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Sample records for subalpine coniferous plantations

  1. Susceptible conditions for debarking by deer in subalpine coniferous forests in central Japan

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    Hayato Iijima

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, deer have expanded their distribution to higher altitude ranges including subalpine forests. However, culling deer and construction of deer fence in subalpine forests are difficult because of steep slopes and complex topography. Thus it is necessary to clarify the factors which are associated with debarking by deer for the effective protection of subalpine forests. In this study, we examined which factors are associated with debarking by sika deer (Cervus nippon in subalpine coniferous forests. Methods: We conducted our survey in Minami-Alps National Park, central Japan. We established 24 10 m× 40 m plots and surveyed the occurrence of debarking on saplings >30 cm in height and 3 cm in DBH, as well as sapling density within each plot. Minimum distances to nearest grassland of plots were calculated (tentatively assuming grassland would attract deer and would cause high debarking pressure in the surrounding subalpine forests. Results: The mean percentage of debarked live saplings was higher than that of live trees. The mean percentage of debarked saplings which had already died was 81.6 %. Debarking of saplings increased with lower elevation, taller sapling size, and marginally increased near grassland. Sapling density was lower in plots with low basal area of conspecific trees near grassland and differed among species. Sapling density marginally decreased with decreasing elevation and increasing stand tree density. Debarking of trees was positively related to small DBH and low elevation, and marginally increased near grassland and differed among species. Conclusions: Our results suggest that tall saplings in subalpine forests of low elevation or near subalpine grassland were susceptible to debarking by deer and monitoring of these areas may permit the early detection of the impacts of deer in subalpine coniferous forests. Keywords: Abies, Cervus nippon, Debarking, Grassland, Picea, Sapling density, Subalpine region

  2. Factors affecting the remotely sensed response of coniferous forest plantations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danson, F.M.; Curran, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    Remote sensing of forest biophysical properties has concentrated upon forest sites with a wide range of green vegetation amount and thereby leaf area index and canopy cover. However, coniferous forest plantations, an important forest type in Europe, are managed to maintain a large amount of green vegetation with little spatial variation. Therefore, the strength of the remotely sensed signal will, it is hypothesized, be determined more by the structure of this forest than by its cover. Airborne Thematic Mapper (ATM) and SPOT-1 HRV data were used to determine the effects of this structural variation on the remotely sensed response of a coniferous forest plantation in the United Kingdom. Red and near infrared radiance were strongly and negatively correlated with a range of structural properties and with the age of the stands but weakly correlated with canopy cover. A composite variable, related to the volume of the canopy, accounted for over 75% of the variation in near infrared radiance. A simple model that related forest structural variables to the remotely sensed response was used to understand and explain this response from a coniferous forest plantation

  3. Rehabilitation of monotonous exotic coniferous plantations: a case study of spontaneous establishment of different tree species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jonášová, Magda; van Hees, A.; Prach, Karel

    -, č. 28 (2006), s. 141-148 ISSN 0925-8574 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520; CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : restoration of coniferous plantations * natural regeneration * forest management Subject RIV: GK - Forestry Impact factor: 1.331, year: 2006

  4. Plantation-Seeding Forest Plantations – the New Method for Regeneration of Coniferous Forests at Large Clearings on Burned Lands

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    V. V. Tarakanov

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The new method of restoration of coniferous stands on large felling areas on burnt lands that lack seed trees is discussed. It involves limited planting of big grafted seedlings of quality wood, that have a high level of seed production, with the purpose of the subsequent natural sowing on these territories. Results of two-year-old research on approbation of the method on cuttings on large felling areas on burnt lands in conditions of the mid-Ob' river pine forests are stated. A good viability of «seed cultures» is noted. There is damage of the grafting pines by elk. Therefore there is a problem of protecting plantations against elk. For preservation of a high level of genetic variability of pine stands it is desirable to use in «seed cultures» the best trees from local plantings.

  5. Ecophysiological behaviour of hardwood species in renaturalization processes of coniferous plantations [Campania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borghetti, M.; Saracino, A.; D'Alessandro, C.M.

    2005-01-01

    Coniferous plantations may play a nurse effect for natural regeneration of native hardwood species, which would otherwise be conditioned by intraspecific competition due to trees of the upper layers or be prevented by high radiation load of open environments. Regulation of canopy cover by means of thinning generates temporary or permanent variations of levels of irradiance in lower forest layers. These affect the capability of recruitment and establishment and the ecophysiological behaviour of natural regeneration. Here we present a review of the notions on effects of relative irradiance variations on ecophysiological behaviour of native tree species in lower layers of mesophile and meso-xerophile forests, giving some specific examples produced during the national project PRIN 2003 FOR BIO [it

  6. The full annual carbon balance of a subtropical coniferous plantation is highly sensitive to autumn precipitation.

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    Xu, Mingjie; Wang, Huimin; Wen, Xuefa; Zhang, Tao; Di, Yuebao; Wang, Yidong; Wang, Jianlei; Cheng, Chuanpeng; Zhang, Wenjiang

    2017-08-30

    Deep understanding of the effects of precipitation on carbon budgets is essential to assess the carbon balance accurately and can help predict potential variation within the global change context. Therefore, we addressed this issue by analyzing twelve years (2003-2014) of observations of carbon fluxes and their corresponding temperature and precipitation data in a subtropical coniferous plantation at the Qianyanzhou (QYZ) site, southern China. During the observation years, this coniferous ecosystem experienced four cold springs whose effects on the carbon budgets were relatively clear based on previous studies. To unravel the effects of temperature and precipitation, the effects of autumn precipitation were examined by grouping the data into two pools based on whether the years experienced cold springs. The results indicated that precipitation in autumn can accelerate the gross primary productivity (GPP) of the following year. Meanwhile, divergent effects of precipitation on ecosystem respiration (Re) were found. Autumn precipitation was found to enhance Re in normal years but the same regulation was not found in the cold-spring years. These results suggested that for long-term predictions of carbon balance in global climate change projections, the effects of precipitation must be considered to better constrain the uncertainties associated with the estimation.

  7. [Effects of elevated temperature on soil organic carbon and soil respiration under subalpine coniferous forest in western Sichuan Province, China].

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    Pan, Xin-li; Lin, Bo; Liu, Qing

    2008-08-01

    To investigate the effects of elevated temperature on the soil organic carbon content, soil respiration rate, and soil enzyme activities in subalpine Picea asperata plantations in western Sichuan Province of China, a simulation study was conducted in situ with open-top chambers from November 2005 to July 2007. The results showed that under elevated temperature, the mean air temperature and soil temperature were 0.42 degrees C and 0.25 degrees C higher than the control, respectively. In the first and the second year, the increased temperature had somewhat decreasing effects on the soil organic carbon and the C/N ratio at the soil depths of 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm. In the first year the soil organic carbon and the C/N ratio in 0-10 cm soil layer decreased by 8.69%, and 8.52%, respectively; but in the second year, the decrements were lesser. Soil respiration rate was significantly enhanced in the first year of warming, but had no significant difference with the control in the second year. In the first year of warming, the activities of soil invertase, polyphenol oxidase, catalase, protease, and urease increased, and the invertase and polyphenol oxidase activities in 0-10 cm soil layer were significantly higher than the control. In the second year of warming, the activities of invertase, protease and urease still had an increase, but those of catalase and polyphenol oxidase had a downtrend, compared with the control.

  8. Root-associated fungal communities in three Pyroleae species and their mycobiont sharing with surrounding trees in subalpine coniferous forests on Mount Fuji, Japan.

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    Jia, Shuzheng; Nakano, Takashi; Hattori, Masahira; Nara, Kazuhide

    2017-11-01

    Pyroleae species are perennial understory shrubs, many of which are partial mycoheterotrophs. Most fungi colonizing Pyroleae roots are ectomycorrhizal (ECM) and share common mycobionts with their Pyroleae hosts. However, such mycobiont sharing has neither been examined in depth before nor has the interspecific variation in sharing among Pyroleae species. Here, we examined root-associated fungal communities in three co-existing Pyroleae species, including Pyrola alpina, Pyrola incarnata, and Orthilia secunda, with reference to co-existing ECM fungi on the surrounding trees in the same soil blocks in subalpine coniferous forests. We identified 42, 75, and 18 fungal molecular operational taxonomic units in P. alpina, P. incarnata, and O. secunda roots, respectively. Mycobiont sharing with surrounding trees, which was defined as the occurrence of the same mycobiont between Pyroleae and surrounding trees in each soil block, was most frequent among P. incarnata (31 of 44 plants). In P. alpina, sharing was confirmed in 12 of 37 plants, and the fungal community was similar to that of P. incarnata. Mycobiont sharing was least common in O. secunda, found in only 5 of 32 plants. Root-associated fungi of O. secunda were dominated by Wilcoxina species, which were absent from the surrounding ECM roots in the same soil blocks. These results indicate that mycobiont sharing with surrounding trees does not equally occur among Pyroleae plants, some of which may develop independent mycorrhizal associations with ECM fungi, as suggested in O. secunda at our research sites.

  9. Underestimated effects of low temperature during early growing season on carbon sequestration of a subtropical coniferous plantation

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    W.-J. Zhang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of air temperature in early growing season on the carbon sequestration of a subtropical coniferous plantation was discussed through analyzing the eddy flux observations at Qianyanzhou (QYZ site in southern China from 2003 to 2008. This site experienced two cold early growing seasons (with temperature anomalies of 2–5 °C in 2005 and 2008, and a severe summer drought in 2003.
    Results indicated that the low air temperature from January to March was the major factor controlling the inter-annual variations in net carbon uptake at this site, rather than the previously thought summer drought. The accumulative air temperature from January to February showed high correlation (R2=0.970, p<0.001 with the annual net ecosystem production (NEP. This was due to the controls of early-month temperature on the plant phenology developing and the growing season length at this subtropical site. The cold spring greatly shortened the growing season length and therefore reduced the carbon uptake period. The eddy flux observations showed a carbon loss of 4.04 g C m−2 per growing-season day at this coniferous forest site. On the other hand, the summer drought also reduced the net carbon uptake strength because the photosynthesis was more sensitive to water deficit stress than the ecosystem respiration. However, the impact of summer drought occurred within a relatively shorter period and the carbon sequestration went back to the normal level once the drought was relieved.

  10. The Roll of Canopy on Interception and Redistribution of Anthropogenic Radionuclides Derived from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident in Coniferous Forest Plantations

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    Kato, H.; Onda, Y.; Kawaguchi, S.; Gomi, T.

    2011-12-01

    Soil, vegetation and other ecological compartments are expected to be highly contaminated by the deposited radionuclides after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident triggered by a magnitude 9.1 earthquake and the resulting tsunami on Marchi 11, 2011. A large proportion of radionuclides which deposited on forest area are trapped by canopies, throughfall and stemflow are the most important pathways for the input of radionuclides into the soil of forest floor. In this study, to investigate the roll of forest canopy on interception and redistribution of the deposited radionuclides, a series of field monitoring experiment of throughfall and stemflow were conducted in coniferous forest plantations in Tochigi prefecture, 170 km southwest from the NPP. A set of 20 throughfall collectors with latticelike distribution and 5 stemflow collectors were located in the 10m × 10m interception plot, and the activities of caesium (137Cs, 134Cs) and radioiodine (131I) in throughfall and stemflow were quantified by using a high purity n-type germanium coaxial gamma ray detectors. Rainfall, throughfall, and stemflow samples were collected from 10 rainfall events, which includes first rainfall event after the NPP accident. The cumulative fallout of radionuclides in the study site was 3400 Bq m-2 for 137Cs, 3300 Bq m-2 for 134Cs, and 26000 Bq m-2 for 131I, respectively. The 137Cs in rainfall decreased exponentially with time since the NPP accident. For the rainfall event of 28 March, which is first rainfall event after the NPP accident, both the amount and concentration of caesium clearly increased with throughfall, whereas the concentration of radioiodine decreased with throughfall. For the subsequent rainfall events, the concentration of caesium decreased with throughfall, whereas radioiodine was not detected as a result of decay due to short half-life. At the end of May, approximately 30% and 60% of total caesium deposited after the NPP accident remained on the

  11. Changes in Biomass Carbon and Soil Organic Carbon Stocks following the Conversion from a Secondary Coniferous Forest to a Pine Plantation.

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    Shuaifeng Li

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to estimate changes of tree carbon (C and soil organic carbon (SOC stock following a conversion in land use, an issue that has been only insufficiently addressed. For this study, we examined a chronosequence of 2 to 54-year-old Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis plantations that replaced the original secondary coniferous forest (SCF in Southwest China due to clearing. C stocks considered here consisted of tree, understory, litter, and SOC (0-1 m. The results showed that tree C stocks ranged from 0.02±0.001 Mg C ha-1 to 141.43±5.29 Mg C ha-1, and increased gradually with the stand age. Accumulation of tree C stocks occurred in 20 years after reforestaion and C stock level recoverd to SCF. The maximum of understory C stock was found in a 5-year-old stand (6.74±0.7 Mg C ha-1 with 5.8 times that of SCF, thereafter, understory C stock decreased with the growth of plantation. Litter C stock had no difference excluding effects of prescribed burning. Tree C stock exhibited a significant decline in the 2, 5-year-old stand following the conversion to plantation, but later, increased until a steady state-level in the 20, 26-year-old stand. The SOC stocks ranged from 81.08±10.13 Mg C ha-1 to 160.38±17.96 Mg C ha-1. Reforestation significantly decreased SOC stocks of plantation in the 2-year-old stand which lost 42.29 Mg C ha-1 in the 1 m soil depth compared with SCF by reason of soil disturbance from sites preparation, but then subsequently recovered to SCF level. SOC stocks of SCF had no significant difference with other plantation. The surface profile (0-0.1 m contained s higher SOC stocks than deeper soil depth. C stock associated with tree biomass represented a higher proportion than SOC stocks as stand development proceeded.

  12. Interannual variation of the Bowen ratio in a subtropical coniferous plantation in southeast China, 2003-2012.

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    Yakun Tang

    Full Text Available The interannual variation of the Bowen ratio, through its effect on the warming extent of available energy to the ecosystem land surface air, heavily influences the ecosystem microclimate and affects the hydrological cycle at both regional and global scales. Although the precipitation amount in southeast China is not expected to change greatly as a result of climate change, the precipitation frequency may be altered in the future. We explored the interannual variation of the Bowen ratio and its affecting mechanisms based on eddy covariance measurements in a subtropical plantation in southeast China during 2003-2012. The results indicated that the annual mean Bowen ratio was 0.35 ± 0.06, with a range of 0.29-0.45. The Bowen ratio during the dry season (July-October positively correlated with the annual Bowen ratio (R(2 = 0.85, p<0.001. The effective precipitation frequency during the dry season, through its positive effect on shallow soil water content, indirectly and negatively affected the annual Bowen ratio. Between 2003 and 2012, the annual Bowen ratio exhibited a marginally significant decreasing trend (p = 0.061, meanwhile the effective precipitation frequency and shallow soil water content during the dry season increased significantly (p<0.001. The annual Bowen ratio may decrease further if the effective precipitation frequency and shallow soil water content during the dry season follow similar trends in the future. The warming effect of available energy to the surface air of our studied plantation may decline with the decreasing annual Bowen ratio.

  13. Coniferous tree plantations in forest conditions-economic analysis of dedicated and semi-dedicated pathways to increase wood production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakotoarison, Hanitra; Richter, Claudine; Cailly, Priscilla; Deleuze, Christine; Berthelot, Alain

    2015-01-01

    To meet growing demand for wood, particularly softwoods, the authors study a number of new silvicultural pathways for planting 3 species: Douglas fir, spruce and maritime pine. The goal of these pathways is to achieve specialised production of either industrial and workable timber, or a mixture of industrial and workable timber with medium-diameter workable timber. Pathways of this type have already been standardised for hardwoods, generally on fertile farmland. In a less fertile forest context, softwoods have a significant potential for woody production but specialized pathways and their profitability have yet to be studied. This article describes the innovative work being done to construct and simulate profitable production, new potential pathways, where plantation density, rotation time, the level of fertility are made to vary using the data from the FCBA test network in conjunction with the FCBA growth models (Oasis for spruce and Douglas fir, Sylveco for maritime pine). Economic data is derived from auction sales statistics and the ONF management and forestry work costs for the period 2012-2015. The Economics module developed by FCBA and ONF on the Capsis platform in the framework of the ICI project (Futurol) was used for the economic simulations. The analyses show that compared to conventional pathways, these pathways generally increase productivity but are nonetheless less profitable than current economic assumptions, although results vary according to species, fertility and the particular pathway. The sensitivity study shows that variations in the price of wood could alter the performance ratings as between conventional and specialised pathways. (authors)

  14. Modeling the impact of drought on canopy carbon and water fluxes for a subtropical evergreen coniferous plantation in southern China through parameter optimization using an ensemble Kalman filter

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    W. Ju

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil and atmospheric water deficits have significant influences on CO2 and energy exchanges between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystems. Model parameterization significantly affects the ability of a model to simulate carbon, water, and energy fluxes. In this study, an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF and observations of gross primary productivity (GPP and latent heat (LE fluxes were used to optimize model parameters significantly affecting the calculation of these fluxes for a subtropical coniferous plantation in southeastern China. The optimized parameters include the maximum carboxylation rate (Vcmax, the slope in the modified Ball-Berry model (M and the coefficient determining the sensitivity of stomatal conductance to atmospheric water vapor deficit (D0. Optimized Vcmax and M showed larger variations than D0. Seasonal variations of Vcmax and M were more pronounced than the variations between the two years. Vcmax and M were associated with soil water content (SWC. During dry periods, SWC at the 20 cm depth explained 61% and 64% of variations of Vcmax and M, respectively. EnKF parameter optimization improved the simulations of GPP, LE and SH, mainly during dry periods. After parameter optimization using EnKF, the variations of GPP, LE and SH explained by the model increased by 1% to 4% at half-hourly steps and by 3% to 5% at daily time steps. Further efforts are needed to differentiate the real causes of parameter variations and improve the ability of models to describe the change of stomatal conductance with net photosynthesis rate and the sensitivity of photosynthesis capacity to soil water stress under different environmental conditions.

  15. Effects of Climatic Factors and Ecosystem Responses on the Inter-Annual Variability of Evapotranspiration in a Coniferous Plantation in Subtropical China

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    Xu, Mingjie; Wen, Xuefa; Wang, Huimin; Zhang, Wenjiang; Dai, Xiaoqin; Song, Jie; Wang, Yidong; Fu, Xiaoli; Liu, Yunfen; Sun, Xiaomin; Yu, Guirui

    2014-01-01

    Because evapotranspiration (ET) is the second largest component of the water cycle and a critical process in terrestrial ecosystems, understanding the inter-annual variability of ET is important in the context of global climate change. Eight years of continuous eddy covariance measurements (2003–2010) in a subtropical coniferous plantation were used to investigate the impacts of climatic factors and ecosystem responses on the inter-annual variability of ET. The mean and standard deviation of annual ET for 2003–2010 were 786.9 and 103.4 mm (with a coefficient of variation of 13.1%), respectively. The inter-annual variability of ET was largely created in three periods: March, May–June, and October, which are the transition periods between seasons. A set of look-up table approaches were used to separate the sources of inter-annual variability of ET. The annual ETs were calculated by assuming that (a) both the climate and ecosystem responses among years are variable (Vcli-eco), (b) the climate is variable but the ecosystem responses are constant (Vcli), and (c) the climate is constant but ecosystem responses are variable (Veco). The ETs that were calculated under the above assumptions suggested that the inter-annual variability of ET was dominated by ecosystem responses and that there was a negative interaction between the effects of climate and ecosystem responses. These results suggested that for long-term predictions of water and energy balance in global climate change projections, the ecosystem responses must be taken into account to better constrain the uncertainties associated with estimation. PMID:24465610

  16. Soil Respiration at Different Stand Ages (5, 10, and 20/30 Years) in Coniferous (Pinus tabulaeformis Carrière) and Deciduous (Populus davidiana Dode) Plantations in a Sandstorm Source Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Xin; Li, Fadong; Zhang, Wanjun

    2016-01-01

    respiration and its temperature sensitivity at three stand ages (5, 10, and 20 or 30 years) in two plantations of coniferous (Pinus tabulaeformis Carrière) and deciduous (Populus davidiana Dode) species using an automated chamber system in 2013 in the Beijing-Tianjin sandstorm source area. Results showed...... that mean soil respiration in the 5-, 10-, and 20/30-year-old plantations was 3.37, 3.17, and 2.99 μmol·m−2·s−1 for P. tabulaeformis and 2.92, 2.85, and 2.57 μmol·m−2·s−1 for P. davidiana, respectively. Soil respiration decreased with stand age for both species. There was no significant difference in soil...... respiration between the two plantation species at ages 5 and 10 years (p > 0.05). Temperature sensitivity of soil respiration, which ranged from 1.85–1.99 in P. tabulaeformis and 2.20–2.46 in P. davidiana plantations, was found to increase with stand age. Temperature sensitivity was also significantly higher...

  17. Soil Respiration at Different Stand Ages (5, 10, and 20/30 Years in Coniferous (Pinus tabulaeformis Carrière and Deciduous (Populus davidiana Dode Plantations in a Sandstorm Source Area

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    Xin Zhao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the effects of stand age and forest type on soil respiration is crucial for predicting the potential of soil carbon sequestration. Thus far, however, there is no consensus regarding the variations in soil respiration caused by stand age and forest type. This study investigated soil respiration and its temperature sensitivity at three stand ages (5, 10, and 20 or 30 years in two plantations of coniferous (Pinus tabulaeformis Carrière and deciduous (Populus davidiana Dode species using an automated chamber system in 2013 in the Beijing-Tianjin sandstorm source area. Results showed that mean soil respiration in the 5-, 10-, and 20/30-year-old plantations was 3.37, 3.17, and 2.99 μmol·m−2·s−1 for P. tabulaeformis and 2.92, 2.85, and 2.57 μmol·m−2·s−1 for P. davidiana, respectively. Soil respiration decreased with stand age for both species. There was no significant difference in soil respiration between the two plantation species at ages 5 and 10 years (p > 0.05. Temperature sensitivity of soil respiration, which ranged from 1.85–1.99 in P. tabulaeformis and 2.20–2.46 in P. davidiana plantations, was found to increase with stand age. Temperature sensitivity was also significantly higher in P. davidiana plantations and when the soil water content was below 12.8%. Temperature sensitivity incorporated a combined response of soil respiration to soil temperature, soil water content, soil organic carbon, and fine root biomass and, thus, provided an ecological metric for comparing forest carbon dynamics of these species.

  18. Moisture availability limits subalpine tree establishment.

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    Andrus, Robert A; Harvey, Brian J; Rodman, Kyle C; Hart, Sarah J; Veblen, Thomas T

    2018-03-01

    In the absence of broad-scale disturbance, many temperate coniferous forests experience successful seedling establishment only when abundant seed production coincides with favorable climate. Identifying the frequency of past establishment events and the climate conditions favorable for seedling establishment is essential to understanding how climate warming could affect the frequency of future tree establishment events and therefore future forest composition or even persistence of a forest cover. In the southern Rocky Mountains, USA, research on the sensitivity of establishment of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa)-two widely distributed, co-occurring conifers in North America-to climate variability has focused on the alpine treeline ecotone, leaving uncertainty about the sensitivity of these species across much of their elevation distribution. We compared annual germination dates for >450 Engelmann spruce and >500 subalpine fir seedlings collected across a complex topographic-moisture gradient to climate variability in the Colorado Front Range. We found that Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir established episodically with strong synchrony in establishment events across the study area. Broad-scale establishment events occurred in years of high soil moisture availability, which were characterized by above-average snowpack and/or cool and wet summer climatic conditions. In the recent half of the study period (1975-2010), a decrease in the number of fir and spruce establishment events across their distribution coincided with declining snowpack and a multi-decadal trend of rising summer temperature and increasing moisture deficits. Counter to expected and observed increases in tree establishment with climate warming in maritime subalpine forests, our results show that recruitment declines will likely occur across the core of moisture-limited subalpine tree ranges as warming drives increased moisture deficits. © 2018 by the

  19. Shady Plantations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Frida

    2011-01-01

    This article explores practices of protection played out in a coastal plantation in a village in Tamil Nadu. I argue that these practices are articulations of different but coexisting theorizations of shelter, and that the plantation can be seen as that which emerges at the intersections between...

  20. Soil seed banks along elevational gradients in tropical, subtropical and subalpine forests in Yunnan Province, southwest China

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    Xiaqin Luo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil seed banks are a vital part of ecosystems and influence community dynamics and regeneration. Although soil seed banks in different habitats have been reported, how soil seed banks vary with elevational gradients in different climatic zones is still unknown. This paper investigates seed density, species composition and nonconstituent species of forest soil seed banks in Yunnan Province, southwest China. Similarity between the soil seed bank and standing vegetation was also examined. We collected soil samples from sites spanning 12 elevations in tropical rain forests, subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests and subalpine coniferous forests, and transported them to a glasshouse for germination trials for species identification. The soil seed banks of tropical and subtropical forests had much higher seed densities and species richness than those of subalpine forests. Seeds of woody species dominated the soil seed banks of tropical and subtropical forests, while herbs dominated those of subalpine forests. The nonconstituent species in the soil seed banks were all herbs and were most abundant in tropical forests, followed by subtropical forests but were completely absent from subalpine forests.

  1. Soil seed banks along elevational gradients in tropical, subtropical and subalpine forests in Yunnan Province, southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaqin Luo; Min Cao; Min Zhang; Xiaoyang Song; Jieqiong Li; Akihiro Nakamura; Roger Kitching

    2017-01-01

    Soil seed banks are a vital part of ecosystems and influence community dynamics and regeneration.Although soil seed banks in different habitats have been reported,how soil seed banks vary with elerational gradients in different climatic zones is still unknown.This paper investigates seed density,species composition and nonconstituent species of forest soil seed banks in Yunnan Province,southwest China.Similarity between the soil seed bank and standing vegetation was also examined.We collected soil samples from sites spanning 12 elevations in tropical rain forests,subtropical evergreen broadleaved forests and subalpine coniferous forests,and transported them to a glasshouse for germination trials for species identification.The soil seed banks of tropical and subtropical forests had much higher seed densities and species richness than those of subalpine forests.Seeds of woody species dominated the soil seed banks of tropical and subtropical forests,while herbs dominated those of subalpine forests.The nonconstituent species in the soil seed banks were all herbs and were most abundant in tropical forests,followed by subtropical forests but were completely absent from subalpine forests.

  2. Decay of subalpine fir in Colorado

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    Thomas E. Hinds; Frank G. Hawksworth; Ross W. Davidson

    1960-01-01

    Spruce-fir is one of the major forest types in the central Rocky Mountains. Engelmann spruce, Picea engelmanni Parry, is usually the predominant species with subalpine fir, Abies lasiocarpa (Hook. ) Nutt., making up one-fourth or less of the total volume. Lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud., is frequently present at the lower elevations of the spruce-fir...

  3. Root hydraulic vulnerability regulation of whole-plant conductance along hillslope gradients within subalpine and montane forests

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    Beverly, D.; Speckman, H. N.; Ewers, B. E.

    2017-12-01

    Ecosystem-scale models often rely on root vulnerability or whole-plant conductance for simulating seasonal evapotranspiration declines via constraints of water uptake and vegetation mortality. Further, many of these ecosystem models rely on single, unvarying, hydraulic parameter estimates for modeling large areas. Ring-porous species have shown seasonal variability in root vulnerability (percent loss of conductivity; PLC) and whole-plant conductance (Kw) but simulations of coniferous forest typically rely on point measurements. This assumption for coniferous forest is not likely true because of seasonal variability caused by phenology and environmental stresses and the potential for cavitation fatigue is not considered. Moreover, many of these dynamics have only been considered for stems even though roots are often the most vulnerable segments of the pathway for conifers. We hypothesized that seasonally dynamic whole-plant conductance along hillslope gradients in coniferous forests are regulated by cavitation fatigue within the roots resulting in seasonal increases in vulnerability. To test the hypothesis, a subalpine mixed forest (3000 m.a.s.l) and montane forest (2550 m.a.s.l.) were monitored between 2015-2017 to quantify PLC and Kw along the hillslope gradients of 300 m and 50 m, respectively. Forest plots were instrumented with 35 Granier-type sapflow sensors. Seasonal sampling campaigns occurred to quantify PLC through centrifuge techniques and Kw through Darcy's law approximations with pre-dawn and diurnal leaf water potentials. Downslope roots exhibit a 33% decrease in maximal conductivity corresponding to the approximately 50% decrease in whole-plant conductance suggesting seasonal soil dry-down limitations within the downslope stands. Upslope stands had no to little change in root vulnerability or decrease in whole-plant conductance as soil water limitations occur immediately following snowmelt, thus limiting hydraulic conductance throughout the growing

  4. Ecosystem carbon stock influenced by plantation practice: implications for planting forests as a measure of climate change mitigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengzhang Liao

    Full Text Available Uncertainties remain in the potential of forest plantations to sequestrate carbon (C. We synthesized 86 experimental studies with paired-site design, using a meta-analysis approach, to quantify the differences in ecosystem C pools between plantations and their corresponding adjacent primary and secondary forests (natural forests. Totaled ecosystem C stock in plant and soil pools was 284 Mg C ha(-1 in natural forests and decreased by 28% in plantations. In comparison with natural forests, plantations decreased aboveground net primary production, litterfall, and rate of soil respiration by 11, 34, and 32%, respectively. Fine root biomass, soil C concentration, and soil microbial C concentration decreased respectively by 66, 32, and 29% in plantations relative to natural forests. Soil available N, P and K concentrations were lower by 22, 20 and 26%, respectively, in plantations than in natural forests. The general pattern of decreased ecosystem C pools did not change between two different groups in relation to various factors: stand age ( or = 25 years, stand types (broadleaved vs. coniferous and deciduous vs. evergreen, tree species origin (native vs. exotic of plantations, land-use history (afforestation vs. reforestation and site preparation for plantations (unburnt vs. burnt, and study regions (tropic vs. temperate. The pattern also held true across geographic regions. Our findings argued against the replacement of natural forests by the plantations as a measure of climate change mitigation.

  5. Woody biomass production lags stem-girth increase by over one month in coniferous forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuny, Henri E; Rathgeber, Cyrille B K; Frank, David; Fonti, Patrick; Mäkinen, Harri; Prislan, Peter; Rossi, Sergio; Del Castillo, Edurne Martinez; Campelo, Filipe; Vavrčík, Hanuš; Camarero, Jesus Julio; Bryukhanova, Marina V; Jyske, Tuula; Gričar, Jožica; Gryc, Vladimír; De Luis, Martin; Vieira, Joana; Čufar, Katarina; Kirdyanov, Alexander V; Oberhuber, Walter; Treml, Vaclav; Huang, Jian-Guo; Li, Xiaoxia; Swidrak, Irene; Deslauriers, Annie; Liang, Eryuan; Nöjd, Pekka; Gruber, Andreas; Nabais, Cristina; Morin, Hubert; Krause, Cornelia; King, Gregory; Fournier, Meriem

    2015-10-26

    Wood is the main terrestrial biotic reservoir for long-term carbon sequestration(1), and its formation in trees consumes around 15% of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions each year(2). However, the seasonal dynamics of woody biomass production cannot be quantified from eddy covariance or satellite observations. As such, our understanding of this key carbon cycle component, and its sensitivity to climate, remains limited. Here, we present high-resolution cellular based measurements of wood formation dynamics in three coniferous forest sites in northeastern France, performed over a period of 3 years. We show that stem woody biomass production lags behind stem-girth increase by over 1 month. We also analyse more general phenological observations of xylem tissue formation in Northern Hemisphere forests and find similar time lags in boreal, temperate, subalpine and Mediterranean forests. These time lags question the extension of the equivalence between stem size increase and woody biomass production to intra-annual time scales(3, 4, 5, 6). They also suggest that these two growth processes exhibit differential sensitivities to local environmental conditions. Indeed, in the well-watered French sites the seasonal dynamics of stem-girth increase matched the photoperiod cycle, whereas those of woody biomass production closely followed the seasonal course of temperature. We suggest that forecasted changes in the annual cycle of climatic factors(7) may shift the phase timing of stem size increase and woody biomass production in the future.

  6. Experimental study of liquid evaporation rate from coniferous biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulba E.E.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of experimental studies of moisture evaporation from coniferous wood (spruce, pine are presented. The dependences of the mass evaporation rate on temperature and time are obtained. The calculation of the accommodation coefficient for the corresponding temperature ranges has been performed. The analysis of temperature regimes of drying of two typical coniferous wood species is carried out.

  7. Silvicultural evaluations on maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton plantations in Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safa Balekoğlu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Industrial plantations have substantially reduced the pressure on natural forests. There are approximately 80.000 hectares of industrial plantations, established with fast growing coniferous species, 77.000 hectares of which are maritime pine plantations in Turkey. Furthermore, approximately 16.000 hectares of maritime pine plantations, which amount to about 20 percent of all maritime pine plantations in Turkey, occur in Istanbul. The aim of this study is to determine the growth pattern of maritime pine plantations located in Anatolian and European Istanbul: Kanlıca, Beykoz, Sultanbeyli and Şile-Sahilköy; and Bahçeköy-Bentler, Arnavutköy and Terkos-Durusu respectively. Specifically, the study examined individual trees within the above-mentioned sites to determine the first thinning age of the plantations. In addition, some specific silvicultural suggestions were offered for the plantations. The minimum and maximum recorded values for the trees’ age, DBH, height and stem volume were found in the range of 22-50 years, 26.6-46.8 cm, 14.0-23.0 m and 0.5150-1.8560 m3 respectively. In order to take advantage of the fast growing attributes of maritime pine which was found to grow fast within first 10 years, the first thinning should commence at the age of 11-12 years; thereafter, the second thinning should commence at the age of 18-20 years; finally, the final cut should be performed when the plantation is approximately 30 years of age. If rotation age is considered 40 years, the third thinning should commence at the age of 30 years.

  8. The push for plantations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulstrup, Andreas Waaben; Casse, Thorkil; Nielsen, Thomas Theis

    2013-01-01

    We observe signs of social differentiation, where poor households end up serving as causal labour for the richer families on their acacia plantations. In addition, the poor can be rendered more vulnerable after becoming labourers, because they may not longer have an alternative source of income, ...

  9. Ecological transition in Arizona's subalpine and montane grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael R. White

    2000-01-01

    Important components of Southwest forest ecosystem are subalpine and montane grassland communities, Grassland communities provide habitat diversity for wildlife, forage for domestic livestock and wildlife, and contribute to the visual quality of an area. The objectives of this research were to determine if: 1) vegetation attributes and soil-surface cover variables of...

  10. Provenance variability in nursery growth of subalpine fir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlie Cartwright; Cheng Ying

    2011-01-01

    Subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa [Hook] Nutt.) is a wide-ranging, high-elevation species in the interior of British Columbia. It is commonly harvested for lumber, but replanting of it is limited. Some reticence is based upon wood quality and rate of growth, but there are also seed and nursery culturing difficulties. This study investigated seedling growth traits of 111...

  11. Litterfall production under pine plantations in the southern Andes region of Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Quichimbo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Litterfall research is an interesting aspect in environmental studies due to its significance in nutrient cycling specially in regions like the Andes where the interactions between biomass production and its decomposition is poorly understood. This study is focusing in the litterfall biomass production under pine plantations in southern Ecuador. The litterfall production was studied for five months at two-week intervals in three pine forest sites located in the southern Andes region of Ecuador. Monthly litterfall production ranged between 1067-1907 kg ha-1, in comparison with other coniferous stands around the world, this study revealed a higher litterfall production for tropical areas and particularly the highest production under pine plantations in the Andes region. This high litterfall production highlights the upmost importance of this forest component as a potential nutrient reservoir involved in the global nutrient cycling under landscapes dominated by this exotic forest specie in the tropical Andes.

  12. Coniferous Canopy BRF Simulation Based on 3-D Realistic Scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-yun; Guo, Zhi-feng; Qin, Wen-han; Sun, Guo-qing

    2011-01-01

    It is difficulties for the computer simulation method to study radiation regime at large-scale. Simplified coniferous model was investigate d in the present study. It makes the computer simulation methods such as L-systems and radiosity-graphics combined method (RGM) more powerf ul in remote sensing of heterogeneous coniferous forests over a large -scale region. L-systems is applied to render 3-D coniferous forest scenarios: and RGM model was used to calculate BRF (bidirectional refle ctance factor) in visible and near-infrared regions. Results in this study show that in most cases both agreed well. Meanwhiie at a tree and forest level. the results are also good.

  13. Response of Subalpine Saplings to Different Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana V. Ivanova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The expectations for increasing periods of drought are becoming larger according to numerous authors. The susceptibility of subalpine tree species to drought provoke our interest to try to understand what will be their reaction to this natural climate change. For this purpose it is set experiment to determine the reaction of drought to 4 subalpine species – Norway spruce (Picea abies L., Mountain pine (Pinus mugo Turra, Macedonian pine (Pinus peuce Grisebach and Bosnian pine (Pinus heldreichii H . Christ. Different requirements are observed to imitate field conditions as close as possible. The saplings are taken from terrain with no disturbed soil substrate. The plants were placed in a 15 l container and at the beginning of the vegetation were situated in a specially built greenhouse. Precipitation regime is controlled by the irrigation system. The indicators for precipitation levels (for a drought from June to July and August scheme were taken from the two previous real years, who had a significant influence on the species. Precipitation norm for control is taken from subalpine zone of the Rila Mountain. To determine the reaction of all the groups of saplings subjected to various circuits, at the end of the year is recorded the survivors.

  14. The role of plantation sinks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, Peter

    2001-01-01

    In this paper it is argued that in the long term biofuel should play a significant role in global climate policy. Recent technological developments, as well as sustainable development criteria, would favour growing biofuel in community- scale plantations in developing countries. It is also pointed out that the lead times involved in growing biofuels are so great that the inclusion of biofuel plantation sinks in the CDM for the first commitment period would be desirable. It is suggested that to meet opposition to the inclusion of plantation sinks in the first commitment period plantation, sinks should be linked to biofuels technology development and production, and a biofuels obligation for plantation sink projects in the CDM should be established. (Author)

  15. Plantation Houses of North Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Robles

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of Plantation conjures an image that identifies the North Florida / South Georgia region of the U. S. Leon County attracted many cotton planters from Georgia, Virginia, Maryland, North and South Carolina in the 1820’s to the 1850’s. Up to the beginning of the Civil War, Leon County was the 5th largest producer of cotton counting all counties from Florida and Georgia. The Civil War brought the plantation culture to a standstill. The plantations transformed the environment based on their need for open fields in which to cultivate different crops, or raise a variety of animals with the help of slaves. From the 1900’s many plantations abandoned their land to nature producing a deep change in the local landscape. Today plantations are not used as much for planting crops but more for hunting or as tree farms. The hunting plantations do not grow crops but provide good conditions for the hunting of animals and birds. Other plantations were torn apart, sold and now are part of the Tallahassee urban fabric. In other words, they disappeared. The transformation of the plantations has been slow and steady, and has become the image of the area, even the region. The paper shows five plantations that represent five different evolutions of these traditional landscapes. The landscapes have evolved to accommodate the very local but fluid definition of place. It is this transformation, this evolving identity which helped preserve some of the traditional landscapes and the traditional architecture on them. The most prominent feature of the plantation is the “Big House” or plantation house. The house embodies all aspects of the plantation life style. The construction materials and methods reflected the times, the technologies and the available resources. The research has been done mainly in the archives of the Tallahassee Trust for Historic Preservation. The results, still pending, explain the land typology as it evolved from the golden decades

  16. Fire history of coniferous riparian forests in the Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Van de Water; M. North

    2010-01-01

    Fire is an important ecological process in many western U.S. coniferous forests, yet high fuel loads, rural home construction and other factors have encouraged the suppression of most wildfires. Using mechanical thinning and prescribed burning, land managers often try to reduce fuels in strategic areas with the highest fuel loads. Riparian forests, however, are often...

  17. Evaluation of storage and filtration protocols for alpine/subalpine lake water quality samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    John L. Korfmacher; Robert C. Musselman

    2007-01-01

    Many government agencies and other organizations sample natural alpine and subalpine surface waters using varying protocols for sample storage and filtration. Simplification of protocols would be beneficial if it could be shown that sample quality is unaffected. In this study, samples collected from low ionic strength waters in alpine and subalpine lake inlets...

  18. Biomass plantations - energy farming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, S.

    1981-02-01

    Mounting oil import bills in India are restricting her development programmes by forcing the cutting down of the import of other essential items. But the countries of the tropics have abundant sunlight and vast tracts of arable wastelands. Energy farming is proposed in the shape of energy plantations through forestry or energy cropping through agricultural media, to provide power fuels for transport and the industries and also to provide fuelwoods for the domestic sector. Short rotation cultivation is discussed and results are given of two main species that are being tried, ipil-ipil and Casuarina. Evaluations are made on the use of various crops such as sugar cane, cassava and kenaf as fuel crops together with hydrocarbon plants and aquatic biomass. (Refs. 20)

  19. A multi-proxy record of hydroclimate, vegetation, fire, and post-settlement impacts for a subalpine plateau, Central Rocky Mountains U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lesleigh; Brunelle, Andrea; Thompson, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    Apparent changes in vegetation distribution, fire, and other disturbance regimes throughout western North America have prompted investigations of the relative importance of human activities and climate change as potential causal mechanisms. Assessing the effects of Euro-American settlement is difficult because climate changes occur on multi-decadal to centennial time scales and require longer time perspectives than historic observations can provide. Here, we report vegetation and environmental changes over the past ~13,000 years as recorded in a sediment record from Bison Lake, a subalpine lake on a high plateau in northwestern Colorado. Results are based on multiple independent proxies, which include pollen, charcoal, and elemental geochemistry, and are compared with previously reported interpretations of hydroclimatic changes from oxygen isotope ratios. The pollen data indicate a slowly changing vegetation sequence from sagebrush steppe during the late glacial to coniferous forest through the late Holocene. The most dramatic vegetation changes of the Holocene occurred during the ‘Medieval Climate Anomaly’ (MCA) and ‘Little Ice Age’ (LIA) with rapid replacement of conifer forest by grassland followed by an equally rapid return to conifer forest. Late Holocene vegetation responses are mirrored by changes in fire, lake biological productivity, and watershed erosion. These combined records indicate that subsequent disturbance related to Euro-American settlement, although perhaps significant, had acted upon a landscape that was already responding to MCA-LIA hydroclimatic change. Results document both rapid and long-term subalpine grassland ecosystem dynamics driven by agents of change that can be anticipated in the future and simulated by ecosystem models.

  20. Effects of elevated CO{sub 2} and temperature on photosynthesis and leaf traits of an understory dwarf bamboo in subalpine forest zone, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yongping Li; Yuanbin Zhang; Xiaolu Zhang; Chunyang Li [Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu (China); Korpelainenc, H. [Univ. of Helsinki. Dept. of Agricultural Sciences, Helsinki (Finland); Berningerd, F. [Univ. of Helsinki. Dept. of Forest Sciences, Helsinki (Finland)

    2013-06-01

    The dwarf bamboo (Fargesia rufa Yi), growing understory in subalpine dark coniferous forest, is one of the main foods for giant panda, and it influences the regeneration of subalpine coniferous forests in southwestern China. To investigate the effects of elevated CO{sub 2}, temperature and their combination, the dwarf bamboo plantlets were exposed to two CO{sub 2} regimes (ambient and double ambient CO{sub 2} concentration) and two temperatures (ambient and +2.2 deg. C) in growth chambers. Gas exchange, leaf traits and carbohydrates concentration were measured after the 150-day experiment. Elevated CO{sub 2} significantly increased the net photosynthetic rate (A{sub net}), intrinsic water-use efficiency (WUE{sub i}) and carbon isotope composition ({delta}{sup 13}C) and decreased stomatal conductance (g{sub s}) and total chlorophyll concentration based on mass (Chl{sub m}) and area (Chl{sub a}). On the other hand, elevated CO{sub 2} decreased specific leaf area (SLA), which was increased by elevated temperature. Elevated CO{sub 2} also increased foliar carbon concentration based on mass (C{sub m}) and area (C{sub a}), nitrogen concentration based on area (N{sub a}), carbohydrates concentration (i.e. sucrose, sugar, starch and non-structural carbohydrates) and the slope of the A{sub net}-N{sub a} relationship. However, elevated temperature decreased C{sub m}, C{sub a} and N{sub a}. The combination of elevated CO{sub 2} and temperature hardly affected SLA, C{sub m}, C{sub a}, N{sub m}, N{sub a}, Chl{sub m} and Chl{sub a}. Variables A{sub net} and N{sub a} had positive linear relationships in all treatments. Our results showed that photosynthetic acclimation did not occur in dwarf bamboo at elevated CO{sub 2} and it could adjust physiology and morphology to enable the capture of more light, to increase WUE and improve nutritional conditions. (Author)

  1. Fire, fuel composition and resilience threshold in subalpine ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Blarquez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Forecasting the effects of global changes on high altitude ecosystems requires an understanding of the long-term relationships between biota and forcing factors to identify resilience thresholds. Fire is a crucial forcing factor: both fuel build-up from land-abandonment in European mountains, and more droughts linked to global warming are likely to increase fire risks. METHODS: To assess the vegetation response to fire on a millennium time-scale, we analyzed evidence of stand-to-local vegetation dynamics derived from sedimentary plant macroremains from two subalpine lakes. Paleobotanical reconstructions at high temporal resolution, together with a fire frequency reconstruction inferred from sedimentary charcoal, were analyzed by Superposed Epoch Analysis to model plant behavior before, during and after fire events. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that fuel build-up from arolla pine (Pinus cembra always precedes fires, which is immediately followed by a rapid increase of birch (Betula sp., then by ericaceous species after 25-75 years, and by herbs after 50-100 years. European larch (Larix decidua, which is the natural co-dominant species of subalpine forests with Pinus cembra, is not sensitive to fire, while the abundance of Pinus cembra is altered within a 150-year period after fires. A long-term trend in vegetation dynamics is apparent, wherein species that abound later in succession are the functional drivers, loading the environment with fuel for fires. This system can only be functional if fires are mainly driven by external factors (e.g. climate, with the mean interval between fires being longer than the minimum time required to reach the late successional stage, here 150 years. CONCLUSION: Current global warming conditions which increase drought occurrences, combined with the abandonment of land in European mountain areas, creates ideal ecological conditions for the ignition and the spread of fire. A fire return interval of less

  2. Intercrops under coconut plantations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmud, Z.

    1998-01-01

    The successes of growing intercrops under coconut plantations are controlled by environmental factors which are influenced by the coconut growth and characters, interception of solar radiation, as well as the coconut space and system of planting. Assuming that soil fertility be able to be manipulated by certain treatments, then climatic factors become priority to be considered for selection of intercrops. Coconut palms grow well on areas of 500 m asl., 27-32 deg. C temperature, and 1,500-3,000 mm in annual rainfall with even distribution throughout the year. Each kind (tall, dwarf, hybrid) of coconut performs specific growth characters, mainly on its root system and canopy coverage, as well as general conditions due to its growth phase (young, productive, senile). Above such conditions greatly influence the kind of crops suitable for development under coconut trees. However space and system of coconut planting give various conditions of interception solar radiation to ground surface, which means by manipulating both space and system, environmental requirement is able to be achieved accordingly [in

  3. Antibacterial and antifungal effects of essential oils from coniferous trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Eui-Ju; Na, Ki-Jeung; Choi, In-Gyu; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2004-06-01

    Essential oils have potential biological effects, i.e., antibiotic, anticarcinogenic, and sedative effects during stress. In the present study, we investigated the antibacterial and antifungal effects of essential oils extracted from the coniferous species Pinus densiflora, Pinus koraiensis, and Chamaecyparis obtusa, because their biological activities have not been yet elucidated. The essential oils were quantified using gas chromatography and identified in gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis. Simultaneously, antibacterial and antifungal assays were performed using the essential oils distilled from the needles of coniferous trees. The major components and the percentage of each essential oil were: 19.33% beta-thujene in P. densiflora; 10.49% alpha-pinene in P. koraiensis; 10.88% bornyl acetate in C. obtusa. The essential oils from P. densiflora and C. obtusa have antibacterial effects, whereas essential oils from P. koraiensis and C. obtusa have antifungal effects. These results indicate that the essential oils from the three coniferous trees, which have mild antimicrobial properties, can inhibit the growth of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and fungi.

  4. Distribution patterns and environmental correlates of Thaumarchaeota abundance in six deep subalpine lakes.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Callieri, C.; Hernandez-Aviles, S.; Salcher, Michaela M.; Fontaneto, D.; Bertoni, R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 2 (2016), s. 215-225 ISSN 1015-1621 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : subalpine lakes * Thaumarchaeota vertical profile * CARD FISH * hypolimnion Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.821, year: 2016

  5. Microplastic pollution in the surface waters of Italian Subalpine Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sighicelli, Maria; Pietrelli, Loris; Lecce, Francesca; Iannilli, Valentina; Falconieri, Mauro; Coscia, Lucia; Di Vito, Stefania; Nuglio, Simone; Zampetti, Giorgio

    2018-05-01

    Plastic debris incidence in marine environment was already highlighted in the early 1970s. Over the last decade, microplastic pollution in the environment has received increasing attention and is now an emerging research area. Many studies have focused on quantifying microplastic abundance in the marine environment, while there are relatively few data on microplastic occurrence in freshwater environment. Recent studies have reported high concentrations of microplastics in lakes and rivers, although the understanding of several factors influencing source, transport and fate is still limited. This study compares different lakes and the common factors, which could influence the occurrence and distribution of microplastics. The three subalpine lakes monitored include Lake Maggiore, Iseo and Garda. The selected sampling transects reflect the hydrologic conditions, the morphometric characteristics of these lakes, and other factors influencing the release of plastics debris in lakes. Particles of microplastics (plastic particles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Estimates of ion sources in deciduous and coniferous throughfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckett, L.J.

    1990-01-01

    Estimates of external and internal sources of ions in net throughfall deposition were derived for a deciduous and coniferous canopy by use of multiple regression. The externel source component appears to be dominated by dry deposition of Ca2+, SO2 and NO3- during dormant and growing seasons for the two canopy types. Increases in the leaching rates of K+ and Mg2+ during the growing season reflect the presence of leaves in the deciduous canopy and increased physiological activity in both canopies. Internal leaching rates for SO42- doubled during the growing season presumably caused by increased physiological activity and uptake of SO2 through stomates. Net deposition of SO42- in throughfall during the growing season appears highly dependent on stomatal uptake of SO2. Estimates of SO2 deposition velocities were 0.06 cm s-1 and 0.13 cm s-1 for the deciduous and coniferous canopies, respectively, during the dormant season, and 0.30 cm s-1 and 0.43 cm s-1 for the deciduous and coniferous canopies, respectively, during the growing season. For the ions of major interest with respect to ecosystem effects, namely H+, NO3- and SO42-, precipitation inputs generally outweighed estimates of dry deposition input. However, net throughfall deposition of NO3- and SO42- accounted for 20-47 and 34-50 per cent, respectively, of total deposition of those ions. Error estimates of ion sources were at least 50-100 per cent and the method is subject to several assumptions and limitations.

  7. Plantation livelihoods in central Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulstrup, Andreas Waaben

    2014-01-01

    disturbances. The Vietnamese Government has formulated policies aimed at achieving dual objectives of socio-economic development and environmental protection through the expansion of plantation forests. Negative social impacts and worrying environmental trends have been noted by a number of scholars. However...

  8. Experimental investigation of the processes of dehumidification of coniferous biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulba Elena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work includes the results of experimental studies of the moisture removal processes in the temperature range from 333 K to 413 K from coniferous woods which are typical for many regions. There are obtained the dependences of the mass rate of moisture removal on time and temperature. The effect of the evaporation of bound moisture was identified for the wood species studied. There are calculated the accommodation coefficient and the partial pressure at the evaporation surface for each type of biomass.

  9. Effects of air pollution and simulated acid rain on the ground vegetation of coniferous forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodenkirchen, H.

    1993-01-01

    Descriptive and experimental studies on the ground vegetation of coniferous forests in Bavaria indicated the following phenomena: a. In N-limited pine forests recent eutrophication effects occur. b. The structure of the moss layer in coniferous forests sensitively reacts to very acid throughfall water (pH [de

  10. Diversity and significance of eriophyoid mites (Acari: Eriophyoidea associated with coniferous trees in Poland: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiedrowicz Agnieszka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the approximately 200 eriophyoid mite species associated with coniferous trees worldwide, 33 species (of the families Eriophyidae and Phytoptidae infest conifers in Poland, and 24 of them can cause visible feeding symptoms. In this paper we discuss the importance of eriophyoid mites to coniferous plants in Poland and their potential impact on the decorative value of ornamental plants. We emphasize the general lack of knowledge about the diversity of eriophyoid mites associated with coniferous trees and its role in the management and control of this economically important mite group.

  11. Plantation forests, climate change and biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.M. Pawson; A. Brin; E.G. Brockerhoff; D. Lamb; T.W. Payn; A. Paquette; J.A. Parrotta

    2013-01-01

    Nearly 4 % of the world’s forests are plantations, established to provide a variety of ecosystem services, principally timber and other wood products. In addition to such services, plantation forests provide direct and indirect benefits to biodiversity via the provision of forest habitat for a wide range of species, and by reducing negative impacts on natural forests...

  12. Plantation forests and biodiversity: oxymoron or opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckehard G. Brockerhoff; Hervé Jactel; John A. Parrotta; Christopher Quine; Jeffrey Sayer

    2008-01-01

    Losses of natural and semi-natural forests, mostly to agriculture, are a significant concern for biodiversity. Against this trend, the area of intensively managed plantation forests increases, and there is much debate about the implications for biodiversity. We provide a comprehensive review of the function of plantation forests as habitat compared with other land...

  13. Micrometeorological measurement of the dry deposition flux of sulphate and nitrate aerosols to coniferous forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wyers, G.P.; Duyzer, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    Dry deposition fluxes of sulphate and nitrate have been determined over a coniferous canopy using the aerodynamic gradient technique. Vertical concentration gradients of sulphate and nitrate were measured with filters; the gradient of ammonium bisulphate was measured with thermodenuders. Filter

  14. Effects of intensive thinning on rainfall partitioning in a Japanese cedar plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Y.; Komatsu, H.; Nogata, M.; Otsuki, K.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, thinning has been conducted in coniferous plantations in Japan to reduce water shortage, flood, soil erosion, and landslide risks. Incident precipitation (Pr) in forests can be partitioned into throughfall (Tf), stemflow (Sf), and canopy interception loss (Ic). Evapotranspiration is tightly related to runoff regime, and Ic is a major component of evapotranspiration as well as transpiration. Furthermore, the ratio of Tf to Sf would be important for various hydrological aspects. Sf can preferentially divert rainwater in soil layer and cause preferential flow, which produces spatial variations in the soil water content and contributes ground water discharge. However, no studies have examined changes in Tf, Sf, and Ic due to thinning in Cryptomeria japonica forests, the most common type of plantation in Japan. We measured Tf, Sf, and Ic for one year both before and after thinning and investigated changes in Tf, Sf, and Ic due to thinning in a Cryptomeria japonica plantation. Thinning reduced stem density by 54% from 1300 to 600 stems ha-1 the basal area by 50% from 99.7 to 49.6 m2 ha-1. Tf/Pr, Sf /Pr, and Ic/Pr before thinning were 74%, 12%, and 14%, respectively. After thinning, those percentages changed to 86%, 6%, and 8%, respectively. The change in Tf/Pr was comparable to that in canopy cover. The change in Sf/Pr corresponded with change in the number of trees because Sf for each tree was not changed considerably between the periods before and after thinning. The change in Ic/Pr was greater than that predicted using the model commonly used in Japan to predict changes in Ic/Pr. This result suggests that the model might not be applicable after intensive thinning in Cryptomeria japonica forests.

  15. Lithosequence of soils and associated vegetation on subalpine range of the Wasatch Plateau, Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James O. Klemmedson; Arthur R. Tiedemann

    1998-01-01

    On degraded subalpine range in Utah, the authors examined the role of soil and parent material nutrients and organic carbon (Corg) in the development of soil and plants on a transect across six strata that formed visible concentric alternating bands of high and low productivity. Relations for soil and parent material phosphorus (P) and sulfur (S) were of particular...

  16. Net primary productivity of subalpine meadows in Yosemite National Park in relation to climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peggy E. Moore; Jan W. van Wagtendonk; Julie L. Yee; Mitchel P. McClaran; David N. Cole; Neil K. McDougald; Matthew L. Brooks

    2013-01-01

    Subalpine meadows are some of the most ecologically important components of mountain landscapes, and primary productivity is important to the maintenance of meadow functions. Understanding how changes in primary productivity are associated with variability in moisture and temperature will become increasingly important with current and anticipated changes in climate....

  17. Water use patterns of three species in subalpine forest, Southwest China: the deuterium isotope approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing Xu; Harbin Li; Jiquan Chen; Jiquan Cheng; Xiaoli Cheng; Shirong Liu; Shuqing An

    2011-01-01

    Determination of water sources of plant species in a community is critical for understanding the hydrological processes and their importance in ecosystem functions. Such partitioning of plant xylem water into specific sources (i.e. precipitation, groundwater) can be achieved by analyzing deuterium isotopic composition (δD) values for source waters. A subalpine dark...

  18. [Simulation study on the effects of climate change on aboveground biomass of plantation in southern China: Taking Moshao forest farm in Huitong Ecological Station as an example].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Er Fu; Zhou, Heng; Wu, Zhuo; Wang, Xiao-Fan; Xi, Wei Min; Zhu, Jian Jia

    2016-10-01

    Global climate warming has significant effect on territorial ecosystem, especially on forest ecosystem. The increase in temperature and radiative forcing will significantly alter the structure and function of forest ecosystem. The southern plantation is an important part of forests in China, its response to climate change is getting more and more intense. In order to explore the responses of southern plantation to climate change under future climate scenarios and to reduce the losses that might be caused by climate change, we used climatic estimated data under three new emission scenarios, representative concentration pathways (RCPs) scenarios (RCP2.6 scenario, RCP4.5 scenario, and RCP8.5 scenario). We used the spatially dynamic forest landscape model LANDIS-2, coupled with a forest ecosystem process model PnET-2, to simulate the impact of climate change on aboveground net primary production (ANPP), species' establishment probability (SEP) and aboveground biomass of Moshao forest farm in Huitong Ecological Station, which located in Hunan Province during the period of 2014-2094. The results showed that there were obvious differences in SEP and ANPP among different forest types under changing climate. The degrees of response of SEP to climate change for different forest types were shown as: under RCP2.6 and RCP4.5, artificial coniferous forest>natural broadleaved forest>artificial broadleaved forest. Under RCP8.5, natural broadleaved forest>artificial broadleaved forest>artificial coniferous forest. The degrees of response of ANPP to climate change for different forest types were shown as: under RCP2.6, artificial broadleaved forest> natural broadleaved forest>artificial coniferous forest. Under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, natural broadleaved forest>artificial broadleaved forest>artificial coniferous forest. The aboveground biomass of the artificial coniferous forest would decline at about 2050, but the natural broadleaved forest and artificial broadleaved forest showed a

  19. Ecological Impact on Nitrogen and Phosphorus Cycling of a Widespread Fast-growing Leguminous Tropical Forest Plantation Tree Species, Acacia mangium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigehiro Ishizuka

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Symbiotic nitrogen fixation is one of the major pathways of N input to forest ecosystems, enriching N availability, particularly in lowland tropics. Recently there is growing concern regarding the wide areas of fast-growing leguminous plantations that could alter global N2O emissions. Here, we highlight substantially different N and phosphorus utilization and cycling at a plantation of Acacia mangium, which is N2-fixing and one of the major plantation species in tropical/subtropical Asia. The litterfall, fresh leaf quality and fine-root ingrowth of A. mangium were compared to those of non-N2-fixing Swietenia macrophylla and coniferous Araucaria cunninghamii in wet tropical climates in Borneo, Malaysia. The N and P concentrations of the A. mangium fresh leaves were higher than those of the other two species, whereas the P concentration in the leaf-litterfall of A. mangium was less than half that of the others; in contrast the N concentration was higher. The N:P ratio in the A. mangium leaf was markedly increased from fresh-leaf (29 to leaf-litterfall (81. Although the N flux in the total litterfall at the A. mangium plantation was large, the fine-root ingrowth of A. mangium significantly increased by applying both N and P. In conclusion, large quantities of N were accumulated and returned to the forest floor in A. mangium plantation, while its P resorption capacity was efficient. Such large N cycling and restricted P cycling in wide areas of monoculture A. mangium plantations may alter N and P cycling and their balance in the organic layer and soil on a stand level.

  20. Carbon sequestration in managed temperate coniferous forests under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymond, Caren C.; Beukema, Sarah; Nitschke, Craig R.; Coates, K. David; Scheller, Robert M.

    2016-03-01

    Management of temperate forests has the potential to increase carbon sinks and mitigate climate change. However, those opportunities may be confounded by negative climate change impacts. We therefore need a better understanding of climate change alterations to temperate forest carbon dynamics before developing mitigation strategies. The purpose of this project was to investigate the interactions of species composition, fire, management, and climate change in the Copper-Pine Creek valley, a temperate coniferous forest with a wide range of growing conditions. To do so, we used the LANDIS-II modelling framework including the new Forest Carbon Succession extension to simulate forest ecosystems under four different productivity scenarios, with and without climate change effects, until 2050. Significantly, the new extension allowed us to calculate the net sector productivity, a carbon accounting metric that integrates aboveground and belowground carbon dynamics, disturbances, and the eventual fate of forest products. The model output was validated against literature values. The results implied that the species optimum growing conditions relative to current and future conditions strongly influenced future carbon dynamics. Warmer growing conditions led to increased carbon sinks and storage in the colder and wetter ecoregions but not necessarily in the others. Climate change impacts varied among species and site conditions, and this indicates that both of these components need to be taken into account when considering climate change mitigation activities and adaptive management. The introduction of a new carbon indicator, net sector productivity, promises to be useful in assessing management effectiveness and mitigation activities.

  1. Energy plantations in Arunachal Pradesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhury, J M

    1981-12-01

    Firewood is the chief of source of energy in Arunachal Pradesh. The entire quantity of fuelwood is collected from the adjoining forests by the villagers as a matter of traditional right. The use of gobar gas plant is uneconomical because of the lower temperatures prevailing in major portions of the year. The anticipated requirement of fuelwood for 1990 and 2000 is of the order of 5.88 and 8.23 million m/sup 3/, respectively. Through the present fuelwood requirements have not attained critical dimensions, the hacking of forests in and around the habitations is creating serious environmental problems. Programs have been initiated for raising energy plantations in Arunachal Pradesh. An outline of the programs underway and projects proposed are presented. The main problem in implementation are inadequacy of funds. The removal of this constraint will help in solving the anticipated energy crisis in this area at the same time affording sufficient environmental protection.

  2. Radio-ecological conditions of band coniferous forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strilchuk, Yu.G.; Osintsev, A.Yu.; Kuzin, D.E.; Bryantseva, N.V.; Tonevitskaya, O.V.; Zhadyranova, A.A.; Kashirskij, V.V.; Korovina, O.Yu.; Lukashenko, S.N.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Band coniferous forests are located at the right bank of Irtysh river in two oblasts of Kazakhstan - East Kazakhstan and Pavlodar.This is a unique and only forest of this type. Something similar to this natural treasure with climate-regulating, sanitary, soil-protective, water-preserving functions can be found in Canada only. Total area of the band forest comprises 870500 hectares. The forest is mainly presented by pines (Pinus silvestris). These forests are of relict nature and are of great environmental, social and economic value. The band forests located in northern, north-western and western parts of SNTS were subjected several time to radioactive impacts from atmospheric nuclear tests performed at SNTS. Nuclear clouds from 12 ground and 28 atmospheric explosions passed over these territories. Four nuclear tests performed on 29th of August 1949, 29th of July 1955, 7th of August 1962 and 26th of November 1962 resulted in higher radiation dose rates registered on land there. It seems that this particular tests stipulated radioactive contamination of the forests. The first nuclear test performed on 29th of August 1949 resulted in considerable radioactive contamination of the band forests. Contamination was registerd in Novopokrovskij and Beskaragajskij districts of Semipalatinsk oblast as well as in several districts of Altai Territory. The second test that could bring radioactive contamination to the forests was performed on 7th of August 1962 when instead of planned atmospheric explosion, there was achieved surface explosion with comparatively high radioactive contamination of the lands towards Altai Territory. Within the State program ''Forest preservation and expansion of forest in the Republic of Kazakhstan'' there was performed in 2006 a radiological surveying of the lands in pipe forest of near-Irtysh region. There were studied soil and vegetation as well as woods of the band coniferous forests. Part of territory, wherethrough nuclear clouds went

  3. Atmospheric deposition in coniferous and deciduous tree stands in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Anna; Astel, Aleksander; Boczoń, Andrzej; Polkowska, Żaneta

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the transformation of precipitation in terms of quantity and chemical composition following contact with the crown layer in tree stands with varied species composition, to investigate the effect of four predominant forest-forming species (pine, spruce, beech, and oak) on the amount and composition of precipitation reaching forest soils, and to determine the sources of pollution in atmospheric precipitation in forest areas in Poland. The amount and chemical composition (pH, electric conductivity, alkalinity, and chloride, nitrate, sulfate, phosphate, ammonium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, iron aluminum, manganese, zinc, copper, total nitrogen, and dissolved organic carbon contents) of atmospheric (bulk, BP) and throughfall (TF) precipitation were studied from January to December 2010 on twelve forest monitoring plots representative of Polish conditions. The study results provided the basis for the determination of the fluxes of pollutants in the forest areas of Poland and allowed the comparison of such fluxes with values provided in the literature for European forest areas. The transformation of precipitation in the canopy was compared for different tree stands. The fluxes of substances in an open field and under canopy were influenced by the location of the plot, including the regional meteorological conditions (precipitation amounts), vicinity of the sea (effect of marine aerosols), and local level of anthropogenic pollution. Differences between the plots were higher in TF than in BP. The impact of the vegetation cover on the chemical composition of precipitation depended on the region of the country and dominant species in a given tree stand. Coniferous species tended to cause acidification of precipitation, whereas deciduous species increased the pH of TF. Pine and oak stands enriched precipitation with components that leached from the canopy (potassium, manganese, magnesium) to a higher degree than spruce and

  4. Environmental Feedbacks of the Subalpine Ecotone Species in the Langtang National Park, Central Nepal Himalaya

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatta, K. P.; Rokaya, M. (Maan Bahadur); Münzbergová, Z. (Zuzana)

    2015-01-01

    Herbaceous species of the subalpine ecotone are mostly influenced by canopy cover and soil organic carbon. Species such as Gentiana argentea, Geranium donianum, Kobresia sp., Potentilla griffithii, Rubia wallichiana, Rubus nepalensis, Thalictrum chelidonii and Thalictrum cultratum are supposed to be critically sensitive to local environmental conditions due to having narrow amplitude to both the analyzed environmental variables. Although we have single-time data set from the sole existing hor...

  5. Eucalypt pests and diseases: growing threats to plantation productivity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalypt pests and diseases: growing threats to plantation productivity. ... Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science ... plantations, it is clear that separation of the trees from their natural enemies has resulted in exceptional performance.

  6. Harvester Productivity for Row Thinning Loblolly Pine Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    James E. Granskog; Walter C. Anderson

    1980-01-01

    Tivo tree harvesters currently being used to thin southern pine plantations were evaluated to determine the effects of stand characteristics on machine productivity. Production rates for row thinning loblolly plantations are presented by stand age, site index, and stand density.

  7. Modeling the effects of tree species and incubation temperature on soil's extracellular enzyme activity in 78-year-old tree plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoqi; Wang, Shen S. J.; Chen, Chengrong

    2017-12-01

    Forest plantations have been widely used as an effective measure for increasing soil carbon (C), and nitrogen (N) stocks and soil enzyme activities play a key role in soil C and N losses during decomposition of soil organic matter. However, few studies have been carried out to elucidate the mechanisms behind the differences in soil C and N cycling by different tree species in response to climate warming. Here, we measured the responses of soil's extracellular enzyme activity (EEA) to a gradient of temperatures using incubation methods in 78-year-old forest plantations with different tree species. Based on a soil enzyme kinetics model, we established a new statistical model to investigate the effects of temperature and tree species on soil EEA. In addition, we established a tree species-enzyme-C/N model to investigate how temperature and tree species influence soil C/N contents over time without considering plant C inputs. These extracellular enzymes included C acquisition enzymes (β-glucosidase, BG), N acquisition enzymes (N-acetylglucosaminidase, NAG; leucine aminopeptidase, LAP) and phosphorus acquisition enzymes (acid phosphatases). The results showed that incubation temperature and tree species significantly influenced all soil EEA and Eucalyptus had 1.01-2.86 times higher soil EEA than coniferous tree species. Modeling showed that Eucalyptus had larger soil C losses but had 0.99-2.38 times longer soil C residence time than the coniferous tree species over time. The differences in the residual soil C and N contents between Eucalyptus and coniferous tree species, as well as between slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii) and hoop pine (Araucaria cunninghamii Ait.), increase with time. On the other hand, the modeling results help explain why exotic slash pine can grow faster, as it has 1.22-1.38 times longer residual soil N residence time for LAP, which mediate soil N cycling in the long term, than native coniferous tree species like hoop pine and

  8. Modeling the effects of tree species and incubation temperature on soil's extracellular enzyme activity in 78-year-old tree plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Zhou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Forest plantations have been widely used as an effective measure for increasing soil carbon (C, and nitrogen (N stocks and soil enzyme activities play a key role in soil C and N losses during decomposition of soil organic matter. However, few studies have been carried out to elucidate the mechanisms behind the differences in soil C and N cycling by different tree species in response to climate warming. Here, we measured the responses of soil's extracellular enzyme activity (EEA to a gradient of temperatures using incubation methods in 78-year-old forest plantations with different tree species. Based on a soil enzyme kinetics model, we established a new statistical model to investigate the effects of temperature and tree species on soil EEA. In addition, we established a tree species–enzyme–C∕N model to investigate how temperature and tree species influence soil C∕N contents over time without considering plant C inputs. These extracellular enzymes included C acquisition enzymes (β-glucosidase, BG, N acquisition enzymes (N-acetylglucosaminidase, NAG; leucine aminopeptidase, LAP and phosphorus acquisition enzymes (acid phosphatases. The results showed that incubation temperature and tree species significantly influenced all soil EEA and Eucalyptus had 1.01–2.86 times higher soil EEA than coniferous tree species. Modeling showed that Eucalyptus had larger soil C losses but had 0.99–2.38 times longer soil C residence time than the coniferous tree species over time. The differences in the residual soil C and N contents between Eucalyptus and coniferous tree species, as well as between slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii and hoop pine (Araucaria cunninghamii Ait., increase with time. On the other hand, the modeling results help explain why exotic slash pine can grow faster, as it has 1.22–1.38 times longer residual soil N residence time for LAP, which mediate soil N cycling in the long term, than native

  9. Willow bioenergy plantation research in the Northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, E.H.; Abrahamson, L.P.; Kopp, R.F. [SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY (United States); Nowak, C.A. [USDA Forest Service, Warren, PA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Experiments were established in Central New York in the spring of 1987 to evaluate the potential of Salix for biomass production in bioenergy plantations. Emphasis of the research was on developing and refining establishment, tending and maintenance techniques, with complimentary study of breeding, coppice physiology, pests, nutrient use and bioconversion to energy products. Current yields utilizing salix clones developed in cooperation with the University of Toronto in short-rotation intensive culture bioenergy plantations in the Northeast approximate 8 oven dry tons per acre per year with annual harvesting. Successful clones have been identified and culture techniques refined. The results are now being integrated to establish a 100 acre Salix large-scale bioenergy farm to demonstrate current successful biomass production technology and to provide plantations of sufficient size to test harvesters; adequately assess economics of the systems; and provide large quantities of uniform biomass for pilot-scale conversion facilities.

  10. Hemipteran diversity in Endau-Rompin plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakri, Asraf; Rahim, Faszly

    2015-09-01

    Study on hemipteran at Endau Rompin Plantation (LER), Pahang was conducted at oil palm plantation planted at different type of soils. The aim of the study was to determine hemipteran diversity in oil palm ecosystem. Sampling was done from April 2012 to September 2012 by using Malaise and impact traps. Cicadellidae was the most abundance and dominance family with 105 individuals and 6 species (=morphospecies) recorded. The rarefaction curve becomes flatter to the right indicating a reasonable number of individual samples have been taken. Peat area show high Shannon index and Margalef index values compared to clay area.There were significant differences in hemipteran community between three type of soils (χ2=98.751,df=58,p<0.05). As such, hemipteran abundance in oil palm plantation is affected by the type of soil.

  11. Calibration of the L-MEB model over a coniferous and a deciduous forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Jennifer P.; Saleh-Contell, Kauzar; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the L-band Microwave Emission of the Biosphere (L-MEB) model used in the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) Level 2 Soil Moisture algorithm is calibrated using L-band (1.4 GHz) microwave measurements over a coniferous (Pine) and a deciduous (mixed/Beech) forest. This resulted...

  12. Substantial secondary organic aerosol formation in a coniferous forest: observations of both day- and nighttime chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    A. K. Y. Lee; J. P. D. Abbatt; W. R. Leaitch; S.-M. Li; S. J. Sjostedt; S. J. Sjostedt; J. J. B. Wentzell; J. Liggio; A. M. Macdonald

    2016-01-01

    Substantial biogenic secondary organic aerosol (BSOA) formation was investigated in a coniferous forest mountain region at Whistler, British Columbia. A largely biogenic aerosol growth episode was observed, providing a unique opportunity to investigate BSOA formation chemistry in a forested environment with limited influence from anthropogenic emissions. Positive matrix factorization of aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS) measurement identifie...

  13. Analyzing the ecosystem carbon dynamics of four European coniferous forests using a biogeochemistry model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Churkina, G.; Tenhunen, J.; Thornton, P.; Falge, E.; Elbers, J.A.; Erhard, M.; Grünwald, T.; Kowalski, A.; Rannik, Ü.; Sprinz, D.

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides the first steps toward a regional-scale analysis of carbon (C) budgets. We explore the ability of the ecosystem model BIOME-BGC to estimate the daily and annual C dynamics of four European coniferous forests and shifts in these dynamics in response to changing environmental

  14. Radiation-induced cell death in embryogenic cells of coniferous plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yoshito; Homma-Takeda, Shino; Yukawa, Masae; Nishimura, Yoshikazu; Sasamoto, Hamako; Takahagi, Masahiko

    2004-01-01

    Reproductive processes are particularly radiosensitive in plant development, which was clearly illustrated in reduction of seed formation in native coniferous plants around Chernobyl after the nuclear accident. For the purpose to investigate the effects of ionizing radiation on embryonic formation in coniferous plants, we used an embryo-derived embryogenic cell culture of a Japanese native coniferous plant, Japanese cedar (Cryplomeria japonica). The embryogenic cells were so radiosensitive that most of the cells died by X-ray irradiation of 5 Gy. This indicated that the embryogenic cells are as radiosensitive as some mammalian cells including lymphocytes. We considered that this type of radiosensitive cell death in the embryogenic cells should be responsible for reproductive damages of coniferous plants by low dose of ionizing radiation. The cell death of the embryogenic cells was characteristic of nuclear DNA fragmentation, which is typically observed in radiation-induced programmed cell death, i.e. apoptosis, in mammalian cells. On the other hand, cell death with nuclear DNA fragmentation did not develop by X-ray irradiation in vegetative cells including meristematic cells of Japanese cedar. This suggests that an apoptosis-like programmed cell death should develop cell-specifically in embryogenic cells by ionizing radiation. The abortion of embryogenic cells may work to prevent transmission of radiation-induced genetic damages to the descendants. (author)

  15. Temporal and spatial variation of nitrogen transformations in a coniferous forest soils.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laverman, A.M.; Zoomer, H.R.; van Verseveld, H.W.; Verhoef, H.A.

    2000-01-01

    Forest soils show a great degree of temporal and spatial variation of nitrogen mineralization. The aim of the present study was to explain temporal variation in nitrate leaching from a nitrogen-saturated coniferous forest soil by potential nitrification, mineralization rates and nitrate uptake by

  16. Temporal and spatial variation of nitrogen transformations in a coniferous soil.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laverman, A.M.; Zoomer, H.R.; van Verseveld, H.W.; Verhoef, H.A.

    2000-01-01

    Forest soils show a great degree of temporal and spatial variation of nitrogen mineralization. The aim of the present study was to explain temporal variation in nitrate leaching from a nitrogen-saturated coniferous forest soil by potential nitrification, mineralization rates and nitrate uptake by

  17. Absorption of Power Plants СО2 Emissions by Coniferous Tree Stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvorova G.G.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the ability of coniferous (common pine, siberian larch and siberian spruce stands growing in 9 municipal districts of the Irkutsk region to absorb СО2 technogenic emission of heat power plants. (EIGAF index is suggested to characterize gas-absorbing (СО2–absorbing activity; the index reflects proportion between СО2 technogenic emission and photosynthetic productivity (GPP of coniferous tree stands. СО2–absorbing capacity in 8 of the monitored districts has been shown to significantly exceed the amount of carbon dioxide emission from heat power sector. The index values EIGAF=0.01-0.97 demonstrate that СО2 technogenic emission amounts to 1-97% of coniferous stands photosynthetic productivity in the areas under study. At the same time, the most industrially developed Angarsk district shows СО2 photosynthetic absorption to be 8-12 times lower than technogenic СО2 emission. Reasons of low gas-absorbing capacity of coniferous tree stands of this area are discussed.

  18. Chemical ecology and management of bark beetles in western coniferous forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher J. Fettig

    2013-01-01

    The future looks bright for the development and use of semiochemical-based tools in forests, particularly in remote and sensitive areas where other management techniques (e.g., the use of insecticides) may not be appropriate. This editorial provides an concise overview of chemical ecology and management of bark beetles in western coniferous forests.

  19. Measurement of the dry deposition flux of NH3 on to coniferous forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duyzer, J.H.; Verhagen, H.L.M.; Weststrate, J.H.; Bosveld, F.C.

    1992-01-01

    The dry deposition flux of NH3 to coniferous forest was determined by the micrometeorological gradient method using a 36m high tower. Aerodynamic characteristics of the site were studied, using a second tower erected in the forest 100m from the first. Fluxes and gradients of heat and momentum

  20. Minimizing measurement uncertainties of coniferous needle-leaf optical properties, part I: methodological review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yanez Rausell, L.; Schaepman, M.E.; Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Malenovsky, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Optical properties (OPs) of non-flat narrow plant leaves, i.e., coniferous needles, are extensively used by the remote sensing community, in particular for calibration and validation of radiative transfer models at leaf and canopy level. Optical measurements of such small living elements are,

  1. Private and public incomes in dehesas and coniferous forests in Andalusia, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paola Ovando; Pablo Campos; Jose L. Oviedo; Alejandro Caparrós

    2015-01-01

    We apply an ecosystem accounting system to estimate the total social income accrued from private and public products in a group of agroforestry farms in Andalusia (Spain). We provide bio-physical and economic indicators for two contrasting farm types, a sub-group of 15 publicly owned coniferous forests and a sub-group of 24 privately owned dehesa farms. Total social...

  2. Nitrogen supply and demand in short-rotation sweetgum plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Andrew Scott; James A. Burger; Donald J. Kaczmarek; Michael B. Kane

    2004-01-01

    Intensive management is crucial for optimizing hardwood plantation success, and nitrogen (N) nutrition management is one of the most important practices in intensive management. Because management of short-rotation woody crop plantations is a mixture of row-crop agriculture and plantation forestry, we tested the usefulness of an agronomic budget modified for deciduous...

  3. From research plots to prototype biomass plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenney, W.A.; Vanstone, B.J.; Gambles, R.L.; Zsuffa, L. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1993-12-31

    The development of biomass energy plantations is now expanding from the research plot phase into the next level of development at larger scale plantings. This is necessary to provide: more accurate information on biomass yields, realistic production cost figures, venues to test harvesting equipment, demonstration sites for potential producers, and a supply of feedstock for prototype conversion facilities. The paper will discuss some of these objectives and some of the challenges encountered in the scale-up process associated with a willow prototype plantation project currently under development in Eastern Canada.

  4. Harvesting costs and utilization of hardwood plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tim P. McDonald; Bryce J. Stokes

    1994-01-01

    The use of short rotation, intensive culture (SRIC) practices in hardwoods to meet fiber supply needs is becoming increasingly widespread. Total plated area of short rotation hardwood fiber plantations is currently about 22,000 ha (McDonald and Stokes 1993). That figure should certainly to grow in response to public concerns over loss of natural hardwood stands. With...

  5. The Plantation Adult Basic Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Mutual Help Association, Abbeville, LA.

    The Plantation Adult Basic Education Program started in 1970 as an alternative to poverty for sugar cane workers in Louisiana. The document discusses the various aspects of the poverty conditions that exist in the area, such as: housing, diet, health, education, and lack of consumer information, and how these existing conditions are to be changed…

  6. Understory Structure and Vascular Plant Diversity in Naturally Regenerated Deciduous Forests and Spruce Plantations on Similar Clear-Cuts: Implications for Forest Regeneration Strategy Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZhiQiang Fang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The active effect of natural regeneration on understory vegetation and diversity on clear-cut forestlands, in contrast to conifer reforestation, is still controversial. Here we investigated differences in understory vegetation by comparing naturally regenerated deciduous forests (NR and reforested spruce plantations (SP aged 20–40 years on 12 similar clear-cuts of subalpine old-growth spruce-fir forests from the eastern Tibetan Plateau. We found that 283 of the 334 vascular plant species recorded were present in NR plots, while only 264 species occurred in SP plots. This was consistent with richer species, higher cover, and stem (or shoot density of tree seedlings, shrubs, and ferns in the NR plots than in the SP plots. Moreover, understory plant diversity was limited under dense canopy cover, which occurred more frequently in the SP plots. Our findings implied that natural deciduous tree regeneration could better preserve understory vegetation and biodiversity than spruce reforestation after clear-cutting. This result further informed practices to reduce tree canopy cover for spruce plantations or to integrate natural regeneration and reforestation for clear-cuts in order to promote understory vegetation and species diversity conservation.

  7. Comparative seed germination traits in alpine and subalpine grasslands: higher elevations are associated with warmer germination temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Pascual, E; Jiménez-Alfaro, B; Bueno, Á

    2017-01-01

    Seed germination traits in alpine grasslands are poorly understood, despite the sensitivity of these communities to climate change. We hypothesise that germination traits predict species occurrence along the alpine-subalpine elevation gradient. Phylogenetic comparative analyses were performed using fresh seeds of 22 species from alpine and subalpine grasslands (1600-2400 m) of the Cantabrian Mountains, Spain (43° N, 5° W). Laboratory experiments were conducted to characterise germinability, optimum germination temperature and effect of cold and warm stratification on dormancy breaking. Variability in these traits was reduced by phylogenetic principal component analysis (phyl.PCA). Phylogenetic generalised least squares regression (PGLS) was used to fit a model in which species average elevation was predicted from their position on the PCA axes. Most subalpine species germinated in snow-like conditions, whereas most alpine species needed accumulation of warm temperatures. Phylogenetic signal was low. PCA1 ordered species according to overall germinability, whilst PCA2 ordered them according to preference for warm or cold germination. PCA2 significantly predicted species occurrence in the alpine-subalpine gradient, as higher elevation species tended to have warmer germination preferences. Our results show that germination traits in high-mountain grasslands are closely linked to the alpine-subalpine gradient. Alpine species, especially those from stripped and wind-edge communities, prefer warmer germination niches, suggesting that summer emergence prevents frost damage during seedling establishment. In contrast, alpine snowfield and subalpine grassland plants have cold germination niches, indicating that winter emergence may occur under snow to avoid drought stress. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  8. Aquatic insect assemblages associated with subalpine stream segment types in relict glaciated headwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Joshua S.; Torgersen, Christian E.; Bolton, Susan M.; Weekes, Anne A.; Gara, Robert I.

    2013-01-01

    1. Aquatic habitats and biotic assemblages in subalpine headwaters are sensitive to climate and human impacts. Understanding biotic responses to such perturbations and the contribution of high-elevation headwaters to riverine biodiversity requires the assessment of assemblage composition among habitat types. We compared aquatic insect assemblages among headwater stream segment types in relict glaciated subalpine basins in Mt. Rainier National Park, Washington, USA. 2. Aquatic insects were collected during summer and autumn in three headwater basins. In each basin, three different stream segment types were sampled: colluvial groundwater sources, alluvial lake inlets, and cascade-bedrock lake outlets. Ward's hierarchical cluster analysis revealed high β diversity in aquatic insect assemblages, and non-metric multidimensional scaling indicated that spatial and temporal patterns in assemblage composition differed among headwater stream segment types. Aquatic insect assemblages showed more fidelity to stream segment types than to individual basins, and the principal environmental variables associated with assemblage structure were temperature and substrate. 3. Indicator species analyses identified specific aquatic insects associated with each stream segment type. Several rare and potentially endemic aquatic insect taxa were present, including the recently described species, Lednia borealis (Baumann and Kondratieff). 4. Our results indicate that aquatic insect assemblages in relict glaciated subalpine headwaters were strongly differentiated among stream segment types. These results illustrate the contribution of headwaters to riverine biodiversity and emphasise the importance of these habitats for monitoring biotic responses to climate change. Monitoring biotic assemblages in high-elevation headwaters is needed to prevent the potential loss of unique and sensitive biota.

  9. Warming and provenance limit tree recruitment across and beyond the elevation range of subalpine forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueppers, Lara M; Conlisk, Erin; Castanha, Cristina; Moyes, Andrew B; Germino, Matthew J; de Valpine, Perry; Torn, Margaret S; Mitton, Jeffry B

    2017-06-01

    Climate niche models project that subalpine forest ranges will extend upslope with climate warming. These projections assume that the climate suitable for adult trees will be adequate for forest regeneration, ignoring climate requirements for seedling recruitment, a potential demographic bottleneck. Moreover, local genetic adaptation is expected to facilitate range expansion, with tree populations at the upper forest edge providing the seed best adapted to the alpine. Here, we test these expectations using a novel combination of common gardens, seeded with two widely distributed subalpine conifers, and climate manipulations replicated at three elevations. Infrared heaters raised temperatures in heated plots, but raised temperatures more in the forest than at or above treeline because strong winds at high elevation reduced heating efficiency. Watering increased season-average soil moisture similarly across sites. Contrary to expectations, warming reduced Engelmann spruce recruitment at and above treeline, as well as in the forest. Warming reduced limber pine first-year recruitment in the forest, but had no net effect on fourth-year recruitment at any site. Watering during the snow-free season alleviated some negative effects of warming, indicating that warming exacerbated water limitations. Contrary to expectations of local adaptation, low-elevation seeds of both species initially recruited more strongly than high-elevation seeds across the elevation gradient, although the low-provenance advantage diminished by the fourth year for Engelmann spruce, likely due to small sample sizes. High- and low-elevation provenances responded similarly to warming across sites for Engelmann spruce, but differently for limber pine. In the context of increasing tree mortality, lower recruitment at all elevations with warming, combined with lower quality, high-provenance seed being most available for colonizing the alpine, portends range contraction for Engelmann spruce. The lower

  10. Spatial pattern of a subalpine forest-alpine pasture ecotone (Las Cutas, Ordesa, Central Pyrenees)

    OpenAIRE

    Camarero, J. J.; Gutierrez, E.

    1999-01-01

    We describe the spatial pattern of a subalpine forest-alpine pasture ecotone in the Central Pyrenees, that includes altitudinal timberline and treeline, and it is dominated by Pinus uncinata Ram. A rectangular (30 x 140 m) plot was located crossing the ecotone with its longest side parallel to the slope. We measured for each P. uncinata individual inside the plot: location (coordinates x, y), and structure (e. g. height) and growth form variables (number and type —living or dead, vertical or ...

  11. Multi-functional energy plantation; Multifunktionella bioenergiodlingar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Paal [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Environmental and Energy Systems Studies; Berndes, Goeran; Fredriksson, Fredrik [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Physical Resource Theory; Kaaberger, Tomas [Ecotraffic, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2002-02-01

    There exists a significant potential for utilising perennial energy plantations in protecting and restoring polluted water and land resources in Sweden. By optimising the design, location and management, several additional environmental services could be obtained which will increase the value of the energy plantations, thereby improving future market conditions for biomass. Multi-functional energy plantations (mainly Salix but also energy grass) can be divided into two categories, those designed for dedicated environmental services (e.g. vegetation filters for wastewater and sewage sludge treatment and shelter belts against soil erosion), and those generating more general benefits (e.g. soil carbon accumulation, increased soil fertility, cadmium removal and increased hunting potential). The practical potential of those two categories is estimated to be equivalent to up to 3% and more than 20% of the total Swedish arable land, respectively. The regional conditions of utilising multi-functional plantations vary, however, with the best possibilities in densely populated areas dominated by farmland. The economic value of multi-functional plantations is normally highest for those designed for dedicated environmental services. Purification of wastewater has the highest value, which could exceed the production cost in conventional Salix plantations, followed by treatment of polluted drainage water in vegetation filters and buffer zones (equivalent to more than half of the production cost), recirculation of sewage sludge (around half of the production cost), erosion control (around one fourth) and increased hunting potential (up to 15% of the production cost). The value of increased hunting potential varies due to nearness to larger cities and in which part of Sweden the plantation is located. The economic value of cadmium removal and increased soil fertility is equivalent to a few percent of the production cost, but the value of cadmium removal might increase in the

  12. Soil microbial community structure and diversity are largely influenced by soil pH and nutrient quality in 78-year-old tree plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoqi; Guo, Zhiying; Chen, Chengrong; Jia, Zhongjun

    2017-04-01

    Forest plantations have been recognised as a key strategy management tool for stocking carbon (C) in soils, thereby contributing to climate warming mitigation. However, long-term ecological consequences of anthropogenic forest plantations on the community structure and diversity of soil microorganisms and the underlying mechanisms in determining these patterns are poorly understood. In this study, we selected 78-year-old tree plantations that included three coniferous tree species (i.e. slash pine, hoop pine and kauri pine) and a eucalypt species in subtropical Australia. We investigated the patterns of community structure, and the diversity of soil bacteria and eukaryotes by using high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA genes. We also measured the potential methane oxidation capacity under different tree species. The results showed that slash pine and Eucalyptus significantly increased the dominant taxa of bacterial Acidobacteria and the dominant taxa of eukaryotic Ascomycota, and formed clusters of soil bacterial and eukaryotic communities, which were clearly different from the clusters under hoop pine and kauri pine. Soil pH and nutrient quality indicators such as C : nitrogen (N) and extractable organic C : extractable organic N were key factors in determining the patterns of soil bacterial and eukaryotic communities between the different tree species treatments. Slash pine and Eucalyptus had significantly lower soil bacterial and eukaryotic operational taxonomical unit numbers and lower diversity indices than kauri pine and hoop pine. A key factor limitation hypothesis was introduced, which gives a reasonable explanation for lower diversity indices under slash pine and Eucalyptus. In addition, slash pine and Eucalyptus had a higher soil methane oxidation capacity than the other tree species. These results suggest that significant changes in soil microbial communities may occur in response to chronic disturbance by tree plantations, and highlight

  13. Vertical distribution of soil extractable organic C and N contents and total C and N stocks in 78-year-old tree plantations in subtropical Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoqi; Dong, Haibo; Lan, Zhongming; Bacon, Gary; Hao, Yanbin; Chen, Chengrong

    2017-10-01

    Few studies have focused on the effects of long-term forest plantations on the soil profile of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stocks. In this study, we selected 78-year-old tree plantations that included three coniferous tree species (i.e., slash pine, hoop pine and kauri pine) and a Eucalyptus species in subtropical Australia. We measured soil extractable organic C (EOC) and N (EON) contents and total C and N stocks under different tree species on the forest floor and along a soil profile to 100 cm depth. The results showed that Eucalyptus had significantly higher soil EOC contents (3.3 Mg ha -1 ) than the other tree species (EOC of 1.9-2.3 Mg ha -1 ) and had significantly higher EON (156 kg ha -1 ) contents than slash pine (107 kg ha -1 ). Eucalyptus had significantly higher soil C (58.9 Mg ha -1 ) and N (2.03 Mg ha -1 ) stocks than the other tree species (22.3-27.6 Mg C ha -1 and 0.71-1.23 Mg N ha -1 ) at 0-100 cm depth. There were no differences in soil C stocks at the 0-100 cm depth among the coniferous tree species. Forest floor C stocks had stronger effects on mineral soil total N stocks than fine root biomass, whereas fine root biomass exerted stronger effects on soil total C stocks at the 0-100 cm depth than forest floor C and N stocks. Our results addressed large differences in soil C and N stocks under different tree species, which can provide useful information for local forest management practices in this region.

  14. Influence of meteorological parameters on interception of cloud droplets in a coniferous forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroll, G; Winkler, P [Deutscher Wetterdienst, Meteorologisches Observatorium Hamburg (Germany, F.R.)

    1989-11-01

    The deposition of trace substances in a high elevated coniferous forest by interception of cloud droplets depends on numerous meteorological parameters. Sensitivity studies with a deposition model show that the variation of the vertical wind profile in the stand and the capture efficiency have a large influence on the deposition flux. Different drop size distributions with equal LWC's lead to changes of only 10% in the deposition flux. A higher ion concentration in small droplets has only a small influence on the trace substance deposition. A realistic estimate of the deposition is most likely achieved by using hourly observed meteorological parameters as model input values. The deposition of trace substances into a high elevated coniferous forest by interception of cloud droplets can be as high as the deposition via rain. (orig.).

  15. Nanocarbon materials obtained of coniferous trees in the composition of black powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkhair Mansurov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Obtained black powders from coniferous wood. The carbon content of up to 90% can be used in warfare, pyrotechnics and industries. In the Republic of Kazakhstan does not produce gunpowder. In the energy-intensive materials laboratory, developed industrial black powders (ordinary, composed of components produced in the republic of Kazakhstan. Sulfur, activated carbon, based on apricot seeds and rice husks, softwood sawdust, which have lower costs than their foreign counterparts.

  16. The effect of slight thinning of managed coniferous forest on landscape appreciation and psychological restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Norimasa; Saito, Haruo; Fujiwara, Akio; Horiuchi, Masahiro

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the influence of slight thinning (percentage of woods: 16.6%, basal area: 9.3%) on landscape appreciation and the psychological restorative effect of an on-site setting by exposing respondents to an ordinarily managed coniferous woodland. The experiments were conducted in an experimental plot in the same coniferous woodland in May (unthinned) and October 2013 (thinned). The respondents were the same 15 individuals for both experiments. Respondents were individually exposed to the enclosed plot and the forest-view plot within the same tent for 15 min. In both sessions, respondents were required to answer three questionnaires measuring their mood (Profile of Mood States), emotion (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule), and feeling of restoration (Restorative Outcome Scale) to investigate the psychological restorative effect before and after the experiment. They completed two other questionnaires measuring appreciation for the environment (Semantic Differential) and the restorative properties of the environment (Perceived Restorativeness Scale) following the experiments. We first analyzed the difference in landscape appreciation between the unthinned and thinned conditions. We did not find any statistical difference in appreciation for the environment (Semantic Differential) or the restorative properties of the environment (Perceived Restorativeness Scale); rather, we found that weather conditions had a primary influence on landscape appreciation. With respect to the psychological restorative effect, a two-way repeated analysis of valiance (ANOVA) revealed significant main effects for a selection of indices, depending on the presence or absence of thinning. However, multiple comparison analyses revealed that these effects seemed to be due to the difference in the experimental experience rather than the presence or absence of thinning. In conclusion, the effect of the slight thinning of the managed coniferous forest was too weak to be reflected in the

  17. Acidification-induced chemical changes in coniferous forest soils in southern Sweden 1988-1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joensson, U.; Rosengren, U.; Thelin, G.; Nihlgaard, B

    2003-05-01

    Acidification of south-Swedish coniferous forest soils continues and soil nutrient status is no longer sustainable in a long-term perspective. - Thirty-two Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands in southern Sweden were studied for a period of 12 years to evaluate acidification-induced chemical changes in the soil. Soil, at 20-30 cm depth in the mineral layer, was sampled three times during this period (1988, 1993 and 1999). The results show that pH(BaCl{sub 2}) in mineral soil decreased by, on average, 0.17 units between 1988 and 1999, accompanied by an increase in aluminium (Al) concentration and a decrease in base saturation in the soil. In 1999, the base saturation was below 5% in 58% of the 32 sites compared with 16% in 1988 and 7% in 1993. Concentrations of calcium (Ca), potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) are low and decreasing. Based on C/N ratios in humus, 45% of the sites may be subjected to leaching of considerable amounts of nitrate. The results show that the acidification of coniferous forest soils in southern Sweden is continuing, and that the negative effects on the nutrient status in soil are extensive. The results are compared with reference values for productive, long-term sustainably managed boreal coniferous or mixed forest soils and implications for long-term sustainability are discussed.

  18. Biogeochemical impacts of wildfires over four millennia in a Rocky Mountain subalpine watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunnette, Paul V; Higuera, Philip E; McLauchlan, Kendra K; Derr, Kelly M; Briles, Christy E; Keefe, Margaret H

    2014-08-01

    Wildfires can significantly alter forest carbon (C) storage and nitrogen (N) availability, but the long-term biogeochemical legacy of wildfires is poorly understood. We obtained a lake-sediment record of fire and biogeochemistry from a subalpine forest in Colorado, USA, to examine the nature, magnitude, and duration of decadal-scale, fire-induced ecosystem change over the past c. 4250 yr. The high-resolution record contained 34 fires, including 13 high-severity events within the watershed. High-severity fires were followed by increased sedimentary N stable isotope ratios (δ15N) and bulk density, and decreased C and N concentrations--reflecting forest floor destruction, terrestrial C and N losses, and erosion. Sustained low sediment C : N c. 20-50 yr post-fire indicates reduced terrestrial organic matter subsidies to the lake. Low sedimentary δ15N c. 50-70 yr post-fire, coincident with C and N recovery, suggests diminishing terrestrial N availability during stand development. The magnitude of post-fire changes generally scaled directly with inferred fire severity. Our results support modern studies of forest successional C and N accumulation and indicate pronounced, long-lasting biogeochemical impacts of wildfires in subalpine forests. However, even repeated high-severity fires over millennia probably did not deplete C or N stocks, because centuries between high-severity fires allowed for sufficient biomass recovery. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Subalpine bumble bee foraging distances and densities in relation to flower availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Susan E

    2009-06-01

    Bees feed almost exclusively on nectar and pollen from flowers. However, little is known about how food availability limits bee populations, especially in high elevation areas. Foraging distances and relationships between forager densities and resource availability can provide insights into the potential for food limitation in mobile consumer populations. For example, if floral resources are limited, bee consumers should fly farther to forage, and they should be more abundant in areas with more flowers. I estimated subalpine bumble bee foraging distances by calculating forager recapture probabilities at increasing distances from eight marking locations. I measured forager and flower densities over the flowering season in six half-hectare plots. Because subalpine bumble bees have little time to build their colonies, they may forage over short distances and forager density may not be constrained by flower density. However, late in the season, when floral resources dwindle, foraging distances may increase, and there may be stronger relationships between forager and flower densities. Throughout the flowering season, marked bees were primarily found within 100 m (and never >1,000 m) from their original marking location, suggesting that they typically did not fly far to forage. Although the density of early season foraging queens increased with early-season flower density, the density of mid- and late-season workers and males did not vary with flower density. Short foraging distances and no relationships between mid- and late-season forager and flower densities suggest that high elevation bumble bees may have ample floral resources for colony growth reproduction.

  20. Modeling a two-layer flow system at the subarctic, subalpine tree line during snowmelt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenders, Erica E.; Woo, Ming-Ko

    2002-10-01

    In the subarctic it is common to encounter a two-layer flow system consisting of a porous organic cover overlying frozen or unfrozen mineral soils with much lower hydraulic conductivities. The "simple lumped reservoir parametric," or "semidistributed land-use-based runoff processes" (SLURP), model was adapted to simulate runoff generated by such a flow system from an upland shrub land to an open woodland downslope. A subalpine site in Wolf Creek, Yukon, Canada, was subdivided into two aggregated simulation areas (ASA), each being a unit characterized by a set of parameters. The model computes the vertical water balance and flow generation from several storages, and then routes the water out of the ASA. When applied to the 1999 snowmelt season, the model simulated the very low lateral flow and a large increase in storage in the mineral soil, as was observed in the field. The model was used to assess the sensitivity of the two-layer flow system under a range of temperature, snow cover, and frost conditions. Results show that within the range of possible climatic conditions, the hydrologic system is unlikely to yield significant runoff across the subalpine tree line, but if ground ice is abundant in the soil pores, percolation will be limited and fast flow from the surface layer is enhanced.

  1. Evaluation of several priority pollutants in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) in the largest Italian subalpine lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riva, Consuelo; Binelli, Andrea; Provini, Alfredo

    2008-01-01

    Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) has been used for the biomonitoring of several POPs (PCBs, DDTs, HCB and HCHs) in the largest Italian subalpine great lakes (Lake Maggiore, Garda, Como, Iseo and Lugano). Samplings were carried out in April 2003 at 15 locations selected according to industrial and anthropic levels of lakes. Results have pointed out high DDT levels in D. polymorpha specimens from Lake Maggiore (700-1400 ng/g lipids, 5-9 times higher than those measured in mussels of other Italian lakes), due to a contamination from a chemical plant located on one of the main lake inlet that occurred in 1996. On the contrary, PCB levels (400-2509 ng/g lipids) highlighted an overall pollution, with some sporadic peaks of contamination. Data showed a moderate increase trend compared to those found in a previous monitoring campaign carried out in 1996. Future monitoring is needed in order to confirm this tendency. - Significant levels of DDTs and PCBs are still present in the Italian subalpine great lakes

  2. Evaluation of several priority pollutants in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) in the largest Italian subalpine lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riva, Consuelo [Department of Biology, Ecology Section, University of Milan, Via Celoria 26, 20133 Milan (Italy)], E-mail: consuelo.riva@unimi.it; Binelli, Andrea; Provini, Alfredo [Department of Biology, Ecology Section, University of Milan, Via Celoria 26, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2008-02-15

    Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) has been used for the biomonitoring of several POPs (PCBs, DDTs, HCB and HCHs) in the largest Italian subalpine great lakes (Lake Maggiore, Garda, Como, Iseo and Lugano). Samplings were carried out in April 2003 at 15 locations selected according to industrial and anthropic levels of lakes. Results have pointed out high DDT levels in D. polymorpha specimens from Lake Maggiore (700-1400 ng/g lipids, 5-9 times higher than those measured in mussels of other Italian lakes), due to a contamination from a chemical plant located on one of the main lake inlet that occurred in 1996. On the contrary, PCB levels (400-2509 ng/g lipids) highlighted an overall pollution, with some sporadic peaks of contamination. Data showed a moderate increase trend compared to those found in a previous monitoring campaign carried out in 1996. Future monitoring is needed in order to confirm this tendency. - Significant levels of DDTs and PCBs are still present in the Italian subalpine great lakes.

  3. Dead wood biomass and turnover time, measured by radiocarbon, along a subalpine elevation gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueppers, Lara M; Southon, John; Baer, Paul; Harte, John

    2004-12-01

    Dead wood biomass can be a substantial fraction of stored carbon in forest ecosystems, and coarse woody debris (CWD) decay rates may be sensitive to climate warming. We used an elevation gradient in Colorado Rocky Mountain subalpine forest to examine climate and species effects on dead wood biomass, and on CWD decay rate. Using a new radiocarbon approach, we determined that the turnover time of lodgepole pine CWD (340+/-130 years) was roughly half as long in a site with 2.5-3 degrees C warmer air temperature, as that of pine (630+/-400 years) or Engelmann spruce CWD (800+/-960 and 650+/-410 years) in cooler sites. Across all sites and both species, CWD age ranged from 2 to 600 years, and turnover time was 580+/-180 years. Total standing and fallen dead wood biomass ranged from 4.7+/-0.2 to 54+/-1 Mg ha(-1), and from 2.8 to 60% of aboveground live tree biomass. Dead wood biomass increased 75 kg ha(-1) per meter gain in elevation and decreased 13 Mg ha(-1) for every degree C increase in mean air temperature. Differences in biomass and decay rates along the elevation gradient suggest that climate warming will lead to a loss of dead wood carbon from subalpine forest.

  4. The potential of grey alder plantation forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rytter, L. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Short Rotation Forestry

    1996-12-31

    A survey concerning the potential use of grey alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench.) in short rotation forestry is performed. The most important characters in this context are discussed. It is concluded that grey alder is an interesting contributor in plantation forestry, because it has a high woody biomass production, is more or less self-supporting with nitrogen, and is well adapted to the conditions in Fennoscandia and Balticum. 36 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  5. Innovating tree plantation design: spiralographing agroforestry

    OpenAIRE

    Palma, J.H.N.; Crous-Duran, J.; Merouani, H.; Paulo, J.A.; Tomé, M.

    2014-01-01

    Poster Most of forestry or agroforestry artificial plantations either have an orthogonal design, or curvilinear under contour lines to prevent soil erosion. These designs are known to maximize machinery workflow or erosion control respectively. As in many occasions in land use management, what optimizes machinery operation is not what optimizes prevention of soil loss and vice versa. An alternative and intermediate design system such as an Archimedes spiral could offer ...

  6. The Health Risks of Belgian Illicit Indoor Cannabis Plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhove, Wouter; Cuypers, Eva; Bonneure, Arne-Jan; Gotink, Joachim; Stassen, Mirna; Tytgat, Jan; Van Damme, Patrick

    2018-04-10

    We assessed the prevalence of potential health hazards to intervention staff and cannabis growers in Belgian indoor cannabis plantations. Surface mold swab samples were taken at 16 Belgian indoor plantations contained mostly Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus sp. However, their precise health impact on intervention staff and illicit growers is unclear as no molds spore concentrations were measured. Atmospheric gas monitoring in the studied cannabis plantations did not reveal dangerous toxic substances. Health symptoms were reported by 60% of 221 surveyed police, but could not be linked to specific plantation characteristics. We conclude that Belgian indoor cannabis plantations pose a potential health threat to growers and intervention staff. AS there are currently no clear safety guidelines for seizure and dismantling of Belgian indoor cannabis plantations, we recommend first responders to follow strict safety rules when entering the growth rooms, which include wearing appropriate personal protective equipment. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. Neotropical Migratory Bird Communities in a Developing Pine Plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    James G. Dickson; Richard N. Conner; J. Howard Williamson

    1993-01-01

    Birds were censused annually from 4 250-x80-in transects in a young pine plantation from age to 2 to 17 to assess changes in the bird community.Bird abundance was low and the bird communitry was the least diverse when the pine plantation was sparsely vegetated at age 2. As the plantation developed rapidly into the shrub stage, the bird communitry became more abundant...

  8. Automated Plantation Mapping in Indonesia Using Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpatne, A.; Jia, X.; Khandelwal, A.; Kumar, V.

    2017-12-01

    Plantation mapping is critical for understanding and addressing deforestation, a key driver of climate change and ecosystem degradation. Unfortunately, most plantation maps are limited to small areas for specific years because they rely on visual inspection of imagery. In this work, we propose a data-driven approach which automatically generates yearly plantation maps for large regions using MODIS multi-spectral data. While traditional machine learning algorithms face manifold challenges in this task, e.g. imperfect training labels, spatio-temporal data heterogeneity, noisy and high-dimensional data, lack of evaluation data, etc., we introduce a novel deep learning-based framework that combines existing imperfect plantation products as training labels and models the spatio-temporal relationships of land covers. We also explores the post-processing steps based on Hidden Markov Model that further improve the detection accuracy. Then we conduct extensive evaluation of the generated plantation maps. Specifically, by randomly sampling and comparing with high-resolution Digital Globe imagery, we demonstrate that the generated plantation maps achieve both high precision and high recall. When compared with existing plantation mapping products, our detection can avoid both false positives and false negatives. Finally, we utilize the generated plantation maps in analyzing the relationship between forest fires and growth of plantations, which assists in better understanding the cause of deforestation in Indonesia.

  9. Understory vegetation in fast-growing tree plantations on savanna soils in Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Loumeto, J.J.; Huttel, Charles

    1997-01-01

    The hypothesis that tree plantations may catalyze the regeneration of natural forest biodiversity was tested through studies of floristic diversity and structure in fast-growing tree plantations in the Congo. Study sites included experimental and industrial plantations on poor sandy coastal soils near Pointe-Noire, and experimental plantations on clay soils near Loudima. The effects of plantations species, plantation age (in 6- to 20-year-old eucalypt stands), disturbance due to herbicide use...

  10. Climate and landscape drive the pace and pattern of conifer encroachment into subalpine meadows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubetkin, Kaitlin C; Westerling, Anthony LeRoy; Kueppers, Lara M

    2017-09-01

    Mountain meadows have high biodiversity and help regulate stream water release following the snowmelt pulse. However, many meadows are experiencing woody plant encroachment, threatening these ecosystem services. While there have been field surveys of individual meadows and remote sensing-based landscape-scale studies of encroachment, what is missing is a broad-scale, ground-based study to understand common regional drivers, especially at high elevations, where land management has often played a less direct role. With this study, we ask: What are the climate and landscape conditions conducive to woody plant encroachment at the landscape scale, and how has historical climate variation affected tree recruitment in subalpine meadows over time? We measured density of encroaching trees across 340 subalpine meadows in the central Sierra Nevada, California, USA, and used generalized additive models (GAMs) to determine the relationship between landscape-scale patterns of encroachment and meadow environmental properties. We determined ages of trees in 30 survey meadows, used observed climate and GAMs to model the relationship between timing of recruitment and climate since the early 1900s, and extrapolated recruitment patterns into the future using downscaled climate scenarios. Encroachment was high among meadows with lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon var. murrayana (Balf.) Engelm.) in the immediate vicinity, at lower elevations, with physical conditions favoring strong soil drying, and with maximum temperatures above or below average. Climatic conditions during the year of germination were unimportant, with tree recruitment instead depending on a 3-yr seed production period prior to germination and a 6-yr seedling establishment period following germination. Recruitment was high when the seed production period had high snowpack, and when the seedling establishment period had warm summer maximum temperatures, high summer precipitation, and high snowpack

  11. FULLY AUTOMATED GIS-BASED INDIVIDUAL TREE CROWN DELINEATION BASED ON CURVATURE VALUES FROM A LIDAR DERIVED CANOPY HEIGHT MODEL IN A CONIFEROUS PLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. L. Argamosa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The generation of high resolution canopy height model (CHM from LiDAR makes it possible to delineate individual tree crown by means of a fully-automated method using the CHM’s curvature through its slope. The local maxima are obtained by taking the maximum raster value in a 3 m x 3 m cell. These values are assumed as tree tops and therefore considered as individual trees. Based on the assumptions, thiessen polygons were generated to serve as buffers for the canopy extent. The negative profile curvature is then measured from the slope of the CHM. The results show that the aggregated points from a negative profile curvature raster provide the most realistic crown shape. The absence of field data regarding tree crown dimensions require accurate visual assessment after the appended delineated tree crown polygon was superimposed to the hill shaded CHM.

  12. Overland flow connectivity in a forest plantation before and after tree thinning (Tochigi Prefecture, central Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vicente, Manuel; Onda, Yuichi; Sun, Xinchao; Kato, Hiroaki; Gomi, Takashi; Hiraoka, Marino

    2016-04-01

    for timber activities (cut down and extraction). In Sc-2012 the management practices were only done in the forest plantation of K2 and the increment of RC within the affected area was of 20%. In Sc-2013 tree thinning was done in the coniferous plantation of K3 and the increment in RC within all affected areas was of 19%. In the three scenarios the highest values of connectivity appeared in the forest roads and skid trails. These two linear elements played a key role in the values and spatial patterns of RC throughout the catchments. The combined effect of tree thinning and new skid trails in one part of K2 triggered a significant increase of the RC in this area. Areas surrounding the divides were subjected to a small increment in RC (ca. 4.8%) whereas the increment of connectivity within the streams was of 9.3% and 10.6% in Sc-2012 and Sc-2013 related to the values in Sc-2011.

  13. Provenance variation in subalpine fir grown as an exotic tree species in Denmark and Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skúlason, Brynjar

    Neonectria neomacrospora in Denmark. In Iceland the corkbark fir showed superior results, especially for survival rate and Christmas tree quality. The White River provenance from British Columbia is recommended for use in Denmark. The Mount Taylor provenance from the Cibola National Forest in New Mexico...... fir (A. lasiocarpa var. lasiocarpa) and corkbark fir (A. lasiocarpa var. arizonica (Merriam) Lemmon) was established at three sites in Denmark and at one site in Iceland in 1999. Adaptability, Christmas tree quality, growth rhythm and susceptibility to pests and pathogens were measured and assessed...... and the most spring frost damage on buds. The westernmost subalpine fir provenances from Washington state and British Columbia showed the overall best results in Denmark, with the highest survival (after 15 years), fastest height growth and highest Christmas tree quality and profitability, as well as both good...

  14. Tephritids in fruit plantations in Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho V, H [Universidad de Costa Rica Escuela de Biologia, San Jose (Costa Rica)

    2005-07-01

    Full text: The diversity of tephritids captured in fruit orchards in Costa Rica during four years (2001- 2004) with Multilure{sup RM} Traps is presented. These were baited with different attractants (Torula, Nu-Lure and several synthetic mixtures) in a project to determine their capacity of attraction, in mixed plantations of coffee and citrus in the Grecia Canton (year 2001) and in the Corralar District (2002 and 2004); in a mango plantation in the Esparza Canton (2001 and 2003), in a guava orchard in Pocora District (2002 and 2004) and in a citrus plantation in the San Carlos Canton, (2003). In the Grecia Canton 4,545 fruit flies were captured: 3837 (84.42%) medflies, 634 (13,94%) Anastrepha ludens, 49 (1,07%) A. striata, 29 (0.06%) A. fraterculus. In Esparza Canton (2001) 2239 tephritids were captured: 1107 (49,44%) Medflies, 875 (39,07%) A. obliqua, 156 (6,96%) A. striata, 73 (3,26%) A. serpentina and 1 (0.04%) A. ludens. In Esparza (2003) 792 tephritids were captured: 518 (65.40%) medflies, 216 (27,27%) A. obliqua, 15 (1.89%) A. striata, 18 (2.27%) A. serpentina and 24 (3.03%) Hexachaeta obscura. In Corralar District (2002) 3873 tephritids were captured: 2323 (59.99%) medflies, 1416 (36.56%) A. ludens, 20 (0.51%) A. obliqua and 114 (2.94%) A. striata. In the same place (Corralar - 2004) 533 tephritids were captured: 270 (50.65%) medflies, 118 (22.13%) A. ludens, 19 (3.56%) A. obliqua, 5 (0.93%) A. striata, 105 (19.69%) of the genus Molynocoelya spp., 14 (2.62%) Paroxyna spp. and 2 (0.37%) Tetreuareta spp. In Pocora District (2002) 1542 tephritids were captured: 1526 (98.96%) A. striata, 3 (0.19%) A. obliqua, 6 (0.38%) A. fraterculus, 1 (0.064%) A. zuelianiae, 2 (0.12%) Pesudocrotaenia spp. and 1 (0.064%) Pyrgotoides spp. In the same place (2004) 9250 tephritidis was captured: 8071 (87.25%) A. striata, 935(10.10%) A. obliqua, 235 (2.54%) medflies, 6 (0.06%) A. serpentina, 2 (0.02%) A. cyclayae and 1 (0.01%) Hexachaeta obscura. In a citrus plantation in the San

  15. The disciplining of illegal palm oil plantations in Sumatra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pramudya, Eusebius Pantja; Hospes, Otto; Termeer, C.J.A.M.

    2018-01-01

    The Indonesian state has issued many regulations to control palm oil expansion, but they have been weakly enforced, resulting in widespread illegal plantations. During the last decade, Indonesian authorities have used force to reduce illegal plantations. This article analyses the drivers behind

  16. Plantation Forestry in Sub Saharan Africa: Silvicultural, Ecological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the potentials of meeting the wood demand and achieving SFM in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) through the establishment of forest plantations. The paper reviews forest plantation ownership and distribution patterns in SSA and the factors –silvicultural, ecological, and economic that affect supply and ...

  17. Heavy metals in soils of cocoa plantation (Theobroma cacao L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocoa has experienced significant growth in recent years in Peru and the presence of heavy metals in the soils of these plantations is a potential problem for the export of this product. Contents of heavy metals (Cd, Ni, Pb, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn) in soils from 19 plantations that have been in production f...

  18. Health and nutrition of plantation eucalypts in Asia | Dell | Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health and nutrition of plantation eucalypts in Asia. ... Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science ... Due to the high humidity and temperatures throughout the year, fungal leaf diseases such as Cylindrocladium quinqueseptatum have had a huge impact on the eucalypt plantation industry in South-east Asia. Often poor ...

  19. Does forest certification enhance community engagement in Australian plantation management?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dare, Melanie (Lain); Vanclay, Frank; Schirmer, Jacki

    The rapid expansion of timber plantations across Australia has been contentious, with ongoing debate in rural communities about the social, economic and environmental impacts of plantations. The need for effective and ongoing community engagement (CE) has been highlighted by this ongoing contention

  20. Restoring southern Ontario forests by managing succession in conifer plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    William C. Parker; Ken A. Elliott; Daniel C. Dey; Eric Boysen

    2008-01-01

    Thinning and underplanting of conifer plantations to promote natural succession in southern Ontario's forests for restoration purposes was examined in a young red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) plantation. Eleven years after application of five thinning treatments, seedling diameter, height, and stem volume of planted white ash (Fraxinus...

  1. Green gold : on variations of truth in plantation forestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romeijn, P.

    1999-01-01

    The "variations of truth in plantation forestry" is a study on the Teakwood investment program. Teakwood offered the general public in The Netherlands the opportunity to directly invest in a teak plantation in Costa Rica. The program was pioneered in 1989 and truly gained momentum when it

  2. Effects of vegetation type on microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen in subalpine mountain forest soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Anita; Yang, Shang-Shyng

    2015-08-01

    Microbial biomass plays an important role in nutrient transformation and conservation of forest and grassland ecosystems. The objective of this study was to determine the microbial biomass among three vegetation types in subalpine mountain forest soils of Taiwan. Tatachia is a typical high-altitude subalpine temperate forest ecosystem in Taiwan with an elevation of 1800-3952 m and consists of three vegetation types: spruce, hemlock, and grassland. Three plots were selected in each vegetation type. Soil samples were collected from the organic layer, topsoil, and subsoil. Microbial biomass carbon (Cmic) was determined by the chloroform fumigation-extraction method, and microbial biomass nitrogen (Nmic) was determined from the total nitrogen (Ntot) released during fumigation-extraction. Bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, cellulolytic microbes, phosphate-solubilizing microbes, and nitrogen-fixing microbes were also counted. The Cmic and Nmic were highest in the surface soil and declined with the soil depth. These were also highest in spruce soils, followed by in hemlock soils, and were lowest in grassland soils. Cmic and Nmic had the highest values in the spring season and the lowest values in the winter season. Cmic and Nmic had significantly positive correlations with total organic carbon (Corg) and Ntot. Contributions of Cmic and Nmic, respectively, to Corg and Ntot indicated that the microbial biomass was immobilized more in spruce and hemlock soils than in grassland soils. Microbial populations of the tested vegetation types decreased with increasing soil depth. Cmic and Nmic were high in the organic layer and decreased with the depth of layers. These values were higher for spruce and hemlock soils than for grassland soils. Positive correlations were observed between Cmic and Nmic and between Corg and Ntot. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Prescribed burning effects on summer elk forage availability in the subalpine zone, Banff National Park, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachro, L L; Strong, W L; Gates, C C

    2005-11-01

    The effects of prescribed burning on forage abundance and suitability for elk (Cervus elaphus) during the snow-free season was evaluated in east-central Banff National Park, Canada. Six coniferous forest and mixed shrub-herb plant communities (n=144 plots), and 5223ha of burned (n=131) vegetation Burning coniferous forest stands reduced woody biomass, and increased herbaceous forage from 146 to 790 kg/ha. Increases commonly occurred in the percent cover of hairy wild rye (Leymus innovatus (Beal) Pigler) and fireweed (Chamerion angustifolium (L.) Holub.). The herbaceous components of mixed shrub-herb communities increased from 336-747 kg/ha to 517-1104 kg/ha in response to burning (Por=220% (Pburned vegetation-types were assessed as low and moderate, respectively. Potential summer carrying capacity, based on forage availability, increased from eight to 28 elk/100 km2 within burned areas, whereas spring grazing potential rose from 13 to 45 elk/100 km2. Most of the increase (73%) was attributable to changes within burned Engelmann Spruce stands, which composed 58% of the burned area.

  4. Scenario Modeling of Thermal Influence from Forest Fire Front on a Coniferous Tree Trunk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranovskiy Nikolay V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Scenario research results of heat transfer and tissue damage in three-layered tree trunk influenced by heat flux from forest fire are presented. The problem is solved in two-dimensional statement in polar coordinates. The typical range of influence parameters (heat flux from forest fire front, trunk radius, coniferous species, air temperature, duration of exposure and distance from fire line is considered. Temperature distributions in different moments of time are obtained. Condition of tree damage by forest fire influence is under consideration in this research. Information summarized using tables with scenario and fire consequences results.

  5. The importance of micrometeorological variations for photosynthesis and transpiration in a boreal coniferous forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schurgers, Guy; Lagergren, F.; Molder, M.

    2015-01-01

    the importance of vertical variations in light, temperature, CO2 concentration and humidity within the canopy for fluxes of photosynthesis and transpiration of a boreal coniferous forest in central Sweden. A leaf-level photosynthesis-stomatal conductance model was used for aggregating these processes to canopy...... abovecanopy and within-canopy humidity, and despite large gradients in CO2 concentration during early morning hours after nights with stable conditions, neither humidity nor CO2 played an important role for vertical heterogeneity of photosynthesis and transpiration....

  6. The extent of immission damage to coniferous forests in the GDR around the year 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, E.

    1991-01-01

    The economic effects of air pollution extend to the economic result of forestry and also directly to the state of forests; the latter damage includes loss of supplies, growth and unsuitability for felling and the adverse effect on forests as a place for rest and recreation. In this publication, results of calculations on the extent of this damage to the coniferous forests of the former DDR (differentiated according to spruce and pine and to the degree of damage) are submitted. The knowledge of the amount of this damage is of economic and forestry policy interest and it is gaining increasing trade importance. (orig.) [de

  7. The role of litterfall in transferring Fukushima-derived radiocesium to a coniferous forest floor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teramage, Mengistu T., E-mail: teramaget@yahoo.com [Center for Research in Isotopes and Environmental Dynamics, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba shi, Ibaraki 305-8572 (Japan); Onda, Yuichi; Kato, Hiroaki [Center for Research in Isotopes and Environmental Dynamics, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba shi, Ibaraki 305-8572 (Japan); Gomi, Takashi [Department of International Environmental and Agricultural Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchuu, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    The deposition of Fukushima-derived radiocesium via falling litter in a coniferous forest 180 km downwind immediately following the nuclear power plant accident was investigated. The litterfall contribution to the transfer of radiocesium from the forest canopy to the forest floor was determined, and this pathway was compared with hydrological pathways. The results demonstrated that during the observation period, a total of approximately 5.5 kBq m{sup −2} of Fukushima-derived radiocesium was deposited on the forest floor through throughfall (53%), stemflow (2.3%) and litterfall (45%) routes. The data revealed that the contributions of hydrological pathways became less important as time passed. However, the litterfall route, which transferred approximately 31% (2.5 ± 0.6 kBq m{sup −2}) of the local fallout within the observation period, continued depositing radiocesium onto the forest floor. - Graphical abstract: Schematic diagram summarizing the depositional routes of radiocesium in the cypress forest during the observation period (March to October, 2011). - Highlights: • Fukushima-derived radiocesium deposition in a coniferous forest was explored. • Approximately 68% of the radiocesium was deposited onto the forest floor. • The ecological half-life of the radiocesium in the forest canopy was 180 days. • The roles of hydrological pathways decreased over time. • The litterfall route continued to deposit radiocesium onto the forest floor.

  8. Delimbing and Cross-cutting of Coniferous Trees–Time Consumption, Work Productivity and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcadie Ciubotaru

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This research established the time consumption, work time structure, and productivity for primary processing in felling areas of coniferous trees felled with a chainsaw. Delimbing and partial cross-cutting were taken into consideration. The research was conducted in a mixed spruce and fir tree stand situated in the Carpathian Mountains. The team of workers consisted of a chainsaw operator and assistant with over 10 years of experience. The results indicated a total time of 536.32 s·m−3 (1145.26 s·tree−1, work performance (including delays of 6.716 m3·h−1 (3.14 tree·h−1, and work productivity (without delays of 35.459 m3·h−1 (16.58 tree·h−1. The chainsaw productivity during tree cross-cutting was 82.29 cm2·s−1. Delimbing accounted for 96.18% of the real work time, while cross-cutting accounted for 3.82%. The time consumption for delimbing and cross-cutting, as well as the work productivity and performance in the primary processing of coniferous trees in the felling area, were influenced by the breast height diameter, stem length, and tree volume, while the chainsaw productivity was influenced by the diameter of the cross-cut sections. The relationships between the aforementioned dependent and independent variables were determined by simple and linear multiple regression equations.

  9. Methodology for iodine-129 determination in coniferous plant by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintana, E.E.; Thyssen, S.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The measurement methods of iodine-129 ( 129 I) include liquid scintillation counting, mass spectrometry analysis, X-ray spectrometry and neutron activation analysis. The combination of long half-life and low radiation energy, limit the sensitivity of a direct measurement in environmental matrixes. The neutron activation analysis (NAA) permits the increase in the sensitivity because of the high thermal neutron cross section of 129 I. The reaction produced is 129 I (n,γ) 130 I and the Eγ (536 keV) of iodine-130 (t 1/2 = 12,6 hours) is measured. The developed methodology allows the determination of 129 I in coniferous needles using NAA. The chemical treatment removes the interferences present in the matrix, as well as the Bromine-82 originated in the activation process. The analytical method is divided in six steps: a) digestion by alkaline fusion; b) radiochemical purification of 129 I by distillation followed by solvent extraction; c) distillation and adsorption on activated charcoal; d) neutron irradiation; e) radiochemical purification of 130 I by distillation followed by solvent extraction; f) gamma spectrometry. Iodine-131 tracer is added, and a chemical recovery of 95% in the distillations is obtained. The whole process recovery is within 70% and 85%. The detection limit is 0.48 mBq. Several factors affect this value, such as sample type, variety of coniferous, natural iodine concentration, irradiation time and neutron flux. (author) [es

  10. Management Effectiveness of a Secondary Coniferous Forest for Landscape Appreciation and Psychological Restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Norimasa; Fujiwara, Akio; Saito, Haruo; Horiuchi, Masahiro

    2017-07-18

    We investigated the influence of forest management on landscape appreciation and psychological restoration in on-site settings by exposing respondents to an unmanaged, dense coniferous (crowding) forest and a managed (thinned) coniferous forest; we set the two experimental settings in the forests of the Fuji Iyashinomoroi Woodland Study Center. The respondents were individually exposed to both settings while sitting for 15 min and were required to answer three questionnaires to analyze the psychological restorative effects before and after the experiment (feeling (the Profile of Mood States), affect (the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule), and subjective restorativeness (the Restorative Outcome Scale). To compare landscape appreciation, they were required to answer another two questionnaires only after the experiment, for scene appreciation (the semantic differential scale) and for the restorative properties of each environment (the Perceived Restorativeness Scale). Finally, we obtained these findings: (1) the respondents evaluated each forest environment highly differently and evaluated the thinned forest setting more positively; (2) the respondents' impressions of the two physical environments did not appear to be accurately reflected in their evaluations; (3) forest environments have potential restorative effects whether or not they are managed, but these effects can be partially enhanced by managing the forests.

  11. Input of trace substances to coniferous forests by fog interception at high elevations of Black Forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, P.; Pahl, S.

    1993-10-01

    The deposition of trace substances to a coniferous forest has been estimated by means of a one-dimensional cloud droplet deposition model. For a period of 21 months the liquid water content has been measured and 89 samples of cloud water from the weather station Feldberg have been analysed for chemical composition. These data and meteorological routine observations have been used as input parameters for the deposition model. Deposition calculations to a 40 years old coniferous forest for the period 1982-1991 showed that the cloud water deposition amounts to 33% of the precipitation amount on the average and varies between 23 and 43% in single years. The highest cloud water deposition rates occur during fall and winter. The trace substance concentration in cloud water has been found to be higher than in precipitation, by a factor between 6 and 12, depending on the type of ions. Typically seasonal variations of normalized ion concentrations could be shown to exist as well as dependencies on wind direction. Air mass transport from the industries of the Stuttgart area resulted in higher trace substance concentrations in cloud water. The deposition of trace substances via fog interception during the summer months is as high and in the winter months higher than that by wet deposition. The forests at high elevations of Black Forest are charged appreciably by fog interception. (orig.). 31 figs., 5 tabs., 39 refs [de

  12. Climate Risk Modelling of Balsam Woolly Adelgid Damage Severity in Subalpine Fir Stands of Western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrinkevich, Kathryn H; Progar, Robert A; Shaw, David C

    2016-01-01

    The balsam woolly adelgid (Adelges piceae (Ratzeburg) (Homoptera: Adelgidae)) (BWA) is a nonnative, invasive insect that threatens Abies species throughout North America. It is well established in the Pacific Northwest, but continues to move eastward through Idaho and into Montana and potentially threatens subalpine fir to the south in the central and southern Rocky Mountains. We developed a climatic risk model and map that predicts BWA impacts to subalpine fir using a two-step process. Using 30-year monthly climate normals from sites with quantitatively derived BWA damage severity index values, we built a regression model that significantly explained insect damage. The sites were grouped into two distinct damage categories (high damage and mortality versus little or no mortality and low damage) and the model estimates for each group were used to designate distinct value ranges for four climatic risk categories: minimal, low, moderate, and high. We then calculated model estimates for each cell of a 4-kilometer resolution climate raster and mapped the risk categories over the entire range of subalpine fir in the western United States. The spatial variation of risk classes indicates a gradient of climatic susceptibility generally decreasing from the Olympic Peninsula in Washington and the Cascade Range in Oregon and Washington moving eastward, with the exception of some high risk areas in northern Idaho and western Montana. There is also a pattern of decreasing climatic susceptibility from north to south in the Rocky Mountains. Our study provides an initial step for modeling the relationship between climate and BWA damage severity across the range of subalpine fir. We showed that September minimum temperature and a metric calculated as the maximum May temperature divided by total May precipitation were the best climatic predictors of BWA severity. Although winter cold temperatures and summer heat have been shown to influence BWA impacts in other locations, these

  13. The State and the Development of Industrial Plantation Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarmalik Sudarmalik

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Development of industrial plantation forest is a form of principal-agent relationship, in which the Ministry of Forestry as a principal gives utilization permit to the entrepreneur as an agent, known as the Forest Timber Product Exploitation Permit on Planted Forest. This utilization permit obtained by the agents is operationally conducted by other parties through a cooperative agreement. The purpose of this study is to obtain an information regarding to the state position in the development of industrial plantation forest. The study was conducted in Riau Province, using the constructivist paradigm with phenomenological method. Data were obtained through in-depth interviews to selected informants. Data were also obtained from the review of documents to complement the interview. Data analysis was conducted using property rights and principal agent theories. The phenomenon of multi-chain transfer of the management rights of plantation forest that occoured in the observed companies showed that the state was unable to effectively control to the forest plantation. The study recommends that state should issue regulation to decrease or stops further transfer of the management rights of plantation forest. However, further study needs to overcome the existing over accumulation of plantation forest in a few hands.Keywords: industrial plantation forest, property right, principal agent, the state position, authority

  14. Regional Mapping of Plantation Extent Using Multisensor Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbick, N.; Ledoux, L.; Hagen, S.; Salas, W.

    2016-12-01

    Industrial forest plantations are expanding rapidly across the tropics and monitoring extent is critical for understanding environmental and socioeconomic impacts. In this study, new, multisensor imagery were evaluated and integrated to extract the strengths of each sensor for mapping plantation extent at regional scales. Three distinctly different landscapes with multiple plantation types were chosen to consider scalability and transferability. These were Tanintharyi, Myanmar, West Kalimantan, Indonesia, and southern Ghana. Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI), Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar-2 (PALSAR-2), and Sentinel-1A images were fused within a Classification and Regression Tree (CART) framework using random forest and high-resolution surveys. Multi-criteria evaluations showed both L-and C-band gamma nought γ° backscatter decibel (dB), Landsat reflectance ρλ, and texture indices were useful for distinguishing oil palm and rubber plantations from other land types. The classification approach identified 750,822 ha or 23% of the Taninathryi, Myanmar, and 216,086 ha or 25% of western West Kalimantan as plantation with very high cross validation accuracy. The mapping approach was scalable and transferred well across the different geographies and plantation types. As archives for Sentinel-1, Landsat-8, and PALSAR-2 continue to grow, mapping plantation extent and dynamics at moderate resolution over large regions should be feasible.

  15. Some ecological guidelines for large-scale biomass plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, W.; Cook, J.H.; Beyea, J. [National Audubon Society, Tavernier, FL (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The National Audubon Society sees biomass as an appropriate and necessary source of energy to help replace fossil fuels in the near future, but is concerned that large-scale biomass plantations could displace significant natural vegetation and wildlife habitat, and reduce national and global biodiversity. We support the development of an industry large enough to provide significant portions of our energy budget, but we see a critical need to ensure that plantations are designed and sited in ways that minimize ecological disruption, or even provide environmental benefits. We have been studying the habitat value of intensively managed short-rotation tree plantations. Our results show that these plantations support large populations of some birds, but not all of the species using the surrounding landscape, and indicate that their value as habitat can be increased greatly by including small areas of mature trees within them. We believe short-rotation plantations can benefit regional biodiversity if they can be deployed as buffers for natural forests, or as corridors connecting forest tracts. To realize these benefits, and to avoid habitat degradation, regional biomass plantation complexes (e.g., the plantations supplying all the fuel for a powerplant) need to be planned, sited, and developed as large-scale units in the context of the regional landscape mosaic.

  16. Expansion of Industrial Plantations Continues to Threaten Malayan Tiger Habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varada S. Shevade

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia has some of the highest deforestation rates globally, with Malaysia being identified as a deforestation hotspot. The Malayan tiger, a critically endangered subspecies of the tiger endemic to Peninsular Malaysia, is threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation. In this study, we estimate the natural forest loss and conversion to plantations in Peninsular Malaysia and specifically in its tiger habitat between 1988 and 2012 using the Landsat data archive. We estimate a total loss of 1.35 Mha of natural forest area within Peninsular Malaysia over the entire study period, with 0.83 Mha lost within the tiger habitat. Nearly half (48% of the natural forest loss area represents conversion to tree plantations. The annual area of new plantation establishment from natural forest conversion increased from 20 thousand ha year−1 during 1988–2000 to 34 thousand ha year−1 during 2001–2012. Large-scale industrial plantations, primarily those of oil palm, as well as recently cleared land, constitute 80% of forest converted to plantations since 1988. We conclude that industrial plantation expansion has been a persistent threat to natural forests within the Malayan tiger habitat. Expanding oil palm plantations dominate forest conversions while those for rubber are an emerging threat.

  17. The Effect of Re-Planting Trees on Soil Microbial Communities in a Wildfire-Induced Subalpine Grassland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ed-Haun Chang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wildfire often causes tremendous changes in ecosystems, particularly in subalpine and alpine areas, which are vulnerable due to severe climate conditions such as cold temperature and strong wind. This study aimed to clarify the effect of tree re-planting on ecosystem services such as the soil microbial community after several decades. We compared the re-planted forest and grassland with the mature forest as a reference in terms of soil microbial biomass C and N (Cmic and Nmic, enzyme activities, phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA composition, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE. The Cmic and Nmic did not differ among the grassland, re-planted forest and mature forest soil; however, ratios of Cmic/Corg and Nmic/Ntot decreased from the grassland to re-planted forest and mature forest soil. The total PLFAs and those attributed to bacteria and Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria did not differ between the re-planted forest and grassland soil. Principle component analysis of the PLFA content separated the grassland from re-planted forest and mature forest soil. Similarly, DGGE analysis revealed changes in both bacterial and fungal community structures with changes in vegetation. Our results suggest that the microbial community structure changes with the re-planting of trees after a fire event in this subalpine area. Recovery of the soil microbial community to the original state in a fire-damaged site in a subalpine area may require decades, even under a re-planted forest.

  18. Impact of interspecific interactions on the soil water uptake depth in a young temperate mixed species plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossiord, Charlotte; Gessler, Arthur; Granier, André; Berger, Sigrid; Bréchet, Claude; Hentschel, Rainer; Hommel, Robert; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Bonal, Damien

    2014-11-01

    Interactions between tree species in forests can be beneficial to ecosystem functions and services related to the carbon and water cycles by improving for example transpiration and productivity. However, little is known on below- and above-ground processes leading to these positive effects. We tested whether stratification in soil water uptake depth occurred between four tree species in a 10-year-old temperate mixed species plantation during a dry summer. We selected dominant and co-dominant trees of European beech, Sessile oak, Douglas fir and Norway spruce in areas with varying species diversity, competition intensity, and where different plant functional types (broadleaf vs. conifer) were present. We applied a deuterium labelling approach that consisted of spraying labelled water to the soil surface to create a strong vertical gradient of the deuterium isotope composition in the soil water. The deuterium isotope composition of both the xylem sap and the soil water was measured before labelling, and then again three days after labelling, to estimate the soil water uptake depth using a simple modelling approach. We also sampled leaves and needles from selected trees to measure their carbon isotope composition (a proxy for water use efficiency) and total nitrogen content. At the end of the summer, we found differences in the soil water uptake depth between plant functional types but not within types: on average, coniferous species extracted water from deeper layers than did broadleaved species. Neither species diversity nor competition intensity had a detectable influence on soil water uptake depth, foliar water use efficiency or foliar nitrogen concentration in the species studied. However, when coexisting with an increasing proportion of conifers, beech extracted water from progressively deeper soil layers. We conclude that complementarity for water uptake could occur in this 10-year-old plantation because of inherent differences among functional groups (conifers

  19. Assessing the impact of plantation forestry on plant biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Ch. Braun

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Effects of plantation forestry on biodiversity are controversially discussed in literature. While some authors stress positive effects, others tend to attribute a largely negative influence to plantations. One important factor steering the influence on biodiversity are management practices. A second important factor is the environmental matrix. Chile offers the option to analyse both factors jointly. The coastal range of central Chile has experienced rapid and widespread replacement of native Nothofagus spp. forests in favour of Pinus radiata plantations. Here, native forests remain limited to small patches surrounded by an environmental matrix of plantations. Management is rather intensive and not designed to maintain biodiversity. While in the coastal range of central Chile the transformation from native forests to non-native tree plantations has almost come to an end, spatial extension of P. contorta and P. ponderosa plantations has just recently begun in Chilean Patagonia. While the management is similar to central Chile, plantations rather exist as small patches surrounded by an environmental matrix of native plant formations (e.g. Nothofagus spp. forests and Nothofagus spp. scrublands. In the framework of this work, effects of the two diametric land usages on biodiversity are assessed and compared. Biodiversity is assessed at the α-, β- and γ-scale. At the α-scale, biodiversity impacts are inferred statistically, using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s PostHoc test. Biodiversity of plants at both sites is significantly reduced in plantations when compared to native forests or scrublands. Plantation forestry lowers α-biodiversity and does not provide additional habitats for specialists. At the β-scale, weak edge effects due to the presence of native forests are observed. In total, plantation forestry tends to promote plant invasions and impairs the survival of endemics. At the γ-scale, plant species communities where predominantly native

  20. Evaluation of meteorological parameters over a coniferous forest in a single-column chemistry-climate model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganzeveld, L.N.; Klemm, O.; Rappenglück, B.; Valverde-Canossa, J.

    2006-01-01

    The simulated micrometerology by a single-column chemistry-climate model (SCM) has been evaluated by comparison with BEWA2000 field campaign measurements over a coniferous forest, July-August 2001. This comparison indicates the limitations in the representation of the SCM's micrometeorological

  1. Methane oxidation in soil profiles of Dutch and Finnish coniferous forests with different soil texture and atmospheric nitrogen deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saari, A.; Martikainen, P.J.; Ferm, A.; Ruuskanen, J.; Boer, W. de; Troelstra, S.R.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    1997-01-01

    We studied methane oxidation capacity in soil profiles of Dutch and Finnish coniferous forests. The Finnish sites (n = 9) had nitrogen depositions from 3 to 36 kg N ha⁻¹ a⁻¹. The deposition of N on the Dutch sites (n = 13) was higher ranging from 50 to 92 kg N ha⁻¹ a⁻¹. The Dutch sites had also

  2. Methane oxidation in soil profiles of Dutch and Finnish coniferous forests with different soil texture and atmospheric nitrogen deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saari, A.; Martikainen, P.J.; Ferm, A.; Ruuskanen, J.; De Boer, W.; Troelstra, S.R.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    1997-01-01

    We studied methane oxidation capacity in soil profiles of Dutch and Finnish coniferous forests. The Finnish sites (n = 9) had nitrogen depositions from 3 to 36 kg N ha(-1) a(-1). The deposition of N on the Dutch sites (n = 13) was higher ranging from 50 to 92 kg N ha(-1) a(-1). The Dutch sites had

  3. Regression modeling and mapping of coniferous forest basal area and tree density from discrete-return lidar and multispectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew T. Hudak; Nicholas L. Crookston; Jeffrey S. Evans; Michael K. Falkowski; Alistair M. S. Smith; Paul E. Gessler; Penelope Morgan

    2006-01-01

    We compared the utility of discrete-return light detection and ranging (lidar) data and multispectral satellite imagery, and their integration, for modeling and mapping basal area and tree density across two diverse coniferous forest landscapes in north-central Idaho. We applied multiple linear regression models subset from a suite of 26 predictor variables derived...

  4. Dry coniferous forest restoration and understory plant diversity: The importance of community heterogeneity and the scale of observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erich Kyle Dodson; David W. Peterson

    2010-01-01

    Maintaining understory plant species diversity is an important management goal as forest restoration and fuel reduction treatments are applied extensively to dry coniferous forests of western North America. However, understory diversity is a function of both local species richness (number of species in a sample unit) and community heterogeneity (beta diversity) at...

  5. Minimizing measurement uncertainties of coniferous needle-leaf optical properties, part II: experimental set-up and error analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yanez Rausell, L.; Malenovsky, Z.; Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Schaepman, M.E.

    2014-01-01

    We present uncertainties associated with the measurement of coniferous needle-leaf optical properties (OPs) with an integrating sphere using an optimized gap-fraction (GF) correction method, where GF refers to the air gaps appearing between the needles of a measured sample. We used an optically

  6. Foraging trade-offs along a predator-permanence gradient in subalpine wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissinger, S.A.; Whiteman, H.H.; Sparks, G.B.; Rouse, G.L.; Brown, W.S.

    1999-01-01

    We conducted a series of field and laboratory experiments to determine the direct and indirect effects of a top predator, the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum nebulosum), on larvae of two species of limnephilid caddisflies (Limnephilus externus and Asynarchus nigriculus) in subalpine wetlands in central Colorado. Asynarchus larvae predominate in temporary wetlands and are aggressive intraguild predators on Limnephilus larvae, which only predominate in permanent basins with salamanders. We first conducted a field experiment in mesocosms (cattle tanks) to quantify the predatory effects of different life stages of salamanders on the two caddisfly species. Two life stages of the salamanders (larvae and paedomorphs) preferentially preyed on Asynarchus relative to Limnephilus. Subsequent laboratory experiments revealed that high Asynarchus activity rates and relatively ineffective antipredatory behaviors led to higher salamander detection and attack rates compared to Limnephilus. In a second field experiment (full factorial for presence and absence of each of the three species), we found that salamander predation on Asynarchus had an indirect positive effect on Limnephilus: survival was higher in the presence of salamanders + Asynarchus than with just Asynarchus. In the laboratory we compared the predatory effects of salamanders with and without their mouths sewn shut and found the observed indirect positive effect on Limnephilus survival to be mainly the result of reduced numbers of Asynarchus rather than salamander-induced changes in Asynarchus behavior. We argue that indirect effects of predator-predator interactions on shared prey will be mainly density-mediated and not trait-mediated when one of the predators (in this case, Asynarchus) is under strong selection for rapid growth and therefore does not modify foraging behaviors in response to the other predator. The reciprocal dominance of Limnephilus and Asynarchus in habitats with and without salamanders

  7. Ethnobotany of medicinal plants among the communities of Alpine and Sub-alpine regions of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayani, Sadaf; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Sultana, Shazia; Khan Shinwari, Zabta; Zafar, Muhammed; Yaseen, Ghulam; Hussain, Manzoor; Bibi, Tahira

    2015-04-22

    To best of our knowledge it is first quantitative ethno-botanical study from Alpine and Sub-alpine, Western Himalaya of Pakistan. The study aims to report, compare the uses and highlight the ethno-botanical significance of medicinal plants for treatment of various diseases. A total of 290 (278 males and 12 females) informants including 14 Local Traditional Healers (LTHs) were interviewed. Information was collected using semi-structured interviews, analyzed and compared by quantitative ethno-botanical indices such as Informant Consensus Factor (ICF), Relative frequency of citation (RFC), use value (UV), Fidelity Level (FL) and Jaccard index (JI). A total of 125 plant species (Gymnosperms 7 species, Monocotyledons 2 and 116 Di-cotyledons) belonging to 41 families are collected, identified and ethno-botanically assessed. The most dominant family is Ranunculaceae (20 species) followed by Rosaceae (14 species). In diseases treated, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) diseases have highest proportion (27.5%) followed by respiratory diseases (20%) in the mountain communities. The most dominant life form of plants used is herbs (78%) followed by shrubs (19%) while the most commonly used plant parts are leaves (44 reports) followed by underground part, the roots (37 reports). The highest ICF (0.68) is found for ear, nose and eye disease category followed by respiratory disorders (0.46). There are 15 medicinal plants having 100% FL. Use value (UV) and Relative frequency of citation (RFC) range from 0.03 to 0.53 and 0.04 to 0.23 respectively. In comparison, maximum similarity index is found in the studies with JI 19.52 followed by 17.39. Similarity percentage of plant uses range from 1.69% to 19.52% while dissimilarity percentage varies from 0% to 20%. The Alpine and Sub-alpine regions of Pakistan are rich in medicinal plants and still need more research exploration. On the other hand, ethno-botanical knowledge in study areas is decreasing day by day due to high emigration rates

  8. [Diversity of soil nematode communities in the subalpine and alpine forests of western Sichuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya; Yang, Wan Qin; Wu, Fu Zhong; Yang, Fan; Lan, Li Ying; Liu, Yu Wei; Guo, Cai Hong; Tan, Bo

    2017-10-01

    In order to understand the diversity of soil nematodes in the subalpine/alpine forests of the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, soil nematodes in the primary forest, mixed forest and secondary forest of Abies faxoniana were extracted by elutriation and sugar-centrifugation method in July 2015, and the composition and structure characteristics of soil nematode communities were studied in the three forests at different altitudes. A total of 37950 soil nematodes were collected, which belonged to 20 families and 27 genera, and the mean density was 4217 ind·100 g -1 dry soil. Filenchus was the dominant genus in the primary forest, and Filenchus and Pararotylenchus in the mixed forest and secondary forest, respectively. The individual number of each dominant genus was significantly affected by forest type. All nematode individuals were classified into the four trophic groups of bacterivores, fungivores, plant-parasites and omnivore-predators. The fungivores were dominant in the primary and secondary forest and the bacterivores in the mixed forest. The number of soil nematode c-p (colonizer-persister) groups of c-p 1, c-p 2, c-p 3 and c-p 4 accounted for 6.1%, 51.1%, 30.0% and 12.7% of the total nematode abundance, respectively. The maturity index (MI), the total maturity index (∑MI) and the plant parasitic index (PPI) of soil nematodes decreased gradually with the increase of altitude. The nematode channel ratio in the mixed forest was higher than 0.5, but that in the primary forest and secondary forest was below 0.5. The forest type significantly affected the soil nematode maturity index and channel ratio, but the forest type, soil layer and their interaction had no significant effect on the diversity index. There were obvious diffe-rences in the composition, nutrient structure and energy flow channel of soil nematodes in the subalpine/alpine forests of western Sichuan, providing an important reference for understanding the function of soil nematodes in soil processes

  9. Application of 125I seed permanent plantation in osseous metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fujun; Wu Peihong; Lu Mingjian; Li Kui; Zhang Liang; Huang Jinhua; Fan Weijun; Zhao Ming; Gu Yangkui; Liu Jian; Wang Junjie

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the value of 125 I permanent plantation in treating osseous metastases. Methods: Twenty-two patients with osseous metastases were accepted radioactive seeds 125 I permanent plantation. The curative effect was appraised according to the degree of ostalgia relieving and the changing of the radiology imaging in patients. Results: Accepted radioactive seeds 125 I permanent plantation, relief of pain was obtained and the effective rate is 91% (20/22). However none of the patients showed severe side-effect. Among 32 lesions in 22 cases followed-up by CT in 2 months, 4 obtained CR, 18 obtained PR, 10 NC and 0 PD. The responsive rate was 68.7%. Conclusion: 125 I permanent plantation procedure can be a safe and effective method in treating osseous metastases and obtaining good clinical effects with minimal damage and few complications. (authors)

  10. Plantation Patriarchy and Structural Violence: Women Workers in Sri Lanka

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Kurian (Rachel); K. Jayawardena (Kumari)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Plantation production began in Sri Lanka in the early 19th century under British colonial rule, when the government provided financial incentives and infrastructural support for the commercialisation and export of agricultural crops in line with promoting

  11. Impacts of Smallholder Tree Plantation in Amhara Region of Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optiplex 7010 Pro

    more on the environmental and hydrological effects and impacts of eucalyptus ...... to scale up plantation practices by prioritizing certain areas of intervention in ... and natural fertilizer (ex. manure) and agronomic practices such as crop.

  12. Results of the 2000 Creek Plantation Swamp Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fledderman, P.D.

    2000-01-01

    This report is a survey of the Creek Plantation located along the Savannah River and borders the southeast portion of the Savannah River Site. The land is primarily undeveloped and agricultural; its purpose is to engage in equestrian-related operations. A portion of Creek Plantation along the Savannah River is a low-lying swamp, known as the Savannah River Swamp, which is uninhabited and not easily accessible

  13. Working With Plantation Communities: A Reflection of Social Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Rahman Saili; Jamayah Saili

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The plantation industry in Malaysia is aggressively expanding over the past decade driven by global demands for palm oil as a food staple and more recently bio fuels. The rapid growth in the industry is heavily dependent upon high labour and workforce. Such intensity has carried out social impact on the communities including plantation workers, small holders and their dependents. Therefore, this paper will outline what appear to be never ending issues impetus social problems. ...

  14. Isotope studies to determine dry deposition of sulfate to deciduous and coniferous trees: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garten, C.T. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Experiments have been conducted at two locations near Oak Ridge, Tennessee, with radioactive 35 S (87 day half-life) to examine the cycling behavior of sulfur in yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera), red maple (Acer rubrum), and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) trees. Some findings pertain to methods development for estimating dry deposition of sulfur to forest canopies and the magnitude of sulfur emissions from natural sources (Task II). We will determine through field studies, the internal cycling, storage, and biogenic emission of sulfur, as traced by 35 SO 4 2- , in environments impacted by atmospheric sulfate deposition; and will determine through isotope dilution studies, the contribution of foliar leaching and dry deposition to net throughfall (NTF) sulfate concentrations beneath deciduous and coniferous trees in such environments. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  15. Belowground ectomycorrhizal fungal communities respond to liming in three southern Swedish coniferous forest stands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøller, Rasmus; Clemmensen, Karina

    2009-01-01

    In this study we report on changes in the belowground ectomycorrhizal fungal communities in southern Swedish coniferous forests as a consequence of liming with 3-7 ton limestone per hectare 16 years prior to the study. A total of 107 ectomycorrhizal fungi were identified from 969 independently...... sampled root tips by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA. Forty, 59 and 51 species were identified in three pine and spruce forests. Within all sites only about 25% of the species overlapped between the limed and the reference areas. However, the most abundant species...... were often found in both limed and reference plots and 60-70% of the root tips at each site were colonised by species occurring in both limed and reference plots. Across all three sites, fungal species belonging to the genus Tylospora and the order Pezizales became significantly more frequent in limed...

  16. HS-SPME analysis of volatile organic compounds of coniferous needle litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidorov, V. A.; Vinogorova, V. T.; Rafałowski, K.

    The composition of volatile emission of Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris) and spruce ( Picea exelsa) litter was studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and samples were collected by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method. The list of identified compounds includes over 60 organic substances of different classes. It was established that volatile emission contain not only components of essential oils of pine and spruce needles but also a large number of organic compounds which are probably secondary metabolites of litter-decomposing fungi. They include lower carbonyl compounds and alcohols as well as products of terpene dehydration and oxidation. These data show that the processes of litter decomposition are an important source of reactive organic compounds under canopy of coniferous forests.

  17. Transfer equations for cesium-137 for coniferous forest understorey plant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth, E.; Hiersche, L.; Kammerer, L.; Krajewska, G.; Krestel, R.; Mahler, S.; Roemmelt, R.

    1994-01-01

    The transfer of cesium-137 from organic soil horizons to understorey vegetation has been studied on two coniferous tree sites. In total, 14 different plants preferably taking up their nutrients from organic soil layers were taken into account. A relatively good correlation was found to exist between the transfer factor (Bq/kg plant dry wt./Bq/kg O-horizons dry wt.) for dicotyledons (r=0.51) and berry plants (r=0.63), but there was no correlation for monocotyledons (r= 0 .15). The correlations could not be improved by additionally taking potassium in plant and soil into account. These results are discussed in respect to different parameters influencing the amount of cesium-137 uptake, including plants supported by mycorrhizal fungi

  18. The State and the Development of Industrial Plantation Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarmalik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of industrial plantation forest is a form of principal-agent relationship, in which the Ministry of Forestry as a principal gives utilization permit to the entrepreneur as an agent, known as the Forest Timber Product Exploitation Permit on Planted Forest. This utilization permit obtained by the agents is operationally conducted by other parties through a cooperative agreement. The purpose of this study is to obtain an information regarding to the state position in the development of industrial plantation forest. The study was conducted in Riau Province, using the constructivist paradigm with phenomenological method. Data were obtained through in-depth interviews to selected informants. Data were also obtained from the review of documents to complement the interview. Data analysis was conducted using property rights and principal agent theories. The phenomenon of multi-chain transfer of the management rights of plantation forest that occoured in the observed companies showed that the state was unable to effectively control to the forest plantation. The study recommends that state should issue regulation to decrease or stops further transfer of the management rights of plantation forest. However, further study needs to overcome the existing over accumulation of plantation forest in a few hands.

  19. Transmission of Leishmania in coffee plantations of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Alexander

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of Leishmania was studied in 27 coffee plantations in the Brazilian State of Minas Gerais. Eighteen females and six males (11.6% of the people tested, aged between 7-65 gave a positive response to the Montenegro skin test. Awareness of sand flies based on the ability of respondents to identify the insects using up to seven predetermined characteristics was significantly greater among inhabitants of houses occupied by at least one Mn+ve individual. Five species of phlebotomine sand fly, including three suspected Leishmania vectors, were collected within plantations under three different cultivation systems. Four of these species i.e., Lu. fischeri (Pinto 1926, Lu. migonei (França 1920, Lu. misionensis (Castro 1959 and Lutzomyia whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho 1939 were collected in an organic plantation and the last of these was also present in the other two plantation types. The remaining species, Lu. intermedia (Lutz & Neiva 1912, was collected in plantations under both the "adensado" and "convencional" systems. The results of this study indicate that transmission of Leishmania to man in coffee-growing areas of Minas Gerais may involve phlebotomine sand flies that inhabit plantations.

  20. Radiocesium in brown trout (Salmo trutta) from a subalpine lake ecosystem after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brittain, J.E.; Storruste, Anders; Larsen, Elena

    1991-01-01

    After Chernobyl in April 1986, radioactive cesium has been measured in Oevre Heimdalsvatn, a Norwegian subalpine lake, situated in an area of high fallout. The lake is an important reference site and has been the subject of extensive ecosystem studies since the 1950s. Emphasis has been given to measuring long-term trends in the activity content of radioactive cesium in the brown trout (Salmo trutta) population. After ice-break in June 1986, the average total cesium activity content rose to 7000 Bq/kg wet weight. The activity content fell during 1987 and at ice-break in 1988 was 4000 Bq/kg. However, there was no further reduction during the summers of 1988 and 1989, possibly due to increased inputs from the catchment. There is considerable variation in the radiocesium activity content measured in individual fish. On the basis of the changes in cesium activity content in trout since 1986, an observed half-life for 137 Cs and 134 Cs in trout of 3.0 and 1.3 years, respectively, has been estimated. (author)

  1. Stand structure and vegetation dynamics of a subalpine treed fen in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.B. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Biology

    1997-06-01

    The tree population size structure and relationship between tree diameter and age were examined in a subalpine fen and surrounding Picea-Abies forest in northern Colorado. The fen grades from a sedge fen, through an ecotone, to a treed fen (i.e. fen colonized by trees). Tree growth rate varies across the vegetational gradient, with the sedge fen having the slowest growth, and the upland forest having the fastest growth. Differences in growth rate are related to the average size of peat hummocks, with areas containing tall hummocks exhibiting the highest tree growth rates. Size structures display the characteristic reverse-J distribution generally indicative of stable populations, but forest vegetation is expanding into the open regions of the fen, and within the treed fen an increase in Abies lasiocarpa is occurring. These changes are primarily attributed to a positive feedback situation wherein the fen`s surface is built up by peat accumulation. Distinct hummocks form first on the open fen but then coalesce to form raised peat islands in the treed fen. This new substrate provides habitat with a comparatively low water table and allows the growth of mesophytic forest vegetation. A pathway for this vegetational development is proposed. 40 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Patch-Scale Effects of Equine Disturbance on Arthropod Assemblages and Vegetation Structure in Subalpine Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmquist, Jeffrey G.; Schmidt-Gengenbach, Jutta; Ballenger, Elizabeth A.

    2014-06-01

    Assessments of vertebrate disturbance to plant and animal assemblages often contrast grazed versus ungrazed meadows or other larger areas of usage, and this approach can be powerful. Random sampling of such habitats carries the potential, however, for smaller, more intensely affected patches to be missed and for other responses that are only revealed at smaller scales to also escape detection. We instead sampled arthropod assemblages and vegetation structure at the patch scale (400-900 m2 patches) within subalpine wet meadows of Yosemite National Park (USA), with the goal of determining if there were fine-scale differences in magnitude and directionality of response at three levels of grazing intensity. Effects were both stronger and more nuanced than effects evidenced by previous random sampling of paired grazed and ungrazed meadows: (a) greater negative effects on vegetation structure and fauna in heavily used patches, but (b) some positive effects on fauna in lightly grazed patches, suggested by trends for mean richness and total and population abundances. Although assessment of disturbance at either patch or landscape scales should be appropriate, depending on the management question at hand, our patch-scale work demonstrated that there can be strong local effects on the ecology of these wetlands that may not be detected by comparing larger scale habitats.

  3. Targeted grazing for the restoration of sub-alpine shrub-encroached grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Probo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The decline of agro-pastoral activities has led to a widespread tree and shrub-encroachment of former semi-natural meso-eutrophic grasslands in many European mountain regions. Temporary night camp areas (TNCA and mineral mix supplements for targeted cattle were arranged over shrub-encroached areas to restore grassland vegetation within the Val Troncea Natural Park (Italy. From 2011 to 2015, their effects on vegetation structure and pastoral value of forage were assessed along permanent transects. Four years after treatments, both practices were effective in reducing the shrub cover and increasing the cover and average height of the herbaceous layer, but changes were more remarkable within TNCA. Moreover, the arrangement of TNCA decreased the cover of nanophanerophytes and increased the cover of graminoids and high quality species, as well as the overall forage pastoral value. In conclusion, TNCA were the most effective pastoral practice to contrast shrub-encroachment and increase herbage mass and forage quality of sub-alpine grasslands.

  4. Role of grass-legume communities in revegetation of a subalpine mine site in British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanaka, K

    1982-01-01

    This study describes an investigation of the potential for pioneer grass-legume communities to stabilize and ameliorate geologically-fresh soil leading to the establishment of a self-sustaining, progressive plant succession on a surface-mined subalpine site. The study area is located 2000 m above sea level in the Canadian Rocky Mountains. Field studies revealed chronological trends in grass-legume communities at four sites revegetated during 1974-1978 including: species composition, legumes (Trifolium repens L., T. hybridum L. and Medicago sativa L.) performing increasingly poorly on the older sites; biomass changes, a shoot to root ratio (S/R) decreasing from 2.3 to 0.2 as the communities aged; and litter accumulation which continued even on the oldest site. Fertilizer (13-16-10) operationally applied at 150-391 kg/ha enhanced the growth of Dactylis gomerata L. and litter degradation, and acidified the soil. Nitrogen fertilization was also associated with two clear inverse relationships identified between D. glomerata and Festuca rubra L. biomass, and between soil pH and phosphorus levels. In greenhouse tests grasses were revealed to be more efficient soil nitrogen consumers than were legumes and nitrogen fixation decreased significantly (P < 0.01) and linearly with increasing grass seeding rates.

  5. A molecular investigation of soil organic carbon composition across a subalpine catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsiao-Tieh; Lawrence, Corey R.; Winnick, Matthew J.; Bargar, John R.; Maher, Katharine

    2018-01-01

    The dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) storage and turnover are a critical component of the global carbon cycle. Mechanistic models seeking to represent these complex dynamics require detailed SOC compositions, which are currently difficult to characterize quantitatively. Here, we address this challenge by using a novel approach that combines Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and bulk carbon X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to determine the abundance of SOC functional groups, using elemental analysis (EA) to constrain the total amount of SOC. We used this SOC functional group abundance (SOC-fga) method to compare variability in SOC compositions as a function of depth across a subalpine watershed (East River, Colorado, USA) and found a large degree of variability in SOC functional group abundances between sites at different elevations. Soils at a lower elevation are predominantly composed of polysaccharides, while soils at a higher elevation have more substantial portions of carbonyl, phenolic, or aromatic carbon. We discuss the potential drivers of differences in SOC composition between these sites, including vegetation inputs, internal processing and losses, and elevation-driven environmental factors. Although numerical models would facilitate the understanding and evaluation of the observed SOC distributions, quantitative and meaningful measurements of SOC molecular compositions are required to guide such models. Comparison among commonly used characterization techniques on shared reference materials is a critical next step for advancing our understanding of the complex processes controlling SOC compositions.

  6. Soil CO2 efflux among four coniferous forest types of Kashmir Himalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Javid Ahmad; Ganie, Khursheed Ahmad; Sundarapandian, Somaiah

    2015-11-01

    Soil CO2 efflux was measured in four different coniferous forest types (Cedrus deodara (CD), Pinus wallichiana (PW), mixed coniferous (MC), and Abies pindrow (AP)) for a period of 2 years (April 2012 to December 2013). The monthly soil CO2 efflux ranged from 0.8 to 4.1 μmoles CO2 m(-2) s(-1) in 2012 and 1.01 to 5.48 μmoles CO2 m(-2) s(-1) in 2013. The soil CO2 efflux rate was highest in PW forest type in both the years, while it was lowest in MC and CD forest types during 2012 and 2013, respectively. Soil temperature (TS) at a depth of 10 cm ranged from 3.8 to 19.4 °C in 2012 and 3.5 to 19.1 °C in 2013 in all the four forest types. Soil moisture (MS) ranged from 19.8 to 58.6% in 2012 and 18.5 to 58.6% in 2013. Soil CO2 efflux rate was found to be significantly higher in summer than the other seasons and least during winter. Soil CO2 efflux showed a significant positive relationship with TS (R2=0.52 to 0.74), SOC% (R2=0.67), pH (R2=0.68), and shrub biomass (R2=0.51), whereas, only a weak positive relationship was found with soil moisture (R2=0.16 to 0.41), tree density (R2=0.25), tree basal area (R2=0.01), tree biomass (R2=0.07), herb biomass (R2=0.01), and forest floor litter (R2=0.02). Thus, the study indicates that soil CO2 efflux in high mountainous areas is greatly influenced by seasons, soil temperature, and other environmental factors.

  7. Of peasants, plantations, and immigrant proletarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Martí­nez

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Dominican Sugar Plantations: Production and Foreign Labor Integration. MARTIN F. MURPHY. New York: Praeger, 1991. xii + 186 pp. (Cloth US$49.95 Peasants in Distress: Poverty and Unemployment in the Dominican Republic. ROSEMARY VARGAS-LUNDIUS. Boulder CO: Westview 1991. xxi + 387 pp. (Paper US$ 32.95 Few other places in the Caribbean region have as great a potential for international conflict as the island of Hispaniola. The historical antagonism between Haiti and the Dominican Republic is no doubt known to readers of this journal, as is the recent upsurge in tension between the two countries, which culminated in the expulsion of tens of thousands of Haitian immigrants from the Dominican Republic, from June to September 1991. The quickening pace of events, added to the worsening spiral of economic hardship gripping both nations, threaten to render obsolete even the most recent analyses of relations between the two countries. Even so, against the background of an increasingly acrimonious debate between the Dominican government and international human rights organizations accusing it of enslaving Haitian immigrants in the cane flelds, the appearance of two works by long-time students of the migration of Haitians as cane workers to the Dominican Republic is particularly timely.

  8. Water erosion risk prediction in eucalyptus plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayesse Aparecida da Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus plantations are normally found in vulnerable ecosystems such as steep slope, soil with low natural fertility and lands that were degraded by agriculture. The objective of this study was to obtain Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE factors and use them to estimate water erosion risk in regions with eucalyptus planted. The USLE factors were obtained in field plots under natural rainfall in the Rio Doce Basin, MG, Brazil, and the model applied to assess erosion risk using USLE in a Geographic Information System. The study area showed rainfall-runoff erosivity values from 10,721 to 10,642 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 yr-1. Some soils (Latosols had very low erodibility values (2.0 x 10-4 and 1.0 x 10-4t h MJ-1 mm-1, the topographic factor ranged from 0.03 to 10.57 and crop and management factor values obtained for native forest, eucalyptus and planted pasture were 0.09, 0.12 and 0.22, respectively. Water erosion risk estimates for current land use indicated that the areas where should receive more attention were mainly areas with greater topographic factors and those with Cambisols. Planning of forestry activities in this region should consider implementation of other conservation practices beyond those already used, reducing areas with a greater risk of soil erosion and increasing areas with very low risk.

  9. Plantation forestry in Brazil: the potential impacts of climatic change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearnside, P.M.

    1999-01-01

    Most climatic changes predicted to occur in Brazil would replace yields of silvicultural plantations, mainly through increased frequency and severity of droughts brought on by global warming and by reduction of water vapor sources in Amazonia caused by deforestation. Some additional negative effects could result from changes in temperature, and positive effects could result from CO 2 enrichment. The net effects would be negative, forcing the country to expand plantations onto less-productive land, requiring increased plantation area (and consequent economic losses) out of proportion to the climatic change itself. These impacts would affect carbon sequestration and storage consequences of any plans for subsidizing silviculture as a global warming mitigation option. Climate change can be expected to increase the area of plantations needed to supply projected internal demand for and exports of end products from Brazil. June-July-August (dry season) precipitation reductions indicated by simulations reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) correspond to rainfall declines in this critical season of approximately 34% in Amazonia, 39% in Southern Brazil and 61% in the Northeast. As an example, if rainfall in Brazilian plantation areas (most of which are now in Southern Brazil) were to decline by 50%, the area needed in 2050 would expand by an estimated 38% over the constant climate case, bringing the total area to 4.5 times the 1991 area. These large areas of additional plantations imply substantial social and environmental impacts. Further addition of plantation area as a global warming response option would augment these impacts, indicating the need for caution in evaluating carbon sequestration proposals. (author)

  10. Photosynthetic, morphological, and reproductive variations in Cypripedium tibeticum in relation to different light regimes in a subalpine forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Qiang Zheng

    Full Text Available Cypripedium tibeticum, a subalpine orchid species, inhabits various habitats of subalpine forests, mainly including the forest edge (FE, forest gap (FG, and understory (UST, which have significantly different light intensities (FE > FG > UST. However, the ecological and physiological influences caused by different light regimes in this species are still poorly understood. In the present study, photosynthetic, morphological, and reproductive characteristics were comprehensively studied in plants of C. tibeticum grown in three types of habitats. The photosynthetic capacities, such as the net photosynthetic rate, light-saturated photosynthesis (Pmax, and dry mass per unit leaf area (LMA, were higher in FE and FG than in UST according to light availability. Compared with FG, the populations in FE and UST suffer from excessively strong and inadequate radiation, respectively, which was further corroborated by the low Fv/Fm in FE and high apparent quantum yield (AQY in FG. The leaves of the orchids had various proportions of constituents, such as the leaf area, thickness and (or epidermal hair, to reduce damage from high radiation (including ultraviolet-b radiation in FE and capture more light in FG and UST. Although the flower rate (FR was positively correlated to both Pmax and the daily mean PAR, fruit-set only occurred in the populations in FG. The failures in FE and UST might be ascribed to changes in the floral functional structure and low biomass accumulation, respectively. Moreover, analysis of the demographic statistics showed that FG was an advantageous habitat for the orchid. Thus, C. tibeticum reacted to photosynthetic and morphological changes to adapt to different subalpine forest habitats, and neither full (under FE nor low (UST illumination was favorable for population expansion. These findings could serve as a guide for the protection and reintroduction of C. tibeticum and emphasize the importance of specific habitats for Cypripedium

  11. Long-term reactive nitrogen loading alters soil carbon and microbial community properties in a subalpine forest ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boot, Claudia M.; Hall, Ed K.; Denef, Karolien; Baron, Jill S.

    2016-01-01

    Elevated nitrogen (N) deposition due to increased fossil fuel combustion and agricultural practices has altered global carbon (C) cycling. Additions of reactive N to N-limited environments are typically accompanied by increases in plant biomass. Soil C dynamics, however, have shown a range of different responses to the addition of reactive N that seem to be ecosystem dependent. We evaluated the effect of N amendments on biogeochemical characteristics and microbial responses of subalpine forest organic soils in order to develop a mechanistic understanding of how soils are affected by N amendments in subalpine ecosystems. We measured a suite of responses across three years (2011–2013) during two seasons (spring and fall). Following 17 years of N amendments, fertilized soils were more acidic (control mean 5.09, fertilized mean 4.68), and had lower %C (control mean 33.7% C, fertilized mean 29.8% C) and microbial biomass C by 22% relative to control plots. Shifts in biogeochemical properties in fertilized plots were associated with an altered microbial community driven by reduced arbuscular mycorrhizal (control mean 3.2 mol%, fertilized mean 2.5 mol%) and saprotrophic fungal groups (control mean 17.0 mol%, fertilized mean 15.2 mol%), as well as a decrease in N degrading microbial enzyme activity. Our results suggest that decreases in soil C in subalpine forests were in part driven by increased microbial degradation of soil organic matter and reduced inputs to soil organic matter in the form of microbial biomass.

  12. Photosynthetic, morphological, and reproductive variations in Cypripedium tibeticum in relation to different light regimes in a subalpine forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bao-Qiang; Zou, Long-Hai; Li, Kui; Wan, Xiao; Wang, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Cypripedium tibeticum, a subalpine orchid species, inhabits various habitats of subalpine forests, mainly including the forest edge (FE), forest gap (FG), and understory (UST), which have significantly different light intensities (FE > FG > UST). However, the ecological and physiological influences caused by different light regimes in this species are still poorly understood. In the present study, photosynthetic, morphological, and reproductive characteristics were comprehensively studied in plants of C. tibeticum grown in three types of habitats. The photosynthetic capacities, such as the net photosynthetic rate, light-saturated photosynthesis (Pmax), and dry mass per unit leaf area (LMA), were higher in FE and FG than in UST according to light availability. Compared with FG, the populations in FE and UST suffer from excessively strong and inadequate radiation, respectively, which was further corroborated by the low Fv/Fm in FE and high apparent quantum yield (AQY) in FG. The leaves of the orchids had various proportions of constituents, such as the leaf area, thickness and (or) epidermal hair, to reduce damage from high radiation (including ultraviolet-b radiation) in FE and capture more light in FG and UST. Although the flower rate (FR) was positively correlated to both Pmax and the daily mean PAR, fruit-set only occurred in the populations in FG. The failures in FE and UST might be ascribed to changes in the floral functional structure and low biomass accumulation, respectively. Moreover, analysis of the demographic statistics showed that FG was an advantageous habitat for the orchid. Thus, C. tibeticum reacted to photosynthetic and morphological changes to adapt to different subalpine forest habitats, and neither full (under FE) nor low (UST) illumination was favorable for population expansion. These findings could serve as a guide for the protection and reintroduction of C. tibeticum and emphasize the importance of specific habitats for Cypripedium spp.

  13. Draft genome sequence of Burkholderia sordidicola S170, a potential plant growth promoter isolated from coniferous forest soil in the Czech Republic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lladó, Salvador; Xu, Zhuofei; Sørensen, Søren Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Burkholderia species are key players in the accumulation of carbon from cellulose decomposition in coniferous forest ecosystems. We report here the draft genome of Burkholderia sordidicola strain S170, containing features associated with known genes involved in plant growth promotion...

  14. Comparison of remote sensing and plant trait-based modelling to predict ecosystem services in subalpine grasslands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Homolová, Lucie; Schaepman, M. E.; Lamarque, L.; Clevers, J.G.P.W.; de Bello, Francesco; Thuiller, W.; Lavorel, S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 8 (2014), č. článku 100. ISSN 2150-8925 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 ; RVO:67985939 Keywords : land-use change * leaf chlorophyll content * imaging spectroscopy * water-content * aviris data * spectral reflectance * hyperspectral data * species richness * area index * vegetation * aisa * biomass * ecosystem properties * ecosystem services * linear regression * remote sensing * spatial heterogeneity * subalpine grasslands Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour; EF - Botanics (BU-J) OBOR OECD: Remote sensing; Plant sciences, botany (BU-J) Impact factor: 2.255, year: 2014

  15. Assessing heat fluxes and water quality trends in subalpine lakes from EO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzaniga, Ilaria; Giardino, Claudia; Bresciani, Mariano; Elli, Chiara; Valerio, Giulia; Pilotti, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Lakes play a fundamental role in providing ecosystem services such as water supplying, hydrological regulation, climate change mitigation, touristic recreation (Schallenberg et al., 2013). Preserving and improving of quality of lakes waters, which is a function of either both natural and human influences, is therefore an important action to be considered. Remote Sensing techniques are spreading as useful instrument for lakes, by integrating classical in situ limnological measurements to frequent and synoptic monitoring capabilities. Within this study, Earth Observation data are exploited for understanding the temporal changes of water quality parameters over a decade, as well as for measuring the surface energy fluxes in recent years in deep clear lakes in the European subalpine ecoregion. According to Pareth et al. (2016), subalpine lakes are showing a clear response to climate change with an increase of 0.017 °C /year of lake surface temperature, whilst the human activities contribute to produce a large impact (agriculture, recreation, industry, fishing and drinking) on these lakes. The investigation is focused on Lake Iseo, which has shown a significant deterioration of water quality conditions since the seventies, and on Lake Garda, the largest Italian lake where EO data have been widely used for many purposes and applications (Giardino et al., 2014). Available ENVISAT-MERIS (2002-2012) and Landsat-8-OLI (2013-on going) imagery has been exploited to produce chlorophyll-a (chl-a) concentration maps, while Landsat-8-TIRS imagery has been used for estimating lake surface temperatures. MERIS images were processed through a neural network (namely the C2R processor, Doerffer et al., 2007), to correct the atmospheric effects and to retrieve water constituents concentration in optically complex deep waters. With regard to L8's images, some atmospheric correctors (e.g. ACOLITE and 6SV) were tested and validated to indentify, for each of the two lakes, the more accurate

  16. Complex linkage between soil, soil water, atmosphere and Eucalyptus Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, C.; Tiwari, K. N.

    2017-12-01

    Eucalyptus is most widely planted genus grown in waste land of eastern region of India to meet the pulp industry requirements. Sustainability of these plantations is of concern because in spite of higher demand water and nutrients of plantations, they are mostly planted on low-fertility soils. This study has been conducted to quantify effect of 25 years old, a fully established eucalyptus plantations on i.) Alteration in physico-chemical and hydrological properties of soil of eucalyptus plantation in comparison to soil of natural grassland and ii.) Spatio-temporal variation in soil moisture under eucalyptus plantations. Soil physico-chemical properties of two adjacent plots covered with eucatuptus and natural grasses were analyzed for three consecutive depths (i.e. 0-30 cm, 30-60 cm and 60-90 cm) with five replications in each plot. Soil infiltration rate and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) were measured in-situ to incorporate the influence of macro porosity caused due to roots of plantations. Daily soil moisture at an interval of 10 cm upto 160 cm depth with 3 replications and Leaf Area Index (LAI) at an interval of 15 days with 5 replications were recorded over the year. Significant variations found at level of 0.05 between soil properties of eucalyptus and natural grass land confirm the effect of plantations on soil properties. Comparative results of soil properties show significant alteration in soil texture such as percent of sand, organic matter and Ks found more by 20%, 9% and 22% respectively in eucalyptus plot as compare to natural grass land. Available soil moisture (ASM) was found constantly minimum in top soil excluding rainy season indicate upward movement of water and nutrients during dry season. Seasonal variation in temperature (T), relative humidity (RH) and leaf area index (LAI) influenced the soil moisture extraction phenomenon. This study clearly stated the impact of long term establishment of eucalyptus plantations make considerable

  17. Conifer density within lake catchments predicts fish mercury concentrations in remote subalpine lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herring, Garth; Johnson, Branden L.; Graw, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Remote high-elevation lakes represent unique environments for evaluating the bioaccumulation of atmospherically deposited mercury through freshwater food webs, as well as for evaluating the relative importance of mercury loading versus landscape influences on mercury bioaccumulation. The increase in mercury deposition to these systems over the past century, coupled with their limited exposure to direct anthropogenic disturbance make them useful indicators for estimating how changes in mercury emissions may propagate to changes in Hg bioaccumulation and ecological risk. We evaluated mercury concentrations in resident fish from 28 high-elevation, sub-alpine lakes in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Fish total mercury (THg) concentrations ranged from 4 to 438 ng/g wet weight, with a geometric mean concentration (±standard error) of 43 ± 2 ng/g ww. Fish THg concentrations were negatively correlated with relative condition factor, indicating that faster growing fish that are in better condition have lower THg concentrations. Across the 28 study lakes, mean THg concentrations of resident salmonid fishes varied as much as 18-fold among lakes. We used a hierarchal statistical approach to evaluate the relative importance of physiological, limnological, and catchment drivers of fish Hg concentrations. Our top statistical model explained 87% of the variability in fish THg concentrations among lakes with four key landscape and limnological variables: catchment conifer density (basal area of conifers within a lake's catchment), lake surface area, aqueous dissolved sulfate, and dissolved organic carbon. Conifer density within a lake's catchment was the most important variable explaining fish THg concentrations across lakes, with THg concentrations differing by more than 400 percent across the forest density spectrum. These results illustrate the importance of landscape characteristics in controlling mercury bioaccumulation in fish.

  18. Calcium induces long-term legacy effects in a subalpine ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urs Schaffner

    Full Text Available Human activities have transformed a significant proportion of the world's land surface, with profound effects on ecosystem processes. Soil applications of macronutrients such as nitrate, phosphorus, potassium or calcium are routinely used in the management of croplands, grasslands and forests to improve plant health or increase productivity. However, while the effects of continuous fertilization and liming on terrestrial ecosystems are well documented, remarkably little is known about the legacy effect of historical fertilization and liming events in terrestrial ecosystems and of the mechanisms involved. Here, we show that more than 70 years after the last application of lime on a subalpine grassland, all major soil and plant calcium pools were still significantly larger in limed than in unlimed plots, and that the resulting shift in the soil calcium/aluminium ratio continues to affect ecosystem services such as primary production. The difference in the calcium content of the vegetation and the topmost 10 cm of the soil in limed vs. unlimed plots amounts to approximately 19.5 g m(-2, equivalent to 16.3% of the amount that was added to the plots some 70 years ago. In contrast, plots that were treated with nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium fertilizer in the 1930s did not differ from unfertilized plots in any of the soil and vegetation characteristics measured. Our findings suggest that the long-term legacy effect of historical liming is due to long-term storage of added calcium in stable soil pools, rather than a general increase in nutrient availability. Our results demonstrate that single applications of calcium in its carbonated form can profoundly and persistently alter ecosystem processes and services in mountain ecosystems.

  19. Hydrologic flow path development varies by aspect during spring snowmelt in complex subalpine terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Ryan W.; Fassnacht, Steven R.; Gooseff, Michael N.

    2018-01-01

    In many mountainous regions around the world, snow and soil moisture are key components of the hydrologic cycle. Preferential flow paths of snowmelt water through snow have been known to occur for years with few studies observing the effect on soil moisture. In this study, statistical analysis of the topographical and hydrological controls on the spatiotemporal variability of snow water equivalent (SWE) and soil moisture during snowmelt was undertaken at a subalpine forested setting with north, south, and flat aspects as a seasonally persistent snowpack melts. We investigated if evidence of preferential flow paths in snow can be observed and the effect on soil moisture through measurements of snow water equivalent and near-surface soil moisture, observing how SWE and near-surface soil moisture vary on hillslopes relative to the toes of hillslopes and flat areas. We then compared snowmelt infiltration beyond the near-surface soil between flat and sloping terrain during the entire snowmelt season using soil moisture sensor profiles. This study was conducted during varying snowmelt seasons representing above-normal, relatively normal, and below-normal snow seasons in northern Colorado. Evidence is presented of preferential meltwater flow paths at the snow-soil interface on the north-facing slope causing increases in SWE downslope and less infiltration into the soil at 20 cm depth; less association is observed in the near-surface soil moisture (top 7 cm). We present a conceptualization of the meltwater flow paths that develop based on slope aspect and soil properties. The resulting flow paths are shown to divert at least 4 % of snowmelt laterally, accumulating along the length of the slope, to increase the snow water equivalent by as much as 170 % at the base of a north-facing hillslope. Results from this study show that snow acts as an extension of the vadose zone during spring snowmelt and future hydrologic investigations will benefit from studying the snow and soil

  20. Fatty acid composition of freshwater wild fish in subalpine lakes: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconi, Mauro; Caprino, Fabio; Bellagamba, Federica; Busetto, Maria Letizia; Bernardi, Cristian; Puzzi, Cesare; Moretti, Vittorio Maria

    2015-03-01

    In this study, the proximate and fatty acid compositions of the muscle tissue of 186 samples of fish belonging to fifteen species of freshwater fish harvested in subalpine lakes (bleak, shad, crucian carp, whitefish, common carp, pike, black bullhead, burbot, perch, Italian roach, roach, rudd, wels catfish, chub and tench) were investigated. Most of the fish demonstrated a lipid content in the fillet lower than 2.0 g 100 g(-1) wet weight (range 0.6-9.7). A strong relationship between feeding behavior and fatty acid composition of the muscle lipids was observed. Planktivorous fish showed the lowest amounts of n-3 fatty acids (p fish showed the highest amounts of saturated fatty acids and n-3 fatty acids (p fish showed substantial proportions of n-3 fatty acids and the highest contents of n-6 fatty acids. Principal component analysis showed a distinct separation between fish species according to their feeding habits and demonstrated that the most contributing trophic markers were 18:1n-9, 18:3n-3, 22:6n-3 and 20:4n-6. The quantitative amounts n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid in muscle tissues varied depending on the fish species, the lipid content and the feeding habits. Some species were very lean, and therefore would be poor choices for human consumption to meet dietary n-3 fatty acid requirements. Nevertheless, the more frequently consumed and appreciated fish, shad and whitefish, had EPA and DHA contents in the range 900-1,000 mg 100 g(-1) fresh fillet.

  1. Mapping Plant Functional Groups in Subalpine Grassland of the Greater Caucasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Magiera

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant functional groups—in our case grass, herbs, and legumes—and their spatial distribution can provide information on key ecosystem functions such as species richness, nitrogen fixation, and erosion control. Knowledge about the spatial distribution of plant functional groups provides valuable information for grassland management. This study described and mapped the distribution of grass, herb, and legume coverage of the subalpine grassland in the high-mountain Kazbegi region, Greater Caucasus, Georgia. To test the applicability of new sensors, we compared the predictive power of simulated hyperspectral canopy reflectance, simulated multispectral reflectance, simulated vegetation indices, and topographic variables for modeling plant functional groups. The tested grassland showed characteristic differences in species richness; in grass, herb, and legume coverage; and in connected structural properties such as yield. Grass (Hordeum brevisubulatum was dominant in biomass-rich hay meadows. Herb-rich grassland featured the highest species richness and evenness, whereas legume-rich grassland was accompanied by a high coverage of open soil and showed dominance of a single species, Astragalus captiosus. The best model fits were achieved with a combination of reflectance, vegetation indices, and topographic variables as predictors. Random forest models for grass, herb, and legume coverage explained 36%, 25%, and 37% of the respective variance, and their root mean square errors varied between 12–15%. Hyperspectral and multispectral reflectance as predictors resulted in similar models. Because multispectral data are more easily available and often have a higher spatial resolution, we suggest using multispectral parameters enhanced by vegetation indices and topographic parameters for modeling grass, herb, and legume coverage. However, overall model fits were merely moderate, and further testing, including stronger gradients and the addition of

  2. Comparative phytosociological investigation of subalpine alder thickets in southwestern Alaska and the North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Stephen S.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Daniëls, F. J. A.

    2005-01-01

    We present the first vegetation analysis of subalpine alder (Alnus viridis) thickets in southwestern Alaska. The data are primarily from mesic, hilly and mountainous sites ranging from the westernmost tip of the Alaska Peninsula to the northern Kenai Peninsula, spanning 1,000 km on an E–W gradient and 700 km on a N–S gradient. 127 relevés from 18 sites represent the range of structural and compositional variation in the matrix of vegetation and landform diversity. Data were analyzed by multivariate and traditional Braun-Blanquet methods. One association is distinguished, Sambuco racemosi-Alnetum viridis ass. nov. with three new subassociations, oplopanacetosum horridi, typicum, and rubetosum spectabilis with the latter subdivided into four variants. These phytocoena are well-differentiated, although they form a syntaxonomical continuum. The composition and structure of these communities are described and interpreted in relation to complex environmental factors; these are analyzed using Jancey's ranking on F-values. Community composition is primarily related to elevation, longitude, soil moisture, and latitude. Phytogeographic comparison of southwestern Alaska alder communities with those elsewhere in the North Pacific suggests a close floristic relationship to those of southcentral, southeastern Alaska and coastal British Columbia, Canada. All these communities belong to the same association, while those of the eastern and southern parts of the Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia belong to a different association. Syntaxonomy of the 4 major communities is discussed. Within the Northern Hemisphere, vascular plant species of southwestern Alaska alder thickets primarily occur in East Asia and North America, 36 %; while 26 % are circumpolar, and 22 % are restricted to North America. From a latitudinal perspective, the distribution of vascular plant species within these alder thickets peaks in the high-subarctic, low-subarctic, and temperate latitudinal zones, with low

  3. Intraguild predation and cannibalism among larvae of detritivorous caddisflies in subalpine wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissinger, S.A.; Sparks, G.B.; Rouse, G.L.; Brown, W.S.; Steltzer, Heidi

    1996-01-01

    Comparative data from subalpine wetlands in Colorado indicate that larvae of the limnephilid caddisflies, Asynarchus nigriculus and Limnephilus externus, are reciprocally abundant among habitats - Limnephilus larvae dominate in permanent waters, whereas Asynarchus larvae dominate in temporary basins. The purpose of this paper is to report on field and laboratory experiments that link this pattern of abundance to biotic interactions among larvae. In the first field experiment, growth and survival were compared in single and mixed species treatments in littoral enclosures. Larvae, which eat mainly vascular plant detritus, grew at similar rates among treatments in both temporary and permanent habitats suggesting that exploitative competition is not important under natural food levels and caddisfly densities. However, the survival of Limnephilus larvae was reduced in the presence of Asynarchus larvae. Subsequent behavioral studies in laboratory arenas revealed that Asynarchus larvae are extremely aggressive predators on Limnephilus larvae. In a second field experiment we manipulated the relative sizes of larvae and found that Limnephilus larvae were preyed on only when Asynarchus larvae had the same size advantage observed in natural populations. Our data suggest that the dominance of Asynarchus larvae in temporary habitats is due to asymmetric intraguild predation (IGP) facilitated by a phenological head start in development. These data do not explain the dominance of Limnephilus larvae in permanent basins, which we show elsewhere to be an indirect effect of salamander predation. Behavioral observations also revealed that Asynarchus larvae are cannibalistic. In contrast to the IGP on Limnephilus larvae, Asynarchus cannibalism occurs among same-sized larvae and often involves the mobbing of one victim by several conspecifics. In a third field experiment, we found that Asynarchus cannibalism was not density-dependent and occurred even at low larval densities. We

  4. Quantification of Groundwater Discharge in a Subalpine Stream Using Radon-222

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Avery

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available During the dry months of the water year in Mediterranean climates, groundwater influx is essential to perennial streams for sustaining ecosystem health and regulating water temperature. Predicted earlier peak flow due to climate change may result in decreased baseflow and the transformation of perennial streams to intermittent streams. In this study, naturally occurring radon-222 (222Rn was used as a tracer of groundwater influx to Martis Creek, a subalpine stream near Lake Tahoe, CA. Groundwater 222Rn is estimated based on measurements of 222Rn activity in nearby deep wells and springs. To determine the degassing constant (needed for quantification of water and gas flux, an extrinsic tracer, xenon (Xe, was introduced to the stream and monitored at eight downstream locations. The degassing constant for 222Rn is based on the degassing constant for Xe, and was determined to be 1.9–9.0 m/day. Applying a simple model in which stream 222Rn activity is a balance between the main 222Rn source (groundwater and sink (volatilization, the influx in reaches of the upstream portion of Martis Creek was calculated to be <1 to 15 m3/day/m, which cumulatively constitutes a significant portion of the stream discharge. Experiments constraining 222Rn emanation from hyporheic zone sediments suggest that this should be considered a maximum rate of influx. Groundwater influx is typically difficult to identify and quantify, and the method employed here is useful for identifying locations for focused stream flow measurements, for formulating a water budget, and for quantifying streamwater–groundwater interaction.

  5. Influence of soil fungi (basidiomycetes) on the migration of Cs 134 + 137 and Sr 90 in coniferous forest soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roemmelt, R.; Hiersche, L.; Schaller, G.; Wirth, E.

    1990-01-01

    During the first three years after the Chernobyl event high Cs 134 + 137 activities in fruitbodies of basidiomycetes have been measured. A decline of activities with time has not yet been observed. The activities are considerably higher compared to agricultural products from the same area. In order to study the movement of radiocesium in coniferous forest sites, the activities in soil, fungi, and plants have been measured. Based on these results a model to describe the cesium cycling in coniferous forest ecosystems is proposed with special emphasis on the influence of soil fungi and plants on the migration of cesium. As measurements of Sr 90 in forest ecosystems are rare this nuclide has been included in the investigations. (author)

  6. Fire effects in Pinus uncinata Ram plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardil Forradellas, A.; Molina Terrén, D.M.; Oliveres, J.; Castellnou, M.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of study: Understanding fire ecology of main forest species is essential for a sound, scientifically based on managing of wildlands and also to assess likely implications due to changes in fire regime under a global change scenario. Few references can be found about fire ecology of Pinus uncinata Ram. (PU). PU species grows in the Central Pyrenees where large, severe wildland fires did not occur frequently in the past. However, several fires with extreme fire behavior have affected PU stands in last years and they might disturb other PU forest in the future. Area of study: Cabdella fire (February 2012), in Lleida province, is one of the several wildland fires occurred in 2012 (winter season) in the Central Pyrenees. Fire affected a large PU plantation (102 ha) located at 1.800-2,100 meters above the sea. Material and methods: We have analyzed first order fire effects in three fireline intensity thresholds along three years in terms of mortality ratio, scorched height, percentage of scorched crown volume and bark char height. Main results: PU seems to be a very tolerant species to low and medium fire line intensity but fire effects were very significant when fire line intensity was high. In medium fireline intensity sites, probability of mortality ranged from 15 to 30% and the dead trees had the highest values on scorched height and percentage of scorched crown volume. Research highlights: Results from this work supports that prescribed burning might be used to efficiently decrease fuel load and fuel vertical continuity while avoiding considerable PU mortality. It also displayed that when fuel management has been implemented, PU mortality might be limited even under extreme fire behavior. (Author)

  7. Fire effects in Pinus uncinata Ram plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Cardil Forradellas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Understanding fire ecology of main forest species is essential for a sound, scientifically based on managing of wildlands and also to assess likely implications due to changes in fire regime under a global change scenario. Few references can be found about fire ecology of Pinus uncinata Ram. (PU. PU species grows in the Central Pyrenees where large, severe wildland fires did not occur frequently in the past. However, several fires with extreme fire behavior have affected PU stands in last years and they might disturb other PU forest in the future.Area of study: Cabdella fire (February 2012, in Lleida province, is one of the several wildland fires occurred in 2012 (winter season in the Central Pyrenees. Fire affected a large PU plantation (102 ha located at 1.800-2,100 meters above the sea.Material and methods: We have analyzed first order fire effects in three fireline intensity thresholds along three years in terms of mortality ratio, scorched height, percentage of scorched crown volume and bark char height.Main results: PU seems to be a very tolerant species to low and medium fire line intensity but fire effects were very significant when fire line intensity was high. In medium fireline intensity sites, probability of mortality ranged from 15 to 30% and the dead trees had the highest values on scorched height and percentage of scorched crown volume.Research highlights: Results from this work supports that prescribed burning might be used to efficiently decrease fuel load and fuel vertical continuity while avoiding considerable PU mortality. It also displayed that when fuel management has been implemented, PU mortality might be limited even under extreme fire behavior.Abbreviations used: PU: Pinus uncinata Ram.

  8. Opportunities and challenges in industrial plantation mapping in big data era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, J.; Xiao, X.; Qin, Y.; Chen, B.; Wang, J.; Kou, W.; Zhai, D.

    2017-12-01

    With the increasing demand in timer, rubber, palm oil in the world market, industrial plantations have dramatically expanded, especially in Southeast Asia; which have been affecting ecosystem services and human wellbeing. However, existing efforts on plantation mapping are still limited and blocked our understanding about the magnitude of plantation expansion and their potential environmental effects. Here we would present a literature review about the existing efforts on plantation mapping based on one or multiple remote sensing sources, including rubber, oil palm, and eucalyptus plantations. The biophysical features and spectral characteristics of plantations will be introduced first, a comparison on existing algorithms in terms of different plantation types. Based on that, we proposed potential improvements in large scale plantation mapping based on the virtual constellation of multiple sensors, citizen science tools, and cloud computing technology. Based on the literature review, we discussed a series of issues for future scale operational paddy rice mapping.

  9. Fire Regime along Latitudinal Gradients of Continuous to Discontinuous Coniferous Boreal Forests in Eastern Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne Portier

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fire is the main disturbance in North American coniferous boreal forests. In Northern Quebec, Canada, where forest management is not allowed, the landscape is gradually constituted of more opened lichen woodlands. Those forests are discontinuous and show a low regeneration potential resulting from the cumulative effects of harsh climatic conditions and very short fire intervals. In a climate change context, and because the forest industry is interested in opening new territories to forest management in the north, it is crucial to better understand how and why fire risk varies from the north to the south at the transition between the discontinuous and continuous boreal forest. We used time-since-fire (TSF data from fire archives as well as a broad field campaign in Quebec’s coniferous boreal forests along four north-south transects in order to reconstruct the fire history of the past 150 to 300 years. We performed survival analyses in each transect in order to (1 determine if climate influences the fire risk along the latitudinal gradient; (2 fractionate the transects into different fire risk zones; and (3 quantify the fire cycle—defined as the time required to burn an area equivalent to the size of the study area—of each zone and compare its estimated value with current fire activity. Results suggest that drought conditions are moderately to highly responsible for the increasing fire risk from south to north in the three westernmost transects. No climate influence was observed in the last one, possibly because of its complex physical environment. Fire cycles are shortening from south to north, and from east to west. Limits between high and low fire risk zones are consistent with the limit between discontinuous and continuous forests, established based on recent fire activity. Compared to the last 40 years, fire cycles of the last 150–300 years are shorter. Our results suggest that as drought episodes are expected to become more frequent

  10. Identifying the Entrepreneurship Characteristics of the Oil Palm Community Plantation Farmers in the Riau Area

    OpenAIRE

    Brilliant Asmit; Deddy P. Koesrindartoto

    2015-01-01

    Oil palm is an essential and strategic commodity in the Riau area because of its considerable role in supporting the peoples’ economy, especially for plantation farmers. Oil palm plantation activities have brought economic impacts to society there, both for the people who are directly involved with the plantations and for their surrounding communities. This regional advantage is a facility for farmers to be able to develop their farms as plantations. The aims of this research are to identify ...

  11. Biomass carbon accumulation in aging Japanese cedar plantations in Xitou, central Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Chih-Hsin; Hung, Chih-Yu; Chen, Chiou-Peng; Pei, Chuang-Wun

    2013-01-01

    Background Japanese cedar (Chrytomeria japonica D. Don) is an important plantation species in Taiwan and represents 10% of total plantation area. It was first introduced in 1910 and widely planted in the northern and central mountainous areas of Taiwan. However, a change in forest management from exotic species to native species in 1980 had resulted in few new Japanese cedar plantations being established. Most Japanese cedar plantations are now between 30 and 50 years old and reaching their r...

  12. The Carbon Sequestration Potential of Tree Crop Plantations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsager, Rico; Napier, Jonas; Mertz, Ole

    2013-01-01

    -wood products to meet domestic and international market requirements at the same time. Financial compensation for such plantations could potentially be covered by the Clean Development Mechanism under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) Kyoto Protocol, but its suitability has also...... been suggested for integration into REDD+(reducing emissions from deforestation, forest degradation and enhancement of forest C stocks) currently being negotiated under the United Nations FCCC. We assess the aboveground C sequestration potential of four major plantation crops – cocoa (Theobroma cacao......), oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), rubber (Hevea brasiliensis), and orange (Citrus sinesis) – cultivated in the tropics. Measurements were conducted in Ghana and allometric equations were applied to estimate biomass. The largest C potential was found in the rubber plantations (214 tC/ha). Cocoa (65 t...

  13. The Sustainability Status of Partnership of Palm Oil Plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Daud

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of existence determining factor of PBS palm oil is a harmonious relation with communities surroundings, thus the partnership between the palm oil plantation with the farmers surroundings is one of effort which has created the harmonization in palm oil plantation. The objective of the article is to express the sustainability of each pattern of palm oil PBS partnership, and this partnership form gives the sustainability advantages for the farmer and palm oil PBS in Central Kalimantan. The article used quantitative method through the survey approach, primary data and secondary data. The article result there are three main patterns of palm oil plantation partnership in Central Kalimantan, they are MSA, KKPA, and IGA. IGA has value as a form which has degree of continuing that higher than MSA and KKPA, thus make IGA can be the reference in frame of PBS palm oil partnership in Central Kalimantan with keeping the superiority and improving the weaknesses.

  14. Effects of tourism and topography on vegetation diversity in the subalpine meadows of the Dongling Mountains of Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-Tun; Xiang, ChunLing; Li, Min

    2012-02-01

    Subalpine meadows in the Dongling Mountains (located at E115º26'-115º40', N40º00'-40º05') of Beijing, China are important for tourism and the provision of ecosystem services. However, because of poor management serious degradation has occurred on these subalpine meadows. The aim of this paper is to present a quantitative analysis of effects of tourism disturbance and topography on the status and diversity of montane meadow communities and to provide direction for improved management. Sixty quadrats of 2 × 2 m(2) along 10 transects were set up to collect data on site characteristics and vegetation status. The relationships between community composition and structure, species diversity, and tourism disturbance and topographic variables were analyzed by multivariate methods (TWINSPAN and CCA). The results showed that eight meadow communities were identified by TWINSPAN. Most of them were seriously degraded. The first CCA axis identified an elevation and tourism disturbance intensity gradient, which illustrated that tourism disturbance and elevation were most important factors influencing meadow types, composition and structure. Some resistant species and response species to tourism disturbance were identified and can be used as indicator species of tourism disturbance. Species richness, heterogeneity and evenness were closely related to tourism disturbance and elevation. It is concluded that tourism disturbance must be controlled to enable grassland rehabilitation to occur in the meadows. Measures of effective management of the meadows were discussed.

  15. Declines in low-elevation subalpine tree populations outpace growth in high-elevation populations with warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlisk, Erin; Castanha, Cristina; Germino, Matthew J.; Veblen, Thomas T; Smith, Jeremy M.; Kueppers, Lara M.

    2017-01-01

    Species distribution shifts in response to climate change require that recruitment increase beyond current range boundaries. For trees with long life spans, the importance of climate-sensitive seedling establishment to the pace of range shifts has not been demonstrated quantitatively.Using spatially explicit, stochastic population models combined with data from long-term forest surveys, we explored whether the climate-sensitivity of recruitment observed in climate manipulation experiments was sufficient to alter populations and elevation ranges of two widely distributed, high-elevation North American conifers.Empirically observed, warming-driven declines in recruitment led to rapid modelled population declines at the low-elevation, ‘warm edge’ of subalpine forest and slow emergence of populations beyond the high-elevation, ‘cool edge’. Because population declines in the forest occurred much faster than population emergence in the alpine, we observed range contraction for both species. For Engelmann spruce, this contraction was permanent over the modelled time horizon, even in the presence of increased moisture. For limber pine, lower sensitivity to warming may facilitate persistence at low elevations – especially in the presence of increased moisture – and rapid establishment above tree line, and, ultimately, expansion into the alpine.Synthesis. Assuming 21st century warming and no additional moisture, population dynamics in high-elevation forests led to transient range contractions for limber pine and potentially permanent range contractions for Engelmann spruce. Thus, limitations to seedling recruitment with warming can constrain the pace of subalpine tree range shifts.

  16. Modeled subalpine plant community response to climate change and atmospheric nitrogen deposition in Rocky Mountain National Park, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonnell, T.C.; Belyazid, S.; Sullivan, T.J.; Sverdrup, H.; Bowman, W.D.; Porter, E.M.

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate potential long-term effects of climate change and atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition on subalpine ecosystems, the coupled biogeochemical and vegetation community competition model ForSAFE-Veg was applied to a site at the Loch Vale watershed of Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado. Changes in climate and N deposition since 1900 resulted in pronounced changes in simulated plant species cover as compared with ambient and estimated future community composition. The estimated critical load (CL) of N deposition to protect against an average future (2010–2100) change in biodiversity of 10% was between 1.9 and 3.5 kg N ha −1  yr −1 . Results suggest that the CL has been exceeded and vegetation at the study site has already undergone a change of more than 10% as a result of N deposition. Future increases in air temperature are forecast to cause further changes in plant community composition, exacerbating changes in response to N deposition alone. - Highlights: • A novel calibration step was introduced for modeling biodiversity with ForSAFE-Veg. • Modeled increases in tree cover are consistent with empirical studies. • Reductions in N deposition decreased future graminoid percent cover. • Critical loads of N to protect biodiversity should consider climate change effects. - Subalpine plant biodiversity in Rocky Mountain National Park has already been impacted by N deposition and climate change and is expected to experience significant future effects

  17. Earthworm abundance and species composition in abandoned tropical croplands: comparisons of tree plantations and secondary forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Gonzalez; X. Zou; S. Borges

    1996-01-01

    We compared patterns of earthworms abundance and species composition in tree plantation and secondary forest of Puerto Rico. Tree plantations included pine (Pinus caribea Morelet) and mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) established in the 1930's; 1960's; and 1970's; secondary forests were naturally regenerated in areas adjacent to these plantations. We...

  18. Socio-economic implications of structural changes in plantations in Asian countries.

    OpenAIRE

    Sircar KN; Navamukundan, A; Sajhau JP; Sukarja R

    1985-01-01

    ILO pub. Working paper on the economic implications and social implications of restructuring in plantations in India, Indonesia, Malaysia and Sri Lanka - covers agricultural production, employment, working conditions of plantation workers, wages, management, and public ownership or private ownership of tea, coffee, rubber, etc. Plantations; comments on labour legislation. Bibliography, statistical tables.

  19. Carbon Sequestration in loblolly pine plantations: Methods, limitations, and research needs for estimating storage pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt Johnsen; Bob Teskey; Lisa Samuelson; John Butnor; David Sampson; Felipe Sanchez; Chris Maier; Steve McKeand

    2004-01-01

    Globally, the species most widely used for plantation forestry is loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). Because loblolly pine plantations are so extensive and grow so rapidly, they provide a great potential for sequestering atmospheric carbon (C). Because loblolly pine plantations are relatively simple ecosystems and because such a great volume of...

  20. The effects of energy grass plantations on biodiversity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semere, T; Slater, F

    2005-07-01

    The ecological impact on local wildlife of biomass plantations of three different species of grasses has been monitored in the years 2002 to 2004 inclusive at farms in Herefordshire UK. Two of the grasses were not native to Britain. Wildlife monitored included ground flora, beetles, insects, birds, small mammals, butterflies, bees and hoverflies. The results provide a baseline of biodiversity data from biomass farms in England, although due to poor crop growth, the data from the switch-grass plantation was incomplete. The surveys were carried out by Cardiff University supported financially by the DTI.

  1. The effects of energy grass plantations on biodiversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semere, T.; Slater, F.

    2005-01-01

    The ecological impact on local wildlife of biomass plantations of three different species of grasses has been monitored in the years 2002 to 2004 inclusive at farms in Herefordshire UK. Two of the grasses were not native to Britain. Wildlife monitored included ground flora, beetles, insects, birds, small mammals, butterflies, bees and hoverflies. The results provide a baseline of biodiversity data from biomass farms in England, although due to poor crop growth, the data from the switch-grass plantation was incomplete. The surveys were carried out by Cardiff University supported financially by the DTI

  2. Lab and Field Warming Similarly Advance Germination Date and Limit Germination Rate for High and Low Elevation Provenances of Two Widespread Subalpine Conifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara M. Kueppers

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Accurately predicting upslope shifts in subalpine tree ranges with warming requires understanding how future forest populations will be affected by climate change, as these are the seed sources for new tree line and alpine populations. Early life history stages are particularly sensitive to climate and are also influenced by genetic variation among populations. We tested the climate sensitivity of germination and initial development for two widely distributed subalpine conifers, using controlled-environment growth chambers with one temperature regime from subalpine forest in the Colorado Rocky Mountains and one 5 °C warmer, and two soil moisture levels. We tracked germination rate and timing, rate of seedling development, and seedling morphology for two seed provenances separated by ~300 m elevation. Warming advanced germination timing and initial seedling development by a total of ~2 weeks, advances comparable to mean differences between provenances. Advances were similar for both provenances and species; however, warming reduced the overall germination rate, as did low soil moisture, only for Picea engelmannii. A three-year field warming and watering experiment planted with the same species and provenances yielded responses qualitatively consistent with the lab trials. Together these experiments indicate that in a warmer, drier climate, P. engelmannii germination, and thus regeneration, could decline, which could lead to declining subalpine forest populations, while Pinus flexilis forest populations could remain robust as a seed source for upslope range shifts.

  3. Carex sempervirens tussocks induce spatial heterogeneity in litter decomposition, but not in soil properties, in a subalpine grassland in the Central Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei-Hai Yu; Martin Schutz; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Bertil O. Krusi; Jakob Schneller; Otto Wildi; Anita C. Risch

    2011-01-01

    Tussocks of graminoids can induce spatial heterogeneity in soil properties in dry areas with discontinuous vegetation cover, but little is known about the situation in areas with continuous vegetation and no study has tested whether tussocks can induce spatial heterogeneity in litter decomposition. In a subalpine grassland in the Central Alps where vegetation cover is...

  4. Leap frog in slow motion: Divergent responses of tree species and life stages to climatic warming in Great Basin subalpine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian V. Smithers; Malcolm P. North; Constance I. Millar; Andrew M. Latimer

    2017-01-01

    In response to climate warming, subalpine treelines are expected to move up in elevation since treelines are generally controlled by growing season temperature. Where treeline is advancing, dispersal differences and early life stage environmental tolerances are likely to affect how species expand their ranges. Species with an establishment advantage will...

  5. Substantial secondary organic aerosol formation in a coniferous forest: observations of both day- and nighttime chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Y. Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Substantial biogenic secondary organic aerosol (BSOA formation was investigated in a coniferous forest mountain region in Whistler, British Columbia. A largely biogenic aerosol growth episode was observed, providing a unique opportunity to investigate BSOA formation chemistry in a forested environment with limited influence from anthropogenic emissions. Positive matrix factorization of aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS measurement identified two types of BSOA (BSOA-1 and BSOA-2, which were primarily generated by gas-phase oxidation of monoterpenes and perhaps sesquiterpenes. The temporal variations of BSOA-1 and BSOA-2 can be explained by gas–particle partitioning in response to ambient temperature and the relative importance of different oxidation mechanisms between day and night. While BSOA-1 arises from gas-phase ozonolysis and nitrate radical chemistry at night, BSOA-2 is likely less volatile than BSOA-1 and consists of products formed via gas-phase oxidation by OH radical and ozone during the day. Organic nitrates produced through nitrate radical chemistry can account for 22–33 % of BSOA-1 mass at night. The mass spectra of BSOA-1 and BSOA-2 have higher values of the mass fraction of m/z 91 (f91 compared to the background organic aerosol. Using f91 to evaluate BSOA formation pathways in this unpolluted, forested region, heterogeneous oxidation of BSOA-1 is a minor production pathway of BSOA-2.

  6. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oils of Some Coniferous Plants Cultivated in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Taghreed A; El-Hela, Atef A; El-Hefnawy, Hala M; Al-Taweel, Areej M; Perveen, Shagufta

    2017-01-01

    Family Cupressaceae is the largest coniferous plant family. Essential oils of many species belonging to family Cupressaceae are known to have several biological activities specially antimicrobial activity. The essential oils from aerial parts of Calocedrus decurrens Torr., Cupressus sempervirens stricta L. and Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Mast. were prepared by hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of the essential oils has been elucidated by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis. The prepared essential oils were examined against selected species of Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and Candida species. Broth dilution methods were used to detect minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC). Sixteen compounds were identified in the essential oils of both Calocedrus decurrens and Cupressus sempervirens L. and fifteen compounds were identified in the essential oil of Tetraclinis articulata . δ-3-Carene (43.10%), (+)-Cedrol (74.03%) and Camphor (21.23%) were the major constituents in the essential oils of Calocedrus decurrens , Cupressus sempervirens L. and Tetraclinis articulata , respectively. The essential oils showed strong antimicrobial activities against the selected microorganisms in concentration range 0.02 3- 3.03 µL/mL. This study could contribute to the chemotaxonomic characterization of family Cupressaceae. In addition, it proved that the essential oils under investigation possess potential antimicrobial properties.

  7. Studies on adsorption of crystal violet dye from aqueous solution onto coniferous pinus bark powder (CPBP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Rais

    2009-01-01

    The present study shows that the coniferous pinus bark powder (CPBP) can be used as a potential adsorbent for the removal of crystal violet (basic dye) from aqueous solutions. Experiments were carried out as a function of contact time, concentration, temperature, pH and dosage. The amount of dye uptake was found to vary with increasing initial solution pH and maximum adsorption was observed at pH 8. The equilibrium was attained in 2 h. The amount of dye uptake (mg/g) was found to increase with increase in dye concentration and contact time. The % adsorption was found to decrease with increase in amount of adsorbent. The thermodynamic parameters were also calculated and the positive value of ΔH o indicates the endothermic nature of adsorption. The applicability of the three isotherm's model for the present data follows the order: Langmuir > Temkin > Freundlich. The kinetics of crystal violet on to the adsorbent can be described well by pseudo-second order > Elovich > pseudo-first order equation.

  8. Allometric biomass equations for 12 tree species in coniferous and broadleaved mixed forests, Northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Huaijiang; Zhang, Chunyu; Zhao, Xiuhai; Fousseni, Folega; Wang, Jinsong; Dai, Haijun; Yang, Song; Zuo, Qiang

    2018-01-01

    Understanding forest carbon budget and dynamics for sustainable resource management and ecosystem functions requires quantification of above- and below-ground biomass at individual tree species and stand levels. In this study, a total of 122 trees (9-12 per species) were destructively sampled to determine above- and below-ground biomass of 12 tree species (Acer mandshuricum, Acer mono, Betula platyphylla, Carpinus cordata, Fraxinus mandshurica, Juglans mandshurica, Maackia amurensis, P. koraiensis, Populus ussuriensis, Quercus mongolica, Tilia amurensis and Ulmus japonica) in coniferous and broadleaved mixed forests of Northeastern China, an area of the largest natural forest in the country. Biomass allocation was examined and biomass models were developed using diameter as independent variable for individual tree species and all species combined. The results showed that the largest biomass allocation of all species combined was on stems (57.1%), followed by coarse root (21.3%), branch (18.7%), and foliage (2.9%). The log-transformed model was statistically significant for all biomass components, although predicting power was higher for species-specific models than for all species combined, general biomass models, and higher for stems, roots, above-ground biomass, and total tree biomass than for branch and foliage biomass. These findings supplement the previous studies on this forest type by additional sample trees, species and locations, and support biomass research on forest carbon budget and dynamics by management activities such as thinning and harvesting in the northeastern part of China.

  9. Modelling three-dimensional distribution of photosynthetically active radiation in sloping coniferous stands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knyazikhin, Yu.; Kranigk, J.; Miessen, G.; Panfyorov, O.; Vygodskaya, N.; Gravenhorst, G.

    1996-01-01

    Solar irradiance is a major environmental factor governing biological and physiological processes in a vegetation canopy. Solar radiation distribution in a canopy and its effect are three-dimensional in nature. However, most of the radiation models up to now have been one-dimensional. They can be successfully applied to large-scale studies of forest functioning. The one-dimensional modelling technique, however, does not provide adequate interpretation of small scale processes leading to forest growth. In this article we discuss a modelling strategy for the simulation of three-dimensional radiation distribution in a vegetation canopy of a small area (about 0.25–0.3 ha). We demonstrate its realisation to predict the three-dimensional radiative regime of phytosynthetically active radiation in a real coniferous stand located on hilly surroundings. Our model can be used to investigate the influence of different climatic conditions, forest management methods and field sites on the solar energy available for forest growth in small heterogeneous areas. Further, a three-dimensional process-oriented model helps to derive global variables affecting bio-physiological processes in a vegetation canopy shifting from small scale studies of the functioning of forests to regional, continental, and global scale problems. (author)

  10. MLAOS: A Multi-Point Linear Array of Optical Sensors for Coniferous Foliage Clumping Index Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghua Qu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The canopy foliage clumping effect is primarily caused by the non-random distribution of canopy foliage. Currently, measurements of clumping index (CI by handheld instruments is typically time- and labor-intensive. We propose a low-cost and low-power automatic measurement system called Multi-point Linear Array of Optical Sensors (MLAOS, which consists of three above-canopy and nine below-canopy optical sensors that capture plant transmittance at different times of the day. Data communication between the MLAOS node is facilitated by using a ZigBee network, and the data are transmitted from the field MLAOS to a remote data server using the Internet. The choice of the electronic element and design of the MLAOS software is aimed at reducing costs and power consumption. A power consumption test showed that, when a 4000 mAH Li-ion battery is used, a maximum of 8–10 months of work can be achieved. A field experiment on a coniferous forest revealed that the CI of MLAOS may reveal a clumping effect that occurs within the canopy. In further work, measurement of the multi-scale clumping effect can be achieved by utilizing a greater number of MLAOS devices to capture the heterogeneity of the plant canopy.

  11. Water migration of macroelements in coniferous-broad-leaved forests of Sikhote-Alin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Kozhevnikova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, the natural water chemical composition spatial variability studies results in the mountain forest catchment are presented. It’s shown that the catchment biotic components’ impact upon water chemical composition is detected even at input as atmospheric precipitation. The input fluxes are acid, sulfate ones with high ratio of hydrogen, potassium and dissolved organic matter. Diversity of ecotopic conditions determines the further transformation of natural water chemical composition. The role of tree crowns in the transformation increases while the crown closure and stands’ age increase. According to macrocomponents transformation and rain acidity neutralization, forest associations form the sequence: mixed > coniferous > young deciduous ones. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC, potassium and calcium become the main components of water chemical composition, while sulfates dominate among anions. For vegetation period, 9–11 kg/ha of sulfates come below tree crown. Biogenic elements transport is gradually limited in soil profile at the migration stage. Sulfate-potassium composition throughfall in spruce-fir and secondary forests community transforms into sulfate-sodium-calcium. Hydrocarbonates predominate in soil water in broad-leaved-pine type of forest, and potassium output decreases 10 times. Geochemical type of river water keeps features of chemical composition of soil drained by river section. Negligible output of sulfates, hydrocarbonates and calcium from ecosystem is established for the headwaters. Negative balance of hydrocarbonates and calcium is compensated by significant input of these components with throughfall at catchments with predominantly pine-broad-leaved forest types.

  12. Flux agreement above a Scots pine plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, L. W.; Vogt, R.; Bernhofer, Ch.; Blanford, J. H.

    1996-03-01

    The surface energy exchange of 12m high Scots pine plantation at Hartheim, Germany, was measured with a variety of methods during a 11-day period of fine weather in mid-May 1992. Net radiation and rate of thermal storage were measured with conventional net radiometers, soil heat flux discs and temperature-based storage models. The turbulent fluxes discussed in this report were obtained with an interchanging Bowen ratio energy budget system (BREB, at 14 m), two one-propeller eddy correlation systems (OPEC systems 1 and 2 at 17m), a 1-dimensional sonic eddy correlation system (SEC system 3) at 15 m, all on one “low” tower, and a 3-dimensional sonic eddy correlation system (SEC system 22) at 22 m on the “high” tower that was about 46 m distant. All systems measured sensible and latent heat (H and LE) directly, except for OPEC systems 1 and 2 which estimated LE as a residual term in the surface energy balance. Closure of turbulent fluxes from the two SEC systems was around 80% for daytime and 30% for night, with closure of 1-dimensional SEC system 3 exceeding that of 3-dimensional SEC system 22. The night measurements of turbulent fluxes contained considerable uncertainty, especially with the BREB system where measured gradients often yielded erroneous fluxes due to problems inherent in the method (i.e., computational instability as Bowen's ratio approaches -1). Also, both eddy correlation system designs (OPEC and SEC) appeared to underestimate |H| during stable conditions at night. In addition, both sonic systems (1- and 3-dimensional) underestimated |LE| during stable conditions. The underestimate of |H| at night generated residual estimates of OPEC LE containing a “phantom dew” error that erroneously decreased daily LE totals by about 10 percent. These special night problems are circumvented here by comparing results for daytime periods only, rather than for full days. To summarize, turbulent fluxes on the low tower from OPEC system 2 and the adjacent

  13. Long-term landscape changes in a subalpine spruce-fir forest in central Utah, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse L. Morris1

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Western North America, increasing wildfire and outbreaks of native bark beetles have been mediated by warming climate conditions. Bioclimatic models forecast the loss of key high elevation species throughout the region. This study uses retrospective vegetation and fire history data to reconstruct the drivers of past disturbance and environmental change. Understanding the relationship among climate, antecedent disturbances, and the legacy effects of settlement-era logging can help identify the patterns and processes that create landscapes susceptible to bark beetle epidemics. Methods: Our analysis uses data from lake sediment cores, stand inventories, and historical records. Sediment cores were dated with radiometric techniques (14C and 210Pb/137Cs and subsampled for pollen and charcoal to maximize the temporal resolution during the historical period (1800 CE to present and to provide environmental baseline data (last 10,500 years. Pollen data for spruce were calibrated to carbon biomass (C t/ha using standard allometric equations and a transfer function. Charcoal samples were analyzed with statistical models to facilitate peak detection and determine fire recurrence intervals. Results: The Wasatch Plateau has been dominated by Engelmann spruce forests for the last ~10,500 years, with subalpine fir becoming more prominent since 6000 years ago. This landscape has experienced a dynamic fire regime, where burning events are more frequent and of higher magnitude during the last 3000 years. Two important disturbances have impacted Engelmann spruce in the historical period: 1 high-grade logging during the late 19th century; and (2 a high severity spruce beetle outbreak in the late 20th century that killed >90 % of mature spruce (>10 cm dbh. Conclusions: Our study shows that spruce-dominated forests in this region are resilient to a range of climate and disturbance regimes. Several lines of evidence suggest that 19th century logging

  14. Soil, plant, and transport influences on methane in a subalpine forest under high ultraviolet irradiance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Baer

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated direct methane emission from plant foliage under aerobic conditions, particularly under high ultraviolet (UV irradiance. We examined the potential importance of this phenomenon in a high-elevation conifer forest using micrometeorological techniques. Vertical profiles of methane and carbon dioxide in forest air were monitored every 2 h for 6 weeks in summer 2007. Day to day variability in above-canopy CH4 was high, with observed values in the range 1790 to 1910 nmol mol−1. High CH4 was correlated with high carbon monoxide and related to wind direction, consistent with pollutant transport from an urban area by a well-studied mountain-plain wind system. Soils were moderately dry during the study. Vertical gradients of CH4 were small but detectable day and night, both near the ground and within the vegetation canopy. Gradients near the ground were consistent with the forest soil being a net CH4 sink. Using scalar similarity with CO2, the magnitude of the summer soil CH4 sink was estimated at ~1.7 mg CH4 m−2 h−1, which is similar to other temperate forest upland soils. The high-elevation forest was naturally exposed to high UV irradiance under clear sky conditions, with observed peak UVB irradiance >2 W m−2. Gradients and means of CO2 within the canopy under daytime conditions showed net uptake of CO2 due to photosynthetic drawdown as expected. No evidence was found for a significant foliar CH4 source in the vegetation canopy, even under high UV conditions. While the possibility of a weak foliar source cannot be excluded given the observed soil sink, overall this subalpine forest was a net sink for atmospheric methane during the growing season.

  15. The possible influence of terracettes on surface hydrology of steep-sloping and subalpine environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Philip; Kuonen, Samuel; Fister, Wolfgang; Kuhn, Nikolaus

    2015-04-01

    could provide temporary storage for runoff-associated substances. Greater understanding of the exact influence of terracettes on surface hydrology in steep-sloping and subalpine environments could benefit the future management of grazing and rangelands in such areas.

  16. Aboveground vertebrate and invertebrate herbivore impact on net N mineralization in subalpine grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Anita C; Schotz, Martin; Vandegehuchte, Martijn L; Van Der Putten, Wim H; Duyts, Henk; Raschein, Ursina; Gwiazdowicz, Dariusz J; Busse, Matt D; Page-dumroese, Deborah S; Zimmermann, Stephan

    2015-12-01

    Aboveground herbivores have strong effects on grassland nitrogen (N) cycling. They can accelerate or slow down soil net N mineralization depending on ecosystem productivity and grazing intensity. Yet, most studies only consider either ungulates or invertebrate herbivores, but not the combined effect of several functionally different vertebrate and invertebrate herbivore species or guilds. We assessed how a diverse herbivore community affects net N mineralization in subalpine grasslands. By using size-selective fences, we progressively excluded large, medium, and small mammals, as well as invertebrates from two vegetation types, and assessed how the exclosure types (ET) affected net N mineralization. The two vegetation types differed in long-term management (centuries), forage quality, and grazing history and intensity. To gain a more mechanistic understanding of how herbivores affect net N mineralization, we linked mineralization to soil abiotic (temperature; moisture; NO3-, NH4+, and total inorganic N concentrations/pools; C, N, P concentrations; pH; bulk density), soil biotic (microbial biomass; abundance of collembolans, mites, and nematodes) and plant (shoot and root biomass; consumption; plant C, N, and fiber content; plant N pool) properties. Net N mineralization differed between ET, but not between vegetation types. Thus, short-term changes in herbivore community composition and, therefore, in grazing intensity had a stronger effect on net N mineralization than long-term management and grazing history. We found highest N mineralization values when only invertebrates were present, suggesting that mammals had a negative effect on net N mineralization. Of the variables included in our analyses, only mite abundance and aboveground plant biomass explained variation in net N mineralization among ET. Abundances of both mites and leaf-sucking invertebrates were positively correlated with aboveground plant biomass, and biomass increased with progressive exclusion

  17. Differences in nitrogen cycling and soil mineralisation between a eucalypt plantation and a mixed eucalypt and #Acacia mangium# plantation on a sandy tropical soil

    OpenAIRE

    Tchichelle, Sogni Viviane; Epron, Daniel; Mialoundama, Fidèle; Koutika, Lydie-Stella; Harmand, Jean-Michel; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre; Mareschal, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Sustainable wood production requires appropriate management of commercial forest plantations. Establishment of industrial eucalypt plantations on poor sandy soils leads to a high loss of nutrients including nitrogen (N) after wood harvesting. An ecological intensification of eucalypt plantations was tested with the replacement of half of the Eucalyptus urophylla × E. grandis by Acacia mangium in the eucalypt monoculture to sustain soil fertility through enhancement of the N biological cycle. ...

  18. Costs and returns of producing hops in established tree plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim Ha; Shadi Atallah; Tamara Benjamin; Lori Hoagland; Lenny Farlee; Keith. Woeste

    2017-01-01

    This article is the first of two publications that analyzes economic opportunities in forest farming for Indiana forest plantation owners. This study explores growing hops along the fence lines of newly established forest stands, while the second study investigates producing American ginseng in older (20- to 30-year-old) forests. The economic analysis presented in this...

  19. Establishment of a Nothofagus alessandrii plantation using different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a lack of information regarding the establishment of Nothofagus alessandrii plantations, including any impacts that shading and weed control may have on early survival and growth. A trial was therefore initiated where four shade levels (0% and Rachel® plastic net of 50%, 65%, and 80%) and two weed control ...

  20. Biomass harvesting in Eucalyptus plantations in Western Australia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Australia is at an early stage of exploring the use of forest biomass to generate energy. This study evaluated the biomass yield and the productivity rates of equipment for harvesting biomass in a poor-quality eucalypt plantation. The operation consisted of a tracked feller-buncher, grapple skidder and mobile chipper.

  1. Effects of plantation residue management on the community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of plantation residue management on the community structure of wattle regeneration invertebrate pests in South Africa. ... Members of the soil invertebrate pest complex included whitegrubs and cutworms that generally had a higher pest status than millipedes, nematodes, grasshoppers, ants, false wireworms, ...

  2. Financial performance of loblolly and longleaf pine plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven D. Mills; Charles T. Stiff

    2013-01-01

    The financial performance of selected management regimes for loblolly (Pinus taeda L.) and longleaf pine (P. palustris Mill.) plantations were compared for four cases, each with low- and high-site productivity levels and each evaluated using 5 and 7 percent real discount rates. In all cases, longleaf pine was considered both with...

  3. Cottonwood Response to Nitrogen Related To Plantation Age and Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    B.G. Blackmon

    1977-01-01

    When applied at plantation age 4,336 kg N/ha increased diameter growth of cottonwood on Sharkey clay by 33 percent over unfertilized controls. Fertilizing at ages 2 and 3 resulted in no response, nor was there any benefit from applying nitrogen fertilizer to cottonwood on Commerce silt loam. On both sites, foliar N levels were increased by fertilization regardless of...

  4. Impact of Eucalyptus plantations on the avian breeding community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nesting bird species in natural forests and Eucalyptus plantations on the Amani Plateau, East Usambara, were studied during the breeding season of September 2003 to March 2004. Some forest birds — like barbets, batis, broadbills, doves, flycatchers, greenbuls, hornbills, and tinkerbirds — utilised similar nest sites ...

  5. Measuring total economic benefits from water in plantation forestry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A quasi input-output framework was applied to measuring direct and indirect economic benefits from water use in plantation forestry in the Crocodile river catchment of South Africa. The study accounted for indirect economic benefits generated in downstream timber processing activities and input supply sectors linked with ...

  6. Wood production potential in poplar plantations in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christersson, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Shortage of oil, large variations in exports from Russia of wood to Europe, plenty of abandoned agriculture land, new ideas about a more intensive silviculture; these circumstances are driving forces in Sweden for planting fast-growing poplar and hybrid aspen clones on suitable land. The advantage of such trees is that the wood can be used for both energy (heat, biofuels, electricity), paper and for construction. Poplar clones bred in the USA and Belgium, and older hybrid aspen clones from Sweden, together with new poplar clones collected and selected for Swedish conditions from British Columbia, Canada, were planted during the 1990s in south and central Sweden. The stem diameters and heights of the trees have been measured during the last 10 years and the woody biomass production above ground has been calculated. MAI for all the plantations is 10-31 m 3 or 3-10 ton DM per hectare with the highest annual woody production of 45 m 3 or 15 ton DM per hectare in some years in a very dense plantation in the most southern part of Sweden. All the plantations have been fenced for at least the first ten years. The damage has been caused by stem canker, insects, leaf rust and by moose after removal of the fences. The possibilities for the use of poplar plantations as energy forest and vegetation filters are discussed. (author)

  7. pesticide residues in water from tpc sugarcane plantations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. We report herein, the analysis of water samples collected from TPC Sugarcane Plantation and its environs in Kilimanjaro region, which is the earliest intensive user of pesticides in Tanzania. A total of 50 water samples collected from 18 sampling sites between 2000 and 2001 were analyzed for pesticide ...

  8. Realising the benefit of research in eucalypt plantation management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of these technologies have all contributed to measured gains. The continued development and application of appropriate forest technology will be critical to a sustainable future for the industry in South Africa. Issues pertaining to this are discussed. Keywords: eucalypt plantations; technology transfer; yield improvement

  9. Herbaceous weed control in loblolly pine plantations using flazasulfuron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew W. Ezell; Jimmie L. Yeiser

    2015-01-01

    A total of 13 treatments were applied at four sites (two in Mississippi and two in Texas) to evaluate the efficacy of flazasulfuron applied alone or in mixtures for providing control of herbaceous weeds. All sites were newly established loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations. Plots were evaluated monthly until 180 days after treatment. No phytotoxicity on pine...

  10. DRIS Analysis Identifies a Common Potassium Imbalance in Sweetgum Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark D. Coleman; S.X. Chang; D.J. Robison

    2003-01-01

    DRIS (Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System) analysis was applied to fast-growing sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) plantations in the southeast United States as a tool for nutrient diagnosis and fertilizer recommendations. First, standard foliar nutrient ratios for nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and...

  11. Nutritional sustainability of Eucalyptus plantations : a case study at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nutritional sustainability of a short-rotation Eucalyptus grandis plantation system was evaluated in a trial located at Karkloof, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, by determining nutrient pools and fluxes. Nutrient pools in the forest floor and biomass (above- and below-ground) were assessed by destructive sampling. The size ...

  12. Mechanized row-thinning systems in slash pine plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter C. Anderson; James E. Granskog

    1974-01-01

    Over the next decade or two, most of the 15 to 20 million acres of pine plantations in the South will become ready for a first commercial thinning. The magnitude and nature of the job is illustrated by the situation in slash pine-the most extensively planted of the southern pines.

  13. Acacia plantations in Vietnam: Research and knowledge application ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Greater efforts are required on surveillance of major diseases and tree breeding to improve disease resistance. Because acacia plantations deliver high economic benefits and there are opportunities for improving productivity, an R&D strategy focused on underpinning sustainable management and application would serve ...

  14. Solid-wood production from temperate eucalypt plantations: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since 1988, there has been a major focus in Tasmania on research for the management of temperate eucalypt plantations for solid wood. This coincided with the formal transfer of large areas of native forest that had previously been part of the production forest estate into reserves, a decision that triggered the establishment ...

  15. Wood production potential in poplar plantations in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christersson, Lars [Section of Short Rotation Forestry, VPE, SLU, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-09-15

    Shortage of oil, large variations in exports from Russia of wood to Europe, plenty of abandoned agriculture land, new ideas about a more intensive silviculture; these circumstances are driving forces in Sweden for planting fast-growing poplar and hybrid aspen clones on suitable land. The advantage of such trees is that the wood can be used for both energy (heat, biofuels, electricity), paper and for construction. Poplar clones bred in the USA and Belgium, and older hybrid aspen clones from Sweden, together with new poplar clones collected and selected for Swedish conditions from British Columbia, Canada, were planted during the 1990s in south and central Sweden. The stem diameters and heights of the trees have been measured during the last 10 years and the woody biomass production above ground has been calculated. MAI for all the plantations is 10-31 m{sup 3} or 3-10 ton DM per hectare with the highest annual woody production of 45 m{sup 3} or 15 ton DM per hectare in some years in a very dense plantation in the most southern part of Sweden. All the plantations have been fenced for at least the first ten years. The damage has been caused by stem canker, insects, leaf rust and by moose after removal of the fences. The possibilities for the use of poplar plantations as energy forest and vegetation filters are discussed. (author)

  16. Response of Bird Community to Various Plantation Forests in Gunung Walat, West Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aronika Kaban

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Different plantation forests possibly harbor different bird communities. This study was aimed to reveal responses of bird community to the different plantation (Schima wallichii, Agathis loranthifolia, Pinus merkusii, and mixed plantation, identify species shared in all plantation, and species confined to a particular plantation. The study site was plantation forests, using the point count method for 64 effective hours. There were 40 bird species (maximum prediction 52 in all forest plantations and each type had 26–31 species. Number of individuals, species density, and diversity index in Schima plantation were higher, followed by Agathis, Pinus, and mixed plantations. Mixed plantation could have harbored more species based on the prediction by Chao. Although there were some differences in tree species, tree sizes, and tree heights, the response of bird composition in all plantations was not differed (93–81% similarity probably because of the short distances among the forests, the abundance of food insects, and the same late-successional stages. There were 15 (37.5% widely distributed species in all forest types. Eight species were confined only to a specific forest type. Four species were considered true confined species, namely Javan sunbird (Schima forest, Grey-cheeked bulbul (in Pinus, Crescent-chested babbler (Agathis, and Mountain white-eye (Agathis.

  17. Adaptive genetic potential of coniferous forest tree species under climate change: implications for sustainable forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihai, Georgeta; Birsan, Marius-Victor; Teodosiu, Maria; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Daia, Mihai; Mirancea, Ionel; Ivanov, Paula; Alin, Alexandru

    2017-04-01

    coniferous species for a sustainable forest management in the context of climate change), financed by the Executive Agency for Higher Education, Research, Development and Innovation Funding, grant number PN-II-PC-PCCA-2013-4-0695.

  18. The accuracy of matrix population model projections for coniferous trees in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mantgem, P.J.; Stephenson, N.L.

    2005-01-01

    1 We assess the use of simple, size-based matrix population models for projecting population trends for six coniferous tree species in the Sierra Nevada, California. We used demographic data from 16 673 trees in 15 permanent plots to create 17 separate time-invariant, density-independent population projection models, and determined differences between trends projected from initial surveys with a 5-year interval and observed data during two subsequent 5-year time steps. 2 We detected departures from the assumptions of the matrix modelling approach in terms of strong growth autocorrelations. We also found evidence of observation errors for measurements of tree growth and, to a more limited degree, recruitment. Loglinear analysis provided evidence of significant temporal variation in demographic rates for only two of the 17 populations. 3 Total population sizes were strongly predicted by model projections, although population dynamics were dominated by carryover from the previous 5-year time step (i.e. there were few cases of recruitment or death). Fractional changes to overall population sizes were less well predicted. Compared with a null model and a simple demographic model lacking size structure, matrix model projections were better able to predict total population sizes, although the differences were not statistically significant. Matrix model projections were also able to predict short-term rates of survival, growth and recruitment. Mortality frequencies were not well predicted. 4 Our results suggest that simple size-structured models can accurately project future short-term changes for some tree populations. However, not all populations were well predicted and these simple models would probably become more inaccurate over longer projection intervals. The predictive ability of these models would also be limited by disturbance or other events that destabilize demographic rates. ?? 2005 British Ecological Society.

  19. Fire intensity impacts on post-fire temperate coniferous forest net primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Aaron M.; Kolden, Crystal A.; Smith, Alistair M. S.; Boschetti, Luigi; Johnson, Daniel M.; Cochrane, Mark A.

    2018-02-01

    Fire is a dynamic ecological process in forests and impacts the carbon (C) cycle through direct combustion emissions, tree mortality, and by impairing the ability of surviving trees to sequester carbon. While studies on young trees have demonstrated that fire intensity is a determinant of post-fire net primary productivity, wildland fires on landscape to regional scales have largely been assumed to either cause tree mortality, or conversely, cause no physiological impact, ignoring the impacted but surviving trees. Our objective was to understand how fire intensity affects post-fire net primary productivity in conifer-dominated forested ecosystems on the spatial scale of large wildland fires. We examined the relationships between fire radiative power (FRP), its temporal integral (fire radiative energy - FRE), and net primary productivity (NPP) using 16 years of data from the MOderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) for 15 large fires in western United States coniferous forests. The greatest NPP post-fire loss occurred 1 year post-fire and ranged from -67 to -312 g C m-2 yr-1 (-13 to -54 %) across all fires. Forests dominated by fire-resistant species (species that typically survive low-intensity fires) experienced the lowest relative NPP reductions compared to forests with less resistant species. Post-fire NPP in forests that were dominated by fire-susceptible species were not as sensitive to FRP or FRE, indicating that NPP in these forests may be reduced to similar levels regardless of fire intensity. Conversely, post-fire NPP in forests dominated by fire-resistant and mixed species decreased with increasing FRP or FRE. In some cases, this dose-response relationship persisted for more than a decade post-fire, highlighting a legacy effect of fire intensity on post-fire C dynamics in these forests.

  20. Growth ring analysis of fossil coniferous woods from early cretaceous of Araripe Basin (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etiene F. Pires

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Growth ring analysis on silicified coniferous woods from the Missão Velha Formation (Araripe Basin - Brazil has yielded important information about periodicity of wood production during the Early Cretaceous in the equatorial belt. Despite warm temperatures, dendrological data indicate that the climate was characterized by cyclical alternation of dry and rainy periods influenced by cyclical precipitations, typical of tropical wet and dry or savanna climate. The abundance of false growth rings can be attributed to both occasional droughts and arthropod damage. The present climate data agree with palaeoclimatic models that inferred summer-wet biomes for the Late Jurassic/Early Cretaceous boundary in the southern equatorial belt.A partir de análise de anéis de crescimento em lenhos de coníferas silicificadas provenientes da Formação Missão Velha(Bacia do Araripe - Brasil, obteve-se importantes informações a respeito da periodicidade de produção lenhosa duranteo início do Cretáceo, na região do equador. Apesar das estimativas de temperatura apresentarem-se elevadas, os dados dendrológicos indicam que o clima foi caracterizado pela alternância cíclica de períodos secos e chuvosos, influenciado por precipitações periódicas, típico das condições atuais de climatropical úmido e seco ou savana. A abundância de falsosanéis de crescimento pode ser atribuída tanto a secas ocasionais quanto a danos causados por artrópodes. Os dados paleoclimáticos aqui obtidos corroboram com modelos paleoclimáticos que inferem a ocorrência de um bioma de verões úmidos para o limite Neojurássico/Eocretáceo ao sul do equador.

  1. Lidar and Hyperspectral Remote Sensing for the Analysis of Coniferous Biomass Stocks and Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halligan, K. Q.; Roberts, D. A.

    2006-12-01

    Airborne lidar and hyperspectral data can improve estimates of aboveground carbon stocks and fluxes through their complimentary responses to vegetation structure and biochemistry. While strong relationships have been demonstrated between lidar-estimated vegetation structural parameters and field data, research is needed to explore the portability of these methods across a range of topographic conditions, disturbance histories, vegetation type and climate. Additionally, research is needed to evaluate contributions of hyperspectral data in refining biomass estimates and determination of fluxes. To address these questions we are a conducting study of lidar and hyperspectral remote sensing data across sites including coniferous forests, broadleaf deciduous forests and a tropical rainforest. Here we focus on a single study site, Yellowstone National Park, where tree heights, stem locations, above ground biomass and basal area were mapped using first-return small-footprint lidar data. A new method using lidar intensity data was developed for separating the terrain and vegetation components in lidar data using a two-scale iterative local minima filter. Resulting Digital Terrain Models (DTM) and Digital Canopy Models (DCM) were then processed to retrieve a diversity of vertical and horizontal structure metrics. Univariate linear models were used to estimate individual tree heights while stepwise linear regression was used to estimate aboveground biomass and basal area. Three small-area field datasets were compared for their utility in model building and validation of vegetation structure parameters. All structural parameters were linearly correlated with lidar-derived metrics, with higher accuracies obtained where field and imagery data were precisely collocated . Initial analysis of hyperspectral data suggests that vegetation health metrics including measures of live and dead vegetation and stress indices may provide good indicators of carbon flux by mapping vegetation

  2. Fungal mycelium and decomposition of needle litter in three contrasting coniferous forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virzo De Santo, Amalia; Rutigliano, Flora Angela; Berg, Björn; Fioretto, Antonietta; Puppi, Gigliola; Alfani, Anna

    2002-08-01

    The fungal mycelium ingrowth and the rates of mass loss and respiration of needle litter of Pinus pinea, Pinus laricio, Pinus sylvestris, and Abies alba were investigated, in three coniferous forests, over a 3-year period by means of a composite set of incubations. In the early stages, the fungal flora of the decomposing needles was dominated by dematiaceous hyphomycetes and coelomycetes. Basidiomycetes reached a peak after 6 months on pine needles, but were absent from the N-rich needles of A. alba. Soil fungi ( Penicillium, Trichoderma, Absidia, Mucor sp. pl.) became most frequent in later stages. At the end of the study period, the total mycelium amount showed the lowest values in all pine needles incubated in the P. laricio forest and the highest ones in P. pinea needles incubated in the P. pinea forest. In all data sets, as in data for boreal forests examined for comparison, the concentration of litter fungal mycelium versus litter mass loss followed a common exponential model. However, in later stages, the amount of litter fungal mycelium was very close to that of the humus at the incubation site, thus supporting the hypothesis of a logistic growth pattern. Respiration rates of decomposing litters varied with season and decreased with litter age to values close to those of the humus at the incubation site. Respiration of water-saturated litter was negatively correlated with the total mycelium concentration, and this was consistent with the observation that in far-decomposed litter only a minor fraction of the total mycelium is alive.

  3. Energetic and exergetic analysis of steam production for the extraction of coniferous essential oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friso, Dario; Grigolato, Stefano; Cavalli, Raffaele

    2011-01-01

    Bioenergy production is optimal when the energy production process is both efficient and benefits from local resources. Energetic and exergetic analyses are applied to highlight efficiency differences between small-size systems that are based on the co-generation of heating and power (CHP) versus the co-generation of heating and power with steam production (CHP-S). Both systems use the Organic fluid Rankine Cycle (ORC). The recovery of heat from flue gases is considered to be a way of increasing energy efficiency. In the CHP-S case, steam (at low pressure) is used to extract essential oils from fresh twigs and needles of coniferous trees throughout a steam distillation process. When the systems work at a thermal combustion power of 1350 kW, energetic analysis shows that the energy efficiency of the CHP-S plant (89.4%) is higher than that of the CHP plant (77.9%). Exergetic analysis shows that the efficiency of the CHP-S plant is 2.2% higher than that of the CHP plant. -- Highlights: → Bioenergy production is optimal when the energy production process is efficient. → Energetic and exergetic analyses are applied to highlight efficiency differences between the co-generation of heating and power (CHP) versus the co-generation of heating and power with steam production (CHP-S). → The recovery of heat from flue gases is a way of increasing energy efficiency. → The energetic and exergetic analysis shows that the efficiency of the CHP-S plant is higher than that of the CHP plant.

  4. Small scale temporal distribution of radiocesium in undisturbed coniferous forest soil: Radiocesium depth distribution profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramage, Mengistu T; Onda, Yuichi; Kato, Hiroaki

    2016-04-01

    The depth distribution of pre-Fukushima and Fukushima-derived (137)Cs in undisturbed coniferous forest soil was investigated at four sampling dates from nine months to 18 months after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. The migration rate and short-term temporal variability among the sampling profiles were evaluated. Taking the time elapsed since the peak deposition of pre-Fukushima (137)Cs and the median depth of the peaks, its downward displacement rates ranged from 0.15 to 0.67 mm yr(-1) with a mean of 0.46 ± 0.25 mm yr(-1). On the other hand, in each examined profile considerable amount of the Fukushima-derived (137)Cs was found in the organic layer (51%-92%). At this moment, the effect of time-distance on the downward distribution of Fukushima-derived (137)Cs seems invisible as its large portion is still found in layers where organic matter is maximal. This indicates that organic matter seems the primary and preferential sorbent of radiocesium that could be associated with the physical blockage of the exchanging sites by organic-rich dusts that act as a buffer against downward propagation of radiocesium, implying radiocesium to be remained in the root zone for considerable time period. As a result, this soil section can be a potential source of radiation dose largely due to high radiocesium concentration coupled with its low density. Generally, such kind of information will be useful to establish a dynamic safety-focused decision support system to ease and assist management actions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of ground fires on element dynamics in mountainous coniferous forest in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Näthe

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Disturbances such as fires are a natural phenomenon of forested ecosystems, having a different impact on (micro- climate (e.g. emissions of gases and aerosols, ecology (destruction of flora and fauna and nutrient cycles especially in the soils. Forest fires alter the spatial distribution (forest floor vs. mineral soil, binding forms (organic vs. inorganic and availability (water solubility of organic substances and nutrients. The effects of fires on chemical, biological and physical soil properties in forested ecosystems have been intensively studied in the last decades, especially in the Mediterranean area and North America. However, differences in fire intensity, forest type (species, age and location (climate, geological substrate, nutrient status lead to divergent results. Furthermore, only a few case studies focused on the effects of ground fires in hilly landscapes, on the vertical and lateral water-driven fluxes of elements (C, N, nutrients, as well as on the input of fire-released terrestrial nutrients into aquatic ecosystems. Thus, this study will evaluate the effects of low-severity fires on nutrient cycling in a coniferous forest in a hilly landscape connected to an aquatic system. At three spatially independent sites three paired plots (control and manipulated were chosen at a forested site in Thuringia, Germany. All plots are similar in the vegetation cover and pedogenetic properties.In relation to control sites, this study will examine the effects of low-severity fires on:a the mobilization of organic carbon and nutrients (released from ash material and the forest floor via leachate and erosion paths,b the binding form (inorganic/organic of elements and organic compounds, and c the particle size fraction (DOM/POM of elements and organic compounds.The goal of this study is a better understanding of the impact of forest fires on element cycling and release in a hilly landscape connected to an aquatic system, supposedly driven by

  6. Arthropods and passerine birds in coniferous forest. The impact of acidification and needle-loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunnarsson, B. [Goeteborg Univ., Dept. of Zoology, Sect. of Animal Ecology, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1995-12-31

    The micro-habitat structure on coniferous trees changes as a result of needle-loss. This structural change in the vegetation may affect arthropods living in spruce Picea abies by indirect mechanisms, e.g. altered relations between prey and predators. The impact of acidification and needle-loss on some tree-living arthropods and passerine birds is reviewed. New information about the taxonomic composition of spiders in relation to needle density in a field experiments is reported. The main combined findings from the review and field experiments are: 1) Acid precipitation may be toxic because of high H{sup +} concentrations. However, simulated acid rain (pH 4.0) did not reduce the growth rate of a spruce-living spider. There is a present no evidence of toxic effect on arthropods at this level of pH. 2) Experiments in the field and laboratory and data from natural populations suggested that spruce-living arthropods are affected by the needle density of branches. These data showed a positive correlation between needle density and spider abundance. However, a large-scale field experiment could not confirm this relationship. 3) The interaction between bird predation and needle density was examined in a large-scale field experiment. There were strong negative effects of bird predation on arthropod abundance. Moreover, the taxonomic composition among spiders changed as a result of bird predation: raptorial spiders increased their relative abundance whereas sheetweb spiders decreased their relative abundance when bird predation was excluded. There were also some cases of bird predation/needle density interactions. In the absence of bird predation, the needle density affected the spider size distribution: large spiders were more common on needle-sparse branches than on needle-dens ones. The species composition was affected by similar interactions, e.g. bird predation effects on crab spiders (Thomisidae) were found on needle-sparse branches only. (Abstract Truncated)

  7. Similarity of nutrient uptake and root dimensions of Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir at two contrasting sites in Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanai, R; McFarlane, K; Lucash, M; Kulpa, S; Wood, D

    2009-10-09

    Nutrient uptake capacity is an important parameter in modeling nutrient uptake by plants. Researchers commonly assume that uptake capacity measured for a species can be used across sites. We tested this assumption by measuring the nutrient uptake capacity of intact roots of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmanni Parry) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.) at Loch Vale Watershed and Fraser Experimental Forest in the Rocky Mountains of central Colorado. Roots still attached to the tree were exposed to one of three concentrations of nutrient solutions for time periods ranging from 1 to 96 hours, and solutions were analyzed for ammonium, nitrate, calcium, magnesium, and potassium. Surprisingly, the two species were indistinguishable in nutrient uptake within site for all nutrients (P > 0.25), but uptake rates differed by site. In general, nutrient uptake was higher at Fraser (P = 0.01, 0.15, 0.03, 0.18 for NH{sub 4}{sup +}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, Ca{sup 2+}, and K{sup +}, respectively), which is west of the Continental Divide and has lower atmospheric deposition of N than Loch Vale. Mean uptake rates by site for ambient solution concentrations were 0.12 {micro}mol NH{sub 4}{sup +} g{sub fwt}{sup -1} h{sup -1}, 0.02 {micro}mol NO{sub 3}{sup -} g{sub fwt}{sup -1}, 0.21 {micro}mol Ca{sup 2+} g{sub fwt}{sup -1} h{sup -1}, and 0.01 {micro}mol Mg{sup 2+} g{sub fwt}{sup -1} h{sup -1} at Loch Vale, and 0.21 {micro}mol NH{sub 4}{sup +} f{sub fwt}{sup -1}h{sup -1}, 0.04 {micro}mol NO{sub 3}{sup -} g{sub fwt}{sup -1} h{sup -1}, 0.51 {micro}mol Ca{sup 2+}g{sub fwt}{sup -1}h{sup -1}, and 0.07 {micro}mol Mg{sup 2+} f{sub fwt}{sup -1}h{sup -1} at Fraser. The importance of site conditions in determining uptake capacity should not be overlooked when parameterizing nutrient uptake models. We also characterized the root morphology of these two species and compared them to other tree species we have measured at various sites in the northeastern USA. Engelman spruce and subalpine fir

  8. Phenology and carbon dioxide source/sink strength of a subalpine grassland in response to an exceptionally short snow season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvagno, M; Cremonese, E; Filippa, G; Morra di Cella, U; Wohlfahrt, G; Rossini, M; Colombo, R; Julitta, T; Manca, G; Siniscalco, C; Migliavacca, M

    2013-01-01

    Changes in snow cover depth and duration predicted by climate change scenarios are expected to strongly affect high-altitude ecosystem processes. This study investigates the effect of an exceptionally short snow season on the phenology and carbon dioxide source/sink strength of a subalpine grassland. An earlier snowmelt of more than one month caused a considerable advancement (40 days) of the beginning of the carbon uptake period (CUP) and, together with a delayed establishment of the snow season in autumn, contributed to a two-month longer CUP. The combined effect of the shorter snow season and the extended CUP led to an increase of about 100% in annual carbon net uptake. Nevertheless, the unusual environmental conditions imposed by the early snowmelt led to changes in canopy structure and functioning, with a reduction of the carbon sequestration rate during the snow-free period. (letter)

  9. [Effects of snow pack on soil nitrogen transformation enzyme activities in a subalpine Abies faxioniana forest of western Sichuan, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Li; Xu, Zhen-Feng; Wu, Fu-Zhong; Yang, Wan-Qin; Yin, Rui; Li, Zhi-Ping; Gou, Xiao-Lin; Tang, Shi-Shan

    2014-05-01

    This study characterized the dynamics of the activities of urease, nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase in both soil organic layer and mineral soil layer under three depths of snow pack (deep snowpack, moderate snowpack and shallow snowpack) over the three critical periods (snow formed period, snow stable period, and snow melt period) in the subalpine Abies faxoniana forest of western Sichuan in the winter of 2012 and 2013. Throughout the winter, soil temperature under deep snowpack increased by 46.2% and 26.2%, respectively in comparison with moderate snowpack and shallow snowpack. In general, the three nitrogen-related soil enzyme activities under shallow snowpack were 0.8 to 3.9 times of those under deep snowpack during the winter. In the beginning and thawing periods of seasonal snow pack, shallow snowpack significantly increased the activities of urease, nitrate and nitrite reductase enzyme in both soil organic layer and mineral soil layer. Although the activities of the studied enzymes in soil organic layer and mineral soil layer were observed to be higher than those under deep- and moderate snowpacks in deep winter, no significant difference was found under the three snow packs. Meanwhile, the effects of snowpack on the activities of the measured enzymes were related with season, soil layer and enzyme type. Significant variations of the activities of nitrogen-related enzymes were found in three critical periods over the winter, and the three measured soil enzymes were significantly higher in organic layer than in mineral layer. In addition, the activities of the three measured soil enzymes were closely related with temperature and moisture in soils. In conclusion, the decrease of snow pack induced by winter warming might increase the activities of soil enzymes related with nitrogen transformation and further stimulate the process of wintertime nitrogen transformation in soils of the subalpine forest.

  10. Total belowground carbon flux in subalpine forests is related to leaf area index, soil nitrogen, and tree height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Erin Michele; Ryan, Michael G.; Bradford, John B.; Hawbaker, Todd J.; Birdsey, R.

    2016-01-01

    In forests, total belowground carbon (C) flux (TBCF) is a large component of the C budget and represents a critical pathway for delivery of plant C to soil. Reducing uncertainty around regional estimates of forest C cycling may be aided by incorporating knowledge of controls over soil respiration and TBCF. Photosynthesis, and presumably TBCF, declines with advancing tree size and age, and photosynthesis increases yet C partitioning to TBCF decreases in response to high soil fertility. We hypothesized that these causal relationships would result in predictable patterns of TBCF, and partitioning of C to TBCF, with natural variability in leaf area index (LAI), soil nitrogen (N), and tree height in subalpine forests in the Rocky Mountains, USA. Using three consecutive years of soil respiration data collected from 22 0.38-ha locations across three 1-km2 subalpine forested landscapes, we tested three hypotheses: (1) annual soil respiration and TBCF will show a hump-shaped relationship with LAI; (2) variability in TBCF unexplained by LAI will be related to soil nitrogen (N); and (3) partitioning of C to TBCF (relative to woody growth) will decline with increasing soil N and tree height. We found partial support for Hypothesis 1 and full support for Hypotheses 2 and 3. TBCF, but not soil respiration, was explained by LAI and soil N patterns (r2 = 0.49), and the ratio of annual TBCF to TBCF plus aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) was related to soil N and tree height (r2 = 0.72). Thus, forest C partitioning to TBCF can vary even within the same forest type and region, and approaches that assume a constant fraction of TBCF relative to ANPP may be missing some of this variability. These relationships can aid with estimates of forest soil respiration and TBCF across landscapes, using spatially explicit forest data such as national inventories or remotely sensed data products.

  11. Use of passive UAS imaging to measure biophysical parameters in a southern Rocky Mountain subalpine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, M. K.; Sloan, J.; Mladinich, C. S.; Wessman, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) can provide detailed, fine spatial resolution imagery for ecological uses not otherwise obtainable through standard methods. The use of UAS imagery for ecology is a rapidly -evolving field, where the study of forest landscape ecology can be augmented using UAS imagery to scale and validate biophysical data from field measurements to spaceborne observations. High resolution imagery provided by UAS (30 cm2 pixels) offers detailed canopy cover and forest structure data in a time efficient and inexpensive manner. Using a GoPro Hero2 (2 mm focal length) camera mounted in the nose cone of a Raven unmanned system, we collected aerial and thermal data monthly during the summer 2013, over two subalpine forests in the Southern Rocky Mountains in Colorado. These forests are dominated by lodgepole pine (Pinus ponderosae) and have experienced insect-driven (primarily mountain pine beetle; MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae) mortality. Objectives of this study include observations of forest health variables such as canopy water content (CWC) from thermal imagery and leaf area index (LAI), biomass and forest productivity from the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from UAS imagery. Observations were, validated with ground measurements. Images were processed using a combination of AgiSoft Photoscan professional software and ENVI remote imaging software. We utilized the software Leaf Area Index Calculator (LAIC) developed by Córcoles et al. (2013) for calculating LAI from digital images and modified to conform to leaf area of needle-leaf trees as in Chen and Cihlar (1996) . LAIC uses a K-means cluster analysis to decipher the RGB levels for each pixel and distinguish between green aboveground vegetation and other materials, and project leaf area per unit of ground surface area (i.e. half total needle surface area per unit area). Preliminary LAIC UAS data shows summer average LAI was 3.8 in the most dense forest stands and 2.95 in less dense

  12. Impact of land use change on soil organic matter dynamics in subalpine grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Stefanie; Leifeld, Jens; Bahn, Michael; Fuhrer, Jürg

    2010-05-01

    Information regarding the response of soil organic matter (SOM) in soils to past and expected future land use changes in the European Alps is scarce. Understanding this response requires knowledge of size and residence times of SOM fractions with distinct stabilities. In order to quantify differences between types of land use in the amount, distribution and turnover rates of soil organic carbon (SOC) in subalpine grassland soils, we used soil aggregate and SOM density fractionation in combination with 14C dating. Samples were taken along gradients of different types of land use from meadow (M) to pasture (P) and to abandoned grassland (A) in the Stubai Valley and in the Matsch Valley. Sampling sites in both areas were located at equal altitude (1880 m and 1820 m, respectively) with the same parent material and soil type, but the Matsch Valley receives 400-500 mm less annual rainfall. SOC stocks in the top 10 cm were 2.47 ± 0.32 (M), 2.75 ± 0.32 (P), and 2.50 ± 0.31 kg C/m2 (A) in the Stubai Valley and 2.25 ± 0.14 (M), 3.45 ± 0.22 (P), 3.16 ± 0.27 kg C/m2(A) in the Matsch Valley. Three aggregate size classes were separated by wet sieving: 2 mm. The light floating fraction (wPOM, ρ >1 g/cm3) was included in the analysis. Free (f-) and occluded particulate organic matter (oPOM) were isolated from each aggregate size class (ρ >1.6 g/cm3). At both locations, more than 80% of SOC was stored in small (0.25-2 mm) and large (>2 mm) macroaggregates, but no trend in relation to the different types of land use could be detected. The fraction of C in fPOM and in oPOM in all aggregate size classes was highest for soil from abandoned grasslands. The bulk soil of the abandoned site in the Stubai Valley showed a significantly higher share of fPOM-C and oPOM-C and a higher amount of wPOM-C as compared to the soil from managed grassland, whereas in the Matsch Valley pasture soil had a significantly higher wPOM-C content. At both sites, 13C natural abundance analyses revealed

  13. The use of pesticides in Belgian illicit indoor cannabis plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuypers, Eva; Vanhove, Wouter; Gotink, Joachim; Bonneure, Arne; Van Damme, Patrick; Tytgat, Jan

    2017-08-01

    Cannabis (Cannabis spp.) use and cultivation continue to increase in many (European) countries. The illicit indoor cannabis plantations that supply Belgian and European cannabis markets create problems and concerns about health and safety of intervention staff, dismantling companies, the direct environment of cannabis plantations and, eventually, of cannabis users. Main risks may come from pesticide residues on plants, cultivation infrastructure and materials; left-over plant growth-promoting substances; mycotoxins from fungal pathogens on harvested plants; and/or high levels of cannabinoids in cannabis plant parts for consumption. In the present research, we report on pesticides found in illicit indoor cannabis plantations in Belgium. EN15662 QuEChERS extraction method and LC-MS/MS analysis were used to identify pesticides in indoor cannabis plantations and thus to evaluate the hazards associated with the use, cultivation and removal of cannabis plants in plantations as well as with dismantling activities in the cultivation rooms. We found pesticides in 64.3% of 72 cannabis plant samples and in 65.2% of 46 carbon filter cloth samples. Overall, 19 pesticides belonging to different chemical classes were identified. We found o-phenylphenol, bifenazate, cypermethrin, imidacloprid, propamocarb, propiconazole and tebuconazole, which is consistent with the commonly reported pesticides from literature. In only a few cases, pesticides found in bottles with a commercial label, were also identified in plant or stagnant water samples collected from the growth rooms where the bottles had been collected. We further revealed that, even though most pesticides have a low volatility, they could be detected from the carbon filters hanging at the ceiling of cultivation rooms. As a result, it is likely that pesticides also prevail in the plantation atmosphere during and after cultivation. The risk of inhaling the latter pesticides increases when plants sprayed with pesticides are

  14. Application of lidar and optical data for oil palm plantation management in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafri, Helmi Z. M.; Ismail, Mohd Hasmadi; Razi, Mohd Khairil M.; Anuar, Mohd Izzuddin; Ahmad, Abdul Rahman

    2012-11-01

    Proper oil palm plantation management is crucial for Malaysia as the country depends heavily on palm oil as a major source of national income. Precision agriculture is considered as one of the approaches that can be adopted to improve plantation practices for plantation managers such as the government-owned FELDA. However, currently the implementation of precision agriculture based on remote sensing and GIS is still lacking. This study explores the potential of the use of LiDAR and optical remote sensing data for plantation road and terrain planning for planting purposes. Traditional approaches use land surveying techniques that are time consuming and costly for vast plantation areas. The first ever airborne LiDAR and multispectral survey for oil palm plantation was carried out in early 2012 to test its feasibility. Preliminary results show the efficiency of such technology in demanding engineering and agricultural requirements of oil palm plantation. The most significant advantage of the approach is that it allows plantation managers to accurately plan the plantation road and determine the planting positions of new oil palm seedlings. Furthermore, this creates for the first time, digital database of oil palm estate and the airborne imagery can also be used for related activities such as oil palm tree inventory and detection of palm diseases. This work serves as the pioneer towards a more frequent application of LiDAR and multispectral data for oil palm plantation in Malaysia.

  15. Radionuclide behaviour and transport in a coniferous woodland ecosystem. Vegetation, invertebrates and wood mice, Apodemus sylvaticus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copplestone, D.; Johnson, M.S.; Toal, M.E.; Jones, S.R.; Jackson, D.

    1999-01-01

    Activity concentrations of radionuclides (134Cs, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am) were measured in vegetation, invertebrates and wood mice, Apodemus sylvaticus, collected in Lady Wood, a coniferous woodland in the vicinity of the British Nuclear Fuels reprocessing plant at Sellafield, Cumbria, UK. Vegetation was of low diversity and biomass with activity concentrations ranging from 1 to 5 Bq kg -1 (134Cs), 0.3-0.5 Bq kg -1 (238Pu), 0.8-8 Bq kg -1 (239+240Pu), and 0.6-16 Bq kg -1 (241Am), dry wt. Caesium-137 activity concentrations were high compared to the reference site in Cheshire, varying between 65 and 280 Bq kg -1 . Marked inter-specific and temporal differences in radionuclide activity concentrations were recorded for invertebrate populations. Caesium-137, 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am activity concentrations in detritivorous invertebrates were consistently higher than in all other invertebrate groups reflecting contamination of the leaf litter. The activity concentrations in detritivores increased during the autumn and winter, reflecting changes in diet as food sources varied throughout the year. Activity concentrations in invertebrates caught in Lady Wood were generally an order of magnitude higher than for the reference site. Activity concentrations in wood mice varied between 7 and 150 Bq kg -1 (137Cs), 0.1-0.3 Bq kg -1 (238Pu), 0.1-0.6 Bq kg -1 (239+240Pu) and 0.2-0.4 Bq kg -1 (241Am). There were clear differences in the activity concentration of 137Cs (P<0.01), 239+240Pu (P<0.05) and 241Am (P<0.05) in animals caught in Lady Wood compared to the reference site. However, the activity concentrations for 238Pu were similar at both sites, reflecting a low gastrointestinal transfer. Seasonal variation in activity concentrations was observed for 137Cs, 238Pu and 241Am. This variation is attributed to changes in the age structure of the population and diet throughout the year

  16. Evaluation of the load carrying capacity of large cross section coniferous timber in standing structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arriaga, F.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 85 large section timber pieces (Pinus sylvestris L. and Pinus pinaster Alt. found in a number of old buildings were visually analyzed and graded pursuant to Spanish standard UNE 56544 and German standard 4074. The object was to formulate a non-destructive method to reliably and effectively determine the mechanical properties of existing timber structures with large cross sections. A new system is proposed based on the chief visual grading parameters and consisting in a single grade; the percentage of rejections with this system is low. In this regard, a specific strength class is established for large cross section members in existing coniferous wood structures, namely F14/E9/D380 (MOR of 14 N/mm2, MOE of 9 kN/mm2 and characteristic density of 380 kg/m3. The use of ultrasonic velocity is proposed to define the next higher strength class - F16/E10/D380, to which timber with velocities of 4,900 m/s or over would be assigned.

    Se han clasificado visualmente 85 piezas de madera de gruesa sección (Pino silvestre y Pino pinaster procedentes de varios edificios antiguos de acuerdo con las normas UNE 56544 y DIN 4074. El objetivo es establecer una metodología no destructiva para asignar propiedades mecánicas a las piezas de estructuras existentes de madera con gruesas escuadrías con un nivel de seguridad y de rendimiento aceptables. Se propone un único grado de calidad con un porcentaje bajo de rechazos, aplicando los principales parámetros de la clasificación visual. De esta forma, se establece una clase resistente específica para las piezas de gruesa escuadría de estructuras de madera de conifera existentes definida como FI4/E9/D380 (resistencia característica a flexión igual a 14 N/mm2, módulo de elasticidad de 9 kN/mn2 y densidad característica de 380 kg/m3. Para alcanzar una clase resistente superior se propone utilizar el parámetro añadido de la

  17. Assessment of the visual impact of SRC plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study examining the visual impact of short rotation cultivation (SCR) plantations and the assessing the use and effectiveness of the Good Practice Guidelines: Short Rotation Coppice for Energy Production. SCR in the landscape, policy context and landscape assessment, the effect of SCR on the landscape, and the Good Practice Guidelines are discussed. Details of 13 case study sites are given in appendices. (UK)

  18. Investment appraisal of a poplar plantation aged 42 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keča Ljiljana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Commercial profitability of poplar cultivation was analyzed in an artificial poplar plantation in Serbia. The aim of this study was to validate the invested financial means in the artificial poplar plantation, on the basis of the analysis of costs and receipts during a 42-year rotation, on alluvial semigley, at a discount rate of 12%. Methods of dynamic investment calculation (net present value - NPV, internal rate of return - IRR, benefit-cost method - B/C and payback period - PBP were used. The investigated plantations were established from Populus x euramericana cl. I-214, with a planting spacing of 6 x 3 m. At the calculation discount rate of 12%, the project for the production cycle of 42 years was not cost-effective from the economic aspect. The discount rate of 6% can be accepted in the studied plot because of the better site (alluvial semigley, but the oldness of the stand is unfavourable. For the studied sample plot, IRR was 5.51 %. B/C at r=12% in the study compartment was 0.24. The analysis shows that PBP is practically unacceptable for the investor at the discount rate of 6%. In practice, it is necessary to improve the position of producers in getting financial means for investment in poplar cultivation, so as to stimulate the establishment of artificial poplar plantations, especially in the private sector (on private land. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 37008, TR 31041 and Value chain of non-wood forest products and its role in development of forestry sector in Serbia

  19. Comparison of four harvesting systems in a loblolly pine plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Klepac; Dana Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    Felling and skidding operations were monitored while clearcut harvesting a 12-acre area of a 14-year old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantation. The study area contained 465 trees per acre for trees 2.0 inches Diameter at Breast Height (DBH) and larger with a Quadratic Mean Diameter (QMD) of 7.26 inches. Two feller-bunchers (tracked and rubber-tired) and two skidders (...

  20. Expansion of Industrial Plantations Continues to Threaten Malayan Tiger Habitat

    OpenAIRE

    Varada S. Shevade; Peter V. Potapov; Nancy L. Harris; Tatiana V. Loboda

    2017-01-01

    Southeast Asia has some of the highest deforestation rates globally, with Malaysia being identified as a deforestation hotspot. The Malayan tiger, a critically endangered subspecies of the tiger endemic to Peninsular Malaysia, is threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation. In this study, we estimate the natural forest loss and conversion to plantations in Peninsular Malaysia and specifically in its tiger habitat between 1988 and 2012 using the Landsat data archive. We estimate a total loss ...

  1. Yaughan and Curriboo Plantations: Studies in Afro-American Archaeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    of which is the site in question. Site 38BK88 can be characterized as being located in swampy uplands and was probably surrounded by dense pine barren ...disturbances from agricultural plowing or disturbances rel ated to plantation pine plantings (Garrow, and Wheaton 1979). A third site was found during...undertaken by James Deetz (1977:138-154) in 1975 at the Parting Ways Site near Plymouth , Massachusetts. Deetz’s primary emphasis paralleled that of Fairbanks

  2. Using field data to assess model predictions of surface and ground fuel consumption by wildfire in coniferous forests of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydersen, Jamie M.; Collins, Brandon M.; Ewell, Carol M.; Reiner, Alicia L.; Fites, Jo Ann; Dow, Christopher B.; Gonzalez, Patrick; Saah, David S.; Battles, John J.

    2014-03-01

    Inventories of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from wildfire provide essential information to the state of California, USA, and other governments that have enacted emission reductions. Wildfires can release a substantial amount of GHGs and other compounds to the atmosphere, so recent increases in fire activity may be increasing GHG emissions. Quantifying wildfire emissions however can be difficult due to inherent variability in fuel loads and consumption and a lack of field data of fuel consumption by wildfire. We compare a unique set of fuel data collected immediately before and after six wildfires in coniferous forests of California to fuel consumption predictions of the first-order fire effects model (FOFEM), based on two different available fuel characterizations. We found strong regional differences in the performance of different fuel characterizations, with FOFEM overestimating the fuel consumption to a greater extent in the Klamath Mountains than in the Sierra Nevada. Inaccurate fuel load inputs caused the largest differences between predicted and observed fuel consumption. Fuel classifications tended to overestimate duff load and underestimate litter load, leading to differences in predicted emissions for some pollutants. When considering total ground and surface fuels, modeled consumption was fairly accurate on average, although the range of error in estimates of plot level consumption was very large. These results highlight the importance of fuel load input to the accuracy of modeled fuel consumption and GHG emissions from wildfires in coniferous forests.

  3. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF Eucalyptus grandis PLANTATION FOR CELLULOSE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Donizette de Oliveira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were: to analyze the economic feasibility of planting eucalyptus for producing wood pulp,considering various site index and two spacings; to analyze the economic effects regarding the profitability of the forest activity indifferent distances from the industry and changes on discount rate, wood price, transportation costs, minimum profitable diameter oflogs and the length of the logs. A biometric model for making wood volume prognosis was developed, using data of a trial ofEucalyptus grandis stands 19 and 103 months old. The prognosis started at the age zero, considering logs of 2.5 and 6.0 m of lenghtand the minimum diameter varying from 4 to 10 cm, in intervals of 2 cm. Net Present Worth (NPW was used as the economic decisioncriterium, considering an infinite horizon. The main conclusions were: reducing the minimum profitable diameter and the length ofthe logs are good strategies to increase wood utilization and profit; plantations located in less productive lands are economicallyunfeasible; the cost of transportation has significant effect on the profitability of the forest activity and must be analyzed carefully atthe moment of defining the location of new plantations; small variations on wood sales price may cause big alterations on theprofitability of the forest activity, suggesting that the improvement of the wood quality together with other decisions that may increasewood price are alternatives that may render the plantations in less productive areas profitable.

  4. THE Eucalyptus sp. AGE PLANTATIONS INFLUENCING THE CARBON STOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlote Wink

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050989279The tree growth and biomass accumulation, as well as the maintenance of forest residue at the soil surface can act in the removal of carbon from the atmosphere through the cycling process of plant material. The objective was to study the influence of Eucalyptus sp. Plantations with 20, 44 and 240 months of age on the variation of carbon in soil and biomass. The carbon in the soil depth was determined by CHNS auto-analyzer and carbon in the vegetation was determined by the biomass in each forest, considering a factor of 0.45 of the dry mass. We determined the density and particle size distribution of soil. For the comparison between plantations, there was analysis of variance and comparison of means of carbon in vegetation and soil, considering the 5% level of probability. The carbon content and stock in the soil were low, indicating that a natural feature of the category of Paleuldt, or the growth of eucalyptus forests, replacing the field native vegetation did not aggregate a significant increase in the carbon. Although, there was a significant increase carbon in aboveground biomass. It includes forest biomass and litter. So, despite the values ​​of carbon stocks are low, it identified a greater average total in the soil compared to the stock aboveground. Furthermore, this increase aboveground (tree and litter compartments can be considered significant between the eucalyptus plantations of different ages.

  5. Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria in Eucalyptus globulus Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Marliane de Cássia Soares; Paula, Thiago de Almeida; Moreira, Bruno Coutinho; Carolino, Manuela; Cruz, Cristina; Bazzolli, Denise Mara Soares; Silva, Cynthia Canedo; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

    2014-01-01

    Eucalypt cultivation is an important economic activity worldwide. In Portugal, Eucalyptus globulus plantations account for one-third of the total forested area. The nutritional requirements of this crop have been well studied, and nitrogen (N) is one of the most important elements required for vegetal growth. N dynamics in soils are influenced by microorganisms, such as diazotrophic bacteria (DB) that are responsible for biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), so the aim of this study was to evaluate and identity the main groups of DB in E. globulus plantations. Samples of soil and root systems were collected in winter and summer from three different Portuguese regions (Penafiel, Gavião and Odemira). We observed that DB communities were affected by season, N fertilization and moisture. Furthermore Bradyrhizobium and Burkholderia were the most prevalent genera in these three regions. This is the first study describing the dynamic of these bacteria in E. globulus plantations, and these data will likely contribute to a better understanding of the nutritional requirements of eucalypt cultivation and associated organic matter turnover. PMID:25340502

  6. Financial and energy analyses of woody biomass plantations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, C.H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides an economic analysis of a short rotation woody crop (SRWC) plantation system established the financial and energy costs of woody biomass and related net values for the total system. A production model for commercial-sized Populus plantations was developed from a series of research projects sponsored by the U.S,. Department of Energy's Short Rotation Woody Crops Program. The design was based on hybrid poplar planted on good quality agricultural sites at a density of 2100 cutting ha -1 . Growth was forecast at 16 Mg(OD) ha -1 yr -1 on a six-year rotation cycle. All inputs associated with plantation establishment, annual operations, and land use were identified on a financial and energy cost basis (Strauss et al. 1989). Net values for the system projected a minimum financial profit and a major net energy gain. Financial profit was limited by the high market value of energy inputs as compared to the low market value of the energy output. The net energy gain was attributed to the solar energy captured through photosynthesis. Principal input costs to the overall system, on both a financial and energy basis, were land rent and the harvesting/transportation requirements

  7. Fiscal and Monetary Policy for The Development of Indonesian Plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suharyadi Suharyadi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The global monetary crisis in 2007-2008 and the focus of development on climate changesmake it important to promote a healthy economic growth based on the local resources, Theeconomic crisis, which has slowed down the economic growth and has caused job losseswhich result in increasing unemployment and poverty, should alter the focus of Indonesianeconomic development in the future to be based on renewable and sustainable local resources.Indonesia is an agricultural and maritime country so these two aspects should be thecore of the growth. In agricultural culture, plantation sector is the source of sustainable economicgrowth because of its geographical, demographic, and cultural potentials. The problemsin plantation sector are the low growth of areas and productivity as well as its limitedend-products. The research findings indicated that in order to increase areas, there should bea guarantee on investment, interest rate, and little retribution or good governance. To increaseproductivity, we need a guarantee on fertilizer price, interest rate, and wages, as wellas pricing factors to avoid market distortion. This is very important relating to the economicstimulus policy which is essential to revitalize from the economic doom in the future.Keywords: plantation sector, area, productivity, investment, interest rate, and wages

  8. Integrated Bali Cattle Development Model Under Oil Palm Plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasali Hakim Matondang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bali cattle have several advantages such as high fertility and carcass percentage, easy adaptation to the new environment as well. Bali cattle productivity has not been optimal yet. This is due to one of the limitation of feed resources, decreasing of grazing and agricultural land. The aim of this paper is to describe Bali cattle development integrated with oil palm plantations, which is expected to improve productivity and increase Bali cattle population. This integration model is carried out by raising Bali cattle under oil palm plantation through nucleus estate scheme model or individual farmers estates business. Some of Bali cattle raising systems have been applied in the integration of palm plantation-Bali cattle. One of the intensive systems can increase daily weight gain of 0.8 kg/head, calfcrop of 35% per year and has the potency for industrial development of feed and organic fertilizer. In the semi-intensive system, it can improve the production of oil palm fruit bunches (PFB more than 10%, increase harvested-crop area to 15 ha/farmer and reduce the amount of inorganic fertilizer. The extensive system can produce calfcrop ³70%, improve ³30% of PFB, increase business scale ³13 cows/farmer and reduce weeding costs ³16%. Integrated Bali cattle development may provide positive added value for both, palm oil business and cattle business.

  9. [Soil quality assessment of forest stand in different plantation esosystems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Wang, Silong; Feng, Zongwei; Gao, Hong; Wang, Qingkui; Hu, Yalin; Yan, Shaokui

    2004-12-01

    After a clear-cutting of the first generation Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation in 1982, three plantation ecosystems, pure Michelia macclurei stand (PMS), pure Chinese-fir stand (PCS) and their mixed stand, were established in spring 1983, and their effects on soil characteristics were evaluated by measuring some soil physical, chemical, microbiological and biochemical parameters. After 20 years' plantation, all test indices showed differences among different forest management models. Both PMS and MCM had a favorable effect on soil fertility maintenance. Soil quality assessment showed that some soil functions, e.g., water availability, nutrient availability, root suitability and soil quality index were all in a moderate level under the mixed and pure PMS stands, whereas in a relatively lower level under successive PCS stand. The results also showed that there existed close correlations between soil total organic C (TOC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), microbial biomass-C (Cmic) and other soil physical, chemical and biological indices. Therefore, TOC, CEC and Cmic could be used as the indicators in assessing soil quality in this study area. In addition, there were also positive correlations between soil microbial biomass-C and TOC, soil microbial biomass-N and total N, and soil microbial biomass-P and total P in the present study.

  10. Ergonomics observation: Harvesting tasks at oil palm plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Yee Guan; Shamsul Bahri, Mohd Tamrin; Irwan Syah, Md Yusoff; Mori, Ippei; Hashim, Zailina

    2014-01-01

    Production agriculture is commonly associated with high prevalence of ergonomic injuries, particularly during intensive manual labor and during harvesting. This paper intends to briefly describe an overview of oil palm plantation management highlighting the ergonomics problem each of the breakdown task analysis. Although cross-sectional field visits were conducted in the current study, insight into past and present occupational safety and health concerns particularly regarding the ergonomics of oil palm plantations was further exploited. Besides discussion, video recordings were extensively used for ergonomics analysis. The unique commodity of oil palm plantations presents significantly different ergonomics risk factors for fresh fruit bunch (FFB) cutters during different stages of harvesting. Although the ergonomics risk factors remain the same for FFB collectors, the intensity of manual lifting increases significantly with the age of the oil palm trees-weight of FFB. There is urgent need to establish surveillance in order to determine the current prevalence of ergonomic injuries. Thereafter, ergonomics interventions that are holistic and comprehensive should be conducted and evaluated for their efficacy using approaches that are integrated, participatory and cost-effective.

  11. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria in Eucalyptus globulus plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Marliane de Cássia Soares; Paula, Thiago de Almeida; Moreira, Bruno Coutinho; Carolino, Manuela; Cruz, Cristina; Bazzolli, Denise Mara Soares; Silva, Cynthia Canedo; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

    2014-01-01

    Eucalypt cultivation is an important economic activity worldwide. In Portugal, Eucalyptus globulus plantations account for one-third of the total forested area. The nutritional requirements of this crop have been well studied, and nitrogen (N) is one of the most important elements required for vegetal growth. N dynamics in soils are influenced by microorganisms, such as diazotrophic bacteria (DB) that are responsible for biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), so the aim of this study was to evaluate and identity the main groups of DB in E. globulus plantations. Samples of soil and root systems were collected in winter and summer from three different Portuguese regions (Penafiel, Gavião and Odemira). We observed that DB communities were affected by season, N fertilization and moisture. Furthermore Bradyrhizobium and Burkholderia were the most prevalent genera in these three regions. This is the first study describing the dynamic of these bacteria in E. globulus plantations, and these data will likely contribute to a better understanding of the nutritional requirements of eucalypt cultivation and associated organic matter turnover.

  12. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria in Eucalyptus globulus plantations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marliane de Cássia Soares da Silva

    Full Text Available Eucalypt cultivation is an important economic activity worldwide. In Portugal, Eucalyptus globulus plantations account for one-third of the total forested area. The nutritional requirements of this crop have been well studied, and nitrogen (N is one of the most important elements required for vegetal growth. N dynamics in soils are influenced by microorganisms, such as diazotrophic bacteria (DB that are responsible for biological nitrogen fixation (BNF, so the aim of this study was to evaluate and identity the main groups of DB in E. globulus plantations. Samples of soil and root systems were collected in winter and summer from three different Portuguese regions (Penafiel, Gavião and Odemira. We observed that DB communities were affected by season, N fertilization and moisture. Furthermore Bradyrhizobium and Burkholderia were the most prevalent genera in these three regions. This is the first study describing the dynamic of these bacteria in E. globulus plantations, and these data will likely contribute to a better understanding of the nutritional requirements of eucalypt cultivation and associated organic matter turnover.

  13. Mature oil palm plantations are thirstier than tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoli, G.; Meijide, A.; Huth, N.; Knohl, A.; Kosugi, Y.; Burlando, P.; Ghazoul, J.; Fatichi, S.

    2017-12-01

    Oil Palm (OP) is the highest yielding cash-crop in the world but, being the driver of significant tropical forest losses, it is also considered the "world's most hated crop". Despite substantial research on the impact of OP on ecosystem degradation, biodiversity losses, and carbon emissions, little is known on the ecohydrological impacts of forest conversion to OP. Here we employ numerical simulations constrained by field observations to quantify changes in ecosystem evapotranspiration (ET), infiltration/runoff, gross primary productivity (GPP) and surface temperature (Ts) due to OP establishment. Compared to pristine forests, young OP plantations decrease ET, causing an increase in Ts, but the changes become less pronounced as plantations grow. Mature plantations have a very high GPP to sustain the oil palm yield and, given relatively similar water use efficiency, they transpire more water that the forests they have replaced. Hence, the high fruit productivity of OP comes at the expense of water consumption. Our mechanistic modeling results corroborate anecdotal evidence of water scarcity issues in OP-dominated landscapes.

  14. Comparison of insect biodiversity between organic and conventional plantations in Kodagu, Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mone

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We undertook a comparative analysis of ground insects and fruit eating butterflies on 29 different plantations in Kodagu District of Karnataka which is one of the rich biodiversity zones of the Western Ghats. These included organic and conventional coffee and cardamom plantations using different levels of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. A total number of 457 ground insect species were collected using pit-fall traps which included 92 species of ants and 123 species of beetles, among other insect taxa that we measured. Similarly, 25 species of butterflies belonging to the family Nymphalidae were collected using bait traps. We found a clear negative effect on the ground insect species diversity (Shannon index and evenness (Shannon evenness index in pesticide treated plantations as compared to the organic plantations. A similar negative effect was observed for butterfly diversity in plantations using pesticides. Our results corroborate the value of organic plantations in supporting higher levels of biodiversity.

  15. Contributions of a global network of tree diversity experiments to sustainable forest plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheyen, Kris; Vanhellemont, Margot; Auge, Harald; Baeten, Lander; Baraloto, Christopher; Barsoum, Nadia; Bilodeau-Gauthier, Simon; Bruelheide, Helge; Castagneyrol, Bastien; Godbold, Douglas; Haase, Josephine; Hector, Andy; Jactel, Hervé; Koricheva, Julia; Loreau, Michel; Mereu, Simone; Messier, Christian; Muys, Bart; Nolet, Philippe; Paquette, Alain; Parker, John; Perring, Mike; Ponette, Quentin; Potvin, Catherine; Reich, Peter; Smith, Andy; Weih, Martin; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael

    2016-02-01

    The area of forest plantations is increasing worldwide helping to meet timber demand and protect natural forests. However, with global change, monospecific plantations are increasingly vulnerable to abiotic and biotic disturbances. As an adaption measure we need to move to plantations that are more diverse in genotypes, species, and structure, with a design underpinned by science. TreeDivNet, a global network of tree diversity experiments, responds to this need by assessing the advantages and disadvantages of mixed species plantations. The network currently consists of 18 experiments, distributed over 36 sites and five ecoregions. With plantations 1-15 years old, TreeDivNet can already provide relevant data for forest policy and management. In this paper, we highlight some early results on the carbon sequestration and pest resistance potential of more diverse plantations. Finally, suggestions are made for new, innovative experiments in understudied regions to complement the existing network.

  16. Components of Soil Respiration and its Monthly Dynamics in Rubber Plantation Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Zhixiang Wu; Limin Guan; Bangqian Chen; Chuan Yang; Guoyu Lan; Guishui Xie; Zhaode Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Our objective was to quantify four components and study effect factors of soil respiration in rubber plantation ecosystems. Providing the basic data support for the establishment of the trade of rubber plantation ecosystem carbon source/sink. Methods: We used Li-6400 (IRGA, Li-COR) to quantitate four components of soil respiration in rubber plantation ecosystems at different ages. Soil respiration can be separated as four components: heterotrophic respiration (Rh), Respiration of roots (...

  17. More Trees, More Poverty? The Socioeconomic Effects of Tree Plantations in Chile, 2001-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Krister; Lawrence, Duncan; Zavaleta, Jennifer; Guariguata, Manuel R.

    2016-01-01

    Tree plantations play a controversial role in many nations' efforts to balance goals for economic development, ecological conservation, and social justice. This paper seeks to contribute to this debate by analyzing the socioeconomic impact of such plantations. We focus our study on Chile, a country that has experienced extraordinary growth of industrial tree plantations. Our analysis draws on a unique dataset with longitudinal observations collected in 180 municipal territories during 2001-2011. Employing panel data regression techniques, we find that growth in plantation area is associated with higher than average rates of poverty during this period.

  18. Mapping Deciduous Rubber Plantation Areas and Stand Ages with PALSAR and Landsat Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weili Kou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and updated finer resolution maps of rubber plantations and stand ages are needed to understand and assess the impacts of rubber plantations on regional ecosystem processes. This study presented a simple method for mapping rubber plantation areas and their stand ages by integration of PALSAR 50-m mosaic images and multi-temporal Landsat TM/ETM+ images. The L-band PALSAR 50-m mosaic images were used to map forests (including both natural forests and rubber trees and non-forests. For those PALSAR-based forest pixels, we analyzed the multi-temporal Landsat TM/ETM+ images from 2000 to 2009. We first studied phenological signatures of deciduous rubber plantations (defoliation and foliation and natural forests through analysis of surface reflectance, Normal Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI, and Land Surface Water Index (LSWI and generated a map of rubber plantations in 2009. We then analyzed phenological signatures of rubber plantations with different stand ages and generated a map, in 2009, of rubber plantation stand ages (≤5, 6–10, >10 years-old based on multi-temporal Landsat images. The resultant maps clearly illustrated how rubber plantations have expanded into the mountains in the study area over the years. The results in this study demonstrate the potential of integrating microwave (e.g., PALSAR and optical remote sensing in the characterization of rubber plantations and their expansion over time.

  19. Variation of Soil Bacterial Communities in a Chronosequence of Rubber Tree (Hevea brasiliensis Plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jie Zhou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Regarding rubber tree plantations, researchers lack a basic understanding of soil microbial communities; specifically, little is known about whether or not soil microbial variation is correlated with succession in these plantations. In this paper, we used high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to investigate the diversity and composition of the soil bacterial communities in a chronosequence of rubber tree plantations that were 5, 10, 13, 18, 25, and 30 years old. We determined that: (1 Soil bacterial diversity and composition show changes over the succession stages of rubber tree plantations. The diversity of soil bacteria were highest in 10, 13, and 18 year-old rubber tree plantations, followed by 30 year-old rubber tree plantations, whereas 5 and 25 year-old rubber tree plantations had the lowest values for diversity. A total of 438,870 16S rDNA sequences were detected in 18 soil samples from six rubber tree plantations, found in 28 phyla, 66 classes, 139 orders, 245 families, 355 genera, and 645 species, with 1.01% sequences from unclassified bacteria. The dominant phyla were Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia (relative abundance large than 3%. There were differences in soil bacterial communities among different succession stages of rubber tree plantation. (2 Soil bacteria diversity and composition in the different stages was closely related to pH, vegetation, soil nutrient, and altitude, of which pH, and vegetation were the main drivers.

  20. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry in the identification of organic compounds in atmospheric aerosols from coniferous forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallio, M.; Jussila, M.; Rissanen, T.; Anttila, P.; Hartonen, K.; Reissell, A.; Vreuls, R.J.J.; Adahchour, M.; Hyotylainen, T.

    2006-01-01

    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOF-MS) was applied in the identification of organic compounds in atmospheric aerosols from coniferous forest. The samples were collected at Hyytiälä, Finland, as part of the QUEST campaign, in

  1. Moving water well: comparing hydraulic efficiency in twigs and trunks of coniferous, ring-porous, and diffuse-porous saplings from temperate and tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine McCulloh; John S. Sperry; Barbara Lachenbruch; Frederick D. Meinzer; Peter B. Reich; Steven Voelker

    2010-01-01

    Coniferous, diffuse-porous and ring-porous trees vary in their xylem anatomy, but the functional consequences of these differences are not well understood from the scale of the conduit to the individual. Hydraulic and anatomical measurements were made on branches and trunks from 16 species from temperate and tropical areas, representing all three wood types. Scaling of...

  2. Seasonal Changes in the Character and Nitrogen Content of Dissolved Organic Matter in an Alpine/Subalpine Headwater Catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eran W. Hood

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We are studying the chemical quality of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON in a high-elevation watershed in the Colorado Front Range. Samples were collected over the 2000 snowmelt runoff season at two sites across an alpine/subalpine ecotone to understand how the transition between the lightly vegetated alpine and forested reaches of the catchment influences the chemical character of DON. Samples were analyzed approximately weekly for dissolved organic material (DOM content and chemical character. A subset of samples was analyzed for the elemental content of fulvic and hydrophilic acids. Concentrations of DON at both sites were highest in the spring at the initiation of snowmelt, decreased during snowmelt, and increased again during the late summer and fall. In contrast, concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC peaked on the ascending limb of the hydrograph and declined to seasonal minima on the descending limb of the hydrograph. The ratio of DOC:DON showed a seasonal shift at both sites with high values (40 to 55 during peak runoff in early summer and lower values (15 to 25 during low flows late in the runoff season. These results indicate that there was a seasonal change in the relative N content of DOM at both sites. Chemical fractionation of DOC showed that there were temporal and longitudinal changes in the chemical character of DOC. At the alpine site, the fulvic acid content of DOC decreased from 57% in June to 35% in September. The change in fulvic acid was less pronounced at the forested site, from 66% in June to 54% in September. Elemental analysis of fulvic and hydrophilic acids indicated that hydrophilic acids were N rich compared to fulvic acids. Additionally, fulvic and hydrophilic acids isolated at the alpine site had a lower C:N ratio than those isolated at the forested site. Similarly, the C:N ratio of organic acids at both sites was lower in September than in June during peak runoff. These differences appear to be a result

  3. Subalpine Conifer Seedling Demographics: Species Responses to Climate Manipulations Across an Elevational Gradient at Niwot Ridge, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanha, C.; Germino, M. J.; Torn, M. S.; Ferrenberg, S.; Harte, J.; Kueppers, L. M.

    2010-12-01

    The effect of climate change on future ranges of treeline species is poorly understood. For example, it is not known whether trees will recruit into the alpine, above the current treeline, and whether population-level differences in trees will mediate range shifts. At Niwot Ridge, Colorado, we used common gardens and climate manipulations to test predictions that warming will lead to greater recruitment at and beyond the cold edge of these species ranges, and will reduce recruitment at the warm edge. Seed from local populations of limber pine and Englemann spruce was harvested and reciprocally planted in 3 experimental sites spanning an elevation gradient from lower subalpine forest (10,000’), to the upper subalpine treeline ecotone (11,000’), to the alpine tundra (11,300’). In Fall 2009 seeds were sown into 20 plots at each site. Overhead infrared heaters targeted increases in growing season surface soil temperature of 4-5°C. The heating treatment, which began in October 2009, was crossed with manual watering, which was initiated following snowmelt in 2010. Over the 2010 growing season, we surveyed seedling germination and mortality weekly. Germination began in early May at the forest site, in early June at the krummholz site, and in early July at the alpine site. Depending on the site and plot, heating accelerated germination by 1 to 4 weeks. Seed source elevation, species, and site all affected germination, with effects for the two species also depending on site. At all sites, lower elevation, warm-edge populations had higher germination rates than high-elevation, cool-edge populations, indicating a potential bottleneck for germination of the high elevation seed sources in the adjacent alpine tundra. At all sites, survival was generally higher for pine than for spruce. Watering tended to enhance pine germinant survival while heating tended to depress spruce germinant survival. Our results indicate that the alpine tundra, generally considered an

  4. Indirect estimations and spatial variation in leaf area index of coniferous, deciduous and mixed forest stands in Forsmark and Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagesson, Torbern

    2006-12-01

    Two sites in Sweden are investigated for a potential deep repository of the nuclear waste, the Laxemar investigation area (57 deg 5 min N, 16 deg 7 min E) and the Forsmark investigation area (60 deg 4 min N, 18 deg 2 min E). In the characterisation of these sites, development of site descriptive models is an important part. Leaves are the main surface were an exchange of matter and energy between the atmosphere and the biosphere takes place, and leaf area index (LAI) of the vegetation cover is an important variable correlated to a number of ecophysiological parameters and hereby an important parameter in ecosystem models. In the investigation areas, LAI of boreal and temperate ecosystems were therefore estimated indirectly through optical measurements using the LAI-2000 (LI-COR, Cambridge UK) and TRAC (Tracing Radiation and Architecture of Canopies). On average, measured maximum LAI was 3.40 in Laxemar and 3.43 in Forsmark; minimum LAI was 1.65 in Laxemar and 1.97 in Forsmark. Forest inventory data showed that LAI is positively correlated with basal area, stand height, stand volume and breast height tree diameter. For the coniferous stands, there was also a linearly negative relationship with age. In the Laxemar investigation area, there were no significant relationships for LAI with a satellite derived kNN (kNearest Neighbor) data set with stand height, stand volume and stand age. The kNN data set can therefore not be used to extrapolate measured LAI over the Laxemar investigation area. There were significant relationships between LAI and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) for coniferous, deciduous and mixed forest stands in the Laxemar investigation area. A NDVI image could be used to extrapolate LAI over the entire investigation area. For the Forsmark investigation area, effective LAI for all stands were correlated to NDVI and this relationship could then be used for extrapolation. The effective LAI image was afterwards corrected for average

  5. Indirect estimations and spatial variation in leaf area index of coniferous, deciduous and mixed forest stands in Forsmark and Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagesson, Torbern [Dept. of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Analysis, Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden)

    2006-12-15

    Two sites in Sweden are investigated for a potential deep repository of the nuclear waste, the Laxemar investigation area (57 deg 5 min N, 16 deg 7 min E) and the Forsmark investigation area (60 deg 4 min N, 18 deg 2 min E). In the characterisation of these sites, development of site descriptive models is an important part. Leaves are the main surface were an exchange of matter and energy between the atmosphere and the biosphere takes place, and leaf area index (LAI) of the vegetation cover is an important variable correlated to a number of ecophysiological parameters and hereby an important parameter in ecosystem models. In the investigation areas, LAI of boreal and temperate ecosystems were therefore estimated indirectly through optical measurements using the LAI-2000 (LI-COR, Cambridge UK) and TRAC (Tracing Radiation and Architecture of Canopies). On average, measured maximum LAI was 3.40 in Laxemar and 3.43 in Forsmark; minimum LAI was 1.65 in Laxemar and 1.97 in Forsmark. Forest inventory data showed that LAI is positively correlated with basal area, stand height, stand volume and breast height tree diameter. For the coniferous stands, there was also a linearly negative relationship with age. In the Laxemar investigation area, there were no significant relationships for LAI with a satellite derived kNN (kNearest Neighbor) data set with stand height, stand volume and stand age. The kNN data set can therefore not be used to extrapolate measured LAI over the Laxemar investigation area. There were significant relationships between LAI and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) for coniferous, deciduous and mixed forest stands in the Laxemar investigation area. A NDVI image could be used to extrapolate LAI over the entire investigation area. For the Forsmark investigation area, effective LAI for all stands were correlated to NDVI and this relationship could then be used for extrapolation. The effective LAI image was afterwards corrected for average

  6. Effects of differnt juvenile mixed plantations on growth and photosynthetic physiology of pinus yunnanensis franch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Y.; Ou, G. L.; Chen, D. D.; Liu, G. Y.; Li, Q. Q.; Zhang, S. H.; Han, M. Y.; Chen, J. L.

    2017-01-01

    The growth characteristics, photosynthetic gas exchange features, physiological and biochemical resistance, and soil nutrition contents of different juvenile mixed plantations were analyzed. Moreover, the synergic effect mechanism of the different species was elucidated to improve the stand quality of Pinus yunnanensis Franch. plantations and guide the screening of P. yunnanensis mixed plantations. The mixed plantations were P. yunnanensis-Alnus nepalensis-Quercus acutissima, P. yunnanensis-A. nepalensis-Cyclobalanopsis glaucoides, and P. yunnanensis-Q. acutissima-C. glaucoides. Individual juvenile plantations of pure P. yunnanensis, A. nepalensis, Q. acutissima, and C. glaucoides were used as control groups. Results showed that pure P. yunnanensis juvenile plantation consumed more soil organic matter, total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and total potassium (TK) than the other plantations. This plantation also showed poorer growth characteristics, poorer photosynthetic capability, lower water utilization efficiency (WUE), and biochemical resistance in infertile soil, as shown by the nutrition and water competition. Increasing soil organic matters, TN, TP, and TK of the different mixed plantations evidently enhanced height, ground diameter growth rate, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr), WUE, carboxylation efficiency (CE), soluble sugar (SS) content, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Moreover, different mixed forests slightly influenced the characteristics of photosynthetic gas exchange and physiological and biochemical resistance of A. nepalensis. All stand types facilitated growth of tree height and basal diameter of Q. acutissima sapling. Although Q. acutissima inhibited physiological and biochemical resistance of leaves to a certain extent, they increased WUE significantly. Different stand types slightly influenced growth features, Pn, Tr, and WUE of C. glaucoides sapling. Moreover, they inhibited the osmotic adjustment system

  7. Altitudinal variation in soil organic carbon stock in coniferous subtropical and broadleaf temperate forests in Garhwal Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Munesh

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Himalayan zones, with dense forest vegetation, cover a fifth part of India and store a third part of the country reserves of soil organic carbon (SOC. However, the details of altitudinal distribution of these carbon stocks, which are vulnerable to forest management and climate change impacts, are not well known. Results This article reports the results of measuring the stocks of SOC along altitudinal gradients. The study was carried out in the coniferous subtropical and broadleaf temperate forests of Garhwal Himalaya. The stocks of SOC were found to be decreasing with altitude: from 185.6 to 160.8 t C ha-1 and from 141.6 to 124.8 t C ha-1 in temperature (Quercus leucotrichophora and subtropical (Pinus roxburghii forests, respectively. Conclusion The results of this study lead to conclusion that the ability of soil to stabilize soil organic matter depends negatively on altitude and call for comprehensive theoretical explanation

  8. Disaster risk assessment at Roburnia Plantation, Mpumalanga, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudzani A. Makhado

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study reports about disaster risk assessment undertaken at Roburnia Plantation, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches were followed to collect data. A total of eight experienced foresters and fire fighters were purposively sampled for interview at Roburnia Plantation. A questionnaire survey was also used to collect the data. Risk levels were quantified using the risks equations of Wisner et al. (2004 and the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR 2002. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Analysis of variance (ANOVA, single factor was also applied. This study found that Roburnia Plantation is highly exposed to fire risks. The mean (± s.d. output from the Wisner risk equation shows that fire is the highest risk at 7.7 ± 0.3, followed by harsh weather conditions at 5.6 ± 0.4 and least by tree diseases, pests and pathogens at 2.3 ± 0.2. Similarly, the mean (± s.d. output from the UNISDR risk equation also shows that fire is the highest risk at 2.9 ± 0.2, followed by harsh weather conditions at 2.2 ± 0.3 and least by tree diseases, pests and pathogens at 1.3 ± 0.2. There was no significant deference in the risk analysis outputs (p = 0.13. This study also found that the number of fire incidents were low during summer, but increased during winter and spring. This variation is mainly due to a converse relationship with rainfall, because the availability of rain moistens the area as well as the fuel. When the area and fuel is moist, fire incidents are reduced, but they increase with a decrease in fuel moisture.

  9. Estimating productivity of tropical forest plantations by climatic factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, D.

    1996-12-31

    This study presents an alternative method of estimating wood production at regional/global levels from tropical plantations based on climatic variables. A generic model for estimating potential yield in tropical plantations was formulated. The model was developed for teak (Tectona grandis L. F.) as a case study. Available data of teak sample plots from India, Myanmar, Indonesia, Nigeria and Ivory Coast, consisting of 153 plots distributed over 38 meteorological stations were used. A new base age invariant site index function was developed and the site index of each plot was estimated. The mean annual volume increment (MAI) of each plot from existing yield tables was then interpolated. Treating MAI at 50 years (rotation age) as potential yield of teak, a model was constructed which could explain about 59% variance of the potential yield. Models constructed for estimating the maximum MAI and the site index of teak explained the variability up to 61% and 57% respectively. The models underestimated the productivity of teak in Indonesia, Nigeria and Ivory Coast. The rainfall and the relative humidity have been identified as the most important climatic variables influencing the growth of teak. The length of the growing season and the temperature of the warmest month of the growing season were found significant in the models. The temperature and the day length (sunshine) have not been found to be the limiting factors for the growth of teak. However, the maximum temperature beyond a certain upper limit has a negative effect on growth. The study indicates that this upper limit is around 33 deg C for teak. The models could be used to forecast the potential yield of the existing as well as planned teak plantations in the tropical region. 109 refs, 15 figs, 11 tabs

  10. Urban gardens promote bee foraging over natural habitats and plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluza, Benjamin F; Wallace, Helen; Heard, Tim A; Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Leonhardt, Sara D

    2016-03-01

    Increasing human land use for agriculture and housing leads to the loss of natural habitat and to widespread declines in wild bees. Bee foraging dynamics and fitness depend on the availability of resources in the surrounding landscape, but how precisely landscape related resource differences affect bee foraging patterns remains unclear. To investigate how landscape and its interaction with season and weather drive foraging and resource intake in social bees, we experimentally compared foraging activity, the allocation of foragers to different resources (pollen, nectar, and resin) and overall resource intake in the Australian stingless bee Tetragonula carbonaria (Apidae, Meliponini). Bee colonies were monitored in different seasons over two years. We compared foraging patterns and resource intake between the bees' natural habitat (forests) and two landscapes differently altered by humans (suburban gardens and agricultural macadamia plantations). We found foraging activity as well as pollen and nectar forager numbers to be highest in suburban gardens, intermediate in forests and low in plantations. Foraging patterns further differed between seasons, but seasonal variations strongly differed between landscapes. Sugar and pollen intake was low in plantations, but contrary with our predictions, it was even higher in gardens than in forests. In contrast, resin intake was similar across landscapes. Consequently, differences in resource availability between natural and altered landscapes strongly affect foraging patterns and thus resource intake in social bees. While agricultural monocultures largely reduce foraging success, suburban gardens can increase resource intake well above rates found in natural habitats of bees, indicating that human activities can both decrease and increase the availability of resources in a landscape and thus reduce or enhance bee fitness.

  11. Interannual Variations in Ecosystem Oxidative Ratio in Croplands, Deciduous Forest, Coniferous Forest, and Early Successional Forest Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiello, C. A.; Hockaday, W. C.; Gallagher, M. E.; Calligan, L.

    2009-12-01

    Ecosystem net primary productivity (NPP) can vary significantly with annual variations in precipitation and temperature. These climate variations can also drive changes in plant carbon allocation patterns. Shifting allocation patterns can lead to variation in net ecosystem biochemical stocks (e.g. kg cellulose, lignin, protein, and lipid/ha), which can in turn lead to shifts in ecosystem oxidative ratio (OR). OR is the molar ratio of O2 released : CO2 fixed during biosynthesis. Major plant biochemicals vary substantially in oxidative ratio, ranging from average organic acid OR values of 0.75 to average lipid OR values of 1.37 (Masiello et al., 2008). OR is a basic property of ecosystem biochemistry, and is also an essential variable needed to constrain the size of the terrestrial biospheric carbon sink (Keeling et al., 1996). OR is commonly assumed to be 1.10 (e.g. Prentice et al., 2001), but small variations in net ecosystem OR can drive large errors in estimates of the size of the terrestrial carbon sink (Randerson et al., 2006). We hypothesized that interannual changes in climate may drive interannual variation in ecosystem OR values. Working at Kellogg Biological Station NSF LTER, we measured the annual average OR of coniferous and deciduous forests, an early successional forest, and croplands under both corn and soy. There are clear distinctions between individual ecosystems (e.g., the soy crops have a higher OR than the corn crops, and the coniferous forests have a higher OR than the deciduous forests), but the ecosystems themselves retained remarkably constant annual OR values between 1998 and 2008.

  12. Soil organic matter composition and quality across fire severity gradients in coniferous and deciduous forests of the southern boreal region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miesel, Jessica R.; Hockaday, William C.; Kolka, Randall K.; Townsend, Philip A.

    2015-06-01

    Recent patterns of prolonged regional drought in southern boreal forests of the Great Lakes region, USA, suggest that the ecological effects of disturbance by wildfire may become increasingly severe. Losses of forest soil organic matter (SOM) during fire can limit soil nutrient availability and forest regeneration. These processes are also influenced by the composition of postfire SOM. We sampled the forest floor layer (i.e., full organic horizon) and 0-10 cm mineral soil from stands dominated by coniferous (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) or deciduous (Populus tremuloides Michx.) species 1-2 months after the 2011 Pagami Creek wildfire in northern Minnesota. We used solid-state 13C NMR to characterize SOM composition across a gradient of fire severity in both forest cover types. SOM composition was affected by fire, even when no statistically significant losses of total C stocks were evident. The most pronounced differences in SOM composition between burned and unburned reference areas occurred in the forest floor for both cover types. Carbohydrate stocks in forest floor and mineral horizons decreased with severity level in both cover types, whereas pyrogenic C stocks increased with severity in the coniferous forest floor and decreased in only the highest severity level in the deciduous forest floor. Loss of carbohydrate and lignin pools contributed to a decreased SOM stability index and increased decomposition index. Our results suggest that increases in fire severity expected to occur under future climate scenarios may lead to changes in SOM composition and dynamics with consequences for postfire forest recovery and C uptake.

  13. Site specific management in an olive tree plantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fountas, S.; Aggelopoulou, K.; Bouloulis, C.

    2011-01-01

    Yield and soil mapping were carried out in 2007 and 2008 in a 9.1 ha commercial olive tree plantation for olive oil production. The orchard is in the southern Peloponnese, where olives are cultivated extensively for extra virgin olive oil production. The field is planted in rows with about 1650...... shoots and letting the olives fall onto a plastic net covering the ground. Sacks of approximately 58 kg capacity were filled with olives from as many adjacent trees as were needed to fill a sack. The location of the sacks, or group of closely placed sacks, was identified using a commercial GPS (5 m...

  14. Vascular plant species richness along environmental gradients in a cool temperate to sub-alpine mountainous zone in central Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujino, Riyou; Yumoto, Takakazu

    2013-03-01

    In order to clarify how vegetation types change along the environmental gradients in a cool temperate to sub-alpine mountainous zone and the determinant factors that define plant species richness, we established 360 plots (each 4 × 10 m) within which the vegetation type, species richness, elevation, topographic position index (TPI), slope inclination, and ground light index (GLI) of the natural vegetation were surveyed. Mean elevation, TPI, slope inclination, and GLI differed across vegetation types. Tree species richness was negatively correlated with elevation, whereas fern and herb species richness were positively correlated. Tree species richness was greater in the upper slope area than the lower slope area, whereas fern and herb species richness were greater in the lower slope area. Ferns and trees species richness were smaller in the open canopy, whereas herb species richness was greater in the open canopy. Vegetation types were determined firstly by elevation and secondary by topographic configurations, such as topographic position, and slope inclination. Elevation and topography were the most important factors affecting plant richness, but the most influential variables differed among plant life-form groups. Moreover, the species richness responses to these environmental gradients greatly differed among ferns, herbs, and trees.

  15. Complex terrain alters temperature and moisture limitations of forest soil respiration across a semiarid to subalpine gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Erin Michele; Barnard, H.R.; Adams, H.R.; Burns, M.A.; Gallo, E.; Brooks, P.D.

    2015-01-01

    Forest soil respiration is a major carbon (C) flux that is characterized by significant variability in space and time. We quantified growing season soil respiration during both a drought year and a nondrought year across a complex landscape to identify how landscape and climate interact to control soil respiration. We asked the following questions: (1) How does soil respiration vary across the catchments due to terrain-induced variability in moisture availability and temperature? (2) Does the relative importance of moisture versus temperature limitation of respiration vary across space and time? And (3) what terrain elements are important for dictating the pattern of soil respiration and its controls? Moisture superseded temperature in explaining watershed respiration patterns, with wetter yet cooler areas higher up and on north facing slopes yielding greater soil respiration than lower and south facing areas. Wetter subalpine forests had reduced moisture limitation in favor of greater seasonal temperature limitation, and the reverse was true for low-elevation semiarid forests. Coincident climate poorly predicted soil respiration in the montane transition zone; however, antecedent precipitation from the prior 10 days provided additional explanatory power. A seasonal trend in respiration remained after accounting for microclimate effects, suggesting that local climate alone may not adequately predict seasonal variability in soil respiration in montane forests. Soil respiration climate controls were more strongly related to topography during the drought year highlighting the importance of landscape complexity in ecosystem response to drought.

  16. Charcoal and Total Carbon in Soils from Foothills Shrublands to Subalpine Forests in the Colorado Front Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Sanford

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Temperate conifer forests in the Colorado Front Range are fire-adapted ecosystems where wildland fires leave a legacy in the form of char and charcoal. Long-term soil charcoal C (CC pools result from the combined effects of wildland fires, aboveground biomass characteristics and soil transfer mechanisms. We measured CC pools in surface soils (0–10 cm at mid-slope positions on east facing aspects in five continuous foothills shrubland and conifer forest types. We found a significant statistical effect of vegetation type on CC pools along this ecological gradient, but not a linear pattern increasing with elevation gain. There is a weak bimodal pattern of CC gain with elevation between foothills shrublands (1.2 mg CC ha−1 and the lower montane, ponderosa pine (1.5 mg CC ha−1 and Douglas-fir (1.5 mg CC ha−1 forest types prior to a mid-elevation decline in upper montane lodgepole pine forests (1.2 mg CC ha−1 before increasing again in the spruce/subalpine fir forests (1.5 mg CC ha−1. We propose that CC forms and accumulates via unique ecological conditions such as fire regime. The range of soil CC amounts and ratios of CC to total SOC are comparable to but lower than other regional estimates.

  17. The effects of winter recreation on alpine and subalpine fauna: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe F Sato

    Full Text Available The ski industry is often perceived as having a negative impact on sensitive alpine and subalpine communities. However, empirical evidence of such impacts is lacking. We reviewed the available literature from the last 35 years to quantify the reported effects of winter recreation on faunal communities. Overall, using one-sample binomial tests ('sign tests' we found that the effects of all types of winter recreation-related disturbances (i.e. ski runs, resort infrastructure and winter tourism were more likely to be negative or have no effect, than be positive for wildlife. More specifically, in Europe, where the majority of the available research was conducted, the impacts of winter recreation were most often negative for fauna. In terms of specific taxa, birds and to a lesser extent mammals and arthropods, responded negatively to disturbance. Results from our meta-analysis confirmed the results from our binomial tests. Richness, abundance and diversity of fauna were lower in areas affected by winter recreation when compared with undisturbed areas. For most regions and taxa, however, empirical evidence remains too limited to identify clear impacts of winter recreation. We therefore conclude that the majority of ski resorts are operating in the absence of knowledge needed to inform effective strategies for biodiversity conservation and ecologically-sound management. Thus, there is an urgent need for more empirical research to be conducted throughout this increasingly threatened ecological community, especially given the indication from the available literature that fauna often respond negatively to winter recreation.

  18. Growth of Gypsophila paniculata According to the Pruning Time and Ridge Position in Sub-alpine Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, D.C.; Lim, H.C.; Song, Y.J.; Park, H.B.

    2008-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the growth of Gypsophila paniculata affected by pruning time (July 10, July 18, and July 25) and ridge position (middle or window side) under south-north oriented plastic house in sub-alpine area. The average night temperature was similar between the two ridges, but the average day temperature and soil temperature were higher at the middle ridge; particularly, there was distinct difference after late October. Also the accumulative solar radiation was higher at the middle ridge than the window side ridge owing to the shading by neighboring plastic house and the structure of plastic house. The root activity, photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate of plants surveyed in late October were inclined to be more increased at the middle than the window side ridge. The flowering traits at the pruning time of July 10 and July 18 were similar between the two ridges, but the flower malformation rate was higher at the middle ridge. On the other hand, in case of the pruning time of July 25, the blooming was advanced by 13 days, and the flowering traits such as flower stalk length and branch number were better; also, the flower malformation and rosette formation rate decreased at the middle ridge, because of its higher air and soil temperature and the accumulative solar radiation

  19. [Soil hydrolase characteristics in late soil-thawing period in subalpine/alpine forests of west Sichuan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bo; Wu, Fu-Zhong; Yang, Wan-Qin; Yu, Sheng; Yang, Yu-Lian; Wang, Ao

    2011-05-01

    Late soil-thawing period is a critical stage connecting winter and growth season. The significant temperature fluctuation at this stage might have strong effects on soil ecological processes. In order to understand the soil biochemical processes at this stage in the subalpine/alpine forests of west Sichuan, soil samples were collected from the representative forests including primary fir forest, fir and birch mixed forest, and secondary fir forest in March 5-April 25, 2009, with the activities of soil invertase, urease, and phosphatase (neutral, acid and alkaline phosphatases) measured. In soil frozen period, the activities of the three enzymes in test forests still kept relatively higher. With the increase of soil temperature, the activities of hydrolases at the early stage of soil-thawing decreased rapidly after a sharp increase, except for neutral phosphatease. Thereafter, there was an increase in the activities of urease and phosphatase. Relative to soil mineral layer, soil organic layer had higher hydrolase activity in late soil-thawing period, and showed more obvious responses to the variation of soil temperature.

  20. Virtual disjunct eddy covariance measurements of organic compound fluxes from a subalpine forest using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. G. Karl

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A `virtual' disjunct eddy covariance (vDEC device was tested with field measurements of biogenic VOC fluxes at a subalpine forest site in the Rocky Mountains of the USA. A PTR-MS instrument was used as the VOC sensor. Daily peak emission fluxes of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO, methanol, acetone and acetaldehyde were around 1.5, 1, 0.8 and 0.4 mg m-2 h-1, respectively. High pass filtering due to long sampling lines was investigated in laboratory experiments, and suggested that VOC losses in PTFA lines are generally governed by diffusion laws. Memory effects and surface reactions did not seem to play a dominant role. Model estimates of MBO fluxes compared well with measured fluxes. The results also suggest that latent heat and sensible heat fluxes are reasonably well correlated with VOC fluxes and could be used to predict variations in VOC emissions. The release of MBO, methanol, acetone and acetaldehyde resulted in significant change of tropospheric oxidant levels and a 10--40% increase in ozone levels, as inferred from a photochemical box model. We conclude that vDEC with a PTR-MS instrument is a versatile tool for simultaneous field analysis of multiple VOC fluxes.

  1. Site- and Species-Specific Influences on Sub-Alpine Conifer Growth in Mt. Rainier National Park, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myesa Legendre-Fixx

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the factors that influence the climate sensitivity of treeline species is critical to understanding carbon sequestration, forest dynamics, and conservation in high elevation forest/meadow ecotones. Using tree cores from four sub-alpine conifer species collected from three sides of Mt. Rainier, WA, USA, we investigated the influences of species identity and sites with different local climates on radial growth–climate relationships. We created chronologies for each species at each site, determined influential plant-relevant annual and seasonal climatic variables influencing growth, and investigated how the strength of climate sensitivity varied across species and location. Overall, similar climate variables constrained growth on all three sides of the mountain for each of the four study species. Summer warmth positively influenced radial growth, whereas snow, spring warmth, previous summer warmth, and spring humidity negatively influenced growth. We discovered only a few subtle differences in the climate sensitivity of co-occurring species at the same site and between the same species at different sites in pairwise comparisons. A model including species by climate interactions provided the best balance between parsimony and fit, but did not lead to substantially greater predictive power relative to a model without site or species interactions. Our results imply that at treeline in moist temperate regions like Mt. Rainier, the same climatic variables drive annual variation in growth across species and locations, despite species differences in physiology and site differences in mean climates.

  2. Equine Grazing in Managed Subalpine Wetlands: Effects on Arthropods and Plant Structure as a Function of Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmquist, Jeffrey G.; Schmidt-Gengenbach, Jutta; Haultain, Sylvia A.

    2013-12-01

    Grazing management necessarily emphasizes the most spatially extensive vegetation assemblages, but landscapes are mosaics, often with more mesic vegetation types embedded within a matrix of drier vegetation. Our primary objective was to contrast effects of equine grazing on both subalpine vegetation structure and associated arthropods in a drier reed grass ( Calamagrostis muiriana) dominated habitat versus a wetter, more productive sedge habitat ( Carex utriculata). A second objective was to compare reed grass and sedge as habitats for fauna, irrespective of grazing. All work was done in Sequoia National Park (CA, USA), where detailed, long-term records of stock management were available. We sampled paired grazed and control wet meadows that contained both habitats. There were moderate negative effects of grazing on vegetation, and effects were greater in sedge than in reed grass. Conversely, negative grazing effects on arthropods, albeit limited, were greater in the drier reed grass, possibly due to microhabitat differences. The differing effects on plants and animals as a function of habitat emphasize the importance of considering both flora and fauna, as well as multiple habitat types, when making management decisions. Sedge supported twice the overall arthropod abundance of reed grass as well as greater diversity; hemipteran and dipteran taxa were particularly abundant in sedge. Given the greater grazing effects on sedge vegetation, greater habitat provision for terrestrial arthropods, and value as aquatic arthropod habitat, the wetter sedge assemblage is worthy of additional consideration by managers when planning for grazing and other aspects of land usage.

  3. Using functional traits to assess the resistance of subalpine grassland to trampling by mountain biking and hiking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Catherine Marina; Barros, Agustina

    2015-12-01

    Functional traits reflect plant responses to disturbance, including from visitor impacts. The impacts of mountain biking and hiking on functional composition were compared using a common experimental protocol in a subalpine grassland in the Australian Alps. The overlapping cover of all species was recorded two weeks after different intensities of hiking (200 and 500 passes) and mountain biking (none, 25, 75, 200 and 500 passes). Species' functional trait data were combined with their relative cover to calculate community trait weighted means for plant height, leaf area, percentage leaf dry matter content and Specific Leaf Area (SLA). Species such as Poa fawcettiae with larger leaves and SLA but lower dry weight content of leaves were more resistant to use, with differences between bikers and hikers only apparent at the highest levels of use tested. This differs from some vegetation communities in Europe where plants with smaller leaves were more resistant to hiking. More research using functional traits may account for differences in species responses to trampling. Managers of conservation areas used for hiking and biking need to minimise off trail use by both user groups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessing the impacts of mountain biking and hiking on subalpine grassland in Australia using an experimental protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Catherine Marina; Rossi, Sebastian; Barros, Agustina

    2011-12-01

    Mountain biking is an increasingly popular, but sometimes controversial, activity in protected areas. Limited research on its impacts, including studies comparing biking with hiking, contributes to the challenges for mangers in assessing its appropriateness. The impacts of mountain bike riding off trail were compared to those of hiking on subalpine grassland in Australia using a modification of a common trampling experimental methodology. Vegetation and soil parameters were measured immediately and two weeks after different intensities of mountain biking (none, 25, 75, 200 and 500 passes across slope, 200 pass up and down slope) and hiking (200 and 500 passes across slope). There were reductions in vegetation height, cover and species richness, as well as changes in species composition and increases in litter and soil compaction with riding. Riding up and down a moderate slope had a greater impact than riding across the slope. Hiking also affected vegetation height, cover and composition. Mountain biking caused more damage than hiking but only at high use (500 passes). Further research including other ecosystems, topography, styles of riding, and weather conditions are required, but under the conditions tested here, hiking and mountain biking appear to be similar in their environmental impacts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Plant communities with Pinus mugo (alliance Pinion mugo in the subalpine belt of the Western Carpathians - a numerical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Šibík

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A syntaxonomical revision of plant communities with dominant Pinus mugo in the Western Carpathians is presented. The data set of 341 relevés was examined and analysed using the detrended correspondence analysis and the cluster analysis. Major gradients and clusters were interpreted using Ellenberg’s indicator values. The major gradient in species composition was associated with available nutrients and moisture. The authors suggest distinguishing the dwarf pine stands of the supramontanous and subalpine belts of the Western Carpathians referred to the alliance Pinion mugo Pawłowski in Pawłowski et al. 1928 of the order Junipero-Pinetalia mugo Boşcaiu 1971 and the class Roso pendulinae-Pinetea mugo Theurillat in Theurillat et al. 1995, into three separate associations: the Cetrario-Pinetum mugo Hadač 1956, the Homogyno alpinae-Pinetum mugo (Sillinger 1933 nom. nov., and the Adenostylo alliariae-Pinetum mugo (Sillinger 1933 Šoltésová 1974. The authors also elucidated the unauthorized name of the association Vaccinio myrtilli-Pinetum mugo Hadač 1956, which is a younger homonym of the valid name of the association Vaccinio myrtilli-Pinetum montanae Morton 1927 that characterises the acidophilous dwarf pine stands on calcareous bedrocks in the Alps.

  6. Inter-annual climate variability and zooplankton: applying teleconnection indices to two deep subalpine lakes in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Manca

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Investigating relation between meteo-climatic indices and between-year variation in Daphnia population density and phenology is crucial for e.g. predicting impact of climate change on lake ecosystem structure and functioning. We tested whether and how two teleconnection indices calculated for the winter period, namely the East Atlantic pattern (EADJF and the Eastern Mediterranean Pattern (EMPDJF were correlated with Daphnia population growth in two Italian subalpine lakes, Garda and Maggiore. We investigated between-lake temporal coherence in: i water temperature within the water layer in which Daphnia is distributed; ii timing of Daphnia initial and spring maximum population density peak and iii the level of Daphnia spring maximum population density peak over an eleven-year period (1998-2008 of unchanged predation pressure by fish and invertebrates, and of common oligotrophy. Between-lake temporal coherence was high for an earlier start, an earlier, and lower, Daphnia population spring density peak after milder winters. Peak density level was coherently, positively correlated with soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP concentration. We hypothesized that Daphnia peak densities were related to atmospheric modes of variability in winter and to the degree of late winter mixing promoting replenishment of algal nutrients into upper water layers and phytoplankton growth, enhancing food availability and Daphnia fecundity, promoting Daphnia peak. 

  7. Short-rotation eucalypt plantations in Brazil: Social and environmental issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couto, L. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Minas Gerais (Brasil). Dept. de Engenharia Florestal; Betters, D.R. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Forest Sciences

    1995-02-01

    This report presents an overview of the historical and current legislative, social, and environmental aspects of the establishment of large-scale eucalypt plantations in Brazil. The report consolidates the vast experience and knowledge relating to these forest plantation systems and highlights lessons learned and new trends. The overview should prove useful to those interested in comparing or beginning similar endeavors.

  8. Private Capital, Public Goods: Forest Plantations' Investment in Local Infrastructure and Social Services in Rural Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degnet, M.B.; Werf, van der E.; Ingram, V.J.; Wesseler, Justus

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid expansion of private forest plantations worldwide, their impacts on local development are under scrutiny by NGOs and researchers alike. This study investigates the impacts of private forest plantations on local infrastructure and social services in rural Tanzania. We take a

  9. Feasibility Analysis of Leaf-Based Moringa oleifera Plantation in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the profitability and economic feasibility of a leaf-based Moringa production and processing under a plantation system in the Nigerian guinea savannah using the University of Ilorin Moringa Plantation as a case study. To achieve this objective, data on production and processing cost and revenue for the ...

  10. An overview of industrial tree plantation conflicts in the global South: conflicts, trends, and resistance struggles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Overbeek (Wilfridus); M. Kröger (Markus); J. Gerber (Julien-François)

    2012-01-01

    markdownabstractOver the past two decades, industrial tree plantations (ITPs), typically large-scale, intensively managed, even-age monoculture plantations, mostly exotic trees like fast-growing eucalyptus, pine and acacia species, but also rubber and oil palm, all destined for industrial processe s

  11. Gender and plantation labour in Africa : the story of tea pluckers' struggles in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, P.J.J.

    2012-01-01

    This book explores the relationship between plantation labour and gender in Africa, particularly Cameroon. It demonstrates that the introduction of plantation labour during colonial rule has had significant consequences for gender roles and relations within and beyond the capitalist labour process.

  12. Poplar plantation has the potential to alter the water balance in semiarid inner Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhard Wilske; Long Wei; Shiping Chen; Tonggang Zha; Chenfeng Liu; Wenting Xu; Asko Noormets; Jianhui Haung; Yafen Wei; Jun Chen; Zhiqiang Zhang; Jian Ni; Ge Sun; Kirk Guo; Steve McNulty; Ranjeet John; Xiangguo Han; Guanghui Lin; Jiquan Chen

    2009-01-01

    Poplar plantation is the most dominant broadleaf forest type in northern China. Since the mid-1990s plantation was intensified to combat desertification along China’s northwestern border, i.e., within Inner Mongolia (IM). This evoked much concern regarding the ecological and environmental effects on areas that naturally grow grass or shrub vegetation. To highlight...

  13. Energy partitioning and surface resistance of a poplar plantation in northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Kang; Z. Zhang; A. Noormets; X. Fang; T. Zha; J. Zhou; G. Sun; S. G. McNulty; J. Chen

    2015-01-01

    Poplar (Populus sp.) plantations have been, on the one hand, broadly used in northern China for urban greening, combating desertification, as well as for paper and wood production. On the other hand, such plantations have been questioned occasionally for their possible negative impacts on water availability due to the higher water-use nature of...

  14. Management of Eucalyptus plantations influence small mammals’ density: evidences from Southern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teixeira, D; Carrilho, M; Mexia, T; Kobel, M; Ferreira Dos Santos, M.J.; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Rosalino, Luis Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Forestry plantations, and particularly those of exotic Eucalyptus, are important man-made systems in Europe, and especially in Portugal, where these represent now the largest fraction of forested areas. Eucalyptus plantations may have impacts on vertebrate communities in Europe; however, these have

  15. Land use changes and plantation crop development in selected provinces in Sumatra and Kalimantan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarigan, S. D.

    2018-05-01

    Most institutions stated that biofuel will not qualify the standard of GHG emission reduction if it was produced in the plantation associated with the forest conversion. Therefore, knowing previous land use before the development of plantation is very important. In Indonesia, plantation development occurs mainly in Sumatra and Kalimantan. A number of studies had been published showing historical LUCC before plantation development. Objective of this study was to review various studies on LUCC carried out in four selected provinces, namely West Kalimantan, Central Kalimantan, East Kalimantan, and Riau. The analysis and comparison was based on the different source of historical data including online spatial data sources and various studies published in various journals. Each data source of LUCC shows significant variation on the amount of plantation developed directly from forest and other land use types. But, our review showed that the plantation areas associated with the forest cover changes far less than those claimed by several international journals. But, the debate concerning which plantation developments indirectly contributed to LUCC and which are directly will probably continue until the information on the land ownership and history of plantation development is available publicly.

  16. Growth models for ponderosa pine: I. Yield of unthinned plantations in northern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    William W. Oliver; Robert F. Powers

    1978-01-01

    Yields for high-survival, unthinned ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) plantations in northern California are estimated. Stems of 367 trees in 12 plantations were analyzed to produce a growth model simulating stand yields. Diameter, basal area, and net cubic volume yields by Site Indices50 40 through 120 are tabulated for...

  17. Perspectives on site productivity of loblolly pine plantations in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric D. Vance; Felipe G. Sanchez

    2006-01-01

    Pine plantations in the U.S. South include some of the most intensively managed and productive forests in the world. Studies have been established in recent decades to answer questions about whether the productivity of these plantations is sustainable. While intensive management practices greatly enhance tree growth, their effects on factors controlling growth...

  18. Managing for water-use efficient wood production in Eucalyptus globulus plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald A. White; John F. McGrath; Michael G. Ryan; Michael Battaglia; Daniel S. Mendham; Joe Kinal; Geoffrey M. Downes; D. Stuart Crombie; Mark E. Hunt

    2014-01-01

    This paper tests the hypothesis that thinning and nitrogen fertiliser can increase the mass of wood produced per volume of water used (evapotranspiration) by plantations of Eucalyptus globulus. We have called this plantation water productivity (PWPWOOD) and argue that, for a given genotype, this term integrates the effects of management, site and climate on both...

  19. Effects of irrigation on water use and water use efficiency in two fast growing Eucalyptus plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert M. Hubbard; Jose Stape; Michael G. Ryan; Auro C. Almeida; Juan Rojas

    2010-01-01

    Eucalyptus plantations occupy almost 20 million ha worldwide and exceed 3.7 million ha in Brazil alone. Improved genetics and silviculture have led to as much as a three-fold increase in productivity in Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil and the large land area occupied by these highly productive ecosystems raises concern over their...

  20. Long-term hydrology and water quality of a drained pine plantation in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.M. Amatya; R.W. Skaggs

    2011-01-01

    Long-term data provide a basis for understanding natural variability, reducing uncertainty in model inputs and parameter estimation, and developing new hypotheses. This article evaluates 21 years (1988-2008) of hydrologic data and 17 years (1988-2005) of water quality data from a drained pine plantation in eastern North Carolina. The plantation age was 14 years at the...

  1. Soil methane and CO2 fluxes in rainforest and rubber plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Rong; Blagodatsky, Sergey; Goldberg, Stefanie; Xu, Jianchu

    2017-04-01

    Expansion of rubber plantations in South-East Asia has been a land use transformation trend leading to losses of natural forest cover in the region. Besides impact on ecosystem carbon stocks, this conversion influences the dynamics of greenhouse gas fluxes from soil driven by microbial activity, which has been insufficiently studied. Aimed to understand how land use change affects the soil CO2 and CH4 fluxes, we measured surface gas fluxes, gas concentration gradient, and 13C signature in CH4 and soil organic matter in profiles in a transect in Xishuangbanna, including a rainforest site and three rubber plantation sites with age gradient. Gas fluxes were measured by static chamber method and open chamber respiration system. Soil gases were sampled from installed gas samplers at 5, 10, 30, and 75cm depth at representative time in dry and rainy season. The soil CO2 flux was comparable in rainforest and old rubber plantations, while young rubber plantation had the lowest rate. Total carbon content in the surface soil well explained the difference of soil CO2 flux between sites. All sites were CH4 sinks in dry season and uptake decreased in the order of rainforest, old rubber plantations and young rubber plantation. From dry season to rainy season, CH4 consumption decreased with increasing CH4 concentration in the soil profile at all depths. The enrichment of methane by 13CH4 shifted towards to lowerδ13C, being the evidence of enhanced CH4 production process while net surface methane flux reflected the consumption in wet condition. Increment of CH4 concentration in the profile from dry to rainy season was higher in old rubber plantation compared to rainforest, while the shifting of δ13CH4 was larger in rainforest than rubber sites. Turnover rates of soil CO2 and CH4 suggested that the 0-5 cm surface soil was the most active layer for gaseous carbon exchange. δ13C in soil organic matter and soil moisture increased from rainforest, young rubber plantation to old

  2. Soil macrofauna and litter nutrients in three tropical tree plantations on a disturbed site in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew W. Warren; Xiaoming Zou

    2002-01-01

    Tree plantations are increasingly common in tropical landscapes due to their multiple uses. Plantations vary in structure and composition, and these variations may alter soil fauna communities. Recent studies have demonstrated the important role of soil fauna in the regulation of plant litter decomposition in the tropics. However, little is known about how plantation...

  3. [Comparison of heavy metal elements between natural and plantation forests in a subtropical Montane forest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Ming; Wan, Jia-Rong; Chen, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Li; Li, Bo; Chen, Jia-Kuan

    2011-11-01

    Heavy metals as one of major pollutants is harmful to the health of forest ecosystems. In the present paper, the concentrations of thirteen heavy metals (Fe, Al, Ti, Cr, Cu, Mn, V, Zn, Ni, Co, Pb, Se and Cd) were compared between natural and plantation forests in the Mt. Lushan by ICP-AES and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results suggest that the soil of natural forest had higher concentrations of Fe, Al, Ti, Cu, Mn, V, Zn, Ni, Co, Pb, Se, and Cd than the plantation forest except for Cr. The soil of natural forest had a higher level of heavy metals than that of the plantation forest as a whole. This might be due to that the natural forest has longer age than the plantation forest, and fixed soil heavy metals take a longer period of time than the plantation forest.

  4. Understory succession in post-agricultural oak plantations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunet, Jörg; Valtinat, Karin; Mayr, Marian Lajos

    2011-01-01

    The herbaceous understory forms the richest stratum in temperate broadleaved forests in terms of plant diversity. Understanding the process of understory succession is thus of critical importance for the development of management guidelines for biodiversity restoration in post-agricultural planta......The herbaceous understory forms the richest stratum in temperate broadleaved forests in terms of plant diversity. Understanding the process of understory succession is thus of critical importance for the development of management guidelines for biodiversity restoration in post...... forested stands, which maintained differences in species composition. The development of a shrub layer seemed to imply a competitive advantage for forest specialists compared to generalist species. For successful recovery of a rich understory, we suggest that post-arable plantations should be established......, and woody species. The group of forest specialists may approach the richness of continuously forested sites after 60-80 years in non-fragmented plantations, but many forest species were sensitive to habitat fragmentation. Open-land species richness decreased during succession, while the richness of woody...

  5. Nutrient cycling in a RRIM 600 clone rubber plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murbach Marcos Roberto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Few reports have been presented on nutrient cycling in rubber tree plantations (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.. This experiment was carried out to evaluate: the effect of K rates on the amount of nutrients transfered to the soil in a 13-year old Hevea brasilensis RRIM 600 clone plantation, nutrient retranslocation from the leaves before falling to the soil, and nutrient loss by dry rubber export. The experiment started in 1998 and potassium was applied at the rates of 0, 40, 80 and 160 kg ha-1 of K2O under the crowns of 40 rubber trees of each plot. Literfall collectors, five per plot, were randomly distributed within the plots under the trees. The accumulated literfall was collected monthly during one year. The coagulated rubber latex from each plot was weighed, and samples were analyzed for nutrient content. Increasing K fertilization rates also increased the K content in leaf literfall. Calcium and N were the most recycled leaf nutrients to the soil via litterfall. Potassium, followed by P were the nutrients with the highest retranslocation rates. Potassium was the most exported nutrient by the harvested rubber, and this amount was higher than that transfered to the soil by the leaf literfall.

  6. Working With Plantation Communities: A Reflection of Social Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rahman Saili

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The plantation industry in Malaysia is aggressively expanding over the past decade driven by global demands for palm oil as a food staple and more recently bio fuels. The rapid growth in the industry is heavily dependent upon high labour and workforce. Such intensity has carried out social impact on the communities including plantation workers, small holders and their dependents. Therefore, this paper will outline what appear to be never ending issues impetus social problems. Ethnic conflict, fighting, gambling, alcohol abuses are only a few issues that call for immediate multi-action plan from all involved stakeholders. Those issues can be the causes as well as the effects. The contributing factors form a chain reaction to the whole social dynamics in the plantation’s climate.The main aim is hence to breach the gap between industries, practitioners, and academicians in order to develop the competencies of the next generation social workers. They can play their roles in tackling the social issues, taking into account the different contexts and environment.

  7. Thinning regimes and initial spacing for Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz Filho, Antonio C; Mola-Yudego, Blas; González-Olabarria, José R; Scolforo, José Roberto S

    2018-01-01

    This study focuses on the effects of different thinning regimes on clonal Eucalyptus plantations growth. Four different trials, planted in 1999 and located in Bahia and Espírito Santo States, were used. Aside from thinning, initial planting density, and post thinning fertilization application were also evaluated. Before canopy closure, and therefore before excessive competition between trees took place, it was found that stands planted under low densities (667 trees per hectare) presented a lower mortality proportion when compared to stand planted under higher densities (1111 trees per hectare). However, diameter growth prior to thinning operations was not statistically different between these two densities, presenting an overall mean of 4.9 cm/year. After canopy closure and the application of the thinning treatments, it was found that thinning regimes beginning early in the life of the stand and leaving a low number of residual trees presented the highest diameter and height growth. Unthinned treatments and thinning regimes late in the life of the stand (after 5.5 years), leaving a large number of residual trees presented the highest values of basal area production. The choice of the best thinning regime for Eucalyptus clonal material will vary according to the plantation objective.

  8. Predicted stand volume for Eucalyptus plantations by spatial analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifah, Siti; Teodoro, RV; Myrna, GC; Nathaniel, CB; Leonardo, M. F.

    2018-03-01

    The main objective of the present study was to assess nonlinear models generated by integrating the stand volume growth rate to estimate the growth and yield of Eucalyptus. The primary data was done for point of interest (POI) of permanent sample plots (PSPs) and inventory sample plots, in Aek Nauli sector, Simalungun regency,North Sumatera Province,Indonesia. from December 2008- March 2009. Today,the demand for forestry information has continued to grow over recent years. Because many forest managers and decision makers face complex decisions, reliable information has become the necessity. In the assessment of natural resources including plantation forests have been widely used geospatial technology.The yield of Eucalyptus plantations represented by merchantable volume as dependent variable while factors affecting yield namely stands variables and the geographic variables as independent variables. The majority of the areas in the study site has stand volume class 0 - 50 m3/ha with 16.59 ha or 65.85 % of the total study site.

  9. Repeated Raking of Pine Plantations Alters Soil Arthropod Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly K. Ober

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial arthropods in forests are engaged in vital ecosystem functions that ultimately help maintain soil productivity. Repeated disturbance can cause abrupt and irreversible changes in arthropod community composition and thereby alter trophic interactions among soil fauna. An increasingly popular means of generating income from pine plantations in the Southeastern U.S. is annual raking to collect pine litter. We raked litter once per year for three consecutive years in the pine plantations of three different species (loblolly, Pinus taeda; longleaf, P. palustris; and slash, P. elliottii. We sampled arthropods quarterly for three years in raked and un-raked pine stands to assess temporal shifts in abundance among dominant orders of arthropods. Effects varied greatly among orders of arthropods, among timber types, and among years. Distinct trends over time were apparent among orders that occupied both high trophic positions (predators and low trophic positions (fungivores, detritivores. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that raking caused stronger shifts in arthropod community composition in longleaf and loblolly than slash pine stands. Results highlight the role of pine litter in shaping terrestrial arthropod communities, and imply that repeated removal of pine straw during consecutive years is likely to have unintended consequences on arthropod communities that exacerbate over time.

  10. The weed species composition in a reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L. plantation for energy purposes depending on its age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz R. Sekutowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment, carried out in nine production fields of reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea grown for energy purposes, evaluated the effect of plantation age on the occurrence and species composition of weeds. The selected plantations were divided into 3 groups that were conventionally called “young” (1–2 years old, “middle-aged” (3–5 years old, and “older” plantations (6–8 years old. Regardless of plantation age, altogether 43 species were found in the experimental fields. Moreover, 6 species were common for all the plantations and were found in them regardless of plantation age. The least species, only 18, were found on the “young” plantations, almost twice more on the “older” ones (30 species, whereas the largest spectrum of species was found in the “middle-aged” plantations (33 species. In the “young” plantations, annual weeds were the most common, with the highest constancy and coverage index found for Chenopodium album, Matricaria maritima ssp. inodora and Echinochloa crus-galli. The greatest variation in species was found in the “middle-aged” plantations. However, only 4 species achieved the highest constancy and coverage index: Matricaria maritima ssp. inodora, Cirsium arvense, Poa trivialis and Taraxacum officinale. Furthermore, perennial weeds were found to be dominant in the “older” plantations. Within this group, Poa trivialis, Taraxacum officinale, Urtica dioica, Plantago maior, and Cirsium arvense had the highest constancy and coverage index.

  11. Community perceptions towards the establishment of an urban forest plantation: a case of Dzivaresekwa, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mureva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The health of urban forest communities not only depend on the government and nongovernmental organizations, but also strongly rely on local community stewardship. A study was carried out to assess community perceptions on the establishment of an urban forest plantation among urban residents in Dzivaresekwa, an urban area in Harare. Randomized systematic sampling was used to select 150 households and one resident per household was interviewed using a pretested questionnaire with both closed and open-ended questions. The objectives of the study were to determine how age and gender and employment status variables, were related to the urban residents’ perceptions towards establishment of a forest plantation in an urban area. Most females (58.3% viewed the plantation as a threat while most men (51.7% viewed the plantation as a recreational area. The highest proportion (61.9% of the middle age group (21-40 years perceived the plantation as a source of employment. There was a statistically significant relationship (p = 0.040 between gender and the general perception of establishing a forest plantation in the urban area. However, there was no statistically significant relationship (p = 0.203 between age groups and the perception of establishing a forest plantation in the urban area. It is concluded that the community had diverse perceptions on urban community forestry.

  12. Eucalyptus plantations and the steel industry in Amazonia - A contribution from the 3-PG model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behling, Maurel; Piketty, Marie Gabrielle; Morello, Thiago Fonseca; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Mesquita Neto, Franscisco

    2011-01-01

    The Carajas steel industry sector in the Brazilian Amazon has aroused protest on environmental grounds because of its heavy reliance on charcoal. The charcoal is mainly produced from natural forest biomass, with direct and indirect impacts on deforestation and forest ecosystem degradation. Establishing eucalyptus plantations for fuel on degraded pastures could be a workable alternative. Few such plantations exist as yet, and because there are no validated assessments of their production potential, a study was conducted to provide consolidated estimations of the growth and productivity of the Carajas eucalyptus plantations. The estimations were obtained with the 3-PG model (Physiological Principles in Predicting Growth). The model parameters are based on growth data for the eucalyptus plantations established by a company in Breu Branco municipality in Brazil's Para State. Calibrating the model with local data proved to be far more effective than using the parameters set for eucalyptus plantations in other areas in Brazil, South Africa or Australia. The simulations made show that the current annual average growth rate, over a six-year period, of about 20 m"3 per hectare could increase to 30 m"3 with appropriate fertilisation and effective underbrush control. They also suggest that production could be higher without water deficit. Plantation zones shall be selected as a priority in areas where the dry season is the least severe around Carajas. These 3-PG model settings have made it a more effective management tool for industrial plantations in Amazonian conditions. (authors)

  13. Biomass carbon accumulation in aging Japanese cedar plantations in Xitou, central Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chih-Hsin; Hung, Chih-Yu; Chen, Chiou-Peng; Pei, Chuang-Wun

    2013-12-01

    Japanese cedar (Chrytomeria japonica D. Don) is an important plantation species in Taiwan and represents 10% of total plantation area. It was first introduced in 1910 and widely planted in the northern and central mountainous areas of Taiwan. However, a change in forest management from exotic species to native species in 1980 had resulted in few new Japanese cedar plantations being established. Most Japanese cedar plantations are now between 30 and 50 years old and reaching their rotation period. It is of interest to know whether these plantations could be viable for future carbon sequestration through the accumulations of stand carbon stocks. Twelve even-aged Japanese cedar stands along a stand age gradient from 37 to 93 years were selected in Xitou of central Taiwan. The study aims were to investigate the basic stand characteristics and biomass carbon stock in current Japanese cedar stands, and determine the relationships among stand characteristics, tree biomass carbon, and stand age. Our results indicate that existing Japanese cedar plantations are still developing and their live tree biomass carbon continues to accumulate. At stands with a stand age of 90 years, tree density, canopy height, mean diameter at breast height, basal area, and live tree biomass carbon stocks reach to nearly 430 tree ha -1 , 27 m, 48 cm, 82 m 2 ha -1 and 300 Mg C ha -1 , respectively. Therefore, with no harvesting, current Japanese cedar plantations provide a carbon sink by storing carbon in tree biomass.

  14. Simulating Harvest Schedule for Timber Management and Multipurpose Management in Teak Plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatang Tiryana

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable management of teak plantations in Java requires an improvement of the existing yield regulation method to optimize multiple benefits of the plantations at risk of stand destruction. This study was therefore aimed to formulate an alternative harvest scheduling model that integrates risk of stand destruction for supporting multipurpose management of teak plantations. The proposed model used a state-space planning model to simulate the dynamic of plantations due to timber harvesting and stand destruction, and then sought optimal solutions for 2 management scenarios, i.e. timber management that optimized total harvest volume and multipurpose management that optimized net present value (NPV while increasing carbon stocks. Using a case study on a typical teak plantation, this study confirmed that increasing destruction rates reduced harvest volumes, NPV, carbon stocks, and resulted in imbalanced ending age-class structures. Reducing cutting-age limit increased harvest volumes and NPV, but it also reduced carbon stocks of the plantations. Although the multipurpose management generated lower financial benefit, it maintained carbon stocks and produced better ending age-class structures compared to timber management. The proposed harvest scheduling model provides a useful planning tool for managing teak plantations.

  15. Carbon Storage and Allocation Pattern in Plant Biomass among Different Forest Plantation Stands in Guangdong, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanqi Chen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand how carbon storage and allocation patterns vary among plantation types, we estimated carbon allocation between above- and below-ground compartments in four subtropical plantations and a naturally recovered shrubland (as a control. Results indicated that the carbon storage and allocation pattern varied greatly among forest types and was highly dependent on specific traits of trees and understory vegetation. The fast-growing species, such as Eucalyptus urophylla, accumulated more carbon in plant biomass. The biomass carbon was about 1.9- and 2.2-times greater than the 10-species mixed plantation and Castanopsis hystrix plantations, respectively. Meanwhile, the plantations sequestered 1.5- to 3-times more carbon in biomass than naturally recovered shrubland. The carbon allocation pattern between above- and below-ground compartments also varied with plantation type and stand age. The ratio of tree root carbon to tree aboveground carbon decreased with stand age for Eucalyptus urophylla and the 10-species mixed plantation. In contrast, the ratio increased for Acacia crassicarpa. Our data suggested that planting the fast-growing species in the degraded land of subtropical China was an effective choice in terms of carbon sequestration. The information about carbon allocation patterns was also valuable for decision making in sustainable forest management and climate change mitigation.

  16. ACCOUNTING PARADIGM OF LIVED EXPERIENCES IN ACTION RESEARCH: THE CASE OF MALAYSIAN PLANTATION WORKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Susela DEVI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces action research as a possible new method to reduce the distance between idealism and accounting practice, thus contributing to the accounting literature. The source of this paper is an on-going large research project. The project has three objectives. Firstly, to provide evidence of the utilisation of accounting methods in the Malaya plantation industry from its earliest beginnings through to the introduction of accounting tools such as budgets, leading to the creation of a social and economic underclass in Malaysia. Secondly, to examine the extent to which accounting information provided in the Annual Reports of Malaysian plantation companies is used in determining the wages of plantation workers on the grounds that workers in the plantation industry have been and still are, among the most poorly paid in Malaysia, and perhaps the world. Interestingly, the wages of plantation workers are determined through a negotiation process between the National Union of Plantation Workers and the Malaysian Agricultural Producers Association. This paper draws from this research project and explicates the utilisation of the Action Research methodology in reporting the “lived experiences” of those affected by Management Accounting budgets and demonstrating how the parties to wage negotiation, the employers, union and employees, can better derive value from accounting information provided within the annual reports of Malaysian plantation companies.

  17. Winter ecology of a subalpine grassland: Effects of snow removal on soil respiration, microbial structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavazov, Konstantin; Ingrisch, Johannes; Hasibeder, Roland; Mills, Robert T E; Buttler, Alexandre; Gleixner, Gerd; Pumpanen, Jukka; Bahn, Michael

    2017-07-15

    Seasonal snow cover provides essential insulation for mountain ecosystems, but expected changes in precipitation patterns and snow cover duration due to global warming can influence the activity of soil microbial communities. In turn, these changes have the potential to create new dynamics of soil organic matter cycling. To assess the effects of experimental snow removal and advanced spring conditions on soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics, and on the biomass and structure of soil microbial communities, we performed an in situ study in a subalpine grassland in the Austrian Alps, in conjunction with soil incubations under controlled conditions. We found substantial winter C-mineralisation and high accumulation of inorganic and organic N in the topsoil, peaking at snowmelt. Soil microbial biomass doubled under the snow, paralleled by a fivefold increase in its C:N ratio, but no apparent change in its bacteria-dominated community structure. Snow removal led to a series of mild freeze-thaw cycles, which had minor effects on in situ soil CO 2 production and N mineralisation. Incubated soil under advanced spring conditions, however, revealed an impaired microbial metabolism shortly after snow removal, characterised by a limited capacity for C-mineralisation of both fresh plant-derived substrates and existing soil organic matter (SOM), leading to reduced priming effects. This effect was transient and the observed recovery in microbial respiration and SOM priming towards the end of the winter season indicated microbial resilience to short-lived freeze-thaw disturbance under field conditions. Bacteria showed a higher potential for uptake of plant-derived C substrates during this recovery phase. The observed temporary loss in microbial C-mineralisation capacity and the promotion of bacteria over fungi can likely impede winter SOM cycling in mountain grasslands under recurrent winter climate change events, with plausible implications for soil nutrient availability and

  18. Sustainable Management of Metasequoia glyptostroboides Plantation Forests in Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Zheng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban forestry is increasingly used as a tool for climate change mitigation and for providing environmental services to inhabitants of urban areas. However, tree species used in urban forestry are usually different from the ones used in commercial forestry. As a consequence, available data on growth and yield under alternative management scenarios are usually scarce. As forest models can be used to explore potential forest futures, they are of special interest as decision-support tools in urban forestry. In this research, we used the FORECAST ecosystem-level forest model to define the management prescriptions for Metasequoia glyptostroboides plantations in Shanghai that reach the highest net primary productivity (NPP. In a first step, a battery of different stand densities (from 500 to 4000 stems ha−1 was used to identify those with the highest NPP at stand level. Then, different thinning regimes (with intensities ranging from 15% to 40% of trees removed and applied at stand age 5 to 20 years were simulated on those initial densities with the highest NPP (3000 and 4000 stems ha−1. Planting 4000 stems ha−1 and not applying thinning achieved the highest annual NPP (14.39 ± 3.92 Mg ha−1 yr−1 during the first rotation, but it was not significantly different from the NPP achieved with the same initial density but thinning 40% of trees at year 10. NPP was estimated to decrease with consecutive rotations, and for the second rotation thinning was needed to significantly increase NPP (10.11 ± 2.59 Mg ha−1 yr−1 with 4000 stems ha−1 and 25% thinning at year 10 above non-thinning management. For the third rotation, the highest NPP was reached with initial density 3000 stems ha−1 and 25% thinning at year 10. Nitrogen flows were also estimated to decrease with consecutive rotations. These results indicate the potential of managing M. glyptostroboides urban plantations to reach their maximum productivity potential, but also that additional

  19. Private valuation of carbon sequestration in forest plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guitart, A. Bussoni [Facultad de Agronomia, Universidad de la Republica. Avda. E. Garzon, 780, CP 12.900, Montevideo (Uruguay); Rodriguez, L.C. Estraviz [Escola Superior de Agricultura ' ' Luiz de Queiroz' ' , Universidad de Sao, Paulo (Brazil)

    2010-01-15

    Approval of the Clean Development Mechanism, provided for in the Kyoto Protocol, enables countries with afforested land to trade in carbon emissions reduction certificates related to carbon dioxide equivalent quantities (CO{sub 2-e}) stored within a certain forest area. Potential CO{sub 2-e} above base line sequestration was determined for two forest sites on commercial eucalyptus plantations in northern Brazil (Bahia). Compensation values for silvicultural regimes involving rotation lengths greater than economically optimal were computed using the Faustmann formula. Mean values obtained were US$8.16 (MgCO{sub 2-e}){sup -} {sup 1} and US$7.19 (MgCO{sub 2-e}){sup -} {sup 1} for average and high site indexes, respectively. Results show that carbon supply is more cost-efficient in highly productive sites. Annuities of US$18.8 Mg C{sup -} {sup 1} and US$35.1 Mg C{sup -} {sup 1} and yearly payments of US$4.4 m{sup -} {sup 3} and US$8.2 m{sup -} {sup 3} due for each marginal cubic meter produced were computed for high and average sites, respectively. The estimated value of the tonne of carbon defines minimum values to be paid to forest owners, in order to induce a change in silvicultural management regimes. A reduction of carbon supply could be expected as a result of an increase in wood prices, although it would not respond in a regular manner. For both sites, price elasticity of supply was found to be inelastic and increased as rotation length moved further away from economically optimal: 0.24 and 0.27 for age 11 years in average- and high-productivity sites, respectively. This would be due to biomass production potential as a limiting factor; beyond a certain threshold value, an increase in price does not sustain a proportional change in carbon storage supply. The environmental service valuation model proposed might be adequate for assessing potential supply in plantation forestry, from a private landowner perspective, with an economic opportunity cost. The model is

  20. Ecological Stoichiometric Characteristics of Two Typical Plantations in the Karst Ecosystem of Southwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danbo Pang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Reforestation has been widely adopted to restore soil fertility and ecosystem service function in the rocky desertification region of southwestern China. However, there has been limited research concerning the stoichiometry of carbon (C, nitrogen (N, and phosphorus (P and nutrient resorption rate of plantations in karst ecosystems. In this study, we selected plantations of Pinus yunnanensis Franch. (PY and Eucalyptus maideni F. Muell. (EM in Yunnan Province. The C, N, and P concentrations and the C:N:P stoichiometry in different soil layers (0–10 cm, 10–20 cm, and 20–30 cm were examined. The nutrient limitation and nutrient resorption efficiency were also analyzed. The leaf C and N concentrations in the PY plantation were higher than that in the EM plantation; the P concentration demonstrated the opposite trend, both in green and senesced leaves. Soil C, N, and P concentrations in the EM plantation were much greater than in the PY plantation at all three depths and decreased with the depth of the soil. In addition, the high ratios of C:P, N:P, C:Available P, and N:Available P in soil coupled with the ratios of N:P in leaves indicate that the EM plantation has a greater P deficiency than the PY plantation. In the EM plantation, the relatively low P concentrations in senesced leaves indicates efficient TP (Total phosphorus resorption, which highlights that the high reuse proficiency of P could have favored moderating P limitation in the karst ecosystem. This research aids in understanding the stoichiometric characteristics that mediate forest properties, and provides a basis for management of vegetation in karst ecosystems.

  1. Effects of Successive Harvests on Soil Nutrient Stocks in Established Tropical Plantation Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, L.; McMahon, D.; Jackson, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    Large-scale plantation forests in tropical regions alter biogeochemical processes, raising concerns about the long-term sustainability of this land use. Current commercial practices result in nutrient export with removed biomass that may not be balanced by fertilizer application. Consequent changes in a landscape's nutrient distributions can affect the growth of future plantations or other vegetation. Prior studies have reported changes in soil chemical and physical properties when plantation forests replace pastures or native vegetation, but few have examined the impacts of multiple harvest cycles following plantation establishment. This study analyzed macronutrient and carbon content of soil samples from the world's most productive plantation forests, in southeastern Brazil, to understand the long-term effects of plantation forests on soil nutrient stocks and soil fertility. Soil was collected from Eucalyptus plantation sites and adjacent vegetation in 2004 and again in 2016, after at least one full cycle of harvesting and replanting. We found that within surface soil (0-10 cm) Mg and N did not change significantly and C, P, K and Ca concentrations generally increased, but to varying extents within individual management units. This trend of increasing nutrient concentrations suggests that additional harvests do not result in cumulative nutrient depletion. However, large changes in Ca and K concentrations in individual plantation units indicate that added fertilizer does not consistently accumulate in the surface soil. Analysis of deeper soil layers and comparison to unfertilized vegetation will help to determine the fate of fertilizers and native soil nutrients in repeatedly harvested plantations. These results address the necessity of long-term investigation of nutrient changes to better understand and determine the impacts of different types of land use in the tropics.

  2. Incubation of air-pollution-control residues from secondary Pb smelter in deciduous and coniferous organic soil horizons: Leachability of lead, cadmium and zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chrastny, Vladislav, E-mail: vladislavchrastny@seznam.cz [University of South Bohemia, Faculty of Science, Studentska 13, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Kamycka 129, 165 21 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Vanek, Ales [Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Kamycka 129, 165 21 Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Komarek, Michael [Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Kamycka 129, 165 21 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Farkas, Juraj [Czech Geological Survey, Geologicka 6, 152 00 Praha 5 (Czech Republic); Drabek, Ondrej; Vokurkova, Petra [Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Kamycka 129, 165 21 Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Nemcova, Jana [University of South Bohemia, Faculty of Agriculture, Studentska 13, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic)

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pb smelter fly ash was incubated in forest soil horizons to assess metal mobility. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The metal mobilization depends on pH and the ratio of humic/fulvic acids to SOM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The lowest mobilization of Pb, Zn and Cd took place in horizon H (coniferous forest). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A huge amount of Cd was found to have leached in the horizon F (deciduous forest). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer More vulnerable to metal leaching from APC residues is soil from deciduous forest. - Abstract: The leachability of air-pollution-control (APC) residues from a secondary lead smelter in organic soil horizons (F and H) from a deciduous and a coniferous forest during incubation periods of 0, 3 and 6 months were compared in this work. While the concentration of Pb, Zn and Cd associated with the exchangeable/acid extractable fraction in the horizon F from the coniferous forest was higher compared to the deciduous, significantly lower concentrations in the humified horizon H was found. It is suggested that lower pH and a higher share of fulvic acids fraction (FAs) of solid phase soil organic matter (SOM) in the humified soil horizon H from the coniferous compared to the deciduous forest is responsible for a higher metal association with solid phase SOM and therefore a lower metal leaching in a soil system. From this point of view, the humified soil horizon H from the deciduous forest represents a soil system more vulnerable to Pb, Zn and Cd leaching from APC residues.

  3. Comparative study of two coniferous species (Pinus pinaster Aiton and Cupressus sempervirens L. var. dupreziana [A. Camus] Silba) essential oils: chemical composition and biological activity

    OpenAIRE

    Amri, Ismail; Hanana, Mohsen; Gargouri, Samia; Jamoussi, Bassem; Hamrouni, Lamia

    2013-01-01

    Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton) and Saharan cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L. var. dupreziana [A. Camus] Silba) are two cone-bearing seed coniferous woody plants. The chemical composition of their essential oils, isolated from needles and leaves by hydrodistillation, was analyzed with gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A total of 66 and 28 compounds were identified, which represented 99.5% and 98.9% of total pine and cypress oils, respectively. Pin...

  4. Genetic and morphological diversity of Trisetacus species (Eriophyoidea: Phytoptidae) associated with coniferous trees in Poland: phylogeny, barcoding, host and habitat specialization

    OpenAIRE

    Lewandowski, Mariusz; Skoracka, Anna; Szydło, Wiktoria; Kozak, Marcin; Druciarek, Tobiasz; Griffiths, Don A.

    2014-01-01

    Eriophyoid species belonging to the genus Trisetacus are economically important as pests of conifers. A narrow host specialization to conifers and some unique morphological characteristics have made these mites interesting subjects for scientific inquiry. In this study, we assessed morphological and genetic variation of seven Trisetacus species originating from six coniferous hosts in Poland by morphometric analysis and molecular sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I ge...

  5. Effects of land use and fine-scale environmental heterogeneity on net ecosystem production over a temperate coniferous forest landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, David P.; Guzy, Michael; Lefsky, Michael A.; Tuyl, Steve van; Sun, Osbert; Law, Beverly E. [Oregon State Univ. Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Forest Science; Daly, Chris [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Geosciences

    2003-04-01

    In temperate coniferous forests, spatial variation in net ecosystem production (NEP) is often associated with variation in stand age and heterogeneity in environmental factors such as soil depth. However, coarse spatial resolution analyses used to evaluate the terrestrial contribution to global NEP do not generally incorporate these effects. In this study, a fine-scale (25 m grid) analysis of NEP over a 164-km{sup 2} area of productive coniferous forests in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States was made to evaluate the effects of including fine scale information in landscape-scale NEP assessments. The Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) sensor resolved five cover classes in the study area and further differentiated between young, mature and old-growth conifer stands. ETM+ was also used to map current leaf area index (LAI) based on an empirical relationship of observed LAI to spectral vegetation indices. A daily time step climatology, based on 18 years of meteorological observations, was distributed (1 km resolution) over the mountainous terrain of the study area using the DAYMET model. Estimates of carbon pools and flux associated with soil, litter, coarse woody debris and live trees were then generated by running a carbon cycle model (Biome-BGC) to a state that reflected the current successional status and LAI of each grid cell, as indicated by the remote sensing observations. Estimated annual NEP for 1997 over the complete study area averaged 230 g C m{sup 2}, with most of the area acting as a carbon sink. The area-wide NEP is strongly positive because of reduced harvesting in the last decade and the recovery of areas harvested between 1940 and 1990. The average value was greater than would be indicated if the entire area was assumed to be a mature conifer stand, as in a coarse-scale analysis. The mean NEP varied interannually by over a factor of two. This variation was 38% less than the interannual variation for a single point. The integration of process

  6. Effects of land use and fine-scale environmental heterogeneity on net ecosystem production over a temperate coniferous forest landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, David P.; Guzy, Michael; Lefsky, Michael A.; Tuyl, Steve van; Sun, Osbert; Law, Beverly E.; Daly, Chris

    2003-01-01

    In temperate coniferous forests, spatial variation in net ecosystem production (NEP) is often associated with variation in stand age and heterogeneity in environmental factors such as soil depth. However, coarse spatial resolution analyses used to evaluate the terrestrial contribution to global NEP do not generally incorporate these effects. In this study, a fine-scale (25 m grid) analysis of NEP over a 164-km 2 area of productive coniferous forests in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States was made to evaluate the effects of including fine scale information in landscape-scale NEP assessments. The Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) sensor resolved five cover classes in the study area and further differentiated between young, mature and old-growth conifer stands. ETM+ was also used to map current leaf area index (LAI) based on an empirical relationship of observed LAI to spectral vegetation indices. A daily time step climatology, based on 18 years of meteorological observations, was distributed (1 km resolution) over the mountainous terrain of the study area using the DAYMET model. Estimates of carbon pools and flux associated with soil, litter, coarse woody debris and live trees were then generated by running a carbon cycle model (Biome-BGC) to a state that reflected the current successional status and LAI of each grid cell, as indicated by the remote sensing observations. Estimated annual NEP for 1997 over the complete study area averaged 230 g C m 2 , with most of the area acting as a carbon sink. The area-wide NEP is strongly positive because of reduced harvesting in the last decade and the recovery of areas harvested between 1940 and 1990. The average value was greater than would be indicated if the entire area was assumed to be a mature conifer stand, as in a coarse-scale analysis. The mean NEP varied interannually by over a factor of two. This variation was 38% less than the interannual variation for a single point. The integration of process models

  7. THE BIOTECHNOLOGY OF EMBRYOGENIC CELL LINES OBTAINING AND PLANTLETS OF CONIFEROUS SPECIES IN SIBERIA IN CULTURE IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tretiakova I.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Experiments of culturing the immature isolated embryos and megagamethophytes of Siberian coniferous species were carried out on different modified media: ½ LV medium for Pinus sibirica and Pinus pumila, MSG and AI media (patent № 2431651 for Larix sibirica and Larix gmelinii, DCR medium for Picea ajanensis. For induction of embryogenic callus every species needs the optimized medium supplemented with L-glutamine, casein hydrolysate, ascorbic acid and hormones with different concentrations and their different proportions. The active proliferation of embryonal masses is observed on the same medium with reduced concentration of cytokinins. The proliferation of embryonal masses was significantly improved when they were subcultured after dispersing in liquid medium. The somatic embryos from embryonal masses are matured on basal medium with ABA (60-120 mM and PEG. In spite of species specificity the embryogenesis of morphogenic structures had the same scheme: elongation and asymmetric division of somatic cells, formation of initial cells and embryonal tubes, development of globular, torpedo and bipolar somatic embryos, embryos maturation and germination. However, not all donor-plants of coniferous species can form the embryogenic cell lines and somatic embryos. The active development of embryonal masses and formation of somatic embryos are observed from zygotic embryo of hybrid seeds of P. sibirica and L. sibirica. The obtained embryogenic lines were characterized by different proliferative activity. During 10 months cultivation the value of embryonal masses in different lines was 140-570 g. The number of somatic embryos varies from 210 to 410 per 100 mg of callus fresh weight. Decreasing proliferation activity did not observed during 24-45 months cultivation. However, development of somatic embryos in long cultivated lines decreased. Maturation of somatic embryos and development of plantlets were established in L. sibirica and P. pumila 50

  8. Energy valorization of the species used in short-rotation plantations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moya Roque, Roger; Tenorio Monge, Carolina; Salazar Zeledon, Estephania

    2016-01-01

    The energy potential of some non-traditional plantations for production of energy is exposed. Forest and forage species are utilized in Costa Rica for energy plantations. The characteristics of these species have been short rotation (1-3 years) and a production between 20 and 25 tonnes of dry matter per hectare. Agro-energy plantations are described. Gmelina arborea y Pennisetum purpureum species have been viable options for biomass production. However, the high cost of seedlings and land to cultivate have been one of the problems of this energy source [es

  9. Incubation of air-pollution-control residues from secondary Pb smelter in deciduous and coniferous organic soil horizons: leachability of lead, cadmium and zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrastný, Vladislav; Vaněk, Aleš; Komárek, Michael; Farkaš, Juraj; Drábek, Ondřej; Vokurková, Petra; Němcová, Jana

    2012-03-30

    The leachability of air-pollution-control (APC) residues from a secondary lead smelter in organic soil horizons (F and H) from a deciduous and a coniferous forest during incubation periods of 0, 3 and 6 months were compared in this work. While the concentration of Pb, Zn and Cd associated with the exchangeable/acid extractable fraction in the horizon F from the coniferous forest was higher compared to the deciduous, significantly lower concentrations in the humified horizon H was found. It is suggested that lower pH and a higher share of fulvic acids fraction (FAs) of solid phase soil organic matter (SOM) in the humified soil horizon H from the coniferous compared to the deciduous forest is responsible for a higher metal association with solid phase SOM and therefore a lower metal leaching in a soil system. From this point of view, the humified soil horizon H from the deciduous forest represents a soil system more vulnerable to Pb, Zn and Cd leaching from APC residues. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. What causes the density effect in young forest plantations?; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbara J. Bond; Gary A. Ritchie

    2002-01-01

    In young forest plantations, trees planted at high densities frequently show more rapid height and diameter growth than those plants at lower densities. This positive growth response to density (the ''density effect'') often manifests long before seedlings are tall enough to shade one another, so it is not a simple response to shade. The mechanism(s) which trigger and sustain this growth enhancement are unknown. Our objectives were to document the temporal dynamics of positive growth response to increasing density in Douglas-fir plantations and to test two hypotheses as potential mechanisms for this response. The hypotheses are (1) a canopy boundary layer effect, and (2) alterations in the quality of light reflected from neighboring trees. The ''boundary layer'' hypotheses proposes that changes in atmospheric mixing occur in high-density plantations, promoting increased concentrations of CO(sub 2) and H(sub 2)O vapor during early morning hours, which in turn would enhance carbon assimilation. The ''light quality'' hypothesis proposes that the presence of neighbors alters the ratio of red to far red light in the canopy environment. Plant sensors detect this change in light quality, and growth and development is altered in response. We found that boundary layer conductance was higher, as we predicted, in low-density Douglas-fir stands than in high-density stands five years after planting. The changes in boundary conductance were accompanied by higher CO(sub 2) and H(sub 2)O vapor during early morning hours. However, we also found that the primary manifestation of the density effect in Douglas-fir occurs two to four years after planting, and we were not able to measure differences in boundary conductance in different densities at that time. Also, we found no difference in carbon isotope composition of wood cellulose formed in high- vs. low-density stands two to three years after planting. We conclude that although stand density may have a significant impact on

  11. FIRE BEHAVIOR PREDICTING MODELS EFFICIENCY IN BRAZILIAN COMMERCIAL EUCALYPT PLANTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Leonardo Alves White

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowing how a wildfire will behave is extremely important in order to assist in fire suppression and prevention operations. Since the 1940’s mathematical models to estimate how the fire will behave have been developed worldwide, however, none of them, until now, had their efficiency tested in Brazilian commercial eucalypt plantations nor in other vegetation types in the country. This study aims to verify the accuracy of the Rothermel (1972 fire spread model, the Byram (1959 flame length model, and the fire spread and length equations derived from the McArthur (1962 control burn meters. To meet these objectives, 105 experimental laboratory fires were done and their results compared with the predicted values from the models tested. The Rothermel and Byram models predicted better than McArthur’s, nevertheless, all of them underestimated the fire behavior aspects evaluated and were statistically different from the experimental data.

  12. Palmier à huile : le management environnemental des plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caliman Jean-Pierre

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available PT. Smart, an Indonesian oil palm plantations company, technically manages all plantings of Golden Agri-Resources (GAR. Recently challenged by several environmental NGOs, accusing the society of violating the durability, despite its accession to the panel for the production of sustainable palm oil (RSPO, the company has re-affirmed its commitment, strengthening its governance with the goal of becoming not only a leader in its field of production, but also in terms of environmental and social sustainability, implementingcoordination activities and exchanges to findworkable solutions to problems. Recognizing that some mistakes were made, the company insists, however, that many economic initiatives, social and environmental development marked its action since the early 1980s according to the advance of scientific knowledge, and the existence of operational tools to implement them. What the company calls ‘‘the road towards sustainability’’.

  13. Nutrient losses in forest plantations in Sabah, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nykvist, N.; Grip, A.; Malmer, A.

    1994-01-01

    Inorganic nutrients are lost from terrestrial ecosystems through the harvesting of plant products, leaching, soil erosion and volatilization of nitrogen and sulfur compounds. In this study, carried out in a tropical rain forest ecosystem in Sabah, Malaysia, losses of inorganic nutrients through log removal and runoff/leaching to stream water were compared in clear-fellings, harvested and prepared for planting in two different ways: (i) tractor logging/burning; (ii) and manual logging/no burning. The major findings of the study were that nutrient losses in stream water were reduced by 50% and growth of the planted forest was twice as fast on the catchment where soil disturbance was minimized and burning not used. Weeds were more abundant after burning, and the extra weeding needed increased costs for plantation establishment. Ways of decreasing the loss of inorganic nutrients when clear-felling tropical rain forests are discussed. 32 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  14. Volumetry of Genipa americana in homogeneous plantation in Southwest Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mislene Barbosa Rocha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aim to evaluate the volumetric estimates obtaining for Genipa americana, commonly known as jenipapeiro, in pure plantation in the municipality of Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil. To determine individual volume, 100 standing trees were rigorously cubed. Ten volumetric models were adjusted. The best models were selected based on the selection criteria of weighted value of statistical parameters scores and residues distribution. Volume estimates were obtained by form factor and by adjusted equations. To validate the estimates, the calculate volumes were compared to measured data. Among the used methods to predict wood volume, the adjusted volumetric equations are recommended. Spurr (Log model present the best performance to estimate total wood volume.

  15. Albedo of a hybrid poplar plantation in central Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, D. T.; Bernier, P. Y.; Orchansky, A.; Thomas, B.

    2012-04-01

    Canada's boreal forest resources are coming under increasing pressure from competing land-uses, including establishment of protected areas, and losses of harvestable forest to mining and oil and gas exploration. In the prairie region, concerns about lack of wood supply for pulpmills and potential opportunities for bioenergy production and carbon sequestration for climate change mitigation, have spurred interest in afforestation of marginal agricultural land, notably with fast-growing hybrid poplars (HP). However, global modelling studies suggest that a shift from grassland or crops to forest cover in temperate and boreal regions could result in reduced surface albedo, particularly in winter, causing an increase in radiative forcing and reducing any climate mitigation benefits due to net GHG removal. We report on seven growing seasons of measurements of short-wave canopy albedo using tower-mounted instruments, along with eddy covariance measurements of carbon, water and energy balance, at a site in central Alberta planted with HP cuttings in spring 2005. The data show little systematic change in average albedo as vegetation has changed from bare ground to a plantation of 6 m trees. Reasons for this include very wide (3 m) spacing between the trees, and snow cover which often persists for 4-5 months and is highly visible below the bare canopies during winter. While measurements should continue as the trees grow larger, we postulate that extensive afforestation with HP is unlikely to have major effects on regional-scale surface albedo compared to the agricultural systems they replace. Normal rotation lengths are 15-20 years, hence even if older plantations have significantly lower winter albedo, their contribution to the regional average would be relatively small because they will cover only a small fraction of the landscape (e.g., compared to forests of boreal conifers or temperate broadleaved species).

  16. Biomass production in energy plantation of Prosopis juliflora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurumurti, K.

    1984-09-01

    Studies on time trends of biomass production by means of age series in energy plantations (spacing 1.3 x 1.3 m) of Prosopis juliflora is presented. The component biomass production at the age of 18, 24, 30, 36 and 48 months was determined. The results show considerable variation among the population of trees. However, distinct linear relationship between girth at breast height (GBH) and total height was discernible. The total biomass produced at 18, 24, 30, 36 and 48 months of age was 19.69, 41.39, 69.11, 114.62 and 148.63 dry tonnes per hectare, respectively. The corresponding figures for utilizable biomass (wood, bark and branch) were 14.63, 32.17, 50.59, 88.87 and 113.25 dry tonnes per hectare. At all the periods of study, branch component formed the major portion of total biomass being around 50 to 55%. Utilizable biomass was three-fourths of total biomass at all ages. The solar energy conversion efficiency ranged from 0.59% at 18 months to 1.68% at 48 months of age, the peak value being 1.87% at the age of 36 months. It is shown that the variables diameter and height can be used to reliably predict the biomass production in Prosopis juliflora with the help of the regression equations developed in the present study. It is concluded that Prosopis juliflora is an ideal candidate for energy plantations in semi arid and marginal lands, not only to meet the fuelwood demands but also to improve the soil fertility, for, this plant is a fast growing and nitrogen fixing leguminous tree.

  17. ECONOMIC ROTATION OF Eucalyptus grandis PLANTATIONS FOR PULP PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Cunha Ferreira

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the research were: to determine the economic impact of several minimum diameter and length of logs in economic rotation age, economic feasibility of Eucalyptus grandis plantation for cellulose production; to determine the economic loss of cutting the stand before or after the optimal economic rotation age. A biometric model for making wood volume prognosis was developed using data of a trial of Eucalyptus grandis plantation envisaging pulp production. Eucalyptus grandis stands of 19 and 103 months old, in the spacing 3 x 2 and 3 x 3 m in site index of 30; 28; 26 and 24 m were used. Theprognosis started at the age zero, considering logs of 2.5; 2.8; 4.0 and 6.0 m of length for minimum diameter varying from 4 to 10 cm, in intervals of 2 cm. Net Present Worth (VPL was used the economic criterion, considering an infinite horizon and a cost relation including reestablishment, yearly maintenance, logging and wood transportation costs. The main conclusions were: increases in the minimum diameter and or in logs length increase the rotation age; harvesting the stands in ages different from the optimal one cause large economic loss mainly in the better sites; the economic loss is larger if the harvest is made before the optimal economic rotation than if it is make after; economic feasibility increases when the minimum diameter is smaller and when the length of the logs is shorter. Any way, before making any decision it is necessary to take into account possible technical restrictions and effect on harvest and transportation costs caused by changer in the length of logs and in the size of the minimum commercial diameter.

  18. Rapid warming forces contrasting growth trends of subalpine fir ( Abies fabri ) at higher- and lower-elevations in the eastern Tibetan Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wenzhi; Jia, Min; Wang, Genxu; Zhu, Wanze; McDowell, Nate G.

    2017-10-01

    Tree radial growth is expected to increase at higher elevations under climate warming, while lower elevation tree growth is expected to decline. However, numerous studies have found tree radial growth responds consistently to climate along elevational gradients. Here, we sampled five plots across the subalpine Abies fabri forest belt on Gongga Mountain in the eastern Tibetan Plateau to determine tree radial growth trends and responses to climate. Three commonly used detrending methods all consistently showed that tree radial growth at high elevation (> 3100 m) increased, while tree growth declined at the lower elevations (2700 m–2900 m) over the last three decades. Increasing late-growing season temperature positively (p < 0.05) correlated to tree radial growth at higher elevations, but the sign of this relationship reversed to become negative at lower elevations. Moving-window correlation analyses indicated the difference between high and low elevations response to temperature variation increased strongly with warming. Placing our result into the global context, 62% of 39 published studies found that trees along elevation gradients respond divergently to warming, and that these are located in warmer and wetter regions of the Earth. Notably, 28% of studies found non-significant responses to temperature at both high and low elevations. Our findings in the subalpine mountain forest in the eastern Tibetan Plateau were consistent with the majority of published datasets, and imply increasing temperature benefit for tree populations at higher elevation, while warming dampens growth at lower elevations.

  19. [Contribution of soil fauna to the mass loss of Betula albosinensis leaf litter at early decomposition stage of subalpine forest litter in western Sichuan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Lei; Wu, Fu-Zhong; Yang, Wan-Qin; Tan, Bo

    2012-02-01

    In order to quantify the contribution of soil fauna to the decomposition of birch (Betula albosinensis) leaf litter in subalpine forests in western Sichuan of Southwest China during freeze-thaw season, a field experiment with different mesh sizes (0.02, 0.125, 1 and 3 mm) of litterbags was conducted in a representative birch-fir (Abies faxoniana) forest to investigate the mass loss rate of the birch leaf litter from 26 October, 2010 to 18 April, 2011, and the contributions of micro-, meso- and macro-fauna to the decomposition of the leaf litter. Over the freeze-thaw season, 11.8%, 13.2%, 15.4% and 19.5% of the mass loss were detected in the litterbags with 0.02, 0. 125, 1 and 3 mm mesh sizes, respectively. The total contribution of soil fauna to the litter decomposition accounted for 39.5% of the mass loss, and the taxa and individual relative density of the soil fauna in the litterbags had the similar variation trend with that of the mass loss rate. The contribution rate of soil fauna to the leaf litter mass loss showed the order of micro- soil fauna played an important role in the litter decomposition in subalpine forests of western Sichuan during freeze-thaw season.

  20. Assessment of Soil Water Composition in the Northern Taiga Coniferous Forests of Background Territories in the Industrially Developed Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukina, N. V.; Ershov, V. V.; Gorbacheva, T. T.; Orlova, M. A.; Isaeva, L. G.; Teben'kova, D. N.

    2018-03-01

    The composition of soil water under coniferous forests of Murmansk oblast—an industrially developed region of northern Russia—was investigated. The studied objects were dwarf-shrub-green-moss spruce forests and dwarf-shrub-lichen pine forests on Al-Fe-humus podzols ( Albic Rustic Podzols) that are widespread in the boreal zone. The concentrations and removal of organic carbon performing the most important biogeochemical and pedogenic functions were estimated. The results proved significant intra- and inter-biogeocenotic variability in the composition of atmospheric depositions and soil water. Carbon removal with soil water from organic and mineral horizons within elementary biogeoareas (EBGA) under tree crowns was 2-5 and 2-3 times (in some cases, up to 10 times) greater than that in the intercrown areas, respectively. The lowest critical level of mineral nitrogen (0.2 mg/L) was, as a rule, exceeded in tree EBGAs contrary to intercrown areas. Concentrations of sulfates and heavy metals in water of tree EBGA were 3-5 times greater than those in inter-crown areas. Significant inter-biogeocenotic variations related to differences in the height of trees and tree stand density were found. It is argued that adequate characterization of biochemical cycles and assessment of critical levels of components in soil water of forest ecosystems should be performed with due account for the intra- and inter-biogeocenotic variability.

  1. Fluxes of oxidised and reduced nitrogen above a mixed coniferous forest exposed to various nitrogen emission sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neirynck, J. [Research Institute for Nature and Forest, Gaverstraat 4, B-9500 Geraardsbergen (Belgium)]. E-mail: johan.neirynck@inbo.be; Kowalski, A.S. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicida, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Calle Fuentenueva, SP-18071 Granada (Spain); Carrara, A. [Fundacion CEAM, Parque Technologico, Calle Charles H. Darwin 14, SP-46980 Paterna (Valencia) (Spain); Genouw, G. [Research Institute for Nature and Forest, Gaverstraat 4, B-9500 Geraardsbergen (Belgium); Berghmans, P. [Flemish Institute for Technological Research, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Ceulemans, R. [Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Antwerp) (Belgium)

    2007-09-15

    Concentrations of nitrogen gases (NH{sub 3}, NO{sub 2}, NO, HONO and HNO{sub 3}) and particles (pNH{sub 4} and pNO{sub 3}) were measured over a mixed coniferous forest impacted by high nitrogen loads. Nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) represented the main nitrogen form, followed by nitric oxide (NO) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}). A combination of gradient method (NH{sub 3} and NO {sub x} ) and resistance modelling techniques (HNO{sub 3}, HONO, pNH{sub 4} and pNO{sub 3}) was used to calculate dry deposition of nitrogen compounds. Net flux of NH{sub 3} amounted to -64 ng N m{sup -2} s{sup -1} over the measuring period. Net fluxes of NO {sub x} were upward (8.5 ng N m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) with highest emission in the morning. Fluxes of other gases or aerosols substantially contributed to dry deposition. Total nitrogen deposition was estimated at -48 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} and consisted for almost 80% of NH {sub x} . Comparison of throughfall nitrogen with total deposition suggested substantial uptake of reduced N ({+-}15 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}) within the canopy. - Reduced nitrogen was found to be the main contributor to total deposition which was predominantly governed by dry deposition.

  2. Chemical composition of the essential oil from carnation coniferous (Dianthus acicularis Fisch. ex Ledeb) growing wild in Northern Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirillov, Vitaliy; Stikhareva, Tamara; Suleimen, Yerlan; Serafimovich, Mariya; Kabanova, Svetlana; Mukanov, Bolat

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate volatile compounds from the aerial parts of Dianthus acicularis of the genus Dianthus of the family Caryophyllaceae grown wild in Northern Kazakhstan for the first time. D. acicularis is a typical Trans-Volga-Kazakhstani endemic. D. acicularis has high resistance to the bacterial wilt, a serious disease caused by Burkholderia caryophylli. The qualitative and quantitative compositions of the specimens of the essential oils were analysed by the method of GC-MS. The main constituents of D. acicularis essential oil were methyl ketones - 2-pentadecanone (26.9-32.2%) and 2-tridecanone (4.7-17.7%), identified for the first time in the Dianthus genus. The methyl ketone activity provides protection of the plants from herbivores and fungal pathogens. One can suppose that the presence of 2-pentadecanone and 2-tridecanone in the essential oil of carnation coniferous provides its resistance to different insects and pathogens, including the resistance to the bacterial wilt.

  3. For the Aphid fauna in the territory of Yenisei river basin. Communication 1. Aphids on coniferous plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Gurov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports on new and previously not well-known data on insufficiently studied fauna of aphids living on coniferous trees in Central Siberia of the basin of Yenisei river. This region is the extensive transect of latitudinal geographic zones from semi-desert in the South to the arctic deserts in the North. That is why this region is very peculiar. This is the reason for insufficient study of regional entomological fauna. Aphids (Homoptera: Aphidoideaare a very taxonomically and ecologically heterogeneous group of insects. The aphids living on conifer trees are notstudied completely on the territory of Yenisei basin. Due to this, the studying of not well-known and economicallyimportant aphids is actual. For example, the insufficient study of regional aphids is confirmed by the fact, that duringthree weeks only of the work for INTAS-94-0930 Project two new aphid species were found and described on thisterritory. Also, the new species of family Mindaridae, which was described in Mongolia in 1980, was found in Siberiafor the first time. These finds indicate the real possibility to describe an interesting conifer aphid complex in the absolutely unstudied forested territory between Angara and Lower Tunguska rivers. Geographical location, dates ofcollection and feeding preferences of different species are described. A general review of Yenisei basin Siberian aphidfauna is suggested for the first time ever.

  4. Assessing seasonality of biochemical CO2 exchange model parameters from micrometeorological flux observations at boreal coniferous forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Vesala

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The seasonality of the NEE of the northern boreal coniferous forests was investigated by means of inversion modelling using eddy covariance data. Eddy covariance data was used to optimize the biochemical model parameters. Our study sites consisted of three Scots pine (l. Pinus sylvestris forests and one Norway spruce (l. Picea abies forest that were located in Finland and Sweden. We obtained temperature and seasonal dependence for the biochemical model parameters: the maximum rate of carboxylation (Vc(max and the maximum rate of electron transport (Jmax. Both of the parameters were optimized without assumptions about their mutual magnitude. The values obtained for the biochemical model parameters were similar at all the sites during summer time. To describe seasonality, different temperature fits were made for the spring, summer and autumn periods. During summer, average Jmax across the sites was 54.0 μmol m−2 s−1 (variance 31.2 μmol m−2 s−1 and Vc(max was 12.0 μmol m−2 s−1 (variance 6.6 μmol m−2 s−1 at 17°C. The sensitivity of the model to LAI and atmospheric soil water stress was also studied. The impact of seasonality on annual GPP was 17% when only summertime parameterization was used throughout the year compared to seasonally changing parameterizations.

  5. Fluxes of oxidised and reduced nitrogen above a mixed coniferous forest exposed to various nitrogen emission sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neirynck, J.; Kowalski, A.S.; Carrara, A.; Genouw, G.; Berghmans, P.; Ceulemans, R.

    2007-01-01

    Concentrations of nitrogen gases (NH 3 , NO 2 , NO, HONO and HNO 3 ) and particles (pNH 4 and pNO 3 ) were measured over a mixed coniferous forest impacted by high nitrogen loads. Nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) represented the main nitrogen form, followed by nitric oxide (NO) and ammonia (NH 3 ). A combination of gradient method (NH 3 and NO x ) and resistance modelling techniques (HNO 3 , HONO, pNH 4 and pNO 3 ) was used to calculate dry deposition of nitrogen compounds. Net flux of NH 3 amounted to -64 ng N m -2 s -1 over the measuring period. Net fluxes of NO x were upward (8.5 ng N m -2 s -1 ) with highest emission in the morning. Fluxes of other gases or aerosols substantially contributed to dry deposition. Total nitrogen deposition was estimated at -48 kg N ha -1 yr -1 and consisted for almost 80% of NH x . Comparison of throughfall nitrogen with total deposition suggested substantial uptake of reduced N (±15 kg N ha -1 yr -1 ) within the canopy. - Reduced nitrogen was found to be the main contributor to total deposition which was predominantly governed by dry deposition

  6. Factor contribution to fire occurrence, size, and burn probability in a subtropical coniferous forest in East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Tao; Wang, Yao; Guo, Zhixing; Li, Yijia

    2017-01-01

    The contribution of factors including fuel type, fire-weather conditions, topography and human activity to fire regime attributes (e.g. fire occurrence, size distribution and severity) has been intensively discussed. The relative importance of those factors in explaining the burn probability (BP), which is critical in terms of fire risk management, has been insufficiently addressed. Focusing on a subtropical coniferous forest with strong human disturbance in East China, our main objective was to evaluate and compare the relative importance of fuel composition, topography, and human activity for fire occurrence, size and BP. Local BP distribution was derived with stochastic fire simulation approach using detailed historical fire data (1990-2010) and forest-resource survey results, based on which our factor contribution analysis was carried out. Our results indicated that fuel composition had the greatest relative importance in explaining fire occurrence and size, but human activity explained most of the variance in BP. This implies that the influence of human activity is amplified through the process of overlapping repeated ignition and spreading events. This result emphasizes the status of strong human disturbance in local fire processes. It further confirms the need for a holistic perspective on factor contribution to fire likelihood, rather than focusing on individual fire regime attributes, for the purpose of fire risk management.

  7. Evaporation from Pinus caribaea plantations on former grassland soils under maritime tropical conditions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waterloo, M.J.; Bruijnzeel, L.A.; Vugts, H.F.; Rawaqa, T.T.

    1999-01-01

    Wet canopy and dry canopy evaporation from young and mature plantations of Pinus caribaea on former grassland soils under maritime tropical conditions in southwestern Viti Levu, Fiji, were determined using micrometeorological and hydrological techniques. Modeled annual evaporation totals (ET) of

  8. Evaporation from Pinus caribaea plantations on former grassland soils under maritime tropical conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waterloo, M.J.; Bruijnzeel, L.A.; Vugts, H.F.; Rawaqa, T.T.

    1999-01-01

    Wet canopy and dry canopy evaporation from young and mature plantations of Pinus caribaea on former grassland soils under maritime tropical conditions in southwestern Viti Levu, Fiji, were determined using micrometeorological and hydrological techniques. Modeled annual evaporation totals (ET) of

  9. Forest structure of oak plantations after silvicultural treatment to enhance habitat for wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, Daniel J.; Phillip, Cherrie-Lee P.; Guilfoyle, Michael P.; Wilson, R. Randy; Schweitzer, Callie Jo; Clatterbuck, Wayne K.; Oswalt, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    During the past 30 years, thousands of hectares of oak-dominated bottomland hardwood plantations have been planted on agricultural fields in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley. Many of these plantations now have closed canopies and sparse understories. Silvicultural treatments could create a more heterogeneous forest structure, with canopy gaps and increased understory vegetation for wildlife. Lack of volume sufficient for commercial harvest in hardwood plantations has impeded treatments, but demand for woody biomass for energy production may provide a viable means to introduce disturbance beneficial for wildlife. We assessed forest structure in response to prescribed pre-commercial perturbations in hardwood plantations resulting from silvicultural treatments: 1) row thinning by felling every fourth planted row; 2) multiple patch cuts with canopy gaps of gaps appear likely to be filled by regenerating saplings.

  10. Suitability of online 3D visualization technique in oil palm plantation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat, Ruzinoor Che; Nordin, Norani; Zulkifli, Abdul Nasir; Yusof, Shahrul Azmi Mohd

    2016-08-01

    Oil palm industry has been the backbone for the growth of Malaysia economy. The exports of this commodity increasing almost every year. Therefore, there are many studies focusing on how to help this industry increased its productivity. In order to increase the productivity, the management of oil palm plantation need to be improved and strengthen. One of the solution in helping the oil palm manager is by implementing online 3D visualization technique for oil palm plantation using game engine technology. The potential of this application is that it can helps in fertilizer and irrigation management. For this reason, the aim of this paper is to investigate the issues in managing oil palm plantation from the view of oil palm manager by interview. The results from this interview will helps in identifying the suitable issues could be highlight in implementing online 3D visualization technique for oil palm plantation management.

  11. Challenges and advances in genetically improving trees for the plantation forestry sector

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Verryn, SD

    2010-08-30

    Full Text Available This presentation outlines the South African plantation forestry sector and its contributions and improvement in productivity, acquiring genetic diversity, challenges and advances in genetically improving trees as well as transforming the value...

  12. Diameter structure modeling and the calculation of plantation volume of black poplar clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrašev Siniša

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of diameter structure modeling was applied in the calculation of plantation (stand volume of two black poplar clones in the section Aigeiros (Duby: 618 (Lux and S1-8. Diameter structure modeling by Weibull function makes it possible to calculate the plantation volume by volume line. Based on the comparison of the proposed method with the existing methods, the obtained error of plantation volume was less than 2%. Diameter structure modeling and the calculation of plantation volume by diameter structure model, by the regularity of diameter distribution, enables a better analysis of the production level and assortment structure and it can be used in the construction of yield and increment tables.

  13. Soil organic matter on citrus plantation in Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; Prosdocimi, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    Citrus plantations in Eastern Spain are the main crop and Valencia region is the largest world exporter. The traditional plantation are located on flood irrigated areas and the new plantation are located on slopes were drip irrigation is the source of the wetting. It has been demonstrate that the citrus plantations contribute to high erosion rates on slopes (Cerdà et al., 2009b) as it is usual on agriculture land (Cerdà et al., 2009a), but when organic farming is present the soil erosion is much lower (Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2008; Cerdà et al., 2009; Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2011). This is a worldwide phenomenon (Wu et al., 2007; Wu et al., 2011; Xu et al., 2010; Xu et al., 2012a; Xu et al., 2012b), which are a key factor of the high erosion rates in rural areas (García Orenes et al., 2009: García Orenes et al., 20010; García Orenes et al., 2012; Haregewyn et al., 2013; Zhao et al., 2013). The key factor of the contrasted response of soils to the rain in citrus is the organic matter cover. This is why the Soil Erosion and Degradation Research Team developed a survey to determine the soil erosion rates on citrus orchards under different managements. A hundred of samples were collected in a citrus plantation on slope under conventional management (Chemical management), one on organic farming, one on traditional flood irrigated organic farming and one on traditional chemical flooding farm. The organic farming soils were treated with 10000 Kg ha-1 of manure yearly. The results show that the mean soil organic matter content was 1.24 %, 3.54%, 5,43% and 2.1% respectively, which show a clear impact of organic farming in the recovery of the soil organic matter. meanwhile the on the slopes and the flood-irrigated soils are Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and PREVENTING AND REMEDIATING DEGRADATION OF SOILS IN EUROPE THROUGH LAND CARE (RECARE)FP7- ENV-2013- supported this research. References Cerdà, A., Flanagan, D.C., le Bissonnais

  14. Losses of soil carbon by converting tropical forest to plantations: erosion and decomposition estimated by δ(13) C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Thomas; Damris, Muhammad; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-09-01

    Indonesia lost more tropical forest than all of Brazil in 2012, mainly driven by the rubber, oil palm, and timber industries. Nonetheless, the effects of converting forest to oil palm and rubber plantations on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks remain unclear. We analyzed SOC losses after lowland rainforest conversion to oil palm, intensive rubber, and extensive rubber plantations in Jambi Province on Sumatra Island. The focus was on two processes: (1) erosion and (2) decomposition of soil organic matter. Carbon contents in the Ah horizon under oil palm and rubber plantations were strongly reduced up to 70% and 62%, respectively. The decrease was lower under extensive rubber plantations (41%). On average, converting forest to plantations led to a loss of 10 Mg C ha(-1) after about 15 years of conversion. The C content in the subsoil was similar under the forest and the plantations. We therefore assumed that a shift to higher δ(13) C values in plantation subsoil corresponds to the losses from the upper soil layer by erosion. Erosion was estimated by comparing the δ(13) C profiles in the soils under forest and under plantations. The estimated erosion was the strongest in oil palm (35 ± 8 cm) and rubber (33 ± 10 cm) plantations. The (13) C enrichment of SOC used as a proxy of its turnover indicates a decrease of SOC decomposition rate in the Ah horizon under oil palm plantations after forest conversion. Nonetheless, based on the lack of C input from litter, we expect further losses of SOC in oil palm plantations, which are a less sustainable land use compared to rubber plantations. We conclude that δ(13) C depth profiles may be a powerful tool to disentangle soil erosion and SOC mineralization after the conversion of natural ecosystems conversion to intensive plantations when soils show gradual increase of δ(13) C values with depth. © 2015 The Authors. Global Change Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Rapid conversions and avoided deforestation: examining four decades of industrial plantation expansion in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaveau, David L. A.; Sheil, Douglas; Husnayaen; Salim, Mohammad A.; Arjasakusuma, Sanjiwana; Ancrenaz, Marc; Pacheco, Pablo; Meijaard, Erik

    2016-09-01

    New plantations can either cause deforestation by replacing natural forests or avoid this by using previously cleared areas. The extent of these two situations is contested in tropical biodiversity hotspots where objective data are limited. Here, we explore delays between deforestation and the establishment of industrial tree plantations on Borneo using satellite imagery. Between 1973 and 2015 an estimated 18.7 Mha of Borneo’s old-growth forest were cleared (14.4 Mha and 4.2 Mha in Indonesian and Malaysian Borneo). Industrial plantations expanded by 9.1 Mha (7.8 Mha oil-palm; 1.3 Mha pulpwood). Approximately 7.0 Mha of the total plantation area in 2015 (9.2 Mha) were old-growth forest in 1973, of which 4.5-4.8 Mha (24-26% of Borneo-wide deforestation) were planted within five years of forest clearance (3.7-3.9 Mha oil-palm; 0.8-0.9 Mha pulpwood). This rapid within-five-year conversion has been greater in Malaysia than in Indonesia (57-60% versus 15-16%). In Indonesia, a higher proportion of oil-palm plantations was developed on already cleared degraded lands (a legacy of recurrent forest fires). However, rapid conversion of Indonesian forests to industrial plantations has increased steeply since 2005. We conclude that plantation industries have been the principle driver of deforestation in Malaysian Borneo over the last four decades. In contrast, their role in deforestation in Indonesian Borneo was less marked, but has been growing recently. We note caveats in interpreting these results and highlight the need for greater accountability in plantation development.

  16. Characteristics of Soil Fauna Communities and Habitat in Small- Holder Cocoa Plantation in South Konawe

    OpenAIRE

    Laode Muhammad Harjoni Kilowasid; Tati Suryati Syamsudin; Franciscus Xaverius Susilo; Endah Sulistyawati; Hasbullah Syaf

    2013-01-01

    The composition of the soil fauna community have played an important role in regulating decomposition and nutrient cycling in agro-ecosystems (include cocoa plantation). Changes in food availability and conditions in the soil habitat can affected the abundance and diversity of soil fauna. This study aimed: (i) to analyze the pattern of changes in soil fauna community composition and characteristic of soil habitat based on the age increasing of cocoa plantation, and (ii) to identify taxa of so...

  17. Cannabis cultivation in Spain: A profile of plantations, growers and production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Arturo; Gamella, Juan F; Parra, Iván

    2016-11-01

    The European market for cannabis derivatives is being transformed. The cultivation of cannabis within the EU and the shift of demand from hashish to domestic marihuana are key aspects of this transformation. Spain, formerly central to the trade of Moroccan hashish, is becoming a marihuana-producing country. The emergence of "import-substitution" has been researched in other EU countries, but thus far the Spanish case remains undocumented. This paper is based on analysis of data of 748 cannabis plantations seized by Spanish police in 2013. The sample comprises reports of seizures identified through a survey of online news and police reports. "Event-analysis" methods were applied to these sources. The analysis offers a typology of plantations, a profile of participants and the different production systems, and a model of regional distribution. Half of the plantations were small (less than 42 plants) and half contained between 100 and 1000 plants, with an average size of 261 plants. About three-quarters of plants were cultivated indoors using stolen electricity. 86% of all plants seized were from large-scale plantations (more than 220 plants). Most plantations were located along the Mediterranean coast, where population and tourism are concentrated. Over three-quarters of those indicted by police were Spanish (85%). Among the foreign owners of big plantations, Dutch nationals predominated. The number of seized plants by province was directly associated with the number of grow shops (β=0.962, pcannabis plantations in the Spanish Mediterranean coast is increasingly replacing import of Moroccan hashish. Indoor cultivation supported by grow shops, that provide the technology and know-how, seem to be the dominant form of organization in this emerging industry. Large-scale plantations may have met most of the demand for marihuana in 2013. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Monitoring rubber plantation expansion using Landsat data time series and a Shapelet-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Su; Rogan, John; Sangermano, Florencia

    2018-02-01

    The expansion of tree plantations in tropical forests for commercial rubber cultivation threatens biodiversity which may affect ecosystem services, and hinders ecosystem productivity, causing net carbon emission. Numerous studies refer to the challenge of reliably distinguishing rubber plantations from natural forest, using satellite data, due to their similar spectral signatures, even when phenology is incorporated into an analysis. This study presents a novel approach for monitoring the establishment and expansion of rubber plantations in Seima Protection Forest (SPF), Cambodia (1995-2015), by detecting and analyzing the 'shapelet' structure in a Landsat-NDVI time series. This paper introduces a new classification procedure consisting of two steps: (1) an exhaustive-searching algorithm to detect shapelets that represent a period for relatively low NDVI values within an image time series; and (2) a t-test used to determine if NDVI values of detected shapelets are significantly different than their non-shapelet trend, thereby indicating the presence of rubber plantations. Using this approach, historical rubber plantation events were mapped over the twenty-year timespan. The shapelet algorithm produced two types of information: (1) year of rubber plantation establishment; and (2) pre-conversion land-cover type (i.e., agriculture, or natural forest). The overall accuracy of the rubber plantation map for the year of 2015 was 89%. The multi-temporal map products reveal that more than half of the rubber planting activity (57%) took place in 2010 and 2011, following the granting of numerous rubber concessions two years prior. Seventy-three percent of the rubber plantations were converted from natural forest and twenty-three percent were established on non-forest land-cover. The shapelet approach developed here can be used reliably to improve our understanding of the expansion of rubber production beyond Seima Protection Forest of Cambodia, and likely elsewhere in the

  19. Redistribution of the solar radiation and the rain inside of coffee plantations (Arabic Coffea L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaramillo Robledo, Alvaro

    2005-01-01

    The following review presents a series of studies on microclimates of non-shaded and shaded conditions of coffee plantations (Coffea arabica L.) in Colombia. Likewise, The redistribution of solar radiation and the temperature, as well as the energy balance, of the coffee plant and the crop are described. The results on the components of water balance and transport of nutrients within the coffee plantations are reported

  20. Response of ecosystem carbon fluxes to drought events in a poplar plantation in Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie Zhou; Zhiqiang Zhang; Ge Sun; Xianrui Fang; Tonggang Zha; Steve McNulty; Jiquan Chen; Ying Jin; Asko Noormets

    2013-01-01

    Poplar plantations are widely used for timber production and ecological restoration in northern China,a region that experiences frequent droughts and water scarcity. An open-path eddy-covariance (EC)system was used to continuously measure the carbon,water,and energy fluxes in a poplar plantation during the growing season (i.e., April–October)over the period 2006–2008...

  1. Sanitary and nutritional characterization of honeybee colonies in Eucalyptus grandis plantations

    OpenAIRE

    Invernizzi, C.; Santos, E.; García, E.; Daners, G.; Di Landro, R.; Saadoun, A.; Cabrera, C.

    2011-01-01

    In Uruguay, many beekeepers transport their colonies to Eucalyptus grandis plantations at the end of the summer and autumn, obtaining important honey harvests. However, at the end of the flowering period the colonies become extremely weakened undergoing high levels of mortality. Nutritional and health problems could explain the weakening of colonies. In order to find out the causes for this weakening, colonies of the same size were taken to an E. grandis plantation, split up in three groups d...

  2. A guideline for future preservation, management & interpretation of Brownsville Plantation circa 1652 Northampton County, Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Kagawa, Ron M.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis establishes a guideline for the future preservation, management and interpretation of Brownsville Plantation. Brownsville Plantation is located in Northampton County on Virginia's lower Eastern Shore. Brownsville's original 1262 acre parcel of land was first patented in 1652 by English Quakers, John and Ursula Browne. At the time of this research (July, 1995 to March, 1996) the property was held in ownership by The Nature Conservancy's Virginia Coast Reserve. Th...

  3. Carbon Storage and Allocation Pattern in Plant Biomass among Different Forest Plantation Stands in Guangdong, China

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yuanqi; Liu, Zhanfeng; Rao, Xingquan; Wang, Xiaoling; Liang, Chenfei; Lin, Yongbiao; Zhou, Lixia; Cai, Xi-an; Fu, Shenglei

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand how carbon storage and allocation patterns vary among plantation types, we estimated carbon allocation between above- and below-ground compartments in four subtropical plantations and a naturally recovered shrubland (as a control). Results indicated that the carbon storage and allocation pattern varied greatly among forest types and was highly dependent on specific traits of trees and understory vegetation. The fast-growing species, such as Eucalyptus urophylla, accumul...

  4. Rapid conversions and avoided deforestation: examining four decades of industrial plantation expansion in Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaveau, David L A; Sheil, Douglas; Husnayaen; Salim, Mohammad A; Arjasakusuma, Sanjiwana; Ancrenaz, Marc; Pacheco, Pablo; Meijaard, Erik

    2016-09-08

    New plantations can either cause deforestation by replacing natural forests or avoid this by using previously cleared areas. The extent of these two situations is contested in tropical biodiversity hotspots where objective data are limited. Here, we explore delays between deforestation and the establishment of industrial tree plantations on Borneo using satellite imagery. Between 1973 and 2015 an estimated 18.7 Mha of Borneo's old-growth forest were cleared (14.4 Mha and 4.2 Mha in Indonesian and Malaysian Borneo). Industrial plantations expanded by 9.1 Mha (7.8 Mha oil-palm; 1.3 Mha pulpwood). Approximately 7.0 Mha of the total plantation area in 2015 (9.2 Mha) were old-growth forest in 1973, of which 4.5-4.8 Mha (24-26% of Borneo-wide deforestation) were planted within five years of forest clearance (3.7-3.9 Mha oil-palm; 0.8-0.9 Mha pulpwood). This rapid within-five-year conversion has been greater in Malaysia than in Indonesia (57-60% versus 15-16%). In Indonesia, a higher proportion of oil-palm plantations was developed on already cleared degraded lands (a legacy of recurrent forest fires). However, rapid conversion of Indonesian forests to industrial plantations has increased steeply since 2005. We conclude that plantation industries have been the principle driver of deforestation in Malaysian Borneo over the last four decades. In contrast, their role in deforestation in Indonesian Borneo was less marked, but has been growing recently. We note caveats in interpreting these results and highlight the need for greater accountability in plantation development.

  5. Soil Carbon Stocks Decrease following Conversion of Secondary Forests to Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Blécourt, Marleen; Brumme, Rainer; Xu, Jianchu; Corre, Marife D.; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2013-01-01

    Forest-to-rubber plantation conversion is an important land-use change in the tropical region, for which the impacts on soil carbon stocks have hardly been studied. In montane mainland southeast Asia, monoculture rubber plantations cover 1.5 million ha and the conversion from secondary forests to rubber plantations is predicted to cause a fourfold expansion by 2050. Our study, conducted in southern Yunnan province, China, aimed to quantify the changes in soil carbon stocks following the conversion from secondary forests to rubber plantations. We sampled 11 rubber plantations ranging in age from 5 to 46 years and seven secondary forest plots using a space-for-time substitution approach. We found that forest-to-rubber plantation conversion resulted in losses of soil carbon stocks by an average of 37.4±4.7 (SE) Mg C ha−1 in the entire 1.2-m depth over a time period of 46 years, which was equal to 19.3±2.7% of the initial soil carbon stocks in the secondary forests. This decline in soil carbon stocks was much larger than differences between published aboveground carbon stocks of rubber plantations and secondary forests, which range from a loss of 18 Mg C ha−1 to an increase of 8 Mg C ha−1. In the topsoil, carbon stocks declined exponentially with years since deforestation and reached a steady state at around 20 years. Although the IPCC tier 1 method assumes that soil carbon changes from forest-to-rubber plantation conversions are zero, our findings show that they need to be included to avoid errors in estimating overall ecosystem carbon fluxes. PMID:23894456

  6. An Empirical Assessment of Transgene Flow from a Bt Transgenic Poplar Plantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Hu

    Full Text Available To assess the possible impact of transgenic poplar plantations on the ecosystem, we analyzed the frequency and distance of gene flow from a mature male transgenic Populus nigra plantation carrying the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin gene (Bt poplar and the survival of Bt poplar seeds. The resultant Bt poplar seeds occurred at a frequency of ~0.15% at 0 m to ~0.02% at 500 m from the Bt poplar plantation. The germination of Bt poplar seeds diminished within three weeks in the field (germination rate from 68% to 0% compared to 48% after three weeks of storage at 4°C. The survival rate of seedlings in the field was 0% without any treatment but increased to 1.7% under the addition of four treatments (cleaning and trimming, watering, weeding, and covering with plastic film to maintain moisture after being seeded in the field for eight weeks. The results of this study indicate that gene flow originating from the Bt poplar plantation occurred at an extremely low level through pollen or seeds under natural conditions. This study provides first-hand field data on the extent of transgene flow in poplar plantations and offers guidance for the risk assessment of transgenic poplar plantations.

  7. A HYPERSPECTRAL BASED METHOD TO DETECT CANNABIS PLANTATION IN INACCESSIBLE AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Houmi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The increase in drug use worldwide has led to sophisticated illegal planting methods. Most countries depend on helicopters, and local knowledge to identify such illegal plantations. However, remote sensing techniques can provide special advantages for monitoring the extent of illegal drug production. This paper sought to assess the ability of the Satellite remote sensing to detect Cannabis plantations. This was achieved in two stages: 1- Preprocessing of Hyperspectral data EO-1, and testing the capability to collect the spectral signature of Cannabis in different sites of the study area (Morocco from well-known Cannabis plantation fields. 2- Applying the method of Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM based on a specific angle threshold on Hyperion data EO-1 in well-known Cannabis plantation sites, and other sites with negative Cannabis plantation in another study area (Algeria, to avoid any false Cannabis detection using these spectra. This study emphasizes the benefits of using hyperspectral remote sensing data as an effective detection tool for illegal Cannabis plantation in inaccessible areas based on SAM classification method with a maximum angle (radians less than 0.03.

  8. [Population structure of soil arthropod in different age Pinus massoniana plantations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bo; Wu, Fu-zhong; Yang, Wan-qin; Zhang, Jian; Xu, Zhen-feng; Liu, Yang; Gou, Xiao-lin

    2013-04-01

    An investigation was conducted on the population structure of soil arthropod community in the 3-, 8-, 14-, 31-, and 40-years old Pinus massoniana plantations in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River in spring (May) and autumn (October), 2011, aimed to search for the scientific management of the plantation. A total of 4045 soil arthropods were collected, belonging to 57 families. Both the individual density and the taxonomic group number of the soil arthropod community decreased obviously with increasing soil depth, and this trend increased with increasing stand age. The dominant groups and ordinary groups of the soil arthropod community varied greatly with the stand age of P. massoniana plantation, and a significant difference (Parthropod community, and the similarity index of the soil arthropod community was lower. The individual density, taxonomic group number, and diversity of soil arthropod community were the highest in 8-years old P. massoniana plantation, and then, decreased obviously with increasing stand age. It was suggested that the land fertility of the P. massoniana plantations could be degraded with increasing stand age, and it would be appropriate to make artificial regulation and restoration in 8-years old P. massoniana plantation.

  9. Estimations of evapotranspiration in an age sequence of Eucalyptus plantations in subtropical China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfei Liu

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus species are widely planted for reforestation in subtropical China. However, the effects of Eucalyptus plantations on the regional water use remain poorly understood. In an age sequence of 2-, 4- and 6-year-old Eucalyptus plantations, the tree water use and soil evaporation were examined by linking model estimations and field observations. Results showed that annual evapotranspiration of each age sequence Eucalyptus plantations was 876.7, 944.1 and 1000.7 mm, respectively, accounting for 49.81%, 53.64% and 56.86% of the annual rainfall. In addition, annual soil evaporations of 2-, 4- and 6-year-old were 318.6, 336.1, and 248.7 mm of the respective Eucalyptus plantations. Our results demonstrated that Eucalyptus plantations would potentially reduce water availability due to high evapotranspiration in subtropical regions. Sustainable management strategies should be implemented to reduce water consumption in Eucalyptus plantations in the context of future climate change scenarios such as drought and warming.

  10. a Hyperspectral Based Method to Detect Cannabis Plantation in Inaccessible Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houmi, M.; Mohamadi, B.; Balz, T.

    2018-04-01

    The increase in drug use worldwide has led to sophisticated illegal planting methods. Most countries depend on helicopters, and local knowledge to identify such illegal plantations. However, remote sensing techniques can provide special advantages for monitoring the extent of illegal drug production. This paper sought to assess the ability of the Satellite remote sensing to detect Cannabis plantations. This was achieved in two stages: 1- Preprocessing of Hyperspectral data EO-1, and testing the capability to collect the spectral signature of Cannabis in different sites of the study area (Morocco) from well-known Cannabis plantation fields. 2- Applying the method of Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) based on a specific angle threshold on Hyperion data EO-1 in well-known Cannabis plantation sites, and other sites with negative Cannabis plantation in another study area (Algeria), to avoid any false Cannabis detection using these spectra. This study emphasizes the benefits of using hyperspectral remote sensing data as an effective detection tool for illegal Cannabis plantation in inaccessible areas based on SAM classification method with a maximum angle (radians) less than 0.03.

  11. An Approach to Orbital Image Classification for the Assessment of Potato Plantation Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassiliki Terezinha Galvão Boulomytis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the city of Bueno Brandão, South of Minas Gerais State, Brazil, the Watershed of Rio das Antas is located prior to the public water supply and is susceptible to hydro-degradation due to the intensive agricultural activities developed in the area. The potato plantation is the most significant cropping in the city. Because of the possibility of interfering in the preservation areas, mainly the ones surrounding water courses and springs, it is very important to do the assessment of the plantation sites, in order to avoid the risk of water contamination. The procedures adopted by the agro activity farmers generally present the following features: intensive use of agro-chemicals, cropping in places with slopes which are higher than 20%, close to or in permanent preservation areas. The scope of this study was to develop the proper methodology for the assessment of the plantation areas, regarding the short time of procedure, as the period between the plantation and the harvest occurs in six months the furthest. These areas vary year in year out, as the plantation sites often change due to the land degradation. Because of that, geotechnologies are recommended to detect the plantation areas by the use of satellite images and accurate data processing. Considering the availability of LANDSAT medium resolution images, methods for their appropriate classification were approached to provide effective target detection.

  12. Interannual variability of Net Ecosystem CO2 Exchange and its component fluxes in a subalpine Mediterranean ecosystem (SE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamizo, Sonia; Serrano-Ortiz, Penélope; Sánchez-Cañete, Enrique P.; Domingo, Francisco; Arnau-Rosalén, Eva; Oyonarte, Cecilio; Pérez-Priego, Óscar; López-Ballesteros, Ana; Kowalski, Andrew S.

    2015-04-01

    Recent decades under climate change have seen increasing interest in quantifying the carbon (C) balance of different terrestrial ecosystems, and their behavior as sources or sinks of C. Both CO2 exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere and identification of its drivers are key to understanding land-surface feedbacks to climate change. The eddy covariance (EC) technique allows measurements of net ecosystem C exchange (NEE) from short to long time scales. In addition, flux partitioning models can extract the components of net CO2 fluxes, including both biological processes of photosynthesis or gross primary production (GPP) and respiration (Reco), and also abiotic drivers like subsoil CO2 ventilation (VE), which is of particular relevance in semiarid environments. The importance of abiotic processes together with the strong interannual variability of precipitation, which strongly affects CO2 fluxes, complicates the accurate characterization of the C balance in semiarid landscapes. In this study, we examine 10 years of interannual variability of NEE and its components at a subalpine karstic plateau, El Llano de los Juanes, in the Sierra de Gádor (Almería, SE Spain). Results show annual NEE ranging from 55 g C m-2 (net emission) to -54 g C m-2 (net uptake). Among C flux components, GPP was the greatest contributing 42-57% of summed component magnitudes, while contributions by Reco and VE ranged from 27 to 46% and from 3 to 18%, respectively. Annual precipitation during the studied period exhibited high interannual variability, ranging from 210 mm to 1374 mm. Annual precipitation explained 50% of the variance in Reco, 59% of that in GPP, and 56% for VE. While Reco and GPP were positively correlated with annual precipitation (correlation coefficient, R, of 0.71 and 0.77, respectively), VE showed negative correlation with this driver (R = -0.74). During the driest year (2004-2005), annual GPP and Reco reached their lowest values, while contribution of

  13. Ecohydrology of Lodgepole Pine Forests: Connecting Transpiration to Subsurface Flow Paths and Storage within a Subalpine Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, A.; Harpold, A. A.; Barnard, H. R.

    2011-12-01

    The hydrologic cycle plays a central role in regulating ecosystem structure and function. Linked studies of both subsurface and aboveground processes are needed to improve understanding of ecosystem changes that could result from climate change and disturbance in Colorado's subalpine forests. Here, we present data from plots dominated by lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) at the Niwot Ridge LTER site on the Colorado Front Range that improves the process-level understanding of the source and fate of water between subsurface storage and plant uptake. This study utilized event-based sampling during the 2011 growing season to investigate a paradox between water sources and rooting depth in lodgepole pine. Findings from Niwot Ridge have shown that lodgepole, typically believed to be a shallow-rooted species, appear to be strongly dependent on water from snowmelt for the entire growing season. These results suggested that conifer species were accessing water from deeper in the soil than summer monsoon rain typically penetrated. In our study, the relationship between precipitation event size and depth of infiltration on a seasonal and event basis, the effective rooting depth of lodgepole pine, and hysteretic responses of transpiration to soil moisture over a growing season were examined using measurements of tree physiological processes (sap flux and water stress) and hydrological parameters (precipitation, soil moisture) as well as stable water isotope composition of xylem water, mobile and immobile soil water, snow, precipitation, and stream water. Analysis of data shows that soil moisture in deep layers (60 and 70 cm) responds to large summer rain events of 0.7 mm and greater, and that lodgepole sap flux increases by 15-30% within 24 hours of monsoon events and decreases over 72 hours or until subsequent rain. Water isotope analysis will further elucidate the source and event response of these trees. This research helps us understand whether processes known to occur in

  14. Community-specific biogeochemical responses to atmospheric nitrogen deposition in subalpine meadow ecosystems of the Cascade Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poinsatte, J. P.; Rochefort, R.; Evans, R. D.

    2014-12-01

    Elevated anthropogenic nitrogen (N) emissions result in higher rates of atmospheric N deposition (Ndep) that can saturate sensitive ecosystems. Consequences of increased Ndep include higher emissions of greenhouse gases, eutrophication of watersheds, and deterioration of vegetation communities. Most of the annual N deposition at higher elevations in the Cascades is stored in snowpack until spring snowmelt when it is released as a pulse that can be assimilated by plant and microbial communities, or lost as gaseous emissions or leachate. The relative magnitude of these fluxes is unknown, particularly with accelerated rates of snowpack loss due to climate change. We quantified storage of Ndep in winter snowpack and determined impacts of Ndep on biogeochemical processes in a lush-herbaceous community characterized by Valeriana sitchensis and Lupinus latifolius, a heath-shrub community characterized by Phyllodoce empetriformis and Cassiope mertensiana, and a wet-sedge community dominated by Carex nigricans. These communities were selected to represent early, mid, and late snowmelt vegetation regimes prevalent throughout the Cascades. Ammonium (NH4+) was the dominant form of Ndep in winter snowpack and Ndep rates were higher than anticipated based on nearby National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) measurements. Vegetation N uptake was the dominant N sink in the ecosystem, with the highest growing season uptake occurring in the lush-herbaceous community, while soil N leaching was the dominant N loss, with the lush-herbaceous also having the highest rates. Microbial biomass N fluctuated substantially across the growing season, with high biomass N immediately after snowmelt and again 30 days following snow release. Soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions peaked 30 days following snowmelt for all three communities and were greatest in the wet sedge community. These results indicate that subalpine communities have unique responses to Ndep that vary throughout the growing

  15. Assessment of weeds as alternative hosts of plant-parasitic nematodes in coffee plantations in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Walter Peraza-Padilla; Martha Orozco-Aceves

    2018-01-01

    There is potential for weeds to be alternative hosts of plant-parasitic nematodes (PPN), but a methodology that assesses the phytosanitary risk derived from the presence of weeds in plantations is not available. This research was conducted in order to determine if the presence of weeds in coffee plantations (organic and conventional) represented a phytosanitary risk due to their role as alternative hosts of PPN. The research was developed into two plantation located in Aserrí, San José, Costa...

  16. Uso dello spazio da parte dello scoiattolo comune (Sciurus vulgaris in bosco di conifere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Adamo

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Nell?ambito di un progetto di ricerca sull?ecologia dello scoiattolo comune in boschi di conifere delle Alpi, abbiamo avviato uno studio con la radiotelemetria per indagare i fattori che influiscono sull?uso dello spazio da parte degli animali. I risultati riportati nel presente lavoro si riferiscono a due anni successivi caratterizzati da una diversa disponibilità alimentare. L?area di studio si trovava nel Parco Nazionale del Gran Paradiso, in Val di Rhemes, all?interno di una pecceta subalpina (Picea abies 85%, Larix decidua 11%, alberi morti 4%. La produzione energetica del bosco (semi delle conifere è stata valutata moltiplicando il n. di piante per ettaro x il n. medio di coni prodotti (contati su 60 alberi campione x il n. medio di semi per cono x il peso medio dei semi, trasformando poi la biomassa in Mj. Le catture sono state effettuate tre volte l?anno nel 2001 e 2002 con 30 trappole incruente Tomahawk tipo 201. Diciotto scoiattoli nel 2001 e 13 nel 2002 sono stati dotati di radiocollare (PD-2C Holohil Systems Ltd. e seguiti in estate e autunno. Sono stati calcolati i seguenti parametri: home range MCP 100%, MCP 95% (animali con singole escursioni, 100% Cluster-based (animali che usavano differenti aree di attività; stime delle core-area mono e multinucleari effettuate con la tecnica della Cluster Analysis 85%; sovrapposizione delle core-area. Nel 2001, all?inizio dell?estate, 4 maschi su 8 e 7 femmine su 8 sono emigrati nella valle adiacente o a quote più basse. Nel 2002, tutti gli individui sono rimasti residenti. La dimensione media degli home range stagionali nel 2001 è stata di 83,30 ± 48,72 ha (n = 30 contro 31,04 ± 16,65 ha (n = 19 nel 2002, la media delle core-area è stata 18,18 ± 17,74 ha nel 2001 e 9,36 ± 5,40 ha in 2002 (Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA: home range H = 22,6; g.l. = 1, P < 0,0001; core-area H = 4,55, g.l. = 1, P = 0,033. La sovrapposizione delle core-area maschio/femmina e femmina/maschio

  17. Study of influence of 2.4 GHz electromagnetic waves on electrophysical properties of coniferous trees wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdurahimov, Nursulton; Lagunov, Alexey; Melehov, Vladimir

    2017-09-01

    Climate change has a significant impact on changing weather conditions in the Arctic. Wood is a traditional building material in the North of Russia. Supports of communication lines are made of wood. Dry wood is a solid dielectric with a low conductivity. At the same time it is porous material having high hygroscopicity. The presence of moisture leads to wood rotting. To prevent rotting of a support it needs to be impregnated with antiseptics. A tree dried by means of convection drying cannot provide required porosity of wood for impregnation. Our studies of electrophysical properties of coniferous species showed that microwave drying of wood increases the porosity of the wood. Wood dried in this way is easily impregnated with antiseptics. Thorough wood drying requires creating optimal conditions in a microwave oven. During the drying process in a chamber there is a resonant phenomenon. These phenomena depend on electro-physical properties of the material placed in the chamber. Dielectric constant of wood has the most influence. A resonator method to determine the dielectric constant of the wood was used. The values of permittivity for the spruce and pine samples were determined. The measured value of the dielectric constant of wood was used to provide optimal matching of the generator with the resonator in a wood-drying resonator type microwave chamber, and to maintain it in the process of wood drying. It resulted in obtaining the samples with a higher permeability of wood in radial and longitudinal direction. This creates favorable conditions for wood impregnation with antiseptics and flame retardants. Timber dried by means of electromagnetic waves in the 2.4 GHz band has a deeper protective layer. The support made of such wood will serve longer as supports of communication lines.

  18. [Dynamics of total organic carbon (TOC) in hydrological processes in coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest of Dinghushan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Guangcai; Zhou, Guoyi; Zhang, Deqiang; Wang, Xu; Chu, Guowei; Liu, Yan

    2005-09-01

    The total flux and concentration of total organic carbon (TOC) in hydrological processes in coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest of Dinghushan were measured from July 2002 to July 2003. The results showed that the TOC input by precipitation was 41.80 kg x hm(-2) x yr(-1), while its output by surface runoff and groundwater (soil solution at 50 cm depth) was 17.54 and 1.80 kg x hm(-2) x yr(-1), respectively. The difference between input and output was 22.46 kg x hm(-2) x yr(-1), indicating that the ecosystem TOC was in positive balance. The monthly variation of TOC flux in hydrological processes was very similar to that in precipitation. The mean TOC concentration in precipitation was 3.64 mg x L(-1), while that in throughfall and stemflow increased 6.10 and 7.39 times after rain passed through the tree canopies and barks. The mean TOC concentration in surface runoff and in soil solution at 25 and 50 cm depths was 12.72, 7.905 and 3.06 mg x L(-1), respectively. The monthly TOC concentration in throughfall and stemflow had a similar changing tendency, showing an increase at the beginning of growth season (March), a decrease after September, and a little increase in December. The TOC concentration in runoff was much higher during high precipitation months. No obvious monthly variation was observed in soil solution TOC concentration (25 and 50 cm below the surface). Stemflow TOC concentration differed greatly between different tree species. The TOC concentration in precipitation, throughfall, and soil solution (25 and 50 cm depths) decreased with increasing precipitation, and no significant relationship existed between the TOC concentrations in stemflow, surface runoff and precipitation. The TOC concentrations in the hydrological processes fluctuated with precipitation intensity, except for that in stemflow and soil solutions.

  19. Spatial and Temporal Variabilities of Solar and Longwave Radiation Fluxes below a Coniferous Forest in the French Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicart, J. E.; Ramseyer, V.; Lejeune, Y.; Essery, R.; Webster, C.; Rutter, N.

    2017-12-01

    At high altitudes and latitudes, snow has a large influence on hydrological processes. Large fractions of these regions are covered by forests, which have a strong influence on snow accumulation and melting processes. Trees absorb a large part of the incoming shortwave radiation and this heat load is mostly dissipated as longwave radiation. Trees shelter the snow surface from wind, so sub-canopy snowmelt depends mainly on the radiative fluxes: vegetation attenuates the transmission of shortwave radiation but enhances longwave irradiance to the surface. An array of 13 pyranometers and 11 pyrgeometers was deployed on the snow surface below a coniferous forest at the CEN-MeteoFrance Col de Porte station in the French Alps (1325 m asl) during the 2017 winter in order to investigate spatial and temporal variabilities of solar and infrared irradiances in different meteorological conditions. Sky view factors measured with hemispherical photographs at each radiometer location were in a narrow range from 0.2 to 0.3. The temperature of the vegetation was measured with IR thermocouples and an IR camera. In clear sky conditions, the attenuation of solar radiation by the canopy reached 96% and its spatial variability exceeded 100 W m-2. Longwave irradiance varied by 30 W m-2 from dense canopy to gap areas. In overcast conditions, the spatial variabilities of solar and infrared irradiances were reduced and remained closely related to the sky view factor. A simple radiative model taking into account the penetration through the canopy of the direct and diffuse solar radiation, and isotropic infrared emission of the vegetation as a blackbody emitter, accurately reproduced the dynamics of the radiation fluxes at the snow surface. Model results show that solar transmissivity of the canopy in overcast conditions is an excellent proxy of the sky view factor and the emitting temperature of the vegetation remained close to the air temperature in this typically dense Alpine forest.

  20. Soil and vegetation changes after clear-felling coniferous forests: effects of varying removal of logging residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Bengt.

    1995-01-01

    Effects of the intensity of logging residue harvesting on soil nutrient status and ground vegetation cover were examined over a 16-year period in two series of field experiments in Sweden. Short-term effects of slash harvesting and stump removal on soil water chemistry were studied after clear-felling a Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stand in SW Sweden. Soil water concentrations of NH4 + , and NO 3 - and K + were lower shortly after whole-tree harvesting (i.e. stem and slash harvesting) than shortly after conventional stem-only harvesting or complete tree harvesting (i.e. stem, slash and stump removal). However, 5 years later there were no longer differences in nutrient concentrations detected between treatments, and nutrient levels approached those normally found in drainage water from forest land. Similar studies focussed on long-term (16 years) effects were conducted on four coniferous forest sites in Sweden, two in north and the other two in the south. In each region one site was situated in a pure Scots pine stand (Pinus sylvestris L.) and the other in a pure Norway spruce stand. In general, the intensity of slash harvesting had no effect on the total pools of nitrogen or carbon in the soil. Furthermore, this study showed experimentally that the harvesting of logging residues results in long-term soil acidification and depletions of exchangeable base cations, manganese and zinc pools, which lead in turn to a reduction in base saturation levels. A major implication for practical forestry was that guidelines and recommendations concerning the large-scale utilization of logging residues should be based more on the nutritional and soil acidifying consequences of this practice than on its potential effect on soil organic matter storage. It would also be possible to mitigate the detrimental effects that slash harvesting has on site conditions by applying wood-ash or other nutrients in inorganic form. 53 refs, 4 figs, 4 tabs

  1. Soil and vegetation changes after clear-felling coniferous forests: effects of varying removal of logging residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Bengt

    1995-11-01

    Effects of the intensity of logging residue harvesting on soil nutrient status and ground vegetation cover were examined over a 16-year period in two series of field experiments in Sweden. Short-term effects of slash harvesting and stump removal on soil water chemistry were studied after clear-felling a Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stand in SW Sweden. Soil water concentrations of NH4{sup +}, and NO{sub 3}{sup -} and K{sup +} were lower shortly after whole-tree harvesting (i.e. stem and slash harvesting) than shortly after conventional stem-only harvesting or complete tree harvesting (i.e. stem, slash and stump removal). However, 5 years later there were no longer differences in nutrient concentrations detected between treatments, and nutrient levels approached those normally found in drainage water from forest land. Similar studies focussed on long-term (16 years) effects were conducted on four coniferous forest sites in Sweden, two in north and the other two in the south. In each region one site was situated in a pure Scots pine stand (Pinus sylvestris L.) and the other in a pure Norway spruce stand. In general, the intensity of slash harvesting had no effect on the total pools of nitrogen or carbon in the soil. Furthermore, this study showed experimentally that the harvesting of logging residues results in long-term soil acidification and depletions of exchangeable base cations, manganese and zinc pools, which lead in turn to a reduction in base saturation levels. A major implication for practical forestry was that guidelines and recommendations concerning the large-scale utilization of logging residues should be based more on the nutritional and soil acidifying consequences of this practice than on its potential effect on soil organic matter storage. It would also be possible to mitigate the detrimental effects that slash harvesting has on site conditions by applying wood-ash or other nutrients in inorganic form. 53 refs, 4 figs, 4 tabs

  2. The influence of coniferous canopies on understorey vegetation and soils in mountain forests of the northern Calcareous Alps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewald, Joerg

    2000-01-01

    Compositional and edaphic gradients were studied in montane forests of the Bavarian Alps (Germany), in which natural mixed deciduous-coniferous tree layers have been altered by past management in favour of Picea abies. Data on species composition and ecological factors were collected in a stratified random sample of 84 quadrats comprising a gradient from pure Picea to pure Fagus sylvatica stands. Data about the understorey composition were subjected to indirect (DCA) and direct gradient analysis (RDA) with the proportion of Picea in the canopy as a constraining variable. Three principal components of a matrix containing seven descriptors of mineral soil, relief and tree layer cover were included as covariables describing the variability of primary ecological factors. Gradients of organic topsoil morphology and chemistry were extracted correspondingly. Responses of individual species, species group and topsoil attributes were studied by simple and partial correlation analysis. Mosses were significantly more abundant and diverse under Picea stands. Few graminoid and herb species were partially associated with Picea, and total understorey richness and cover did not differ systematically by stand type. No relationship between tree layer and understorey diversity was detected at the studied scale. Juvenile Fagus sylvatica was the only woody species significantly less abundant under Picea. In the topsoil lower base saturation, lower pH and larger C/N ratios in the litter layer were partially attributable to the proportion of Picea, only for base saturation a relationship was detected in greater soil depth also. The frequency of broad humus form types did not differ by tree species, nor was overall depth of organic forest floor attributable to canopy composition

  3. Modeling the early-phase redistribution of radiocesium fallouts in an evergreen coniferous forest after Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calmon, P.; Gonze, M.-A.; Mourlon, Ch.

    2015-10-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident, the scientific community gained numerous data on the transfer of radiocesium in European forest ecosystems, including information regarding the short-term redistribution of atmospheric fallout onto forest canopies. In the course of international programs, the French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) developed a forest model, named TREE4 (Transfer of Radionuclides and External Exposure in FORest systems), 15 years ago. Recently published papers on a Japanese evergreen coniferous forest contaminated by Fukushima radiocesium fallout provide interesting and quantitative data on radioactive mass fluxes measured within the forest in the months following the accident. The present study determined whether the approach adopted in the TREE4 model provides satisfactory results for Japanese forests or whether it requires adjustments. This study focused on the interception of airborne radiocesium by forest canopy, and the subsequent transfer to the forest floor through processes such as litterfall, throughfall, and stemflow, in the months following the accident. We demonstrated that TREE4 quite satisfactorily predicted the interception fraction (20%) and the canopy-to-soil transfer (70% of the total deposit in 5 months) in the Tochigi forest. This dynamics was similar to that observed in the Höglwald spruce forest. However, the unexpectedly high contribution of litterfall (31% in 5 months) in the Tochigi forest could not be reproduced in our simulations (2.5%). Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed; and sensitivity of the results to uncertainty in deposition conditions was analyzed. - Highlights: • Transfer of radiocesium atmospheric fallout in evergreen forests was modeled. • The model was tested using observations from Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents. • Model predictions of canopy interception and depuration agree with measurements. • Unexpectedly high contribution of litterfall for the

  4. Improving winter leaf area index estimation in evergreen coniferous forests and its significance in carbon and water fluxes modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R.; Chen, J. M.; Luo, X.

    2016-12-01

    Modeling of carbon and water fluxes at the continental and global scales requires remotely sensed LAI as inputs. For evergreen coniferous forests (ENF), severely underestimated winter LAI has been one of the issues for mostly available remote sensing products, which could cause negative bias in the modeling of Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and evapotranspiration (ET). Unlike deciduous trees which shed all the leaves in winter, conifers retains part of their needles and the proportion of the retained needles depends on the needle longevity. In this work, the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) was used to model GPP and ET at eight FLUXNET Canada ENF sites. Two sets of LAI were used as the model inputs: the 250m 10-day University of Toronto (U of T) LAI product Version 2 and the corrected LAI based on the U of T LAI product and the needle longevity of the corresponding tree species at individual sites. Validating model daily GPP (gC/m2) against site measurements, the mean RMSE over eight sites decreases from 1.85 to 1.15, and the bias changes from -0.99 to -0.19. For daily ET (mm), mean RMSE decreases from 0.63 to 0.33, and the bias changes from -0.31 to -0.16. Most of the improvements occur in the beginning and at the end of the growing season when there is large correction of LAI and meanwhile temperature is still suitable for photosynthesis and transpiration. For the dormant season, the improvement in ET simulation mostly comes from the increased interception of precipitation brought by the elevated LAI during that time. The results indicate that model performance can be improved by the application the corrected LAI. Improving the winter RS LAI can make a large impact on land surface carbon and energy budget.

  5. Evaluation of the diversity of Scolitids (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in the forest plantations of the central zone of the Ecuadorian littoral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malena Martínez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The species of Scolytinae subfamily have a worldwide distribution, and are found mainly in the Neo-tropic regions. They usually dominate the communities of wood borer insects. The aim of the present study was to determine the diversity among Scolytinae species associated with balsa, teak, rubber and gamhar plantations located in the humid tropical zone of the Ecuadorian littoral. In each plantation seven flight interception traps containing an ethanol / gel mixture were installed, with a collection frequency of 15 days for three months in the dry period. A total of 1437 specimens were collected, represented by Xyleborini, Cryphalini, Corthylini and Ipini tribes. In the four plantations, 18 species of Scolitids were collected, of which 16 were recorded in the balsa plantation, while in the other plantations 10 to 12 species were found. The most abundant Scolitids were Hypothenemus spp., Corthylus spp., Xyleborus affinis, Xyleborinus bicornatulus and Premnobium cavipennis. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index was higher in the balsa culture (H’= 2.37 and lower in Teak (H’= 1.57. The Jaccard similarity index was higher among the teak and rubber plantations (Cj = 0.9090 while the balsa plantation obtained less similarity with respect to the other three plantations. The greatest diversity of Scolitids was recorded in the balsa plantation, which is a native species, unlike the other forest species, which are exotic, indicating that the diversity would be influenced by the host tree and the location where they are found.

  6. Matching species and sites for biomass plantations in Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, V.D.; Takahashi, P.K.; Singh, D.; Khan, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    Two methods for matching species and sites for biomass plantations in Hawaii were utilized to estimate biomass yields and production costs for Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna, and Leucaena leucocephala. The 'analogous site' method matches the environmental conditions, including soil, rainfall, temperature, and insolation parameters, of well-characterized experimental biomass research sites which produce known yields of these species with similar land areas, or with those areas that can be made similar through soil amendments and improvement, where no field trials exist. The result is the identification of sites with biomass growth, yield, and cost performances which are analogous to the experimental site. The 'regression model' method relates known site-specific biomass productivity with environmental and soil conditions and management practices developed from sites featuring widely different and distinct environmental conditions. Equations then enable the prediction of biomass performance and production costs for each species at any location statewide. The analytical results, using a geographical information system database and the above methods, are presented in map form to expedite the site selection process which indicates expected biomass yield and cost for several fast-growing tropical hardwood species in Hawaii

  7. Planning a prescribed burn at Tectonagrandis Linn F. plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Pedro Ramos Rodríguez

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, the frequency and severity of forest fires in the tropical region and in other parts of the world, have increased. The accumulation of forest fuel on the forest floor over the years dramatically increases the risk of fire. One of the alternatives to reduce this risk or the potential for damages is to reduce the amount of forest fuel using prescribed burns. This work had the objective of planning a prescribed burning at a Tectonagrandis plantation in Jipijapa, Manabí, Ecuador. The amount of woody dead fuel was determined using the planar intersections method. The amount of miscellaneous and green fuels was evaluated by collecting the material in boxes of 30 x 30 cm and in a plot of 1 m2, respectively, placing samples in stoves to remove moisture. Fire behavior was estimated by calculating parameters such as fire intensity, flame length and lethal scorch height. The total amount of forest fuel estimated was 11.17 t ha-1. The prescriptions obtained for the optimal intervals of the fire behavior parameters presented values of fire intensity between 16.43 and 33.89 kcal m-1 s-1; flame length between 0.54 and 0.76 m and lethal scorch height between 1.38 and 4.20 m. These values sufficiently argue the application of fire in the stand of T. grandis without danger to the trees.

  8. Modelling the productivity of Anatolian black pine plantations in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şükrü Teoman Güner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the relationships between height growth (site index of Anatolian black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold. subsp. pallasina (Lamb. Holmboe and site factors of the plantation areas in Turkey. Data were collected from 118 sample plots by taking into consideration the variations of aspect, altitude, slope position, slope degree and site class. A representative tree for the productivity and soil samples were taken at each sample plot. Some chemical and physical properties of soil samples were determined in the laboratory. The relationships between site index values of the trees and site factors including parent material, soil, climate and topography were examined by using correlation, stepwise regression and regression tree analysis. Significant linear relations were found between site index of black pine and site factors being altitude, slope degree, slope position, annual rainfall, precipitation amount in the most drought month, solum depth and bedrock including granite, mica schist and dacite. Explanation variance percentage on the site index of black pine was found 54.4% by using regression tree analysis whereas explained variance become 34.7% by stepwise regression analysis.

  9. Dissipation of the fungicide hexaconazole in oil palm plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maznah, Zainol; Halimah, Muhamad; Ismail, Sahid; Idris, Abu Seman

    2015-12-01

    Hexaconazole is a potential fungicide to be used in the oil palm plantation for controlling the basal stem root (BSR) disease caused by Ganoderma boninense. Therefore, the dissipation rate of hexaconazole in an oil palm agroecosystem under field conditions was studied. Two experimental plots were treated with hexaconazole at the recommended dosage of 4.5 g a.i. palm(-1) (active ingredient) and at double the recommended dosage (9.0 g a.i. palm(-1)), whilst one plot was untreated as control. The residue of hexaconazole was detected in soil samples in the range of 2.74 to 0.78 and 7.13 to 1.66 mg kg(-1) at the recommended and double recommended dosage plots, respectively. An initial relatively rapid dissipation rate of hexaconazole residues occurred but reduced with time. The dissipation of hexaconazole in soil was described using first-order kinetics with the value of coefficient regression (r (2) > 0.8). The results indicated that hexaconazole has moderate persistence in the soil and the half-life was found to be 69.3 and 86.6 days in the recommended and double recommended dosage plot, respectively. The results obtained highlight that downward movement of hexaconazole was led by preferential flow as shown in image analysis. It can be concluded that varying soil conditions, environmental factors, and pesticide chemical properties of hexaconazole has a significant impact on dissipation of hexaconazole in soil under humid conditions.

  10. Antimicrobial activity of Streptomyces spp. Isolates from vegetable plantation soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isnaeni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen Streptomyces isolates were isolated from soil in some different location on vegetable plantation at agriculture standard condition. The isolates were assessed for their antibacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB ATCC H37RV and mycobacterial which isolated from Dr. Soetomo Hospital patients in Surabaya. The International Streptomyces Project 4 (ISP4 and Middlebrook 7H9 (MB7H9 wwere used as growth or fermentation medium. The screening of inhibition activity was performed using turbidimetry and spot-test on agar medium. Results shown that 33.3% of the isolates (5 isolates have anti-mycobacterial activities. The first line anti tuberculosis drug rifampicin, (RIF, ethambutol (EMB, isoniazid (INH, and pyrazinamide (PZA were used as standards or positive controls with concentration 20 ppm. Optical density of crude fermentation broth concentrated from five isolates relatively lower than five anti-tuberculosis drug activity standard, although their activities against some microbial were similar to the standard at spot-test. The most efficient isolate shown anti-mycobacterial activity was Streptomyces B10 which identified as Streptomyces violaceousniger. In addition, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME profile of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry chromatogram of each isolates were studied and compared to Streptomyces spp. Keywords: Anti-mycobacterial, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Streptomyces spp.

  11. SOCIAL EXCLUSION: GUATEMALAN YOUTH WITHIN COFFEE PLANTATIONS AT SOCONUSCO CHIAPAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Itzel Ramírez-Ramos

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mexico's southern border is the entry point for different migratory flows, mainly from Central America, these flows have taken place under socioeconomic contexts and conditions which demand the constant livelihood strategies pursuit from people. This paper is focused on the agricultural laborers from Guatemalan origin, within coffee plantation farms at the Soconusco, Chiapas. The main objective is arguing how the lack of access -or restricted access- to education and the precarious inclusion to work and migration, have positioned youth population of migrant laborers, from Guatemalan origin, into social processes of social exclusion and vulnerability. It is concluded that conditions generated from these processes, preclude the generation of different work expectations, the access to a higher quality of life and the social mobility in a men and woman development crucial stage. The exposed information comes from quantitative and qualitative research methods. A nonrandom survey was applied to 129 families; 20 semi-structured interviews for children and adolescents within farms and 25 to actors involved in the recognition and performance of the human rights of migrant children in the southern Mexican border area.

  12. PLANTATION MANAGEMENT AND BAMBOO RESOURCE ECONOMICS IN CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidel Antonio Troya Mera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bamboos constitute a very important and versatile resource worldwide. A lot of Asian, African and South American people rely on bamboo products for their housing and farming tools. Meanwhile, the shoots of these plants are regarded as vegetables in East and South-East Asian nations. China has the greatest bamboo forest area (extension and the largest number of bamboo species (more than 590 species, many of them with significant economic importance, being Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis, the most important bamboo species in China, due to its usage not only as timber but also for food. China has paid unprecedented attention in recent decades to bamboo forest management. The vast economic profits derived from silviculture have contributed much to rural development and poverty alleviation. Bamboo industry has become the pillar of economy in mountainous areas. Besides being a tool for poverty alleviation in rural areas, bamboo plantations are also a significant carbon sink and a key option to mitigate land degradation. This paper highlights such aspects as bamboo silviculture (fertilization, pruning, thinning, irrigation, shoot and timber harvesting its domestic and international applications (timber, plywood, food, paper, fuel, housing, etc. in daily life, and  its current role in Chinese industry and economy, without particular reference to any of its species.

  13. From Uas Data Acquisition to Actionable Information - how AN End-To Solution Helps Oil Palm Plantation Operators to Perform a More Sustainable Plantation Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, C.; Weise, C.; Koch, T.; Pauly, K.

    2016-06-01

    Palm oil represents the most efficient oilseed crop in the world but the production of palm oil involves plantation operations in one of the most fragile environments - the tropical lowlands. Deforestation, the drying-out of swampy lowlands and chemical fertilizers lead to environmental problems that are putting pressure on this industry. Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) together with latest photogrammetric processing and image analysis capabilities represent an emerging technology that was identified to be suitable to optimize oil palm plantation operations. This paper focuses on two key elements of a UAS-based oil palm monitoring system. The first is the accuracy of the acquired data that is necessary to achieve meaningful results in later analysis steps. High performance GNSS technology was utilized to achieve those accuracies while decreasing the demand for cost-intensive GCP measurements. The second key topic is the analysis of the resulting data in order to optimize plantation operations. By automatically extracting information on a block level as well as on a single-tree level, operators can utilize the developed application to increase their productivity. The research results describe how operators can successfully make use of a UAS-based solution together with the developed software solution to improve their efficiency in oil palm plantation management.

  14. Managing succession in conifer plantations: converting young red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) plantations to native forest types by thinning and underplantiing

    Science.gov (United States)

    William C. Parker; Ken A. Elliott; Daniel C. Dey; Eric Boysen; Steven G. Newmaster

    2001-01-01

    The effects of thinning on growth and survival of white pine (Pinus strobus L.), white ash (Fraxinus americana L.), and red oak (Quercus rubra L.), and understory plant diversity were examined in a young red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) plantation. Five years after thinning, seedling diameter,...

  15. FROM UAS DATA ACQUISITION TO ACTIONABLE INFORMATION – HOW AN END-TO-END SOLUTION HELPS OIL PALM PLANTATION OPERATORS TO PERFORM A MORE SUSTAINABLE PLANTATION MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hoffmann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil represents the most efficient oilseed crop in the world but the production of palm oil involves plantation operations in one of the most fragile environments - the tropical lowlands. Deforestation, the drying-out of swampy lowlands and chemical fertilizers lead to environmental problems that are putting pressure on this industry. Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS together with latest photogrammetric processing and image analysis capabilities represent an emerging technology that was identified to be suitable to optimize oil palm plantation operations. This paper focuses on two key elements of a UAS-based oil palm monitoring system. The first is the accuracy of the acquired data that is necessary to achieve meaningful results in later analysis steps. High performance GNSS technology was utilized to achieve those accuracies while decreasing the demand for cost-intensive GCP measurements. The second key topic is the analysis of the resulting data in order to optimize plantation operations. By automatically extracting information on a block level as well as on a single-tree level, operators can utilize the developed application to increase their productivity. The research results describe how operators can successfully make use of a UAS-based solution together with the developed software solution to improve their efficiency in oil palm plantation management.

  16. PROBLEMATIC IN THE PROCESSES OF PRODUCTION IN RUBBER PLANTATIONS (Hevea brasiliensis Muell Arg. IN TABASCO, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyra Izquierdo-Bautista

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify some of the basic problems presented in the production process in rubber plantations Hevea brasiliensis Muell Arg. in Tabasco, Mexico. The applied diagnosis technique was the randomized survey for 68 producers in plantations under rubber production. ANOVA and Duncan analyses were done (P< 0.05. Plantations under production were between 7 to 46 years old. The 24% of these are considered as young plantations (7 to 18 years old, 34% mature (19 to 30 years old, and 12% old growth (31 to 46 years old, according to the level of latex production. Latex collection is realized by 85% men and 15% women. An important detected problem is the incidence of insects and diseases over the 82% of the plantations. In Tabasco State, two types of raw material are generated: clot (solid and latex (liquid. The tapping systems are ½ S d/1 6d/7 (one cuts in an average spiral with daily tapping over the 49% of the plantations, and the system ½ S d/2 6d/7, cuts in semi-spirals with alternating tapping over 51% of the plantations. The producers that practiced daily tapped obtained yields of 1.588 kg per ha/yr of dry rubber, in the other hand, those that tapped every other day obtained a yield of 1.647 kg per ha/year of dry rubber. The yield in daily tapping was 3.54% lower than the system with alternating tapping. The income obtained by the producers of fresh rubber varied from $8.750, 00 (810, 2 USD ha/year to $27.870, 00 (2.580 USD ha/year in 2006 and the production of latex from $5.955, 00 (551, 4 USD to 16.568,00 (1.534 USD per ha/year.

  17. Long-term tobacco plantation induces soil acidification and soil base cation loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuting; He, Xinhua; Liang, Hong; Zhao, Jian; Zhang, Yueqiang; Xu, Chen; Shi, Xiaojun

    2016-03-01

    Changes in soil exchangeable cations relative to soil acidification are less studied particularly under long-term cash crop plantation. This study investigated soil acidification in an Ali-Periudic Argosols after 10-year (2002-2012) long-term continuous tobacco plantation. Soils were respectively sampled at 1933 and 2143 sites in 2002 and 2012 (also 647 tobacco plants), from seven tobacco plantation counties in the Chongqing Municipal City, southwest China. After 10-year continuous tobacco plantation, a substantial acidification was evidenced by an average decrease of 0.20 soil pH unit with a substantial increase of soil sites toward the acidic status, especially those pH ranging from 4.5 to 5.5, whereas 1.93 kmol H(+) production ha(-1) year(-1) was mostly derived from nitrogen (N) fertilizer input and plant N uptake output. After 1 decade, an average decrease of 27.6 % total exchangeable base cations or of 0.20 pH unit occurred in all seven tobacco plantation counties. Meanwhile, for one unit pH decrease, 40.3 and 28.3 mmol base cations kg(-1) soil were consumed in 2002 and 2012, respectively. Furthermore, the aboveground tobacco biomass harvest removed 339.23 kg base cations ha(-1) year(-1) from soil, which was 7.57 times higher than the anions removal, leading to a 12.52 kmol H(+) production ha(-1) year(-1) as the main reason inducing soil acidification. Overall, our results showed that long-term tobacco plantation not only stimulated soil acidification but also decreased soil acid-buffering capacity, resulting in negative effects on sustainable soil uses. On the other hand, our results addressed the importance of a continuous monitoring of soil pH changes in tobacco plantation sites, which would enhance our understanding of soil fertility of health in this region.

  18. Dynamics of radiation damage and repair processes in coniferous stands in a 10-km region of the Chernobyl nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozubov, G.M.; Taskaev, A.I.

    1995-01-01

    Properties of morphogenesis, growth dynamics, anatomy and ultrastructure of wood and needle, reproductive processes in coniferous plants were studied under different level of radiation effect in the 10-km zone in 1986-1992. It was established that the full drying of pine forests began under absorbed dose 80-100 Gy/year. Threshold doses, after which repair processes were possible, reached to 10-12 Gy/year for Picea abies and 50 Gy/year for Pinus sylvestris. Three maine stages are revealed in dynamics of radiation damage and repair processes in studied conifers and their morphological and functional characteristic is presented. 14 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Comparative seasonal variations of spectral signatures of broad-leaved and coniferous stands from Landsat data. Comparison with other perennial environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaume, R.; Combeau, A.

    1984-01-01

    Spectral signatures of two distinct forest test areas were identified from digital data including 15 LANDSAT scenes covering the same geographical area: a broad-leaved forest (oak and beech) and a coniferous forest (scotch pine). Seasonal variations of the signatures were examined and were expressed in terms of various data: date, solar height and phenological state of vegetation cover. Results were compared to these obtained from other perennial surface conditions (grassland, bare soils) . Range of the seasonal variations of radiance is noted, as well as evolutionary peculiarities on each band and between themes. Rationing of spectral bands (particularly MSS 5 and 7) and their variation with time are specified [fr

  20. Behavior of 7Be and 210Pb deposited via rainwater on a coniferous forest, a broad-leaved forest, and grassland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osaki, S.; Sugihara, S.; Maeda, Y.; Osaki, T.

    2007-01-01

    Fall water, stem flow water and falling litter in a coniferous forest (C. japonica) and a broad-leaved forest (L. edulis), and rainwater on a grassland near the forests were collected, and their 7 Be and 210 Pb contents were measured. The average residence times of 7 Be and 210 Pb in the forest crowns were calculated from the balances of their radionuclides, those in the forest crown of C. japonica were 88 days for 7 Be and 9.2 years for 210 Pb, and those in the forest crown of L. edulis were 52 days and <1 year, respectively. (author)

  1. Microclimate, Water Potential, Transpiration, and Bole Dielectric Constant of Coniferous and Deciduous Tree Species in the Continental Boreal Ecotone of Central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, R.; McDonald, K.; Way, J.; Oren, R.

    1994-01-01

    Tree canopy microclimate, xylem water flux and xylem dielectric constant have been monitored in situ since June 1993 in two adjacent natural forest stands in central Alaska. The deciduous stand represents a mature balsam poplar site on the Tanana River floodplain, while the coniferous stand consists of mature white spruce with some black spruce mixed in. During solstice in June and later in summer, diurnal changes of xylem water potential were measured to investigate the occurrence and magnitude of tree transpiration and dielectric constant changes in stems.

  2. Head balance of coniferous forest in years with extreme precipitation and its long-term changes in the regions of Bydgoszcz and Wroclaw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubnowska, J.; Gąsiorek, E.; Łabędzki, L.; Musiał, E.

    2005-01-01

    Climate changes, particularly visible in the last decades of the 20th century have paramount influence on human economic activity. Heat balance is one of the factors affecting the climate. That impact is noticeable when variations in heat balance components are examined e.g. in coniferous forest. This paper presents analyses of these variations during the growing season (III-X) in the years with maximal and minimal precipitation sums. The study shows also the changes in heat balance components in Wroclaw-Swojec in the years 1964-2000 and in Bydgoszcz in the years 1945-2003 [pl

  3. Leap frog in slow motion: Divergent responses of tree species and life stages to climatic warming in Great Basin subalpine forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithers, Brian V; North, Malcolm P; Millar, Constance I; Latimer, Andrew M

    2018-02-01

    In response to climate warming, subalpine treelines are expected to move up in elevation since treelines are generally controlled by growing season temperature. Where treeline is advancing, dispersal differences and early life stage environmental tolerances are likely to affect how species expand their ranges. Species with an establishment advantage will colonize newly available habitat first, potentially excluding species that have slower establishment rates. Using a network of plots across five mountain ranges, we described patterns of upslope elevational range shift for the two dominant Great Basin subalpine species, limber pine and Great Basin bristlecone pine. We found that the Great Basin treeline for these species is expanding upslope with a mean vertical elevation shift of 19.1 m since 1950, which is lower than what we might expect based on temperature increases alone. The largest advances were on limber pine-dominated granitic soils, on west aspects, and at lower latitudes. Bristlecone pine juveniles establishing above treeline share some environmental associations with bristlecone adults. Limber pine above-treeline juveniles, in contrast, are prevalent across environmental conditions and share few environmental associations with limber pine adults. Strikingly, limber pine is establishing above treeline throughout the region without regard to site characteristic such as soil type, slope, aspect, or soil texture. Although limber pine is often rare at treeline where it coexists with bristlecone pine, limber pine juveniles dominate above treeline even on calcareous soils that are core bristlecone pine habitat. Limber pine is successfully "leap-frogging" over bristlecone pine, probably because of its strong dispersal advantage and broader tolerances for establishment. This early-stage dominance indicates the potential for the species composition of treeline to change in response to climate change. More broadly, it shows how species differences in dispersal

  4. Forecasting the evolution in the mixing regime of a deep subalpine lake under climate change scenarios through numerical modelling (Lake Maggiore, Northern Italy/Southern Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenocchi, Andrea; Rogora, Michela; Sibilla, Stefano; Ciampittiello, Marzia; Dresti, Claudia

    2018-01-01

    The impact of air temperature rise is eminent for the large deep lakes in the Italian subalpine district, climate change being caused there by both natural phenomena and anthropogenic greenhouse-gases (GHG) emissions. These oligomictic lakes are experiencing a decrease in the frequency of winter full turnover and an intensification of stability. As a result, hypolimnetic oxygen concentrations are decreasing and nutrients are accumulating in bottom water, with effects on the whole ecosystem functioning. Forecasting the future evolution of the mixing pattern is relevant to assess if a reduction in GHG releases would be able to revert such processes. The study focuses on Lake Maggiore, for which the thermal structure evolution under climate change in the 2016-2085 period was assessed through numerical simulations, performed with the General Lake Model (GLM). Different prospects of regional air temperature rise were considered, given by the Swiss Climate Change Scenarios CH2011. Multiple realisations were performed for each scenario to obtain robust statistical predictions, adopting random series of meteorological data produced with the Vector-Autoregressive Weather Generator (VG). Results show that a reversion in the increasing thermal stability would be possible only if global GHG emissions started to be reduced by 2020, allowing an equilibrium mixing regime to be restored by the end of the twenty-first century. Otherwise, persistent lack of complete-mixing, severe water warming and extensive effects on water quality are to be expected for the centuries to come. These projections can be extended to the other lakes in the subalpine district.

  5. Seasonal dynamics of the plant community and soil seed bank along a successional gradient in a subalpine meadow on the Tibetan Plateau.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miaojun Ma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Knowledge about how change the importance of soil seed bank and relationship between seed mass and abundance during vegetation succession is crucial for understanding vegetation dynamics. Many studies have been conducted, but their ecological mechanisms of community assembly are not fully understood. METHODOLOGY: We examined the seasonal dynamics of the vegetation and soil seed bank as well as seed size distribution along a successional gradient. We also explored the potential role of the soil seed bank in plant community regeneration, the relationship between seed mass and species abundance, and the relative importance of deterministic and stochastic processes along a successional gradient. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Species richness of seed bank increased (shallow layer and the total and seed density decreased (each layer and the total significantly with succession. Species richness and seed density differed significantly between different seasons and among soil depths. Seed mass showed a significant negative relationship with relative abundance in the earliest successional stage, but the relationships were not significant in later stages. Seed mass showed no relationship with relative abundance in the whole successional series in seed bank. Results were similar for both July 2005 and April 2006. CONCLUSIONS: The seed mass and abundance relationship was determined by a complex interaction between small and larger seeded species and environmental factors. Both stochastic processes and deterministic processes were important determinants of the structure of the earliest stage. The importance of seed bank decreased with succession. The restoration of abandoned farmed and grazed meadows to the species-rich subalpine meadow in Tibetan Plateau can be successfully achieved from the soil seed bank. However, at least 20 years are required to fully restore an abandoned agricultural meadow to a natural mature subalpine meadow.

  6. Energy fluxes in oil palm plantations as affected by water storage in the trunk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijide, Ana; Röll, Alexander; Fan, Yuanchao; Herbst, Mathias; Niu, Furong; Tiedemann, Frank; June, Tania; Rauf, Abdul; Hölscher, Dirk; Knohl, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Oil palm is increasingly expanding, particularly in Indonesia, but information on water and energy fluxes in oil palm plantations is still very limited and on how those are affected by environmental conditions or oil palm age. Using the eddy covariance technique, we studied turbulent fluxes of sensible (H) and latent (LE) heat and gross primary production (GPP) for 8 months each in a young oil palm plantation (1-year old) and subsequently in a mature plantation (12-year old) in Jambi Province, Sumatra, Indonesia. We measured transpiration (T) simultaneously using a sap flux technique. The energy budget was dominated by LE in both plantations, particularly in the mature one, where it represented up to 70% of the available energy. In the young oil palm plantation, evapotranspiration (ET) was significantly reduced and H fluxes were higher. This affected the Bowen ratio, defined as the ratio of H and LE, which was higher in the 1-year old plantation (0.67±0.33), where it remained constant during the day, than in the mature plantation (0.14±0.09), where it varied considerably over the day, suggesting that water accumulated inside the canopy. Using the Community Land Model (CLM), a process based land surface model that has been adapted to oil palm functional traits (i.e. CLM-Palm), we investigated the contribution of different water sources to the measured fluxes. CLM-Palm differentiates leaf and stem surfaces in modelling water interception and is therefore able to diagnose the fraction of dry leaves that contribute to T and the wet fraction of all vegetation surfaces (leaf and stem) that contributes to evaporation. Results from our simulations strengthen our hypothesis of significant contribution of canopy evaporation to ET. As observed in the field, water accumulates inside the canopy in the mature plantation in oil palm trunk surfaces including epiphytes, creating water reservoirs in the trunk, which potentially contribute to ET when they evaporate. The decoupling

  7. Mercury bioaccumulation in fishes from subalpine lakes of the Wallowa-Whitman National Forest, northeastern Oregon and western Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herring, Garth; Johnson, Branden L.; Graw, Rick

    2013-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a globally distributed pollutant that poses considerable risks to human and wildlife health. Over the past 150 years since the advent of the industrial revolution, approximately 80 percent of global emissions have come from anthropogenic sources, largely fossil fuel combustion. As a result, atmospheric deposition of Hg has increased by up to 4-fold above pre-industrial times. Because of their isolation, remote high-elevation lakes represent unique environments for evaluating the bioaccumulation of atmospherically deposited Hg through freshwater food webs, as well as for evaluating the relative importance of Hg loading versus landscape influences on Hg bioaccumulation. The increase in Hg deposition to these systems over the past century, coupled with their limited exposure to direct anthropogenic disturbance make them useful indicators for estimating how changes in Hg emissions may propagate to changes in Hg bioaccumulation and ecological risk. In this study, we evaluated Hg concentrations in fishes of high-elevation, sub-alpine lakes in the Wallowa-Whitman National Forest in northeastern Oregon and western Idaho. Our goals were to (1) assess the magnitude of Hg contamination in small-catchment lakes to evaluate the risk of atmospheric Hg to human and wildlife health, (2) quantify the spatial variability in fish Hg concentrations, and (3) determine the ecological, limnological, and landscape factors that are best correlated with fish total mercury (THg) concentrations in these systems. Across the 28 study lakes, mean THg concentrations of resident salmonid fishes varied as much as 18-fold among lakes. Importantly, our top statistical model explained 87 percent of the variability in fish THg concentrations among lakes with four key landscape and limnological variables— catchment conifer density (basal area of conifers within a lake’s catchment), lake surface area, aqueous dissolved sulfate, and dissolved organic carbon. The basal area of conifers

  8. Long rotation swidden systems maintain higher carbon stocks than rubber plantations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Thilde Bech; Berry, Nicholas; De Neergaard, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    in fallows were 1.5 ± 0.12 Mg C ha−1 yr−1 and 1.9 ± 0.14 Mg C ha−1 yr−1 in rubber plantations. When comparing time-averaged carbon stocks of swidden systems to rubber plantations with 30 year rotation periods, the stocks of swidden systems with rotation times of 5 and 10 years were 19% and 13% lower......Conversion of shifting cultivation to rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations is one of the dominant land use changes in montane mainland areas of Southeast Asia, with the area of rubber expected to quadruple by 2050. However, the impacts of this transition on total ecosystem carbon stocks...... are poorly quantified. We undertook a chronosequence study to quantify changes in ecosystem carbon stocks following conversion from swidden agriculture to rubber plantations in Northern Laos. We measured above-ground biomass stocks and collected volume specific soil samples across rubber plantations...

  9. The legacy of George L. Beckford’s plantation economy thesis in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Besson

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Plantation Economy, Land Reform and the Peasantry in a Historical Perspective: Jamaica 1838-1980. CLAUS STOLBERG & SWITHIN WILMOT(eds.- Kingston: Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, 1992. 145 pp. (Paper n.p. This interdisciplinary collection focuses on the integration of Jamaica's classical plantation economy with the world economy, and the impact of the plantation economy on the peasantry, land reform, and agrarian modemization in Jamaica from emancipation in 1838 up to 1980. The eight papers comprising the volume were, as a one-page editorial "Introduction" outlines, presented at a symposium at the University of the West Indies, Mona, and are dedicated to the late Professor George Beckford whose work on persistent poverty in plantation economies championed the Jamaican peasantry. As such, the book is a welcome addition to the literature on the Caribbean plantation-peasant interface. However, the chapters are uneven in quality, with some reflecting analytical weaknesses and a lack of historical depth. Typographical errors, grammatical mistakes, and poor documentation are also noticeable. In addition, contrasting perspectives emerge among the contributors and this is not addressed by the editors.

  10. [Community structure of soil fauna in Eucalyptus grandis plantations at different slope locations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Zhong, Yu; Zhang, Jian; Yang, Wan-qin

    2010-09-01

    To understand the effects of slope location on the community structure of soil fauna in Eucalyptus grandis plantation, an investigation was made on the soil fauna in 3 E. grandis plantations at different slope locations in the hilly area of Sichuan Province from January to October 2009. A total of 39,2762 individuals were observed, belonging to 146 groups, 7 phyla, 16 classes, and 31 orders. The community composition, trophic group, diversity, and seasonal dynamics of soil fauna in the plantations all varied with slope. The abundance of macro-fauna, xeric meso- and micro-fauna, saprophagous macro-fauna, and omnivorous xeric meso- and micro-fauna increased with the decrease of slope, indicating that soil fauna had sensitive responses to the soil environmental factors affected by slope. Significant differences in the diversity of soil saprophagous macro-fauna and hygrophilous meso- and micro-fauna were observed at different slope locations, suggesting that these two faunal groups could be used as the indicators of the habitat heterogeneity of E. grandis plantations at different slope. Overall, slope location had definite effects on the community structure and distribution of soil fauna in the E. grandis plantations, but the effects were not statistically significant.

  11. The characteristics of palm oil plantation solid biomass wastes as raw material for bio oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanti, RN; Hambali, E.; Pari, G.; Suryani, A.

    2018-03-01

    Indonesia is the largest palm oil plantations estate in the world. It reached 11,30 million hectares in 2015 and increased up to 11,67 million hectares in 2016. The advancement of technology recent, the solid waste of palm oil plantation can be re-produced become bio oil through pyrolysis hydrothermal process and utilized for biofuel. The purpose of this research was to analyze the characteristics of feedstock of bio oil of solid waste of palm oil plantations estate. The feedstock used was derived from solid waste of palm oil plantations in Riau Province. Characteristic analysis of waste oil included chemical compound content (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin), ultimate analysis (C, H, N, O, S) to know height heating value (HHV). The result of analysis of chemical content showed that solid waste of palm cellulose 31,33 – 66,36 %, hemicellulose 7,54 – 17,94 %, lignin 21,43 - 43,1. The HHV of hydrothermal pyrolysis feedstock was 15,18 kJ/gram - 19,57 kJ/gram. Generally, the solid waste of palm oil plantations estate containing lignocellulose can be utilized as bio oil through hydrothermal pyrolysis. The CG-MS analysis of bio oil indicated hydrocarbon contents such as pentadecane, octadecane, hexadecane and benzene.

  12. Eucalypt plantations reduce the diversity of macroinvertebrates in small forested streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordero–Rivera, A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Land use patterns of a river basin have a significant effect on the structure and function of river ecosystems. Changes in the composition of riparian plant communities modify the quantity, quality and seasonality of leaf–litter inputs, determining changes in macroinvertebrate colonization and activity. The main goal of this study was to test the effect of land–use modifications, and particularly the impact of eucalypt plantations, on the macroinvertebrate communities of sixteen headwater streams. Macroinvertebrates were counted and identified to family level. Land uses were classified in five categories using aerial photography: native forest, eucalypt plantations, agricultural land, shrubland, and urban areas. We found that macroinvertebrate diversity increased with basin size and with the proportion of basin covered by native forest. This variable correlated negatively with the land occupied by eucalypt plantations. Macroinvertebrate richness diminished with the increase of land surface covered by eucalypt plantations, and a similar tendency was observed with diversity. Furthermore, streams whose drainage basin was mainly covered by Eucalyptus were more likely to dry up in summer. This observation adds to evidence from previous studies that concluded that fast–growing tree plantations affect hydric resources, an important ecosystem service in the context of global warming. To minimize the impact of industrial sylviculture, we suggest that maintaining and/or restoring riparian forests could mitigate the effects of intensive eucalypt monocultures.

  13. Conceptual design of semi-automatic wheelbarrow to overcome ergonomics problems among palm oil plantation workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawik, N. S. M.; Deros, B. M.; Rahman, M. N. A.; Sukadarin, E. H.; Nordin, N.; Tamrin, S. B. M.; Bakar, S. A.; Norzan, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    An ergonomics problem is one of the main issues faced by palm oil plantation workers especially during harvesting and collecting of fresh fruit bunches (FFB). Intensive manual handling and labor activities involved have been associated with high prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among palm oil plantation workers. New and safe technology on machines and equipment in palm oil plantation are very important in order to help workers reduce risks and injuries while working. The aim of this research is to improve the design of a wheelbarrow, which is suitable for workers and a small size oil palm plantation. The wheelbarrow design was drawn using CATIA ergonomic features. The characteristic of ergonomics assessment is performed by comparing the existing design of wheelbarrow. Conceptual design was developed based on the problems that have been reported by workers. From the analysis of the problem, finally have resulting concept design the ergonomic quality of semi-automatic wheelbarrow with safe and suitable used for palm oil plantation workers.

  14. Comparison of butterfly diversity in forested area and oil palm plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANTO SANTOSA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Santosa Y, Purnamasari I, Wahyuni I. 2017. Comparison of butterfly diversity in forested area and oil palm plantation. Pros Sem Nas Masy Biodiv Indon 7: 104-109. Land use change from the forested area into oil palm monoculture plantations was suspected to have reduced the number of biodiversities, including butterfly. In addressing such issues, this research was conducted from March to April 2016 in PT. Mitra Unggul Pusaka oil palm plantation of Riau Province and the forest area around the plantation. Data were collected from secondary forest and High Conservation Value representing forest areas, and oil palm plantations representing non-forest areas (young-growth oil palm and old-growth oil palm simultaneously using 3 repetitions with time search method for 3 hours (8-10 pm. The results showed that there were 30 species (117 individuals found belonging to five families, i.e.: Papilionidae (3 species, Nymphalidae (17 species, Pieridae (5 species, Lycaenidae (4 species, and Hesperidae (1 species. Species richness was greater in a forested area (Dmg=7.35 than in non-forested areas (Dmg=3.16. Based on the Similarity Index, 50% of the species in forested area were also found in non-forested areas. Therefore, it could be concluded that butterfly diversity in forested areas was higher than non-forested areas (oil palms.

  15. A comparative study on plant diversity in alder (Alnus subcordata stands of natural and plantation areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEYED ALIAKBAR REZAEI TALESHI

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rezaei-Taleshi SA. 2014. A comparative study on plant diversity in alder (Alnus subcordata stands of natural and plantation areas. Biodiversitas 15: 37-45. Diversity index is the useful criteria for evaluating sustainability of forest ecosystems. Current study carried out in Alder (Alnus subcordata C.A. Meyer stands that located in north forests of Iran. The aim of the study is express the plant diversity indices and positive role of the trees both natural and plantation forms. Data of Alder trees and associated species were recorded in sample plots which lay down in study area randomly. The abundance, density, percentage of frequency of each species was calculated by standard methods. The results of analysis revealed that, 47 species (21 trees and shrubs species and 26 herbaceous species were abundant in 80 sample plots both in natural and plantations Alder stands. Whilst the results showed that the number of species in natural area (44 species was more than plantation stands (37 species. Comparison of species distribution in different physiographical situation showed that some species such as Alnus subcordata, Parrotia persica, Rubus hyrcanus and Prunus sp. recorded in spread rang of physiographic variables as elevation, slopes and aspects. The biodiversity criteria as Shannon H’ and Simpsons D and 1/D indexes showed that they were more in natural stands than plantation areas.

  16. Economics and yields of energy plantations: Status and potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenney, W.A.; Gambles, R.L.; Zsuffa, L.

    1992-01-01

    A study was carried out to: determine the factors affecting the cost of energy conversion feedstocks in short rotation intensive culture plantations of trees; determine the factors influencing biomass yield; identify interrelationships between the previous two objectives; present estimates of potential biomass yields and associated economics; and to identify gaps in the knowledge of the economics and yields of biomass production and their interrelationships. Reported costs for most aspects had a wide range. Currently, yields of 10-15 dry Mg/hectare/y are readily achievable. Using the cost and yield data, and assuming a biomass price of $40/dry Mg, a series of cash flow analyses were performed. For the low cost inputs, all scenarios were marginally profitable. For the high cost inputs, none of the scenarios were profitable. A current scenario, using figures for contract farming, was not profitable, however this system would break even with a yield of 23.3 dry Mg/hectare/y, within the range of some production clones. A future scenario using farm labour with increased productivity, product values, and machinery efficiencies yielded a profit-making situation. The addition of incentives increased profitability. There is great potential for the production of woody biomass in Canada as a feedstock for energy and other products. Continued and more intensive breeding and selection to develop high yielding stress tolerant clones, cost efficient harvesting systems, continued research into optimization of planting density, rotation length and cultural techniques, and characterization of promising clones with respect to nutrient-use efficiency, site requirements and pest/disease resistance are important areas for further work. 81 refs., 3 figs., 13 tabs

  17. Global options for biofuels from plantations according to IMAGE simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battjes, J.J.

    1994-07-01

    In this report the contribution of biofuels to the renewable energy supply and the transition towards it are discussed for the energy crops miscanthus, eucalyptus, poplar, wheat and sugar cane. Bio-electricity appears to be the most suitable option regarding energetic and financial aspects and in terms of avoided CO 2 emissions. The IMAGE 2.0 model is a multi-disciplinary, integrated model designed to simulate the dynamics of the global society-biosphere-climate system, and mainly used here for making more realistic estimates. Dynamic calculations are performed to the year 2100. An IMAGE 2.0-based Conventional Wisdom scenario simulates, among other things, future energy demand and supply, future food production, future land cover patterns and future greenhouse gas emissions. Two biofuel scenarios are described in this report. The first consists of growing energy crops on set asides. According to a 'Conventional Wisdom' scenario, Canada, the U.S. and Europe and to a lesser extent Latin America will experience set asides due to a declining demand in agricultural area. The second biofuel scenario consists of growing energy crops on set asides and on 10% of the agricultural area in the developing countries. Growing energy crops on all of the areas listed above leads to an energy production that consists of about 12% of the total non-renewable energy use in 2050, according to the 'Conventional Wisdom' scenario. Furthermore, the energy related CO 2 emissions are reduced with about 15% in 2050, compared to the Conventional Wisdom scenario. Financial aspects will have great influence on the success of growing energy crops. However, energy generated from biomass derived from plantations is currently more expensive than generating it from traditional fuels. Levying taxes on CO 2 emissions and giving subsidies to biofuels will reduce the cost price difference between fossil fuels and biofuels

  18. Carbon stocks of three secondary coniferous forests along an altitudinal gradient on Loess Plateau in inland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Nan, Hongwei

    2018-01-01

    Natural forests in inland China are generally distributed in montane area and secondary due to a semi-arid climate and past anthropogenic disturbances. However, quantification of carbon (C) stock in these forests and the role of altitude in determining C storage and its partition among ecosystem components are unclear. We sampled 54 stands of three secondary coniferous forests (Larix principis-rupprechtii (LP) forest, Picea meyerii (PM) forest and Pinus tabulaeformis (PT) forest) on Loess Plateau in an altitudinal range of 1200-2700m a.s.l. C stocks of tree layer, shrub layer, herb layer, coarse wood debris, forest floor and soil were estimated. We found these forests had relatively high total C stocks. Driven by both higher vegetation and soil C stocks, total C stocks of LP and PM forests in the high altitudinal range were 375.0 and 368.4 t C ha-1 respectively, significantly higher than that of PT forest in the low altitudinal range (230.2 t C ha-1). In addition, understory shrubs accounted for about 20% of total biomass in PT forest. The proportions of vegetation to total C stock were similar among in the three forests (below 45%), so were the proportions of soil C stock (over 54%). Necromass C stocks were also similar among these forests, but their proportions to total C stock were significantly lower in LP and PM forests (1.4% and 1.6%) than in PT forest (3.0%). Across forest types, vegetation biomass and soil C stock simultaneously increased with increasing altitude, causing fairly unchanged C partitioning among ecosystem components along the altitudinal gradient. Soil C stock also increased with altitude in LP and PT forests. Forest floor necromass decreased with increasing altitude across the three forests. Our results suggest the important role of the altitudinal gradient in C sequestration and floor necromass of these three forests in terms of alleviated water conditions and in soil C storage of LP and PM forests in terms of temperature change. PMID

  19. Growth dynamics of fine roots in a coniferous fern forest site close to Forsmark in the central part of Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Hans; Stadenberg, Ingela

    2007-12-01

    The seasonal growth dynamics of live and dead roots for trees and the field layer species (g/m 2 , varying diameter fractions) and live/dead ratios were analysed at a fresh/moist coniferous fern forest site close to the nuclear power plant at Forsmark in the central eastern parts of Sweden. The changes in depth distribution of fine roots were observed at depth intervals of the top humus horizon down to 40 cm in the mineral soil profile. The bulk of living fine roots of trees ( 2 . The total quantity of fine roots (live + dead) amounted to 543, 434, 314 and 546 g/m 2 . Considerable quantities of fine roots (< 1 mm in diameter) were attributed to field-layer species (about 18% of the total biomass during the whole period of investigation). The turnover rate (the rate of construction of new roots) for tree fine roots < 1 mm in diameter amounted to at least the size of the average fine-root biomass. Our methods of estimating fine-root production and mortality, involved periodic measurements of live and dead dry weight of the fine roots from sequential core samples of the forest soil. The collected data give a proper and instant measure of the spatial and temporal distribution of fine roots in the undisturbed soil-profile. Data from other fine-root investigations suggest turnover rates in agreement with our present findings. Differences between root growth and turnover should be expected between trees of different age, tree species and different forest sites, but also between different years. Substantial variations in fine-root biomass, necromass and live/dead ratios are found in different forest sites. Correct methods for estimating the amount of live and dead fine-roots in the soil at regular time intervals are essential for any calculation of fine-root turnover. Definition of root vitality differs in literature, making it difficult to compare results from different root investigators. Our investigation clarifies the importance of using distinct morphological criteria

  20. Carbon stock of oil palm plantations and tropical forests in Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kho, Lip Khoon; Jepsen, Martin Rudbeck

    2015-01-01

    cultivation (fallow forests) and 3) oil palm plantations. The forest ecosystems are classified by successional stage and edaphic conditions and represent samples along a forest succession continuum spanning pioneer species in shifting cultivation fallows to climax vegetation in old-growth forests. Total......In Malaysia, the main land change process is the establishment of oil palm plantations on logged-over forests and areas used for shifting cultivation, which is the traditional farming system. While standing carbon stocks of old-growth forest have been the focus of many studies, this is less...... the case for Malaysian fallow systems and oil palm plantations. Here, we collate and analyse Malaysian datasets on total carbon stocks for both above- and below-ground biomass. We review the current knowledge on standing carbon stocks of 1) different forest ecosystems, 2) areas subject to shifting...

  1. Contribution of a mixed forest plantation to avifauna conservation at Rio Cauca canyon, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castano Villa, Gabriel Jaime; Morales Betancourt, Juan Alejandro; Bedoya Alvarez, Mary Luz

    2008-01-01

    The avifauna of a forest mixed plantation at Cauca river canyon in Caldas department; was monitored during 10 months. Fifty nine understory resident species were captured,10% of them presented high sensibility to habitat perturbation (forest specialists). Only those species with low sensibility (generalists) presented differences between monthly numbers of captures. Other 50 species associated to the plantation, including two endemic and 26% boreal migratory species were registered visually and/or by its vocalizations. The results suggest that this plantation plays a key role in the conservation of local avifauna, is habitat both for species associated with natural forests and for those with less habitat requirements. This type of reforestation with native species could be a restoration model for other degraded areas from the region.

  2. Aerial survey of red pine plantations for sirococcus shoot blight. Forest research report No. 46

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    A total of 849 red pine plantation diagrams were collected from the forest community and sketched onto 1:50,000 scale topographic maps. An aerial assessment was conducted beginning in the western counties in October 1990 and continuing eastward through to February 1991. Visual assessments were made for occurrence and severity of symptoms according to the average percentage of shoots affected per infected tree. General assessments on the height of plantations were also made, and each plantation was labelled as young (less than or equal to 3 m in height), pole (between 4 m and 6 m in height), or immature-mature (greater than 6 m in height). This research provides the results of the survey.

  3. Seasonality of pathogenic fungi in mites of rubber tree plantations adjacent to fragments of Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PR. Demite

    Full Text Available Fungi are the most frequently observed pathogens of mite populations, helping to control them on different crops. Twenty-five samples of leaves were collected from rubber tree plantations adjacent to two fragments of Cerrado vegetation. Each rubber tree plantation had 25 plants selected for sampling and seven leaves from around each tree top were collected up to seven to eight meters above ground. Approximately 250 individuals of Calacarus heveae Feres, Phyllocoptruta seringueirae Feres, and Tenuipalpus heveae Baker, collected randomly, were mounted from each plantation. Hirsutella thompsoni Fisher was observed on all three mites and T. heveae was the most infected species. The highest infestation levels occurred from November to February (rainy season. In the dry season, infestation levels were below 5%. Hirsutella thompsonii has potential to be used as mycoacaricide during the rainy season.

  4. Tropical and Highland Temperate Forest Plantations in Mexico: Pathways for Climate Change Mitigation and Ecosystem Services Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal Guerra-De la Cruz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Forest plantations are a possible way of increasing forest productivity in temperate and tropical forests, and therefore also increasing above- and belowground carbon pools. In the context of climate change, monospecific plantations might become an alternative to mitigate global warming; however, their contribution to the structural complexity, complementarity, and biodiversity of forests has not been addressed. Mixed forest plantations can ensure that objectives of climate change mitigation are met through carbon sequestration, while also delivering anticipated ecosystem services (e.g., nutrient cycling, erosion control, and wildlife habitat. However, mixed forest plantations pose considerable operational challenges and research opportunities. For example, it is essential to know how many species or functional traits are necessary to deliver a set of benefits, or what mixture of species and densities are key to maintaining productive plantations and delivering multiple ecosystem services. At the same time, the establishment of forest plantations in Mexico should not be motivated solely by timber production. Forest plantations should also increase carbon sequestration, maintain biodiversity, and provide other ecosystem services. This article analyzes some matters that affect the development of planted forests in the Mexican national context, and presents alternatives for forest resources management through the recommendation of mixed forest plantations as a means of contributing to climate change mitigation and the delivery of ecosystem services.

  5. Soil carbon and nitrogen sequestration over an age sequence of Pinus patula plantations in Zimbabwean Eastern Highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mujuru, L.; Gotora, T.; Velthorst, E.J.; Nyamangara, J.; Hoosbeek, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    Forests play a major role in regulating the rate of increase of global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations creating a need to investigate the ability of exotic plantations to sequester atmospheric CO2. This study examined pine plantations located in the Eastern Highlands of Zimbabwe

  6. Strong effects of a plantation with Pinus patula on Andean Subparamo vegetation: a case study from Columbia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesenbeeck, van B.K.; Mourik, van T.A.; Duivenvoorden, J.F.; Cleef, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of a pine plantation on a native subparamo system in the Andes of Colombia (3 100 In above sea level) was studied. The vegetation of an 8 year-old plantation with Pinus patula was compared to that of the surrounding native subparamo. 59 plots made in the subparamo vegetation contained 121

  7. Impacts of fertilizer additions on water quality of a drained pine plantation in North Carolina. A worst case scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray J. Beltran; Devendra M. Amatya; Martin Jones; R. Wayne Skaggs; William Neal Reynolds; Timothy J. Callahan; Jami E. Nettles

    2008-01-01

    Abstract. Intensive plantation forestry will be increasingly important in the next 50 years to meet the high demand for domestic wood in the US. However, forestry management practices can substantially influence downstream water quality and ecology. In this study, the effect of fertilization on drainage water quality of a coastal pine plantation located in Carteret...

  8. Field performance of Populus in short-rotation intensive culture plantations in the north-central U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward A. Hansen; Michael E. Ostry; Wendell D. Johnson; David N. Tolsted; Daniel A. Netzer; William E. Berguson; Richard B. Hall

    1994-01-01

    Describes a network of short-rotation, Populus research and demonstration plantations that has been established across a 5-state region in the north-central U.S. to identify suitable hybrid poplar clones for large-scale biomass plantations in the region. Reports 6-year results.

  9. Mapping aboveground carbon stocks using LiDAR data in Eucalyptus spp. plantations in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos Alberto Silva; Carine Klauberg; Samuel de Padua Chaves e Carvalho; Andrew T. Hudak; e Luiz Carlos Estraviz. Rodriguez

    2014-01-01

    Fast growing plantation forests provide a low-cost means to sequester carbon for greenhouse gas abatement. The aim of this study was to evaluate airborne LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) to predict aboveground carbon (AGC) stocks in Eucalyptus spp. plantations. Biometric parameters (tree height (Ht) and diameter at breast height (DBH)) were collected from...

  10. Influence of establishment timing and planting stock on early rotational growth of loblolly pine plantations in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. A. Blazier; E. L. Taylor; A. G. Holley

    2010-01-01

    Planting container seedlings, which have relatively fully formed root systems encased in a soil-filled plug, may improve loblolly pine plantation productivity by increasing early survival and growth relative to that of conventionally planted bareroot seedlings. Planting seedlings in fall may also confer productivity increases to loblolly pine plantations by giving...

  11. Impacts of non-native Norway spruce plantation on abundance and species richness of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Elek

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of non-native Norway spruce plantation on the abundance and species richness of carabids were studied in the Bükk National Park in Hungary, central Europe. Pitfall catches from recently established (5 yr old, young (15 yr after planting, middle-aged (30 yr after planting, old Norway spruce Picea abies plantation (50 yr after planting, and a native submontane beech forest (Fagetum sylvaticae as a control stand were compared.

    Our results showed that deciduous forest species decreased significantly in abundance in the plantations, and appeared in high abundance only in the native beech forest. Furthermore, open habitat species increased remarkably in abundance in the recently established plantation. Carabids were significantly more abundant and species rich in the native forest than in the plantations, while differences were not significant among the plantations. Multiple regression between the abundance and species richness of carabids and twelve environmental measurements showed that pH of the soil, herb cover and density of the carabids’ prey had a significant effect in determining abundance and species richness.

    Our results showed that plantation of non-native Norway spruce species had a detrimental effect on the composition of carabid communities and no regeneration could be observed during the growth of plantations even 50 yr after the establishment. This emphasises the importance of an active nature management practice to facilitate the recolonization of the native species.

  12. Potential implications for expansion of freeze-tolerant eucalyptus plantations on water resources in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Vose; Chelcy F. Miniat; Ge Sun; Peter V. Caldwell

    2014-01-01

    The potential expansion of freeze-tolerant (FT) Eucalyptus plantations in the United States has raised concerns about the implications for water resources. Modeling was used to examine the potential effects of expanding the distribution of FT Eucalyptus plantations in US Department of Agriculture Plant Hardiness Zones 8b and...

  13. A principal component approach for predicting the stem volume in Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil using airborne LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos Alberto Silva; Carine Klauberg; Andrew T. Hudak; Lee A. Vierling; Veraldo Liesenberg; Samuel P. C. e Carvalho; Luiz C. E. Rodriguez

    2016-01-01

    Improving management practices in industrial forest plantations may increase production efficiencies, thereby reducing pressures on native tropical forests for meeting global pulp needs. This study aims to predict stem volume (V) in plantations of fast-growing Eucalyptus hybrid clones located in southeast Brazil using field plot and airborne Light Detection...

  14. Bioenergy and carbon sequestration potential from energy tree plantation in rural wasteland of North-Eastern India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiloidhari, Moonmoon; Medhi, Hemantajeet; Das, Karabee; Thakur, Indu Shekhar; Baruah, Debendra Chandra

    2016-01-01

    In this study, carbon sequestration potential via energy tree plantation in the rural wasteland of Assam, India was estimated under two different plantation species scenarios,viz., (i) Acacia nilotica, and (ii) Bambusa tulda. Furthermore, CO2 emission reduction potential in local tea industries by

  15. Fatty acid profiles of great tit ( Parus major) eggs differ between urban and rural habitats, but not between coniferous and deciduous forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Alejandra; Andersson, Martin N.; Wang, Hong-Lei; Salmón, Pablo; Watson, Hannah; Burdge, Graham C.; Isaksson, Caroline

    2016-08-01

    Early-life nutrition is an important determinant of both short- and long-term performance and fitness. The avian embryo develops within an enclosed package of nutrients, of which fatty acids (FA) are essential for many aspects of development. The FA composition of yolk depends on maternal nutrition and condition prior to egg formation, which may be affected by the external environment. To test if maternal environment affects yolk FA composition, we investigated whether the FA composition of great tit ( Parus major) egg yolks differed between urban and rural habitats, and between deciduous and coniferous habitats. The results reveal differences in FA composition between eggs laid in urban and rural habitats, but not between eggs from the coniferous and deciduous habitats. To a large extent, this difference likely reflects dietary differences associated with urban habitats rather than dominating vegetation type. Specifically, urban yolks contained lower proportions of both ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated FAs (PUFA), which are important for chick development. We also found a positive association between the proportion of saturated fatty acids and laying date, and a negative association between the proportion of ω-6 PUFA and clutch size. Given that urbanization is expanding rapidly, future studies should investigate whether factors such as anthropogenic food in the urban environment underlie these differences and whether they impair chick development.

  16. The role and significance of Salix plantations for energy in Swedish agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsse, L.S.; Ledin, S.; Johansson, H. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1993-12-31

    Fifteen years of research and development of energy forestry with Salix species has lead to a firm basis of knowledge concerning the basic biology, stand ecology and production systems of fast growing willows in Sweden. The biology research program continues to emphasize studies of plant biology and diseases as well as areas such as clone/site interactions, mixed clonal plantations and breeding. The technological research and development concentrates on functional and effective machinery for planting, harvesting, etc. Recently Salix plantations for energy production in Sweden have been commercialized. Plantations start with 18,000 cuttings of willow clones per hectare. During the first summer weed control is the most important treatment. Fertilizers are applied to keep a high production level. Crops are harvested during winter at 3--5 year intervals. The average annual production is about 10--12 tonnes DM per hectare. The life of Salix plantations is estimated as 25--30 years. An estimated potential of 300,000 hectares of Salix plantations would result 5% of the energy needs in Sweden. Wood fuel from the conventional forest equals 60 TWh today, with a potential of being doubled within 10--20 years. The economic outcome for the farmer of growing Salix mainly depends on the price of chips and the level of production. A fundamental requirement for establishing plantations is that there is a wood fuel market within a reasonable distance (about 50 km). In a calculation stretching over a period of 24 years with a production level of 12 tonnes DM per hectare and year, and at an interest rate of 6%, the net return is about 1,000--1,500 SEK/ha/yr (about 7 SEK/US$) if simultaneous chipping is used. With separate harvest and chipping and enterprise in this calculation breaks even. Interest in the utilization of sludge, ash, waste water and leakage water as nutrients for energy forests is increasing from local and regional authorities.

  17. Carbon budget and its response to environmental factors in young and mature poplar plantations along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinxing Zhou; Yuan Wei; Jun Yang; Xiaohui Yang; Zeping Jiang; Jiquan Chen; Asko Noormets; Xiaosong Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Although poplar forest is the dominant plantation type in China, there is uncertainty about the carbon budget of these forests across the country. The observations, performed in 2006, of two eddy covariance flux towers on a young poplar plantation (Yueyang, Hunan province) and a mature poplar plantation (Huaining, Anhui province) provide an opportunity to understand...

  18. Rehabilitation of an old palm-tree plantation in Ivory Coas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abodou Ake, N.

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available In the "Sous-prefecture" of Anyama, South-east of Ivory Coast, an old palm-tree plantation run at village level had to be replaced by another activity such as cassava cultivation or broiler production. The success of such a rehabilitation is closely associated with an adequate choice of the new agricultural activity, with technical competence, with the acceptance of the new techniques and with an appropriate regional extension service. The conjunction of all these factors has made the operation a success. The poultry production is more profitable than cassava to substitute palm-oil plantation in the context concerned.

  19. An Overview of Integrated Management of Leaf-Cutting Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in Brazilian Forest Plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Zanetti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian forest producers have developed integrated management programs to increase the effectiveness of the control of leaf-cutting ants of the genera Atta and Acromyrmex. These measures reduced the costs and quantity of insecticides used in the plantations. Such integrated management programs are based on monitoring the ant nests, as well as the need and timing of the control methods. Chemical control employing baits is the most commonly used method, however, biological, mechanical and cultural control methods, besides plant resistance, can reduce the quantity of chemicals applied in the plantations.

  20. [Effect of pine plantations on soil arthropods in a high Andean forest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Gamboa, Alba Lucía; Ramos, Carolina; García, Mary Ruth

    2010-09-01

    One of the most common problems in the Colombian mountains has been the replacement of native vegetation by pine plantations. Soil arthropods are a fundamental component of forest ecosystem, since they participate in the organic matter fragmentation, previous to decomposition. This role is more valuable in high altitude environments, where low temperatures limit the dynamics of biological processes, where the effects of pine plantations on soil arthropods are still not well-known. In a remnant of high-andean forest (Neusa - Colombia) and a pine plantation of about 50 years-old, it was evaluated the composition, richness and abundance of arthropods at surface (S), organic horizon (O) and mineral horizon (A) of soil, to establish the differences associated to the soil use transformation. It was used "Pitfall" sampling to register the movement of the epigeous fauna, and extraction by funnel Berlese for determining the fauna density from O and A horizons. The Shannon and Simpson indexes estimated the diversity at different places and horizons, and the trophic structure of the community was evaluated. Overall, there were collected 38 306 individuals from forest and 17 386 individuals from pine plantation, mainly distributed in Collembola (42.4%), Acari (27%), Diptera (17.6%) and Coleoptera (4.6%). The most important differences were given in the surface, where the mobilization in forest (86 individuals/day) almost triplicates the one in pine plantation (33 individuals/day). The differences in composition were given in Collembola, Araneae, Hemiptera, Homoptera and Hymenoptera. The dynamics of richness and abundance along the year had significant high values in the native forest than in the pine plantation. The general trophic structure was dominated by saprophagous (75%), followed by predators (14%) and phytophagous (9%), but in two layers of the pine plantation soil (S and O) this structural pattern was not given. Based on the results, it was concluded that pine

  1. PUSH AND PULL FACTORS OF SUBURBAN LOCAL YOUTH TOWARDS CAREER IN OIL PALM PLANTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Amizi Ayob, Mohammad; Abdullah, Norehan; Aznor, Siti; Abdul Latiff, Zul Ariff

    2018-01-01

    The rapid expansion of oil palm plantation in Malaysia in 1990, 2.03 million hectares to 5.39 million hectares in 2014 (Malaysia Palm Oil Board 2015) caused required high labour intensive in this sector.  More than 78 % of labor (Azman 2014) in this sectors mainly came from Indonesia, Bangladesh and Philippines. Malaysia has become the main attention for the foreign labours to work in this country due to the wages more competitive and generative  working condition especially the plantation se...

  2. The influence of Eucalyptus plantations on the macrofauna associated with Salvinia auriculata in Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CALLISTO M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of Eucalyptus plantations on the structure and composition of macroinvertebrate communities associated with the aquatic fern Salvinia auriculata Aublet were investigated in a high altitude lake bordered by either secondary Atlantic forest or Eucalyptus plantations. Comparisons of the diversity of Chironomidae (Diptera, Insecta larvae in the littoral zone between these two vegetation types showed higher diversity of larvae in waters bordered by Eucalyptus. The results demonstrated that the predominance of carnivorous taxa among the macroinvertebrate fauna appears to be the major controlling factor for limiting diversity in lake areas bordered by Eucalyptus.

  3. The influence of Eucalyptus plantations on the macrofauna associated with Salvinia auriculata in Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. CALLISTO

    Full Text Available The influence of Eucalyptus plantations on the structure and composition of macroinvertebrate communities associated with the aquatic fern Salvinia auriculata Aublet were investigated in a high altitude lake bordered by either secondary Atlantic forest or Eucalyptus plantations. Comparisons of the diversity of Chironomidae (Diptera, Insecta larvae in the littoral zone between these two vegetation types showed higher diversity of larvae in waters bordered by Eucalyptus. The results demonstrated that the predominance of carnivorous taxa among the macroinvertebrate fauna appears to be the major controlling factor for limiting diversity in lake areas bordered by Eucalyptus.

  4. CO2 Emissions in an Oil Palm Plantation on Tropical Peat in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, M.; Zhang, G.; Jantan, N. M.; Harun, M. H.; Kamarudin, N.; Choo, Y. M.

    2016-12-01

    Tropical peats are large contributors to greenhouse gas emissions and differ markedly from their counterparts at temperate latitudes. The rapid deforestation and subsequent land conversion of tropical virgin forests in Southeast Asia have been decried by environmental groups worldwide even though there is currently little robust scientific evidence to ascertain the net amount of greenhouse gas released to the atmosphere. The conversion to oil palm plantation at a large scale further exacerbates the situation. This paper shows preliminary data on CO2 emissions in a converted oil palm plantation grown on tropical peat in northeast Malaysia.

  5. Evaluation of insecticides in different dosages to control cicadas in parica plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odineila Martins Monteiro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the more efficient and economically viable dosage of chemical insecticide to control Quesada gigas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae nymphs in parica plantations. Three dosages of three products (carbofuran, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam were tested based on the maximum recommended dosage for the control of cicadas in coffee plants and applied in total area. The dosage of one kilogram of a commercial product based in thiamethoxam per hectare was more efficient economically and environmentally to control nymphs of Q. gigas in parica plantations.

  6. Energy budgets in slash pine (Pinus elliottii) plantations at Dehra Dun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaul, O.N.; Srivastava, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    Sample trees were felled in 1978 in 10-, 20- and 40-year-old plantations and dry weight determined for wood, slash and roots. Litter was collected every month for one year. Solar radiation was measured in an adjacent open area. Calculations indicated that the plantations fixed 17.5 x 10/sup 8/ Kcal/ha in 10 year, 24.9 x 10/sup 8/ in 20 year and 57.5 x 10/sup 8/ in 40 year representing 3.3, 2.3 and 2.7% of photosynthetically active radiation respectively.

  7. Energy capacity of black wattle wood and bark in different spacing plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elder Eloy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at the energetic description of wood and bark biomass of Acacia mearnsii De Wild. in two spacing plantations: 2.0 m × 3.0 m × 1.0 m and 1.5 m, during 36 months after the planting. The experiment was conducted in the municipality of Frederico Westphalen, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Biomass (BIO, calorific value, basic density, ash content, volatile matter and fixed carbon content and energy density (ED of wood and bark were determined. The smallest spacing plantation presented the highest production per unit area of BIO and ED of wood and bark.

  8. A review of the ecosystem functions in oil palm plantations, using forests as a reference system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dislich, Claudia; Keyel, Alexander C; Salecker, Jan; Kisel, Yael; Meyer, Katrin M; Auliya, Mark; Barnes, Andrew D; Corre, Marife D; Darras, Kevin; Faust, Heiko; Hess, Bastian; Klasen, Stephan; Knohl, Alexander; Kreft, Holger; Meijide, Ana; Nurdiansyah, Fuad; Otten, Fenna; Pe'er, Guy; Steinebach, Stefanie; Tarigan, Suria; Tölle, Merja H; Tscharntke, Teja; Wiegand, Kerstin

    2017-08-01

    Oil palm plantations have expanded rapidly in recent decades. This large-scale land-use change has had great ecological, economic, and social impacts on both the areas converted to oil palm and their surroundings. However, research on the impacts of oil palm cultivation is scattered and patchy, and no clear overview exists. We address this gap through a systematic and comprehensive literature review of all ecosystem functions in oil palm plantations, including several (genetic, medicinal and ornamental resources, information functions) not included in previous systematic reviews. We compare ecosystem functions in oil palm plantations to those in forests, as the conversion of forest to oil palm is prevalent in the tropics. We find that oil palm plantations generally have reduced ecosystem functioning compared to forests: 11 out of 14 ecosystem functions show a net decrease in level of function. Some functions show decreases with potentially irreversible global impacts (e.g. reductions in gas and climate regulation, habitat and nursery functions, genetic resources, medicinal resources, and information functions). The most serious impacts occur when forest is cleared to establish new plantations, and immediately afterwards, especially on peat soils. To variable degrees, specific plantation management measures can prevent or reduce losses of some ecosystem functions (e.g. avoid illegal land clearing via fire, avoid draining of peat, use of integrated pest management, use of cover crops, mulch, and compost) and we highlight synergistic mitigation measures that can improve multiple ecosystem functions simultaneously. The only ecosystem function which increases in oil palm plantations is, unsurprisingly, the production of marketable goods. Our review highlights numerous research gaps. In particular, there are significant gaps with respect to socio-cultural information functions. Further, there is a need for more empirical data on the importance of spatial and temporal

  9. Wood fuel from early thinning and plantation cleaning. An international review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puttock, D.; Richardsson, J.

    1998-01-01

    Activities 1.2 (Forest management) and 1.2 (Harvesting) of Task XII/IEA Bioenergy Agreement carried out an international review of wood fuel from plantation cleaning and early thinning. The participating countries were Canada, Denmark, Finland, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Sweden and the United Kingdom. The individual country reviews and an international summary are presented in this paper. Each report gives country-related background information on forestry and wood utilization, energy potential from plantation cleaning and early thinning, environmental considerations from the viewpoint of wood fuel recovery, silvicultural systems and methods, cost of wood fuel, and knowledge gaps and problems

  10. Shadows of the Plantation? A Social History of Suriname’s Bauxite Town Moengo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouk de Koning

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the social history of Suriname’s first bauxite town, Moengo, founded in the late 1910s. It recounts the rise of a new industry that drew workers away from the plantations and urban artisanal occupations to work in a massive, highly organized and orchestrated organization-cum-social community. Using oral narratives about life in Moengo, as well as census and other statistical data, this contribution asks whether everyday life in the mining enclave echoed features of the plantation.

  11. ARBRE monitoring - ecology of short rotation coppice plantations. Interim report 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich, T.J.; Sage, R.; Moore, N.; Robertson, P.; Aegerter, J.; Bishop, J.

    2001-07-01

    Short Rotation willow coppice (SRC) is a potential habitat for wildlife in the British countryside according to research reported in the late 1990s, but so far the trials have been on small plantations without reference to the land use it would supersede. This interim report, on a 4-year study which began in January 2000, discusses the commercial availability of SRC plantations and assesses what might be achievable by changing land usage. Work so far, conducted on indicator species (songbirds, ground flora, butterflies, insects), suggests that there are likely to be marked environmental benefits to be gained through SRC.

  12. Different water use strategies of juvenile and adult Caragana intermedia plantations in the Gonghe Basin, Tibet Plateau.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqing Jia

    Full Text Available In a semi-arid ecosystem, water is one of the most important factors that affect vegetation dynamics, such as shrub plantation. A water use strategy, including the main water source that a plant species utilizes and water use efficiency (WUE, plays an important role in plant survival and growth. The water use strategy of a shrub is one of the key factors in the evaluation of stability and sustainability of a plantation.Caragana intermedia is a dominant shrub of sand-binding plantations on sand dunes in the Gonghe Basin in northeastern Tibet Plateau. Understanding the water use strategy of a shrub plantation can be used to evaluate its sustainability and long-term stability. We hypothesized that C. intermedia uses mainly deep soil water and its WUE increases with plantation age. Stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen were used to determine the main water source and leaf carbon isotope discrimination was used to estimate long-term WUE. The root system was investigated to determine the depth of the main distribution. The results showed that a 5-year-old C. intermedia plantation used soil water mainly at a depth of 0-30 cm, which was coincident with the distribution of its fine roots. However, 9- or 25-year-old C. intermedia plantations used mainly 0-50 cm soil depth water and the fine root system was distributed primarily at soil depths of 0-50 cm and 0-60 cm, respectively. These sources of soil water are recharged directly by rainfall. Moreover, the long-term WUE of adult plantations was greater than that of juvenile plantations.The C. intermedia plantation can change its water use strategy over time as an adaptation to a semi-arid environment, including increasing the depth of soil water used for root growth, and increasing long-term WUE.

  13. Different Water Use Strategies of Juvenile and Adult Caragana intermedia Plantations in the Gonghe Basin, Tibet Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhiqing; Zhu, Yajuan; Liu, Liying

    2012-01-01

    Background In a semi-arid ecosystem, water is one of the most important factors that affect vegetation dynamics, such as shrub plantation. A water use strategy, including the main water source that a plant species utilizes and water use efficiency (WUE), plays an important role in plant survival and growth. The water use strategy of a shrub is one of the key factors in the evaluation of stability and sustainability of a plantation. Methodology/Principal Findings Caragana intermedia is a dominant shrub of sand-binding plantations on sand dunes in the Gonghe Basin in northeastern Tibet Plateau. Understanding the water use strategy of a shrub plantation can be used to evaluate its sustainability and long-term stability. We hypothesized that C. intermedia uses mainly deep soil water and its WUE increases with plantation age. Stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen were used to determine the main water source and leaf carbon isotope discrimination was used to estimate long-term WUE. The root system was investigated to determine the depth of the main distribution. The results showed that a 5-year-old C. intermedia plantation used soil water mainly at a depth of 0–30 cm, which was coincident with the distribution of its fine roots. However, 9- or 25-year-old C. intermedia plantations used mainly 0–50 cm soil depth water and the fine root system was distributed primarily at soil depths of 0–50 cm and 0–60 cm, respectively. These sources of soil water are recharged directly by rainfall. Moreover, the long-term WUE of adult plantations was greater than that of juvenile plantations. Conclusions The C. intermedia plantation can change its water use strategy over time as an adaptation to a semi-arid environment, including increasing the depth of soil water used for root growth, and increasing long-term WUE. PMID:23029303

  14. Plutonium in coniferous forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantavaara, A.; Kostiainen, E.

    2002-01-01

    Our aim was to study the uptake of plutonium by trees, undervegetation and some wild foods. The ratio of 238 Pu/ 239,240 Pu in soil samples was determined for comparisons of the fallout origin. In twelve years the Chernobyl derived plutonium has not reached the mineral soil. This refers to a very slow downward migration in podsolic soil. The study confirmed also the low Pu uptake by vegetation and an insignificant contribution to human doses through wild foods. (au)

  15. Cadmium in willow plantations - municipal waste products as fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasselgren, K.

    1995-07-01

    Plantations of willows (i.e. Salix spp) seem to absorb cadmium (Cd) from arable land to a greater extent than other plant cultivations. Thus, energy forestry, based upon cultivation of Salix, could possibly be used for biofuel production in combination with biological purification of arable land contaminated with Cd by atmospheric deposition and P fertilizers during the passed 100 years. Application of sewage sludge (5-7 ppm Cd of dry solids) up to 550 g Cd per hectare, or 140 g Cd hectare and year, resulted in clearly increased concentrations of Cd in the upper 10 cm layer of the soil. In deeper soil layers the differences compared with control plots were small. Lower rates of sludge application, corresponding to less than 70 g added per hectare and year, did not materially affect the Cd-content in the soil irrespective of layer. A general pattern was that the content of Cd in plant tissues decreased with increased stem diameter, increased age of stems and stands as well as increased biomass growth. Thus, concentrations of Cd in Salix material, in clones from some of the first generation of energy forest plants (S. viminalis, S. dasyclados and S. schwerinii). were fairly high in young stands. In general, 1-year-old shoots contained 5-6 ppm Cd of dry solids in stems and 10-15 ppm in leaves. In older shoots, up to three years, and older stands, up to six years, the Cd contents decreased to 1-2 ppm Cd and 2-4 ppm Cd of dry solids for stems and leaves, respectively. Abundant supplies of water and nutrients seem to stimulate the Cd uptake in Salix in terms of higher concentrations in plant tissues as well as higher plant growth levels compared with conventional energy forestry. Stands with older stems, not irrigated and not fully fertilized resulted in uptake rates in the range of 10-30 g Cd per hectare and year. 14 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

  16. Dynamics of phytomass of a tree stand of the deciduous-coniferous phytocenosis in middle taiga of Komi Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Tarasov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Rock dumps of coalmines have high potential for forest regeneration and environmental capacity, which are dependent on the technology of reclamation and the properties of technogenic soils and grounds. Traditional forestry methods for obtaining the main criteria of biological indicators of woody vegetation were used in the study as follows: ground seed germination, seedling planting technology, composition and increment of tree stands, root structure, care harvesting of undergrowth, biotopic classification. Natural overgrowing of dumps is dependent on the availability of seeds and conditions for their germination and subsequent growth. Most of the zonal tree and shrub species are able to colonize and grow on the coalmine dumps. Mineralization of the dumps surfaces without rich soil stratum, porosity of the upper horizon of lithostratum, and low nutrient content (nitrogen give benefits in the growth and subsequent formation of birch, pine and sea-buckthorn stands. Afforestation is the cheapest and most effective method of biological reclamation. The analysis of artificial reforestation shows the probability of targeted plantation cultivation of various tree species. The use of a wide range of tree and shrub species make it possible to create biologically diverse intrazonal technogenic ecosystems with high recreational and economic productivity. Wildfires spreading out in spring season on herbaceous rags limit the overgrowth of the dumps by forest vegetation. Two-year cyclical increment decline of trees due to provocative spring warming takes place. The zoogenic factor, especially zoo chores distribution of berry plants, has essential value for forest forming process. By the results of forest formation analysis at rock dumps, alveolate-hilly technology of mine reclamation was developed, which allows to significantly improve dumps’ afforestation capacity, their biological posttechnogenic diversity and productivity.

  17. A whole stand growth and yield system for young longleaf pine plantations in Southwest Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Brooks; Steven B. Jack

    2006-01-01

    A whole stand growth and yield system for planted longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) was developed from permanent plot data collected annually over an 8 year period. The dataset consists of 12 intensively-managed longleaf pine plantations that are located in Lee, Worth, Mitchell, and Baker counties in southwest Georgia. Stand survival, dominant...

  18. Can early thinning and pruning lessen the impact of pine plantations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dwelling insects found in pine tree plantations in Patagonia. We compared the abundance, species richness and composition of the beetle and ant assemblages within 16-year-old pine stands (n = 10) subjected to early pruning and thinning (i.e. ...

  19. Response in water yield to the thinning of Pinus radiata, Pinus patula and Eucalyptus grandis plantations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lesch, W

    1997-12-15

    Full Text Available . radiata plantation in the Biesievlei catchment, annual stream flow increased by between 10 and 71% (19-99 mm). These increases persisted for three and two years after the thinning, respectively. A final thinning in the same catchment removed only 22...

  20. Where will the wood come from? Plantation forests and the role of biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenning, Trevor M; Gershenzon, Jonathan

    2002-07-01

    Wood is almost as important to humanity as food, and the natural forests from which most of it is harvested from are of enormous environmental value. However, these slow-growing forests are unable to meet current demand, resulting in the loss and degradation of forest. Plantation forests have the potential to supply the bulk of humanity's wood needs on a long-term basis, and so reduce to acceptable limits the harvest pressures on natural forests. However, if they are to be successful, plantation forests must have a far higher yield of timber than their natural counterparts, on much shorter rotation times. To achieve this in reasonable time, biotechnology must be applied to the tree-improvement process, for which large increases in public and private capital investment are needed. However, additional obstacles exist in the form of opposition to plantations, some forest ecocertification schemes, and concerns about aspects of forest biotechnology, especially genetic engineering. It is the intention of this article to explain, in detail, why plantation forests are needed to sustainably meet the world's demand for wood, why they are not being developed fast enough, and why the application of biotechnology to tree improvement is essential to speeding up this process.

  1. Poor stem form as a potential limitation to private investment in koa plantation forestry in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul G. Scowcroft; James B. Friday; Janis Haraguchi; Travis Idol; Nicklos S. Dudley

    2010-01-01

    Providing economic incentives to landholders is an effective way of promoting sustainable forest management, conservation and restoration. In Hawaii, the main native hardwood species with commercial value is Acacia koa (koa), but lack of successful examples of koa plantation forestry hinders private investment. Financial models, which have been offered to encourage...

  2. Divergent stakeholder views of corporate social responsibility in the Australian forest plantation sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Melissa; Lockwood, Michael; Vanclay, Frank; Hanson, Dallas; Schirmer, Jacki

    2012-12-30

    Although the Australian forest plantation industry acknowledges that there is a role for corporate social responsibility (CSR) in forest management, there is confusion as to what this constitutes in practice. This paper describes the conflicts between internal and external stakeholder views on CSR in plantation forestry. We conducted in-depth interviews with key informants across three plantation management regions in Australia: Tasmania, the Green Triangle and south-west Western Australia. We interviewed a range of stakeholders including forest company employees, local councils, Indigenous representatives, and environmental non-government organisations. CSR-related initiatives that stakeholders believed were important for plantation management included the need for community engagement, accountability towards stakeholders, and contribution to community development and well-being. Although there was wide support for these initiatives, some stakeholders were not satisfied that forest companies were actively implementing them. Due to the perception that forest companies are not committed to CSR initiatives such as community engagement, some stakeholder expectations are not being satisfied. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of plantation and juvenile spacing on tree and stand development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Harry G. Smith; Donald L. Reukema

    1986-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to summarize current knowledge of effects of initial spacing and respacing of plantations and natural stands on early growth until the time of first commercial entry—for coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco), concentrating on conclusions that can be drawn from the literature and the authors...

  4. Natesa Aiyar and Meenachi Ammal: Pioneers of Trade Unionism and Feminism on The Plantations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Kurian (Rachel); K. Jayawardena (Kumari)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractNatesa Aiyar and Meenachi were labour activists, politicians and visionaries who used their the oratory and organisational skills, to mobilise the workers to struggle mobilise for better working conditions and wages, as well citizenship rights for all women and men on the plantations.

  5. Dynamics of root and leaf decomposition in chronosequence of rubber plantation (Hevea brasilensis) in SW China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moazzam, N.S.; Yiping, Z.; Liqing, S.; Moazzam, N.S.

    2018-01-01

    This study highlighted the dynamics of stand parameters as well as root and leaf litter decomposition in the chronosequence (49, 32, 24 and 12 years old plantations established in the year 1965, 1982, 1990 and 2002) of the rubber plantation in Xishuangbanna SW China. Litter trappers were installed on the study site to collect the leaf litter and litter bag experiment was carried out to investigate the rate of root and leaf litter decomposition. The study revealed significant variation of stand characteristics during the decomposition process. The monthly litter fall and root biomass (all categories; kg m-3) showed positive correlation with stand characteristics and age. Remaining leaf litter mass % in the litter bags reduced with the passage of time and was significantly different in the chronosequence. The highest root decomposition rate (55%) was shown by fine roots and minimum (32%) by coarse roots during the study period. The investigations on elemental composition of the leaf and root provides basic important information for rate of nutrient cycle along with decomposition rate in rubber plantation and result are quite helpful for simulating the below ground carbon stock of rubber plantation in SW China. (author)

  6. Temporal optimisation of fuel treatment design in blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus) plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ana Martin; Brigite Botequim; Tiago M. Oliveira; Alan Ager; Francesco Pirotti

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to support fire and forest management planning in eucalypt plantations based on economic, ecological and fire prevention criteria, with a focus on strategic prioritisation of fuel treatments over time. The central objective was to strategically locate fuel treatments to minimise losses from wildfire while meeting budget constraints and demands...

  7. The rubber plantation environment and Lassa fever epidemics in Liberia, 2008-2012: a spatial regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olugasa, Babasola O; Dogba, John B; Ogunro, Bamidele; Odigie, Eugene A; Nykoi, Jomah; Ojo, Johnson F; Taiwo, Olalekan; Kamara, Abraham; Mulbah, Charles K; Fasunla, Ayotunde J

    2014-10-01

    As Lassa fever continues to be a public health challenge in West Africa, it is critical to produce good maps of its risk pattern for use in active surveillance and control intervention. We identified eight spatial features related to the rubber plantation environment and used them as explanatory variables for Lassa fever (LF) outbreaks on the Uniroyal Liberian Agricultural Company (LAC) rubber plantation environment in Grand Bassa County, Liberia. We computed classical and spatial lag regression models on all spatial features, including proximity of residential camp to rubber tree-edge, main road in the plantation, LAC hospital, rice farmland, household refuse dump, human population density, post-harvest storage density of rice and density of rodent deterrent on rice storage. We found significant (p=0.0024) spatial autocorrelation between LF cases and the spatial features we have considered. We concluded that the rubber plantation environment influenced Mastomys species' breeding and transmission of Lassa virus along spatial scale to humans. The risk factors identified in this study offered a baseline for more effective surveillance and control of LF in the post-civil conflict Liberia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Darjeeling Distinction: Labor and Justice on Fair-Trade Tea Plantations in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Poerting

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: The Darjeeling Distinction: Labor and Justice on Fair-Trade Tea Plantations in India. By Sarah Besky. Berkeley, CA: University of California press, 2014. xxxi + 233 pp. US$ 29.95. ISBN 978-0-520-27739-7.

  9. Creation and implementation of a certification system for insurability and fire risk classification for forest plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronica Loewe M.; Victor Vargas; Juan Miguel Ruiz; Andrea Alvarez C.; Felipe Lobo Q.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the Chilean insurance market sells forest fire insurance policies and agricultural weather risk policies. However, access to forest fire insurance is difficult for small and medium enterprises (SMEs), with a significant proportion (close to 50%) of forest plantations being without coverage. Indeed, the insurance market that sells forest fire insurance...

  10. Frost related dieback in Estonian energy plantations of willows in relation to fertilisation and pathogenic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cambours, M.A.; Nejad, P. [Department of Forest Mycology and Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7026, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Heinsoo, K. [Institute of Zoology and Botany, Estonian Agricultural University, Riia 181, 51014 Tartu (Estonia); Granhall, U. [Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7025, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2006-03-15

    Two 9-year old Estonian Salix plantations suffering from dieback were studied: one situated on poor mineral soil and divided into fertilised and unfertilised plots (Saare plantation) and another growing on a well-decomposed and nitrogen-rich organic soil, without fertiliser application (Kambja plantation). Bacteria from internal tissues of visually damaged shoots from seven clones were isolated in spring and autumn. The strains were subsequently biochemically characterised and tested for ice nucleation activity and pathogenicity on Salix. Some strains were also analysed with 16S rRNA. High numbers of culturable bacteria were found, belonging mainly to Erwinia, Sphingomonas, Pseudomonas and Xanthomonas spp. Fertilised plots were significantly more colonised by bacteria than unfertilised plots and also more extensively damaged, showing a lower density of living plants after 7 years of culture. More ice nucleation active (INA) strains were found in Saare fertilised plots and at Kambja than in Saare unfertilised plots. Likewise, most pathogenic strains were isolated from Saare fertilised plots and from Kambja. For some of the willow clones studied, dieback appeared to be related to both clonal frost sensitivity and abundance of INA and pathogenic bacteria. The plantations probably suffered from the presence of high amounts of pathogens and from frost related injuries aggravated by INA bacteria. Most probably the fertilisation at Saare and the nitrogen-rich soil at Kambja created a favourable environment for bacterial development and led to high dieback levels after the first harvest. (author)

  11. Geostatistics as a tool to study mite dispersion in physic nut plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, J F; Picanço, M C; Sarmento, R A; Pereira, R M; Pedro-Neto, M; Galdino, T V S; de Sousa Saraiva, A; Erasmo, E A L

    2015-08-01

    Spatial distribution studies in pest management identify the locations where pest attacks on crops are most severe, enabling us to understand and predict the movement of such pests. Studies on the spatial distribution of two mite species, however, are rather scarce. The mites Polyphagotarsonemus latus and Tetranychus bastosi are the major pests affecting physic nut plantations (Jatropha curcas). Therefore, the objective of this study was to measure the spatial distributions of P. latus and T. bastosi in the physic nut plantations. Mite densities were monitored over 2 years in two different plantations. Sample locations were georeferenced. The experimental data were analyzed using geostatistical analyses. The total mite density was found to be higher when only one species was present (T. bastosi). When both the mite species were found in the same plantation, their peak densities occurred at different times. These mites, however, exhibited uniform spatial distribution when found at extreme densities (low or high). However, the mites showed an aggregated distribution in intermediate densities. Mite spatial distribution models were isotropic. Mite colonization commenced at the periphery of the areas under study, whereas the high-density patches extended until they reached 30 m in diameter. This has not been reported for J. curcas plants before.

  12. Mapping Oil Palm Plantations in Cameroon Using PALSAR 50-m Orthorectified Mosaic Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm plantations have expanded rapidly. Estimating either positive effects on the economy, or negative effects on the environment, requires accurate maps. In this paper, three classification algorithms (Support Vector Machine (SVM, Decision Tree and K-Means were explored to map oil palm plantations in Cameroon, using PALSAR 50 m Orthorectified Mosaic images and differently sized training samples. SVM had the ideal performance with overall accuracy ranging from 86% to 92% and a Kappa coefficient from 0.76 to 0.85, depending upon the training sample size (ranging from 20 to 500 pixels per class. The advantage of SVM was more obvious when the training sample size was smaller. K-Means required the user’s intervention, and thus, the accuracy depended on the level of his/her expertise and experience. For large-scale mapping of oil palm plantations, the Decision Tree algorithm outperformed both SVM and K-Means in terms of speed and performance. In addition, the decision threshold values of Decision Tree for a large training sample size agrees with the results from previous studies, which implies the possible universality of the decision threshold. If it can be verified, the Decision Tree algorithm will be an easy and robust methodology for mapping oil palm plantations.

  13. Production and carbon allocation in a clonal Eucalyptus plantation with water and nutrient manipulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose Luiz Stape; Dan Binkley; Michael G. Ryan

    2008-01-01

    We examined resource limitations on growth and carbon allocation in a fast-growing, clonal plantation of Eucalyptus grandis urophylla in Brazil by characterizing responses to annual rainfall, and response to irrigation and fertililization for 2 years. Productivity measures included gross primary production (GPP), total belowground carbon allocation (...

  14. Herbivore impact on beech in selected tree plantations in the Beskydy and Jeseniky Mountains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suchomel, J.; Heroldová, Marta; Purchart, L.; Homolka, Miloslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 2 (2010), s. 187-192 ISSN 1803-2451 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH72075 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : browsing on tree species * man-made plantations * red deer * roe deer * brown hare Subject RIV: GK - Forestry

  15. Influence of Plantation Establishment on Discharge Characteristics in a Small Catchment of Tropical Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Aisah Shamsuddin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted on the impact of forest clearance on discharge from newly established Hopea odorata plantations catchment (14.4 ha. The stands were two years old when this study commenced in year 2006 and the data collection was carried out for two years. The forested catchment (C3 was clear-cut during the preparation of the forest plantation and catchment C1 was left undisturbed. Discharge and rainfall were measured continuously for two years. The discharge measured from years 1997 to 2003 was used also to determine the water yield before and after forest clear-cut. This study showed that the plantation catchment is more responsive to storm with higher total water yield than in the forested catchment. The effect of forest clear cutting to discharge was clearly shown by the increment in the amount following the clear-cut activities and time taken for the recovery of the discharge back to its original state was almost three years. The peak discharge in C3 also was affected in which the biggest change was obtained during the forest clear-cutting period compared with during calibration and after clearing periods. This study is useful as basis for improving the existing guidelines on forest plantation establishment.

  16. Soil enzyme activities in Pinus tabuliformis (Carriere) plantations in northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiwei Wang; Deborah Page-Dumroese; Ruiheng Lv; Chen Xiao; Guolei Li; Yong Liu

    2016-01-01

    Changes in forest stand structure may alter the activity of invertase, urease, catalase and phenol oxidase after thinning Pinus tabuliformis (Carriére) plantations in Yanqing County of Beijing, China. We examined changes in these soil enzymes as influenced by time since thinning (24, 32, and 40 years since thinning) for 3 seasons (spring, summer and autumn)...

  17. Selected yield tables for plantations and natural stands in Inland Northwest Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert R. Stage; David L. Renner; Roger C. Chapman

    1988-01-01

    Yields arrayed by site index and age have been tabulated for plantations of 500 trees per acre, with five thinning regimes, for Douglas-fir, grand fir, and western larch. Yields were also tabulated for naturally regenerated stands of the grand fir-cedar-hemlock ecosystem of the Inland Empire. All yields were estimated with the Prognosis Model for Stand Development,...

  18. [Transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis associated with cacao (Theobroma cacao) plantations in Tabasco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrada Figueroa, Georgina Del Carmen; Leal Ascencio, Víctor Javier; Jiménez Sastré, Alejandro; López Álvarez, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Tabasco is the Mexican state that reported the highest number (37.4%) of patients with leishmaniasis during 1990-2011. Close to 90% of these patients lived in Chontalpa, where the municipality of Cunduacán accounted for the majority of the cases. One of the characteristics of this region is that houses are located within cacao plantations. To determine if cacao plantations are a risk factor for leishmaniasis transmission in locations of Cunduacán, Tabasco. We performed an analytical and retrospective study of 115 locations in Cunduacán, analyzing the number of localities with or without patients with leishmaniasis registered between 2000-2011 and, additionally, if they had cacao plantations, using a map where different crops were georeferenced. We measured the magnitude of the association (odds ratio, 95% CI). During the period 2000-2011, cases of leishmaniasis were reported in 77 (67.0%) Cunduacán locations, of these, 55 (71.4%) had cocoa plantations, five (6.5%) of banana, five (6.5%) of cane, and 12 (15.6%) had no crops georeferenced. We found that cocoa crops are a risk factor for the transmission of leishmaniasis (OR: 3.438; 95% CI: 1,526-7,742). The probability of transmission of leishmaniasis in areas with cocoa crops is greater than in communities without this crop.

  19. Identifying the Entrepreneurship Characteristics of the Oil Palm Community Plantation Farmers in the Riau Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brilliant Asmit

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm is an essential and strategic commodity in the Riau area because of its considerable role in supporting the peoples’ economy, especially for plantation farmers. Oil palm plantation activities have brought economic impacts to society there, both for the people who are directly involved with the plantations and for their surrounding communities. This regional advantage is a facility for farmers to be able to develop their farms as plantations. The aims of this research are to identify the entrepreneurship characteristics of the oil palm farmers, and also to identify the entrepreneurship characteristics that differentiate the farmers, as seen from their business’ achievements. The research used a grounded theory approach to identify the characteristics of oil palm farmers systematically. The sampling method used for the research was theoretical sampling, which is data gathering driven by the concepts derived from the theory of previous entrepreneurship characteristics studies. The research object is the oil palm farmers in Riau, Indonesia. The results of the analysis identified the entrepreneurship characteristics of the oil palm farmers, they are growth oriented, risk-taking, innovative, with a sense of personal control, self confident, and cooperative. But, among the characteristics, only the characteristic of their cooperation did not differentiate the oil palm farmers in the achievement of their business activities.

  20. Biomass production in an age series of Pinus patula plantation in Tamil Nadu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, S C; Srivastava, V K

    1984-09-01

    Distribution of organic matter in different tree components of 3, 5, 9, 11 and 13 years old plantations of Pinus patula has been discussed. The total biomass ranged from 7 tonnes (3 years) to 194 tonnes (9 years) per ha with 82 to 87% being contributed by the above ground parts and 13 to 18% by root.