Our results indicate significant declines in the Adélie and chinstrap penguin populations at Signy Island over the last five decades, and a gradual

  10. Population Size and Decadal Trends of Three Penguin Species Nesting at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Dunn

    Full Text Available We report long-term changes in population size of three species of sympatrically breeding pygoscelid penguins: Adélie (Pygoscelis adeliae, chinstrap (Pygoscelis antarctica and gentoo (Pygoscelis papua ellsworthii over a 38 year period at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands, based on annual counts from selected colonies and decadal all-island systematic counts of occupied nests. Comparing total numbers of breeding pairs over the whole island from 1978/79 to 2015/16 revealed varying fortunes: gentoo penguin pairs increased by 255%, (3.5% per annum, chinstrap penguins declined by 68% (-3.6% per annum and Adélie penguins declined by 42% (-1.5% per annum. The chinstrap population has declined steadily over the last four decades. In contrast, Adélie and gentoo penguins have experienced phases of population increase and decline. Annual surveys of selected chinstrap and Adélie colonies produced similar trends from those revealed by island-wide surveys, allowing total island population trends to be inferred relatively well. However, while the annual colony counts of chinstrap and Adélie penguins showed a trend consistent in direction with the results from all-island surveys, the magnitude of estimated population change was markedly different between colony wide and all island counts. Annual population patterns suggest that pair numbers in the study areas partly reflect immigration and emigration of nesting birds between different parts of the island. Breeding success for all three species remained broadly stable over time in the annually monitored colonies. Breeding success rates in gentoo and chinstrap penguins were strongly correlated, despite the differing trends in population size. This study shows the importance of effective, standardised monitoring to accurately determine long-term population trajectories. Our results indicate significant declines in the Adélie and chinstrap penguin populations at Signy Island over the last five decades, and a

  11. Sculpting the shape of semiconductor heteroepitaxial islands: fromdots to rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, J.T.; Walko, D.A.; Arms, D.A.; Tinberg, D.S.; Evans,P.G.; Cao, Y.; Liddle, J.A.; Rastelli, A.; Schmidt, O.G.; Dubon, O.D.

    2006-06-20

    In the Ge on Si model heteroepitaxial system, metal patterns on the silicon surface provide unprecedented control over the morphology of highly ordered Ge islands. Island shape including nanorods and truncated pyramids is set by the metal species and substrate orientation. Analysis of island faceting elucidates the prominent role of the metal in promoting growth of preferred facet orientations while investigations of island composition and structure reveal the importance of Si-Ge intermixing in island evolution. These effects reflect a remarkable combination of metal-mediated growth phenomena that may be exploited to tailor the functionality of island arrays in heteroepitaxial systems.

  12. Seabird modulations of isotopic nitrogen on islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Caut

    Full Text Available The transport of nutrients by migratory animals across ecosystem boundaries can significantly enrich recipient food webs, thereby shaping the ecosystems' structure and function. To illustrate the potential role of islands in enabling the transfer of matter across ecosystem boundaries to be gauged, we investigated the influence of seabirds on nitrogen input on islands. Basing our study on four widely differing islands in terms of their biogeography and ecological characteristics, sampled at different spatial and temporal intervals, we analyzed the nitrogen isotopic values of the main terrestrial ecosystem compartments (vascular plants, arthropods, lizards and rodents and their relationship to seabird values. For each island, the isotopic values of the ecosystem were driven by those of seabirds, which ultimately corresponded to changes in their marine prey. First, terrestrial compartments sampled within seabird colonies were the most enriched in δ(15N compared with those collected at various distances outside colonies. Second, isotopic values of the whole terrestrial ecosystems changed over time, reflecting the values of seabirds and their prey, showing a fast turnover throughout the ecosystems. Our results demonstrate that seabird-derived nutrients not only spread across the terrestrial ecosystems and trophic webs, but also modulate their isotopic values locally and temporally on these islands. The wealth of experimental possibilities in insular ecosystems justifies greater use of these model systems to further our understanding of the modalities of trans-boundary nutrient transfers.

  13. Island Movements: Thinking with the Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Pugh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Whether in Homer or Plato, Shakespeare or Huxley, throughout history, thinking about islands has shaped how we think about human nature and our place in the world. However, to date archipelagos have received far less attention. This is problematic because we live, increasingly, in a world of island-island movements and not static forms. Not only in the more obvious cases of the Caribbean, Hawaii or the Philippines but, as Stratford et al (2011 say, many ‘continental forms’ like Canada and Australia are in fact archipelagos composed of thousands of island movements. To this list we can add more manufactured archipelagos: wind turbine arrays, industrial oil and military constellations. The key question therefore arises: what does it mean to think with the archipelago? This paper argues firstly that archipelagic thinking denaturalizes the conceptual basis of space and place, and therefore engages ‘the spatial turn’ presently sweeping the social sciences and humanities. Secondly, such thinking highlights the trope of what I call ‘metamorphosis’, of the adaptation and transformation of material, cultural and political practices through island movements. In both cases, I argue that thinking with the archipelago requires an important shift in how we frame analysis and engagement.

  14. Bioclimatic and physical characterization of the world’s islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigelt, Patrick; Jetz, Walter; Kreft, Holger

    2013-01-01

    The Earth’s islands harbor a distinct, yet highly threatened, biological and cultural diversity that has been shaped by geographic isolation and unique environments. Island systems are key natural laboratories for testing theory in ecology and evolution. However, despite their potential usefulness for research, a quantitative description of island environments and an environmental classification are still lacking. Here, we prepare a standardized dataset and perform a comprehensive global environmental characterization for 17,883 of the world’s marine islands >1 km2 (∼98% of total island area). We consider area, temperature, precipitation, seasonality in temperature and precipitation, past climate change velocity, elevation, isolation, and past connectivity—key island characteristics and drivers of ecosystem processes. We find that islands are significantly cooler, wetter, and less seasonal than mainlands. Constrained by their limited area, they show less elevational heterogeneity. Wet temperate climates are more prevalent on islands, whereas desert climates are comparatively rare. We use ordination and clustering to characterize islands in multidimensional environmental space and to delimit island ecoregions, which provides unique insights into the environmental configuration and diversity of the world’s islands. Combining ordination and classification together with global environmental data in a common framework opens up avenues for a more integrative use of islands in biogeography, macroecology, and conservation. To showcase possible applications of the presented data, we predict vascular plant species richness for all 17,883 islands based on statistically derived environment–richness relationships. PMID:24003123

  15. [The bathymetry of Coco's Island, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizano, O G

    2001-12-01

    The bathymetry of Coco's Island (UNESCO Natural and Cultural World Patrimony), located approximately 500 km from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, is not well known. It has a high marine biodiversity and also represents a meeting site for many species traveling throughout the Pacific Ocean. The insular shelf is irregular in extension and also in bathymetric features. The northeast limit is defined by the 109.8-128.1 m contours (60-70 fathoms) while the 183 m contour (100 fathoms) practically defines the rest of the island, from which the depth gradient is steep. The maximum extension is to the northeast with a longitude of 13 km. In this context the present limits of the marine park (5 km), are insufficient to protect the whole insular shelf. Current regulation should be modified to prevent fishing activities less than 15 km from the Island.

  16. Decentralized Coordinated Control Strategy of Islanded Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Dan

    as grid voltage/frequency regulation. In order to enhance the reliability of overall islanded Microgrid operation, basic functions of coordinated control which taking into account the state of charge (SoC) limitation and power availability of renewable energy sources is implemented in a distributed level......Facing the challenges brought by the traditional large power system concerning the environmental and economic issues, along recent years distributed generation is considered as an alternative solution to provide clean energy in a local manner. In this context, Microgrid which performing as a local......-connected mode and islanded mode. In the islanded mode operation, since there is no energy back-up from the main grid, the coordinated control of power balance between generation and consumption encounters more challenges and this thesis is mainly focused on this scope. Hierarchical structure can be applied...

  17. The Floating (Pathogenicity) Island: A Genomic Dessert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novick, Richard P; Ram, Geeta

    2016-02-01

    Among the prokaryotic genomic islands (GIs) involved in horizontal gene transfer (HGT) are the classical pathogenicity islands, including the integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs), the gene-transfer agents (GTAs), and the staphylococcal pathogenicity islands (SaPIs), the primary focus of this review. While the ICEs and GTAs mediate HGT autonomously, the SaPIs are dependent on specific phages. The ICEs transfer primarily their own DNA, the GTAs exclusively transfer unlinked host DNA, and the SaPIs combine the capabilities of both. Thus the SaPIs derive their importance from the genes they carry (their genetic cargo) and the genes they move. They act not only as versatile high-frequency mobilizers but also as mediators of phage interference and consequently are major benefactors of their host bacteria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The island species–area relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantis, Kostas A.; Guilhaumon, François; Whittaker, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Aim  We conducted the most extensive quantitative analysis yet undertaken of the form taken by the island species–area relationship (ISAR), among 20 models, to determine: (1) the best-fit model, (2) the best-fit model family, (3) the best-fit ISAR shape (and presence of an asymptote), (4) system...... properties that may explain ISAR form, and (5) parameter values and interpretation of the logarithmic implementation of the power model. Location  World-wide. Methods  We amassed 601 data sets from terrestrial islands and employed an information-theoretic framework to test for the best-fit ISAR model, family......, with the power model ranked first. Similar results were obtained at model family level. The ISAR form is most commonly convex upwards, without an asymptote. Island system traits had low descriptive power in relation to variation in ISAR form. However, the z and c parameters of the logarithmic power model show...

  19. Different shades of green on small islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Tiago

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Many small islands exist as tourism destinations worldwide. In the 1990s, the growth of environmental consciousness led some small islands to question their mass tourism offers and to refocus on more sustainable propositions. However, it remains unclear whether hospitality firms see these sustainability related efforts as drivers of success and whether tourists value this dimension when choosing or recommending a destination. This study chose a small island destination to address these questions using data covering firm and tourism perceptions of green products. The results show that tourists tend to value green efforts with different intensities, corresponding to three segments: Light Green, Green, and Super Green. These findings should help hotels adjust their communication strategies and develop new services. Further, destination marketing organizations can devise a consistent destination strategy, integrating all stakeholders by including their most valued concepts.

  20. Hotterdam: mapping the Rotterdam urban heat island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank van der Hoeven

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The urban heat island is considered to be one of the contemporary health aspects that cities urgently need to respond to. The Hotterdam research project addresses the Rotterdam urban heat island, in order to explain the links between the health of the city’s population and the features of its built environment that make it more or rather less warm. The work resulted in two heat maps that make the city of Rotterdam and its inhabitants more aware of and less susceptible to the health effects of heat waves. The insights into the urban heat island that were gained in this project are relevant for other cities in Holland (Amsterdam, The Hague and abroad.

  1. Dispute Resolutions Sea Border Between the Province of Bangka Belitung Islands in Riau Islands Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoko Sulistyono

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted and based on the existence of “persistence” claims of the province of Bangka Belitung islands and Riau islands province that seven islands groups, which is disputes region territory. Therefore, this study would be likely to provide a solution in resolving the dispute between the two provinces. This study uses qualitative methods with descriptive analytical approach. This method is used, because the phenomenon of inter-regional constellation boundary disputes (including sea boundary is considered to be multidimensional. The data were taken from both the research field of primary data and secondary data, conducted through in-depth interviews with selected key informants and field observations, and combined with the study of literature through a search of the authentic evidence disputes the relevant past. Government (the Ministry of Home Affairs should immediately resolves disputes in the sea boundary segment cluster seven islands involving the provincial government Bangka Belitung islands and Riau islands provincial government with reference to the four approaches, namely: a the historical side; b juridical side; c side of the rule; d the social side of the culture. And coupled with the desire not to deny the people who live on the islands so expect to be appreciated by the government well.

  2. A man and his island: The island mirror in Michael Crummey’s Sweetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Brinklow

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Between 1946 and 1975, dozens of islands and outports in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador were abandoned as part of a government resettlement policy. Families and communities were torn apart, and a culture and way of life that revolved around the fishery changed irrevocably. The practice, which continues to this day, has been well documented, particularly by artists and writers. Michael Crummey’s 2014 novel Sweetland is a recent iteration. The relationship between humans and place is complex: on an island, with compressed space and a very real boundary that is the ocean, emotional attachments to one’s place are often heightened and distilled. What happens when a person is displaced from his or her island; when bonds of attachment are severed and one’s mirrored double is destroyed? Sweetland offers a fictional lens through which we see an example of a mirrored relationship between an island protagonist and his island setting. Exploring themes of attachment to place, and what Barry Lopez calls a “storied” or “reciprocal” relationship with the land, this paper examines what happens to a man when confronted with leaving an island he knows as deeply as his own body and soul; and how the island reacts.

  3. Vegetation assessment of forests of Pagan Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Linda W.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the Marianas Expedition Wildlife Surveys-2010, the forest vegetation of the island of Pagan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), was sampled with a series of systematic plots along 13 transects established for monitoring forest bird populations. Shrubland and grassland were also sampled in the northern half of the island. Data collected were woody plant density, tree diameter at breast height, woody plant density in height classes below 2 m, and ground cover measured with the point-intercept method. Coconut forests (Cocos nucifera) were generally found to have low native tree diversity, little regeneration of trees and shrubs in the forest understory, and little live ground cover. The sole exception was a coconut-dominated forest of the northeast side of the island that exhibited high native tree diversity and a large number of young native trees in the understory. Ironwood (Casuarina equisetifolia) forests on the northern half of the island were nearly monocultures with almost no trees other than ironwood in vegetation plots, few woody plants in the understory, and low ground cover dominated by native ferns. Mixed native forests of both northern and southern sections of the island had a diversity of native tree species in both the canopy and the sparse understory. Ground cover of native forests in the north had a mix of native and alien species, but that of the southern half of the island was dominated by native ferns and woody plants.

  4. Equilibrium Bird Species Diversity in Atlantic Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Luis; Illera, Juan Carlos; Havenstein, Katja; Pallien, Tamara; Etienne, Rampal S; Tiedemann, Ralph

    2017-06-05

    Half a century ago, MacArthur and Wilson proposed that the number of species on islands tends toward a dynamic equilibrium diversity around which species richness fluctuates [1]. The current prevailing view in island biogeography accepts the fundamentals of MacArthur and Wilson's theory [2] but questions whether their prediction of equilibrium can be fulfilled over evolutionary timescales, given the unpredictable and ever-changing nature of island geological and biotic features [3-7]. Here we conduct a complete molecular phylogenetic survey of the terrestrial bird species from four oceanic archipelagos that make up the diverse Macaronesian bioregion-the Azores, the Canary Islands, Cape Verde, and Madeira [8, 9]. We estimate the times at which birds colonized and speciated in the four archipelagos, including many previously unsampled endemic and non-endemic taxa and their closest continental relatives. We develop and fit a new multi-archipelago dynamic stochastic model to these data, explicitly incorporating information from 91 taxa, both extant and extinct. Remarkably, we find that all four archipelagos have independently achieved and maintained a dynamic equilibrium over millions of years. Biogeographical rates are homogeneous across archipelagos, except for the Canary Islands, which exhibit higher speciation and colonization. Our finding that the avian communities of the four Macaronesian archipelagos display an equilibrium diversity pattern indicates that a diversity plateau may be rapidly achieved on islands where rates of in situ radiation are low and extinction is high. This study reveals that equilibrium processes may be more prevalent than recently proposed, supporting MacArthur and Wilson's 50-year-old theory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Assesing Geographic Isolation of the Galapagos Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, D.; Smith, F.

    2016-06-01

    The Galapagos Archipelago is one of the most important ecological spots in the planet due its unique biodiversity, active geology, and relatively well-preserved ecosystems. These characteristics are strongly based on the geographical isolation of the islands. On the one hand this isolation allowed the evolution processes that gave the islands their international fame and on the other hand it kept them from major human impacts that affected the vast majority of the Earth's surface. Galapagos' geographical isolation is therefore of mayor value, but it is rapidly diminishing due to the increase of marine and air transportation among islands and with the rest of the world. This increased accessibility implies enhanced risks for the ecological dynamics on the archipelago (e.g. increased risk of biological invasions, uncontrolled tourism growth, more water and energy consumption). Here, we introduce a general accessibility model to assess geographical isolation of the Galapagos Islands. The model aims to characterize accessibility in terms of human mobility by evaluating travel time to each point of the archipelago using all available transportation modalities. Using a multi criteria cost surface for marine and land areas, we estimated travel time for each surface unit using the fastest route and mode of transportation available while considering several friction factors such as surface type, slope, infrastructure, transfer points, legal restrictions, and physical barriers. We created maps to evaluate the isolation of different islands and places, highlighting the potential risks for several habitats and ecosystems. The model can be used for research and decision-making regarding island conservation, such as estimating spreading paths for invasive species, informing decisions on tourism management, and monitoring isolation changes of sensitive ecosystems.

  6. ASSESING GEOGRAPHIC ISOLATION OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Orellana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Galapagos Archipelago is one of the most important ecological spots in the planet due its unique biodiversity, active geology, and relatively well-preserved ecosystems. These characteristics are strongly based on the geographical isolation of the islands. On the one hand this isolation allowed the evolution processes that gave the islands their international fame and on the other hand it kept them from major human impacts that affected the vast majority of the Earth’s surface. Galapagos’ geographical isolation is therefore of mayor value, but it is rapidly diminishing due to the increase of marine and air transportation among islands and with the rest of the world. This increased accessibility implies enhanced risks for the ecological dynamics on the archipelago (e.g. increased risk of biological invasions, uncontrolled tourism growth, more water and energy consumption. Here, we introduce a general accessibility model to assess geographical isolation of the Galapagos Islands. The model aims to characterize accessibility in terms of human mobility by evaluating travel time to each point of the archipelago using all available transportation modalities. Using a multi criteria cost surface for marine and land areas, we estimated travel time for each surface unit using the fastest route and mode of transportation available while considering several friction factors such as surface type, slope, infrastructure, transfer points, legal restrictions, and physical barriers. We created maps to evaluate the isolation of different islands and places, highlighting the potential risks for several habitats and ecosystems. The model can be used for research and decision-making regarding island conservation, such as estimating spreading paths for invasive species, informing decisions on tourism management, and monitoring isolation changes of sensitive ecosystems.

  7. Kaskaskia Island Drainage and Levee District, Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-07-01

    include a Victorian era brick church and a small shrine housing a historic bell. 1.2. AUTHORIZATION AND HISTORY The plan of improvement for Kaskaskia...kinship ties. Inter- marriage among island families has been common, and a complicated web of kinship lines exists. Almost all residents of the island know...impact of disaster on kin relationships." Journal of Marriage and the Family. 37:481-494, August. Emge, W.P.; Solomon, R.C.; Johnson, J.H.; Bingham, R.C

  8. Local Government in the South Pacific Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Hassall

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we seek to answer some basic questions about the condition of local government in the Pacific. Firstly, we examine what is meant by ‘local government’ in the various islands and for that matter how Pacific Island states have perceived and accepted local government institutions in practice; second, we ask basic questions about existing legal and constitutional recognition and powers; and third, we provide initial findings on current per capita expenditure and local government financial viability in a number of Pacific cities and towns. We also make some observations on current moves towards local government reform.

  9. Voltage control of DC islanded microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tucci, Michele; Riverso, Stefano; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new decentralized control scheme for DC Islanded microGrids (ImGs) composed by several Distributed Generation Units (DGUs) with a general interconnection topology. Each local controller regulates to a reference value the voltage of the Point of Common Coupling (PCC) of the correspond......We propose a new decentralized control scheme for DC Islanded microGrids (ImGs) composed by several Distributed Generation Units (DGUs) with a general interconnection topology. Each local controller regulates to a reference value the voltage of the Point of Common Coupling (PCC...

  10. Ischia Island: Historical Seismicity and Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlino, S.; Cubellis, E.; Iannuzzi, R.; Luongo, G.; Obrizzo, F.

    2003-04-01

    The seismic energy release in volcanic areas is a complex process and the island of Ischia provides a significant scenario of historical seismicity. This is characterized by the occurence of earthquakes with low energy and high intensity. Information on the seismicity of the island spans about eight centuries, starting from 1228. With regard to effects, the most recent earthquake of 1883 is extensively documented both in the literature and unpublished sources. The earthquake caused 2333 deaths and the destruction of the historical and environmental heritage of some areas of the island. The most severe damage occurred in Casamicciola. This event, which was the first great catastrophe after the unification of Italy in the 1860s (Imax = XI degree MCS), represents an important date in the prevention of natural disasters, in that it was after this earthquake that the first Seismic Safety Act in Italy was passed by which lower risk zones were identified for new settlements. Thanks to such detailed analysis, reliable modelling of the seismic source was also obtained. The historical data onwards makes it possible to identify the area of the epicenter of all known earthquakes as the northern slope of Monte Epomeo, while analysis of the effects of earthquakes and the geological structures allows us to evaluate the stress fields that generate the earthquakes. In a volcanic area, interpretation of the mechanisms of release and propagation of seismic energy is made even more complex as the stress field that acts at a regional level is compounded by that generated from migration of magmatic masses towards the surface, as well as the rheologic properties of the rocks dependent on the high geothermic gradient. Such structural and dynamic conditions make the island of Ischia a seismic area of considerable interest. It would appear necessary to evaluate the expected damage caused by a new event linked to the renewal of dynamics of the island, where high population density and the

  11. Vulnerability assessment of small islands to tourism: The case of the Marine Tourism Park of the Gili Matra Islands, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fery Kurniawan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Indonesian government is currently directing its focus of development on the optimum uses of marine and coastal ecosystem services including the marine and coastal tourism. One of the main locus of coastal and marine tourism is the small islands tourism such as Gili Matra Islands among others. Small islands tourism is one of the favourite touristic activities because the destination provides beauty, exotism, aesthetic and a diversity of natural habitats including the warm, clear and attractive water. Tourism is being considered as a development instrument in order to boost a country’s economy and has become part of the global industry. However, tourism is also one of the actors that is responsible for environmental depletion, due to the constructions of buildings and tourism activities. This paper aims to study the level of vulnerability in small islands to tourism as a basis of integrated small islands management in Indonesian conservation area. The group of islands in this study consists of three islands namely Gili Ayer Island, Gili Meno Island and Gili Trawangan Island (known as Gili Matra Islands that were observed using Small Islands Vulnerability Index (SIVI. The results indicate that Gili Matra Islands have a vulnerability status from low into moderate, ranging from 2.25 to 2.75. Gili Ayer Island has the highest vulnerability with SIVI of 2.75 (Moderate, followed by Gili Meno Island with SIVI of 2.50 (Low and Gili Trawangan Island with SIVI of 2.25 (Low. The driving factor of vulnerability is the intensive utilization of marine tourism activities. Tourism is the sole stress to Gili Matra Island’s ecosystem due to its direct damaging impact and reducing its environmental quality. The vulnerability index which was built from the coastline, coral reef, live coral reef, and development area was applicable to assess the small island’s vulnerability in Indonesia, especially for coral island.

  12. Volcano-structure of El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Becerril, L; Galve, J.P; Morales, J.M; Romero, C; Sánchez, N; Martí, J; Galindo, I

    2016-01-01

    The first complete volcano-structural map of El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain) has been developed in order to provide a tool for volcano-tectonic analyses and volcanic hazard evaluation on the island...

  13. Piram island: Pirates Fort in the Gulf of Khambat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Bhatt, B.K.

    to understand the importance of this island in navigation. The remains of fortification such as doorjambs, dressed stone blocks, drainage and sculptures are scattered in inter tidal zone. The archaeological findings suggest that island lacks a suitable anchorage...

  14. Kodiak brown bear population on Kodiak Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Methods and estimates of the Brown bear population on Kodiak Island. The total number of Kodiak Brown Bears on Kodiak Island has been estimated to be 1669. Three...

  15. Chronic Liver Disease and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Chronic Liver Disease Chronic Liver Disease and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander Native Hawaiian/Pacific ... times more likely to be diagnosed with chronic liver disease in 2006. American Samoans were 8 times more ...

  16. Mechanism of viscosity effect on magnetic island rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhailovskii, A.B.; Konovalov, S.V. [Institute of Nuclear Fusion, Russian Research Centre ' Kurchatov Institute' , Kurchatov Sq., 1, Moscow (Russian Federation); Pustovitov, V.D. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Tsypin, V.S. [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, SP (Brazil)

    2000-04-01

    It is shown that plasma viscosity does not influence the magnetic island rotation directly. Nevertheless, it leads to nonstationarity of the plasma velocity. This nonstationarity is the reason of the viscosity effect on island rotation. (author)

  17. Shipwreck archaeology of the Lakshadweep Islands, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Gudigar, P.

    Archaeological investigations in the Lakshadweep Islands have brought to light the presence of a large number of shipwrecks and the archival records have the details of some of these wrecks. Northern islands and reefs of Minicoy were the locations...

  18. Northwest Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Division Reef Fish Biomass

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset represents island-scale mean and Standard Error of biomass for 4 trophic groups using all data from North West Hawaiian Islands gathered using NOAA's...

  19. Northern fur seal pup weights, Pribilof Islands, Alaska, 1957-present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains northern fur seal pup mass and length data by date, island, rookery and sex on the Pribilof Islands, Alaska, collected between 1957-2012. Mass...

  20. Rural development issues in Prince Edward Island, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A. Royle

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Historical background and contemporary rural area differencies in PrinceEdwar Island is represented. The effects of some development projects areanalysed zaking into account the changes of activity orientation of differentparts of the island.

  1. Breast Cancer and the Environment on Long Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cornerstone of the LIBCSP is the Breast Cancer and the Environment on Long Island Study, which was undertaken to determine whether certain environmental contaminants increase risk of breast cancer among women on Long Island.

  2. Northern Mariana Islands Marine Monitoring Team Reef Flat Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands' (CNMI) interagency marine monitoring team conducts surveys on reef flat areas on the islands of Saipan, Tinian and...

  3. Epigean freshwater Gammaridae (Crustacea, Amphipoda) from La Gomera (Canary Islands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beyer, Gabriele; Stock, Jan H.

    1994-01-01

    Description of two new species of freshwater amphipods from La Gomera (Canary Islands), both found in the higher parts of the island: Chaetogammarus chaetocerus n. sp. and Rhipidogammarus gomeranus n. sp. Both species have distinct Afro- Iberian relationships.

  4. Inventory Plan for Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a wildlife inventory plan for Merritt Island, Pelican Island and St. Johns National Wildlife Refuge system. Species selected were based on the Refuge...

  5. The research management profession within universities in small island states

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christian Bonnici; Vincent Cassar

    2016-01-01

    ...; and the rise of the research management profession and its associated literature. Within a small island state context, the profession cannot be taken for granted, owing to smallness and other inherent characteristics of small island states...

  6. Infant Mortality and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Infant Health & Mortality Infant Mortality and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders While the overall ... Recent data for this ethnic group is limited. Infant Mortality Rate Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live ...

  7. Wind biodiesel for Bonaire island; Wind-Biodiesel fuer Bonaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2007-07-01

    Bonaire, an island of the Netherlands Antilles, will be the first Caribbean island to be supplied exclusively with power from renewable energy sources. A combined wind-biodiesel system will generate just about 14 MW from 2009. (orig.)

  8. Fox management plan, Aleutian Islands Unit, AMNWR: Draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The presence or absence of arctic fox on islands in the Aleutian Islands Units is described as a decision tool for fox eradication. An effective chemical poison/bait...

  9. Estuarine Shoreline and Barrier-Island Sandline Change Assessment Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Barrier Island and Estuarine Wetland Physical Change Assessment Dataset was created to calibrate and test probability models of barrier island sandline and...

  10. LifeStyle-Specific-Islands (LiSSI): Integrated Bioinformatics Platform for Genomic Island Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Eudes; Röttger, Richard; Hauschild, Anne-Christin; de Castro Soares, Siomar; Böcker, Sebastian; Azevedo, Vasco; Baumbach, Jan

    2017-07-05

    Distinct bacteria are able to cope with highly diverse lifestyles; for instance, they can be free living or host-associated. Thus, these organisms must possess a large and varied genomic arsenal to withstand different environmental conditions. To facilitate the identification of genomic features that might influence bacterial adaptation to a specific niche, we introduce LifeStyle-Specific-Islands (LiSSI). LiSSI combines evolutionary sequence analysis with statistical learning (Random Forest with feature selection, model tuning and robustness analysis). In summary, our strategy aims to identify conserved consecutive homology sequences (islands) in genomes and to identify the most discriminant islands for each lifestyle.

  11. Potential distribution dataset of honeybees in Indian Ocean Islands: Case study of Zanzibar Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwalusepo, Sizah; Muli, Eliud; Nkoba, Kiatoko; Nguku, Everlyn; Kilonzo, Joseph; Abdel-Rahman, Elfatih M; Landmann, Tobias; Fakih, Asha; Raina, Suresh

    2017-10-01

    Honeybees (Apis mellifera) are principal insect pollinators, whose worldwide distribution and abundance is known to largely depend on climatic conditions. However, the presence records dataset on potential distribution of honeybees in Indian Ocean Islands remain less documented. Presence records in shape format and probability of occurrence of honeybees with different temperature change scenarios is provided in this article across Zanzibar Island. Maximum entropy (Maxent) package was used to analyse the potential distribution of honeybees. The dataset provides information on the current and future distribution of the honey bees in Zanzibar Island. The dataset is of great importance for improving stakeholders understanding of the role of temperature change on the spatial distribution of honeybees.

  12. Amsterdam Expeditions to the West Indian Islands, Report 13. Marine sponges from an island cave on San Salvador Island, Bahamas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soest, van R.W.M.; Sass, B. Daniel

    1981-01-01

    Dixon Hill Lighthouse Cave, about 800 m (0.5 miles) inshore on San Salvador Island, Bahamas, was found to hold populations of three sponge species new to science, viz. Pellina penicilliformis n. sp., Prosuberites geracei n. sp., and Cinachyra subterranea n. sp. The new species are described and

  13. The first freshwater molluscs from Wrangel Island, Arctic Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim V. Vinarski

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The first finding of a freshwater snail, Sibirenauta sibiricus (Westerlund, 1877, in one of the lakes on Wrangel Island (north-eastern Russia is reported. No freshwater mollusc species have hitherto been known from this island. Specimens from the island are morphologically compared with the type series of the species. How aquatic molluscs may have migrated to the Arctic island is briefly discussed.

  14. Greek Islands, Western Asia Minor as seen from STS-58

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This north-looking view shows the western margin of Turkey (right) and the Dodecanese Islands of Greece between the Aegean Sea (left) and the Sea of Crete (foreground). The largest island is Crete (foreground) with the semicircular island of Thira beyond. Thira is dominated by the volcanoe Santorini. Two airplane contrails appear between the Turkish mainland and the large island of Rhodes immediately offshore. The narrow straits of the Dardanelles, joining the Black Sea to the Mediterranean, can be detected top left.

  15. Terrestrial reptiles from San Lorenzo Island, Lima, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pérez Z.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We report four species of terrestrial reptiles, a geckonid (Phyllodactlus cf. microphyllus, two lizards (Microlophus peruvianus and M. tigris and one snake (Pseudalsophis elegans from San Lorenzo island, Departament of Lima, Peru. Herein, we report the first record of “Loma’s lizard” M. tigris and the snake P. elegans in Peruvian islands. The presence of Lomas herbaceous and the considerable extent of San Lorenzo island can explain the relatively high species richness of terrestrial reptiles on the island.

  16. 76 FR 78309 - Hawaiian and Pacific Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex; Wilderness Review and Legislative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... Forest, Hanalei, Hawaiian Islands, Howland Island, Hul `ia, James Campbell, Jarvis Island, Johnston... completed wilderness inventories and subsequent WSA studies for the Baker Island, Howland Island, and Jarvis.... possible wilderness proposal submitted to recommendation. Congress. Howland Island\\1\\ September 2008, WSA...

  17. The distribution of bats on the Adriatic islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dulić, Beatrica; Tvrtković, Nikola

    1970-01-01

    The bat fauna of the Adriatic islands is very poorly known in comparison with that of the coastal continental regions (Kolombatović, 1882, 1884; Dulić, 1959). Although ten species of bats are recorded, the data for most of the islands except the island of Lastovo (Dulić, 1968) are scarce, and of an

  18. Adaptations and maladaptations to island living in the Seychelles Warbler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, Jan

    2003-01-01

    The Seychelles Warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis) was an endangered endemic of the Seychelles islands where, until 1988, the entire population of ca. 320 birds was restricted to the one island of Cousin Island (29 ha). Although warblers can breed independently in their first year, some individuals

  19. Line outage contingency analysis including the system islanding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In case of over loading in remaining line(s), the over loaded lines are removed from the system and a topology processor is used to find the islands. A fast decoupled load flow (FDLF) analysis is carried out for finding out the system variables for the islanded (or single island) system by incorporating appropriate modification ...

  20. The holothurian (Echinodermata) diversity of the Glorieuses Islands ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glorieuses archipelago is one of the Eparses Islands, French islands scattered in the Mozambique Channel (Western Indian Ocean). These isolated coral islands, without permanent human population, are important to evaluate the evolution of biodiversity without direct anthropogenic influence. Among several aims, the ...