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Sample records for subalpine norway spruce

  1. Soil attributes and microclimate are important drivers of initial deadwood decay in sub-alpine Norway spruce forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fravolini, Giulia; Egli, Markus; Derungs, Curdin; Cherubini, Paolo; Ascher-Jenull, Judith; Gómez-Brandón, María; Bardelli, Tommaso; Tognetti, Roberto; Lombardi, Fabio; Marchetti, Marco

    2016-11-01

    Deadwood is known to significantly contribute to global terrestrial carbon stocks and carbon cycling, but its decay dynamics are still not thoroughly understood. Although the chemistry of deadwood has been studied as a function of decay stage in temperate to subalpine environments, it has generally not been related to time. We therefore studied the decay (mass of deadwood, cellulose and lignin) of equal-sized blocks of Picea abies wood in soil-mesocosms over two years in the Italian Alps. The 8 sites selected were along an altitudinal sequence, reflecting different climate zones. In addition, the effect of exposure (north- and south-facing slopes) was taken into account. The decay dynamics of the mass of deadwood, cellulose and lignin were related to soil parameters (pH, soil texture, moisture, temperature) and climatic data. The decay rate constants of Picea abies deadwood were low (on average between 0.039 and 0.040y(-1)) and of lignin close to zero (or not detectable), while cellulose reacted much faster with average decay rate constants between 0.110 and 0.117y(-1). Our field experiments showed that local scale factors, such as soil parameters and topographic properties, influenced the decay process: higher soil moisture and clay content along with a lower pH seemed to accelerate wood decay. Interestingly, air temperature negatively correlated with decay rates or positively with the amount of wood components on south-facing sites. It exerted its influence rather on moisture availability, i.e. the lower the temperature the higher the moisture availability. Topographic features were also relevant with generally slower decay processes on south-facing sites than on north-facing sites owing to the drier conditions, the higher pH and the lower weathering state of the soils (less clay minerals). This study highlights the importance of a multifactorial consideration of edaphic parameters to unravel the complex dynamics of initial wood decay. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  2. Time since death and decay rate constants of Norway spruce and European larch deadwood in subalpine forests determined using dendrochronology and radiocarbon dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrillo, Marta; Cherubini, Paolo; Fravolini, Giulia; Marchetti, Marco; Ascher-Jenull, Judith; Schärer, Michael; Synal, Hans-Arno; Bertoldi, Daniela; Camin, Federica; Larcher, Roberto; Egli, Markus

    2016-03-01

    100 years in larch CWD. Consequently, the decay of Picea abies and Larix decidua is very low. Several uncertainties, however, remain: 14C dating of CWD from decay classes 4 and 5 and having a pre-bomb age is often difficult (large age range due to methodological constraints) and fall rates of both European larch and Norway spruce are missing.

  3. Nutrient imbalance in Norway spruce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelin, Gunnar

    2000-11-01

    The studies presented in my thesis indicate that growing Norway spruce in monoculture does not constitute sustainable forest management in a high N and S deposition environment, such as in southern Sweden. The combination of N-induced high growth rates and leaching due to soil acidification causes soil reserves of nutrients to decrease. This will increase the risk of nutrient imbalance within the trees when nutrient demands are not met. The development of nutrient imbalance in Scania, southern Sweden, was shown as negative trends in needle and soil nutrient status from the mid-80s to the present in Norway spruce and Scots pine stands. This imbalance appears to be connected to high levels of N and S deposition. Clear negative effects on tree vitality were found when using a new branch development method. Today, growth and vitality seems to be limited by K, rather than N, in spruce stands older than 40 years. However, younger stands appear to be able to absorb the deposited N without negative effects on growth and vitality. When investigating effects of nutrient stress on tree vitality, indicators such as branch length and shoot multiplication rate, which include effects accumulated over several years, are suitable. Countermeasures are needed in order to maintain the forest production at a high level. Positive effects on tree nutrient status after vitality fertilization (N-free fertilization) was shown in two micronutrient deficient stands in south-central Sweden. In addition, tree vitality was positively affected after the application of a site-adapted fertilizer to the canopy. Site-adaption of fertilizers will most likely improve the possibilities of a positive response on tree growth and vitality in declining stands. In a survey of Norway spruce in mixtures with beech, birch, or oak compared to monocultures it was shown that spruce nutrient status was higher in mixtures with deciduous species than in monocultures. By using mixed-species stands the need for

  4. Adaptive Evolution and Demographic History of Norway Spruce (Picea Abies)

    OpenAIRE

    Källman, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    One of the major challenges in evolutionary biology is to determine the genetic basis of adaptive variation. In Norway spruce (Picea abies) the timing of bud set shows a very strong latitudinal cline despite a very low genetic differentiation between populations. The timing of bud set in Norway spruce is under strong genetic control and triggered by changes in photoperiod, but no genes controlling this response have so far been described. In this thesis we used a combination of functional stu...

  5. Development of White and Norway Spruce Trees from Several Seed Sources 29 Years After Planting

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. King; Paul O. Rudolf

    1969-01-01

    A 29-year-old test of trees grown from seven white spruce and six Norway spruce seed sources and planted in Wisconsin and Minnesota demonstrates the importance of seed-source selection and indicates that trees from some Norway spruce sources equal or surpass the native white spruce.

  6. Carbon sources in vertical profile of Norway spruce stand

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavelka, Marian; Janouš, Dalibor; Urban, Otmar; Acosta, Manuel; Pokorný, Radek; Havránková, Kateřina; Formanek, P.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 30 (2003), s. 199-206 ISSN 1336-5266 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LN00A141; GA ČR(CZ) GA526/03/1021 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : Carbon stock * respiration * Norway spruce Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  7. Mountain Norway spruce forests: Needle supply and its nutrient content

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovářová, Marcela; Vacek, S.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 49, - (2003), s. 327-332 ISSN 1212-4834 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114; GA ČR GA206/99/1416 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : Šumava Mts. * Mountain Norway spruce forest * needle mass Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  8. Xylem sap flow of Norway spruce after inoculation with the blue‐stain fungus Ceratocystis polonica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kirisits, T; Offenthaler, I

    2002-01-01

    In a field experiment, the sap flow of Norway spruce ( Picea abies ) was measured in response to inoculation with Ceratocystis polonica , a virulent fungal associate of the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus...

  9. Long-term landscape changes in a subalpine spruce-fir forest in central Utah, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse L. Morris1

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Western North America, increasing wildfire and outbreaks of native bark beetles have been mediated by warming climate conditions. Bioclimatic models forecast the loss of key high elevation species throughout the region. This study uses retrospective vegetation and fire history data to reconstruct the drivers of past disturbance and environmental change. Understanding the relationship among climate, antecedent disturbances, and the legacy effects of settlement-era logging can help identify the patterns and processes that create landscapes susceptible to bark beetle epidemics. Methods: Our analysis uses data from lake sediment cores, stand inventories, and historical records. Sediment cores were dated with radiometric techniques (14C and 210Pb/137Cs and subsampled for pollen and charcoal to maximize the temporal resolution during the historical period (1800 CE to present and to provide environmental baseline data (last 10,500 years. Pollen data for spruce were calibrated to carbon biomass (C t/ha using standard allometric equations and a transfer function. Charcoal samples were analyzed with statistical models to facilitate peak detection and determine fire recurrence intervals. Results: The Wasatch Plateau has been dominated by Engelmann spruce forests for the last ~10,500 years, with subalpine fir becoming more prominent since 6000 years ago. This landscape has experienced a dynamic fire regime, where burning events are more frequent and of higher magnitude during the last 3000 years. Two important disturbances have impacted Engelmann spruce in the historical period: 1 high-grade logging during the late 19th century; and (2 a high severity spruce beetle outbreak in the late 20th century that killed >90 % of mature spruce (>10 cm dbh. Conclusions: Our study shows that spruce-dominated forests in this region are resilient to a range of climate and disturbance regimes. Several lines of evidence suggest that 19th century logging

  10. Growth strategy of Norway spruce under air elevated [CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorny, R.; Urban, O.; Holisova, P.; Sprtova, M.; Sigut, L.; Slipkova, R.

    2012-04-01

    Plants will respond to globally increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) by acclimation or adaptation at physiological and morphological levels. Considering the temporal onset, physiological responses may be categorized as short-term and morphological ones as long-term responses. The degree of plant growth responses, including cell division and cell expansion, is highly variable. It depends mainly on the specie's genetic predisposition, environment, mineral nutrition status, duration of CO2 enrichment, and/or synergetic effects of other stresses. Elevated [CO2] causes changes in tissue anatomy, quantity, size, shape and spatial orientation and can result in altered sink strength. Since, there are many experimental facilities for the investigation of elevated [CO2] effects on trees: i) closed systems or open top chambers (OTCs), ii) semi-open systems (for example glass domes with adjustable lamella windows - DAWs), and iii) free-air [CO2] enrichments (FACE); the results are still unsatisfactory due to: i) relatively short-term duration of experiments, ii) cultivation of young plants with different growth strategy comparing to old ones, iii) plant cultivation under artificial soil and weather conditions, and iv) in non-representative stand structure. In this contribution we are discussing the physiological and morphological responses of Norway spruce trees cultivated in DAWs during eight consecutive growing seasons in the context with other results from Norway spruce cultivation under air-elevated [CO2] conditions. On the level of physiological responses, we discuss the changes in the rate of CO2 assimilation, assimilation capacity, photorespiration, dark respiration, stomatal conductance, water potential and transpiration, and the sensitivity of these physiological processes to temperature. On the level of morphological responses, we discuss the changes in bud and growth phenology, needle and shoot morphology, architecture of crown and root system, wood

  11. Ips typographus and Ophiostoma polonicum versus Norway spruce: joint attack and host defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erik Christiansen

    1991-01-01

    During the years 1971 to 1982, major epidemics of the spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus L., occurred in southeastern Norway and adjoining parts of Sweden. The outbreaks were triggered by large-scale wind-felling and long-lasting drought (Worrell 1983). This "epidemic of the century," hitting our important timber tree, Norway spruce,

  12. A density management diagram for Norway spruce in the temperate Europe montane region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgio Vacchiano; R. Justin DeRose; John D. Shaw; Miroslav Svoboda; Renzo Motta

    2013-01-01

    Norway spruce is one of the most important conifer tree species in Europe, paramount for timber provision, habitat, recreation, and protection of mountain roads and settlements from natural hazards. Although natural Norway spruce forests exhibit diverse structures, even-aged stands can arise after disturbance or as the result of common silvicultural practice, including...

  13. Mechanical properties of timber from wind damaged Norway spruce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Preben

    2003-01-01

    A storm may subject a tree to such bending stresses that extensive compression damage develops in the lee side. The tree may survive the wind load or it may be thrown. However, the damage is inherent and it may be of a magnitude to influence the mechanical properties of boards sawn from the stem....... The paper reports on a investigation of the relation between degree of damage and mechanical proper-ties of sawn timber from wind damaged Norway spruce. The project included about 250 bolts from wind damaged trees. The majority of bolts were cut to deliver a full-diameter plank containing the pith...

  14. Norway spruce and spruce shoot aphid as indicators of traffic pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viskari, E-L.; Koessi, S. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science; Holopainen, J.K. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science; Agricultural Research Centre, Plant Production Research, Jokioinen (Finland)

    2000-07-01

    Two-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) seedlings were exposed to traffic emissions along roadsides with three different traffic densities and speed limits; highway, street and a quiet local road. The responses of the exposed seedlings as a host plant and those of spruce shoot aphid (Cinara pilicornis Hartig) were studied. The concentrations of soluble N and free amino acids, defence chemicals (total phenolics, monoterpenes) were analysed, and aphid growth and reproduction were studied. Along the highway, street and at the local road control site, the atmospheric concentrations of black carbon (BC) and oxides of N (NO{sub x}) were measured for 1 week during the experiment. The BC data indicate deposition of organic particulate compounds along the highway and street. The NO{sub x} concentrations along the highway and street showed great diurnal variation, but the average NO{sub x} concentrations were relatively low. Thus, no changes in N metabolism or growth of the exposed Norway spruce seedlings were found. Along the street, the concentrations of many individual free amino acids, such as proline, as well as total amino acid concentrations, were lower than at the associated control site. Correspondingly, there was also no increase in spruce shoot aphid mean relative growth rate. The aphid reproduction, however, increased along the highway and is suggested to be due to more conducive microclimatic conditions at the exposure site or lack of natural enemies. No changes in defence chemicals (total phenolics, monoterpenes) in relation to the traffic exposure were found. Instead, the microclimatic conditions (temperature, solar irradiation) seemed to affect the concentration of total phenolics. (Author)

  15. Varying selection differential throughout the climatic range of Norway spruce in Central Europe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kapeller, Stefan; Dieckmann, Ulf; Schueler, Silvio

    2017-01-01

    .... To understand the genetic capacity of Norway spruce populations in Central Europe, we analyzed the variation in tree heights at the juvenile stage in common garden experiments established from the species' warm‐dry to cold...

  16. Primary succession and dynamics of Norway spruce coastal forests on land-uplift ground moraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, J.S.; Jeglum, J.K. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept of Forest Ecology

    2000-07-01

    This paper is an overview of primary succession on the rising coastlines of the Gulf of Bothnia, which emphasises Norway spruce succession and forest development and identifies topics for research. It is concluded that continuing postglacial rebound provides excellent successional sequences, and an exceptional opportunity to add new and important knowledge on original forest ecosystem development. First, long-term undisturbed forest seres, terminating in climax-like Norway spruce forest, exist. Secondly, a well-stocked, old growth spruce forest can develop on the (generally) fairly productive mesic ground-moraine sites in a short ecological time. Thirdly, undisturbed successional sequences, which go back to original soil formation, permit reconstruction of ecosystems' developmental history. Fourthly, the relationship between ground elevation and land-uplift rate facilitates estimates of ground age, and consequently permits a four-dimensional study approach. Fifthly, in view of extensive anthropogenic influence in boreal Fennoscandian forests, the few remaining natural spruce forests should be recognised and carefully documented. From our review of the literature, we conclude that present knowledge of the succession of Norway spruce on emerging shorelines, and the part played by land uplift and other factors, is fragmentary. Attention should be given to initial spruce seedling colonisation relative to factors such as sea-water level, exposure (winds, fetch), parent material, seedbed types, potential seed source (isolation), and island size. Possible multiple pathways of Norway spruce primary succession relative to temporal changes in exposure and other factors, have so far received little research effort. Attention also should be paid to the response of spruce populations to site maturation, i.e. to increasing ground age based on land-uplift rate and elevation above sea level. Finally, attention should be paid to autogenic processes in spruce-dominated stages

  17. Foliar Phenolic Compounds in Norway Spruce with Varying Susceptibility to Chrysomyxa rhododendri: Analyses of Seasonal and Infection-Induced Accumulation Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ganthaler

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Secondary phenolic metabolites are involved in plant responses to various biotic stress factors, and are apparently important for the defense against fungal pathogens. In this study, we investigated their role in defense against the rust Chrysomyxa rhododendri in Norway spruce. The fungal pathogen undergoes a seasonal lifecycle with host shift; after overwintering in rhododendron shrubs, it attacks the sprouting current-year spruce needles and causes needle fall in autumn. Repeated infections lead to reduced timber yield and severe problems with rejuvenation in subalpine Norway spruce forests. Trees with varying susceptibility to infection by C. rhododendri were selected and foliar phenolic composition was assessed using UHPLC-MS. We report on seasonal accumulation patterns and infection-related changes in the concentrations of 16 metabolites, including flavonoids, stilbenes, simple phenylpropanoids and the precursor shikimic acid, and their correlation with the infection degree of the tree. We found significant variation in the phenolic profiles during needle development: flavonoids were predominant in the first weeks after sprouting, whereas stilbenes, picein and shikimic acid increased during the first year. Following infection, several flavonoids and resveratrol increased up to 1.8 fold in concentration, whereas picein and shikimic acid were reduced by about 70 and 60%, respectively. The constitutive and early stage infection-induced concentrations of kaempferol, quercetin and taxifolin as well as the late stage infection-induced concentrations of stilbenes and picein were negatively correlated with infection degree. We conclude that a combination of constitutive and inducible accumulation of phenolic compounds is associated with the lower susceptibility of individual trees to C. rhododendri. The potentially fungicidal flavonoid aglycones may limit hyphal growth and prevent development of infection symptoms, and high levels of stilbenes may

  18. Foliar Phenolic Compounds in Norway Spruce with Varying Susceptibility to Chrysomyxa rhododendri: Analyses of Seasonal and Infection-Induced Accumulation Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganthaler, Andrea; Stöggl, Wolfgang; Kranner, Ilse; Mayr, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Secondary phenolic metabolites are involved in plant responses to various biotic stress factors, and are apparently important for the defense against fungal pathogens. In this study, we investigated their role in defense against the rust Chrysomyxa rhododendri in Norway spruce. The fungal pathogen undergoes a seasonal lifecycle with host shift; after overwintering in rhododendron shrubs, it attacks the sprouting current-year spruce needles and causes needle fall in autumn. Repeated infections lead to reduced timber yield and severe problems with rejuvenation in subalpine Norway spruce forests. Trees with varying susceptibility to infection by C. rhododendri were selected and foliar phenolic composition was assessed using UHPLC-MS. We report on seasonal accumulation patterns and infection-related changes in the concentrations of 16 metabolites, including flavonoids, stilbenes, simple phenylpropanoids and the precursor shikimic acid, and their correlation with the infection degree of the tree. We found significant variation in the phenolic profiles during needle development: flavonoids were predominant in the first weeks after sprouting, whereas stilbenes, picein and shikimic acid increased during the first year. Following infection, several flavonoids and resveratrol increased up to 1.8 fold in concentration, whereas picein and shikimic acid were reduced by about 70 and 60%, respectively. The constitutive and early stage infection-induced concentrations of kaempferol, quercetin and taxifolin as well as the late stage infection-induced concentrations of stilbenes and picein were negatively correlated with infection degree. We conclude that a combination of constitutive and inducible accumulation of phenolic compounds is associated with the lower susceptibility of individual trees to C. rhododendri. The potentially fungicidal flavonoid aglycones may limit hyphal growth and prevent development of infection symptoms, and high levels of stilbenes may impede the infection

  19. Pervasive growth reduction in Norway spruce forests following wind disturbance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupert Seidl

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In recent decades the frequency and severity of natural disturbances by e.g., strong winds and insect outbreaks has increased considerably in many forest ecosystems around the world. Future climate change is expected to further intensify disturbance regimes, which makes addressing disturbances in ecosystem management a top priority. As a prerequisite a broader understanding of disturbance impacts and ecosystem responses is needed. With regard to the effects of strong winds--the most detrimental disturbance agent in Europe--monitoring and management has focused on structural damage, i.e., tree mortality from uprooting and stem breakage. Effects on the functioning of trees surviving the storm (e.g., their productivity and allocation have been rarely accounted for to date. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show that growth reduction was significant and pervasive in a 6.79 million hectare forest landscape in southern Sweden following the storm Gudrun (January 2005. Wind-related growth reduction in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. forests surviving the storm exceeded 10% in the worst hit regions, and was closely related to maximum gust wind speed (R(2 = 0.849 and structural wind damage (R(2 = 0.782. At the landscape scale, wind-related growth reduction amounted to 3.0 million m(3 in the three years following Gudrun. It thus exceeds secondary damage from bark beetles after Gudrun as well as the long-term average storm damage from uprooting and stem breakage in Sweden. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that the impact of strong winds on forest ecosystems is not limited to the immediately visible area of structural damage, and call for a broader consideration of disturbance effects on ecosystem structure and functioning in the context of forest management and climate change mitigation.

  20. Similarity of nutrient uptake and root dimensions of Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir at two contrasting sites in Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanai, R; McFarlane, K; Lucash, M; Kulpa, S; Wood, D

    2009-10-09

    Nutrient uptake capacity is an important parameter in modeling nutrient uptake by plants. Researchers commonly assume that uptake capacity measured for a species can be used across sites. We tested this assumption by measuring the nutrient uptake capacity of intact roots of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmanni Parry) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.) at Loch Vale Watershed and Fraser Experimental Forest in the Rocky Mountains of central Colorado. Roots still attached to the tree were exposed to one of three concentrations of nutrient solutions for time periods ranging from 1 to 96 hours, and solutions were analyzed for ammonium, nitrate, calcium, magnesium, and potassium. Surprisingly, the two species were indistinguishable in nutrient uptake within site for all nutrients (P > 0.25), but uptake rates differed by site. In general, nutrient uptake was higher at Fraser (P = 0.01, 0.15, 0.03, 0.18 for NH{sub 4}{sup +}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, Ca{sup 2+}, and K{sup +}, respectively), which is west of the Continental Divide and has lower atmospheric deposition of N than Loch Vale. Mean uptake rates by site for ambient solution concentrations were 0.12 {micro}mol NH{sub 4}{sup +} g{sub fwt}{sup -1} h{sup -1}, 0.02 {micro}mol NO{sub 3}{sup -} g{sub fwt}{sup -1}, 0.21 {micro}mol Ca{sup 2+} g{sub fwt}{sup -1} h{sup -1}, and 0.01 {micro}mol Mg{sup 2+} g{sub fwt}{sup -1} h{sup -1} at Loch Vale, and 0.21 {micro}mol NH{sub 4}{sup +} f{sub fwt}{sup -1}h{sup -1}, 0.04 {micro}mol NO{sub 3}{sup -} g{sub fwt}{sup -1} h{sup -1}, 0.51 {micro}mol Ca{sup 2+}g{sub fwt}{sup -1}h{sup -1}, and 0.07 {micro}mol Mg{sup 2+} f{sub fwt}{sup -1}h{sup -1} at Fraser. The importance of site conditions in determining uptake capacity should not be overlooked when parameterizing nutrient uptake models. We also characterized the root morphology of these two species and compared them to other tree species we have measured at various sites in the northeastern USA. Engelman spruce and subalpine fir

  1. Mixing birch in Norway spruce stands. Impact on forest floor chemistry with implications for the buffering of acidity and the nutrition of spruce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandtberg, Per-Olov [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Research

    2001-07-01

    This thesis focuses on the effects on forest floor chemistry of mixing birch (Betula pendula Roth. and B. pubescens Ehrh.) in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) stands. The mechanism behind effects and the implications they have for the nutrition of Norway spruce at an increased availability of nitrogen are also examined. Compared to pure spruce stands, mixed stands of birch and spruce had higher base saturation and lower concentrations of exchangeable and complex-bound aluminium in the forest floor. The pH did not differ between mixed and pure spruce stands except at an older site, where the pH was higher in mixed stands than in pure stands. An investigation of the fine root distribution in the H layer of the forest floor and in the upper mineral soil horizons in mixed and pure spruce stands at one site did not reveal any differences between birch and spruce as regards the distribution of fine roots. Spruce fine root distribution was not affected by the presence of birch, i.e. it was similar in mixed and pure stands. Application of radioactive isotopes or analogues of several nutrients (P, Ca and K) in the H layer and upper mineral soil around birch and spruce did not reveal a proportionally higher uptake from the mineral soil by birch. The P and K nutrition was improved for spruce when growing in mixed stands with birch. This was partly due to a lower competition for these elements by birch and partly to an increase in total available amounts of P and K by birch. However, in the mixed stands birch had a suboptimal P and K nutrition. It was concluded that birch in mixed stands with Norway spruce has a positive influence on the chemical status of the forest floor, influencing surface water quality and the ability of Norway spruce to resist negative impacts from a high deposition of atmospheric nitrogen.

  2. Root uptake of lead by Norway spruce grown on Pb-210 spiked soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovmand, M.F.; Nielsen, Sven Poul; Johnsen, I.

    2009-01-01

    The root uptake of lead (Pb) by trees and the transfer of Pb by leaf litter deposition to the forest floor were investigated through a pot experiment with Norway spruce. Natural Pb and radio isotopic lead (210Pb) were determined in needles and twigs and in the pot soil spiked with 210Pb...

  3. Spread of the Introduced Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis in Coastal Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Holm Nygaard

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Positive and negative effects on ecosystem services from plantation forestry in Europe have led to conflicts regarding non-native tree species. Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong. Carr. is the most common plantation species in northwest Europe, covering 1.3 Mha. In costal Norway, Sitka spruce was intentionally introduced and is currently occupying about 50,000 ha. Sitka spruce was blacklisted in Norway in 2012, mainly based on the risk for invasive spreading, but little quantitative documentation exists on spread. Here we quantify spread from plantations into abandoned heathland and pastures in thirteen sites where natural regeneration occurs. Spread distances and zero-square distributions related to the nearest edge of the parent stand were fitted by use of Weibull. The median expansion rate was 0.8 m·year−1 in north Norway and 4.4 m·year−1 in west Norway. The maximum establishment distance measured was 996 m. A peak in sapling density occurred within 50 m from the edge, and there was a general decrease in saplings with increasing distance. Conversely, increase in zero-squares percentages occurred with increasing distance. We argue that inclusion of abundance in assessing spread is necessary to define invasiveness. Based on spread models and prevailing forestry practices we recommend that the establishment of new Sitka spruce plantations within 200 m of protected areas should be avoided.

  4. Application of Raman spectroscopy to analyse lignin/cellulose ratio in Norway spruce tree rings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vítek, Petr; Klem, Karel; Urban, Otmar

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 20, 1-2 (2017), s. 41-48 ISSN 1803-2451 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : dendrochronology * vibration al spectroscopy * lignification * Norway spruce * abiotic stress Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  5. Juvenility and serial vegetative propagation of Norway spruce clones (Picea abies Karst.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.B. St. Clair; J. Kleinschmit; J. Svolba

    1985-01-01

    Effects associated with progressive maturation of clones are of greatest concern in clonal tree improvement programs. Serial propagation has been in use at the Lower Saxony Forest Research Institute since 1968 to arrest maturation in Norway spruce clones. By 1980 cuttings were established in the nursery that had been serially propagated from one to five cycles. This...

  6. Isoprenoid emission variation of Norway spruce across a European latitudinal transect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Meeningen, Ylva; Wang, Min; Karlsson, Tomas

    2017-01-01

    Norway spruce (Picea abies) is one of the dominant tree species in the European boreal zone with the capacity to grow over large areas within Europe. It is an important emitter of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), which can act as precursors of photochemical smog and ozone and contribute...... to the formation and growth of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the atmosphere. Isoprenoid emissions were measured from Norway spruce trees at seven different sites, distributed from Ljubljana in Slovenia to Piikkiö in Finland. Four of the sites were part of a network of genetically identical spruce trees...... of potential influences of all three factors. However, due to different experimental setups between measurement campaigns, it is difficult to draw any robust conclusions....

  7. Methyl Jasmonate Induces Traumatic Resin Ducts, Terpenoid Resin Biosynthesis, and Terpenoid Accumulation in Developing Xylem of Norway Spruce Stems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Diane Martin; Dorothea Tholl; Jonathan Gershenzon; Jörg Bohlmann

    2002-01-01

    Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst) produces an oleoresin characterized by a diverse array of terpenoids, monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, and diterpene resin acids that can protect conifers against potential herbivores and pathogens...

  8. Determination of the terpene flux from orange species and Norway spruce by relaxed eddy accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, C.S.; Hummelshøj, P.; Jensen, N.O.

    2000-01-01

    Terpene fluxes from a Norway spruce (Picea abies) forest and an orange orchard (Citrus clementii and Citrus sinensis) were measured by relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) during summer 1997. alpha-pinene and beta-pinene were the most abundant terpenes emitted from Norway spruce and constituted...... or downward flux was observed. The results from a laboratory intercomparison made in Spain deviated by maximum 7%. The flux measured at the two sites exhibited a strong diurnal variation with maximum in the afternoon and minimum in the morning hours and evenings. The applied REA system is new in its design...... rate by using two precision pumps operated at approximately 60 mi min(-1). The terpenes collected on the adsorbent tubes were significantly decomposed by ozone during sampling unless ozone scrubbers were applied. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  9. The content of cytokinins in Norway spruce needles at the OTC site - preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doumas, P.; Daoudi, E.H.; Gautrat, M.P.; Schwartzenberg, K. v.; Bonnet-Massimbert, M. [Centre de Recherche d`Orleans, Station d`Amelioration des Arbres Forestiers, 45 - Ardon (France)

    1997-12-01

    The relationship of air pollution factors to observed forest decline can be investigated from different viewpoints incorporating physiological and biochemical changes. A hormone imbalance can be the result of growth disturbances, as a direct or indirect effect of air pollution. To prove this hypothesis, within an air pollution exclusion experiment in Open Top Chambers at the Edelmannshof site, the variations in the content of different cytokinins were analyzed in Norway spruce needles at various times during annual growth. The first approach adapted the cytokinin extraction and purification method, which is classically used in the laboratory. A second approach presented a one-year time course of the cytokinin content in one-year-old Norway spruce needles. (orig./MG)

  10. Do water-limiting conditions predispose Norway spruce to bark beetle attack?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netherer, Sigrid; Matthews, Bradley; Katzensteiner, Klaus; Blackwell, Emma; Henschke, Patrick; Hietz, Peter; Pennerstorfer, Josef; Rosner, Sabine; Kikuta, Silvia; Schume, Helmut; Schopf, Axel

    2015-02-01

    Drought is considered to enhance susceptibility of Norway spruce (Picea abies) to infestations by the Eurasian spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus, Coleoptera: Curculionidae), although empirical evidence is scarce. We studied the impact of experimentally induced drought on tree water status and constitutive resin flow, and how physiological stress affects host acceptance and resistance. We established rain-out shelters to induce both severe (two full-cover plots) and moderate (two semi-cover plots) drought stress. In total, 18 sample trees, which were divided equally between the above treatment plots and two control plots, were investigated. Infestation was controlled experimentally using a novel 'attack box' method. Treatments influenced the ratios of successful and defended attacks, but predisposition of trees to infestation appeared to be mainly driven by variations in stress status of the individual trees over time. With increasingly negative twig water potentials and decreasing resin exudation, the defence capability of the spruce trees decreased. We provide empirical evidence that water-limiting conditions impair Norway spruce resistance to bark beetle attack. Yet, at the same time our data point to reduced host acceptance by I. typographus with more extreme drought stress, indicated by strongly negative pre-dawn twig water potentials. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Do water-limiting conditions predispose Norway spruce to bark beetle attack?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netherer, Sigrid; Matthews, Bradley; Katzensteiner, Klaus; Blackwell, Emma; Henschke, Patrick; Hietz, Peter; Pennerstorfer, Josef; Rosner, Sabine; Kikuta, Silvia; Schume, Helmut; Schopf, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Drought is considered to enhance susceptibility of Norway spruce (Picea abies) to infestations by the Eurasian spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus, Coleoptera: Curculionidae), although empirical evidence is scarce. We studied the impact of experimentally induced drought on tree water status and constitutive resin flow, and how physiological stress affects host acceptance and resistance. We established rain-out shelters to induce both severe (two full-cover plots) and moderate (two semi-cover plots) drought stress. In total, 18 sample trees, which were divided equally between the above treatment plots and two control plots, were investigated. Infestation was controlled experimentally using a novel ‘attack box’ method. Treatments influenced the ratios of successful and defended attacks, but predisposition of trees to infestation appeared to be mainly driven by variations in stress status of the individual trees over time. With increasingly negative twig water potentials and decreasing resin exudation, the defence capability of the spruce trees decreased. We provide empirical evidence that water-limiting conditions impair Norway spruce resistance to bark beetle attack. Yet, at the same time our data point to reduced host acceptance byI. typographus with more extreme drought stress, indicated by strongly negative pre-dawn twig water potentials. PMID:25417785

  12. Paraquat-induced lightwood in two European conifers - Scotch pine and Norway spruce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wroblewska, H.; Conner, A.H.; Rowe, J.W.; Peters, W.J.; Roberts, D.R.

    1978-04-01

    Paraquat treatment induced oleoresin-soaked lightwood in Scotch pine; borehole and ax-frill treatment methods were equally effective. Paraquat treatment of Norway spruce induced limited lightwood formation accompanied by heavy external oleoresin exudation. Thus paraquat treatment of Scotch pine and possibly Norway spruce could be commercially advantageous for increasing naval stores production from these species. Analysis of tall oil precursors (nonvolatile ether extractives) for resin acids, fatty acids, and nonsaponifiables showed that the increase from paraquat treatment was mainly from an increased resin acid content. The chemical composition of the resin acids from the lightwood and control wood areas was similar and consisted of the usual pimaric and abietic type resin acids found in conifers. The fatty acids were predominately unsaturated C/sub 18/ isomers. Turpentine of both species consisted mainly of ..cap alpha..-pinene, ..beta..-pinene, and 3-carene. The composition of the turpentine from the Scotch pine lightwood did not differ from that of the control wood. However, turpentine from the Norway spruce lightwood had an increased 3-carene content compared to that from the control.

  13. Ozone flux over a Norway spruce forest and correlation with net ecosystem production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapletal, Milos, E-mail: milos.zapletal@ekotoxa.cz [Ekotoxa s.r.o. - Centre for Environment and Land Assessment, Oticka 37, 746 01 Opava (Czech Republic); Silesian University at Opava, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Masarykova 37, 746 01 Opava (Czech Republic); Cudlin, Pavel [Institute of Systems Biology and Ecology of the AS CR, v.v.i., Na Sadkach 7, 37005 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Chroust, Petr [Ekotoxa s.r.o. - Centre for Environment and Land Assessment, Oticka 37, 746 01 Opava (Czech Republic); Urban, Otmar; Pokorny, Radek [Institute of Systems Biology and Ecology of the AS CR, v.v.i., Porici 3b, 60300 Brno (Czech Republic); Edwards-Jonasova, Magda [Institute of Systems Biology and Ecology of the AS CR, v.v.i., Na Sadkach 7, 37005 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Czerny, Radek; Janous, Dalibor; Taufarova, Klara [Institute of Systems Biology and Ecology of the AS CR, v.v.i., Porici 3b, 60300 Brno (Czech Republic); Vecera, Zbynek; Mikuska, Pavel [Institute of Analytical Chemistry of the AS CR, v.v.i., Veveri 97, 60200 Brno (Czech Republic); Paoletti, Elena [Institute of Plant Protection, National Research Council of Italy, via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2011-05-15

    Daily ozone deposition flux to a Norway spruce forest in Czech Republic was measured using the gradient method in July and August 2008. Results were in good agreement with a deposition flux model. The mean daily stomatal uptake of ozone was around 47% of total deposition. Average deposition velocity was 0.39 cm s{sup -1} and 0.36 cm s{sup -1} by the gradient method and the deposition model, respectively. Measured and modelled non-stomatal uptake was around 0.2 cm s{sup -1}. In addition, net ecosystem production (NEP) was measured by using Eddy Covariance and correlations with O{sub 3} concentrations at 15 m a.g.l., total deposition and stomatal uptake were tested. Total deposition and stomatal uptake of ozone significantly decreased NEP, especially by high intensities of solar radiation. - Highlights: > We estimate ozone deposition flux to a Norway spruce forest using the gradient method and model. > The mean stomatal uptake of ozone is approximately 47% of the total deposition. > We measure net ecosystem production (NEP) using Eddy Covariance. > We test whether elevated total deposition and stomatal uptake of O{sub 3} imply a reduction of NEP. > Deposition and stomatal uptake of O{sub 3} decrease NEP, especially by high intensities of solar radiation. - Net ecosystem production of a Norway spruce forest decreases with increasing deposition and stomatal uptake of ozone.

  14. Distinct genecological patterns in seedlings of Norway spruce and silver fir from a mountainous landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Aline; Sperisen, Christoph; Howe, Glenn Thomas; Brang, Peter; Walthert, Lorenz; St Clair, John Bradley; Heiri, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the genecology of forest trees is critical for gene conservation, for predicting the effects of climate change and climate change adaptation, and for successful reforestation. Although common genecological patterns have emerged, species-specific details are also important. Which species are most vulnerable to climate change? Which are the most important adaptive traits and environmental drivers of natural selection? Even though species have been classified as adaptive specialists vs. adaptive generalists, large-scale studies comparing different species in the same experiment are rare. We studied the genecology of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and silver fir (Abies alba), two co-occurring but ecologically distinct European conifers in Central Europe. For each species, we collected seed from more than 90 populations across Switzerland, established a seedling common-garden test, and developed genecological models that associate population variation in seedling growth and phenology to climate, soil properties, and site water balance. Population differentiation and associations between seedling traits and environmental variables were much stronger for Norway spruce than for silver fir, and stronger for seedling height growth than for bud phenology. In Norway spruce, height growth and second flushing were strongly associated with temperature and elevation, with seedlings from the lowlands being taller and more prone to second flush than seedlings from the Alps. In silver fir, height growth was more weakly associated with temperature and elevation, but also associated with water availability. Soil characteristics explained little population variation in both species. We conclude that Norway spruce has become an adaptive specialist because trade-offs between rapid juvenile growth and frost avoidance have subjected it to strong diversifying natural selection based on temperature. In contrast, because silver fir has a more conservative growth habit, it has

  15. [Dynamic changes of topsoil organic carbon in subalpine spruce plantation at different succession stages in western Sichuan Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fa-Yan; Sun, Hui; Lin, Bo; Liu, Qing

    2009-11-01

    Soil samples at 0-30 cm depth were collected from the primary spruce (Picea asperata) forest and its plantations at different succession stages (22-, 47-, and 65-year-old) in subalpine zone of western Sichuan Province to study the dynamic changes of soil organic carbon stock and labile organic carbon content. The soil total organic carbon (TOC) stocks in 0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm soil layers decreased from 95.87, 79.08, and 71.55 t x hm(-2) in 22-year-old plantation to 56.12, 34.75, and 31.06 t x hm(-2) in 65-year-old plantation, respectively, and the TOC stocks in these soil layers in 47 and 65-year-old plantations were less than those (88.08, 71.16 and 64.81 t x hm(-2), respectively) in primary forest. The easily oxidizable organic carbon (EOC) contents in 0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm soil layers decreased from 35.89, 26.91, and 26.00 g x kg(-1) in primary forest to 20.25, 14.50, and 12.36 g x kg L(-1) in 65-year-old plantation, the microbial biomass carbon (MBC) contents decreased from 524.44, 273.26, and 257.97 mg x kg(-1) in primary forest to 312.41, 186.95, and 152.18 mg x kg(-1) in 65-year-old plantation, and the particulate organic carbon (POC) contents decreased from 40.23, 27.10, and 19.55 g x kg(-1) in primary forest to 12.33, 7.31, and 5.32 g x kg(-1) in 65-year-old plantation, respectively. The results suggested that within the long succession period of primary P. asperata forest to its plantations in the subalpine zone of western Sichuan Province, soil TOC and labile organic carbon were in the state of net consumption.

  16. Chemical and transcriptional responses of Norway spruce genotypes with different susceptibility to Heterobasidion spp. infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielsson Marie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Norway spruce [Picea abies (L. Karst.] is one of the most important conifer species in Europe. The wood is economically important and infections by wood-rotting fungi cause substantial losses to the industry. The first line of defence in a Norway spruce tree is the bark. It is a very efficient barrier against infection based on its mechanical and chemical properties. Once an injury or an infection is recognized by the tree, induced defences are activated. In this study we examined transcriptional response, using 454-sequencing, and chemical profiles in bark of Norway spruce trees with different susceptibility to Heterobasidion annosum s.l. infection. The aim was to find associations between the transcriptome and chemical profiles to the level of susceptibility to Heterobasidion spp. in Norway spruce genotypes. Results Both terpene and phenol compositions were analysed and at 28 days post inoculation (dpi high levels of 3-carene was produced in response to H. annosum. However, significant patterns relating to inoculation or to genotypes with higher or lower susceptibility could only be found in the phenol fraction. The levels of the flavonoid catechin, which is polymerized into proanthocyanidins (PA, showed a temporal variation; it accumulated between 5 and 15 dpi in response to H. annosum infection in the less susceptible genotypes. The transcriptome data suggested that the accumulation of free catechin was preceded by an induction of genes in the flavonoid and PA biosynthesis pathway such as leucoanthocyanidin reductase. Quantitative PCR analyses verified the induction of genes in the phenylpropanoid and flavonoid pathway. The qPCR data also highlighted genotype-dependent differences in the transcriptional regulation of these pathways. Conclusions The varying dynamics in transcriptional and chemical patterns displayed by the less susceptible genotypes suggest that there is a genotypic variation in successful spruce defence

  17. Chemical and transcriptional responses of Norway spruce genotypes with different susceptibility to Heterobasidion spp. infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] is one of the most important conifer species in Europe. The wood is economically important and infections by wood-rotting fungi cause substantial losses to the industry. The first line of defence in a Norway spruce tree is the bark. It is a very efficient barrier against infection based on its mechanical and chemical properties. Once an injury or an infection is recognized by the tree, induced defences are activated. In this study we examined transcriptional response, using 454-sequencing, and chemical profiles in bark of Norway spruce trees with different susceptibility to Heterobasidion annosum s.l. infection. The aim was to find associations between the transcriptome and chemical profiles to the level of susceptibility to Heterobasidion spp. in Norway spruce genotypes. Results Both terpene and phenol compositions were analysed and at 28 days post inoculation (dpi) high levels of 3-carene was produced in response to H. annosum. However, significant patterns relating to inoculation or to genotypes with higher or lower susceptibility could only be found in the phenol fraction. The levels of the flavonoid catechin, which is polymerized into proanthocyanidins (PA), showed a temporal variation; it accumulated between 5 and 15 dpi in response to H. annosum infection in the less susceptible genotypes. The transcriptome data suggested that the accumulation of free catechin was preceded by an induction of genes in the flavonoid and PA biosynthesis pathway such as leucoanthocyanidin reductase. Quantitative PCR analyses verified the induction of genes in the phenylpropanoid and flavonoid pathway. The qPCR data also highlighted genotype-dependent differences in the transcriptional regulation of these pathways. Conclusions The varying dynamics in transcriptional and chemical patterns displayed by the less susceptible genotypes suggest that there is a genotypic variation in successful spruce defence strategies against

  18. Does the orientation of Norway spruce (Picea abies /L./ Karst.) branches within sunlit crown part influence the heterogeneity of biochemical, structural and spectral characteristics of needles?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lhotáková, Z.; Albrechtová, J.; Malenovsky, Z.; Rock, B.N.; Polák, T.; Cudlín, P.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine if selected biochemical, structural and spectral properties of Norway spruce needles are influenced by the azimuth orientation of the branch. Three youngest needle age classes from 20 mature (100 years old or older) Norway spruce trees were sampled from upper

  19. Lophodermium piceae and Tryblidiopsis pinastri. Two latent colonizers of Norway spruce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtijaervi, A. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology

    1998-12-31

    Among the endophytic microfungi colonizing Norway spruce, the non-pathogenic species Lophodermium piceae and Tryblidiopsis pinastri are ubiquitous. Most Norway spruce in Sweden are colonized by these fungi. L. piceae colonizes healthy needles of various ages, while T pinastri colonizes the bark of branches. New shoots become infected around the time of their emergence. Fruit bodies are formed after the needles and branches die. It was found that L. piceae colonized needles during the summer and early autumn, about six weeks after a prolonged period of intensive rain. The number of individual fungal mycelia per needle increased linearly with needle age. In experiments with trees, irrigation resulted in lower total colonization and delayed colonization of the current-year needles, regardless of whether fertilizer had been added. Colonization by L. piceae was lowest in the ammonium sulfate treatment, which simulated the deposition of air pollutants. Colonization was highest in the control and drought treatments, which did not differ significantly from each other. Only a few pathogenic fungi can damage Norway spruce needles. Needles damaged by the rust fungus Chrysomyxa abietis were investigated to study interactions between fungi. The frequency and intensity of L. piceae colonization were found to be similar for C. abietis infected and healthy needles. However, in needles partially infected with rust, L. piceae seemed to establish itself easier in the rust-infected part than in the green part. The genetic structures of populations of T. pinastri in southern Sweden and Finland were investigated using DNA markers produced by means of arbitrarily primed PCR. Single spore isolates from apothecia were used in the analysis. A considerable amount of variation was detected. No geographical differentiation was found among the populations studied

  20. Comparative indicators of genetic variability and bark beetle infestation intensity in populations of norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    OpenAIRE

    Ballian, Dalibor; Dautbašić, Mirza; Božič, Gregor

    2012-01-01

    This study sets out comparative indicators of Norway spruce Picea abies (L.) Karst. populations in Bosnia and Herzegovina, based on an evaluation of the attack power of bark beetles Ips typographus L. and Pityogenes chalcographus L. and the decline of spruce within the populations sampled for genetic analysis. Twelve natural forest stands and one plantation were analyzed. The average numbers of desiccated Norway spruces per stand and isoenzyme gene markers were used for comparison purposes...

  1. Frost sensitivity and nutrient status in a fertilized Norway spruce stand in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, A. M.; Ingerslev, M.; Raulund-Rasmussen, K.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the N, P and K status on frost sensitivity of Norway spruce needles in a fertilization experiment situated in a nutrient poor 29-year-old Picea abies stand in western Denmark. The relative difference in frost sensitivity among trees was assessed...... by an index of injury, based on conductivity measurements of ion leakage from needles. Despite fertilization, all trees indicated N, P and K deficiency. The foliage, collected in late winter, was generally not very frost sensitive, but foliage from trees with the lowest K and P status were more sensitive...

  2. Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst. variability in progeny tests in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvjetković Branislav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Norway spruce is one of the most important economic species is Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is the species at the edge of its natural range; nevertheless it attains significant growth and yield results. The species is often used for afforestation purposes. In the previous period, 4 progeny tests of Norway spruce were established in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The offspring from 6 natural populations: Han Pijesak 1, Han Pijesak 2, Foča, Potoci, Olovo and Kneževo were build-in the progeny tests. In 2016, the samples of Norway spruce from 2 progeny tests: Srebrenica and Drinić were collected. In total, 360 samples were collected. DNA isolation was done according to Dumoline et al. (1990. For assessment of genetic differences among populations, co-dominant nSSR microsatellite system had been used. The number of effective alleles ranged from 7.78 in the population Potoci up to 15 in the population Kneževo, the average number of alleles was 13. The observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.61 for the population Han Pijesak 2 up to 0.68 for population Kneževo. The average observed heterozygosity was 0.65. Fixation index was in the range from -0.073 in the population Potoci, to 0.030 for the population Han Pijesak 2. The average value of Wright fixation index is -0.007. The average fixation index indicates the existence of a very small number of homozygotes. Concerning the variability among populations it has been concluded that the total level of genetic differentiation among populations was very low (FST= 0.026. The result of Nei’s genetic distance shows that the populations Olovo and Potoci are separated from other populations. The results obtained by genetic markers, in addition with other, morphological and physiological markers will be the basis for the further investigation of Norway spruce adaptability and possibility for the transfer of genetic material in light of climate changes.

  3. Lophodermium piceae and Rhizosphaera kalkhoffi i in Norway spruce: correlations with host age and climatic features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Scattolin

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in 4 similar Norway spruce stands and it demonstrated that the spreading structures produced by Lophodermium piceae and Rhizosphaera kalkhoffii are not correlated. The two fungi were always detected with opposite growth trends, probably due to different needle colonization and spreading strategies, and this was most likely also why they were able to co-exist, colonizing different parts of the needle. Independently of the year, site, sampling period and amount of precipitation, the two fungi were significantly less common in saplings and more common in mature trees, with frequencies also depending on both the minimum and the maximum temperatures.

  4. Phytosociological studies of the forests with sessile oak and Norway spruce from South-Eastern Transylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Indreica

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The forests with sessile oak (Quercus petraea and Norway spruce (Picea abies from south-eastern Transylvania represent a peculiar type of phytocenoses, rather unusual for the present-day vegetation of Romania’s territory. Aim of the study is to provide a detailed description of the vegetation and to identify the phytosociological and typological units to which it could belong. Beside this, stand structure and regeneration status of the main tree species are illustrated. The studied area is located around Carpathian intermountain depressions Braşov and Ciuc, where vegetation had a peculiar history and today sessile oak forests on high altitude exists, interfering with spruce forests. The hypothesis of the process naturalness is supported by vegetation history in the area, climate, stand structure and peculiarities of herb layer composition (the mixture of relic of both mountain-boreal origin and south-European origin, like Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Pyrola rotundifolia and respectively Potentilla micrantha, Lathyrus venetus respectively. Sintaxonomically, studied phytocenoses with sessile oak and spruce belong mainly to acidophilus oak forests (Luzulo luzuloidis-Quercetum petraeae, but some of them resemble oak-hornbeam forests (Carici pilosae-Carpinetum, indicating a more recent change in stand structure and suggesting that not the soil, but the climate is the driving force of succession. Regeneration of sessile oak is at least satisfactory, but the expansion of spruce in such stands could seriously restrict the survival of sessile oak. A new typological unit will be appropriate,for a better management of sessile oak forests with spruce admixture.

  5. Methyl Jasmonate Induces Traumatic Resin Ducts, Terpenoid Resin Biosynthesis, and Terpenoid Accumulation in Developing Xylem of Norway Spruce Stems1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Diane; Tholl, Dorothea; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2002-01-01

    Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst) produces an oleoresin characterized by a diverse array of terpenoids, monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, and diterpene resin acids that can protect conifers against potential herbivores and pathogens. Oleoresin accumulates constitutively in resin ducts in the cortex and phloem (bark) of Norway spruce stems. De novo formation of traumatic resin ducts (TDs) is observed in the developing secondary xylem (wood) after insect attack, fungal elicitation, and mechanical wounding. Here, we characterize the methyl jasmonate-induced formation of TDs in Norway spruce by microscopy, chemical analyses of resin composition, and assays of terpenoid biosynthetic enzymes. The response involves tissue-specific differentiation of TDs, terpenoid accumulation, and induction of enzyme activities of both prenyltransferases and terpene synthases in the developing xylem, a tissue that constitutively lacks axial resin ducts in spruce. The induction of a complex defense response in Norway spruce by methyl jasmonate application provides new avenues to evaluate the role of resin defenses for protection of conifers against destructive pests such as white pine weevils (Pissodes strobi), bark beetles (Coleoptera, Scolytidae), and insect-associated tree pathogens. PMID:12114556

  6. Norway spruce (Picea abies) laccases: characterization of a laccase in a lignin-forming tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutaniemi, Sanna; Malmberg, Heli A; Simola, Liisa K; Teeri, Teemu H; Kärkönen, Anna

    2015-04-01

    Secondarily thickened cell walls of water-conducting vessels and tracheids and support-giving sclerenchyma cells contain lignin that makes the cell walls water impermeable and strong. To what extent laccases and peroxidases contribute to lignin biosynthesis in muro is under active evaluation. We performed an in silico study of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) laccases utilizing available genomic data. As many as 292 laccase encoding sequences (genes, gene fragments, and pseudogenes) were detected in the spruce genome. Out of the 112 genes annotated as laccases, 79 are expressed at some level. We isolated five full-length laccase cDNAs from developing xylem and an extracellular lignin-forming cell culture of spruce. In addition, we purified and biochemically characterized one culture medium laccase from the lignin-forming cell culture. This laccase has an acidic pH optimum (pH 3.8-4.2) for coniferyl alcohol oxidation. It has a high affinity to coniferyl alcohol with an apparent Km value of 3.5 μM; however, the laccase has a lower catalytic efficiency (V(max)/K(m)) for coniferyl alcohol oxidation compared with some purified culture medium peroxidases. The properties are discussed in the context of the information already known about laccases/coniferyl alcohol oxidases of coniferous plants. © 2015 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  7. Disturbance and climate signal in Norway spruce and European larch dendrochronological series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Střelcová, Katarína; Fleischer, Peter, Jr.; Fleischer, Peter, Sr.; Holeksa, Jan; Zelo, Tomas; Vido, Jaroslav

    2017-04-01

    Norway spruce and European larch, dominant natural tree species in the Tatra Mountains (Slovakia), might be seriously threatened by projected climate change and intensified disturbance regime. Regional climate change scenarios project +2 °C increases in the 2050-2070 period and relatively stable precipitation regime when compared to long term normal. Such a climate change might shift both species on the edge of their bioclimatological conditions. Tree ring width is a good indicator of climate and disturbance impact on tree growth. The aim of our study was to identify abrupt growth changes indicating climatological stress on spruce and larch. We analysed local historical meteorological data (1890-2016) to reveal occurrence of such events in past. We hypothesize that number of stress days is increasing as a consequence of changing climate. Using band dendrometers we identified growth changes on five mature spruce and five larch trees during the 2008-2016 period. Each specific growth period was characterized by set of climatological parameters and indexes. Standardized precipitation index (SPI) and rate of photosynthesis (GPP) coincided well with abrupt growth decline, indicating physiological stress. These stress stimulating conditions were identified in past along historical climate records and verified on two-hundred tree cross sections. We applied combined step and trend intervention detection (CSTID) method for minimizing the effects of disturbance in tree ring width chronologies and enhance the climate signals.

  8. Evaluation of IRS-1C LISS-3 satellite data for Norway spruce defoliation assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falkenstroem, H.

    1999-02-01

    Satellite based remote sensing supported by air photo and field surveys, provide a means to area covering forest health assessment on a regional scale. Landsat TM data has been extensively used in studies of spruce and fir defoliation in Europe and North America. The temporal coverage of Landsat TM in combination with cloudiness however restrict the availability of data. In this study the LISS-3 sensor onboard the Indian Resource Satellite, IRS-1C, was evaluated for defoliation assessments in Norway spruce (Picea abies) in the central part of Sweden. The near infrared wavelength band proved to be best correlated with mean stand defoliation. After normalisation of satellite data for topographic conditions, the correlation coefficient increased from -0,19 to -0,83. Normalising satellite data for species composition did not improve the results though. The correction coefficients involved in the procedure were originally developed for Landsat TM, and proved to be inadequate for the LISS-3 data set. A thorough examination of the effects of species composition on LISS-3 data is needed to yield better results. The correlation between observed defoliation in the verification stands and predicted (based on the inverse regression function between corrected NIR values and defoliation in reference stands) was 0,70, despite a very limited range of defoliation in the verification set. IRS-1C LISS-3 is fully comparable to Landsat TM for spruce defoliation studies, although the results would probably not be significantly improved 49 refs, 7 figs, 10 tabs

  9. The influence of climate change on stomatal ozone flux to a mountain Norway spruce forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapletal, Miloš; Pretel, Jan; Chroust, Petr; Cudlín, Pavel; Edwards-Jonášová, Magda; Urban, Otmar; Pokorný, Radek; Czerný, Radek; Hůnová, Iva

    2012-10-01

    Daily stomatal ozone flux to a mountain Norway spruce forest stand at the Bily Kriz experimental site in the Beskydy Mts. (Czech Republic) was modelled using a multiplicative model during the 2009 growing season. The multiplicative model was run with meteorological data for the growing season 2009 and ALADIN-CLIMATE/CZ model data for the 2030 growing season. The exceedance of the flux-based critical level of O(3) (Phytotoxic Ozone Dose) might be lower for Norway spruce at the Bily Kriz experimental site in a future climate (around 2030), due to increased stomatal closure induced by climate change, even when taking into account increased tropospheric background O(3) concentration. In contrast, exceedance of the concentration-based critical level (AOT40) of O(3) will increase with the projected increase in background O(3) concentration. Ozone concentration and stomatal flux of ozone significantly decreased NEP under both present and future climatic conditions, especially under high intensities of solar radiation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Survival of Norway spruce remains higher in mixed stands under a dryer and warmer climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuner, Susanne; Albrecht, Axel; Cullmann, Dominik; Engels, Friedrich; Griess, Verena C; Hahn, W Andreas; Hanewinkel, Marc; Härtl, Fabian; Kölling, Christian; Staupendahl, Kai; Knoke, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Shifts in tree species distributions caused by climatic change are expected to cause severe losses in the economic value of European forestland. However, this projection disregards potential adaptation options such as tree species conversion, shorter production periods, or establishment of mixed species forests. The effect of tree species mixture has, as yet, not been quantitatively investigated for its potential to mitigate future increases in production risks. For the first time, we use survival time analysis to assess the effects of climate, species mixture and soil condition on survival probabilities for Norway spruce and European beech. Accelerated Failure Time (AFT) models based on an extensive dataset of almost 65,000 trees from the European Forest Damage Survey (FDS)--part of the European-wide Level I monitoring network--predicted a 24% decrease in survival probability for Norway spruce in pure stands at age 120 when unfavorable changes in climate conditions were assumed. Increasing species admixture greatly reduced the negative effects of unfavorable climate conditions, resulting in a decline in survival probabilities of only 7%. We conclude that future studies of forest management under climate change as well as forest policy measures need to take this, as yet unconsidered, strongly advantageous effect of tree species mixture into account. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Tropospheric ozone fluxes in Norway spruce forest during the transition period from autumn to winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juran, Stanislav; Fares, Silvano; Zapletal, Miloš; Cudlín, Pavel; Večeřa, Zbyněk; Urban, Otmar

    2017-04-01

    Norway spruce exhibits seasonal variations in stomatal conductance and photosynthetic activity typical for overwintering plants, with a decline during autumn and a complete recovery during spring. We investigated ozone fluxes during this transient period (November 2016). Fluxes of tropospheric ozone, the major phytotoxic near-ground pollutant causing injuries to plant tissues, were measured at Bily Kriz experimental station in Beskydy Mountains, the Czech Republic. Dry chemiluminescence fast-response ozone sensor coupled with sonic anemometer was used to measure fast fluctuations in ozone concentration and three-dimensional wind speed, respectively. Apart from this eddy covariance technique, within-canopy ozone concentration gradient was simultaneously measured by UV-absorption based slow-response ozone analysers. Ozone fluxes were subsequently modelled by an Inverse Lagrangian Transport Model (ILTM). A comparison of measured and calculated fluxes is thus available. Moreover, stomatal ozone flux was calculated based on Evaporative/Resistive method assuming stomata are the most relevant sink in the spruce forest. The low NOx concentration throughout the year and low concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during the transition period led to hypothesize that non-stomatal flux here estimated by difference between total ozone flux and stomatal ozone flux is represented mainly by dry soil deposition and wet deposition during the snow period. We discuss here the ILTM parameterisation with comparison to measured ozone fluxes. Correct estimation of stomatal ozone flux is essential, especially in transition periods, where main scientific emphasis is put rarely. In addition, this research should help to develop metrics for ozone-risk assessment and advance our knowledge in biosphere-atmosphere exchange over Norway spruce forest. Acknowledgement This work was supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports within the National Programme for Sustainability

  12. Transcriptional Responses Associated with Virulence and Defence in the Interaction between Heterobasidion annosum s.s. and Norway Spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundén, Karl; Danielsson, Marie; Durling, Mikael Brandström; Ihrmark, Katarina; Gorriz, Miguel Nemesio; Stenlid, Jan; Asiegbu, Frederick O.; Elfstrand, Malin

    2015-01-01

    Heterobasidion annosum sensu lato is a serious pathogen causing root and stem rot to conifers in the northern hemisphere and rendering the timber defective for sawing and pulping. In this study we applied next-generation sequencing to i) identify transcriptional responses unique to Heterobasidion-inoculated Norway spruce and ii) investigate the H. annosum transcripts to identify putative virulence factors. To address these objectives we wounded or inoculated 30-year-old Norway spruce clones with H. annosum and 454-sequenced the transcriptome of the interaction at 0, 5 and 15 days post inoculation. The 491860 high-quality reads were de novo assembled and the relative expression was analysed. Overall, very few H. annosum transcripts were represented in our dataset. Three delta-12 fatty acid desaturase transcripts and one Clavaminate synthase-like transcript, both associated with virulence in other pathosystems, were found among the significantly induced transcripts. The analysis of the Norway spruce transcriptional responses produced a handful of differentially expressed transcripts. Most of these transcripts originated from genes known to respond to H. annosum. However, three genes that had not previously been reported to respond to H. annosum showed specific induction to inoculation: an oxophytodienoic acid–reductase (OPR), a beta–glucosidase and a germin-like protein (GLP2) gene. Even in a small data set like ours, five novel highly expressed Norway spruce transcripts without significant alignment to any previously annotated protein in Genbank but present in the P. abies (v1.0) gene catalogue were identified. Their expression pattern suggests a role in defence. Therefore a more complete survey of the transcriptional responses in the interactions between Norway spruce and its major pathogen H. annosum would probably provide a better understanding of gymnosperm defence than accumulated until now. PMID:26151363

  13. Growth trends of beech and Norway spruce in Switzerland: The role of nitrogen deposition, ozone, mineral nutrition and climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Sabine; Schindler, Christian; Rihm, Beat

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the effects of nitrogen deposition, ozone and climate on tree growth is important for planning sustainable forest management also in the future. The complex interplay of all these factors cannot be covered by experiments. Here we use observational data of mature forests for studying associations of various biotic and abiotic factors with tree growth. A 30year time series on basal area increment of Fagus sylvatica L. and Picea abies Karst. in Switzerland was analyzed to evaluate the development in relation to a variety of predictors. Basal area increment of Fagus sylvatica has clearly decreased during the observation period. For Picea abies no trend was observed. N deposition of more than 26 (beech) or 20-22kgNha(-1)year(-1) (Norway spruce) was negatively related with basal area increment, in beech stronger than in Norway spruce. High N deposition loads and low foliar K concentrations in Fagus were correlated with increased drought sensitivity. High air temperatures in winter were negatively related with basal area increment in Norway spruce in general and in beech at high N:Mg ratio or high N deposition while on an average the relation was positive in beech. Fructification in beech was negatively related to basal area increment. The increase of fructification observed during the last decades contributed thus to the growth decrease. Ozone flux was significantly and negatively correlated with basal area increment both in beech and Norway spruce. The results show clear non-linear effects of N deposition on stem increment of European beech and Norway spruce as well as strong interactions with climate which have contributed to the growth decrease in beech and may get more important in future. The results not only give suggestions for ecological processes but also show the potential of an integral evaluation of observational data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Silver fir and Douglas fir are more tolerant to extreme droughts than Norway spruce in south-western Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitali, Valentina; Büntgen, Ulf; Bauhus, Jürgen

    2017-12-01

    Improving our understanding of the potential of forest adaptation is an urgent task in the light of predicted climate change. Long-term alternatives for susceptible yet economically important tree species such as Norway spruce (Picea abies) are required, if the frequency and intensity of summer droughts will continue to increase. Although Silver fir (Abies alba) and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) have both been described as drought-tolerant species, our understanding of their growth responses to drought extremes is still limited. Here, we use a dendroecological approach to assess the resistance, resilience, and recovery of these important central Europe to conifer species the exceptional droughts in 1976 and 2003. A total of 270 trees per species were sampled in 18 managed mixed-species stands along an altitudinal gradient (400-1200 m a.s.l.) at the western slopes of the southern and central Black Forest in southwest Germany. While radial growth in all species responded similarly to the 1976 drought, Norway spruce was least resistant and resilient to the 2003 summer drought. Silver fir showed the overall highest resistance to drought, similarly to Douglas fir, which exhibited the widest growth rings. Silver fir trees from lower elevations were more drought prone than trees at higher elevations. Douglas fir and Norway spruce, however, revealed lower drought resilience at higher altitudes. Although the 1976 and 2003 drought extremes were quite different, Douglas fir maintained consistently the highest radial growth. Although our study did not examine population-level responses, it clearly indicates that Silver fir and Douglas fir are generally more resistant and resilient to previous drought extremes and are therefore suitable alternatives to Norway spruce; Silver fir more so at higher altitudes. Cultivating these species instead of Norway spruce will contribute to maintaining a high level of productivity across many Central European mountain forests under

  15. Transcriptional Responses Associated with Virulence and Defence in the Interaction between Heterobasidion annosum s.s. and Norway Spruce.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Lundén

    Full Text Available Heterobasidion annosum sensu lato is a serious pathogen causing root and stem rot to conifers in the northern hemisphere and rendering the timber defective for sawing and pulping. In this study we applied next-generation sequencing to i identify transcriptional responses unique to Heterobasidion-inoculated Norway spruce and ii investigate the H. annosum transcripts to identify putative virulence factors. To address these objectives we wounded or inoculated 30-year-old Norway spruce clones with H. annosum and 454-sequenced the transcriptome of the interaction at 0, 5 and 15 days post inoculation. The 491,860 high-quality reads were de novo assembled and the relative expression was analysed. Overall, very few H. annosum transcripts were represented in our dataset. Three delta-12 fatty acid desaturase transcripts and one Clavaminate synthase-like transcript, both associated with virulence in other pathosystems, were found among the significantly induced transcripts. The analysis of the Norway spruce transcriptional responses produced a handful of differentially expressed transcripts. Most of these transcripts originated from genes known to respond to H. annosum. However, three genes that had not previously been reported to respond to H. annosum showed specific induction to inoculation: an oxophytodienoic acid-reductase (OPR, a beta-glucosidase and a germin-like protein (GLP2 gene. Even in a small data set like ours, five novel highly expressed Norway spruce transcripts without significant alignment to any previously annotated protein in Genbank but present in the P. abies (v1.0 gene catalogue were identified. Their expression pattern suggests a role in defence. Therefore a more complete survey of the transcriptional responses in the interactions between Norway spruce and its major pathogen H. annosum would probably provide a better understanding of gymnosperm defence than accumulated until now.

  16. Assessing the resilience of Norway spruce forests through a model-based reanalysis of thinning trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, Rupert; Vigl, Friedrich; Rössler, Günter; Neumann, Markus; Rammer, Werner

    2017-03-15

    As a result of a rapidly changing climate the resilience of forests is an increasingly important property for ecosystem management. Recent efforts have improved the theoretical understanding of resilience, yet its operational quantification remains challenging. Furthermore, there is growing awareness that resilience is not only a means to addressing the consequences of climate change but is also affected by it, necessitating a better understanding of the climate sensitivity of resilience. Quantifying current and future resilience is thus an important step towards mainstreaming resilience thinking into ecosystem management. Here, we present a novel approach for quantifying forest resilience from thinning trials, and assess the climate sensitivity of resilience using process-based ecosystem modeling. We reinterpret the wide range of removal intensities and frequencies in thinning trials as an experimental gradient of perturbation, and estimate resilience as the recovery rate after perturbation. Our specific objectives were (i) to determine how resilience varies with stand and site conditions, (ii) to assess the climate sensitivity of resilience across a range of potential future climate scenarios, and (iii) to evaluate the robustness of resilience estimates to different focal indicators and assessment methodologies. We analyzed three long-term thinning trials in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) forests across an elevation gradient in Austria, evaluating and applying the individual-based process model iLand. The resilience of Norway spruce was highest at the montane site, and decreased at lower elevations. Resilience also decreased with increasing stand age and basal area. The effects of climate change were strongly context-dependent: At the montane site, where precipitation levels were ample even under climate change, warming increased resilience in all scenarios. At lower elevations, however, rising temperatures decreased resilience, particularly at

  17. Performance of different fire retardant products applied on Norway spruce tested in a Cone calorimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kögl Josef

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available On the European market there are several fire retardant products available, which reach class B in the European classification system. The producers promise their fire retardants are effective in reducing different reaction to fire parameters of wood such as the time to ignition, the mass loss rate, the heat release rate, the total heat release, the charring rate and the flame spread. This paper discusses the performance of fire retardant products as pressure impregnated wood, non-intumescence surface coatings and intumescence coatings on Norway spruce (Picea abies. The investigations are performed by using a cone calo- rimeter test according to ISO 5660. The thermal exposures of the investigations are 50 kW/m2 and the standard IS0 834 test curve. As result information about the heat release rate, the mass loss rate and the total heat release for duration of 900 seconds will be presented in this paper.

  18. Five-year measurements of ozone fluxes to a Danish Norway spruce canopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, H.; Hovmand, M.F.

    2004-01-01

    Ozone concentrations and fluxes have been measured continuously during 5 years (1996-2000) by the gradient method in a Norway spruce dominated forest stand in West Jutland, Denmark, planted in 1965. The method has been validated against other methodologies and a relatively good relationship...... resistance, r(c), are presented. The yearly ozone deposition is approximately 126 kg ha(-1). The canopy ozone uptake is highest during the day and during the summer. This is interpreted as increased stomatal uptake and physical and chemical reactions. The daily means of ozone concentration and fluxes...... averaged over 5 years correlate, but the correlation is primarily based on two different uncoupled processes outside and inside the stomates: (1) The ozone destruction in the canopy occurring outside the stomates is much influenced by temperature, light and humidity, e.g. surface reactions, NO- and VOC...

  19. In vitro fungistatic effects of natural coniferous resin from Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautio, M; Sipponen, A; Lohi, J; Lounatmaa, K; Koukila-Kähkölä, P; Laitinen, K

    2012-08-01

    Resins (rosin, pitch) are natural products of the coniferous trees and are antimicrobial against a wide range of microbes. The antifungal effectiveness of resin, purified from Norway spruce (Picea abies), was studied against human pathogenic fungi and yeasts with the agar plate diffusion tests and electron microscopy (EM). The fungistatic effect of these resin mixtures (resin salves) was tested against a set of Candida yeasts, dermatophytes, and opportunistic fungi. Transmission and scanning EM was done from samples of fungi (Trichophyton mentagrophytes). In agar diffusion tests, the resin was strongly antifungal against all dermatophytes tested, e.g., against all fungi of the genus Trichophyton, but it was not antifungal against the Candida yeasts or against the opportunistic fungi tested. According to EM, resin caused damages in the cell hyphae and cell wall structures. We conclude that, in the agar plate diffusion test, coniferous resins are strongly fungistatic against the dermatophytic fungi only.

  20. Climate drivers of bark beetle outbreak dynamics in Norway spruce forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marini, Lorenzo; Økland, Bjørn; Jönsson, Anna Maria

    2017-01-01

    Bark beetles are among the most devastating biotic agents affecting forests globally and several species are expected to be favored by climate change. Given the potential interactions of insect outbreaks with other biotic and abiotic disturbances, and the potentially strong impact of changing...... disturbance regimes on forest resources, investigating climatic drivers of destructive bark beetle outbreaks is of paramount importance. We analyzed 17 time-series of the amount of wood damaged by Ips typographus, the most destructive pest of Norway spruce forests, collected across 8 European countries...... in the last three decades. We aimed to quantify the relative importance of key climate drivers in explaining timber loss dynamics, also testing for possible synergistic effects. Local outbreaks shared the same drivers, including increasing summer rainfall deficit and warm temperatures. Large availability...

  1. The effect of artificially induced drought on radial increment and wood properties of Norway spruce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyske, Tuula; Hölttä, Teemu; Mäkinen, Harri; Nöjd, Pekka; Lumme, Ilari; Spiecker, Heinrich

    2010-01-01

    We studied experimentally the effects of water availability on height and radial increment as well as wood density and tracheid properties of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). The study was carried out in two long-term N-fertilization experiments in Southern Finland (Heinola and Sahalahti). At each site, one fertilized and one control plot was covered with an under-canopy roof preventing rainwater from reaching the soil. Two uncovered plots were monitored at each site. The drought treatment was initiated in the beginning of growing season and lasted for 60-75 days each year. The treatment was repeated for four to five consecutive years depending on the site. Altogether, 40 sample trees were harvested and discs sampled at breast height. From the discs, ring width and wood density were measured by X-ray densitometry. Tracheid properties were analysed by reflected-light microscopy and image analysis. Reduced soil water potential during the growing season decreased annual radial and height increment and had a small influence on tracheid properties and wood density. No statistically significant differences were found in the average tracheid diameter between the drought-treated and control trees. The average cell wall thickness was somewhat higher (7-10%) for the drought treatment than for the control, but the difference was statistically significant only in Sahalahti. An increased cell wall thickness was found in both early- and latewood tracheids, but the increase was much greater in latewood. In drought-treated trees, cell wall proportion within an annual ring increased, consequently increasing wood density. No interaction between the N fertilization and drought treatment was found in wood density. After the termination of the drought treatment, trees rapidly recovered from the drought stress. According to our results, severe drought due to the predicted climate change may reduce Norway spruce growth but is unlikely to result in large changes in wood properties.

  2. Isoprenoid emission response to changing light conditions of English oak, European beech and Norway spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meeningen, Ylva; Schurgers, Guy; Rinnan, Riikka; Holst, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    Light is an important environmental factor controlling biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions, but in natural conditions its impact is hard to separate from other influential factors such as temperature. We studied the light response of foliar BVOC emissions, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance on three common European tree species, namely English oak (Quercus robur), European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and two provenances of Norway spruce (Picea abies) in Taastrup, Denmark. Leaf scale measurements were performed on the lowest positioned branches of the tree in July 2015. Light intensity was increased in four steps (0, 500, 1000 and 1500 µmol m-2 s-1), whilst other chamber conditions such as temperature, humidity and CO2 levels were fixed. Whereas the emission rate differed between individuals of the same species, the relative contributions of compounds to the total isoprenoid emission remained similar. Whilst some compounds were species specific, the compounds α-pinene, camphene, 3-carene, limonene and eucalyptol were emitted by all of the measured tree species. Some compounds, like isoprene and sabinene, showed an increasing emission response with increasing light intensity, whereas other compounds, like camphene, had no significant emission response to light for most of the measured trees. English oak and European beech showed high light-dependent emission fractions from isoprene and sabinene, but other emitted compounds were light independent. For the two provenances of Norway spruce, the compounds α-pinene, 3-carene and eucalyptol showed high light-dependent fractions for many of the measured trees. This study highlights differences between compound emissions in their response to a change in light and a possible light independence for certain compounds, which might be valid for a wider range of tree species. This information could be of importance when improving emission models and to further emphasize the discussion regarding light or

  3. Isoprenoid emission response to changing light conditions of English oak, European beech and Norway spruce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. van Meeningen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Light is an important environmental factor controlling biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC emissions, but in natural conditions its impact is hard to separate from other influential factors such as temperature. We studied the light response of foliar BVOC emissions, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance on three common European tree species, namely English oak (Quercus robur, European beech (Fagus sylvatica and two provenances of Norway spruce (Picea abies in Taastrup, Denmark. Leaf scale measurements were performed on the lowest positioned branches of the tree in July 2015. Light intensity was increased in four steps (0, 500, 1000 and 1500 µmol m−2 s−1, whilst other chamber conditions such as temperature, humidity and CO2 levels were fixed. Whereas the emission rate differed between individuals of the same species, the relative contributions of compounds to the total isoprenoid emission remained similar. Whilst some compounds were species specific, the compounds α-pinene, camphene, 3-carene, limonene and eucalyptol were emitted by all of the measured tree species. Some compounds, like isoprene and sabinene, showed an increasing emission response with increasing light intensity, whereas other compounds, like camphene, had no significant emission response to light for most of the measured trees. English oak and European beech showed high light-dependent emission fractions from isoprene and sabinene, but other emitted compounds were light independent. For the two provenances of Norway spruce, the compounds α-pinene, 3-carene and eucalyptol showed high light-dependent fractions for many of the measured trees. This study highlights differences between compound emissions in their response to a change in light and a possible light independence for certain compounds, which might be valid for a wider range of tree species. This information could be of importance when improving emission models and to further emphasize the

  4. Changes in soil nitrogen cycling under Norway spruce logging residues on a clear-cut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolander, Aino; Lindroos, Antti-Jussi; Kitunen, Veikko

    2016-04-01

    In Europe, forest biomass is increasingly being used as a source of energy to replace fossil fuels. In practice, this means that logging residues, consisting of green branches and stem tops, are more commonly harvested. In 2012 logging residues were harvested from about one third of clear-cuts in Finland. Our aim was to study how logging residues affect soil organic matter quality, in particular soil N cycling processes and composition of certain groups of plant secondary compounds, tannins and terpenes. Compounds in these groups were of interest because they are abundant in logging residues, and they have been shown to control soil N cycling. In connection with clear-cutting a Norway spruce stand in southern Finland, we established a controlled field experiment by building logging residue piles (40 kg/m2) on study plots. The piles consisted of fresh spruce branches and tops with green foliage. Control plots with no residues were included (0 kg/m2). Changes in soil organic matter properties have now been monitored for three growing seasons. Logging residues affected organic layer properties strongly. For example, they increased net nitrification and nitrate concentrations. There were also increases in the concentrations of certain terpenes and condensed tannins due to the residues. The significance of logging residues on soil processes and properties will be shown.

  5. Varying selection differential throughout the climatic range of Norway spruce in Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapeller, Stefan; Dieckmann, Ulf; Schueler, Silvio

    2017-01-01

    Predicting species distribution changes in global warming requires an understanding of how climatic constraints shape the genetic variation of adaptive traits and force local adaptations. To understand the genetic capacity of Norway spruce populations in Central Europe, we analyzed the variation in tree heights at the juvenile stage in common garden experiments established from the species' warm-dry to cold-moist distribution limits. We report the following findings: First, 47% of the total tree height variation at trial sites is attributable to the tree populations irrespective of site climate. Second, tree height variation within populations is higher at cold-moist trial sites than at warm-dry sites and higher within populations originating from cold-moist habitats than from warm-dry habitats. Third, for tree ages of 7-15 years, the variation within populations increases at cold-moist trial sites, whereas it remains constant at warm-dry sites. Fourth, tree height distributions are right-skewed at cold-moist trial sites, whereas they are nonskewed, but platykurtic at warm-dry sites. Our results suggest that in cold environments, climatic conditions impose stronger selection and probably restrict the distribution of spruce, whereas at the warm distribution limit, the species' realized niche might rather be controlled by external drivers, for example, forest insects.

  6. Plasticity in variation of xylem and phloem cell characteristics of Norway spruce under different local conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozica eGricar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There is limited information on intra-annual plasticity of secondary tissues of tree species growing under different environmental conditions. To increase the knowledge about the plasticity of secondary growth, which allows trees to adapt to specific local climatic regimes, we examined climate–radial growth relationships of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. H. Karst. from three contrasting locations in the temperate climatic zone by analyzing tree-ring widths for the period 1932–2010, and cell characteristics in xylem and phloem increments formed in the years 2009–2011. Variation in the structure of xylem and phloem increments clearly shows that plasticity in seasonal dynamics of cambial cell production and cell differentiation exists on xylem and phloem sides. Anatomical characteristics of xylem and phloem cells are predominantly site-specific characteristics, because they varied among sites but were fairly uniform among years in trees from the same site. Xylem and phloem tissues formed in the first part of the growing season seemed to be more stable in structure, indicating their priority over latewood and late phloem for tree performance. Long-term climate and radial growth analyses revealed that growth was in general less dependent on precipitation than on temperature; however, growth sensitivity to local conditions differed among the sites. Only partial dependence of radial growth of spruce on climatic factors on the selected sites confirms its strategy to adapt the structure of wood and phloem increments to function optimally in local conditions.

  7. Carbon Dioxide and Methane Formation in Norway Spruce Stems Infected by White-Rot Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari M. Hietala

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Globally, billions of tons of carbon sequestered in trees are annually recycled back to the atmosphere through wood decomposition by microbes. In Norway, every fifth Norway spruce shows at final harvest infection by pathogenic white-rot fungi in the genera Heterobasidion and Armillaria. As these fungi can mineralize all components of wood, we predicted that they have a significant carbon footprint. Gas samples taken from infected stems were analyzed for CO2 and CH4 concentrations, and wood samples from different parts of the decay columns were incubated under hypoxic (4% O2 and anoxic laboratory conditions. In spring and summer the stem concentrations of CO2 were generally two times higher in trees with heartwood decay than in healthy trees. For most of the healthy trees and trees with heartwood decay, mean stem concentrations of CH4 were comparable to ambient air, and only some Armillaria infected trees showed moderately elevated CH4. Consistently, low CH4 production potentials were recorded in the laboratory experiment. Up-scaling of CO2 efflux due to wood decay in living trees suggests that the balance between carbon sequestration and emission may be substantially influenced in stands with high frequency of advanced root and stem heartwood decay.

  8. Dynamic Gene-Resource Landscape Management of Norway Spruce: Combining Utilization and Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lstibůrek, Milan; El-Kassaby, Yousry A.; Skrøppa, Tore; Hodge, Gary R.; Sønstebø, Jørn H.; Steffenrem, Arne

    2017-01-01

    Traditional gene-resource management programs for forest trees are long-term endeavors requiring sustained organizational commitment covering extensive landscapes. While successful in maintaining adaptation, genetic diversity and capturing traditional growth attributes gains, these programs are dependent on rigid methods requiring elaborate mating schemes, thus making them slow in coping with climate change challenges. Here, we review the significance of Norway spruce in the boreal region and its current management practices. Next, we discuss opportunities offered by novel technologies and, with the use of computer simulations, we propose and evaluate a dynamic landscape gene-resource management in Norway. Our suggested long-term management approach capitalizes on: (1) existing afforestation activities, natural crosses, and DNA-based pedigree assembly to create structured pedigree for evaluation, thus traditional laborious control crosses are avoided and (2) landscape level genetic evaluation, rather than localized traditional progeny trials, allowing for screening of adapted individuals across multiple environmental gradients under changing climate. These advantages lead to greater genetic response to selection in adaptive traits without the traditional breeding and testing scheme, facilitating conservation of genetic resources within the breeding population of the most important forest tree species in Norway. The use of in situ selection from proven material exposed to realistic conditions over vast territories has not been conducted in forestry before. Our proposed approach is in contrast to worldwide current programs, where genetic evaluation is constrained by the range of environments where testing is conducted, which may be insufficient to capture the broad environmental variation necessary to tackle adaptation under changing climate. PMID:29093732

  9. Dynamic Gene-Resource Landscape Management of Norway Spruce: Combining Utilization and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Lstibůrek

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional gene-resource management programs for forest trees are long-term endeavors requiring sustained organizational commitment covering extensive landscapes. While successful in maintaining adaptation, genetic diversity and capturing traditional growth attributes gains, these programs are dependent on rigid methods requiring elaborate mating schemes, thus making them slow in coping with climate change challenges. Here, we review the significance of Norway spruce in the boreal region and its current management practices. Next, we discuss opportunities offered by novel technologies and, with the use of computer simulations, we propose and evaluate a dynamic landscape gene-resource management in Norway. Our suggested long-term management approach capitalizes on: (1 existing afforestation activities, natural crosses, and DNA-based pedigree assembly to create structured pedigree for evaluation, thus traditional laborious control crosses are avoided and (2 landscape level genetic evaluation, rather than localized traditional progeny trials, allowing for screening of adapted individuals across multiple environmental gradients under changing climate. These advantages lead to greater genetic response to selection in adaptive traits without the traditional breeding and testing scheme, facilitating conservation of genetic resources within the breeding population of the most important forest tree species in Norway. The use of in situ selection from proven material exposed to realistic conditions over vast territories has not been conducted in forestry before. Our proposed approach is in contrast to worldwide current programs, where genetic evaluation is constrained by the range of environments where testing is conducted, which may be insufficient to capture the broad environmental variation necessary to tackle adaptation under changing climate.

  10. Comparative study of long-term water uptake of Norway spruce and Douglas-fir in Moravian upland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhdina Nadezhda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Long-term water uptake of Douglas-fir and Norway spruce trees, growing in condition of Moravian upland, was studied with aim of comparing sap flow in small roots with flow in stems. Sap flow was measured by the heat field deformation method using multi-point sensors for stems and single-point sensors for roots. Differences between species were found in relationships between sap flow in tree stems and water uptake by roots, suggesting that Douglas-fir is able to take water from deeper soil more efficiently than spruce. This allows Douglas-fir to transpire more water especially during drought and grow faster than spruce. These biological features should be taken into account for future forest species compositions because they may have impact on both, forestry and hydrology.

  11. Antioxidants in Norway spruce needles at field plots in the vicinity of a thermal power plant in Slovenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribariclasnik, C.; Turk, B.; Batic, F.; Grill, D. [ERICo Velenje, Velenkje (Slovenia)

    1999-07-01

    Results of antioxidant analyses such as vitamin C and E, water soluble thiols and beta-carotene, in Norway spruce needles at sampling sites influenced by the Thermal Power Plant in Sostanj, Slovenia are presented. These antioxidants were analysed in current and one year old needles sampled in September 1997 at ten permanent sampling sites. The antioxidant response of Norway spruce needles is compared to the air pollution load, assessed by total sulphur content of needles, and general environmental stress factors connected with the sampling site. From the results it is possible to draw conclusions about the physiological role and behavior of the biochemical needle stress indicators analysed and to explain their status as a result of the air pollution load and environmental stresses.

  12. Levels of damage of Scots pine and Norway spruce caused by needle miners along a SO{sub 2} gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oksanen, J. [Univ. of Tromsoe, Dept. of Plant Ecology, IBG, Tromsoe (Norway); Holopainen, J.K.; Nerg, A.; Holopainen, T. [Univ. of Kuopio, Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science, Kuopio (Finland)

    1996-09-01

    Needle damages, caused by mining insects on Scots pine and Norway spruce were studied in the vicinity of a pulp mill. The abundance of needles mined by the pine bud moth Exoteleia dodecella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) on Scots pine Pinus sylvestris, and the spruce needle miner Epinotia tedella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on Norway spruce Picea abies had a significantly peaked response curve on logarithmic distance scale. For pine bud moth, the maximum expected population density was estimated to be at the distance of 1.35 km from the factory. The maximum expected population density for the spruce needle miner was at the distance of 1.53 km from the factory. However, for both species the curves were significantly different among transects. Both species had a peaked and significant response to sulphur level in needles as well. The maximum expected density in pine was at 1270 ppm, and in spruce at 1070 ppm sulphur concentration in pine needles. The results are consistent with earlier reports demonstrating that these mining insects frequently attack trees suffering from air pollution. The nonlinear response of both species to distance from the pulp mill suggests that E. dodecella on pine and E. tedella on spruce are rather indicators of the zone of intermediate air pollution than of strongly polluted or nearly unpolluted sites. This also agrees with the plant stress-insect performance hypothesis indicating that insect response varies with the magnitude of stress, and at very high stress levels a tree no longer provides the insects with relevant food. (au) 49 refs.

  13. Shoot-level terpenoids emission in Norway spruce (Picea abies) under natural field and manipulated laboratory conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Esposito, R.; Lusini, I.; Večeřová, Kristýna; Holišová, Petra; Pallozzi, E.; Guidolotti, G.; Urban, Otmar; Calfapietra, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 108, nov (2016), s. 530-538 ISSN 0981-9428 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MŠk(CZ) LD13031; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015061 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Norway spruce * BVOC * Monoterpenes * Temperature * Ozone * Sun-shade * Stress Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.724, year: 2016

  14. Effect of bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) attack on bark VOC emissions of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Rajendra P.; Kivimäenpää, Minna; Blomqvist, Minna; Holopainen, Toini; Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa, Päivi; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    2016-02-01

    Climate warming driven storms are evident causes for an outbreak of the European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) resulting in the serious destruction of mature Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) forests in northern Europe. Conifer species are major sources of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in the boreal zone. Climate relevant BVOC emissions are expected to increase when conifer trees defend against bark beetle attack by monoterpene (MT)-rich resin flow. In this study, BVOC emission rates from the bark surface of beetle-attacked and non-attacked spruce trees were measured from two outbreak areas, Iitti and Lahti in southern Finland, and from one control site at Kuopio in central Finland. Beetle attack increased emissions of total MTs 20-fold at Iitti compared to Kuopio, but decreased the emissions of several sesquiterpenes (SQTs) at Iitti. At the Lahti site, the emission rate of α-pinene was positively correlated with mean trap catch of bark beetles. The responsive individual MTs were tricyclene, α-pinene, camphene, myrcene, limonene, 1,8-cineole and bornyl acetate in both of the outbreak areas. Our results suggest that bark beetle outbreaks affect local BVOC emissions from conifer forests dominated by Norway spruce. Therefore, the impacts of insect outbreaks are worth of consideration to global BVOC emission models.

  15. Induced Terpene Accumulation in Norway Spruce Inhibits Bark Beetle Colonization in a Dose-Dependent Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tao; Krokene, Paal; Hu, Jiang; Christiansen, Erik; Björklund, Niklas; Långström, Bo; Solheim, Halvor; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

    2011-01-01

    Background Tree-killing bark beetles (Coleoptera, Scolytinae) are among the most economically and ecologically important forest pests in the northern hemisphere. Induction of terpenoid-based oleoresin has long been considered important in conifer defense against bark beetles, but it has been difficult to demonstrate a direct correlation between terpene levels and resistance to bark beetle colonization. Methods To test for inhibitory effects of induced terpenes on colonization by the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus (L.) we inoculated 20 mature Norway spruce Picea abies (L.) Karsten trees with a virulent fungus associated with the beetle, Ceratocystis polonica (Siem.) C. Moreau, and investigated induced terpene levels and beetle colonization in the bark. Results Fungal inoculation induced very strong and highly variable terpene accumulation 35 days after inoculation. Trees with high induced terpene levels (n = 7) had only 4.9% as many beetle attacks (5.1 vs. 103.5 attacks m−2) and 2.6% as much gallery length (0.029 m m−2 vs. 1.11 m m−2) as trees with low terpene levels (n = 6). There was a highly significant rank correlation between terpene levels at day 35 and beetle colonization in individual trees. The relationship between induced terpene levels and beetle colonization was not linear but thresholded: above a low threshold concentration of ∼100 mg terpene g−1 dry phloem trees suffered only moderate beetle colonization, and above a high threshold of ∼200 mg terpene g−1 dry phloem trees were virtually unattacked. Conclusion/Significance This is the first study demonstrating a dose-dependent relationship between induced terpenes and tree resistance to bark beetle colonization under field conditions, indicating that terpene induction may be instrumental in tree resistance. This knowledge could be useful for developing management strategies that decrease the impact of tree-killing bark beetles. PMID:22028932

  16. Induced terpene accumulation in Norway spruce inhibits bark beetle colonization in a dose-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tao; Krokene, Paal; Hu, Jiang; Christiansen, Erik; Björklund, Niklas; Långström, Bo; Solheim, Halvor; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

    2011-01-01

    Tree-killing bark beetles (Coleoptera, Scolytinae) are among the most economically and ecologically important forest pests in the northern hemisphere. Induction of terpenoid-based oleoresin has long been considered important in conifer defense against bark beetles, but it has been difficult to demonstrate a direct correlation between terpene levels and resistance to bark beetle colonization. To test for inhibitory effects of induced terpenes on colonization by the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus (L.) we inoculated 20 mature Norway spruce Picea abies (L.) Karsten trees with a virulent fungus associated with the beetle, Ceratocystis polonica (Siem.) C. Moreau, and investigated induced terpene levels and beetle colonization in the bark. Fungal inoculation induced very strong and highly variable terpene accumulation 35 days after inoculation. Trees with high induced terpene levels (n = 7) had only 4.9% as many beetle attacks (5.1 vs. 103.5 attacks m(-2)) and 2.6% as much gallery length (0.029 m m(-2) vs. 1.11 m m(-2)) as trees with low terpene levels (n = 6). There was a highly significant rank correlation between terpene levels at day 35 and beetle colonization in individual trees. The relationship between induced terpene levels and beetle colonization was not linear but thresholded: above a low threshold concentration of ∼100 mg terpene g(-1) dry phloem trees suffered only moderate beetle colonization, and above a high threshold of ∼200 mg terpene g(-1) dry phloem trees were virtually unattacked. This is the first study demonstrating a dose-dependent relationship between induced terpenes and tree resistance to bark beetle colonization under field conditions, indicating that terpene induction may be instrumental in tree resistance. This knowledge could be useful for developing management strategies that decrease the impact of tree-killing bark beetles.

  17. Induced terpene accumulation in Norway spruce inhibits bark beetle colonization in a dose-dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tree-killing bark beetles (Coleoptera, Scolytinae are among the most economically and ecologically important forest pests in the northern hemisphere. Induction of terpenoid-based oleoresin has long been considered important in conifer defense against bark beetles, but it has been difficult to demonstrate a direct correlation between terpene levels and resistance to bark beetle colonization. METHODS: To test for inhibitory effects of induced terpenes on colonization by the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus (L. we inoculated 20 mature Norway spruce Picea abies (L. Karsten trees with a virulent fungus associated with the beetle, Ceratocystis polonica (Siem. C. Moreau, and investigated induced terpene levels and beetle colonization in the bark. RESULTS: Fungal inoculation induced very strong and highly variable terpene accumulation 35 days after inoculation. Trees with high induced terpene levels (n = 7 had only 4.9% as many beetle attacks (5.1 vs. 103.5 attacks m(-2 and 2.6% as much gallery length (0.029 m m(-2 vs. 1.11 m m(-2 as trees with low terpene levels (n = 6. There was a highly significant rank correlation between terpene levels at day 35 and beetle colonization in individual trees. The relationship between induced terpene levels and beetle colonization was not linear but thresholded: above a low threshold concentration of ∼100 mg terpene g(-1 dry phloem trees suffered only moderate beetle colonization, and above a high threshold of ∼200 mg terpene g(-1 dry phloem trees were virtually unattacked. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study demonstrating a dose-dependent relationship between induced terpenes and tree resistance to bark beetle colonization under field conditions, indicating that terpene induction may be instrumental in tree resistance. This knowledge could be useful for developing management strategies that decrease the impact of tree-killing bark beetles.

  18. Genetic diversity of Norway spruce [Picea abies (L. Karst.] in Romanian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Gheorghe Radu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of Romanian most important coniferous tree species, the Norway spruce, was estimated by means of allozyme markers. A total of 695 adult trees sampled from eleven populations grouped in six mountainous areas in the Romanian Carpathians were analyzed. In three metapopulations (Maramureş, Postăvar and Parâng, to evaluate the influence of altitudinal gradient on genetic diversity, samples were collected from populations located at high and low altitude. At other location (ApuseniMountains we compared the narrow-crown biotype (Picea abies var. columnaris and the pyramidal crown biotype (Picea abies var. pyramidalis and explored the genetic structure of peat bog ecotype. By analyzing 7 enzyme systems and 12 enzyme coding loci, a total of 38 allelic variants have been detected. The mean value of polymorphic loci for the six sites was 86.1%, ranging between 83.3% and 91.7% and the mean expected heterozygosity was 0.115, resulting in a moderate level of genetic diversity. The highest genetic diversity (He = 0.134 was found in the narrow-crown spruce population. Apuseni metapopulation showed the highest genetic diversity (He = 0.125, being the most valuable for conservation of genetic resources. The small value of fixation index (FST = 0.009 indicates a low genetic differentiation between the six sites and AMOVA test revealed a very high level of genetic diversity within population (99%. Comparative analysis of genetic parameters showed small differences between high and low altitude populations at each site, probably due to the neutral character of the markers analyzed and the effect of gene flow between gradiental populations.

  19. Spring photosynthetic recovery of boreal Norway spruce under conditions of elevated [CO(2)] and air temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Göran; Hall, Marianne; Slaney, Michelle; Räntfors, Mats; Medhurst, Jane; Linder, Sune

    2013-11-01

    Accumulated carbon uptake, apparent quantum yield (AQY) and light-saturated net CO2 assimilation (Asat) were used to assess the responses of photosynthesis to environmental conditions during spring for three consecutive years. Whole-tree chambers were used to expose 40-year-old field-grown Norway spruce trees in northern Sweden to an elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, [CO2], of 700 μmol CO2 mol(-1) (CE) and an air temperature (T) between 2.8 and 5.6 °C above ambient T (TE), during summer and winter. Net shoot CO2 exchange (Anet) was measured continuously on 1-year-old shoots and was used to calculate the accumulated carbon uptake and daily Asat and AQY. The accumulated carbon uptake, from 1 March to 30 June, was stimulated by 33, 44 and 61% when trees were exposed to CE, TE, and CE and TE combined, respectively. Air temperature strongly influenced the timing and extent of photosynthetic recovery expressed as AQY and Asat during the spring. Under elevated T (TE), the recovery of AQY and Asat commenced ∼10 days earlier and the activity of these parameters was significantly higher throughout the recovery period. In the absence of frost events, the photosynthetic recovery period was less than a week. However, frost events during spring slowed recovery so that full recovery could take up to 60 days to complete. Elevated [CO2] stimulated AQY and Asat on average by ∼10 and ∼50%, respectively, throughout the recovery period, but had minimal or no effect on the onset and length of the photosynthetic recovery period during the spring. However, AQY, Asat and Anet all recovered at significantly higher T (average +2.2 °C) in TE than in TA, possibly caused by acclimation or by shorter days and lower light levels during the early part of the recovery in TE compared with TA. The results suggest that predicted future climate changes will cause prominent stimulation of photosynthetic CO2 uptake in boreal Norway spruce forest during spring, mainly caused by elevated T

  20. Radial shrinkage and ultrasound acoustic emissions of fresh versus pre-dried Norway spruce sapwood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Sabine; Konnerth, Johannes; Plank, Bernhard; Salaberger, Dietmar; Hansmann, Christian

    2010-10-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) and radial shrinkage were compared between fully saturated fresh and pre-dried Norway spruce sapwood during dehydration at ambient temperature. Hydraulic conductivity measurements, anatomical investigations on bordered pits and X-ray computed tomography (CT) scans were done to search for possible AE sources other than the breakage of the water columns inside the tracheids. Both fresh and pre-dried specimens showed radial shrinkage due to drying surface layers right from the beginning of dehydration, which induced almost no AE. Whereas no dimensional changes occurred in pre-dried wood thereafter, fresh wood showed a rapid shrinkage increase starting at 25% relative water loss. This dimensional change ceased when further moisture got lost and was even partially reversed. AE of fresh wood showed much higher activity and energy, which is a waveform feature that describes the strength of the acoustic signal. Extremely high single AE energy events were detected at this critical stage of dehydration. After partial recovery from shrinkage, neither dimensional changes nor AE activity showed differences between fresh and pre-dried wood after more than 80% relative moisture loss. Our results suggested that fresh sapwood is more prone to dehydration stresses than pre-dried sapwood. Differences in AE and shrinkage behavior might be due to the weakening or distortion of the pit membranes (cavitation fatigue), pit aspiration, structural changes of the cell walls and micro-checks, which occurred during the first dehydration cycle.

  1. Dynamics of temperature normalized stem CO2 efflux in Norway spruce stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Dařenová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiration of stems contributes approximately 8 to 13 % to the total respiration of forest ecosystem, which is not negligible, and it has to be included in carbon flux estimates. The aim of this study was to determine dynamics of stem CO2 efflux during the growing season in Norway spruce stand and factors affecting this efflux. Continuous measurements of stem CO2 efflux were carried out by an automated system during the growing season in 2006–2009. Further measured characteristics were stem temperature, stem increment and precipitations. Stem CO2 efflux was in tight relationship with changes in temperature with the mean coefficient of determination of 0.76. This infers that temperature was the main factor driving changes in CO2 efflux during the season. To eliminate effect of temperature and determine other factors influencing stem CO2 efflux, CO2 efflux was normalized for temperature of 10 °C (R10. Basic seasonal course of R10 followed the pattern of stem growth rate with its maxima in June and July. The other factor effect, which was possible to determine, was presence of rainfall. Rainfall strong enough caused mostly increase in R10. This effect was the most significant when the R10 course had a decreasing trend in the second part of the growing season.

  2. Effect of Topping Trees on Biomass and Nitrogen Removal in the Thinning of Norway Spruce Stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Huber

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In Central Europe, full-tree (FT harvesting is an increasingly common harvesting method in steep terrain harvesting due to the increased use of highly economical processor tower yarders. In conventional FT harvesting, nutrient removal from harvest sites is substantially higher than in cut-to-length (CTL harvesting due to the extraction of nutrient-rich branches and foliage. One strategy to reduce the adverse impact of FT harvesting is to cut off the tops of felled trees prior to extraction (topping. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of implementing topping treatments in FT harvesting on biomass and nutrient removal. The effect of conventional FT harvesting on the amount of logging residues left on the site was assessed in three different Norway spruce (Picea abies-dominated stands following cable yarding operations by collecting logging residues from the forest floor. The additional effect of topping trees on the amount of logging residues was assessed by using biomass models. These models were created based on the data of 25 sample trees, which were felled and sampled destructively within the stands. The results show that conventional FT harvesting considerably increases nutrient removal in comparison to CTL, but still do not remove all nutrients from the sites. After conventional FT harvesting, 5–18% of the nutrients remained on the sites. Topping trees at a diameter of 8 cm substantially increased the amount of remaining nutrients to 30–34%.

  3. Conserved function of core clock proteins in the gymnosperm Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlgren, Anna; Gyllenstrand, Niclas; Källman, Thomas; Lagercrantz, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    From studies of the circadian clock in the plant model species Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), a number of important properties and components have emerged. These include the genes CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1 (CCA1), GIGANTEA (GI), ZEITLUPE (ZTL) and TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1 (TOC1 also known as PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR 1 (PRR1)) that via gene expression feedback loops participate in the circadian clock. Here, we present results from ectopic expression of four Norway spruce (Picea abies) putative homologs (PaCCA1, PaGI, PaZTL and PaPRR1) in Arabidopsis, their flowering time, circadian period length, red light response phenotypes and their effect on endogenous clock genes were assessed. For PaCCA1-ox and PaZTL-ox the results were consistent with Arabidopsis lines overexpressing the corresponding Arabidopsis genes. For PaGI consistent results were obtained when expressed in the gi2 mutant, while PaGI and PaPRR1 expressed in wild type did not display the expected phenotypes. These results suggest that protein function of PaCCA1, PaGI and PaZTL are at least partly conserved compared to Arabidopsis homologs, however further studies are needed to reveal the protein function of PaPRR1. Our data suggest that components of the three-loop network typical of the circadian clock in angiosperms were present before the split of gymnosperms and angiosperms.

  4. Conserved function of core clock proteins in the gymnosperm Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Karlgren

    Full Text Available From studies of the circadian clock in the plant model species Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana, a number of important properties and components have emerged. These include the genes CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1 (CCA1, GIGANTEA (GI, ZEITLUPE (ZTL and TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1 (TOC1 also known as PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR 1 (PRR1 that via gene expression feedback loops participate in the circadian clock. Here, we present results from ectopic expression of four Norway spruce (Picea abies putative homologs (PaCCA1, PaGI, PaZTL and PaPRR1 in Arabidopsis, their flowering time, circadian period length, red light response phenotypes and their effect on endogenous clock genes were assessed. For PaCCA1-ox and PaZTL-ox the results were consistent with Arabidopsis lines overexpressing the corresponding Arabidopsis genes. For PaGI consistent results were obtained when expressed in the gi2 mutant, while PaGI and PaPRR1 expressed in wild type did not display the expected phenotypes. These results suggest that protein function of PaCCA1, PaGI and PaZTL are at least partly conserved compared to Arabidopsis homologs, however further studies are needed to reveal the protein function of PaPRR1. Our data suggest that components of the three-loop network typical of the circadian clock in angiosperms were present before the split of gymnosperms and angiosperms.

  5. Experimental versus modelled water use in mature Norway spruce (Picea abies exposed to elevated CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian eLeuzinger

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Rising levels of atmospheric CO2 have often been reported to reduce plant water use. Such behaviour is also predicted by standard equations relating photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and atmospheric CO2 concentration, which form the core of global dynamic vegetation models (DGVMs. Here, we provide first results from a free air CO2 enrichment (FACE experiment with naturally growing, mature (35 m Picea abies (L. (Norway spruce and compare them to simulations by the DGVM LPJ-GUESS. We monitored sap flow, stem water deficit, stomatal conductance, leaf water potential and soil moisture in five 35-40 m tall CO2-treated (550 ppm trees over two seasons. Using LPJ-GUESS, we simulated this experiment using climate data from a nearby weather station. While the model predicted a stable reduction of transpiration of between 9 and 18 % (at concentrations of 550-700ppm atmospheric CO2, the combined evidence from various methods characterising water use in our experimental trees suggest no changes in response to future CO2 concentrations. The discrepancy between the modelled and the experimental results may be a scaling issue: while dynamic vegetation models correctly predict leaf-level responses, they may not sufficiently account for the processes involved at the canopy and ecosystem scale, which could mitigate the first-order stomatal response.

  6. A Bayesian Analysis Shows That a Spruce Beetle Outbreak Reduces Snow Interception and Sublimation in a Subalpine Spruce-Fir Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, J. M.; Massman, W. J.; Ewers, B. E.; Williams, D. G.

    2016-12-01

    Sublimation is a key component in the water cycle of cold, snow dominated ecosystems. In many high elevation spruce-fir forests of western North America, recent spruce beetle outbreaks have caused widespread tree mortality, opened the canopy, and potentially altered the processes that control sublimation. This study evaluates three hypotheses: in these ecosystems the dominant source for sublimation originates from canopy intercepted snow, the loss of canopy following a beetle disturbance leads to significantly less sublimation, and major sublimation events are driven by the flow of sensible heat into the canopy. Bayesian analysis is used to evaluate a two source energy and canopy mass model that explains seventeen years (2000-2016) of winter eddy-covariance flux data at the GLEES AmeriFlux sites where a spruce beetle outbreak caused 75-85% basal area mortality. The model estimated that the resistance to snow sublimation from the canopy was an order of magnitude less than from the snowpack and that the maximum snow loading in the canopy was reduced to 25-56% of its pre-outbreak capacity. Comparing model results obtained using the observed decrease in leaf area index versus a "no beetle" condition, there has been a significant decrease in ecosystem sublimation since 2011. In the past few years, a 5-11% increase in snowpack sublimation has been offset by 28-32% less sublimation from canopy intercepted snow, with the net being 17-25% less total sublimation. This is equivalent to 3-6% of the total precipitation. Informing the model with information other than the above-canopy fluxes indicates that a near snowpack eddy covariance system decreases the canopy contribution to sublimation, including observed sensible heat fluxes requires a correction to resolve the surface energy imbalance, and stable isotopes of water vapor extend sublimation events. Because tree growth and ecological succession are slow in spruce-fir forests, these results could persist for decades.

  7. Effect of species composition on carbon and nitrogen stocks in forest floor and mineral soil in Norway spruce and European beech mixed forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andivia, Enrique; Rolo, Víctor; Jonard, Mathieu; Formánek, Pavel; Ponette, Quentin

    2015-04-01

    Management of existing forests has been identified as the main strategy to enhance carbon sequestration and to mitigate the impact of climate change on forest ecosystems. In this direction, the conversion of Norway spruce monospecific stands into mixed stands by intermingling individuals of European beech is an ongoing trend in adaptive forest management strategies, especially in Central Europe. However, studies assessing the effect of changes in tree species composition on soil organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen stocks are still scarce and there is a lack of scientific evidence supporting tree species selection as a feasible management option to mitigate the effects of predicted future climatic scenarios. We compared C and N stocks in the forest floor (litter and humus) and the top 10 cm of mineral soil in two monospecific stands of Norway spruce and European beech and in a mixed stand of both species. The effect of tree species composition on the C and N stocks and its spatial distribution was evaluated based on litterfall, root production, elevation and canopy opening, and by using a combination of modelling and geostatistical techniques. C stock was highest in the Norway spruce and the mixed stands, while N stock was highest in the mixed stand and lowest under European beech, with intermediate values in the Norway spruce stand. Each forest type showed differences in forest floor properties, suggesting that species composition is an important factor governing forest floor characteristics, including C and N stocks. The distribution of C and N stocks between forest soil layers was different for each forest type. C and N stocks were highest in the hummus layer under Norway spruce, whereas both stocks were lowest in the European beech stand. On the other hand, the mixed stand showed the highest C and N accumulation in the uppermost mineral soil layer, while the monospecific stands showed similar values. Litterfall was the main contribution to C and N stocks of the

  8. Tree and stand growth of mature Norway spruce and European beech under long-term ozone fumigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pretzsch, Hans, E-mail: h.pretzsch@lrz.tum.d [Chair for Forest Growth and Yield Science, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising (Germany); Dieler, Jochen [Chair for Forest Growth and Yield Science, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising (Germany); Matyssek, Rainer [Chair for Ecophysiology of Plants, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising (Germany); Wipfler, Philip [Chair for Forest Growth and Yield Science, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    In a 50- to 70-year-old mixed stand of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in Germany, tree cohorts have been exposed to double ambient ozone (2xO{sub 3}) from 2000 through 2007 and can be compared with trees in the same stand under the ambient ozone regime (1xO{sub 3}). Annual diameter growth, allocation pattern, stem form, and stem volume were quantified at the individual tree and stand level. Ozone fumigation induced a shift in the resource allocation into height growth at the expense of diameter growth. This change in allometry leads to rather cone-shaped stem forms and reduced stem stability in the case of spruce, and even neiloidal stem shapes in the case of beech. Neglect of such ozone-induced changes in stem shape may lead to a flawed estimation of volume growth. On the stand level, 2xO{sub 3} caused, on average, a decrease of 10.2 m{sup 3} ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} in European beech. - Ozone effects on tree growth and stem shape were investigated for Norway spruce and European beech; the study reveals species-specific reaction patterns in growth rate and allometry under ozone exposure.

  9. Norway spruce needles as bioindicator of air pollution in the area of influence of the Sostanj Thermal Power Plant, Slovenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Sayegh Petkovsek, Samar [ERICo Velenje, Ecological Research and Industrial Cooperation Institute, Koroska 58, 3320 Velenje (Slovenia)], E-mail: samar.petkovsek@erico.si; Batic, Franc [Agronomy Department, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Ribaric Lasnik, Cvetka [Institute of Environment and Spatial Planning, Ipavceva 18, 3000 Celje (Slovenia)

    2008-01-15

    This paper reports the results of total sulphur content, photosynthetic pigments, ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and {alpha}-tocopherol (vitamin E) analysed in current-year needles of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) in the area influenced by sulphur emissions from the Sostanj Thermal Power Plant (STPP), Slovenia, in the period 1991-2004. Ten differently polluted sampling sites in the emission area of STPP were selected. After desulphurization of emission gases from STPP total sulphur content in needles decreased and vitality parameters of needles increased. Moreover, a strong correlation between the average annual emissions of SO{sub 2} from STPP and average annual sulphur content (increase) or average annual chlorophyll content (decrease) in current-year needles was found. The results showed that spruce needles may be an useful bioindicator for detecting changes in the emission rates of SO{sub 2}. - Total sulphur content in needles is a well proved indicator of sulphur burden in the environment.

  10. Norway spruce needles as bioindicator of air pollution in the area of influence of the Sostanj Thermal Power Plant, Slovenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samar Al Sayegh Petkovsek; Franc Batic; Cvetka Ribaric Lasnik [ERICo Velenje, Velenje (Slovenia). Ecological Research and Industrial Cooperation Institute

    2008-01-15

    This paper reports the results of total sulphur content, photosynthetic pigments, ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and {alpha}-tocopherol (vitamin E) analysed in current-year needles of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) in the area influenced by sulphur emissions from the Sostanj Thermal Power Plant (STPP), Slovenia, in the period 1991-2004. Ten differently polluted sampling sites in the emission area of STPP were selected. After desulphurization of emission gases from STPP total sulphur content in needles decreased and vitality parameters of needles increased. Moreover, a strong correlation between the average annual emissions of SO{sub 2} from STPP and average annual sulphur content (increase) or average annual chlorophyll content (decrease) in current-year needles was found. The results showed that spruce needles may be an useful bioindicator for detecting changes in the emission rates of SO{sub 2}.

  11. Hydraulic and mechanical properties of young Norway spruce clones related to growth and wood structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROSNER, SABINE; KLEIN, ANDREA; MÜLLER, ULRICH; KARLSSON, BO

    2011-01-01

    Summary Stem segments of eight five-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) clones differing in growth characteristics were tested for maximum specific hydraulic conductivity (ks100), vulnerability to cavitation and behavior under mechanical stress. The vulnerability of the clones to cavitation was assessed by measuring the applied air pressure required to cause 12 and 50% loss of conductivity (Ψ12, Ψ50) and the percent loss of conductivity at 4 MPa applied air pressure (PLC4MPa). The bending strength and stiffness and the axial compression strength and stiffness of the same stem segments were measured to characterize wood mechanical properties. Growth ring width, wood density, latewood percentage, lumen diameter, cell wall thickness, tracheid length and pit dimensions of earlywood cells, spiral grain and microfibril angles were examined to identify structure–function relationships. High ks100 was strongly and positively related to spiral grain angle, which corresponded positively to tracheid length and pit dimensions. Spiral grain may reduce flow resistance of the bordered pits of the first earlywood tracheids, which are characterized by rounded tips and an equal distribution of pits along the entire length. Wood density was unrelated to hydraulic vulnerability parameters. Traits associated with higher hydraulic vulnerability were long tracheids, high latewood percentage and thick earlywood cell walls. The positive relationship between earlywood cell wall thickness and vulnerability to cavitation suggest that air seeding through the margo of bordered pits may occur in earlywood. There was a positive phenotypic and genotypic relationship between ks100 and PLC4MPa, and both parameters were positively related to tree growth rate. Variability in mechanical properties depended mostly on wood density, but also on the amount of compression wood. Accordingly, hydraulic conductivity and mechanical strength or stiffness showed no tradeoff. PMID:17472942

  12. Terpenoid and carbonyl emissions from Norway spruce in Finland during the growing season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakola, Hannele; Tarvainen, Virpi; Praplan, Arnaud P.; Jaars, Kerneels; Hemmilä, Marja; Kulmala, Markku; Bäck, Jaana; Hellén, Heidi

    2017-03-01

    We present spring and summer volatile organic compound (VOC) emission rate measurements from Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst) growing in a boreal forest in southern Finland. The measurements were conducted using in situ gas chromatograph with 1 to 2 h time resolution to reveal quantitative and qualitative short-term and seasonal variability of the emissions. The measurements cover altogether 14 weeks in years 2011, 2014 and 2015. Monoterpene (MT) and sesquiterpene (SQT) emission rates were measured all the time, but isoprene only in 2014 and 2015 and acetone and C4-C10 aldehydes only in 2015. The emission rates of all the compounds were low in spring, but MT, acetone, and C4-C10 aldehyde emission rates increased as summer proceeded, reaching maximum emission rates in July. Late summer mean values (late July and August) were 29, 17, and 33 ng g(dw)-1 h-1 for MTs, acetone, and aldehydes respectively. SQT emission rates increased during the summer and highest emissions were measured in late summer (late summer mean value 84 ng g(dw)-1 h-1) concomitant with highest linalool emissions most likely due to stress effects. The between-tree variability of emission pattern was studied by measuring seven different trees during the same afternoon using adsorbent tubes. Especially the contributions of limonene, terpinolene, and camphene were found to vary between trees, whereas proportions of α-pinene (25 ± 5 %) and β-pinene (7 ± 3 %) were more stable. Our results show that it is important to measure emissions at canopy level due to irregular emission pattern, but reliable SQT emission data can be measured only from enclosures. SQT emissions contributed more than 90 % of the ozone reactivity most of the time, and about 70 % of the OH reactivity during late summer. The contribution of aldehydes to OH reactivity was comparable to that of MT during late summer, 10-30 % most of the time.

  13. Estimating single-tree branch biomass of Norway spruce by airborne laser scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauglin, Marius; Dibdiakova, Janka; Gobakken, Terje; Næsset, Erik

    2013-05-01

    The use of forest biomass for bioenergy purposes, directly or through refinement processes, has increased in the last decade. One example of such use is the utilization of logging residues. Branch biomass constitutes typically a considerable part of the logging residues, and should be quantified and included in future forest inventories. Airborne laser scanning (ALS) is widely used when collecting data for forest inventories, and even methods to derive information at the single-tree level has been described. Procedures for estimation of single-tree branch biomass of Norway spruce using features derived from ALS data are proposed in the present study. As field reference data the dry weight branch biomass of 50 trees were obtained through destructive sampling. Variables were further derived from the ALS echoes from each tree, including crown volume calculated from an interpolated crown surface constructed with a radial basis function. Spatial information derived from the pulse vectors were also incorporated when calculating the crown volume. Regression models with branch biomass as response variable were fit to the data, and the prediction accuracy assessed through a cross-validation procedure. Random forest regression models were compared to stepwise and simple linear least squares models. In the present study branch biomass was estimated with a higher accuracy by the best ALS-based models than by existing allometric biomass equations based on field measurements. An improved prediction accuracy was observed when incorporating information from the laser pulse vectors into the calculation of the crown volume variable, and a linear model with the crown volume as a single predictor gave the best overall results with a root mean square error of 35% in the validation.

  14. Hydraulic and mechanical properties of young Norway spruce clones related to growth and wood structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Sabine; Klein, Andrea; Müller, Ulrich; Karlsson, Bo

    2007-08-01

    Stem segments of eight five-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) clones differing in growth characteristics were tested for maximum specific hydraulic conductivity (k(s100)), vulnerability to cavitation and behavior under mechanical stress. The vulnerability of the clones to cavitation was assessed by measuring the applied air pressure required to cause 12 and 50% loss of conductivity (Psi(12), Psi(50)) and the percent loss of conductivity at 4 MPa applied air pressure (PLC(4MPa)). The bending strength and stiffness and the axial compression strength and stiffness of the same stem segments were measured to characterize wood mechanical properties. Growth ring width, wood density, latewood percentage, lumen diameter, cell wall thickness, tracheid length and pit dimensions of earlywood cells, spiral grain and microfibril angles were examined to identify structure-function relationships. High k(s100) was strongly and positively related to spiral grain angle, which corresponded positively to tracheid length and pit dimensions. Spiral grain may reduce flow resistance of the bordered pits of the first earlywood tracheids, which are characterized by rounded tips and an equal distribution of pits along the entire length. Wood density was unrelated to hydraulic vulnerability parameters. Traits associated with higher hydraulic vulnerability were long tracheids, high latewood percentage and thick earlywood cell walls. The positive relationship between earlywood cell wall thickness and vulnerability to cavitation suggest that air seeding through the margo of bordered pits may occur in earlywood. There was a positive phenotypic and genotypic relationship between k(s100) and PLC(4MPa), and both parameters were positively related to tree growth rate. Variability in mechanical properties depended mostly on wood density, but also on the amount of compression wood. Accordingly, hydraulic conductivity and mechanical strength or stiffness showed no tradeoff.

  15. Patterns of mast fruiting of common beech, sessile and common oak, Norway spruce and Scots pine in Central and Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nussbaumer, Anita; Waldner, Peter; Etzold, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    Occurrence of mast years, i.e. the synchronous production of vast amounts of fruits or seeds, has an important impact on forest ecosystems, their functioning and their services. We investigated the mast patterns of the forest tree species common beech, common and sessile oak, Norway spruce and Sc...... hypotheses, and beech and spruce supported the economy of scale, predator satiation and resource allocation hypotheses....

  16. Growth response to a changing environment-Impacts of tropospheric ozone dose on photosynthesis of Norway spruce forests in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaozhen; Pietsch, Stephan; Hasenauer, Hubert

    2010-05-01

    Tropospheric ozone is an important air pollutant, although plants have active defense strategies (e.g. antioxidants), the cumulative ozone dose may lead to chronic damages to plant tissues. Ozone enters into plants through stomata and reacts with other chemicals to create toxic compounds. This affects plant photosynthesis and may reduce CO2 fixation, and consequently growth. Open top cambers (OTC) are usually used to study the effects of elevated ozone levels on photosynthesis; whereas field studies with on site occurring ozone levels are rare. A recent modelling study on Norway spruce stands in Austria exhibited trends in model errors indicating that an increase in ozone dose leads to a reduction in volume increment. This study aims to explore how different ozone doses affect photosynthesis under field conditions and may translate into growth response for 12 stands of Norway spruce, distributed along an ozone concentration gradient across Austria. A LI-6400xt photosynthesis system was utilized to collect physiological parameters including net photosynthesis, stomata conductance, internal CO2 concentration, transpiration, etc. Chlorophyll fluorescence data was collected by using a PEA chlorophyll fluorescence meter, and chlorophyll content was measured. Morphological characteristics and soil samples were also analyzed. Ozone dose to leaf tissue was calculated from external ozone concentration, the conductance of the stomata to ozone, the leaf area index and the time span of the day when ozone uptake takes place. Our results confirm that increasing cumulative ozone dose reduces maximum assimilation rate and carboxylation efficiency under field conditions. Our final goal is to quantify how far this ozone induced reduction in assimilation power ultimately translates into a growth reduction of Norway spruce in Austria.

  17. Functional characterization of nine Norway Spruce TPS genes and evolution of gymnosperm terpene synthases of the TPS-d subfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Diane M; Fäldt, Jenny; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2004-08-01

    Constitutive and induced terpenoids are important defense compounds for many plants against potential herbivores and pathogens. In Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst), treatment with methyl jasmonate induces complex chemical and biochemical terpenoid defense responses associated with traumatic resin duct development in stems and volatile terpenoid emissions in needles. The cloning of (+)-3-carene synthase was the first step in characterizing this system at the molecular genetic level. Here we report the isolation and functional characterization of nine additional terpene synthase (TPS) cDNAs from Norway spruce. These cDNAs encode four monoterpene synthases, myrcene synthase, (-)-limonene synthase, (-)-alpha/beta-pinene synthase, and (-)-linalool synthase; three sesquiterpene synthases, longifolene synthase, E,E-alpha-farnesene synthase, and E-alpha-bisabolene synthase; and two diterpene synthases, isopimara-7,15-diene synthase and levopimaradiene/abietadiene synthase, each with a unique product profile. To our knowledge, genes encoding isopimara-7,15-diene synthase and longifolene synthase have not been previously described, and this linalool synthase is the first described from a gymnosperm. These functionally diverse TPS account for much of the structural diversity of constitutive and methyl jasmonate-induced terpenoids in foliage, xylem, bark, and volatile emissions from needles of Norway spruce. Phylogenetic analyses based on the inclusion of these TPS into the TPS-d subfamily revealed that functional specialization of conifer TPS occurred before speciation of Pinaceae. Furthermore, based on TPS enclaves created by distinct branching patterns, the TPS-d subfamily is divided into three groups according to sequence similarities and functional assessment. Similarities of TPS evolution in angiosperms and modeling of TPS protein structures are discussed.

  18. Assessing the impacts of climate change and nitrogen deposition on Norway spruce growth in Austria with BIOME-BGC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastaugh, Chris S.; Potzelsberger, Elisabeth; Hasenaueur, Hubert

    2011-03-15

    The purpose of this study is to determine if the climate change has had an apparent impact in Austrian forests. This research has been conducted on Norway spruce forests as this is the predominant species in Austria. Growth data between regions which have different temperature and precipitation trendsw was then compared, with results showing increased productivity in all regions thus implying that growth of the forest is driven by other factors than climate. This conclusion is consistent with previous studies supporting that forest growth is mainly driven by increasing nitrogen deposition.

  19. Comparison of N and C dynamics in two Norway spruce stands using a process oriented simulation model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckersten, H.; Beier, C.

    1998-01-01

    Nitrogen and carbon dynamics of two Norway spruce stands were compared using a dynamic soil-plant simulation model (SOILN). The objectives were to evaluate differences in properties between the two stands and to explore the consequences on C and N dynamics. The young stand (25 years old...... whereas growth was more similar. The soil carbon balance was positive and soil CIN ratio increased for the young stand. For the old stand the soil carbon balance was negative and the C/N ratio decreased. The soil mineral N levels were much lower in the younger stand which was explained by a higher plant...

  20. High-efficiency Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenck, A. R.; Quinn, M.; Whetten, R. W.; Pullman, G.; Sederoff, R.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer is the method of choice for many plant biotechnology laboratories; however, large-scale use of this organism in conifer transformation has been limited by difficult propagation of explant material, selection efficiencies and low transformation frequency. We have analyzed co-cultivation conditions and different disarmed strains of Agrobacterium to improve transformation. Additional copies of virulence genes were added to three common disarmed strains. These extra virulence genes included either a constitutively active virG or extra copies of virG and virB, both from pTiBo542. In experiments with Norway spruce, we increased transformation efficiencies 1000-fold from initial experiments where little or no transient expression was detected. Over 100 transformed lines expressing the marker gene beta-glucuronidase (GUS) were generated from rapidly dividing embryogenic suspension-cultured cells co-cultivated with Agrobacterium. GUS activity was used to monitor transient expression and to further test lines selected on kanamycin-containing medium. In loblolly pine, transient expression increased 10-fold utilizing modified Agrobacterium strains. Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer is a useful technique for large-scale generation of transgenic Norway spruce and may prove useful for other conifer species.

  1. Effects of prolonged drought on the anatomy of sun and shade needles in young Norway spruce trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, Roman; Volařík, Daniel; Urban, Josef; Børja, Isabella; Nagy, Nina Elisabeth; Eldhuset, Toril Drabløs; Krokene, Paal

    2015-11-01

    Predicted increases in the frequency and duration of drought are expected to negatively affect tree vitality, but we know little about how water shortage will influence needle anatomy and thereby the trees' photosynthetic and hydraulic capacity. In this study, we evaluated anatomical changes in sun and shade needles of 20-year-old Norway spruce trees exposed to artificial drought stress. Canopy position was found to be important for needle structure, as sun needles had significantly higher values than shade needles for all anatomical traits (i.e., cross-sectional needle area, number of tracheids in needle, needle hydraulic conductivity, and tracheid lumen area), except proportion of xylem area per cross-sectional needle area. In sun needles, drought reduced all trait values by 10-40%, whereas in shade needles, only tracheid maximum diameter was reduced by drought. Due to the relatively weaker response of shade needles than sun needles in drought-stressed trees, the difference between the two needle types was reduced by 25% in the drought-stressed trees compared to the control trees. The observed changes in needle anatomy provide new understanding of how Norway spruce adapts to drought stress and may improve predictions of how forests will respond to global climate change.

  2. Moisture content of Norway spruce (Picea Abies (L.) Karst.) stump wood at clear cutting areas and roadside storage sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurila, J.; Lauhanen, R. (Seinaejoki Univ. of Applied Sciences, Aehtaeri (Finland), School of Agriculture and Forestry), e-mail: jussi.laurila@seamk.fi, e-mail: risto.lauhanen@seamk.fi

    2010-07-01

    The use of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stump wood in heat energy production has recently increased in Finland. Cost effective stump wood procurement is a sum of many factors. In this study, the moisture content of Norway spruce stump wood at the clear cutting areas and forest roadside storage sites was examined. The moisture content of wood has a large effect on the transportation costs and heating value of wood. The average moisture content of stump wood was 53 % at the clear cutting areas immediately after harvesting. At the beginning the moisture content decreased fairly quickly being about 31 % one month after harvesting. If stumps dried well in the summer, water absorption was fairly slow in the autumn. Each spring and summer the moisture content was lower than during the previous year. On the whole, the stumps at the forest roadside storage sites were combustible at any point during the three year period except a one month drying period immediately after harvesting

  3. Micro- and macro-geographic scale effect on the molecular imprint of selection and adaptation in Norway spruce.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Scalfi

    Full Text Available Forest tree species of temperate and boreal regions have undergone a long history of demographic changes and evolutionary adaptations. The main objective of this study was to detect signals of selection in Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst, at different sampling-scales and to investigate, accounting for population structure, the effect of environment on species genetic diversity. A total of 384 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs representing 290 genes were genotyped at two geographic scales: across 12 populations distributed along two altitudinal-transects in the Alps (micro-geographic scale, and across 27 populations belonging to the range of Norway spruce in central and south-east Europe (macro-geographic scale. At the macrogeographic scale, principal component analysis combined with Bayesian clustering revealed three major clusters, corresponding to the main areas of southern spruce occurrence, i.e. the Alps, Carpathians, and Hercynia. The populations along the altitudinal transects were not differentiated. To assess the role of selection in structuring genetic variation, we applied a Bayesian and coalescent-based F(ST-outlier method and tested for correlations between allele frequencies and climatic variables using regression analyses. At the macro-geographic scale, the F(ST-outlier methods detected together 11 F(ST-outliers. Six outliers were detected when the same analyses were carried out taking into account the genetic structure. Regression analyses with population structure correction resulted in the identification of two (micro-geographic scale and 38 SNPs (macro-geographic scale significantly correlated with temperature and/or precipitation. Six of these loci overlapped with F(ST-outliers, among them two loci encoding an enzyme involved in riboflavin biosynthesis and a sucrose synthase. The results of this study indicate a strong relationship between genetic and environmental variation at both geographic scales. It also

  4. Incorporating shape constraints in generalized additive modelling of the height-diameter relationship for Norway spruce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Pya

    2016-02-01

    fitting. Conclusions: We demonstrate that the SCAM approach allows optimal regression modelling flexibility similar to the standard GAM but with the additional possibility of defining specific constraints for the model effects. The longitudinal character of the model allows for tree height imputation for the current status of forests but also for future tree height prediction. Keywords: Height-diameter curve, Norway spruce, Shape constrained additive models, Impact of climate change, Varying coefficient models

  5. Light Use Efficiency of Aboveground Biomass Production of Norway Spruce Stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Bellan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Light use efficiency (LUE or photosynthetically active radiation use efficiency in production of young spruce stands aboveground biomass was determined at the study sites Rájec (the Drahanská vrchovina Highland and Bílý Kříž (the Moravian‑Silesian Beskids Mountains in 2014 and 2015. The LUE value obtained for the investigated spruce stands were in the range of 0.45 – 0.65 g DW MJ–1. The different LUE values were determined for highland and mountain spruce stand. The differences were caused by growth and climatic conditions and by the amount of assimilatory apparatus (LAI.

  6. Functions for biomass and basic density of stem, crown and root system of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsgaard, Jens Peter; Bald, Caroline; Nord-Larsen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Models for predicting the biomass of forest trees are becoming increasingly important for assessing forest resources and carbon sequestration in forests. We developed functions for predicting the biomass and basic density of above- and below-ground parts of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.)...

  7. Effects of air pollution and climatic factors on Norway spruce forests in the Orlicke hory Mts. (Czech Republic), 1979-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanislav Vacek; Iva Hunova; Zdenek Vacek; Pavla Hejcmanova; Vilem Podrazsky; Jan Kral; Tereza Putalova; W. Keith Moser

    2015-01-01

    The area of the Orlicke hory Mts. has been characterised by decline and disturbances of Norway spruce (Picea abies/L./Karst.) stands since the 1980s. Currently, only three permanent research plots have been preserved from the original sixteen established plots in this region. In the present study, the health status, as indicated by defoliation, mortality, and...

  8. Risk evaluation of the climatic change impact on secondary Norway spruce stands as exemplified by the Křtiny Training Forest Enterprise

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čermák, P.; Jankovský, L.; Cudlín, Pavel

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 6 (2004), s. 256-262 ISSN 1212-4834 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC E27.001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : climatic change * Norway spruce * risk assessment Subject RIV: GK - Forestry

  9. Modelling individual tree height to crown base of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ram P; Vacek, Zdeněk; Vacek, Stanislav; Podrázský, Vilém; Jansa, Václav

    2017-01-01

    Height to crown base (HCB) of a tree is an important variable often included as a predictor in various forest models that serve as the fundamental tools for decision-making in forestry. We developed spatially explicit and spatially inexplicit mixed-effects HCB models using measurements from a total 19,404 trees of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) on the permanent sample plots that are located across the Czech Republic. Variables describing site quality, stand density or competition, and species mixing effects were included into the HCB model with use of dominant height (HDOM), basal area of trees larger in diameters than a subject tree (BAL- spatially inexplicit measure) or Hegyi's competition index (HCI-spatially explicit measure), and basal area proportion of a species of interest (BAPOR), respectively. The parameters describing sample plot-level random effects were included into the HCB model by applying the mixed-effects modelling approach. Among several functional forms evaluated, the logistic function was found most suited to our data. The HCB model for Norway spruce was tested against the data originated from different inventory designs, but model for European beech was tested using partitioned dataset (a part of the main dataset). The variance heteroscedasticity in the residuals was substantially reduced through inclusion of a power variance function into the HCB model. The results showed that spatially explicit model described significantly a larger part of the HCB variations [R2adj = 0.86 (spruce), 0.85 (beech)] than its spatially inexplicit counterpart [R2adj = 0.84 (spruce), 0.83 (beech)]. The HCB increased with increasing competitive interactions described by tree-centered competition measure: BAL or HCI, and species mixing effects described by BAPOR. A test of the mixed-effects HCB model with the random effects estimated using at least four trees per sample plot in the validation data confirmed that the

  10. Modelling individual tree height to crown base of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram P Sharma

    Full Text Available Height to crown base (HCB of a tree is an important variable often included as a predictor in various forest models that serve as the fundamental tools for decision-making in forestry. We developed spatially explicit and spatially inexplicit mixed-effects HCB models using measurements from a total 19,404 trees of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. on the permanent sample plots that are located across the Czech Republic. Variables describing site quality, stand density or competition, and species mixing effects were included into the HCB model with use of dominant height (HDOM, basal area of trees larger in diameters than a subject tree (BAL- spatially inexplicit measure or Hegyi's competition index (HCI-spatially explicit measure, and basal area proportion of a species of interest (BAPOR, respectively. The parameters describing sample plot-level random effects were included into the HCB model by applying the mixed-effects modelling approach. Among several functional forms evaluated, the logistic function was found most suited to our data. The HCB model for Norway spruce was tested against the data originated from different inventory designs, but model for European beech was tested using partitioned dataset (a part of the main dataset. The variance heteroscedasticity in the residuals was substantially reduced through inclusion of a power variance function into the HCB model. The results showed that spatially explicit model described significantly a larger part of the HCB variations [R2adj = 0.86 (spruce, 0.85 (beech] than its spatially inexplicit counterpart [R2adj = 0.84 (spruce, 0.83 (beech]. The HCB increased with increasing competitive interactions described by tree-centered competition measure: BAL or HCI, and species mixing effects described by BAPOR. A test of the mixed-effects HCB model with the random effects estimated using at least four trees per sample plot in the validation data confirmed

  11. Testing Projected Climate Change Conditions on the Endoconidiophora polonica / Norway spruce Pathosystem Shows Fungal Strain Specific Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnakoski, Riikka; Forbes, Kristian M; Wingfield, Michael J; Pulkkinen, Pertti; Asiegbu, Fred O

    2017-01-01

    Climate changes, exemplified by increased temperatures and CO2 concentration, pose a global threat to forest health. Of particular concern are pests and pathogens, with a warming climate altering their distributions and evolutionary capacity, while impairing the ability of some plants to respond to infections. Progress in understanding and mitigating such effects is currently hindered by a lack of empirical research. Norway spruce (Picea abies) is one of the most economically important tree species in northern Europe, and is considered highly vulnerable to changes in climate. It is commonly infected by the fungus Endoconidiophora polonica, and we hypothesized that damage caused to trees will increase under future climate change predictions. To test this hypothesis an in vivo greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of a changed growing environment on E. polonica infected Norway spruce seedlings, comparing ambient conditions to predicted temperatures and CO2 levels in Finland for the years 2030 and 2100. In total, 450 seedlings were randomized amongst the three treatments, with 25 seedlings from each allocated to inoculation with one of five different fungal strains or mock-inoculation. Seedlings were monitored throughout the thermal growing season for mortality, and lesion length and depth indices were measured at the experiment conclusion. Disease severity (mortality and lesions) was consistently greater in fungal-inoculated than mock-inoculated seedlings. However, substantial differences were observed among fungal strains in response to climate scenarios. For example, although overall seedling mortality was highest under the most distant (and severe) climate change expectations, of the two fungal strains with the highest mortality counts (referred to as F4 and F5), one produced greater mortality under the 2030 and 2100 scenarios than ambient conditions, whereas climate scenario had no effect on the other. This study contributes to a limited

  12. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals that Red and Blue Light Regulate Growth and Phytohormone Metabolism in Norway Spruce [Picea abies (L. Karst].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangqun OuYang

    Full Text Available The mechanisms by which different light spectra regulate plant shoot elongation vary, and phytohormones respond differently to such spectrum-associated regulatory effects. Light supplementation can effectively control seedling growth in Norway spruce. However, knowledge of the effective spectrum for promoting growth and phytohormone metabolism in this species is lacking. In this study, 3-year-old Norway spruce clones were illuminated for 12 h after sunset under blue or red light-emitting diode (LED light for 90 d, and stem increments and other growth traits were determined. Endogenous hormone levels and transcriptome differences in the current needles were assessed to identify genes related to the red and blue light regulatory responses. The results showed that the stem increment and gibberellin (GA levels of the seedlings illuminated by red light were 8.6% and 29.0% higher, respectively, than those of the seedlings illuminated by blue light. The indoleacetic acid (IAA level of the seedlings illuminated by red light was 54.6% lower than that of the seedlings illuminated by blue light, and there were no significant differences in abscisic acid (ABA or zeatin riboside [ZR] between the two groups of seedlings. The transcriptome results revealed 58,736,166 and 60,555,192 clean reads for the blue-light- and red-light-illuminated samples, respectively. Illumina sequencing revealed 21,923 unigenes, and 2744 (approximately 93.8% out of 2926 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were found to be upregulated under blue light. The main KEGG classifications of the DEGs were metabolic pathway (29%, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites (20.49% and hormone signal transduction (8.39%. With regard to hormone signal transduction, AUXIN-RESISTANT1 (AUX1, AUX/IAA genes, auxin-inducible genes, and early auxin-responsive genes [(auxin response factor (ARF and small auxin-up RNA (SAUR] were all upregulated under blue light compared with red light, which might have

  13. Testing Projected Climate Change Conditions on the Endoconidiophora polonica / Norway spruce Pathosystem Shows Fungal Strain Specific Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riikka Linnakoski

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate changes, exemplified by increased temperatures and CO2 concentration, pose a global threat to forest health. Of particular concern are pests and pathogens, with a warming climate altering their distributions and evolutionary capacity, while impairing the ability of some plants to respond to infections. Progress in understanding and mitigating such effects is currently hindered by a lack of empirical research. Norway spruce (Picea abies is one of the most economically important tree species in northern Europe, and is considered highly vulnerable to changes in climate. It is commonly infected by the fungus Endoconidiophora polonica, and we hypothesized that damage caused to trees will increase under future climate change predictions. To test this hypothesis an in vivo greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of a changed growing environment on E. polonica infected Norway spruce seedlings, comparing ambient conditions to predicted temperatures and CO2 levels in Finland for the years 2030 and 2100. In total, 450 seedlings were randomized amongst the three treatments, with 25 seedlings from each allocated to inoculation with one of five different fungal strains or mock-inoculation. Seedlings were monitored throughout the thermal growing season for mortality, and lesion length and depth indices were measured at the experiment conclusion. Disease severity (mortality and lesions was consistently greater in fungal-inoculated than mock-inoculated seedlings. However, substantial differences were observed among fungal strains in response to climate scenarios. For example, although overall seedling mortality was highest under the most distant (and severe climate change expectations, of the two fungal strains with the highest mortality counts (referred to as F4 and F5, one produced greater mortality under the 2030 and 2100 scenarios than ambient conditions, whereas climate scenario had no effect on the other. This study contributes

  14. High-Throughput Sequencing Reveals Drastic Changes in Fungal Communities in the Phyllosphere of Norway Spruce (Picea abies) Following Invasion of the Spruce Bud Scale (Physokermes piceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menkis, Audrius; Marčiulynas, Adas; Gedminas, Artūras; Lynikienė, Jūratė; Povilaitienė, Aistė

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the diversity and composition of fungal communities in damaged and undamaged shoots of Norway spruce (Picea abies) following recent invasion of the spruce bud scale (Physokermes piceae) in Lithuania. Sampling was done in July 2013 and included 50 random lateral shoots from ten random trees in each of five visually undamaged and five damaged 40-50-year-old pure stands of P. abies. DNA was isolated from 500 individual shoots, subjected to amplification of the internal transcribed spacer of fungal ribosomal DNA (ITS rDNA), barcoded and sequenced. Clustering of 149,426 high-quality sequences resulted in 1193 non-singleton contigs of which 1039 (87.1 %) were fungal. In total, there were 893 fungal taxa in damaged shoots and 608 taxa in undamaged shoots (p < 0.0001). Furthermore, 431 (41.5 %) fungal taxa were exclusively in damaged shoots, 146 (14.0 %) were exclusively in undamaged shoots, and 462 (44.5 %) were common to both types of samples. Correspondence analysis showed that study sites representing damaged and undamaged shoots were separated from each other, indicating that in these fungal communities, these were largely different and, therefore, heavily affected by P. piceae. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that invasive alien tree pests may have a profound effect on fungal mycobiota associated with the phyllosphere of P. abies, and therefore, in addition to their direct negative effect owing physical damage of the tissue, they may also indirectly determine health, sustainability and, ultimately, distribution of the forest tree species.

  15. Vertical profile of branch CO2 efflux in a Norway spruce tree: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, M.; Pavelka, M.

    2012-04-01

    Despite woody-tissue CO2 effluxes having been recognized as an important component of forest carbon budget due to the fraction of assimilates used and the dramatic increase in woody with stand development, there is limited research to determine the CO2 efflux vertical variability of woody-tissue components. For a better understanding and quantification of branch woody-tissue CO2 efflux in forest ecosystems, it is necessary to identify the environmental factors influencing it and the role of the branch distribution within the canopy. The proper assessment of this forest component will improve the knowledge of the ratio between ecosystem respiration and gross primary production at forest ecosystem. In order to achieve this goal, branch CO2 efflux of Norway spruce tree was measured in ten branches at five different whorls during the growing season 2004 (from June till October) in campaigns of 3-4 times per month at the Beskydy Mts., the Czech Republic, using a portable infrared gas analyzer operating as a closed system. Branch woody tissue temperature was measured continuously in ten minutes intervals for each sample position during the whole experiment period. On the basis of relation between CO2 efflux rate and woody tissue temperature a value of Q10 and normalized CO2 efflux rate (E10 - CO2 efflux rate at 10° C) were calculated for each sampled position. Estimated Q10 values ranged from 2.12 to 2.89 and E10 ranged from 0.41 to 1.19 ?molCO2m-2 s-1. Differences in branch CO2 efflux were found between orientations; East side branches presented higher efflux rate than west side branches. The highest branch CO2 efflux rate values were measured in August and the lowest in October, which were connected with woody tissue temperature and ontogenetic processes during these periods. Branch CO2 efflux was significantly and positively correlated with branch position within canopy and woody tissue temperature. Branches from the upper whorls showed higher respiration activity

  16. Tree water status and growth of saplings and mature Norway spruce (Picea abies at a dry distribution limit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter eOberhuber

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the size effect on stem water status and growth in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. occurring at the edge of its natural range in a dry inner Alpine environment (750 m asl, Tyrol, Austria. Intra-annual dynamics of stem water deficit (ΔW, maximum daily shrinkage (MDS and radial growth (RG were compared among saplings (stem diameter/height: 2.2 cm/93 cm; n = 7 and mature adult trees (25 cm/12.7 m; n = 6 during 2014. ΔW, MDS and RG were extracted from stem diameter variations, which were continuously recorded by automatic dendrometers and the influence of environmental drivers was evaluated by applying moving correlation analysis (MCA. Additionally, we used Morlet wavelet analysis to assess the differences in cyclic radial stem variations between saplings and mature trees. Results indicate that saplings and mature trees were experiencing water limitation throughout the growing season. However, saplings exhibited a more strained stem water status and higher sensitivity to environmental conditions than mature trees. Hence, the significantly lower radial increments in saplings (0.16 ± 0.03 mm compared to mature trees (0.54 ± 0.14 mm is related to more constrained water status in the former, affecting the rate and duration of RG. The wavelet analysis consistently revealed more distinct diurnal stem variations in saplings compared to mature trees. Intra-annual RG was most closely related to climate variables that influence transpiration, i.e., vapor pressure deficit, relative air humidity, and air temperature. MCA, however, showed pronounced instability of climate-growth relationships, which masked missing temporal or significant correlations when the entire study period (April-October was considered. We conclude that an increase in evaporative demand will impair regeneration and long-term stability of drought-prone inner Alpine Norway spruce forests.

  17. Induction of Volatile Terpene Biosynthesis and Diurnal Emission by Methyl Jasmonate in Foliage of Norway Spruce1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Diane M.; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2003-01-01

    Terpenoids are characteristic constitutive and inducible defense chemicals of conifers. The biochemical regulation of terpene formation, accumulation, and release from conifer needles was studied in Norway spruce [Picea abies L. (Karst)] saplings using methyl jasmonate (MeJA) to induce defensive responses without inflicting physical damage to terpene storage structures. MeJA treatment caused a 2-fold increase in monoterpene and sesquiterpene accumulation in needles without changes in terpene composition, much less than the 10- and 40-fold increases in monoterpenes and diterpenes, respectively, observed in wood tissue after MeJA treatment (D. Martin, D. Tholl, J. Gershenzon, J. Bohlmann [2002] Plant Physiol 129: 1003–1018). At the same time, MeJA triggered a 5-fold increase in total terpene emission from foliage, with a shift in composition to a blend dominated by oxygenated monoterpenes (e.g. linalool) and sesquiterpenes [e.g. (E)-β-farnesene] that also included methyl salicylate. The rate of linalool emission increased more than 100-fold and that of sesquiterpenes increased more than 30-fold. Emission of these compounds followed a pronounced diurnal rhythm with the maximum amount released during the light period. The major MeJA-induced volatile terpenes appear to be synthesized de novo after treatment, rather than being released from stored terpene pools, because they are almost completely absent from needle oleoresin and are the major products of terpene synthase activity measured after MeJA treatment. Based on precedents in other species, the induced emission of terpenes from Norway spruce foliage may have ecological and physiological significance. PMID:12857838

  18. Differences in vole preference, secondary chemistry and nutrient levels between naturally regenerated and planted Norway spruce seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virjamo, Virpi; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Henttonen, Heikki; Hiltunen, Eveliina; Karjalainen, Reijo; Korhonen, Juhani; Huitu, Otso

    2013-10-01

    Field voles (Microtus agrestis) cause severe damage to young Norway spruce (Picea abies) plantations during wintertime in Fennoscandia. We experimentally investigated vole preference for winter-dormant, naturally regenerated seedlings; spring-planted seedlings; or autumn-planted seedlings; and how preference corresponds with seedling chemistry. Voles showed the highest preference for autumn-planted seedlings and the second highest for spring-planted seedlings, while naturally regenerated seedlings were avoided. The stems of the autumn-planted seedlings contained higher concentrations of nitrogen and piperidine alkaloids and lower concentrations of stilbenes than did the other groups. In addition to differences between naturally regenerated and planted seedlings, we investigated seasonal differences in naturally regenerated P. abies needle and bark secondary chemistry. While piperidine alkaloid concentrations did not vary with season, the soluble non-tannin phenolics of needles and the condensed tannins of bark were lower in May than in November or January. At the time of planting, the concentration of bark piperidine alkaloids was higher in autumn-planted than in spring-planted seedlings. We detected two alkaloids not previously found in P. abies, 2-methyl-6-propyl-1,6-piperideine and a tentatively identified pinidine-isomer. Our results demonstrate that vole choice of spruce seedlings is promoted by high nitrogen and low stilbene content, both associated with seedlings planted late in the season. As vole damage is linked to seedling chemistry, damage potentially could be mitigated by advancing planting or by manipulating plant chemistry in nurseries.

  19. Efflux of CO2 from soil in Norway Spruce stands of different ages: a case study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dařenová, Eva; Fabiánek, Tomáš; Pavelka, Marian

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 2 (2016), s. 98-102 ISSN 1805-0174 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : spruce forest * Picea abies * soil temperatures * moisture * respiration Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  20. The influence of Ceratocystis polonica inoculation and methyl jasmonate application on terpene chemistry of Norway spruce, Picea abies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tao; Krokene, Paal; Björklund, Niklas; Långström, Bo; Solheim, Halvor; Christiansen, Erik; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

    2010-08-01

    Constitutive and inducible terpene production is involved in conifer resistance against bark beetles and their associated fungi. In this study 72 Norway spruce (Picea abies) were randomly assigned to methyl jasmonate (MJ) application, inoculation with the bluestain fungus Ceratocystis polonica, or no-treatment control. We investigated terpene levels in the stem bark of the trees before treatment, 30 days and one year after treatment using GC-MS and two-dimensional GC (2D-GC) with a chiral column, and monitored landing and attack rates of the spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus, on the trees by sticky traps and visual inspection. Thirty days after fungal inoculation the absolute amount and relative proportion of (+)-3-carene, sabinene, and terpinolene increased and (+)-alpha-pinene decreased. Spraying the stems with MJ tended to generally increase the concentration of most major terpenes with minor alteration to their relative proportions, but significant increases were only observed for (-)-beta-pinene and (-)-limonene. Fungal inoculation significantly increased the enantiomeric ratio of (-)-alpha-pinene and (-)-limonene 1 month after treatment, whereas MJ only increased that of (-)-limonene. One year after treatment, both MJ and fungal inoculation increased the concentration of most terpenes relative to undisturbed control trees, with significant changes in (-)-beta-pinene, (-)-beta-phellandrene and some other compounds. Terpene levels did not change in untreated stem sections after treatment, and chemical induction by MJ and C. polonica thus seemed to be restricted to the treated stem section. The enantiomeric ratio of (-)-alpha-pinene was significantly higher and the relative proportions of (-)-limonene were significantly lower in trees that were attractive to bark beetles compared to unattractive trees. One month after fungal inoculation, the total amount of diterpenes was significantly higher in putative resistant trees with shorter lesion lengths than in

  1. Characterization of the Embryogenic Tissue of the Norway Spruce Including a Transition Layer between the Tissue and the Culture Medium by Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kořínek, Radim; Mikulka, J.; Hřib, J.; Hudec, Jiří; Havel, L.; Bartušek, Karel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 1 (2017), s. 19-26 ISSN 1335-8871 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-22777S; GA ČR GA13-09086S; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : Norway spruce * ESEs * mucilage * transition layer * MRI relaxometry Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.344, year: 2016

  2. Size-dependence of tree growth response to drought for Norway spruce and European beech individuals in monospecific and mixed-species stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, H; Pretzsch, H; Schütze, G; Rötzer, T

    2017-09-01

    Climate anomalies have resulted in changing forest productivity, increasing tree mortality in Central and Southern Europe. This has resulted in more severe and frequent ecological disturbances to forest stands. This study analysed the size-dependence of growth response to drought years based on 384 tree individuals of Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] and European beech [Fagus sylvatica ([L.)] in Bavaria, Germany. Samples were collected in both monospecific and mixed-species stands. To quantify the growth response to drought stress, indices for basal area increment, resistance, recovery and resilience were calculated from tree ring measurements of increment cores. Linear mixed models were developed to estimate the influence of drought periods. The results show that ageing-related growth decline is significant in drought years. Drought resilience and resistance decrease significantly with growth size among Norway spruce individuals. Evidence is also provided for robustness in the resilience capacity of European beech during drought stress. Spruce benefits from species mixing with deciduous beech, with over-yielding spruce in pure stands. The importance of the influence of size-dependence within tree growth studies during disturbances is highlighted and should be considered in future studies of disturbances, including drought. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  3. Throughfall deposition and canopy exchange processes along a vertical gradient within the canopy of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaenssens, Sandy; Hansen, Karin; Staelens, Jeroen; Wuyts, Karen; De Schrijver, An; Baeten, Lander; Boeckx, Pascal; Samson, Roeland; Verheyen, Kris

    2012-03-15

    To assess the impact of air pollution on forest ecosystems, the canopy is usually considered as a constant single layer in interaction with the atmosphere and incident rain, which could influence the measurement accuracy. In this study the variation of througfall deposition and derived dry deposition and canopy exchange were studied along a vertical gradient in the canopy of one European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) tree and two Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) trees. Throughfall and net throughfall deposition of all ions other than H(+) increased significantly with canopy depth in the middle and lower canopy of the beech tree and in the whole canopy of the spruce trees. Moreover, throughfall and net throughfall of all ions in the spruce canopy decreased with increasing distance to the trunk. Dry deposition occurred mainly in the upper canopy and was highest during the growing season for H(+), NH(4)(+), NO(3)(-) and highest during the dormant season for Na(+), Cl(-), SO(4)(2-) (beech and spruce) and K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) (spruce only). Canopy leaching of K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) was observed at all canopy levels and was higher for the beech tree compared to the spruce trees. Canopy uptake of inorganic nitrogen and H(+) occurred mainly in the upper canopy, although significant canopy uptake was found in the middle canopy as well. Canopy exchange was always higher during the growing season compared to the dormant season. This spatial and temporal variation indicates that biogeochemical deposition models would benefit from a multilayer approach for shade-tolerant tree species such as beech and spruce. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. High methane emissions from restored Norway spruce swamps in southern Finland over one growing season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Koskinen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Forestry-drained peatlands in the boreal region are currently undergoing restoration in order to bring these ecosystems closer to their natural (undrained state. Drainage affects the methane (CH4 dynamics of a peatland, often changing sites from CH4 sources to sinks. Successful restoration of a peatland would include restoration of not only the surface vegetation and hydrology, but also the microbial populations and thus CH4 dynamics. As a pilot study, CH4 emissions were measured on two pristine, two drained and three restored boreal spruce swamps in southern Finland for one growing season. Restoration was successful in the sense that the water table level in the restored sites was significantly higher than in the drained sites, but it was also slightly higher than in the pristine sites. The restored sites were surprisingly large sources of CH4 (mean emissions of 52.84 mg CH4 m-2 d-1, contrasting with both the pristine (1.51 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 and the drained sites (2.09 mg CH4 m-2 d-1. More research is needed to assess whether the high CH4 emissions observed in this study are representative of restored spruce mires in general.

  5. Development of spruce-fir stands following spruce beetle outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. M. Schmid; T. E. Hinds

    1974-01-01

    Logged and unlogged stands of Engelmann spruce-subalpine fir were evaluated in spruce beetle outbreak areas infested about 15, 25, 50, and 100 years ago. Seedling regeneration was generally adequate except in heavily logged areas, although seedlings were often damaged, apparently by animals. Species composition was dramatically altered in favor of fir in the unlogged...

  6. Airflow patterns in a small subalpine basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Wooldridge; R. Musselman; B. Connell; D. Fox

    1992-01-01

    A study of mean wind speeds and directions has been completed in the Snowy Range of Southern Wyoming, U.S.A. It was conducted in a subalpine ecosystem at an altitude of 3 200 m to 3 400 m above sea level during the summers of 1988 and 1989. Indexes of deformation and axes of asymmetry due to wind shaping of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) and subalpine fir (Abies...

  7. Evaluating the suitability of management strategies of pure Norway spruce forests in the Black Forest area of southwest Germany for adaptation to or mitigation of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefpour, Rasoul; Hanewinkel, Marc; Le Moguédec, Gilles

    2010-02-01

    The study deals with the problem of evaluating management strategies for pure stands of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst) to balance adaptation to and mitigation of climate change, taking into account multiple objectives of a forest owner. A simulation and optimization approach was used to evaluate the management of a 1000 ha model Age-Class forest, representing the age-class distribution of an area of 66,000 ha of pure Norway spruce forests in the Black Forest region of Southwest Germany. Eight silvicultural scenarios comprising five forest conversion schemes which were interpreted as "adaptation" strategies which aims at increasing the proportion of Beech, that is expected to better cope with climate change than the existing Norway spruce, and three conventional strategies including a "Do-nothing" alternative classified as "mitigation", trying to keep rather higher levels of growing stock of spruce, were simulated using the empirical growth simulator BWINPro-S. A linear programming approach was adapted to simultaneously maximize the net present values of carbon sequestration and timber production subject to the two constraints of wood even flow and partial protection of the oldest (nature protection). The optimized plan, with the global utility of 11,687 /ha in forty years, allocated a combination of silvicultural scenarios to the entire forest area. Overall, strategies classified as "mitigation" were favored, while strategies falling into the "adaptation"-category were limited to the youngest age-classes in the optimal solution. Carbon sequestration of the "Do-nothing" alternative was between 1.72 and 1.85 million tons higher than the other alternatives for the entire forest area while the differences between the adaptation and mitigation approaches were approximately 133,000 tons. Sensitivity analysis showed that a carbon price of 21 /t is the threshold at which carbon sequestration is promoted, while an interest rate of above 2% would decrease the amount of

  8. Fungi associated with the beetles of Ips typographus on Norway spruce in southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Jankowiak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The mycobiota of the beetles of the phloem-feeding spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus was studied. The most important group of fungi were the ophiostomatoid fungi. Among them O. penicillatum was very frequent ophiostomatoid species. Other common fungi were O. ainoae, O. bicolor, O. piceaperdum and O. piceae. The ophiostomatoid fungi were often more frequent in beetles collected in galleries than in the beetles caught With a trap. Generally the ophiostomatoid fungi were more ofien isolated from the beetle.s bathed in sterile water for 30 seconds. However C. polonica, O. ainoae, and O. minutum occurred most abundantly in the beetles disinfected in 96% ethyl alcohol for 15 and 30 seconds.

  9. Feedbacks of windthrow for Norway spruce and Scots pine stands under changing climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panferov, O.; Döring, C.; Rauch, E.

    2009-01-01

    on the particular local or regional combination of climatic and soil factors with tree species, age and structure. For Solling the positive feedback to local climatic forcing is found. The feedback contributes considerably (up to 6% under given conditions) to the projected forest damage and cannot be neglected...... the turbulence model SCAlar DIStribution (SCADIS) with the soil–vegetation–atmosphere-transfer (SVAT) model BROOK 90. The present study investigates projections of wind damage in Solling, Germany under climate scenarios A1B and B1, taking into account the windthrow feedbacks—changes of microclimate as a result...... the probability of damage would be higher than under B1 and that under the same climate and soil conditions the risk for spruce stands would be higher than for pine stands of equal age. The degree of damage and feedback contribution as well as a sign of feedback in each particular case will strongly depend...

  10. Testing Romanian seed sources of Norway spruce (Picea abies: results on growth traits and survival at age 30

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Budeanu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Growth traits and survival rate were evaluated in two field trialsconsisting of 33 provenances (seed stands spread across the entire natural distribution range of Norway spruce in Romania. Total tree height, diameter at breast height (DBH and survival rate were measured at 30 years after planting. Both growth and adaptation traits show substantial genetic variation among the tested seed stands. The amplitude of variation depends markedly on trait and testing site. This fact suggests that the best performing seed stands for growth and adaptation traits at each testing site can be selected. Two groups of valuable populations from Romanian Carpathians - the Northern and Western part (Apuseni Mountains - were identified. Survival rate was negatively correlated with growth traits, the average values in the two field trials were 68% and 70%. By analyzing growth and adaptation traits together with stem and wood qualitative traits, the best performing populations will be considered as tested seed sourcesand the forest reproductive material they can provide will be recommended for use in the regions of provenance where the two field trials are located.

  11. Nitrogen uptake and assimilation in proliferating embryogenic cultures of Norway spruce-Investigating the specific role of glutamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Johanna; Svennerstam, Henrik; Moritz, Thomas; Egertsdotter, Ulrika; Ganeteg, Ulrika

    2017-01-01

    Somatic embryogenesis is an in vitro system employed for plant propagation and the study of embryo development. Nitrogen is essential for plant growth and development and, hence, the production of healthy embryos during somatic embryogenesis. Glutamine has been shown to increase plant biomass in many in vitro applications, including somatic embryogenesis. However, several aspects of nitrogen nutrition during somatic embryogenesis remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated the uptake and assimilation of nitrogen in Norway spruce pro-embryogenic masses to elucidate some of these aspects. In our study, addition of glutamine had a more positive effect on growth than inorganic nitrogen. The nitrogen uptake appeared to be regulated, with a strong preference for glutamine; 67% of the assimilated nitrogen in the free amino acid pool originated from glutamine-nitrogen. Glutamine addition also relieved the apparently limited metabolism (as evidenced by the low concentration of free amino acids) of pro-embryogenic masses grown on inorganic nitrogen only. The unusually high alanine concentration in the presence of glutamine, suggests that alanine biosynthesis was involved in alleviating these constraints. These findings inspire further studies of nitrogen nutrition during the somatic embryogenesis process; identifying the mechanism(s) that govern glutamine enhancement of pro-embryogenic masses growth is especially important in this regard.

  12. Ultrasonic Study on Hysteresis in Modulus of Elasticity in Norway Spruce as a Function of Year Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hæggström, Edward; Koponen, Tiina; Karppinen, Timo; Saranpää, Pekka; Serimaa, Ritva

    2006-03-01

    We present a preliminary study on nonlinear measures (hysteresis, acoustoelasticity) to determine the effect of wood growth rate on its properties as a construction material. We also search for a new non-destructive way to characterize wood and to investigate the relationship between wood structure and its mechanical properties. We studied acoustoelastic properties of Norway spruce in a constant environment. The load-induced hysteresis in the stiffness modulus was determined in longitudinal direction as a function of annual ring from the pith using thin flawless dry-coupled radial-tangential plane (RT) samples. The samples were subject to static external compressive loads coaxial with the wave propagation by means of transducers featuring a load bearing brass delay-line. The stiffness modulus was calculated from TOF measurements using longitudinal and shear waves (polarized along grain and across grain). RT-samples allow examination in a single growth ring (early wood zone). Hence it is possible to relate wood properties to growth conditions during a specific year. This could provide feedback for forest management, i.e. fertilization or thinning to optimize stiffness profiles or wood-production.

  13. Detection of spatio-temporal changes of Norway spruce forest stands in Ore Mountains using airborne hyperspectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misurec, J.; Kopačková, V.; Lhotáková, Z.; Albrechtova, J.; Campbell, P. K. E.

    2015-12-01

    The Ore Mountains are an example of the region that suffered from severe environmental pollution caused by long-term coal mining and heavy industry leading to massive dieback of the local Norway spruce forests between the 1970's and 1990's. The situation became getting better at the end of 1990's after pollution loads significantly decreased. In 1998 and 2013, airborne hyperspectral data (with sensor ASAS and APEX, respectively) were used to study recovery of the originally damaged forest stands and compared them with those that have been less affected by environmental pollution. The field campaign (needle biochemical analysis, tree defoliation etc.) accompanied hyperspectral imagery acquisition. An analysis was conducted assessing a set of 16 vegetation indices providing complex information on foliage, biochemistry and canopy biophysics and structure. Five of them (NDVI, NDVI705, VOG1, MSR and TCARI/OSAVI) showing the best results were employed to study spatial gradients as well as temporal changes. The detected gradients are in accordance with ground truth data on representative trees. The obtained results indicate that the original significant differences between the damaged and undamaged stands have been generally levelled until 2013, although it is still possible to detect signs of the previous damages in several cases.

  14. Effect of bud burst forcing on transcript expression of selected genes in needles of Norway spruce during autumn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asante, Daniel K A; Yakovlev, Igor A; Fossdal, Carl Gunnar; Timmerhaus, Gerrit; Partanen, Jouni; Johnsen, Oystein

    2009-08-01

    Expression of selected genes in needles of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst) was investigated by following their transcription levels during late autumn. Transcription was assessed in mature needles which likely serve as sensor of environmental cues that enable trees in the temperate and boreal regions to change between stages of growth, frost tolerance and bud dormancy. Samples were collected from grafts kept under outdoor conditions and after bud burst forcing in greenhouse at 20 degrees C (12 h darkness) for one week. Transcription was assayed with real-time RT-PCR. During the sampling period, chilling requirement was partially fulfilled, and time to bud burst after forcing was decreased. Of the 27 transcripts studied, expression of 16 was significantly affected either by forcing, sampling time, or interaction between them. PaSAP, PaACP, PaSGS3, PaWRKY, PaDIR9, PaCCCH and dehydrin genes responded drastically to forcing temperatures at all sampling points, showing no correlation with readiness for bud burst. Expression patterns of some vernalization pathway gene homologs PaVIN3, and also of PaMDC, PaLOV1 and PaDAL3 had a clear opposite trends between forcing and outdoor conditions, which could imply their role in chilling accumulation and bud burst regulation/cold acclimation. These genes could constitute putative candidates for further detailed study, whose regulation in needles may be involved in preparation towards bud burst and chilling accumulation sensing.

  15. Complex Physiological Response of Norway Spruce to Atmospheric Pollution – Decreased Carbon Isotope Discrimination and Unchanged Tree Biomass Increment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čada, Vojtěch; Šantrůčková, Hana; Šantrůček, Jiří; Kubištová, Lenka; Seedre, Meelis; Svoboda, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric pollution critically affects forest ecosystems around the world by directly impacting the assimilation apparatus of trees and indirectly by altering soil conditions, which subsequently also leads to changes in carbon cycling. To evaluate the extent of the physiological effect of moderate level sulfate and reactive nitrogen acidic deposition, we performed a retrospective dendrochronological analysis of several physiological parameters derived from periodic measurements of carbon stable isotope composition (13C discrimination, intercellular CO2 concentration and intrinsic water use efficiency) and annual diameter increments (tree biomass increment, its inter-annual variability and correlation with temperature, cloud cover, precipitation and Palmer drought severity index). The analysis was performed in two mountain Norway spruce (Picea abies) stands of the Bohemian Forest (Czech Republic, central Europe), where moderate levels of pollution peaked in the 1970s and 1980s and no evident impact on tree growth or link to mortality has been reported. The significant influence of pollution on trees was expressed most sensitively by a 1.88‰ reduction of carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13C). The effects of atmospheric pollution interacted with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature. As a result, we observed no change in intercellular CO2 concentrations (Ci), an abrupt increase in water use efficiency (iWUE) and no change in biomass increment, which could also partly result from changes in carbon partitioning (e.g., from below- to above-ground). The biomass increment was significantly related to Δ13C on an individual tree level, but the relationship was lost during the pollution period. We suggest that this was caused by a shift from the dominant influence of the photosynthetic rate to stomatal conductance on Δ13C during the pollution period. Using biomass increment-climate correlation analyses, we did not identify any clear pollution

  16. Complex Physiological Response of Norway Spruce to Atmospheric Pollution - Decreased Carbon Isotope Discrimination and Unchanged Tree Biomass Increment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čada, Vojtěch; Šantrůčková, Hana; Šantrůček, Jiří; Kubištová, Lenka; Seedre, Meelis; Svoboda, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric pollution critically affects forest ecosystems around the world by directly impacting the assimilation apparatus of trees and indirectly by altering soil conditions, which subsequently also leads to changes in carbon cycling. To evaluate the extent of the physiological effect of moderate level sulfate and reactive nitrogen acidic deposition, we performed a retrospective dendrochronological analysis of several physiological parameters derived from periodic measurements of carbon stable isotope composition ((13)C discrimination, intercellular CO2 concentration and intrinsic water use efficiency) and annual diameter increments (tree biomass increment, its inter-annual variability and correlation with temperature, cloud cover, precipitation and Palmer drought severity index). The analysis was performed in two mountain Norway spruce (Picea abies) stands of the Bohemian Forest (Czech Republic, central Europe), where moderate levels of pollution peaked in the 1970s and 1980s and no evident impact on tree growth or link to mortality has been reported. The significant influence of pollution on trees was expressed most sensitively by a 1.88‰ reduction of carbon isotope discrimination (Δ(13)C). The effects of atmospheric pollution interacted with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature. As a result, we observed no change in intercellular CO2 concentrations (Ci), an abrupt increase in water use efficiency (iWUE) and no change in biomass increment, which could also partly result from changes in carbon partitioning (e.g., from below- to above-ground). The biomass increment was significantly related to Δ(13)C on an individual tree level, but the relationship was lost during the pollution period. We suggest that this was caused by a shift from the dominant influence of the photosynthetic rate to stomatal conductance on Δ(13)C during the pollution period. Using biomass increment-climate correlation analyses, we did not identify any clear pollution

  17. Effect of thawing time, cooling rate and boron nutrition on freezing point of the primordial shoot in norway spruce buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räisänen, Mikko; Repo, Tapani; Lehto, Tarja

    2006-04-01

    Effects of cooling rates on bud frost hardiness have been studied but there is little information on bud responses to thawing. Since the cell wall pore size has been found to increase with boron (B) deficiency, B deficiency may affect the supercooling ability of buds in winter. The effects of duration of thawing time and rate of cooling on bud frost hardiness of Norway spruce (Picea abies) were studied in a B fertilization trial in February 2003 and March 2005. Frost hardiness of apical buds was determined by differential thermal analysis (DTA) and visual scoring of damage. In 2003, the freezing point of primordial shoots of buds (T(f)), i.e. the low-temperature exotherm (LTE), was, on average, -39 degrees C when buds were thawed for less than 3 h and the T(f) increased to -21 degrees C after 18 h of thawing. During the first 4 h of thawing, the rate of dehardening was 6 degrees C h(-1). In 2005, buds dehardened linearly from -39 degrees C to -35 degrees C at a rate of 0.7 degrees C h(-1). In 2003, different cooling rates of 1-5 degrees C h(-1) had a minor effect on T(f) but in 2005 with slow cooling rates T(f) decreased. In both samplings, at cooling rates of 2 and 1 degrees C h(-1), T(f) was slightly higher in B-fertilized than in non-fertilized trees. By contrast, at very short thawing times in 2003, T(f) was somewhat lower in B-fertilized trees. There was little evidence of reduced frost hardiness in trees with low B status. This study showed that buds deharden rapidly when exposed to above-freezing temperatures in winter, but if cooled again they reharden more slowly. According to this study, rapid dehardening of buds has to be taken into account in assessments of frost hardiness.

  18. Nitrogen leaching, and nitrogen retention capacity by ectomycorrhizal fungi, in a Norway spruce forest fertilized with nitrogen and phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallander, Håkan; Bahr, Adam; Ellström, Magnus; Bergh, Johan

    2014-05-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi enhance the uptake of nitrogen (N) in boreal forests and get carbohydrates from the trees in exchange. The external mycelium of these fungi explores the soil efficiently and forms a network with a high capacity for N retention. However, when the availability of inorganic N increase the growth of EM mycelia decline, which enhance the risk of N leaching. In the present study we analyzed how fertilization, with N as well as N in combination with phosphorus, affected EM fungal growth and N leaching in a Norway spruce forest in southern Sweden. Additionally, we added 15N labelled NH4+ to mesh bags colonized by EM mycelia to analyze if the amounts taken up by mycelia and the amount that leached through were affected by N fertilization. We found that EM growth declined after N addition and even more so when N was combined with P addition. Nitrogen leaching peaked shortly after fertilization and declined continuously over the experimental period (16 months). Contrary to our expectations, no increase in N leaching occurred during winter and early spring when EM growth was at minimum. We found a large N assimilation capacity of EM mycelium in the mesh bags (0.31 mg 15N g-1 EMF mycelium day-1, SE = 0.03) with no difference between control and fertilized stands. However, a much larger proportion of the recovered 15N (90%) leached through the mycelium in N fertilized forests compared to control stands (50 %), probably due to less abundant EM mycelia. The importance of EM mycelia for N retention in boreal and boreo-nemoral forests will be discussed.

  19. Assessing the Suitability of Future Multi- and Hyperspectral Satellite Systems for Mapping the Spatial Distribution of Norway Spruce Timber Volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Nink

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The availability of accurate and timely information on timber volume is important for supporting operational forest management. One option is to combine statistical concepts (e.g., small area estimates with specifically designed terrestrial sampling strategies to provide estimations also on the level of administrative units such as forest districts. This may suffice for economic assessments, but still fails to provide spatially explicit information on the distribution of timber volume within these management units. This type of information, however, is needed for decision-makers to design and implement appropriate management operations. The German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate is currently implementing an object-oriented database that will also allow the direct integration of Earth observation data products. This work analyzes the suitability of forthcoming multi- and hyperspectral satellite imaging systems for producing local distribution maps for timber volume of Norway spruce, one of the most economically important tree species. In combination with site-specific inventory data, fully processed hyperspectral data sets (HyMap were used to simulate datasets of the forthcoming EnMAP and Sentinel-2 systems to establish adequate models for estimating timber volume maps. The analysis included PLS regression and the k-NN method. Root Mean Square Errors between 21.6% and 26.5% were obtained, where k-NN performed slightly better than PLSR. It was concluded that the datasets of both simulated sensor systems fulfill accuracy requirements to support local forest management operations and could be used in synergy. Sentinel-2 can provide meaningful volume distribution maps in higher geometric resolution, while EnMAP, due to its hyperspectral coverage, can contribute complementary information, e.g., on biophysical conditions.

  20. Peroxidases bound to the growing lignin polymer produce natural like extracellular lignin in a cell culture of Norway spruce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tino Warinowski

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Lignin, an important component of plant cell walls, is a polymer of monolignols derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway. Monolignols are oxidized in the cell wall by oxidative enzymes (peroxidases and/or laccases to radicals, which then couple with the growing lignin polymer. We have investigated the characteristics of the polymerization reaction by producing lignin polymers in vitro using different oxidative enzymes and analyzing the structures formed with NMR. The ability of the enzymes to oxidize a high-molecular-weight compounds was tested using cytochrome c as a substrate. The results support an idea that lignin structure is largely determined by the concentration ratios of the monolignol (coniferyl alcohol and polymer radicals involved in the coupling reaction. High rate of the lignin polymer oxidation compared to monolignol oxidation leads to a natural-like structure. The high relative rate can be achieved by an open active site of the oxidative enzyme, close proximity of the enzyme with the polymeric substrate or simply by high enzymatic activity that consumes monolignols rapidly. Monolignols, which are oxidized efficiently, can be seen as competitive inhibitors of polymer oxidation. Our results indicate that, at least in a Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst. cell culture, a group of apoplastic, polymer-oxidizing peroxidases bind to the lignin polymer and are responsible for production of natural-like lignin in cell suspension cultures in vivo, and also in vitro. The peroxidases bound to the extracellular lignin had the highest ability to bind to various cell wall polymers in vitro. Extracellular lignin contains pectin-type sugars, making them possible attachment points for these cationic peroxidases.

  1. Peroxidases Bound to the Growing Lignin Polymer Produce Natural Like Extracellular Lignin in a Cell Culture of Norway Spruce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warinowski, Tino; Koutaniemi, Sanna; Kärkönen, Anna; Sundberg, Ilari; Toikka, Merja; Simola, Liisa Kaarina; Kilpeläinen, Ilkka; Teeri, Teemu H

    2016-01-01

    Lignin, an important component of plant cell walls, is a polymer of monolignols derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway. Monolignols are oxidized in the cell wall by oxidative enzymes (peroxidases and/or laccases) to radicals, which then couple with the growing lignin polymer. We have investigated the characteristics of the polymerization reaction by producing lignin polymers in vitro using different oxidative enzymes and analyzing the structures formed with NMR. The ability of the enzymes to oxidize high-molecular-weight compounds was tested using cytochrome c as a substrate. The results support an idea that lignin structure is largely determined by the concentration ratios of the monolignol (coniferyl alcohol) and polymer radicals involved in the coupling reaction. High rate of the lignin polymer oxidation compared to monolignol oxidation leads to a natural-like structure. The high relative rate can be achieved by an open active site of the oxidative enzyme, close proximity of the enzyme with the polymeric substrate or simply by high enzymatic activity that consumes monolignols rapidly. Monolignols, which are oxidized efficiently, can be seen as competitive inhibitors of polymer oxidation. Our results indicate that, at least in a Norway spruce ( Picea abies L. Karst.) cell culture, a group of apoplastic, polymer-oxidizing peroxidases bind to the lignin polymer and are responsible for production of natural-like lignin in cell suspension cultures in vivo , and also in vitro . The peroxidases bound to the extracellular lignin had the highest ability to bind to various cell wall polymers in vitro . Extracellular lignin contains pectin-type sugars, making them possible attachment points for these cationic peroxidases.

  2. Natural volatiles impair the response of Hylobius abietis adults to synthetic attractants in Norway spruce clear cut areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Leonard Duduman

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available For over 20 years it has been known that mature adults of Hylobius abietis are attracted by the combination of alpha-pinene and ethanol. However, it is not clear to what extent weevil response to these stimuli is influenced when large quantities of similar volatile substances are present in the environment, and how the response depends on the release rate of volatile substances from traps. Nothing that,in fresh Norway spruce clear-cuttings, the mature weevils were equally attracted to the traps baited with dispencers having different release rates, we assumed that the experiment results were affected by the abundance of natural volatile substancesissued from the fresh slash, which masked the differences between olfactory signals released from traps. To verify this hypothesis, the experiment conducted in fresh clear-cuttings was repeated in exactly the same place after almost a year, when the overground slash were old. For seven weeks, at the beginning of growing season 2008, in two experimental areas, 6 different combinations of alpha-pinen and ethanol were tested using the traps buried in the soil. In both experimental area was captured about the same number of weevils and catch dynamics were similar. In the first two weeks of experimentation, when there were the highest captures, but also for the entire period of experimentation, there were significant differences between the tested variants in what concerns the average number of captures, the traps baited with dispenser providing higher release rate of ethanol and alpha-pinene having higher catches. This shows that in the first season of vegetation the weevil response to the attractants was affected by the profusion of similar volatile substances issued from natural sources (fresh cutt stumps, branches, foliage, bark etc..

  3. Natural volatiles impair the response of Hylobius abietis adults to synthetic attractants in Norway spruce clear cut areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Leonard Duduman

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available For over 20 years it has been known that mature adults of Hylobius abietis are attracted by the combination of alpha-pinene and ethanol. However, it is not clear to what extent weevil response to these stimuli is influenced when large quantities of similar volatile substances are present in the environment, and how the response depends on the release rate of volatile substances from traps. Nothing that, in fresh Norway spruce clear-cuttings, the mature weevils were equally attracted to the traps baited with dispencers having different release rates, we assumed that the experiment results were affected by the abundance of natural volatile substances issued from the fresh slash, which masked the differences between olfactory signals released from traps. To verify this hypothesis, the experiment conducted in fresh clear-cuttings was repeated in exactly the same place after almost a year, when the overground slash were old. For seven weeks, at the beginning of growing season 2008, in two experimental areas, 6 different combinations of alpha-pinen and ethanol were tested using the traps buried in the soil. In both experimental area was captured about the same number of weevils and catch dynamics were similar. In the first two weeks of experimentation, when there were the highest captures, but also for the entire period of experimentation, there were significant differences between the tested variants in what concerns the average number of captures, the traps baited with dispenser providing higher release rate of ethanol and alpha-pinene having higher catches. This shows that in the first season of vegetation the weevil response to the attractants was affected by the profusion of similar volatile substances issued from natural sources (fresh cutt stumps, branches, foliage, bark etc..

  4. WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX 2 is important for protoderm and suspensor development in the gymnosperm Norway spruce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tianqing; Moschou, Panagiotis N; Alvarez, José M; Sohlberg, Joel J; von Arnold, Sara

    2016-01-19

    Distinct expression domains of WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX (WOX) gene family members are involved in patterning and morphogenesis of the early embryo in Arabidopsis. However, the role of WOX genes in other taxa, including gymnosperms, remains elusive. Here, we use somatic embryos and reverse genetics for studying expression and function of PaWOX2, the corresponding homolog of AtWOX2 in the gymnosperm Picea abies (Pa; Norway spruce). The mRNA level of PaWOX2 was transiently up-regulated during early and late embryogeny. PaWOX2 mRNA in early and early late embryos was detected both in the embryonal mass and in the upper part of the suspensor. Down-regulation of PaWOX2 during development of early embryos resulted in aberrant early embryos, which failed to form a proper protoderm. Cells on the surface layer of the embryonal mass became vacuolated, and new embryogenic tissue differentiated from the embryonal mass. In addition, the aberrant early embryos lacked a distinct border between the embryonal mass, and the suspensor and the length of the suspensor cells was reduced. Down-regulation of PaWOX2 in the beginning of embryo development, before late embryos were formed, caused a significant decrease in the yield of mature embryos. On the contrary, down-regulation of PaWOX2 after late embryos were formed had no effect on further embryo development and maturation. Our data suggest an evolutionarily conserved function of WOX2 in protoderm formation early during embryo development among seed plants. In addition, PaWOX2 might exert a unique function in suspensor expansion in gymnosperms.

  5. Wuschel-related homeobox 8/9 is important for proper embryo patterning in the gymnosperm Norway spruce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tianqing; Moschou, Panagiotis N; Alvarez, José M; Sohlberg, Joel J; von Arnold, Sara

    2014-12-01

    Proper embryo development is crucial as that is when the primary body axes are established. In Arabidopsis, AtWOX8 and AtWOX9, members of the Wuschel-related homeobox (WOX) gene family, are critical for embryo development. In Norway spruce, PaWOX8/9, which is expressed in embryos, is the homologue of AtWOX8 and AtWOX9. In this work, it is shown that the transcript abundance of PaWOX8/9 is high during early and late embryogeny and that it decreases when the maturation phase starts. To address the function of PaWOX8/9 during embryo development, RNAi lines were established to down-regulate the transcript level of PaWOX8/9, using both constitutive and inducible promoters. Embryos in the PaWOX8/9 RNAi lines show an aberrant morphology caused by disturbed orientation of the cell division plane at the basal part of the embryonal mass during early and late embryogeny. In addition, the transcript level of several key cell-cycle-regulating genes, for example, PaE2FAB-like and PaCYCLIN B-like, are affected in the PaWOX8/9 RNAi lines. Taken together, our results suggest that PaWOX8/9 may perform an evolutionarily conserved function as a regulator of the establishment of the apical-basal embryo pattern. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  6. Functional Characterization of Nine Norway Spruce TPS Genes and Evolution of Gymnosperm Terpene Synthases of the TPS-d Subfamily1[w

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Diane M.; Fäldt, Jenny; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2004-01-01

    Constitutive and induced terpenoids are important defense compounds for many plants against potential herbivores and pathogens. In Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst), treatment with methyl jasmonate induces complex chemical and biochemical terpenoid defense responses associated with traumatic resin duct development in stems and volatile terpenoid emissions in needles. The cloning of (+)-3-carene synthase was the first step in characterizing this system at the molecular genetic level. Here we report the isolation and functional characterization of nine additional terpene synthase (TPS) cDNAs from Norway spruce. These cDNAs encode four monoterpene synthases, myrcene synthase, (−)-limonene synthase, (−)-α/β-pinene synthase, and (−)-linalool synthase; three sesquiterpene synthases, longifolene synthase, E,E-α-farnesene synthase, and E-α-bisabolene synthase; and two diterpene synthases, isopimara-7,15-diene synthase and levopimaradiene/abietadiene synthase, each with a unique product profile. To our knowledge, genes encoding isopimara-7,15-diene synthase and longifolene synthase have not been previously described, and this linalool synthase is the first described from a gymnosperm. These functionally diverse TPS account for much of the structural diversity of constitutive and methyl jasmonate-induced terpenoids in foliage, xylem, bark, and volatile emissions from needles of Norway spruce. Phylogenetic analyses based on the inclusion of these TPS into the TPS-d subfamily revealed that functional specialization of conifer TPS occurred before speciation of Pinaceae. Furthermore, based on TPS enclaves created by distinct branching patterns, the TPS-d subfamily is divided into three groups according to sequence similarities and functional assessment. Similarities of TPS evolution in angiosperms and modeling of TPS protein structures are discussed. PMID:15310829

  7. Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    This background note for Norway by the U.S. State Department describes the geography, people, history, government, politics, and foreign relations of this newly oil-rich Scandinavian nation. Norwegians number 4.1 million, growing only at 0.3% per year, of Germanic origin, with 20,000 Laplanders. Infant mortality is 9/1000; life expectancy is 73 and 80 years. The government is a constitutional monarchy, with socialized medicine, education through university and social security. Norway became independent of Sweden in 1905, was a non-belligerent in both world wars, but was occupied by Nazi Germany. Subsequently Norway has required military service and is a member of NATO. Norway is a wealthy developed nation, with a positive foreign trade balance, a per capita income of $14,000, resources of oil, fish, timber, hydroelectric power, ores, and an industrial economy. Norway sends out about $471 million in foreign aid.

  8. The ''red'' decline of Norway spruce or ''røde rødgraner'' - is it ammonium overload or top-dying?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, K.C.

    2005-01-01

    In 1989 a new disease “røde rødgraner” or “red” decline of Norway spruce (Picea abies) became a serious problem in plantations in Jutland on poor, sandy soils. Some trees became red and lost their needles over a few years. The reddening started from theshoot tips. The only important pollutant...... by nitrogen overload was investigated. A sensitive biochemical indicator of nitrogen status of conifer trees is the content of free amino acids of the urea cycle,arginine and ornithine. In pot experiments with four times overload of N as ammonium nitrate the free arginine content increased more than 100 times...

  9. Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-01

    Norway with a territory of 386,000 sq. km or 150,000 sq. miles is slightly larger than New Mexico. In 1991 the population was estimated at 4.3 million with an annual growth rate of .5% and a literacy rate of 100%. The infant mortality rate is 7/1000 live births, and lie expectancy is 73 years for men and 80 years for women. Norway's government is a hereditary constitutional monarchy since independence n 1905. Ethnically, Norwegians are predominantly Germanic, but there are indigenous communities of Sami (Lapps) in the north, and in recent years almost 150,000 immigrants, foreign workers, and asylum-seekers have settled there. Norway's health system includes free hospital care, physicians compensation, cash benefits during illness and pregnancy, and other medical and dental plans. Until the 1981 election, Norway has been governed by Labor Party governments since 1935, except for 3 periods (1963, 1965-71, and 1972-73). Gro Harlem Brundtland is again the prime minister after forming her 3rd government in 10 years. Norway holds national elections in September 1993. Norway's large shipping fleet is modern; metals, pulp and paper products, chemicals, shipbuilding, and fishing are traditional industries, and major oil and gas discoveries in the mid-1970s transformed the economy. High oil prices in the 1983-85 period raised consumer spending, wages, and inflation. Norway is aspiring to restructure its nonoil economy in favor of efficient, nontraditional industry. The prime minister has indicated that Norway may apply for European Community (EC) membership before the end of 1992. Its main trading partners are the EC countries and its Scandinavian neighbors with the US in 5th place.

  10. Pine weevil feeding on Norway spruce bark has a stronger impact on needle VOC emissions than enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blande, James D. [Department of Environmental Science, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland)], E-mail: James.Blande@uku.fi; Turunen, Katariina [Department of Environmental Science, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland)], E-mail: ksturune@hytti.uku.fi; Holopainen, Jarmo K. [Department of Environmental Science, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland)], E-mail: Jarmo.Holopainen@uku.fi

    2009-01-15

    Plants can respond physiologically to damaging ultraviolet-B radiation by altering leaf chemistry, especially UV absorbing phenolic compounds. However, the effects on terpene emissions have received little attention. We conducted two field trials in plots with supplemented UV-B radiation and assessed the influence of feeding by pine weevils, Hylobius abietis L., on volatile emissions from 3-year old Norway spruce trees (Picea abies L. Karst.). We collected emissions from branch tips distal to the feeding weevils, and from whole branches including the damage sites. Weevil feeding clearly induced the emission of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, particularly linalool and (E)-{beta}-farnesene, from branch tips, and the sums of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes emitted by whole branches were substantially increased. We discovered little effect of UV-B radiation up to 30% above the ambient level on volatile emissions from branch tips distal to damage sites, but there was a possible effect on bark emissions from damage sites. - Chronic exposure to enhanced UV-B radiation has little effect on volatile emissions of Norway spruce.

  11. Expression of Chia4-Pa chitinase genes during somatic and zygotic embryo development in Norway spruce (Picea abies): similarities and differences between gymnosperm and angiosperm class IV chitinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiweger, M; Farbos, I; Ingouff, M; Lagercrantz, U; Von Arnold, S

    2003-12-01

    The developmental pathway of somatic embryogenesis in Norway spruce involves proliferation of proembryogenic masses (PEMs), PEM-to-somatic embryo transition and further development of the somatic embryos. It has previously been shown that extracellular signal molecules, including arabinogalactan proteins, lipo-chitooligosaccharides and chitinases, regulate somatic embryogenesis. The Chia4-Pa1 gene from Norway spruce is described here. The Chia4-Pa1 encodes a typical basic class IV chitinase, although the intron-exon organization of this gymnosperm chitinase is different from that in angiosperm class IV chitinases. The Chia4-Pa1 belongs to a small gene family with highly similar members, and the expression pattern of Chia4-Pa1 cannot be distinguished from that of other Chia4-Pa members. Upon withdrawal of plant growth regulators, i.e. during a treatment that stimulates PEM-to-somatic embryo transition and massive programmed cell death, a significant increase in transcription and translation of Chia4-Pa genes takes place. The expression pattern analysis revealed that Chia4-Pa genes are expressed in a subpopulation of proliferating cells and at the base of the somatic embryo. Furthermore, in seeds, Chia4-Pa genes are expressed in the megagametophyte in the single cell-layered zone surrounding the corrosion cavity. Taken together these results suggest that the Chia4-Pa expressing cells have a megagametophyte signalling function and that CHIA4-Pa stimulates programmed cell death and promotes PEM-to-somatic embryo transition.

  12. Sequencing of the needle transcriptome from Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst L. reveals lower substitution rates, but similar selective constraints in gymnosperms and angiosperms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jun

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A detailed knowledge about spatial and temporal gene expression is important for understanding both the function of genes and their evolution. For the vast majority of species, transcriptomes are still largely uncharacterized and even in those where substantial information is available it is often in the form of partially sequenced transcriptomes. With the development of next generation sequencing, a single experiment can now simultaneously identify the transcribed part of a species genome and estimate levels of gene expression. Results mRNA from actively growing needles of Norway spruce (Picea abies was sequenced using next generation sequencing technology. In total, close to 70 million fragments with a length of 76 bp were sequenced resulting in 5 Gbp of raw data. A de novo assembly of these reads, together with publicly available expressed sequence tag (EST data from Norway spruce, was used to create a reference transcriptome. Of the 38,419 PUTs (putative unique transcripts longer than 150 bp in this reference assembly, 83.5% show similarity to ESTs from other spruce species and of the remaining PUTs, 3,704 show similarity to protein sequences from other plant species, leaving 4,167 PUTs with limited similarity to currently available plant proteins. By predicting coding frames and comparing not only the Norway spruce PUTs, but also PUTs from the close relatives Picea glauca and Picea sitchensis to both Pinus taeda and Taxus mairei, we obtained estimates of synonymous and non-synonymous divergence among conifer species. In addition, we detected close to 15,000 SNPs of high quality and estimated gene expression differences between samples collected under dark and light conditions. Conclusions Our study yielded a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms as well as estimates of gene expression on transcriptome scale. In agreement with a recent study we find that the synonymous substitution rate per year (0.6 × 10

  13. Mineral nutrition and elevated [CO(2)] interact to modify δ(13)C, an index of gas exchange, in Norway spruce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, John D; Linder, Sune

    2013-11-01

    The effects of the past century's increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) have been recorded in the stable carbon isotope composition (δ(13)C) of the annual growth rings of trees. The isotope record frequently shows increases in photosynthetic CO2 uptake relative to stomatal conductance, which estimates the CO2 concentration gradient across the stomata (ca - ci). This variable, which is one control over the net photosynthetic rate, has been suggested as a homeostatic gas-exchange set point that is easy to estimate from δ(13)C and [CO2]. However, in high-latitude conifer forests, the literature is mixed; some studies show increases in (ca - ci) and others show homeostasis. Here we present leaf and tree-ring δ(13)C data from a controlled experiment that tested factorial combinations of elevated [CO2] (365 and 700 ∝mol mol(-1)) and fertilization on mature Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) trees in northern Sweden. We found first that the leaf carbon pool was contaminated by the current photosynthate in the older leaf cohorts. This is the reverse of the common observation that older photosynthate reserves can be used to produce new tissue; here the older tissue contains recent photosynthate. We found that the tree-ring data lack such contamination and in any case they better integrate over the canopy and the growing season than do leaves. In the second and third years of treatment, elevated [CO2] alone increased (ca - ci) by 38%; when combined with fertilization, it increased (ca - ci) by 60%. The results of this study support the idea that annual rings provide a clearer isotopic signal than do foliage age-classes. The tree-ring data show that inferred (ca - ci) depends not only on [CO2], but also on mineral-nutrient status. The differences in (ca - ci) are sufficiently large to account for the treatment-induced increase in wood-volume production in these stands.

  14. Tracing the allocation of recently assimilated C into key metabolites in Norway spruce (Picea abies) shortly after bud break

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Steffen; Dippold, Michaela; Werner, Christiane; Wiesenberg, Guido; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Glaser, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    Plants allocate carbon (C) to sink tissues depending on phenological, physiological or environmental factors. We still have little knowledge on C partitioning into various cellular compounds and metabolic pathways, especially during tree growth after bud break. Here we investigated C partitioning of freshly assimilated C in Norway spruce by in-situ 13C short-term pulse labeling 15 days after bud break. We quantified 13C incorporation into tree compartments (needles, branches, stem) and into water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) by elemental analyzer-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-IRMS). In addition, we determined 13C allocation into key metabolites of amino acids, hemicellulose sugars, fatty acids and alkanes by compound-specific 13C analysis via gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS). The 13C allocation within the trees reflected the needles as major C sink accounting for 86% of the freshly assimilated C. After 6 h 13C was distributed over a broad spectrum of plant metabolites but not homogenously. Highest allocation was observed into structurally relevant compound classes of hemicellulose-derived sugars and proteinogenic amino acids (0.6% and 10% of needle 13C, respectively). However, needle growth also caused high C allocation into pathways not involved in formation of structural compounds like pathways in secondary metabolism, C-1 metabolism or amino acid synthesis from photorespiratory acitivity. C allocation into such pathways could be identified due to the high enrichment of key metabolites within the amino acids. In addition, high 13C allocation was found into the n-alkyl lipid biosynthesis (0.2 % of needle 13C) with 1) higher allocation into intracellular than cuticular fatty acids, presumably for thylakoide membrane formation and 2) decreasing 13C allocation along the lipid transformation and translocation pathways (precursor fatty acids (C16 & C18) > elongated long chain fatty acids > decarbonylated n

  15. See the forest for the trees: Whole-plant allocation patterns and regulatory mechanisms in Norway spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianbei; Behrendt, Thomas; Hammerbacher, Almuth; Weinhold, Alexander; Hellén, Heidi; Reichelt, Michael; Wisthaler, Armin; Dam, Nicole; Trumbore, Susan; Hartmann, Henrik

    2017-04-01

    For more than 40 years plant carbon (C) allocation have been of central interest to plant scientists. Most studies on C allocation focus on either biomass partitioning (e.g., root:shoot ratios), particular fluxes (e.g., non-structural carbohydrate, NSC; biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds, VOCs) or short-term proportional allocation patterns (e.g., pulse-chase studies using isotopic tracers). However, a thorough understanding of C allocation priorities, especially at the whole-plant level, requires assessing all of these aspects together. We investigated C allocation trade-off in Norway spruce (Picea abies) saplings by assessing whole-plant fluxes (assimilation, respiration and VOCs) and biomass partitioning (structural biomass; NSC; secondary metabolites, SMs). The study was carried out over 8 weeks and allowed us, by modifying atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2]), manipulating plant carbon (C) availability. Treatments included control (400 ppm), carbon compensation (down to 120 ppm) and starvation (down to 50 ppm) C availability levels. Reductions in [CO2] aimed to reveal plant allocation strategies assuming that pools receiving more C than others under C limitation have a high allocation priority. Respiration was less sensitive to declining [CO2] compared to assimilation, NSC and SMs. Strong declines in NSC at low [CO2] suggest that respiration was maintained by using stored NSC. Furthermore, reduced NSC and SMs concentrations also indicate preferential C allocation to growth over NSC and SMs at low C availability. SMs decreased to a lesser extent than NSC in old needles, and remained relatively constant in branches until death from starvation. These results suggest that pools of stored NSC may serve as a buffer for respiration or growth under C limitation but also that SMs remain largely inaccessible for metabolism once they are stored in tissues. VOCs emissions, however, showed contrasting responses to [CO2]; oxygenated VOCs (methanol and

  16. Different mixtures of Norway spruce, silver fir, and European beech modify competitive interactions in central European mature mixed forests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tobin, Brian; Larocque, Guy R; Petráš, Rudolf; Bosela, Michal; Šebeň, Vladimír

    2015-01-01

    ...–spruce forests, mostly because of a lack of long-term experimental research. In the 1960s, long-term sample plots were established in the Western Carpathians to develop region-specific yield models...

  17. Impacts of changing climate on the productivity of Norway spruce dominant stands with a mixture of Scots pine and birch in relation to water availability in southern and northern Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zhen-Ming; Kellomäki, Seppo; Peltola, Heli; Zhou, Xiao; Wang, Kai-Yun; Väisänen, Hannu

    2011-03-01

    A process-based ecosystem model was used to assess the impacts of changing climate on net photosynthesis and total stem wood growth in relation to water availability in two unmanaged Norway spruce (Picea abies) dominant stands with a mixture of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and birch (Betula sp.). The mixed stands were grown over a 100-year rotation (2000-99) in southern and northern Finland with initial species shares of 50, 25 and 25% for Norway spruce, Scots pine and birch, respectively. In addition, pure Norway spruce, Scots pine and birch stands were used as a comparison to identify whether species' response is different in mixed and pure stands. Soil type and moisture conditions (moderate drought) were expected to be the same at the beginning of the simulations irrespective of site location. Regardless of tree species, both annual net canopy photosynthesis (P(nc)) and total stem wood growth (V(s)) were, on average, lower on the southern site under the changing climate compared with the current climate (difference increasing toward the end of the rotation); the opposite was the case for the northern site. Regarding the stand water budget, evapotranspiration (E(T)) was higher under the changing climate regardless of site location. Transpiration and evaporation from the canopy affected water depletion the most. Norway spruce and birch accounted for most of the water depletion in mixed stands on both sites regardless of climatic condition. The annual soil water deficit (W(d)) was higher on the southern site under the changing climate. On the northern site, the situation was the opposite. According to our results, the growth of pure Norway spruce stands in southern Finland could be even lower than the growth of Norway spruce in mixed stands under the changing climate. The opposite was found for pure Scots pine and birch stands due to lower water depletion. This indicates that in the future the management should be properly adapted to climate change in order to

  18. Mixed stands of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and Norway spruce [Picea abies (L. Karst] can be more productive than monocultures. Evidence from over 100 years of observation of long-term experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Bielak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of species mixing of Scots pine and Norway spruce on the productivity at the stand and species level. We also analysed to what extent the mixing effects is modified by drought stress.Area of study: The study was conducted inN-E Poland and based on three experiments located in Maskulińskie, Strzałowo and Kwidzyn Forest Districts.Material and methods: We evaluated long-term mixed-species experiments in Scots pine and Norway spruce which are under continuous survey since more than 100 years. Stand productivity was analysed based on the periodic annual increment and total yield of stem volume. Growth and yield were compared between mixed and neighbouring pure stands. As a substitute for the missing Norway spruce monocultures, we used appropriate yield table data. In order to characterize the effect of water supply on the mixing effects, we correlated the Martonne index of aridity with the ratio of Scots pine growth in mixed versus pure stands.Main results: We found that the mixed stands exceed the weighted mean of the pure stands’ volume productivity on average by 41%. At the species level Scots pine benefits from the mixture by 34% and Norway spruce by 83%. Growth periods with harsh climate conditions reinforce overyielding, while periods with mild conditions reduce the benefit of mixing. The overyielding of mixed stands, especially when growing under unfavourable conditions, is explained by niche complementarity of both species and discussed in view of the stress-gradient-hypothesis.Research highlights: The revealed overyielding of mixed compared with neighbouring pure stands, particularly under harsh weather conditions, substantiates the preferences of Scots pine-Norway spruce mixtures regarding climate change.    Keywords: drought resilience; mixed stand; pure stand; facilitation; competition; overyielding; underyielding.

  19. Evidence of compounded disturbance effects on vegetation recovery following high-severity wildfire and spruce beetle outbreak

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amanda R Carlson; Jason S Sibold; Timothy J Assal; Jose F Negrón

    2017-01-01

    Spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) outbreaks are rapidly spreading throughout subalpine forests of the Rocky Mountains, raising concerns that altered fuel structures may increase the ecological severity of wildfire...

  20. Declining Bark Beetle Densities (Ips typographus, Coleoptera: Scolytinae from Infested Norway Spruce Stands and Possible Implications for Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Angst

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The eight-toothed spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus is the most serious insect pest in Central European forests. During the past two decades, extreme meteorological events and subsequent beetle infestations have killed millions of cubic meters of standing spruce trees. Not all the infested stands could be cleared in time, and priorities in management had to be set. Natural or man-made buffer zones of about 500 meters in width are frequently defined to separate differently managed stands in Central Europe. While the buffer zones seem to be effective in most of the cases, their impact has not been studied in detail. Beetle densities were therefore assessed in three case studies using pheromone traps along transects, leading from infested stands into spruce-free buffer zones. The results of the trap catches allow an estimation of the buffer zone influence on densities and the dispersal of Ips typographus. Beetle densities were found to decrease rapidly with increasing distance from the infested spruce stands. The trap catches were below high-risk thresholds within a few hundred meters of the infested stands. The decrease in catches was more pronounced in open land and in an urban area than in a broadleaf stand. Designed buffer zones of 500 m width without spruce can therefore very probably help to reduce densities of spreading beetles.

  1. Damage by the Sitka spruce weevil (Pissodes strobi) and growth patterns for 10 spruce species and hybrids over 26 years in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russel G. Mitchell; Kenneth H. Wright; Norman E. Johnson

    1990-01-01

    Ten species and hybrids of spruce (Picea spp.) were planted and observed annually for 26 years at three coastal locations in Oregon and Washington to evaluate growth rates and susceptibility to the Sitka spruce weevil (= white pine weevil), Pissodes strobi The 10 spruce were: Sitka spruce, Norway spruce, Lutz spruce, black...

  2. Fluorescence measurements show stronger cold inhibition of photosynthetic light reactions in Scots pine compared to Norway spruce as well as during spring compared to autumn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapio eLinkosalo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied the photosynthetic activity of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst in relation to air temperature changes from March 2013 to February 2014. We measured the chlorophyll fluorescence of approximately 50 trees of each species growing in southern Finland. Fluorescence was measured 13 times per week. We began by measuring shoots present in late winter (i.e., March 2013 before including new shoots once they started to elongate in spring. By July, when the spring shoots had achieved similar fluorescence levels to the older ones, we proceeded to measure the new shoots only.We analysed the data by fitting a sigmoidal model containing four parameters to link sliding averages of temperature and fluorescence. A parameter defining the temperature range over which predicted fluorescence increased most rapidly was the most informative with in describing temperature dependence of fluorescence.The model generated similar fluorescence patterns for both species, but differences were observed for critical temperature and needle age. Down regulation of the light reaction was stronger in spring than in autumn. Pine showed more conservative control of the photosynthetic light reactions, which were activated later in spring and more readily attenuated in autumn. Under the assumption of a close correlation of fluorescence and photosynthesis, spruce should therefore benefit more than pine from the increased photosynthetic potential during warmer springs, but be more likely to suffer frost damage with a sudden cooling following a warm period. The winter of 20132014 was unusually mild and similar to future conditions predicted by global warming models. During the mild winter, the activity of photosynthetic light reactions of both conifers, especially spruce, remained high. Because light levels during winter are too low for photosynthesis, this activity may translate to a net carbon loss due to respiration.

  3. Assessing the impacts of climate change and nitrogen deposition on Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst) growth in Austria with BIOME-BGC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastaugh, Chris S; Pötzelsberger, Elisabeth; Hasenauer, Hubert

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine whether a detectable impact of climate change is apparent in Austrian forests. In regions of complex terrain such as most of Austria, climatic trends over the past 50 years show marked geographic variability. As climate is one of the key drivers of forest growth, a comparison of growth characteristics between regions with different trends in temperature and precipitation can give insights into the impact of climatic change on forests. This study uses data from several hundred climate recording stations, interpolated to measurement sites of the Austrian National Forest Inventory (NFI). Austria as a whole shows a warming trend over the past 50 years and little overall change in precipitation. The warming trends, however, vary considerably across certain regions and regional precipitation trends vary widely in both directions, which cancel out on the national scale These differences allow the delineation of 'climatic change zones' with internally consistent climatic trends that differ from other zones. This study applies the species-specific adaptation of the biogeochemical model BIOME-BGC to Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) across a range of Austrian climatic change zones, using input data from a number of national databases. The relative influence of extant climate change on forest growth is quantified, and compared with the far greater impact of non-climatic factors. At the national scale, climate change is found to have negligible effect on Norway spruce productivity, due in part to opposing effects at the regional level. The magnitudes of the modeled non-climatic influences on aboveground woody biomass increment increases are consistent with previously reported values of 20-40 kg of added stem carbon sequestration per kilogram of additional nitrogen deposition, while climate responses are of a magnitude difficult to detect in NFI data.

  4. Effects of experimental acid precipitation and liming on vigor, species abundance, and mineral nutrition of ground vegetation in a Norway spruce stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodenkirchen, H.

    1986-09-01

    The effects of simulated sulfuric acid rain and liming on ground vegetation of a 74-year-old Norway Spruce stand were analysed since summer of 1983. During the first two growing seasons no significant change in species composition had occurred on any plot. The frequently applied acid rain injured some constant moss species, this was reflected by chlorosis, necroses, and reduced average coverage or frequency. Damaged moss segments had decreased Ca-, Mg-, Mn-, Zn- and K-concentrations. Some secondary moss species, however were more tolerant to acid precipitation. Liming with dolomite at the beginning of the experiment improved the Ca- and Mg-nutrition of all investigated species (Thuidium tamariscinum, Oxalis acetosella, spruce seedlings), lowered the intensity of injury by acid rain with mosses, and reduced the Mn- (and Zn-)uptake of the vascular plant species. The combination of liming and irrigation with acid or 'normal' water strongly increased the abundance of the herb Oxalis acetosella. Without liming the same species responded to acid rain with lower Ca- (and Mg-)contents in leaves but no visible foliar damage occurred.

  5. Elevated CO{sub 2} and development of frost hardiness in Norway spruce (picea abies (L.) Karst.); Oekt CO{sub 2} og utvikling av frostherdighet i gran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalen, Lars Sandved

    1998-09-01

    This thesis discusses controlled laboratory experiments carried out to study the effects of CO{sub 2} pollution on Norwegian spruce. It was found that elevated CO{sub 2} increased height growth and biomass production. It slightly increased frost hardiness, but only at high nitrogen values. There was no evidence of adverse effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on the phenology of bud set and the development of frost hardiness. Although not statistically significant, there seemed to be a consistently higher concentration of soluble carbohydrates in one-season-old Norway spruce seedlings treated with elevated CO{sub 2}. This was not found in three-year-old seedlings grown in open top chambers, possibly indicating a down-regulation of photosynthesis or a transition from free to predetermined growth, and change in allocation of photosynthates with age. Treatment with high or low concentrations of CO{sub 2} and nitrogen fertilizer did not affect apoplastic chitinolytic activity during cold acclimation, nor were there any effects on antifreeze activity in these apoplastic extracts from cold acclimated needles. 149 refs., 21 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. Contrasting carbon allocation responses of juvenile European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) to competition and ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Wilma; Lehmeier, Christoph Andreas; Winkler, Jana Barbro; Matyssek, Rainer; Edgar Grams, Thorsten Erhard

    2015-01-01

    Allocation of recent photoassimilates of juvenile beech and spruce in response to twice-ambient ozone (2 × O(3)) and plant competition (i.e. intra vs. inter-specific) was examined in a phytotron study. To this end, we employed continuous (13)CO(2)/(12)CO(2) labeling during late summer and pursued tracer kinetics in CO(2) released from stems. In beech, allocation of recent photoassimilates to stems was significantly lowered under 2 × O(3) and increased in spruce when grown in mixed culture. As total tree biomass was not yet affected by the treatments, C allocation reflected incipient tree responses providing the mechanistic basis for biomass partitioning as observed in longer experiments. Compartmental modeling characterized functional properties of substrate pools supplying respiratory C demand. Respiration of spruce appeared to be exclusively supplied by recent photoassimilates. In beech, older C, putatively located in stem parenchyma cells, was a major source of respiratory substrate, reflecting the fundamental anatomical disparity between angiosperm beech and gymnosperm spruce. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Rapid recovery of stem increment in Norway spruce at reduced SO2 levels in the Harz Mountains, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Markus; Zimmermann, Jorma; Jacob, Mascha; Dulamsuren, Choimaa; Bade, Claudia; Ahrends, Bernd; Leuschner, Christoph

    2012-05-01

    Tree-ring width of Picea abies was studied along an altitudinal gradient in the Harz Mountains, Germany, in an area heavily affected by SO(2)-related forest decline in the second half of the 20th century. Spruce trees of exposed high-elevation forests had earlier been shown to have reduced radial growth at high atmospheric SO(2) levels. After the recent reduction of the SO(2) load due to clean air acts, we tested the hypothesis that stem growth recovered rapidly from the SO(2) impact. Our results from two formerly damaged high-elevation spruce stands support this hypothesis suggesting that the former SO(2)-related spruce decline was primarily due to foliar damage and not to soil acidification, as the deacidification of the (still acidic) soil would cause a slow growth response. Increasing temperatures and deposited N accumulated in the topsoil are likely additional growth-promoting factors of spruce at high elevations after the shortfall of SO(2) pollution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Spectral evidence of early-stage spruce beetle infestation in Engelmann spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrianna C. Foster; Jonathan A. Walter; Herman H. Shugart; Jason Sibold; Jose Negron

    2017-01-01

    Spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby)) outbreaks cause widespread mortality of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii (Parry ex Engelm)) within the subalpine forests of the western United States. Early detection of infestations could allow forest managers to mitigate outbreaks or anticipate a response to tree mortality and the potential effects on ecosystem...

  9. Ground-level ozone differentially affects nitrogen acquisition and allocation in mature European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigt, R B; Häberle, K H; Millard, P; Metzger, U; Ritter, W; Blaschke, H; Göttlein, A; Matyssek, R

    2012-10-01

    Impacts of elevated ground-level ozone (O(3)) on nitrogen (N) uptake and allocation were studied on mature European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) in a forest stand, hypothesizing that: (i) chronically elevated O(3) limits nutrient uptake, and (ii) beech responds more sensitively to elevated O(3) than spruce, as previously found for juvenile trees. Tree canopies were exposed to twice-ambient O(3) concentrations (2 × O(3)) by a free-air fumigation system, with trees under ambient O(3) serving as control. After 5 years of O(3) fumigation, (15)NH(4)(15)NO(3) was applied to soil, and concentrations of newly acquired N (N(labelled)) and total N (N(total)) in plant compartments and soil measured. Under 2 × O(3), N(labelled) and N(total) were increased in the bulk soil and tended to be lower in fine and coarse roots of both species across the soil horizons, supporting hypothesis (i). N(labelled) was reduced in beech foliage by up to 60%, and by up to 50% in buds under 2 × O(3). Similarly, N(labelled) in stem bark and phloem was reduced. No such reduction was observed in spruce, reflecting a stronger effect on N acquisition in beech in accordance with hypothesis (ii). In spruce, 2 × O(3) tended to favour allocation of new N to foliage. N(labelled) in beech foliage correlated with cumulative seasonal transpiration, indicating impaired N acquisition was probably caused by reduced stomatal conductance and, hence, water transport under elevated O(3). Stimulated fine root growth under 2 × O(3) with a possible increase of below-ground N sink strength may also have accounted for lowered N allocation to above-ground organs. Reduced N uptake and altered allocation may enhance the use of stored N for growth, possibly affecting long-term stand nutrition.

  10. Accumulation of logging residue in first thinnings of Scots pine and Norway spruce. Impact of top bucking diameter of roundwood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeisaenen, T.; Nurmi, J. (Finnish Forest Research Inst., Kannus (Finland)), e-mail: tommi.raisanen@metla.fi

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impacts of changes in the minimum top diameter of roundwood on the accumulation of logging residue. The aim was also to compare estimates of residue accumulation calculated by tree-specific biomass models with field measurements from thinnings. Felling experiments were performed in first thinnings of pine and spruce to evaluate the model calculations. In the felling, mean relative masses of the tree tops of spruce were nearly doubled with each increment of 2 cm in the top diameter. Respectively in pine, the mean relative tree top mass was increased by 50-60 % when the top diameter was increased by 2 cm. The mass of total residue (tree top and all delimbed branches) was similarly increased, but the differences were not as large. Compared to pine, a lesser variation in the crown mass of the spruce sample resulted in a more accurate model prediction of masses of tree tops and total residue. The results indicate that the residue accumulation from a small group of trees cannot be predicted very reliably, but when a larger tree population or area is considered, the model predictions are enhanced to a more practicable level. (orig.)

  11. Defence reactions of mature Norway spruce (Picea abies before and after inoculation of the blue-stain fungus Endoconidiophora polonica in a drought stress experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netherer Sigrid

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We performed an inoculation experiment using the blue-stain fungus Endoconidiophora polonica at the Rosalia Roof study site, which was set up to study drought effects on Norway spruce susceptibility to attacks by the European spruce bark beetle Ips typographus. Tree resistance parameters such as resin flow rate and extent of hypersensitive wound reaction in the phloem were investigated prior to and after fungal infection. Sample trees with different drought treatments (trees fully covered or semi-covered by roofs, control trees were inoculated with E. polonica in July 2014. In order to check for areas of phloem necrosis, the outer bark around the inoculation holes was scratched off 6 weeks later. We recorded the amount of resin exudation within 12 hours overnight in August and September 2013 and 2014. Although wound reaction zones did not differ in size between tree collectives of the various treatments, fully covered trees tended to exhibit larger necrotic areas compared to control trees. The least water supplied trees showed lowest resin flow rates prior to fungal inoculation, but were the only group to show significantly enhanced resin flow five weeks after the evaluation of defence reactions. Our results agree with earlier findings that wounding and few fungal inoculations can increase tree resistance in the medium term given not too severe water stress. Further investigations will clarify how water stress affects the availability of non-structural carbohydrates for secondary metabolism, when depletion of resources eventually occurs, and at which point trees are most susceptible to bark beetle attack.

  12. Effect of alternating day and night temperature on short day-induced bud set and subsequent bud burst in long days in Norway spruce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorunn Elisabeth Olsen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Young seedlings of the conifer Norway spruce exhibit short day (SD-induced cessation of apical growth and bud set. Although different, constant temperatures under SD are known to modulate timing of bud set and depth of dormancy with development of deeper dormancy under higher compared to lower temperature, systematic studies of effects of alternating day (DT and night temperatures (NT are limited. To shed light on this, seedlings of different provenances of Norway spruce were exposed to a wide range of DT-NT combinations during bud development, followed by transfer to forcing conditions of long days (LD and 18°C, directly or after different periods of chilling. Although no specific effect of alternating DT/NT was found, the results demonstrate that the effects of DT under SD on bud set and subsequent bud break are significantly modified by NT in a complex way. The effects on bud break persisted after chilling. Since time to bud set correlated with the daily mean temperature under SD at DTs of 18 and 21°C, but not a DT of 15°C, time to bud set apparently also depend on the specific DT, implying that the effect of NT depends on the actual DT. Although higher temperature under SD generally results in later bud break after transfer to forcing conditions, the fastest bud flush was observed at intermediate NTs. This might be due to a bud break-hastening chilling effect of intermediate compared to higher temperatures, and delayed bud development to a stage where bud burst can occur, under lower temperatures. Also, time to bud burst in un-chilled seedlings decreased with increasing SD-duration, suggesting that bud development must reach a certain stage before the processes leading to bud burst are initiated. The present results also indicate that low temperature during bud development had a larger effect on the most southern compared to the most northern provenance studied. Decreasing time to bud burst was observed with increasing northern latitude

  13. Detection of Spatio-Temporal Changes of Norway Spruce Forest Stands in Ore Mountains Using Landsat Time Series and Airborne Hyperspectral Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Mišurec

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on spatio-temporal changes in the physiological status of the Norway spruce forests located at the central and western parts of the Ore Mountains (northwestern part of the Czech Republic, which suffered from severe environmental pollution from the 1970s to the 1990s. The situation started improving after the pollution loads decreased significantly at the end of the 1990s. The general trends in forest recovery were studied using the tasseled cap transformation and disturbance index (DI extracted from the 1985–2015 time series of Landsat data. In addition, 16 vegetation indices (VIs extracted from airborne hyperspectral (HS data acquired in 1998 using the Advanced Solid-State Array Spectroradiometer (ASAS and in 2013 using the Airborne Prism Experiment (APEX were used to study changes in forest health. The forest health status analysis of HS image data was performed at two levels of spatial resolution; at a tree level (original 2.0 m spatial resolution, as well as at a forest stand level (generalized to 6.0 m spatial resolution. The temporal changes were studied primarily using the VOG1 vegetation index (VI as it was showing high and stable sensitivity to forest damage for both spatial resolutions considered. In 1998, significant differences between the moderately to heavily damaged (central Ore Mountains and initially damaged (western Ore Mountains stands were detected for all the VIs tested. In 2013, the stands in the central Ore Mountains exhibited VI values much closer to the global mean, indicating an improvement in their health status. This result fully confirms the finding of the Landsat time series analysis. The greatest difference in Disturbance Index (DI values between the central (1998: 0.37 and western Ore Mountains stands (1998: −1.21 could be seen at the end of the 1990s. Nonetheless, levelling of the physiological status of Norway spruce was observed for the central and western parts of the Ore Mountains in

  14. Modelling spruce bark beetle infestation probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulius Zolubas; Jose Negron; A. Steven Munson

    2009-01-01

    Spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) risk model, based on pure Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) stand characteristics in experimental and control plots was developed using classification and regression tree statistical technique under endemic pest population density. The most significant variable in spruce bark beetle...

  15. Updating beliefs and combining evidence in adaptive forest management under climate change: a case study of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst) in the Black Forest, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefpour, Rasoul; Temperli, Christian; Bugmann, Harald; Elkin, Che; Hanewinkel, Marc; Meilby, Henrik; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    2013-06-15

    We study climate uncertainty and how managers' beliefs about climate change develop and influence their decisions. We develop an approach for updating knowledge and beliefs based on the observation of forest and climate variables and illustrate its application for the adaptive management of an even-aged Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst) forest in the Black Forest, Germany. We simulated forest development under a range of climate change scenarios and forest management alternatives. Our analysis used Bayesian updating and Dempster's rule of combination to simulate how observations of climate and forest variables may influence a decision maker's beliefs about climate development and thereby management decisions. While forest managers may be inclined to rely on observed forest variables to infer climate change and impacts, we found that observation of climate state, e.g. temperature or precipitation is superior for updating beliefs and supporting decision-making. However, with little conflict among information sources, the strongest evidence would be offered by a combination of at least two informative variables, e.g., temperature and precipitation. The success of adaptive forest management depends on when managers switch to forward-looking management schemes. Thus, robust climate adaptation policies may depend crucially on a better understanding of what factors influence managers' belief in climate change. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Regeneration of Mature Norway Spruce Stands: Early Effects of Selective Cutting and Clear Cutting on Seepage Water Quality and Soil Fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendelin Weis

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The cutting of trees influences element turnover in the forest ecosystem. The reduction of plant uptake, as well as an increased mineralization and nitrification due to higher soil temperature and soil moisture, can lead to considerable losses of nutrients from the main rooting zone. This may result in a reduced soil fertility and a decrease in drinking water quality due to high nitrate concentrations in the seepage water. In Bavaria (Germany selective cutting is preferred to clear cutting when initiating the regeneration of Norway spruce stands with European beech. This paper summarizes the early effects of both forest management practices on soil fertility and seepage water quality for three different sites. Shown are the concentrations of nitrogen and base cations in the seepage water as well as the water and ion fluxes during the first year after tree cut. Nutrient inputs decreased on thinned plots and even more at clear-cuts. Nitrate concentrations in the seepage water are hardly affected by moderate thinning; however, on clear-cuts, the nitrate concentration increases significantly, and base cations are lost from the upper mineral soil. This effect is less obvious at sites where a dense ground vegetation, which is able to take up excess nitrogen, exists.

  17. Relation of Chlorophyll Fluorescence Sensitive Reflectance Ratios to Carbon Flux Measurements of Montanne Grassland and Norway Spruce Forest Ecosystems in the Temperate Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Ač

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We explored ability of reflectance vegetation indexes (VIs related to chlorophyll fluorescence emission (686/630, 740/800 and de-epoxidation state of xanthophyll cycle pigments (PRI, calculated as (531−570/(531−570 to track changes in the CO2 assimilation rate and Light Use Efficiency (LUE in montane grassland and Norway spruce forest ecosystems, both at leaf and also canopy level. VIs were measured at two research plots using a ground-based high spatial/spectral resolution imaging spectroscopy technique. No significant relationship between VIs and leaf light-saturated CO2 assimilation (MAX was detected in instantaneous measurements of grassland under steady-state irradiance conditions. Once the temporal dimension and daily irradiance variation were included into the experimental setup, statistically significant changes in VIs related to tested physiological parameters were revealed. ΔPRI and Δ(686/630 of grassland plant leaves under dark-to-full sunlight transition in the scale of minutes were significantly related to MAX (2=0.51. In the daily course, the variation of VIs measured in one-hour intervals correlated well with the variation of Gross Primary Production (GPP, Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE, and LUE estimated via the eddy-covariance flux tower. Statistical results were weaker in the case of the grassland ecosystem, with the strongest statistical relation of the index 686/630 with NEE and GPP.

  18. Growth of mature boreal Norway spruce was not affected by elevated [CO(2)] and/or air temperature unless nutrient availability was improved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, Bjarni D; Medhurst, Jane L; Wallin, Göran; Eggertsson, Olafur; Linder, Sune

    2013-11-01

    The growth responses of mature Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) trees exposed to elevated [CO(2)] (CE; 670-700 ppm) and long-term optimized nutrient availability or elevated air temperature (TE; ±3.9 °C) were studied in situ in northern Sweden in two 3 year field experiments using 12 whole-tree chambers in ca. 40-year-old forest. The first experiment (Exp. I) studied the interactions between CE and nutrient availability and the second (Exp. II) between CE and TE. It should be noted that only air temperature was elevated in Exp. II, while soil temperature was maintained close to ambient. In Exp. I, CE significantly increased the mean annual height increment, stem volume and biomass increment during the treatment period (25, 28, and 22%, respectively) when nutrients were supplied. There was, however, no significant positive CE effect found at the low natural nutrient availability. In Exp. II, which was conducted at the natural site fertility, neither CE nor TE significantly affected height or stem increment. It is concluded that the low nutrient availability (mainly nitrogen) in the boreal forests is likely to restrict their response to the continuous rise in [CO(2)] and/or TE.

  19. Cloning and characterization of isoprenyl diphosphate synthases with farnesyl diphosphate and geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase activity from Norway spruce (Picea abies) and their relation to induced oleoresin formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Axel; Gershenzon, Jonathan

    2007-11-01

    The conifer Picea abies (Norway spruce) employs terpenoid-based oleoresins as part of its constitutive and induced defense responses to herbivores and pathogens. The isoprenyl diphosphate synthases are branch-point enzymes of terpenoid biosynthesis leading to the various terpene classes. We isolated three genes encoding isoprenyl diphosphate synthases from P. abies cDNA libraries prepared from the bark and wood of methyl jasmonate-treated saplings and screened via a homology-based PCR approach using degenerate primers. Enzyme assays of the purified recombinant proteins expressed in Escherichia coli demonstrated that one gene (PaIDS 4) encodes a farnesyl diphosphate synthase and the other two (PaIDS 5 and PaIDS 6) encode geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthases. The sequences have moderate similarity to those of farnesyl diphosphate and geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthases already known from plants, and the kinetic properties of the enzymes are not unlike those of other isoprenyl diphosphate synthases. Of the three genes, only PaIDS 5 displayed a significant increase in transcript level in response to methyl jasmonate spraying, suggesting its involvement in induced oleoresin biosynthesis.

  20. Contamination of environment in the road surroudings - impact of road salting on Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegrová, Jitka; Steiner, Oliver; Goessler, Walter; Tanda, Stefan; Anděl, Petr

    2017-09-01

    A comprehensive overview of the influence of transport on the environment is presented in this study. The complex analysis of soil and needle samples provides an extensive set of data, which presents elemental contamination of the environment near roads. Traffic pollution (including winter road treatment) has a significant negative influence on our environment. Besides sodium and chlorine from winter maintenance many other elements are emitted into the environment. Three possible sources of contamination are assumed for environmental contamination evaluation: car emission, winter maintenance and abrasion from breaks and clutches. The chemical analysis focused on the description of samples from inorganic point of view. The influence of the contamination potential on the sodium and chlorine content in the samples of 1st year-old and 2nd year-old needles of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is discussed. Additional soil samples were taken from each sampling site and analyzed to get insight in the sodium and chlorine distribution. Statistical evaluation was used for interpretation of complex interaction patterns between element concentrations in different aged needles based on localities character including distance from the road and element concentration in soils. This species of needles were chosen because of its heightened sensitivity towards salinization. The study was conducted in different parts of the Czech Republic. The resulting database is a source of valuable information about the influence of transport on the environment.

  1. Diel cycles of isoprenoids in the emissions of Norway spruce, four Scots pine chemotypes, and in Boreal forest ambient air during HUMPPA-COPEC-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yassaa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Branch enclosure based emission rates of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes from four Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris and one Norway spruce (Picea abies, as well as the ambient mixing ratios of monoterpenes were determined during the HUMPPA-COPEC 2010 summer campaign. Differences in chemical composition and in emission strength were observed between the different trees, which confirmed that they represented different chemotypes. The chemotypes of Scots pine can be classified according to species with high, no and intermediate content of Δ-3-carene. The "non-Δ-3-carene" chemotype was found to be the strongest emitter of monoterpenes. From this chemotype, β-myrcene, a very reactive monoterpene, was the dominant species accounting for more than 32 % of the total emission rates of isoprenoids followed by β-phellandrene (~27%. Myrcene fluxes ranged from 0.8 to 24 μg g−1 (dw h−1. α-Farnesene was the dominant sesquiterpene species, with average emission rates of 318 ng g−1 (dw h−1. In the high Δ-3-carene chemotype, more than 48% of the total monoterpene emission was Δ-3-carene. The average Δ-3-carene emission rate (from chemotype 3, circa 609 ng g−1 (dw h−1 reported here is consistent with the previously reported summer season value. Daily maximum temperatures varied between 20 and 35 °C during the measurements. The monoterpene emissions from spruce were dominated by limonene (35%, β-phellandrene (15%, α-pinene (14% and eucalyptol (9%. Total spruce monoterpene emissions ranged from 0.55 up to 12.2 μg g−1 (dw h−1. Overall the total terpene flux (monoterpenes + sesquiterpenes from all studied tree species varied from 230 ng g−1 (dw h−1 up to 66 μg g−1 (dw h−1. Total ambient monoterpenes (including α-pinene, Δ-3-carene, β-pinene and β-myrcene measured during the campaign

  2. Hydraulic redistribution under moderate drought among English oak, European beech and Norway spruce determined by deuterium isotope labeling in a split-root experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Benjamin D; Tomasella, Martina; Häberle, Karl-Heinz; Goebel, Marc; Matyssek, Rainer; Grams, Thorsten E E

    2017-07-01

    Hydraulic redistribution (HR) of soil water through plant roots is a crucial phenomenon improving the water balance of plants and ecosystems. It is mostly described under severe drought, and not yet studied under moderate drought. We tested the potential of HR under moderate drought, hypothesizing that (H1) tree species redistribute soil water in their roots even under moderate drought and that (H2) neighboring plants are supported with water provided by redistributing plants. Trees were planted in split-root systems with one individual (i.e., split-root plant, SRP) having its roots divided between two pots with one additional tree each. Species were 2- to  4-year-old English oak (Quercus robur L.), European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst). A gradient in soil water potential (ψsoil) was established between the two pots (-0.55 ± 0.02 MPa and -0.29 ± 0.03 MPa), and HR was observed by labeling with deuterium-enriched water. Irrespective of species identity, 93% of the SRPs redistributed deuterium enriched water from the moist to the drier side, supporting H1. Eighty-eight percent of the plants in the drier pots were deuterium enriched in their roots, with 61 ± 6% of the root water originating from SRP roots. Differences in HR among species were related to their root anatomy with diffuse-porous xylem structure in both beech and-opposing the stem structure-oak roots. In spruce, we found exclusively tracheids. We conclude that water can be redistributed within roots of different tree species along a moderate ψsoil gradient, accentuating HR as an important water source for drought-stressed plants, with potential implications for ecohydrological and plant physiological sciences. It remains to be shown to what extent HR occurs under field conditions in Central Europe. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Functional assays and metagenomic analyses reveals differences between the microbial communities inhabiting the soil horizons of a Norway spruce plantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Uroz

    Full Text Available In temperate ecosystems, acidic forest soils are among the most nutrient-poor terrestrial environments. In this context, the long-term differentiation of the forest soils into horizons may impact the assembly and the functions of the soil microbial communities. To gain a more comprehensive understanding of the ecology and functional potentials of these microbial communities, a suite of analyses including comparative metagenomics was applied on independent soil samples from a spruce plantation (Breuil-Chenue, France. The objectives were to assess whether the decreasing nutrient bioavailability and pH variations that naturally occurs between the organic and mineral horizons affects the soil microbial functional biodiversity. The 14 Gbp of pyrosequencing and Illumina sequences generated in this study revealed complex microbial communities dominated by bacteria. Detailed analyses showed that the organic soil horizon was significantly enriched in sequences related to Bacteria, Chordata, Arthropoda and Ascomycota. On the contrary the mineral horizon was significantly enriched in sequences related to Archaea. Our analyses also highlighted that the microbial communities inhabiting the two soil horizons differed significantly in their functional potentials according to functional assays and MG-RAST analyses, suggesting a functional specialisation of these microbial communities. Consistent with this specialisation, our shotgun metagenomic approach revealed a significant increase in the relative abundance of sequences related glycoside hydrolases in the organic horizon compared to the mineral horizon that was significantly enriched in glycoside transferases. This functional stratification according to the soil horizon was also confirmed by a significant correlation between the functional assays performed in this study and the functional metagenomic analyses. Together, our results suggest that the soil stratification and particularly the soil resource

  4. Influence of stem diameter on the survival and growth of containerized Norway spruce seedlings attacked by pine weevils (Hylobius spp.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorsen, Aake; Mattsson, Staffan; Weslien, Jan [Forestry Research Inst. of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2001-07-01

    Pine weevils (Hylobius spp.) feeding on stem bark of young conifer seedlings pose a serious threat to forest regeneration-planting programmes in Nordic countries. This study was designed to determine the threshold diameter for planted, untreated containerized seedlings, above which pine weevils cause little or no damage. The effects of sublethal weevil damage on seedling growth were also assessed. In total, 5320 containerized spruce seedlings were planted on scarified and unscarified plots on three sites in southern Sweden. Seedlings in six size classes, which differed with regard to age (1.5-3.5 yrs) and cultivation density (28-446 seedlings m{sup -2}) were grown using the Combicell system. None of the seedlings was treated with insecticides, except for those in the smallest class, where both untreated and treated seedlings were used. Inspections were made periodically during the first 3 yrs and after both 5 and 7 yrs. A statistically significant relationship was found between seedling losses due to pine weevil attack and seedling stem-base diameter at the time of planting out, on both scarified and unscarified plots. For seedlings with a stem-base diameter of around 10 mm, mortality due to pine weevil attack on scarified plots was low enough to be considered negligible. This threshold diameter was several millimetres greater for seedlings planted on unscarified plots. An analysis of the relationship between the extent of weevil damage and seedling growth rate showed that among surviving seedlings, those that grew fast tended to show low levels of damage. On unscarified plots, the mortality rate amongst seedlings treated once with a permethrin insecticide was only one-third that of untreated seedlings. On scarified plots, the corresponding difference was somewhat smaller. Repeated insecticide treatment resulted in a pronounced reduction in seedling mortality on the unscarified plots, whereas the effect was weaker on scarified plots.

  5. Impact of traffic on δ15N, δ13C and δ18O of needles and annual tree rings of Norway spruce (Picea abies L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerrieri MR

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Increase of nitrogen depositions, as oxidized (NOx and reduced (NHx compounds, has important implications on ecosystem nitrogen cycle. NOx comes predominantly from fossil fuel combustion in car engines and industrial processes, while agricultural activities (cattle farming, fertilizations are the main sources for NHx emissions. Such fertilisations could stimulate growth and, therefore, productivity of forests, especially in temperate forests, where nitrogen is a limiting factor. On the other hand an excess of nitrogen can lead to an acidification of the soil and have a negative impact on the microbial fauna and structure of plants. NOx and NHx depositions can be separated with the help of stable isotopes with different 15N-values reported for NOx originating from combustion sources. Consequently it was observed that the nitrogen isotopic composition of the vegetation reflects the isotopic signature of nitrogen sources. Our preliminary results on needles of Norway spruce trees exposed to NOx emissions along a transect perpendicular to a highway close to Faido and Brittnau show a clear isotopic enrichment in 15N in trees growing closer to traffic pollution, indicating an uptake of atmospheric nitrogen by stomatal pathway. Carbon and oxygen isotopic composition measured in tree rings reveals the physiological response in plants. Trees more exposed to air pollution from traffic show an increase in δ13C and δ18O in tree rings, since mid sixties next to Erstfeld. This could mean a higher photosynthetic activity, enhanced by NOx traffic emissions, under low or not changed stomatal conductance. Our results confirm that stable isotopes of carbon, oxygen and nitrogen measured in needles and tree rings represent an important tool to monitor the impact of NOx load on tree physiology.

  6. Significant mean and extreme climate sensitivity of Norway spruce and silver fir at mid-elevation mesic sites in the Alps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Carrer

    Full Text Available Climate forcing is the major abiotic driver for forest ecosystem functioning and thus significantly affects the role of forests within the global carbon cycle and related ecosystem services. Annual radial increments of trees are probably the most valuable source of information to link tree growth and climate at long-term time scales, and have been used in a wide variety of investigations worldwide. However, especially in mountainous areas, tree-ring studies have focused on extreme environments where the climate sensitivity is perhaps greatest but are necessarily a biased representation of the forests within a region. We used tree-ring analyses to study two of the most important tree species growing in the Alps: Norway spruce (Picea abies and silver fir (Abies alba. We developed tree-ring chronologies from 13 mesic mid-elevation sites (203 trees and then compared them to monthly temperature and precipitation data for the period 1846-1995. Correlation functions, principal component analysis and fuzzy C-means clustering were applied to 1 assess the climate/growth relationships and their stationarity and consistency over time, and 2 extract common modes of variability in the species responses to mean and extreme climate variability. Our results highlight a clear, time-stable, and species-specific response to mean climate conditions. However, during the previous-year's growing season, which shows the strongest correlations, the primary difference between species is in their response to extreme events, not mean conditions. Mesic sites at mid-altitude are commonly underrepresented in tree-ring research; we showed that strong climatic controls of growth may exist even in those areas. Extreme climatic events may play a key role in defining the species-specific responses on climatic sensitivity and, with a global change perspective, specific divergent responses are likely to occur even where current conditions are less limited.

  7. Significant mean and extreme climate sensitivity of Norway spruce and silver fir at mid-elevation mesic sites in the Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrer, Marco; Motta, Renzo; Nola, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Climate forcing is the major abiotic driver for forest ecosystem functioning and thus significantly affects the role of forests within the global carbon cycle and related ecosystem services. Annual radial increments of trees are probably the most valuable source of information to link tree growth and climate at long-term time scales, and have been used in a wide variety of investigations worldwide. However, especially in mountainous areas, tree-ring studies have focused on extreme environments where the climate sensitivity is perhaps greatest but are necessarily a biased representation of the forests within a region. We used tree-ring analyses to study two of the most important tree species growing in the Alps: Norway spruce (Picea abies) and silver fir (Abies alba). We developed tree-ring chronologies from 13 mesic mid-elevation sites (203 trees) and then compared them to monthly temperature and precipitation data for the period 1846-1995. Correlation functions, principal component analysis and fuzzy C-means clustering were applied to 1) assess the climate/growth relationships and their stationarity and consistency over time, and 2) extract common modes of variability in the species responses to mean and extreme climate variability. Our results highlight a clear, time-stable, and species-specific response to mean climate conditions. However, during the previous-year's growing season, which shows the strongest correlations, the primary difference between species is in their response to extreme events, not mean conditions. Mesic sites at mid-altitude are commonly underrepresented in tree-ring research; we showed that strong climatic controls of growth may exist even in those areas. Extreme climatic events may play a key role in defining the species-specific responses on climatic sensitivity and, with a global change perspective, specific divergent responses are likely to occur even where current conditions are less limited.

  8. Heterobasidion annosum root and butt rot of Norway spruce, Picea abies: Colonization by the fungus and its impact on tree growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendz-Hellgren, M. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology

    1997-12-31

    Diameter growth losses associated with decay were quantified on a nationwide scale, and volume growth losses were measured in two stands. Diameter growth losses were 8-10% during a 5-year period in the nationwide study and 23% in one of the stands, whereas in the other stand, no volume losses could be attributed to decay. The effects of stump moisture content, temperature and time elapsed between felling and inoculation on the establishment of H. annosum spore infections in stumps were investigated among stumps resulting from thinnings and clear-cuttings. Furthermore, inoculations with H. annosum conidia were made between 0 hours and 4 weeks after thinning. The incidence of stump infections was lower on clear-cut areas than in thinned stands, but high enough to warrant stump treatment on clear-cuttings. A positive relation was found between heartwood moisture content and the proportion of heartwood infected, whereas the opposite relation was found for sapwood. The establishment of new conidiospore infections decreased with time, and it appeared that stumps were no longer susceptible to infection after 3 weeks had elapsed since felling. Roots of stumps and trees on forest land or former arable land were inoculated with H. annosum treated sawdust. The growth rate of H. annosum in roots of stumps was 25 cm/year, corresponding to 2.5 to 3 times the growth rate in tree roots. Previous land use did not affect the fungal rate of spread. Also, the average initial spread rate of H. annosum in naturally infected Norway spruce stems was estimated at 30 cm/year 156 refs, 9 figs

  9. In vitro effects of Laccaria bicolor S238 N and Pseudomonas fluorescens strain BBc6 on rooting of de-rooted shoot hypocotyls of Norway spruce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabaghli, C.; Frey-Klett, P.; Sotta, B.; Bonnet, M.; Le Tacon, F.

    1998-02-01

    The ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor S238 N and the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens BBc6 were used separately and in combination to induce in vitro rooting of de-rooted shoot hypocotyls of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). When the culture medium was supplemented with tryptophan, a precursor of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) synthesis, the presence of the ectomycorrhizal fungus increased the percentage of hypocotyls forming roots; furthermore, both the fungal and bacterial inoculations enhanced the number of roots formed per rooted hypocotyl. Similar results were obtained by adding exogenous IAA (5 and 10 &mgr;M) to the rooting medium. After the rooting phase, the fungal inoculation enhanced adventitious root elongation and branching as well as the aerial growth of the cuttings. Pseudomonas fluorescens BBc6 had no effect on these parameters. The production of IAA by pure cultures of L. bicolor S238 N and P. fluorescens BBc6 was estimated by immunochemical analysis using specific anti-IAA antibodies. Both L. bicolor S238 N and P. fluorescens BBc6 synthesized IAA in pure culture and synthesis was stimulated in the presence of tryptophan. Thus, the effect of the fungus in stimulating adventitious root formation and subsequent elongation and branching can be attributed, at least partially, to the synthesis of IAA by the fungus. The finding that P. fluorescens BBc6 had no effect on root elongation and branching although it produced IAA suggests that either IAA was not the only parameter involved in the stimulation of these processes by L. bicolor S238 N or the bacterium produced other compounds that counteracted the stimulatory effects of IAA on root elongation and branching.

  10. Significant Mean and Extreme Climate Sensitivity of Norway Spruce and Silver Fir at Mid-Elevation Mesic Sites in the Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrer, Marco; Motta, Renzo; Nola, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Climate forcing is the major abiotic driver for forest ecosystem functioning and thus significantly affects the role of forests within the global carbon cycle and related ecosystem services. Annual radial increments of trees are probably the most valuable source of information to link tree growth and climate at long-term time scales, and have been used in a wide variety of investigations worldwide. However, especially in mountainous areas, tree-ring studies have focused on extreme environments where the climate sensitivity is perhaps greatest but are necessarily a biased representation of the forests within a region. We used tree-ring analyses to study two of the most important tree species growing in the Alps: Norway spruce (Picea abies) and silver fir (Abies alba). We developed tree-ring chronologies from 13 mesic mid-elevation sites (203 trees) and then compared them to monthly temperature and precipitation data for the period 1846–1995. Correlation functions, principal component analysis and fuzzy C-means clustering were applied to 1) assess the climate/growth relationships and their stationarity and consistency over time, and 2) extract common modes of variability in the species responses to mean and extreme climate variability. Our results highlight a clear, time-stable, and species-specific response to mean climate conditions. However, during the previous-year's growing season, which shows the strongest correlations, the primary difference between species is in their response to extreme events, not mean conditions. Mesic sites at mid-altitude are commonly underrepresented in tree-ring research; we showed that strong climatic controls of growth may exist even in those areas. Extreme climatic events may play a key role in defining the species-specific responses on climatic sensitivity and, with a global change perspective, specific divergent responses are likely to occur even where current conditions are less limited. PMID:23209823

  11. The historical disturbance regime of mountain Norway spruce forests in the Western Carpathians and its influence on current forest structure and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janda, Pavel; Trotsiuk, Volodymyr; Mikoláš, Martin; Bače, Radek; Nagel, Thomas A; Seidl, Rupert; Seedre, Meelis; Morrissey, Robert C; Kucbel, Stanislav; Jaloviar, Peter; Jasík, Marián; Vysoký, Juraj; Šamonil, Pavel; Čada, Vojtěch; Mrhalová, Hana; Lábusová, Jana; Nováková, Markéta H; Rydval, Miloš; Matějů, Lenka; Svoboda, Miroslav

    2017-03-15

    In order to gauge ongoing and future changes to disturbance regimes, it is necessary to establish a solid baseline of historic disturbance patterns against which to evaluate these changes. Further, understanding how forest structure and composition respond to variation in past disturbances may provide insight into future resilience to climate-driven alterations of disturbance regimes. We established 184 plots (mostly 1000 m 2 ) in 14 primary mountain Norway spruce forests in the Western Carpathians. On each plot we surveyed live and dead trees and regeneration, and cored around 25 canopy trees. Disturbance history was reconstructed by examining individual tree growth trends. The study plots were further aggregated into five groups based on disturbance history (severity and timing) to evaluate and explain its influence on forest structure. These ecosystems are characterized by a mixed severity disturbance regime with high spatiotemporal variability in severity and frequency. However, periods of synchrony in disturbance activity were also found. Specifically, a peak of canopy disturbance was found for the mid-19th century across the region (about 60% of trees established), with the most important periods of disturbance in the 1820s and from the 1840s to the 1870s. Current stand size and age structure were strongly influenced by past disturbance activity. In contrast, past disturbances did not have a significant effect on current tree density, the amount of coarse woody debris, and regeneration. High mean densities of regeneration with height >50 cm (about 1400 individuals per ha) were observed. Extensive high severity disturbances have recently affected Central European forests, spurring a discussion about the causes and consequences. We found some evidence that forests in the Western Carpathians were predisposed to recent severe disturbance events as a result of synchronized past disturbance activity, which partly homogenized size and age structure and made recent

  12. Which are the most important parameters for modelling carbon assimilation in boreal Norway spruce under elevated [CO(2)] and temperature conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Marianne; Medlyn, Belinda E; Abramowitz, Gab; Franklin, Oskar; Räntfors, Mats; Linder, Sune; Wallin, Göran

    2013-11-01

    Photosynthesis is highly responsive to environmental and physiological variables, including phenology, foliage nitrogen (N) content, atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]), irradiation (Q), air temperature (T) and vapour pressure deficit (D). Each of these responses is likely to be modified by long-term changes in climatic conditions such as rising air temperature and [CO2]. When modelling photosynthesis under climatic changes, which parameters are then most important to calibrate for future conditions? To assess this, we used measurements of shoot carbon assimilation rates and microclimate conditions collected at Flakaliden, northern Sweden. Twelve 40-year-old Norway spruce trees were enclosed in whole-tree chambers and exposed to elevated [CO2] and elevated air temperature, separately and in combination. The treatments imposed were elevated temperature, +2.8 °C in July/August and +5.6 °C in December above ambient, and [CO2] (ambient CO2 ∼370 μ mol mol(-1), elevated CO2 ∼700 μ mol mol(-1)). The relative importance of parameterization of Q, T and D responses for effects on the photosynthetic rate, expressed on a projected needle area, and the annual shoot carbon uptake was quantified using an empirical shoot photosynthesis model, which was developed and fitted to the measurements. The functional form of the response curves was established using an artificial neural network. The [CO2] treatment increased annual shoot carbon (C) uptake by 50%. Most important was effects on the light response curve, with a 67% increase in light-saturated photosynthetic rate, and a 52% increase in the initial slope of the light response curve. An interactive effect of light saturated photosynthetic rate was found with foliage N status, but no interactive effect for high temperature and high CO2. The air temperature treatment increased the annual shoot C uptake by 44%. The most important parameter was the seasonality, with an elongation of the growing season by almost 4

  13. Effects of liming and wood ash application on root biomass, root distribution and soil chemistry in a Norway spruce stand in southwest Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viebke, C.G.

    2001-07-01

    Effects of liming (CaPK) and wood ash application (A) on soil chemistry, root (< 2 mm and 2-5 mm in diameter) biomass and distribution, root length density (RLD, cm/cm{sup 3} ) and specific root length (SRL, m/g) were investigated in a 60 year old Norway spruce stand in SW Sweden. Soil cores were taken from the litter fermented humus (LFH) and mineral soil layers to a depth of 30 cm, eight years after treatments. The pH values of the LM layer increased significantly (p< 0.05) in the lime and ash treatments compared to the control, while in the top 5 cm of the mineral soil, pH was increased only in the A treatment compared to CaPK. The P, K, Ca and Mg concentrations increased in the CaPK treatment in the LM layer, while K and Ca decreased significantly at 5-10 cm depth in CaPK treated plots compared to the control and A. The highest amounts of ammonium and nitrate were found in A treatment in all soil layers. The A treatment increased fine root (< 2 mm in diameter) biomass in the LFH layer compared to the control but decreased it in the top 10 cm of the mineral soil compared to CaPK. A shallower fine root system was found in the A treated plots compared to the control and CaPK. The coarser root (2-5 mm in diameter) biomass was higher in the mineral soil in the A treatment compared to the control and CaPK but the differences were not significant. RLD increased in both CaPK and A in the upper soil layers. SRL increased in almost all layers in the CaPK and A treatments compared to the control. The number of root tips were also higher in the treated plots compared to the control, except in the 10-20 cm layer. It was concluded that CaPK and A treatments resulted in improved root vitality with a higher capacity for nutrient uptake.

  14. Disturbance and Stand Development of a Colorado Subalpine Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Veblen, Thomas T.; Hadley, Keith S; Reid, Marion S

    1991-01-01

    Stand development patterns were examined in an Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii), subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) forest in Rocky Mountain National Park in northern Colorado. Two old-growth stands (with fine-scale windthrows dominating dynamics) and a 260-yr-old post-fire stand were sampled for tree ages, sizes, growth, and replacement patterns in windthrow gaps. Visual assessment of frequency of growth releases in increment cores, and de...

  15. Methyl jasmonate treatment of mature Norway spruce (Picea abies) trees increases the accumulation of terpenoid resin components and protects against infection by Ceratocystis polonica, a bark beetle-associated fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeneli, Gazmend; Krokene, Paal; Christiansen, Erik; Krekling, Trygve; Gershenzon, Jonathan

    2006-08-01

    When conifers such as Picea abies Karst. (Norway spruce) are attacked by insects or pathogens, they often respond by producing increased quantities of terpenoid oleoresin. This response can be mimicked in young P. abies seedlings by treatment with methyl jasmonate (MJ). In this study, we determined the effects of MJ on terpenoids and other chemical defenses of mature P. abies, and investigated whether this treatment protected trees against attack by the blue-stain fungus Ceratocystis polonica (Siem.) C. Moreau, the most important fungal associate of the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus L. Methyl jasmonate treatment induced the formation of traumatic resin ducts in the developing xylem, enhanced resin flow and stimulated increased accumulation of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and diterpene resin acids. However, only minor changes were detected in terpene composition in response to MJ treatment and no changes in soluble phenolic concentration were measured. There was much variability in the timing and degree of response to MJ among clones. The observed chemical and anatomical changes in response to MJ treatment were correlated with increased resistance to C. polonica, suggesting that terpenoid oleoresin may function in defense against this pathogen.

  16. Drought-driven disturbance history characterizes a southern Rocky Mountain subalpine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Justin DeRose; James N. Long

    2012-01-01

    The view that subalpine forest vegetation dynamics in western North America are "driven" by a particular disturbance type (i.e., fire) has shaped our understanding of their disturbance regimes. In the wake of a recent (1990s) landscape- extent spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirby) outbreak in the southern Rocky Mountains, we re-examined the temporal...

  17. Norway spruce (Picea abies/L./Karst.) health status on various forest soil ecological series in Silesian Beskids obtained by grid or selective survey

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Samec, Pavel; Edwards-Jonášová, Magda; Cudlín, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, 1-2 (2017), s. 57-66 ISSN 1803-2451 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD15044; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : spruce decline * survey design * defoliation * forest site ecological series https://beskydy.mendelu.cz/10/1/0057/

  18. Seasonal dynamics of δ(13) C of C-rich fractions from Picea abies (Norway spruce) and Fagus sylvatica (European beech) fine roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paya, Alex M; Grams, Thorsten E E; Bauerle, Taryn L

    2016-09-01

    The (13/12) C ratio in plant roots is likely dynamic depending on root function (storage versus uptake), but to date, little is known about the effect of season and root order (an indicator of root function) on the isotopic composition of C-rich fractions in roots. To address this, we monitored the stable isotopic composition of one evergreen (Picea abies) and one deciduous (Fagus sylvatica), tree species' roots by measuring δ(13) C of bulk, respired and labile C, and starch from first/second and third/fourth order roots during spring and fall root production periods. In both species, root order differences in δ(13) C were observed in bulk organic matter, labile, and respired C fractions. Beech exhibited distinct seasonal trends in δ(13) C of respired C, while spruce did not. In fall, first/second order beech roots were significantly depleted in (13) C, whereas spruce roots were enriched compared to higher order roots. Species variation in δ (13) C of respired C may be partially explained by seasonal shifts from enriched to depleted C substrates in deciduous beech roots. Regardless of species identity, differences in stable C isotopic composition of at least two root order groupings (first/second, third/fourth) were apparent, and should hereafter be separated in belowground C-supply-chain inquiry. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Estimating Single-Tree Crown Biomass of Norway Spruce by Airborne Laser Scanning: A Comparison of Methods with and without the Use of Terrestrial Laser Scanning to Obtain the Ground Reference Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Hauglin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Several methods to conduct single-tree inventories using airborne laser scanning (ALS have been proposed, and even terrestrial laser scanning (TLS has recently emerged as a possible tool for the collection of forest inventory data. In the present study, a novel methodological framework for a combined use of ALS and TLS in an inventory was tested and compared to a method without the use of TLS. Single-tree Norway spruce crown biomass was predicted using an ALS-model with training data obtained by TLS. ALS and TLS data were collected for sets of sample trees, including 68 trees with both ALS and TLS data. In total, 29 destructively sampled trees were used to fit a TLS crown biomass model, which then was used to predict crown biomass in a separate set of 68 trees. This dataset was subsequently used to fit an ALS crown biomass model. When validating the model, using a separate dataset with accurately measured crown biomass obtained through destructive sampling, the mean error was 32% of the observed mean biomass. Corresponding crown biomass predictions derived with ALS-predicted diameters and the use of conventional and existing allometric models resulted in a mean error of 35%. Thus, in the present study, a slight improvement, in terms of prediction accuracy, was found when using training data with ground reference values obtained by TLS.

  20. The DAL10 gene from Norway spruce (Picea abies) belongs to a potentially gymnosperm-specific subclass of MADS-box genes and is specifically active in seed cones and pollen cones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsbecker, Annelie; Sundström, Jens; Tandre, Karolina; Englund, Marie; Kvarnheden, Anders; Johanson, Urban; Engström, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Transcription factors encoded by different members of the MADS-box gene family have evolved central roles in the regulation of reproductive organ development in the flowering plants, the angiosperms. Development of the stamens and carpels, the pollen- and seed-bearing organs, involves the B- and C-organ-identity MADS-box genes. B- and C-type gene orthologs with activities specifically in developing pollen- and seed-bearing organs are also present in the distantly related gymnosperms: the conifers and the gnetophytes. We now report on the characterization of DAL10, a novel MADS-box gene from the conifer Norway spruce, which unlike the B- and C-type conifer genes shows no distinct orthology relationship to any angiosperm gene or clade in phylogenetic analyses. Like the B- and C-type genes, it is active specifically in developing pollen cones and seed cones. In situ RNA localization experiments show DAL10 to be expressed in the cone axis, which carry the microsporophylls of the young pollen cone. In contrast, in the seed cone it is expressed both in the cone axis and in the bracts, which subtend the ovuliferous scales. Expression data and the phenotype of transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing DAL10 suggest that the gene may act upstream to or in concert with the B- and C-type genes in the establishment of reproductive identity of developing cones.

  1. Mean wind patterns and snow depths in an alpine-subalpine ecosystem as measured by damage to coniferous trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. L. Wooldridge; R. C. Musselman; R. A. Sommerfeld; D. G. Fox; B. H. Connell

    1996-01-01

    1. Deformations of Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir trees were surveyed for the purpose of determining climatic wind speeds and directions and snow depths in the Glacier Lakes Ecosystem Experiments Site (GLEES) in the Snowy Range of southeastern Wyoming, USA. Tree deformations were recorded at 50- and 100-m grid intervals over areas of c. 30 ha and 300 ha,...

  2. Effects of twice-ambient carbon dioxide and nitrogen amendment on biomass, nutrient contents and carbon costs of Norway spruce seedlings as influenced by mycorrhization with Piloderma croceum and Tomentellopsis submollis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigt, Rosemarie Barbara; Raidl, Stefan; Verma, Rita; Rodenkirchen, Hermann; Göttlein, Axel; Agerer, Reinhard

    2011-07-01

    Elevated tropospheric CO(2) concentrations may increase plant carbon fixation. In ectomycorrhizal trees, a considerable portion of the synthesized carbohydrates can be used to support the mutualistic fungal root partner which in turn can benefit the tree by increased nutrient supply. In this study, Norway spruce seedlings were inoculated with either Piloderma croceum (medium distance "fringe" exploration type) or Tomentellopsis submollis (medium distance "smooth" exploration type). We studied the impact of either species regarding fungal biomass production, seedling biomass, nutrient status and nutrient use efficiency in rhizotrons under ambient and twice-ambient CO(2) concentrations. A subset was amended with ammonium nitrate to prevent nitrogen imbalances expected under growth promotion by elevated CO(2). The two fungal species exhibited considerably different influences on growth, biomass allocation as well as nutrient uptake of spruce seedlings. P. croceum increased nutrient supply and promoted plant growth more strongly than T. submollis despite considerably higher carbon costs. In contrast, seedlings with T. submollis showed higher nutrient use efficiency, i.e. produced plant biomass per received unit of nutrient, particularly for P, K and Mg, thereby promoting shoot growth and reducing the root/shoot ratio. Under the given low soil nutrient availability, P. croceum proved to be a more favourable fungal partner for seedling development than T. submollis. Additionally, plant internal allocation of nutrients was differently influenced by the two ECM fungal species, particularly evident for P in shoots and for Ca in roots. Despite slightly increased ECM length and biomass production, neither of the two species had increased its capacity of nutrient uptake in proportion to the rise of CO(2). This lead to imbalances in nutritional status with reduced nutrient concentrations, particularly in seedlings with P. croceum. The beneficial effect of P. croceum thus

  3. The Response of Subalpine Vegetation to Climate Change and Bark Beetle Infestations: A Multi-Scale Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, A.; Shuman, J. K.; Shugart, H. H., Jr.; Negrón, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Mean annual temperatures in the western United States have increased in the last few decades, and are predicted to continue warming. In the subalpine zone of the Rocky Mountains, this warming is also predicted to increase the frequency and severity of spruce beetle outbreaks. Climate change itself may affect this vegetation, potentially leading to shifts in species compositions. These forests are a crucial part of the US's carbon budget, thus it is important to analyze how climate change and bark beetles in conjunction will affect the biomass and species composition of vegetation in subalpine zone. UVAFME is an individual-based gap model that simulates biomass and species composition of a forest. This model has been quantitatively tested at various Rocky Mountain sites in the Front Range, and has been shown to accurately simulate the vegetation dynamics in the region. UVAFME has been updated with a spruce beetle subroutine that calculates the probability for beetle infestation of each tree on a plot. This probability is based on site, climate, and individual tree characteristics, such as temperature; stand structure; and tree stress level, size, and age. These governing characteristics are based on data from the US Forest Service, and other studies on spruce susceptibility and spruce beetle phenology. UVAFME is then run with multiple climate change and beetle scenarios to determine the net effect of both variables on subalpine vegetation. These results are compared among the different scenarios and to current forest inventory data. We project that increasing temperatures due to climate change will cause an increase in the frequency and severity of spruce beetle outbreaks, leading to a decrease in the biomass and dominance of Engelmann spruce. These results are an important step in understanding the possible futures for the vegetation of subalpine zone in the Rocky Mountains.

  4. Responses Of Subalpine Conifer Seedling Germination And Survival To Soil Microclimate In The Alpine Treeline Warming Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanha, C.; Moyes, A. B.; Torn, M. S.; Germino, M. J.; Kueppers, L. M.

    2011-12-01

    At Niwot Ridge, Colorado, we used common gardens and climate manipulations to investigate potential subalpine tree species range shifts due to climate change. In Fall 2009 we harvested seed from local populations of limber pine and Englemann spruce, which we sowed in 3 experimental sites spanning an elevation gradient from lower subalpine forest (3080m asl), to the upper subalpine treeline ecotone (3400m asl), to the alpine tundra (3550m asl). In October we turned on overhead infrared heaters designed to increase growing season surface soil temperature by 4-5°C, and following snowmelt in 2010 we crossed this heating treatment with manual watering, adding 3mm of water each week. Here we report on the species, site, and treatment effects on seedling emergence and survival as mediated by snowmelt date, soil temperature, and soil moisture. Depending on the site and plot, heating accelerated germination by 1 to 4 weeks. Germination degree days (heat accumulation required for seed germination) were greater for pine than for spruce and greater in drier plots. Seedling survival was explained by date of emergence, with older seedlings more likely to survive the season. Survival was also explained by drought degree days -- the number of days below critical soil moisture thresholds compounded by high temperature -- with lower thresholds for spruce than for pine. Our preliminary results indicate that a warmer environment will stimulate germination for both species, but that, survival - especially for spruce - will be critically modulated by summer soil moisture.

  5. Warming and provenance limit tree recruitment across and beyond the elevation range of subalpine forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueppers, Lara M; Conlisk, Erin; Castanha, Cristina; Moyes, Andrew B; Germino, Matthew J; de Valpine, Perry; Torn, Margaret S; Mitton, Jeffry B

    2017-06-01

    Climate niche models project that subalpine forest ranges will extend upslope with climate warming. These projections assume that the climate suitable for adult trees will be adequate for forest regeneration, ignoring climate requirements for seedling recruitment, a potential demographic bottleneck. Moreover, local genetic adaptation is expected to facilitate range expansion, with tree populations at the upper forest edge providing the seed best adapted to the alpine. Here, we test these expectations using a novel combination of common gardens, seeded with two widely distributed subalpine conifers, and climate manipulations replicated at three elevations. Infrared heaters raised temperatures in heated plots, but raised temperatures more in the forest than at or above treeline because strong winds at high elevation reduced heating efficiency. Watering increased season-average soil moisture similarly across sites. Contrary to expectations, warming reduced Engelmann spruce recruitment at and above treeline, as well as in the forest. Warming reduced limber pine first-year recruitment in the forest, but had no net effect on fourth-year recruitment at any site. Watering during the snow-free season alleviated some negative effects of warming, indicating that warming exacerbated water limitations. Contrary to expectations of local adaptation, low-elevation seeds of both species initially recruited more strongly than high-elevation seeds across the elevation gradient, although the low-provenance advantage diminished by the fourth year for Engelmann spruce, likely due to small sample sizes. High- and low-elevation provenances responded similarly to warming across sites for Engelmann spruce, but differently for limber pine. In the context of increasing tree mortality, lower recruitment at all elevations with warming, combined with lower quality, high-provenance seed being most available for colonizing the alpine, portends range contraction for Engelmann spruce. The lower

  6. Warming and provenance limit tree recruitment across and beyond the elevation range of subalpine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueppers, Lara M.; Conlisk, Erin; Castanha, Cristina; Moyes, Andrew B.; Germino, Matthew; de Valpine, Perry; Torn, Margaret S.; Mitton, Jeffry B.

    2017-01-01

    Climate niche models project that subalpine forest ranges will extend upslope with climate warming. These projections assume that the climate suitable for adult trees will be adequate for forest regeneration, ignoring climate requirements for seedling recruitment, a potential demographic bottleneck. Moreover, local genetic adaptation is expected to facilitate range expansion, with tree populations at the upper forest edge providing the seed best adapted to the alpine. Here, we test these expectations using a novel combination of common gardens, seeded with two widely distributed subalpine conifers, and climate manipulations replicated at three elevations. Infrared heaters raised temperatures in heated plots, but raised temperatures more in the forest than at or above treeline because strong winds at high elevation reduced heating efficiency. Watering increased season-average soil moisture similarly across sites. Contrary to expectations, warming reduced Engelmann spruce recruitment at and above treeline, as well as in the forest. Warming reduced limber pine first-year recruitment in the forest, but had no net effect on fourth-year recruitment at any site. Watering during the snow-free season alleviated some negative effects of warming, indicating that warming exacerbated water limitations. Contrary to expectations of local adaptation, low-elevation seeds of both species initially recruited more strongly than high-elevation seeds across the elevation gradient, although the low-provenance advantage diminished by the fourth year for Engelmann spruce, likely due to small sample sizes. High- and low-elevation provenances responded similarly to warming across sites for Engelmann spruce, but differently for limber pine. In the context of increasing tree mortality, lower recruitment at all elevations with warming, combined with lower quality, high-provenance seed being most available for colonizing the alpine, portends range contraction for Engelmann spruce. The lower

  7. Environment pollution with hexachlorbenzene and mercury in Goertschitztal/Carinthia surveyed with Norway spruce as bioindicators; Erfassung der Umweltbelastung mit Hexachlorbenzol und Quecksilber im Goertschitztal in Kaernten mit Fichten als Bioindikatoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuerst, Alfred [Bundesforschungszentrum fuer Wald (BFW), Wien (Austria); Hellig, Kurt; Heimburger, Gerhard; Wuggenig, Walter [Amt der Kaerntner Landesregierung, Klagenfurt (Austria)

    2017-04-15

    To identify the pollution source and for zoning the polluted area in Goertschitztal in Carinthia spruce needles were analyzed for hexachlorbenzene and mercury. Two contamination sources were identified: the cement plant in Wietersdorf and a slaked lime waste deposal site in Brueckl. At the end of 2014 or early 2015 measures against this pollution sites were set up from the local authority as well as from the cement plant. In autumn 2015 all hexachlorbenzene contents in spruce needles were below the quantification limit and nearly all mercury contents decreased despite the hot summer.

  8. Multi-scale patterns of subalpine fir mortality are driven by complex interactions among broad-scale climate, local topography, stand structure, and tree characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, B. J.; Andrus, R. A.; Orrego, A.; Battaglia, M.; Negrón, J. F.; Veblen, T. T.

    2016-12-01

    Recent tree mortality events across much of western North America have been associated with warming temperatures and elevated drought stress, which can interact with forest stand-structure and tree vigor to drive outbreaks of native insect species. Although cross-scale interactions among drivers of tree-mortality events have been described for some beetle species (e.g., mountain pine beetle or spruce beetle) and their hosts (lodgepole pine and Engelmann spruce), less is known about how drivers at different scales interact to kill subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) in a phenomenon simply dubbed "subalpine fir mortality" or "subalpine fir decline." Understanding the fate of subalpine fir is important, however, because this is commonly the tree species expected to establish and exhibit growth releases following outbreaks of mountain pine beetle or spruce beetle. In this study, we use three decades of field and remote data that span spatial scales from individual trees to sub-continental ecoregions to explore factors associated with subalpine fir mortality and how drivers interact across scales. Between 1991 and 2015, >5 million hectares (ha) of subalpine forest in the US Rocky Mountains have been affected by subalpine fir mortality. At the eco-region scale (1,000s of km), mortality was temporally associated with increases in regional drought stress, suggesting that climate is an important broad-scale driver. However, at the eco-region, landscape, and stand scales (several km to sub ha), mortality was greatest in cooler/wetter topographic locations and in areas with greater pre-mortality subalpine fir dominance. Conversely, mortality was lowest for fir trees in warmer/drier topographic locations and in areas of lesser pre-mortality subalpine fir dominance. This suggests that topographically driven differences in stand structure drive mortality dynamics at meso-scales and moderate the broad-scale influence of climate. Finally, at the tree and tree-neighborhood scale

  9. Clinal Variation at Phenology-Related Genes in Spruce: Parallel Evolution in FTL2 and Gigantea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Tsuda, Yoshiaki; Stocks, Michael; Källman, Thomas; Xu, Nannan; Kärkkäinen, Katri; Huotari, Tea; Semerikov, Vladimir L.; Vendramin, Giovanni G.; Lascoux, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Parallel clines in different species, or in different geographical regions of the same species, are an important source of information on the genetic basis of local adaptation. We recently detected latitudinal clines in SNPs frequencies and gene expression of candidate genes for growth cessation in Scandinavian populations of Norway spruce (Picea abies). Here we test whether the same clines are also present in Siberian spruce (P. obovata), a close relative of Norway spruce with a different Quaternary history. We sequenced nine candidate genes and 27 control loci and genotyped 14 SSR loci in six populations of P. obovata located along the Yenisei river from latitude 56°N to latitude 67°N. In contrast to Scandinavian Norway spruce that both departs from the standard neutral model (SNM) and shows a clear population structure, Siberian spruce populations along the Yenisei do not depart from the SNM and are genetically unstructured. Nonetheless, as in Norway spruce, growth cessation is significantly clinal. Polymorphisms in photoperiodic (FTL2) and circadian clock (Gigantea, GI, PRR3) genes also show significant clinal variation and/or evidence of local selection. In GI, one of the variants is the same as in Norway spruce. Finally, a strong cline in gene expression is observed for FTL2, but not for GI. These results, together with recent physiological studies, confirm the key role played by FTL2 and circadian clock genes in the control of growth cessation in spruce species and suggest the presence of parallel adaptation in these two species. PMID:24814465

  10. Holocene vegetation and fire regimes in subalpine and mixed conifer forests, southern Rocky Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. Scott; Allen, Craig D.; Toney, J.L.; Jass, R.B.; Bair, A.N.

    2008-01-01

    Our understanding of the present forest structure of western North America hinges on our ability to determine antecedent forest conditions. Sedimentary records from lakes and bogs in the southern Rocky Mountains of Colorado and New Mexico provide information on the relationships between climate and vegetation change, and fire history since deglaciation. We present a new pollen record from Hunters Lake (Colorado) as an example of a high-elevation vegetation history from the southern Rockies. We then present a series of six sedimentary records from ???2600 to 3500-m elevation, including sites presently at the alpine?subalpine boundary, within the Picea engelmannii?Abies lasiocarpa forest and within the mixed conifer forest, to determine the history of fire in high-elevation forests there. High Artemisia and low but increasing percentages of Picea and Pinus suggest vegetation prior to 13 500 calendar years before present (cal yr BP) was tundra or steppe, with open spruce woodland to ???11 900 cal yr BP. Subalpine forest (Picea engelmannii, Abies lasiocarpa) existed around the lake for the remainder of the Holocene. At lower elevations, Pinus ponderosa and/or contorta expanded 11 900 to 10 200 cal yr BP; mixed conifer forest expanded ???8600 to 4700 cal yr BP; and Pinus edulis expanded after ???4700 cal yr BP. Sediments from lake sites near the alpine?subalpine transition contained five times less charcoal than those entirely within subalpine forests, and 40 times less than bog sites within mixed conifer forest. Higher fire episode frequencies occurred between ???12 000 and 9000 cal yr BP (associated with the initiation or expansion of south-west monsoon and abundant lightning, and significant biomass during vegetation turnover) and at ???2000?1000 cal yr BP (related to periodic droughts during the long-term trend towards wetter conditions and greater biomass). Fire episode frequencies for subalpine?alpine transition and subalpine sites were on average 5 to 10 fire

  11. Basic density and moisture content of coniferous branches and wood in Northern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibdiakova, J.; Vadla, K.

    2012-10-01

    With the increasing demand for fuel the use of biomass from other tree components like branches and tops has increased rapidly. Norway has abundant raw material resources which can be use for bioenergy. Sitka spruce and Norway spruce are becoming more interesting due to their potential energy for heating. The study consisted of 2 site locations in Nordland - 1 stand of Sitka spruce in Steigen area, and 1 stand of Sitka spruce, 1 stand of Norway spruce, and 1 stand of Lutz spruce in Sømna area. Bark thickness differed between the sites within decreasing pattern along the stem. Significant differences of bark density between sites, tree species and tree height levels with decreasing trend towards the top were found. Branches density decreased along the crown level and had about 15-20% higher density than wood density. Wood density varied significantly with sites and height of tree - highest pattern on the tree base, decreasing to 20% of height, and again increasing to the top. The moisture content of branches, wood and bark increased from the base of tree to the top. Bark moisture was about 20-25% higher as wood moisture content. Sitka spruce in Northland may be highly considered as a valuable bioenergy source.

  12. Declines in low-elevation subalpine tree populations outpace growth in high-elevation populations with warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlisk, Erin; Castanha, Cristina; Germino, Matthew J.; Veblen, Thomas T; Smith, Jeremy M.; Kueppers, Lara M.

    2017-01-01

    Species distribution shifts in response to climate change require that recruitment increase beyond current range boundaries. For trees with long life spans, the importance of climate-sensitive seedling establishment to the pace of range shifts has not been demonstrated quantitatively.Using spatially explicit, stochastic population models combined with data from long-term forest surveys, we explored whether the climate-sensitivity of recruitment observed in climate manipulation experiments was sufficient to alter populations and elevation ranges of two widely distributed, high-elevation North American conifers.Empirically observed, warming-driven declines in recruitment led to rapid modelled population declines at the low-elevation, ‘warm edge’ of subalpine forest and slow emergence of populations beyond the high-elevation, ‘cool edge’. Because population declines in the forest occurred much faster than population emergence in the alpine, we observed range contraction for both species. For Engelmann spruce, this contraction was permanent over the modelled time horizon, even in the presence of increased moisture. For limber pine, lower sensitivity to warming may facilitate persistence at low elevations – especially in the presence of increased moisture – and rapid establishment above tree line, and, ultimately, expansion into the alpine.Synthesis. Assuming 21st century warming and no additional moisture, population dynamics in high-elevation forests led to transient range contractions for limber pine and potentially permanent range contractions for Engelmann spruce. Thus, limitations to seedling recruitment with warming can constrain the pace of subalpine tree range shifts.

  13. Diapause and overwintering of two spruce bark beetle species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schebeck, Martin; Hansen, E Matthew; Schopf, Axel; Ragland, Gregory J; Stauffer, Christian; Bentz, Barbara J

    2017-09-01

    Diapause, a strategy to endure unfavourable conditions (e.g. cold winters) is commonly found in ectothermic organisms and is characterized by an arrest of development and reproduction, a reduction of metabolic rate, and an increased resistance to adversity. Diapause, in addition to adaptations for surviving low winter temperatures, significantly influences phenology, voltinism and ultimately population growth. We review the literature on diapause and overwintering behaviour of two bark beetle species that affect spruce-dominated forests in the northern hemisphere, and describe and compare how these strategies can influence population dynamics. The European spruce bark beetle Ips typographus (L.) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) is the most important forest pest of Norway spruce in Europe. It enters an adult reproductive diapause that might be either facultative or obligate. Obligate diapausing beetles are considered strictly univoltine, entering this dormancy type regardless of environmental cues. Facultative diapausing individuals enter diapause induced by photoperiod, modified by temperature, thus being potentially multivoltine. The spruce beetle Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) infests all spruce species in its natural range in North America. A facultative prepupal diapause is averted by relatively warm temperatures, resulting in a univoltine life cycle, whereas cool temperatures induce prepupal diapause leading to a semivoltine cycle. An adult obligate diapause in D. rufipennis could limit bi- or multivoltinism. We discuss and compare the influence of diapause and overwinter survival on voltinism and population dynamics of these two species in a changing climate and provide an outlook on future research.

  14. Spruce budworm returns to Northeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd Irland; William H. McWilliams

    2014-01-01

    Thinking of the Northern Forest brings to mind spruce/fir (S/F) forests, cool climates, and high elevations: not to mention fishing and canoe trips: however, spruce and fir are also very important to the northern timber economy and rural development. Considering new concerns over the spruce budworm, an update on the status of this critically important forest resource...

  15. Volatiles from a mite-infested spruce clone and their effects on pine weevil behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kännaste, Astrid; Nordenhem, Henrik; Nordlander, Göran; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

    2009-10-01

    Induced responses by Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings to feeding damage by two mite species were studied by analyzing the volatiles emitted during infestation. Four specimens of a Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) clone were infested with mites of Nalepella sp., another four with Oligonychus ununguis, and four were kept mite-free as controls. After a year of infestation, spruce volatiles were collected, analyzed, and identified using SPME-GC-MS. In addition, enantiomers of chiral limonene and linalool were separated by two-dimensional GC. Methyl salicylate (MeSA), (-)-linalool, (E)-beta-farnesene, and (E,E)-alpha-farnesene were the main volatiles induced by both species of mites, albeit in different proportions. The ability of the main compounds emitted by the mite-infested spruces to attract or repel the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis (L.), was tested. (E)-beta-farnesene was found to be attractive in the absence of spruce odor, whereas methyl salicylate had a deterrent effect in combination with attractive spruce odor. The other tested compounds had no significant effects on the behavior of the weevils.

  16. Seasonal Changes of Coefficient Q10 in CO2 Flux from Soil Under Spruce Stand

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavelka, Marian; Janouš, Dalibor

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 15 (2002), s. 43-48. ISBN 80-7157-297-7 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/00/0485 Grant - others:EVK2(XE) CT-1999-00032 Keywords : soil CO2 efflux * Norway spruce * Q10 * respiration * soil Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  17. ESTIMATING ROOT RESPIRATION IN SPRUCE AND BEECH: DECREASES IN SOIL RESPIRATION FOLLOWING GIRDLING

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was undertaken to follow seasonal fluxes of CO2 from soil and to estimate the contribution of autotrophic (root + mycorrhizal) to total soil respiration (SR) in a mixed stand of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) near Freising, Germany. Matu...

  18. SOIL CO2 EFFLUX FROM ISOTOPICALLY LABELED BEECH AND SPRUCE IN SOUTHERN GERMANY

    Science.gov (United States)

    • Carbon acquisition and transport to roots in forest trees is difficult to quantify and is affected by a number of factors, including micrometeorology and anthropogenic stresses. The canopies of mature European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) were expose...

  19. Development of soil water regime under spruce stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tužinský Ladislav

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the water regime of soils under spruce ecosystems in relation to long-lasting humid and drought periods in the growing seasons 1991-2013. The dominant interval humidity in observing growing seasons is semiuvidic interval with soil moisture between hydro-limits maximal capillary capacity (MCC and point of diminished availability (PDA. Gravitationally seepage concentrated from accumulated winter season, water from melting snow and existing atmospheric precipitation occurs in the soil only at the beginning of the growing season. The supplies of soil water are significantly decreasing in the warm climate and precipitant deficient days. The greatest danger from drought threatens Norway spruce during the summer months and it depends on the duration of dry days, water supply at the beginning of the dry days, air temperature and the intensity of evapotranspiration. In the surface layers of the soil, with the maximum occurrence of active roots, the water in semiarid interval area between hydro-limits PDA and wilting point (WP decreases during the summer months. In the culminating phase occurs the drying to moisture state with capillary stationary and the insufficient supply of available water for the plants. Physiological weakening of Norway spruce caused by set of outlay components of the water balance is partially reduced by delivering of water by capillary action from deeper horizons. In extremely dry periods, soil moisture is decreasing also throughout the soil profile (0-100 cm into the bottom third of the variation margin hydro-limits MCC-PDA in the category of capillary less moving and for plants of low supply of usable water (60-90 mm. The issue of deteriorated health state of spruce ecosystems is considered to be actual. Changes and developments of hydropedological conditions which interfere the mountain forests represent the increasing danger of the drought for the spruce.

  20. SPRUCE Mashup London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward M. Corrado

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available SPRUCE digital preservation mashups are a series of unique events that are being organized in the United Kingdom to bring together digital preservation practitioners and developers to work on real-world digital preservation challenges. During the 3-day event the digital preservation developers work to create practical solutions to real-world challenges the practitioners are having related to digital preservation. Meanwhile, the practitioners work to create compelling business cases for digital preservation at their institution. This article describes the SPRUCE Mashup London event held in September 2012.

  1. Transcriptome mining, functional characterization, and phylogeny of a large terpene synthase gene family in spruce (Picea spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dullat Harpreet K

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In conifers, terpene synthases (TPSs of the gymnosperm-specific TPS-d subfamily form a diverse array of mono-, sesqui-, and diterpenoid compounds, which are components of the oleoresin secretions and volatile emissions. These compounds contribute to defence against herbivores and pathogens and perhaps also protect against abiotic stress. Results The availability of extensive transcriptome resources in the form of expressed sequence tags (ESTs and full-length cDNAs in several spruce (Picea species allowed us to estimate that a conifer genome contains at least 69 unique and transcriptionally active TPS genes. This number is comparable to the number of TPSs found in any of the sequenced and well-annotated angiosperm genomes. We functionally characterized a total of 21 spruce TPSs: 12 from Sitka spruce (P. sitchensis, 5 from white spruce (P. glauca, and 4 from hybrid white spruce (P. glauca × P. engelmannii, which included 15 monoterpene synthases, 4 sesquiterpene synthases, and 2 diterpene synthases. Conclusions The functional diversity of these characterized TPSs parallels the diversity of terpenoids found in the oleoresin and volatile emissions of Sitka spruce and provides a context for understanding this chemical diversity at the molecular and mechanistic levels. The comparative characterization of Sitka spruce and Norway spruce diterpene synthases revealed the natural occurrence of TPS sequence variants between closely related spruce species, confirming a previous prediction from site-directed mutagenesis and modelling.

  2. Transcriptome mining, functional characterization, and phylogeny of a large terpene synthase gene family in spruce (Picea spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background In conifers, terpene synthases (TPSs) of the gymnosperm-specific TPS-d subfamily form a diverse array of mono-, sesqui-, and diterpenoid compounds, which are components of the oleoresin secretions and volatile emissions. These compounds contribute to defence against herbivores and pathogens and perhaps also protect against abiotic stress. Results The availability of extensive transcriptome resources in the form of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and full-length cDNAs in several spruce (Picea) species allowed us to estimate that a conifer genome contains at least 69 unique and transcriptionally active TPS genes. This number is comparable to the number of TPSs found in any of the sequenced and well-annotated angiosperm genomes. We functionally characterized a total of 21 spruce TPSs: 12 from Sitka spruce (P. sitchensis), 5 from white spruce (P. glauca), and 4 from hybrid white spruce (P. glauca × P. engelmannii), which included 15 monoterpene synthases, 4 sesquiterpene synthases, and 2 diterpene synthases. Conclusions The functional diversity of these characterized TPSs parallels the diversity of terpenoids found in the oleoresin and volatile emissions of Sitka spruce and provides a context for understanding this chemical diversity at the molecular and mechanistic levels. The comparative characterization of Sitka spruce and Norway spruce diterpene synthases revealed the natural occurrence of TPS sequence variants between closely related spruce species, confirming a previous prediction from site-directed mutagenesis and modelling. PMID:21385377

  3. Diapause and overwintering of two spruce bark beetle species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, E. Matthew; Schopf, Axel; Ragland, Gregory J.; Stauffer, Christian; Bentz, Barbara J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Diapause, a strategy to endure unfavourable conditions (e.g. cold winters) is commonly found in ectothermic organisms and is characterized by an arrest of development and reproduction, a reduction of metabolic rate, and an increased resistance to adversity. Diapause, in addition to adaptations for surviving low winter temperatures, significantly influences phenology, voltinism and ultimately population growth. We review the literature on diapause and overwintering behaviour of two bark beetle species that affect spruce‐dominated forests in the northern hemisphere, and describe and compare how these strategies can influence population dynamics. The European spruce bark beetle Ips typographus (L.) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) is the most important forest pest of Norway spruce in Europe. It enters an adult reproductive diapause that might be either facultative or obligate. Obligate diapausing beetles are considered strictly univoltine, entering this dormancy type regardless of environmental cues. Facultative diapausing individuals enter diapause induced by photoperiod, modified by temperature, thus being potentially multivoltine. The spruce beetle Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) infests all spruce species in its natural range in North America. A facultative prepupal diapause is averted by relatively warm temperatures, resulting in a univoltine life cycle, whereas cool temperatures induce prepupal diapause leading to a semivoltine cycle. An adult obligate diapause in D. rufipennis could limit bi‐ or multivoltinism. We discuss and compare the influence of diapause and overwinter survival on voltinism and population dynamics of these two species in a changing climate and provide an outlook on future research. PMID:28979060

  4. Belowground effects of enhanced tropospheric ozone and drought in a beech/spruce forest (Fagus sylvatica L./Picea abies [L.] Karst)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolova, Petia S., E-mail: nikolova@wzw.tum.d [Ecophysiology of Plants, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Weihenstephan Center of Life and Food Sciences, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany); Andersen, Christian P. [Western Ecology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, United States Environmental Protection Agency, 200 SW 35th St., Corvallis, OR 97333 (United States); Blaschke, Helmut; Matyssek, Rainer; Haeberle, Karl-Heinz [Ecophysiology of Plants, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Weihenstephan Center of Life and Food Sciences, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    The effects of experimentally elevated O{sub 3} on soil respiration rates, standing fine-root biomass, fine-root production and delta{sup 13}C signature of newly produced fine roots were investigated in an adult European beech/Norway spruce forest in Germany during two subsequent years with contrasting rainfall patterns. During humid 2002, soil respiration rate was enhanced under elevated O{sub 3} under beech and spruce, and was related to O{sub 3}-stimulated fine-root production only in beech. During dry 2003, the stimulating effect of O{sub 3} on soil respiration rate vanished under spruce, which was correlated with decreased fine-root production in spruce under drought, irrespective of the O{sub 3} regime. delta{sup 13}C signature of newly formed fine-roots was consistent with the differing g{sub s} of beech and spruce, and indicated stomatal limitation by O{sub 3} in beech and by drought in spruce. Our study showed that drought can override the stimulating O{sub 3} effects on fine-root dynamics and soil respiration in mature beech and spruce forests. - Drought has the capacity to override the stimulating ozone effect on soil respiration in adult European beech/Norway spruce forest.

  5. Pelletizing properties of torrefied spruce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelte, Wolfgang; Clemons, Craig; Holm, Jens K.

    2011-01-01

    analysis revealed a cohesive failure mechanism due to strong inter-particle bonding in spruce pellets as a resulting from a plastic flow of the amorphous wood polymers, forming solid polymer bridges between adjacent particles. Fracture surfaces of pellets made from torrefied spruce possessed gaps and voids...

  6. Subalpine Conifer Seedling Demographics: Species Responses to Climate Manipulations Across an Elevational Gradient at Niwot Ridge, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanha, C.; Germino, M. J.; Torn, M. S.; Ferrenberg, S.; Harte, J.; Kueppers, L. M.

    2010-12-01

    The effect of climate change on future ranges of treeline species is poorly understood. For example, it is not known whether trees will recruit into the alpine, above the current treeline, and whether population-level differences in trees will mediate range shifts. At Niwot Ridge, Colorado, we used common gardens and climate manipulations to test predictions that warming will lead to greater recruitment at and beyond the cold edge of these species ranges, and will reduce recruitment at the warm edge. Seed from local populations of limber pine and Englemann spruce was harvested and reciprocally planted in 3 experimental sites spanning an elevation gradient from lower subalpine forest (10,000’), to the upper subalpine treeline ecotone (11,000’), to the alpine tundra (11,300’). In Fall 2009 seeds were sown into 20 plots at each site. Overhead infrared heaters targeted increases in growing season surface soil temperature of 4-5°C. The heating treatment, which began in October 2009, was crossed with manual watering, which was initiated following snowmelt in 2010. Over the 2010 growing season, we surveyed seedling germination and mortality weekly. Germination began in early May at the forest site, in early June at the krummholz site, and in early July at the alpine site. Depending on the site and plot, heating accelerated germination by 1 to 4 weeks. Seed source elevation, species, and site all affected germination, with effects for the two species also depending on site. At all sites, lower elevation, warm-edge populations had higher germination rates than high-elevation, cool-edge populations, indicating a potential bottleneck for germination of the high elevation seed sources in the adjacent alpine tundra. At all sites, survival was generally higher for pine than for spruce. Watering tended to enhance pine germinant survival while heating tended to depress spruce germinant survival. Our results indicate that the alpine tundra, generally considered an

  7. DECLINE IN SOIL CO2 EFFLUX FOLLOWING TREE GIRTLING IN MATURE BEECH AND SPRUCE STANDS IN GERMANY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were undertaken to estimate the contribution of autotrophic respiration to total soil CO2 efflux in stands of mature European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) near Freising, Germany. Five mature trees of each species were girdled to eliminate carbo...

  8. Long-term landscape changes in a subalpine spruce-fir forest in central Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesse L. Morris; R. Justin DeRose; Andrea R. Brunelle

    2015-01-01

    In Western North America, increasing wildfire and outbreaks of native bark beetles have been mediated by warming climate conditions. Bioclimatic models forecast the loss of key high elevation species throughout the region. This study uses retrospective vegetation and fire history data to reconstruct the drivers of past disturbance and environmental change....

  9. Toxic components of motor vehicle emissions for the spruce Picea abies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerbauer, H; Selinger, H; Römmelt, R; Ziegler-Jöns, A; Knoppik, D; Hock, B

    1987-01-01

    Six-year-old Norway spruce trees were exposed for 30 min under standardised conditions to the exhaust from an Otto engine running on lead-free petrol. Gas-exchange measurements in an open system using an infrared gas analyser showed a sudden, severe drop in CO(2) assimilation and transpiration rates. By using filters which absorbed different fractions of the exhaust it could be demonstrated that the toxic effects can be attributed to the NO(x) fraction.

  10. White spruce meets black spruce: dispersal, postfire establishment, and growth in a warming climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Wirth; J.W. Lichstein; J. Dushoff; A. Chen; F.S.III. Chapin

    2008-01-01

    Local distributions of black spruce (Picea mariana) and white spruce (Picea glauca) are largely determined by edaphic and topographic factors in the interior of Alaska, with black spruce dominant on moist permafrost sites and white spruce dominant on drier upland sites. Given the recent evidence for climate warming and...

  11. Hydrological Features on Subalpine Forest Zone in the East of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, X.; Cheng, G.; Guo, W.

    2008-12-01

    The Hengduan mountain chains of China is situated on the east of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau with area of more than 400,000 km2. Mountains and rivers run through in north-south direction, and are collocated side by side on east-west. Elevation difference between ridges and valleys has great disparity, normally of 1000-2500m, so the vertical zones of vegetation are very distinct. Subalpine coniferous forest zone, mainly composed of fir (Abies) and spruce (Picea), is on altitude of 2800-4200m, which is a chief component of the forested area in southwest China, and an important region for water conservation of several international rivers inlcuding Nujiang River and Lancangjiang River, as well as the world-famous Changjiang River. Thus, it has both theoretical and practical significance to study hydrological process and laws of forest in this region. The study area is located at the Gongga Mountain, on the east edge of the Hengduan mountain chains. Elevation of the main peak is 7556m, and elevation difference between ridge and valley on the eastern slope is 6400m. An ecological observation station was built at altitude of 3000m on the eastern slope of Gongga Mountain in 1988, mainly for alpine ecology and forest hydrology research. Based on the analysis of 20- years observation data from this station, it is revealed that hydrological process of forest in this area has several features as follows: (1) Canopy interception of primitive fir (Abies) forest is obviously greater than other tree species, and interception rate is 30-40%. Maximal canopy interception of one-time precipitation of primitive fir forest is commonly 2-5mm. According to observation data of canopy interception, a conceptual model of canopy interception of fir forest is established: R=1.69[(1-exp(-0.41P))+0.19P (P is precipitation in mm); (2) Natural valid moisture holding capacity in layer of moss-decayed wood and leaves beneath trees is up to 5.6mm. Porosity in soil surface layer and non-capillary porosity

  12. Mice and voles prefer spruce seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herschel G. Abbott; Arthur C. Hart

    1961-01-01

    When spruce-fir stands in the Northeast are cut, balsam fir seedlings often predominate in the regeneration that follows. Most landowners would prefer to have the spruce; but they do not get it, and they wonder why.

  13. Delphinella Shoot Blight on Abies lasiocarpa Provenances in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venche Talgø

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Delphinella shoot blight (Delphinella abietis attacks true firs (Abies spp. in Europe and North America. Especially subalpine fir (A. lasiocarpa, one of the main Christmas tree species in Norway, is prone to the disease. The fungus kills current year needles, and in severe cases entire shoots. Dead needles become covered with black fruiting bodies, both pycnidia and pseudothecia. Delphinella shoot blight has mainly been a problem in humid, coastal regions in the northwestern part of Southern Norway, but, probably due to higher precipitation in inland regions during recent years, heavy attacks were found in 2011 in a field trial with 76 provenances of subalpine fir in Southeastern Norway. However, the amount of precipitation seemed less important once the disease had established in the field. Significant differences in susceptibility between provenances were observed. In general, the more bluish the foliage was, the healthier the trees appeared. The analysis of provenance means indicated that, at least for the southern range, the disease ratings were correlated with foliage color. This study also includes isolation, identification, a pathogenicity test, a seed test and electron microscopy of the wax layer on the needles. The fungus was identified based on the morphology of spores and by sequencing the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS regions of the ribosomal DNA. Koch’s postulates were fulfilled. The fungus was found present on newly harvested seeds and may therefore spread via international seed trade. When comparing the wax layers on green and blue needles, those of the latter were significantly thicker, a factor that may be involved in disease resistance.

  14. Impact of climate change on growth dynamics of Norway spruce in south-eastern Norway

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čermák, P.; Rybníček, Michal; Žid, T.; Andreassen, K.; Borja, I.; Kolář, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2017), č. článku 1781. ISSN 0037-5330 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA ČR GA13-04291S Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : crown condition * decline * Picea abies * tree-ring width * precipitation * Oslofjord Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.495, year: 2016

  15. Go, surf Norway

    OpenAIRE

    L'orange, Håkon

    2017-01-01

    How can a digital service encourage surfers in Norway to catch more Norwegian waves? Through a design ethnographic approach I have explored the surf community and daily life of surfers in Norway. Long travel distances, few surf friends and unpredictable surf conditions are amongst the challenges many surfers face. By applying these insights I have designed a solution that aims to lower the threshold to go surfing in Norway. The design proposal, Bølgen is a digital service provided by the Norw...

  16. Below-ground effects of enhanced tropospheric ozone and drought in a beech/spruce forest (Fagus sylvatica L. / Picea abies [L.] Karst)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of experimentally elevated O3 on soil respiration rates, standing fine-root biomass, fine-root production and δ13C signature of newly produced fine roots were investigated in an adult European beech/Norway spruce forest in Germany during two subsequent years with cont...

  17. Provenance variability in nursery growth of subalpine fir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlie Cartwright; Cheng Ying

    2011-01-01

    Subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa [Hook] Nutt.) is a wide-ranging, high-elevation species in the interior of British Columbia. It is commonly harvested for lumber, but replanting of it is limited. Some reticence is based upon wood quality and rate of growth, but there are also seed and nursery culturing difficulties. This study investigated seedling growth traits of 111...

  18. Rubidium and cesium in spruce needles. Concentrations and biodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobler, L; Bucher, J; Furrer, V; Schleppi, P; Wyttenbach, A

    1994-01-01

    The endogenous concentrations of Rb and Cs have been determined in needles of 56 trees (Norway spruce, Picea abies) from eight different sites. Analysis was done by instrumental neutron activation. Concentrations were found to have a very large range (3-28,000 ng Cs/g and 1-190 micrograms Rb/g). The values on a given site have a tendency toward a log-normal distribution. There is a significant correlation between Rb and Cs, but the correlation is not linear. The concentrations of both elements are a function of the needle age. They decrease smoothly, approaching a constant value, when going from needle age class 1 to 5. It is shown that one algebraic function describes this biodynamic behavior on all sites and at all concentration levels. The function and its parameters are discussed.

  19. Tensile strength of glulam laminations of Nordic spruce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Preben; Bräuner, Lise; Boström, Lars

    1999-01-01

    Design of glulam according to the European timber code Eurocode 5 is based on the standard document prEN1194 , according to which glulam beam strength is to be established either by full scale testing or by calculation. The calculation must be based on a knowledge of lamination tensile strength....... This knowledge may be obtained either by adopting a general rule that the characteristic tensile strength is sixty percent of the characteristic bending strength, or by performing tensile tests on an adequate number of laminations representative of the whole population. The present paper presents...... an investigation aimed at establishing such an adequate experimental background for the assignment of strength classes for glulam made of visually strength graded laminations from Nordic sawmills. The investigation includes more than 1800 boards (laminations) of Norway spruce (Picea abies) sampled from eight...

  20. Responses of spruce seedlings (Picea abies) to exhaust gas under laboratory conditions. 1. plant-insect interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viskari, E.-L.; Koessi, S. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science; Surakka, J.; Pasanen, P.; Ruuskanen, J. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Mirme, A. [Tartu Univ. (Estonia). Int. of Environmental Physics; Holopainen, J.K. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science; Agricultural Research Centre, Plant Production research, Jokioinen (Finland)

    2000-07-01

    The effects of motor vehicle exhaust gas on Norway spruce seedlings (Picea abies (L) Karst) and plant-insect interaction of spruce shoot aphid (Cinara pilicornis Hartig) was studied. The exhaust gas concentrations in the fumigation chambers were monitored and controlled by measuring the concentration of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) with a computer aided feedback system. The concentrations of major exhaust gas components (black carbon (BC), fine particles, VOCs and carbonyl compounds) in the chamber air were also measured. Responses of Norway spruce seedlings to a 2 and 3 week exhaust gas exposure and subsequent performance of spruce shoot aphid were studied using realistic exposure regimes; 50, 100 and 200 ppb NO{sub x}. The feedback control system based on NO{sub x} concentrations proved an adequate and practical means for controlling the concentration of exhaust gases and studying plant responses in controlled environment chambers. The exhaust exposure resulted in increased concentrations of proline, glutamine, threonine, aspartic acid, glycine and phenylalanine and decreased concentration of arginine, serine, alanine and glycine in young needles. No changes in soluble N concentrations were observed. The results are interpreted as a stress response rather than use of NO{sub x} as a nitrogen source. No changes in total phenolics and only transient changes in some individual terpene concentrations were detected. The exhaust gas exposure stressed the exposed seedlings, but had no significant effect on N metabolism or the production of defence chemicals. Aphid performance was not significantly affected. Soluble N, secondary metabolism and aphid performance were not sensitive to exhaust gas exposure during shoot elongation in Norway spruce. (author)

  1. Natural tree collectives of pure oriental spruce [Picea orientalis (L.) Link] on mountain forests in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucler, Ali Omer; Yucesan, Zafer; Demirci, Ali; Yavuz, Hakki; Oktan, Ercan

    2007-04-01

    Distribution area of oriental spruce [Picea orientalis (L.) Link.] in the world is only in the north-east of Turkey and Caucasian. Because of being the semi monopoly tree with respect to its distribution and representing the upper forest line, it is necessary to analyse, evaluate and model the stand structures of oriental spruce forests in Turkey. In this research, some sampling plots were selected in timberline and treeline in the subalpine forest zone in Turkey. In these sampling plots some information about occurrence and development of the tree collectives was obtained. A total of 12 sampling plots (6 in timberline and 6 of them in treeline) were studied and horizontal and vertical stand profiles were obtained, while number of trees ranges between 2-86 in the tree collectives in treeline and in timberline 3-12. According to this, area per tree in treeline and in timberline is determined as 1.02 m2 and 3.75 m2 on an average respectively. Mean age of trees to reach breast height is 43 years in treeline sampling plots and 22 years in timberline sampling plots. According to the ratio of h (mean height) / d1.30 (diameter at breast height), stand stability values were calculated and it was determined if the stands were stable on the basis of the sampling plots. Stability values of the sampling plots changed between 33 and 75.

  2. Ammonium assmilation in spruce ectomycorrhizas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalot, M.; Brun, A.; Botton, B. (Univ. of nancy, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)); Stewart, G. (University College, London (England))

    1990-05-01

    Assimilation of labelled NH{sub 4}{sup +} into amino acids has been followed in ectomycorrhizal roots of spruce. Over an 18 h period of NH{sub 4}{sup +} feeding, Gln, Glu and Ala became the most abundant amino acids. Gln was also the most highly labelled amino acid during the experiment, followed by Glu and Ala. This result indicates that Gln synthesis is an important ammonium utilization reaction in spruce mycorrhizas. Addition of MSX to NH{sub 4}{sup +} fed mycorrhizas caused an inhibition of Gln accumulation with a corresponding increase in Glu, Ala and Asn levels. The supply of MSX induced a sharp diminution of {sup 15}N enrichment in both amino and amido groups of glutamine. In contrast, the {sup 15}N incorporation into Glu and derivatives (Ala and Asp) remained very high. This study demonstrates that the fungal glutamate dehydrogenase is quite operative in spruce ectomycorrhizas since it is able to sustain ammonium assimilation when glutamine synthetase is inhibited.

  3. Soil Chemical and Microbial Properties in a Mixed Stand of Spruce and Birch in the Ore Mountains (Germany—A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline Schua

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A major argument for incorporating deciduous tree species in coniferous forest stands is their role in the amelioration and stabilisation of biogeochemical cycles. Current forest management strategies in central Europe aim to increase the area of mixed stands. In order to formulate statements about the ecological effects of mixtures, studies at the stand level are necessary. In a mixed stand of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. and silver birch (Betula pendula Roth in the Ore Mountains (Saxony, Germany, the effects of these two tree species on chemical and microbial parameters in the topsoil were studied at one site in the form of a case study. Samples were taken from the O layer and A horizon in areas of the stand influenced by either birch, spruce or a mixture of birch and spruce. The microbial biomass, basal respiration, metabolic quotient, pH-value and the C and N contents and stocks were analysed in the horizons Of, Oh and A. Significantly higher contents of microbial N were observed in the Of and Oh horizons in the birch and in the spruce-birch strata than in the stratum containing only spruce. The same was found with respect to pH-values in the Of horizon and basal respiration in the Oh horizon. Compared to the spruce stratum, in the birch and spruce-birch strata, significantly lower values were found for the contents of organic C and total N in the A horizon. The findings of the case study indicated that single birch trees have significant effects on the chemical and microbial topsoil properties in spruce-dominated stands. Therefore, the admixture of birch in spruce stands may distinctly affect nutrient cycling and may also be relevant for soil carbon sequestration. Further studies of these functional aspects are recommended.

  4. Seasonal and diurnal variation in the deposition velocity of ozone over a spruce forest in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, K.; Jensen, N.O.; Hummelshøj, P.

    1995-01-01

    The flux of O-3 was measured by the eddy-correlation method over Norway spruce in periods when the trees had a very low activity, periods with optimum growth, and periods with water stress. The aerodynamic resistance (tau(a)), viscous sub-layer resistance (tau(b)) and surface resistance (tau......(c)) to O-3 were calculated from meteorological parameters and the deposition velocity. The canopy stomatal resistance to O-3 was calculated from measurements of the water vapour flux. The deposition velocities showed a diurnal pattern with night-time values of 3.5 mm s(-1) and day-time values of 7 mm s(-1...

  5. Silvical characteristics of red spruce (Picea rubens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur C. Hart

    1959-01-01

    Red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) is not only the most important of the spruces; it is also one of the most important of all the conifers in northeastern North America. It is a tree of many uses. The paper industry relies heavily on it for pulpwood; in the variety of its other uses it rivals white pine.

  6. Use of cosmogenic 35S for comparing ages of water from three alpine-subalpine basins in the Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueker, J.K.; Turk, J.T.; Michel, R.L.

    1999-01-01

    High-elevation basins in Colorado are a major source of water for the central and western United States; however, acidic deposition may affect the quality of this water. Water that is retained in a basin for a longer period of time may be less impacted by acidic deposition. Sulfur-35 (35S), a short-lived isotope of sulfur (t( 1/2 ) = 87 days), is useful for studying short-time scale hydrologic processes in basins where biological influences and water/rock interactions are minimal. When sulfate response in a basin is conservative, the age of water may be assumed to be that of the dissolved sulfate in it. Three alpine-subalpine basins on granitic terrain in Colorado were investigated to determine the influence of basin morphology on the residence time of water in the basins. Fern and Spruce Creek basins are glaciated and accumulate deep snowpacks during the winter. These basins have hydrologic and chemical characteristics typical of systems with rapid hydrologic response times. The age of sulfate leaving these basins, determined from the activity of 35S, averages around 200 days. In contrast, Boulder Brook basin has broad, gentle slopes and an extensive cover of surficial debris. Its area above treeline, about one-half of the basin, is blown free of snow during the winter. Variations in flow and solute concentrations in Boulder Brook are quite small compared to Fern and Spruce Creeks. After peak snowmelt, sulfate in Boulder Brook is about 200 days older than sulfate in Fern and Spruce Creeks. This indicates a substantial source of older sulfate (lacking 35S) that is probably provided from water stored in pore spaces of surficial debris in Boulder Brook basin.

  7. Spruce aphid (Elatobium abietinum Walker) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) [Chapter XXIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ann M. Lynch

    2014-01-01

    Elatobium abietinum Walker is a spruce-feeding aphid that in Europe is referred to as the green spruce aphid (Day et al., 1998a) (Fig. 1). However, in North America E. abietinum is known simply as the spruce aphid, while the common name "green spruce aphid" refers to a different species, Cinara fornacula Hottes (Hemiptera: Aphididae) (http://www.entsoc.org/...

  8. Evaluation of storage and filtration protocols for alpine/subalpine lake water quality samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    John L. Korfmacher; Robert C. Musselman

    2007-01-01

    Many government agencies and other organizations sample natural alpine and subalpine surface waters using varying protocols for sample storage and filtration. Simplification of protocols would be beneficial if it could be shown that sample quality is unaffected. In this study, samples collected from low ionic strength waters in alpine and subalpine lake inlets...

  9. Ozone and modeled stomatal conductance at a high elevation subalpine site in southeastern Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert C. Musselman; Karl F. Zeller; Nedialko T. Nikolov

    1998-01-01

    Ozone concentrations have been monitored at the Glacier Lakes Ecosystem Experiment Site (GLEES) in the Snowy Range of the Medicine Bow Mountains 55 km west of Laramie, Wyoming, USA. The site is located at 3,186 m elevation in a large subalpine meadow of a mature subalpine forest near timberline. Continuous ozone and meteorological monitoring are a part of the GLEES...

  10. Malthus on norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, M

    1966-11-01

    Abstract Malthus visited Norway in 1799 and his impression of the country's demographic experience was important in determining the character of the second edition of his Essay on the Principle of Population. He relied for the most part on non-statistical sources. This led him to exaggerate, e.g. the size of households, the number of unmarried farm servants and to miss important features, e.g. differences in marital age patterns, regional variations in fertility and nuptiality. The bias of his itinerary and of his main informants is also apparent. Statistical material not available to Malthus indicates that he was right to stress the late age at marriage in Norway but wrong to ignore the operation of the positive check. Mortality was frequently high in late eighteenth and early nineteenth-century Norway, much higher than Malthus ever realized. This destroys the symmetry, as well as the morality, of Malthus's exposition.

  11. N cycling in SPRUCE (Spruce Peatlands Response Under ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peatlands located in boreal regions make up a third of global wetland area and are expected to have the highest temperature increases in response to climate change. As climate warms, we expect peat decomposition may accelerate, altering the cycling of nitrogen. Alterations in the nitrogen cycle can have consequences on NO3, NH4 availability or pollution, and potentially increase nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, a persistent greenhouse gas (GHG). These consequences can cascade to altering whole ecosystem functions and effecting human health.We are investigating nitrogen cycling response to elevated temperature and CO2 in a boreal peatland. Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climate and Environmental Change (SPRUCE) project initiated soil warming in 2014 in ten peatland mesocosms (five temperature treatments from ambient (+0°C) to +9°C) and elevated CO2 in half of the mesocosms in 2016. Peat cores at three depths (acrotelm, catotelm, deep peat) were analyzed in the laboratory for denitrification, nitrification, and ammonification. We expect denitrification, nitrification, and ammonification rates to increase, and denitrification efficiency to decrease with rising temperatures- potentially contaminating water resources with NO3, NH4 and increase N2O concentrations in our atmosphere. This research will enhance the scientific understanding of how nitrogen cycling, an important functional eco-service, responds under environmental conditions including elevated CO2

  12. Sports Diplomacy of Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobierecki Michał Marcin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Norway is perceived as a country with a clear international identity. The aim of the article is to investigate the sports diplomacy of Norway and to examine its influence on the international brand of this country. The author will define the term “sports diplomacy” and attempt to outline the strategy of Norway’s public diplomacy; an analysis of the methods used in Norwegian sports diplomacy will follow. The main hypothesis of this paper is that sports diplomacy only plays a subsidiary role in Norwegian nation branding.

  13. Fire, fuel composition and resilience threshold in subalpine ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Blarquez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Forecasting the effects of global changes on high altitude ecosystems requires an understanding of the long-term relationships between biota and forcing factors to identify resilience thresholds. Fire is a crucial forcing factor: both fuel build-up from land-abandonment in European mountains, and more droughts linked to global warming are likely to increase fire risks. METHODS: To assess the vegetation response to fire on a millennium time-scale, we analyzed evidence of stand-to-local vegetation dynamics derived from sedimentary plant macroremains from two subalpine lakes. Paleobotanical reconstructions at high temporal resolution, together with a fire frequency reconstruction inferred from sedimentary charcoal, were analyzed by Superposed Epoch Analysis to model plant behavior before, during and after fire events. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that fuel build-up from arolla pine (Pinus cembra always precedes fires, which is immediately followed by a rapid increase of birch (Betula sp., then by ericaceous species after 25-75 years, and by herbs after 50-100 years. European larch (Larix decidua, which is the natural co-dominant species of subalpine forests with Pinus cembra, is not sensitive to fire, while the abundance of Pinus cembra is altered within a 150-year period after fires. A long-term trend in vegetation dynamics is apparent, wherein species that abound later in succession are the functional drivers, loading the environment with fuel for fires. This system can only be functional if fires are mainly driven by external factors (e.g. climate, with the mean interval between fires being longer than the minimum time required to reach the late successional stage, here 150 years. CONCLUSION: Current global warming conditions which increase drought occurrences, combined with the abandonment of land in European mountain areas, creates ideal ecological conditions for the ignition and the spread of fire. A fire return interval of less

  14. An Assessment of European Spruce Bark Beetle Infestation Using WorldView-2 Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filchev, L.

    2012-05-01

    During the past three decades the spectral responses of declining forest health due to pest infestations as well as various methods for detection of trees' health status have been extensively studied. A set of narrow-band and broad-band Vegetation Indices (VIs) have been developed to assess the changes in the vegetation reflectance. The main objective of the study is to assess the damages caused by European Spruce Bark Beetle (Ips typographus L.) infestation in 'Bistrishko Branishte' UNESCO Man And Biosphere (MAB) reserve using WorldView-2 satellite data. The analysis was performed on Norway spruce (Picea abies) forest using the VIs indicative for forest stress: NDVI, SR, EVI, ARVI, CRI, CSc, and ARI. By applying density slice on the VIs, the main regions for stressed vegetation have been delineat ed. The CSc has been found to perform better in detecting the pattern of stressed spruce trees compared to ARI. The area affected by Ips typographus was determined by CSc index to 5.97% (0.373 km2) of the study area.

  15. Biomass of Sacrificed Spruce/Aspen (SNF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Dimension analysis (diameter at breast high, tree height, depth of crown), estimated leaf area, and total aboveground biomass for sacrificed spruce and aspens in...

  16. Biomass of Sacrificed Spruce/Aspen (SNF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Dimension analysis (diameter at breast high, tree height, depth of crown), estimated leaf area, and total aboveground biomass for sacrificed spruce and...

  17. Native red deer and introduced chamois: foraging habits and competition in a subalpine meadow-spruce forest area

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Homolka, Miloslav; Heroldová, Marta

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 2 (2001), s. 89-98 ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/97/0172; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : Cervus elaphus * Rupicapra rupicapra * foraging strategy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.287, year: 2001

  18. An analytical method to assess spruce beetle impacts on white spruce resources, Kenai Peninsula, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willem W.S. van Hees

    1992-01-01

    Forest inventory data collected in 1987 fTom sample plots established on the Kenai Peninsula were analyzed to provide point-in-time estimates of the trend and current status of a spruce beetle infestation. Ground plots were categorized by stage of infestation. Estimates of numbers of live and dead white spruce trees, cubic-foot volume in those trees, and areal extent...

  19. Phenolic compounds as a tool of bioindication for novel forest decline at numerous spruce tree sites in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, C.M. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Allgemeine Botanik; Eis, U. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Allgemeine Botanik; Wild, A. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Allgemeine Botanik

    1996-01-01

    Within a project that applied biochemical criteria to the diagnosis of damage to Norway spruce, 43 sites in western and eastern Germany showing only moderate tree damage were screened for the amounts of methanol soluble phenolic compounds in spruce needles. The concentrations of most of the main compounds - especially catechin - positively correlated with needle loss and the altitude of the site. It was also found that it is necessary to differentiate between trees younger and older than 60 years of age. The correlations between the increase of the phenolic compounds studied and the needle loss or the damage class are stronger in the younger trees, possibly implicating differences in metabolic state or disturbances in protectective mechanisms in the older trees. (orig.)

  20. Comparative phytosocioogical investigation of subalpine alder thickets in southwestern Alaska and the North Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We present the first vegetation analysis of subalpine alder (Alnus viridis) thickets in southwestern Alaska. The data are primarily from mesic, hilly and mountainous...

  1. Spruce colonization at treeline: where do those seeds come from?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotti, A; Leonardi, S; Piovani, P; Scalfi, M; Menozzi, P

    2009-08-01

    At treeline, selection by harsh environmental conditions sets an upward limit to arboreal vegetation. Increasing temperatures and the decline of traditional animal raising have favoured an upward shift of treeline in the last decades. These circumstances create a unique opportunity to study the balance of the main forces (selection and gene flow) that drive tree migration. We conducted a parentage analysis sampling and genotyping with five microsatellite markers in all Norway spruce individuals (342 juveniles and 23 adults) found in a recently colonized treeline area (Paneveggio forest, Eastern Alps, Italy). Our goal was to evaluate local reproductive success versus gene flow from the outside. We were able to identify both parents among local adults for only 11.1% of the juveniles. In the gamete pool we sampled, two-thirds were not produced locally. Effective seed dispersal distance distribution was characterized by a peak far from the seed source (mean 344.66 m+/-191.02 s.d.). Reproductive success was skewed, with six local adults that generated almost two-thirds (62.4%) of juveniles with local parents. Our findings indicate that, although a few local adults seem to play an important role in the colonization process at treeline, large levels of gene flow from outside were maintained, suggesting that the potential advantages of local adults (such as local adaptation, proximity to the colonization area, phenological synchrony) did not prevent a large gamete immigration.

  2. Rainfall interception and spatial variability of throughfall in spruce stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dohnal Michal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The interception was recognized as an important part of the catchment water balance in temperate climate. The mountainous forest ecosystem at experimental headwater catchment Liz has been subject of long-term monitoring. Unique dataset in terms of time resolution serves to determine canopy storage capacity and free throughfall. Spatial variability of throughfall was studied using one weighing and five tipping bucket rain gauges. The basic characteristics of forest affecting interception process were determined for the Norway spruce stand at the experimental area - the leaf area index was 5.66 - 6.00 m2 m-2, the basal area was 55.7 m2 ha-1, and the crown closure above individual rain gauges was between 19 and 95%. The total interception loss in both growing seasons analyzed was 34.5%. The mean value of the interception capacity determined was about 2 mm. Throughfall exhibited high variability from place to place and it was strongly affected by character of rainfall. On the other hand, spatial pattern of throughfall in average showed low variability.

  3. Evidence of compounded disturbance effects on vegetation recovery following high-severity wildfire and spruce beetle outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Amanda R.; Sibold, Jason S.; Assal, Timothy J.; Negrón, José F.

    2017-01-01

    Spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) outbreaks are rapidly spreading throughout subalpine forests of the Rocky Mountains, raising concerns that altered fuel structures may increase the ecological severity of wildfires. Although many recent studies have found no conclusive link between beetle outbreaks and increased fire size or canopy mortality, few studies have addressed whether these combined disturbances produce compounded effects on short-term vegetation recovery. We tested for an effect of spruce beetle outbreak severity on vegetation recovery in the West Fork Complex fire in southwestern Colorado, USA, where much of the burn area had been affected by severe spruce beetle outbreaks in the decade prior to the fire. Vegetation recovery was assessed using the Landsat-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) two years after the fire, which occurred in 2013. Beetle outbreak severity, defined as the basal area of beetle-killed trees within Landsat pixels, was estimated using vegetation index differences (dVIs) derived from pre-outbreak and post-outbreak Landsat images. Of the seven dVIs tested, the change in Normalized Difference Moisture Index (dNDMI) was most strongly correlated with field measurements of beetle-killed basal area (R2 = 0.66). dNDMI was included as an explanatory variable in sequential autoregressive (SAR) models of NDVI2015. Models also included pre-disturbance NDVI, topography, and weather conditions at the time of burning as covariates. SAR results showed a significant correlation between NDVI2015 and dNDMI, with more severe spruce beetle outbreaks corresponding to reduced post-fire vegetation cover. The correlation was stronger for models which were limited to locations in the red stage of outbreak (outbreak ≤ 5 years old at the time of fire) than for models of gray-stage locations (outbreak > 5 years old at the time of fire). These results indicate that vegetation recovery processes may be negatively impacted by severe

  4. Evidence of compounded disturbance effects on vegetation recovery following high-severity wildfire and spruce beetle outbreak.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda R Carlson

    Full Text Available Spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis outbreaks are rapidly spreading throughout subalpine forests of the Rocky Mountains, raising concerns that altered fuel structures may increase the ecological severity of wildfires. Although many recent studies have found no conclusive link between beetle outbreaks and increased fire size or canopy mortality, few studies have addressed whether these combined disturbances produce compounded effects on short-term vegetation recovery. We tested for an effect of spruce beetle outbreak severity on vegetation recovery in the West Fork Complex fire in southwestern Colorado, USA, where much of the burn area had been affected by severe spruce beetle outbreaks in the decade prior to the fire. Vegetation recovery was assessed using the Landsat-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI two years after the fire, which occurred in 2013. Beetle outbreak severity, defined as the basal area of beetle-killed trees within Landsat pixels, was estimated using vegetation index differences (dVIs derived from pre-outbreak and post-outbreak Landsat images. Of the seven dVIs tested, the change in Normalized Difference Moisture Index (dNDMI was most strongly correlated with field measurements of beetle-killed basal area (R2 = 0.66. dNDMI was included as an explanatory variable in sequential autoregressive (SAR models of NDVI2015. Models also included pre-disturbance NDVI, topography, and weather conditions at the time of burning as covariates. SAR results showed a significant correlation between NDVI2015 and dNDMI, with more severe spruce beetle outbreaks corresponding to reduced post-fire vegetation cover. The correlation was stronger for models which were limited to locations in the red stage of outbreak (outbreak ≤ 5 years old at the time of fire than for models of gray-stage locations (outbreak > 5 years old at the time of fire. These results indicate that vegetation recovery processes may be negatively impacted by

  5. Sensitivity of subalpine tree seedlings and alpine plants to natural and manipulated climate variation: Initial results from an Alpine Treeline Warming Experiment (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueppers, L. M.

    2010-12-01

    Niche models and paleoecological studies indicate that future climate change will alter the geographic distributions of plant species. Changes in temperature, snowmelt timing, or moisture conditions at one edge of a species’ range may have different consequences for recruitment, carbon exchange, phenology, and survival than changes at another edge. Similarly, local genetic adaptation may constrain species and community responses to climate change. We have established a new experiment to investigate potential shifts in the distribution of subalpine tree species, and the alpine species they might replace. We are asking how tree species recruitment and alpine species growth and reproduction vary within their current ranges, and in response to temperature and soil moisture manipulations. We are also examining whether genetic provenance and ecosystem processes constrain tree seedling and alpine herb responses. Our Alpine Treeline Warming Experiment is located across three sites at Niwot Ridge, CO, ranging from near the lower limit of subalpine forest to alpine tundra. We use infrared heaters to raise growing season surface soil temperatures by 4-5°C, and to lengthen the growing season. The warming treatment is crossed with a soil moisture manipulation to distinguish effects due to higher temperatures from those due to drier soil. Each plot is a common garden sown with high and low elevation provenances of limber pine (Pinus flexilis) and Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii). We established an additional set of experimental plots to examine treatment effects on alpine species phenology, growth and reproduction. Under ambient conditions in 2009, tree seedling germination rate, lifespan, and first season survival was higher within the species’ current range than in the alpine, and for Engelmann spruce, was higher at the low elevation limit than the high elevation limit. Source population (low vs. high elevation) was a significant factor explaining natural variation in

  6. Porphyrias in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykletun, Mira; Aarsand, Aasne Karine; Støle, Egil; Villanger, Jørild Haugen; Tollånes, Mette Christophersen; Baravelli, Carl; Sandberg, Sverre

    2014-04-29

    Porphyria is an umbrella term for a group of largely hereditary diseases that are due to defective haem synthesis. The diseases have a varied and partly overlapping range of symptoms and presentations. The commonest forms of porphyria are porphyria cutanea tarda, acute intermittent porphyria and erythropoietic protoporphyria. The purpose of this study is to provide an overview of the prevalence and pathological manifestations of porphyrias in Norway. Information on all patients registered with the Norwegian Porphyria Centre (NAPOS) up to 2012 was used to estimate the prevalence and incidence of porphyrias in Norway. Figures on symptoms, precipitating factors and follow-up routines were obtained from the Norwegian Porphyria Registry, which includes 70% of Norwegians registered with NAPOS as having porphyria. The prevalence of porphyria cutanea tarda was approximately 10 : 100,000 and that of acute intermittent porphyria approximately 4 : 100,000. The total incidence of all porphyrias was approximately 0.5-1 : 100,000 per year. Diagnostic delay, i.e. the time passing between the onset of symptoms and diagnosis, varied from 1-17 years depending on the type of porphyria. There was wide variation in the frequency with which patients with the various types of porphyria went for medical check-ups. The prevalence of acute intermittent porphyria and porphyria cutanea tarda appears to be higher in Norway than in most other countries. Data from the Norwegian Porphyria Registry makes it possible to demonstrate differences in treatment and follow-up of porphyria patients and may be used to initiate necessary measures.

  7. Old lower stem bark lesions apparently caused by unsuccessful spruce beetle attacks still evident on live spruce trees years later

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Hard; Ken P. Zogas

    2010-01-01

    We examined old bark lesions on Lutz spruce in young stands on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, to determine their cause. Distribution of these lesions along lower stems was similar to the distribution of spruce beetle attacks during epidemics. These lesions apparently resulted from unsuccessful attacks by spruce beetles during the late 1980s and early 1990s and appear to...

  8. Effect of increasing temperatures on the distribution of spruce beetle in Engelmann spruce forests of the Interior West, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Justin DeRose; Barbara J. Bentz; James N. Long; John D. Shaw

    2013-01-01

    The spruce beetle (Dendoctronus rufipennis) is a pervasive bark beetle indigenous to spruce (Picea spp.) forests of North America. In the last two decades outbreaks of spruce beetle have increased in severity and extent. Increasing temperatures have been implicated as they directly control beetle populations, potentially inciting endemic populations to build to...

  9. Effectiveness of polyethylene sheeting in controlling spruce beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in infested stacks of spruce firewood in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward H. Holsten; Richard A. Werner

    1993-01-01

    Covering stacks of spruce firewood with either clear or black polyethylene sheeting does not raise log temperatures high enough to kill spruce beetle brood in the logs. Based on the results of this study, we do not recommend the use of polyethylene sheeting as a remedial measure for the reduction of spruce beetle brood in infested firewood or log decks in south-central...

  10. Spruce aphid, Elatobium abietinum (Walker): Life history and damage to Engelmann spruce in the Pinaleno Mountains, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ann M. Lynch

    2009-01-01

    Spruce aphid is an exotic insect recently introduced to the Pinaleno Mountains. It feeds on dormant Engelmann spruce, and possible effects include tree-growth suppression, tree mortality, and reduction in seed and cone production. Potential longer-term effects include changes in forest structure and species composition - primarily through reduction in Engelmann spruce...

  11. Arctic security and Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamnes, Rolf

    2013-03-01

    Global warming is one of the most serious threats facing mankind. Many regions and countries will be affected, and there will be many losers. The earliest and most intense climatic changes are being experienced in the Arctic region. Arctic average temperature has risen at twice the rate of the global average in the past half century. These changes provide an early indication for the world of the environmental and societal significance of global warming. For that reason, the Arctic presents itself as an important scientific laboratory for improving our understanding of the causes and patterns of climate changes. The rapidly rising temperature threatens the Arctic ecosystem, but the human consequences seem to be far less dramatic there than in many other places in the world. According to the U.S. National Intelligence Council, Russia has the potential to gain the most from increasingly temperate weather, because its petroleum reserves become more accessible and because the opening of an Arctic waterway could provide economic and commercial advantages. Norway might also be fortunate. Some years ago, the Financial Times asked: #Left Double Quotation Mark#What should Norway do about the fact that global warming will make their climate more hospitable and enhance their financial situation, even as it inflicts damage on other parts of the world?#Right Double Quotation Mark#(Author)

  12. Fire Severity Controlled Susceptibility to a 1940s Spruce Beetle Outbreak in Colorado, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Kulakowski

    Full Text Available The frequency, magnitude, and size of forest disturbances are increasing globally. Much recent research has focused on how the occurrence of one disturbance may affect susceptibility to subsequent disturbances. While much has been learned about such linked disturbances, the strength of the interactions is likely to be contingent on the severity of disturbances as well as climatic conditions, both of which can affect disturbance intensity and tree resistance to disturbances. Subalpine forests in western Colorado were affected by extensive and severe wildfires in the late 19th century and an extensive and severe outbreak of spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis in the 1940s. Previous research found that most, but not all, of the stands that burned and established following the late 19th century fires were not susceptible to the 1940s outbreak as beetles preferentially attack larger trees and stands in advanced stages of development. However, previous research also left open the possibility that some stands that burned and established following the 19th century fires may have been attacked during the 1940s outbreak. Understanding how strongly stand structure, as shaped by disturbances of varying severity, affected susceptibility to past outbreaks is important to provide a baseline for assessing the degree to which recent climate change may be relaxing the preferences of beetles for larger trees and for stands in latter stages of structural development and thereby changing the nature of linked disturbances. Here, dendroecological methods were used to study disturbance history and tree age of stands in the White River National Forest in Western Colorado that were identified in historical documents or remotely-sensed images as having burned in the 19th century and having been attacked by spruce beetle in the 1940s. Dendroecological reconstructions indicate that in young post-fire stands only old remnant trees that survived the otherwise stand

  13. Biogenic nitric oxide emission from a spruce forest soil in mountainous terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falge, Eva; Bargsten, Anika; Behrendt, Thomas; Meixner, Franz X.

    2010-05-01

    The process-based spatial simulation model SVAT-CN was used to estimate biogenic nitric oxide (NO) emission by soils of a Norway spruce forest (Weidenbrunnen) in the Fichtelgebirge, Germany. SVAT-CN core is a combination of a multiple-layer soil water balance model and a multi-layered canopy gas exchange model. The soil modules comprise a flexible hybrid between a layered bucket model and classical basic liquid flow theory. Further soil processes include: heat transport, distribution of transpiration demand proportionally to soil resistance, reduction of leaf physiological parameters with limiting soil moisture. Spruce forest soils usually are characterized by a thick organic layer (raw humus), with the topmost centimetres being the location where most of the biogenic NO is produced. Within individual spruce forest stands the understory might be composed of patches characterized by different species (e.g. Vaccinium myrtillus, Picea abies, Deschampsia caespitosa), and NO production potentials. The effect of soil physical and chemical parameters and understory types on NO emission from the organic layer was investigated in laboratory incubation and fumigation experiments on soils sampled below the various understory covers found at the Weidenbrunnen site. Results from the laboratory experiments were used to parameterize multi-factorial regression models of soil NO emission with respect to its response to soil temperature and moisture. Parameterization of the spatial model SVAT-CN includes horizontal heterogeneity of over- and understory PAI, understory species distribution, soil texture, bulk density, thickness of organic layer. Simulations are run for intensive observations periods of 2007 and 2008 of the EGER (ExchanGE processes in mountainous Regions) project, a late summer/fall and an early summer period, providing estimates for different understory types (young spruce, blueberry, grass, and moss/litter patches). Validation of the model is being carried out at

  14. Speed enforcement in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune

    2015-01-01

    the game-theoretic model empirically. Testing the model rigorously is difficult, mainly because some of the relevant variables are not reliably measured and are endogenous. Two models were developed: one to identify sources of changes in the rate of violations, one to identify sources of changes......This paper probes the relationship between changes in the risk of apprehension for speeding in Norway and changes in the amount of speeding. The paper is based on a game-theoretic model of how the rate of violations and the amount of enforcement is determined by the interaction between drivers...... and the police. This model makes predictions both about how drivers will adapt to changes in the amount of enforcement (the more enforcement, the less violations) as well as how the police will adapt to changes in the rate of violations (the less violations, the less enforcement). The paper attempts to test...

  15. Photosynthetic capacity of red spruce during winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.G. Schaberg; J.B. Shane; P.F. Cali; J.R. Donnelly; G.R. Strimbeck

    1998-01-01

    We measured the photosynthetic capacity (Pmax) of plantation-grown red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) during two winter seasons (1993-94 and 1994-95) and monitored field photosynthesis of these trees during one winter (1993-94). We also measured Pmax for mature montane trees from January through May 1995....

  16. Climate, geography, and tree establishment in subalpine meadows of the Olympic Mountains, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Andrea; Schreiner, Edward G.; Silsbee, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    Noticeable changes in vegetation distribution have occurred in the Pacific Northwest during the last century as trees have established in some subalpine meadows. To study the relationship of this process to climate, recently established trees were aged in six subalpine meadows in the Olympic Mountains, Washington. The sites represent three points along a steep precipitation gradient. Subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) has been establishing at the dry end of the gradient, mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) at the wet end, and both species in the center. Establishment patterns were compared with deviations from the century-long average for these weather variables: winter precipitation, Palmer Drought Severity Index, and winter, October, and May temperatures. Results show that establishment occurred in dry areas when weather conditions were wetter than average, and in wet areas under drier than average conditions. Establishment at central sites did not show consistent relationships with climate. If future climatic conditions continue to warm, establishment of subalpine fir in subalpine meadows in dry areas may cease and mountain hemlock may resume in wet areas.

  17. Population dynamics and bioenergetics of a fossorial herbivore, Thomomys talpoides (Rodentia: Geomyidae), in a spruce-fir sere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Douglas C.; MacMahon, James A.

    1981-01-01

    Studies of the bioenergetics of the northern pocket gopher, Thomomys talpoides, are coupled with data on demography, activity budgets, and microclimates to model the energy requirements of individuals and populations in the Wasatch Mountains of Utah during 1976-1979. Metabolic rates during rest increased linearly with decreasing ambient temperature, but burrowing metabolic rates (16.3 mL O2 • h-1 • g-9.75) were independent of both temperature and physical properties of the soil. Radio-telemetry studies indicated that free-ranging gophers are active =50% of each day. Conservative estimates of true energy consumption were calculated using estimates of habitat-specific minimum daily burrowing requirements. Rates of burrowing measured in the laboratory were either ∞ 0.0 or ∞ 2.0 cm/min. The low burrowing rate was observed when the soil was frozen or saturated with water, as would occur in the field in early winter and in spring, respectively. Gophers burrowed through soil at the study site at an average rate of ∞ 1.5 cm/min. Belowground food energy densities at gopher foraging depth declined from 24.6 to 3.2 J/cm3 along a successional gradient (subalpine forb meadow to Engelmann spruce dominated forest). We conclude that individual gophers are food limited within the climax spruce seral stage. Further, daily energy costs associated with reproduction in females may exceed the belowground energy supply available in intermediate seral stages (aspen and subalpine fir). Reduction of burrowing rates for any reason will affect gophers in the late seral stages proportionately more than those resident in the meadow. The peak gopher densities recorded (from 62 individuals/ha in the meadow to 2 individuals/ha in spruce forest) support these inferences. Detailed demographic information was obtained only in the meadow seral stage. Adult survivorship was lower in winter than in summer and varied greatly between years (0.18-0.70 yr-1). Juvenile survivorship from weaning

  18. Fungal Symbionts of the Spruce Bark Beetle Synthesize the Beetle Aggregation Pheromone 2-Methyl-3-buten-2-ol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tao; Axelsson, Karolin; Krokene, Paal; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

    2015-09-01

    Tree-killing bark beetles depend on aggregation pheromones to mass-attack their host trees and overwhelm their resistance. The beetles are always associated with phytopathogenic ophiostomatoid fungi that probably assist in breaking down tree resistance, but little is known about if or how much these fungal symbionts contribute to the beetles' aggregation behavior. In this study, we determined the ability of four major fungal symbionts of the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus to produce beetle aggregation pheromones. The fungi were incubated on Norway spruce Picea abies bark, malt agar, or malt agar amended with 0.5% (13)C glucose. Volatiles present in the headspace of each fungus were analyzed for 7 days after incubation using a SPME autosampler coupled to a GC/MS. Two Grosmannia species (G. penicillata and G. europhioides) produced large amounts of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MB), the major component in the beetles' aggregation pheromone blend, when growing on spruce bark or malt agar. Grosmannia europhioides also incorporated (13)C glucose into MB, demonstrating that the fungi can synthesize MB de novo using glucose as a carbon source. This is the first clear evidence that fungal symbionts of bark beetles can produce components in the aggregation pheromone blend of their beetle vectors. This provides new insight into the possible ecological roles of fungal symbionts in bark beetle systems and may deepen our understanding of species interactions and coevolution in these important biological systems.

  19. NORWAY: a nuclear demonstration project?

    CERN Multimedia

    Clery, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    "Egil Lillestøl is a man with a rather unusual mission: he wants his homeland of Norway to take the lead in developement of of a new form of nuclear power. Norway is Europe's largest petroleum exporter, from its North Sea oil and gas fields, and Lillestøl, a physicist at the University of Bergen, believes the country needs to do something about its carbon emissions.

  20. Below-ground carbon allocation in mature beech and spruce trees following long-term, experimentally enhanced O{sub 3} exposure in Southern Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Christian P., E-mail: Andersen.christian@epa.go [US Environmental Protection Agency, Western Ecology Division, 200 SW 35th St., Corvallis, OR 97333 (United States); Ritter, Wilma [Ecophysiology of Plants, Department of Ecology and Ecosystem Management, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany); Gregg, Jillian [Terrestrial Ecosystems Research Associates, 200 SW 35th St., Corvallis, OR 97333 (United States); Matyssek, Rainer; Grams, Thorsten E.E. [Ecophysiology of Plants, Department of Ecology and Ecosystem Management, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    Canopies of adult European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) were labeled with CO{sub 2} depleted in {sup 13}C to evaluate carbon allocation belowground. One-half the trees were exposed to elevated O{sub 3} for 6 yrs prior to and during the experiment. Soil-gas sampling wells were placed at 8 and 15 cm and soil CO{sub 2} was sampled during labeling in mid-late August, 2006. In beech, {delta}{sup 13}CO{sub 2} at both depths decreased approximately 50 h after labeling, reflecting rapid translocation of fixed C to roots and release through respiration. In spruce, label was detected in fine-root tissue, but there was no evidence of label in {delta}{sup 13}CO{sub 2}. The results show that C fixed in the canopy rapidly reaches respiratory pools in beech roots, and suggest that spruce may allocate very little of recently-fixed carbon into root respiration during late summer. A change in carbon allocation belowground due to long-term O{sub 3} exposure was not observed. - Below-ground carbon allocation in mature beech and spruce exposed to ozone.

  1. Passive houses in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halse, Andreas

    2008-12-15

    The paper analyzes the introduction of passive houses in the Norwegian house market. Passive houses are houses with extremely low levels of energy consumption for heating, and have not yet been built in Norway, but have started to enter the market in Germany and some other countries. The construction sector is analyzed as a sectoral innovation system. The different elements of the innovation system are studied. This includes government agencies, producers, consumers, finance and education. The analysis shows that passive and low-energy houses are on the verge of market breakthrough. This can partly be explained by economic calculations, and partly by processes of learning and change in the institutional set-up of the sector. The construction sector is a sector characterized by low innovative intensity and little interaction between different agents. Those working to promote passive houses have to some extent managed to cope with these challenges. This has happened by breaking away from the traditional focus of Norwegian energy efficiency policies on technology and the economically rational agents, by instead focusing on knowledge and institutional change at the level of the producers. (Author)

  2. Phenology of plants in relation to ambient environment in a subalpine forest of Uttarakhand, western Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, Vinod K; Kuniyal, Chandra P; Bhandari, Arvind K; Nautiyal, Bhagwati P; Prasad, P

    2014-07-01

    Observations on phenology of some representative trees, shrubs, under-shrubs and herbs in a subalpine forest of Uttarakhand, western Himalaya were recorded. With the commencement of favorable growth season in April, occurrence of leaf fall was indicatory growth phenomenon in Quercus semecarpifolia, Q. floribunda and Abies spectabilis. However, active vegetative growth in herbaceous species starts onward April and fruit maturation and seed dehiscence are completed from mid of September to October. In general, vegetative growth and reproductive stages in majority of the studied species seems to be dependent on adequate moisture content and also flowering and fruiting in subalpine plants correlate ambient temperature.

  3. European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus, L.) green attack affects foliar reflectance and biochemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Haidi; Darvishzadeh, Roshanak; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Groen, Thomas A.; Heurich, Marco

    2018-02-01

    The European spruce bark beetle Ips typographus, L. (hereafter bark beetle), causes major economic loss to the forest industry in Europe, especially in Norway Spruce (Picea abies). To minimise economic loss and preclude a mass outbreak, early detection of bark beetle infestation (so-called ;green attack; stage - a period at which trees are yet to show visual signs of infestation stress) is, therefore, a crucial step in the management of Norway spruce stands. It is expected that a bark beetle infestation at the green attack stage affects a tree's physiological and chemical status. However, the concurrent effect on key foliar biochemical such as foliar nitrogen and chlorophyll as well as spectral responses are not well documented in the literature. Therefore, in this study, the early detection of bark beetle green attacks is investigated by examining foliar biochemical and spectral properties (400-2000 nm). We also assessed whether bark beetle infestation affects the estimation accuracy of foliar biochemicals. An extensive field survey was conducted in the Bavarian Forest National Park (BFNP), Germany, in the early summer of 2015 to collect leaf samples from 120 healthy and green attacked trees. The spectra of the leaf samples were measured using an ASD FieldSpec3 equipped with an integrating sphere. Significant differences (p < 0.05) between healthy and infested needle samples were found in the mean reflectance spectra, with the most pronounced differences being observed in the NIR and SWIR regions between 730 and 1370 nm. Furthermore, significant differences (p < 0.05) were found in the biochemical compositions (chlorophyll and nitrogen concentration) of healthy versus green attacked samples. Our results further demonstrate that the estimation accuracy of foliar chlorophyll and nitrogen concentrations, utilising partial least square regression model, was lower for the infested compared to the healthy trees. We show that early stage of infestation reduces not only

  4. Effects of agitation on particle-size distribution and enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated spruce and giant reed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadić, Adnan; Palmqvist, Benny; Lidén, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    Mixing is an energy demanding process which has been previously shown to affect enzymatic hydrolysis. Concentrated biomass slurries are associated with high and non-Newtonian viscosities and mixing in these systems is a complex task. Poor mixing can lead to mass and/or heat transfer problems as well as inhomogeneous enzyme distribution, both of which can cause possible yield reduction. Furthermore the stirring energy dissipation may impact the particle size which in turn may affect the enzymatic hydrolysis. The objective of the current work was to specifically quantify the effects of mixing on particle-size distribution (PSD) and relate this to changes in the enzymatic hydrolysis. Two rather different materials were investigated, namely pretreated Norway spruce and giant reed. Changes in glucan hydrolysis and PSD were measured as a function of agitation during enzymatic hydrolysis at fiber loadings of 7 or 13% water-insoluble solids (WIS). Enzymatic conversion of pretreated spruce was strongly affected by agitation rates at the higher WIS content. However, at low WIS content the agitation had almost no effect on hydrolysis. There was some effect of agitation on the hydrolysis of giant reed at high WIS loading, but it was smaller than that for spruce, and there was no measurable effect at low WIS loading. In the case of spruce, intense agitation clearly affected the PSD and resulted in a reduced mean particle size, whereas for giant reed the decrease in particle size was mainly driven by enzymatic action. However, the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis was not increased after size reduction by agitation. The impact of agitation on the enzymatic hydrolysis clearly depends not only on feedstock but also on the solids loading. Agitation was found to affect the PSD differently for the examined pretreated materials spruce and giant reed. The fact that the reduced mean particle diameter could not explain the enhanced hydrolysis rates found for spruce at an elevated agitation

  5. Effects of agitation on particle-size distribution and enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated spruce and giant reed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Mixing is an energy demanding process which has been previously shown to affect enzymatic hydrolysis. Concentrated biomass slurries are associated with high and non-Newtonian viscosities and mixing in these systems is a complex task. Poor mixing can lead to mass and/or heat transfer problems as well as inhomogeneous enzyme distribution, both of which can cause possible yield reduction. Furthermore the stirring energy dissipation may impact the particle size which in turn may affect the enzymatic hydrolysis. The objective of the current work was to specifically quantify the effects of mixing on particle-size distribution (PSD) and relate this to changes in the enzymatic hydrolysis. Two rather different materials were investigated, namely pretreated Norway spruce and giant reed. Results Changes in glucan hydrolysis and PSD were measured as a function of agitation during enzymatic hydrolysis at fiber loadings of 7 or 13% water-insoluble solids (WIS). Enzymatic conversion of pretreated spruce was strongly affected by agitation rates at the higher WIS content. However, at low WIS content the agitation had almost no effect on hydrolysis. There was some effect of agitation on the hydrolysis of giant reed at high WIS loading, but it was smaller than that for spruce, and there was no measurable effect at low WIS loading. In the case of spruce, intense agitation clearly affected the PSD and resulted in a reduced mean particle size, whereas for giant reed the decrease in particle size was mainly driven by enzymatic action. However, the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis was not increased after size reduction by agitation. Conclusions The impact of agitation on the enzymatic hydrolysis clearly depends not only on feedstock but also on the solids loading. Agitation was found to affect the PSD differently for the examined pretreated materials spruce and giant reed. The fact that the reduced mean particle diameter could not explain the enhanced hydrolysis rates found for

  6. Organic halogens in spruce forest throughfall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öberg, G.; Johansen, C.; Grøn, C.

    1998-01-01

    Deposition of dissolved organic halogens by throughfall was determined in a small spruce forest site in Denmark (56 degrees 28'N, 8 degrees 24'E). The mean annual deposition of dissolved organic halogens was 377 g ha(-1)yr(-1), and larger than the general deposition by precipitation....... No relationship between the position of the collectors and the forest edge or dominating wind-direction was found, suggesting that dry deposition was not a major source. The concentration of organic halogens was related to that of organic carbon and decreased from the tree-trunk and outwards. In addition......, the concentrations were higher during the growing season than during the dormant season. This indicates that the major part of the organic carbon and organic halogens in spruce forest throughfall originates from canopy leachates or other internal sources. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd....

  7. DTA Evaluation of Spruce Wood Degradation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrušovský, Ivan; Rantuch, Peter; Martinka, Jozef; Dzíbelová, Simona

    2017-06-01

    The decomposition stages of spruce wood sawdust were analyzed by means of sequential differential calorimetry. Two stages of decomposition were identified and activation energy of one stage was calculated using the Kissinger method. The DTA was conducted by means of SEDEX safety calorimeter. Sample was analyzed under three heating rates of 10, 20 and 45 °C/h in temperature range from room temperature to 400 °C. The calculated activation energy for the last and most clear decomposition peak was 122.63 KJ/mol. The results are comparable with the data calculated by J.V. Rissanen et al., who calculated activation energy for Spruce hemicellulose as 120 KJ/mol.

  8. Regeneration development 4-5 years after a storm in Norway spruce dominated forests, Estonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ilisson, T.; Köster, K.; Vodde, F.; Jogiste, K.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The regeneration patterns in wind-damaged areas are largely influenced by damage severity and varied microrelief. Regeneration was studied in Picea abies dominated stands with total and partial canopy destruction and in harvested areas in Myrtillus and Filipendula site types in Estonia 4¿5

  9. Carbon and Nitrogen Pools and Fluxes in Adjacent Mature Norway Spruce and European Beech Forests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oulehle, Filip; Růžek, M.; Tahovská, K.; Bárta, J.; Myška, O.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 11 (2016), č. článku 282. ISSN 1999-4907 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Fagus sylvatica * Picea abies * carbon * nitrogen * budget * respiration * productivity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.951, year: 2016

  10. Fluxes of biogenic volatile organic compounds above temperate Norway spruce forest of the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Juráň, Stanislav; Pallozi, E.; Guidolotti, G.; Fares, S.; Šigut, Ladislav; Calfapietra, Carlo; Alivernini, A.; Savi, F.; Večeřová, Kristýna; Křůmal, Kamil; Večeřa, Zbyněk; Urban, Otmar

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 232 (2017), s. 500-513 ISSN 0168-1923 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MŠk(CZ) LD13031; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015061; GA ČR GA13-28093S Institutional support: RVO:67179843 ; RVO:68081715 Keywords : Monoterpenes * Isoprene * Proton-transfer-reaction-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-TOF-MS) * Fluxes * Lagrangian model * MEGAN Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour; CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation (UIACH-O) Impact factor: 3.887, year: 2016

  11. Loss of diversity in wood-inhabiting fungal communities affects decomposition activity in Norway spruce wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara eValentin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Hundreds of wood-inhabiting fungal species are now threatened, principally due to a lack of dead wood in intensively managed forests, but the consequences of reduced fungal diversity on ecosystem functioning are not known. Several experiments have shown that primary productivity is negatively affected by a loss of species, but the effects of microbial diversity on decomposition are less studied. We studied the relationship between fungal diversity and the in vitro decomposition rate of slightly, moderately and heavily decayed Picea abies wood with indigenous fungal communities that were diluted to examine the influence of diversity. Respiration rate, wood-degrading hydrolytic enzymes and fungal community structure were assessed during a 16-week incubation. Respiration rate increased between early- and late-decay stages. Reduced fungal diversity was associated with lower respiration rates during intermediate stages of decay, but no effects were detected at later stages. The activity of hydrolytic enzymes varied among decay stages and fungal dilutions. Our results suggest that functioning of highly diverse communities of the late-decay stage were more resistant to the loss of diversity than less diverse communities of early decomposers. This indicates the accumulation of functional redundancy during the succession of the fungal community in decomposing substrates.

  12. Are Early Somatic Embryos of the Norway Spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) Organised?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petřek, J.; Zítka, O.; Adam, V.; Bartušek, Karel; Anjum, N. A.; Pereira, E.; Havel, L.; Kizek, R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 12 (2015), e0144093:1-16 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : somatic embryogenesis * biochemical parameters Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.057, year: 2015

  13. Climate drivers of bark beetle outbreak dynamics in Norway spruce forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo Marini; Bjorn Okland; Anna Maria Jonsson; Barbara Bentz; Allan Carroll; Beat Forster; Jean-Claude Gregoire; Rainer Hurling; Louis Michel Nageleisen; Sigrid Netherer; Hans Peter Ravn; Aaron Weed; Martin Schroeder

    2017-01-01

    Bark beetles are among the most devastating biotic agents affecting forests globally and several species are expected to be favored by climate change. Given the potential interactions of insect outbreaks with other biotic and abiotic disturbances, and the potentially strong impact of changing disturbance regimes on forest resources, investigating climatic drivers of...

  14. Romanian legal management rules limit wood production in Norway spruce and beech forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Bouriaud

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The quantitative impact of forest management on forests’ wood resource was evaluated for Picea and Fagus mixed forests. The effects on the productivity of tendering operations, thinnings and rotation length have seldom been directly quantified on landscape scale. Methods Two sites of similar fertility but subject to contrasted forest management were studied with detailed inventories: one in Germany, the other in Romania, and compared with the respective national forest inventories. In Romania, regulations impose very long rotations, low thinnings and a period of no-cut before harvest. In contrast, tending and thinnings are frequent and intense in Germany. Harvests start much earlier and must avoid clear cutting but maintain a permanent forest cover with natural regeneration. While Germany has an average annual wood increment representative for Central Europe, Romania represents the average for Eastern Europe. Results The lack of tending and thinning in the Romanian site resulted in twice as many trees per hectare as in the German site for the same age. The productivity in Romanian production forests was 20 % lower than in Germany despite a similar fertility. The results were supported by the data from the national forest inventory of each country, which confirmed that the same differential exists at country scale. Furthermore, provided the difference in rotation length, two crops are harvested in Germany when only one is harvested in Romania. The losses of production due to a lower level of management in Romania where estimated to reach 12.8 million m3.y-1 in regular mountain production forests, and to 15 million m3.y-1 if managed protection forest is included. Conclusions The productivity of Picea and Fagus mountain forests in Romania is severely depressed by the lack of tending and thinning, by overly long rotations and the existence of a 25-years no-cut period prior to harvest. The average standing volume in Germany was 50 % lower than in Romania, but the higher harvesting rate resulted in more than doubling wood production. Considering the mitigation effects of climate change by forests, it emerges that the increase in standing volume of forests in Romania is smaller than the additional harvest in Germany which serves fossil fuel substitution.

  15. Comparing carbohydrate status during norway spruce seed development and somatic embryo formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gösslová, M.; Svobodová, H.; Lipavská, H.; Albrechtová, J.; Vreugdenhil, D.

    2001-01-01

    The carbohydrate status of developing seeds of Picea abies was examined in order to provide a frame of reference for the evaluation of changes in carbohydrate content in maturing somatic embryos of the same species. Samples were taken at weekly intervals from 12 May 1998 (estimated time of

  16. In situ autumn ozone fumigation of mature Norway spruce - Effects on net photosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, H.

    2002-01-01

    concentration. The experiment was conducted during 70 days during the autumn. Our system could not detect any ozone effects on dark respiration, but eventually effects on dark respiration could be masked in signal noise. An inhibition of daily net photosynthesis in ozone treated shoots was apparent......, and it is was found that a mean increase in ozone concentration of 10 nl l(-1) reduced net photosynthesis with 7.4 %. This effect should be related to a pre-exposure during the season of AOT40 12.5 mul l(-1) h....

  17. Tensile creep and recovery of Norway spruce influenced by temperature and moisture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Emil Tang; Salmén, Lennart

    2012-01-01

    of these two climatic factors on TDMB of wood. It was found that the mechanical response of wood tissue is the sum of responses from both tracheids and middle lamella, with only the previous being reversible. The effect of moisture and temperature differed in that the latter affected the elastic and time...

  18. Isoprenoid emission response to changing light conditions of English oak, European beech and Norway spruce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Meeningen, Ylva; Schurgers, Guy; Rinnan, Riikka

    2017-01-01

    emission remained similar. Whilst some compounds were species specific, the compounds -pinene, camphene, 3-carene, limonene and eucalyptol were emitted by all of the measured tree species. Some compounds, like isoprene and sabinene, showed an increasing emission response with increasing light intensity......, the compounds -pinene, camphene, 3-carene, limonene and eucalyptol were emitted by all of the measured tree species. Some compounds, like isoprene and sabinene, showed an increasing emission response with increasing light intensity, whereas other compounds, like camphene, had no significant emission response....... Whereas the emission rate differed between individuals of the same species, the relative contributions of compounds to the total isoprenoid emission remained similar. Whilst some compounds were species specific, the compounds -pinene, camphene, 3-carene, limonene and eucalyptol were emitted by all...

  19. Temporal variation and efficiency of leaf area index in young mountain Norway spruce stand

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, Radek; Tomášková, Ivana; Havránková, Kateřina

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 127, č. 5 (2008), s. 359-367 ISSN 1612-4669 R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SP/2D1/93/07; GA MŠk 2B06068 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : biomass * leaf area duration * Picea abies * thinning Subject RIV: GK - Forestry Impact factor: 1.556, year: 2008

  20. Increasing Water Use Efficiency Comes at a Cost for Norway Spruce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja G M Sanders

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi in trees is an indication of the ratio of carbon assimilation to the rate of transpiration. It is generally assumed that it is a response to water availability. In agricultural research, the question of drought tolerance by increased WUEi has been well studied. In general, the increase is a trade-off for productivity and is therefore not desired. For forest trees, this question is less clearly understood. Using stable carbon isotopes derived from tree rings combined with productivity as the product of the annual growth increment and annual density measurements, we compared the change in WUEi over a 15 year period. While WUEi increased over this period, the productivity decreased, causing an opposing trend. The gradient of the correlation between WUEi and productivity varies between provenances and sites. Counterintuitively, the populations at the drier site showed low WUEi values at the beginning of the investigation. Slopes vary with the provenance from Poland showing the least decline in productivity. In general, we found that a decline in productivity aligned with an increase in WUEi.

  1. Equilibrium moisture content (EMC) in Norway spruce during the first and second desorptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Preben; Engelund, Emil Tang; Thygesen, Lisbeth G.

    2011-01-01

    It is a commonly accepted notion that the equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of wood at a given relative humidity (RH) is highest during initial desorption of green wood due to an irreversible loss of hygroscopicity during the 1st desorption. The basis for this notion is investigated by assessing...

  2. Induction of adventitious buds on buds of Norway spruce (picea abies) grown in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Arnold, S.; Eriksson, T.

    1979-01-01

    Isolated resting vegetative buds of P. abies were cultured on a defined medium to which auxins or cytokinins were added. At concentrations of 10 to the power of -6 to 10 to the power of -4 M, 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) or 6-(3-methyl-2-buten-1-ylamino)-purine (2iP) induced formation of adentitious bud primordia; these arose from meristems formed de novo in the needle primordia. Adventitious buds developed when these buds were transferred to medium lacking cytokinin. At lower concentrations of BAP or 2iP, only elongation of needle primordia was induced; at higher concentrations, buds were killed. Other growth regulators induced only needle primordia elongation and were also lethal at higher concentrations. No major differences were found in the ability to form adventitious buds among buds from: a 75-year-old hedge, 5-year-old greenhouse-grown plants, and trees in a stand near Uppsala, Sweden ranging in age from 5 to 50 year old.

  3. Histological and biochemical response of Norway spruce somatic embryos to UV-B irradiation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eliášová, Kateřina; Vondráková, Zuzana; Malbeck, Jiří; Trávníčková, Alena; Pešek, Bedřich; Vágner, Martin; Cvikrová, Milena

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 4 (2017), s. 1279-1293 ISSN 0931-1890 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13050; GA MŠk(CZ) LD13051 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Oxidative stress * Phenolic acids * Phenylpropanoids * Picea abies (L.) Karst * Polyamines * Somatic embryogenesis Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.842, year: 2016

  4. The effect of air elevated [CO2] on crown architecture and aboveground biomass in Norway spruce

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, Radek; Tomášková, Ivana; Slípková, Romana

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 1 (2012), s. 2-11 ISSN 1392-1355 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA MŽP(CZ) SP/2D1/70/08; GA MŽP(CZ) SP/2D1/93/07; GA AV ČR IAA600870701; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.4.31.0056 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : thinning * secondary shoots * biomass allocation * long-term experiment * dendrometry Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.379, year: 2012

  5. Impact of cold temperatures on the shear strength of Norway spruce joints glued with different adhesives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Hagman, Olle; Sundqvist, Bror

    2015-01-01

    × 20 mm × 10 mm) were bonded with seven commercially available adhesives: polyurethane (PUR), polyvinyl acetate (PVAc), emulsion-polymer-isocyanate (EPI), melamine-formaldehyde (MF), phenol-resorcinol-formaldehyde (PRF), melamine-urea-formaldehyde1 (MUF1), and melamine-urea-formaldehyde2 (MUF2). Each...

  6. Soil properties associated with net nitrification following watershed conversion with Appalachian hardwoods to Norway spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlene N. Kelly; Stephen H. Schoenholtz; Mary Beth. Adams

    2011-01-01

    Nitrate (NO3-N) in soil solution and streamwater can be an important vector of nitrogen (N) loss from forested watersheds, and nitrification is associated with negative consequences of soil acidification and eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems. The purpose of this study was to identify vegetation-mediated soil properties that may control...

  7. Acclimation of Norway spruce photosynthetic apparatus to the combined effect of high irradiance and temperature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štroch, M.; Vrábl, D.; Podolinská, J.; Kalina, J.; Urban, Otmar; Špunda, V.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 167, č. 8 (2010), s. 597-605 ISSN 0176-1617 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/07/0759 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : diurnal courses * picea abies * thermal acclimation * thermal energy dissipation * xanthophyll cycle Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.677, year: 2010

  8. Formosan subterranean termite resistance to heat treatment of Scots pine and Norway spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Ramsay Smith; Andreas O. Rapp; Christian Welzbacher; Jerrold E. Winandy

    2003-01-01

    New challenges to the durability of wood building materials have arisen in the U.S. The Formosan subterranean termite (Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki) now infests sizable portions of the U.S. south (Figure 1) and their range is extending. Heat treatments offer a unique opportunity for wood-based composites because many of the process techniques already employ various...

  9. Models relating stem growth to crown length dynamics: application to loblolly pine and Norway spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry T. Valentine; Annikki Makela; Edward J. Green; Ralph L. Amateis; Harri Makinen; Mark J. Ducey

    2012-01-01

    We derive and analyze a model that relates the growth rate of cross-sectional area ('csa') at any height on the central stem of a tree to crown-length dynamics. The derivation is based, in part, on assumptions that (a) active csa on the central stem relates allometrically to the length of crown above the cross section, and (b) inactive csa is proportional to...

  10. Light Use Efficiency of Aboveground Biomass Production of Norway Spruce Stands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bellan, Michal; Marková, I.; Zaika, A.; Krejza, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 1 (2017), s. 9-16 ISSN 1211-8516 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA02010945 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : absorbed photosynthetically active radiation * aboveground biomass increment * allometric relation Subject RIV: GC - Agronomy

  11. [Occasional smoking in Norway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvaavik, Elisabeth; Scheffels, Janne; Lund, Marianne

    2014-01-28

    In recent decades, daily smoking has become less common, while occasional smoking has stayed at the same level. The purpose of the study is to describe occasional smokers on the basis of their smoking behaviour and socio-demographic characteristics. Data from Statistics Norway's quarterly surveys of tobacco use in 2010 and 2011 were used. Information on smoking habits, smoking-related behaviour and the respondents' attitudes to their own smoking was collected in telephone interviews. Of the 8,700 men and women aged 16-74 (response rate 57%) who were included, altogether 1,583 were daily smokers and 907 occasional smokers. The occasional smokers were younger, more frequently lived in large cities and had a higher level of education and income than the daily smokers. Twenty-nine of 174 (17%) occasional smokers used snus on a daily basis, compared to 10 of 394 (3%) of the daily smokers. The occasional smokers had great confidence in their ability to quit: 95% responded that they would be smoke-free in five years, compared to 55% of the daily smokers (n = 2,158). Fifty-five (35%) of the occasional smokers lit up several times weekly (16 cigarettes per week on average), while the remaining (65%) smoked only once per week as a maximum (five cigarettes per week on average). Those who smoked several times each week had attitudes to their own smoking and usage pattern for tobacco that were similar to those of the daily smokers. Nearly half of the occasional smokers defined themselves as non-smokers. Norwegian occasional smokers are a heterogeneous group in terms of their smoking pattern and frequency, and many define themselves as non-smokers.

  12. Taxonomy Icon Data: Sitka spruce [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Sitka spruce Picea sitchensis Picea_sitchensis_L.png Picea_sitchensis_NL.png Picea_sitchen...sis_S.png Picea_sitchensis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Picea+sitchensis&t...=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Picea+sitchensis&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_i...con/icon.cgi?i=Picea+sitchensis&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Picea+sitchensis&t=NS ...

  13. Linkages between grazing history and herbivore exclusion on decomposition rates in mineral soils of subalpine grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan G. Haynes; Martin Schutz; Nina Buchmann; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Matt D. Busse; Anita C. Risch

    2014-01-01

    Herbivore-driven changes to soil properties can influence the decomposition rate of organic material and therefore soil carbon cycling within grassland ecosystems. We investigated how aboveground foraging mammalian and invertebrate herbivores affect mineral soil decomposition rates and associated soil properties in two subalpine vegetation types (shortgrass and tall-...

  14. Human disturbance provides foraging opportunities for birds in primary subalpine forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DuBay, Shane G.; Hart Reeve, Andrew; Wu, Yongjie

    2017-01-01

    to species that naturally occur in edge, open, or disturbed habitats. With observations and experiments we provide evidence of insectivorous birds exploiting human disturbance in primary subalpine forest in the mountains of southern China, displaying behavioral flexibility to gain novel foraging...

  15. Net primary productivity of subalpine meadows in Yosemite National Park in relation to climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peggy E. Moore; Jan W. van Wagtendonk; Julie L. Yee; Mitchel P. McClaran; David N. Cole; Neil K. McDougald; Matthew L. Brooks

    2013-01-01

    Subalpine meadows are some of the most ecologically important components of mountain landscapes, and primary productivity is important to the maintenance of meadow functions. Understanding how changes in primary productivity are associated with variability in moisture and temperature will become increasingly important with current and anticipated changes in climate....

  16. Water use patterns of three species in subalpine forest, Southwest China: the deuterium isotope approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing Xu; Harbin Li; Jiquan Chen; Jiquan Cheng; Xiaoli Cheng; Shirong Liu; Shuqing An

    2011-01-01

    Determination of water sources of plant species in a community is critical for understanding the hydrological processes and their importance in ecosystem functions. Such partitioning of plant xylem water into specific sources (i.e. precipitation, groundwater) can be achieved by analyzing deuterium isotopic composition (δD) values for source waters. A subalpine dark...

  17. Comparison of the abundance and composition of litter fauna in tropical and subalpine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Gonzalez; T.R. Seastedt

    2000-01-01

    In this study, we quantify the abundance and composition of the litter fauna in dry and wet tropical forests and north- and south-facing subalpine forests. We used the same litter species contained in litterbags across study sites to standardize for substrate conditions, and a single method of fauna extraction from the litter (Tullgren method). Fauna densities were...

  18. Comparison of Bt formulations against the spruce budworm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew McCreery; Imants Millers; Dennis Souto; Bruce Francis

    1985-01-01

    The Passamaquoddy Indian Forestry Department treated 40,300 acres in Maine in 1983 using Bt to protect red spruce and eastern hemlock from spruce budworm damage. The post treatment evaluation indicated that the protection objectives were achieved. In cooperation between the Passamaquoddy Indian Forestry Department and two commercial Bt suppliers, Abbott Laboratories...

  19. Fertilization of black spruce or poor site peatland in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David H. Alban; Richard F. Watt

    1981-01-01

    Fertilization of poor site black spruce on organic soil with various rates of nitrogen and phosphorus increased height and diameter growth from 2 to 4 times. The growth response declined with time but was still apparent 16 years after fertilization. Shrub biomass and coverage, and nutrient levels of spruce foliage were strongly affected by fertilization.

  20. Analyses of Great Smoky Mountain Red Spruce Tree Ring Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul C. van Deusen; [Editor

    1988-01-01

    Four different analyses of red spruce tree ring data from the Great Smoky Mountains are presented along with a description of the spruce/fir ecosystem.The analyses use several techniques including spatial analysis, fractals, spline detrending, and the Kalman filter.

  1. Impacts of site effects on losses of oriental spruce during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-18

    Aug 18, 2009 ... developed for oriental spruce and depends on the relation of stand mean diameter and number of trees in a hectare. Wood loss determination. The volume of the damaged, infested and cut trees because of the beetle damage was calculated in 158 experimental plots in 4.74 ha area in spruce forests.

  2. Spruce reproduction dynamics on Alaska's Kenai Peninsula, 1987-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willem W.S. van Hees

    2005-01-01

    During the past 30 years, spruce forests of Alaska’s Kenai Peninsula have undergone dramatic changes resulting from widespread spruce bark beetle(Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby)) infestation. In 1987 and again in 2000, the Pacific Northwest Research Station's Forest Inventory and Analysis Program conducted initial and remeasurement inventories...

  3. Human-Related Forest Fires in the Subalpine Belt of the Spanish Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjuán, Yasmina; María García-Ruiz, José; Beguería, Santiago; Serrano-Muela, María Pilar; González-Sampériz, Penélope; Valero-Garcés, Blas; Arnáez, José

    2014-05-01

    The subalpine belt of the Central Pyrenees ranges approximately between 1700 and 2200 m a.s.l. This area should be covered with dense forests of Pinus sylvestris and P. uncinata, with increasingly open formations towards the upper forest limit. At present, most of the subalpine belt is occupied with grasslands due to human-induced deforestation for enlarging the area occupied by summer pastures. Two are the most important scientific problems related to deforestation of the subalpine belt: (i) the timing of deforestation, and (ii) the geomorphic consequences of a sudden substitution of forests by grasslands. Up to now, intense deforestation is clearly recorded in regional palaeoenvironmental sequences since the Middle Ages and, traditionally, this practice was usually attributed to large fires with the purpose of balance the winter and summer pasture resources. Nevertheless, the presence of abundant remnants of prehistoric monuments (dolmens, cromlechs, tumulus) in the subalpine belt induced to think in a previous seasonal presence of human populations, most probably practicing some primitive type of transhumance. This would only be possible if part of the subalpine forests would be burnt to allow a limited expansion of grasslands, despite the consequences in the landscape of this kind of practices were not permanent in time. We present here new dates of fire occurrence from charcoal obtained from soils in the hillslopes and from lacustrine sediments. Two periods of human-induced fires have been identified: (i) between 2500 and 2000 cal. yr BP, and (ii) between 1100 and 900 cal yr BP. The consequences of deforestation can be easily observed in the landscape, particularly shallow landslide activity, gelifluction, solifluction and the rapid development of parallel incisions in the steepest slopes.

  4. Manipulation of subalpine and alpine microclimate in the Alpine Treeline Warming Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueppers, L. M.; Moyes, A. B.; Ferrenberg, S. M.; Christianson, D. S.; Castanha, C.; Germino, M. J.

    2011-12-01

    To experimentally test model projections of subalpine tree species' uphill migration with climate change, we have established the Alpine Treeline Warming Experiment at Niwot Ridge, CO. Common gardens subject to full factorial warming and watering experiments are replicated across three sites: near the lower limit of subalpine forest, within the alpine-treeline ecotone, and in the alpine tundra, beyond the current elevation ranges of the species. In 2010, differences in ambient climate among the three sites included 5.1° C greater growing-season air temperature and 0.5 kPa greater vapor pressure deficit in the lowest compared to the upper two sites. The lower subalpine site also experienced lower soil moisture compared to the upper two sites. Snowmelt date varied substantially between sites, with the longest snow-free period in the lower subalpine site and the shortest in the treeline site. In all sites, we observed advances in the timing of snowmelt in heated relative to control plots. The warming treatment also raised 5 cm soil temperatures by 3° C at the lower subalpine site, and by 1° C in the upper two sites, averaged over the growing season. More substantial wind in the alpine diminished the heating effect through sensible heat loss. Seasonal average volumetric soil moisture at 5-10 cm did not vary strongly among treatments even though seedling survival and gas exchange data suggest that water additions alleviated drought stress in some plots. These preliminary findings for identical warming and watering treatments across our three high mountain sites suggest that microclimate responses vary with radiation environment, patterns of snow accumulation, and wind speed. Some of these differences are realistic for a future warmer world, while others are artifacts of the experimental approach. Microclimate differences in 2011 reflect modified heating methods and a different spring hydroclimate (later snow accumulation and melt), highlighting the importance of

  5. A Comparison of Infrared Gas Analyzers Above a Subalpine Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, S. P.; Metzger, S.; Blanken, P.; Burba, G. G.; Swiatek, E.; Li, J.; Conrad, B.

    2014-12-01

    Infrared gas analyzers (IRGAs) are a key component in theeddy-covariance measurement of water vapor and carbon dioxide exchangebetween the surface and atmosphere. Historically, closed-path IRGAshave been used for the fast (> 10 Hz) measurement of atmospheric H2Oand CO2. In order to use them in the field, these IRGAs were typicallyhoused in temperature-controlled enclosures or buildings that weretens of meters away from the measurement location. This necessitatedthe use of long tubing and pumps to bring the air sample to the IRGAcell. Attenuation of H2O and CO2 fluctuations within the tubing was apersistent problem with such a setup, especially for H2O. As analternative, open-path IRGAs have frequently been utilized, but thekey trade-offs with the open-path design are: (i) precipitation anddew-related data gaps, and (ii) the need to account for WPL densityeffects. Over the past five years a new type of closed-path IRGA hasemerged which is weather-proof, compact, and low-maintenance. Becauseof its small size, short intake tubing can be used, which places thesampling cell close to the sonic anemometer and reduces high frequencysignal loss. Two such IRGAs are the LI-COR LI-7200 and the CampbellScientific EC155, which is part of the CPEC200 eddy covariance system.The Niwot Ridge AmeriFlux tower has used a LI-COR LI-6262 IRGA tomeasure CO2 fluxes above a subalpine forest since November, 1998.Starting in summer 2013, a LI-7200 (along with an open-path LI-7500)were deployed at 21.5 m on the AmeriFlux tower. In Fall 2013, aEC155/CPEC200 was added so that a side-by-side comparison between allfour IRGAs was possible. The preliminary results presented in ourstudy compare the CO2 and H2O mean and variance measured by each IRGA,the vertical wind statistics from three side-by-side sonicanemometers, as well as the corresponding spectra and cospectra fromthese sensors as well as other important aspects of systemperformance.

  6. Putting community data to work: some understory plants indicate red spruce regeneration habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alison C. Dibble; John C. Brissette; Malcolm L. Hunter

    1999-01-01

    When harvested, red spruce (Picea rubens) at low elevations is vulnerable to temporary displacement by balsam fir (Abies balsamea) and hardwoods. If indicator plants can be found by which to assess spruce regeneration habitat, then biota dependent on red spruce dominance could benefit. Associations between spruce seedlings (0.1-0.5...

  7. Sex Education in Multicultural Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartz, Tiffany

    2007-01-01

    Scandinavia has long been admired by American liberals and sex education advocates who cite comparable rates of adolescent sexuality, yet lower rates of teenage pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases and abortion in Scandinavia. The United States has, however, two variables with which Scandinavia in general, and Norway in particular, has not…

  8. Temporal dynamics of abiotic and biotic factors on leaf litter of three plant species in relation to decomposition rate along a subalpine elevation gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxiao Zhu

    Full Text Available Relationships between abiotic (soil temperature and number of freeze-thaw cycles or biotic factors (chemical elements, microbial biomass, extracellular enzymes, and decomposer communities in litter and litter decomposition rates were investigated over two years in subalpine forests close to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China. Litterbags with senescent birch, fir, and spruce leaves were placed on the forest floor at 2,704 m, 3,023 m, 3,298 m, and 3,582 m elevation. Results showed that the decomposition rate positively correlated with soil mean temperature during the plant growing season, and with the number of soil freeze-thaw cycles during the winter. Concentrations of soluble nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and potassium (K had positive effects but C:N and lignin:N ratios had negative effects on the decomposition rate (k, especially during the winter. Meanwhile, microbial biomass carbon (MBC, N (MBN, and P (MBP were positively correlated with k values during the first growing season. These biotic factors accounted for 60.0% and 56.4% of the variation in decomposition rate during the winter and the growing season in the first year, respectively. Specifically, litter chemistry (C, N, P, K, lignin, C:N and lignin:N ratio independently explained 29.6% and 13.3%, and the microbe-related factors (MBC, MBN, MBP, bacterial and fungal biomass, sucrase and ACP activity explained 22.9% and 34.9% during the first winter and the first growing season, respectively. We conclude that frequent freeze-thaw cycles and litter chemical properties determine the winter decomposition while microbe-related factors play more important roles in determining decomposition in the subsequent growing season.

  9. Ash recycling to spruce and beech stands effects on nutrients, growth, nitrogen dynamics and carbon balance; Askaaterfoering till gran- och bokbestaand - effekter paa naering, tillvaext, kvaevedynamik och kolbalans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelin, Gunnar

    2006-03-15

    Ash recycling is an important part in a modern, sustainable forestry, especially in whole-tree harvest systems. Nutrients lost at harvest are returned to the forest with the wood-ash. In the project the effects of ash treatment on needle and leaf chemistry, tree growth, soil chemistry, soil water chemistry, and carbon and nitrogen dynamics were studied on 23 Norway spruce sites in south-western Sweden and in ten European beech sites in Scania, southern Sweden. On some of the sites there were previously established ash recycling experiments, but on a majority of the sites ash recycling was performed without experimental lay-out and ash and control plots were established afterwards. The most common dose was two tons of self hardened crushed wood-ash and two tons of Mg-lime. On average seven to eight years after ash recycling the results were 1. increased exchangeable stores of base cations in the soil in the beech and the spruce stands 2. increased base saturation in the beech and the spruce stands and increased BC/Al in the spruce stands 3. increased concentrations and ratios to N of P, Ca, Zn, and S in the needles, the increased P-values are especially important since P is close to or below deficiency levels in a majority of the spruce stands 4. decreased K-concentration in the beech leaves 5. increased tree growth with on average 14 % in the ash treated spruce stands compared to the control plots 6. increased carbon and nitrogen amounts in the biomass in the spruce stands 7. tendencies towards increased amounts of carbon and nitrogen in the soil in the beech stands and no effect in the soil in the spruce stands 8. increased concentrations of Ca, Mg, and SO{sub 4} and no effect on ANC in the soil water 9. no effect on potential net mineralization but increased potential nitrification rates 10. decreased concentration of nitrate in the soil water in the beech stands and no effect in the spruce stands 11. lower system N losses in the beech stands and possibly in the

  10. Variation in winter snowpack depth and duration influences summer soil respiration in a subalpine meadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, C. L.; Ghezzehei, T. A.; Berhe, A. A.

    2012-12-01

    Subalpine meadows in the Sierra Nevada rely on the depth and duration of the winter snowpack to supply ample water to restore the water table in the meadow during the spring snowmelt. This study examines the role that interannual variability in the winter snowpack plays in the overall rate of summer soil respiration along a hydrologic gradient in a subalpine meadow. Carbon dioxide efflux from the meadow was measured from June through September in 2011 and 2012 using soil collars and a LICOR 8100A infrared gas analyzer. Preliminary results show that soil respiration rates are influenced by the hydrologic gradient across the meadow, with drier regions peaking earlier in the summer as compared to wetter regions. We also show that high snowpack years can suppress soil respiration in the meadow until late in the summer season as compared to low snowpack years, where soil respiration peaks early in the summer.

  11. Phenology of plants in relation to ambient environment in a subalpine forest of Uttarakhand, western Himalaya

    OpenAIRE

    Bisht, Vinod K.; Kuniyal, Chandra P.; Bhandari, Arvind K.; Nautiyal, Bhagwati P.; Prasad, P.

    2014-01-01

    Observations on phenology of some representative trees, shrubs, under-shrubs and herbs in a subalpine forest of Uttarakhand, western Himalaya were recorded. With the commencement of favorable growth season in April, occurrence of leaf fall was indicatory growth phenomenon in Quercus semecarpifolia, Q. floribunda and Abies spectabilis. However, active vegetative growth in herbaceous species starts onward April and fruit maturation and seed dehiscence are completed from mid of September to Octo...

  12. Bleaching of leaf litter and associated microfungi in subboreal and subalpine forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Yusuke; Matsuoka, Shunsuke; Hobara, Satoru; Mori, Akira S; Hirose, Dai; Osono, Takashi

    2015-10-01

    Fungal decomposition of lignin leads to the whitening, or bleaching, of leaf litter, especially in temperate and tropical forests, but less is known about such bleaching in forests of cooler regions, such as boreal and subalpine forests. The purposes of the present study were to examine the extent of bleached area on the surface of leaf litter and its variation with environmental conditions in subboreal and subalpine forests in Japan and to examine the microfungi associated with the bleaching of leaf litter by isolating fungi from the bleached portions of the litter. Bleached area accounted for 21.7%-32.7% and 2.0%-10.0% of total leaf area of Quercus crispula and Betula ermanii, respectively, in subboreal forests, and for 6.3% and 18.6% of total leaf area of B. ermanii and Picea jezoensis var. hondoensis, respectively, in a subalpine forest. In subboreal forests, elevation, C/N ratio and pH of the FH layer, and slope aspect were selected as predictor variables for the bleached leaf area. Leaf mass per area and lignin content were consistently lower in the bleached area than in the nonbleached area of the same leaves, indicating that the selective decomposition of acid unhydrolyzable residue (recalcitrant compounds such as lignin, tannins, and cutins) enhanced the mass loss of leaf tissues in the bleached portions. Isolates of a total of 11 fungal species (6 species of Ascomycota and 5 of Basidiomycota) exhibited leaf-litter-bleaching activity under pure culture conditions. Two fungal species (Coccomyces sp. and Mycena sp.) occurred in both subboreal and subalpine forests, which were separated from each other by approximately 1100 km.

  13. Comparison of Wood Quality of Douglas Fir and Spruce from Afforested Agricultural Land and Permanent Forest Land in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Zeidler

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the quality of wood from two distinct sites in the Czech Republic—from former afforested agricultural land and forest land. We compared the properties of Norway spruce wood (Picea abies Karst. and Scots pine wood (Pinus sylvestris L., the most important domestic tree species, to Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel Franco, a North American tree species and a potential substitute for the domestic spruce. Wood density, modulus of elasticity (MOE, modulus of rupture (MOR and impact bending strength were the properties tested that were used for comparing tree species. Without taking into consideration the site, the highest density values from the tested tree species were obtained for Douglas fir (0.568 g·cm−3, followed by the pine (0.508 g·cm−3 and the spruce (0.463 g·cm−3. The Douglas fir also dominated in the remaining assessed properties, whilst the influence of site was not confirmed, with the exception of MOE and MOR, and only for the Douglas fir wood, wherein higher values were obtained for forest land. In terms assessed Douglas fir properties, it exceeds the domestic softwoods and represents a possible suitable replacement for them. The site only plays a role in terms of the Douglas fir, and only for certain properties.

  14. Factors influencing the spatial and temporal dynamics of engelmann spruce mortality during a spruce beetle outbreak on the Markagunt Plateau, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Justin DeRose; James N. Long

    2012-01-01

    Host conditions are known to influence spruce beetle population levels, but whether they influence the spatial and temporal patterns of beetle-caused mortality during an outbreak is unknown. Using dendrochronological techniques, we quantified the spatiotemporal dynamics of a modern (late 1980s through the early 2000s) spruce beetle outbreak in Engelmann spruce on the...

  15. Monitoring the spring phenological stages in a spruce monoculture in the Drahanská vrchovina upland in 2005–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Bednářová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper evaluates the onset and duration of spring vegetation phenological stages in a spruce monoculture of the third age class in relation to changing parameters of the environment in the region of the Drahanská vrchovina Upland. Temperature requirements of Norway spruce necessary for the onset particular phenological stages were evaluated on the basis of sums of effective temperatures > 5 oC. The period of 2005–2011 is processed in relation to long-term monitoring since 1991. Based on results obtained, there is considerable variability owing to changing climatic conditions in the onset of spring phenological stages in the course of monitored years. In recent years, the earlier onset of spring phenological stages occurs and their duration gets shorter. This phenomenon is caused by higher air temperatures in spring months. The statistical processing of results obtained demonstrated the high dependence of the onset of particular phenological stages on the temperature of air and soil. Particular factors affecting budbreak and foliation cannot be detached and thus, it is necessary to be evaluated as a complex of influences. Long-term phenological studies of forest trees can serve as the bioindicator of climatic changes.

  16. Height-Diameter Models for Mixed-Species Forests Consisting of Spruce, Fir, and Beech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petráš Rudolf

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Height-diameter models define the general relationship between the tree height and diameter at each growth stage of the forest stand. This paper presents generalized height-diameter models for mixed-species forest stands consisting of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst., Silver fir (Abies alba L., and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. from Slovakia. The models were derived using two growth functions from the exponential family: the two-parameter Michailoff and three-parameter Korf functions. Generalized height-diameter functions must normally be constrained to pass through the mean stand diameter and height, and then the final growth model has only one or two parameters to be estimated. These “free” parameters are then expressed over the quadratic mean diameter, height and stand age and the final mathematical form of the model is obtained. The study material included 50 long-term experimental plots located in the Western Carpathians. The plots were established 40-50 years ago and have been repeatedly measured at 5 to 10-year intervals. The dataset includes 7,950 height measurements of spruce, 21,661 of fir and 5,794 of beech. As many as 9 regression models were derived for each species. Although the “goodness of fit” of all models showed that they were generally well suited for the data, the best results were obtained for silver fir. The coefficient of determination ranged from 0.946 to 0.948, RMSE (m was in the interval 1.94-1.97 and the bias (m was -0.031 to 0.063. Although slightly imprecise parameter estimation was established for spruce, the estimations of the regression parameters obtained for beech were quite less precise. The coefficient of determination for beech was 0.854-0.860, RMSE (m 2.67-2.72, and the bias (m ranged from -0.144 to -0.056. The majority of models using Korf’s formula produced slightly better estimations than Michailoff’s, and it proved immaterial which estimated parameter was fixed and which parameters

  17. Spruce needles used as radioecological biotracers; Fichtennadeln als radiooekologische Bioindikatoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, C.; Gruber, V.; Baumgartner, A. [BOKU - Univ. fuer Bodenkultur Wien (Austria). LLC-Labor Arsenal; Idinger, J. [Technische Univ. Wien (Austria). Atominst.; Fuerst, A. [BFW - Bundesforschungs- und Ausbildungszentrum fuer Wald, Naturgefahren und Landschaft, Wien (Austria). Inst. fuer Waldschutz, Pflanzenanalyse; Maringer, F.J. [BOKU - Univ. fuer Bodenkultur Wien (Austria). LLC-Labor Arsenal; BEV - Bundesamt fuer Eich- und Vermessungswesen, Wien (Austria)

    2009-07-01

    In a two years project spruce needle samples of the Austrian Bioindicator Grid were analysed by gamma-ray spectrometry to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of radionuclides in spruce needles of the last 25 years with the main focus on the radioactive contamination before and after the Chernobyl fallout 1986. More than 600 spruce needle samples at selected locations of the Bioindicator Grid were analysed for different natural and anthropogenic radionuclides: {sup 137}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 238}U. Additionally, soil samples were taken at selected sites to study the soil-to-plant transfer. This radioecological evaluation is an important part of an existing environmental surveillance programme in Upper Austria in order to gain basic information on the impact of environmental changes on the radioecological behaviour of spruce trees. (orig.)

  18. Animal vectors of eastern dwarf mistletoe of black spruce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Ostry; Thomas H. Nicholls; D.W. French

    1983-01-01

    Describes a study to determine the importance of animals in the spread of eastern dwarf mistletoe of black spruce. Radio telemetry, banding, and color-marking techniques were used to study vectors of this forest pathogen.

  19. Yellowheaded spruce sawfly--its ecology and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven A. Katovich; Deborah G. McCullough; Robert A. Haack

    1995-01-01

    Presents the biology and ecology of the yellowheaded spruce sawfly, and provides survey techniques and management strategies. In addition, it provides information on identification, classification, host range, and the historical records of outbreaks in the Lake States.

  20. The vegetation of spruce forests in the Pinega State Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Yu. Popov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Pinega Natural State Reserve is located in the Arkhangelsk Province in the northern taiga subzone. Spruce forests represent the dominant vegetation formation of its territory. The vegetation of this forest is classified, based on 192 phytosociological descriptions. It reveals 12 associations, which represent 7 groups of associations. Detailed characteristics of these syntaxa, including analysis of their biodiversity, are provided. The revealed syntaxa differ both in species composition and environmental conditions: moisture, nutrition, nitrogen availability and acidity. Most poor conditions in terms of mineral nutrition occupy sphagnous spruce forests and bilberry-dominated spruce forests, while under the richest conditions varioherbaceous, humidoherbaceous and nemoral-herbaceous spruce forests occur. The Pinega Reserve is the only locality, where the Piceetum rubo saxatilis-vacciniosum association occurs in the northern taiga subzone.

  1. Formation of ectomycorrhizae following inoculation of containerized Sitka spruce seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.G. Shaw; R. Molina

    1980-01-01

    Containerized Sitka spruce, [Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.] were inoculated at sowing with pure cultures of either Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers.) Coker & Couch, Laccaria laccata (Scop. ex Fr.) Berk. & Br., Astraeus pteridis (Shear) Feller, Amanita pantherina...

  2. Alternative Education and Home Schooling in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Christian W.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the issue of balance between community rules and personal freedom as it relates to who should control the education of children in Norway. Reviews the historical development of alternative education in Norway, including the growth of private schools and home schooling. Comments on future educational needs and the provision of good…

  3. INOPS Survey data report for Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Andrej Christian; Holt, Steffen

    This data report provides statistics on the organization, management and performance of different ways of providing maintenance services within the municipal park and road sector(s) in Norway. The statistics relies on data collected in the period from April 2015 to October 2015 through an online...... survey send to managers in all 428 municipalities in Norway....

  4. Ecosystem CO2/H2O fluxes are explained by hydraulically limited gas exchange during tree mortality from spruce bark beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, John M.; Massman, William J.; Ewers, Brent E.; Huckaby, Laurie S.; Negrón, José F.

    2014-06-01

    Disturbances are increasing globally due to anthropogenic changes in land use and climate. This study determines whether a disturbance that affects the physiology of individual trees can be used to predict the response of the ecosystem by weighing two competing hypothesis at annual time scales: (a) changes in ecosystem fluxes are proportional to observable patterns of mortality or (b) to explain ecosystem fluxes the physiology of dying trees must also be incorporated. We evaluate these hypotheses by analyzing 6 years of eddy covariance flux data collected throughout the progression of a spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) epidemic in a Wyoming Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii)-subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) forest and testing for changes in canopy conductance (gc), evapotranspiration (ET), and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2. We predict from these hypotheses that (a) gc, ET, and NEE all diminish (decrease in absolute magnitude) as trees die or (b) that (1) gc and ET decline as trees are attacked (hydraulic failure from beetle-associated blue-stain fungi) and (2) NEE diminishes both as trees are attacked (restricted gas exchange) and when they die. Ecosystem fluxes declined as the outbreak progressed and the epidemic was best described as two phases: (I) hydraulic failure caused restricted gc, ET (28 ± 4% decline, Bayesian posterior mean ± standard deviation), and gas exchange (NEE diminished 13 ± 6%) and (II) trees died (NEE diminished 51 ± 3% with minimal further change in ET to 36 ± 4%). These results support hypothesis b and suggest that model predictions of ecosystem fluxes following massive disturbances must be modified to account for changes in tree physiological controls and not simply observed mortality.

  5. Statistical Yearbook of Norway 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The Statistical Yearbook of Norway 2012 contains statistics on Norway and main figures for the Nordic countries and other countries selected from international statistics. The international over-views are integrated with the other tables and figures. The selection of tables in this edition is mostly the same as in the 2011 edition. The yearbook's 480 tables and figures present the main trends in official statistics in most areas of society. The list of tables and figures and an index at the back of the book provide easy access to relevant information. In addition, source information and Internet addresses below the tables make the yearbook a good starting point for those who are looking for more detailed statistics. The statistics are based on data gathered in statistical surveys and from administrative data, which, in cooperation with other public institutions, have been made available for statistical purposes. Some tables have been prepared in their entirety by other public institutions. The statistics follow approved principles, standards and classifications that are in line with international recommendations and guidelines. Content: 00. General subjects; 01. Environment; 02. Population; 03. Health and social conditions; 04. Education; 05. Personal economy and housing conditions; 06. Labour market; 07. Recreational, cultural and sporting activities; 08. Prices and indices; 09. National Economy and external trade; 10. Industrial activities; 11. Financial markets; 12. Public finances; Geographical survey.(eb)

  6. Severe human Babesia divergens infection in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mørch

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Human babesiosis is a rare but potentially life-threatening parasitic disease transmitted by ixodid ticks, and has not previously been reported in Norway. We report a case of severe babesiosis that occurred in Norway in 2007. The patient had previously undergone a splenectomy. He was frequently exposed to tick bites in an area endemic for bovine babesiosis in the west of Norway. The patient presented with severe haemolysis and multiorgan failure. Giemsa-stained blood smears revealed 30% parasitaemia with Babesia spp. He was treated with quinine in combination with clindamycin, apheresis, and supportive treatment with ventilatory support and haemofiltration, and made a complete recovery. This is the first case reported in Norway; however Babesia divergens seroprevalence in cattle in Norway is high, as is the risk of Ixodes ricinus tick bite in the general population. Babesiosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unexplained febrile haemolytic disease.

  7. Spruce budworm weight and fecundity: means, frequency distributions, and correlations for two populations (Lepidoptera: tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy Lorimer; Leah S. Bauer

    1983-01-01

    Pupal weights and fecundities of spruce budworm from Minnesota had different means, coefficients of variation, and frequency distributions than spruce budworm from New Hampshire. The two variables were correlated in one of the populations but not the other.

  8. Climate warming shifts carbon allocation from stemwood to roots in calcium-depleted spruce forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapenis, Andrei Gennady; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Heim, Alexander; Zheng, Chengyang; Shortle, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Increased greening of northern forests, measured by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), has been presented as evidence that a warmer climate has increased both net primary productivity (NPP) and the carbon sink in boreal forests. However, higher production and greener canopies may accompany changes in carbon allocation that favor foliage or fine roots over less decomposable woody biomass. Furthermore, tree core data throughout mid- and northern latitudes have revealed a divergence problem (DP), a weakening in tree ring responses to warming over the past half century that is receiving increasing attention, but remains poorly understood. Often, the same sites exhibit trend inconsistency phenomenon (TIP), namely positive, or no trends in growing season NDVI where negative trends in tree ring indexes are observed. Here we studied growth of two Norway spruce (Picea abies) stands in western Russia that exhibited both the DP and TIP but were subject to soil acidification and calcium depletion of differing timing and severity. Our results link the decline in radial growth starting in 1980 to a shift in carbon allocation from wood to roots driven by a combination of two factors: (a) soil acidification that depleted calcium and impaired root function and (b) earlier onset of the growing season that further taxed the root system. The latter change in phenology appears to act as a trigger at both sites to push trees into nutrient limitation as the demand for Ca increased with the longer growing season, thereby causing the shift in carbon allocation.

  9. Morphogenetic Litter Types of Bog Spruce Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. T. Efremova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available For the first time the representation of moss litter morphogenetic structure of valley-riverside and streamside spruce forests was determined for the wetland intermountain area of Kuznetsk Alatau. In general, the litter of (green moss-hypnum spruce forest can be characterized as medium thickness (9–17 cm with high storage of organic matter (77–99 t/ha, which differs in neutral environmental conditions pH 6.8–7.0 and high percentage of ash 11–28 %. Formation litter types were identified, which depend on the content of mineral inclusions in organogenic substrate and the degree of its drainage. The differentiation of litter subhorizons was performed, visual diagnostic indicators of fermentative layers were characterized, and additional (indexes to indicate their specificity were developed. Peat- and peaty-fermentative, humified-fermentative and (black mold humus-fermentative layers were selected. Peat- and peaty-fermentative layers are characterized by content of platy peat macroaggregates of coarse vegetable composition, the presence of abundant fungal mycelium and soil animals are the primary decomposers – myriopoda, gastropoda mollusks. Humified-fermentative layers are identified by including the newly formed amorphous humus-like substances, nutty-granular structural parts of humus nature and soil animals’ humificators – enchytraeids and earthworms. (Black mold humus-fermentative layers are diagnosed by indicators with similar humified-fermentative, but differ from them in clay-humus composition of nutty-granular blue-grey parts. The nomenclature and classification of moss litter were developed on the basis of their diagnostic characteristics of fermentative layers – peat, peaty, reduced peaty, (black mold humus-peaty, reduced (black mold humus-peaty. Using the method of discriminant analysis, we revealed that the physical-chemical properties, mainly percentage of ash and decomposition degree of plant substrate, objectively

  10. Photosynthesis in black and red spruce and their hybrid derivatives: ecological isolation and hybrid adaptive inferiority

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.A.M Manley; F. Thomas Ledig

    1979-01-01

    Photosynthetic response5 of black and red spruce were used to define parameters of their fundamental niches. Grown at warm temperature, black spruce had highest rates of CO2 uptake at high light intensities, fitting it for a pioneering role, while red spruce had the lowest light compensation point, fitting it for a late successional role. Black...

  11. The current distribution, predictive modeling, and restoration potential of red spruce in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory Nowacki; Dan. Wendt

    2010-01-01

    The environmental relationships of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) were assessed in east-central West Virginia. Although many significant relationships existed, red spruce was most strongly associated with elevation, climate, and soil moisture factors. Specifically, red spruce was positively associated with elevation, number of frost days, mean...

  12. Integrated permanent plot and aerial monitoring for the spruce budworm decision support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    David A. MacLean

    2000-01-01

    Spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana Clem.) outbreaks cause severe mortality and growth loss of spruce and fir forest over ranch of eastern North America. The Spruce Budworm Decision Support System (DSS) links prediction and interpretation models to the ARC/1NFO GIS, under an ArcView graphical user interface. It helps forest managers predict...

  13. Effects of forest management legacies on spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis-Etienne Robert; Daniel Kneeshaw; Brian R. Sturtevant

    2012-01-01

    The "silvicultural hypothesis" of spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana Clem.) dynamics postulates that increasing severity of spruce budworm outbreaks over the last century resulted from forest conditions created by past management activities. Yet, definitive tests of the hypothesis remain elusive. We examined spruce budworm outbreak...

  14. Resurgence of human bothriocephalosis (Diphyllobothrium latum in the subalpine lake region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata BOUCHER-RODONI

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Human bothriocephalosis is once again being found in various catchment basins in the subalpine region, including Lago Maggiore and Lac Léman, which however are not isolated cases. Domestic animals are thought to be responsible for the survival of the parasite during the period when no human cases were reported. The new phenomenon of eating raw or poorly cooked fish is responsible for the resurgence of human bothriocephalosis, which affects various lake districts in Europe. This habit of eating raw fish might lead to the resurgence of a much more dangerous human parasitosis, transmitted in a similar way: infestation by Anisakis.

  15. [Characteristics of soil respiration in artificial restoration process of subalpine coniferous forest in eastern Qinghai-Tibet plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fei-Fei; Lin, Bo; Liu, Qing

    2009-08-01

    By the method of infrared CO2 determination in closed dynamic chamber system, the soil respiration in natural spruce forest, and 22-, 35-and 65-year old spruce plantations in eastern Qinghai-Tibet plateau was measured in situ, and the soil heterotrophic and autotrophic respiration was differentiated by entrenchment. In the four spruce forests, soil respiration rate had a significant positive exponential correlation with the soil temperature at depth 5 cm, but less correlation with the soil moisture content at the same depth. The annual soil respiration flux was 792.08-1070.20 g C x m(-2) x a (-1), and decreased in the order of natural spruce forest > 22-year old spruce plantation > 65-year old spruce plantation >35-year old spruce plantation. The annual soil autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration fluxes were 253.36-357.05 g C x m(-2) x a(-1) and 538.69-703.82 g C x m(-2) x a(-1), respectively, and had the same variation trend as the annual soil respiration flux. The Q10 value of soil respiration in 22-, 35-, and 65-year old spruce plantations and in natural spruce forest in growth season (from Nov. 2007 to Mar. 2008) and non-growth season (from Apr. 2008 to Oct. 2008) were 4.59, 6.54, 4.77, and 3.18, and 4.17, 4.66, 3.11, and 2.74, respectively. Except that in 22-year old spruce plantation, the Q10 value was decreased with increasing restoration year, and was obviously higher in non-growth season than in growth season.

  16. Effects of clear-cutting of forest on the chemistry of a shallow groundwater aquifer in southern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Henriksen

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of the national monitoring programme for long-range transported air pollutants, four groundwater aquifers in southern Norway were monitored for acidification trends during the period 1980 – 1995. For the monitoring station, Langvasslia in south eastern Norway, sampling continued until the end of 1999. This groundwater aquifer is about 3 km north east of the calibrated catchment Lake Langtjern. The catchment of the groundwater aquifer, covered completely by Norway spruce, was clear-cut in September 1986 and was treated with glyphosate in the summer, 1991. The chemical effects on the chemistry of the groundwater are generally similar to those observed in stream-water from clear-cut areas: increases in water runoff, water temperature, concentrations of K, NO3, and organic carbon (TOC, and decrease in SO4 concentration. In the groundwater aquifer, inorganic Al and ANC increased more than would have been expected without clear-cutting. By 1999 NO3 concentrations were nearly the same as prior to clear-cutting, whereas K still was elevated. Keywords: Groundwater; clear-cutting; water chemistry; monitoring.

  17. Experimental warming delays autumn senescence in a boreal spruce bog: Initial results from the SPRUCE experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Andrew; Furze, Morgan; Aubrecht, Donald; Milliman, Thomas; Nettles, Robert; Krassovski, Misha; Hanson, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Phenology is considered one of the most robust indicators of the biological impacts of global change. In temperate and boreal regions, long-term data show that rising temperatures are advancing spring onset (e.g. budburst and flowering) and delaying autumn senescence (e.g. leaf coloration and leaf fall) in a wide range of ecosystems. While warm and cold temperatures, day length and insolation, precipitation and water availability, and other factors, have all been shown to influence plant phenology, the future response of phenology to rising temperatures and elevated CO2 still remains highly uncertain because of the challenges associated with conducting realistic manipulative experiments to simulate future environmental conditions. At the SPRUCE (Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change) experiment in the north-central United States, experimental temperature (0 to +9° C above ambient) and CO2 (ambient and elevated) treatments are being applied to mature, and intact, Picea mariana-Sphagnum spp. bog communities in their native habitat through the use of ten large (approximately 12 m wide, 10 m high) open-topped enclosures. We are tracking vegetation green-up and senescence in these chambers, at both the individual and whole-community level, using repeat digital photography. Within each chamber, digital camera images are recorded every 30 minutes and uploaded to the PhenoCam (http://phenocam.sr.unh.edu) project web page, where they are displayed in near-real-time. Image processing is conducted nightly to extract quantitative measures of canopy color, which we characterize using Gcc, the green chromatic coordinate. Data from a camera mounted outside the chambers (since November 2014) indicate strong seasonal variation in Gcc for both evergreen shrubs and trees. Shrub Gcc rises steeply in May and June, and declines steeply in September and October. By comparison, tree Gcc rises gradually from March through June, and declines gradually from

  18. Evaluation of Research in Engineering Science in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Brussel, Hendrik Van Brussel; Lindberg, Bengt; Cederwall, Klas

    This report presents the conclusions of Panel 1: Construction engineering, Production and Operation. The Research Council of Norway (NFR) appointed three expert panels to evaluate Research in Engineering Science in Norway .......This report presents the conclusions of Panel 1: Construction engineering, Production and Operation. The Research Council of Norway (NFR) appointed three expert panels to evaluate Research in Engineering Science in Norway ....

  19. Response of Lutz, Sitka, and white spruce to attack by Dendroctonus rufipennis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) and blue stain fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Werner; Barbara L. Illman

    1994-01-01

    Mechanical wounding and wounding plus inoculation with a blue-stain fungus, Leptographium abietinum (Peck), associated with the spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby), caused an induced reaction zone or lesion around the wound sites in Lutz spruce, Picea lutzii Little, Sitka spruce, P. sitchensis (Bong.) Carr., and white spruce, P. glauca (Moench) Voss, in...

  20. Climate-Induced Mortality of Spruce Stands in Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Im, Sergei T.; Dvinskaya, Maria L.; Golukov, Alexei S.; Ranson, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is an analysis of the causes of spruce (Picea abies L.) decline and mortality in Belarus. The analysis was based on forest inventory and Landsat satellite (land cover classification, climate variables (air temperature, precipitation, evaporation, vapor pressure deficit, SPEI drought index)), and GRACE-derived soil moisture estimation (equivalent of water thickness anomalies, EWTA). We found a difference in spatial patterns between dead stands and all stands (i.e., before mortality). Dead stands were located preferentially on relief features with higher water stress risk (i.e., higher elevations, steeper slopes, south and southwestern exposure). Spruce mortality followed a series of repeated droughts between 1990 and 2010. Mortality was negatively correlated with air humidity (r = -0.52), and precipitation (r = -0.57), and positively correlated with the prior year vapor pressure deficit (r = 0.47), and drought increase (r = 0.57). Mortality increased with the increase in occurrence of spring frosts (r = 0.5), and decreased with an increase in winter cloud cover (r = -0.37). Spruce mortality was negatively correlated with snow water accumulation (r = -0.81) and previous year anomalies in water soil content (r = -0.8). Weakened by water stress, spruce stands were attacked by pests and phytopathogens. Overall, spruce mortality in Belarussian forests was caused by drought episodes and drought increase in synergy with pest and phytopathogen attacks. Vast Picea abies mortality in Belarus and adjacent areas of Russia and Eastern Europe is a result of low adaptation of that species to increased drought. This indicates the necessity of spruce replacement by drought-tolerant indigenous (e.g., Pinus sylvestris, Querqus robur) or introduced (e.g., Larix sp. or Pseudotsuga menzieslii) species to obtain sustainable forest growth management.

  1. A Tale of Two Forests: Simulating Contrasting Lodgepole Pine and Spruce Forest Water and Carbon Fluxes Following Mortality from Bark Beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewers, B. E.; Peckham, S. D.; Mackay, D. S.; Pendall, E.; Frank, J. M.; Massman, W. J.; Reed, D. E.; Borkhuu, B.

    2014-12-01

    In recent decades, bark beetle infestation in western North America has reached epidemic levels. The resulting widespread forest mortality may have profound effects on present and future water and carbon cycling with potential negative consequences to a region that relies on water from montane and subalpine watersheds. We simulated stand-level ecosystem fluxes of water and carbon at two bark beetle-attacked conifer forests in southeast Wyoming, USA. The lower elevation site dominated by lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) was attacked by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) during 2008-2010. The high elevation Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) dominated site was attacked by the spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) during roughly the same time period. Both beetle infestations resulted in >60% canopy mortality in the footprint of eddy covariance towers located at each site. However, carbon and water fluxes responses to mortality depended on the forest type. Using data collected at the sites, we scaled simulated plant hydraulic conductivity by either percent canopy mortality or loss of live tree basal area during infestation. We also simulated a case of no beetle attack. At the lodgepole site, the no-beetle model best fit the data and showed no significant change in growing season carbon flux and a 15% decrease in evapotranspiration (ET). However, at the spruce site, the simulation that tracked canopy loss agreed best with observations: carbon flux decreased by 72% and ET decreased by 31%. In the lodgepole stand, simulated soil water content agreed with spatially distributed measurements that were weighted to reflect overall mortality in the tower footprint. Although these two forest ecosystems are only 20 km apart, separated by less than 300m in elevation, and have been impacted by similar mortality agents, the associated changes in carbon and water cycling are significantly different. Beetle effects on hydrologic cycling were greatest at high elevation

  2. Phylogeny and ecophysiology of opportunistic "snow molds" from a subalpine forest ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, S K; Wilson, K L; Meyer, A F; Gebauer, M M; King, A J

    2008-11-01

    Mats of coenocytic "snow molds" are commonly observed covering the soil and litter of alpine and subalpine areas immediately following snow melt. Here, we describe the phylogenetic placement, growth rates, and metabolic potential of cold-adapted fungi from under-snow mats in the subalpine forests of Colorado. SSU rDNA sequencing revealed that these fungi belong to the zygomycete orders Mucorales and Mortierellales. All of the isolates could grow at temperatures observed under the snow at our sites (0 degrees C and -2 degrees C) but were unable to grow at temperatures above 25 degrees C and were unable to grow anaerobically. Growth rates for these fungi were very high at -2 degrees C, approximately an order of magnitude faster than previously studied cold-tolerant fungi from Antarctic soils. Given the rapid aerobic growth of these fungi at low temperatures, we propose that they are uniquely adapted to take advantage of the flush of nutrient that occurs at the soil-snow interface beneath late winter snow packs. In addition, extracellular enzyme production was relatively high for the Mucorales, but quite low for the Mortierellales, perhaps indicating some niche separation between these fungi beneath the late winter snow pack.

  3. Subalpine Pyrenees received higher nitrogen deposition than predicted by EMEP and CHIMERE chemistry-transport models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin, Marion; Lamaze, Thierry; Couvidat, Florian; Pornon, André

    2015-08-01

    Deposition of reactive nitrogen (N) from the atmosphere is expected to be the third greatest driver of biodiversity loss by the year 2100. Chemistry-transport models are essential tools to estimate spatially explicit N deposition but the reliability of their predictions remained to be validated in mountains. We measured N deposition and air concentration over the subalpine Pyrenees. N deposition was found to range from 797 to 1,463 mg N m-2 year-1. These values were higher than expected from model predictions, especially for nitrate, which exceeded the estimations of EMEP by a factor of 2.6 and CHIMERE by 3.6. Our observations also displayed a reversed reduced-to-oxidized ratio in N deposition compared with model predictions. The results highlight that the subalpine Pyrenees are exposed to higher levels of N deposition than expected according to standard predictions and that these levels exceed currently recognized critical loads for most high-elevation habitats. Our study reveals a need to improve the evaluation of N deposition in mountains which are home to a substantial and original part of the world’s biodiversity.

  4. Biogeochemical impacts of wildfires over four millennia in a Rocky Mountain subalpine watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunnette, Paul V; Higuera, Philip E; McLauchlan, Kendra K; Derr, Kelly M; Briles, Christy E; Keefe, Margaret H

    2014-08-01

    Wildfires can significantly alter forest carbon (C) storage and nitrogen (N) availability, but the long-term biogeochemical legacy of wildfires is poorly understood. We obtained a lake-sediment record of fire and biogeochemistry from a subalpine forest in Colorado, USA, to examine the nature, magnitude, and duration of decadal-scale, fire-induced ecosystem change over the past c. 4250 yr. The high-resolution record contained 34 fires, including 13 high-severity events within the watershed. High-severity fires were followed by increased sedimentary N stable isotope ratios (δ15N) and bulk density, and decreased C and N concentrations--reflecting forest floor destruction, terrestrial C and N losses, and erosion. Sustained low sediment C : N c. 20-50 yr post-fire indicates reduced terrestrial organic matter subsidies to the lake. Low sedimentary δ15N c. 50-70 yr post-fire, coincident with C and N recovery, suggests diminishing terrestrial N availability during stand development. The magnitude of post-fire changes generally scaled directly with inferred fire severity. Our results support modern studies of forest successional C and N accumulation and indicate pronounced, long-lasting biogeochemical impacts of wildfires in subalpine forests. However, even repeated high-severity fires over millennia probably did not deplete C or N stocks, because centuries between high-severity fires allowed for sufficient biomass recovery. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Two rare coprophilous ascomycetes from Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummelen, van J.; Kristiansen, R.

    1998-01-01

    Two uncommon coprophilous ascomycetes, Ascobolus cervinus and Caccobius minusculus, only recorded once, each from two different continents, are reported for the first time from Norway. Both are provided with new descriptions and compared with authentic material.

  6. Biological and physical influences on the carbon isotope content of CO2 in a subalpine forest snowpack, Niwot Ridge, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. R. Bowling; W. J. Massman; S. M. Schaeffer; S. P. Burns; R. K. Monson; M. W. Williams

    2009-01-01

    Considerable research has recently been devoted to understanding biogeochemical processes under winter snow cover, leading to enhanced appreciation of the importance of many winter ecological processes. In this study, a comprehensive investigation of the stable carbon isotope composition (δ 13C) of CO2 within a high-elevation subalpine...

  7. Survival, frost susceptibility, growth, and disease resistance of corkbark and subalpine fir grown for landscape and Christmas trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trees from six corkbark fir (Abies lasiocarpa var. arizonica) and 10 subalpine fir (A. lasiocarpa var. lasiocarpa) seed sources were grown at the University of Idaho Sandpoint Research and Extension Center (SREC) and two commercial nurseries in Idaho and Oregon. Post transplant mortality was highest...

  8. Mycorrhiza-plant colonization patterns on a subalpine glacier forefront as a model system of primary succession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efren Cazares; James M. Trappe; Ari Jumpponen

    2005-01-01

    Lyman glacier in the North Cascades Mountains of Washington has a subalpine forefront characterized by a well-developed terminal moraine, inconspicuous successional moraines, fluting, and outwash. These deposits were depleted of symbiotic fungi when first exposed but colonized by them over time after exposure. Four major groups of plant species in this system are (1)...

  9. An eddy covariance study of a spruce beetle outbreak on summertime evapotranspiration and ecosystem CO2 exchange and winter sublimation dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, John Michael

    Water and carbon cycles are important from ecosystem to global scales because of their feedbacks with climate change and natural disturbance. In order to quantify both primary and compensating responses in an ecosystem under disturbance, an approach that observes the ecosystem in its entirety is preferred. In recent decades, the eddy covariance technique has become ubiquitous in modern ecosystem studies because its fundamental measurement scale integrates across an ecosystem. Yet, across flux networks a trend towards energy imbalance has implicated a systematic bias in these measurements that has no mechanistic explanation. This dissertation concentrates on a historical transducer shadowing correction for sonic anemometers, the fundamental instrument in eddy covariance studies, and whether the omission of it can explain these underestimated ecosystem fluxes. It then focuses on the response of water and carbon processes in a subalpine spruce-fir forest in southeastern Wyoming, USA that experienced 80% forested basal area mortality following a spruce beetle outbreak. To evaluate an uncertainty in eddy covariance measurements, a novel experiment is devised to test the consistency to which an omnidirectional sonic anemometer can measure the three dimensions, to compare of the effect of different designs and different manufacturers to link an underestimate in vertical wind velocity to the lack of transducer shadowing correction, and to construct a Bayesian model to estimate the three dimensional shadowing correction required to fix the problem. Results show that at the 60% of ecosystem flux sites in North American that use this equipment, their ecosystem flux measurements are probably underestimated by 8-12%. During the growing season, the change in ecosystem processes due to disturbance are explained through the physiological response of dying spruce trees and their observed mortality. Evapotranspiration declines immediately following the attack because of hydraulic

  10. The western spruce budworm model: structure and content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.A. Sheehan; W.P. Kemp; J.J. Colbert; N.L. Crookston

    1989-01-01

    The Budworm Model predicts the amounts of foliage destroyed annually by the western spruce budworm, Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman, in a forest stand. The model may be used independently, or it may be linked to the Stand Prognosis Model to simulate the dynamics of forest stands. Many processes that affect budworm population dynamics are...

  11. Indicators and associated decay of Engelmann spruce in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas E. Hinds; Frank G. Hawksworth

    1966-01-01

    Average cull deductions for 11 cull indicators were determined from over 2,000 abnormalities on 1,027 merchantable Engelmann spruce in 21 stands throughout Colorado. On a board-foot basis, Fomes pini punk knots or sporophores caused an 81 percent deduction. Deduction for broken tops or dead tops with adjacent dead rust brooms amounted to 24 percent....

  12. On mycorrhiza development of spruces and firs in damaged stands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, T.; Weber, G.; Kottke, I.; Oberwinkler, F.

    1989-02-01

    The authors studied the very fine roots of sick spruces and firs and established the following: 1. a surprising stability of mycorrhiza development, 2. differences in the dynamism of development and 3. modifications in the composition of the accompanying microfungi. The results suggest connections in the chain of causes of forest disease which have received little attention so far.

  13. Animal damage to young spruce and fir in Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton M. Blum

    1977-01-01

    The loss of terminal buds on small balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) and spruce (Picea spp.) trees because of nipping by mammals or birds has increased on the Penobscot Experimental Forest in recent years. The cut stem is smooth and slightly angled; there is no sign of tearing. Unnipped trees grew about 13 percent more than...

  14. Reproductive compatibility within and among spruce budworm (Lepidoptera: tortricidae) populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy Lorimer; Leah S. Bauer

    1983-01-01

    Spruce budworm moths collected as larvae from two species of host trees in four populations were mated in single pairs in two years. In 1980 but not 1981, more of the intra-population matings than the inter-population matings were fertile. Host tree origin was not a significant factor in the level of sterility.

  15. Putrescine: a marker of stress in red spruce trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakesk Minocha; Walter C. Shortle; Gregory B. Lawrence; Mark B. David; Subhash C. Minocha

    1996-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) has been suggested to be an important stress factor in forest decline due to its mobilization in soil following atmospheric deposition of acidic pollutants. A major goal of our research is to develop physiological and biochemical markers of stress in trees using cell cultures and whole plants. Needles of red spruce (Picea rubens)...

  16. Red spruce/hardwood ecotones in the central Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harold S. Adams; Steven L. Stephenson; David M. Lawrence; Mary Beth Adams; John D. Eisenback

    1995-01-01

    We are currently investigating patterns of species composition and distribution, ecologically important population processes, and microenvironmental gradients along ten permanent transects (each consisting of a series of. contiguous 10 x 10 m quadrats) established across the typically abrupt and narrow spruce/hardwood ecotone at seven localities in the mountains of...

  17. Controls on moss evaporation in a boreal black spruce forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmans, M.M.P.D.; Arp, W.J.; Chapin, F.S.

    2004-01-01

    [1] Mosses are an important component of the boreal forest, but little is known about their contribution to ecosystem carbon, water, and energy exchange. We studied the role of mosses in boreal forest evapotranspiration by conducting two experiments in a black spruce forest in Fairbanks, Alaska.

  18. Physiological and environmental causes of freezing injury in red spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul G. Schaberg; Donald H. DeHayes

    2000-01-01

    For many, concerns about the implications of "environmental change" conjure up scenarios of forest responses to global warming, enrichment of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide and methane, and the northward migration of maladapted forests. From that perspective, the primary focus of this chapter, that is, causes of freezing injury to red spruce (

  19. Pulp and paper production from Spruce wood with kraft and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... Full Length Research Paper. Pulp and paper production from Spruce wood with kraft and modified kraft methods. Ahmet Tutus1*, Saim Ates2 and Ilhan Deniz3. 1Department of Forest Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Forestry, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University (KSU) 46100,. Kahramanmaras, Turkey.

  20. Leaf area dynamics of a boreal black spruce fire chronosequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond-Lamberty, B; Wang, C; Gower, S T; Norman, J

    2002-10-01

    Specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf area index (LAI) were estimated using site-specific allometric equations for a boreal black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP) fire chronosequence in northern Manitoba, Canada. Stands ranged from 3 to 131 years in age and had soils that were categorized as well or poorly drained. The goals of the study were to: (i) measure SLA for the dominant tree and understory species of boreal black spruce-dominated stands, and examine the effect of various biophysical conditions on SLA; and (ii) examine leaf area dynamics of both understory and overstory for well- and poorly drained stands in the chronosequence. Overall, average SLA values for black spruce (n = 215), jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb., n = 72) and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx., n = 27) were 5.82 +/- 1.91, 5.76 +/- 1.91 and 17.42 +/- 2.21 m2 x kg-1, respectively. Foliage age, stand age, vertical position in the canopy and soil drainage had significant effects on SLA. Black spruce dominated overstory LAI in the older stands. Well-drained stands had significantly higher overstory LAI (P 40%) of total leaf area in all stands except the oldest.

  1. Modelling soil temperature and moisture and corresponding seasonality of photosynthesis and transpiration in a boreal spruce ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Wu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Recovery of photosynthesis and transpiration is strongly restricted by low temperatures in air and/or soil during the transition period from winter to spring in boreal zones. The extent to which air temperature (Ta and soil temperature (Ts influence the seasonality of photosynthesis and transpiration of a boreal spruce ecosystem was investigated using a process-based ecosystem model (CoupModel together with eddy covariance (EC data from one eddy flux tower and nearby soil measurements at Knottåsen, Sweden. A Monte Carlo-based uncertainty method (GLUE provided prior and posterior distributions of simulations representing a wide range of soil conditions and performance indicators. The simulated results showed sufficient flexibility to predict the measured cold and warm Ts in the moist and dry plots around the eddy flux tower. Moreover, the model presented a general ability to describe both biotic and abiotic processes for the Norway spruce stand. The dynamics of sensible heat fluxes were well described by the corresponding latent heat fluxes and net ecosystem exchange of CO2. The parameter ranges obtained are probably valid to represent regional characteristics of boreal conifer forests, but were not easy to constrain to a smaller range than that produced by the assumed prior distributions. Finally, neglecting the soil temperature response function resulted in fewer behavioural models and probably more compensatory errors in other response functions for regulating the seasonality of ecosystem fluxes.

  2. Drought as a modifier of interaction between adult beech and spruce - impacts on tree water use, C budgets and biotic interactions above- and belowground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grams, Thorsten

    2017-04-01

    Understanding biotic interactions among tree species with their microbial associates under drought will be crucial for silviculture in meeting ecological challenges of the future. This contribution gives an overview on a project integrating a throughfall-exclusion experiment (TEE) on adult trees with a natural precipitation gradient (PGR) in central European forests. Focus is on drought affecting species interaction above and belowground, including associated ectomycorrhizal (ECM) communities. Study objects are pure and mixed forests dominated by adult European beech and Norway spruce trees (c. 70-years old). At the throughfall-exclusion experiment (TEE), trees are readily accessible via scaffolding and canopy crane (Kranzberg Forest, southern Germany). Effects of experimentally induced, repeated summer drought are assessed with roughly 100 trees assigned to a total of 12 plots (Kranzberg forest ROOF experiment, kroof.wzw.tum.de). The summer drought treatment started in 2014 and was repeated in 2015 and 2106. The focus on species interaction is intensified by a parallel study along a natural precipitation gradient with plot triplets of monocultures and mixed cultures of European beech and Norway spruce at each of the five study sites. Complementary resource use, effects of competitive vs. facilitation and related changes in ECM communities are exemplified for the two tree species of contrasting foliage (i.e. deciduous vs. evergreen) and stomatal sensitivity to drought (i.e. an-isohydric vs. isohydric behavior). At the TEE site, precipitation throughfall was completely excluded from early spring to late fall (i.e. March to November), resulting in pre-dawn leaf water potentials of both beech and spruce as low as -2.5 MPa. Despite significant reductions in growth and rate of photosynthesis by up to 80% under drought, NSC budget of trees was hardly affected. Moreover, phloem functionality, tested as phloem transport velocity through 13C-labeling of recent

  3. Fungal bio-treatment of spruce wood with Trametes versicolor for pitch control: influence on extractive contents, pulping process parameters, paper quality and effluent toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, Teris A; Kuster, Bram; Claassen, Frank W; Tienvieri, Taisto; Bertaud, Frédérique; Lenon, Gilles; Petit-Conil, Michel; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes

    2007-01-01

    Lipophilic low molar-mass constituents in wood chips for the paper industry result in low quality pulp, pitch deposition, and effluent toxicity. New biotechnological solutions such as fungal pre-treatment of wood chips can reduce pitch problems. This laboratory-scale study focuses on the potential and limitations of a fungal bio-treatment of Norway spruce chips with the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor. Different fungal treatment conditions were compared. A 4-week fungal treatment reduced the concentration of resin acids and triglycerides by 40% and 100%, respectively, but neither lowered the energy requirements of the TMP process nor significantly affected the morphological fiber characteristics and the physical pulp properties. The pre-treatment led to slightly poorer optical properties. The Trametes versicolor fungal treatment contributed to a less toxic effluent and improved the biodegradability. A treatment of 2-3 weeks appears optimal.

  4. Evaluating the Importance of Plant Functional Traits: the Subalpine and Alpine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, A.; Smith, W. K.

    2011-12-01

    Over the past several decades, researchers have attempted to characterize plant groups according to traits that are considered functional, i.e. contributing significantly to fitness. Due to the complexity of measuring fitness, the capability for photosynthetic carbon gain is often used as a proxy. Thus, this approach correlates structural differences to photosynthetic performance, especially those differences that are known to be associated with photosynthesis, are easily measured and inexpensive. At the often sharp boundary between the subalpine forest and alpine community (treeline ecotone), plant structural traits change dramatically, i.e. tall evergreen trees give way abruptly to low-stature shrubs, grasses, forbs, and herbs. Yet, the differences in functional traits, so abundant in the literature for a variety of species and communities, have not been compared contiguous communities such as the subalpine forest and alpine. Can differences in functional traits already identified in the literature also be used to characterize species of these two contrasting communities? Or are there other traits that are most functional and/or, possibly, unique to each community and not the most popular traits reported so far in the literature. Also, does the community structure itself help determine functional traits? For example, the top ten most frequently studied traits (145 total papers from approximately 63 different refereed journals) considered functional include the following (% of the 145 publications): specific leaf area or mass (SLA or SLM 39%), plant height (36%), leaf nitrogen content (34%), leaf size (19%), leaf area (16%), leaf photosynthetic performance (15%), leaf dry matter content (LDMC 15%), leaf mass per unit leaf area (LMA 15%), leaf thickness (15%), and seed mass (14%). In addition, another 120 traits were mentioned as functional, although all fell below a 14% citation rate. Particular focus was placed on this group due to the possibility that they might

  5. Atmospheric nitrous oxide uptake in boreal spruce forest soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siljanen, Henri; Welti, Nina; Heikkinen, Juha; Biasi, Christina; Martikainen, Pertti

    2017-04-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) uptake from the atmosphere has been found in forest soils but environmental factors controlling the uptake and its atmospheric impact are poorly known. We measured N2O fluxes over growing season in a boreal spruce forest having control plots and plots with long nitrogen fertilization history. Also methane (CH4) fluxes were measured to compare the atmospheric impact of N2O and CH4fluxes. Soil chemical and physical characteristics and climatic conditions were measured as background data. Nitrous oxide consumption and uptake mechanisms were measured in complementary laboratory incubation experiments using stable isotope approaches. Gene transcript numbers of nitrous oxide reductase (nosZ) I and II genes were quantified along the incubation with elevated N2O atmosphere. The spruce forests without fertilization history showed highest N2O uptake rates whereas pine forest had low emissions. Nitrous oxide uptake correlated positively with soil moisture, high soil silt content, and low temperature. Nitrous oxide uptake varied seasonally, being highest in spring and autumn when temperature was low and water content was high. The spruce forest was sink for CH4.Methane fluxes were decoupled from the N2O fluxes (i.e. when the N2O uptake was high the CH4 uptake was low). By using GWP approach, the cooling effect of N2O uptake was on average 30% of the cooling effect of CH4 uptake in spruce forest without fertilization. Anoxic conditions promoted higher N2O consumption rates in all soils. Gene transcription of nosZ-I genes were activated at beginning of the incubation. However, atypical/clade-II nosZ was not detected. These results suggests, that also N2O uptake rates have to be considered when accounting for the GHG budget of spruce forests.

  6. Lessons from native spruce forests in Alaska: managing Sitka spruce plantations worldwide to benefit biodiversity and ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Deal; Paul Hennon; Richard O' Hanlon; David D' Amore

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing interest worldwide in managing forests to maintain or improve biodiversity, enhance ecosystem services and assure long-term sustainability of forest resources. An important goal of forest management is to increase stand diversity, provide wildlife habitat and improve forest species diversity. We synthesize results from natural spruce forests in...

  7. Performance of the Forest Vegetation Simulator in managed white spruce plantations influenced by eastern spruce budworm in northern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew B. Russell; Anthony W. D' Amato; Michael A. Albers; Christopher W. Woodall; Klaus J. Puettmann; Michael R. Saunders; Curtis L. VanderSchaaf

    2015-01-01

    Silvicultural strategies such as thinning may minimize productivity losses from a variety of forest disturbances, including forest insects. This study analyzed the 10-year postthinning response of stands and individual trees in thinned white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss) plantations in northern Minnesota, USA, with light to moderate defoliation...

  8. Fungistatic efficiency of phenolic compounds in spruce (Picea abies L. Karst. ) and influence of SO[sub 2]. Fungistatische Wirksamkeit phenolischer Inhaltsstoffe der Fichte Picea abies (L. ) Karst. und Einfluss von SO[sub 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, U. (TU Dresden, Inst. fuer Forstbotanik und Forstzoologie, Tharandt (Germany)); Tesche, M. (TU Dresden, Inst. fuer Forstbotanik und Forstzoologie, Tharandt (Germany)); Heller, W. (GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit GmbH, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Biochemische Pflanzenpathologie); Sandermann, H. (GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit GmbH, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Biochemische Pflanzenpathologie)

    1993-08-01

    The paper deals with fungistatic phenols in Norway spruce (Picea abies). Phenolic substances were isolated from several tissues and chromatographed by TLC. Detected by bioassay using Cladosporium cucumerinum, the most fungistatic compound was isolated and identified by UV-, mass- and NMT-spectra as the stilbenglucoside isorhapontin. The highest amounts of isorhapontin were found in a 15-year-old spruce in the bark of root (1.3%) and stem (0.4%), and also in fine roots (0.3%). Sapwood contained between 0.001 and 0.01% of this stilbene (all values related to green weight). The brown-rot fungi Phaeolus schweinitzii and Fomitopsis pinicola showed a depression of growth related to the concentration of isorhapontin on malt agar. Growth reduction of 50% was reached at a concentration of 1.25 mM (F. pinicola) and 3 mM (P. schweinitzii). The white-rot fungi Trametes versicolor, Heterobasidion annosum, and Armillaria ostoyae were not inhibited. First investigation results 6 months after long-term SO[sub 2]-treatment (0.28-0.34 ppm) of cloned spruces showed a reduction of fungistatic stilbenes in fine roots and bark compared with untreated controls (indirect effect). (orig.)

  9. Can spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirky) pheromone trap catches or stand conditions predict Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii Parry ex Engelm.) tree mortality in Colorado?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose F. Negron; John B. Popp

    2017-01-01

    1) Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) can cause extensive tree mortality in forests dominated by their hosts. Among these, the spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) is one of the most important beetles in western North America causing Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) tree mortality. 2) Although pheromone traps with attractants are commonly used...

  10. Windstorms as mediator of soil nematode community changes: Evidence from European spruce forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renčo M.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nematode communities in a Norway spruce forest in High Tatra National Park, Slovakia were monitored for the period of several years (2006 and 2013. Unfortunately, in May 2014 natural windstorm damaged the forest. This disastrous event, together with preliminary obtained results allowed us to compare the direct impact of windstorm damage of forest habitat on soil nematode assemblages. The forest destruction by windstorm had a significant effect on the total nematode abundance, the abundance of omnivores and herbivores, as well as the nematode species diversity. The most dominant species, representing 55 % of the total nematode fauna, in the plot studied were Acrobeloides nanus followed by Malenchus exiguus, Filenchus vulgaris, Plectus communis, Plectus parvus and Tylencholaimus mirabilis. The abundance of bacterivorous signifi cantly increased after the windstorm, meanwhile the abundance of omnivores, fungivores, and herbivores ectoparasites and epidermal/root hair feeders showed an opposite trend. Of the evaluative indicators, Shannon species diversity (H’spp, maturity index (MI, maturity index 2-5 (MI2-5, sigma maturity index (ΣMI, enrichment index (EI and structure index (SI decreased significantly after windstorm. The EI and SI indexes characterized soil ecosystems before windstorm (2006 - 2013 as maturing with low or moderate disturbance, but soil ecosystems shortly after the windstorm (2014 were degraded and nutrient depleted. This also corresponded with graphical display of metabolic footprints characteristics of soil food web. Overall, the nematode communities differed significantly before and after forest damage. These results suggest the role of nematode communities as indicators of environment condition quality or its disruption.

  11. Dry deposition profile of small particles within a model spruce canopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ould-Dada, Zitouni [Centre for Analytical Research in the Environment, (now EAS T.H. Huxley School), Imperial College of Science Technology and Medicine, Silwood Park, Ascot, SL57TE Berkshire (United Kingdom)

    2002-03-08

    Data on dry deposition of 0.82 {mu}m MMAD uranium particles to a small scale, 'model' Norway spruce (Picea abies) canopy have been determined by means of wind tunnel experiments. These are presented for both the total canopy and for five horizontal layers within the canopy. The results show a complex pattern of deposition within the canopy. The highest deposition velocity V{sub g} (0.19 cm s{sup -1}) was recorded for the topmost layer within the canopy (i.e. the layer in direct contact with the boundary layer) whereas the lowest V{sub g} (0.02 cm s{sup -1}) occurred at the soil surface. Vertical penetration of depositing aerosol through the canopy was influenced by variations in biomass, wind velocity and turbulence within the canopy. A total canopy V{sub g} of 0.5 cm s{sup -1} was obtained and this is in line with field measurements of V{sub g} reported in literature for both anthropogenic and radionuclide aerosols of similar size ranges. Extrapolation of wind tunnel data to 'real' forest canopies is discussed. The information presented here is of importance in predicting the likely contribution of dry deposition of aerosols to pollutant inputs to forest ecosystems, particularly in the context of radioactive aerosol releases from nuclear installations. The application of the present data may also be appropriate for other pollutant aerosols such as SO{sub 4}, NO{sub 3} and NH{sub 4}, which are characterised by particle sizes in the range used in this study.

  12. Language Policy and Corporate Law in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    This paper explores the relationship between national language policies and corporate law in Norwegian business. By adopting a legal perspective on the national language policy of Norway as it has been stipulated by the Norwegian Ministry of Church and Culture (2008) and The Language Council...... of Norway (2005) the paper investigates how the 500 largest companies in Norway comply with the language requirement of the Norwegian Accounting Act for the financial year of 2015. The results show that 44.9 % of the companies presented their financial statements in one or more foreign language in addition...... to the Norwegian language version, 36.2 % of the companies presented their financial statements in Norwegian only, while 18.9 % of the companies had been granted dispensation from the Norwegian Directorate of Taxes to deviate from the language requirement of the Accounting Act and presented their financial...

  13. Silver fir and Douglas fir are more tolerant to extreme droughts than Norway spruce in south-western Germany

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vitali, V.; Büntgen, Ulf; Bauhus, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 12 (2017), s. 5108-5119 ISSN 1354-1013 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : temperate forest trees * picea-abies karst. * climate- change * water relations * vosges mountains * growth-patterns * species stands * scots pine * alba * productivity * Abies alba * Central Europe * climate change * dendroecology * drought tolerance * forest management * Picea abies * Pseudotsuga menziesii Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 8.502, year: 2016

  14. Interactions between calcium and heavy metals in Norway spruce : Accumulation and binding of metals in wood and bark

    OpenAIRE

    Österås, Ann Helén

    2004-01-01

    Waste products from the forest industry are to be spread in forests in Sweden to counteract nutrient depletion due to whole tree harvesting. This may increase the bioavailability of calcium (Ca) and heavy metals, such as cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) in forest soils. Heavy metals, like Cd, have already been enriched in forest soils in Sweden, due to deposition of air pollutions, and acidification of forest soils has increased the bioavailability of toxic metals for plant uptake. Cha...

  15. Effects of wood chip ash fertilization on soil chemistry in a Norway spruce plantation on a nutrient-poor soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Morten; Hansen, Mette; Pedersen, Lars Bo

    2014-01-01

    Harvest of forest biomass for energy production may lead to export of nutrients from the forest. Recirculation of nutrients from wood chip combustion by ash spreading in forests has been proposed as a means for counteracting the nutrient export. This study was carried out to examine the effect of...

  16. Soil CO2 efflux in young Norway spruce stands with different silviculture practices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rosík, J.; Fabiánek, Tomáš; Marková, I.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 206, č. 6 (2013), s. 1845-1851 ISSN 1211-8516 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.4.31.0056 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : seasonal changes in soil respiration * growing season * thinning Subject RIV: GC - Agronomy

  17. Effects of long-term temperature and nutrient manipulation on Norway spruce fine roots and mycelia production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leppälammi-Kujansuu, J.; Ostonen, I.; Strömgren, M.

    2013-01-01

    Aims and methods The effects of changing climate on ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fine roots were studied in northern Sweden by manipulating soil temperature for 14 years and/or by fertilizing for 22 years. Fine root biomass, necromass, EcM root tip biomass, morphology and number as well as mycelia....... Significantly higher specific root length of EcM root tips indicated an increased need for nutrients in warmed and in unfertilized plots. Better nutrient supply and warmer soil temperature provide a potential to increase the flow of carbon into the soil via increased fine root biomass, but the carbon balance...

  18. Imaging hyphal growth of Physisporinus vitreus in Norway spruce wood by means of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM)

    OpenAIRE

    Schubert, Mark; Stührk, Chris; Fuhr, Matthias J.; Schwarze, Francis W.M.R.

    2017-01-01

    Light microscopy and electron microscopy are the most common methods for analyzing wood-decay fungi. However, the 3D visualization and quantification of the filamentous structure of fungi in wood is difficult to realize by means of these traditional techniques. In the present work, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was further developed for the quantitative imaging of the 3D microscopic hyphal growth of Physisporinus vitreus, a versatile fungus for engineering value-added wood product...

  19. Modelling height to diameter ratio – an opportunity to increase Norway spruce stand stability in the Western Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bošeľa Michal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Smrek je jednou z najrozšírenejších a ekonomicky najdôležitejších ihličnatých drevín v Európe. Taktiež je drevinou veľmi často poškodzovanou vetrovými kalamitami. Štíhlostný kvocient (pomer výšky a hrúbky stromu sa považuje za vhodný indikátor statickej stability jednotlivých stromov a porastov. Preto cieľom práce bola identifikácia hlavných faktorov, ktoré majú významný vplyv na hodnoty kvocientu. Jednoduchý model bol vytvorený ako pomôcka pre lesníka pri rozhodovaní o intenzite prebierok v smrekových porastoch s cieľom potenciálneho zvýšenia statickej stability a zachovania optimálnej produkcie. Využili sa údaje Národnej inventarizácie a monitoringu lesov SR (260 plôch a taktiež údaje z predchádzajúcich výskumných projektov (48 plôch tak aby reprezentovali čo najširšie rozpätie ekologických podmienok, v ktorých smrek v súčasnosti rastie. Výsledky ukázali, že najvýznamnejšími ekologickými faktormi boli: nadmorská výška a bonita stanovišťa. Taktiež niektoré porastové charakteristiky sa významne podieľali na variabilite kvocientu: podiel koruny z výšky stromu, hustota porastu a stredná porastová výška reprezentujúca rastovú fázu porastu. Výsledky ďalej preukázali, že ekologické podmienky sú významnejšie ako porastové charakteristiky, a preto tieto treba brať do úvahy pri rozhodovacom procese. To znamená, že ak sa porast nachádza na pre smrek veľmi bonitnom stanovišti, sú potrebné silnejšie prebierky od mladých rastových fáz, aby sa ovplyvňovaním hrúbkového prírastku vyrovnal vplyv rýchleho výškového rastu. Zároveň je dôležitá rozdielna intenzita výškového a hrúbkového rastu počas vývoja porastu

  20. Growth of Norway spruce seedlings after transplanting into silty soil amended with biochar: A bioassay in a growth chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Heiskanen; P. Tammeorg; R. K. Dumroese

    2013-01-01

    Biochar (BC), the carbon-rich by-product resulting from pyrolysis of biomass, is used for bioenergy and increasingly as a soil additive for carbon sequestration and soil improvement. However, information about the effects of BC on forest productivity and reforestation success, especially on boreal and temperate forest soils, is scant. We examined the effects of two BC...

  1. Exposure of Norway spruce to ozone increases the sensitivity of current year needles to photoinhibition and desiccation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, H.

    1994-01-01

    decreases in net photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence (FN/FM) were found during periods with co-occurrence of high ozone concentrations And high light intensities, indicating interactions between effects of ozone and photoinhibition. After termination of fumigation enhanced rates of photosynthesis...

  2. Differences in top-soil features between beech-mixture and Norway spruce forests of the Šumava Mts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějka, K.; Starý, Josef

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 12 (2009), s. 540-555 ISSN 1212-4834 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/07/1200 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : ash content * Bohemia Forest * element content (P, Ca, Mg, Fe, Al) Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  3. The impact of Norway spruce planting on herb vegetation in the mountain beech forests on two bedrock types

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Máliš, František; Ujházy, K.; Vodálová, A.; Barka, I.; Čaboun, V.; Sitková, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 131, č. 5 (2012), s. 1551-1569 ISSN 1612-4669 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : boreal forests * Bavarian Alps * temperate forests * soil * biodiversity * nitrogen mineralizaton Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.959, year: 2012

  4. Regulation of somatic embryo development in Norway spruce (Picea abies). A molecular approach to the characterization of specific developmental stages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabala, I. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Genetics

    1998-12-31

    Embryo development is a complex process involving a set of strictly regulated events. The regulation of these events is poorly understood especially during the early stages of embryo development. Somatic embryos go through the same developmental stages as zygotic embryos making them an ideal model system for studying the regulation of embryo development. We have used embryogenic cultures of Picea abies to study some aspects of the regulation of embryo development in gymnosperms. The bottle neck during somatic embryogenesis is the switch from the proliferation stage to the maturation stage. This switch is initiated by giving somatic embryos a maturation treatment i.e. the embryos are treated with abscisic acid (ABA). Somatic embryos which respond to ABA by forming mature somatic embryos were stimulated to secret a 70 kDa protein, AF70. The af70 gene was isolated and characterised. The expression of the af70 gene was constitutive in embryos but was highly ABA-induced in seedlings. Moreover, expression of this gene was stimulated during cold acclimation of Picea abies seedlings. A full length Picea abies cDNA clone Pa18, encoding a protein with the characteristics of plant lipid transfer proteins (LTPs), was isolated and characterised. The Pa18 gene is constitutively expressed in embryogenic cultures of Picea abies representing different stages of development as well as in nonembryogenic callus and seedlings. In situ hybridization showed that Pa18 gene is expressed in all embryonic cells of proliferating somatic embryos but the expression of the gene in mature somatic and zygotic embryos is restricted to the outer cell layer. Southern blot analysis at different stringencies was consistent with a single gene. An alteration in expression of Pa18 causes disturbance in the formation of the proper outer cell layer in the maturing somatic embryos. In addition to its influence on embryo development the Pa18 gene product also inhibits growth of Agrobacterium tumefaciens 195 refs, 1 fig, 4 tabs

  5. Induced changes in phenolic acids and stilbenes in embryogenic cell cultures of Norway spruce by culture filtrate of Ascocalyx abietina

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cvikrová, Milena; Malá, J.; Hrubcová, Marie; Eder, Josef; Foretová, Soňa

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 2 (2008), s. 57-62 ISSN 1861-3829 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/04/0999 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : astringin * isorhapontin * Picea abies Subject RIV: GK - Forestry Impact factor: 0.566, year: 2008 www.jpdp-online.com/QUlEPTYwMjI0NSZNSUQ9NTE4MDImVElYPTAmQVJPT1Q9NjUwMjMmVEVNUF9NQUlOPUpQRFBfUG9ydHJhaXQuaHRt.html?UID=466CB39FC0B29D76D720FE29DE06FB0322678558FE1AD824

  6. Amounts of carbon mineralised and leached as DOC during decomposition of Norway spruce needles and fine roots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansson, K.; Berggren Kleja, D.; Kalbitz, K.; Larsson, H.

    2010-01-01

    Changes in climate or forest management practices leading to increased litter production will most likely cause increased leaching rates of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from the O horizon. The rhizosphere is often assumed to have a large carbon flux associated with root turnover and exudation.

  7. Robust carbohydrate dynamics based on sucrose resynthesis in developing Norway spruce somatic embryos at variable sugar supply

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubeš, Martin; Drážná, N.; Konrádová, H.; Lipavská, H.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 1 (2014), s. 45-57 ISSN 1054-5476 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Sucrose * Raffinose family oligosaccharides * Picea abies Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.981, year: 2014

  8. Temporal changes in the climate sensitivity of Norway spruce andEuropean beech along an elevation gradient in Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolář, Tomáš; Čermák, P.; Trnka, Miroslav; Žid, T.; Rybníček, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 2017, č. 239 (2017), s. 24-33 ISSN 0168-1923 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA ČR GA13-04291S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) EHP-CZ02-0V-1-066-01-2014 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : czech republic * drought * fagus sylvatica * picea abies * temperature * tree-ring width chronology Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.887, year: 2016

  9. Detecting climatically driven phylogenetic and morphological divergence among spruce (Picea) species worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Hong; Li, He; Zhao, Hai-Wei; Zhang, Wei-Kang

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to elucidate the relationship between climate and the phylogenetic and morphological divergence of spruces (Picea) worldwide. Climatic and georeferenced data were collected from a total of 3388 sites distributed within the global domain of spruce species. A phylogenetic tree and a morphological tree for the global spruces were reconstructed based on DNA sequences and morphological characteristics. Spatial evolutionary and ecological vicariance analysis (SEEVA) was used to detect the ecological divergence among spruces. A divergence index (D) with (0, 1) scaling was calculated for each climatic factor at each node for both trees. The annual mean values, extreme values and annual range of the climatic variables were among the major determinants for spruce divergence. The ecological divergence was significant (P drought over land areas in the next 30-90 years, our findings shed light on the prediction of spruce distribution under future climate change.

  10. American Studies in Norway: Past and Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole O. Moen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Norwegian “studies” of America started really more than a thousand years ago, when Leif Ericsson landed in Vinland, his name for that part of New Foundland where his party made quarters around the year A.D. 1000. However, it was not until 1825 that modern mass emigration from Norway to America started in earnest, when a small sailing vessel, the sloop Restaurationen, left the little village of Tysvær on the west coast of Norway, near Stavanger, for New York, carrying a load of 52 Quaker emigr...

  11. Tidal power in Norway; Maanekraft fra dypet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The world's first tidal power station is scheduled for stat-up in the spring of 2003. It is located in Kvalsundet, off Hammerfest, Norway. This is a pilot installation of a 300 kW tidal turbine at a depth of 50 metres. When fully developed in 2007, the tidal power plant will deliver 32 GWh per year. Hammerfest Stroem has patented the energy and the company hopes to be able to install similar power stations both in Norway and abroad. The potential worldwide is claimed to be more than 450 TWh per year.

  12. Ecology of beech regeneration in the allochthonous spruce stands – a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lumír Dobrovolný

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the successional process of beech in a allochthonous spruce monocultures. In the natural regeneration of the predominatly spruce stand (area: 14.28 ha, age: 110 years with single mother beech trees admixture the spruce regeneration occupies the most part of the study area. However, about one quarter of area is occupied relatively regular by beech regeneration. The spruce density was at all times higher than that of beech while the spruce height grow was by contrast at all times lower than that of beech. Mean distance of beech seedlings dispersion is 12.7; at a distance greater than 40 m, the density already neared zero. Density of spruce increases with increasing light intensity, the density of beech decreases – the competition point was found about 19% of diffuse radiation or about 14% of canopy openness. The both species respond to increase of light intensity with increase of height grow (by beech only weekly – the spruce starts to dominate the beech at about 32% of diffuse radiation or about 22% of canopy openness. The silvicultural goal in the next stand generation – converting of spruce forest into mixed forest, i.e. achievement of the legal proportion of beech as a soil-improving and reinforcing tree species (proportion about 30% and more in the spruce stand can be reliably realized by natural way only using a combination of more intensive shelterwood or border felling with group selection system.

  13. Highly informative single-copy nuclear microsatellite DNA markers developed using an AFLP-SSR approach in black spruce (Picea mariana and red spruce (P. rubens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Zhong Shi

    Full Text Available Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs are highly informative molecular markers for various biological studies in plants. In spruce (Picea and other conifers, the development of single-copy polymorphic genomic microsatellite markers is quite difficult, owing primarily to the large genome size and predominance of repetitive DNA sequences throughout the genome. We have developed highly informative single-locus genomic microsatellite markers in black spruce (Picea mariana and red spruce (Picea rubens using a simple but efficient method based on a combination of AFLP and microsatellite technologies.A microsatellite-enriched library was constructed from genomic AFLP DNA fragments of black spruce. Sequencing of the 108 putative SSR-containing clones provided 94 unique sequences with microsatellites. Twenty-two of the designed 34 primer pairs yielded scorable amplicons, with single-locus patterns. Fourteen of these microsatellite markers were characterized in 30 black spruce and 30 red spruce individuals drawn from many populations. The number of alleles at a polymorphic locus ranged from 2 to 18, with a mean of 9.3 in black spruce, and from 3 to 15, with a mean of 6.2 alleles in red spruce. The polymorphic information content or expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.340 to 0.909 (mean = 0.67 in black spruce and from 0.161 to 0.851 (mean = 0.62 in red spruce. Ten SSR markers showing inter-parental polymorphism inherited in a single-locus Mendelian mode, with two cases of distorted segregation. Primer pairs for almost all polymorphic SSR loci resolved microsatellites of comparable size in Picea glauca, P. engelmannii, P. sitchensis, and P. abies.The AFLP-based microsatellite-enriched library appears to be a rapid, cost-effective approach for isolating and developing single-locus informative genomic microsatellite markers in black spruce. The markers developed should be useful in black spruce, red spruce and other Picea species for

  14. PEI detoxification of pretreated spruce for high solids ethanol fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannella, David; Sveding, Per Viktor; Jørgensen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    .e. spruce) this has been difficult to reach. The main reason behind this difference is the higher recalcitrance of woody substrates which require harsher pretreatment conditions, thus generating higher amounts of inhibitory compounds, ultimately lowering fermentation performances. In this work we studied...... ethanol production from spruce performing the whole process, from pretreatment to hydrolysis and fermentation, at 30% dry matter (equivalent to similar to 20% WIS). Hydrolysis and fermentation was performed in a horizontal free fall mixing reactor enabling efficient mixing at high solids loadings....... In batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), up to 76% cellulose to ethanol conversion was achieved resulting in a concentration of 51 g/kg of ethanol. Key to obtaining this high ethanol yield at these conditions was the use of a detoxification technology based on applying a soluble...

  15. Comparison of remote sensing and plant trait-based modelling to predict ecosystem services in subalpine grasslands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Homolová, Lucie; Schaepman, M. E.; Lamarque, L.; Clevers, J.G.P.W.; de Bello, Francesco; Thuiller, W.; Lavorel, S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 8 (2014), č. článku 100. ISSN 2150-8925 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 ; RVO:67985939 Keywords : land-use change * leaf chlorophyll content * imaging spectroscopy * water-content * aviris data * spectral reflectance * hyperspectral data * species richness * area index * vegetation * aisa * biomass * ecosystem properties * ecosystem services * linear regression * remote sensing * spatial heterogeneity * subalpine grasslands Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour; EF - Botanics (BU-J) Impact factor: 2.255, year: 2014

  16. The Effect of Re-Planting Trees on Soil Microbial Communities in a Wildfire-Induced Subalpine Grassland

    OpenAIRE

    Ed-Haun Chang; Guanglong Tian; Chih-Yu Chiu

    2017-01-01

    Wildfire often causes tremendous changes in ecosystems, particularly in subalpine and alpine areas, which are vulnerable due to severe climate conditions such as cold temperature and strong wind. This study aimed to clarify the effect of tree re-planting on ecosystem services such as the soil microbial community after several decades. We compared the re-planted forest and grassland with the mature forest as a reference in terms of soil microbial biomass C and N (Cmic and Nmic), enzyme activit...

  17. Effects of long-term population fluctuations of a top predator on invertebrate communities in subalpine ponds in Colorado

    OpenAIRE

    Wissinger, S.; Whiteman, H.; Denoël, Mathieu; Greig, H.; Butkas, K.

    2006-01-01

    Experimental and comparative data from subalpine ponds with and without tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum nebulosum) suggest that this species is a keystone predator on benthic and planktonic prey communities. At our study site in central Colorado, the population size of salamanders has fluctuated cyclically over the past 20 years from fewer than 100 to over 5000 individuals. Here we present long-term benthic data that reveal taxon- and habitat-specific correlations with fluctuations in s...

  18. Climate Risk Modelling of Balsam Woolly Adelgid Damage Severity in Subalpine Fir Stands of Western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrinkevich, Kathryn H; Progar, Robert A; Shaw, David C

    2016-01-01

    The balsam woolly adelgid (Adelges piceae (Ratzeburg) (Homoptera: Adelgidae)) (BWA) is a nonnative, invasive insect that threatens Abies species throughout North America. It is well established in the Pacific Northwest, but continues to move eastward through Idaho and into Montana and potentially threatens subalpine fir to the south in the central and southern Rocky Mountains. We developed a climatic risk model and map that predicts BWA impacts to subalpine fir using a two-step process. Using 30-year monthly climate normals from sites with quantitatively derived BWA damage severity index values, we built a regression model that significantly explained insect damage. The sites were grouped into two distinct damage categories (high damage and mortality versus little or no mortality and low damage) and the model estimates for each group were used to designate distinct value ranges for four climatic risk categories: minimal, low, moderate, and high. We then calculated model estimates for each cell of a 4-kilometer resolution climate raster and mapped the risk categories over the entire range of subalpine fir in the western United States. The spatial variation of risk classes indicates a gradient of climatic susceptibility generally decreasing from the Olympic Peninsula in Washington and the Cascade Range in Oregon and Washington moving eastward, with the exception of some high risk areas in northern Idaho and western Montana. There is also a pattern of decreasing climatic susceptibility from north to south in the Rocky Mountains. Our study provides an initial step for modeling the relationship between climate and BWA damage severity across the range of subalpine fir. We showed that September minimum temperature and a metric calculated as the maximum May temperature divided by total May precipitation were the best climatic predictors of BWA severity. Although winter cold temperatures and summer heat have been shown to influence BWA impacts in other locations, these

  19. Climate Risk Modelling of Balsam Woolly Adelgid Damage Severity in Subalpine Fir Stands of Western North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn H Hrinkevich

    Full Text Available The balsam woolly adelgid (Adelges piceae (Ratzeburg (Homoptera: Adelgidae (BWA is a nonnative, invasive insect that threatens Abies species throughout North America. It is well established in the Pacific Northwest, but continues to move eastward through Idaho and into Montana and potentially threatens subalpine fir to the south in the central and southern Rocky Mountains. We developed a climatic risk model and map that predicts BWA impacts to subalpine fir using a two-step process. Using 30-year monthly climate normals from sites with quantitatively derived BWA damage severity index values, we built a regression model that significantly explained insect damage. The sites were grouped into two distinct damage categories (high damage and mortality versus little or no mortality and low damage and the model estimates for each group were used to designate distinct value ranges for four climatic risk categories: minimal, low, moderate, and high. We then calculated model estimates for each cell of a 4-kilometer resolution climate raster and mapped the risk categories over the entire range of subalpine fir in the western United States. The spatial variation of risk classes indicates a gradient of climatic susceptibility generally decreasing from the Olympic Peninsula in Washington and the Cascade Range in Oregon and Washington moving eastward, with the exception of some high risk areas in northern Idaho and western Montana. There is also a pattern of decreasing climatic susceptibility from north to south in the Rocky Mountains. Our study provides an initial step for modeling the relationship between climate and BWA damage severity across the range of subalpine fir. We showed that September minimum temperature and a metric calculated as the maximum May temperature divided by total May precipitation were the best climatic predictors of BWA severity. Although winter cold temperatures and summer heat have been shown to influence BWA impacts in other

  20. The Effect of Re-Planting Trees on Soil Microbial Communities in a Wildfire-Induced Subalpine Grassland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ed-Haun Chang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wildfire often causes tremendous changes in ecosystems, particularly in subalpine and alpine areas, which are vulnerable due to severe climate conditions such as cold temperature and strong wind. This study aimed to clarify the effect of tree re-planting on ecosystem services such as the soil microbial community after several decades. We compared the re-planted forest and grassland with the mature forest as a reference in terms of soil microbial biomass C and N (Cmic and Nmic, enzyme activities, phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA composition, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE. The Cmic and Nmic did not differ among the grassland, re-planted forest and mature forest soil; however, ratios of Cmic/Corg and Nmic/Ntot decreased from the grassland to re-planted forest and mature forest soil. The total PLFAs and those attributed to bacteria and Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria did not differ between the re-planted forest and grassland soil. Principle component analysis of the PLFA content separated the grassland from re-planted forest and mature forest soil. Similarly, DGGE analysis revealed changes in both bacterial and fungal community structures with changes in vegetation. Our results suggest that the microbial community structure changes with the re-planting of trees after a fire event in this subalpine area. Recovery of the soil microbial community to the original state in a fire-damaged site in a subalpine area may require decades, even under a re-planted forest.

  1. Estimating Volume, Biomass, and Carbon in Hedmark County, Norway Using a Profiling LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Ross; Naesset, Erik; Gobakken, T.; Gregoire, T.; Stahl, G.

    2009-01-01

    A profiling airborne LiDAR is used to estimate the forest resources of Hedmark County, Norway, a 27390 square kilometer area in southeastern Norway on the Swedish border. One hundred five profiling flight lines totaling 9166 km were flown over the entire county; east-west. The lines, spaced 3 km apart north-south, duplicate the systematic pattern of the Norwegian Forest Inventory (NFI) ground plot arrangement, enabling the profiler to transit 1290 circular, 250 square meter fixed-area NFI ground plots while collecting the systematic LiDAR sample. Seven hundred sixty-three plots of the 1290 plots were overflown within 17.8 m of plot center. Laser measurements of canopy height and crown density are extracted along fixed-length, 17.8 m segments closest to the center of the ground plot and related to basal area, timber volume and above- and belowground dry biomass. Linear, nonstratified equations that estimate ground-measured total aboveground dry biomass report an R(sup 2) = 0.63, with an regression RMSE = 35.2 t/ha. Nonstratified model results for the other biomass components, volume, and basal area are similar, with R(sup 2) values for all models ranging from 0.58 (belowground biomass, RMSE = 8.6 t/ha) to 0.63. Consistently, the most useful single profiling LiDAR variable is quadratic mean canopy height, h (sup bar)(sub qa). Two-variable models typically include h (sup bar)(sub qa) or mean canopy height, h(sup bar)(sub a), with a canopy density or a canopy height standard deviation measure. Stratification by productivity class did not improve the nonstratified models, nor did stratification by pine/spruce/hardwood. County-wide profiling LiDAR estimates are reported, by land cover type, and compared to NFI estimates.

  2. Population dynamics of Physokermes hemicryphus in variously diseased spruce stands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, W.; Smietana, P.; Liebig, G.; Horsch, F.; Filby, W.G.; Fund, N.; Gross, S.; Hanisch, B.; Kilz, E.; Seidel, A. (comps.)

    1987-04-01

    The coccid Physokermes hemicryphus is one of the most important honeydew producers on the spruce. 1984-1986 at 4 places in Baden-Wuerttemberg investigations have been made on its population dynamics and on the supply of nutrients of the host tree. The observed spruce plantations were variously diseased; therefore it was checked whether the disease of spruces had an influence on the population dynamics of Ph. hemicryphus. During the time of investigations the population density decreased at all places. It was found, that the population density was always higher at two places than at the others. These differences between the places could not be explained with the loose of needles, with the supply of nutrients and with other characteristics of the places (altitude, geological formation). When the statistical analyses were made with the individual dates of every tree, there were some correlations between the loose of needles on the one side and the supply and the weight of needles on the other side and between the population density and the characteristics of the trees. The results of the different places did not agree.

  3. New Moho map of southern Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stratford, Wanda Rose; Thybo, Hans; Faleide, J.-I.

    2009-01-01

    A recent seismic refraction study across southern Norway has revealed that the up to 2469 m high Southern Scandes Mountains are not isostatically compensated by a thick crust. Rather, the Moho depths are close to average for continental crust with elevations of ~1 km. Evidence from new seismic da...

  4. Accreditation of occupational health services in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, A; Bjørnstad, O

    2015-12-01

    In 2010, an accreditation system for occupational health services (OHS) in Norway was implemented. To examine OHS experiences of the accreditation system in Norway 4 years after its implementation. A web-based questionnaire was sent to all accredited OHS asking about their experiences with the accreditation system. Responses were compared with a similar survey conducted in 2011. The response rate was 76% (173/228). OHS reported that the most common changes they had had to make to achieve accreditation were: improvement of their quality assurance system (53%), a plan for competence development (44%) and increased staffing in occupational hygiene (36%) and occupational medicine (28%). The OHS attributed improved quality in their own OHS (56%) and in OHS in Norway (47%), to the accreditation process. The accreditation system was well accepted by OHS, who reported that it had improved the quality of their OHS and of OHS in Norway. The results are similar to the findings of a 2011 survey. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine.

  5. The Bamble Sector, South Norway: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, T.G.; Harlov, D.E.; Andersen, T.

    2014-01-01

    The Proterozoic Bamble Sector, South Norway, is one of the world’s classic amphibolite- to granulitefacies transition zones. It is characterized by a well-developed isograd sequence, with isolated ‘granulite-facies islands’ in the amphibolite-facies portion of the transition zone. The area is

  6. Improved predictions of atmospheric icing in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engdahl, Bjørg Jenny; Nygaard, Bjørn Egil; Thompson, Gregory; Bengtsson, Lisa; Berntsen, Terje

    2017-04-01

    Atmospheric icing of ground structures is a problem in cold climate locations such as Norway. During the 2013/2014 winter season two major power lines in southern Norway suffered severe damage due to ice loads exceeding their design values by two to three times. Better methods are needed to estimate the ice loads that affect various infrastructure, and better models are needed to improve the prediction of severe icing events. The Wind, Ice and Snow loads Impact on Infrastructure and the Natural Environment (WISLINE) project, was initiated to address this problem and to explore how a changing climate may affect the ice loads in Norway. Creating better forecasts of icing requires a proper simulation of supercooled liquid water (SLW). Preliminary results show that the operational numerical weather prediction model (HARMONIE-AROME) at MET-Norway generates considerably lower values of SLW as compared with the WRF model when run with the Thompson microphysics scheme. Therefore, we are piecewise implementing specific processes found in the Thompson scheme into the AROME model and testing the resulting impacts to prediction of SLW and structural icing. Both idealized and real icing cases are carried out to test the newly modified AROME microphysics scheme. Besides conventional observations, a unique set of specialized instrumentation for icing measurements are used for validation. Initial results of this investigation will be presented at the conference.

  7. New records of Marine Turbellaria from Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, van der G.

    1976-01-01

    INTRODUCTION During an excursion to Norway organized by the Department of Systematic Zoology of the Rijksuniversiteit of Leiden in August 1973, I had the opportunity to make some observations on Turbellarians of salt-marshes and rocky shores of the Trondheimsfjord (63o 37' N 9° 43' Ε) and the

  8. Measurement of acid precipitation in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arne Semb

    1976-01-01

    Since January 1972, chemical analysis of daily precipitation samples from about 20 background stations in Norway has been carried out on a routine basis. Air monitoring is carried out at six stations. The chemical analysis programme is: sulphate, pH and acidity in precipitation, sulphates and sulphur dioxide in air. In addition, more detailed chemical analysis of...

  9. Geographical distribution of Phytophthora ramorum in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    María- Luz Herrero; Brita Toppe; Trond Rafoss

    2008-01-01

    In November 2002, Phytophthora ramorum was detected for the first time in Norway. It was isolated from Rhododendron catawbiense imported earlier the same year. After the first detection, the Norwegian Food Safety Authority has carried out surveys from 2003 to 2006. The surveys were first directed to nurseries and garden centres....

  10. Energy consumption: energy consumption in mainland Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnussen, Inger Helene; Killingland, Magnus; Spilde, Dag

    2012-07-25

    The purpose of this report is to describe trends in energy consumption in mainland Norway, with an emphasis on key trends within the largest consumer groups. We also explain common terms and concepts in the field of energy consumption. Finally, we look at forecasts for future energy consumption, produced by bodies outside NVE. Total final energy consumption in mainland Norway in 2009 was 207 TWh. The most important end-user groups are households, service industries, manufacturing industry and transport. In addition, the energy sector in mainland Norway consumed 15 TWh. Energy consumed in the energy sector is not considered as final consumption, as the energy is used to produce new energy products. The long-term trend in energy consumption in mainland Norway is that fuel in the transport sector and electricity for the energy sector increases, while energy consumption in other sectors flattens out. The main reason for an increased use of fuel in the transport sector is the rise in the number of motorised machinery and vehicles in mainland Norway. This has caused a rise in gasoline and diesel consumption of 75 per cent since 1976. The petroleum sector is the largest consumer of energy within the energy sector in mainland Norway, and electricity from onshore to platforms in the North Sea and to new shore side installations has led to a rise in electricity consumption from 1 TWh in 1995 to 5 TWh in 2009. The energy consumption in households showed flat trend from 1996 to 2009, after many years of growth. The main reasons are a warmer climate, higher energy prices, the use of heats pumps and more energy-efficient buildings. In the service industries, the growth in energy consumptions has slightly decreased since the late 1990s, for much the same reasons as for households. In manufacturing industries the energy consumption have flatten out mainly due to the closure of energy-intensive businesses and the establishment of new more energy-efficient businesses. Electricity is

  11. Sickness presenteeism in Norway and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vegard Johansen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sickness presenteeism (SP refers to the practice of going to work despite illness. This article describes the distribution of SP in Norway and Sweden. It also discusses relations between SP and various work characteristics and personal factors in the two countries. Methods: More than 2500 Norwegian and Swedish workers between 20 and 60 years of age answered a postal questionnaire. The Norwegian and Swedish samples are weighed and representative with regard to both variables of regional background and demography, but the response rate was low. The distribution of SP is measured by frequency (episodes in the previous year and by length (total days of SP in the previous year. This study employed binary and multinomial logistic regression to detect which factors influence the frequency of SP. Results: Fifty-five per cent of the respondents in Norway and Sweden practised SP in the previous year. The frequency of SP episodes is similar in the two countries. Further, respondents with low/medium income, physical work, and managerial responsibilities report SP more often in both countries. Non-western immigrants, the less educated, and those employed by others are overrepresented with SP in Norway. Neither gender nor age had any particular influence. Discussion: In accordance with previous studies, this study among Norwegian and Swedish workers suggests that some SP during a working year may be more common than no SP. Our analyses of determinants of SP present some previously undocumented differences. Divisions between sedentary versus physical work and management versus non-management were important for SP in Norway and Sweden. Moreover, non-western immigrants are overrepresented with SP in Norway, but this pattern does not prevail in Sweden. Some possible causes for non-western immigrants to report more SP are suggested in the article, but we need more research to follow up on the missing correlation between ethnic background and SP in

  12. Ataxia with Vitamin E Deficiency in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areej Elkamil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency (AVED is a rare autosomal recessive neurological disorder which usually starts in childhood. The clinical presentation is very similar to Friedreich ataxia, most patients have progressive truncal and extremity ataxia, areflexia, positive Babinski sign, dysarthria and sensory neuropathy. Methods We made an inquiry to our colleagues in Norway, we included information from a prevalence study published southern Norway and added data from our own known case. Results A newly published prevalence study of hereditary ataxias (total of 171 subjects found only one subject with AVED in Southeast Norway. We describe two more patients, one from the Central part and one from the Northern part of Norway. All 3 cases had age of onset in early childhood (age of 4–5 years and all experienced gait ataxia and dysarthria. The genetic testing confirmed that they had pathogenic mutations in the α-tocopherol transfer protein gene (TTPA. All were carriers of the non-sense c.400C > T mutation, one was homozygous for that mutation and the others were compound heterozygous, either with c.358G > A or c.513_514insTT. The homozygous carrier was by far the most severely affected case. Conclusions We estimate the occurrence of AVED in Norway to be at least 0.6 per million inhabitants. We emphasize that all patients who develop ataxia in childhood should be routinely tested for AVED to make an early diagnosis for initiating treatment with high dose vitamin E to avoid severe neurological deficits.

  13. Ten-year variability in fluxes, meteorology, and environmental conditions at a Colorado subalpine forest site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, S. P.; Turnipseed, A.; Bowling, D. R.; Hu, J.; Monson, R. K.

    2009-12-01

    Changing meteorological and environmental conditions affect fluxes; model analysis has shown that environmental variability directly accounts for about half the interannual variability in net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 whereas the other 50% is due to biotic responses to these changing variables (Richardson et al. 2007). In our study, ten years (1998-2008) of turbulent flux measurements of heat, water vapor, and CO2 at the Niwot Ridge AmeriFlux site (Monson et al. 2002) are examined with respect to meteorological conditions (atmospheric temperature, stability, precipitation, and cloudiness) as well as changes in environmental conditions, such as snow depth and soil moisture. The typical yearly cycle and an estimate of the magnitude of year-to-year variability in the diurnal fluxes and other variables for a high-elevation subalpine forest ecosystem are presented. Wintertime ecosystem respiration has an average 30-min NEE of 0.62 μmol m-2 s-1 with an interannual range between 0.5-1 μmol m-2 s-1. Uptake of CO2 in late summer has an average NEE of -0.71 μmol m-2 s-1 with an interannual range between -0.1 to -1.5 μmol m-2 s-1. Previous studies at the Niwot Ridge AmeriFlux site have described the importance of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) (Monson et al. 2002) and also growing season length (Hu et al. 2009) on NEE. Water isotope ratios analyzed by Hu et al. (2009) have shown that trees at the site primarily rely on water from snowmelt to sustain them throughout the summer; combining this result with the SIPNET model, Hu et al. conclude that there is a limited connection between summer precipitation and the cumulative annual gross primary production (GPP). We have tested this conclusion more explicitly by examining the response of NEE to specific precipitation events and the effect of extended dry periods on the diel cycle of the fluxes, CO2 mole fraction, sap flow, and other meteorological and soil variables. Additionally, we examine the connection

  14. Response of subalpine grasslands communities to clear-cut and prescribed burnt to control shrub encroachment in Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alados, Concepción L.; Gartzia, Maite; Nuche, Paloma; Saiz, Hugo; Pueyo, Yolanda

    2017-04-01

    Anthropogenic activities have modified vegetation in subalpine belts for long time, lowering treeline ecotone and influencing landscape mainly through grazing and fire. During the last decades the abandonment of traditional land use practices and global warming are contributing largely to the colonization of woody species in subalpine grasslands causing irreversible changes in ecosystem functioning. To prevent those changes a variety of management strategies are carried out to stop the expansion of the highly encroaching shrubs, which require the use of fire and/or clear-cutting, particularly for the conservation of grasslands in subhumid high productive ecosystems. However, it is still poorly understood how different management strategies affect the recovery of subalpine grasslands. Using a field experiment we tested the impact of management treatments on soil properties and vegetation characteristics, including species richness, community structure, interspecies interaction, and complexity of network association. Vegetation was monitored during four years in eight stands (two stands per treatment) where the vegetation was removed by prescribed fire (Burnt treatment), or by mechanical removal (Clear-cut treatment). Two undisturbed E. horridum stands were used as a control (C-Erizón) and two grassland communities regularly grazed (C-Grass) were used as a control for subalpine grassland. Soils nutrients declined in Burnt treatment 3 years after fire, but not differences between Clear-cut and C-Erizón were observed. Species richness and diversity were larger in C-Grass and lower in C-Erizón. Burnt and Clear-cut treatments increased species diversity and richness gradually after 4 year treatment. The proportion of legume forbs, grasses and non-legume forbs did not reach the levels of C-Grass after 4 years of Clear-cut or Burnt treatments. Shrubs and sub-shrubs increased faster after 4 years of burning than after 4 years of clearing, although they did not reach the

  15. Assessing the Climate Sensitivity of Cold Content and Snowmelt in Seasonal Alpine and Subalpine Snowpacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, K. S.; Molotch, N. P.

    2016-12-01

    In cold, high-elevation sites, snowpack cold content acts as a buffer against climate warming by resisting snowmelt during periods of positive energy fluxes. To test the climate sensitivity of cold content and snowmelt, we employed the physical SNOWPACK snow model, forced with a 23-year, hourly, quality-controlled, gap-filled meteorological dataset from the Niwot Ridge Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site in the Front Range mountains of Colorado. SNOWPACK was run at two points with seasonal snowpacks within the LTER, one in the alpine (3528 m) and one in the subalpine (3022 m). Model output was validated using snow water equivalent (SWE), snowpack temperature, and cold content data from snow pits dug near the met stations and automated SWE data from nearby SNOTEL snow pillows. Cold content accumulates primarily through additions of new snow, while negative energy fluxes—cooling through longwave emission and sublimation—play a lesser role, particularly in the deeper snowpack of the alpine. On average, the snowpack energy balance becomes positive on April 1 in the alpine and March 8 in the subalpine. Peak SWE occurs after these dates and its timing is primarily determined by the amount of precipitation received after peak cold content, with persistent snowfall delaying the main snowmelt pulse. Years with lower cold content, due to reduced precipitation and/or increased air temperature, experience an earlier positive energy balance with more melt events occurring before the date of peak SWE, which has implications for soil moisture, streamflow volume and timing, water uptake by vegetation, and microbial respiration. Synthetic warming experiments show significant cold content reductions and increased late-winter/early-spring melt as positive energy balances occur earlier in the snow season (a forward shift between 5.1 and 21.0 days per °C of warming). These results indicate cold, high-elevation sites, which are critical for water resources in the western

  16. [Dynamics of species diversity in artificial restoration process of subalpine coniferous forest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Liu, Qing; He, Hai; Lin, Bo

    2004-08-01

    Through plot investigation and by adopting the concept of space as a substitute for time, the developments of species diversity of trees, shrubs and herbaceous plants in subalpine coniferous plantations at different restoration stages were studied, and the correlation coefficients of species in each layer were discussed. The results indicated that in the restoration process, the species richness, diversity and evenness in subalpine coniferous plantations were gradually increased in a fluctuating way. The restoration process of Picea asperata plantations showed a tendency of development that in favor of resuming species diversity. The indices of species richness (species number and Margalef index) and species diversity (Shannon-Wiener index and Simpson index) of trees increased rapidly from the early stages of plantation establishment to the stage of canopy closing (about 30 yr of stand age) and then presented a tendency of decrease with some slight fluctuations, while the index of species evenness showed a periodical rising trend. For the shrub layer, the indices of species richness (Simpson index and Macintosh index) gradually increased with increasing restoration years, whereas the indices of species diversity (Shannon-Wiener index) decreased in the early stages, sharply increased during the stages of canopy closing, and then slowly decreased, which exhibited a tendency of high-->low-->high. In the layer of herbaceous plants, the indices of species richness (Margalef index and number of species) and species diversity (Simpson index, Macintosh index and Shannon-Wiener index) presented a trend of decrease in the early stages of plantations establishment to canopy closing and increased later on. During this process, herbaceous species and their life forms changed greatly, with shade tolerant species gradually substituting the intolerant species. Among the plantations of different stand ages, the average correlation coefficients of trees, shrubs and herbaceous

  17. Minimal approaches to genetic improvement of growth rates in white spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.T. Lester

    1973-01-01

    Several features of central importance to genetic improvement of white spruce have been demonstrated by tree breeders. First, white spruce is genetically a highly variable species and much of the existent variation can be readily incorporated in planting stock (Jeffers 1969, Holst and Teich 1969). Second, local seed often is not the best for rapid growth (Nienstaedt...

  18. Prepupal diapause and instar IV developmental rates of the spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Matthew Hansen; Barbara J. Bentz; James A. Powell; David R. Gray; James C. Vandygriff

    2011-01-01

    The spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby), is an important mortality agent of native spruces throughout North America. The life-cycle duration of this species varies from 1 to 3 years depending temperature. The univoltine cycle (one generation per year) is thought to maximize outbreak risk and accelerate host mortality in established outbreaks. Prepupal...

  19. Using maximum entropy modeling to identify and prioritize red spruce forest habitat in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan R. Beane; James S. Rentch; Thomas M. Schuler

    2013-01-01

    Red spruce forests in West Virginia are found in island-like distributions at high elevations and provide essential habitat for the endangered Cheat Mountain salamander and the recently delisted Virginia northern flying squirrel. Therefore, it is important to identify restoration priorities of red spruce forests. Maximum entropy modeling was used to identify areas of...

  20. Acidic deposition, cation mobilization, and biochemical indicators of stress in healthy red spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter C. Shortle; Kevin T. Smith; Rakesh Minocha; Gregory B. Lawrence; Mark B. David

    1997-01-01

    Dendrochemical and biochemical markers link stress in apparently healthy red spruce trees (Picea rubens) to acidic deposition. Acidic deposition to spruce forests of the northeastern USA increased sharply during the 1960s. Previous reports related visible damage of trees at high elevations to root and soil processes. In this report, dendrochemical...

  1. Effect of soil and vegetation on growth of planted white spruce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald A. Perala

    1987-01-01

    White spruce container stock grew better on a sandy loam soil than on a silty clay, and much better without herbaceous competitions. Herbaceous competition was less vigorous on the sandy loam soil following glyphosate treatment, but was more vigorous on the silty clay. Certain spruce genotypes excelled under different field environments.

  2. Hydrolytic stability of water-soluble spruce O-acetyl galactoglucomannans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, C.; Pranovich, A.; Hemmimg, J.; Holmbom, B.; Albrecht, S.A.; Schols, H.A.; Willfor, S.

    2009-01-01

    Water-soluble native O-acetyl galactoglucomannan (GGM) from spruce is a polysaccharide that can be produced in an industrial scale. To develop GGM applications, information is needed on its stability, particularly under acidic conditions. Therefore, acid hydrolysis of spruce GGM was investigated at

  3. Development of epicormic sprouts in Sitka spruce following thinning and pruning in south-east Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Deal; R. James Barbour; Michael H. McClellan; Dean L. Parry

    2003-01-01

    The frequency and size of epicormic sprouts in Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) were assessed in five 23-29 year-old mixed Sitka spruce-western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) stands that were uniformly thinned and pruned to 2.4, 3.7 and 5.2 m lift heights. Six to nine years after treatment sprouts were...

  4. Early red spruce restoration research by the Appalachian Forest Experiment Station, 1922-1954

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Rentch; Thomas M. Schuler

    2017-01-01

    This photograph (Fig. 1), taken in June of 1923 by E.S. Ship, depicts a red spruce (Picea rubens) stand with advanced reproduction near the summit of Mount Mitchell in the Pisgah National Forest of North Carolina. According to Hopkins (1899), the original extent of red spruce encompassed as much as 1,500,000 ac in the southern Appalachians; by 1895...

  5. Expression of the β‐glucosidase gene Pgβglu‐1 underpins natural resistance of white spruce against spruce budworm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mageroy, Melissa H; Parent, Geneviève; Germanos, Gaby; Giguère, Isabelle; Delvas, Nathalie; Maaroufi, Halim; Bauce, Éric; Bohlmann, Joerg; Mackay, John J

    2015-01-01

    .... Using a genomics approach, we discovered a β‐glucosidase gene, Pgβglu‐1 , whose expression levels and function underpin natural resistance to SBW in mature white spruce ( Picea glauca ) trees...

  6. Limnological research in the deep southern subalpine lakes: synthesis, directions and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Salmaso

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on a selection of 230 papers published during the last 15 years in international journals, the present work aims at evaluating the state of the art of limnological research in the deep southern subalpine lakes (DSL: Garda, Iseo, Como, Lugano and Maggiore. Historically, most of the limnological research was fostered by the need to find solutions to the problems connected with eutrophication and pollution. Many data are available on the thermal structure, algal nutrient concentrations and phytoplankton of the DSL, while other topics still remain more or less constrained to single lakes. Apart from this geographical bias, a number of aspects emerged from this synoptic view. Limnological research is still linked to the concept of scientific monitoring, while experimental studies and modelling are confined to specific niches; the integration of different disciplines is held back by the division of studies on different compartments; integration of studies and synoptic analyses at a macro regional scale have been carried out only for specific research areas. The DSL are increasingly threatened by new pressures (climatic change, excessive proliferation of toxic cyanobacteria, introduction of new species and new micropollutants and by the interactions among these new and old stressors. In this rapidly changing situation, the paper emphasises the need to define criteria to be used to distinguish research able to produce relevant results and predictive models, which are essential elements for an efficient management of water resources.

  7. Patch-Scale Effects of Equine Disturbance on Arthropod Assemblages and Vegetation Structure in Subalpine Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmquist, Jeffrey G.; Schmidt-Gengenbach, Jutta; Ballenger, Elizabeth A.

    2014-06-01

    Assessments of vertebrate disturbance to plant and animal assemblages often contrast grazed versus ungrazed meadows or other larger areas of usage, and this approach can be powerful. Random sampling of such habitats carries the potential, however, for smaller, more intensely affected patches to be missed and for other responses that are only revealed at smaller scales to also escape detection. We instead sampled arthropod assemblages and vegetation structure at the patch scale (400-900 m2 patches) within subalpine wet meadows of Yosemite National Park (USA), with the goal of determining if there were fine-scale differences in magnitude and directionality of response at three levels of grazing intensity. Effects were both stronger and more nuanced than effects evidenced by previous random sampling of paired grazed and ungrazed meadows: (a) greater negative effects on vegetation structure and fauna in heavily used patches, but (b) some positive effects on fauna in lightly grazed patches, suggested by trends for mean richness and total and population abundances. Although assessment of disturbance at either patch or landscape scales should be appropriate, depending on the management question at hand, our patch-scale work demonstrated that there can be strong local effects on the ecology of these wetlands that may not be detected by comparing larger scale habitats.

  8. A molecular investigation of soil organic carbon composition across a subalpine catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsiao-Tieh; Lawrence, Corey R.; Winnick, Matthew J.; Bargar, John R.; Maher, Katharine

    2018-01-01

    The dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) storage and turnover are a critical component of the global carbon cycle. Mechanistic models seeking to represent these complex dynamics require detailed SOC compositions, which are currently difficult to characterize quantitatively. Here, we address this challenge by using a novel approach that combines Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and bulk carbon X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to determine the abundance of SOC functional groups, using elemental analysis (EA) to constrain the total amount of SOC. We used this SOC functional group abundance (SOC-fga) method to compare variability in SOC compositions as a function of depth across a subalpine watershed (East River, Colorado, USA) and found a large degree of variability in SOC functional group abundances between sites at different elevations. Soils at a lower elevation are predominantly composed of polysaccharides, while soils at a higher elevation have more substantial portions of carbonyl, phenolic, or aromatic carbon. We discuss the potential drivers of differences in SOC composition between these sites, including vegetation inputs, internal processing and losses, and elevation-driven environmental factors. Although numerical models would facilitate the understanding and evaluation of the observed SOC distributions, quantitative and meaningful measurements of SOC molecular compositions are required to guide such models. Comparison among commonly used characterization techniques on shared reference materials is a critical next step for advancing our understanding of the complex processes controlling SOC compositions.

  9. Phytoplankton association patterns in the deep southern subalpine lakes (Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Salmaso

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available The three following papers constitute the second, and final, part of a series of papers dedicated to the phytoplankton of the deep subalpine Italian lakes (DSL. The first part, comprising an introduction and three papers on lakes Garda, Como and Maggiore respectively, was published in the volume 61 (1 of this journal (J. Limnol., 61. The research, carried out for three years (two years in L.Como in the period 1997-2000, was a concerted effort by investigators of five Insitutes in Italy and Switzerland. It was generated by the awareness that, despite the large number of papers existing on the phytoplankton of the single DSL, those of a comprehensive nature are very few, and by the perceived interest of a comparative investigation on the phytoplankton of the large lakes in the Insubrian district in the light of the recent progress on the ecology of the freshwater algae. So, in the final paper following those on lakes Iseo and Lugano an effort is made to compare and characterize the different species assemblages in the background of geographical and morphological characteristics, and of recent changes in trophic gradients. Despite often important differences in these respects, and observed various community responses, a common pool of species seems to be identifiable in the district.

  10. Development of partial rock veneers by root throw in a subalpine setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterkamp, W.R.; Toy, T.J.; Lenart, M.T.

    2006-01-01

    Rock veneers stabilize hillslope surfaces, occur especially in areas of immature soil, and form through a variety of process sets that includes root throw. Near Westcliffe, Colorado, USA, data were collected from a 20 ?? 500 m transect on the east slope of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. Ages of pit/mound complexes with rock fragments exposed at the surface by root throw ranged from recent (freshly toppled tree) to unknown (complete tree decay). Calculations based on dimensions of the pit/mound complexes, estimated time of free topppling, sizes of exposed rock fragments, and percentage rock covers at pit/mound complexes, as well as within the transect area, indicate that recent rates of root throw have resulted in only partial rock veneering since late Pleistocene deglaciation. Weathering of rock fragments prevent development of an extensive rock veneer and causes a balance, achieved within an estimated 700 years, between the rates of rock-fragment exposure by root throw and clast disintegration by chemical reduction. The estimated rate of rock-fragment reduction accounts for part of the fluvial sediment yields observed for forested subalpine areas of western North America. Copyright ?? 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Invasion of subalpine meadows by lodgepole pine in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakubos, B.; Romme, W.H. (Fort Lewis College, Durango, CO (United States))

    1993-11-01

    Many of the dry and mesic subalpine meadows in Yellowstone National Park are bordered by bands of small lodgepole pine trees. The authors asked whether these stands of small trees represent a directional process of meadow invasion, or alternatively, (1) small patches of postfire succession or; (2) more-or-less stable populations of trees having small stature because of adverse site conditions. Transect studies revealed that the bands of small trees were consistently younger than adjacent forest stands of obvious fire origin, that they lacked any evidence of fire, and that the trees were progressively younger as they approached the meadow. Soils under the young trees generally were more similar to meadow soils than to coniferous forest soils. The authors concluded, therefore, that meadow invasion has been occurring as a directional process since at least the mid- to late 1800s. Frequency of tree establishment in two dry meadows was positively correlated with mean June temperature and total summer precipitation (R[sup 2] = 0.49, P<0.0001, multiple stepwise regression). Thus, the major cause of tree invasion into dry meadows appears to be a regional climatic trend towards warmer and wetter growing seasons since the end of the Little Ice Age. Tree establishment in two mesic meadows was more weakly and inconsistently correlated with weather variables. Thus, the mechanism of invasion of mesic meadows may involve interactions of episodic seed crops and microhabitat changes at the forest border, as well as regional climatic variability. 30 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Targeted grazing for the restoration of sub-alpine shrub-encroached grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Probo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The decline of agro-pastoral activities has led to a widespread tree and shrub-encroachment of former semi-natural meso-eutrophic grasslands in many European mountain regions. Temporary night camp areas (TNCA and mineral mix supplements for targeted cattle were arranged over shrub-encroached areas to restore grassland vegetation within the Val Troncea Natural Park (Italy. From 2011 to 2015, their effects on vegetation structure and pastoral value of forage were assessed along permanent transects. Four years after treatments, both practices were effective in reducing the shrub cover and increasing the cover and average height of the herbaceous layer, but changes were more remarkable within TNCA. Moreover, the arrangement of TNCA decreased the cover of nanophanerophytes and increased the cover of graminoids and high quality species, as well as the overall forage pastoral value. In conclusion, TNCA were the most effective pastoral practice to contrast shrub-encroachment and increase herbage mass and forage quality of sub-alpine grasslands.

  13. Extensive wildfires, climate change, and an abrupt state change in subalpine ribbon forests, Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, W John; Shuman, Bryan

    2017-10-01

    Ecosystems may shift abruptly when the effects of climate change and disturbance interact, and landscapes with regularly patterned vegetation may be especially vulnerable to abrupt shifts. Here we use a fossil pollen record from a regularly patterned ribbon forest (alternating bands of forests and meadows) in Colorado to examine whether past changes in wildfire and climate produced abrupt vegetation shifts. Comparing the percentages of conifer pollen with sedimentary δ18 O data (interpreted as an indicator of temperature or snow accumulation) indicates a first-order linear relationship between vegetation composition and climate change with no detectable lags over the past 2,500 yr (r = 0.55, P changed abruptly within a century of extensive wildfires, which were recognized in a previous study to have burned approximately 80% of the surrounding 1,000 km2 landscape 1,000 yr ago when temperatures rose ~0.5°C. The vegetation change was larger than expected from the effects of climate change alone. Pollen assemblages changed from a composition associated with closed subalpine forests to one similar to modern ribbon forests. Fossil pollen assemblages then remained like those from modern ribbon forests for the following ~1,000 yr, providing a clear example of how extensive disturbances can trigger persistent new vegetation states and alter how vegetation responds to climate. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  14. Litter Production, Decomposition, and Nutrient Release in Subalpine Forest Communities of the Northwest Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod K. Bisht

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Production, decomposition, and release of nutrients from leaf and nonleaf litter were investigated in four subalpine forests of North-West Himalaya, India. Total annual litter fall in four communities varied from 2950.00 to 4040.00 kg ha−1 and was found significant (CD0.05 = 118.2. Decomposition of leaf litter varied from 1.82–3.5% during autumn-winter to 36.14–45.51 during summer rainy season in all stands and percent of mass loss was significantly varied in stands (CD6.00. Similarly, decomposition in nonleaf litter was varied from 0.3–1.1% during autumn-winter to 19.59–30.05% during summer rainy season and was significantly varied irrespective of seasons. However, percent decomposition of leaf litter and the values of decay constant (k were at par in all stands. Total standing state of nutrients in fresh litter as well as release of total nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, and potassium (K in due course of decomposition (12 months was also varying significantly. The rate of nonleaf litter decomposition was significantly positively correlated with air temperature (r=0.63–0.74 in all communities. The significant correlation (r=0.85 was observed only in Rhododendron-Sorbus forest community (PRS. Study indicates that the air temperature is a major determinant for nonleaf litter decomposition in this region.

  15. Does the aboveground herbivore assemblage influence soil bacterial community composition and richness in subalpine grasslands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodel, Melanie; Schütz, Martin; Vandegehuchte, Martijn L; Frey, Beat; Albrecht, Matthias; Busse, Matt D; Risch, Anita C

    2014-10-01

    Grassland ecosystems support large communities of aboveground herbivores that are known to directly and indirectly affect belowground properties such as the microbial community composition, richness, or biomass. Even though multiple species of functionally different herbivores coexist in grassland ecosystems, most studies have only considered the impact of a single group, i.e., large ungulates (mostly domestic livestock) on microbial communities. Thus, we investigated how the exclusion of four groups of functionally different herbivores affects bacterial community composition, richness, and biomass in two vegetation types with different grazing histories. We progressively excluded large, medium, and small mammals as well as invertebrate herbivores using exclosures at 18 subalpine grassland sites (9 per vegetation type). We assessed the bacterial community composition using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) at each site and exclosure type during three consecutive growing seasons (2009-2011) for rhizosphere and mineral soil separately. In addition, we determined microbial biomass carbon (MBC), root biomass, plant carbon:nitrogen ratio, soil temperature, and soil moisture. Even though several of these variables were affected by herbivore exclusion and vegetation type, against our expectations, bacterial community composition, richness, or MBC were not. Yet, bacterial communities strongly differed between the three growing seasons as well as to some extent between our study sites. Thus, our study indicates that the spatiotemporal variability in soil microclimate has much stronger effects on the soil bacterial communities than the grazing regime or the composition of the vegetation in this high-elevation ecosystem.

  16. Do insects lose flight before they lose their wings? Population genetic structure in subalpine stoneflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, Graham A; Wallis, Graham P; Waters, Jonathan M

    2009-10-01

    Wing reduction and flightlessness are common features of alpine and subalpine insects, and are typically interpreted as evolutionary adaptations to increase fecundity and promote local recruitment. Here, we assess the impact of wing reduction on dispersal in stoneflies (Plecoptera: Gripopterygidae: Zelandoperla) in southern New Zealand. Specifically, we present comparative phylogeographic analyses (COI; H3) of strong-flying Zelandoperla decorata (144 individuals, 63 localities) vs. the co-distributed but weak-flying Zelandoperla fenestrata species group (186 individuals, 81 localities). The latter group exhibits a variety of morphotypes, ranging from fully winged to completely wingless. Consistent with its capacity for strong flight-mediated dispersal, Z. decorata exhibited no substantial phylogeographic differentiation across its broad South Island range. Conversely the weak-flying fenestrata species group exhibited substantial genetic structure across both fine and broad geographic scales. Intriguingly, the variable degrees of wing development observed within the fenestrata species group had no apparent impact on levels of phylogeographic structure, which were high regardless of morphotype, suggesting that even fully winged specimens of this group do not fly. This finding implies that Zelandoperla flight loss occurs independently of wing loss, and might reflect underlying flight muscle reduction.

  17. Energy Efficiency in Norway 1990-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Eva

    2003-06-01

    This is the national report for Norway in the EU/SAVE project ''Indicators for Energy Efficiency Monitoring and Target setting (ODYSSEE)''. The report deals with energy use and energy efficiency in Norway 1990-2000 (2001 for overall energy use). Final energy use per Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was reduced by approximately 1.9% pr year in the period 1990 to 2001. The energy efficiency improvement has been calculated to 0.6% pr year, while the role of structural changes has been 1.3% pr year. A detailed sector analysis has been done, applying Laspeyres indices to attribute changes in energy use to activity, structure or intensity (efficiency). Aggregating sectors, we have found a total efficiency improvement of approximately 11 TWh from 1990 to 2000. (author)

  18. Happiness in Serbia and Norway:  

    OpenAIRE

    Jevtic, Tijana

    2010-01-01

    Happiness here is investigated by means of 12 young people from Serbia and Norway. The main instrument was interview with a short questionnaire. Happiness is in line with other studies found to be a complex human quality with a variety of meanings and numerous influences. These meanings can be divided into actual happiness (predominant positive feelings and satisfaction of life), ideal happiness (complete and lasting one), good fortune or luck, the pursuit of happiness, creation of happiness ...

  19. Moods of Norway: NY market entry

    OpenAIRE

    Haugom, Mats Klevengen; Throne, Sindre Raaen; Myrseth, Sebastian; Løvoll, Linda-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this document is to identify the key strategic and supplementary measures the Moods of Norway(MoN) management must take under consideration, to successfully penetrate the New York marketplace, more importantly stay there. Methodology In order to identify those areas of importance stated in the purpose, we looked at the several areas of importance such as the company´s history of expansion, identified business objectives for the New York launch, anal...

  20. [Water-borne disease outbreaks in Norway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygård, Karin; Gondrosen, Bjørn; Lund, Vidar

    2003-12-04

    The drinking water in Norway has traditionally been considered being of good quality. However, outbreaks related to drinking water are reported every year. We review waterborne outbreaks in Norway over the last 15 years, and describe the aetiology of and contributory factors in these outbreaks. We compiled data on waterborne outbreaks reported to the Norwegian Institute of Public Health and Norwegian Food Control Authority during 1988-2002. We included all events in which two or more people fell ill and water was the suspected source of infection. Over the 15-year period. 72 outbreaks were reported, affecting a total of 10 616 persons. Campylobacter was the cause in 26% (19/72) of the outbreaks, norovirus in 18% (13/72). The causative organism was unknown in 46% (33/72). The water came from public waterworks in 32 of the 54 outbreaks for which this information was available (59%); from a private supply in the remaining 22. For 62% (16/26) of the outbreaks related to waterworks, the water was not disinfected before distribution. None of the private water supplies were disinfected. Over the last five years, there were more outbreaks related to private supplies. The most important contributory factor to waterborne outbreaks in Norway is contamination of the raw water combined with missing or faulty disinfecting procedures. To prevent future outbreaks, a continuous upgrading of small and private water supplies is needed. Reporting of outbreaks is important for the implementation of targeted and effective preventive measures.

  1. Ambient Seismic Noise Tomography of Southern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Andreas; Weidle, Christian; Maupin, Valerie

    2010-05-01

    The noise cross-correlation technique is especially useful in regions like southern Norway since local seismicity is rare and teleseismic records are not able to resolve the upper crust. Within the TopoScandiaDeep project, which aims to investigate the relation between surface topography and lithosphere-asthenosphere structure, we process seismic broadband data from the temporary MAGNUS network in Southern Norway. The receivers were recording 20 months of continuous data between September 2006 and June 2008. Additionally, permanent stations of the National Norwegian Seismic Network, NORSAR and GSN stations in the region are used. After usual preprocessing steps (filtering, prewhitening, temporal normalization), we compute 820 cross-correlation functions from 41 receivers for three month time windows. Evaluation of the azimuthal and temporal variation of signal to noise ratios and f-k analysis of NORSAR array data shows that the dominant propagation direction of seismic noise is south-west to north, corresponding well to the Norwegian coast line. During summer months, the signal to noise ratios decrease and the azimuthal distribution becomes smoother. Time-frequency analysis is applied to measure Rayleigh and Love wave group velocity dispersion curves between each station pair for each three-month correlation stack. The mean and variance of all dispersion curves is computed for each path. After rejection of low-quality data using a signal to noise ratio, minimum wavelength and velocity variance criterion, we obtain a large number of reliable velocity estimates (about 600) for periods between 2 and 15 seconds, which we invert for group velocity maps at respective periods. At all inverted periods, we find positive and negative velocity anomalies for Rayleigh and Love waves that correlate very well with local surface geology. While higher velocities (+5%) can be associated with the Caledonian nappes in the central part of southern Norway, the Oslo Graben is reflected

  2. Radiocesium concentrations in wild reindeer at Dovrefjell, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terje Skogland

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal radiocesium concentrations varied about 6 times in wild reindeer following the Chernobyl accident, from 8 KBq/kg in August to 46 KBq/kg in March. These results agree with the predictions of earlier models. The within-season coefficient of variation was 52-62%. Between one half and 3/4 of this variation was explained by altitudinal and geographical factors, i.e. a 5-fold increase in concentrations from the westernmost to the easternmost locations across the watershed at Dovrefjell, and a 6-fold increase in concentrations from feeding locations in the subalpine to the high alpine zone in autumn. The positive correlation with altitude was reversed in winter for animals foraging in the subalpine coniferous zone on arboreal lichens.Radiocesium-konsentrasjoner hos villrein på Dovrefjell, Norge.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Konsentrasjonene»av radiocesium hos villrein gjennom sesongene som fulgte Tsjernobyl-ulykken varierte meget, fra 8 KBq/kg i august til 46 KBq/kg i mars. Disse resultater samsvarer med hva som kunne forutsies i tidlige modeller. Variasjonskoeffisienten innen sesong var 52-62%. Mellom halvdelen og tre fjerdedeler av variasjonen kunne forklares fra høydemessige og geografiske faktorer, d.v.s. en 5-foldig økning i konsentrasjonen fra den vestligste til de østligste lokaliseringer over vannskillet på Dovrefjell og en 6-foldig økning i konsentrasjonene fra beitelokaliseringer fra den subalpine til den høyalpine sone om høsten. Den positive korrelasjon med høyden ble snudd om vinteren for dyr som beitet på skjegglav i den subalpine bar-skogsone.

  3. NATO or Neutrality : Decisions by Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    NEUTRALITY?: DECISIONS BY DENMARK, FINLAND, NORWAY, AND SWEDEN by Kevin A. Chaney September 2017 Thesis Advisor: David S. Yost Second Reader...TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NATO OR NEUTRALITY?: DECISIONS BY DENMARK, FINLAND, NORWAY, AND SWEDEN 5. FUNDING...Distribution is unlimited. 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) Although Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden are ethnically and

  4. Long-term reactive nitrogen loading alters soil carbon and microbial community properties in a subalpine forest ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boot, Claudia M; Hall, Ed K.; Denef, Karolien; Baron, Jill S.

    2016-01-01

    Elevated nitrogen (N) deposition due to increased fossil fuel combustion and agricultural practices has altered global carbon (C) cycling. Additions of reactive N to N-limited environments are typically accompanied by increases in plant biomass. Soil C dynamics, however, have shown a range of different responses to the addition of reactive N that seem to be ecosystem dependent. We evaluated the effect of N amendments on biogeochemical characteristics and microbial responses of subalpine forest organic soils in order to develop a mechanistic understanding of how soils are affected by N amendments in subalpine ecosystems. We measured a suite of responses across three years (2011–2013) during two seasons (spring and fall). Following 17 years of N amendments, fertilized soils were more acidic (control mean 5.09, fertilized mean 4.68), and had lower %C (control mean 33.7% C, fertilized mean 29.8% C) and microbial biomass C by 22% relative to control plots. Shifts in biogeochemical properties in fertilized plots were associated with an altered microbial community driven by reduced arbuscular mycorrhizal (control mean 3.2 mol%, fertilized mean 2.5 mol%) and saprotrophic fungal groups (control mean 17.0 mol%, fertilized mean 15.2 mol%), as well as a decrease in N degrading microbial enzyme activity. Our results suggest that decreases in soil C in subalpine forests were in part driven by increased microbial degradation of soil organic matter and reduced inputs to soil organic matter in the form of microbial biomass.

  5. Trace elements in sub-alpine forest soils on the eastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaodan; Cheng, Genwei; Zhong, Xianghao; Li, Mai-He

    2009-08-01

    Industrial development has increased fast in China during the last decades. This has led to a range of environmental problems. Deposition of trace elements to forest ecosystems via the atmosphere is one potential problem. In this paper, we report the results from a pilot study where the trace element levels of the sub-alpine forest soils on the eastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau have been measured. Possible relationships between soil properties and trace element concentrations have also been investigated. The obtained concentrations (mg kg-1) were boron (B) 48.06-53.70, molybdenum (Mo) 1.53-2.26, zinc (Zn) 68.18-79.53, copper (Cu) 36.81-42.44, selenium (Se) 0.33-0.49, cadmium (Cd) 0.16-0.29, lead (Pb) 25.80-30.71, chromium (Cr) 96.10-110.08, nickel (Ni) 30.16-45.60, mercury (Hg) 0.05-0.11, and arsenic (As) 3.09-4.17. With a few exceptions, the element concentration can be characterized as low in the investigated sub-alpine forest soils. No clear differences in trace element levels were found between topsoil and subsoil samples, indicating that the atmospheric deposition of trace element has been low. The soil parent material plays a key role to determine trace element levels. Soil properties, including pHw, organic carbon (OC), clay fraction, cation-exchange capacity (CEC), total iron (Fe), and total aluminum (Al) concentrations were related to trace element concentration using correlation analysis. Total Fe and Al showed the strongest relationships with concentrations of most trace elements in the sub-alpine forest soils. PCA analyses indicated that a significant increase in the number of cars with the fast development of local tourism may result in higher Pb concentration in the future.

  6. Experimental Whole-Ecosystem Warming Alters Vegetation Phenology in a Boreal Spruce Bog: Initial Results from the SPRUCE Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, A. D.

    2016-12-01

    Phenology is one of the most robust indicators of the biological impacts of global change. However, the response of phenology to future environmental conditions still remains highly uncertain because of the challenges associated with conducting realistic manipulative experiments. At the SPRUCE (Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change) experiment in the north-central United States, experimental temperature (0 to +9°C above ambient) and CO2 (ambient and elevated) treatments are being applied to mature, and intact, Picea mariana-Sphagnum spp. bog communities in their native habitat through the use of ten large (approximately 12 m wide, 10 m high) open-topped enclosures. We are tracking vegetation green-up and senescence in these chambers using repeat digital photography. Within each chamber, images are recorded every 30 minutes and uploaded to PhenoCam (http://phenocam.sr.unh.edu), where processed to yield quantitative measures of canopy color. These data are complemented by on-the-ground phenological data collected by human observers. Air warming treatments at SPRUCE began in August 2015. We observed a delay in senescence during autumn 2015 (2-5 days per degree of warming) and an advance in onset during spring 2016 (1-4 days per degree of warming). These patterns are robust across species and methods of phenological observation (i.e. camera-based vs. human observer). And, our results show very little evidence for photoperiod acting as a constraint on the response to warming. Early spring onset and consequent loss of frost hardiness in the warmest chambers proved disadvantageous when a brief period of extreme cold (to -12°C in the control chambers, to -3°C in the +9°C chambers) followed a month of generally mild weather. Foliage mortality for both Larix and Picea was immediate and severe, although both species subsequently re-flushed. These results give support for the hypothesis that warming may enhance the likelihood of spring frost

  7. Driving forces of individual BVOC emissions from a spruce tree in Central Germany; results from a dynamic enclosure study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourtsoukidis, S.; Dittmann, A.; Jacobi, S.; Bonn, B.

    2012-04-01

    We have conducted seasonal ambient and emission measurements of a series of biogenic VOCs such as monoterpenes (MT), sesquiterpenes (SQT), isoprene, methanol, methyl chavicol and acetaldehyde. Therefore a plant enclosure technique was applied in order to investigate a Central European spruce forest and its emissions responses to meteorological and environmental parameters. A healthy ≈15m tall Norway spruce tree was selected and a vegetation enclosure technique was applied from April to November 2011. VOCs are measured by PTR-MS, while samples have also been analyzed with GC-MS (Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry) techniques for intercomparison and identification of individual VOCs. E/N ratio was adjusted at 117Td[2] and the primary ion signal (H3O+) was continuously above 4×10^7cps, implying a high sensitivity to our measurements. Temperature, relative humidity, ozone, photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) and CO2 concentrations were continuously measured inside the plant cuvette. Meteorological and environmental parameters (radiation, atmospheric pressure, wind velocity, wind direction, temperature, O3, relative humidity, soil moisture, precipitation, global radiation, H2O, NO, NO2) were measured by HLUG (Hessian Agency for Environment and Geology) and DWD (German Weather Service), 50 meters away from the measuring site. In a peculiar season, which was characterized by a warm spring (temperature anomaly >40C), a wet summer (precipitation anomaly 126-150%) and an extremely dry autumn (precipitation anomaly ambient temperature but also with high ambient ozone levels. In a wide range of meteorological conditions and ozone concentrations, we found different emission behavior when ozone values are exceeding a critical threshold. [1] Goldstein, A. H. and Galbally, I. E.: Known and unexplored organic constituents in the earth's atmosphere, Environ. Sci. Technol., 41, 1514-1521, 2007. [2] Kim, S., Karl, T., Helmig, D., Daly, R., Rassmusen, R. and Guether, A

  8. Assessing heat fluxes and water quality trends in subalpine lakes from EO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzaniga, Ilaria; Giardino, Claudia; Bresciani, Mariano; Elli, Chiara; Valerio, Giulia; Pilotti, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Lakes play a fundamental role in providing ecosystem services such as water supplying, hydrological regulation, climate change mitigation, touristic recreation (Schallenberg et al., 2013). Preserving and improving of quality of lakes waters, which is a function of either both natural and human influences, is therefore an important action to be considered. Remote Sensing techniques are spreading as useful instrument for lakes, by integrating classical in situ limnological measurements to frequent and synoptic monitoring capabilities. Within this study, Earth Observation data are exploited for understanding the temporal changes of water quality parameters over a decade, as well as for measuring the surface energy fluxes in recent years in deep clear lakes in the European subalpine ecoregion. According to Pareth et al. (2016), subalpine lakes are showing a clear response to climate change with an increase of 0.017 °C /year of lake surface temperature, whilst the human activities contribute to produce a large impact (agriculture, recreation, industry, fishing and drinking) on these lakes. The investigation is focused on Lake Iseo, which has shown a significant deterioration of water quality conditions since the seventies, and on Lake Garda, the largest Italian lake where EO data have been widely used for many purposes and applications (Giardino et al., 2014). Available ENVISAT-MERIS (2002-2012) and Landsat-8-OLI (2013-on going) imagery has been exploited to produce chlorophyll-a (chl-a) concentration maps, while Landsat-8-TIRS imagery has been used for estimating lake surface temperatures. MERIS images were processed through a neural network (namely the C2R processor, Doerffer et al., 2007), to correct the atmospheric effects and to retrieve water constituents concentration in optically complex deep waters. With regard to L8's images, some atmospheric correctors (e.g. ACOLITE and 6SV) were tested and validated to indentify, for each of the two lakes, the more accurate

  9. Hydraulic adjustment in jack pine and black spruce seedlings under controlled cycles of dehydration and rehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Terence J.; Li, Jiyue

    2003-04-01

    Drought adjustments were compared in black spruce (Picea mariana[Mill] B.S.P), and jack pine (Pinus banksiana[Lamb.]) by subjecting seedlings to five cycles of dehydration and rehydration. A computer-controlled root misting chamber system, supplied low (-1.5 MPa), moderate (-2.0 MPa), and severe (-2.5 MPa) dehydration, respectively, in cycles 1, 3 and 5. Although cell water relations failed to adjust to chronic dehydration, there was limited osmotic adjustment in black spruce (cycle 3), and water was re-allocated from the apoplast to the symplast in jack pine (cycles 1 and 3). Dehydration postponement was more important than dehydration tolerance. Jack pine was better able to postpone dehydration than black spruce. Specific conductivity, the hydraulic conductivity per unit stem cross-sectional area, was lower in jack pine and slower to decline during chronic dehydration. When specific conductivity was corrected for the greater leaf area in black spruce, the leaf-specific conductivity did not differ in the two species. There was no increase in needle leakage in jack pine and stomata in jack pine seedlings reopened fully after rehydration. Black spruce was more of a 'water spender', and less water stress (-2.0 MPa, cycle 3) was required to lower specific conductivity, compared to jack pine (-2.5 MPa, cycle 5). Leakage from needle membranes increased in black spruce, and stomata failed to reopen after rewatering (cycles 3 and 5). A greater needle area, smaller root system, and a higher specific conductivity lowered the water stress threshold for cavitation in black spruce, which is confined to moister sites in the boreal forest. Jack pine had a larger root system, smaller needle area and lower specific conductivity than black spruce. Because of these static features, jack pine is more drought tolerant and it is often found on sites that are too hot and dry for black spruce.

  10. Hydrologic flow path development varies by aspect during spring snowmelt in complex subalpine terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Ryan W.; Fassnacht, Steven R.; Gooseff, Michael N.

    2018-01-01

    In many mountainous regions around the world, snow and soil moisture are key components of the hydrologic cycle. Preferential flow paths of snowmelt water through snow have been known to occur for years with few studies observing the effect on soil moisture. In this study, statistical analysis of the topographical and hydrological controls on the spatiotemporal variability of snow water equivalent (SWE) and soil moisture during snowmelt was undertaken at a subalpine forested setting with north, south, and flat aspects as a seasonally persistent snowpack melts. We investigated if evidence of preferential flow paths in snow can be observed and the effect on soil moisture through measurements of snow water equivalent and near-surface soil moisture, observing how SWE and near-surface soil moisture vary on hillslopes relative to the toes of hillslopes and flat areas. We then compared snowmelt infiltration beyond the near-surface soil between flat and sloping terrain during the entire snowmelt season using soil moisture sensor profiles. This study was conducted during varying snowmelt seasons representing above-normal, relatively normal, and below-normal snow seasons in northern Colorado. Evidence is presented of preferential meltwater flow paths at the snow-soil interface on the north-facing slope causing increases in SWE downslope and less infiltration into the soil at 20 cm depth; less association is observed in the near-surface soil moisture (top 7 cm). We present a conceptualization of the meltwater flow paths that develop based on slope aspect and soil properties. The resulting flow paths are shown to divert at least 4 % of snowmelt laterally, accumulating along the length of the slope, to increase the snow water equivalent by as much as 170 % at the base of a north-facing hillslope. Results from this study show that snow acts as an extension of the vadose zone during spring snowmelt and future hydrologic investigations will benefit from studying the snow and soil

  11. Conifer density within lake catchments predicts fish mercury concentrations in remote subalpine lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herring, Garth; Johnson, Branden L.; Graw, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Remote high-elevation lakes represent unique environments for evaluating the bioaccumulation of atmospherically deposited mercury through freshwater food webs, as well as for evaluating the relative importance of mercury loading versus landscape influences on mercury bioaccumulation. The increase in mercury deposition to these systems over the past century, coupled with their limited exposure to direct anthropogenic disturbance make them useful indicators for estimating how changes in mercury emissions may propagate to changes in Hg bioaccumulation and ecological risk. We evaluated mercury concentrations in resident fish from 28 high-elevation, sub-alpine lakes in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Fish total mercury (THg) concentrations ranged from 4 to 438 ng/g wet weight, with a geometric mean concentration (±standard error) of 43 ± 2 ng/g ww. Fish THg concentrations were negatively correlated with relative condition factor, indicating that faster growing fish that are in better condition have lower THg concentrations. Across the 28 study lakes, mean THg concentrations of resident salmonid fishes varied as much as 18-fold among lakes. We used a hierarchal statistical approach to evaluate the relative importance of physiological, limnological, and catchment drivers of fish Hg concentrations. Our top statistical model explained 87% of the variability in fish THg concentrations among lakes with four key landscape and limnological variables: catchment conifer density (basal area of conifers within a lake's catchment), lake surface area, aqueous dissolved sulfate, and dissolved organic carbon. Conifer density within a lake's catchment was the most important variable explaining fish THg concentrations across lakes, with THg concentrations differing by more than 400 percent across the forest density spectrum. These results illustrate the importance of landscape characteristics in controlling mercury bioaccumulation in fish.

  12. Calcium induces long-term legacy effects in a subalpine ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urs Schaffner

    Full Text Available Human activities have transformed a significant proportion of the world's land surface, with profound effects on ecosystem processes. Soil applications of macronutrients such as nitrate, phosphorus, potassium or calcium are routinely used in the management of croplands, grasslands and forests to improve plant health or increase productivity. However, while the effects of continuous fertilization and liming on terrestrial ecosystems are well documented, remarkably little is known about the legacy effect of historical fertilization and liming events in terrestrial ecosystems and of the mechanisms involved. Here, we show that more than 70 years after the last application of lime on a subalpine grassland, all major soil and plant calcium pools were still significantly larger in limed than in unlimed plots, and that the resulting shift in the soil calcium/aluminium ratio continues to affect ecosystem services such as primary production. The difference in the calcium content of the vegetation and the topmost 10 cm of the soil in limed vs. unlimed plots amounts to approximately 19.5 g m(-2, equivalent to 16.3% of the amount that was added to the plots some 70 years ago. In contrast, plots that were treated with nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium fertilizer in the 1930s did not differ from unfertilized plots in any of the soil and vegetation characteristics measured. Our findings suggest that the long-term legacy effect of historical liming is due to long-term storage of added calcium in stable soil pools, rather than a general increase in nutrient availability. Our results demonstrate that single applications of calcium in its carbonated form can profoundly and persistently alter ecosystem processes and services in mountain ecosystems.

  13. Net primary productivity of subalpine meadows in Yosemite National Park in relation to climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Peggy E.; Van Wagtendonk, Jan W.; Yee, Julie L.; McClaran, Mitchel P.; Cole, David N.; McDougald, Neil K.; Brooks, Matthew L.

    2013-01-01

    Subalpine meadows are some of the most ecologically important components of mountain landscapes, and primary productivity is important to the maintenance of meadow functions. Understanding how changes in primary productivity are associated with variability in moisture and temperature will become increasingly important with current and anticipated changes in climate. Our objective was to describe patterns and variability in aboveground live vascular plant biomass in relation to climatic factors. We harvested aboveground biomass at peak growth from four 64-m2 plots each in xeric, mesic, and hydric meadows annually from 1994 to 2000. Data from nearby weather stations provided independent variables of spring snow water content, snow-free date, and thawing degree days for a cumulative index of available energy. We assembled these climatic variables into a set of mixed effects analysis of covariance models to evaluate their relationships with annual aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP), and we used an information theoretic approach to compare the quality of fit among candidate models. ANPP in the xeric meadow was negatively related to snow water content and thawing degree days and in the mesic meadow was negatively related to snow water content. Relationships between ANPP and these 2 covariates in the hydric meadow were not significant. Increasing snow water content may limit ANPP in these meadows if anaerobic conditions delay microbial activity and nutrient availability. Increased thawing degree days may limit ANPP in xeric meadows by prematurely depleting soil moisture. Large within-year variation of ANPP in the hydric meadow limited sensitivity to the climatic variables. These relationships suggest that, under projected warmer and drier conditions, ANPP will increase in mesic meadows but remain unchanged in xeric meadows because declines associated with increased temperatures would offset the increases from decreased snow water content.

  14. Intraguild predation and cannibalism among larvae of detritivorous caddisflies in subalpine wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissinger, S.A.; Sparks, G.B.; Rouse, G.L.; Brown, W.S.; Steltzer, Heidi

    1996-01-01

    Comparative data from subalpine wetlands in Colorado indicate that larvae of the limnephilid caddisflies, Asynarchus nigriculus and Limnephilus externus, are reciprocally abundant among habitats - Limnephilus larvae dominate in permanent waters, whereas Asynarchus larvae dominate in temporary basins. The purpose of this paper is to report on field and laboratory experiments that link this pattern of abundance to biotic interactions among larvae. In the first field experiment, growth and survival were compared in single and mixed species treatments in littoral enclosures. Larvae, which eat mainly vascular plant detritus, grew at similar rates among treatments in both temporary and permanent habitats suggesting that exploitative competition is not important under natural food levels and caddisfly densities. However, the survival of Limnephilus larvae was reduced in the presence of Asynarchus larvae. Subsequent behavioral studies in laboratory arenas revealed that Asynarchus larvae are extremely aggressive predators on Limnephilus larvae. In a second field experiment we manipulated the relative sizes of larvae and found that Limnephilus larvae were preyed on only when Asynarchus larvae had the same size advantage observed in natural populations. Our data suggest that the dominance of Asynarchus larvae in temporary habitats is due to asymmetric intraguild predation (IGP) facilitated by a phenological head start in development. These data do not explain the dominance of Limnephilus larvae in permanent basins, which we show elsewhere to be an indirect effect of salamander predation. Behavioral observations also revealed that Asynarchus larvae are cannibalistic. In contrast to the IGP on Limnephilus larvae, Asynarchus cannibalism occurs among same-sized larvae and often involves the mobbing of one victim by several conspecifics. In a third field experiment, we found that Asynarchus cannibalism was not density-dependent and occurred even at low larval densities. We

  15. Fern rhizomes as fodder in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm, Torbjørn

    2016-09-06

    Although ferns are often known under collective names in Norway, e.g. blom, a substantial number of vernacular names for individual fern species are known, in particular for useful or poisonous taxa. In the past, the rhizomes (Norwegian: moldfôr) of selected species were collected for fodder. Only scattered records of such use are available from southern Norway, and the tradition's core area is found in the two North Norwegian counties of Nordland and Troms, in accordance with the longer winters encountered in the north, frequently leading to fodder shortage in early spring. The tradition extends northeastwards into Finnmark, but is less well documented there. Although numerous sources mention the use of fern rhizomes for fodder, the fern species hiding behind the tradition are incompletely known. This paper aims at reviewing available data in terms of identifyng the species used for fodder, the history and geographical distribution of such use, and other relevant traditions, e.g. the timing and mode of collection, and the way the rhizomes were used. The study is based on data extracted from a variety of archival and literature sources; the latter retrived from my database of more than 7500 publications providing information on plant names and plant uses in Norway. More than 200 individual records mention the use of fern rhizomes for fodder in Norway. Only a fraction of these, typically made by botanist recording data on plant uses, provides information on the identity of the species used. Based on these, Dryopteris filix-mas and Matteuccia struthiopteris stand out as the most important species serving as sources of fern rhizomes for fodder. Locally, Dryopteris expansa was the preferred species, and this taxon may to some extent be overlooked in the records so far available. With a few exceptions, Norwegian folk tradition singles out Athyrium filix-femina as a harmful and poisonous species, causing livestock to go blind and lame, but whether this is true or not

  16. Norway's ICT Accessibility Legislation, Methods and Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rygg, Malin; Rømen, Dagfinn; Sterri, Brynhild Runa

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the Norwegian legislation on Universal Design of information and communication technology (ICT) and how the Norwegian Authority for Universal Design of ICT works to enforce and achieve the goals behind the legislation. The Authority uses indicators to check websites for compliance with the regulations. This paper describes the rationale and intended use for the indicators and how they are used for both supervision and benchmarks as well as a way of gathering data to give an overview of the current state of Universal Design of websites in Norway.

  17. ENOR - An Energy-Model for Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ek

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available The Energy model for Norway, ENOR, is a dynamic, multisectoral economic stimulation model to be used for long term energy analyses. Energy sectors and energy carriers are in principle treated in the same way as other sectors and economic commodities and integrated in the same general framework. The model has a two-level structure - a central coordination module ensures economic consistency, while the behaviour of each production and consumption sector is modelled in separate sector models. The model framework is thus capable of handling both engineering and economic knowledge.

  18. Wind power in Norway; Vindkraft i Norge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This report analyses business costs and socio-economic costs in the development of wind power in Norway and policy instruments to encourage such a development. It is founded on an analysis of the development of wind power in other countries, notably U.S.A, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands and Britain. The report describes the institutional background in each country, the policy instruments that have been used and still are and the results achieved. The various cost components in Norwegian wind power development and the expected market price of wind power are also discussed. The discussion of instruments distinguishes between investment oriented and production oriented instruments. 8 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Lower limb amputations in Trondheim, Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Wits?, Eivind; Lium, Arne; Lydersen, Stian

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose In the city of Trondheim, Norway, diabetic lower-limb amputations accounted for one-third of all lower-limb amputations (LLAs). In an attempt to reduce this rate, a diabetic foot team was established in 1996. We present the incidence of LLA in Trondheim as measured 10 years later. Patients and methods In 2004?07, we registered all LLAs performed in Trondheim and then compared the data with previously published data from 1994?1997. From 1996 through 2006, we registered t...

  20. China renewable energy in Africa and Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This study assesses the potential for Norwegian engagement in Sino-African renewable energy development. The study analyzes Norwegian competitiveness and complementarities towards Chinese energy actors in the African market, and identifies respective strengths and weaknesses against the backdrop of the African market. The report identifies barriers and opportunities for Norwegian commercial and developmental engagement towards upscaling renewable energy in Africa that may also apply to other OECD countries. Finally, the report points to possibilities for Norway to support sustainable Sino-African renewable energy development.(auth)

  1. Freshwater rotifers from Hordaland, western Norway, with a survey of freshwater rotifers previously found in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brit Godske Bjørklund

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available   Bjørklund BG. 2009. Freshwater rotifers from Hordaland western Norway with a u survey of freshwater rotifers previously found in Norway. Fauna Norvegica29: 11-54. A total of 156 species (or subspecies o rotifers, mostly non-planktonic, have been identified from freshwater or slightly brackish-water localities in the county of Hordaland; 83 are new to Norway and 24 others are new to the county. One hundred of the species were collected from the two valleys of Eksingedalen and Teigdalen in spring and summer 1967. Samples were taken on the shallow shores of lake-like parts of the rivers, and in pools, tarns and small lakes. Forty more or less euryhaline fresh­water rotifers were also collected during studies of slightly brackish-water localities around Bergen in 1963-1969. A number of freshwater rotifers were collected at several localities in and around Bergen in 1968-1970, and on the western part of Hardangervidda. Of those so far identified ,23 are new to Norway and 8 more are new to the county. They are therefore included in the species list. A few additional ones are referred to in the taxonomical notes. All the species are listed with localities and habitat categories, or, in the case of the last-mentioned ones, just the district where they were collected. The paper includes notes, measurements and ,in most cases, figures regarding 44 little known, variable or taxonomically problematical species, especially in the genera Cephalodella and Trichocerca. Comments are given on the distribution , abundance and diversity of the species. The paper presents asurvey of previous investigations on rotifers in Norway, listing 200 previously recorded freshwater (a few euryhaline rotifers, giving other names, the authors who recorded the finds and, in most cases, the counties where the species were collected. 

  2. Vitamin K requirement in Danish anticoagulant-resistant Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mette D.; Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte; Nielsen, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus, Denmark, anticoagulant rodenticide resistance, vitamin K requirement......Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus, Denmark, anticoagulant rodenticide resistance, vitamin K requirement...

  3. Nitrogen deposition but not ozone affects productivity and community composition of subalpine grassland after 3 yr of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassin, Seraina; Volk, Matthias; Suter, Matthias; Buchmann, Nina; Fuhrer, Jürg

    2007-01-01

    A field experiment was established at 2000 m above sea level (asl) in the central Swiss Alps with the aim of investigating the effects of elevated ozone (O(3)) and nitrogen deposition (N), and of their combination, on above-ground productivity and species composition of subalpine grassland. One hundred and eighty monoliths were extracted from a species-rich Geo-Montani-Nardetum pasture and exposed in a free-air O(3)-fumigation system to one of three concentrations of O(3) (ambient, 1.2 x ambient, 1.6 x ambient) and five concentrations of additional N. Above-ground biomass, proportion of functional groups and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) were measured annually. After 3 yr of treatment, the vegetation responded to the N input with an increase in above-ground productivity and altered species composition, but without changes resulting from elevated O(3). N input > 10 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) was sufficient to affect the composition of functional groups, with sedges benefiting over-proportionally. No interaction of O(3) x N was observed, except for NDVI; positive effects of N addition on canopy greenness were counteracted by accelerated leaf senescence in the highest O(3) treatment. The results suggest that effects of elevated O(3) on the productivity and floristic composition of subalpine grassland may develop slowly, regardless of the sensitive response to increasing N.

  4. Effects of tourism and topography on vegetation diversity in the subalpine meadows of the Dongling Mountains of Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-Tun; Xiang, ChunLing; Li, Min

    2012-02-01

    Subalpine meadows in the Dongling Mountains (located at E115º26'-115º40', N40º00'-40º05') of Beijing, China are important for tourism and the provision of ecosystem services. However, because of poor management serious degradation has occurred on these subalpine meadows. The aim of this paper is to present a quantitative analysis of effects of tourism disturbance and topography on the status and diversity of montane meadow communities and to provide direction for improved management. Sixty quadrats of 2 × 2 m(2) along 10 transects were set up to collect data on site characteristics and vegetation status. The relationships between community composition and structure, species diversity, and tourism disturbance and topographic variables were analyzed by multivariate methods (TWINSPAN and CCA). The results showed that eight meadow communities were identified by TWINSPAN. Most of them were seriously degraded. The first CCA axis identified an elevation and tourism disturbance intensity gradient, which illustrated that tourism disturbance and elevation were most important factors influencing meadow types, composition and structure. Some resistant species and response species to tourism disturbance were identified and can be used as indicator species of tourism disturbance. Species richness, heterogeneity and evenness were closely related to tourism disturbance and elevation. It is concluded that tourism disturbance must be controlled to enable grassland rehabilitation to occur in the meadows. Measures of effective management of the meadows were discussed.

  5. Effects of Tourism and Topography on Vegetation Diversity in the Subalpine Meadows of the Dongling Mountains of Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-Tun; Xiang, Chunling; Li, Min

    2012-02-01

    Subalpine meadows in the Dongling Mountains (located at E115º26'-115º40', N40º00'-40º05') of Beijing, China are important for tourism and the provision of ecosystem services. However, because of poor management serious degradation has occurred on these subalpine meadows. The aim of this paper is to present a quantitative analysis of effects of tourism disturbance and topography on the status and diversity of montane meadow communities and to provide direction for improved management. Sixty quadrats of 2 × 2 m2 along 10 transects were set up to collect data on site characteristics and vegetation status. The relationships between community composition and structure, species diversity, and tourism disturbance and topographic variables were analyzed by multivariate methods (TWINSPAN and CCA). The results showed that eight meadow communities were identified by TWINSPAN. Most of them were seriously degraded. The first CCA axis identified an elevation and tourism disturbance intensity gradient, which illustrated that tourism disturbance and elevation were most important factors influencing meadow types, composition and structure. Some resistant species and response species to tourism disturbance were identified and can be used as indicator species of tourism disturbance. Species richness, heterogeneity and evenness were closely related to tourism disturbance and elevation. It is concluded that tourism disturbance must be controlled to enable grassland rehabilitation to occur in the meadows. Measures of effective management of the meadows were discussed.

  6. Influence of oviposition preference in reduced susceptibility of Ottawa Valley white spruce (picea glauce) to spruce budmoth (zeiraphera canadensis) in New Brunswick: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiring, D.T.; Butterworth, E.W.

    1995-12-31

    In New Brunswick, efforts to control populations of spruce budmoth by spraying adults with insecticides or pheromones have produced encouraging results. An alternative technique, the selection of less-susceptible spruce, would aid in the development of an integrated management program for this insect pest. Differences in spruce damage as revealed in previous studies could be due to oviposition choice and/or to host suitability. However, researchers must determine the distribution of eggs laid by the spruce budmoth before they can determine whether some families of spruce have low levels of damage because they are avoided by ovipositing females and/or because they are less suitable for egg and larval development. This report presents results from studies carried out to quantify the number of eggs laid on trees from different families. Investigators collected tree branch samples from plantations and a seed orchard in May, before bud burst or egg hatching commenced. They analysed variations in oviposition parameters (such as number of eggs and egg masses, number of eggs parasitized by Trichogramma minutum, and number of viable eggs) using analysis of variance. To determine whether differences in egg density were related to plant morphology, they also measured such parameters as shoot length and diameter, needle length, shot type, and needle density.

  7. King Harald V and Queen Sonja of Norway visit CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Norway's King Harald V and Queen Sonja take a tour of the ATLAS detector with CERN's Director-General Robert Aymar in April 2006. During their visit the royal party met with members of CERN's Norwegian community. A group of about 40 students greeted the royal motorcade with a belting rendition of 'The King's Song', Norway's royal anthem.

  8. Young Christians in Norway, national socialism, and the German ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The German occupation of Norway during the Second World War caused unprecedented problems for the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Norway and other Christian denominations. The subordination of the church to the de facto Nazi state eventually led its bishops and most of its pastors to sever their ties to the ...

  9. Subalpine vegetation pattern three decades after stand-replacing fire: Effects of landscape context and topography on plant community composition, tree regeneration, and diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan D. Coop; Robert T. Massatti; Anna W. Schoettle

    2010-01-01

    These subalpine wildfires generated considerable, persistent increases in plant species richness at local and landscape scales, and a diversity of plant communities. The findings suggest that fire suppression in such systems must lead to reduced diversity. Concerns about post-fire invasion by exotic plants appear unwarranted in high-elevation wilderness settings.

  10. Verification of satellite radar remote sensing based estimates of boreal and subalpine growing seasons using an ecosystem process model and surface biophysical measurement network information

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, K. C.; Kimball, J. S.; Zimmerman, R.

    2002-01-01

    We employ daily surface Radar backscatter data from the SeaWinds Ku-band Scatterometer onboard Quikscat to estimate landscape freeze-thaw state and associated length of the seasonal non-frozen period as a surrogate for determining the annual growing season across boreal and subalpine regions of North America for 2000 and 2001.

  11. Carex sempervirens tussocks induce spatial heterogeneity in litter decomposition, but not in soil properties, in a subalpine grassland in the Central Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei-Hai Yu; Martin Schutz; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Bertil O. Krusi; Jakob Schneller; Otto Wildi; Anita C. Risch

    2011-01-01

    Tussocks of graminoids can induce spatial heterogeneity in soil properties in dry areas with discontinuous vegetation cover, but little is known about the situation in areas with continuous vegetation and no study has tested whether tussocks can induce spatial heterogeneity in litter decomposition. In a subalpine grassland in the Central Alps where vegetation cover is...

  12. Deforestation induces shallow landsliding in the montane and subalpine belts of the Urbión Mountains, Iberian Range, Northern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ruiz, José M.; Beguería, Santiago; Arnáez, José; Sanjuán, Yasmina; Lana-Renault, Noemí; Gómez-Villar, Amelia; Álvarez-Martínez, Javier; Coba-Pérez, Paz

    2017-11-01

    In this study the spatial distribution of shallow landslides in the upper montane and subalpine belts of the Urbión Mountains (Iberian Range, northern Spain) was investigated, particularly in relation to the spatial organization of deforestation and land cover. The upper montane and subalpine belts have been deforested several times since the Neolithic Period, to enlarge the area of summer grasslands for feeding transhumant sheep flocks. Consequently, the timberline was lowered by 400-600 m, and increased the occurrence of severe erosion processes, particularly shallow landslides. This study shows that most of the landslide scars are in the summer grasslands area, and that a remarkable extent of the subalpine belt area has been subjected to mass movements. In addition to land use, the soil characteristics and topography help explain the development of conditions most favorable to landsliding. Shallow landslide susceptibility was highest in the upper parts of the slopes near the divides, in areas having slope gradients of 10-30° and deep soils with an increasing proportion of clay with depth. The landslides were clustered and not randomly distributed, and the causes of this spatial distribution are discussed. The current trend of woody encroachment in the upper montane and subalpine belts, resulting from decreasing livestock pressure, will probably reduce the susceptibility of these areas to shallow landslides in the future.

  13. Lab and Field Warming Similarly Advance Germination Date and Limit Germination Rate for High and Low Elevation Provenances of Two Widespread Subalpine Conifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara M. Kueppers

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Accurately predicting upslope shifts in subalpine tree ranges with warming requires understanding how future forest populations will be affected by climate change, as these are the seed sources for new tree line and alpine populations. Early life history stages are particularly sensitive to climate and are also influenced by genetic variation among populations. We tested the climate sensitivity of germination and initial development for two widely distributed subalpine conifers, using controlled-environment growth chambers with one temperature regime from subalpine forest in the Colorado Rocky Mountains and one 5 °C warmer, and two soil moisture levels. We tracked germination rate and timing, rate of seedling development, and seedling morphology for two seed provenances separated by ~300 m elevation. Warming advanced germination timing and initial seedling development by a total of ~2 weeks, advances comparable to mean differences between provenances. Advances were similar for both provenances and species; however, warming reduced the overall germination rate, as did low soil moisture, only for Picea engelmannii. A three-year field warming and watering experiment planted with the same species and provenances yielded responses qualitatively consistent with the lab trials. Together these experiments indicate that in a warmer, drier climate, P. engelmannii germination, and thus regeneration, could decline, which could lead to declining subalpine forest populations, while Pinus flexilis forest populations could remain robust as a seed source for upslope range shifts.

  14. NACP Soil Organic Matter of Burned Boreal Black Spruce Forests, Alaska, 2009-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides organic soil layer characteristics, estimated carbon content, and soil depth measurements made at four black spruce stands in interior Alaska...

  15. Response of Spruce Budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Infected with Nosema fumiferanae (Microsporida) to Bacillus thuringiensis Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leah S. Bauer; Gerald L. Nordin

    1989-01-01

    Diease in spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens), caused by the microsporidian Nosema fumiferanae (Thomson), increase larval susceptibility to mortality by bacillus thuringlensis (Berliner) treatments compared with larvae free of N. fumiferanae disease. The median lethal...

  16. Coordinating health care: lessons from Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trond Tjerbo

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: What influences the coordination of care between general practitioners and hospitals? In this paper, general practitioner satisfaction with hospital—GP interaction is revealed, and related to several background variables. Method: A questionnaire was sent to all general practitioners in Norway (3388, asking their opinion on the interaction and coordination of health care in their district. A second questionnaire was sent to all the somatic hospitals in Norway (59 regarding formal routines and structures. The results were analysed using ordinary least squares regression. Results: General practitioners tend to be less satisfied with the coordination of care when their primary hospital is large and cost-effective with a high share of elderly patients. Together with the degree to which the general practitioner is involved in arenas where hospital physicians and general practitioners interact, these factors turned out to be good predictors of general practitioner satisfaction. Implication: To improve coordination between general practitioners and specialists, one should focus upon the structural traits within the hospitals in different regions as well as creating common arenas where the physicians can interact.

  17. [Medical publishing in Norway 1905-2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylenna, Magne; Larsen, Øivind

    2005-06-02

    The nation-building process in Norway took mainly place before the Norwegian-Swedish union came to a close in 1905. This was not a dramatic change, though the end of the union did bring a lift to Norwegian national consciousness. In 1905 there were three general medical journals in Norway and approximately 1200 doctors. German was the most important language of international science, but most scientific publishing was done in Norwegian. After the Second World War, English became the dominating language of scientific communication. Twentieth-century medicine and medical publishing was an era of specialisation and internationalisation. Norwegian medicine has to a large extent been internationalised through Nordic cooperation, with the Nordic specialist journals being of particular importance. With increasing professionalism in research, international English-language journals have become the major channels of communication, though several Norwegian-language journals (on paper or on the internet) have been established and are of crucial importance to a national identity within medical specialties. In 2005 there is only one general medical journal in Norwegian, in a country with approximately 20,000 doctors. A national identity related to medical publishing is not given much attention, though national medicine is still closely tied in with national culture. Good clinical practice should be based on a firm knowledge of local society and local tradition. This is a challenge in contemporary medical publishing.

  18. Results of workplace drug testing in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde Marie Erøy Lund

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Workplace drug testing is less common in Norway than in many other countries. During the period from 2000-2006, 13469 urine or blood samples from employees in the offshore industry, shipping companies and aviation industry were submitted to the Norwegian Institute of Public Health for drug testing. The samples were analysed for benzodiazepines, illicit drugs, muscle relaxants with sedating properties, opioids and z-hypnotics. In total, 2.9% of the samples were positive for one or more substances. During the study period the prevalence decreased for morphine (from 1.9% to 1.1% and increased for amphetamine (from 0.04% to 0.6%, clonazepam (from 0% to 0.1%, methamphetamine (from 0.04% to 0.6%, nitrazepam (from 0% to 0.4% and oxazepam (from 0.5% to 1.3% (p<0.05. There was no significant change in prevalence for the other substances included in the analytical programme. Illicit drugs were significantly associated with lower age (OR: 0.93, p<0.05. This study found low prevalence of drugs among employees in companies with workplace drug testing programmes in Norway.

  19. Playing with LISEM: Experiences from Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greipsland, Inga; Krzeminska, Dominika

    2017-04-01

    Reducing soil loss from agricultural land is an important environmental challenge that is of relevance for both the European Soil Thematic Strategy (EC 2002) and the Water Framework Directive (EC 2000). Agricultural land in Norway is scarce, covering only around 3% of the total land area (The World Bank, 2015), which puts stress on preserving soil quality for food production. Additionally, reducing sediment loss is a national priority because of associated transport of pollutants such as phosphorous, which can cause eutrophication in nearby waterbodies. It is necessary to find tools that can estimate the effect of different scenarios on erosion processes on agricultural areas. We would like to present the challenges experienced and the results obtained by using LISEM (Limburg Soil Erosion Model) on the plot- subcatchment- and catchment scale in southeastern Norway. The agricultural catchment has been the subject of long-term monitoring of water quality. Challenges included spatial upscaling of local calibration, calibration on areas with very low soil loss rates and equifinality. In this poster, we want to facilitate a discussion about the possibilities of and limitations to the model for predicting hydrological and soil erosion processes at different scales.

  20. Patterns of total ecosystem carbon storage with changes in soil temperature in boreal black spruce forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.S. Kane; J.G. Vogel

    2009-01-01

    To understand how carbon (C) pools in boreal ecosystems may change with warming, we measured above- and belowground C pools and C increment along a soil temperature gradient across 16 mature upland black spruce (Picea mariana Mill. [B•S.P]) forests in interior Alaska. Total spruce C stocks (stand and root C) increased from 1.3 to 8.5 kg C m