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Sample records for subadult red swamp

  1. Ground survey of red lechwe in the Linyanti swamps and Chobe floodplains, northern Botswana

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    Phemelo Gadimang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A ground survey of red lechwe was carried out in the Linyanti swamps and the Chobe floodplains of northern Botswana in the dry and wet seasons of 2012 and 2013, respectively. We documented numbers, sex ratio and age structure of red lechwe within the linear strips of 25 km × 300 m along the Linyanti swamps and the Chobe floodplains. Results indicated a significant difference in the numbers of red lechwe between sites and seasons. About 66 and 755 red lechwe were estimated for Chobe in the dry and wet season, respectively, with 343 and 261 of them estimated for Linyanti in the dry and wet season, respectively. In Chobe, the red lechwe densities varied widely between seasons (9 red lechwe/km2 – 101 red lechwe/km2 compared with Linyanti, where the densities did not vary much between seasons (35 red lechwe/km2 – 46 red lechwe/km2 . The lower densities of red lechwe in Chobe in the dry season when compared with the wet season suggest a possible seasonal shift in the distribution of red lechwe to the nearby Zambezi floodplains in Namibia. Conservation implications: The higher number of red lechwe in the Chobe floodplains in the wet season indicates the potential of the floodplains as a habitat for this species in that season. The dry season shift in the distribution of red lechwe in Chobe presents an opportunity for local communities in Namibia to engage in tourism, whereas the return of the red lechwe to the floodplains in the wet season ensures protection of the animals as well as boosts the tourism potential of the Chobe National Park.

  2. Characterization of Population Genetic Structure of red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, in China.

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    Yi, Shaokui; Li, Yanhe; Shi, Linlin; Zhang, Long; Li, Qingbin; Chen, Jing

    2018-04-03

    The red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) is one of the most economically important farmed aquatic species in China. However, it is also a famous invasive species in the world. This invasive species was dispersed most via human activities including intentional or unintentional carry in China. Thus, P. clarkii naturally distributed in China provides us a desirable mode to investigate the genetic structure of an invasive species dispersed mainly by human-mediated factors. To reveal the impact of human-mediated dispersal on genetic structure of P. clarkii in China, a total of 22,043 genome-wide SNPs were obtained from approximately 7.4 billion raw reads using 2b-RAD technique in this study. An evident pattern of population genetic structure and the asymmetrical migrational rates between different regions were observed with 22 populations based on these SNPs. This study provide a better understanding of the population genetic structure and demographic history of P. clarkii populations in China, inferring that anthropogenic factors (aquaculture or by accident) and ecological factors (e.g., complicated topography and climatic environment), as well as its special biological traits could account for the current population structure pattern and dispersal history of P. clarkii.

  3. EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE FOR HOMING IN THE RED SWAMP CRAYFISH, PROCAMBARUS CLARKII

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    BARBARESI S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, is an efficient burrower, but its burrow fidelity has been recently questioned. In this study, we aimed at investigating whether individuals of this species are capable to learn the position of a goal (a wet burrow hidden to their sight in experimental tanks and to make more efficient with time their oriented movement towards it. We also analyzed crayfish behavior after having closed one of the two accesses to the goal. Indeed, in successive trials we recorded the crayfish tendency to reduce the distance covered to reach the goal and the time taken, except when they were already familiar to the experimental setting. Memory of the spatial configuration lasted for 16 hours at least and crayfish learned and maintained individual trajectories. The interruption of their usual path always caused a drastic increase of distance and time that however decreased in the successive trials. This study provided also some information of the sensory channels used by P. clarkii to orient. This crayfish, which can be active also during daytime, seemed to adopt a combination of tactile and visual information, together with the possible use of cues (i.e. humidity cues emitted by the goal. Future studies should clarify the paradox of a crayfish species whose individuals, although being physiologically capable to home, seem not to return to the previously occupied burrows at the end of their foraging excursions, notwithstanding the time and energy expended to excavate them.

  4. Antibacterial properties of extracts of Solidago canadensis and their potential use as dietary supplements in red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii

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    Manhong YE,Lei ZHANG,Jiaqi GE,Haifeng SUN,Jingjing NI,Shengmei YANG,Wanhong WEI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Canadian goldenrod (Solidago canadensis is one of the most destructive invasive weeds in South-eastern China. To evaluate its potential application as dietary supplement in red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii, the antibacterial properties of aqueous and ethanol extracts of this plant against three major pathogenic bacteria in crayfish aquaculture were examined. Inhibition zone tests and determination of minimum inhibitory concentration revealed that the extracts had lower antibacterial activity than extracts from two traditional medicinal plants that possess antibacterial properties, garlic (Allium sativum and cortex phellodendri (Phellodendron chinense. However, they did exhibit greater antibacterial effects than extracts from another widely used medicinal plant, Sophora flavescens, and an aquatic weed, Alternanthera philoxeroides. Aqueous extracts of Canadian goldenrod gave greater inhibition than the ethanol extracts. Crayfish fed a diet with 2% these aqueous extracts exhibited significantly higher enzyme activity of alkaline phosphatase, catalase and phenoloxidase (P<0.05. Based on the results of this study, we conclude that aqueous extracts of Canadian goldenrod are highly promising for the development of new dietary supplement for use in crayfish aquaculture.

  5. Inferring Invasion History of Red Swamp Crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) in China from Mitochondrial Control Region and Nuclear Intron Sequences

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    Li, Yanhe; Guo, Xianwu; Chen, Liping; Bai, Xiaohui; Wei, Xinlan; Zhou, Xiaoyun; Huang, Songqian; Wang, Weimin

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the dispersal pathways of an invasive species is useful for adopting the appropriate strategies to prevent and control its spread. However, these processes are exceedingly complex. So, it is necessary to apply new technology and collect representative samples for analysis. This study used Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) in combination with traditional genetic tools to examine extensive sample data and historical records to infer the invasion history of the red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, in China. The sequences of the mitochondrial control region and the proPOx intron in the nuclear genome of samples from 37 sites (35 in China and one each in Japan and the USA) were analyzed. The results of combined scenarios testing and historical records revealed a much more complex invasion history in China than previously believed. P. clarkii was most likely originally introduced into China from Japan from an unsampled source, and the species then expanded its range primarily into the middle and lower reaches and, to a lesser extent, into the upper reaches of the Changjiang River in China. No transfer was observed from the upper reaches to the middle and lower reaches of the Changjiang River. Human-mediated jump dispersal was an important dispersal pathway for P. clarkii. The results provide a better understanding of the evolutionary scenarios involved in the rapid invasion of P. clarkii in China. PMID:26132567

  6. Inferring Invasion History of Red Swamp Crayfish (Procambarus clarkii in China from Mitochondrial Control Region and Nuclear Intron Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhe Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the dispersal pathways of an invasive species is useful for adopting the appropriate strategies to prevent and control its spread. However, these processes are exceedingly complex. So, it is necessary to apply new technology and collect representative samples for analysis. This study used Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC in combination with traditional genetic tools to examine extensive sample data and historical records to infer the invasion history of the red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, in China. The sequences of the mitochondrial control region and the proPOx intron in the nuclear genome of samples from 37 sites (35 in China and one each in Japan and the USA were analyzed. The results of combined scenarios testing and historical records revealed a much more complex invasion history in China than previously believed. P. clarkii was most likely originally introduced into China from Japan from an unsampled source, and the species then expanded its range primarily into the middle and lower reaches and, to a lesser extent, into the upper reaches of the Changjiang River in China. No transfer was observed from the upper reaches to the middle and lower reaches of the Changjiang River. Human-mediated jump dispersal was an important dispersal pathway for P. clarkii. The results provide a better understanding of the evolutionary scenarios involved in the rapid invasion of P. clarkii in China.

  7. Heavy metals bioaccumulation in selected tissues of red swamp crayfish: An easy tool for monitoring environmental contamination levels.

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    Goretti, E; Pallottini, M; Ricciarini, M I; Selvaggi, R; Cappelletti, D

    2016-07-15

    In this paper we explored the heavy metal bioaccumulation (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) in Procambarus clarkii, a crayfish recently suggested as a potential bioindicator for metals pollution in freshwater systems. The present study is focused on crayfishes populations caught in a heavily polluted industrial and in a reference sites (Central Italy), though the results are generalized with a thorough analysis of literature metadata. In agreement with the literature, the hepatopancreas (Hep, detoxification tissues) of the red swamp crayfish showed a higher concentration of heavy metals in comparison to the abdominal muscle (AbM, not detoxification tissues) in the sites under scrutiny. Hep/AbM concentration ratio was dependent on the specific metal investigated and on its sediment contamination level. Specifically we found that Hep/AbM ratio decreases as follows: Cd (11.7)>Cu (5.5)>Pb (3.6)>Zn (1.0) and Pb (4.34)>Cd (3.66)>Zn (1.69)>Cu (0.87) for the industrial and reference sites, respectively. The analysis of our bioaccumulation data as well as of literature metadata allowed to elaborate a specific contamination index (Toxic Contamination Index, TCI), dependent only on the bioaccumulation data of hepatopancreas and abdominal muscle. In the industrial site, TCI expressed values much higher than the unit for Cd and Cu, confirming that these metals were the main contaminants; in contrast for lower levels of heavy metals, as those observed in the reference site for Cu, Zn and Pb, the index provided values below unit. TCI is proposed as a useful and easy tool to assess the toxicity level of contaminated sites by heavy metals in the environmental management. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Tracking the invasion of the red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii (Girard, 1852 (Decapoda Cambaridae in Sicily: a “citizen science” approach

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    Francesco Paolo Faraone

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The first record of the red swamp crayfish in Sicily dates back to 2003 and, since then, the species seemed to be confined to a few localities in western Sicily. A small “citizen science” project carried out from November 2016 onwards led to the creation of the “Sicilian Procambarus working group” (SPwg, which aims at monitoring the distribution and impact of the species in Sicily. To date, the SPwg found the red swamp crayfish in five new sites on the island, thus doubling the number of local sites of occurrence. The new Procambarus clarkii sites lie in different river basins, some of them located several hundred kilometres from the invaded areas known to date, suggesting the existence of multiple independent releases of the species in the wild. The need of better informing the local population on the risks exerted by invasive species on biological diversity, and of carefully monitoring the impact of P. clarkii on the Sicilian inland water biota is briefly stressed.

  9. Habitat use and population structure of the invasive red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii (Girard, 1852 in a protected area in northern Italy

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    Donato Roberta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii is one of the most invasive alien species in Europe and included in the list of invasive species of Union concern. We describe for the first time some life-history traits of a red swamp crayfish population in the Nature Reserve of the Lago di Candia (Italy. We investigated (1 preferences of this species for specific environmental features on the banks of the lake, and (2 differences in size, sex ratio, and condition index between individuals caught in lake and marsh. Moreover, we compared sampling effort and the features of individuals caught in the lake, for two sampling seasons in 2014 and 2015. Findings indicated that the population was well established, and the marsh seemed to have better conditions for growth of individuals than the lake. Accordingly, continuity of riparian vegetation, opportunity to dig burrows, and trophic resource availability seems to facilitate the proliferation of the crayfish in the lake. Our study demonstrated that massive removal efforts over the whole active period of the species and more than one year of trapping are necessary to increase the controlling activities' success. This study could have important implications for further population management projects directed at biodiversity conservation in the area.

  10. PcToll3 was involved in anti-Vibrio response by regulating the expression of antimicrobial peptides in red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii.

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    Lan, Jiang-Feng; Wei, Shun; Wang, Yu-Qing; Dai, Yun-Jia; Tu, Jia-Gang; Zhao, Li-Juan; Li, Xin-Cang; Qin, Qi-Wei; Chen, Nan; Lin, Li

    2016-10-01

    Tolls and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in host immune defenses by regulating the expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and cytokines, but the functional differences of crustacean Tolls from Drosophila Tolls or Mammal TLRs are largely unknown. A novel Toll receptor, named PcToll3, was identified from red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii. It was widely expressed in all detected tissues, and its transcript in hemocytes was up-regulated at 12 h after Vibrio parahemolyticus (Vibrio) injection or at 24 h post white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge. After knockdown of PcToll3, the activity of bacterial clearance was inhibited, and the expression levels of AMPs including Crustin1 (Cru1), Anti-lippopolysaccharide factor 1 (ALF1), and Lysozymes1 (Lys1), which could be up-regulated by Vibrio, were all affected. Meanwhile, PcToll3 silencing influenced the expression of myeloid differentiation factor 88 (PcMyd88), tumor necrosis factor-associated factor 6 (PcTRAF6), and PcDorsal, which were the counterparts of Drosophila Toll signaling pathway. Interestingly, PcToll3 silencing inhibited translocation of PcDorsal from cytoplasm to nucleus. Furthermore, the knockdown of PcDorsal also impaired the expression of AMPs after Vibrio challenge. Hence, we concluded that, besides participating in antiviral immunity, PcToll3 might also regulate the expression of Cru1 and Lys1 to participate in anti-Vibrio immune responses by promoting PcDorsal translocation into nucleus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Characteristics of mangrove swamps managed for mosquito control in eastern Florida, USA

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    Middleton, B.; Devlin, D.; Proffitt, E.; McKee, K.; Cretini, K.F.

    2008-01-01

    Manipulations of the vegetation and hydrology of wetlands for mosquito control are common worldwide, but these modifications may affect vital ecosystem processes. To control mosquitoes in mangrove swamps in eastern Florida, managers have used rotational impoundment management (RIM) as an alternative to the worldwide practice of mosquito ditching. Levees surround RIM swamps, and water is pumped into the impoundment during the summer, a season when natural swamps have low water levels. In the New World, these mosquito-managed swamps resemble the mixed basin type of mangrove swamp (based on PCA analysis). An assessment was made of RIM, natural (control), and breached-RIM (restored) swamps in eastern Florida to compare their structural complexities, soil development, and resistance to invasion. Regarding structural complexity, dominant species composition differed between these swamps; the red mangrove Rhizophora mangle occurred at a higher relative density in RIM and breached-RIM swamps, and the black mangrove Avicennia germinans had a higher relative density in natural swamps. Tree density and canopy cover were higher and tree height lower in RIM swamps than in natural and breached-RIM swamps. Soil organic matter in RIM swamps was twice that in natural or breached-RIM swamps. RIM swamps had a lower resistance to invasion by the Brazilian pepper tree Schinus terebinthifolius, which is likely attributable to the lower porewater salinity in RIM swamps. These characteristics may reflect differences in important ecosystem processes (primary production, trophic structure, nutrient cycling, decomposition). Comparative assessments of managed wetlands are vital for land managers, so that they can make informed decisions compatible with conservation objectives. ?? Inter-Research 2008.

  12. Magruder Park Swamp

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    Hotchkiss, N.; Uhler, F.M.

    1967-01-01

    The last Tuesday in August, between five-thirty and seven in the evening, we zigzaged through this glorious jungle, attended by a family of Wood Pewees for whom we seemed to be stirring up a feast of flying insects. There was gentle background music by Mole Crickets. A few steps in from the playing field and we were out of sight in ten-foot-high Cattails. All through, we met -- as high as we, or higher--clumped Cinnamon Ferns, deep-rose Joe Pye Weed, and orange, pendent flowers of Jewelweed (first cousins to Balsam and Sultana). Here and there were soft, white spikes of Canadian Burnet, a rare plant hereabouts, and deep purple Ironweed. Dense-foliaged Hempweed climbed over bushes and up small trees, filling the air with its delicate fragrance. Arrowleaf Tear-thumb snatched at us with tiny prongs on its angled stems. Once in a while we tripped over huge sedge tussocks, half-hidden in the tangle. A few times we steered around a small bush of Poison Sumac. The next day We remembered seeing ninety kinds of plants on this hasty trip. Skunk Cabbage leaves recalled April, when a person, from the edge of the lawn, could see huge clumps of them all the way across the swamp. The sky had been washed by last week's downpours; scattered Gums were reddening; and Maples were getting ready for crimson beauty a month from now. There wasn't a mosquito! (Ed. Note.-The Hyattsville City Council is taking pains to preserve this interesting swamp.)

  13. Food preference and feeding rhythm in red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii%克氏原螯虾的食物选择性及其摄食节律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐增洪; 周鑫; 水燕

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile and adult red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) were reared in tanks (60 cm × 40 cm × 40 cm) at a rate of 20 individuals per tank and fed 5 aquatic plant species (Altemanthera philoxeroides, Eichhornia crassipes, Lesser duckweed Lemna minor, Elodea nultallii, and pondweed ValUsneria natans) to evaluate food I-tems and changes in food filling in stomach and intestines during day and night. In addition, the growth was compared in th crayfish reared in a paddyfield and fed three diets ( crayfish feedstuff with 30% protein, aquatic grasses and trash fish). The food in the intestine of the juvenile crayfish was found to be primarily comprised of zooplankton and phytoplankton. The adult crayfish was shown to have lower food preference, almost all of edible aquatic animals and plants, organic detritus, and artificial feed available in waters being consumed, and aquatic plants constituting their main food due to wide distribution, and easy ingesting. The feeding rhythm was observed during day and night in the crayfish culture pond, the two peaks at 8:00-10:00 and 19:00-22:00. There was significantly better growth in the adult crayfish fed Elodea nuttallii, Lesser duckweed and Vallisneria natans than that in the crayfish fed Altemanthera philoxeroides and Eichharnia crassipes(P0. 05) , even though the crayfish fed Lesser duckweed had slightly better growth than the crayfish fed Elodea nuUallii, and ValUsneria natans did. There was significant difference in daily weight gain rate in the juvenile crayfish fed lesser duckweed, Elodea nuttallii, Vallisneria natans, Altemanthera philoxeroides,Eichhornia crassipes(P<0.05). In the rice field, however, the crayfish fed trash fish was shown to have much better growth than that the crayfish fed pelleted food, and pelleted feedstuff combined with aquatic plants.%对克氏原螫虾Procambarus clarkii幼虾和成虾的胃及肠道内的食物组成和食物充塞度的昼夜变化规律进行了观察;在水族箱(60 cm

  14. Peat swamp forest of Thailand

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    Niyomdham, C.; Urapeepatanapong, C.; Pitayakajornwute, P. [Pikoolthong Royal Development Study Center, Bangkok (Thailand). Royal Forest Department

    1996-12-31

    Peat swamp forest in Thailand occurs extensively along coastal flatlands in the central and southern parts of the country and some small patches of topogenous peatland are present locally on several mountain tops of the northern region. Many have been deteriorated by recent extensive development programs. However, one large area, about 347.04 km{sup 2}, of ombrogenous peatland is still left intact in the Pru Toh Dang area where conservation activities are being strictly enforced under one of the Royal Initiative Projects. Pru Toh Dang peat consists of 5 metres of fibrous organic soil overlying pyritic marine clay. Despite an inhospitable, submerged and unstable forest floor, the floristic composition of the peat swamp forest is extremely complicated, consisting of 124 families and 470 species of which 109 families and 437 species of flowering plants, and 15 families and 33 species of ferns recorded between 1983-1989 by a team from the Forest Herbarium of the Royal Forest Department of Thailand. (orig.) (4 refs.)

  15. Silvical characteristics of red maple (Acer rubrum)

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    Russell J. Hutnik; Harry W. Yawney

    1961-01-01

    Red maple (Acer rubrum L.) is also known as Carolina red maple, scarlet maple, soft maple, swamp maple, water maple, and white maple. Taxonomists recognize several varieties of red maple. The most common is Drummond red maple (Acer rubrum var. drummondii (Hook, & Arn.) Sarg.).

  16. Kennedy Space Center: Swamp Works

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    DeFilippo, Anthony Robert

    2013-01-01

    When I began my internship with the Granular Mechanics and Regolith Operations laboratory (GMRO), also known as Swamp Works, I was given the unique opportunity to shadow many teams working on various projects, and decide what projects I wanted to take part in. Before I go into details of my experiences at Swamp Works, I would like to take a moment to explain what I discovered Swamp Works to be. Swamp Works is a family of hardworking, dedicated, and driven people from various backgrounds and skill sets. These people all work to advance technologies and make science fiction science fact through means of rapid prototyping. They support and encourage failure as an option when learning new things, as long as lesson learned from said failure. In fact, their motto states "Fail, Fast, Forward." What this means is, not if but when one fails he or she must do so quickly and spring forward from the failure so that his or her progress is not delayed. With this acceptance, it provided me the confidence to dive into a multitude of projects working in various fields and with a wide range of skill sets. The first project I joined was Badger. My motivation for taking on this project was the opportunity I would have to obtain valuable experience working with 3D modeling and 3D printing technologies. Badger was a digging apparatus to be used in a highly dusty environment in a material known as Regolith. Regolith is a scientific term for the dirt or top soil found on planetary bodies. Regolith contains a large quantity of sediments less than lOppm and as a result poses a challenge of keeping it out of any cracks and crevices. Furthermore, regolith can create high levels of electrostatic energy, which can prove damaging to sensitive electrical hardware. With these characteristics in mind, I decided to take on the task of designing and manufacturing a dust proof cover for the sensitive electrical hardware. When I began this project, I did not have the slightest idea as to how to use 3D

  17. Use of a fishery-independent trawl survey to evaluate distribution patterns of subadult sharks in Georgia

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    Belcher, C.N.; Jennings, Cecil A.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the utility of a fishery-independent trawl survey for assessing a potential multispecies shark nursery in Georgia's nearshore and inshore waters. A total of 234 subadult sharks from six species were captured during 85 of 216 trawls. Catch rates and size distributions for subadult sharks and the ratio of neonates to juveniles were consistent among areas. The highest concentrations of subadult sharks occurred in creeks and sounds. Species composition varied among areas. The Atlantic sharpnose shark Rhizoprionodon terraenovae was the most abundant species in sound and nearshore stations, whereas the bonnethead Sphyrna tiburo was the most abundant species in creeks. The aggregate of other species occurred with higher frequency in the sounds and nearshore. Sampling characteristics of the trawl survey were compared with those from a fishery-independent longline survey of subadult sharks to assess the similarity of the two gears. A total of 193 subadult sharks from seven species were captured during 57 of 96 longline sets, whereas 52 subadults from four species were captured during 20 of 48 trawls. Selectivity and efficiency differed between the two gears. The trawl had lower catch rates, caught smaller sharks, and encountered a different suite of species than the longline. General seasonal trends in relative abundance also differed between the two gears; the longline showed an increasing trend in abundance, whereas the trawl showed a stable trend. Although trawls were not found to be efficient for sampling subadult sharks from most species, they can be a useful source of supplemental data.

  18. Seasonal variation in haematological and biochemical variables in free-ranging subadult brown bears (Ursus arctos) in Sweden.

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    Græsli, Anne Randi; Evans, Alina L; Fahlman, Åsa; Bertelsen, Mads F; Blanc, Stéphane; Arnemo, Jon M

    2015-12-08

    Free-ranging brown bears exhibit highly contrasting physiological states throughout the year. They hibernate 6 months of the year, experiencing a decrease in body temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate and metabolism. An increase in food consumption and the resulting weight gain (mostly through fat storage) prior to hibernation are also part of the brown bear's annual cycle. Due to these physiological changes, haematological and biochemical variables vary dramatically throughout the year. Seasonal changes in 12 haematological and 34 biochemical variables were evaluated in blood samples collected from 40 free-ranging subadult brown bears (22 females, 18 males) immobilised in Sweden in winter (February-March), spring (April-May), and summer (June). Higher levels of haemoglobin, haematocrit and red blood cell count, and a lower white blood cell count and mean cell volume was found during hibernation than in spring and summer. Lower values of the enzymes; aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (AP), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), glutamate dehydrogenase (GD) and amylase, and increased values of β-hydroxybutyrate (β-HBA) and blood lipids; triglycerides, cholesterol and free fatty acids, were present during hibernation compared to spring and summer. This study documents significant shifts in haematological and biochemical variables in samples collected from brown bears anaesthetised in winter (February-March) compared to in spring and summer (April-June), reflecting the lowered metabolic, renal and hepatic activity during hibernation. Lower values of enzymes and higher values of blood lipids during hibernation, likely reflect a lipid-based metabolism.

  19. Mississippian subadults from the Middle Cumberland and Eastern regions of Tennessee: Biological indicators of population interaction.

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    Scopa Kelso, Rebecca

    2018-02-23

    Human subadult skeletal remains can provide a unique perspective into biosocial aspects of Mississippian period population interactions within and between the Middle Cumberland (MCR) and Eastern Tennessee Regions (ETR). The majority of previous studies have concentrated on adult skeletal remains, leaving out a large and extremely important population segment. Skeletal indicators of disease, growth, body proportions, and metabolic stress were collected from subadult remains from five archaeological sites over several temporal periods. Crucial to overcoming limitations associated with the osteological paradox, the biological results were placed into an archaeological context based on prior studies as well as paleoclimatological data. Results reveal homogeneity both within and between regions for most skeletal indicators. However, MCR individuals exhibit a higher frequency of pathology than those from ETC, while stature is significantly lower in younger subadults from the MCR. Within the ETR, there is no evidence for biological differences between Early Dallas and subsequent Late Dallas and Mouse Creek cultural phases. Despite presumed signs of increased conflict at the Dallas site, frequencies and types of skeletal pathology and growth disruptions are comparable to other regional sites. These findings suggest that despite cultural differences between the ETR and MCR, there was no large-scale intrusion from an outside population into the ETR during the Late Mississippian Period, or if one occurred, it is biologically invisible. Combined with climatic and archaeobotanical data, results suggest the MCR subadults were under increased stress in their earlier years. This may have been associated with increased interpersonal violence and dependence on few food sources occurring with greater scarcity. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Studies on mangrove swamps of Goa 1. Heterotrophic bacterial flora from mangrove swamps

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Matondkar, S.G.P; Mathani, S; Mavinkurve, S

    Heterotrophic bacterial flora from the mangrove swamps of Goa consisted of physiologically active organisms exhibiting cellulolytic, pectinolytic, amylolytic, proteolytic and H2S forming activities, throughout the year. Coryneform and Bacillus were...

  1. Antibacterial activity of hemocyanin from red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhendong; Babu, V Sarath; Wan, Quanyuan; Muhammad, Asim; Li, Jun; Lan, Jiangfeng; Lin, Li

    2018-04-01

    Hemocyanins (HMC): the copper-containing respiratory proteins present in invertebrate hemolymph, which plays many essential roles in the immune system. Currently, little is known about the HMC domains of Procambarus clarkii (P. clarkii) and their function in antimicrobial immune response. In this present study, we comparatively studied the expression pattern of native PcHMC with the three recombinant proteins of variable domains of crayfish hemocyanin (PcHMC-N, N-terminal domain of hemocyanin; PcHMC-T, tyrosinase domain of hemocyanin; PcHMC-C, C-terminal domain of hemocyanin). The results showed that three purified recombinant proteins had a strong binding to various bacteria and lipopolysaccharides that further highly agglutinated. The HMCs recombinant proteins showed strong antibacterial activity against V. parahaemolyticus and S. aureus by bacterial growth inhibition, phenoloxidase (PO) and phagocytosis assays. Specifically, rPcHMC1-T and rPcHMC1-C inhibited both the bacteria efficiently, rPcHMC1-T was highly upregulated the PO activity than the other recombinant proteins. Whereas, recombinant proteins pretreated crayfish hemocytes participated in phagocytosis activity, rPcHMC1-N and rPcHMC1-C proteins had a profound effect than the rPcHMC1-T on S. aureus and V. parahaemolyticus phagocytosis. The crayfish hemocyanin domains clearly exhibited antibacterial and phagocytic activities against both the bacteria, suggesting that its variable domains of hemocyanin have the different function on specific pathogen during the assault of pathogens. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Red swamp crayfish: biology, ecology and invasion - an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tainã Gonçalves Loureiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTAlien species have been transported and traded by humans for many centuries. However, with the era of globalization, biological invasions have reached notable magnitudes. Currently, introduction of alien species is one of the major threats to biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. The North American crayfish Procambarus clarkii is one of the most widely introduced freshwater species in the world, especially due to its high economic importance. It is responsible for great modifications in invaded environments causing irreparable ecological and economic damages. Its impressive ability to successfully colonize a wide range of environments is a consequence of its behavioural and biological characteristics that can adapt to features of the invaded location, conferring to this species a notable ecological plasticity. This review summarizes the available information regarding P. clarkii's biology and invasive dynamics around the world in order to contribute to the understanding of the threats posed by its establishment, as well as to support management and impact mitigation efforts.

  3. Integral handling of the swamps for indigenous communities - Caribbean of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Paez, Heliodoro; Ulloa Delgado Giovanni, Andres; Tavera Escobar, Hector Arsenio

    2004-06-01

    The book includes topics like the ecosystems of swamps, zonification for its handling, growth of species of swamps, restoration and vegetation, integral plan of handling of swamps and its fauna among other topics

  4. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Swamps, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_swamp_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) swamps data of coastal Louisiana. The ESI is a classification and ranking system, which characterizes...

  5. Swamp Rice Production in Ogun Waterside Local Government Area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the economics of swamp rice production among peasant farmers in the Waterside Local Government Area of Ogun State for 2001 cropping year. A total of 50 swamp rice farmers were randomly selected from 5 villages using multistage sampling technique. The data collected, with the aid of ...

  6. Economic analysis of swamp rice production in Ebonyi Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the paper is to analyze the determinants and profitability of the output of swamp rice farmers in Ebonyi southern Agricultural zone of Ebonyi State. Primary data were obtained through the use of structured questionnaires. A total of eighty (80) swamp rice farmers were randomly selected from the different blocks ...

  7. Analysis of Technical Efficiency among Swamp Rice Farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the Technical efficiency among swamp rice farmers in Niger State, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 159 swamp rice farmers. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics, and the stochastic frontier production function. The results showed ...

  8. Estimation of stature from the foot and its segments in a sub-adult female population of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishan Kewal

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Establishing personal identity is one of the main concerns in forensic investigations. Estimation of stature forms a basic domain of the investigation process in unknown and co-mingled human remains in forensic anthropology case work. The objective of the present study was to set up standards for estimation of stature from the foot and its segments in a sub-adult female population. Methods The sample for the study constituted 149 young females from the Northern part of India. The participants were aged between 13 and 18 years. Besides stature, seven anthropometric measurements that included length of the foot from each toe (T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5 respectively, foot breadth at ball (BBAL and foot breadth at heel (BHEL were measured on both feet in each participant using standard methods and techniques. Results The results indicated that statistically significant differences (p p-value Conclusions The present study concluded that foot measurements have a strong relationship with stature in the sub-adult female population of North India. Hence, the stature of an individual can be successfully estimated from the foot and its segments using different regression models derived in the study. The regression models derived in the study may be applied successfully for the estimation of stature in sub-adult females, whenever foot remains are brought for forensic examination. Stepwise multiple regression models tend to estimate stature more accurately than linear regression models in female sub-adults.

  9. The scientific value and potential of New Zealand swamp kauri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorrey, Andrew M.; Boswijk, Gretel; Hogg, Alan; Palmer, Jonathan G.; Turney, Christian S. M.; Fowler, Anthony M.; Ogden, John; Woolley, John-Mark

    2018-03-01

    New Zealand swamp kauri (Agathis australis) are relic trees that have been buried and preserved in anoxic bog environments of northern New Zealand for centuries through to hundreds of millennia. Kauri are massive in proportion to other native New Zealand trees and they can attain ages greater than 1000 years. The export market for swamp (subfossil) kauri has recently been driven by demand for a high-value workable timber, but there are concerns about the sustainability of the remaining resource, a situation exacerbated in recent years by the rapid extraction of wood. Economic exploitation of swamp kauri presents several unique opportunities for Quaternary science, however the scientific value of this wood is not well understood by the wider research community and public. Here, we summarise the history of scientific research on swamp kauri, and explore the considerable potential of this unique resource. Swamp kauri tree-ring chronologies are temporally unique, and secondary analyses (such as radiocarbon and isotopic analyses) have value for improving our understanding of Earth's recent geologic history and pre-instrumental climate history. Swamp kauri deposits that span the last interglacial-glacial cycle show potential to yield "ultra-long" multi-millennia tree-ring chronologies, and composite records spanning large parts of MIS3 (and most of the Holocene) may be possible. High-precision radiocarbon dating of swamp kauri chronologies can improve the resolution of the global radiocarbon calibration curve, while testing age modelling and chronologic alignment of other independent long-term high-resolution proxy records. Swamp kauri also has the potential to facilitate absolute dating and verification of cosmogenic events found in long Northern Hemisphere tree-ring chronologies. Future efforts to conserve these identified values requires scientists to work closely with swamp kauri industry operators, resource consent authorities, and export regulators to mitigate

  10. The fungal flora of the mangrove swamps of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Matondkar, S.G.P.; Mahtani, S.; Mavinkurve, S.

    Mangrove swamps of Goa (India) showed the presence of fungi belonging to 14 different genera, predominant ones being Monilia, Mucor, Syncephalastrum, Aspergillus and Trichothecium. Most of the isolates were found to be physiologically active...

  11. Regeneration potential of Taxodium distichum swamps and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, B.A.

    2009-01-01

    Seed bank densities respond to factors across local to landscape scales, and therefore, knowledge of these responses may be necessary in forecasting the effects of climate change on the regeneration of species. This study relates the seed bank densities of species of Taxodium distichum swamps to local water regime and regional climate factors at five latitudes across the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley from southern Illinois to Louisiana. In an outdoor nursery setting, the seed banks of twenty-five swamps were exposed to non-flooded (freely drained) or flooded treatments, and the number and species of seeds germinating were recorded from each swamp during one growing season. Based on ANOVA analysis, the majority of dominant species had a higher rate of germination in non-flooded versus flooded treatments. Similarly, an NMS comparison, which considered the local water regime and regional climate of the swamps, found that the species of seeds germinating, almost completely shifted under non-flooded versus flooded treatments. For example, in wetter northern swamps, seeds of Taxodium distichum germinated in non-flooded conditions, but did not germinate from the same seed banks in flooded conditions. In wetter southern swamps, seeds of Eleocharis cellulosa germinated in flooded conditions, but did not germinate in non-flooded conditions. The strong relationship of seed germination and density relationships with local water regime and regional climate variables suggests that the forecasting of climate change effects on swamps and other wetlands needs to consider a variety of interrelated variables to make adequate projections of the regeneration responses of species to climate change. Because regeneration is an important aspect of species maintenance and restoration, climate drying could influence the species distribution of these swamps in the future. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  12. Results of the 2000 Creek Plantation Swamp Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fledderman, P.D.

    2000-01-01

    This report is a survey of the Creek Plantation located along the Savannah River and borders the southeast portion of the Savannah River Site. The land is primarily undeveloped and agricultural; its purpose is to engage in equestrian-related operations. A portion of Creek Plantation along the Savannah River is a low-lying swamp, known as the Savannah River Swamp, which is uninhabited and not easily accessible

  13. Utility of mesohabitat features for determining habitat associations of subadult sharks in Georgia’s estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, C.N.; Jennings, Cecil A.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the affects of selected water quality variables on the presence of subadult sharks in six of nine Georgia estuaries. During 231 longline sets, we captured 415 individuals representing nine species. Atlantic sharpnose shark (Rhizoprionodon terranovae), bonnethead (Sphyrna tiburo), blacktip shark (Carcharhinus limbatus) and sandbar shark (C. plumbeus) comprised 96.1% of the catch. Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) was used to assess environmental influences on the assemblage of the four common species. Results of the CCA indicated Bonnethead Shark and Sandbar Shark were correlated with each other and with a subset of environmental variables. When the species occurred singly, depth was the defining environmental variable; whereas, when the two co-occurred, dissolved oxygen and salinity were the defining variables. Discriminant analyses (DA) were used to assess environmental influences on individual species. Results of the discriminant analyses supported the general CCA findings that the presence of bonnethead and sandbar shark were the only two species that correlated with environmental variables. In addition to depth and dissolved oxygen, turbidity influenced the presence of sandbar shark. The presence of bonnethead shark was influenced primarily by salinity and turbidity. Significant relationships existed for both the CCA and DA analyses; however, environmental variables accounted for shark species among sites.

  14. Nose profile morphology and accuracy study of nose profile estimation method in Scottish subadult and Indonesian adult populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarilita, Erli; Rynn, Christopher; Mossey, Peter A; Black, Sue; Oscandar, Fahmi

    2018-05-01

    This study investigated nose profile morphology and its relationship to the skull in Scottish subadult and Indonesian adult populations, with the aim of improving the accuracy of forensic craniofacial reconstruction. Samples of 86 lateral head cephalograms from Dundee Dental School (mean age, 11.8 years) and 335 lateral head cephalograms from the Universitas Padjadjaran Dental Hospital, Bandung, Indonesia (mean age 24.2 years), were measured. The method of nose profile estimation based on skull morphology previously proposed by Rynn and colleagues in 2010 (FSMP 6:20-34) was tested in this study. Following this method, three nasal aperture-related craniometrics and six nose profile dimensions were measured from the cephalograms. To assess the accuracy of the method, six nose profile dimensions were estimated from the three craniometric parameters using the published method and then compared to the actual nose profile dimensions.In the Scottish subadult population, no sexual dimorphism was evident in the measured dimensions. In contrast, sexual dimorphism of the Indonesian adult population was evident in all craniometric and nose profile dimensions; notably, males exhibited statistically significant larger values than females. The published method by Rynn and colleagues (FSMP 6:20-34, 2010) performed better in the Scottish subadult population (mean difference of maximum, 2.35 mm) compared to the Indonesian adult population (mean difference of maximum, 5.42 mm in males and 4.89 mm in females).In addition, regression formulae were derived to estimate nose profile dimensions based on the craniometric measurements for the Indonesian adult population. The published method is not sufficiently accurate for use on the Indonesian population, so the derived method should be used. The accuracy of the published method by Rynn and colleagues (FSMP 6:20-34, 2010) was sufficiently reliable to be applied in Scottish subadult population.

  15. A method for estimating age of medieval sub-adults from infancy to adulthood based on long bone length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Primeau, Charlotte; Friis, Laila Saidane; Sejrsen, Birgitte

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To develop a series of regression equations for estimating age from length of long bones for archaeological sub-adults when aging from dental development cannot be performed. Further, to compare derived ages when using these regression equations, and two other methods. MATERIAL AND ME...... as later than the medieval period, although this would require further testing. The quadratic equations are suggested to yield more accurate ages then using simply linear regression equations. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.......OBJECTIVES: To develop a series of regression equations for estimating age from length of long bones for archaeological sub-adults when aging from dental development cannot be performed. Further, to compare derived ages when using these regression equations, and two other methods. MATERIAL...... AND METHODS: A total of 183 skeletal sub-adults from the Danish medieval period, were aged from radiographic images. Linear regression formulae were then produced for individual bones. Age was then estimated from the femur length using three different methods: equations developed in this study, data based...

  16. Measuring Energy Expenditure in Sub-Adult and Hatchling Sea Turtles via Accelerometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, Lewis G.; Jones, T. Todd; Jones, David R.; Liebsch, Nikolai; Booth, David T.

    2011-01-01

    Measuring the metabolic of sea turtles is fundamental to understanding their ecology yet the presently available methods are limited. Accelerometry is a relatively new technique for estimating metabolic rate that has shown promise with a number of species but its utility with air-breathing divers is not yet established. The present study undertakes laboratory experiments to investigate whether rate of oxygen uptake ( o 2) at the surface in active sub-adult green turtles Chelonia mydas and hatchling loggerhead turtles Caretta caretta correlates with overall dynamic body acceleration (ODBA), a derivative of acceleration used as a proxy for metabolic rate. Six green turtles (25–44 kg) and two loggerhead turtles (20 g) were instrumented with tri-axial acceleration logging devices and placed singly into a respirometry chamber. The green turtles were able to submerge freely within a 1.5 m deep tank and the loggerhead turtles were tethered in water 16 cm deep so that they swam at the surface. A significant prediction equation for mean o 2 over an hour in a green turtle from measures of ODBA and mean flipper length (R2 = 0.56) returned a mean estimate error across turtles of 8.0%. The range of temperatures used in the green turtle experiments (22–30°C) had only a small effect on o 2. A o 2-ODBA equation for the loggerhead hatchling data was also significant (R2 = 0.67). Together these data indicate the potential of the accelerometry technique for estimating energy expenditure in sea turtles, which may have important applications in sea turtle diving ecology, and also in conservation such as assessing turtle survival times when trapped underwater in fishing nets. PMID:21829613

  17. Postpartum anoestrus in the suckled swamp buffalo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jainudeen, M.R.; Sharifuddin, W.; Yap, K.C.; Bakar Dahari, A.

    1984-01-01

    Postpartum anoestrus is a serious cause of infertility in the swamp buffalo. Our studies have revealed that it is due to a failure in the resumption of ovarian cyclicity. Parity was inversely related to the calving interval being longer in primiparous than multiparous suckled buffaloes. This effect may be partly due to the higher nutrient demands for growth as well as for lactation in the primiparous animal. The effects of suckling on ovarian and pituitary function of postpartum buffaloes were investigated with the aid of radioimmunoassays for progesterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) as well as rectal palpation and laparoscopic inspection of the ovaries. The incidence of postpartum anoestrus was higher in suckled than non-suckled buffaloes. Weaning buffalo calves at 30 d postpartum resulted in the resumption of normal ovarian cycles within 60 d postpartum. LH release in response to a single injection of a synthetic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) indicated that pituitary responsiveness to GnRH was restored by Day 30 postpartum in suckled buffaloes whereas anoestrous buffaloes were able to release levels of LH comparable to that of the preovulatory surge. A progesterone-releasing intra-vaginal device (PRID) induced an anovulatory oestrus in the anoestrous suckled buffalo which was partially overcome by human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) administered at the induced oestrus. However, a 72 h separation of the calf from its dam combined with PRID was the most effective substitute to weaning in initiating ovarian cycles in the suckled buffalo. Our data suggest that suckling inhibits ovarian function not by an effect on the pituitary gland but rather on GnRH release by the hypothalamus. (author)

  18. Benefits of Riverine Water Discharge into the Lorian Swamp, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zipporah Musyimi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Use and retention of river water in African highlands deprive communities in arid lowlands of their benefits. This paper reviews information on water use in the Ewaso Ng’iro catchment, Kenya, to evaluate the effects of upstream abstraction on the Lorian Swamp, a wetland used by pastoralists downstream. We first assess the abstractions and demands for water upstream and the river water supplies at the upper and the lower end of the Lorian Swamp. Further analysis of 12 years of monthly SPOT-VEGETATION satellite imagery reveals higher NDVI (Normalized Differential Vegetation Index values in the swamp than nearby rainfed areas, with the difference in NDVI between the two positively related to river water discharged into the swamp. The paper next reviews the benefits derived from water entering the swamp and the vulnerability to abstractions for three categories of water: (i the surface water used for drinking and sanitation; (ii the surface water that supports forage production; and (iii the water that recharges the Merti Aquifer. Our results suggest that benefits from surface water for domestic use and forage production are vulnerable to abstractions upstream whereas the benefits from the aquifer, with significant fossil water, are likely to be affected in the long run, but not the short term.

  19. Swamp Buffalo in South Kalimantan : Problem, Disease and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Natalia

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several studies have been carried out to evaluate and investigate the important diseases of swamp buffaloes (Bubalus carabanensis in Kalimantan . More attention has been focused on the case of acute infectious diseases and sudden death in the buffaloes . Fasciolosis black disease, acute enteritis, especially fatal enterotoxaemia haemorrhagic septicaemia . and trypanosomiasis (Surra, are some of the important diseases found in these animals . Black disease caused by toxigenic Clostridium novyi occurs in the presence of the organism in the liver and the degree of liver fluke Fasciola gigantica infestation . In regions where black disease is enzootic, Cl. novvi can be isolated from livers of normal healthy animals . In Hulu Sungai Utara district, South Kalimantan, the prevalence of fasciolosis caused by Fasciola gigantica in swamp buffalo was 77% in 1991 . A gross sudden change in diet due to seasonal changes could induce rumen and intestinal stasis, which provide a favourable environment for the rapid proliferation of commensal toxigenic Clostridium perfringens in the small intestine . Subsequent absorption of the toxin produced through the gut wall and its generalized dissemination culminated in a fatal enterotoxaemia . Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS is an acute, fatal disease affecting swamp buffalo, and caused by Pasteurella multocida B : 2 . The swamp buffalo is particularly susceptible for HS, and the reported greatest losses of swamp buffalo in Kalimantan due to HS is recorded in 1980s. The clinical signs of Surra in swamp buffalo were also found in certain areas in Danau Panggang area . Hulu Sungai Utara district . Vaccination is the accepted method for controlling Black disease, enterotoxaemia and HS. Multi component vaccine, alum adjuvant containing at least 5 types of clostridial toxoids and P. multocida B2 bacterin have been used and provide good protection to the animals . Control and treatment of liver fluke infestation

  20. Palynology, sedimentology and environmental significance of Holocene swamps at northern Kaitoke, Great Barrier Island, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horrocks, M.; Ogden, J.; Nichol, S.L.; Alloway, B.V.; Sutton, D.G.

    2000-01-01

    Pollen and sediment analyses of two cores from coastal freshwater swamps at northern Kaitoke (Kaitoke Swamp and Police Station Swamp), Great Barrier Island, show that c. 7300 calibrated yr BP Kaitoke Swamp was an estuary with tidal flats. Avicennia, now absent from the swamp area, was present in the estuary. By c. 4500 yr BP fresh water conditions had developed at the Kaitoke Swamp site as marine influences decreased. Around the same time, fresh water swamp conditions commenced at the Police Station Swamp site on the surface of a low lying area of a Late Pleistocene dune. A sandy layer at Kaitoke may represent rapid infilling followed by a dry soil surface until c. 1000 yr BP. Conifer-hardwood forest on the hills surrounding the sites c. 7300-c. 1800 yr BP was dominated by Dacrydium and Metrosideros. During this period, environmental conditions were relatively stable, with little change in forest composition. Between 1800 yr and 800 yr BP Kaitoke Swamp was reflooded, and the Police Station Swamp extended as a shallow lake over the nearby dune flat. These new shallow swamps were invaded by swamp forest (mainly Dacrycaprus with some Laurelia). The presence of charcoal and Pteridium spores above the Kaharoa Tephra suggests that major Polynesian deforestation at northern Kaitoke began c. 600 calibrated yr BP. (author). 41 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Dynamics of vitellogenin and vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone levels in adult and subadult whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei: relation to molting and eyestalk ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bong Jung; Okutsu, Tomoyuki; Tsutsui, Naoaki; Shinji, Junpei; Bae, Sun-Hye; Wilder, Marcy N

    2014-01-01

    Levels of vitellogenin (VG) and vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH) in the whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, were measured by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay in relation to the molting cycle and ovarian maturation induced by eyestalk ablation. During the molt cycle, VG mRNA expression levels and VG concentrations showed similar patterns of fluctuation. VG levels increased significantly at early intermolt (stage C0) in adults, but not in subadults. Unilateral and bilateral eyestalk ablation increased VG levels in adults, whereas only bilateral eyestalk ablation affected subadults. VIH levels showed contrasting patterns between adults and subadults. In adults, levels were high in late postmolt adults (stage B) and then low thereafter, whereas they increased from postmolt (stage A) to intermolt (stage C0) in subadults and remained high. Unilateral eyestalk ablation increased VIH levels 10 days following ablation in adults, after which levels decreased at 20 days. VIH levels decreased from 10 to 20 days after bilateral ablation. Both unilateral and bilateral ablation led to increased VIH levels in subadults. Eyestalk ablation induced ovarian maturation, but did not reduce VIH concentrations in the hemolymph. This phenomenon was perhaps due to other crustacean hyperglycemic hormone peptides having cross-reactivity with VIH antibodies. This is the first report to quantify concentrations of VG and VIH together in L. vannamei hemolymph, and to examine their relative dynamics.

  2. Production Efficiency of Swamp Rice Production in Cross River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study compares profit maximization, output optimization and resource use efficiency in ... of two varieties of swamp rice by farmers in Cross River State of Nigeria. ... The result of the finding also shows that small-scale farmers were more ...

  3. Pen Branch Delta and Savannah River Swamp Hydraulic Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.F.

    1999-01-01

    The proposed Savannah River Site (SRS) Wetlands Restoration Project area is located in Barnwell County, South Carolina on the southwestern boundary of the SRS Reservation. The swamp covers about 40.5 km2 and is bounded to the west and south by the Savannah River and to the north and east by low bluffs at the edge of the Savannah River floodplain. Water levels within the swamp are determined by stage along the Savannah River, local drainage, groundwater seepage, and inflows from four tributaries, Beaver Dam Creek, Fourmile Branch, Pen Branch, and Steel Creek. Historic discharges of heated process water into these tributaries scoured the streambed, created deltas in the adjacent wetland, and killed native vegetation in the vicinity of the delta deposits. Future releases from these tributaries will be substantially smaller and closer to ambient temperatures. One component of the proposed restoration project will be to reestablish indigenous wetland vegetation on the Pen Branch delta that covers about 1.0 km2. Long-term predictions of water levels within the swamp are required to determine the characteristics of suitable plants. The objective of the study was to predict water levels at various locations within the proposed SRS Wetlands Restoration Project area for a range of Savannah River flows and regulated releases from Pen Branch. TABS-MD, a United States Army Corps of Engineer developed two-dimensional finite element open channel hydraulic computer code, was used to model the SRS swamp area for various flow conditions

  4. Sequence Stratigraphic Appraisal: Coastal Swamp Depobelt In The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mid-Lower Miocene Agbada sedimentary intercalations of “AB” Field in the coastal swamp depobelt, Western Niger-Delta, were evaluated to determine their sequence stratigraphic character. The analysis was based on a combination of data sets including logs of six wells to describe lithic variations of the Agbada Formation ...

  5. Biology and control of swamp dodder (Cuscuta gronovii)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bewick, T.A.

    1987-01-01

    A simple model predicting swamp dodder (Cuscuta gronovii Willd.) emergence was developed. The model states that 0.1% of the cranberry seedlings will emerge after 150 to 170 GDD have accumulated after the winter ice has melted on the cranberry beds, using 0 C as the low temperature threshold. Experiments in cranberry showed that pronamide [3,5-dichloro-(N-1,1-dimethyl-2-propynyl)benzamide] was effective in controlling swamp dodder when applied preemergence. Rates below 2.4 kg ai/ha appeared to be safe for cranberry plants and fruit. Experiments with 14 C glyphosate showed that the herbicide moved out of carrot leaves to the physiological sinks in the plant. In carrots parasitized by swamp dodder the dodder acted as one of the strongest sinks for photosynthates from the host. In cranberry glyphosate moved out of the leaves, but most remained in the stem to which the treated leaves were attached. The only physiological sinks that accumulated significant amounts of label were the stem apices. The concentration of the herbicide in this sink decreased with time. Swamp dodder stems were able to absorb glyphosate directly from solution

  6. SURVEY OF ECONOMIC TREES IN FRESH WATER SWAMP OF

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1

    2011-05-16

    May 16, 2011 ... availability because it determines the number of surviving individuals. This is true for all species of .... 2010). CRUTECH, Calabar forest is a pseudo forest having characteristics of rain and swamp forests. ... as reflected in the random and contiguous distribution. (clumped or aggregated population) of the ...

  7. Aluminum and iron contents in phosphate treated swamp rice farm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 2006 aluminum and iron contents were determined in phosphate treated swamp rice farm of Mbiabet, Akwa Ibom State. The objectives were to determine the aluminum and iron contents, the effect of drying, phosphate and lime application in an acid sulphate soil grown to rice in Nigeria. The soil samples used were ...

  8. Swamp tours in Louisiana post Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Rita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawn J. Schaffer; Craig A. Miller

    2007-01-01

    Hurricanes Katrina and Rita made landfall in southern Louisiana during August and September 2005. Prior to these storms, swamp tours were a growing sector of nature-based tourism that entertained visitors while teaching about local flora, fauna, and culture. This study determined post-hurricane operating status of tours, damage sustained, and repairs made. Differences...

  9. Coatal salt marshes and mangrove swamps in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shi-Lun; Chen, Ji-Yu

    1995-12-01

    Based on plant specimen data, sediment samples, photos, and sketches from 45 coastal crosssections, and materials from two recent countrywide comprehensive investigations on Chinese coasts and islands, this paper deals with China’s vegetative tidal-flats: salt marshes and mangrove swamps. There are now 141700 acres of salt marshes and 51000 acres of mangrove swamps which together cover about 30% of the mud-coast area of the country and distribute between 18°N (Southern Hainan Island) and 41 °N (Liaodong Bay). Over the past 45 years, about 1750000 acres of salt marshes and 49400 acres of mangrove swamps have been reclaimed. The 2.0×109 tons of fine sediments input by rivers into the Chinese seas form extensive tidal flats, the soil basis of coastal helophytes. Different climates result in the diversity of vegetation. The 3˜8 m tidal range favors intertidal zone development. Of over 20 plant species in the salt marshes, native Suaeda salsa, Phragmites australis, Aeluropus littoralis, Zoysia maerostachys, Imperata cylindrica and introduced Spartina anglica are the most extensive in distribution. Of the 41 mangrove swamps species, Kandelia candel, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Excoecaria agallocha and Avicennia marina are much wider in latitudinal distribution than the others. Developing stages of marshes originally relevant to the evolution of tidal flats are given out. The roles of pioneer plants in decreasing flood water energy and increasing accretion rate in the Changjiang River delta are discussed.

  10. Brief Communication: Skeletal and dental development in a sub-adult western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joganic, Jessica L

    2016-01-01

    Non-human primate growth trajectories are often used to estimate the age and life history traits of fossil taxa. The exclusive use of chimpanzee growth patterns to estimate developmental stages for the earliest hominins is problematic because incomplete lineage sorting in the hominoid clade has produced a mosaic human genome that contains different regions shared with any one of the great apes. The accidental death of a sub-adult male western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) provides not only an opportunity to compare the degree of dentoskeletal maturation in this individual with published data from conspecifics, but also insight into gorilla growth and development as it applies to modeling that of early hominins. Dental stage was assessed for a sub-adult male western lowland gorilla by comparing dental eruption and calcification to established relative age categories. Ectocranial suture fusion, epiphyseal union, and long bone dimensions were compared to growth standards for wild male gorillas of a similar dental stage to determine developmental timing variability. Results suggest that greater variability exists in developmental rates and patterns and in morphological parameters than is often acknowledged. These results have implications for selecting appropriate models for studying extinct taxa. Ecological and physical characteristics shared between humans and gorillas may make gorilla life history equally valid in a comparative framework and encourage non-exclusive use of chimpanzee life history for paleoanthropological models. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Estimation of stature from the foot and its segments in a sub-adult female population of North India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Establishing personal identity is one of the main concerns in forensic investigations. Estimation of stature forms a basic domain of the investigation process in unknown and co-mingled human remains in forensic anthropology case work. The objective of the present study was to set up standards for estimation of stature from the foot and its segments in a sub-adult female population. Methods The sample for the study constituted 149 young females from the Northern part of India. The participants were aged between 13 and 18 years. Besides stature, seven anthropometric measurements that included length of the foot from each toe (T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5 respectively), foot breadth at ball (BBAL) and foot breadth at heel (BHEL) were measured on both feet in each participant using standard methods and techniques. Results The results indicated that statistically significant differences (p forensic examination. Stepwise multiple regression models tend to estimate stature more accurately than linear regression models in female sub-adults. PMID:22104433

  12. Utilization of Swamp Forages from South Kalimantan on Local Goat Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Rostini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Forages in swamp area consist of grass and legumes that have good productivity and nutrient quality. This research was aimed to evaluate the potency of swamp forage on digestibility and performance of goats. There were 24 local male goats aged 10-12 months with initial body weight of 13.10±1.55 kg, allocated into 6 treatments. Those were control (R0: 60% grass and 40% legumes; (R1: 60% swamp forages and 40% concentrate; (R2: 100% swamp forages; (R3: 100% swamp forage hay; (R4: 100% swamp forage silage; (R5: 100% haylage swamp forages. Results showed that silage treatment significantly increased (P<0.05 consumption and digestibility. Swamp forages could be utilized well by preservation (silage, hay, and haylage. Ensilage of swamp forages increased protein content from 13.72% to 14.02%, protein intake (74.62 g/d, dry matter intake (532.11 g/d, nitrogen free extract intake (257.39 g/d, with total body weight gain (3.5 kg in eight weeks and average daily gain (62.60 g/d. It is concluded that ensilage of swamp forages (R4 is very potential to be utilized as forage source for ruminants such as goats.

  13. The exploitation of swamp plants for dewatering liquid sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Šálek

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The operators of little rural wastewater treatment plants have been interested in economic exploitation of sewage sludge in local conditions. The chance is searching simply and natural ways of processing and exploitation stabilized sewage sludge in agriculture. Manure substrate have been obtained by composting waterless sewage sludge including rest plant biomass after closing 6–8 years period of filling liquid sewage sludge to the basin. Main attention was focused on exploitation of swamp plants for dewatering liquid sewage sludge and determination of influence sewage sludge on plants, intensity and course of evapotranspiration and design and setting of drying beds. On the base of determined ability of swamp plants evapotranspiration were edited suggestion solutions of design and operation sludge bed facilities in the conditions of small rural wastewater treatment plant.

  14. Weathering of a petroleum spill in a tropical mangrove swamp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, S.J.; Alexander, R.; Kagi, R.I. [Curtin Univ., Perth (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    In August 1987, an indeterminate amount of petroleum condensate was released from a buried pipe leading to contamination of a tropical mangrove swamp surrounding a tidal creek in North Western Australia. Since no bioremediation was attempted at this site, we have monitored the natural weathering of the condensate by detailed analysis of the petroleum hydrocarbons extracted from sediment samples collected on 11 occasions over a 3 year period.

  15. Response of tropical peat swamp forest tree species seedlings to macro nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Wira Yuwati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Efforts of restoration of degraded tropical peat swamp forest were facing constraints due to the low available nutrient level of peat. The transplanted peat swamp forest species seedlings experienced low survival rate and poor growth performance. This study aimed to demonstrate the response of ten tropical peat swamp forest species seedlings whether climax and pioneer species to macro-nutrients addition in the nursery. The growth performance of climax and pioneer tropical peat swamp species seedlings was recorded following addition of macro nutrients of Nitrogen (N, Phosphorus(P, Potassium(K and Dolomitic limestone (CaMg. The result showed that Alstonia spatulata and Parartocarpus venenosus showed positive growth response following macro nutrients addition. This study concluded that tropical peat swamp pioneer species has lower necessity for macro-nutrients addition than tropical peat swamp climax species.

  16. Food Swamps Predict Obesity Rates Better Than Food Deserts in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Cooksey-Stowers, Kristen; Schwartz, Marlene B.; Brownell, Kelly D.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of food environments, characterized as food swamps, on adult obesity rates. Food swamps have been described as areas with a high-density of establishments selling high-calorie fast food and junk food, relative to healthier food options. This study examines multiple ways of categorizing food environments as food swamps and food deserts, including alternate versions of the Retail Food Environment Index. We merged food outlet, sociodemographic and obesity data ...

  17. Biophysics environmental conditions of swamp buffalo Bubalus bubalis Pampangan in district Rambutan South Sumatera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanita Windusari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis is a germ plasm specific of Pampangan and endemic in South Sumatera with low productivity and limited distribution. The aims of this study was to obtain information regarding biophysical conditions in the central areas of swamp buffalo in South Sumatera. The method used is purposive sampling method. Data collected in the form of quantitative and qualitative. Primary data were obtained through direct observation, interviews breeders selected as respondents while secondary data obtained from various related. The data obtained are presented descriptively and data tabulation. Productivity of swamp buffalo Pampangan can be increased by managing and maintaining habitat conditions although traditional maintenance. The results of observations of the biophysical condition of swamp buffalo (B. bubalis Pampangan showed that habitat of swamp buffalo Pampangan consists of dominated by lowland swamp area is overgrown with shrubs and grass. The conclution of the research are productivity and population of swamp buffalo (B. bubalis pampangan as specific plasma nutfah of South Sumatra can be improved by studying the characteristics and preferred habitat of the buffalo, although developed in a traditional farms but is good enough and so need to be developed, grass is most preferred by swamp buffalo Pampangan derived from ‘Kumpai’ grass group, and ‘Kasur’grass and ‘Kumpai’ grass is the dominant grass type found in habitat swamp buffalo Pampangan.

  18. Wastewater treatment by a natural wetland: the Nakivubo swamp, Uganda : processes and implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kansiime, F.; Nalubega, M.

    1999-01-01

    An investigation to assess the capacity of the Nakivubo swamp, Kampala-Uganda (which has been receiving partially treated sewage from the city for more than 30 years now), to remove nutrients and pathogens was carried out. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential of this swamp to

  19. Influence of Soil Type and Drainage on Growth of Swamp Chestnut Oak (Quercus Michauxii Nutt.) Seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald D. Hook

    1969-01-01

    Swamp chestnut oak (Quercus michauxii Nutt.) seedlings were grown for 2 years in five soil types in drained and undrained pots. First-year height growth was related to soil type and pot drainage, but second-year height growth was related only to soil type. Results suggest that swamp chestnut oak is site-sensitive. But slow growth, a maximum of 2...

  20. Heterogeneous effects of market integration on sub-adult body size and nutritional status among the Shuar of Amazonian Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urlacher, Samuel S; Liebert, Melissa A; Josh Snodgrass, J; Blackwell, Aaron D; Cepon-Robins, Tara J; Gildner, Theresa E; Madimenos, Felicia C; Amir, Dorsa; Bribiescas, Richard G; Sugiyama, Lawrence S

    2016-07-01

    Market integration (MI)-increasing production for and consumption from a market-based economy-is drastically altering traditional ways of life and environmental conditions among indigenous Amazonian peoples. The effects of MI on the biology and health of Amazonian children and adolescents, however, remain unclear. This study examines the impact of MI on sub-adult body size and nutritional status at the population, regional and household levels among the Shuar of Amazonian Ecuador. Anthropometric data were collected between 2005-2014 from 2164 Shuar (aged 2-19 years) living in two geographic regions differing in general degree of MI. High-resolution household economic, lifestyle and dietary data were collected from a sub-sample of 631 participants. Analyses were performed to investigate relationships between body size and year of data collection, region and specific aspects of household MI. Results from temporal and regional analyses suggest that MI has a significant and overall positive impact on Shuar body size and nutritional status. However, household-level results exhibit nuanced and heterogeneous specific effects of MI underlying these overarching relationships. This study provides novel insight into the complex socio-ecological pathways linking MI, physical growth and health among the Shuar and other indigenous Amazonian populations.

  1. Heterogeneous effects of market integration on subadult body size and nutritional status among the Shuar of Amazonian Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urlacher, Samuel S.; Liebert, Melissa A.; Snodgrass, J. Josh; Blackwell, Aaron D.; Cepon-Robins, Tara J.; Gildner, Theresa E.; Madimenos, Felicia C.; Amir, Dorsa; Bribiescas, Richard G.; Sugiyama, Lawrence S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Market integration (MI) – increasing production for and consumption from a market-based economy – is drastically altering traditional ways of life and environmental conditions among indigenous Amazonian peoples. The effects of MI on the biology and health of Amazonian children and adolescents, however, remain unclear. Aim This study examines the impact of MI on subadult body size and nutritional status at the population, regional, and household levels among the Shuar of Amazonian Ecuador. Subjects and Methods Anthropometric data were collected between 2005 and 2014 from 2,164 Shuar (age 2-19 years) living in two geographic regions differing in general degree of MI. High-resolution household economic, lifestyle, and dietary data were collected from a subsample of 631 participants. Analyses were performed to investigate relationships between body size and year of data collection, region, and specific aspects of household MI. Results Results from temporal and regional analyses suggest that MI has a significant and overall positive impact on Shuar body size and nutritional status. However, household-level results exhibit nuanced and heterogeneous specific effects of MI underlying these overarching relationships. Conclusion This study provides novel insight into the complex socio-ecological pathways linking MI, physical growth, and health among the Shuar and other indigenous Amazonian populations. PMID:27230632

  2. Apophyseal Ossification of the Iliac Crest in Forensic Age Estimation: Computed Tomography Standards for Modern Australian Subadults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lottering, Nicolene; Alston-Knox, Clair L; MacGregor, Donna M; Izatt, Maree T; Grant, Caroline A; Adam, Clayton J; Gregory, Laura S

    2017-03-01

    This study contrasts the ontogeny of the iliac crest apophysis using conventional radiography and multislice computed tomography (MSCT), providing probabilistic information for age estimation of modern Australian subadults. Retrospective abdominopelvic MSCT data acquired from 524 Australian individuals aged 7-25 and surveillance radiographs of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients included in the Paediatric Spine Research Group Progression Study (n = 531) were assessed. Ossification scoring of pseudo-radiographs and three-dimensional (3D) volume-rendered reconstructions using Risser (1958) quantitative descriptors indicate discrepancies in age estimates, stage allocation, and conflicting morphological progression. To mitigate visualization limitations associated with two-dimensional radiographs, we provide and validate a modified 3D-MSCT scoring tier of ossification, demonstrating complete fusion between 17.3-19.2 and 17.1-20.1 years in males and females. Legal demarcation for doli incapax presumption and age of majority (18 years) can be achieved using probability estimates from a fitted cumulative probit model for apophyseal fusion using the recalibrated standards. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  3. Subadult ravens generally don’t transfer valuable tokens to conspecifics when there is nothing to gain for themselves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorg J.M. Massen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which humans help each other is extraordinary in itself, and difficult to explain from an evolutionary perspective. Therefore, there has been a recent surge in studies investigating the evolution of prosocial behavior using a comparative approach. Nevertheless, most of these studies have focused on primates only, and little is known about other animal orders. In a previous study, common ravens (Corvus corax have been shown to be indifferent to the gains of conspecifics. However, this may have been due to the experimental set-up, as many studies that use different set-ups report conflicting results within the same species. We therefore tested ravens’ prosocial tendencies in a different set-up; i.e., we tested whether sub-adult ravens would transfer a token to a partner and, thereby, provide the partner with the opportunity to exchange a token for a reward. To control and test for effects of partner identity, we tested 8 individuals both in a dyadic and in a group setting. Our results show that in general the ravens in our experiment did not show other-regarding preferences. However, some acts of helping did occur spontaneously. We discuss what could be the causes for those sporadic instances, and why in general prosocial tendencies were found to be almost lacking among the ravens in this set-up.

  4. 137Cs Transfer Factor from Latosol Soil to Swamp Gabbages (Ipomea Reptans Poir)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leli-Nirwani; Yurfida; Buchori

    2001-01-01

    A study of 137 Cs transfer factor from Latosol soil to swamp cabbages plant has been conducted using pot treatment system with complete random design. The aim of the research is to determine transfer factor of 137 Cs from latosol soil to swamp cabbages plant. Cs-137 concentration administered was 7.5287 kBq/pot. The number of swamp cabbages planted in 137 Cs treated soil and in cannot soil respectively was 12 pots filled with 1 kg soil/pot. After harvest, the weight of dried plant was measured. Transfer factor was determined according to the accumulation of 137 Cs concentration in swamp cabbages and soil and counted using Spectrometer Gamma. It was found that is a significant difference between 137 Cs concentration in swamp cabbages planted inthe treated soil and that of control soil. Transfer factor ranges between 0.02 and 0.13 with the averageof 0.08. (author)

  5. Recycling of phenolic compounds in Borneo's tropical peat swamp forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, Catherine M; Lim, Yau Yan; Lim, Tse Yuen

    2018-02-07

    Tropical peat swamp forests (TPSF) are globally significant carbon stores, sequestering carbon mainly as phenolic polymers and phenolic compounds (particularly as lignin and its derivatives) in peat layers, in plants, and in the acidic blackwaters. Previous studies show that TPSF plants have particularly high levels of phenolic compounds which inhibit the decomposition of organic matter and thus promote peat accumulation. The studies of phenolic compounds are thus crucial to further understand how TPSF function with respect to carbon sequestration. Here we present a study of cycling of phenolic compounds in five forests in Borneo differing in flooding and acidity, leaching of phenolic compounds from senescent Macaranga pruinosa leaves, and absorption of phenolics by M. pruinosa seedlings. The results of the study show that total phenolic content (TPC) in soil and leaves of three species of Macaranga were highest in TPSF followed by freshwater swamp forest and flooded limestone forest, then dry land sites. Highest TPC values were associated with acidity (in TPSF) and waterlogging (in flooded forests). Moreover, phenolic compounds are rapidly leached from fallen senescent leaves, and could be reabsorbed by tree roots and converted into more complex phenolics within the leaves. Extreme conditions-waterlogging and acidity-may facilitate uptake and synthesis of protective phenolic compounds which are essential for impeded decomposition of organic matter in TPSF. Conversely, the ongoing drainage and degradation of TPSF, particularly for conversion to oil palm plantations, reverses the conditions necessary for peat accretion and carbon sequestration.

  6. American black bears and bee yard depredation at Okefenokee Swamp, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J.D.; Dobey, S.; Masters, D.V.; Scheick, B.K.; Pelton, M.R.; Sunquist, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    We studied American black bears (Ursus americanus), on the northwest periphery of Okefenokee Swamp in southeast Georgia, to assess landowner attitudes toward bears, estimate the extent of damage to commercial honey bee operations by bears, and evaluate methods to reduce bear depredations to apiaries. We collected 8,351 black bear radiolocations and identified 51 bee yards on our study area. Twenty-seven of 43 home ranges contained ≥1 bee yard, averaging 11.3 and 5.1 bee yards/home range of males (n = 7) and females (n = 20), respectively. From 1996 to 1998, we documented 7 instances of bears raiding bee yards within our study area and 6 instances in adjacent areas. All but 1 of the 13 raided yards were enclosed by electric fencing. In the 12 cases of damage to electrically fenced yards, however, the fences were not active because of depleted batteries. Based on compositional analysis, bear use of areas 800–1,400 m from bee yards was disproportionately greater than use 0–800 m from bee yards. Bears disproportionately used bay (red bay: Persea borbonia, loblolly bay: Gordonia lasianthus, and southern magnolia: Magnolia virginia), gum (water tupelo: Nyssa aquatic and black gum: N. sylvatica), and cypress (Taxodium spp.) and loblolly bay habitats, however, compared with slash pine (Pinus elliottii) or pine–oak (Quercus spp.), where bee yards usually were placed. The distribution of bear radiolocations likely reflected the use of those swamp and riparian areas, rather than avoidance of bee yards. Distances to streams from damaged bee yards (x̄ = 1,750 m) were less than from undamaged yards (x̄ = 4,442 m), and damaged bee yards were closer to unimproved roads (x̄ = 134 m) than were undamaged bee yards (x̄ = 802 m). Our analysis suggests that bee yard placement away from bear travel routes (such as streams and unimproved roads) can reduce bear depredation problems. Our results strongly indicate that working electric fences are effective deterrents to bear

  7. Holocene mangrove swamps of West Africa sedimentology and soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marius, C.; Lucas, J.

    The mangrove swamps of West African Coast belong to the Atlantic type which is characterized by a small number of species. They colonize tidal environments which are dissected by numerous meandering tidal channels and are presently subject to a low rate of sediment accumulation. The mangrove vegetation exhibits a characteristic zonation pattern that basically reflects the adaptation of the various species to saline conditions. The typical zonation sequence is: Rhizophora racemosa (or Rh. mangle), Rh. mangle + Avicennia africana, Avicennia, flooded tanne, barren tanne, herbaceous tanne. The tannes are generated by aridic climatic conditions, heavy soil and water salt content, and are, in a way a peculiar feature of mangrove swamps in West Africa. The sediment colonized by the mangroves is relatively homogenous. Mineralogically, they are dominated by quartz and clay to which are associated halite, pyrite and jarosite. The clay suite is mainly composed of smectite and kaolinite. Smectite is predominant in the inlet areas and is replaced inland by kaolinite. Chemically, the sediments contain very low amounts of Ca, bases and trace elements. The mangrove swamp floodwaters have a chemical composition similar to that of seawater. It is dominated by sodium and chloride. Morphologically, the ripening of the soils appears with a chestnut mash colour horizon and buttery consistency in relation with the decomposition of fibrous roots of Rhizophora and also with pale yellow jarosite mottles in the top horizons of the tanne profiles due to the oxidation of pyrine. The two main properties of the mangrove soils of West Africa are acidity and salinity; the first is related to the high content of sulphur and the second to the sea influence. The acidity has to be connected mainly to the Rhizophora vegetation whose the root system is a real trap for catching the pyrites resulting from the reduction of the sulphates of sea water by the sulphate reducing bacteria, in a reduced

  8. Osteochondritis dissecans of the knee in a subadult from a medieval (ninth century A.D.) site in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaus, Mario; Cicvara-Pećina, Tatjana; Lucijanić, Ivica; Pećina, Marko; Stilinović, Davor

    2010-06-01

    Although osteochondritis dissecans of the knee has been known for a long time, we still do not fully understand why it develops. This prompted us to present and describe an example of osteochondritis dissecans identified in the Osteological Collection of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts. The case of osteochondritis dissecans described in this report was recovered from the Gluvine kuće cemetery in the Dalmatian hinterland, approximately 28 km north-east of Split. A total of 77 graves were excavated and the individual exhibiting osteochondritis dissecans was recovered from grave number 16 that belongs to the younger phase of the cemetery that lasted during the second half of the 9th century A.D. Osteochondritis dissecans was noted in a subadult individual. The pathological changes consistent with osteochondritis dissecans are present on both medial femoral condyles. The lesion on the right femoral condyle is an oval crater-like defect with well defined margins and a porous floor of rough trabecular bone. The lesion on the left femoral condyle is basically, with two small provisions, identical to the one on the right side. The first is that it is slightly smaller, while the second is that unlike its antimere, it has a well preserved bone fragment that fits perfectly into the ostechondritic pit. Radiographic analyses of the femoral condyles support a diagnosis of osteochondritis dissecans and show a well-demarcated radiolucent defect in the articular surfaces of both joints surrounded by a thin sclerotic repair zone. According to the classification systems this degree of change corresponds to stage 3 or grade 3 osteochondritis dissecans--a detached but non-displaced fragment. Returning, for a second, to the opinion that prompted us to present this case, it is clear that during the last 1100 years there have been no significant morphological or radiological changes in the characteristics of osteochondritis dissecans.

  9. Application of third molar development and eruption models in estimating dental age in Malay sub-adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Yusof, Mohd Yusmiaidil Putera; Cauwels, Rita; Deschepper, Ellen; Martens, Luc

    2015-08-01

    The third molar development (TMD) has been widely utilized as one of the radiographic method for dental age estimation. By using the same radiograph of the same individual, third molar eruption (TME) information can be incorporated to the TMD regression model. This study aims to evaluate the performance of dental age estimation in individual method models and the combined model (TMD and TME) based on the classic regressions of multiple linear and principal component analysis. A sample of 705 digital panoramic radiographs of Malay sub-adults aged between 14.1 and 23.8 years was collected. The techniques described by Gleiser and Hunt (modified by Kohler) and Olze were employed to stage the TMD and TME, respectively. The data was divided to develop three respective models based on the two regressions of multiple linear and principal component analysis. The trained models were then validated on the test sample and the accuracy of age prediction was compared between each model. The coefficient of determination (R²) and root mean square error (RMSE) were calculated. In both genders, adjusted R² yielded an increment in the linear regressions of combined model as compared to the individual models. The overall decrease in RMSE was detected in combined model as compared to TMD (0.03-0.06) and TME (0.2-0.8). In principal component regression, low value of adjusted R(2) and high RMSE except in male were exhibited in combined model. Dental age estimation is better predicted using combined model in multiple linear regression models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  10. Isolation of peat swamp forest foliar endophyte fungi as biofertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safinah Surya Hakim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Peatland restoration activity is facing many obstacles, particularly in planting techniques and poor nutrient in peat soil. Naturally, endophytic fungi are abundant and have great potential as biofertilizer. This research investigates the potential endophytic fungi isolated from leaves of peat swamp tree species for biofertilizer. Research activities include: exploration, in vitro test to examine the phosphate solubilization and identification. Result showed that there were 360 leave segments collected from 4 sampling locations. The colonization percentage of 222 isolates ranged from 52.17% - 60.17%. Fifty seven morphospecies were selected from 222 isolates. Twelve isolates demonstrated ability to produce clear zones and ten isolates were selected for identification. It is concluded that twelve isolated demonstrated potential ability to produce clear zone and Penicillum citrinum isolate P3.10 was identified as an isolate that show the highest potential ability as a biofertilizer

  11. SWAMP+: multiple subsequence alignment using associative massive parallelism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinfadt, Shannon Irene [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baker, Johnnie W [KENT STATE UNIV.

    2010-10-18

    A new parallel algorithm SWAMP+ incorporates the Smith-Waterman sequence alignment on an associative parallel model known as ASC. It is a highly sensitive parallel approach that expands traditional pairwise sequence alignment. This is the first parallel algorithm to provide multiple non-overlapping, non-intersecting subsequence alignments with the accuracy of Smith-Waterman. The efficient algorithm provides multiple alignments similar to BLAST while creating a better workflow for the end users. The parallel portions of the code run in O(m+n) time using m processors. When m = n, the algorithmic analysis becomes O(n) with a coefficient of two, yielding a linear speedup. Implementation of the algorithm on the SIMD ClearSpeed CSX620 confirms this theoretical linear speedup with real timings.

  12. Weeds optimally grow in peat swamp after burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.D. Susanti

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available After clearing land by burning the peat, then the weeds and undergrowth will flourish. Even sometimes, the weeds are eventually burned again. Weed is known as a destroyer plant that has to be controlled. Through proper treatment, the existing weeds in peatlands can be potentiallly exploited. The purpose of this study was to determine the calorific value of briquettes as one of peatland weeds utilization. The results showed that the calorific value ranged from 2,492 cal/g to 5,230 cal/g. The lowest calorific value was on ‘teki kecil’ grass (Scirpus grossus Lf, while the highest calorific value was observed for ‘bantalaki grass’ (Hymenachne amplexicaulis Nees. The high calorific value of the peat weeds are potential for biomass briquettes raw materials. The utilization and use of peat weed briquettes as a raw materials expected can reduce land degradation due to peat swamp burning

  13. Ornithological aspects on the swamp Herghelie – Mangalia (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GACHE Carmen

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This ornithological notice present information on the avifauna recorded in the swamp Herghelie – Mangalia beginning with the 1998’s summer. We identified 132 species of birds. The reedbeds cover about 35% of the swamp’s surface, offering good conditions for the breeding season (Ixobrychus minutus, Botaurus stellaris, Cygnus olor, Himantopus himantopus, Recurvirostra avosetta and Sterna hirundo but also for migration period. The breeding population is low due the high level of the human pressure. Due the presence of sulphurous sources and peat bed, the water is not freezing during the winter, transforming this territory in an important wintering site in the southeastern Dobroudja. Interesting is also the presence in this area during the winter of some summer visitors’ species for Romania like: Phalacrocorax pygmeus, Botaurus stellaris and Rallus aquaticus.

  14. Food Swamps Predict Obesity Rates Better Than Food Deserts in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Cooksey-Stowers

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of food environments, characterized as food swamps, on adult obesity rates. Food swamps have been described as areas with a high-density of establishments selling high-calorie fast food and junk food, relative to healthier food options. This study examines multiple ways of categorizing food environments as food swamps and food deserts, including alternate versions of the Retail Food Environment Index. We merged food outlet, sociodemographic and obesity data from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA Food Environment Atlas, the American Community Survey, and a commercial street reference dataset. We employed an instrumental variables (IV strategy to correct for the endogeneity of food environments (i.e., that individuals self-select into neighborhoods and may consider food availability in their decision. Our results suggest that the presence of a food swamp is a stronger predictor of obesity rates than the absence of full-service grocery stores. We found, even after controlling for food desert effects, food swamps have a positive, statistically significant effect on adult obesity rates. All three food swamp measures indicated the same positive association, but reflected different magnitudes of the food swamp effect on rates of adult obesity (p values ranged from 0.00 to 0.16. Our adjustment for reverse causality, using an IV approach, revealed a stronger effect of food swamps than would have been obtained by naïve ordinary least squares (OLS estimates. The food swamp effect was stronger in counties with greater income inequality (p < 0.05 and where residents are less mobile (p < 0.01. Based on these findings, local government policies such as zoning laws simultaneously restricting access to unhealthy food outlets and incentivizing healthy food retailers to locate in underserved neighborhoods warrant consideration as strategies to increase health equity.

  15. Geomorphic controls on fluvial carbon exports and emissions from upland swamps in eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Kirsten; Looman, Arun; Maher, Damien T; Fryirs, Kirstie

    2018-03-15

    Temperate Highland Peat Swamps on Sandstone (THPSS) are upland wetlands, similar to fens in the Northern Hemisphere and are found at the headwaters of low-order streams on the plateaus of Eastern Australia. They are classified as endangered ecological communities under State and National legislation. Previous works have identified particular geomorphic characteristics that are important to carbon storage in these low energy sediment accumulation zones. Changes in the geomorphic structure of THPSS, such as channelisation, may have profound implications for carbon storage. To assess the effect of channelisation on carbon budgets in these ecosystems it is essential to identify and quantify differences in carbon export, emissions and stocks of carbon of intact swamps and those that have become channelised. We undertook seasonal sampling of the perched swamp aquifers and surface waters of two intact swamps and two channelised fills in the Blue Mountains of New South Wales, Australia, to investigate differences in carbon exports and emissions between the two swamp types. We found that channelised fills' mean CO 2 emissions were almost four times higher than intact swamps with mean CH 4 emissions up to five times higher. Annual fluvial carbon exports for channelised fills were up to 18 times that of intact swamps. Channelised fill exports and emissions can represent up to 2% of the total swamp carbon stocks per annum which is 40 times higher than the intact swamps. This work clearly demonstrates that changes in geomorphic structure brought about by incision and channelisation results in profound changes to the carbon storage function of THPSS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Food Swamps Predict Obesity Rates Better Than Food Deserts in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooksey-Stowers, Kristen; Schwartz, Marlene B; Brownell, Kelly D

    2017-11-14

    This paper investigates the effect of food environments, characterized as food swamps, on adult obesity rates. Food swamps have been described as areas with a high-density of establishments selling high-calorie fast food and junk food, relative to healthier food options. This study examines multiple ways of categorizing food environments as food swamps and food deserts, including alternate versions of the Retail Food Environment Index. We merged food outlet, sociodemographic and obesity data from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Environment Atlas, the American Community Survey, and a commercial street reference dataset. We employed an instrumental variables (IV) strategy to correct for the endogeneity of food environments (i.e., that individuals self-select into neighborhoods and may consider food availability in their decision). Our results suggest that the presence of a food swamp is a stronger predictor of obesity rates than the absence of full-service grocery stores. We found, even after controlling for food desert effects, food swamps have a positive, statistically significant effect on adult obesity rates. All three food swamp measures indicated the same positive association, but reflected different magnitudes of the food swamp effect on rates of adult obesity ( p values ranged from 0.00 to 0.16). Our adjustment for reverse causality, using an IV approach, revealed a stronger effect of food swamps than would have been obtained by naïve ordinary least squares (OLS) estimates. The food swamp effect was stronger in counties with greater income inequality ( p food outlets and incentivizing healthy food retailers to locate in underserved neighborhoods warrant consideration as strategies to increase health equity.

  17. Food Swamps Predict Obesity Rates Better Than Food Deserts in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooksey-Stowers, Kristen; Schwartz, Marlene B.; Brownell, Kelly D.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of food environments, characterized as food swamps, on adult obesity rates. Food swamps have been described as areas with a high-density of establishments selling high-calorie fast food and junk food, relative to healthier food options. This study examines multiple ways of categorizing food environments as food swamps and food deserts, including alternate versions of the Retail Food Environment Index. We merged food outlet, sociodemographic and obesity data from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Environment Atlas, the American Community Survey, and a commercial street reference dataset. We employed an instrumental variables (IV) strategy to correct for the endogeneity of food environments (i.e., that individuals self-select into neighborhoods and may consider food availability in their decision). Our results suggest that the presence of a food swamp is a stronger predictor of obesity rates than the absence of full-service grocery stores. We found, even after controlling for food desert effects, food swamps have a positive, statistically significant effect on adult obesity rates. All three food swamp measures indicated the same positive association, but reflected different magnitudes of the food swamp effect on rates of adult obesity (p values ranged from 0.00 to 0.16). Our adjustment for reverse causality, using an IV approach, revealed a stronger effect of food swamps than would have been obtained by naïve ordinary least squares (OLS) estimates. The food swamp effect was stronger in counties with greater income inequality (p < 0.05) and where residents are less mobile (p < 0.01). Based on these findings, local government policies such as zoning laws simultaneously restricting access to unhealthy food outlets and incentivizing healthy food retailers to locate in underserved neighborhoods warrant consideration as strategies to increase health equity. PMID:29135909

  18. Old carbon efflux from tropical peat swamp drainage waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vihermaa, Leena; Waldron, Susan; Evers, Stephanie; Garnett, Mark; Newton, Jason

    2014-05-01

    Tropical peatlands constitute ~12% of the global peatland carbon pool, and of this 10% is in Malaysia1. Due to rising demand for food and biofuels, large areas of peat swamp forest ecosystems have been converted to plantation in Southeast Asia and are being subjected to degradation, drainage and fire, changing their carbon fluxes eg.2,3. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) lost from disturbed tropical peat can be derived from deep within the peat column and be aged from centuries to millennia4 contributing to aquatic release and cycling of old carbon. Here we present the results of a field campaign to the Raja Musa Peat Swamp Forest Reserve in N. Selangor Malaysia, which has been selectively logged for 80 years before being granted timber reserve status. We measured CO2 and CH4efflux rates from drainage systems with different treatment history, and radiocarbon dated the evasion CO2 and associated [DOC]. We also collected water chemistry and stable isotope data from the sites. During our sampling in the dry season CO2 efflux rates ranged from 0.8 - 13.6 μmol m-2 s-1. Sediments in the channel bottom contained CH4 that appeared to be primarily lost by ebullition, leading to sporadic CH4 efflux. However, dissolved CH4 was also observed in water samples collected from these systems. The CO2 efflux was aged up to 582±37 years BP (0 BP = AD 1950) with the associated DOC aged 495±35 years BP. Both DOC and evasion CO2 were most 14C-enriched (i.e. younger) at the least disturbed site, and implied a substantial component of recently fixed carbon. In contrast, CO2 and DOC from the other sites had older 14C ages, indicating disturbance as the trigger for the loss of old carbon. 1Page et al., 2010 2Hooijer et al., 2010 3Kimberly et al., 2012 4Moore et al., 2013

  19. Report of mortmorilloniticas clay in the Medina swamp (Cerro Largo district)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Rifas, C.; Heinzen, W.; Theune, C.

    1980-01-01

    This report describes the prospect ion work for the montmorillonitics clay in the region of Medina swamp in Cerro Largo district. The existence of new deposits was detected by cartography and geological study.

  20. Swamp land optimization in supporting food security and enhancing farmers welfare in South Sumatra Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herwenita; Hutapea, Y.

    2018-02-01

    Swamp land in Indonesia spread in Sumatra, Kalimantan and West Papua. In Sumatra the largest swamp land area is located in South Sumatera Province. Unfortunately only few of the areas have been utilized due to its fragility, in which farmers could only cultivate rice on it once a year. The purpose of this paper is to develop a feasible farming pattern in swamp land to help farmers and practitioners in optimizing it by managing its water level. Shallow and mid swamp land can be cultivated using rotation model of crops (rice, corn, cassava), horticulture (cucumber, long beans, watermelon etc), fish farming (catfish, snake head fish, tilapia), and duck farming, whereas submergence tolerant rice varieties can be cultivated alternating with fish farming in deep swamp land. This study shows that such swamp land management is financially feasible showing by its positive NPV value, BCR value is above 1.00, and IRR value is greater than the interest rate. Therefore, implementation of this farming pattern is expected to increase farmers’ income and household food supply as well as village food supply.

  1. Isolation of heat-tolerant myoglobin from Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotichayapong, Chatrachatchaya; Wiengsamut, Kittipong; Chanthai, Saksit; Sattayasai, Nison; Tamiya, Toru; Kanzawa, Nobuyuki; Tsuchiya, Takahide

    2012-10-01

    Myoglobin from Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus was purified from fish muscle using salt fractionation followed by column chromatography and molecular filtration. The purified Mb of 0.68 mg/g wet weight of muscle was determined for its molecular mass by MALDI-TOF-MS to be 15,525.18 Da. Using isoelectric focusing technique, the purified Mb showed two derivatives with pI of 6.40 and 7.12. Six peptide fragments of this protein identified by LC-MS/MS were homologous to Mbs of sea raven Hemitripterus americanus, yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacores, blue marlin Makaira nigicans, common carp Cyprinus carpio, and goldfish Carassius auratus. According to the Mb denaturation, the swamp eel Mb had thermal stability higher than walking catfish Clarias batrachus Mb and striped catfish Pangasius hypophthalmus Mb, between 30 and 60 (°)C. For the thermal stability of Mb, the swamp eel Mb showed a biphasic behavior due to the O(2) dissociation and the heme orientation disorder, with the lowest increase in both Kd(f) and Kd(s). The thermal sensitivity of swamp eel Mb was lower than those of the other Mbs for both of fast and slow reaction stages. These results suggest that the swamp eel Mb globin structure is thermally stable, which is consistent with heat-tolerant behavior of the swamp eel particularly in drought habitat.

  2. Fish measurement using Android smart phone: the example of swamp eel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baisong; Fu, Zhuo; Ouyang, Haiying; Sun, Yingze; Ge, Changshui; Hu, Jing

    The body length and weight are critical physiological parameters for fishes, especially eel-like fishes like swamp eel(Monopterusalbus).Fast and accurate measuring of body length is significant for swamp eel culturing as well as its resource investigation and protection. This paper presents an Android smart phone-based photogrammetry technology for measuring and estimating the length and weight of swamp eel. This method utilizes the feature that the ratio of lengths of two objects within an image is equal to that of in reality to measure the length of swamp eels. And then, it estimates the weight via a pre-built length-weight regression model. Analysis and experimental results have indicated that this method is a fast and accurate method for length and weight measurements of swamp eel. The cross-validation results shows that the RMSE (root-mean-square error) of total length measurement of swamp eel is0.4 cm, and the RMSE of weight estimation is 11 grams.

  3. Sunken wood habitat for thiotrophic symbiosis in mangrove swamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Mélina C Z; Gros, Olivier; Brulport, Jean-Pierre; Gaill, Françoise; Bris, Nadine Le

    2009-03-01

    Large organic falls to the benthic environment, such as dead wood or whale bones, harbour organisms relying on sulfide-oxidizing symbionts. Nothing is known however, concerning sulfide enrichment at the wood surface and its relation to wood colonization by sulfide-oxidizing symbiotic organisms. In this study we combined in situ hydrogen sulfide and pH measurements on sunken wood, with associated fauna microscopy analyses in a tropical mangrove swamp. This shallow environment is known to harbour thiotrophic symbioses and is also abundantly supplied with sunken wood. A significant sulfide enrichment at the wood surface was revealed. A 72h sequence of measurements emphasized the wide fluctuation of sulfide levels (0.1->100muM) over time with both a tidal influence and rapid fluctuations. Protozoans observed on the wood surface were similar to Zoothamnium niveum and to vorticellids. Our SEM observations revealed their association with ectosymbiotic bacteria, which are likely to be sulfide-oxidizers. These results support the idea that sunken wood surfaces constitute an environment suitable for sulfide-oxidizing symbioses.

  4. Mineral uptake by taro (colocasla esculenta) in swamp agroecosystem following gramoxone paraquat herbicide spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashriyah Mat; Mazleha Maskin; Abdul Khalik Wood

    2006-01-01

    Mineral elemental uptake by Colocasia esculenta growing in swamp agroecosystem was studied following 14, 18 or 28 months of field spraying (MAT, months after treatment) with herbicide Gramoxone paraquat. In overall, Al (68226.67 ± 24066.56 μ/g dw) was the major element in riverine alluvial swamp soil, followed by micronutrient Fe (22280.00 ± 6328.87 μ/g dw). Concentration of macronutrient K (20733.33 ± 7371.82, μ/g dw) was the highest in swamp taro leaf followed by macronutrient Ca (7050.00 ± 3767.26 μ/g dw). In overall, the order of importance of the average mineral concentration in swamp taro leaf was K > Ca > Mn > Al > Na > Fe > Zn > Br > Co. However at 14 MAT, the order of importance of mineral content concentration in swamp taro leaf was K > Ca > Al > Na > Mn > Fe > Zn > Br > Co. At 18 MAT, the order of importance of mineral content concentration in swamp taro leaf was K > Ca > Mn > Al > Fe > Na > Zn > Br > Co. At 28 AMT, the order of importance of mineral content concentration in swamp taro leaf was K > Ca > Mn > Fe > Al > Zn > Na > Br > Co. In overall, the average order of importance of mineral elemental uptake or the soil plant transfer coefficient was Mn > K > Na > Zn > Co > Fe > Al; similar with the order at 28 MAT However, at 14 MAT the order of importance of the soil plant transfer coefficient was different at Mn > K > Na > Co > Zn > Al > Fe. (Author)

  5. Performance measures for a Mississippi River reintroduction into the forested wetlands of Maurepas Swamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Ken W.; Shaffer, Gary P.; Keim, Richard F.; Chambers, Jim L.; Wood, William B.; Hartley, Stephen B.

    2017-06-09

    The use of freshwater diversions (river reintroductions) from the Mississippi River as a restoration tool to rehabilitate Louisiana coastal wetlands has been promoted widely since the first such diversion at Caernarvon became operational in the early 1990s. To date, aside from the Bonnet Carré Spillway (which is designed and operated for flood control), there are only four operational Mississippi River freshwater diversions (two gated structures and two siphons) in coastal Louisiana, and they all target salinity intrusion, shellfish management, and (or) the enhancement of the integrity of marsh habitat. River reintroductions carry small sediment loads for various design reasons, but they can be effective in delivering fresh­water to combat saltwater intrusion and increase the delivery of nutrients and suspended fine-grained sediments to receiving wetlands. River reintroductions may be an ideal restoration tool for targeting coastal swamp forest habitat; much of the area of swamp forest habitat in coastal Louisiana is undergo­ing saltwater intrusion, high rates of submergence, and lack of riverine flow leading to reduced concentrations of important nutrients and suspended sediments, which sustain growth and regeneration, help to aerate swamp soils, and remove toxic compounds from the rhizosphere.The State of Louisiana Coastal Protection and Restora­tion Authority (CPRA) has made it a priority to establish a small freshwater river diversion into a coastal swamp forest located between Baton Rouge and New Orleans, Louisiana, to reintroduce Mississippi River water to Maurepas Swamp. While a full understanding of how a coastal swamp forest will respond to new freshwater loading through a Mississippi River reintroduction is unknown, this report provides guidance based on the available literature for establishing performance measures that can be used for evaluating the effectiveness of a Mississippi River reintroduction into the forested wetlands of Maurepas Swamp

  6. Zoneamento ambiental em Pantanais (Banhados Environmental zoning in swamp regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio C. Kurtz

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available O zoneamento ambiental em pantanais (Banhados permitiu avaliar a deterioração ambiental dos ecossistemas existentes na Estação Ecológica do Taim (ESEC/TAIM municípios de Rio Grande, RS, e Santa Vitória do Palmar, RS. Considerou-se dois tipos distintos de ecossistemas: o do Banhado (ECO1 = Ecossistema Límnico e o da Planície Marítima (ECO2 = Ecossistema Planície Marítima. A ECO TOTAL (ECO1 + ECO2 apresentou 64% da classe APP (Área de Preservação Permanente, 27,6% de ACP (Área de Conservação Permanente, e 5,6% de AUO (Área de Uso e Ocupação, enquanto em menor porcentagem se encontra a classe AR (Área de Restauração com 2,8%. A deterioração ambiental da ESEC/TAIM (ECO TOTAL ficou em 13,65%. Com relação à análise fatorial, conclui-se que esta técnica permitiu conhecer a estrutura dos dados, mostrando as correlações entre cada variável (classes de exuberância e seu respectivo fator; entretanto, não foi possível separar grupos ou quantificar a influência de uma ou mais variáveis sobre outra de interesse (variável resposta. Recomenda-se que o zoneamento ambiental seja elaborado pelos órgãos públicos ambientais, nas demais estações ecológicas e nas unidades de conservação.The environmental zoning in swamp regions allowed the evaluation of the environmental deterioration of the ecosystems in the Ecological Station of Taim (ESEC/TAIM, in Rio Grande and Santa Vitória of Palmar (in the State of Rio Grande do Sul - Brazil. Two different types of ecosystems were considered: swamp regions (ECO1 = Límnico Ecosystem and the Marine Plain (ECO2 = Ecosystem Marine Plain. The ECO TOTAL (ECO1 + ECO2 presented 64% of the class APP (Permanent Preservation Area, 27.6% of ACP (Permanent Conservation Area, 5.6% of AUO (Occupation and Use Area, and in a smaller percentage the class AR (Restoration Area with 2.8%. The environmental deterioration of ESEC/TAIM (ECO TOTAL was 13.65%. The factorial analysis technique permitted

  7. CORRELATION ANALYSIS OF AGRONOMIC CHARACTERS AND GRAIN YIELD OF RICE FOR TIDAL SWAMP AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Hairmansis

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Development of rice varieties for tidal swamp areas is emphasized on the improvement of rice yield potential in specific environment. However, grain yield is a complex trait and highly dependent on the other agronomic characters; while information related to the relationship between agronomic characters and grain yield in the breeding program particularly for tidal swamp areas is very limited. The objective of this study was to investigate relationship between agronomic characters and grain yield of rice as a basis for selection of high yielding rice varieties for tidal swamp areas. Agronomic characters and grain yield of nine advanced rice breeding lines and two rice varieties were evaluated in a series of experiments in tidal swamp areas, Karang Agung Ulu Village, Banyuasin, South Sumatra, for four cropping seasons in dry season (DS 2005, wet season (WS 2005/2006, DS 2006, and DS 2007. Result from path analysis revealed that the following characters had positive direct effect on grain yield, i.e. number of productive tillers per hill (p = 0.356, number of filled grains per panicle (p = 0.544, and spikelet fertility (p = 0.215. Plant height had negative direct effect (p = -0.332 on grain yield, while maturity, number of spikelets per panicle, and 1000-grain weight showed negligible effect on rice grain yield. Present study suggests that indirect selection of high yielding tidal swamp rice can be done by selecting breeding lines which have many product tive tillers, dense filled grains, and high spikelet fertility.

  8. Genetic characteristic of swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) from Pampangan, South Sumatra based on blood protein profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windusari, Yuanita; Hanum, Laila; Wahyudi, Rizki

    2017-11-01

    Swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is an endemic species and one of the genetic wealth of South Sumatra with a distribution area in the district of Pampangan (OganIlir and OganOganIlir). Suspected inbreeding causes decreased phenotypic properties. Inbreeding among various swamp buffalo is certainly not only lower the qualities but also genotypes and phenotypes. It is of interest to determine kinship variants swamp buffaloes from Pampangan through the analysis of a blood protein profile. Blood protein profile of four variants swamps buffalo was studied by using five electrophoresis system i.e. pre-albumin (Palb), albumin (Alb), ceruloplasmin (Cp), transferrin (Tf) and transferrin post (Ptf). In this paper, it is obtained that there was no significant differences among the four variants of the buffaloes were used as a sample. Prealbumin has two alleles (Palb1 and Palb2), albumin has three alleles (Alba, AlbB, AlbC), ceruloplasmin has one allele (BPA), post-transferrin has one allele (PTFA) with an allele frequency 1.0000 at any time transferrin has two alleles (TFA and TFB) with the allele frequency of 0.7500 and 1.0000. Characteristics prealbumin (Palb), albumin (Alb), ceruloplasmin (Cp), and post-transferrin (P-tf) is monomorphic, while transferrin is polymorphic average heterozygosity values all loci (H) 0.1286. Based on average heterozygosity, the swamp buffalo (Bubalusbubalis) from Pampangan has low genetic variation and closest genetic relationship.

  9. Floristic and phytosociological analysis of palm swamps in the central part of the Brazilian savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa Lucia de Morais Resende

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the floristics and phytosociology of three palm swamps in the municipality of Bela Vista de Goiás, located in the state of Goiás, Brazil, in the central part of the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado. The floristic surveys were conducted monthly from May 2008 to April 2009, and 310 species were recorded (seven bryophytes, 15 ferns and 288 angiosperms. Bryophytes belonged to five genera and five families; ferns belonged to nine genera and nine families; and angiosperms belonged to 134 genera and 45 families. The angiosperm families with the highest species richness were Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Asteraceae, Eriocaulaceae, Xyridaceae, Lentibulariaceae, Melastomataceae, Rubiaceae and Fabaceae. The palm swamps were divided into three zones of increasing humidity: edge, middle and core. The number of species was higher in the middle than at the edge and the core. The families with the highest cover values were Cyperaceae, Melastomataceae, Arecaceae and Poaceae. Although the palm swamps had been disturbed to varying degrees, those disturbances did not affect the flora in the middle or the core. Floristic similarity was high between these two zones within a given palm swamp and low between the edges of different palm swamps.

  10. Project conservation and handling for the multiple uses and the development of the swamps of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Paez, Heliodoro

    1998-01-01

    In Colombia the swamps are distributed in the Atlantic and Pacific coasts; they are located in areas with conditions of pluvial precipitation that varies from annual 200 mm in the Guajira department; nine species of mangroves have registered for Colombia, which are related following a zonation starting from the tide line, still when this pattern not always stays and it depends on the influence of diverse factors and local conditions. The project conservation and handling for the multiple use and the development of the swamps of Colombia, had as objectives; to watch and to control the parameters of salinity, level of water and flow to laminate and of strengthening the generation of alternative productive social and environmentally appropriate for the sustainable use, guaranteeing their conservation and preservation of the swamps. The project was developed in two phases, one of diagnostic and planning and the other of dynamics of growth, phenology and natural regeneration

  11. Influences of deforestation on radiation and heat balances in tropical peat swamp forest in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, S.; Ishida, T.; Nagano, T.; Matsukawa, S.

    1997-01-01

    The difference of radiation and heat balances between a natural peat swamp forest and a deforested secondary forest has been investigated in Narathiwat Province, Thailand. Micrometeorological measurements were conducted continuously on observation towers 38 m and 4 m in heights in the primary forest and the secondary forest respectively. Results show that the deforestation of peat swamp forest leads to an increase in the sensible heat flux in the secondary forest. The yearly average ratio of the sensible heat flux to the net radiation was 20.9% in the peat swamp forest, and 33.2% in the secondary forest from Aug. 1995 to Jul. 1996. A ratio more than 40% was observed only in the dry season in the secondary forest. The change in sensible heat flux seemed to be influenced by the change in ground water levels. (author)

  12. The Effects of Corrosive Chemicals on Corrosion Rate of Steel Reinforcement Bars: II. Swamp Sludges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henki Ashadi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A polluted environment will influence the building age. The objective of this research was to find out the influence of corrosive chemicals within the sludge swamp area with the corrosion rate of steel concrete. Corrosion in steel concrete usually occur in acid area which contain of SO42-, Cl- and NO3-. The research treatment used by emerging ST 37 andST 60 within 60 days in 'polluted' sludge swamp area. Three variation of 'polluted' swamp sludge were made by increasing the concentration a corrosive unsure up to 1X, 5X and 10X. The corrosion rate measured by using an Immersion Method. The result of Immersion test showed that sulphate had a greatest influence to corrosion rate of ST 37 and ST 60 and followed by chloride and nitrate. Corrosion rate value for ST 37 was 17.58 mpy and for ST 60 was 12.47 mpy.

  13. The impact of the Suwannee River Sill on the surface hydrology of Okefenokee Swamp, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhi-Yong; Brook, George A.

    1992-08-01

    Okefenokee Swamp, located in southeastern Georgia and northeastern Florida, is one of the largest freshwater wetland complexes and a National Wildlife Refuge in the United States. A low earthen dam, the Suwannee River Sill, was built on the largest outlet stream of Okefenokee Swamp in the early 1960s. The purpose was to raise the water level and thus reduce fire frequency in this National Wildlife Refuge. In this study, hydrologic conditions in the swamp prior to (1937-1962) and after (1963-1986) sill construction were compared by statistical procedures. An average 9 cm increase in swamp water level at the Suwannee Canal Recreation Area was attributed to the sill. Increased precipitation and decreased evapotranspiration during the study period caused another 5 cm increase in water levels. Seasonal changes in climatic factors were also responsible for seasonal changes in water levels and streamflow in the pre- and post-sill periods. Although the effect of the sill on water level was more significant during dry periods, it is doubtful that the Suwannee River Sill actually prevented occurrence of severe fibres in the post-sill period, which was wetter than the period before sill construction. The sill diverted 2.6% of swamp outflow from the Suwannee River to the St. Mary's River. Diversion of flow was more marked during low flow periods. Therefore, the discharge of the St. Mary's River in the post-sill increased more than the discharge of the Suwannee River and its variability became lower that of the Suwannee River. The relationships between swamp water level, streamflow and precipitation were also changed due to construction of the sill.

  14. The Effects of Corrosive Chemicals on Corrosion Rate of Steel Reinforcement Bars: I. Swamp Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistyoweni Widanarko

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Most of infrastructures using steel concrete to reinforce the strength of concrete. Steel concrete is so vulnerable to chemical compounds that can cause corrosion. It can happen due to the presence of chemical compounds in acid environment in low pH level. These chemical compounds are SO42-, Cl-, NO3-. There are many swamp area in Indonesia. The acid contents and the concentration of ion sulphate, chlorides, and nitrate are higher in the swamp water than in the ground water .The objective of this research was to find out the influence of corrosive chemicals in the swamp water to the steel concrete corrosion rate. There were two treatment used: (1 emerging ST 37 and ST 60 within 60 days in the 'polluted' swamp water, (2 moving the ST 37 up and down periodically in the ' polluted' swamp water. Three variation of 'polluted' swamp water were made by increasing the concentration of corrosive chemical up to 1X, 5X and 10X respectively. The corrosion rate was measured by using an Immersion Method. The result of Immersion test showed that chloride had the greatest influence to corrosion rate of ST 37 and ST 60 and followed by sulphate and Nitrate. Corrosion rate value for ST 37 is 24.29 mpy and for ST 60 is 22.76 mpy. By moving the sample up and down, the corrosion rate of ST 37 increase up to 37.59 mpy, and chloride still having the greatest influence, followed by sulphate and nitrate.

  15. A collation of recently published Western European formulae for age estimation of subadult skeletal remains: recommendations for forensic anthropology and osteoarchaeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissech, Carme; Márquez-Grant, Nicholas; Turbón, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to provide an effective and quick reference guide based on the most useful European formulae recently published for subadult age estimation. All of these formulae derive from studies on postnatal growth of the scapula, innominate, femur, and tibia, based on modern skeletal data (173 ♂, 173 ♀) from five documented collections from Spain, Portugal, and Britain. The formulae were calculated from Inverse Regression. For this reason, these formulae are especially useful for modern samples from Western Europe and in particular on 20th century human remains from the Iberian Peninsula. Eleven formulae were selected as the most useful because they can be applied to individuals from within a wide age range and in individuals of unknown sex. Due to their high reliability and because they derive from documented European skeletal samples, we recommend these formulae be used on individuals of Caucasoid ancestry from Western Europe. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. Radionuclides distribution in artificial reservoir V-17 (old swamp)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzmenkova, N. [Vernadsky Institute of geochemistry and analytical chemistry RAS (Russian Federation); Vlasova, I.; Sapozhnikov, Y.; Kalmykov, S. [Lomonosov MSU, Chemistry Dep. (Russian Federation); Pryakhin, E. [Urals Research center for radiation medicine (Russian Federation); Ivanov, I. [FSUE Mayak PA (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Reservoir V-17 (Old Swamp) was formed as a result of the construction of dams in 1952 and 1954 (MAYAK Production Association),located in a natural depression relief. Intermediate level liquid radioactive wastes (ILLW) have been discharged to this reservoir since 1949. The water surface area of the lake is 0.13 km{sup 2} with the volume of 0.36 Mm{sup 3}. The maximum depth is 6.5 m with the average value of 2.8 m. Among 74 PBq deposited to the reservoir, the major portion is concentrated in the bottom sediments (as determined in 2007). The aim of this study is to determine radionuclide distribution among abiotic and biotic aquatic components, that includes study of various radionuclides distribution between water and bottom sediments, their speciation and evaluation of condition of zooplankton community. As a result of field research at the reservoir, 4 sampling locations were chosen from which bottom sediments, water samples and some hydrobionts were collected. Pore waters were separated from the wet sediments by high-speed centrifugation. All samples were analyzed by gamma spectrometry using HPGe detector Canberra GR 3818.The radioactivity of tritium in the pore and lake waters was determined by liquid-scintillation spectrometry. The strontium-90 was detected by Cherenkov counting of the daughter {sup 90}Y. The preliminary data show for sediments samples: for {sup 137}Cs amount varies from 75,5 KBq/g to 232 KBq/g, {sup 154}Eu - from 460 to 990 Bq/g, {sup 241}Am - from 1 to 4 KBq/g, {sup 134}Cs - from 50 to 220 Bq/g; for water samples: large contribution from strontium-90 and tritium (varies from 2 to 25 Bq/g). Pore water contains medium amount of radionuclides between sediments and water samples. For {sup 137}Cs varies between 160 to 1100 Bq/g, {sup 154}Eu - from 0,1 to 0,3 Bq/g, {sup 241}Am - from 0,3 to 11 Bq/g, {sup 134}Cs - from 0,1 to 1,7 Bq/g. Variation depends on the sampling place. Activity distribution among hydrobionts was studied by digital Radiography

  17. Long-term disturbance dynamics and resilience of tropical peat swamp forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Lydia E S; Bhagwat, Shonil A; Willis, Katherine J

    2015-01-01

    1. The coastal peat swamp forests of Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo, are undergoing rapid conversion, predominantly into oil palm plantations. This wetland ecosystem is assumed to have experienced insignificant disturbance in the past, persisting under a single ecologically-stable regime. However, there is limited knowledge of the past disturbance regime, long-term functioning and fundamentally the resilience of this ecosystem to changing natural and anthropogenic perturbations through time. 2. In this study, long-term ecological data sets from three degraded peatlands in Sarawak were collected to shed light on peat swamp forest dynamics. Fossil pollen and charcoal were counted in each sedimentary sequence to reconstruct vegetation and investigate responses to past environmental disturbance, both natural and anthropogenic. 3. Results demonstrate that peat swamp forest taxa have dominated these vegetation profiles throughout the last c . 2000-year period despite the presence of various drivers of disturbance. Evidence for episodes of climatic variability, predominantly linked to ENSO events, and wildfires is present throughout. However, in the last c . 500 years, burning and indicators of human disturbance have elevated beyond past levels at these sites, concurrent with a reduction in peat swamp forest pollen. 4. Two key insights have been gained through this palaeoecological analysis: (i) peat swamp forest vegetation has demonstrated resilience to disturbance caused by burning and climatic variability in Sarawak in the late Holocene, however (ii) coincident with increased fire combined with human impact c . 500 years ago, these communities started to decline. 5. Synthesis . Sarawak's coastal peat swamps have demonstrated resilience to past natural disturbances, with forest vegetation persisting through episodes of fire and climatic variability. However, palaeoecological data presented here suggest that recent, anthropogenic disturbances are of a greater magnitude

  18. Biocontrol for Rhizoctonia Stem Rot Disease by Using Combination of Specific Endophyte in Paddy Tidal Swamp

    OpenAIRE

    Budi, Ismed Setya; Mariana, Mariana

    2013-01-01

    The use of combination of specific endophytic in tidal swamps to control stem root disease as biological control agents has not been done. It is expected that this combination is able to continuously protect plants from pathogen interference. The research was carried out in type C tidal swamp in Banjar regency of South Kalimantan, from March to November 2011, temperature 29-32oC, and pH 4.0-5.5. The method used was Split Plot design. Biocontrol preparation for both types of endophytic was ap...

  19. Differential recovery of a deepwater swamp forest across a gradient of disturbance intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane De Steven; Rebecca R. Sharitz

    1997-01-01

    On the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, USA, large areas of floodplain swamp forest of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) and water tupelo (Nyssa aquatica) were destroyed by the cumulative impacts of cooling-water discharges over a 35-year period of nuclear reactor operations. In one floodplain area, four years after thermal...

  20. Potential roles of fish, birds, and water in swamp privet (Forestiera acuminata) seed dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan B. Adams; Paul B. Hamel; Kristina Connor; Bryce Burke; Emile S. Gardiner; David Wise

    2007-01-01

    Forestiera acuminata (swamp privet) is a common wetland shrub/small tree native to the southeastern United States. We examined several possible dispersal avenues for the plant. We tested germination of seeds exposed to various treatments, including passage through Ictalurus punctatus (Channel Catfi sh) guts, and conducted other...

  1. Composition and species diversity of pine-wiregrass savannas of the Green Swamp, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joan Walker; Robert K. Peet

    1983-01-01

    Fire-maintained, species-rich pines wiregrass savannas in the Green Swamp, North Carolina were sampled over their natural range of environmental conditions and fire frequencies. Species composition, species richness, diversity (Exp H', I/ C), and aboveground production were documented and fertilization experiments conducted to assess possible mechanisms for the...

  2. Decline of the Maurepas Swamp, Pontchartrain Basin, Louisiana, and Approaches to Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary P. Shaffer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Maurepas swamp is the second largest contiguous coastal forest in Louisiana but it is highly degraded due to subsidence, near permanent flooding, nutrient starvation, nutria herbivory, and saltwater intrusion. Observed tree mortality rates at study sites in the Maurepas swamp are very high (up to 100% tree mortality in 11 years and basal area decreased with average salinities of <1 ppt. Habitat classification, vegetation productivity and mortality, and surface elevation changes show a clear trajectory from stagnant, nearly permanently flooded forests with broken canopy to degraded forests with sparse baldcypress and dominated by herbaceous species and open water to open water habitat for most of the Maurepas swamp without introduction of fresh water to combat saltwater intrusion and stimulate productivity and accretion. Healthy forests in the Maurepas are receiving fresh water containing nutrients and sediments from urban areas, high quality river water, or secondarily treated municipal effluent. Currently, two proposed diversions into the swamp are via Hope Canal (57 m3·s−1 and Blind River (142 m3·s−1. These diversions would greatly benefit their immediate area but they are too small to influence the entire Maurepas sub-basin, especially in terms of accretion. A large diversion (>1422 m3·s−1 is needed to deliver the adequate sediments to achieve high accretion rates and stimulate organic soil formation.

  3. Net ecosystem CO2 exchange of a primary tropical peat swamp forest in Sarawak, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang Che Ing, A.; Stoy, P. C.; Melling, L.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical peat swamp forests are widely recognized as one of the world's most efficient ecosystems for the sequestration and storage of carbon through both their aboveground biomass and underlying thick deposits of peat. As the peat characteristics exhibit high spatial and temporal variability as well as the structural and functional complexity of forests, tropical peat ecosystems can act naturally as both carbon sinks and sources over their life cycles. Nonetheless, few reports of studies on the ecosystem-scale CO2 exchange of tropical peat swamp forests are available to-date and their present roles in the global carbon cycle remain uncertain. To quantify CO2 exchange and unravel the prevailing factors and potential underlying mechanism regulating net CO2 fluxes, an eddy covariance tower was erected in a tropical peat swamp forest in Sarawak, Malaysia. We observed that the diurnal and seasonal patterns of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) and its components (gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (RE)) varied between seasons and years. Rates of NEE declined in the wet season relative to the dry season. Conversely, both the gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (RE) were found to be higher during the wet season than the dry season, in which GPP was strongly negatively correlated with NEE. The average annual NEE was 385 ± 74 g C m-2 yr-1, indicating the primary peat swamp forest functioned as net source of CO2 to the atmosphere over the observation period.

  4. 75 FR 8107 - Bond Swamp National Wildlife Refuge, Bibb and Twiggs Counties, GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... impact. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce the availability of our final comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) and finding of no significant impact (FONSI) for the environmental..., including upland mixed pine/hardwood, bottomland hardwood, and tupelo gum swamp forests. Creeks, beaver...

  5. Diversity and Antagonistic Activity of Actinomycete Strains From Myristica Swamp Soils Against Human Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varghese Rlnoy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Under the present investigation Actinomycetes were isolated from the soils of Myristica swamps of southern Western Ghats and the antagonistic activity against different human bacterial pathogens was evaluated. Results of the present study revealed that Actinomycetes population in the soils of Myristica swamp was spatially and seasonally varied. Actinomycetes load was varied from 24×104 to 71×103, from 129×103 to 40×103 and from 31×104 to 84×103 in post monsoon, monsoon and pre monsoon respectively. A total of 23 Actinomycetes strains belonging to six genera were isolated from swamp soils. Identification of the isolates showed that most of the isolates belonged to the genus Streptomyces (11, followed by Nocardia (6, Micromonospora (3, Pseudonocardia (1, Streptosporangium (1, and Nocardiopsis (1. Antagonistic studies revealed that 91.3% of Actinomycete isolates were active against one or more tested pathogens, of that 56.52% exhibited activity against Gram negative and 86.95% showed activity against Gram positive bacteria. 39.13% isolates were active against all the bacterial pathogens selected and its inhibition zone diameter was also high. 69.5% of Actinomycetes were exhibited antibacterial activity against Listeria followed by Bacillus cereus (65.21%, Staphylococcus (60.86%, Vibrio cholera (52.17%, Salmonella (52.17% and E. coli (39.13%. The results indicate that the Myristica swamp soils of Southern Western Ghats might be a remarkable reserve of Actinomycetes with potential antagonistic activity.

  6. Utilization of Organic Fertilizer on Sweet Corn (Zea mays saccharata Sturt Crop at Shallow Swamp Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midranisiah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Shallow lowland swamp area has significant potential for cultivation of sweet corn crop. This lowland swamp has rich natural resources such as organic fertilizers from chicken dunk, cow dunk, oil palm fresh bunches and legume cover crops (LCC that are not maximally utilized yet by farmers. These organic fertilizers can be utilized to increase the growth and production of sweet corn crop. The research objective was to determine organic fertilizer types that capable to increase the growth and production of sweet corn crop at shallow lowland swamp area. This research had been conducted from January to April 2015 in Pulau Semambu Village, North Indralaya Subdistrict, Ogan Ilir District, South Sumatra Province. The design used in this research was non-factorial Randomized Block Design (RBD with four treatments of organic fertilizer types with six replications for each treatment. The treatments were consisted of organic fertilizers from chicken dunk, cow dunk, oil palm fresh bunches and legume cover crops (LCC. The results showed that treatment of organic fertilizers from chicken dunk could increase the growth and production of sweet corn at shallow lowland swamp area with yield level of 4.37 kg.plot −1.

  7. The Productivity and Natural Increase of Swamp Buffalo in District Malang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiarto, A.; Ciptadi, G.

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this research was to collect the basic information needed to develop a sustainable breeding program, which includes the potential for production and reproduction of buffaloes. This research was conducted on swamp buffalo in Malang Regency East Java. The research method used was survey method. Primary data was obtained from direct observation on 323 tails owned by 98 breeders. Variables observed were population growth and reproductive performance. The data obtained were analyzed descriptively. The result showed that the initial population study of swamp Buffaloes in Malang as many as 1155 with male and female ratio 1: 2. The ratios of male and female swamp Buffalo 20 percent male and 80 percent female. Overall, the buffalo reproduction performance was still low. Service per conception 2.06 ± 0.88; Anestrus Postpartum 7.46 ± 3.83 months; calving interval distance 17.82 ± 4.86 months; 20.43 % birth rate and 4.33% mortality rate of Natural Increase (NI) population was about 16,1%. In conclusion, the value of NI of swamp Buffalo in Malang Regency is still low. To increase buffalo productivity, buffalo breeding program is continuously based on reproduction control.

  8. Skin disease affecting the conservation of the western swamp tortoise (Pseudemydura umbrina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladyman, J M; Kuchling, G; Burford, D; Boardman, W; Raidal, S R

    1998-11-01

    To review the present position of the western swamp tortoise (Pseudemydura umbrina) as an endangered species and significant health issues affecting efforts to save it from extinction. A retrospective analysis of the husbandry, hospital and pathology records of the western swamp tortoise captive breeding program at Perth Zoo. In 1987 a captive breeding project was developed to prevent the extinction of the western swamp tortoise but an outbreak of a necrotising dermatitis in 1989 threatened the survival of the captive bred hatchlings. Less severe outbreaks occurred in 1990 and 1993, with isolated cases in between. Of 283 tortoises that were born in captivity or came into captivity from the wild, 37 (13.1%) were affected, comprising 37% of all males, 26% of all females and 13% of animals of unknown gender. Of the affected animals, 70% were less than 2 years of age and 29% were older. Males were 1.6 times more likely to be infected than females but this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.27). Culture of the lesions consistently yielded unidentified Pseudomonas sp. Improved husbandry, such as strict maintenance of water quality and temperature conditions similar to that of the animal's natural habitat, and monitoring the health of individual tortoises have successfully controlled skin disease in the captive breeding of the western swamp tortoise.

  9. Improved open-sun drying method for local swamp rice in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    “Kaiso” and “Supa” are the main local swamp-rice (Oryza Sativa) varieties currently grown in Uganda mainly by smallholder farmers on small gardens (0.5 – 2ha). Due to lack of mechanized drying equipment and owing to the low volumes of their harvests, these farmers use open-sun drying methods, where the paddy is ...

  10. Throughfall and stemflow dynamics in a riparian cedar swamp: possible ecohydrological feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, T. P.

    2012-12-01

    Partitioning of rainfall through forest canopies as throughfall and stemflow have deservedly been the subject of much research in the past; however, very little is known about the fluxes of water and solutes through forested wetland communities. Temperate swamps are characterized by intermittent canopy coverage, with areas that are denser than upland forests of similar species, but also contain canopy gaps of meadow and marsh communities,. Understanding the role of vegetation on the distribution of precipitation in these ecosystems is necessary to effectively constrain water balance estimates and predict possible community responses to shifting climate regimes. This study examines throughfall, stemflow, and interception dynamics in a riparian cedar swamp in Alliston, Ontario, Canada over the 2012 growing season. Throughfall averaged 76 % of above-canopy rainfall; however, there were spatial-magnitude interaction variations within the swamp. For events less than 20 mm, between 17 and 75 % of the measured swamp floor received greater depth of rain than above the canopy, whereas for events greater than 20 mm only between 2 and 23 % of the sampled swamp floor received more water than the actual event. The observed spatial variability in throughfall was not related to leaf area index, suggesting remote sensing modelling efforts may not be an accurate method for quantification of wetland precipitation dynamics. Stemflow along the predominantly cedar trees averaged 5 %; therefore, net precipitation on a seasonal basis in this cedar swamp was 81 % of above canopy rainfall. Throughfall DOC and total nitrogen concentrations averaged 31 and 2.2 mg/L, respectively, with stemflow DOC and TN concentrations averaging 109 and 6.5 mg/L, respectively. These values are much higher than reported for upland forest species. In general, throughfall magnitudes increased and solute concentrations decreased with increasing distance from the existing forest boles. The delivery of high

  11. Logged peat swamp forest supports greater macrofungal biodiversity than large-scale oil palm plantations and smallholdings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuhada, Siti Noor; Salim, Sabiha; Nobilly, Frisco; Zubaid, Akbar; Azhar, Badrul

    2017-09-01

    Intensive land expansion of commercial oil palm agricultural lands results in reducing the size of peat swamp forests, particularly in Southeast Asia. The effect of this land conversion on macrofungal biodiversity is, however, understudied. We quantified macrofungal biodiversity by identifying mushroom sporocarps throughout four different habitats; logged peat swamp forest, large-scale oil palm plantation, monoculture, and polyculture smallholdings. We recorded a total of 757 clusters of macrofungi belonging to 127 morphospecies and found that substrates for growing macrofungi were abundant in peat swamp forest; hence, morphospecies richness and macrofungal clusters were significantly greater in logged peat swamp forest than converted oil palm agriculture lands. Environmental factors that influence macrofungi in logged peat swamp forests such as air temperature, humidity, wind speed, soil pH, and soil moisture were different from those in oil palm plantations and smallholdings. We conclude that peat swamp forests are irreplaceable with respect to macrofungal biodiversity. They host much greater macrofungal biodiversity than any of the oil palm agricultural lands. It is imperative that further expansion of oil palm plantation into remaining peat swamp forests should be prohibited in palm oil producing countries. These results imply that macrofungal distribution reflects changes in microclimate between habitats and reduced macrofungal biodiversity may adversely affect decomposition in human-modified landscapes.

  12. Changes in Species Composition in Alder Swamp Forest Following Forest Dieback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remigiusz Pielech

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available It is generally hypothesized that forest dieback is a characteristic of alder swamp forests (alder carrs, Alnion glutinosae alliance. Different internal and external factors may trigger this process, including human disturbance, changes in river discharge, unusually severe and prolonged flooding, terminal age of an even-aged alder forest (ca. 100–150 years and others. Although forest dieback in this type of forest may cause major changes in environmental conditions, the influence of this change on the floristic composition has not been well recognized. The study aimed to detect any possible changes in floristic variation in alder swamp forest following forest dieback. Vegetation plots in alder swamp forests affected by forest dieback were resurveyed 20 years after a previous study. PERMANOVA was used to test the significance of the compositional change and nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS with passively fitted means of the Ellenberg’s Indicator Values were used to interpret its ecological meaning. In addition, different structural and diversity indices were compared, including species richness, percentage cover of vegetation layers, Shannon and Simpson diversity and evenness. Finally, we analyzed changes in the frequency of vascular plant species using Chi square tests. We recorded clear and significant compositional changes following alder swamp forest dieback. This change was most related to the gradient of moisture, followed by the gradients of light and temperature. The analysis of the individual species showed that the species of hummocks declined, while the species of hollows increased. Moreover, the current communities are dominated by some hydrophytes that were not recorded 20 years ago. Forest dieback resulted in profound changes in the hydrological regime. The observed changes are consistent with a model of cyclic succession as proposed for alder swamps. In addition, we conclude that the natural forest dynamics have to be

  13. Mapping swamp timothy (Cripsis schenoides) seed productivity using spectral values and vegetation indices in managed wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahilly, P.J.A.; Li, D.; Guo, Q.; Zhu, J.; Ortega, R.; Quinn, N.W.T.; Harmon, T.C.

    2010-01-15

    This work examines the potential to predict the seed productivity of a key wetland plant species using spectral reflectance values and spectral vegetation indices. Specifically, the seed productivity of swamp timothy (Cripsis schenoides) was investigated in two wetland ponds, managed for waterfowl habitat, in California's San Joaquin Valley. Spectral reflectance values were obtained and associated spectral vegetation indices (SVI) calculated from two sets of high resolution aerial images (May 11, 2006 and June 9, 2006) and were compared to the collected vegetation data. Vegetation data were collected and analyzed from 156 plots for total aboveground biomass, total aboveground swamp timothy biomass, and total swamp timothy seed biomass. The SVI investigated included the Simple Ratio (SR), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), Transformed Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (TSAVI), Modified Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (MSAVI), and Global Environment Monitoring Index (GEMI). We evaluated the correlation of the various SVI with in situ vegetation measurements for linear, quadratic, exponential and power functions. In all cases, the June image provided better predictive capacity relative to May, a result that underscores the importance of timing imagery to coincide with more favorable vegetation maturity. The north pond with the June image using SR and the exponential function (R{sup 2}=0.603) proved to be the best predictor of swamp timothy seed productivity. The June image for the south pond was less predictive, with TSAVI and the exponential function providing the best correlation (R{sup 2}=0.448). This result was attributed to insufficient vegetal cover in the south pond (or a higher percentage of bare soil) due to poor drainage conditions which resulted in a delay in swamp timothy germination. The results of this work suggest that spectral reflectance can be used to estimate seed productivity in managed seasonal

  14. Detection of Panulirus argus Virus 1 (PaV1) in exported frozen tails of subadult-adult Caribbean spiny lobsters Panulirus argus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huchin-Mian, Juan Pablo; Briones-Fourzán, Patricia; Simá-Alvarez, Raúl; Cruz-Quintana, Yanis; Pérez-Vega, Juan Antonio; Lozano-Alvarez, Enrique; Pascual-Jiménez, Cristina; Rodríguez-Canul, Rossanna

    2009-09-23

    The Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus is a valuable fishing resource and the trade in frozen lobster tails is an important industry. However, the presence of the pathogenic virus Panulirus argus Virus 1 (PaV1), which causes systemic infection in P. argus and is particularly lethal to juvenile individuals, has not been previously examined in imported/exported lobster products. We used PCR assays to determine the presence of PaV1 in abdominal muscle tissue of 22 frozen P. argus tails exported from Belize to Mexico. Based on their size, the tails belonged to subadult-adult lobsters. Using specific primers targeted for PaV1 resulted in 11 tails showing a specific 499 bp band. The sequence of positive amplified fragments showed a high similarity to PaV1 (95% identity with GenBank accession no. EF206313.1). Although the pathogenicity of PaV1 was not evaluated in the present study, our results provide the first evidence of PaV1 in frozen lobster tails exported in the seafood industry as well as the first molecular evidence of PaV1 in adult lobsters.

  15. Diversity in destinations, routes and timing of small adult and sub-adult striped bass Morone saxatilis on their southward autumn migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Martha E.; Finn, John T.; Pautzke, Sarah M.; Fox, Dewayne A.; Savoy, Tom; Brundage, Harold M.; Deegan, Linda A.; Muth, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    Almost three-quarters of the 46 young adult and sub-adult striped bass Morone saxatilis that were acoustically tagged in Plum Island Estuary, Massachusetts, U.S.A., in the summer of 2006 were detected in one or more southern coastal arrays during their autumn migration. On the basis of the trajectories along which these M. saxatilis moved from feeding to overwintering areas, three migratory groups emerged. After leaving Plum Island Estuary, about half of the fish were detected only in a mid-latitude array, Long Island Sound. The other half of the tagged fish were detected during autumn and winter in a more southern array, the Delaware Estuary. This latter group of fish may have used two routes. Some travelled to the Delaware Estuary through Long Island Sound while other fish may have taken a second, more direct, coastal route that did not include Long Island Sound. Consequently, a seemingly homogeneous group of fish tagged at the same time in the same non-natal feeding location exhibited a diversity of southward movement patterns that could affect population-level processes. These three groups that differed in overwintering location and migration route could be movement contingents with migratory connectivity.

  16. Isolation of vibrio spp. In oysters (crassostrea rhizophorea) caught in the ‘de la virgen’ swamp

    OpenAIRE

    López Gutiérrez, Lercy; Autor; Manjarrez Pava, Ganiveth; Autor; Herrera Rodríguez, Lilibeth; Autor; Montes Payares, Ana Elena; Autor; Olascuaga Ruíz, Yuranis Paola; Autor; Ortega Quiroz, Rolando José; Autor

    2015-01-01

    Objective:  To establish contamination by Vibrio in oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) caught in De La Virgen Swamp, in order to alert entities in charge or protecting consumer health in Cartagena city. Methods: Between February and April 2006, 67 oysters from 5 strategic sites along De La Virgen Swamp, were analyzed. Insulation and identification of Vibrio was performed through a culture and biochemical tests.Results.  Predominant species were V. alginolyticus (23%),V fluvialis  (20%),V. para...

  17. [Amphibians and reptiles in the swamps dominated by the palm Raphia taedigera (Arecaceae) in northeastern Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla-Murillo, Fabian; Beneyto, Davinia; Sasa, Mahmood

    2013-09-01

    The herpetofauna that inhabits Caribbean Costa Rica has received considerable attention in the last two decades. This assemblage includes a total of 141 species of reptiles and 95 amphibians mostly distributed in tropical wet and moist lowland forests. While most information available came from primary and secondary forest sites, little is known about the amphibians and reptiles that inhabit more open habitats, such as wetlands and swamps. For instances, swaps dominated by the yolillo palm Raphia taedigera extend through much of the northeastern Caribbean coast of Costa Rica and eastern Nicaragua, but information about the herpetological community that uses such environments remains practically unknown. This situation reflects the little research conducted in such inhospitable environments. Here, we report the results of an intensive survey conducted to assess the herpetological community that inhabit R. taedigera palm-swamps. A total of 14 species of amphibians and 17 of reptiles have been recorded from these swamps. Amphibians and reptiles that inhabit yolillo swamps have wide distributions along much of Middle America and are considered common species throughout their range. In general, yolillo swamps are poor environments for herpetofauna: richness of reptiles and amphibians is almost two times higher in the adjacent forest than in the palm dominated swamps. Furthermore, most species observed in this swamps can be considered habitat generalists that are well adapted to the extreme conditions imposed by the changes in hydroperiods, reduce understory cover, low tree diversity and simple forest architecture of these environments. Despite similarities in the herpetofauna, it is clear that not all forest species use yolillo habitat, a characteristic that is discussed in terms of physical stress driven by the prolonged hydroperiod and reduced leaflitter in the ground, as these features drive habitat structure and herpetofaunal complexity. Our list of species using

  18. Imported Asian swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus) in North American live food markets: Potential vectors of non-native parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nico, Leo G.; Sharp, Paul; Collins, Timothy M.

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1990s, possibly earlier, large numbers of Asian swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus spp.), some wild-caught, have been imported live from various countries in Asia and sold in ethnic food markets in cities throughout the USA and parts of Canada. Such markets are the likely introduction pathway of some, perhaps most, of the five known wild populations of Asian swamp eels present in the continental United States. This paper presents results of a pilot study intended to gather baseline data on the occurrence and abundance of internal macroparasites infecting swamp eels imported from Asia to North American retail food markets. These data are important in assessing the potential role that imported swamp eels may play as possible vectors of non-native parasites. Examination of the gastrointestinal tracts and associated tissues of 19 adult-sized swamp eels—identified as M. albus "Clade C"—imported from Vietnam and present in a U.S. retail food market revealed that 18 (95%) contained macroparasites. The 394 individual parasites recovered included a mix of nematodes, acanthocephalans, cestodes, digeneans, and pentastomes. The findings raise concern because of the likelihood that some parasites infecting market swamp eels imported from Asia are themselves Asian taxa, some possibly new to North America. The ecological risk is exacerbated because swamp eels sold in food markets are occasionally retained live by customers and a few reportedly released into the wild. For comparative purposes, M. albus "Clade C" swamp eels from a non-native population in Florida (USA) were also examined and most (84%) were found to be infected with internal macroparasites. The current level of analysis does not allow us to confirm whether these are non-native parasites.

  19. The hydrological function of upland swamps in eastern Australia: The role of geomorphic condition in regulating water storage and discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Kirsten L.; Fryirs, Kirstie A.; Hose, Grant C.

    2018-06-01

    Temperate Highland Peat Swamps on Sandstone (THPSS) are a type of wetland found in low-order streams on the plateaus of eastern Australia. They are sediment and organic matter accumulation zones, which combined with a climate of high rainfall and low evaporation function as water storage systems. Changes to the geomorphic structure of these systems via incision and channelisation can have profound impacts on their hydrological function. The aim of this study was to develop an understanding of how changes to the geomorphic structure of these systems alter their hydrological function, measured as changes and variability in swamp water table levels and discharge. We monitored the water table levels and discharges of three intact and three channelised THPSS in the Blue Mountains between March 2015 and June 2016. We found that water levels in intact swamps were largely stable over the monitoring period. Water levels rose only in high rainfall events, returned quickly to antecedent levels after rain, and drawdown during dry periods was not significant. In contrast, the water table levels in channelised THPSS were highly variable. Water levels rose quickly after almost all rainfall events and declined significantly during dry periods. Discharge also showed marked differences with the channelised THPSS discharging 13 times more water than intact swamps, even during dry periods. Channelised THPSS also had flashier storm hydrographs than intact swamps. These results have profound implications for the capacity of these swamps to act as water storage reservoirs in the headwaters of catchments and for their ability to maintain base flow to downstream catchments during dry times. Changes to geomorphic structure and hydrological function also have important implications for a range of other swamp functions such as carbon storage, emission and exports, contaminant sorption, downstream water quality and biodiversity, as well as the overall fate of these swamps under a changing

  20. Behavioural and hormonal aspects of the oestrous cycle in swamp buffaloes reared under temperate conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai, Y.; Ishikawa, N.; Shimizu, H.

    1990-01-01

    A series of experiments was carried out using a small herd of swamp buffaloes raised in Japan under temperate conditions at 36 deg. N latitude, with a view to determining whether they exhibit peculiar characteristics in their oestrous cycles. The studies on the oestrous behaviour revealed that under adequate feeding and management conditions, buffaloes regularly display oestrous throughout the year, with the cycle length, duration of oestrous and time of ovulation all falling within ranges similar to those reported in cattle. External signs of oestrus were generally less evident, as previously reported. Hormonal analysis showed that there were no remarkable differences between swamp buffaloes and cattle in terms of the secretory patterns of pituitary gonadotrophins and ovarian steroids during the oestrous cycle. (author). 13 refs, 2 figs

  1. Product (RED)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    ) and the consumers who buy iconic brand products to help ‘distant others’. While in many other forms of causumerism, labels or certification systems ‘prove’ that a product is just, in RED, aid celebrities provide the proof. From the consumer point of view both labels and celebrities provide a similar simplification...... of complex social, economic, and environmental processes. At the same time, we argue that there are important distinctions as well—labels and certifications are ultimately about improving the conditions of production, whereas RED is about accepting existing production and trade systems and donating......(PRODUCT)RED™ (hereafter RED) is a cobranding initiative launched in 2006 by the aid celebrity Bono to raise money from product sales to support The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. In this paper we argue that RED is shifting the boundaries of ‘causumerism’ (shopping...

  2. Polyancora globosa gen. sp. nov., an aeroaquatic fungus from Malaysian peat swamp forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voglmayr, Hermann; Yule, Catherine M

    2006-10-01

    During an investigation of submerged leaves and twigs sampled from tropical peat swamp forests located in Peninsular Malaysia, an anamorphic fungus not attributable to a described genus was detected and isolated in pure culture. Conidial ontogeny was thoroughly studied and illustrated using both light and SEM, which revealed a unique conidial morphology. Analysis of partial nuLSU rDNA and ITS data revealed a phylogenetic position within the Xylariales (Ascomycota), but family affiliation remained unclear.

  3. Mapping Palm Swamp Wetland Ecosystems in the Peruvian Amazon: a Multi-Sensor Remote Sensing Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podest, E.; McDonald, K. C.; Schroeder, R.; Pinto, N.; Zimmerman, R.; Horna, V.

    2012-12-01

    Wetland ecosystems are prevalent in the Amazon basin, especially in northern Peru. Of specific interest are palm swamp wetlands because they are characterized by constant surface inundation and moderate seasonal water level variation. This combination of constantly saturated soils and warm temperatures year-round can lead to considerable methane release to the atmosphere. Because of the widespread occurrence and expected sensitivity of these ecosystems to climate change, it is critical to develop methods to quantify their spatial extent and inundation state in order to assess their carbon dynamics. Spatio-temporal information on palm swamps is difficult to gather because of their remoteness and difficult accessibility. Spaceborne microwave remote sensing is an effective tool for characterizing these ecosystems since it is sensitive to surface water and vegetation structure and allows monitoring large inaccessible areas on a temporal basis regardless of atmospheric conditions or solar illumination. We developed a remote sensing methodology using multi-sensor remote sensing data from the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array L-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR), Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) DEM, and Landsat to derive maps at 100 meter resolution of palm swamp extent and inundation based on ground data collections; and combined active and passive microwave data from AMSR-E and QuikSCAT to derive inundation extent at 25 kilometer resolution on a weekly basis. We then compared information content and accuracy of the coarse resolution products relative to the high-resolution datasets. The synergistic combination of high and low resolution datasets allowed for characterization of palm swamps and assessment of their flooding status. This work has been undertaken partly within the framework of the JAXA ALOS Kyoto & Carbon Initiative. PALSAR data have been provided by JAXA. Portions of this work were carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

  4. Proteomic analysis of three gonad types of swamp eel reveals genes differentially expressed during sex reversal

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng, Yue; Zhao, Wei; Song, Ying; Li, Zhigang; Luo, Majing; Lei, Quan; Cheng, Hanhua; Zhou, Rongjia

    2015-01-01

    A variety of mechanisms are engaged in sex determination in vertebrates. The teleost fish swamp eel undergoes sex reversal naturally and is an ideal model for vertebrate sexual development. However, the importance of proteome-wide scanning for gonad reversal was not previously determined. We report a 2-D electrophoresis analysis of three gonad types of proteomes during sex reversal. MS/MS analysis revealed a group of differentially expressed proteins during ovary to ovotestis to testis transf...

  5. Studies on algea of Da′erbin lake and its surrounding swamps in daxing anling mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Xiaofei

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports 234 taxa of algae (excluding diatomas and desmids in Da′erbin Lake and its surrounding swamps in the Great Xing′an Mountains.They were identified belong to 6 phylums 79 generas 197 species 31 varieties and 6 forms.Among them Characium ornithocephalum var.pringsheimii (A.Br. Kom.,Characium pluricoccum Kor.,Quadrigula korsikovii Kom.,Crucigeniella rectangularis (Ng. Kom.are newly reported in China.

  6. Substantial improvements not seen in health behaviors following corner store conversions in two Latino food swamps

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega, Alexander N.; Albert, Stephanie L.; Chan-Golston, Alec M.; Langellier, Brent A.; Glik, Deborah C.; Belin, Thomas R.; Garcia, Rosa Elena; Brookmeyer, Ron; Sharif, Mienah Z.; Prelip, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Background The effectiveness of food retail interventions is largely undetermined, yet substantial investments have been made to improve access to healthy foods in food deserts and swamps via grocery and corner store interventions. This study evaluated the effects of corner store conversions in East Los Angeles and Boyle Heights, California on perceived accessibility of healthy foods, perceptions of corner stores, store patronage, food purchasing, and eating behaviors. Methods Household data ...

  7. Nariva Swamp Ramsar Site, Trinidad and Tobago (West Indies) Wetland Habitat Restoration Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montserrat Carbonell; Nadra Nathai-Gyan

    2005-01-01

    Trinidad and Tobago, a twin island nation, is the most southerly of the Caribbean islands and lies just 11 km off the coast of Venezuela, near the Orinoco delta. Trinidad, the larger of the two islands, is approximately 5,000 km² and the Nariva Swamp is located on its eastern coast (fig. 1). In 1993, this site was designated as a wetland of international...

  8. Producer farmer’s sovereignty in dry land and swamps areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaeti, RN; Wahyuni, S.

    2018-01-01

    Farmers could perform their farming if they have sovereignty on their farming production inputs and marketing. Suboptimal land, such as dry land and swamps areas have good prospect if applying appropriate technologies. A research in 2015, on status of farmers’ sovereignty, had been conducted in Piani and North Candi Laras Subdistricts, Tapin District, South Borneo Province, representing swamp land and dry land respectively. Data and information were obtained through interviewing related agencies at provincial and district levels and 30 units of farmer’s households. The primary and secondary data were analyzed descriptively. The research results showed that farmers in swamps and dry land were categorized as large farmers and had sovereignty over the land and production. Water shortage and excessive in both land types could be overcome by giving access on appropriate technology such as programs making farmers improve their farming techniques and providing levees. In addition, land certification program, farming expansion and constructing new irrigated lowland were also some efforts to improve farmers’ sovereignty. It was crucial to identify and improve farmer’s sovereignty indicators through research in larger sites and samples.

  9. Reproductive responses to climatic heat induced by management systems in swamp buffaloes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dollah, M.A.; Ramakrishnan, N.; Nordin, Y.; Abdullah Sani, R.

    1990-01-01

    Climatic heat is one of the factors influencing the reproductive performance of swamp buffaloes. Any management system that imposes high climatic heat stress tends to reduce reproductive performance. Buffaloes grazing in an open hilly ranch system reached puberty later (at an age of 33 months) and at heavier body weight (365 kg) than animals raised in confinement (26 months and 289 kg). Physiological data (water metabolism and thyroid activity) indicated that grazing animals had to tolerate a higher heat load. High climatic temperatures were found to depress ovarian activity, especially during the dry season. The effect was observed only in cycling buffaloes denied wallow. Buffaloes having access to wallows were able to maintain their heat balance under various levels of heat load by adjusting their water requirements, mobilizing their body water and adjusting their metabolic rate (thyroid activity). It is concluded that stressful climatic temperatures can depress the reproductive performance of young heifers and adult swamp buffaloes, and that climatic heat stress directly depresses ovarian activity in swamp buffaloes. (author). 16 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

  10. Repeated drought alters resistance of seed bank regeneration in baldcypress swamps of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ting; Middleton, Beth A.

    2018-01-01

    Recurring drying and wetting events are likely to increase in frequency and intensity in predicted future droughts in the central USA and alter the regeneration potential of species. We explored the resistance of seed banks to successive droughts in 53 sites across the nine locations in baldcypress swamps in the southeastern USA. Along the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley and northern Gulf of Mexico, we investigated the capacity of seed banks to retain viable seeds after successive periods of drying and wetting in a greenhouse study. Mean differences in species richness and seed density were compared to examine the interactions of successive droughts, geographical location and water regime. The results showed that both species richness and total density of germinating seedlings decreased over repeated drought trials. These responses were more pronounced in geographical areas with higher annual mean temperature. In seed banks across the southeastern swamp region, most species were exhausted after Trial 2 or 3, except for semiaquatic species in Illinois and Tennessee, and aquatic species in Texas. Distinct geographical trends in seed bank resistance to drought demonstrate that climate-induced drying of baldcypress swamps could influence the regeneration of species differently across their ranges. Despite the health of adult individuals, lack of regeneration may push ecosystems into a relict status. Seed bank depletion by germination without replenishment may be a major conservation threat in a future with recurring droughts far less severe than megadrought. Nevertheless, the protection of moist refugia might aid conservation.

  11. BIOCONTROL FOR RHIZOCTONIA STEM ROT DISEASE BY USING COMBINATION OF SPECIFIC ENDOPHYTE IN PADDY TIDAL SWAMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismed Setya Budi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of combination of specific endophytic in tidal swamps to control stem root disease as biological control agents has not been done. It is expected that this combination is able to continuously protect plants from pathogen interference. The research was carried out in type C tidal swamp in Banjar regency of South Kalimantan, from March to November 2011, temperature 29-32oC, and pH 4.0-5.5. The method used was Split Plot design. Biocontrol preparation for both types of endophytic was applied in seeds in 7 days after planting (DAP. Observation on high intensity and plant diseases of planting stage on tidal swamps (taradak, ampak and lacak was conducted. The results showed that there was a reduction of disease ranging from 58.70 to 87.29%. The application of combination of two biocontrol agents (T. viride PS-2.1 + P. fluorescent PS-4.8, (Fusarium non-pathogenic PS-1.5 + P. fluorescent PS-4.8 and (T. viride PS-2.1+ FNP PS-1.5 isolate gave the best inhibition result, reduced disease intensity, and increased plant height. The result of soil analysis before and after application of endophytic showed that there was an increase in soil fertility with the element addition of N, P, K and pH.

  12. Approaches for the environmental evaluation of two swamp complexes of the Momposina depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero, Humberto; Durango, Consuelo

    1998-01-01

    The swamp complexes of the Momposina depression in the lower Magdalena River have been submitted to irrational exploitation, transformation and contamination mainly since the beginning of the century, process that has be en getting worse in the last decade. The most evident manifestation of the environmental deterioration is expressed by the drastic reduction of fishing, with important socio-economic effects to the population that lives from this source. The most notorious causes of the actual state of the ecosystem were detected, and some preliminary considerations for its management are presented. However, due to the modifications that the complexes have suffered (closure of the natural sewer, construction of jarillones, modifications of the internal water flows and sediments, over exploitation, of fish and herpetofauna), the deterioration of the limnologic conditions is moderated, which allows to begin recuperation plans. The major impacts were observed in the fauna of birds and reptiles associated to the swamps; the decrease of the ictics populations seems to be related to the strong impact generated by the fishing action used and the interruption of the natural cycles of fish. The possibility of rebuilding the communication swamp-river should be studied with care because it seems the system has arrived to new conditions. The re-opening of the sewers could mean a new unbalanced condition represented mainly by the contamination coming from the Magdalena River

  13. Relationships between Vacant Homes and Food Swamps: A Longitudinal Study of an Urban Food Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mui, Yeeli; Jones-Smith, Jessica C; Thornton, Rachel L J; Pollack Porter, Keshia; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2017-11-21

    Research indicates that living in neighborhoods with high concentrations of boarded-up vacant homes is associated with premature mortality due to cancer and diabetes, but the mechanism for this relationship is unclear. Boarded-up housing may indirectly impact residents' health by affecting their food environment. We evaluated the association between changes in vacancy rates and changes in the density of unhealthy food outlets as a proportion of all food outlets, termed the food swamp index, in Baltimore, MD (USA) from 2001 to 2012, using neighborhood fixed-effects linear regression models. Over the study period, the average food swamp index increased from 93.5 to 95.3 percentage points across all neighborhoods. Among non-African American neighborhoods, increases in the vacancy rate were associated with statistically significant decreases in the food swamp index (b = -0.38; 90% CI, -0.64 to -0.12; p -value: 0.015), after accounting for changes in neighborhood SES, racial diversity, and population size. A positive association was found among low-SES neighborhoods (b = 0.15; 90% CI, 0.037 to 0.27; p -value: 0.031). Vacant homes may influence the composition of food outlets in urban neighborhoods. Future research should further elucidate the mechanisms by which more distal, contextual factors, such as boarded-up vacant homes, may affect food choices and diet-related health outcomes.

  14. Effects of Dietary Lipid Source and Level on Growth Performance, Blood Parameters and Flesh Quality of Sub-adult Olive Flounder (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Kyu Kim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary lipid source and level on growth performance, blood parameters, fatty acid composition and flesh quality of sub-adult olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Eight experimental diets were formulated to contain 5% squid liver oil (SLO, 5% linseed oil (LO, 5% soybean oil (SO, a mixture of 1% squid liver oil, 2% linseed oil and 2% soybean oil (MIX, no lipid supplementation with high protein level (LL-HP, 10% squid liver oil (HL-SLO, a mixture of 1% squid liver oil, 4.5% linseed oil and 4.5% soybean oil (HL-VO, and 1% squid liver oil with high starch level (LL-HC, respectively. Two replicate groups of fish (average initial weight of 296 g were fed the diets for 17 wks. After 5 wks, 11 wks and the end of the feeding trial, five fish from each tank were randomly sampled for analysis of body composition. At the end of the feeding trial, final mean weight of fish fed the LL-HP diet was significantly (p<0.05 higher than that of fish fed the HL-VO diet, but did not differ significantly from those of fish fed the SLO, LO, SO, MIX, HL-SLO and LL-HC diets. Fish fed the LL-HP diet showed significantly higher feed efficiency than fish fed the LO, HL-SLO and HL-VO diets. Feed efficiency of fish fed the LO, SO and MIX diets were similar to those of fish fed the SLO and HL-SLO diets. Fish fed the HL-SLO diet showed significantly higher total cholesterol content in plasma compared with other diets. Fatty acid composition of tissues was reflected by dietary fatty acid composition. The highest linoleic (LA and linolenic acid (LNA contents in the dorsal muscle were observed in fish fed the SO and LO diets, respectively, regardless of feeding period. The highest eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA content in the dorsal muscle was observed in fish fed the LL-HP and LL-HC diets after 11 and 17 weeks of feeding, respectively. Fish fed the SLO and HL-SLO diets showed higher docosahexaenoic acid (DHA content than that of

  15. Red Sirius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martynov, D Ya

    1976-01-01

    A hypothesis is proposed explaining the assumption that Sirius changed its colour from red in the second century to pale blue in the tenth century A.D. The hypothesis is based on the possibility of transformation of a Sirius satellite (Sirius B) from a red giant in the past to a white dwarf in the present. Such a transformation would have been accompanied by an explosion of Sirius B, which is clearly visible from the Earth. The fact that the increase in Sirius brightness by 4-5 units is not reflected in historical chronicles is attributed to the degradation of sciences in Europe in 4-10 centuries.

  16. Food swamps and food deserts in Baltimore City, MD, USA: associations with dietary behaviours among urban adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Erin R; Cockerham, Alexandra; O'Reilly, Nicole; Harrington, Donna; Harding, James; Hurley, Kristen M; Black, Maureen M

    2017-10-01

    To determine whether living in a food swamp (≥4 corner stores within 0·40 km (0·25 miles) of home) or a food desert (generally, no supermarket or access to healthy foods) is associated with consumption of snacks/desserts or fruits/vegetables, and if neighbourhood-level socio-economic status (SES) confounds relationships. Cross-sectional. Assessments included diet (Youth/Adolescent FFQ, skewed dietary variables normalized) and measured height/weight (BMI-for-age percentiles/Z-scores calculated). A geographic information system geocoded home addresses and mapped food deserts/food swamps. Associations examined using multiple linear regression (MLR) models adjusting for age and BMI-for-age Z-score. Baltimore City, MD, USA. Early adolescent girls (6th/7th grade, n 634; mean age 12·1 years; 90·7 % African American; 52·4 % overweight/obese), recruited from twenty-two urban, low-income schools. Girls' consumption of fruit, vegetables and snacks/desserts: 1·2, 1·7 and 3·4 servings/d, respectively. Girls' food environment: 10·4 % food desert only, 19·1 % food swamp only, 16·1 % both food desert/swamp and 54·4 % neither food desert/swamp. Average median neighbourhood-level household income: $US 35 298. In MLR models, girls living in both food deserts/swamps consumed additional servings of snacks/desserts v. girls living in neither (β=0·13, P=0·029; 3·8 v. 3·2 servings/d). Specifically, girls living in food swamps consumed more snacks/desserts than girls who did not (β=0·16, P=0·003; 3·7 v. 3·1 servings/d), with no confounding effect of neighbourhood-level SES. No associations were identified with food deserts or consumption of fruits/vegetables. Early adolescent girls living in food swamps consumed more snacks/desserts than girls not living in food swamps. Dietary interventions should consider the built environment/food access when addressing adolescent dietary behaviours.

  17. Rich soil carbon and nitrogen but low atmospheric greenhouse gas fluxes from North Sulawesi mangrove swamps in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guang C; Ulumuddin, Yaya I; Pramudji, Sastro; Chen, Shun Y; Chen, Bin; Ye, Yong; Ou, Dan Y; Ma, Zhi Y; Huang, Hao; Wang, Jing K

    2014-07-15

    The soil to atmosphere fluxes of greenhouse gases N2O, CH4 and CO2 and their relationships with soil characteristics were investigated in three tropical oceanic mangrove swamps (Teremaal, Likupang and Kema) in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Mangrove soils in North Sulawesi were rich in organic carbon and nitrogen, but the greenhouse gas fluxes were low in these mangroves. The fluxes ranged -6.05-13.14 μmol m(-2)h(-1), -0.35-0.61 μmol m(-2)h(-1) and -1.34-3.88 mmol m(-2)h(-1) for N2O, CH4 and CO2, respectively. The differences in both N2O and CH4 fluxes among different mangrove swamps and among tidal positions in each mangrove swamp were insignificant. CO2 flux was influenced only by mangrove swamps and the value was higher in Kema mangrove. None of the measured soil parameters could explain the variation of CH4 fluxes among the sampling plots. N2O flux was negatively related to porewater salinity, while CO2 flux was negatively correlated with water content and organic carbon. This study suggested that the low gas emissions due to slow metabolisms would lead to the accumulations of organic matters in North Sulawesi mangrove swamps. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Operational restoration of the Pen Branch bottomland hardwood and swamp wetlands - the research setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, E.A.

    2000-01-01

    The Savannah River Swamp is a 3020 Ha forested wetland on the floodplain of the Savannah River and is located on the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, SC. Historically the swamp consisted of approximately 50 percent bald cypress-water tupelo stands, 40 percent mixed bottomland hardwood stands, and 10 percent shrub, marsh, and open water. Creek corridors were typical of Southeastern bottomland hardwood forests. The hydrology was controlled by flooding of the Savannah River and by flow from four creeks that drain into the swamp prior to flow into the Savannah River. Upstream dams have caused some alteration of the water levels and timing of flooding within the floodplain. Major impacts to the swamp hydrology occurred with the completion of the production reactors and one coal-fired powerhouse at the SRS in the early 1950's. Water was pumped from the Savannah River, through secondary heat exchangers of the reactors, and discharged into three of the tributary streams that flow into the swamp. Flow in one of the tributaries, Pen Branch, was typically 0.3 m3 s-1 (10-20) cfs prior to reactor pumping and 11.0 m3 s-1 (400 cfs) during pumping. This continued from 1954 to 1988 at various levels. The sustained increases in water volume resulted in overflow of the original stream banks and the creation of additional floodplains. Accompanying this was considerable erosion of the original stream corridor and deposition of a deep silt layer on the newly formed delta. Heated water was discharged directly into Pen Branch and water temperature in the stream often exceeded 65 degrees C. The nearly continuous flooding of the swamp, the thermal load of the water, and the heavy silting resulted in complete mortality of the original vegetation in large areas of the floodplain. In the years since pumping was reduced, early succession has begun in some affected areas. Most of this has been herbs, grasses, and shrubs. Areas that have seedlings are generally willow

  19. Novel Insights into Antiviral Gene Regulation of Red Swamp Crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, Infected with White Spot Syndrome Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaokui Yi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available White spot syndrome virus (WSSV, one of the major pathogens of Procambarus clarkii, has caused severe disruption to the aquaculture industry of P. clarkii in China. To reveal the gene regulatory mechanisms underlying WSSV infection, a comparative transcriptome analysis was performed among WSSV-infected susceptible individuals (GS, viral resistant individuals (GR, and a non-infected control group (GC. A total of 61,349 unigenes were assembled from nine libraries. Subsequently, 515 and 1033 unigenes exhibited significant differential expression in sensitive and resistant crayfish individuals compared to the control group (GC. Many differentially expressed genes (e.g., C-type lectin 4, Peroxinectin, Prophenoloxidase, and Serine/threonine-protein kinase observed in GR and GS play critical roles in pathogen recognition and viral defense reactions after WSSV infection. Importantly, the glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis-chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate pathway was identified to play critical roles in defense to WSSV infection for resistant crayfish individuals by upregulating the chondroitin sulfate related genes for the synthesis of WSSV-sensitive, functional chondroitin sulfate chains containing E units. Numerous genes and the key pathways identified between resistant and susceptible P. clarkii individuals provide valuable insights regarding antiviral response mechanisms of decapoda species and may help to improve the selective breeding of P. clarkii WSSV-resistance.

  20. Utilization of agro-industrial by-products by swamp buffalo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelan, Z.A.; Jalaludin, S.; Vijchulata, P.

    1987-01-01

    A series of studies were conducted to determine the factors affecting the utilization of palm press fibre (PPF) by swamp buffaloes. The nutritive values, fermentation and rumen kinetics, intake and growth responses to a PPF based diet with or without protein and energy supplementation were studied. Palm press fibre was considered a poor quality feed as it is low in crude protein (about 6%) and high in lignin content (about 21%). Dry matter (DM) disappearance from nylon bags at 48 h was low (about 40%) as compared with grass (47%), oaten hay (49%) and lucerne (64%). Sodium hydroxide (8% solution) was most effective as a treating agent as the DM disappearance of PPF from the nylon bags at 48 h was increased by 14%. Dry matter loss from the bags was greater in swamp buffaloes than in cattle. Rumen fluid volume and flow rate were not significantly (P>0.05) increased with fish meal supplementation, but the total dry matter intake (DMI) increased significantly (P<0.05) when 360 g DM/d fish meal was supplemented. Total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations were low in unsupplemented animals and the molar proportions of the VFAs were typical of those seen in the rumen fluid of ruminants fed a fibre based diet. Rumen ammonia-nitrogen was high (40-70 mg/L) in fish meal supplemented animals. When urea treated PPF was supplemented with fish meal and cassava, the animals showed significant increases (P<0.05) in average daily gain and in both total DMI and in the DMI of a basal diet. The study concludes that supplementation with rumen undegradable protein and an energy source are essential to a PPF based diet and that untreated PPF is not a suitable basal diet for swamp buffaloes. (author)

  1. Landscape-scale changes in forest canopy structure across a partially logged tropical peat swamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedeux, B. M. M.; Coomes, D. A.

    2015-11-01

    Forest canopy structure is strongly influenced by environmental factors and disturbance, and in turn influences key ecosystem processes including productivity, evapotranspiration and habitat availability. In tropical forests increasingly modified by human activities, the interplay between environmental factors and disturbance legacies on forest canopy structure across landscapes is practically unexplored. We used airborne laser scanning (ALS) data to measure the canopy of old-growth and selectively logged peat swamp forest across a peat dome in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, and quantified how canopy structure metrics varied with peat depth and under logging. Several million canopy gaps in different height cross-sections of the canopy were measured in 100 plots of 1 km2 spanning the peat dome, allowing us to describe canopy structure with seven metrics. Old-growth forest became shorter and had simpler vertical canopy profiles on deeper peat, consistent with previous work linking deep peat to stunted tree growth. Gap size frequency distributions (GSFDs) indicated fewer and smaller canopy gaps on the deeper peat (i.e. the scaling exponent of Pareto functions increased from 1.76 to 3.76 with peat depth). Areas subjected to concessionary logging until 2000, and illegal logging since then, had the same canopy top height as old-growth forest, indicating the persistence of some large trees, but mean canopy height was significantly reduced. With logging, the total area of canopy gaps increased and the GSFD scaling exponent was reduced. Logging effects were most evident on the deepest peat, where nutrient depletion and waterlogged conditions restrain tree growth and recovery. A tight relationship exists between canopy structure and peat depth gradient within the old-growth tropical peat swamp forest. This relationship breaks down after selective logging, with canopy structural recovery, as observed by ALS, modulated by environmental conditions. These findings improve our

  2. Galling arthropod diversity in adjacent swamp forests and restinga vegetation in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Milton De S; Piccardi, Hosana M F; Jahnke, Simone M; Dalbem, Ricardo V

    2010-01-01

    Galling arthropods create plant structures inside which they find shelter. Factors acting on galler diversity are still being discussed, with this fauna considered more diverse in xeric than mesic environments (higrothermic stress hypothesis, HSH), and also in more plant diverse sites. Here we compare galler abundance (N), equitability (E), species richness (S) and composition between adjacent restinga (xeric) and swamp forests (mesic) in Parque Estadual de Itapeva (29°21' S, 49°45' W), Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Five trails, two in swamp forest and three in restingas, were sampled four times each (January/December 2005). After an effort of 60h/person, 621 galled plant individuals belonging to 104 gall morphotypes were recorded. This suggests a high galler diversity for the Park, comparable to the richest places known. No differences were found for N, E or S between restingas and swamp forests. However, faunal composition differs significantly between the vegetation types. The dominant (most abundant) species are different in either vegetation type, and are rare or absent on the other vegetation type. Such species composition analysis is still largely ignored for gallers, and stresses the fact that the HSH cannot explain this pattern, since the latter is based on preferences by the ovipositing galler for xeric sites instead of mesic ones. The two habitats differ in microclimate, but species richness, as would be predicted by the HSH, does not differ. This small scale pattern can perhaps be attributed to biogeographic processes on larger scales, as suggested by the resource synchronisation hypothesis.

  3. Mapping Upper Amazon Palm Swamps with Spaceborne L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, N.; McDonald, K. C.; Podest, E.; Schroeder, R.; Zimmermann, R.; Horna, V.

    2010-12-01

    Palm swamp ecosystems are widespread in the Amazon basin, forming where seasonal flooding is moderate and surface inundation persists. Recent studies suggest that palm swamps have a disproportional role on tropical biogeochemistry: the combination of persistently saturated soils, warm temperatures, and low oxygen soils can support significant land-atmosphere methane flux. Potential impacts of climate change on these ecosystems include changes in temperature and precipitation regimes that influence primary productivity and flood extent significantly, potentially reversing net land-atmosphere carbon exchanges regionally. Data acquired from Earth-orbiting satellites provides the opportunity to characterize vegetation structure and monitor surface inundation independently of cloud cover. Building on efforts under our NASA MEaSUREs project for assembly of a global-scale Earth System Data Record (ESDR) of inundated wetlands, we develop and evaluate a systematic approach to map the distribution and composition of palm swamps in the upper Amazon using data sets from JAXA’s Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array L-Band SAR (PALSAR). Our input dataset consists of HH backscatter images acquired in 2007 and 2009. Ground measurements for training were obtained from a study site near Loreto, Peru (4.43S 75.34W) containing the palm species Mauritia flexuosa. The ALOS PALSAR images are first averaged temporally and spatially. We then develop ancillary data layers of flood extent, distance from open water, and SAR image texture. The PALSAR data and derived ancillary layers are combined with MODIS Vegetation Indices and SRTM elevation and input in a classification framework. Since palm swamps are found in persistently flooded areas, we evaluate the potential of identifying and mapping these ecosystems using multi-temporal SAR-based flood extent maps. We conclude by comparing the performance between a decision-tree supervised vs. unsupervised approach and by

  4. Greenhouse gas efflux from an impacted Malaysian tropical peat swamp (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, S.; Vihermaa, L. E.; Evers, S.; Garnett, M.; Newton, J.; Padfield, R.

    2013-12-01

    Tropical peatlands constitute ~11% of global peatland area and ~12% of the global peat C pool. Malaysia alone contains 10% of tropical peats. Due to rising global demands for food and biofuels, SE-Asia peat swamp forest ecosystems are threatened by increasing amounts of drainage, fire and conversion to plantation. These processes can change the GHG emissions and thus net ecosystem C balance. However, in comparison to temperate and boreal peatlands, there is a lack of data on terrestrial-aquatic-atmospheric carbon transfer from tropical peatlands, both those that are little disturbed and those facing anthropogenic pressures. Lateral transport of soil-respired carbon, and fluvial respiration or UV-oxidation of terrestrial DOC primes atmospheric carbon dioxide efflux. We now know that DOC lost from disturbed tropical peat swamp forests can be centuries to millennia old and originates deep within the peat column - this carbon may fuel efflux of old carbon dioxide and so anthropogenic land-use change renders the older, slower carbon cycles shorter and faster. Currently we have no knowledge of how significant ';older-slower' terrestrial-aquatic-atmospheric cycles are in disturbed tropical peatlands. Further, in some areas for commercial reasons, or by conservation bodies trying to minimise peat habitat loss, logged peats have been left to regenerate. Consequently, unpicking the legacy of multiple land uses on magnitude, age and source of GHG emissions is challenging but required to support land management decisions and projections of response to a changing climate. Here, we present the results of our first field campaign in July 2013 to the Raja Musa and Sungai Karang Peat Swamp Forest Reserves in North Selangor, Malaysia. This is one of Malaysia's largest oceanic peat swamps, and has been selectively logged and drained for 80 years, but is now subject to a 30 year logging ban to aid forest regeneration and build up wood stocks. From sites subject to different land use

  5. Spatial analysis of Carbon-14 dynamics in a wetland ecosystem (Duke Swamp, Chalk River Laboratories, Canada)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yankovich, T.L.; King-Sharp, K.J.; Carr, J.; Robertson, E.; Killey, R.W.D.; Beresford, N.A.; Wood, M.D.

    2014-01-01

    A detailed survey was conducted to quantify the spatial distribution of 14 C in Sphagnum moss and underlying soil collected in Duke Swamp. This wetland environment receives 14 C via groundwater pathways from a historic radioactive Waste Management Area (WMA) on Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL)'s Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) site. Trends in 14 C specific activities were evaluated with distance from the sampling location with the maximum 14 C specific activity (DSS-35), which was situated adjacent to the WMA and close to an area of groundwater discharge. Based on a spatial evaluation of the data, an east-to-west 14 C gradient was found, due to the influence of the WMA on 14 C specific activities in the swamp. In addition, it was possible to identify two groups of sites, each showing significant exponential declines with distance from the groundwater source area. One of the groups showed relatively more elevated 14 C specific activities at a given distance from source, likely due to their proximity to the WMA, the location of the sub-surface plume originating from the WMA, the presence of marsh and swamp habitat types, which facilitated 14 C transport to the atmosphere, and possibly, 14 C air dispersion patterns along the eastern edge of the swamp. The other group, which had lower 14 C specific activities at a given distance from the groundwater source area, included locations that were more distant from the WMA and the sub-surface plume, and contained fen habitat, which is known to act as barrier to groundwater flow. The findings suggest that proximity to source, groundwater flow patterns and habitat physical characteristics can play an important role in the dynamics of 14 C being carried by discharging groundwater into terrestrial and wetland environments. - Highlights: • Groundwater represents an important source of volatile radionuclides to wetlands. • Habitat type influenced 14 C transport from sub-surface to surface environments. • C-14 specific

  6. Study, using stable isotopes, of flow distribution, surface-groundwater relations and evapotranspiration in the Okavango Swamp, Botswana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dincer, T.; Hutton, L.G.; Kupee, B.B.J.

    1979-01-01

    Stable isotope data collected in the Okavango Delta have confirmed that the central distributary system is more active at present than the peripheral systems. The data also show that there is no groundwater outflow at the western and southern margins of the delta. A salinity-isotope model of the deltaic swamp has been developed to study the relation between the salinity and isotopic composition of the swamp waters. An attempt has been made to separate the atmospheric losses from the swamp into its evapotranspiration components. The results indicate that in winter, when high water levels prevail, these losses are almost entirely due to evaporation whilst in summer, when the water levels are low, evaporation and transpiration contribute almost equally to the total atmospheric losses. (author)

  7. Residu Gula Glikokonjugat pada Lambung Depan Kerbau Rawa (Bubalus bubalis Kalimantan Selatan (SUGAR RESIDU OF GLYCOCONJUGATES IN FORESTOMACH OF SOUTH KALIMANTAN SWAMP BUFFALO (BUBALUS BUBALIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anni Nurliani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The ability of swamp buffaloes to adapt with swamp environment was suggested to be supported bytheir digestive system efficiency. The research was done to obtain scientific explanation about digestiveefficiency of swamp buffalo by identification on kinds and distribution of glycoconjugates in swamp buffaloforestomach. Six male swamp buffaloes aged more than 2.5 year old and had body weight between 300-400kg were used in this study. Samples were obtained from Regency of Banjar slaughter house, SouthKalimantan. Every parts of the forestomach included rumen, reticulum, and omasum was taken andprocessed for microscopic observation with hematoxyline eosin (HE and alcian blue-periodic acid schiff(AB-PAS stainings. Sugar residues of glycoconjugates were localized with lectin histochemistry wheatgerm agglutinin (WGA, ulex europaeus agglutinin (UEA, ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA, concanavalinagglutinin (Con A, and soybean agglutinin (SBA. Every part of swamp buffalo forestomach had kinds ofspecific glycoconjugates with special distribution pattern which were different with other ruminant, andwere suitable for their functions in that part. The existence of D mannose/D glucose glycoconjugates thatwas dominant in forestomach estimated that had important role in supporting fermentative digestionfunction in swamp buffalo, through its function as receptor bacteria attachment. This is suggested as aspecial characteristic in digestive system of swamp buffalo which causes high digestive efficiency inswamp buffalo.

  8. Heavy Metals Uptake by Asian Swamp Eel, Monopterus albus from Paddy Fields of Kelantan, Peninsular Malaysia: Preliminary Study

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Sow Ai; Ismail, Ahmad; Zulkifli, Syaizwan Zahmir

    2012-01-01

    Swamp eel, Monopterus albus is one of the common fish in paddy fields, thus it is suitable to be a bio-monitor for heavy metals pollution studies in paddy fields. This study was conducted to assess heavy metals levels in swamp eels collected from paddy fields in Kelantan, Malaysia. The results showed zinc [Zn (86.40 μg/g dry weight)] was the highest accumulated metal in the kidney, liver, bone, gill, muscle and skin. Among the selected organs, gill had the highest concentrations of lead (Pb),...

  9. Immunological responses of pregnant swamp and murrah buffalo cows and calves to Toxocara (Neoascaris) vitulorum infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amerasinghe, P.; Masoodi, M.A.; Samarasinghe, B.; Sivanathan, S.; Gunawardana, V.K.; Fernando, S.T.

    1984-01-01

    Swamp buffalo cows from an area where T. vitulorum infection was heavy were examined for serum antibodies. Serum from all cows showed strongly positive precipitin reactions from the 4th to 6th months of pregnancy and after parturition using homologous larval, adult worm and adult excretory and secretory antigens; these precipitins were still being detected in the sera 4-6 months after calving. The sera of calves born to these cows were negative for T. vitulorum precipitins before feeding with colostrum but a precipitin reaction was evident from 24 hours of birth. Nevertheless, patent infections developed from 19-21 days after birth and one calf died with severe diarrhoea; the remainder revealed heavy faecal Toxocara egg counts. In six calves the infection was spontaneously eliminated between 40 and 60 days after birth suggesting a 'self-cure' reaction. In a similar study involving 30 Murrah cows sera precipitins were not observed during the first 4-6 months of pregnancy. In 14 calves born to these animals serum precipitins were never observed, but the animals had T. vitulorum egg counts comparable with those in swamp buffalo calves. After an initial natural infection a strong resistance to reinfection was acquired by most calves of both breeds in that larvae did not generally develop beyond the second stage. (author)

  10. Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Swamp Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) Fattened at Different Feeding Intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertz, C; Panprasert, P; Holtz, W; Moors, E; Jaturasitha, S; Wicke, M; Gauly, M

    2014-04-01

    Twenty-four male 1-year old swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) were randomly allocated to 4 groups. One group grazed on guinea grass (GG) and another on guinea grass and the legume Stylosanthes guianensis (GL). The other two groups were kept in pens and fed freshly cut guinea grass and concentrate at an amount of 1.5% (GC1.5) and 2.0% (GC2.0) of body weight, respectively. The effect of the different feeding intensities on carcass characteristics and meat quality were assessed. The mean body weight at slaughter was 398 (±16) kg. Average daily gain was higher in concentrate-supplemented groups (570 and 540 g/d in GC1.5 and GC2.0, respectively) when compared to GG (316 g/d) and GL (354 g/d) (pbuffaloes. Results of the present study showed that the supplementation of pasture with concentrate enhances the growth and carcass characteristics of swamp buffaloes expressed in superior dressing percentage, better muscling, and redder meat with a higher content of protein and fat, whereas animals grazing only on pasture had a more favorable fatty acid profile and water holding capacity. In conclusion, the supplementation of concentrate at a rate of about 1.5% of body weight is recommended to improve the performance and carcass quality of buffaloes.

  11. AGRICULTURE PHENOMENA AND PERSPECTIVES OF LEBAK SWAMP IN JAKABARING SOUTH SUMATRA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Wildayana

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to analyze agriculture phenomena and perspectives of lebak swamp in Jakabaring South Sumatra Indonesia. The research used mix methods of quantitative and qualitative approaches. The description of the research area was assisted with interpretation of Landsat images in 1987 and 2015. The research resulted that farmer’s groups living in Jakabaring are divided into four group, namely indigenous people (people of Ogan, Komering, Musi, Enim, and Palembang, new comers (Javanese, spontaneous migration (Buginese, Banjarnese, Bataknese and outside spontaneous migration (Chinese, Arabic. The total area of Jakabaring is approximately 5,525 ha, around 2,700 ha (48.87 % was already landfilled by the Government in 1990, while the remaining 2,825 ha (51.13 % is still not reclaimed. The landfill materials were directly sucked from mud, sand, silt and stones of the Musi River. Each lebak swamp typology shows specific soil characters, but after landfills all soils became homogenous because of uniform materials of landfills. Patterns of land degradation after landfills are classified into three groups, namely making layers of water impermeability, changing vegetation types of land cover, and decreasing type and density of vegetation.

  12. STRUCTURE OF NATURAL REGENERATION IN RELATION TO SOIL PROPERTIES AND DISTURBANCE IN TWO SWAMP FORESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marly Antonielle Ávila

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Veredas (palm swamps is a type of vegetation associated with watercourses, characterized by the presence of Mauritia flexuosa palm trees. These systems are not well understood and suffer from high anthropogenic pressure. The aims of this study were to describe the natural regeneration of two swamp forests in vereda systems with different anthropogenic impacts and investigate if the variation in these plant communities are associated to edaphic conditions. The study was performed in preserved and impacted sites located in the Environmental Protection Area of the Pandeiros River in northern Minas Gerais. At each site, one hundred 25 m2 plots were established for surveying regenerating shrubs and trees (≥1 cm diameter at the base of the stem and < 3 cm diameter at breast height. Vegetation structure was evaluated by phytosociological parameters, similarity index, and size distribution of individuals. Regenerating strata was correlated with chemical and physical soil analyses. The vegetation at the preserved site was characterized by a higher number of individuals and a lower diversity but contained species that were typical of flooded areas. The results also showed differences in soil nutrient availability between sites that influenced the distribution of species at the two study sites.

  13. Swamp Neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, D. S.

    2017-12-01

    The fields of anthropology, evironmental science, and "planetary health" are all speaking about the need to properly assess the relationships between human health and anthropogenic environmental influences. Using ethnographic data gathered from an NSF-funded research project in the Lumbee Tribe of North Carolina after Hurricane Matthew, I will present the importance of specific, culturally-centered, historically contextualized studies of the environment as we are increasingly placed in highly important (but too general) global environmental discussions. I will focus on the importance of the Lumbee Tribe (one of the largest Native American communities in the U.S.) as a key research site to help us understand how to engage in global environmental debates. I will illustrate how we must take account particular communities as they fade into and out of one another in the past and present. As such, I will argue that "planetary health" and other environemental health discourses must be accountable through interdisciplinary/interprofessional/interclass relationships that place the power of academic work in the environment safely in the hands of the most vulnerable populations.

  14. Water quality study at the Congaree Swamp National monument of Myers Creek, Reeves Creek and Toms Creek. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rikard, M.

    1991-11-01

    The Congaree Swamp National Monument is one of the last significant near virgin tracts of bottom land hardwood forests in the Southeast United States. The study documents a water quality monitoring program on Myers Creek, Reeves Creek and Toms Creek. Basic water quality parameters were analyzed. High levels of aluminum and iron were found, and recommendations were made for further monitoring

  15. Sustainable management of peat swamp forest of Sarawak with special reference to ramin (Gonystylus bancanus); development of a monitoring system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijdeven, S.M.J.; Meer, van der P.J.; Chai, F.Y.C.; Tan, S.; Mohizah, M.; Liam, D.

    2004-01-01

    Peat swamp forests in Sarawak are valuable in terms of timber and biodiversity, but heavily degraded. In order to assess the current status, potential developments and possible management interventions, an adequate monitoring system is necessary. In this study a new monitoring system is proposed,

  16. Species Turnover across Different Life Stages from Seedlings to Canopy Trees in Swamp Forests of Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa G. Fontes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Processes driving the assembly of swamp forest communities have been poorly explored. We analyzed natural regeneration and adult tree communities data of a swamp gallery forest in Central Brazil to discuss the role of ecological filters in shaping plant species turnover in a successional gradient. Species data of 120 plots were used to assess species turnover between natural regeneration and adult tree communities. Our analyses were based on 4995 individuals belonging to 72 species. Community patterns were discerned using ordination analyses. A clear floristic turnover among plant life stages was distinguished. Regeneration community of swamp forests was richer in species composition than the adult community. Tree species commonly found in nonflooded gallery forests were present in the regeneration plots but not in the adult community. Differences in the floristic composition of these two strata suggest that not all species in the seedling stage can stand permanent flooding conditions and only a few tolerant species survive to become adult trees. We propose that natural disturbances play an important role by altering limiting resources, allowing seeds of nonflooded forest species to germinate. This paper elucidates the turnover between plant life stages in swamp forests and suggests mechanisms that may shape these communities.

  17. Variation in flood tolerance of container-grown seedlings of swamp white oak, bur oak, and white oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael P. Walsh; J.W. Van Sambeek; Mark V. Coggeshall

    2008-01-01

    How much variation in flood tolerance exists among seedlings within oak species, given the flood frequency of sites from which acorns are collected, has been largely unexplored. Our studies examined initial growth and flood tolerance for seedlings of swamp white oak (Quercus bicolor Willd.), bur oak (Q. macrocarpa L.), and white...

  18. Growth Response and Tolerance to Heavy Metals of two Swamp Species inoculated with a Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Dorantes, A.; Labra-Cardon, D.; Guerrero-Zuniga, A.; Montes-Villafan, S.

    2009-01-01

    Due to the sensitivity and the sequestration ability of the microbial communities to heavy metals, microbes have been used for bioremediation. Recently the application of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) for the bioremediation of this kind of contaminants has been done. This study evaluated the growth response and the tolerance to heavy metals of two swamp species. (Author)

  19. [Distribution, surface and protected area of palm-swamps in Costa Rica and Nicaragua].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Sandí, Juan; Bonilla-Murillo, Fabian; Sasa, Mahmood

    2013-09-01

    In Central America, palm swamps are known collectively as yolillales. These wetlands are usually dominated by the raffia palm Raphia taedigera, but also by the royal palm Manicaria saccifera and -in lower extensions- by the American oil palm Elaeis oleifera. The yolillales tend to be poor in woody species and are characteristic of regions with high rainfall and extensive hydroperiods, so they remain flooded most of the year. The dominance of large raffia palm leaves in the canopy, allow these environments to be distinguishable in aerial photographs, which consequently has helped to map them along most of their distribution. However, while maps depicting yolillales are available, the extent of their surface area, perimeter and connectivity remains poorly understood. This is particularly true for yolillales in Costa Rica and Nicaragua, countries that share a good proportion of palm dominated swaps in the Rio San Juan Basin. In addition, it is not known the actual area of these environments that is under any category of protection according to the conservation systems of both countries. As a first step to catalog yolillal wetlands in Costa Rica and Nicaragua, this paper evaluates cartographic maps to delineate yolillales in the region. A subsample of yolillales mapped in this study were visited and we geo-referenced them and evaluate the extent and condition of the swamp. A total of 110 883.2ha are classified as yolillales in Nicaragua, equivalent to 22% of wetland surface area recorded for that country (excluding the Cocibolca and Xolothn Lakes). In Costa Rica, 53 931.3ha are covered by these palm dominated swamps, which represent 16.24% of the total surface area covered by wetlands. About 47% of the area covered by yolillales in Nicaragua is under some category of protection, the largest extensions protected by Cerro Silva, Laguna Tale Sulumas and Indio Maiz Nature Reserves. In Costa Rica, 55.5% of the area covered by yolillal is located within protected areas

  20. Spatial differences in hydrologic characteristics and water chemistry of a temperate coastal plain peatland: The Great Dismal Swamp, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speiran, Gary K.; Wurster, Frederick C.

    2016-01-01

    Spatial differences in hydrologic processes and geochemistry across forested peatlands control the response of the wetland-community species and resiliency to natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Knowing these controls is essential to effectively managing peatlands as resilient wetland habitats. The Great Dismal Swamp is a 45,325 hectare peatland in the Atlantic Coastal Plain of Virginia and North Carolina, USA, managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The existing forest-species distribution is a product of timber harvesting, hydrologic alteration by canal and road construction, and wildfires. Since 2009, studies of hydrologic and geochemical controls have expanded knowledge of groundwater flow paths, water chemistry, response to precipitation events, and characteristics of the peat. Dominant hydrologic and geochemical controls include (1) the gradual slope in land surface, (2) vertical differences in the hydraulic characteristics of the peat, (3) the proximity of lateral groundwater and small stream inflows from uplands, (4) the presence of an extensive canal and road network, and (5) small, adjustable-height dams on the canals. Although upland sources provide some surface water and lateral groundwater inflow to western parts of the swamp, direct groundwater recharge by precipitation is the major source of water throughout the swamp and the only source in many areas. Additionally, the proximity and type of upland water sources affect water levels and nutrient concentrations in canal water and groundwater. Where streams are a dominant upland source, variations in groundwater levels and nutrient concentrations are greater than where recharge by precipitation is the primary water source. Where upland groundwater is a dominant source, water levels are more stable. Because the species distribution of forest communities in the Swamp is strongly influenced by these controls, swamp managers are beginning to incorporate this knowledge into forest, water, and fire

  1. Swamp plots for dynamic aperture studies of PEP-II lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Y.T.; Irwin, J.; Cai, Y.; Chen, T.; Ritson, D.

    1995-01-01

    With a newly developed algorithm using resonance basis Lie generators and their evaluation with action-angle Poisson bracket maps (nPB tracking) the authors have been able to perform fast tracking for dynamic aperture studies of PEP-II lattices as well as incorporate lattice nonlinearities in beam-beam studies. They have been able to better understand the relationship between dynamic apertures and the tune shift and resonance coefficients in the generators of the one-turn maps. To obtain swamp plots (dynamic aperture vs. working point) of the PEP-II lattices, they first compute a one-turn resonance basis map for a nominal working point and then perform nPB tracking by switching the working point while holding fixed all other terms in the map. Results have been spot-checked by comparing with element-by-element tracking

  2. Three approaches to the classification of inland wetlands. [Dismal Swamp, Tennessee, and Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammon, P. T.; Malone, D.; Brooks, P. D.; Carter, V.

    1977-01-01

    In the Dismal Swamp project, seasonal, color-infrared aerial photographs and LANDSAT digital data were interpreted for a detailed analysis of the vegetative communities in a large, highly altered wetland. In Western Tennessee, seasonal high altitude color-infrared aerial photographs provided the hydrologic and vegetative information needed to map inland wetlands, using a classification system developed for the Tennessee Valley Region. In Florida, color-infrared aerial photographs were analyzed to produce wetland maps using three existing classification systems to evaluate the information content and mappability of each system. The methods used in each of the three projects can be extended or modified for use in the mapping of inland wetlands in other parts of the United States.

  3. Modeling Flood Plain Hydrology and Forest Productivity of Congaree Swamp, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Thomas W.

    2009-01-01

    An ecological field and modeling study was conducted to examine the flood relations of backswamp forests and park trails of the flood plain portion of Congaree National Park, S.C. Continuous water level gages were distributed across the length and width of the flood plain portion - referred to as 'Congaree Swamp' - to facilitate understanding of the lag and peak flood coupling with stage of the Congaree River. A severe and prolonged drought at study start in 2001 extended into late 2002 before backswamp zones circulated floodwaters. Water levels were monitored at 10 gaging stations over a 4-year period from 2002 to 2006. Historical water level stage and discharge data from the Congaree River were digitized from published sources and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) archives to obtain long-term daily averages for an upstream gage at Columbia, S.C., dating back to 1892. Elevation of ground surface was surveyed for all park trails, water level gages, and additional circuits of roads and boundaries. Rectified elevation data were interpolated into a digital elevation model of the park trail system. Regression models were applied to establish time lags and stage relations between gages at Columbia, S.C., and gages in the upper, middle, and lower reaches of the river and backswamp within the park. Flood relations among backswamp gages exhibited different retention and recession behavior between flood plain reaches with greater hydroperiod in the lower reach than those in the upper and middle reaches of the Congaree Swamp. A flood plain inundation model was developed from gage relations to predict critical river stages and potential inundation of hiking trails on a real-time basis and to forecast the 24-hour flood In addition, tree-ring analysis was used to evaluate the effects of flood events and flooding history on forest resources at Congaree National Park. Tree cores were collected from populations of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), baldcypress (Taxodium distichum), water

  4. Primary production in a shallow water lake with special reference to a reed swamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, F.Oe.

    1976-01-01

    Phytoplankton gross primary production ( 14 C method) in the shallow, eutrophic Danish Lake Arresoe in 1973 was 980 g C m -2 . Calculated net primary production was near zero. Macrophyte net primary production was measured by harvesting the maximum biomass, and above ground values were between 420 and 1325 g ash free dry wt m -2 , while below ground values were between 2480 and 8570 g ash free dry wt m -2 . The reed swamps were mapped on aerial photographs, and the composition of the macrophyte vegetation was determined. A comparison of macrophyte vegetation in 1944 and 1972 showed a reduction in species diversity, especially of submerged species. The seasonal variations in physical and chemical data indicated strong eutrophication in Arresoe. (author)

  5. Proteomic analysis of three gonad types of swamp eel reveals genes differentially expressed during sex reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Yue; Zhao, Wei; Song, Ying; Li, Zhigang; Luo, Majing; Lei, Quan; Cheng, Hanhua; Zhou, Rongjia

    2015-05-18

    A variety of mechanisms are engaged in sex determination in vertebrates. The teleost fish swamp eel undergoes sex reversal naturally and is an ideal model for vertebrate sexual development. However, the importance of proteome-wide scanning for gonad reversal was not previously determined. We report a 2-D electrophoresis analysis of three gonad types of proteomes during sex reversal. MS/MS analysis revealed a group of differentially expressed proteins during ovary to ovotestis to testis transformation. Cbx3 is up-regulated during gonad reversal and is likely to have a role in spermatogenesis. Rab37 is down-regulated during the reversal and is mainly associated with oogenesis. Both Cbx3 and Rab37 are linked up in a protein network. These datasets in gonadal proteomes provide a new resource for further studies in gonadal development.

  6. Autonomic control of the heart in the Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Nina Kerting; Huong, Do Thi Thanh; Bayley, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus) is an air-breathing teleost with very reduced gills that uses the buccal cavity for air-breathing. Here we characterise the cardiovascular changes associated with the intermittent breathing pattern in M. albus and we study the autonomic control of the heart.......3 cm H2O). The autonomic control of the heart during water- and air-breathing was revealed by infusion of the β-adrenergic antagonist propranolol and muscarinic antagonist atropine (3 mg kg− 1) in eels instrumented with an arterial catheter. Inhibition of the sympathetic and parasympathetic...... innervations of the heart revealed a strong vagal tone on the heart of water-breathing eels and that the tachycardia during air-breathing is primarily mediated by withdrawal of cholinergic tone....

  7. Reproductive biology of the swamp racer Mastigodryas bifossatus (Serpentes: Colubridae in subtropical Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro T. Leite

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The swamp racer Mastigodryas bifossatus (Raddi, 1820 is a large snake of Colubrinae. It is widely distributed in open areas throughout South America. Dissection of 224 specimens of this species housed in herpetological collections of the southern Brazilian states of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina and Paraná provided information on its sexual dimorphism, reproductive cycle and fecundity in subtropical Brazil. Adult specimens of M. bifossatus average approximately 1190 mm in snout-vent length and females are larger than males. The reproductive cycle of females is seasonal, with secondary vitellogenesis occurring from July to December. However, examination of male gonads did not reveal signs of reproductive seasonality in this sex. Egg laying was recorded from November to January. The estimated recruitment period extends from February to April. The mean number of individuals per clutch is 15, and there is a positive correlation between female length and clutch size.

  8. Effect of day or night grazing on behaviour of swamp buffalo heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somparn, P.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of day or night grazing on behaviour by swamp buffaloes. A grazing trial was conducted over 42 days in the late rainy season, during September to November2005 at Surin Livestock Research and Breeding Center, Surin province. The experimental period was divided into two 21-day periods. Twelve 2-year-old swamp buffalo heifers were allocated to four groups, eachcontaining three heifers, with the mean group weights being as similar as possible. Each group was allowed to graze either from 06:20 to 18:00 h (daytime treatment or from 18:20 to 06:00 h (nighttime treatment infour separate paddocks, each of 5 rai, using a cross-over design. When not at pasture the animals in each group were kept in the common corral with free access to fresh drinking water and mineral blocks. Individualanimal activity was recorded by visual observation at 1-min intervals during the period at pasture. Individual groups within each period were treated as replicates. Differences between group means weretested using MIXED procedure of SAS.The buffaloes on daytime treatment spent longer (P<0.05 grazing than those on nighttime treatment (423 vs 332 min. The number of meals differed (P<0.05 between treatments, but overall mean meal durationswere similar (73 min. Buffaloes allowed to graze during daylight had a tendency (P<0.10 toward a higher bite and step rates than those grazing during the night. With the reduction in grazing activity duringthe night on nighttime treatment, the animals ruminated for longer during the period at pasture (327 and 191 min, P<0.001. Live-weight change over periods of 20 days did not differ significantly. The difference intemporal behaviour patterns between treatments indicated that animals have to adapt foraging strategies appropriate for different situations in order to maintain feed intake and subsequently production.

  9. Improvement of the productivity of the swamp buffalo of S.E. Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisch, J.E.; Vercoe, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    The needs of an expanding human population necessitate an increase in numbers and efficiency of output if the swamp buffalo is to remain as a significant component of S.E. Asian agriculture. Biological constraints to an increase in numbers are associated mainly with high calf mortality and low reproductive rate. A combination of vaccination and deworming markedly increases calf survival and provides the simplest means for increasing buffalo numbers. However, methods for improvement of the low inherent fertility of buffaloes remain to be devised. A first step towards a genetic solution is to obtain accurate comparative data for reproductive rates of different buffalo breeds and measures of the magnitude of heterosis for reproductive rate. However, facilities to do this in the near future do not exist. Milk yield or draft power could be most rapidly increased by crossing to river breeds with the optimum proportion of river breed in the cross determined by that level of milk yield and size commensurate with the locally available feed. This is the only method currently available that allows genetic improvement to initially equal or exceed the rate of human population growth. The lack of both large, well-documented herds and efficient AI schemes at present rules against within-breed selection as a method of improvement for any productive trait. It is unrealistic to expect large amounts of high-quality feeds to ever become available for rearing swamp buffaloes and there is a need to develop the facilities and expertise to allow comparative evaluation of buffalo breeds, the exploitation of heterosis in crosses and ultimately, within-breed selection for higher productivity, on straw-based diets. (author)

  10. Clonal growth strategy, diversity and structure: A spatiotemporal response to sedimentation in tropical Cyperus papyrus swamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geremew, Addisie; Stiers, Iris; Sierens, Tim; Kefalew, Alemayehu; Triest, Ludwig

    2018-01-01

    Land degradation and soil erosion in the upper catchments of tropical lakes fringed by papyrus vegetation can result in a sediment load gradient from land to lakeward. Understanding the dynamics of clonal modules (ramets and genets) and growth strategies of plants on such a gradient in both space and time is critical for exploring a species adaptation and processes regulating population structure and differentiation. We assessed the spatial and temporal dynamics in clonal growth, diversity, and structure of an emergent macrophyte, Cyperus papyrus (papyrus), in response to two contrasting sedimentation regimes by combining morphological traits and genotype data using 20 microsatellite markers. A total of 636 ramets from six permanent plots (18 x 30 m) in three Ethiopian papyrus swamps, each with discrete sedimentation regimes (high vs. low) were sampled for two years. We found that ramets under the high sedimentation regime (HSR) were significantly clumped and denser than the sparse and spreading ramets under the low sedimentation regime (LSR). The HSR resulted in significantly different ramets with short culm height and girth diameter as compared to the LSR. These results indicated that C. papyrus ameliorates the effect of sedimentation by shifting clonal growth strategy from guerrilla (in LSR) to phalanx (in HSR). Clonal richness, size, dominance, and clonal subrange differed significantly between sediment regimes and studied time periods. Each swamp under HSR revealed a significantly high clonal richness (R = 0.80) as compared to the LSR (R = 0.48). Such discrepancy in clonal richness reflected the occurrence of initial and repeated seedling recruitment strategies as a response to different sedimentation regimes. Overall, our spatial and short-term temporal observations highlighted that HSR enhances clonal richness and decreases clonal subrange owing to repeated seedling recruitment and genets turnover.

  11. Dissolved Oxygen Dynamics in Backwaters of North America's Largest River Swamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueche, S. M.; Xu, Y. J.; Reiman, J. H.

    2017-12-01

    The Atchafalaya River (AR) is the largest distributary of the Mississippi River flowing through south-central Louisiana, creating North America's largest river swamp basin - the Atchafalaya River Basin (ARB). Prior to human settlement, the AR's main channel was highly connected to this large wetland ecosystem. However, due to constructed levee systems and other human modifications, much of the ARB is now hydrologically disconnected from the AR's main channel except during high flow events. This lack of regular inputs of fresh, oxygenated water to these wetlands, paired with high levels of organic matter decomposition in wetlands, has caused low oxygen-deprived hypoxic conditions in the ARB's back waters. In addition, due to the incredibly nutrient-rich and warm nature of the ARB, microbial decomposition in backwater areas with limited flow often results in potentially stressful, if not lethal, levels of DO for organisms during and after flood pulses. This study aims to investigate dynamics of dissolved oxygen in backwaters of the Atchafalaya River Basin, intending to answer a crucial question about hydrological and water quality connectivity between the river's mainstem and its floodplain. Specifically, the study will 1) conduct field water quality measurements, 2) collect composite water samples for chemical analysis of nutrients and carbon, 3) investigate DO dynamics over different seasons for one year, and 4) determine the major factors that affect DO dynamics in this unique swamp ecosystem. The study is currently underway; therefore, in this presentation we will share the major findings gained in the past several months and discuss backwater effects on river chemistry.

  12. Identifying the best season for mapping evergreen swamp and mangrove species using leaf-level spectra in an estuarine system in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Deventer, Heidi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available would provide the best discrimination of six evergreen tree species, associated with swamp (Ficus Trichopoda), mangrove (Avicennia marina, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Hibiscus tiliaceus), wetlands in adjacent woodlands (Syzygium cordatum) and coastal...

  13. Hydrography - HYDROGRAPHY_HIGHRES_WATERBODYDISCRETE_NHD_USGS: Lakes, Ponds, Reservoirs, Swamps, and Marshes in Watersheds of Indiana (U. S. Geological Survey, 1:24,000, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — HYDROGRAPHY_HIGHRES_WATERBODYDISCRETE_NHD_USGS.SHP is a polygon shapefile that contains features of lakes, ponds, reservoirs, swamps and marshes in watersheds in and...

  14. TALL HERB SPRUCE FORESTS AS CLIMAX COMMUNITIES ON LOWLAND SWAMPS OF BRYANSK POLESIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Evstigneev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nettle grey alder forests are a dominant forest type on lowland swamps in the Bryansk Polesie. They are formed as a result of repeated cuttings in the place of tall herb spruce forests. Tall herb spruce forests are very rare communities in the vegetation cover in this area due to clear cutting, melioration and peat extraction. An assessment of the succession status of tall herb spruce forests and nettle grey alder forests was carried out in this paper. The criteria of climax state and succession state of communities, developed for Eastern European forests, were used. These criteria are based on the degree of intensity of the following signs in the community: 1 the completeness of species composition of tree synusia; 2 the ontogenetic structure of tree species cenopopulation; 3 the gap-mosaic stand structure; 4 the diversity of microsites in soil cover; 5 the completeness of species composition and ecological-coenotic diversity of vascular species. We showed that tall herb spruce forest, as opposed to black alder forest, is close to communities of the climax type. This is evidenced by the following features of cenosis: firstly, all tree species in the area that covers the Bryansk Polesie and that are able to grow on lowland swamps are represented in the spruce forest (Alnus glutinosa, Betula pubescens, Fraxinus excelsior, Padus avium, Picea abies, Salix pentandra, Sorbus aucuparia, Ulmus glabra. Secondly, a steady turnover of generations is carried out in the cenopopulations of main edificators (Picea abies and Alnus glutinosa. This is evidenced by the complete and left-sided structure of their ontogenetic spectrum. Thirdly, a system of asynchronously developing gaps (parcels, which are formed on the site of old tree falls, is formed in the community. This ensures the continuous renewal of spruce and alder populations and creates conditions for the regeneration of other tree species. Fourthly, the structure of biogenic microsites has been formed

  15. CONSIDERATIONS ON THE ANTHROPIC IMPACT IN THE AREA OF THE ORNITHOLOGIC RESERVATION “THE SWAMPS FROM SATCHINEZ” (TIMIŞ COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Török-Oance

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The estimate of the anthropic impact within the Ornithologic Reservation Swamps from Satchinez is based on the field notes in the period 2003-2005, the air photos taken in 2004 and the reconstitution of past situations (1963-1973 using the photoplans from that period. Within the reservation and the buffer area a series of anthropic activities are taking place, allowed or not, which have a negative impact on the protected area: agricultural works (including agro-chemical treatments, grazing, mowing, hydrotechnical arrangements, illegal tree felling, cutting and burning the reed, poaching, hunting and fishing, collecting biological material, transport, tourism and petrol exploitation. All these lead to the deterioration of the habitat, affect the life of the birds, the water, the clogging of the swamp and cause the disappearance of the clean water spots thus endangering the reservation itself.

  16. Seed germination studies on Gymnacranthera canarica (King Warb. - a Vulnerable tree species of a highly threatened Myristica swamp ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Keshavachandra

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Gymnacranthera canarica (King Warb. is an exclusive Myristica swamp species endemic to the Western Ghats.  The Myristica swamp is a Critically Endangered ecosystem.  Studies were carried out to assess the viability, germination and storage behaviour of Gymnacranthera canarica seeds.  In the present study, it was observed that seeds have shown an initiation of germination after two weeks.  A maximum of 90% germination was recorded when the initial moisture content was 38.04 ± 1.75 %.  A decreased percentage (3% was observed when the moisture content reached 14.26 ± 2.3 after 70 days of storage.  Seeds failed to germinate beyond this moisture level.  A desiccation study showed recalcitrant behaviour and seeds can be stored in lab conditions for up to two and half months.

  17. Stable carbon isotope composition of organic material and carbonate in sediment of a swamp and lakes in Honshu island, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizuka, Toshio

    1978-01-01

    Recent sediments from a swamp and lakes in Honshu were analyzed for organic carbon and carbonate contents, and stable isotope ratios of carbon in the organic materials and carbonate. delta C 13 values of the carbonate tend to be distinctly larger than those of organic carbon in reducing condition as natural gas field, whereas in oxidizing SO 4 -reducing conditions, they are slightly larger than those of organic carbon within the limited range of a few per mil. Carbon isotopic compositions of organic carbon in sediment of the swamp, Obuchi-numa, were analyzed and compared with habitat analysis of associated fossil diatoms. deltaC 13 values of organic carbon in the sediment vary in correlation with the species abundance in habitat of the associated fossil diatoms, ranging from fresh-water (-0.0282) to coastal marine (-0.0236) via brackish. (auth.)

  18. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal status of plant species in the peat swamp forest of Setia Alam Jaya, Sebangau, Central Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suciatmih Suciatmih

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to describe the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM status of plants growing on peat soil, a study was carried out inthe peat swamp forest of Setia Alam Jaya in Sebangau, Central Kalimantan. Out of 146 plant root samples belonging to 48 plantspecies from 25 families examined, all plants colonized by VAM fungi namely 14 (29.2% high level, 32 (66.7% medium level, and 2(4.1% low level respectively.

  19. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal status of plant species in the peat swamp forest of Setia Alam Jaya, Sebangau, Central Kalimantan

    OpenAIRE

    Suciatmih Suciatmih

    2003-01-01

    In order to describe the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) status of plants growing on peat soil, a study was carried out inthe peat swamp forest of Setia Alam Jaya in Sebangau, Central Kalimantan. Out of 146 plant root samples belonging to 48 plantspecies from 25 families examined, all plants colonized by VAM fungi namely 14 (29.2%) high level, 32 (66.7%) medium level, and 2(4.1%) low level respectively.

  20. The Munchausen paradigm for deprived neighbourhoods: pulling yourself out of the swamp of deprivation

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    Jeannette Nijkamp

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Munchausen paradigm for deprived neighbourhoods: pulling yourself out of the swamp of deprivation Since the 1980s, many initiatives have attempted to tackle the deprivation currently experienced in South Rotterdam. Efforts have been made to attract creative workers and, in a counter-reaction, other initiatives have aimed to encourage the creative talents of poorer residents to strengthen their economic position. One example of this is Freehouse, which has established projects in the Afrikaanderwijk, including a neighbourhood cooperative. Our article addresses two questions: 1 What are the effects of the Freehouse projects on the economic position of residents of the Afrikaanderwijk? and 2 Which insights do our results provide into the possible effects of local government policies that rely on citizens playing an active role? Although the economic effects of the projects were limited, our study reveals that citizens’ initiatives, such as the Afrikaander Cooperative, can help residents gain employment. In order to succeed, these initiatives should not be hindered by obstructive regulations, and they should include input from the residents who function as staff. However, in deprived neighbourhoods, many residents require support to be able to contribute to citizens’ initiatives, and cannot be expected to act like Baron Münchausen and pull themselves out of the swamp of deprivation by their own hair. Het Münchausen paradigma voor achterstandswijken: jezelf uit het moeras van achterstand trekken Sinds de jaren 80 hebben veel initiatieven geprobeerd het achterstandsniveau in Rotterdam Zuid te verminderen. Verschillende initiatieven waren gericht op het aantrekken van creatieve professionals. Als tegenreactie stimuleerden andere initiatieven de creatieve talenten van arme wijkbewoners teneinde hun economische positie te versterken. Een voorbeeld hiervan is Freehouse, dat projecten in de Afrikaanderwijk startte, waaronder de oprichting van

  1. Structure of the tree stratum of three swamp forest communities in southern Brazil under different soil conditions

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    Luciana Carla Mancino

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Restinga forests are commonly known to be plant communities rather poor in tree species. This study aimed to describe and explain the association between the floristic-structural similarities and the environmental conditions in three Swamp Restinga Forest communities in southern Brazil. In 13 plots of 100 m2 each, we sampled all individual trees (circumference at breast height >12 cm and height ≥3 m. We collected soil samples in each plot for chemical and textural analyses. Phytosociological parameters were calculated and different structural variables were compared between areas. The density of individuals did not differ between areas; however, the maximum height and abundance of species differed between the site with Histosols and the other two sites with Gleysols. Further, a canonical correspondence analysis based on a matrix of vegetation and that of environmental characteristics explained 31.5% of the total variation. The high floristic and environmental heterogeneity indicate that swamp-forests can shelter many species with low frequency. Most species were generalists that were not exclusive to this type of forest. Overall, our study showed that swamp-forests within the same region can show considerable differences in composition and structure and can include species-rich communities, mostly due to the presence of species with a broader distribution in the Atlantic Rainforest domain on sites with less stressful environmental conditions and without waterlogged conditions.

  2. Prevalence and intensity of third stage Gnathostoma spinigerum larvae in swamp eels sold in three large markets in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksirisampant, Wilai; Nuchprayoon, Surang; Wiwanitkit, Viroj; Kraivichian, Kanyarat; Suwansaksri, Jamsai

    2002-01-01

    Gnathostoma spinigerum is a common human tissue parasite in Thailand. The swamp eel is the major intermediate or paratenic host for this parasite. The high prevalence of the infective third stage larvae (L3) of this parasite in the rainy season has been noted in previous studies. During June 1999 (rainy season), we performed a cross-sectional survey of the prevalence and the intensity of G. spinigerum L3s in the livers of swamp eels that were obtained from three large Bangkok markets (Klong Toey, Pran Nok, and Tevej). Of a total of 785 livers, G. spinigerum L3s were found in 97: an infection rate of 12%. The prevalence rates in Klong Toey, Pran Nok, and Tevej markets were 13%, 10% and 14% respectively. There was no significant difference in the proportion of infected eels between the markets (p > 0.05). The intensity of L3 burden in the livers ranged from 1-17 larvae, with an average of 2.60 +/- 0.24 larvae (mean +/- SE). In this study a high prevalence of G. spinigerum L3s was found; there was no significant difference in the intensity of larvae in swamp eels between markets. These findings emphasize the importance of public health education: people need to be aware of the dangers of consuming raw or undercooked food.

  3. Assessment of semen quality in Swamp Buffalo AI Bulls in Thailand

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    S. Koonjaenak

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Characteristic of Thai swamp buffalo bulls semen used for artificial insemination (AI in Thailand, aspects relevance in freezing and thawing of semen are review. Semen and sperm characteristics were evaluated included sperm count, motility (assessed subjectively and by CASA, morphology (using phase-contrast light microscopy and SEM, plasma membrane integrity (PMI (using a hypo-osmotic swelling test [HOST] and SYBR- 14/propidium iodide [PI], plasma membrane stability (PMS (using Annexin-V/PI and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA integrity (using SCSA and flow cytometry [FCM]. The average ejaculate volume was about 3.0–4.0 mL, with good viability (PMI measured by the HOST and motility (>65% and >70%, respectively. Sperm concentration ranged from 1.1 to 1.2 billion/mL, being also affected by bull age. Whereas semen quality (including sperm output, pH and initial sperm motility did not differ between the seasons. Few spermatozoa (<15%/ ejaculate had abnormal morphology with abnormalities resembling those in other bovidae. In FT semen, PMI (using SYBR-14/PI and PMS were highest in winter. Across seasons, ~50% of post-thaw spermatozoa depicted linear motility, a proportion that decreased to ~35% during incubation (38oC for 60 minutes, without marking any seasonal difference. The sperm DNA was hardly damaged (with <3% fragmentation, expressed as DNA fragmentation index [DFI], among seasons.

  4. Waste drilling-fluid-utilising microorganisms in a tropical mangrove swamp oilfield location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benka-Coker, M.O.; Olumagin, A.

    1995-01-01

    Waste drilling-fluid-utilising microorganisms were isolated from drilling-mud cuttings, soil and creek water from a mangrove swamp oilfield location in the Delta area of Nigeria using waste drilling-fluid as the substrate. Eighteen bacterial isolates obtained were identified as species of Staphylococcus, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Serratia, Clostridium, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Nocardia, Bacillus, Actinomyces, Micrococcus and Pseudomonas, while the genera of fungi isolated were Penicillium, Cladosporium and Fusarium. Even though drilling-fluid-utilising genera were in higher numbers in the soil than in the two other sources examined, the percentages of the total heterotrophic bacteria that utilised waste drilling-fluid were 6.02 in the drilling-mud cuttings, 0.83 in creek water and 0.42 in soil. The screen tests for biodegradation potential of the bacterial isolates showed that, even though all the isolates were able to degrade and utilise the waste fluid for growth, species of Alcaligenes and Micrococcus were more active degraders of the waste. The significance of the results in environmental management in oil-producing areas of Nigeria is discussed. (Author)

  5. Substantial improvements not seen in health behaviors following corner store conversions in two Latino food swamps

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    Alexander N. Ortega

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effectiveness of food retail interventions is largely undetermined, yet substantial investments have been made to improve access to healthy foods in food deserts and swamps via grocery and corner store interventions. This study evaluated the effects of corner store conversions in East Los Angeles and Boyle Heights, California on perceived accessibility of healthy foods, perceptions of corner stores, store patronage, food purchasing, and eating behaviors. Methods Household data (n = 1686 were collected at baseline and 12- to 24-months post-intervention among residents surrounding eight stores, three of which implemented a multi-faceted intervention and five of which were comparisons. Bivariate analyses and logistic and linear regressions were employed to assess differences in time, treatment, and the interaction between time and treatment to determine the effectiveness of this intervention. Results Improvements were found in perceived healthy food accessibility and perceptions of corner stores. No changes were found, however, in store patronage, purchasing, or consumption of fruits and vegetables. Conclusions Results suggest limited effectiveness of food retail interventions on improving health behaviors. Future research should focus on other strategies to reduce community-level obesity.

  6. Determination of endocrine patterns and their applications in the swamp buffalo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamonpatana, M.

    1984-01-01

    The introduction of AI in swamp buffalo breeding has made hormonal measurement and treatment an important area of research. Hormonal regulation of buffalo reproduction is becoming an increasingly important tool for monitoring genetic progress and productivity. The development of immunoassay techniques for measuring progesterone was quickly identified as a suitable tool for monitoring the reproductive status of the water buffalo. Progesterone profiles during the oestrous cycle, pregnancy, parturition and post partum have been established. A knowledge of progesterone levels has helped to improve clinical skills in determining reproductive status. Attempts have been made to understand the role of gonadotrophins during these reproductive stages, to advance the onset of postpartum cyclicity, and to characterize the weak signs of oestrus. Peripartal changes of oestrone and prostaglandin have been monitored. Endocrinological methods for oestrus synchronization have been developed and applied and oestrone sulphate and progesterone have been used to assess pregnancy status and a rapid pregnancy test has been utilized to maximize reproductive efficiency in ranch-type breeding herds. In the male attempts have been made to clarify the testicular testosterone secretory capacity and the possible relationships between testosterone secretion, libido, semen characteristics and the influence of season. Within the context of long-term improvement, these studies should help to decrease calving intervals, improve heat and non-pregnancy detection, and allow for subfertility discrimination and sire selection with consequent increases in milk and meat production and draught power. (author)

  7. Firing Room Remote Application Software Development & Swamp Works Laboratory Robot Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Janette

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is creating a way to send humans beyond low Earth orbit, and later to Mars. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is working to make this possible by developing a Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) which will allow the launch of Space Launch System (SLS). This paper's focus is on the work performed by the author in her first and second part of the internship as a remote application software developer. During the first part of her internship, the author worked on the SCCS's software application layer by assisting multiple ground subsystems teams including Launch Accessories (LACC) and Environmental Control System (ECS) on the design, development, integration, and testing of remote control software applications. Then, on the second part of the internship, the author worked on the development of robot software at the Swamp Works Laboratory which is a research and technology development group which focuses on inventing new technology to help future In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) missions.

  8. High methane emissions from restored Norway spruce swamps in southern Finland over one growing season

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    M. Koskinen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Forestry-drained peatlands in the boreal region are currently undergoing restoration in order to bring these ecosystems closer to their natural (undrained state. Drainage affects the methane (CH4 dynamics of a peatland, often changing sites from CH4 sources to sinks. Successful restoration of a peatland would include restoration of not only the surface vegetation and hydrology, but also the microbial populations and thus CH4 dynamics. As a pilot study, CH4 emissions were measured on two pristine, two drained and three restored boreal spruce swamps in southern Finland for one growing season. Restoration was successful in the sense that the water table level in the restored sites was significantly higher than in the drained sites, but it was also slightly higher than in the pristine sites. The restored sites were surprisingly large sources of CH4 (mean emissions of 52.84 mg CH4 m-2 d-1, contrasting with both the pristine (1.51 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 and the drained sites (2.09 mg CH4 m-2 d-1. More research is needed to assess whether the high CH4 emissions observed in this study are representative of restored spruce mires in general.

  9. Is the herb-shrub composition of veredas (Brazilian palm swamps distinguishable?

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    Diogo Pereira da Silva

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Vereda (Brazilian palm swamp is a poorly known savannic phytophysiognomy that occurs on moist soils with high herb-shrub floristic richness. This study aimed to document the herb-shrub species of veredas of the Estação Ecológica Serra Geral do Tocantins - EESGTO, and compare this flora with other veredas in Brazil. Furthermore, we assessed the similarity of the herb-shrub flora of the studied veredas with that of inventories of other savannas and grasslands in order to evaluate whether veredas possess an exclusive flora. Ordination analysis was performed to understand the floristic relationship among these areas. We recorded 213 species, 105 genera and 49 families at EESGTO, including five new floral records for the Cerrado and 78 for the state of Tocantins. The floristic similarity among veredas at EESGTO and the other sites was low. For all sites, a total of 1,324 species were recorded, of which 342 were unique to veredas and 187 unique to moist grasslands (campos limpos úmidos. After reviewing databases, 14.3 % of these species remained exclusive to veredas and moist grasslands. The ordination analysis indicated a gradient in floristic composition from wet to dry phytophysiognomies. In conclusion, we recognize a flora that distinguishes veredas from other Cerrado phytophysiognomies.

  10. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Mature and Immature Oocytes of the Swamp Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis

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    Qiang Fu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal protein components change markedly during mammalian oogenesis. Many of these proteins have yet to be characterized and verified. In this study, a proteomics approach was used to evaluate changes in proteins during oogenesis in the Swamp Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis. Proteins from 500 immature oocytes and 500 in vitro matured oocytes were subjected to two-dimensional electrophoresis, and more than 400 spots were detected. Image analysis indicated that 17 proteins were differentially expressed between the two groups. Eight proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. In mature oocytes, three proteins were down-regulated: major vault protein (MVP, N-acetyllactosaminide β-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyl-transferase (GCNT-2, and gem-associated protein (GEMIN8, whereas five other proteins, heat shock protein (HSP60, Ras-responsive element-binding protein 1 (RREB-1, heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein (HSC71, hemoglobin subunit α (HBA, and BMP-2-inducible protein kinase (BMP-2K, were up-regulated. The expression profiles of HSP60 and GEMIN8 were further verified by Western blotting. The changes in HSP60 protein expression demonstrate the increasing need for mitochondrial protein importation to facilitate macromolecular assembly during oocyte maturation. The down-regulation of GEMIN8 production implies that RNA splicing is impaired in mature oocytes.

  11. A pilot village study to improve Philippine swamp buffalo production using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alejandrino, A.L.; Alcantara, J.; Eduardo, S.

    1990-01-01

    An integrated Philippine village study on carabao (swamp buffalo) production was conducted in a pilot village. The quasi-experimental design was adopted in two areas designated 'with project' (W/P) and 'without project' (W/OP). The farmers' demographic and socio-economic characteristics, livestock management practices and carabao production were monitored during the baseline phase (18 months) and the intervention phase (24 months). The progesterone levels in milk and serum were measured by radioimmunoassay to assess the reproductive status of the carabaos. The improved management scheme for the intervention period consisted of urea + molasses in drinking water, a routine health programme of deworming and vaccination, and breeding by artificial insemination or natural mating. The level of parasitism was low and was mainly caused by infection with Fasciola sp. and amphistomes. Intermediate snail hosts infected with these parasites were found in the study area. Coccidial oocysts and eggs of Mecistocirrus digitatus were occasionally present in the faecal samples. Reproductive traits were improved in both areas during the intervention phase, with the animals in the W/OP area showing a higher increase in pregnancy rate (57.6%) than those in the W/P area (53.7%); however, the increase in the calving rate and calf survival were greater in the W/P area (45.5% and 100%, respectively) than those in the W/OP area (37% and 94.1%, respectively). (author). 10 refs, 3 figs

  12. Nitrogen fate in a subtropical mangrove swamp: Potential association with seawater-groundwater exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Kai; Wu, Jiapeng; Li, Hailong; Hong, Yiguo; Wilson, Alicia M; Jiao, Jiu Jimmy; Shananan, Meghan

    2018-04-18

    Coastal mangrove swamps play an important role in nutrient cycling at the land-ocean boundary. However, little is known about the role of periodic seawater-groundwater exchange in the nitrogen cycling processes. Seawater-groundwater exchange rates and inorganic nitrogen concentrations were investigated along a shore-perpendicular intertidal transect in Daya Bay, China. The intertidal transect comprises three hydrologic subzones (tidal creek, mangrove and bare mudflat zones), each with different physicochemical characteristics. Salinity and hydraulic head measurements taken along the transect were used to estimate the exchange rates between seawater and groundwater over a spring-neap tidal cycle. Results showed that the maximum seawater-groundwater exchange occurred within the tidal creek zone, which facilitated high-oxygen seawater infiltration and subsequent nitrification. In contrast, the lowest exchange rate found in the mangrove zone caused over-loading of organic matter and longer groundwater residence times. This created an anoxic environment conducive to nitrogen loss through the anammox and denitrification processes. Potential oxidation rates of ammonia and nitrite were measured by the rapid and high-throughput method and rates of denitrification and anammox were measured by the modified membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS) with isotope pairing, respectively. In the whole transect, denitrification accounted for 90% of the total nitrogen loss, and anammox accounted for the remaining 10%. The average nitrogen removal rate was about 2.07g per day per cubic meter of mangrove sediments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Waste drilling-fluid-utilising microorganisms in a tropical mangrove swamp oilfield location

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benka-Coker, M.O.; Olumagin, A. [Benin Univ. (Nigeria). Dept. of Microbiology

    1995-12-31

    Waste drilling-fluid-utilising microorganisms were isolated from drilling-mud cuttings, soil and creek water from a mangrove swamp oilfield location in the Delta area of Nigeria using waste drilling-fluid as the substrate. Eighteen bacterial isolates obtained were identified as species of Staphylococcus, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Serratia, Clostridium, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Nocardia, Bacillus, Actinomyces, Micrococcus and Pseudomonas, while the genera of fungi isolated were Penicillium, Cladosporium and Fusarium. Even though drilling-fluid-utilising genera were in higher numbers in the soil than in the two other sources examined, the percentages of the total heterotrophic bacteria that utilised waste drilling-fluid were 6.02 in the drilling-mud cuttings, 0.83 in creek water and 0.42 in soil. The screen tests for biodegradation potential of the bacterial isolates showed that, even though all the isolates were able to degrade and utilise the waste fluid for growth, species of Alcaligenes and Micrococcus were more active degraders of the waste. The significance of the results in environmental management in oil-producing areas of Nigeria is discussed. (Author)

  14. Impact of logging on a mangrove swamp in South Mexico: cost / benefit analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Tovilla Hernández

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental changes caused by logging in a mangrove swamp were studied in Barra de Tecoanapa, Guerrero, Mexico. Original forest included Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa, Avicennia germinans and halophytic vegetation, and produced wood (164.03 m3/ha and organic matter (3.9 g/m2/day. A total of 3.5 tons of wood per year were harvested from this area. Later, an average of 2 555 kg of maize per planting cycle were obtained (market value of 88 USD. Succession when the area was abandoned included strictly facultative and glycophyte halophytes (16 families, Cyperaceae and Poaceae were the best represented. After logging, temperatures increased 13 °C in the soil and 11°C in the air, whereas salinity reached 52 psu in the dry season. These modified soil color and sand content increased from 42.6 to 63.4%. Logging was deleterious to species, habitat, biogeochemical and biological cycles, organic matter production, seeds, young plants, genetic exchange conservation of soil and its fertility, coastal protection, and aesthetic value; 3 000 m2 had eroded as the river advanced towards the deforested area (the cost/benefit analysis showed a ratio of 246: 1. There was long-term economic loss for the community and only 30% of the site has recovered after five years.

  15. Draining the swamp while making America great: senior dissonance in the age of Trump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Robert B

    2018-04-13

    In his surprise election as President, Donald Trump enjoyed disproportionate electoral support from older voters, many of whom saw in Trump a person who would work to reverse demographic, economic, and cultural forces that had transformed American life as they had long seen it. Yet, Trump's campaign and incumbency has also been very much about gutting the Washington policy establishment of officials, bureaucrats, and lobbyists (aka, the Swamp) which, for over half a century, has been instrumental in enacting and expanding legislation that has benefitted older Americans, far more than any other social policy constituency in the country. This article contrasts the value-oriented electoral support Trump enjoyed from older Americans with their interest concerns centered on policies such as the Affordable Care Act, Medicaid, and a host of smaller grant-in-aid programs. It then reviews the strong institutional base seniors and their advocates have in Washington, posing whether interest-oriented concerns may outweigh ideological ones as policy options emerge from a Republican-controlled government prior to the 2018 elections.

  16. Monticellia ophisterni n. sp. (Cestoda: Monticelliidae) from the swamp-eel Ophisternon aenigmaticum (Synbranchiformes) from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, T; de Chambrier, A; Salgado-Maldonado, G

    2001-12-01

    Monticellia ophisterni n. sp. is described from the swamp-eel Ophisternon aenigmaticum Rosen and Greenwood (Synbranchiformes: Synbranchidae) from Lake Catemaco, Veracruz, Mexico. The new species is placed into Monticellia because of the cortical position of the testes, ovary, and uterus. It differs from other Monticellia species (with the exception of Monticellia magna (Rego, Santos and Silva, 1974)) in the position of longitudinal musculature that crosses the vitelline follicles, making them paramuscular. The new species can be distinguished from M. magna--which possesses a similar number of testes (107-139), paramuscular vitelline follicles, and numerous gland cells distributed between the apex of the scolex and suckers--in the position of the genital pore (8-21% vs. 19-27%), in the presence of a weak internal longitudinal musculature, in the arrangement of the testes in the median field, and in the absence of a vaginal sphincter. This is the first proteocephalidean tapeworm reported from a synbranchid fish and the first species of Monticellia found in North America.

  17. Palm Swamp Wetland Ecosystems of the Upper Amazon: Characterizing their Distribution and Inundation State Using Multiple Resolution Microwave Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podest, E.; McDonald, K. C.; Schröder, R.; Pinto, N.; Zimmermann, R.; Horna, V.

    2011-12-01

    Palm swamp wetlands are prevalent in the Amazon basin, including extensive regions in northern Peru. These ecosystems are characterized by constant surface inundation and moderate seasonal water level variation. The combination of constantly saturated soils, giving rise to low oxygen conditions, and warm temperatures year-round can lead to considerable methane release to the atmosphere. Because of the widespread occurrence and expected sensitivity of these ecosystems to climate change, knowledge of their spatial extent and inundation state is crucial for assessing the associated land-atmosphere carbon exchange. Precise spatio-temporal information on palm swamps is difficult to gather because of their remoteness and difficult accessibility. Spaceborne microwave remote sensing is an effective tool for characterizing these ecosystems since it is sensitive to surface water and vegetation structure and allows monitoring large inaccessible areas on a temporal basis regardless of atmospheric conditions or solar illumination. We are developing a remote sensing methodology using multiple resolution microwave remote sensing data to determine palm swamp distribution and inundation state over focus regions in the Amazon basin in northern Peru. For this purpose, two types of multi-temporal microwave data are used: 1) high-resolution (100 m) data from the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array L-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) to derive maps of palm swamp extent and inundation from dual-polarization fine-beam and multi-temporal HH-polarized ScanSAR, and 2) coarse resolution (25 km) combined active and passive microwave data from QuikSCAT and AMSR-E to derive inundated area fraction on a weekly basis. We compare information content and accuracy of the coarse resolution products to the PALSAR-based datasets to ensure information harmonization. The synergistic combination of high and low resolution datasets will allow for characterization of palm swamps and

  18. TEMPORAL VEGETATION DYNAMICS IN PEAT SWAMP AREA USING MODIS TIME-SERIES IMAGERY: A MONITORING APPROACH OF HIGH-SENSITIVE ECOSYSTEM IN REGIONAL SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudi Setiawan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Peat swamp area is an essential ecosystem due to high vulnerability of functions and services. As the change of forest cover in peat swamp area has increased considerably, many studies on peat swamp have focused on forest conversion or forest degradation. Meanwhile, in the context of changes in the forestlands are the sum of several processes such as deforestation, reforestation/afforestation, regeneration of previously deforested areas, and the changing spatial location of the forest boundary. Remote sensing technology seems to be a powerful tool to provide information required following that concerns. A comparison imagery taken at the different dates over the same locations for assessing those changes tends to be limited by the vegetation phenology and land-management practices. Consequently, the simultaneous analysis seems to be a way to deal with the issues above, as a means for better understanding of the dynamics changes in peat swamp area. In this study, we examined the feasibility of using MODIS images during the last 14 years for detecting and monitoring the changes in peat swamp area. We identified several significant patterns that have been assigned as the specific peat swamp ecosystem. The results indicate that a different type of ecosystem and its response to the environmental changes can be portrayed well by the significant patterns. In understanding the complex situations of each pattern, several vegetation dynamics patterns were characterized by physical land characteristics, such as peat depth, land use, concessions and others. Characterizing the pathways of dynamics change in peat swamp area will allow further identification for the range of proximate and underlying factors of the forest cover change that can help to develop useful policy interventions in peatland management.

  19. Characterizing the Status (Disturbed, Hybrid or Novel) of Swamp Forest Fragments in a Caribbean Ramsar Wetland: The Impact of Anthropogenic Degradation and Invasive Plant Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prospere, Kurt; McLaren, Kurt P; Wilson, Byron

    2016-10-01

    The last remaining Amazonian-type swamp forest fragments in Black River Lower Morass, Jamaica, have been subjected to a myriad of anthropogenic disturbances, compounded by the establishment and spread of several invasive plant species. We established 44 permanent sample plots (covering 3.92 ha) across 10 of these swamp forest fragments and sampled all non-woody plants and all trees ≥2 cm DBH found in the plots. These data were used to (1) identify thresholds of hybridity and novelty, (2) derive several diversity and structural descriptors used to characterize the swamp forest fragments and (3) identify possible indicators of anthropogenic degradation. These were incorporated into a framework and used to determine the status of the swamp forest fragments so that appropriate management and conservation measures can be implemented. We recorded 43 woody plant species (9 endemic, 28 native and 4 non-native) and 21 non-tree species. The composition and structure of all the patches differed significantly due to the impact of the herbaceous invasive plant Alpinia allughas, the presence and diversity of other non-native plants, and differing intensities of anthropogenic disturbance (e.g., burning, cutting and harvesting of non-timber forest products). We ranked forest patches along a continuum representing deviations from a historical proxy (least disturbed) swamp forest to those with dramatically altered structural and floristic attributes (=novel swamp forests). Only one fragment overrun with A. allughas was classified as novel. If effective conservation and management does not come to the BRLM, the remaining swamp forest fragments appear doomed to further degradation and will soon disappear altogether.

  20. Study of the sediment contamination levels in a mangrove swamp polluted by a marine oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, T.W.Y.; Ke, L.; Wong, Y.S.; Tam, N.F.Y.

    2002-01-01

    The pattern of oil retention in mangrove sediments was studied in an effort to determine the temporal changes of petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations and composition several months after oil spills occur. Mangroves are inter-tidal wetlands in tropical and subtropical coastlines. Due to the anoxic and water logging characteristics of mangrove sediments, oil residues linger much longer in these wetlands compared to other coastal habitats. In November 2000, an accidental oil spill occurred in the Pearl River Estuary in which approximately 230,000 litres of crude oil was leaked from an oil tanker. The spilled oil migrated to the YiO, a typical mangrove swamp in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. The degree of oil contamination in the sediments depended on the sediment texture and topography of the mangrove. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration of the sediments in the most affected area near a freshwater creek flowing into the sea was 130 times higher than normal, one month after the accident. The mean TPH concentration was 2862 ug/g of dry sediment while the mean carbon preference index was 1.22 compared to the background value of 3.97. The temporal changes of the petroleum hydrocarbon level in 5 defined areas were examined for 7 months after the spill. The most polluted area next to the creek was determined to have very high TPH levels in the muddy sediments even 7 months after the spill. Oil residues infiltrated as deep as 20 cm into the sediments, making it more difficult to degrade than surface pollution and posing long-term adverse effects on trees in the area. It was determined that with growing industrialization and increasing demands for fuel and energy supply, mangroves in South China should be ranked as top priority for protection from oil spills. 19 refs., 6 tabs., 6 figs

  1. Dispositions of enrofloxacin and its major metabolite ciprofloxacin in Thai swamp buffaloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    RUENNARONG, Nitwarat; WONGPANIT, Kannika; SAKULTHAEW, Chainarong; GIORGI, Mario; KUMAGAI, Susumu; POAPOLATHEP, Amnart; POAPOLATHEP, Saranya

    2015-01-01

    Given the limited information available in this species, the aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic characteristics of enrofloxacin (ER) and its major metabolite ciprofloxacin (CP) in buffaloes, Bubalus bubalis. ER was administered intravenously (i.v.) or subcutaneously (s.c.) to buffaloes at doses of 5.0 and 7.5 mg/kg BW, and plasma, urine and fecal samples were collected until 48 hr post-administration. The concentrations of ER and CP in the plasma, urine and feces were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with a fluorescence detector. The plasma concentrations of ER and CP could be determined up to 24 hr and 32 hr after i.v. and s.c. administrations at doses of 5.0 and 7.5 mg/kg BW, respectively. CP concentrations were always lower than those of parental drug. The s.c. bioavailability of ER was 52.36 ± 4.24% and 72.12 ± 5.39% at doses of 5.0 and 7.5 mg/kg BW, respectively. Both ER and CP were detectable in urine and feces up to 24 hr. ER and CP were mainly excreted via the urine. Based on the pharmacokinetic data and PK-PD indices, s.c. administration of ER at doses of 5.0 and 7.5 mg/kg BW might be appropriate for the treatment of susceptible bacterial diseases in Thai swamp buffaloes. PMID:26596287

  2. A case study on fuel oil contamination in a mangrove swamp in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tam, N.F.Y.; Wong, T.W.Y.; Wong, Y.S. [City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon (Hong Kong). Department of Biology

    2005-07-01

    Mangroves commonly found along tropical and subtropical coastlines are susceptible to oil pollution. In December 2000, around 500 1 m tall Kandelia candel saplings at the age of 3-5 years old located at the foreshore region of Sheung Pak Nai swamp, Hong Kong SAR, were found to be damaged by oil pollution. More than 80% of the saplings were either dead or washed away and leaving less than 5% healthy saplings with dense green leaves. Elevated concentrations of light n-alkanes (ranging from n-C{sub 14} to n-C{sub 20}), pristane and phytane were recorded in surface sediments collected in December 2000. The ratio between light and total n-alkanes was 0.4. The total petroleum hydrocarbons (60-80 {mu}g g{sup -1} TPH) and unresolved complex mixtures (60-70 {mu}g g{sup -1} UCM) were higher than the background values of other mangrove sediments in Hong Kong, which were 40 and 20 {mu}g g{sup -1}, respectively. In certain root zone sediments, TPH concentrations were above 1000 {mu}g g{sup -1}. These results suggest that surface sediments in Sheung Pak Nai were contaminated by petroleum oil, most likely by illegal discharge of fuel oil which occurred between 1998 and 2002. One year later, in December 2001, unhealthy saplings had recovered and re-grown. The concentrations of TPH and UCM in sediments declined to around 40 {mu}g g{sup -1}, pristane and phytane dropped by 80%, and the ratio of light to total n-alkanes was 0.15, suggesting that residual oil in sediments was weathered leading to a remarkable recovery of the unhealthy saplings. (author)

  3. Study of the sediment contamination levels in a mangrove swamp polluted by a marine oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, T.W.Y.; Ke, L.; Wong, Y.S.; Tam, N.F.Y. [City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2002-07-01

    The pattern of oil retention in mangrove sediments was studied in an effort to determine the temporal changes of petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations and composition several months after oil spills occur. Mangroves are inter-tidal wetlands in tropical and subtropical coastlines. Due to the anoxic and water logging characteristics of mangrove sediments, oil residues linger much longer in these wetlands compared to other coastal habitats. In November 2000, an accidental oil spill occurred in the Pearl River Estuary in which approximately 230,000 litres of crude oil was leaked from an oil tanker. The spilled oil migrated to the YiO, a typical mangrove swamp in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. The degree of oil contamination in the sediments depended on the sediment texture and topography of the mangrove. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration of the sediments in the most affected area near a freshwater creek flowing into the sea was 130 times higher than normal, one month after the accident. The mean TPH concentration was 2862 ug/g of dry sediment while the mean carbon preference index was 1.22 compared to the background value of 3.97. The temporal changes of the petroleum hydrocarbon level in 5 defined areas were examined for 7 months after the spill. The most polluted area next to the creek was determined to have very high TPH levels in the muddy sediments even 7 months after the spill. Oil residues infiltrated as deep as 20 cm into the sediments, making it more difficult to degrade than surface pollution and posing long-term adverse effects on trees in the area. It was determined that with growing industrialization and increasing demands for fuel and energy supply, mangroves in South China should be ranked as top priority for protection from oil spills. 19 refs., 6 tabs., 6 figs.

  4. High blood oxygen affinity in the air-breathing swamp eel Monopterus albus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsgaard, Christian; Findorf, Inge; Helbo, Signe; Kocagoz, Yigit; Buchanan, Rasmus; Huong, Do Thi Thanh; Weber, Roy E; Fago, Angela; Bayley, Mark; Wang, Tobias

    2014-12-01

    The Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus, Zuiew 1793) is a facultative air-breathing fish with reduced gills. Previous studies have shown that gas exchange seems to occur across the epithelium of the buccopharyngeal cavity, the esophagus and the integument, resulting in substantial diffusion limitations that must be compensated by adaptations in others steps of the O₂ transport system to secure adequate O₂ delivery to the respiring tissues. We therefore investigated O₂ binding properties of whole blood, stripped hemoglobin (Hb), two major isoHb components and the myoglobin (Mb) from M. albus. Whole blood was sampled using indwelling catheters for blood gas analysis and determination of O₂ equilibrium curves. Hb was purified to assess the effects of endogenous allosteric effectors, and Mb was isolated from heart and skeletal muscle to determine its O₂ binding properties. The blood of M. albus has a high O₂ carrying capacity [hematocrit (Hct) of 42.4±4.5%] and binds O₂ with an unusually high affinity (P₅₀=2.8±0.4mmHg at 27°C and pH7.7), correlating with insensitivity of the Hb to the anionic allosteric effectors that normally decrease Hb-O₂ affinity. In addition, Mb is present at high concentrations in both heart and muscle (5.16±0.99 and 1.08±0.19mg ∙ g wet tissue⁻¹, respectively). We suggest that the high Hct and high blood O₂ affinity serve to overcome the low diffusion capacity in the relatively inefficient respiratory surfaces, while high Hct and Mb concentration aid in increasing the O₂ flux from the blood to the muscles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Sedimentology and ichnology of Neogene Coastal Swamp deposits in the Niger Delta Basin, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezeh Sunny C.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Often analyses of depositional environments from sparse data result in poor interpretation, especially in multipartite depositional settings such as the Niger Delta. For instance, differentiating channel sandstones, heteroliths and mudstones within proximal environments from those of distal facies is difficult if interpretations rely solely on well log signatures. Therefore, in order to achieve an effective and efficient interpretation of the depositional conditions of a given unit, integrated tools must be applied such as matching core descriptions with wireline log signature. In the present paper cores of three wells from the Coastal Swamp depositional belt of the Niger Delta are examined in order to achieve full understanding of the depositional environments. The well sections comprise cross-bedded sandstones, heteroliths (coastal and lower shoreface and mudstones that were laid down in wave, river and tidal processes. Interpretations were made from each data set comprising gamma ray logs, described sedimentological cores showing sedimentary features and ichnological characteristics; these were integrated to define the depositional settings. Some portions from one of the well sections reveal a blocky gamma ray well log signature instead of a coarsening-upward trend that characterises a shoreface setting while in other wells the signatures for heteroliths at some sections are bell blocky in shaped rather than serrated. Besides, heteroliths and mudstones within the proximal facies and those of distal facies were difficult to distinguish solely on well log signatures. However, interpretation based on sedimentology and ichnology of cores from these facies was used to correct these inconsistencies. It follows that depositional environment interpretation (especially in multifarious depositional environments such as the Niger Delta should ideally be made together with other raw data for accuracy and those based solely on well log signatures should

  6. How could a freshwater swamp produce a chemical signature characteristic of a saltmarsh?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Terrence; Smith, Christopher G.; Liu, Kam-biu; Marot, Marci E.; Haller, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Reduction–oxidation (redox) reaction conditions, which are of great importance for the soil chemistry of coastal marshes, can be temporally dynamic. We present a transect of cores from northwest Florida wherein radical postdepositional changes in the redox regime has created atypical geochemical profiles at the bottom of the sedimentary column. The stratigraphy is consistent along the transect, consisting of, from the bottom upward, carbonate bedrock, a gray clay, an organic mud section, a dense clay layer, and an upper organic mud unit representing the current saltwater marsh. However, the geochemical signature of the lower organic mud unit suggests pervasive redox reactions, although the interval has been identified as representing a freshwater marsh, an unlikely environment for such conditions. Analyses indicate that this discrepancy results from postdepositional diagenesis driven by millennial-scale environmental parameters. Rising sea level that led to the deposition of the capping clay layer, created anaerobic conditions in the freshwater swamp interval, and isolated it hydrologically from the rest of the sediment column. The subsequent infiltration of marine water into this organic material led to sulfate reduction, the buildup of H2S and FeS, and anoxic conditions. Continued sulfidation eventually resulted in euxinic conditions, as evidenced by elevated levels of Fe, S, and especially Mo, the diagnostic marker of euxinia. Because this chemical transformation occurred long after the original deposition the geochemical signature does not reflect soil chemistry at the time of deposition and cannot be used to infer syn-depositional environmental conditions, emphasizing the importance of recognizing diagenetic processes in paleoenvironmental studies.

  7. Deforestation projections for carbon-rich peat swamp forests of Central Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Douglas O; Hardiono, Martin; Meijaard, Erik

    2011-09-01

    We evaluated three spatially explicit land use and cover change (LUCC) models to project deforestation from 2005-2020 in the carbon-rich peat swamp forests (PSF) of Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Such models are increasingly used to evaluate the impact of deforestation on carbon fluxes between the biosphere and the atmosphere. We considered both business-as-usual (BAU) and a forest protection scenario to evaluate each model's accuracy, sensitivity, and total projected deforestation and landscape-level fragmentation patterns. The three models, Dinamica EGO (DE), GEOMOD and the Land Change Modeler (LCM), projected similar total deforestation amounts by 2020 with a mean of 1.01 million ha (Mha) and standard deviation of 0.17 Mha. The inclusion of a 0.54 Mha strict protected area in the LCM simulations reduced projected loss to 0.77 Mha over 15 years. Calibrated parameterizations of the models using nearly identical input drivers produced very different landscape properties, as measured by the number of forest patches, mean patch area, contagion, and Euclidean nearest neighbor determined using Fragstats software. The average BAU outputs of the models suggests that Central Kalimantan may lose slightly less than half (45.1%) of its 2005 PSF by 2020 if measures are not taken to reduce deforestation there. The relatively small reduction of 0.24 Mha in deforestation found in the 0.54 Mha protection scenario suggests that these models can identify potential leakage effects in which deforestation is forced to occur elsewhere in response to a policy intervention.

  8. Red blood cell production

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bone marrow of bones. Stem cells in the red bone marrow called hemocytoblasts give rise to all of the formed elements in blood. If a hemocytoblast commits to becoming a cell called a proerythroblast, it will develop into a new red blood cell. The formation of a red blood ...

  9. Comparing Avocado, Swamp Bay, and Camphortree as Hosts of Raffaelea lauricola Using a Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP)-Labeled Strain of the Pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A S; Ploetz, R C; Rollins, J A

    2017-01-01

    Raffaelea lauricola, a fungal symbiont of the ambrosia beetle Xyleborus glabratus, causes laurel wilt in members of the Lauraceae plant family. North American species in the family, such as avocado (Persea americana) and swamp bay (P. palustris), are particularly susceptible to laurel wilt, whereas the Asian camphortree (Cinnamomum camphora) is relatively tolerant. To determine whether susceptibility is related to pathogen colonization, a green fluorescent protein-labeled strain of R. lauricola was generated and used to inoculate avocado, swamp bay, and camphortree. Trees were harvested 3, 10, and 30 days after inoculation (DAI), and disease severity was rated on a 1-to-10 scale. By 30 DAI, avocado and swamp bay developed significantly more severe disease than camphortree (mean severities of 6.8 and 5.5 versus 1.6, P < 0.003). The extent of xylem colonization was recorded as the percentage of lumena that were colonized by the pathogen. More xylem was colonized in avocado than camphortree (0.9% versus 0.1%, P < 0.03) but colonization in swamp bay (0.4%) did not differ significantly from either host. Although there were significant correlations between xylem colonization and laurel wilt severity in avocado (r = 0.74), swamp bay (r = 0.82), and camphortree (r = 0.87), even severely affected trees of all species were scarcely colonized by the pathogen.

  10. Identifying food deserts and swamps based on relative healthy food access: a spatio-temporal Bayesian approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Hui; Law, Jane; Quick, Matthew

    2015-12-30

    Obesity and other adverse health outcomes are influenced by individual- and neighbourhood-scale risk factors, including the food environment. At the small-area scale, past research has analysed spatial patterns of food environments for one time period, overlooking how food environments change over time. Further, past research has infrequently analysed relative healthy food access (RHFA), a measure that is more representative of food purchasing and consumption behaviours than absolute outlet density. This research applies a Bayesian hierarchical model to analyse the spatio-temporal patterns of RHFA in the Region of Waterloo, Canada, from 2011 to 2014 at the small-area level. RHFA is calculated as the proportion of healthy food outlets (healthy outlets/healthy + unhealthy outlets) within 4-km from each small-area. This model measures spatial autocorrelation of RHFA, temporal trend of RHFA for the study region, and spatio-temporal trends of RHFA for small-areas. For the study region, a significant decreasing trend in RHFA is observed (-0.024), suggesting that food swamps have become more prevalent during the study period. For small-areas, significant decreasing temporal trends in RHFA were observed for all small-areas. Specific small-areas located in south Waterloo, north Kitchener, and southeast Cambridge exhibited the steepest decreasing spatio-temporal trends and are classified as spatio-temporal food swamps. This research demonstrates a Bayesian spatio-temporal modelling approach to analyse RHFA at the small-area scale. Results suggest that food swamps are more prevalent than food deserts in the Region of Waterloo. Analysing spatio-temporal trends of RHFA improves understanding of local food environment, highlighting specific small-areas where policies should be targeted to increase RHFA and reduce risk factors of adverse health outcomes such as obesity.

  11. Differences in impacts of Hurricane Sandy on freshwater swamps on the Delmarva Peninsula, Mid−Atlantic Coast, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Beth A.

    2016-01-01

    Hurricane wind and surge may have different influences on the subsequent composition of forests. During Hurricane Sandy, while damaging winds were highest near landfall in New Jersey, inundation occurred along the entire eastern seaboard from Georgia to Maine. In this study, a comparison of damage from salinity intrusion vs. wind/surge was recorded in swamps of the Delmarva Peninsula along the Pocomoke (MD) and Nanticoke (DE) Rivers, south of the most intense wind damage. Hickory Point Cypress Swamp (Hickory) was closest to the Chesapeake Bay and may have been subjected to a salinity surge as evidenced by elevated salinity levels at a gage upstream of this swamp (storm salinity = 13.1 ppt at Nassawango Creek, Snow Hill, Maryland). After Hurricane Sandy, 8% of the standing trees died at Hickory including Acer rubrum, Amelanchier laevis, Ilex spp., and Taxodium distichum. In Plot 2 of Hickory, 25% of the standing trees were dead, and soil salinity levels were the highest recorded in the study. The most important variables related to structural tree damage were soil salinity and proximity to the Atlantic coast as based on Stepwise Regression and NMDS procedures. Wind damage was mostly restricted to broken branches although tipped−up trees were found at Hickory, Whiton and Porter (species: Liquidamabar styraciflua, Pinus taeda, Populus deltoides, Quercus pagoda and Ilex spp.). These trees fell mostly in an east or east−southeast direction (88o−107o) in keeping with the wind direction of Hurricane Sandy on the Delmarva Peninsula. Coastal restoration and management can be informed by the specific differences in hurricane damage to vegetation by salt versus wind.

  12. Nitrogen Dynamics Along a Headwater Stream Draining a Fen, Swamp, and Marsh in a Fractured Dolomite Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, T. P.; Waddington, J. M.

    2009-05-01

    Stream-wetland interaction has been shown to have a significant effect on nutrient cycling and downstream water quality. Additionally, connection to regional groundwater systems can dilute or enrich stream water with a number of dissolved constituents. This study demonstrates the resultant downstream change in dissolved nitrogen species as a hardwater stream emerges from a calcareous aquifer and traverses a calcareous fen, a cedar swamp, and a cattail marsh over two growing seasons, a very dry 2006 and a very wet 2007. Upon emergence at a number of groundwater seeps, the water contained appreciable nitrate levels averaging 2.72±0.42 mg NO3-N L-1, minimal organic nitrogen, and ammonium below detectable levels. Through the gently sloping calcareous fen, with a stream residence time of ~ 5 hours, NO3-N concentration decreases of 0.35 mg L-1 were observed. Concomitantly, stream recharge into the dolomite bedrock depressed stream discharge values significantly, further removing nitrate from the stream system. This resulted in the fen-bedrock system acting as an estimated net sink of 432 kg of NO3-N in the early summer of 2007, for example. In contrast, the hydrological-biogeochemical systems became decoupled through the swamp during the same period, where concentrations increased from 2.58±0.34 mg L-1 entering the swamp to 2.65±0.58 mg L-1 exiting, but streamflow decreased in general by 5 L s- 1. This resulted in the swamp, with its large depression storage, acting as a small net sink of nitrate (75 kg through the early summer), which would not be detected simply from concentration changes. The concentration-discharge relation realigned through the marsh, where significant groundwater entered the wetland, increasing both concentration and discharge, yielding a small export of 93 kg over the same time period. A series of tracer injections in each wetland type will be presented to compare the streamflow- concentration patterns with the measured nutrient spiralling

  13. Food habitats of the Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) in the Coswine Swamps (French Guiana, South America)

    OpenAIRE

    Spiegelberger, Thomas; Ganslosser, Udo

    2005-01-01

    A study was conducted to analyse the habitat of the Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus L. 1758) in the Coswine Swamps of northwest French Guiana, South America. Water parameters were similar to those described in other studies: water depth varied from 2.5 m to more than 20 m; water temperature was between 24.5 °C and 30.3 °C and pH varied between 5.5 and 6.9. Salinity was low (0.0‰ to 1.3‰) with 86.9% of all samples taken in fresh water. No submerged aquatic vegetation was found in...

  14. Productivity of Indonesian swamp buffaloes in relation to nutrition, reproduction and draught use in the wet tropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamualim, A.; Liem, C.; Ffoulkes, D.

    1990-01-01

    Buffaloes in Indonesian villages fulfil a valuable function in providing the major source of draught power for cultivation. However, in wet irrigated areas, the continuous work of buffaloes and the low to medium quality of the available feed result in low growth rates and low reproductive performance. Results from buffalo feeding trials using similar feeds to those given in the villages indicated that high usage for draught would ultimately reduce body weight gains and might reduce the ovarian activity of buffalo cows. Use of supplements is recommended to improve the growth rates and fertility of swamp buffalo cows subjected to high work loads. (author). 14 refs, 7 tabs

  15. Pseudocapillaria (Ichthyocapillaria) ophisterni sp. n. (Nematoda : Capillariidae) from the swamp-eel Ophisternon aenigmaticum (Pisces) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, F; Salgado-Maldonado, G; Jiménez-García, I

    2000-04-01

    A new nematode species, Pseudocapillaria ophisterni sp. n., is described from the intestine and rarely from the stomach of the swamp-eel, Ophisternon aenigmaticum Rosen et Greenwood, from Catemaco Lake, Veracruz, Mexico. In having both caudal lobes in the male interconnected by a distinct dorsal membrane, it belongs to the subgenus Ichthyocapillaria. It differs from the three species in this subgenus mainly in possessing either a distinctly longer spicule or a smaller length of oesophagus relative to body length. It also differs in host type and geographical distribution. P. ophisterni is the first capillariid species reported from synbranchiform fishes.

  16. The palynology and sedimentology of a coastal swamp at Awana, Great Barrier Island, New Zealand, from c. 7000 yr B.P. to present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horrocks, M.; Ogden, J.; Nichol, S.L.; Alloway, B.V.; Sutton, D.G.

    1999-01-01

    Pollen and sediment analysis of two Holocene cores from Awana, Great Barrier Island, shows that at 7000 calibrated yr B.P. the local swamp was an estuarine salt marsh dominated by Restionaceae. By c. 6000 yr B.P. the water table was lower, and a fresh water swamp (Gleichenia-Leptospermum) had replaced the salt marsh. Regional conifer-hardwood forest c. 7000 yr B.P. was initially co-dominated by Libocedrus and Dacrydium cupressinum. Libocedrus declined from c. 6000 yr B.P. During the period c. 6000-c. 2500 yr B.P., relatively stable environmental conditions ensued with little change in local or regional vegetation. Around 2500 yr B.P., the swamp surface became drier and was invaded by Dacrycarpus and Laurelia swamp forest. This forest was subsequently repeatedly disturbed (not by fire), indicating climatic change to drier and windier conditions. Ascarina lucida was periodically a major component of swamp forest. Disturbance is also recorded in the clastic (mineral) sediments, where beds of sand within finer-grained sediment and peat are interpreted as wind blown material derived from partly devegetated dunes to seaward. The presence of the Kaharoa Tephra allows the timing of major Polynesian deforestation at Awana to be reliably dated to c. 600 calibrated yr B.P. In contrast, we see no evidence in the clastic sediment record of disturbance at Awana since Kaharoa time. We attribute this to the maintenance of stable dunes by a herb/scrub cover despite nearby fires, or to the presence of scrub or forest buffering the swamp from ablating dunes. (author). 45 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  17. Recent benthic foraminifera assemblages from mangrove swamp and channels of Abu Dhabi (UAE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Flavia; Lokier, Stephen W.; Odeh, Weaam A. S. Al; Paul, Andreas; Song, Jianfeng; Freeman, Mark; Michel, Françoise

    2017-04-01

    Zonation of Recent mangrove environments can be defined using benthic foraminifera, however, little is known about foraminifera from mangrove environments of the Persian/Arabian Gulf. The objective of this study is to produce a detailed micropaleontological and sedimentological analysis to identify foraminiferal associations from mangrove swamps and channels located on the eastern side of Abu Dhabi Island (UAE). Detailed sediment sampling collection in mangal environments of Eastern Abu Dhabi was carried out to assess the distribution of benthic foraminifera in different sedimentary facies in the mangal and in the surrounding natural environments of the upper and lower intertidal area (mud flats and channels). A 100 m transect across a natural channel in a mangal on the eastern side of Abu Dhabi Island was sampled in detail for sedimentological and foraminiferal analysis. Forty-seven samples were collected at 2 meter intervals along the transect in a number of different sedimentary facies including; fine sediment in areas exposed during low tide and close to mangrove trees (Avicennia marina), fine sediment rich in leaf material, coarse sediment in channels, and coarse sediments with a shell lag. At each sampling location environmental parameters were recorded, including water depth, salinity, temperature and pH. Samples collected for foraminiferal analysis were stained in rose Bengal in order to identify living specimens. Samples collected on the mud flat at the margin of the channel show a living foraminiferal assemblage characterised by abundant foraminifera belonging to the genera Ammonia, Elphidium, Cribroelphidium, Triloculina, Quinqueloculina, Sigmoilinita, Spiroloculina, Peneroplis and Spirolina. Samples collected in the lower (wet) intertidal area close to Avicennia marina roots, presented a low-diversity assemblage mostly comprising small-sized opportunistic foraminifera of the genera Ammonia and Cribroelphidium along with rare Triloculina and

  18. Gnathostoma spinigerum in live Asian swamp eels (Monopterus spp.) from food markets and wild populations, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Rebecca A.; Choudhury, Anindo; Nico, Leo G.; Griffin, Kathryn M.

    2014-01-01

    In Southeast Asia, swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus spp.) are a common source of human gnathostomiasis, a foodborne zoonosis caused by advanced third-stage larvae (AL3) of Gnathostoma spp. nematodes. Live Asian swamp eels are imported to US ethnic food markets, and wild populations exist in several states. To determine whether these eels are infected, we examined 47 eels from markets and 67 wild-caught specimens. Nematodes were identified by morphologic features and ribosomal intergenic transcribed spacer–2 gene sequencing. Thirteen (27.7%) M. cuchia eels from markets were infected with 36 live G. spinigerum AL3: 21 (58.3%) in liver; 7 (19.4%) in muscle; 5 (13.8%) in gastrointestinal tract, and 3 (8.3%) in kidneys. Three (4.5%) wild-caught M. albus eels were infected with 5 G. turgidum AL3 in muscle, and 1 G. lamothei AL3 was found in a kidney (both North American spp.). Imported live eels are a potential source of human gnathostomiasis in the United States.

  19. Epiphytic ferns in swamp forest remnants of the coastal plain of southern Brazil: latitudinal effects on the plant community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia S. Machado

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Community structure and spatial distribution of epiphytic ferns in swamp forest remnants along the coastal plain of the state of Rio Grande do Sul were analyzed. A total of 440 trees were sampled in fifty-seven 10 x 10 m plots. Each phorophyte was divided into five ecological zones (strata, where all species of epiphytic ferns were recorded. A total of 34 species representing 18 genera in six families were recorded. Polypodiaceae was the most represented family with 17 species, and Microgramma vacciniifolia had the highest epiphytic importance value. Characteristic holoepiphyte was the predominant ecological category, representing 70 % of the species. Ordination analysis showed a gradual change in floristic composition between ecological zones with richness differing significantly between strata. We observed that with increasing latitude there was a decrease in mean temperature and total rainfall, but an increase in frosts. These climatic and phytogeography changes result in a reduction in species richness and a change in the structure of epiphytic fern communities in a north-to-south direction. The importance of swamp forest remnants of the coastal plain to the diversity of epiphytic ferns is discussed.

  20. Heavy Metals Uptake by Asian Swamp Eel, Monopterus albus from Paddy Fields of Kelantan, Peninsular Malaysia: Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Sow Ai; Ismail, Ahmad; Zulkifli, Syaizwan Zahmir

    2012-12-01

    Swamp eel, Monopterus albus is one of the common fish in paddy fields, thus it is suitable to be a bio-monitor for heavy metals pollution studies in paddy fields. This study was conducted to assess heavy metals levels in swamp eels collected from paddy fields in Kelantan, Malaysia. The results showed zinc [Zn (86.40 μg/g dry weight)] was the highest accumulated metal in the kidney, liver, bone, gill, muscle and skin. Among the selected organs, gill had the highest concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and nickel (Ni) whereas muscle showed the lowest total metal accumulation of Zn, Pb, copper (Cu), Cd and Ni. Based on the Malaysian Food Regulation, the levels of Zn and Cu in edible parts (muscle and skin) were within the safety limits. However, Cd, Pb and Ni exceeded the permissible limits. By comparing with the maximum level intake (MLI), Pb, Ni and Cd in edible parts can still be consumed. This investigation indicated that M. albus from paddy fields of Kelantan are safe for human consumption with little precaution.

  1. Chronological Reorganization of Microtubules, Actin Microfilaments, and Chromatin during the First Cell Cycle in Swamp Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibuntita Chankitisakul

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to study the dynamics of early embryonic development, in terms of redistribution of cytoskeleton (microtubules, actin microfilaments and chromatin configurations during the first cell cycle in swamp buffalo embryos. Oocytes were matured and fertilized in vitro, and they were fixed at various time points after IVF. At 6 h after IVF, 44.4% matured oocytes were penetrated by spermatozoa. Partial ZP digestion, however, did not improve fertilization rate compared to control (P>.05. At 12 h after IVF, the fertilized oocytes progressed to the second meiotic division and formed the female pronucleus simultaneously with the paternal chromatin continued to decondense. A sperm aster was observed radiating from the base of the decondensing sperm head. At 18 h after IVF, most presumptive zygotes had reached the pronuclear stage. The sperm aster was concurrently enlarged to assist the migration and apposition of pronuclei. Cell cleavage was facilitated by microfilaments and firstly observed by 30 h after IVF. In conclusion, the cytoskeleton actively involves with the process of fertilization and cleavage in swamp buffalo oocytes. The centrosomal material is paternally inherited. Fertilization failure is predominantly caused by poor sperm penetration. However, partial digestion of ZP did not improve fertilization rate.

  2. Inquiring into Red/Red Inquiring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Gale

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This layered account of an inquiry into ‘red’ emerged out of a collective biography workshop. In the middle of the Wiltshire countryside, an international and interdisciplinary group of scholars gathered together to write and make other things and marks on paper that asked questions of, and into, the spaces between words, people, things and their environments. We did not set out to workshop or write into or paint ‘red’ but, rather, it was red that slipped in, uninvited, and painted and wrote us. Red arose as a blush or a stain seeping amongst us that became referenced obliquely by material objects, metaphors and fairytales. The stain spread, became noticeable through our weekend together and beyond it, creating another (bright red artery vein of connection to write with.

  3. Strong and stable geographic differentiation of swamp buffalo maternal and paternal lineages indicates domestication in the China/Indochina border region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Yi; Lu, Yongfang; Yindee, Marnoch; Li, Kuan-Yi; Kuo, Hsiao-Yun; Ju, Yu-Ten; Ye, Shaohui; Faruque, Md Omar; Li, Qiang; Wang, Yachun; Cuong, Vu Chi; Pham, Lan Doan; Bouahom, Bounthong; Yang, Bingzhuang; Liang, Xianwei; Cai, Zhihua; Vankan, Dianne; Manatchaiworakul, Wallaya; Kowlim, Nonglid; Duangchantrasiri, Somphot; Wajjwalku, Worawidh; Colenbrander, Ben; Zhang, Yuan; Beerli, Peter; Lenstra, Johannes A; Barker, J Stuart F

    The swamp type of the Asian water buffalo is assumed to have been domesticated by about 4000 years BP, following the introduction of rice cultivation. Previous localizations of the domestication site were based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation within China, accounting only for the maternal

  4. Testate amoebae analysis in the peat deposits of the swamp Dolgon’koye in the south of Western Siberia and peatland paleohydrology for last 3100 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurina, Irina V.; Blyakharchuk, Tatiana A.

    2018-03-01

    Our research is devoted to paleohydrological reconstruction in the swamp located in the river valley on the piedmont of the Altai Mountains in the south of Western Siberia. The reconstruction was carried out based on rhizopod analysis for the last 3100 cal yr. A large amount of different testate amoebae was found in the peat. Total 64 testate amoebae taxa were recorded in the peat core with the most abundant being: Trinema lineare, Centropyxis aculeata, C. aerophila, Euglypha rotunda, Cryptodifflugia sp. Decrease of surface wetness in the swamp are observed 2280, 2140, 1900–600 cal yr BP and increase – in 2700, 2500–1900, 230–215 cal yr BP. The results of our reconstruction of the swamp paleohydrology agrees well with the paleoclimatic data obtained earlier for the central area of the south of Western Siberia Plain. It indicates a high sensitivity of the swamp to climatic changes in the Holocene. The rhizopod analysis proved to be very effective when used for paleohydrology reconstruction in minerotrophic peat.

  5. Yeast communities in Sphagnum phyllosphere along the temperature-moisture ecocline in the boreal forest-swamp ecosystem and description of Candida sphagnicola sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachalkin, Aleksey V; Yurkov, Andrey M

    2012-06-01

    The effects of the temperature-moisture factors on the phylloplane yeast communities inhabiting Sphagnum mosses were studied along the transition from a boreal forest to a swamp biotope at the Central Forest State Biosphere Reserve (Tver region, Russia). We tested the hypothesis that microclimatic parameters affect yeast community composition and structure even on a rather small spatial scale. Using a conventional plating technique we isolated and identified by molecular methods a total of 15 species of yeasts. Total yeast counts and species richness values did not depend on environmental factors, although yeast community composition and structure did. On average, Sphagnum in the swamp biotope supported a more evenly structured yeast community. Relative abundance of ascomycetous yeasts was significantly higher on swamp moss. Rhodotorula mucilaginosa dominated in the spruce forest and Cryptococcus magnus was more abundant in the swamp. Our study confirmed the low occurrence of tremellaceous yeasts in the Sphagnum phyllosphere. Of the few isolated ascomycetous yeast and yeast-like species, some were differentiated from hitherto known species in physiological tests and phylogenetic analyses. We describe one of them as Candida sphagnicola and designate KBP Y-3887(T) (=CBS 11774(T) = VKPM Y-3566(T) = MUCL 53590(T)) as the type strain. The new species was registered in MycoBank under MB 563443.

  6. Yellow perch larval survival in the Zekiah Swamp watershed (Wicomico River, Maryland) relative to the potential effects of a coal ash storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, W.H.; Pinkney, A.E.

    1994-01-01

    A coordinated program of in situ and laboratory bioassays supported by water quality analyses was used to evaluate the potential effect of a coal ash storage facility on a yellow perch (Perca flavescens) spawning area. The facility is located in the Zekiah Swamp watershed, a tributary of the Wicomico River, MD. In situ bioassays were conducted in Zekiah Swamp Run and reference locations in 1989 and 1990. Larval mortality was high in non-tidal areas of Zekiah Swamp Run, both at a site upstream and beyond the influence of the facility, and at a site downstream of the facility. Mortality was significantly less at a nearby reference stream and at a station in the tidal area of Zekiah Swamp Run. Analysis of water samples for metals (including inorganic monomeric aluminum), organic contaminants, and pH, as well as measurements of stream flow, did not identify a specific cause for the mortality. The field and laboratory bioassays showed that, although leachate from the ash facility contributed to local contamination of ground water, the facility does not appear to be responsible for the poor survival of larval yellow perch. 16 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs

  7. The Analysis of Management and Timber Trade System of Gelam (Melaleuca cajuputi From Peat Swamp Forest in South Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudi Firmanul Ariffin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Until now the raw material of wood especially Gelam (Melaleuca cajuputi available for supporting the construction of housing and other infrastructures is increasingly large in Indonesia. On the Island of Borneo that partly consists of swamps needs Gelam very large and continuous, particularly for residential development. However, areas of peat swamp forest habitat of this plant from year to year are degradation and shrinkage. This situation is a very big influence on the population of Gelam, while the management and timber trade systems are not well regulated. This study aims to analyze the management and timber trade systems of Gelam particularly in South Kalimantan to provide input to the policy holder in the preservation of Gelam. The method was used a field survey and interviews with traders and policy holders related regulations. The results showed in South Kalimantan the potency of Gelam is only 2,9-7,1 m3/ha and decreasing yearly. Normally Gelam with a diameter <4 cm have been cut down, as well as > 30 cm. These dimensions should not be cut because of <4 cm too young and > 30 cm can be used as seed sources. Gelam derived from peat swamp forest, which mostly comes from the Batola District and some came from Kapuas District of Central Kalimantan. Distributions of Gelam were starting gatherers logging in the forest then sold to small gatherers, next to the large gatherers and distributed to all districts/cities in South Kalimantan, wood processing industries, and some of them were sent to Java. The silviculture system of Gelam was using selective cutting. Classification of wood sizes traded by the diameter divided into 3-4cm, 5-6cm, 7-8cm, 9-10cm, 11-12cm, 13-14cm, 15-19cm and > 20cm to 4m long. Its use consists of a small diameter (3-10cm for foundry building and firewood, while the large diameter (10-20cm for the construction of houses in swampy areas, and waste as well as the stems are bent and deformed used for firewood. Until now Gelam

  8. Strong and stable geographic differentiation of swamp buffalo maternal and paternal lineages indicates domestication in the China/Indochina border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Lu, Yongfang; Yindee, Marnoch; Li, Kuan-Yi; Kuo, Hsiao-Yun; Ju, Yu-Ten; Ye, Shaohui; Faruque, Md Omar; Li, Qiang; Wang, Yachun; Cuong, Vu Chi; Pham, Lan Doan; Bouahom, Bounthong; Yang, Bingzhuang; Liang, Xianwei; Cai, Zhihua; Vankan, Dianne; Manatchaiworakul, Wallaya; Kowlim, Nonglid; Duangchantrasiri, Somphot; Wajjwalku, Worawidh; Colenbrander, Ben; Zhang, Yuan; Beerli, Peter; Lenstra, Johannes A; Barker, J Stuart F

    2016-04-01

    The swamp type of the Asian water buffalo is assumed to have been domesticated by about 4000 years BP, following the introduction of rice cultivation. Previous localizations of the domestication site were based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation within China, accounting only for the maternal lineage. We carried out a comprehensive sampling of China, Taiwan, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, Nepal and Bangladesh and sequenced the mtDNA Cytochrome b gene and control region and the Y-chromosomal ZFY, SRY and DBY sequences. Swamp buffalo has a higher diversity of both maternal and paternal lineages than river buffalo, with also a remarkable contrast between a weak phylogeographic structure of river buffalo and a strong geographic differentiation of swamp buffalo. The highest diversity of the swamp buffalo maternal lineages was found in south China and north Indochina on both banks of the Mekong River, while the highest diversity in paternal lineages was in the China/Indochina border region. We propose that domestication in this region was later followed by introgressive capture of wild cows west of the Mekong. Migration to the north followed the Yangtze valley as well as a more eastern route, but also involved translocations of both cows and bulls over large distances with a minor influence of river buffaloes in recent decades. Bayesian analyses of various migration models also supported domestication in the China/Indochina border region. Coalescence analysis yielded consistent estimates for the expansion of the major swamp buffalo haplogroups with a credibility interval of 900 to 3900 years BP. The spatial differentiation of mtDNA and Y-chromosomal haplotype distributions indicates a lack of gene flow between established populations that is unprecedented in livestock. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Water-use dynamics of a peat swamp forest and a dune forest in Maputaland, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Clulow

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Peat swamp forests are the second rarest forest type found in South Africa while dune forests have been under severe threat through mining and agriculture. Both forest types exist in the conservation area, and World Heritage site, known as the iSimangaliso Wetland Park on the East coast of South Africa. The area is prone to severe droughts (Taylor et al., 2006 and recent attempts to understand the local water balance revealed that there was insufficient information on the water use of the indigenous forests of the area. The peat swamp forest and dune forest sites studied in this research were located within close proximity to each other, yet, are characterised by different landscape positions in terms of water availability. The coastal dune forest soil profile was generally dry and sandy and the tree roots did not have access to the water table. In contrast the peat swamp forest is located in an interdunal wetland where the trees have permanent access to water. The climate at both sites is subtropical with a mean annual precipitation of 1200 mm yr−1. However, over 20 months of measurement, the first summer (October 2009 to March 2010 was drier (424 versus 735 mm than the second summer (October 2010 to March 2011 emphasising the variability of the rainfall in the area and providing a wide range of conditions measured. The sap flow of an evergreen, overstory Syzygium cordatum and a semi-deciduous, understory Shirakiopsis elliptica were measured in the peat swamp forest using the heat ratio method. The Syzygium cordatum water use was not highly seasonal and the daily maximum water use ranged from approximately 30 L d−1 in winter to 45 L d−1 in summer whereas the extit{Shirakiopsis elliptica} water use was more seasonal at 2 L d−1 in winter and 12 L d−1 in summer. The water use of the Syzygium cordatum was not influenced by seasonal rainfall variations and was actually higher in the drier summer (October 2009 to March 2010. Three trees of

  10. Effects of fires on the chemical and petrographic composition of peat in the Snuggedy Swamp, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rollins, M S; Cohen, A D; Durig, J R [South Carolina University, Columbia, SC (USA). Dept. of Chemistry

    1993-04-01

    Charcoal-rich zones in a peat core from the Snuggedy Swamp in South Carolina were investigated to determine the chemical and physical changes associated with fires. Petrographic analyses of microtome thin sections revealed that three charcoal zones were present in the core and that the fires causing such zones were severe enough to penetrate into the subsurface and burn some of the peat. Despite these severe fires, only minor changes in the botanical composition occurred throughout the history of the study site, suggesting that these fires were not extensive enough to retard recolonization of the site from nearby unburned areas. Pyrolysis gas chromatography/Fourier transform infrared/flame ionization detection and pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry studies reveal distinct organic chemical changes in the peat that can be related to the fires. Decreases in aliphatic and cellulose compounds mirrored increases in charcoal abundance; while aromatic, lignin-related compounds increased as charcoal increased. 44 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Late-Holocene Environmental Reconstruction and Depositional History from a Taxodium Swamp near Lake Pontchartrain in Southern Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, J.; Bianchette, T. A.; Liu, K. B.; Yao, Q.; Maiti, K.

    2017-12-01

    The hydrological and environmental history of estuarine wetlands in Louisiana is not well-documented. To better understand the depositional processes in coastal wetlands, this study aims to reconstruct the environmental changes and document the occurrence of event deposits found in a bald cypress (Taxodium distichum) swamp approximately 800 m west of Lake Pontchartrain, a site susceptible to wind-generated storm surges as well as inundation from other fluvial and lacustrine processes. 210Pb analysis of a 59 cm sediment core (WMA-1) suggests that it has a sedimentation rate of 0.39 cm/year, consistent with the detection of a 137Cs peak at 17 cm from the core top. Results of sedimentological, geochemical, and palynological analyses reveal that the core contains two distinct sediment facies: an organic-rich dark brown peat unit from 0 to 29 cm containing low concentrations of terrestrial elements (e.g., Ti, Fe, and K), and a clay unit from 30 to 59 cm with elevated concentrations of most elements. Two thin clay layers, at 3-5 cm and 14-19 cm, embedded in the upper peat section are probably attributed to two recent storm events, Hurricane Isaac (2012) and Hurricane Gustav (2008), because both hurricanes caused heavy rain and significant storm-surge flooding at the study site. The pollen assemblage in the clay section is dominated by TCT (mainly Taxodium), but it is replaced by Salix and wetland herbaceous taxa in the overlying peat section. The multi-proxy data suggest that a cypress swamp has been present at the site for at least several hundred years but Taxodium was being replaced by willow (Salix) and other bottomland hardwood trees and wetland herbs as the water level dropped. Human activities may have been an important factor causing the hydrological and ecological changes at the site during the past century.

  12. Effect of Ground Corn Cob Replacement for Cassava Chip on Feed Intake, Rumen Fermentation and Urinary Derivatives in Swamp Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wanapat

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Four Thai - rumen fistulated male swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis, about four years old with 400±20 kg liveweight, were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design to receive dietary treatments. The treatments were: ground corn cob (GCC replacement for cassava chip (CC in concentrate at 0% (T1; GCC replacement at 33% (T2; GCC replacement at 67% (T3; and GCC replacement at 100% (T4, respectively. During the experiment, concentrate was offered at 0.5% BW while 5% urea-treated rice straw was given at ad libitum. The result revealed that there was no effect of GCC replacement on DMI among treatments. In addition, digestibilities of DM, OM and CP were not different while aNDF linearly increased with an increasing level of GCC replacement. However, GCC replacement did not affect rumen fermentation such as ruminal pH, NH3-N and VFA concentration; except C3 proportion which was the highest at 33% replacement while the lowest was at 100% replacement. All replacements of GCC resulted in similar protozoal and bacterial populations and microbial protein synthesis (MPS. Purine derivatives (PD concentration in urine and PD to creatinine (PDC index were varied with time of urination and among treatments at 0 to 8 and 8 to 16 h post feeding and higher values were shown among the GCC replacement groups. However at 16 to 24 h-post feeding, it was untraceable. In addition, creatinine concentration was similar among all treatments at every sampling time. Based on the above results, GCC can be used as an energy source for swamp buffalo fed with rice straw. Spot sampling of urine can be used for purine derivatives determination.

  13. Insect emergence in relation to floods in wet meadows and swamps in the River Dalälven floodplain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnersten, T Z Persson; Östman, Ö; Schäfer, M L; Lundström, J O

    2014-08-01

    Annual variation in flood frequency and hydroperiod during the vegetation season has ecological impacts on the floodplain biota. Although many insect groups may have a lower emergence during a flood event, it is poorly known how annual emergence of insects in temporary wetlands is related to the variation in hydrology. Between May and September, we studied the weekly emergence of 18 insect taxa over six consecutive years, 2002-2007, in six temporary flooded wetlands (four wet meadows and two forest swamps) in the River Dalälven floodplains, Central Sweden. We used emergence traps to collect emerging insects from terrestrial and aquatic parts of wet meadows and swamp forests. In all wetlands, the insect fauna was numerically dominated by the orders Diptera, Hymenoptera, Coleoptera and Homoptera. On a weekly basis, 9 out of the 18 insect taxa had lower emergence in weeks with flood than in weeks with no flood, whereas no taxon had a higher emergence in weeks with flood. Over the seasons, we related insect emergence to seasonal flood frequency and length of hydroperiod. The emergence of most studied taxa decreased with increasing hydroperiod, which suggests that emergence after floods do not compensate for the reduced emergence during floods. Only Culicidae and the aquatic Chironomidae sub-families Tanypodinae and Chironominae showed an increase in emergence with increasing hydroperiod, whereas Staphylinidae peaked at intermediate hydroperiod. We conclude that a hydroperiod covering up to 40% of the vegetation season has a significant negative effect on the emergence of most taxa and that only a few taxa occurring in the temporary wetlands are actually favoured by a flood regime with recurrent and unpredictable floods.

  14. Laboratory Scale Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon – Polluted Mangrove Swamps in the Niger Delta Using Cow Dung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dike, E. N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of the study was to carry-out laboratory–scale bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted mangrove swamps using cow dung as source of limiting of nutrients.Methodology and Results: In a 70 days study, the cow dung treated polluted soil had its total culturable hydrocarbon utilising bacterial/fungi, heterotrophic bacterial and fungal counts increased progressively from the 28th day to the 70th day. The control set- up showed very slight increment in its microbial growth. Alkaline pH was observed in all the treatments and control during the study period. The conductivity values of cow dung decreased progressively. In the cow dung treatment option, the nitrate concentration decreased from 35.44 mg/kg to 14.28 mg/kg. Phosphate concentration of cow dung option decreased from 25.41 mg/kg to 9.31mg/kg. The control had the nitrate decreased from 8.42 mg/kg to 6.98 mg/kg. Percentage total organic carbon (% TOC in the cow dung option decreased from 4.06% to 0.96%. Control experiment had the % TOC decreased from 3.32% to 2.99%. Studies using Gas chromatographic analyses showed that 0%, 49.88%, and 69.85% of Total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH were lost at zero hour, 28th day and 70th day respectively in the cow dung option. In addition, in the control experimental set-up, 0%, 7.14% and 13.42% of TPH were lost at zero hour, 28th day and 70th day respectively.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The use of organic nutrient sources such as cow dung has shown good promises in bioremediation of crude oil impacted Mangrove Swamps in the Niger Delta. The next line of action is to transfer the technology to pilot scale study.

  15. On the relative roles of hydrology, salinity, temperature, and root productivity in controlling soil respiration from coastal swamps (freshwater)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Ken W.; Whitbeck, Julie L.; Howard, Rebecca J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Soil CO2 emissions can dominate gaseous carbon losses from forested wetlands (swamps), especially those positioned in coastal environments. Understanding the varied roles of hydroperiod, salinity, temperature, and root productivity on soil respiration is important in discerning how carbon balances may shift as freshwater swamps retreat inland with sea-level rise and salinity incursion, and convert to mixed communities with marsh plants. Methods We exposed soil mesocosms to combinations of permanent flooding, tide, and salinity, and tracked soil respiration over 2 1/2 growing seasons. We also related these measurements to rates from field sites along the lower Savannah River, Georgia, USA. Soil temperature and root productivity were assessed simultaneously for both experiments. Results Soil respiration from mesocosms (22.7-1678.2 mg CO2 m-2 h-1) differed significantly among treatments during four of the seven sampling intervals, where permanently flooded treatments contributed to low rates of soil respiration and tidally flooded treatments sometimes contributed to higher rates. Permanent flooding reduced the overall capacity for soil respiration as soils warmed. Salinity did reduce soil respiration at times in tidal treatments, indicating that salinity may affect the amount of CO2 respired with tide more strongly than under permanent flooding. However, soil respiration related greatest to root biomass (mesocosm) and standing root length (field); any stress reducing root productivity (incl. salinity and permanent flooding) therefore reduces soil respiration. Conclusions Overall, we hypothesized a stronger, direct role for salinity on soil respiration, and found that salinity effects were being masked by varied capacities for increases in respiration with soil warming as dictated by hydrology, and the indirect influence that salinity can have on plant productivity.

  16. Calculation method for determination of carbon in the peatand moss litter of forest swamps by ash content of plant substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. T. Efremova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out in the lowmountain part of the Kuznetsk Alatau. The spruce stands were studied in the peaty valley of river Tunguzhul and swamp near Agaskyr Lake (valley of river Pechische, basin of river Black Iyus. The objects belong to the group of high ash content flood plain peat lands of cryogenicseries. We have done the evaluation of organic carbon response to physical-chemical properties – decomposition degree, ash content, and bulk density, connected together (r – 0.5–0.7, that in contrast to carbon, is easy determined analytically. Received results according to stepwise regression analysis characterize the strong conditionality predictors of carbon: multiple determination index R2 – 0.86. The highest partial correlation coefficient with the response belongs to the ash content in range (5–68 %. Partial correlation coefficient values of bulk density and decomposition degree is not significant. The determination index (R2 – 0.93, constant and negative coefficient of pair regression analysis are highly significant and evidence of the strong bond of carbon and organic substrate ash content. The relative error of approximation is in the range of 2–8 % and characterizes the high accuracy of prognosis. Including only one indicator (ash content in the calculation formula makes it convenient and simple in practical application for the carbon content prediction on the forest litter, modern peat soils, buried peat and peat-mineral formations with ash content of 5–68 %. We are the first to present the geochemical characteristics of forest swamps peat mine for the KuznetskAlatau intermountain basins.

  17. Next generation red teaming

    CERN Document Server

    Dalziel, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Red Teaming is can be described as a type of wargaming.In private business, penetration testers audit and test organization security, often in a secretive setting. The entire point of the Red Team is to see how weak or otherwise the organization's security posture is. This course is particularly suited to CISO's and CTO's that need to learn how to build a successful Red Team, as well as budding cyber security professionals who would like to learn more about the world of information security. Teaches readers how to dentify systemic security issues based on the analysis of vulnerability and con

  18. An invaded invader: high prevalence of entocytherid ostracods on the red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii (Girard, 1852) in the Eastern Iberian Peninsula

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aguilar-Alberola, J. A.; Mesquita-Joanes, F.; López, S.; Mestre, A.; Casanova, J. C.; Rueda, J.; Ribas, Alexis

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 688, č. 1 (2012), s. 63-73 ISSN 0018-8158 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Ostracoda * Commensalism * Alien species * Biological invasion Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.985, year: 2012

  19. Residue analysis of sixty pesticides in red swamp crayfish using QuEChERS with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, a multi-residue analytical method using QuEChERS extraction and dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) cleanup followed by high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was developed for rapid determination of 60 pesticide residues in whole crayfish a...

  20. Astrophysics of Red Supergiants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Emily M.

    2017-12-01

    'Astrophysics of Red Supergiants' is the first book of its kind devoted to our current knowledge of red supergiant stars, a key evolutionary phase that is critical to our larger understanding of massive stars. It provides a comprehensive overview of the fundamental physical properties of red supergiants, their evolution, and their extragalactic and cosmological applications. It serves as a reference for researchers from a broad range of fields (including stellar astrophysics, supernovae, and high-redshift galaxies) who are interested in red supergiants as extreme stages of stellar evolution, dust producers, supernova progenitors, extragalactic metallicity indicators, members of massive binaries and mergers, or simply as compelling objects in their own right. The book is accessible to a range of experience levels, from graduate students up to senior researchers.

  1. red flour beetle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... 2Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. 3Department of ... most important energy source around the globe ... T. castaneum (red flour beetle) samples were collected from rice.

  2. RED-ML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, Heng; Liu, Dongbing; Li, Qiye

    2017-01-01

    using diverse RNA-seq datasets, we have developed a software tool, RED-ML: RNA Editing Detection based on Machine learning (pronounced as "red ML"). The input to RED-ML can be as simple as a single BAM file, while it can also take advantage of matched genomic variant information when available...... accurately detect novel RNA editing sites without relying on curated RNA editing databases. We have also made this tool freely available via GitHub . We have developed a highly accurate, speedy and general-purpose tool for RNA editing detection using RNA-seq data....... With the availability of RED-ML, it is now possible to conveniently make RNA editing a routine analysis of RNA-seq. We believe this can greatly benefit the RNA editing research community and has profound impact to accelerate our understanding of this intriguing posttranscriptional modification process....

  3. Effect of redox conditions on bacterial and fungal biomass and carbon dioxide production in Louisiana coastal swamp forest sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Dong Cheol; DeLaune, Ronald D.

    2010-01-01

    Fungal and bacterial carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) production/emission was determined under a range of redox conditions in sediment from a Louisiana swamp forest used for wastewater treatment. Sediment was incubated in microcosms at 6 Eh levels (-200, -100, 0, + 100, + 250 and + 400 mV) covering the anaerobic range found in wetland soil and sediment. Carbon dioxide production was determined by the substrate-induced respiration (SIR) inhibition method. Cycloheximide (C 15 H 23 NO 4 ) was used as the fungal inhibitor and streptomycin (C 21 H 39 N 7 O 12 ) as the bacterial inhibitor. Under moderately reducing conditions (Eh > + 250 mV), fungi contributed more than bacteria to the CO 2 production. Under highly reducing conditions (Eh ≤ 0 mV), bacteria contributed more than fungi to the total CO 2 production. The fungi/bacteria (F/B) ratios varied between 0.71-1.16 for microbial biomass C, and 0.54-0.94 for microbial biomass N. Under moderately reducing conditions (Eh ≥ + 100 mV), the F/B ratios for microbial biomass C and N were higher than that for highly reducing conditions (Eh ≤ 0 mV). In moderately reducing conditions (Eh ≥ + 100 mV), the C/N microbial biomass ratio for fungi (C/N: 13.54-14.26) was slightly higher than for bacteria (C/N: 9.61-12.07). Under highly reducing redox conditions (Eh ≤ 0 mV), the C/N microbial biomass ratio for fungi (C/N: 10.79-12.41) was higher than for bacteria (C/N: 8.21-9.14). For bacteria and fungi, the C/N microbial biomass ratios under moderately reducing conditions were higher than that in highly reducing conditions. Fungal CO 2 production from swamp forest could be of greater ecological significance under moderately reducing sediment conditions contributing to the greenhouse effect (GHE) and the global warming potential (GWP). However, increases in coastal submergence associated with global sea level rise and resultant decrease in sediment redox potential from increased flooding would likely shift CO 2 production to bacteria

  4. Physiological and morphological responses to permanent and intermittent waterlogging in seedlings of four evergreen trees of temperate swamp forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga-Feest, Alejandra; Bustos-Salazar, Angela; Alves, Fernanda; Martinez, Vanessa; Smith-Ramírez, Cecilia

    2017-06-01

    Waterlogging decreases a plant's metabolism, stomatal conductance (gs) and photosynthetic rate (A); however, some evergreen species show acclimation to waterlogging. By studying both the physiological and morphological responses to waterlogging, the objective of this study was to assess the acclimation capacity of four swamp forest species that reside in different microhabitats. We proposed that species (Luma apiculata [D.C.] Burret. and Drimys winteri J.R. et G. Forster.) abundant in seasonally and intermittently waterlogged areas (SIWA) would have a higher acclimation capacity than species abundant in the inner swamp (Blepharocalyx cruckshanksii [H et A.] Mied. and Myrceugenia exsucca [D.C.] Berg.) where permanent waterlogging occurs (PWA); it was expected that the species from SIWA would maintain leaf expansion and gas exchange rates during intermittent waterlogging treatments. Conversely, we expected that PWA species would have higher constitutive waterlogging tolerance, and this would be reflected in the formation of lenticels and adventitious roots. Over the course of 2 months, we subjected seedlings to different waterlogging treatments: (i) permanent (sudden, SW), (ii) intermittent (gradual) or (iii) control (field capacity, C). Survival after waterlogging was high (≥80%) for all species and treatments, and only the growth rate of D. winteri subjected to SW was affected. Drimys winteri plants had low, but constant A and g during both waterlogging treatments. Conversely, L. apiculata had the highest A and g values, and g increased significantly during the first several days of waterlogging. In general, seedlings of all species subjected to waterlogging produced more adventitious roots and fully expanded leaves and had higher specific leaf area (SLA) and stomatal density (StD) than seedlings in the C treatment. From the results gathered here, we partially accept our hypothesis as all species showed high tolerance to waterlogging, maintained growth, and had

  5. Carbon Dioxide and Methane Flux Related to Forest Type and Managed and Unmanaged Conditions in the Great Dismal Swamp, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutenberg, L. W.; Krauss, K.; Qu, J. J.; Hogan, D. M.; Zhu, Z.; Xu, C.

    2017-12-01

    The Great Dismal Swamp in Virginia and North Carolina, USA, has been greatly impacted by human use and management for the last few hundred years through logging, ditching, and draining. Today, the once dominant cedar, cypress and pocosin forest types are fragmented due to logging and environmental change. Maple-gum forest has taken over more than half the remaining area of the swamp ecosystem, which is now a National Wildlife Refuge and State Park. The peat soils and biomass store a vast quantity of carbon compared with the size of the refuge, but this store is threatened by fire and drying. This study looks at three of the main forest types in the GDS— maple-sweet gum, tall pine pocosin, and Atlantic white cedar— in terms of their carbon dioxide and methane soil flux. Using static chambers to sample soil gas flux in locally representative sites, we found that cedar sites showed a higher carbon dioxide flux rate as the soil temperature increased than maple sites, and the rate of carbon dioxide flux decreased as soil moisture increased faster in cedar sites than in maple sites. Methane flux increased as temperature increased for pocosin, but decreased with temperature for cedar and maple. All of the methane fluxes increased as soil moisture increased. Cedar average carbon dioxide flux was statistically significantly different from both maple and pocosin. These results show that soil carbon gas flux depends on soil moisture and temperature, which are factors that are changing due to human actions, as well as on forest type, which is also the result of human activity. Some of these variables may be adjustable by the managers of the land. Variables other than forest type, temperature and soil moisture/inundation may also play a role in influencing soil flux, such as stand age, tree height, composition of the peat and nutrient availability, and source of moisture as some sites are more influenced by groundwater from ditches and some more by rainfall depending on the

  6. Comparative palynomorph signals of vegetation change preserved in an adjacent peat swamp and estuary in north-west Nelson, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armour, R.K.; Kennedy, D.M.

    2005-01-01

    A history of vegetation for the mid-late Holocene was extracted from the southern margins of Whanganui Inlet and Mangarakau Swamp. These two sites represent very different pollen sinks with the estuary being dominated by fluvially transported material and the swamp by in situ pollen rain. They are, however, located very close to each other and therefore provide a unique study area to investigate how differing source environments affect pollen signals. A vegetation change from podocarps to beech forest is recorded in both settings at around 4000 years CalBP which is similar to that recorded at higher altitudes in the region. Robust palynomorphs were found in greater abundance in the inlet while the swamp contained a higher proportion of wetland species. Despite these differences both environments appeared to record a similar regional vegetation signal. This shows that estuarine environments, often characterised by material that has been transported, can provide accurate reconstructions of vegetation change. (author). 31 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  7. Effect of different concentration of fish oil in skim milk-egg yolk extenders on post- thawed semen qualities of Kalang swamp buffalo bull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Malik

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effect of fish oil at different concentrations on post-thawed semen of Kalang swamp buffalo. Methods: A total of 4 Kalang swamp buffalo bulls with 3-5 years of age and weighed about 340-360 kg were slected. Semen was regularly collected from these buffalo bulls once a week by an artificial vagina. Fish oil was supplementary at the dosages of 0 mg (control, 50 mg, 100 mg, 150 mg, and 200 mg to the extender (skim milk-egg yolk. Fresh, pre-freezing and frozen semen were thawed at 37 °C and evaluated for motility, viability, morphology, and plasma integrity of membrane. Results: The study results indicated that before freezing, supplementation of fish oil at the dose of 150 mg in the extender had significantly motility. And a significant (P<0.05 increase was observed in viability and motility of post-thawed semen at the dose of 150 mg fish oil, which was in difference with other treatment groups. Conclusions: Addition of 150 mg fish oil in the extender could be positive for the enhancement of the quality of post-thawed semen of Kalang swamp buffaloes.

  8. Effect of Carbohydrate Source and Cottonseed Meal Level in the Concentrate on Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Swamp Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wanapat

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of carbohydrate source and cottonseed meal level in the concentrate on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in swamp buffaloes. Four, 4-yr old rumen fistulated swamp buffaloes were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. Factor A was carbohydrate source; cassava chip (CC and CC+rice bran at a ratio 3:1 (CR3:1, and factor B was level of cottonseed meal (CM; 109 g CP/kg (LCM and 328 g CP/kg (HCM in isonitrogenous diets (490 g CP/kg. Buffaloes received urea-treated rice straw ad libitum and supplemented with 5 g concentrate/kg BW. It was found that carbohydrate source did not affect feed intake, nutrient intake, digested nutrients, nutrient digestibility, ammonia nitrogen concentration, fungi and bacterial populations, or microbial protein synthesis (p>0.05. Ruminal pH at 6 h after feeding and the population of protozoa at 4 h after feeding were higher when buffalo were fed with CC than in the CR3:1 treatment (p0.05. Based on this experiment, concentrate with a low level of cottonseed meal could be fed with cassava chips as an energy source in swamp buffalo receiving rice straw.

  9. Acid base status in swamp buffaloes (Bubalus Bubalis fed rice straw and concentrate with addition of sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Joseph

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the addition of NaHCO3 and Na2CO3 on acid-base status in swamp buffaloes, Three fistulated buffaloes were each introduced to dietary treatment control diett (50% rice straw + 50% concentrate, control + \\0% NaHCO3 and diet control + 10% Na2CO3 in two times Latin Square Design. The diets contained 9,7% crude protein and 53% TDN to achieve maintenance requirements of the animals. Parameters measured include (l Fed consumption, water consumption and urine volume. (2 pH in rumen fluid, saliva, bLood and urine, (3 natrium mineral content in rumen fluid, saliva, blood and urine. The results of the experiment showed higher pH in the rumen fluid, saliva, blood and urine of buffaloes due to supplementation of NaHCO3 and Na2CO3, Water consumption and urine volume was significanly increased as the effect of Na supplement. The acid-base status of buffaloes was apparently normal in all animals.

  10. Effects of waste drilling fluid on bacterial isolates from a mangrove swamp oilfield location in the Niger delta of Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benka-Coker, M.O.; Olumagin, A.

    1996-01-01

    Four bacteria strains isolated from a mangrove swamp oilfield location in the Niger Delta of Nigeria were cultured aerobically in the presence of 1.0% waste drilling fluid, to determine the effect of the waste on their growth. A 2-h lag phase of growth was produced by the waste in cultures of Micrococcus and Pseudomonas species, while the waste increased the lag phases of Alcaligenes and Staphylococcus species to 4 h. The exponential phase of growth of Pseudomonas sp. was depressed by the waste drilling fluid but fluid stimulated the exponential phases of Micrococcus and Alcaligenes spp. There was enhancement of the growth rate of Alcaligenes and Micrococcus spp. while those of Staphylococcus and Pseudonomas spp. were decreased. The depressed growth rates of Staphylococcus and Pseudonomas spp. in the presence of the waste drilling fluid might lead to a decrease in their contribution to the removal of the waste from the environment during spillage or disposal and, therefore, may result in an accumulation of the waste in the environment. (author)

  11. Evaluation of solid residues removed from a mangrove swamp in the São Vicente Estuary, SP, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, C A M M; Costa, T M

    2010-10-01

    Mangrove swamps are found in estuaries along the coastal plains of tropical regions and have be subjected to heavy occupation and use pressure due to their privileged locations and abundance of biological resources. The present work evaluated the ecological characteristics and solid wastes accumulated in eight areas along the Santos - São Vicente Estuary Complex. The superficially deposited residues at each sampling site were collected and subsequently washed, drained, counted, weighed and separated into classes according to their composition and predominant use. The predominant litter type in terms of density was plastic (62.81%) and, by weight, wood (55.53%). The greatest deposition of residues was associated with areas that were less inclined and that had low plant density levels, indicating that the presence of obstacles was not critical for retaining floating residues in mangrove areas. The presence of the most frequently encountered types of solid waste residues could be explained by local activities. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of Lunar Phases, Tides, and Wind Speed on the Abundance of Diptera Calliphoridae in a Mangrove Swamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista-da-Silva, J A

    2014-02-01

    Abiotic factors, such as lunar phases and tides, have a significant effect on insect development. Reproduction and immature development are usually interlinked to these abiotic factors. The tide is at its highest levels at full moon or new moon, hindering the feeding of the immature or causing their drowning. The oviposition by adult females is also compromised on these days because much of the available food is submerged. Another important abiotic factor is the wind, which displaces odoriferous particles in the air. Wind speed and direction are important elements to indicate potential sources of food for insects. I report on the effects of lunar phases, tides, and wind speed on the Calliphoridae fauna in mangrove swamps. The different species collected were identified, and the predominant species in the area were quantified. A total of 1,710 flies were collected over a 1-year period. Six Calliphoridae flies, Chloroprocta idioidea (Robineau-Desvoidy), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann), Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann), Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius), and Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann) were collected. Data indicated that lunar phases have a significant effect on the abundance of C. albiceps (r = 0.39, p tides also affected the abundance of C. putoria (r = 0.40, p < 0.00), C. macellaria (r = 0.41, p < 0.00), and C. idioidea (r = 0.31, p < 0.04). The wind speed, however, did not affect these species.

  13. Effects of waste drilling fluid on bacterial isolates from a mangrove swamp oilfield location in the Niger delta of Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benka-Coker, M.O.; Olumagin, A. [Benin Univ. (Nigeria). Dept. of Microbiology

    1996-03-01

    Four bacteria strains isolated from a mangrove swamp oilfield location in the Niger Delta of Nigeria were cultured aerobically in the presence of 1.0% waste drilling fluid, to determine the effect of the waste on their growth. A 2-h lag phase of growth was produced by the waste in cultures of Micrococcus and Pseudomonas species, while the waste increased the lag phases of Alcaligenes and Staphylococcus species to 4 h. The exponential phase of growth of Pseudomonas sp. was depressed by the waste drilling fluid but fluid stimulated the exponential phases of Micrococcus and Alcaligenes spp. There was enhancement of the growth rate of Alcaligenes and Micrococcus spp. while those of Staphylococcus and Pseudonomas spp. were decreased. The depressed growth rates of Staphylococcus and Pseudonomas spp. in the presence of the waste drilling fluid might lead to a decrease in their contribution to the removal of the waste from the environment during spillage or disposal and, therefore, may result in an accumulation of the waste in the environment. (author)

  14. Vegetation change in the coastal-lowland rainforest at Avai'o'vuna Swamp, Vava'u, Kingdom of Tonga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Patricia L.

    2005-11-01

    Avai'o'vuna Swamp, a small coastal wetland in Vava'u, Kingdom of Tonga, produced a 4500-year pollen and sediment record. Results are: (1) a mid-Holocene sea level highstand is confirmed for Tonga between about 4500 and 2600 14C yr B.P.; marine clay contains pollen from mangroves ( Rhizophora mangle), coastal forest trees ( Barringtonia asiatica and Cocos nucifera), and rainforest trees ( Alphitonia, Rhus, Hedycarya and Calophyllum). (2) Microscopic charcoal first appeared at 2600 14C yr B.P., coincident with the arrival of Polynesians. (3) Cocos, Pandanus, Excoecaria, Macaranga, and Elaeocarpaceae pollen reflects the establishment of a mixed coastal-lowland rainforest in the last 2500 years. (4) The loss of Hedycarya, Elaeocarpus, Calophyllum, and Guettarda and the reduction of Terminalia and taxa in the Papilionaceae family by about 1000 years ago may be due to habitat destruction and the loss of dispersal capabilities of some species through the extinction of the two largest pigeons in Tonga.

  15. Benefits of the fire mitigation ecosystem service in the Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge, Virginia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthum, Bryan M.; Pindilli, Emily J.; Hogan, Dianna

    2017-01-01

     The Great Dismal Swamp (GDS) National Wildlife Refuge delivers multiple ecosystem services, including air quality and human health via fire mitigation. Our analysis estimates benefits of this service through its potential to reduce catastrophic wildfire related impacts on the health of nearby human populations. We used a combination of high-frequency satellite data, ground sensors, and air quality indices to determine periods of public exposure to dense emissions from a wildfire within the GDS. We examined emergency department (ED) visitation in seven Virginia counties during these periods, applied measures of cumulative Relative Risk to derive the effects of wildfire smoke exposure on ED visitation rates, and estimated economic losses using regional Cost of Illness values established within the US Environmental Protection Agency BenMAP framework. Our results estimated the value of one avoided catastrophic wildfire in the refuge to be \\$3.69 million (2015 USD), or \\$306 per hectare of burn. Reducing the frequency or severity of extensive, deep burning peatland wildfire events has additional benefits not included in this estimate, including avoided costs related to fire suppression during a burn, carbon dioxide emissions, impacts to wildlife, and negative outcomes associated with recreation and regional tourism. We suggest the societal value of the public health benefits alone provides a significant incentive for refuge mangers to implement strategies that will reduce the severity of catastrophic wildfires.

  16. The Effect of Seed Soaking with Rhizobacteria Pseudomonas alcaligenes on the Growth of Swamp Cabbage (Ipomoea reptans Poir)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widnyana, I. K.; Ngga, M.; Sapanca, P. L. Y.

    2018-01-01

    The research was conducted to determine the effect of seed soaking with suspense of P. alcaligenes isolate KtSl, TrN2, and TmAl to the growth of swamp cabbage. The research has been initially developed on tomatoes. In this research, Randomized Block Design was chosen as its model while the data analysis was performed by using SPSS v.17 for Windows. Three types of treatment were administered towards P. alcaligenes, namely isolating, soaking, and growing the medium. Some observed parameters were germination and growth. The results showed that seed soaking treatments with suspense P. alcaligenes fostered the germination 25% faster, enhanced the crop up to 24.4%, increased the number of leaves up until 23.15%, lengthen stems to 25%, lengthen the roots up to 46.90%, and increase the fresh weight of stems up until 67.07% and oven-dry weight of stem up to 84.21% compared to the control treatment. The best response of treatment for germination speed was soaking seeds with P. alcaligenes TrN2 for 20 minutes on both NB (Natrium Broth) and PDB (Potato Dextrose Broth) media.

  17. A Late Quaternary palynological and sedimentological record from two coastal swamps at southern Kaitoke, Great Barrier Island, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horrocks, M.; Ogden, J.; Nichol, S.L.; Alloway, B.V.; Sutton, D.G.

    2000-01-01

    Pollen and sediment analyses of two cores from southern Kaitoke (Forsythes' Paddock and Blackwells' Bush), Great Barrier Island, show that at c. 7500 cal. yr BP, the area was an estuary with tidal flats and Avicennia. By c. 3000 cal. yr BP, a Restionaceae (Leptocarpus) salt marsh had developed in the estuary as marine influences lessened. By c. cal. 2550 yr BP, fresh water swamp (Cyperacceae-Gleichenia-Leptspermum) had replaced the salt marsh. Conifer-hardwood forest surrounding the southern Kaitoke sites from c. 7500-c. 2800 cal. yr BP was dominated by Daceydium, Metrosideros and Libocedrus. After c. 2800 cal. yr BP Metrosideros was replaced by Agathis, Phyllocladus and Prumnopitys taxifolia, suggesting climatic change to more variable conditions. The presence of the Kaharoa Tephra suggests that major Polynesian deforestation at southern Kaitoke began c. 600 cal. yr BP Minor pre-Kaharoa fire disturbance is evident c. 1750 cal. yr BP and c. 1290-970 cal. yr BP (author). 52 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Reproductive status and synchronization of oestrus for predetermined insemination of Philippine carabaos (swamp buffalo) raised by smallholder farmers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momongan, V.G.; Palad, O.A.; Singh, M.; Sarabia, A.S.; Chiong, R.D.; Nava, Z.M.; Obsioma, A.R.; Del Barrio, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    There is an urgent need to improve size, and meat and milk productivity of the Philippine carabao, a swamp type of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), through crossbreeding with the riverine type. Studies were conducted to assess the reproductive status of carabaos raised by smallholder farmers, determine conception rates of buffaloes to artificial insemination (AI) through oestrus synchronization, and examine the patterns of plasma progesterone in cyclic and acyclic carabao heifers. Approximately 20% of carabaos raised by smallholder farmers were diagnosed pregnant by rectal palpation. This low pregnancy rate may be due to a combination of factors such as the failure to submit for examination carabaos exhibiting external signs of pregnancy, the deliberate postponement of breeding for working females, the inability of bulls to gain access to carabaos in oestrus which are tethered at night, or the high incidence of anoestrus or suboestrus. The reproductive problems in non-pregnant animals were cystic (19.5%), infantile (25.7%), and dormant ovaries (51.3%), and pathology of the uterus and cervix (3.5%). Both feeding and management practices in different locations influenced the nutritional status of female carabaos examined. Animals in good body condition were either cycling or pregnant. A 30-40% conception rate was achieved by synchronization of oestrus and insemination with frozen semen at 72 and 96 h later. Based on progesterone radioimmunoassay and rectal palpation of the ovaries, anoestrus in carabao heifers was due either to a failure of cycling animals to exhibit oestrus or those with inactive ovaries. (author)

  19. Clover, Red (Trifolium pretense)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic modification of plants by the insertion of transgenes can be a powerful experimental approach to answer basic questions about gene product function. This technology can also be used to make improved crop varieties for use in the field. To apply this powerful tool to red clover, an important ...

  20. Skin quality in red potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attractive appearance is a highly desirable characteristic of fresh market red-skinned potatoes. The ideal red potato has a rich, uniform, deep red color. Color fading, netting, browning, and discoloration caused by skinning and disease decrease marketability and may reduce profits to growers and pa...

  1. Red alder potential in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen Brackley; David Nicholls; Mike Hannan

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several decades, red alder has established itself as a commercially important species in the Pacific Northwest. Once considered a weed species, red alder now commands respect within many markets, including furniture, architectural millwork, and other secondary manufactured products. Although red alder's natural range extends to southeast Alaska, an...

  2. Red giants seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosser, B.; Samadi, R.; Belkacem, K.

    2013-11-01

    The space-borne missions CoRoT and Kepler are indiscreet. With their asteroseismic programs, they tell us what is hidden deep inside the stars. Waves excited just below the stellar surface travel throughout the stellar interior and unveil many secrets: how old is the star, how big, how massive, how fast (or slow) its core is dancing. This paper intends to paparazze the red giants according to the seismic pictures we have from their interiors.

  3. Multiplicar la red

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Young

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La tecnología comunicacional nos ha conducido precipitadamente a una existencia completamente nueva. En la carrera por crear una sociedad sustentable, una "red de redes mundiales" de computadoras personales que puedan ofrecer la primera esperanza real de acelerar ampliamente las comunicaciones. Las redes computacionales no solo sirven como un sistema de comunicación interactivo, rápido sino también como una herramienta de investigación de poderes insospechados.

  4. Indigenous Knowledge of Dayaks Bakumpai in Barito Kuala District on the Management of Plant Diversity Growing at Streams and Swamps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darmono Darmono

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Research aimed at describing profile of indigenous knowldge owned by the Dayaks Bakumpai in Batola district on managing the diversity of herbs growing at the river flow and swamp. Data on herb used by the tribe were grouped based on the etnobotanic study, covering study botany, etnofarmacology, etnoantrophology, etnolinguistik and etnoekologi. We also observed how the Dayaks Bakumpai in Batola district preserve the diversity of plant in around them, and how their efforts in bequeathing or teaching the traditional knowledge of an old breed generation to his young daam in managing diversity of herbs around them.  The study was carried out at three vellages, namely Simpang Arja, Pengulu and Ulu Benteng. The results showed that 52 plant species living along the river and 67 species that live in the marsh. Based on the interview we found that (1 the profile of indigenous knowldge dayaks bakumpai district batola in making use of the diversity of plant in surrounding shown through etno-linguistic, etno-economy, etno-anthropology, etno-farmacology and etno-ecology against 44 tufted herbs of 67 of herbs found, (2 Dayaks Bakumpai in Batola district, to preserve the diversity of plant surrounding them, have done without planting, but by making use of herbs without a certain rule, making use of herbs by a certain rule, making use of herbs let plant grown in nature, and destroy plants that exist or cultivated, and (3 efforts for the inheriting the indigenous knowldge to its young generation have been done by women and quite alarming that many young ages of Dayaks Bakumpai do not know the name of herbs around them.

  5. Gene cloning and induced expression pattern of IRF4 and IRF10 in the Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    XU, Qiao-Qing; YANG, Dai-Qin; TUO, Rui; WAN, Jing; CHANG, Ming-Xian; NIE, Pin

    2014-01-01

    The Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus) is one of the most economically important freshwater fish in East Asia, but data on the immune genes of M. albus are scarce compared to other commercially important fish. A better understanding of the eel’s immune responses may help in developing strategies for disease management, potentially improving yields and mitigating losses. In mammals, interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) play a vital role in both the innate and adaptive immune system; though among teleosts IRF4 and IRF10 have seldom been studied. In this study, we characterized IRF4 and IRF10 from M. albus (maIRF4 and maIRF10) and found that maIRF4 cDNA consists of 1 716 nucleotides encoding a 451 amino acid (aa) protein, while maIRF10 consists of 1 744 nucleotides including an open reading frame (ORF) of 1 236 nt encoding 411 aa. The maIRF10 gene was constitutively expressed at high levels in a variety of tissues, while maIRF4 showed a very limited expression pattern. Expression of maIRF4 and maIRF10 in head kidney, and spleen tissues was significantly up-regulated from 12 h to 48 h post-stimulation with polyinosinic: polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and a common pathogenic bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila. These results suggest that IRF4 and IRF10 play roles in immune responses to both viral and bacterial infections in M. albus. PMID:25297077

  6. Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers Application on NPK Uptake and Production of Sweet Corn in Inceptisol Soil of Lowland Swamp Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlina Neni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study objective was to determine the dose of organic and inorganic fertilizers which can increase N, P and K nutrients uptake as well as the growth and yield of sweet corn on inceptisol soil of lowland swamp. Inceptisol soil has low soil fertility and relatively low to moderate levels of organic matter content. Application of organic fertilizer on inceptisol soil of lowland swampis expected capable to increase N, P and K nutrients as well as yield of sweet corn. This research was conducted from April to July 2014 at Experimental Farm Area of Pulau Semambu Village, Indralaya Utara Subdistrict, Ogan Ilir District, South Sumatra Province. The method used in this research was randomized block design consisting treatments as follows: 75% inorganic fertilizer + 5 ton.ha−1organic fertilizer, 50% inorganic fertilizer + 5 ton.ha−1organic fertilizer, 25% inorganic fertilizer + 5 ton.ha−1 organic fertilizer, 0% inorganic fertilizer + 5 ton.ha−1organic fertilizer with six replications. The recommended dose of inorganic fertilizerswas 200 kg.ha−1 urea, 100 kg.ha−1 SP-36 and 100 kg. ha−1 KCl. The results showed that treatment of 75% of inorganic fertilizer + 5 ton.ha−1organic fertilizer had produced N, P and K nutrients uptake with magnitude of 1.850, 0.418 and 2.374 g.plant−1 respectively as well as good growth and yield of sweet corn with magnitude of 356.36 g. plant−1or 15.21 ton ha−1.

  7. Effects of Supplementation of Eucalyptus ( Leaf Meal on Feed Intake and Rumen Fermentation Efficiency in Swamp Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. T. Thao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Four rumen fistulated swamp buffaloes were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design to investigate the effects of Eucalyptus (E. Camaldulensis leaf meal (ELM supplementation as a rumen enhancer on feed intake and rumen fermentation characteristics. The dietary treatments were as follows: T1 = 0 g ELM/hd/d; T2 = 40 g ELM/hd/d; T3 = 80 g ELM/hd/d; T4 = 120 g ELM/hd/d, respectively. Experimental animals were kept in individual pens and concentrate was offered at 0.3% BW while rice straw was fed ad libitum. The results revealed that voluntary feed intake and digestion coefficients of nutrients were similar among treatments. Ruminal pH, temperature and blood urea nitrogen concentrations were not affected by ELM supplementation; however, ELM supplementation resulted in lower concentration of ruminal ammonia nitrogen. Total volatile fatty acids, propionate concentration increased with the increasing level of EML (p<0.05 while the proportion of acetate was decreased (p<0.05. Methane production was linearly decreased (p<0.05 with the increasing level of ELM supplementation. Protozoa count and proteolytic bacteria population were reduced (p<0.05 while fungal zoospores and total viable bacteria, amylolytic, cellulolytic bacteria were unchanged. In addition, nitrogen utilization and microbial protein synthesis tended to increase by the dietary treatments. Based on the present findings, it is suggested that ELM could modify the rumen fermentation and is potentially used as a rumen enhancer in methane mitigation and rumen fermentation efficiency.

  8. Concentrations, loads and yields of organic carbon from two tropical peat swamp forest streams in Riau Province, Sumatra, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Yupi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tropical peat swamp forest (PSF stores large quantities of carbon. To estimate how much organic C is released from this type of landscape we determined organic carbon (C concentrations, loads and yields in two contrasting watercourses draining from PSF in Riau Province, Sumatra (Indonesia. Meranti Ditch (MD is an artificial watercourse whose small catchment (estimated area 4.8 km2 is in semi-intact condition, whereas Turip River (TR has a large natural catchment (estimated area 458 km2 covered with fairly intact PSF where > 75 % of the original canopy trees remain. The organic C load (Gg C yr-1 of each watercourse was calculated by combining TOC concentration with water discharge rate to give organic C yield (g C m-2 yr-1. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC was the dominant (95.0–99.8 % component of total organic carbon (TOC in the water. TOC concentration was 85–94 mg C L-1 in MD and 50–58 mg C L-1 in TR. The high concentration in MD was not surprising because this catchment had been disturbed by repeated phases of logging and a dense network of ditches was excavated ten years ago. The TOC loads were 0.23 Gg C yr-1 in MD and 14.0 Gg C yr-1 in TR. TOC yields (i.e. TOC fluxes through the fluvial system were 41.6–55.5 g C m-2 yr-1 in MD and 26.2–34.9 g C m-2 yr-1 in TR.

  9. How does conversion from peat swamp forest to oil palm plantation affect emissions of nitrous oxide from the soil? A case study in Jambi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartill, Jodie; Hergoualc'h, Kristell; Comeau, Louis-Pierre; Jo, Smith; Lou, Verchot

    2017-04-01

    Half of the peatlands across Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo and Sumatra are 'managed'. Conversion of peat swamp forest to workable oil palm plantation requires a drastic, potentially irreversible, change to the landscape, to which fertilizers are then routinely applied. A combination of these factors is now widely thought to increase soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, although there is high uncertainty due to gaps in the knowledge, both regionally and nationally. Despite the widespread use of fertilizers in plantations on peats, studies observing their effects remain very limited. Therefore, there is a need for in situ studies to evaluate how environmental parameters (edaphic properties, climate, soil moisture and N availability indicators) influence soil emissions. This 18 month study was located in plots local to each other, representing the start, intermediate and end of the land conversion process; namely mixed peat swamp forest, drained and logged forest and industrial oil palm plantation. Spatial variability was taken into account by differentiating the hollows and hummocks in the mixed peat swamp forest, and the fertilized zone and the zone without fertilizer addition in the oil palm plantation. Gas samples were collected each month from static chambers at the same time as key environmental parameters were measured. Intensive sampling was performed during a 35 day period following two fertilizer applications, in which urea was applied to palms at rates of 0.5 and 1 kg urea palm-1. Soil N2O emissions (kg N ha-1 y-1 ± SE) were low overall, but they were greater in the oil palm plantation (0.8 ± 0.1) than in the mixed peat swamp forest (0.3 ± 0.0) and the drained/logged forest (0.2 ± 0.0). In the mixed peat swamp forest, monthly average fluxes of N2O (g N ha-1 d-1 ± SE) were similar in the hollows (0.6 ± 0.2) and the hummocks (0.3 ± 0.1), whereas in the oil palm plantation they were consistently higher in the zone without fertilizer (2.5 ± 0.4) than in

  10. EFFECT OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL COLONIZATION ON EARLY GROWTH AND NUTRIENT CONTENT OF TWO PEAT­ SWAMP FOREST TREE SPECIES SEEDLINGS, Calophyllum hosei AND Ploiarium alternifolium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maman Turjaman

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Tropical peat-swamp forests are one of  the largest near-surface reserves of terrestrial organic carbon,  but rnany peat-swamp forest tree species decreased due over-exploitation, forest fire and conversion of natural forests into agricultural lands. Among those species are slow-growing Calophyllum  hoseiand Ploiarium  alternifolium, two species are good for construction of boats, furniture, house building and considerable attention from pharmacological viewpoint for human healthly. This study was aimed at understanding the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi on early growth of  C. hosei and P.alternifoliumunder greenhouse condition. Seedlings of C. hosei and P.alternifoliumwere inoculated with AM fungi: Glomus clarum and Glomus aggregatum ,or uninoculated under greenhouse condition during 6 months. AM colonization,   plant growth,  survival rate and  nutrient  content  (P, Zn  and B were measured. The percentage of C. hoseiand P.alternifolium ranged from 27-32% and 18-19%,  respectively. Both inoculated seedling species had greater plant  height, diameter, leaf number, shoot and root dry weight than control  seedlings.   Nutrient  content  of  inoculated  plants  were increased with AM colonization- Survival rates of  inoculated plants were higher (100%  than those of  control plants (67%. The results suggested that inoculation of AM fungi could improve the early growth of C. hoseiand P.alternifolium grown in tropical peat-swamp forest therefore  this finding has greater potential impact if this innovative technology applied in field scales which are socially acceptable, commercially profitable and environmentally friendly.

  11. DNA-based hair sampling to identify road crossings and estimate population size of black bears in Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge, Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Wills, Johnny

    2008-01-01

    The planned widening of U.S. Highway 17 along the east boundary of Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge (GDSNWR) and a lack of knowledge about the refugeâ s bear population created the need to identify potential sites for wildlife crossings and estimate the size of the refugeâ s bear population. I collected black bear hair in order to collect DNA samples to estimate population size, density, and sex ratio, and determine road crossing locations for black bears (Ursus americanus) in G...

  12. POTENCY OF RAMIN (Gonystylus bancanus Kurtz. AND OTHER COMMERCIAL SPECIES IN PEAT SWAMP FOREST MANAGED WITH TPTI SILVICULTURAL SYSTEM IN BAGAN, RIAU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendromono Hendromono

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Ramin  (Gonystylus bancanus Kurtz.  is one  of  the  tree  species in  peat-swamp  forest  that  is endangered due to excessive exploitation. The objective of this research was to assess the potency of rarnin and other commercial tree species in primary and logged over peat-swamp forests at Bagan, Riau. The tree stands were inventoried in primary forest of the 2004 and 2006 Annual Work Plan (RKTs and in  the  1997  and  2001  RKTs  managed  with  Indonesian  Selective Cutting  and  Planting  (TPTI silvicultural system.  The  result  showed  that  rarnin in  Bagan peat-swamp  forest  was not  evenly distributed. The total number of ramin  in tree stage in primary forests was fewer than that in  logged over forests.  The total number of ramin species at tree stage in primary forest was between 4.5  and 5 trees ha·' with the important value index (IVI of 10.3  to 12.0%,  whereas the one at logged over forest were between 2.5 and 15  trees ha·' with theM    indices of 7.9 to 20.4%.  Commercial species of swamp meranti (Shorea uliginosaand S. teysmaniana and balam/ suntai or (Palaqqiumspp. were dominant at tree stage both in the primary and the logged over forests. Enrichment in logged over forests is not needed since the total number of seedlings and saplings  is enough. The total number of potential core trees in logged over forests was enough for the next cutting cycle. The effort that must be done in logged over forests is to protect them from illegal logging.

  13. RedNemo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkan, Ferhat; Erten, Cesim

    2017-01-01

    is their erroneous nature; they contain false-positive interactions and usually many more false-negatives. Recently, several computational methods have been proposed for network reconstruction based on topology, where given an input PPI network the goal is to reconstruct the network by identifying false...... material including source code, useful scripts, experimental data and the results are available at http://webprs.khas.edu.tr/∼cesim/Red Nemo. tar.gz CONTACT: cesim@khas.edu.tr Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online....

  14. Deep Red (Profondo Rosso)

    CERN Multimedia

    Cine Club

    2015-01-01

    Wednesday 29 April 2015 at 20:00 CERN Council Chamber    Deep Red (Profondo Rosso) Directed by Dario Argento (Italy, 1975) 126 minutes A psychic who can read minds picks up the thoughts of a murderer in the audience and soon becomes a victim. An English pianist gets involved in solving the murders, but finds many of his avenues of inquiry cut off by new murders, and he begins to wonder how the murderer can track his movements so closely. Original version Italian; English subtitles

  15. Red DirCom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Costa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Catorce países congregados de manera activa, a través de una plataforma de encuentro donde se comparten conocimiento y experiencias en la gestión estratégica de la comunicación en las organizaciones. La red reconoce en el DirCom una figura clave del desarrollo corporativo en el nuevo contexto de los negocios, impulsa la exigencia ética a través de la formación y consolida la proyección profesional para posicionar la gestión integral del DirCom en Iberoamérica.

  16. Red - take a closer look.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa L Buechner

    Full Text Available Color research has shown that red is associated with avoidance of threat (e.g., failure or approach of reward (e.g., mating depending on the context in which it is perceived. In the present study we explored one central cognitive process that might be involved in the context dependency of red associations. According to our theory, red is supposed to highlight the relevance (importance of a goal-related stimulus and correspondingly intensifies the perceivers' attentional reaction to it. Angry and happy human compared to non-human facial expressions were used as goal-relevant stimuli. The data indicate that the color red leads to enhanced attentional engagement to angry and happy human facial expressions (compared to neutral ones - the use of non-human facial expressions does not bias attention. The results are discussed with regard to the idea that red induced attentional biases might explain the red-context effects on motivation.

  17. Listening to Red

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinazo Mtshemla

    Full Text Available Following a distinction John Mowitt draws between hearing (and phonics, and listening (and sonics, this article argues that the dominant notion of listening to sound was determined by the disciplinary framework of South African history and by the deployment of a cinematic documentary apparatus, both of which have served to disable the act of listening. The conditions of this hearing, and a deafness to a reduced or bracketed listening (Chion via Schaeffer that would enable us to think the post in post-apartheid differently, is thus at the centre of our concerns here. We stage a series of screenings of expected possible soundtracks for Simon Gush's film and installation Red, simultaneously tracking the ways that sound - and particularly music and dialogue - can be shown to hold a certain way of thinking both the political history of South Africa and the politics of South African history. We conclude by listening more closely to hiss and murmur in the soundtrack to Red and suggest this has major implications for considering ways of thinking and knowing.

  18. Red Teaming: Past and Present

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Longbine, David F

    2008-01-01

    .... Key aspects of the Army red teaming definition are its emphasis on independent thinking, challenging organizational thinking, incorporating alternative perspectives, and incorporating alternative analysis...

  19. Recent benthic foraminifera and sedimentary facies from mangrove swamps and channels of Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Flavia; Odeh, Weaam A. S. Al; Lokier, Stephen W.; Paul, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Zonation of Recent mangrove environments can be defined using benthic foraminifera, however, little is known about foraminifera from mangrove environments of the Arabian Gulf. The objective of this study is to produce a detailed micropaleontological and sedimentological analysis to identify foraminiferal associations in several coastline environments (mangrove swamps and channels) located on the eastern side of Abu Dhabi Island (UAE). Detailed sediment sampling collection in mangal environments of Eastern Abu Dhabi was carried out to assess the distribution of living and dead benthic foraminifera in different sedimentary facies in the mangal and in the surrounding area comprising natural environments of the upper and lower intertidal area (mud flats and channels) and areas modified by anthropogenic activities (dredged channels). The fine-grain sediments collected near mangrove (Avicenna marina) roots presented a high abundance of living and dead foraminifera tests. The assemblages in these samples show very low diversity and are almost entirely constituted of small-sized opportunistic species belonging to the genera Ammonia and Elphidium. In particular: • Samples collected on the mud flat and in ponds at the margin of the channel show a foraminiferal assemblage characterised by abundant foraminifera belonging to the genera Ammonia, Elphidium, Triloculina, Quinqueloculina, Peneroplis and Spirolina. • Samples collected in the lower (wet) intertidal area close to Avicenna marina roots, presented a low-diversity assemblage mostly comprising opportunistic foraminifera of the genera Ammonia and Elphidium along with rare miliolidae. • Samples from the upper intertidal area (dry) close to Avicenna marina roots, produced an assemblage exclusively composed of small-sized opportunistic Ammonia and Elphidium, together with abundant specimens belonging to the genera Trochammina. Throchammina specimens have not been previously recorded from Recent sedimentary samples of

  20. International red meat trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

    2003-07-01

    The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a

  1. IMPROVEMENT OF RICE GROWTH AND PRODUCTIVITY THROUGH BALANCE APPLICATION OF INORGANIC FERTILIZER AND BIOFERTILIZER IN INCEPTISOL SOIL OF LOWLAND SWAMP AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neni Marlina

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to obtain a proper balance dose between biofertilizer and inorganic fertilizer in order to increase the growth and yield of rice in Inceptisol soil of lowland swamp origin. Biofertilizer was made by enriching straw compost with N2 interceptor bacteria, phosphate solvent bacteria and growth stimulator bacteria isolated from swamp lowland in South Sumatra. This study was conducted from November 2012 to March 2013 in a greenhouse. The design used was completely randomized design (CRD factorial, with two treatment factors consisting of inorganic fertilizer (0,25, 50, 75 and 100% recommended dosage and biofertilizer (0, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 kg.ha-1. The results showed that the best treatment in term of plant height at 8 weeks after planting (WAP, the maximum number of tillers, number of productive tillers, number of grains per panicle and weight of milled dry rice were obtained in combination of 75% inorganic fertilizer and 300 - 400 kg.ha-1biofertilizer.

  2. A palynological study of Polynesian and European effects on vegetation in Coromandel, New Zealand, showing the variability between four records from a single swamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrami, M.; Ogden, J.; Horrocks, M.; Deng, Y.; Shane, P.; Palmer, J.

    2002-01-01

    Seven cores were extracted from a river terrace swamp in the forested Kauaeranga valley, Coromandel Peninsula, New Zealand. High-resolution (c. 36-73 yr interval) pollen records were obtained from four of the cores and aged by radiocarbon dating and with stratigraphic reference to the 665 ± 15 14 C yr BP Kaharoa Tephra. The records span the last c. 1800 yr and show that the vegetation consisted of lowland podocarp-hardwood forest before deforestation by burning occurred. The pattern of deforestation at Kauaeranga, indicated by the abrupt dominance of Pteridium with concurrent increased charcoal, is typical of pollen records associated with early Polynesian settlement in New Zealand. Peaks of Pteridium and charcoal were also found in sediments deposited after European settlement. Different cores show marked palynological and stratigraphic differences relative to the Kaharoa Tephra, most importantly with regard to the timing of deforestation. Deforestation occurred close to the Kaharoa, at a calculated age of c. 750 BP in one core but well above the Kaharoa (c. 480 BP) in another. The stratigraphic unconformities between cores are attributed to variable fluvial processes causing an uneven deposition of sediments within the swamp. (author). 32 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs

  3. Pulsating red variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitelock, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    The observational characteristics of pulsating red variables are reviewed with particular emphasis on the Miras. These variables represent the last stage in the evolution of stars on the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB). A large fraction of the IRAS sources in the Bulge are Mira variables and a subset of these are also OH/IR sources. Their periods range up to 720 days, though most are between 360 and 560 days. At a given period those stars with the highest pulsation amplitudes have the highest mass-loss rates; this is interpreted as evidence for a causal connection between mass-loss and pulsation. It is suggested that once an AGB star has become a Mira it will evolve with increasing pulsation amplitude and mass-loss, but with very little change of luminosity or logarithmic period. 26 refs

  4. Volume tables for red alder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd A. Johnson; R. M. Kallander; Paul G. Lauterbach

    1949-01-01

    The increasing importance of red alder as a commercial species in the Pacific Northwest has prompted the three agencies listed above to pool their tree measurement data for the construction of standard regional red alder volume tables. The tables included here were based on trees from a variety of sites and form classes. Approximately one quarter of the total number of...

  5. Skeleton decay in red cedar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Jessie A. Glaeser

    2013-01-01

    Eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) is a common tree species throughout the eastern United States and the Great Plains. Although “cedar” is in the common name, the scientifc name shows a botanical kinship to the juniper species of the American southwest. Red cedar can survive and thrive within a broad range of soil conditions, seasonal...

  6. From one marsh to another, changing swamps - Exercise of reflexivity within the water and territories system: wetland renaturation / restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoz, Alain; Chauvelon, Philippe; Boutron, Olivier

    2013-04-01

    In relation to the"Plan National en faveur des Zones Humides", the project aims to provide food for thought, from the interdisciplinary articulation , for the development, organizational arrangements and the level of water governance. The methods that will permit to better understand how work studied ecosystems and to measure the anthropogenic and natural part of the functioning of these territories. The methods will be based on a landscape approach and facilitated by the techniques used in landscape ecology making wide use of the techniques from geomatic (GIS, digital photogrammetry, satellite remote sensing...). Additional studies from data collected in the field will also be made in particular to improve our understanding of hydrology, water quality... . The two sites selected by this proposal covers two wetlands of national and international interests. Both are located in natural regional parks (NRP): Alpilles and Camargue, the NRP of Camargue is furthermore included in the "Man and Biosphere Reserve" of the Rhone delta. The first concerns the "Vallée des marais des Baux", the second, the "Salins de Giraud". The complexity of natural and human issues make such territories privileged study sites. Located both in the west of the "Bouches du Rhône" department, these territories have very different human and physical characteristics. We develop in this presentation only the first, the "Vallée des marais des Baux". Under the initiative of several private owners, voluntary marshes restoration experiments are conducted. This area covering about 1300 hectares was originally swamp. Since the Romans, many attempts have succeeded in drying up the area but it's not until 1950-1960 that the technical development allowed to realize so - exception of small areas of relict marsh - implementing development centred on agriculture. Following to major floods in 2003, the sector is defined (Rhône river master plan) as an flood expansion area. Moreover, there is some decline of

  7. Swamp Works: A New Approach to Develop Space Mining and Resource Extraction Technologies at the National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA) Kennedy Space Center (KSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, R. P.; Sibille, L.; Leucht, K.; Smith, J. D.; Townsend, I. I.; Nick, A. J.; Schuler, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    The first steps for In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) on target bodies such as the Moon, Mars and Near Earth Asteroids (NEA), and even comets, involve the same sequence of steps as in the terrestrial mining of resources. First exploration including prospecting must occur, and then the resource must be acquired through excavation methods if it is of value. Subsequently a load, haul and dump sequence of events occurs, followed by processing of the resource in an ISRU plant, to produce useful commodities. While these technologies and related supporting operations are mature in terrestrial applications, they will be different in space since the environment and indigenous materials are different than on Earth. In addition, the equipment must be highly automated, since for the majority of the production cycle time, there will be no humans present to assist or intervene. This space mining equipment must withstand a harsh environment which includes vacuum, radical temperature swing cycles, highly abrasive lofted dust, electrostatic effects, van der Waals forces effects, galactic cosmic radiation, solar particle events, high thermal gradients when spanning sunlight terminators, steep slopes into craters / lava tubes and cryogenic temperatures as low as 40 K in permanently shadowed regions. In addition the equipment must be tele-operated from Earth or a local base where the crew is sheltered. If the tele-operation occurs from Earth then significant communications latency effects mandate the use of autonomous control systems in the mining equipment. While this is an extremely challenging engineering design scenario, it is also an opportunity, since the technologies developed in this endeavor could be used in the next generations of terrestrial mining equipment, in order to mine deeper, safer, more economical and with a higher degree of flexibility. New space technologies could precipitate new mining solutions here on Earth. The NASA KSC Swamp Works is an innovation

  8. NILAI EKONOMI KARBON HUTAN RAWA GAMBUT MERANG KEPAYANG, PROVINSI SUMATERA SELATAN (Economic Value of Carbon of Merang Kepayang Peat Swamp Forest, South Sumatera Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Arifatul Ulya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Hutan rawa gambut menyimpan cadangan karbon baik di tanah maupun di atas tanah. Hutan Rawa Gambut Merang Kepayang (HRGMK merupakan kawasan hutan yang berada di kubah gambut terbesar di Sumatera Selatan, yaitu Kubah Gambut Merang (KGM, yang didalamnya terdapat gambut dengan ketebalan lebih dari 3 meter. Meskipun menurut aturan KGM seharusnya dikonservasi, pada kenyataannya kawasan HRGMK dihadapkan pada konversi. Konversi HRGMK diduga akan mengakibatkan terganggunya fungsi hutan rawa gambut sebagai cadangan karbon dunia sehingga akan menyebabkan terjadinya emisi karbon ke atmosfer dalam jumlah besar. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui nilai ekonomi kawasan HRGMK sebagai penyimpan cadangan karbon. Hasil penelitian diharapkan menjadi acuan pelestarian HRGMK sebagai stabilisator iklim dunia. Nilai ekonomi karbon HRGMK ditaksir dengan menggunakan harga bayangan. Harga karbon yang digunakan untuk menaksir nilai ekonomi karbon diperoleh dengan metode benefit transfer. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai total karbon HRGMK adalah US$ 1.591.878.378,00 atau Rp. 14.002.162.211.645,00. Nilai tersebut sebagian besar berasal dari cadangan karbon di bawah tanah. ABSTRACT Peat swamp forests store aboveground and belowground carbon. Merang Kepayang Peat Swamp Forest (MKPSF is a forest area which is located in Merang Peat Dome (MPD, the largest peat dome in South Sumatra, with peat thickness more than 3 meters. Although the order should be conserved MPD, in fact MKPSF area exposed to the conversion. MKPSF conversion would presumably result in impaired function of peat swamp forest as world's carbon storage that will be caused carbon emissions into the atmosphere in large quantities. This study aimed to determine the economic value of the HRGMK as carbon storage. The results are expected to be justifications for conservation of MKPSF as climate stabilizers. The economic value of carbon HRGMK assessed using shadow pricing method. The carbon price

  9. Romantic red: red enhances men's attraction to women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Andrew J; Niesta, Daniela

    2008-11-01

    In many nonhuman primates, the color red enhances males' attraction to females. In 5 experiments, the authors demonstrate a parallel effect in humans: Red, relative to other achromatic and chromatic colors, leads men to view women as more attractive and more sexually desirable. Men seem unaware of this red effect, and red does not influence women's perceptions of the attractiveness of other women, nor men's perceptions of women's overall likeability, kindness, or intelligence. The findings have clear practical implications for men and women in the mating game and, perhaps, for fashion consultants, product designers, and marketers. Furthermore, the findings document the value of extending research on signal coloration to humans and of considering color as something of a common language, both within and across species. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Red Yeast Rice: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rice are used in food products in Chinese cuisine, including Peking duck. Others have been sold as ... Medicine . 2010;170(19):1722–1727. Halbert SC, French B, Gordon RY, et al. Tolerability of red ...

  11. The effect of mixed liming and NPK fertilizer to yield of some rice varieties on new openings of acid sulfate tidal swamp land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmad, A.; Dewi, W. S.; Sagiman, S.; Suntoro

    2018-03-01

    The strategies to meet the staple food needs in Indonesia is to open new paddy fields in the sub-optimal land. The research aims to get adaptive rice varieties with the highest yield on new openings of the acid sulfate tidal swamp applying mixed liming and NPK fertilizer. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at the Faculty of Agriculture, Tanjungpura University, Pontianak. The trials used a factorial completely randomized block design consisting of two factors. The first factor is a mixture of dolomite with NPK fertilizer, consisting of 3 levels (1 ton/ha dolomite and 60 kg/ha NPK; 2 ton/ha dolomite and 90 kg/ha of NPK, and 3 ton/ha dolomite and 120 kg/ha NPK). The second factor is rice varieties, consisting of 6 levels (Ciherang, Situ Bagendit, Inpara, Mira, Si Randah and Ringkak Janggut). Each treatment replicated four times. The results showed that the application of a mixture of 3 ton/ha dolomite and 120 kg/ha of NPK fertilizer showed the best results to improve rice yield on new opening of the acid sulfate tidal swap. Local rice varieties, Ringkak Janggut, applied 3 ton/ha dolomite and 120 kg/ha NPK fertilizer showed the best result of 1000 seed weight, i.e., 28.19 g, and total grain amount per panicle is 110.75 grains, with the lowest number of empty grains. Local rice varieties Ringkak Janggut potential to be developed as superior varieties on new opening acid sulfate tidal swamps by applying liming and fertilizer.

  12. "Congo" red: out of Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensma, D P

    2001-02-01

    Congo red is the essential histologic stain for demonstrating the presence of amyloidosis in fixed tissues. To the best of my knowledge, nothing has been written about why the stain is named "Congo." To understand the etymology and history of the Congo red histologic stain. Primary sources were consulted extensively, including 19th-century corporate documents, newspapers, legal briefs, patents, memoirs, and scientific papers. Sources were obtained from multiple university libraries and German corporate archives. To Europeans in 1885, the word Congo evoked exotic images of far-off central Africa known as The Dark Continent. The African Congo was also a political flashpoint during the Age of Colonialism. "Congo" red was introduced in Berlin in 1885 as the first of the economically lucrative direct textile dyes. A patent on Congo red was filed by the AGFA Corporation of Berlin 3 weeks after the conclusion of the well-publicized Berlin West Africa Conference. During these important diplomatic talks, German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck presided over a discussion of free trade issues in the Congo River basin. A challenge to AGFA's Congo red patent led to a precedent-setting decision in intellectual property law. The Congo red stain was named "Congo" for marketing purposes by a German textile dyestuff company in 1885, reflecting geopolitical current events of that time.

  13. Habitability of planets around red dwarf stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, M J; Doyle, L R; Joshi, M M; Haberle, R M

    1999-08-01

    Recent models indicate that relatively moderate climates could exist on Earth-sized planets in synchronous rotation around red dwarf stars. Investigation of the global water cycle, availability of photosynthetically active radiation in red dwarf sunlight, and the biological implications of stellar flares, which can be frequent for red dwarfs, suggests that higher plant habitability of red dwarf planets may be possible.

  14. The Concentration Levels Of Some Isotopic Radionuclides In The Coastal Sediments Of The Red Sea, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL SAHARTY, A.A.; DAR, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    The radionuclide activities of 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs were measured using high resolution gamma spectrometry system. The total organic matter (TOM) and carbonate contents were also measured in the surface sediments of three valleys downstream at the southern Egyptian Red Sea coast. These localities are characterized by the presence of mangrove swamps with dense aerobic roots that provide calm conditions for particulate and fine sediments settlement. 238 U and 232 Th recorded almost equal activity values in the studied localities and their occurrence in the localities indicated that the metal accumulation are due to the complex and multiple processes that characterize the mangrove environments including accumulation in particulate form with the fine sediments, absorption on iron and manganese oxides and hydroxides from the sea water, incorporation inside the carbonate frameworks and as detrital phase. 40 K showed obvious radioactivity in the three localities indicating the presence of terrestrial radionuclide. 137 Cs concentrations were not evident in the studied localities which may indicate non-significant artificial source of radionuclide activity.

  15. DAVs: Red Edge and Outbursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Jing

    2018-04-01

    As established by ground based surveys, white dwarfs with hydrogen atmospheres pulsate as they cool across the temperature range, 12500Kred edge is a two-decade old puzzle. Recently, Kepler discovered a number of cool DAVs exhibiting sporadic outbursts separated by days, each lasting several hours, and releasing \\sim 10^{33}-10^{34} {erg}. We provide quantitative explanations for both the red edge and the outbursts. The minimal frequency for overstable modes rises abruptly near the red edge. Although high frequency overstable modes exist below the red edge, their photometric amplitudes are generally too small to be detected by ground based observations. Nevertheless, these overstable parent modes can manifest themselves through nonlinear mode couplings to damped daughter modes which generate limit cycles giving rise to photometric outbursts.

  16. Fitossociologia de dois trechos inundáveis de Matas de Galeria no Distrito Federal, Brasil Phytosociology of two swamped portions of gallery forests in Distrito Federal, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernestino de Souza Gomes Guarino

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available As Matas de Galeria do bioma Cerrado possuem peculiaridades fisionômicas e florísticas que permitem separá-las em dois subtipos: "não-inundável", quando em solos bem drenados; e "inundável", o subtipo menos estudado, em solos mal drenados. O presente trabalho objetivou caracterizar estrutural e floristicamente dois trechos inundáveis das matas dos córregos Acampamento (15°35'S; 48°10'W e Riacho Fundo (15°55'S; 48°02'W no Distrito Federal (DF. Para isso foi alocada em cada Mata uma grade de 160×50 m (0,8 ha, composta por 40 parcelas de 10×20 m (200 m². Todos os indivíduos com diâmetro a 1,30 m da altura do solo (DAP > 3,0 cm foram amostrados, incluindo aqueles mortos ainda em pé. Foram amostrados 6.078 indivíduos, sendo 3.030 no trecho do Acampamento (33 famílias, 49 gêneros e 60 espécies e 3.048 no Riacho Fundo (30 famílias, 41 gêneros, 53 espécies. A área basal e a diversidade (H' calculada para os trechos foram de 47,96 m²/ha e 2,99 nats/ind. (Acampamento, e 41,28 m²/ha e 2,84 nats/ind. (Riacho Fundo, respectivamente. Se comparados com matas anteriormente estudadas no DF os valores de diversidade são baixos, estando na mesma magnitude indicada para as Matas de Brejo (Higrófilas do sudeste brasileiro. Os índices de similaridade indicaram alta semelhança qualitativa (Sørensen 58,0% e quantitativa (Morisita 70,6% entre os trechos estudados, embora uma classificação por TWINSPAN tenha gerado dois grupos distintos, cada qual vinculado a um dos trechos. Os resultados reforçam indicações anteriores de que as Matas de Galeria do DF, ou trechos similares destas, inundáveis ou não, possuem comunidades arbóreas particulares, as quais estão relacionadas à bacia hidrográfica na qual a Mata esta inserida e ao padrão determinante da drenagem do solo.Gallery forests in the Cerrado biome possess physiognomic and floristic peculiarities that allow its division in two subtypes: "non-swamp" located in well drained

  17. Red Plague Control Plan (RPCP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    SCOPE: Prescribes the minimum requirements for the control of cuprous / cupric oxide corrosion (a.k.a. Red Plague) of silver-coated copper wire, cable, and harness assemblies. PURPOSE: Targeted for applications where exposure to assembly processes, environmental conditions, and contamination may promote the development of cuprous / cupric oxide corrosion (a.k.a. Red Plague) in silver-coated copper wire, cable, and harness assemblies. Does not exclude any alternate or contractor-proprietary documents or processes that meet or exceed the baseline of requirements established by this document. Use of alternate or contractor-proprietary documents or processes shall require review and prior approval of the procuring NASA activity.

  18. Red de senderos universitarios inteligentes

    OpenAIRE

    Ibarra-Berrocal, I.J.; Romero, J.; Pérez, J.

    2017-01-01

    Introducción: El Proyecto de red de senderos universitarios inteligentes UR se inspira en tres realidades, la red de senderos europeos ya existentes y su importancia en el fomento de la actividad deportiva y los hábitos saludables, la creciente importancia de la implantación, intercambio y difusión de políticas y planes de acción en materia de sostenibilidad ambiental en el ámbito universitario europeo, y por último, el uso y desarrollo de infraestructuras y aplicaciones, cada vez más impresc...

  19. Seguridad en una red universitaria

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal España, Juan Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Las redes de comunicaciones son muy importantes para las empresas. Se solicita una red de altas prestaciones que pueda llevar muchos sistemas sobre ella (cámaras de seguridad, video, voz, datos, SCADA, wifi). Ahora también necesitamos que la red sea segura. Cuando hablamos de seguridad no solo nos referimos a evitar ataques o virus, también hablamos de cómo puede afectarnos el incendio de un centro de proceso de datos. Basándonos en la ISO 27001:2013 daremos las principales pau...

  20. Nonlinear analysis of RED - a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Kai; Wang Xiaofan; Xi Yugeng

    2004-01-01

    Random Early Detection (RED) is an active queue management (AQM) mechanism for routers on the Internet. In this paper, performance of RED and Adaptive RED are compared from the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamics. In particular, we reveal the relationship between the performance of the network and its nonlinear dynamical behavior. We measure the maximal Lyapunov exponent and Hurst parameter of the average queue length of RED and Adaptive RED, as well as the throughput and packet loss rate of the aggregate traffic on the bottleneck link. Our simulation scenarios include FTP flows and Web flows, one-way and two-way traffic. In most situations, Adaptive RED has smaller maximal Lyapunov exponents, lower Hurst parameters, higher throughput and lower packet loss rate than that of RED. This confirms that Adaptive RED has better performance than RED

  1. Nonlinear analysis of RED - a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Kai; Wang Xiaofan E-mail: xfwang@sjtu.edu.cn; Xi Yugeng

    2004-09-01

    Random Early Detection (RED) is an active queue management (AQM) mechanism for routers on the Internet. In this paper, performance of RED and Adaptive RED are compared from the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamics. In particular, we reveal the relationship between the performance of the network and its nonlinear dynamical behavior. We measure the maximal Lyapunov exponent and Hurst parameter of the average queue length of RED and Adaptive RED, as well as the throughput and packet loss rate of the aggregate traffic on the bottleneck link. Our simulation scenarios include FTP flows and Web flows, one-way and two-way traffic. In most situations, Adaptive RED has smaller maximal Lyapunov exponents, lower Hurst parameters, higher throughput and lower packet loss rate than that of RED. This confirms that Adaptive RED has better performance than RED.

  2. Germination of red alder seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Radwan; D.S. DeBell

    1981-01-01

    Red alder seeds were collected from six locations throughout the natural range of the species. Each seed lot was obtained from a single tree, and the seeds were used to determine germination with and without stratification treatment. Irrespective of treatment, germination varied significantly (P

  3. Red light running camera assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    In the 2004-2007 period, the Mission Street SE and 25th Street SE intersection in Salem, Oregon showed relatively few crashes attributable to red light running (RLR) but, since a high number of RLR violations were observed, the intersection was ident...

  4. Red Teaming: Past and Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-22

    cultural and ethnocentric bias, and a focus on fully exploring alternatives. The purpose of this monograph is to examine historical and...Planning and Orders Production, introduces red team principles into the army problem solving method.14 Additionally, TRADOC staffed and funded the...organization, incorporating alternative perspectives in an attempt to eliminate cultural and ethnocentric bias, and a focus on fully exploring

  5. The red-blue conundrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørtoft, Mikkel Johansen

    2017-01-01

    Plants from the Rubiaceae family (Rubia, Galium, and Asperula) are often grouped together as madder because they have been used for dyeing red since at least the Bronze Age. The English plant name madder can be traced through the Germanic language all the way back to Proto-Indo-European (PIE), as...

  6. Comparative metagenomics of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Mineta, Katsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    started monthly samplings of the metagenomes in the Red Sea under KAUST-CCF project. In collaboration with Kitasato University, we also collected the metagenome data from the ocean in Japan, which shows contrasting features to the Red Sea. Therefore

  7. Nutrient Limitation in Central Red Sea Mangroves

    KAUST Repository

    Almahasheer, Hanan; Duarte, Carlos M.; Irigoien, Xabier

    2016-01-01

    Red Sea have characteristic heights of ~2 m, suggesting nutrient limitation. We assessed the nutrient status of mangrove stands in the Central Red Sea and conducted a fertilization experiment (N, P and Fe and various combinations thereof) on 4-week

  8. High Throughput Sequencing to Detect Differences in Methanotrophic Methylococcaceae and Methylocystaceae in Surface Peat, Forest Soil, and Sphagnum Moss in Cranesville Swamp Preserve, West Virginia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Evan; Nolan, Edward J.; Dillard, Zachary W.; Dague, Ryan D.; Semple, Amanda L.; Wentzell, Wendi L.

    2015-01-01

    Northern temperate forest soils and Sphagnum-dominated peatlands are a major source and sink of methane. In these ecosystems, methane is mainly oxidized by aerobic methanotrophic bacteria, which are typically found in aerated forest soils, surface peat, and Sphagnum moss. We contrasted methanotrophic bacterial diversity and abundances from the (i) organic horizon of forest soil; (ii) surface peat; and (iii) submerged Sphagnum moss from Cranesville Swamp Preserve, West Virginia, using multiplex sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA (V3 region) gene amplicons. From ~1 million reads, >50,000 unique OTUs (Operational Taxonomic Units), 29 and 34 unique sequences were detected in the Methylococcaceae and Methylocystaceae, respectively, and 24 potential methanotrophs in the Beijerinckiaceae were also identified. Methylacidiphilum-like methanotrophs were not detected. Proteobacterial methanotrophic bacteria constitute Sphagnum moss) or co-occurred in both Sphagnum moss and peat. This study provides insights into the structure of methanotrophic communities in relationship to habitat type, and suggests that peat and Sphagnum moss can influence methanotroph community structure and biogeography. PMID:27682082

  9. Gonad development and size at maturity of the male mud crab Scylla paramamosain (Forsskål, 1755 in a tropical mangrove swamp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Sherazul Islam

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive traits and size at sexual maturity of the male mud crab Scylla paramamosain were investigated in Pak Phanang mangrove swamps, Thailand. Samples were taken seven times from the local middlemen mud crab traders during June 2006 to January 2008. Gonad development was determined based on histological appearance that was classified into three stages: 1 Immature (Spermatogonia, 2 Maturing (Spermatocytes and 3 Mature (Spermatids and Spermatozoa. Among the sample population, the highest 72% was under gonad development stage I, whereas mature stage III was only 12%. The size at first maturity was estimated by the external allometric growth and histological observation of gonad. The size at which 50% of individuals attain sexual maturity was estimated by the two mathematical models such as probit analysis and logistic curve. The mean size at first sexual maturity and 50% maturation of male S. paramamosain were 96 mm and 109 mm internal carapace width (ICW which revealed that 88% individuals were immature. The present result suggested that the minimum legal size of male S. paramamosain capture should be >110 mm ICW.

  10. Transport and Retention of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Carbon in North America’s Largest River Swamp Basin, the Atchafalaya River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Jun Xu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Floodplains and river corridor wetlands may be effectively managed for reducing nutrients and carbon. However, our understanding is limited to the reduction potential of these natural riverine systems. This study utilized the long-term (1978–2004 river discharge and water quality records from an upriver and a downriver location of the Atchafalaya River to quantify the inflow, outflow, and inflow–outflow mass balance of total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN = organic nitrogen + ammonia nitrogen, nitrate + nitrite nitrogen (NO3 + NO2, total phosphorous (TP, and total organic carbon (TOC through the largest river swamp basin in North America. The study found that, over the past 27 years, the Atchafalaya River Basin (ARB acted as a significant sink for TKN (annual retention: 24%, TP (41%, and TOC (12%, but a source for NO3 + NO2 nitrogen (6%. On an annual basis, ARB retained 48,500 t TKN, 16,900 t TP, and 167,100 t TOC from the river water. The retention rates were closely and positively related to the river discharge with highs during the winter and spring and lows in the late summer. The higher NO3 + NO2 mass outflow occurred throughout spring and summer, indicating an active role of biological processes on nitrogen as water and air temperatures in the basin rise.

  11. Bringing Healthy Retail to Urban "Food Swamps": a Case Study of CBPR-Informed Policy and Neighborhood Change in San Francisco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkler, Meredith; Estrada, Jessica; Thayer, Ryan; Juachon, Lisa; Wakimoto, Patricia; Falbe, Jennifer

    2018-04-09

    In urban "food swamps" like San Francisco's Tenderloin, the absence of full-service grocery stores and plethora of corner stores saturated with tobacco, alcohol, and processed food contribute to high rates of chronic disease. We explore the genesis of the Tenderloin Healthy Corner Store Coalition, its relationship with health department and academic partners, and its contributions to the passage and implementation of a healthy retail ordinance through community-based participatory research (CBPR), capacity building, and advocacy. The healthy retail ordinance incentivizes small stores to increase space for healthy foods and decrease tobacco and alcohol availability. Through Yin's multi-method case study analysis, we examined the partnership's processes and contributions to the ordinance within the framework of Kingdon's three-stage policymaking model. We also assessed preliminary outcomes of the ordinance, including a 35% increase in produce sales and moderate declines in tobacco sales in the first four stores participating in the Tenderloin, as well as a "ripple effect," through which non-participating stores also improved their retail environments. Despite challenges, CBPR partnerships led by a strong community coalition concerned with bedrock issues like food justice and neighborhood inequities in tobacco exposure may represent an important avenue for health equity-focused research and its translation into practice.

  12. Importance of body-water circulation for body-heat dissipation in hot-humid climates: a distinctive body-water circulation in swamp buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chanpongsang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Thermo-regulation in swamp buffaloes has been investigated as an adaptive system to hot-humid climates, and several distinctive physiological responses were noted. When rectal temperature increased in hot conditions, blood volume, blood flow to the skin surface and skin temperature markedly increased in buffaloes relatively to cattle. On the other hand, the correlation between blood volume and plasma concentration of arginine vasopressin (AVP was compared between buffaloes and cattle under dehydration. Although plasma AVP in cattle increased immediately for reducing urine volume against a decrease in blood volume as well as the response observed in most animal species, the increase in plasma AVP was delayed in buffaloes, even after a large decrease in blood volume. In buffaloes, a marked increase in blood volume facilitated the dissipation of excess heat from the skin surface during wallowing. In addition, the change in plasma AVP observed in buffaloes was consistent with that of other animals living in habitats with the high availability of water. These results suggest that the thermo-regulatory system in buffaloes accelerates body-water circulation internally and externally. This system may be adaptive for heat dissipation in hot-humid climates, where an abundance of water is common.

  13. Traffic-emitted metal status and uptake by Carex meyeriana Kunth and Thelypteris palustris var. pubescens Fernald growing in roadside turfy swamp in the Changbai Mountain area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Nie, Lei; Xu, Yan; Li, Miao; Lv, Yan

    2018-04-26

    Six traffic-emitted metals (Cr, Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb, and Ni) were determined in soil and plants for below- and aboveground parts along different distances from highway to evaluate their behavior and uptake by Carex meyeriana Kunth and Thelypteris palustris var. pubescens Fernald growing in turfy swamps. The results indicated that the different plant tissues showed significantly different levels of metal content. Nonlinear regression analysis indicated that metal contents leveled off at constant values before they decreased as the distance from the roadside increased. The high R 2 values of the regression model indicated good fit of the exponential function applied to depict the distribution pattern of the metal elements. It was deduced that Cr, Cu, and Cd in Thelypteris palustris var. pubescens Fernald were mainly derived from the soil; Carex meyeriana Kunth and Thelypteris palustris var. pubescens Fernald absorbed Pb mainly through the stomata from atmospheric depositions; Cr, Cu, and Cd in Carex meyeriana Kunth and Zn in Thelypteris palustris var. pubescens Fernald were mainly affected by soil and atmospheric depositions. After excluding the effects of traffic, only the bioaccumulation factor of Cd (1.34) in Carex meyeriana Kunth and the translocation factor of Zn (1.13) in Thelypteris palustris var. pubescens Fernald were greater than 1, suggesting that Carex meyeriana Kunth could be a good candidate for assimilating Cd from soils and Thelypteris palustris var. pubescens Fernald could be suitable for the phytoextraction of Zn.

  14. Red Assembly: the work remains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Witz

    Full Text Available This issue of Kronos is dedicated to Terry Flynn, assistant curator at the Ann Bryant Art Gallery, who was instrumental in the successful installing of 'Red Assembly' there in 2015. Friend, colleague, artist and inspiration. Hamba Kahle. The work that emerged from the encounter with Red, an art installation by Simon Gush and his collaborators, in the workshop 'Red Assembly', held in East London in August 2015, is assembled here in Kronos, the journal of southern African histories based at the University of the Western Cape, and previously in parallax, the cultural studies journal based at the University of Leeds published in May 2016. What is presented there and here is not simply more work, work that follows, or even additional works. Rather, it is the work that arises as a response to a question that structured our entire project: does Red, now also installed in these two journals, have the potential to call the discourse of history into question? This article responds to this question through several pairings: theft - gift; copy - rights; time - history; kronos - chronos. Here we identify a reversal in this installation of the gift into the commodity, and another with regard to conventional historical narratives which privilege the search for sources and origins. A difference between (the historian's search for origination and (the artist's originality becomes visible in a conversation between and over the historic and the artistic that does not simply try to rescue History by means of the work of art. It is in this sense that we invite the displacements, detours, and paths made possible through Simon Gush's Red, the 'Red Assembly' workshop and the work/gift of installation and parallaxing. To gesture beyond 'histories' is the provocation to which art is neither cause nor effect. Thinking with the work of art, that is, grasping thought in the working of art, has extended the sense of history's limit and the way the limit of history is

  15. Red alder: a state of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Deal; Constance A. Harrington

    2006-01-01

    In March 23-25, 2005, an international symposium on red alder was held at the University of Washington Center for Urban Horticulture in Seattle, WA. The symposium was entitled "Red alder: A State of Knowledge" and brought together regional experts to critically examine the economic, ecological and social values of red alder. The primary goal of the symposium...

  16. Red and green fluorescence from oral biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volgenant, C.M.C.; Hoogenkamp, M.A.; Krom, B.P.; Janus, M.M.; ten Cate, J.M.; de Soet, J.J.; Crielaard, W.; van der Veen, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    Red and green autofluorescence have been observed from dental plaque after excitation by blue light. It has been suggested that this red fluorescence is related to caries and the cariogenic potential of dental plaque. Recently, it was suggested that red fluorescence may be related to gingivitis.

  17. Allergic reactions in red tattoos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutton Carlsen, K; Køcks, M; Sepehri, M

    2016-01-01

    to be feasible for chemical analysis of red pigments in allergic reactions. Raman spectroscopy has a major potential for fingerprint screening of problematic tattoo pigments in situ in skin, ex vivo in skin biopsies and in tattoo ink stock products, thus, to eliminate unsafe ink products from markets.......AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of Raman spectroscopy as a screening technique for chemical characterisation of tattoo pigments in pathologic reacting tattoos and tattoo ink stock products to depict unsafe pigments and metabolites of pigments. MATERIALS/METHODS: Twelve...... dermatome shave biopsies from allergic reactions in red tattoos were analysed with Raman spectroscopy (A 785-nm 300 mW diode laser). These were referenced to samples of 10 different standard tattoo ink stock products, three of these identified as the culprit inks used by the tattooist and thus by history...

  18. Red fox sightings in Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Cignini

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study preliminary data on the presence of Red fox in Rome (an area of 360 km² within the Rome ringroad. G.R.A. since 1980 are presented. The data were mapped on a UTM 1 sq. km. grid. Data were analysed and correlated, for each City district, with the prevalent environment (green, built-up, river-side areas and with the density of inhabitants.

  19. Resveratrol: Chemoprevention with red wine

    OpenAIRE

    Arısan, Elif Damla; Palavan-Ünsal, Narçin

    2007-01-01

    According to epidemiological studies, western diet has disadvantages because of cancer prevalence more than Mediterranean or Asia people who consume more vegetables and fruits. Resveratrol (trans-3,4,5-trihydroxystilbene) which is highly found in grapes, berries has received attention for its potential chemopreventive and antitumor effects in experimental systems. Because of high resveratrol content, researchers noted that red wine has multidimensional benefits for ...

  20. La red sobre trabajo infantil peligroso (Red Tip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Varillas

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En el mundo, aproximadamente 351.7 millones de niños entre 5 y 17 años realizaban algún tipo de actividad económica, de ellos 170.5 millones (48.5% realizaban algún tipo de trabajo considerado peligroso. Un alto porcentaje se encuentra en la agricultura, otros en minas, manufacturas, ladrilleras, predominantemente en la economía informal. El Convenio 138 (cobre la edad mínima de admisión en el empleo de la OIT y el Convenio 182 (sobre las peores formas de trabajo infantil, definen como trabajo infantil peligroso el que puede afectar la salud, seguridad y moralidad de los menores. Estudios específicos sobre los menores muestran su susceptibilidad particular frente a los riesgos laborales, aumentando la peligrosidad para su normal desarrollo y crecimiento: "los niños no son adultos pequeños". Los profesionales de la seguridad y salud en el trabajo pueden colaborar con los profesionales y las organizaciones especializadas en el trabajo infantil, en la definición y caracterización de lo que significa el trabajo infantil peligroso. Para ello se ha conformado la Red sobre Trabajo Infantil Peligroso (Red TIP, con la finalidad de articular estos dos espacios, orientados a eliminar el trabajo infantil peligroso y rescatar al menor y devolverle la oportunidad de sonreír ahora y en el futuro.

  1. Red giants: then and now

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, John

    Fred Hoyle's work on the structure and evolution of red giants, particularly his pathbreaking contribution with Martin Schwarzschild (Hoyle and Schwarzschild 1955), is both lauded and critically assessed. In his later lectures and work with students in the early 1960s, Hoyle presented more physical ways of understanding some of the approximations used, and results obtained, in that seminal paper. Although later ideas by other investigators will be touched upon, Hoyle's viewpoint - that low-mass red giants are essentially white dwarfs with a serious mass-storage problem - is still extremely fruitful. Over the years, I have further developed his method of attack. Relatively recently, I have been able to deepen and broaden the approach, finally extending the theory to provide a unifying treatment of the structure of low-mass stars from the main sequence though both the red-giant and horizontal-branch phases of evolution. Many aspects of these stars that had remained puzzling, even mysterious, for decades have now fallen into place, and some questions have been answered that were not even posed before. With low-mass red giants as the simplest example, this recent work emphasizes that stars, in general, may have at least two distinct but very important centres: (I) a geometrical centre, and (II) a separate nuclear centre, residing in a shell outside a zero-luminosity dense core for example. This two-centre perspective leads to an explicit, analytical, asymptotic theory of low-mass red-giant structure. It enables one to appreciate that the problem of understanding why such stars become red giants is one of anticipating a remarkable yet natural structural bifurcation that occurs in them. This bifurcation occurs because of a combination of known and understandable facts just summarized namely that, following central hydrogen exhaustion, a thin nuclear-burning shell does develop outside a more-or-less dense core. In the resulting theory, both ρsh/ρolinec and

  2. A Study on Remote Probing Method for Drawing Ecology/Nature Map and the Application (III) - Drawing the Swamp Classification Map around River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Seong Woo; Cho, Jeong Keon; Jeong, Hwi Chol [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    The map of ecology/nature in the amended Natural Environment Conservation Act is the necessary data, which is drawn through assessing the national land with ecological factors, to execute the Korea's environmental policy. Such important ecology/nature map should be continuously revised and improved the reliability with adding several new factors. In this point of view, this study has the significance in presenting the improvement scheme of ecology/nature map. 'A Study on Remote Probing Method for Drawing Ecology/Nature Map and the Application' that has been performed for 3 years since 1998 has researched the drawing method of subject maps that could be built in a short time - a land-covering classification map, a vegetation classification map, and a swamp classification map around river - and the promoting principles hereafter. This study also presented the possibility and limit of classification by several satellite image data, so it would be a big help to build the subject map in the Government level. The land-covering classification map, a result of the first year, has been already being built by Ministry of Environment as a national project, and the improvement scheme of the vegetation map that was presented as a result of second year has been used in building the basic ecology/nature map. We hope that the results from this study will be applied as basic data to draw an ecology/nature map and contribute to expanding the understanding on the usefulness of the several ecosystem analysis methods with applying an ecology/nature map and a remote probe. 55 refs., 38 figs., 24 tabs.

  3. Increased temperature tolerance of the air-breathing Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus after high-temperature acclimation is not explained by improved cardiorespiratory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, S; Findorf, I; Bayley, M; Huong, D T T; Wang, T

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that in the Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus, an air-breathing fish from south-east Asia that uses the buccopharyngeal cavity for oxygen uptake, the upper critical temperature (TU) is increased by acclimation to higher temperature, and that the increased TU is associated with improved cardiovascular and respiratory function. Monopterus albus were therefore acclimated to 27° C (current average) and 32° C (current maximum temperature as well as projected average within 100-200 years), and both the effect of acclimation and acute temperature increments on cardiovascular and respiratory functions were investigated. Two weeks of heat acclimation increased upper tolerated temperature (TU ) by 2° C from 36·9 ± 0·1° C to 38·9 ± 0·1° C (mean ± s.e.). Oxygen uptake (M˙O2) increased with acclimation temperature, accommodated by increases in both aerial and aquatic respiration. Overall, M˙O2 from air (M˙O2a ) was predominant, representing 85% in 27° C acclimated fish and 80% in 32° C acclimated fish. M˙O2 increased with acute increments in temperature and this increase was entirely accommodated by an increase in air-breathing frequency and M˙O2a . Monopterus albus failed to upregulate stroke volume; rather, cardiac output was maintained through increased heart rate with rising temperature. Overall, acclimation of M. albus to 32° C did not improve its cardiovascular and respiratory performance at higher temperatures, and cardiovascular adaptations, therefore, do not appear to contribute to the observed increase in TU. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  4. Swamp buffalo keeping – an out-dated farming activity? A case study in smallholder farming systems in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province, PR China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Schiborra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Expansion of rubber tree plantations and agricultural mechanization caused a decline of swamp buffalo numbers in the Naban River National Nature Reserve (NRNNR, Yunnan Province, China. We analysed current use of buffaloes for field work and the recent development of the regional buffalo population, based on interviews with 184 farmers in 2007/2008 and discussions with 62 buffalo keepers in 2009. Three types of NRNNR farms were distinguished, differing mainly in altitude, area under rubber, and involvement in livestock husbandry. While pig based farms (PB; n=37 have abandoned buffalo keeping, 11% of the rubber based farms (RB; n=71 and 100% of the livestock-corn based farms (LB; n=76 kept buffaloes in 2008. Herd size was 2.5 +/-1.80 (n=84 buffaloes in early 2008 and 2.2 +/-1.69 (n=62 in 2009. Field work on own land was the main reason for keeping buffaloes (87.3 %, but lending work buffaloes to neighbours (79.0% was also important. Other purposes were transport of goods (16.1%, buffalo trade (11.3% and meat consumption (6.4%. Buffalo care required 6.2 +/-3.00 working hours daily, while annual working time of a buffalo was 294 +/-216.6 hours. The area ploughed with buffaloes remained constant during the past 10 years despite an expansion of land cropped per farm. Although further replacement of buffaloes by tractors occurs rapidly, buffaloes still provide cheap work force and buffer risks on poor NRNNR farms. Appropriate advice is needed for improved breeding management to increase the efficiency of buffalo husbandry and provide better opportunities for buffalo meat sale in the region.

  5. Iridotomy with red krypton laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassur, Y; David, R; Rosenblatt, I; Marmour, U

    1986-01-01

    Iridotomy with red krypton laser instead of blue-green argon laser was performed on 68 eyes with various types of angle-closure glaucoma. Patent iridotomy was obtained in all the eyes, mostly in one working session. In eight eyes secondary closure by pigment needed reopening with a few applications at the iridotomy site. There were no immediate or late complications of importance, the main advantage of the technique being the avoidance of the corneal epithelial and endothelial burns which commonly occur during argon laser iridotomy, particularly when the anterior chamber is shallow. PMID:3964628

  6. Red is Romantic, but Only for Feminine Females: Sexual Dimorphism Moderates Red Effect on Sexual Attraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangfang Wen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous researchers have documented that the color red enhances one's sexual attraction to the opposite sex. The current study further examined the moderating role of sexual dimorphism in red effects. The results indicated that red enhanced men's sexual attraction to women with more feminine facial characteristics but had no effect on ratings of perceived general attractiveness. Red clothing also had a marginally significant effect on men's sexual attractiveness. In addition, regardless of sexual dimorphism cues, male participants rated women with red as warmer and more competent. The underlying mechanisms of the red effect, the limitations of the current study, and suggestions for future directions are discussed.

  7. Adsorption of procion red and congo red dyes using microalgae Spirulina sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risfidian Mohadi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of procion red and congo red dyes using microalgae Spirulina sp was conducted. Spirulina sp was obtained by cultivation and production in laboratory scale. Spirulina sp was used as adsorbent for adsorption of dyes. Adsorption process was studied by kinetic and thermodynamic in order to know the adsorption phenomena. The results showed that kinetically congo red is reactive than procion red on Spirulina sp. On the other hand, thermodynamically procion red was stable than congo red on Spirulina sp which was indicated by adsorption capacity, enthalpy, and entropy.

  8. PENGEMBANGAN KONSEP AGROINDUSTRI BERBASIS SISTEM USAHATANI TERPADU DI WILAYAH PASANG SURUT BAGIAN I: (KONSEP PEMIKIRAN The Concept Development of Agroindustry Based on Integrated Farming System at Tidal Swamp Land Areas Chapter I: Conceptual Thinkin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustan Massinai

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Integrated farming system was directed in efforts to lengthen biological cycle by optimizing use of agriculture and livestock products. Each chain of cycle resulted new product that have high economic value, so this system was expected to optimize empowerment and use of marginal land in all regions. The problems encountered in agricultural systems in tidal swamp land in general, i.e; (a limitations in the form of land, human resources, technology, and capital owned by farmers, then the potential of local resources need to be managed optimally, directed, integrated and sustainable with a view to improve land productivity and living standards of farmers by way of application of integrated farming systems by integrating crop and livestock based on the potential of local areas, and (b socio-economic problems and constraints in the development of food crops was due to a swamp area. The objective of this research was to produce integrated farming system concept to support agroindustry development in tidal swamp land in Pulang Pisau regency of Central Kalimantan province. This research was conducted with a book study method, which identifies a system consisting of integrated farming and agroindustry systems. In the both identification is performed by the system includes four aspects, i,e; economic aspects, technical aspects, social aspects of cultural and environmental. Integrated farming systems concept in tidal swamp land was generated from the production of integrated farming systems should first be processed through the processing system (agroindustry in the form of home industry, or using a mechanical device. After that, it was carried out the marketing of products, systems concepts was expected to increase the added value of agricultural production (rice, coffee and cow. With the application of agroindustry systems in tidal swamp land Pulang Pisau regency of Central Kalimantan Province is expected to increase the economic income of farmers in

  9. Antibacterial Compounds from Red Seaweeds (Rhodophyta)

    OpenAIRE

    Noer Kasanah; Triyanto Triyanto; Drajad Sarwo Seto; Windi Amelia; Alim Isnansetyo

    2015-01-01

    Seaweeds produce great variety of metabolites benefit for human. Red seaweeds (Rhodophyta) are well known as producer of phycocolloids such agar, agarose, carragenan and great variety of secondary metabolites. This review discusses the red algal secondary metabolites with antibacterial activity. The chemical constituents of red algae are steroid, terpenoid, acetogenin and dominated by halogenated compounds mainly brominated compounds. Novel compounds with intriguing skeleton are also reported...

  10. Radiosensitivity of red flour beetle tribolium castaneum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattar, A.; Khattak, S.; Hamed, M.

    1992-07-01

    In this report radiosensitivity of red beetle has been discussed. Red flour beetle is the most injurious pest causing great losses to stored grain. Radiation is one of the best tools of insect control. Different radiation doses (50 to 200 krads) were employed for different age groups from 1 to 60 days. It is concluded from these results that 200 krad radiation dose caused 100% mortality in red beetle in all age group. (A.B.)

  11. Antibacterial Compounds from Red Seaweeds (Rhodophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noer Kasanah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds produce great variety of metabolites benefit for human. Red seaweeds (Rhodophyta are well known as producer of phycocolloids such agar, agarose, carragenan and great variety of secondary metabolites. This review discusses the red algal secondary metabolites with antibacterial activity. The chemical constituents of red algae are steroid, terpenoid, acetogenin and dominated by halogenated compounds mainly brominated compounds. Novel compounds with intriguing skeleton are also reported such as bromophycolides and neurymenolides. In summary, red seaweeds are potential sources for antibacterial agents and can serve as lead in synthesis of new natural medicines.

  12. Infra Red 3D Computer Mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbo, Anders La-Cour; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2000-01-01

    The infra red 3D mouse is a three dimensional input device to a computer. It works by determining the position of an arbitrary object (like a hand) by emitting infra red signals from a number of locations and measuring the reflected intensities. To maximize stability, robustness, and use of bandw......The infra red 3D mouse is a three dimensional input device to a computer. It works by determining the position of an arbitrary object (like a hand) by emitting infra red signals from a number of locations and measuring the reflected intensities. To maximize stability, robustness, and use...

  13. The acute stress response of red porgy, Pagrus pagrus, kept on a red or white background

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salm, A.L. van der; Pavlidis, M; Flik, G.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.

    2005-01-01

    The skin colour of red porgy, Pagrus pagrus, can be modified by exposure to different background colours. Red and white background colours brighten the dark skin colour that develops under common culture conditions in red porgy. To assess whether skin colour is also modified by aquaculture related

  14. When red means go : non-normative effects of red under sensation seeking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehta, R.; Demmers, J.; van Dolen, W.M.; Weinberg, C.B.

    Although previous research has identified red as the color of compliance, the current work proposes that this effect of red may not hold under high sensation-seeking propensity conditions. It is argued that the color red has the capability to induce arousal, which in turn has been shown to enhance a

  15. Control of poultry red mites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpinen, Ole; Steenberg, Tove

    2008-01-01

    The poultry red mite (PRM), Dermanyssus gallinae, is the most important ectoparasite in European egg production. The mites hide in cracks and crevices in the near vicinity of the resting places of the birds, coming out to feed mainly during the night. Under favourable conditions the population can...... grow rapidly, leading to serious problems. Large mite populations may cause anaemia or even death to the poultry, but also in lower numbers mites may be a nuisance to the birds causing decreased egg production and egg quality. Furthermore, they may have the potential of acting as reservoir......-pathogenic fungi and desiccant dust. The dust is diatomaceous earth (of natural origin), synthetic silica products or combinations of the two. The progress of the work with desiccant dusts will be reported. So far, 7 different products have been tested in the laboratory with regard to their efficacy, speed...

  16. Estrutura de uma floresta brejosa em substrato turfoso, Sul de Santa Catarina, Brasil Structure of a swamp forests on peat substrates, south of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Martins

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se descrever a diversidade e a estrutura do componente lenhoso de uma floresta brejosa em substrato turfoso no sul do Estado de Santa Catarina, correlacionando dados florísticos com variáveis ambientais. Indivíduos com DAP ≥ 5 cm foram amostrados em 100 parcelas de 10 x 10 m em um quadrado permanente de 1 ha. As variáveis ambientais foram classificadas em topográficas, químicas e texturais do solo e de luminosidade. Correlações espécie-ambiente foram obtidas por Análise de Correspondência Canônica (CCA. Comparações florísticas foram realizadas por análise de agrupamento (UPGMA e análise de correspondência. A diversidade específica foi considerada baixa, pois foram amostradas apenas 26 espécies. A CCA evidenciou que as variáveis ambientais mensuradas possuem pouca influência na distribuição das espécies, ressaltando assim sua adaptação ao ambiente anóxico, fortemente limitante. Dados de similaridade demonstraram que o substrato turfoso age como um filtro ambiental adicional, além do estresse hídrico, na composição de espécies nas formações turfosas/brejosas.This study aimed to describe the diversity and structure of woody vegetation of a swamp forests on peat substrate in the southern state of Santa Catarina, correlating floristic data with environmental variables. Individuals with DBH < 5 cm were sampled in 100 plots of 10 x 10 m in one hectare squared plot. Environmental variables are classified in topographical, chemical and soil texture and light availability. Species-environment correlations were obtained by Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA. Floristic comparisons were performed by cluster (UPGMA and correspondence analysis. Diversity was considered low because of the occurrence only 26 species in the whole sample. The CCA revealed that the measured variables have little influence on the distribution of species, highlighting the adaptation of these strong limiting environment. Similarity

  17. The socio-cultural importance of Mauritia flexuosa palm swamps (aguajales) and implications for multi-use management in two Maijuna communities of the Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Michael P; Endress, Bryan A; Horn, Christa M

    2013-04-22

    Fruit from the palm Mauritia flexuosa (aguaje) is harvested throughout the Peruvian Amazon for subsistence and commercial purposes. Recent estimates suggest that residents of Iquitos, the largest city in the region, consume approximately 148.8 metric tons of aguaje fruit per month, the vast majority of which is harvested by felling and killing adult female trees. In this study, we sought to better understand and document the importance of M. flexuosa palm swamps (aguajales) in two Maijuna indigenous communities to inform the sustainable management of this habitat and species. Semi-structured interviews, focus groups, and household surveys were carried out to assess the significance of aguajales and their associated plant and animal resources as well as to determine how the relationship that the Maijuna have with aguajales has changed over time. Aguajales and their associated resources are culturally significant and useful to the Maijuna in a wide variety of ways. In addition to M. flexuosa, the Maijuna use over 60 different species of plants from aguajales. When M. flexuosa is in fruit, aguajales are important hunting areas with a total of 20 different animal species hunted. The Maijuna also have traditional beliefs about aguajales, believing that malevolent supernatural beings reside in them. Notably, the relationship that the Maijuna have with aguajales has changed considerably over the years as aguaje fruit went from a subsistence item collected opportunistically from the ground to a market good destructively harvested beginning in the early 1990s. The Maijuna are concerned not only about how this has affected the future commercial harvest of aguaje but also about its effects on game animals given the importance of hunting to Maijuna cultural identity, subsistence, and income generation. In order to meet the multiple socio-cultural and economic needs of the Maijuna, sustainable management efforts must be expanded to not only focus on the commercial harvest of

  18. Properties and expression of Na+/K+-ATPase α-subunit isoforms in the brain of the swamp eel, Monopterus albus, which has unusually high brain ammonia tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu L Chen

    Full Text Available The swamp eel, Monopterus albus, can survive in high concentrations of ammonia (>75 mmol l(-1 and accumulate ammonia to high concentrations in its brain (4.5 µmol g(-1. Na(+/K(+-ATPase (Nka is an essential transporter in brain cells, and since NH4(+ can substitute for K(+ to activate Nka, we hypothesized that the brain of M. albus expressed multiple forms of Nka α-subunits, some of which might have high K(+ specificity. Thus, this study aimed to clone and sequence the nka α-subunits from the brain of M. albus, and to determine the effects of ammonia exposure on their mRNA expression and overall protein abundance. The effectiveness of NH4(+ to activate brain Nka from M. albus and Mus musculus was also examined by comparing their Na(+/K(+-ATPase and Na(+/NH4(+-ATPase activities over a range of K(+/NH4(+ concentrations. The full length cDNA coding sequences of three nkaα (nkaα1, nkaα3a and nkaα3b were identified in the brain of M. albus, but nkaα2 expression was undetectable. Exposure to 50 mmol l(-1 NH4Cl for 1 day or 6 days resulted in significant decreases in the mRNA expression of nkaα1, nkaα3a and nkaα3b. The overall Nka protein abundance also decreased significantly after 6 days of ammonia exposure. For M. albus, brain Na(+/NH4(+-ATPase activities were significantly lower than the Na(+/K(+-ATPase activities assayed at various NH4(+/K(+ concentrations. Furthermore, the effectiveness of NH4(+ to activate Nka from the brain of M. albus was significantly lower than that from the brain of M. musculus, which is ammonia-sensitive. Hence, the (1 lack of nkaα2 expression, (2 high K(+ specificity of K(+ binding sites of Nkaα1, Nkaα3a and Nkaα3b, and (3 down-regulation of mRNA expression of all three nkaα isoforms and the overall Nka protein abundance in response to ammonia exposure might be some of the contributing factors to the high brain ammonia tolerance in M. albus.

  19. Nitrogen depletion in field red giants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masseron, T.; Lagarde, N.; Miglio, A.

    2017-01-01

    , the behaviour of nitrogen data along the evolution confirms the existence of non-canonical extramixing on the red giant branch (RGB) for all low-mass stars in the field. But more surprisingly, the data indicate that nitrogen has been depleted between the RGB tip and the red clump. This may suggest that some...

  20. Mycobacterium bovis Infection of Red Fox, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelet, Lorraine; De Cruz, Krystel; Hénault, Sylvie; Tambosco, Jennifer; Richomme, Céline; Réveillaud, Édouard; Gares, Hélène; Moyen, Jean-Louis; Boschiroli, María Laura

    2018-06-01

    Mycobacterium bovis infection in wild red foxes was found in southern France, where livestock and other wildlife species are infected. Foxes frequently interact with cattle but have been underestimated as a reservoir of M. bovis. Our results suggest a possible role of the red fox in the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis.

  1. Red blood cell alloimmunization after blood transfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonewille, Henk

    2008-01-01

    Current pretransfusion policy requires the patients’ serum to be tested for the presence of irregular red blood cell antibodies. In case of an antibody, red blood cells lacking the corresponding antigen are transfused after an antiglobulin crossmatch. The aim of the studies in this thesis is

  2. Moving Forward with Computational Red Teaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Red Teaming is used across both public and private sectors and is not the sole domain of the military. Red Team Consulting (2011) notes that “the use...open for review. Consider also the context of application. Oh (2009) explains how globalisation , the rise of emerging powers, environmental

  3. Seeing red to being red: conserved genetic mechanism for red cone oil droplets and co-option for red coloration in birds and turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twyman, Hanlu; Valenzuela, Nicole; Literman, Robert; Andersson, Staffan; Mundy, Nicholas I

    2016-08-17

    Avian ketocarotenoid pigments occur in both the red retinal oil droplets that contribute to colour vision and bright red coloration used in signalling. Turtles are the only other tetrapods with red retinal oil droplets, and some also display red carotenoid-based coloration. Recently, the CYP2J19 gene was strongly implicated in ketocarotenoid synthesis in birds. Here, we investigate CYP2J19 evolution in relation to colour vision and red coloration in reptiles using genomic and expression data. We show that turtles, but not crocodiles or lepidosaurs, possess a CYP2J19 orthologue, which arose via gene duplication before turtles and archosaurs split, and which is strongly and specifically expressed in the ketocarotenoid-containing retina and red integument. We infer that CYP2J19 initially functioned in colour vision in archelosaurs and conclude that red ketocarotenoid-based coloration evolved independently in birds and turtles via gene regulatory changes of CYP2J19 Our results suggest that red oil droplets contributed to colour vision in dinosaurs and pterosaurs. © 2016 The Author(s).

  4. Improving Mineral Nutrition of Micropropagated Red Raspberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    In vitro propagation is important for fast multiplication of a wide range of nursery crops, including red raspberry. The variation in genetic background of the many red raspberry cultivars makes it difficult to successfully use one growth medium for all. Although most cultivars will grow on Murashig...

  5. Red Sea as a source for bioprospecting

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2015-01-01

    King-Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) is located on the shores of the Red Sea in Saudi Arabia. The Red Sea is well known for its unique environment, harboring various microbes capable of surviving in salty brines. We collected

  6. The Austrian x red pine hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. B. Critchfield

    1963-01-01

    The genetic improvement of red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) presents tree breeders with one of their most difficult problems. Not only is this valuable species remarkably uniform, but until 1955 it resisted all attempts to cross it with other pines. In that year red pine and Austrian pine (P. nigra var. austriaca [...

  7. Red Dirt Thinking on Aspiration and Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Sam; Guenther, John

    2013-01-01

    This article sets the scene for the series of five articles on "red dirt thinking". It first introduces the idea behind red dirt thinking as opposed to "blue sky thinking". Both accept that there are any number of creative and expansive solutions and possibilities to identified challenges--in this case, the challenge of…

  8. Human Red Cells With Paroxysmal Nocturnal Haemoglobinuria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purified cells were used as hosts for the culture of P.falciparum in vitro. Results show that GPI-linked molecules on the red cell surface are not required for the efficient entry of the parasites, and that the PNH red cells are competent to sustain the growth of P.falciparum. Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol ...

  9. La red sobre trabajo infantil peligroso (Red Tip The hazardous child labor network (Red Tip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Varillas

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En el mundo, aproximadamente 351.7 millones de niños entre 5 y 17 años realizaban algún tipo de actividad económica, de ellos 170.5 millones (48.5% realizaban algún tipo de trabajo considerado peligroso. Un alto porcentaje se encuentra en la agricultura, otros en minas, manufacturas, ladrilleras, predominantemente en la economía informal. El Convenio 138 (cobre la edad mínima de admisión en el empleo de la OIT y el Convenio 182 (sobre las peores formas de trabajo infantil, definen como trabajo infantil peligroso el que puede afectar la salud, seguridad y moralidad de los menores. Estudios específicos sobre los menores muestran su susceptibilidad particular frente a los riesgos laborales, aumentando la peligrosidad para su normal desarrollo y crecimiento: "los niños no son adultos pequeños". Los profesionales de la seguridad y salud en el trabajo pueden colaborar con los profesionales y las organizaciones especializadas en el trabajo infantil, en la definición y caracterización de lo que significa el trabajo infantil peligroso. Para ello se ha conformado la Red sobre Trabajo Infantil Peligroso (Red TIP, con la finalidad de articular estos dos espacios, orientados a eliminar el trabajo infantil peligroso y rescatar al menor y devolverle la oportunidad de sonreír ahora y en el futuro.In the world, approximately 351.7 millions children between 5 and 17 years old work. Of them, 170,5 millions (48.5% work at the hazardous child labor forms. A high percentage is in agriculture, others in mines, manufactures, brick makers, predominantly in informal economy. The 138 Convention of ILO and the 182 Convention, define as hazardous child labor activities that can affect the health, safety and morality of the children. Studies on the children at work point out their particular susceptibility to some occupational risks, increasing the danger for their normal development and growth. "They are not little adults". The occupational health

  10. 21 CFR 640.10 - Red Blood Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Blood Cells. 640.10 Section 640.10 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.10 Red Blood Cells. The proper name of this product shall be Red Blood Cells. The product is defined as red blood cells remaining...

  11. White dwarf-red dwarf binaries in the Galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselaar, E.J.M. van den

    2007-01-01

    This PhD thesis shows several studies on white dwarf - red dwarf binaries. White dwarfs are the end products of most stars and red dwarfs are normal hydrogen burning low-mass stars. White dwarf - red dwarf binaries are both blue (white dwarf) and red (red dwarf). Together with the fact that they are

  12. From red giants to planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, S.

    1982-01-01

    The transition from red giants to planetary nebulae is studied by comparing the spectral characteristics of red giant envelopes and planetary nebulae. Observational and theoretical evidence both suggest that remnants of red giant envelopes may still be present in planetary nebula systems and should have significant effects on their formation. The dynamical effects of the interaction of stellar winds from central stars of planetary nebulae with the remnant red giant envelopes are evaluated and the mechanism found to be capable of producing the observed masses and momenta of planetary nebulae. The observed mass-radii relation of planetary nebulae may also be best explained by the interacting winds model. The possibility that red giant mass loss, and therefore the production of planetary nebulae, is different between Population I and II systems is also discussed

  13. Red algae and their use in papermaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yung-Bum; Lee, Youn-Woo; Lee, Chun-Han; You, Hack-Chul

    2010-04-01

    Gelidialian red algae, that contain rhizoidal filaments, except the family Gelidiellaceae were processed to make bleached pulps, which can be used as raw materials for papermaking. Red algae consist of rhizoidal filaments, cortical cells usually reddish in color, and medullary cells filled with mucilaginous carbohydrates. Red algae pulp consists of mostly rhizoidal filaments. Red algae pulp of high brightness can be produced by extracting mucilaginous carbohydrates after heating the algae in an aqueous medium and subsequently treating the extracted with bleaching chemicals. In this study, we prepared paper samples from bleached pulps obtained from two red algae species (Gelidium amansii and Gelidium corneum) and compared their properties to those of bleached wood chemical pulps. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Red and Green Fluorescence from Oral Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volgenant, Catherine M C; Hoogenkamp, Michel A; Krom, Bastiaan P; Janus, Marleen M; Ten Cate, Jacob M; de Soet, Johannes J; Crielaard, Wim; van der Veen, Monique H

    2016-01-01

    Red and green autofluorescence have been observed from dental plaque after excitation by blue light. It has been suggested that this red fluorescence is related to caries and the cariogenic potential of dental plaque. Recently, it was suggested that red fluorescence may be related to gingivitis. Little is known about green fluorescence from biofilms. Therefore, we assessed the dynamics of red and green fluorescence in real-time during biofilm formation. In addition, the fluorescence patterns of biofilm formed from saliva of eight different donors are described under simulated gingivitis and caries conditions. Biofilm formation was analysed for 12 hours under flow conditions in a microfluidic BioFlux flow system with high performance microscopy using a camera to allow live cell imaging. For fluorescence images dedicated excitation and emission filters were used. Both green and red fluorescence were linearly related with the total biomass of the biofilms. All biofilms displayed to some extent green and red fluorescence, with higher red and green fluorescence intensities from biofilms grown in the presence of serum (gingivitis simulation) as compared to the sucrose grown biofilms (cariogenic simulation). Remarkably, cocci with long chain lengths, presumably streptococci, were observed in the biofilms. Green and red fluorescence were not found homogeneously distributed within the biofilms: highly fluorescent spots (both green and red) were visible throughout the biomass. An increase in red fluorescence from the in vitro biofilms appeared to be related to the clinical inflammatory response of the respective saliva donors, which was previously assessed during an in vivo period of performing no-oral hygiene. The BioFlux model proved to be a reliable model to assess biofilm fluorescence. With this model, a prediction can be made whether a patient will be prone to the development of gingivitis or caries.

  15. Red and Green Fluorescence from Oral Biofilms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M C Volgenant

    Full Text Available Red and green autofluorescence have been observed from dental plaque after excitation by blue light. It has been suggested that this red fluorescence is related to caries and the cariogenic potential of dental plaque. Recently, it was suggested that red fluorescence may be related to gingivitis. Little is known about green fluorescence from biofilms. Therefore, we assessed the dynamics of red and green fluorescence in real-time during biofilm formation. In addition, the fluorescence patterns of biofilm formed from saliva of eight different donors are described under simulated gingivitis and caries conditions. Biofilm formation was analysed for 12 hours under flow conditions in a microfluidic BioFlux flow system with high performance microscopy using a camera to allow live cell imaging. For fluorescence images dedicated excitation and emission filters were used. Both green and red fluorescence were linearly related with the total biomass of the biofilms. All biofilms displayed to some extent green and red fluorescence, with higher red and green fluorescence intensities from biofilms grown in the presence of serum (gingivitis simulation as compared to the sucrose grown biofilms (cariogenic simulation. Remarkably, cocci with long chain lengths, presumably streptococci, were observed in the biofilms. Green and red fluorescence were not found homogeneously distributed within the biofilms: highly fluorescent spots (both green and red were visible throughout the biomass. An increase in red fluorescence from the in vitro biofilms appeared to be related to the clinical inflammatory response of the respective saliva donors, which was previously assessed during an in vivo period of performing no-oral hygiene. The BioFlux model proved to be a reliable model to assess biofilm fluorescence. With this model, a prediction can be made whether a patient will be prone to the development of gingivitis or caries.

  16. Red Misfits in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey: properties of star-forming red galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Fraser A.; Parker, Laura C.; Roberts, Ian D.

    2018-06-01

    We study Red Misfits, a population of red, star-forming galaxies in the local Universe. We classify galaxies based on inclination-corrected optical colours and specific star formation rates derived from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. Although the majority of blue galaxies are star-forming and most red galaxies exhibit little to no ongoing star formation, a small but significant population of galaxies (˜11 per cent at all stellar masses) are classified as red in colour yet actively star-forming. We explore a number of properties of these galaxies and demonstrate that Red Misfits are not simply dusty or highly inclined blue cloud galaxies or quiescent red galaxies with poorly constrained star formation. The proportion of Red Misfits is nearly independent of environment, and this population exhibits both intermediate morphologies and an enhanced likelihood of hosting an active galactic nucleus. We conclude that Red Misfits are a transition population, gradually quenching on their way to the red sequence and this quenching is dominated by internal processes rather than environmentally driven processes. We discuss the connection between Red Misfits and other transition galaxy populations, namely S0s, red spirals, and green valley galaxies.

  17. Performans Produksi, Jumlah Nematoda Usus, dan Profil Metabolik Darah Kambing yang Diberi Pakan Hijauan Rawa Kalimantan (PRODUCTION PERFORMANS, INTESTINE NEMATODE NUMBER AND METABOLIC BLOOD PROFILE OF GOAT FEED WITH BORNEO SWAMP FORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tintin Rostini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims were to determine the effect of the use of swamp forage on the performances, the number of nematodes and the blood metabolic profile in goats. In this study, as many as 24 male goats were used; consisted of 12 local male goats (kacang goat with the average weight ranged from 12.65±1.65kg (diversity coefficient 11.34% and 12 PE goats with the average weight of 18.05±0.62 kg (diversity coefficient 7.54%. This research used a completely randomized factorial design (CRD 2x4 with 2 main treatments x 4 factorials and three replications. The first factor was based on the goat breed being used (Kacang and Peranakan Etawah. The second factor was based on four differents feed percentages that used, i.e.: (PR0 40% grass forage and 60% concentrate, (PR1 60% grass forage and 40% concentrate, (PR2, 40% of swamp forage and concentrates 60%, (PR3 60% swamp forage and 40% concentrate. Data were analyzed by using analysis of variance, then continued with Duncan test. The results of this study showed that the consumption of nutrients, daily weight gain and feed efficiency in treatment provision of swamp forage up to 60% (PR3 gave best result based on the metabolic profile of blood (total protein, glucose, cholesterol, Ca and P. The number of worm eggs in the goat feces were still in normal range. It was concluded that swamp forage is a potential forage that can be used as an alternative towards grass forage for the goats. ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh penggunaan hijauan rawa terhadap performans, jumlah nematoda, dan profil metabolik darah kambing. Pada penelitian ini digunakan ternak kambing jantan sebanyak 24 ekor. Kambing yang digunakan terdiri dari 12 ekor kambing kacang jantan dengan rataan bobot badan berkisar antara 12,65 ± 1,65 kg (koefisien keragaman 11,34% dan 12 ekor kambing peranakan etawah (PE dengan rataan bobot badan 18,05 ± 0,62 kg (koefisien keragaman 7,54%. Dalam penelitian ini digunakan rancangan

  18. Footpaths in the Stuff Swamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dron, Jon; Boyne, Chris; Mitchell, Richard

    This paper discusses stigmergy (i.e., the effect of communication through the environment) in relation to the Internet, especially with regard to World Wide Web-based learning. The paper begins by examining ways in which stigmergy occurs on the Web and then goes on to describe its use in the construction of a continually evolving system, CoFIND…

  19. Reaching for the red planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, L

    1996-05-01

    The distant shores of Mars were reached by numerous U.S. and Russian spacecraft throughout the 1960s to mid 1970s. Nearly 20 years have passed since those successful missions which orbited and landed on the Martian surface. Two Soviet probes headed for the planet in July, 1988, but later failed. In August 1993, the U.S. Mars Observer suddenly went silent just three days before it was to enter orbit around the planet and was never heard from again. In late 1996, there will be renewed activity on the launch pads with three probes departing for the red planet: 1) The U.S. Mars Global Surveyor will be launched in November on a Delta II rocket and will orbit the planet for global mapping purposes; 2) Russia's Mars '96 mission, scheduled to fly in November on a Proton launcher, consists of an orbiter, two small stations which will land on the Martian surface, and two penetrators that will plow into the terrain; and finally, 3) a U.S. Discovery-class spacecraft, the Mars Pathfinder, has a December launch date atop a Delta II booster. The mission features a lander and a microrover that will travel short distances over Martian territory. These missions usher in a new phase of Mars exploration, setting the stage for an unprecedented volley of spacecraft that will orbit around, land on, drive across, and perhaps fly at low altitudes over the planet.

  20. A red-letter day !

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Today is a red-letter day for the LHC and CERN as a beam of protons has travelled around the LHC ring for the very first time! The start of LHC operation marks the end of a long period in which you have given your all, and this first particle beam circulating in the accelerator now paves the way for discoveries that will open up a whole new field of knowledge. The history of the LHC began in 1984 with a debate on the possible objectives of a future accelerator, based on the state of our knowledge at that time. The CERN Council then approved the single-stage construction of the LHC in 1996, giving the go-ahead for the work that has now reached completion. For the past twelve years, physicists, engineers and technicians from CERN and its associated institutes have been engaged in constructing the three pillars of the LHC: the accelerator (including the upgrade of the existing accelerator chain), the four experiments, and the computing ...

  1. Red Shifts and Existing Speculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisenberg, Sol

    2009-03-01

    There are many current flaws, mysteries, and errors in the standard model of the universe - all based upon speculative interpretation of many excellent and verified observations. The most serious cause of some errors is the speculation about the meaning of the redshifts observed in the 1930s by Hubble. He ascribed the redshifts as due to ``an apparent Doppler effect''. This led to speculation that the remote stars were receding, and the universe was expanding -- although without observational proof of the actual receding velocity of the stars. The age of the universe, based upon the Hubble constant is pure speculation because of lack of velocity demonstration. The belief in expansion, the big bang, and of inflation should be reexamined. Also, the redshift cannot always be used as a distance measure, particularly for photons from quasars containing massive black holes that can reduce photon energy through gravitational attraction. If the linear Hubble constant is extrapolated to the most remote super novae and beyond, it would eventually require that the corresponding photon energy go to zero or become negative -- according to Hubble linear relationship. This should require a reexamination of the meaning of the red shift and the speculative consequences and give a model with fewer mysteries.

  2. Red Blood Cell Storage Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl J. Kor

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The past two decades have witnessed increased scrutiny regarding efficacy and risk of the once unquestioned therapy of red blood cell (RBC transfusion. Simultaneously, a variety of changes have been identified within the RBC and storage media during RBC preservation that are correlated with reduced tissue oxygenation and transfusion-associated adverse effects. These alterations are collectively termed the storage lesion and include extensive biochemical, biomechanical, and immunologic changes involving cells of diverse origin. Time-dependent falls is 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, intracellular RBC adenosine triphosphate, and nitric oxide have been shown to impact RBC deformability and delivery of oxygen to the end-organ. The accumulation of biologic response modifiers such as soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L, lysophosphatidylcholine (lyso-PC, and Regulated on Activation, Normal T-cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES have been associated with altered recipient immune function as well. This review will address the alterations occurring within the RBC and storage media during RBC preservation and will address the potential clinical consequence thereof.

  3. Decadal Stability of Red Sea Mangroves

    KAUST Repository

    Almahasheer, Hanan; Aljowair, Abdulaziz; Duarte, Carlos M.; Irigoien, Xabier

    2015-01-01

    Across the Earth, mangroves play an important role in coastal protection, both as nurseries and carbon sinks. However, due to various human and environmental impacts, the coverage of mangroves is declining on a global scale. The Red Sea is in the northern-most area of the distribution range of mangroves. Little is known about the surface covered by mangroves at this northern limit or about the changes experienced by Red Sea mangroves. We sought to study changes in the coverage of Red Sea mangroves by using multi-temporal Landsat data (1972, 2000 and 2013). Interestingly, our results show that there has been no decline in mangrove stands in the Red Sea but rather a slight increase. The area covered by mangroves is about 69 Km2 along the African shore and 51 Km2 along the Arabian Peninsula shore. From 1972 to 2013, the area covered by mangroves increased by about 0.29% y-1. We conclude that the trend exhibited by Red Sea mangroves departs from the general global decline of mangroves. Along the Red Sea, mangroves expanded by 12% over the 41 years from 1972 to 2013. Losses to Red Sea mangroves, mostly due to coastal development, have been compensated by afforestation projects.

  4. Uptake of carnitine by red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campa, M.; Borum, P.

    1986-01-01

    A significant amount of blood carnitine (70% of cord blood and 40% of blood from healthy adults) is partitioned into the red blood cell compartment of whole blood. Data indicate that the plasma compartment and the red blood cell compartment of whole blood represent different metabolic pools of carnitine. There are no data to indicate that red blood cells synthesize carnitine, but our understanding of the uptake of carnitine by red blood cells is negligible. Red blood cells were obtained from healthy adults, washed twice with normal saline, and used for uptake experiments. When the cells were incubated at 37 0 C in the presence of 14 C-carnitine, radioactivity was found both in the soluble cytosolic and membrane fractions of the cells following lysis. The uptake was dependent upon the time of incubation, temperature of incubation, and carnitine concentration in the incubation medium. Washed red blood cell membranes incubated with 14 C-carnitine showed specific binding of radioactivity. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that red blood cells have an uptake mechanism for L-carnitine

  5. Decadal Stability of Red Sea Mangroves

    KAUST Repository

    Almahasheer, Hanan

    2015-12-15

    Across the Earth, mangroves play an important role in coastal protection, both as nurseries and carbon sinks. However, due to various human and environmental impacts, the coverage of mangroves is declining on a global scale. The Red Sea is in the northern-most area of the distribution range of mangroves. Little is known about the surface covered by mangroves at this northern limit or about the changes experienced by Red Sea mangroves. We sought to study changes in the coverage of Red Sea mangroves by using multi-temporal Landsat data (1972, 2000 and 2013). Interestingly, our results show that there has been no decline in mangrove stands in the Red Sea but rather a slight increase. The area covered by mangroves is about 69 Km2 along the African shore and 51 Km2 along the Arabian Peninsula shore. From 1972 to 2013, the area covered by mangroves increased by about 0.29% y-1. We conclude that the trend exhibited by Red Sea mangroves departs from the general global decline of mangroves. Along the Red Sea, mangroves expanded by 12% over the 41 years from 1972 to 2013. Losses to Red Sea mangroves, mostly due to coastal development, have been compensated by afforestation projects.

  6. RED ONE kuvaajan työkaluna

    OpenAIRE

    Käki, Ossi

    2010-01-01

    Opinnäytetyöni projektiosa, 30-minuuttinen lyhytelokuva Huomisen Muisto – Memory of Tomorrow kuvattiin RED ONE -kameralla vuosina 2008-2009. Opinnäytetyöni kirjallinen osuus tutkii miten RED ONE soveltuu kuvaajan työvälineeksi lyhytelokuvassa. Huomisen Muisto oli ensimmäinen Tampereen ammattikorkeakoulussa RED ONE:lla kuvattu elokuva ja koko tekninen workflow piti kehittää lähes nollasta. Paljon kuvan digitaalista jälkikäsittelyä sisältävänä science fiction -elokuvana Huomisen Muisto asetti i...

  7. Psychology: red enhances human performance in contests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Russell A; Barton, Robert A

    2005-05-19

    Red coloration is a sexually selected, testosterone-dependent signal of male quality in a variety of animals, and in some non-human species a male's dominance can be experimentally increased by attaching artificial red stimuli. Here we show that a similar effect can influence the outcome of physical contests in humans--across a range of sports, we find that wearing red is consistently associated with a higher probability of winning. These results indicate not only that sexual selection may have influenced the evolution of human response to colours, but also that the colour of sportswear needs to be taken into account to ensure a level playing field in sport.

  8. Synthetic biology as red herring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Beth

    2013-12-01

    It has become commonplace to say that with the advent of technologies like synthetic biology the line between artifacts and living organisms, policed by metaphysicians since antiquity, is beginning to blur. But that line began to blur 10,000 years ago when plants and animals were first domesticated; and has been thoroughly blurred at least since agriculture became the dominant human subsistence pattern many millennia ago. Synthetic biology is ultimately only a late and unexceptional offshoot of this prehistoric development. From this perspective, then, synthetic biology is a red herring, distracting us from more thorough philosophical consideration of the most truly revolutionary human practice-agriculture. In the first section of this paper I will make this case with regard to ontology, arguing that synthetic biology crosses no ontological lines that were not crossed already in the Neolithic. In the second section I will construct a parallel case with regard to cognition, arguing that synthetic biology as biological engineering represents no cognitive advance over what was required for domestication and the new agricultural subsistence pattern it grounds. In the final section I will make the case with regard to human existence, arguing that synthetic biology, even if wildly successful, is not in a position to cause significant existential change in what it is to be human over and above the massive existential change caused by the transition to agriculture. I conclude that a longer historical perspective casts new light on some important issues in philosophy of technology and environmental philosophy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Red Wine Polyphenols for Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shan; Sun, Cuirong; Pan, Yuanjiang

    2008-01-01

    Conventional cancer therapies, the second leading cause of death worldwide, result in serious side effects and, at best, merely extend the patient's lifespan by a few years. Searching for effective prevention is of high priority in both basic and clinical sciences. In recent decades natural products have been considered to be an important source of cancer chemopreventive agents. Red wine polyphenols, which consisted of various powerful antioxidants such as flavonoids and stilbenes, have been implicated in cancer prevention and that promote human health without recognizable side effects. Since resveratrol, a major component of red wine polyphenols, has been studied and reviewed extensively for its chemopreventive activity to interfere with the multi-stage carcinogenesis, this review focuses on recent progress in studies on cancer chemopreventive activities of red wine polyphenol extracts and fractions as well as other red wine polyphenols, like procyanidin B5 analogues and myricetin. PMID:19325788

  10. Red Wine Polyphenols for Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanjiang Pan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional cancer therapies, the second leading cause of death worldwide, result in serious side effects and, at best, merely extend the patient's lifespan by a few years. Searching for effective prevention is of high priority in both basic and clinical sciences. In recent decades natural products have been considered to be an important source of cancer chemopreventive agents. Red wine polyphenols, which consisted of various powerful antioxidants such as flavonoids and stilbenes, have been implicated in cancer prevention and that promote human health without recognizable side effects. Since resveratrol, a major component of red wine polyphenols, has been studied and reviewed extensively for its chemopreventive activity to interfere with the multi-stage carcinogenesis, this review focuses on recent progress in studies on cancer chemopreventive activities of red wine polyphenol extracts and fractions as well as other red wine polyphenols, like procyanidin B5 analogues and myricetin.

  11. sample data Red River_2011-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — OK Fish Kill data from Red River 2011-2013. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Jones-Lepp, T., V. Taguchi, W. Sovocool, D. Betowski, P....

  12. Raoul Kurvitz esitleb : "Armastusest" & "RED" / Heie Treier

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Treier, Heie, 1963-

    2000-01-01

    Näitus "Armastusest" Vaal-galeriis, näituse avamine toimus kunstniku performance'iga. Sõnumina mainitakse Raoul Kurvitza kuraatoriprojekti "RED" Mustpeade Maja valges saalis, loetletud eksponeeritud kunstnikud

  13. Li'l Red Schoolhouse workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Education specialists at Stennis conduct staff development workshops for elementary and secondary teachers of math, science and technology and other subjects as well as specialized workshops conducted in the NASA Li'l Red Schoolhouse.

  14. Red in the Face: Understanding Rosacea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... causing them to lose work or to have low self-esteem,” says Dr. Richard Gallo, a skin expert at the University of California, San Diego. “Many psychological problems are the consequence of having this red, puffy ...

  15. Doppler interpretation of quasar red shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapolsky, H S

    1966-08-05

    The hypothesis that the quasistellar sources (quasars) are local objects moving with velocities close to the speed of light is examined. Provided there is no observational cutoff on apparent bolometric magnitude for the quasars, the transverse Doppler effect leads to the expectation of fewer blue shifts than red shifts for an isotropic distribution of velocities. Such a distribution also yields a function N(z), the number of objects with red shift less than z which is not inconsistent with the present data. On the basis of two extreme assumptions concerning the origin of such rapidly moving sources, we computed curves of red shift plotted against magnitude. In particular, the curve obtained on the assumption that the quasars originated from an explosion in or nearby our own galaxy is in as good agreement with the observations as the curve of cosmological red shift plotted against magnitude.

  16. NOAA NCCOS: New England Red Tide Research

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Alexandrium blooms are one of several algal bloom types often called "red tides," but more correctly referred to as Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). Alexandrium produces...

  17. Avoiding Anemia: Boost Your Red Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Subscribe January 2014 Print this issue Avoiding Anemia Boost Your Red Blood Cells En español Send ... Disease When Blood Cells Bend Wise Choices Preventing Anemia To prevent or treat iron-deficiency anemia: Eat ...

  18. Comparative metagenomics of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Mineta, Katsuhiko

    2016-01-26

    Metagenome produces a tremendous amount of data that comes from the organisms living in the environments. This big data enables us to examine not only microbial genes but also the community structure, interaction and adaptation mechanisms at the specific location and condition. The Red Sea has several unique characteristics such as high salinity, high temperature and low nutrition. These features must contribute to form the unique microbial community during the evolutionary process. Since 2014, we started monthly samplings of the metagenomes in the Red Sea under KAUST-CCF project. In collaboration with Kitasato University, we also collected the metagenome data from the ocean in Japan, which shows contrasting features to the Red Sea. Therefore, the comparative metagenomics of those data provides a comprehensive view of the Red Sea microbes, leading to identify key microbes, genes and networks related to those environmental differences.

  19. Dipeptides from the red alga Acanthopora spicifera

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; De; Kamat, S.Y.

    An investigation of red alga Acanthophora spicifera afforded the known peptide, aurantiamide acetate and a new diastereoisomer of this dipeptide (dia-aurantiamide acetate). This is a first report of aurantiamide acetate from a marine source...

  20. Metagenomic studies of the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, Hayedeh; Ibarra, Martin Augusto; Mineta, Katsuhiko; Gojobori, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    Metagenomics has significantly advanced the field of marine microbial ecology, revealing the vast diversity of previously unknown microbial life forms in different marine niches. The tremendous amount of data generated has enabled identification of a large number of microbial genes (metagenomes), their community interactions, adaptation mechanisms, and their potential applications in pharmaceutical and biotechnology-based industries. Comparative metagenomics reveals that microbial diversity is a function of the local environment, meaning that unique or unusual environments typically harbor novel microbial species with unique genes and metabolic pathways. The Red Sea has an abundance of unique characteristics; however, its microbiota is one of the least studied among marine environments. The Red Sea harbors approximately 25 hot anoxic brine pools, plus a vibrant coral reef ecosystem. Physiochemical studies describe the Red Sea as an oligotrophic environment that contains one of the warmest and saltiest waters in the world with year-round high UV radiations. These characteristics are believed to have shaped the evolution of microbial communities in the Red Sea. Over-representation of genes involved in DNA repair, high-intensity light responses, and osmoregulation were found in the Red Sea metagenomic databases suggesting acquisition of specific environmental adaptation by the Red Sea microbiota. The Red Sea brine pools harbor a diverse range of halophilic and thermophilic bacterial and archaeal communities, which are potential sources of enzymes for pharmaceutical and biotechnology-based application. Understanding the mechanisms of these adaptations and their function within the larger ecosystem could also prove useful in light of predicted global warming scenarios where global ocean temperatures are expected to rise by 1-3°C in the next few decades. In this review, we provide an overview of the published metagenomic studies that were conducted in the Red Sea, and

  1. Photometry of Southern Hemisphere red dwarf stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weistrop, D.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented for a photometric investigation of a spectroscopically selected sample of red dwarf stars in the Southern Hemisphere. Absolute magnitudes and distances for the stars are estimated from broadband red colors. Three stars which may be subluminous are identified, as are several stars which may be within 25 pc. The tangential velocity and velocity dispersion of the sample are similar to values found in other studies of nearby late-type stars.

  2. Red Wine, Resveratrol and Atrial Fibrillation

    OpenAIRE

    Stephan, Laura Siga; Almeida, Eduardo Dytz; Markoski, Melissa Medeiros; Garavaglia, Juliano; Marcadenti, Aline

    2017-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac arrhythmia that is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and overall mortality. Excessive alcohol intake is a well-known risk factor for AF, but this correlation is less clear with light and moderate drinking. Besides, low doses of red wine may acutely prolong repolarization and slow cardiac conduction. Resveratrol, a bioactive polyphenol found in grapes and red wine, has been linked to antiarrhythmic properties and may act as a...

  3. Causes of Red Eye-Uveitis

    OpenAIRE

    Selçuk Sızmaz

    2012-01-01

    Uveitis, being an important cause of ocular morbidity, must be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis and the management of patients with red eye. Uveitis entities can demonstrate variable clinical features. Patients presenting with uveitis must undergo careful systemic evaluation for exact diagnosis and treatment. Studies for standardization of uveitis with variable clinical pictures are emerging. Acute anterior uveitis and panuveitis can cause red eye. The purpose o...

  4. Clinical implications of The Red Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culliford, Penny

    2012-09-01

    This presentation stresses the uniqueness of both the therapist's and patient's personal experience in clinical work and relates this to the significance of The Red Book as Jung's personal odyssey and for me personally as an analyst. I consider The Red Book's enduring relevance alongside recent psychological theories, neuroscience and early mystical writings, and conclude with a clinical vignette of a patient's response to a piece of choral music and subsequent use of active imagination. © 2012, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  5. Red Teaming of Advanced Information Assurance Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DUGGAN, RUTH A.; WOOD, BRADLEY

    1999-01-01

    Red Teaming is an advanced form of assessment that can be used to identify weaknesses in a variety of cyber systems. it is especially beneficial when the target system is still in development when designers can readily affect improvements. This paper discusses the red team analysis process and the author's experiences applying this process to five selected Information Technology Office (ITO) projects. Some detail of the overall methodology, summary results from the five projects, and lessons learned are contained within this paper

  6. The Red Book through the ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Larry K; Peter, Georges; Shulman, Stanford T

    2013-11-01

    The first edition of the Red Book was published in 1938. Since then, there have been numerous advances in the fields of infectious diseases and public health that have decreased morbidity and mortality of infants, children, and adolescents. Over the years, emerging pathogens and disease complexes have been described, sophisticated diagnostic techniques developed, advances in antimicrobial therapy have occurred, and immunizations have been implemented to prevent previously deadly diseases. Of the 18 diseases or organisms in the 1938 edition, 13 are now vaccine-preventable. Since inception of the Red Book, the aims of the editors have been to keep pace with these innovations and to continue to inform the medical community. These goals have made the Red Book a fundamental resource for pediatricians and other health care professionals in terms of guiding diagnosis, therapy, and prevention of infectious diseases. The list of 18 diseases or organisms originally described in the 1938 Red Book has expanded to include over 160 diseases or organisms in the 2012 edition. The pace of biomedical discovery, as well as the amount of information available and the number of methods for its delivery, will continue to accelerate in the future. Integration of information into future editions of the Red Book will ensure that practitioners continue to rely on the Red Book in its various electronic formats for clinical guidance and support.

  7. A Review of Prevention, Diagnosis and Treatment of Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) in Artistic (Synchronized) Swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Sherry; Mountjoy, Margo

    2018-05-03

    The syndrome Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) is a clinical entity characterized by low energy availability (LEA), which can negatively affect the health and performance of both male and female athletes. The underlying mechanism of RED-S is an inadequacy of dietary energy to support optimal health and performance. This syndrome refers to impaired physiological function including metabolic rate, menstrual function, bone health, immunity, protein synthesis, and cardiovascular health, with psychological consequences which can either precede (through restrictive dietary habits) or result from RED-S. The term RED-S extends beyond the condition termed the "Female Athlete Triad". Formerly known as synchronized swimming, artistic swimming is an Olympic sport requiring a high level of fitness as well as technical skill and artistry. The risk of RED-S is high in artistic swimming as it is an aesthetic, judged sport with an emphasis on a lean physique. RED-S is of significant concern in the sport of artistic swimming because of the potential negative effects on physical and mental health as well as consequences on athletic performance. This paper reviews health and performance consequences associated with LEA resulting in RED-S in artistic swimming. Medical and nutritional considerations specific to artistic swimming are reviewed and methods to help detect and manage RED-S are discussed. Prevention and management of RED-S in this athlete population should be a priority for coaches and the sport medicine professionals working with artistic swimming athletes should utilize the RED-S CAT, a Clinical Assessment Tool for screening and managing RED-S.

  8. 27 CFR 9.190 - Red Hill Douglas County, Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Hill Douglas County... Areas § 9.190 Red Hill Douglas County, Oregon. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Hill Douglas County, Oregon”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Red Hill...

  9. What makes red quasars red?. Observational evidence for dust extinction from line ratio analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dohyeong; Im, Myungshin

    2018-02-01

    Red quasars are very red in the optical through near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths, which is possibly due to dust extinction in their host galaxies as expected in a scenario in which red quasars are an intermediate population between merger-driven star-forming galaxies and unobscured type 1 quasars. However, alternative mechanisms also exist to explain their red colors: (i) an intrinsically red continuum; (ii) an unusual high covering factor of the hot dust component, that is, CFHD = LHD/Lbol, where the LHD is the luminosity from the hot dust component and the Lbol is the bolometric luminosity; and (iii) a moderate viewing angle. In order to investigate why red quasars are red, we studied optical and NIR spectra of 20 red quasars at z 0.3 and 0.7, where the usage of the NIR spectra allowed us to look into red quasar properties in ways that are little affected by dust extinction. The Paschen to Balmer line ratios were derived for 13 red quasars and the values were found to be 10 times higher than unobscured type 1 quasars, suggesting a heavy dust extinction with AV > 2.5 mag. Furthermore, the Paschen to Balmer line ratios of red quasars are difficult to explain with plausible physical conditions without adopting the concept of the dust extinction. The CFHD of red quasars are similar to, or marginally higher than, those of unobscured type 1 quasars. The Eddington ratios, computed for 19 out of 20 red quasars, are higher than those of unobscured type 1 quasars (by factors of 3-5), and hence the moderate viewing angle scenario is disfavored. Consequently, these results strongly suggest the dust extinction that is connected to an enhanced nuclear activity as the origin of the red color of red quasars, which is consistent with the merger-driven quasar evolution scenario. Full Table A.1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/610/A31

  10. Reflorestamento de manguezais e o valor de resgate para o seqüestro de carbono atmosférico The reforestation of mangrove swamps and its value in atmospheric carbon sequestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio de Mattos Fonseca

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores afirmam a relevância do reflorestamento de manguezais para projetos de seqüestro de carbono atmosférico, dentro dos princípios do chamado mecanismo de desenvolvimento limpo (MDL,definidos em diversas arenas técnicas e políticas internacionais, dentro da Convenção de Mudanças Climáticas. Descrevem um projeto de pesquisa em andamento, que inclui estudo de caso focalizado em manguezais da laguna de Itaipu (Niterói, RJ, cujo objetivo é selecionar e fazer medições preliminares de parâmetros ecológicos e socioambientais relevantes para a valoração econômica e financeira dos benefícios do reflorestamento. A seleção e as medições servirão como estudo de viabilidade para que projetos semelhantes se qualifiquem para obter apoio financeiro e alcançar sucesso técnico, gerando benefícios ambientais e sociais.The article argues that the reforestation of mangrove swamps is of relevance to projects for sequestering atmospheric carbon, within the principles of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM currently being defined in different technical and political arenas as part of the Convention on Climate Change. The text describes a research project currently under way that includes a case study of mangrove swamps in the Itaipu Lagoon in Niterói, RJ. The project's goal is to select and take preliminary measurements of the ecological and socio-environmental parameters pertinent to the economic and financial valuation of the benefits of reforestation. These parameters will serve as part of feasibility studies that determine whether similar projects up for financing by the CDM qualify for financial support and whether they will achieve technical success that brings environmental and social benefits to the various social actors involved.

  11. The Red Sea Modeling and Forecasting System

    KAUST Repository

    Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-04-01

    Despite its importance for a variety of socio-economical and political reasons and the presence of extensive coral reef gardens along its shores, the Red Sea remains one of the most under-studied large marine physical and biological systems in the global ocean. This contribution will present our efforts to build advanced modeling and forecasting capabilities for the Red Sea, which is part of the newly established Saudi ARAMCO Marine Environmental Research Center at KAUST (SAMERCK). Our Red Sea modeling system compromises both regional and nested costal MIT general circulation models (MITgcm) with resolutions varying between 8 km and 250 m to simulate the general circulation and mesoscale dynamics at various spatial scales, a 10-km resolution Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model to simulate the atmospheric conditions, a 4-km resolution European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM) to simulate the Red Sea ecosystem, and a 1-km resolution WAVEWATCH-III model to simulate the wind driven surface waves conditions. We have also implemented an oil spill model, and a probabilistic dispersion and larval connectivity modeling system (CMS) based on a stochastic Lagrangian framework and incorporating biological attributes. We are using the models outputs together with available observational data to study all aspects of the Red Sea circulations. Advanced monitoring capabilities are being deployed in the Red Sea as part of the SAMERCK, comprising multiple gliders equipped with hydrographical and biological sensors, high frequency (HF) surface current/wave mapping, buoys/ moorings, etc, complementing the available satellite ocean and atmospheric observations and Automatic Weather Stations (AWS). The Red Sea models have also been equipped with advanced data assimilation capabilities. Fully parallel ensemble-based Kalman filtering (EnKF) algorithms have been implemented with the MITgcm and ERSEM for assimilating all available multivariate satellite and in-situ data sets. We

  12. The Red Sea Modeling and Forecasting System

    KAUST Repository

    Hoteit, Ibrahim; Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh; Latif, Hatem; Toye, Habib; Zhan, Peng; Kartadikaria, Aditya R.; Viswanadhapalli, Yesubabu; Yao, Fengchao; Triantafyllou, George; Langodan, Sabique; Cavaleri, Luigi; Guo, Daquan; Johns, Burt

    2015-01-01

    Despite its importance for a variety of socio-economical and political reasons and the presence of extensive coral reef gardens along its shores, the Red Sea remains one of the most under-studied large marine physical and biological systems in the global ocean. This contribution will present our efforts to build advanced modeling and forecasting capabilities for the Red Sea, which is part of the newly established Saudi ARAMCO Marine Environmental Research Center at KAUST (SAMERCK). Our Red Sea modeling system compromises both regional and nested costal MIT general circulation models (MITgcm) with resolutions varying between 8 km and 250 m to simulate the general circulation and mesoscale dynamics at various spatial scales, a 10-km resolution Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model to simulate the atmospheric conditions, a 4-km resolution European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM) to simulate the Red Sea ecosystem, and a 1-km resolution WAVEWATCH-III model to simulate the wind driven surface waves conditions. We have also implemented an oil spill model, and a probabilistic dispersion and larval connectivity modeling system (CMS) based on a stochastic Lagrangian framework and incorporating biological attributes. We are using the models outputs together with available observational data to study all aspects of the Red Sea circulations. Advanced monitoring capabilities are being deployed in the Red Sea as part of the SAMERCK, comprising multiple gliders equipped with hydrographical and biological sensors, high frequency (HF) surface current/wave mapping, buoys/ moorings, etc, complementing the available satellite ocean and atmospheric observations and Automatic Weather Stations (AWS). The Red Sea models have also been equipped with advanced data assimilation capabilities. Fully parallel ensemble-based Kalman filtering (EnKF) algorithms have been implemented with the MITgcm and ERSEM for assimilating all available multivariate satellite and in-situ data sets. We

  13. 7X performance results - final report : ASCI Red vs Red Storm.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinge, Dennis C. (Cray Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Davis, Michael E. (Cray Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Haskell, Karen H.; Ballance, Robert A.; Gardiner, Thomas Anthony; Stevenson, Joel O.; Noe, John P.

    2011-04-01

    The goal of the 7X performance testing was to assure Sandia National Laboratories, Cray Inc., and the Department of Energy that Red Storm would achieve its performance requirements which were defined as a comparison between ASCI Red and Red Storm. Our approach was to identify one or more problems for each application in the 7X suite, run those problems at multiple processor sizes in the capability computing range, and compare the results between ASCI Red and Red Storm. The first part of this report describes the two computer systems, the applications in the 7X suite, the test problems, and the results of the performance tests on ASCI Red and Red Storm. During the course of the testing on Red Storm, we had the opportunity to run the test problems in both single-core mode and dual-core mode and the second part of this report describes those results. Finally, we reflect on lessons learned in undertaking a major head-to-head benchmark comparison.

  14. Red mud characterization using nuclear analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obhodas, J.; Sudac, D.; Matjacic, L.; Valkovic, V.

    2011-01-01

    Red mud is a toxic waste left as a byproduct in aluminum production Bayer process. Since it contains significant concentrations of other chemical elements interesting for industry, including REE, it is also potential secondary ore source. Recent events in some countries have shown that red mud presents a serious environmental hazard if not properly stored. The subject of our study is the red mud from an ex-aluminum plant in Obrovac, Croatia, left from processing of bauxite mined during late 70's and early 80's at the eastern Adriatic coast and since than stored in open concrete basins for more than 30 years. We have used energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis (both tube and radioactive source excitation), fast neutron activation analysis and passive gamma spectrometry to identify a number of elements present in the red mud, their concentration levels and radioactivity in the red mud. The high concentrations of Al, Si, Ca, Ti and Fe have been measured. Chemical elements Sc, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Br, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Pb, Th and U were found in lower concentrations. No significant levels of radioactivity have been measured. (authors)

  15. Features of Red Sea Water Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartadikaria, Aditya; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-04-01

    Features of Red Sea water mass can be divided into three types but best to be grouped into two different classes that are split at the potential density line σθ=27.4. The surface water (0-50 m) and the intermediate water (50-200 m) have nearly identical types of water mass. They appear as a maxima salinity layer for the water mass that has σθ > 26.0, and as a minimum salinity layer for water mass that has σθ water masses are strongly affected by mixing that is controlled by seasonal variability, fresh water intrusion of the Gulf of Aden Intermediate Water (GAIW), and eddies variability. Two types of mixing; isopycnal and diapycnal mixing are part of important physical phenomena that explain the change of water mass in the Red Sea. The isopycnal mixing occurs at the neutral potential density line, connecting the Red Sea with its adjacent channel, the Gulf of Aden. Diapycnal mixing is found as a dominant mixing mode in the surface of the Red Sea Water and mainly due to energetic eddy activity. Density gradients, across which diapycnal mixing occurs, in the Red Sea are mainly due to large variations in salinity. The isolation of an extreme haline water mass below the thermocline contributes to the generation of the latitudinal shift and low diapycnal mixing. This finding further explains the difference of spatial kinetic mixing between the RSW and the Indian Ocean basin.

  16. Shape memory of human red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Thomas M

    2004-05-01

    The human red cell can be deformed by external forces but returns to the biconcave resting shape after removal of the forces. If after such shape excursions the rim is always formed by the same part of the membrane, the cell is said to have a memory of its biconcave shape. If the rim can form anywhere on the membrane, the cell would have no shape memory. The shape memory was probed by an experiment called go-and-stop. Locations on the membrane were marked by spontaneously adhering latex spheres. Shape excursions were induced by shear flow. In virtually all red cells, a shape memory was found. After stop of flow and during the return of the latex spheres to the original location, the red cell shape was biconcave. The return occurred by a tank-tread motion of the membrane. The memory could not be eliminated by deforming the red cells in shear flow up to 4 h at room temperature as well as at 37 degrees C. It is suggested that 1). the characteristic time of stress relaxation is >80 min and 2). red cells in vivo also have a shape memory.

  17. Features of Red Sea Water Masses

    KAUST Repository

    Kartadikaria, Aditya R.

    2015-04-01

    Features of Red Sea water mass can be divided into three types but best to be grouped into two different classes that are split at the potential density line σθ=27.4. The surface water (0-50 m) and the intermediate water (50-200 m) have nearly identical types of water mass. They appear as a maxima salinity layer for the water mass that has σθ > 26.0, and as a minimum salinity layer for water mass that has σθ < 26.0. These types of water masses are strongly affected by mixing that is controlled by seasonal variability, fresh water intrusion of the Gulf of Aden Intermediate Water (GAIW), and eddies variability. Two types of mixing; isopycnal and diapycnal mixing are part of important physical phenomena that explain the change of water mass in the Red Sea. The isopycnal mixing occurs at the neutral potential density line, connecting the Red Sea with its adjacent channel, the Gulf of Aden. Diapycnal mixing is found as a dominant mixing mode in the surface of the Red Sea Water and mainly due to energetic eddy activity. Density gradients, across which diapycnal mixing occurs, in the Red Sea are mainly due to large variations in salinity. The isolation of an extreme haline water mass below the thermocline contributes to the generation of the latitudinal shift and low diapycnal mixing. This finding further explains the difference of spatial kinetic mixing between the RSW and the Indian Ocean basin.

  18. Male red ornamentation is associated with female red sensitivity in sticklebacks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingolf P Rick

    Full Text Available Sexual selection theory proposes correlated evolutionary changes in mating preferences and secondary sexual characters based on a positive genetic correlation between preference and the preferred trait. Empirical work has provided support for a genetic covariation between female preference and male attractiveness in several taxa. Here, we study parent and offspring visual traits in threespine sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus. While focusing on the proximate basis of mating preferences, we compare the red breeding coloration of males, which strongly contributes to female choice, with their daughters' red sensitivity measured by optomotor response thresholds. We show that the red color expression of fathers correlates well with their daughters' red sensitivity. Given that a within-population genetic correlation between signal and preference was experimentally confirmed for the red coloration in sticklebacks, our results indicate a proximate mechanism in terms of perceptual sensitivity being involved in the co-evolution of female preferences and male mating signals.

  19. Great red spot dependence on solar activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schatten, K.H.

    1979-01-01

    A new inquiry has been made into the question of whether Jupiter's Great Red Spot shows a solar activity dependence. From 1892 to 1947 a clear correlation was present. A dearth of sightings in the seventeenth century, along with the Maunder Minimum, further supports the relation. An anticorrelation, however, from l948 to l967 removed support for such an effect. The old observations have reexamined and recent observations have also been studied. The author reexamines this difficult question and suggests a possible physical mechanism for a Sun-Jovian weather relation. Prinn and Lewis' conversion reaction of Phosphine gas to triclinic red phosphorous crystals is a reaction dependent upon solar radiation. It may explain the dependence found, as well as the striking appearance of the Great Red Spot in the UV

  20. Seasonal Overturning Circulation in the Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, F.; Hoteit, I.; Koehl, A.

    2010-12-01

    The Red Sea exhibits a distinct seasonal overturning circulation. In winter, a typical two-layer exchange structure, with a fresher inflow from the Gulf of Aden on top of an outflow from the Red Sea, is established. In summer months (June to September) this circulation pattern is changed to a three-layer structure: a surface outflow from the Red Sea on top of a subsurface intrusion of the Gulf of Aden Intermediate Water and a weakened deep outflow. This seasonal variability is studied using a general circulation model, MITgcm, with 6 hourly NCEP atmospheric forcing. The model is able to reproduce the observed seasonal variability very well. The forcing mechanisms of the seasonal variability related to seasonal surface wind stress and buoyancy flux, and water mass transformation processes associated with the seasonal overturning circulation are analyzed and presented.

  1. 'Rosy Red' Soil in Phoenix's Scoop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows fine-grained material inside the Robotic Arm scoop as seen by the Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) aboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on June 25, 2008, the 30th Martian day, or sol, of the mission. The image shows fine, fluffy, red soil particles collected in a sample called 'Rosy Red.' The sample was dug from the trench named 'Snow White' in the area called 'Wonderland.' Some of the Rosy Red sample was delivered to Phoenix's Optical Microscope and Wet Chemistry Laboratory for analysis. The RAC provides its own illumination, so the color seen in RAC images is color as seen on Earth, not color as it would appear on Mars. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  2. Red textures and the work of juxtaposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne A. Kratz

    Full Text Available Simon Gush's evocative work Red is an installation, an exhibit, a film, a website, and a provocation to think about what these different forms convey and do, and how they do so. What kinds of engagement, work and knowledge production are involved in curating, designing and creating work in different formats, each of which combines varied media and forms of expression? This article considers the design and interpretive possibilities of Red's different forms, paying particular attention to juxtaposition as a fundamental technique in designing and constructing exhibits, films and websites. The analysis examines the layerings, interactions, timings and textures involved and draws in other exhibitions to highlight the ways that Red and history museums approach their work and relations to time, history and historiography.

  3. Infrared Model Spectra for Evolving Red Supergiants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Won Suh

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available The space and ground based infrared spectra of red supergiants are modeled and arranged in order of their evolutionary status with their theoretical model parameters. The chemical compositions of the dust shells around red supergiants are affected by the nuclear reaction and dredge-up processes of the cental stars. The processes are sensitively dependent on the initial mass, the initial chemical composition, and the evolutionary status. Miras, infrared carbon stars, and OH/IR stars have close link in their evolution in manu aspects, i,e., the chemical composition, the optical depths and the mass loss rates. The evolutionary tracks for the three classes of red supergiants on infrared two-color diagrams have been made from model calculations and IRAS observational data.

  4. Lógicas para la red

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia HUERTAS

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Tim Berners-Lee y sus colegas del World Wide Web Consortium (W3C llamaron «Semantic Web» al que sería el siguiente estadio de desarrollo de la red (inevitablemente traducido al castellano como Web Semántica. La idea detrás de esta evolución de la red es extender con metadatos y reglas lógicas la red basada en el lenguaje html, con el objetivo de que la infraestructura resultante permita a las máquinas entender los datos de la red de la misma forma que los entendemos los humanos. Así, añadir lógica a la red permitiría a los ordenadores tomar decisiones, hacer inferencias y responder preguntas. En este texto se pretende revisar las lógicas que han sido propuestas para permitir esta nueva web inteligente y repasar las cuestiones teóricas y pragmáticas más importantes de la corta pero intensa historia de las lógicas para la red.ABSTRACT: Tim Berners-Lee and their colleagues of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C called «Semantic Web» the next development of the Web. The idea behind this evolution of the Web is to extend the present network based on the HTML language with metadata and logical rules, with the aim of the resulting infrastructure allowing machines to understand Web data in the same way that human beings understand them. Thus, adding logic to the Web would allow the computers to take decisions, to do inferences and to answer questions. In this paper it is intended to revise the logics that have been suggested to allow this new intelligent Web and to revise the most important theoretical and pragmatic questions of the short but intense history of logics for the Web.

  5. Radio universitaria: trabajo en red como imperativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Cavallo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Trabajo en red es un concepto clave en la radio universitaria, tanto desde el punto de vista individual como del colectivo. A través de dos estudios de caso, enfocados en la radio universitaria de Italia y de Colombia, este artículo muestra cómo el trabajo en red ha sido decisivo para el fortalecimiento de su función, la ampliación de su impacto, la conformación de su identidad y el crecimiento de su visibilidad en las sociedades en las cuales desarrollan su labor.

  6. Oenology: red wine procyanidins and vascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corder, R; Mullen, W; Khan, N Q; Marks, S C; Wood, E G; Carrier, M J; Crozier, A

    2006-11-30

    Regular, moderate consumption of red wine is linked to a reduced risk of coronary heart disease and to lower overall mortality, but the relative contribution of wine's alcohol and polyphenol components to these effects is unclear. Here we identify procyanidins as the principal vasoactive polyphenols in red wine and show that they are present at higher concentrations in wines from areas of southwestern France and Sardinia, where traditional production methods ensure that these compounds are efficiently extracted during vinification. These regions also happen to be associated with increased longevity in the population.

  7. Causes of Red Eye-Uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selçuk Sızmaz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Uveitis, being an important cause of ocular morbidity, must be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis and the management of patients with red eye. Uveitis entities can demonstrate variable clinical features. Patients presenting with uveitis must undergo careful systemic evaluation for exact diagnosis and treatment. Studies for standardization of uveitis with variable clinical pictures are emerging. Acute anterior uveitis and panuveitis can cause red eye. The purpose of this current study is to summarize the clinical features and laboratory investigations that could help the differential diagnosis of acute anterior uveitis and panuveitis cases. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: Supplement 57-62

  8. Incorporation of flat glass in red ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, T.C.C.; Morais, A.S.C.; Pereira, P.S.; Monteiro, S.N.; Vieira, C.M.F.

    2011-01-01

    This work have as objective evaluate the effect of incorporation of up to 10% by weight of powdered flat glass , from civil industry, in red ceramic. The bodies were obtained by uniaxial pressing at 20 MPa and fired at temperatures of 850 ° C and 1050 ° C. The parameters studied were linear firing shrinkage, apparent density, water absorption and flexural rupture stress for the evaluation of the mechanical physical properties. The microstructure was observed by scanning electron microscopy and phase identification was performed by X-ray diffraction. The results showed that the waste changes the microstructure and properties of red ceramics. (author)

  9. Pseudoepitheliomatous Hyperplasia in a Red Pigment Tattoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazlouskaya, Viktoryia

    2015-01-01

    Red pigment tattoos are known to cause pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in the skin, frequently simulating squamous cell carcinoma or keratoacanthoma. Herein, the authors present two additional cases of red pigment tattoo pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in which they noted a lichenoid tissue reaction. They reviewed the previously published cases and observed a lichenoid reaction in the histopathological images similar to hypertrophic lichen planus. The authors suggest that these reactions might best be referred to as “lichenoid reaction with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia” or “hypertrophic lichen planus-like reaction.” Accordingly, recognition of an inflammatory component may allow additional treatment options. PMID:26705448

  10. Recovery of rare earths from red mud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bautista, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    The prospect for the recovery of rare earths from red mud, the bauxite tailings from the production of alumina is examined. The Jamaican red mud by far has the higher trace concentrations of lanthanum, cerium, neodymium, and yttrium. Scandium is also present. The dissolution of the rare earth is a major extraction problem because of the large volume of other materials. The recovery processes that have been proposed include the production of co-products such as iron, alumina, and titanium concentrates, with the rare earths going with the titanium. In this paper a critical examination of the possible processes are presented with the recommended research projects to be carried out

  11. Evaluation of Red Light Camera Enforcement at Signalized Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman AlJanahi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The study attempts to find the effectiveness of adopting red light cameras in reducing red light violators. An experimental approach was adopted to investigate the use of red light cameras at signalized intersections in the Kingdom of Bahrain. The study locations were divided into three groups. The first group was related to the approaches monitored with red light cameras. The second group was related to approaches without red light cameras, but located within an intersection that had one of its approaches monitored with red light cameras. The third group was related to intersection approaches located at intersection without red light cameras (controlled sites. A methodology was developed for data collection. The data were then tested statistically by Z-test using proportion methods to compare the proportion of red light violations occurring at different sites. The study found that the proportion of red light violators at approaches monitored with red light cameras was significantly less than those at the controlled sites for most of the time. Approaches without red light cameras located within intersections having red light cameras showed, in general, fewer violations than controlled sites, but the results were not significant for all times of the day. The study reveals that red light cameras have a positive effect on reducing red light violations. However, these conclusions need further evaluations to justify their safe and economic use.

  12. ESR analysis of irradiated red peppers and commercial red peppers in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameya, Hiromi; Ukai, Mitsuko

    2011-01-01

    ESR analysis of γ-ray irradiated and being treated with different processing red pepper was studied. All the red peppers were commercial expect irradiated one. Processing treatment of red pepper was sun drying, mechanical processing (heating sterilization and powdering treatment). All the samples were weighted and analyzed. The ESR spectrum of the red pepper is composed of a singlet at g=2.00. This signal was originated from organic free radical. It is suggested the effect of heating treatment on the radical formation is not so large and powdering treatment will promote the radical formation of red pepper. ESR singlet signal of the irradiated red pepper showed the large signal intensity and the dose-dependence. The singlet signal intensity of irradiated powder sample showed the almost same value as compared with that of the powder sample with heating treatment. Relaxation times (T 1 and T 2 ) of the singlet signal were calculated. The relaxation behavior and relaxation times of the irradiated sample were different from that of the non-irradiated sample. The value of T 1 , the spin lattice relaxation time, of irradiated sample was increased and T 2 , the spin-spin relaxation time, of irradiated sample was decreased. We concluded that the radical formation of the red pepper is mainly depended on the powdering treatment and irradiation. (author)

  13. RED Alert – Early warning or detection of global re-emerging infectious disease (RED)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, Alina [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-13

    This is the PDF of a presentation for a webinar given by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) on the early warning or detection of global re-emerging infectious disease (RED). First, there is an overview of LANL biosurveillance tools. Then, information is given about RED Alert. Next, a demonstration is given of a component prototype. RED Alert is an analysis tool that can provide early warning or detection of the re-emergence of an infectious disease at the global level, but through a local lens.

  14. Thermal degradation of glucosinolates in red cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, K.; Barrett, D.M.; Bosch Suades, C.; Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.

    2006-01-01

    Thermal degradation of individual glucosinolates within the plant matrix was studied. Red cabbage samples were heated at different temperatures for various times. To rule out the influence of enzymatic breakdown and to focus entirely on the thermal degradation of glucosinolates, myrosinase was

  15. South African red data book - Aves

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Siegfried, WR

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available Data sheets are provided on 101 South African bird species thought to be eligible for conservation attention. A list is also provided of 35 species which might qualify for inclusion in a revised South African Red Data Book....

  16. Red Wine, Resveratrol and Atrial Fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavaglia, Juliano; Marcadenti, Aline

    2017-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac arrhythmia that is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and overall mortality. Excessive alcohol intake is a well-known risk factor for AF, but this correlation is less clear with light and moderate drinking. Besides, low doses of red wine may acutely prolong repolarization and slow cardiac conduction. Resveratrol, a bioactive polyphenol found in grapes and red wine, has been linked to antiarrhythmic properties and may act as an inhibitor of both intracellular calcium release and pathological signaling cascades in AF, eliminating calcium overload and preserving the cardiomyocyte contractile function. However, there are still no clinical trials at all that prove that resveratrol supplementation leads to improved outcomes. Besides, no observational study supports a beneficial effect of light or moderate alcohol intake and a lower risk of AF. The purpose of this review is to briefly describe possible beneficial effects of red wine and resveratrol in AF, and also present studies conducted in humans regarding chronic red wine consumption, resveratrol, and AF. PMID:29084143

  17. Red Wine, Resveratrol and Atrial Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Siga Stephan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF is a common cardiac arrhythmia that is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and overall mortality. Excessive alcohol intake is a well-known risk factor for AF, but this correlation is less clear with light and moderate drinking. Besides, low doses of red wine may acutely prolong repolarization and slow cardiac conduction. Resveratrol, a bioactive polyphenol found in grapes and red wine, has been linked to antiarrhythmic properties and may act as an inhibitor of both intracellular calcium release and pathological signaling cascades in AF, eliminating calcium overload and preserving the cardiomyocyte contractile function. However, there are still no clinical trials at all that prove that resveratrol supplementation leads to improved outcomes. Besides, no observational study supports a beneficial effect of light or moderate alcohol intake and a lower risk of AF. The purpose of this review is to briefly describe possible beneficial effects of red wine and resveratrol in AF, and also present studies conducted in humans regarding chronic red wine consumption, resveratrol, and AF.

  18. Chemical basal treatment to control red alder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. Ruth; Carl M. Berntsen

    1956-01-01

    A key to better restocking of conifers on recently cutover forest land in the Oregon Coast Range is the elimination of competition from red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.). This can be readily accomplished with a foliage spray containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2.4-D). Tests in 1954 and 1955 on the Cascade Head Experimental Forest have shown that...

  19. Red Wine Polyphenols and Vascular Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P.G. Botden (Ilse)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractHippocrates, the father of modern medicine, said many centuries ago: “let food be your medicine.” Today, this quote still shows its value, amongst others by the !nding that red wine consumption attributes to a healthy life style, reducing the risk to develop cardiovascular diseases.

  20. Red Wine, Resveratrol and Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Laura Siga; Almeida, Eduardo Dytz; Markoski, Melissa Medeiros; Garavaglia, Juliano; Marcadenti, Aline

    2017-10-30

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac arrhythmia that is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and overall mortality. Excessive alcohol intake is a well-known risk factor for AF, but this correlation is less clear with light and moderate drinking. Besides, low doses of red wine may acutely prolong repolarization and slow cardiac conduction. Resveratrol, a bioactive polyphenol found in grapes and red wine, has been linked to antiarrhythmic properties and may act as an inhibitor of both intracellular calcium release and pathological signaling cascades in AF, eliminating calcium overload and preserving the cardiomyocyte contractile function. However, there are still no clinical trials at all that prove that resveratrol supplementation leads to improved outcomes. Besides, no observational study supports a beneficial effect of light or moderate alcohol intake and a lower risk of AF. The purpose of this review is to briefly describe possible beneficial effects of red wine and resveratrol in AF, and also present studies conducted in humans regarding chronic red wine consumption, resveratrol, and AF.

  1. Dramatic Change in Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, A. A.; Wong, M. H.; Rogers, J. H.; Orton, G. S.; de Pater, I.; Asay-Davis, X.; Carlson, R. W.; Marcus, P. S.

    2015-01-01

    Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) is one of its most distinct and enduring features, having been continuously observed since the 1800's. It currently spans the smallest latitude and longitude size ever recorded. Here we show analyses of 2014 Hubble spectral imaging data to study the color, structure and internal dynamics of this long-live storm.

  2. Swapping one red pigment for another.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Kevin M

    2015-01-01

    Betalains are bright red and yellow pigments, which are produced in only one order of plants, the Caryophyllales, and replace the more familiar anthocyanin pigments. The evolutionary origin of betalain production is a mystery, but a new study has identified the first regulator of betalain production and discovered a previously unknown link between the two pigment pathways.

  3. Registration of 'Prevail' hard red spring wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grower and end-user acceptance of new Hard Red Spring Wheat (HRSW; Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars is largely contingent upon satisfactory agronomic performance, end-use quality potential, and disease resistance levels. Additional characteristics, such as desirable plant height, can also contribute...

  4. Nutrient Limitation in Central Red Sea Mangroves

    KAUST Repository

    Almahasheer, Hanan

    2016-12-24

    As coastal plants that can survive in salt water, mangroves play an essential role in large marine ecosystems (LMEs). The Red Sea, where the growth of mangroves is stunted, is one of the least studied LMEs in the world. Mangroves along the Central Red Sea have characteristic heights of ~2 m, suggesting nutrient limitation. We assessed the nutrient status of mangrove stands in the Central Red Sea and conducted a fertilization experiment (N, P and Fe and various combinations thereof) on 4-week-old seedlings of Avicennia marina to identify limiting nutrients and stoichiometric effects. We measured height, number of leaves, number of nodes and root development at different time periods as well as the leaf content of C, N, P, Fe, and Chl a in the experimental seedlings. Height, number of nodes and number of leaves differed significantly among treatments. Iron treatment resulted in significantly taller plants compared with other nutrients, demonstrating that iron is the primary limiting nutrient in the tested mangrove population and confirming Liebig\\'s law of the minimum: iron addition alone yielded results comparable to those using complete fertilizer. This result is consistent with the biogenic nature of the sediments in the Red Sea, which are dominated by carbonates, and the lack of riverine sources of iron.

  5. Science responses to IUCN Red Listing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jaric, Ivan; Roberts, D.L.; Gessner, J.; Solow, A.R.; Courchamp, F.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 5, NOV (2017), č. článku e4025. ISSN 2167-8359 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : data deficient * critically endangered * IUCN Red List * endangered species * extinction risk Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 2.177, year: 2016

  6. Sowing pregerminated northern red oak acorns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard M. Godman; Gilbert A. Mattson

    1992-01-01

    Northern red oak is extremely difficult to regenerate, although it has produced good acorn crops nearly half of the last 32 years in northern Wisconsin. Field trials have shown that for successful seeding, you must protect acorns from predation by wildlife and sow them when temperatures are most favorable for germination.

  7. Kepler Asteroseismology of Red-giant Stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.

    2012-01-01

    The Kepler mission, launched in March 2009, has revolutionized asteroseismology, providing detailed observations of thousands of stars. This has allowed in-depth analyses of stars ranging from compact hot subdwarfs to red giants, and including the detection of solar-like oscillations in hundreds ...

  8. Asteroseismic Diagram for Subgiants and Red Giants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gai, Ning; Tang, Yanke [College of Physics and Electronic information, Dezhou University, Dezhou 253023 (China); Yu, Peng [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing 401331 (China); Dou, Xianghua, E-mail: ning_gai@163.com, E-mail: tyk450@163.com [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Biophysics, Dezhou University, Dezhou 253023 (China)

    2017-02-10

    Asteroseismology is a powerful tool for constraining stellar parameters. NASA’s Kepler mission is providing individual eigenfrequencies for a huge number of stars, including thousands of red giants. Besides the frequencies of acoustic modes, an important breakthrough of the Kepler mission is the detection of nonradial gravity-dominated mixed-mode oscillations in red giants. Unlike pure acoustic modes, mixed modes probe deeply into the interior of stars, allowing the stellar core properties and evolution of stars to be derived. In this work, using the gravity-mode period spacing and the large frequency separation, we construct the ΔΠ{sub 1}–Δ ν asteroseismic diagram from models of subgiants and red giants with various masses and metallicities. The relationship ΔΠ{sub 1}–Δ ν is able to constrain the ages and masses of the subgiants. Meanwhile, for red giants with masses above 1.5 M {sub ⊙}, the ΔΠ{sub 1}–Δ ν asteroseismic diagram can also work well to constrain the stellar age and mass. Additionally, we calculate the relative “isochrones” τ , which indicate similar evolution states especially for similar mass stars, on the ΔΠ{sub 1}–Δ ν diagram.

  9. Field guide to red tree vole nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damon B. Lesmeister; James K. Swingle

    2017-01-01

    Surveys for red tree vole (Arborimus longicaudus) nests require tree climbing because the species is a highly specialized arboreal rodent that live in the tree canopy of coniferous forests in western Oregon and northwestern California. Tree voles are associated with old coniferous forest (≥80 years old) that are structurally complex, but are often...

  10. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... each other, as follows: (1) The Red Cross will use Form 3575, Change of Address Order, as a standard... disaster relief efforts, the Postal Service will establish a separate file of change of address forms... and complete the forms, it will distribute the forms to disaster victims who need them, and it will...

  11. Virtualización en red

    OpenAIRE

    Pallàs Blanco, Leopoldo

    2010-01-01

    En el TFC titulado "Virtualización en Red (agregación de enlaces multichasis)" se realizará tanto el análisis como la comparativa de distintas tecnologías actuales centradas en la agregación de enlaces entre equipos de comunicación.

  12. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... within the following specific limitations: Category of food Maximum level of use in food (as served... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...

  13. The Red Shoes : Motion picture (1948)

    OpenAIRE

    Lauri Lucente, Gloria; Buhagiar, Celaine

    2011-01-01

    Black Swan : A ballet dancer wins the lead in "Swan Lake" and is perfect for the role of the delicate White Swan - Princess Odette - but slowly loses her mind as she becomes more and more like Odile, the Black Swan. The Red Shoes : A young ballet dancer is torn between the man she loves and her pursuit to become a prima ballerina.

  14. Book Review: Greening in the Red Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy. Falxa-Raymond

    2013-01-01

    In the aftermath of a crisis, local, often spontaneous stewardship of nature provides a source of social-ecological resilience to individuals, communities, and ecosystems. This is the concept behind Greening in the Red Zone, and one that may be intuitive to many working in urban forestry, community greening, or any of the local nonprofits or...

  15. Biology and ecology of red alder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance A. Harrington

    2006-01-01

    Red alder is the most common hardwood in the Pacific Northwest with a range stretching from coastal southeast Alaska to southern California and east to isolated populations in Idaho. Soil moisture during the growing season influences where it grows and its growth rates; it can tolerate poor drainage but not droughty, hot sites. Due to its tolerance of wet soil...

  16. Red alder: A bibliography with abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles F. Heebner; Mary Jane Bergener

    1983-01-01

    This bibliography lists 661 references to world literature through Hay 1978 containing information about red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.). Included are publications about its taxonomy, biology and silvics, chemical and physical information about its wood and fiber, studies on its nitrogen fixing properties, and reports on industrial uses and economic...

  17. Artificial Red Cells with Polyhemoglobin Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    Y. Reciprocal binding of oxygen and diphosphoglycerate by human hemoglobin. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 59:526-532, 1968. 12. Bunn, H. F., Seal, U. S...and Scott, A. F. The role of 2,3- diphosphoglycerate in mediating hemoglobin function of mammalian red cells. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sciences 241:498-519

  18. The FIRST-2MASS Red Quasar Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glikman, E; Helfand, D J; White, R L; Becker, R H; Gregg, M D; Lacy, M

    2007-01-01

    Combining radio observations with optical and infrared color selection--demonstrated in our pilot study to be an efficient selection algorithm for finding red quasars--we have obtained optical and infrared spectroscopy for 120 objects in a complete sample of 156 candidates from a sky area of 2716 square degrees. Consistent with our initial results, we find our selection criteria--J-K > 1.7,R-K > 4.0--yield a ∼ 50% success rate for discovering quasars substantially redder than those found in optical surveys. Comparison with UVX- and optical color-selected samples shows that ∼> 10% of the quasars are missed in a magnitude-limited survey. Simultaneous two-frequency radio observations for part of the sample indicate that a synchrotron continuum component is ruled out as a significant contributor to reddening the quasars spectra. We go on to estimate extinctions for our objects assuming their red colors are caused by dust. Continuum fits and Balmer decrements suggest E(B-V) values ranging from near zero to 2.5 magnitudes. Correcting the K-band magnitudes for these extinctions, we find that for K (le) 14.0, red quasars make up between 25% and 60% of the underlying quasar population; owing to the incompleteness of the 2MASS survey at fainter K-band magnitudes, we can only set a lower limit to the radio-detected red quasar population of > 20-30%

  19. Big Red: A Development Environment for Bigraphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faithfull, Alexander John; Perrone, Gian David; Hildebrandt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We present Big Red, a visual editor for bigraphs and bigraphical reactive systems, based upon Eclipse. The editor integrates with several existing bigraph tools to permit simulation and model-checking of bigraphical models. We give a brief introduction to the bigraphs formalism, and show how...

  20. Amdoparvovirus Infection in Red Pandas ( Ailurus fulgens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex, Charles E; Kubiski, Steven V; Li, Linlin; Sadeghi, Mohammadreza; Wack, Raymund F; McCarthy, Megan A; Pesavento, Joseph B; Delwart, Eric; Pesavento, Patricia A

    2018-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus is the type species in the genus Amdoparvovirus, and in mink and other Mustelidae can cause either subclinical disease or fatal chronic immune stimulation and immune complex disease. The authors describe a novel amdoparvovirus in the endangered red panda ( Ailurus fulgens), discovered using viral metagenomics. The authors analyzed the prevalence, tissue distribution, and disease association by PCR, in situ hybridization, electron microscopy, and histology in a group of 6 red pandas from a single zoological collection. The study incorporates a fecal shedding survey and analysis of tissues from 4 necropsied animals over a 12-year span. The tentatively named red panda amdoparvovirus (RpAPV) was detected in the feces and/or tissues of all animals tested. At necropsy of 1 geriatric animal, infection was associated with pyogranulomatous peritonitis, pancreatitis, and myocarditis. Other animals had detectable low-level viral nucleic acid in lymph nodes and both oral and intestinal epithelium at the time of necropsy. Full-length genome sequences of RpAPV strains from 2 animals had 12% sequence divergence, demonstrating genetic diversity even among in-contact animals. RpAPV is a persistent infection in this cohort of red pandas, and has variable clinical expression.

  1. Features of Red Sea Water Masses

    KAUST Repository

    Kartadikaria, Aditya R.; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    by seasonal variability, fresh water intrusion of the Gulf of Aden Intermediate Water (GAIW), and eddies variability. Two types of mixing; isopycnal and diapycnal mixing are part of important physical phenomena that explain the change of water mass in the Red

  2. Antiproliferative and antibacterial activity evaluation of red ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibacterial activity of these extracts was also tested against Salmonella choleraesuis, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. All extracts were obtained from lyophilized biomass of red microalgae. Extract A was obtained using 40% ammonium sulfate precipitation and gel filtration chromatography with G-25 ...

  3. In the Red Shadow of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen W.; Hosokawa, Kazuyuki; Carroll, Joshua; Sawell, David; Wilson, Colin

    2015-01-01

    A technique is described for calculating the brightness of the atmosphere of the Earth that shines into the Earth's umbra during a total lunar eclipse making the Moon red. This "Rim of Fire" is due to refracted unscattered light from all the sunrises and sunsets rimming the Earth. In this article, a photograph of the totally eclipsed…

  4. Why Rudolph's nose is red: Observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Ince (Can); A.-M. van Kuijen (Anne-Marijevan); D.M.J. Milstein (Dan); K. Yuruk (Koray); L.P. Folkow (Lars P); W.J. Fokkens (Wytske); A.S. Blix (Arnoldus S)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To characterise the functional morphology of the nasal microcirculation in humans in comparison with reindeer as a means of testing the hypothesis that the luminous red nose of Rudolph, one of the most well known reindeer pulling Santa Claus's sleigh, is due to the presence of

  5. Red refinements of simplices into congruent subsimplices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korotov, S.; Křížek, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 12 (2014), s. 2199-2204 ISSN 0898-1221 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-02067S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : sommerville tetrahedron * red refinement * higher-dimensional simplex Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.697, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0898122114000662

  6. Climatology of the autumn Red Sea trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Adel M.; Mashat, Abdul-Wahab S.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the Sudan low and the associated Red Sea trough (RST) are objectively identified using the mean sea level pressure (SLP) data from the National Center for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis dataset covering the period 1955-2015. The Sudan low was detected in approximately 60.6% of the autumn periods, and approximately 83% of the detected low-pressure systems extended into RSTs, with most generated at night and during cold months. The distribution of the RSTs demonstrated that Sudan, South Sudan and Red Sea are the primary development areas of the RSTs, generating 97% of the RSTs in the study period. In addition, the outermost areas affected by RSTs, which include the southern, central and northern Red Sea areas, received approximately 91% of the RSTs originating from the primary generation areas. The synoptic features indicated that a Sudan low developed into an RST when the Sudan low deepened in the atmosphere, while the low pressures over the southern Arabian Peninsula are shallow and the anticyclonic systems are weakened over the northern Red Sea. Moreover, stabile areas over Africa and Arabian Peninsula form a high stability gradient around the Red Sea and the upper maximum winds weaken. The results of the case studies indicate that RSTs extend northward when the upper cyclonic and anticyclonic systems form a high geopotential gradient over Arabian Peninsula. Furthermore, the RST is oriented from the west to the east when the Azores high extends eastward and the Siberian high shrinks eastward or shifts northward.

  7. Observations of the summer Red Sea circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofianos, Sarantis S.; Johns, William E.

    2007-06-01

    Aiming at exploring and understanding the summer circulation in the Red Sea, a cruise was conducted in the basin during the summer of 2001 involving hydrographic, meteorological, and direct current observations. The most prominent feature, characteristic of the summer circulation and exchange with the Indian Ocean, is a temperature, salinity, and oxygen minimum located around a depth of 75 m at the southern end of the basin, associated with Gulf of Aden Intermediate Water inflowing from the Gulf of Aden during the summer season as an intruding subsurface layer. Stirring and mixing with ambient waters lead to marked increases in temperature (from 16.5 to almost 33°C) and salinity (from 35.7 to more than 38 psu) in this layer by the time it reaches midbasin. The observed circulation presents a very vigorous pattern with strong variability and intense features that extend the width of the basin. A permanent cyclone, detected in the northern Red Sea, verifies previous observations and modeling studies, while in the central sector of the basin a series of very strong anticyclones were observed with maximum velocities exceeding 1 m/s. The three-layer flow pattern, representative of the summer exchange between the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden, is observed in the strait of Bab el Mandeb. In the southern part of the basin the layer flow is characterized by strong banking of the inflows and outflows against the coasts. Both surface and intermediate water masses involved in the summer Red Sea circulation present prominent spatial variability in their characteristics, indicating that the eddy field and mixing processes play an important role in the summer Red Sea circulation.

  8. Glacial conditions in the Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohling, Eelco J.

    1994-10-01

    In this paper, results from previous studies on planktonic foraminifera, δ18O, and global sea level are combined to discuss climatic conditions in the Red Sea during the last glacial maximum (18,000 B.P.). First, the influence of 120-m sea level lowering on the exchange transport through the strait of Bab-el-Mandab is considered. This strait is the only natural connection of the Red Sea to the open ocean. Next, glacial Red Sea outflow salinity is estimated (about 48 parts per thousand) from the foraminiferal record. Combined, these results yield an estimate of the glacial net water deficit, which appears to have been quite similar to the present (about 2 m yr-1). Finally, budget calculation of δ18O fluxes suggests that the glacial δ18O value of evaporation was about 50% of the present value. This is considered to have resulted from substantially increased mean wind speeds over the glacial Red Sea, which would have caused a rapid drop in the kinematic fractionation factor for 18O. The sensitivity of the calculated values for water deficit and isotopic fractionation to the various assumptions and estimates is evaluated in the discussion. Improvents are to be expected especially through research on the glacial salinity contrast between the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden. It is argued, however, that such future improvement will likely result in a worsening of the isotopic discrepancy, thus increasing the need for an additional mechanism that influenced fractionation (such as mean wind speed). This study demonstrates the need for caution when calculating paleosalinities from δ18O records under the assumption that the modern S∶δ18O relation has remained constant through time. Previously overlooked factors, such as mean wind speed, may have significantly altered that relation in the past.

  9. A review of elasmobranch research in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Spaet, Julia L.Y.; Thorrold, Simon R.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Given the global concern about the status of elasmobranch fishes, the paucity of information on elasmobranchs in the Red Sea is worrisome. Management of elasmobranchs in areas other than the Red Sea has been helped by research on population ecology

  10. Food composition and feeding ecology of the Red Fox Vulpes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food composition of the Red Fox Vulpes vulpes populations in different habitats in Egypt is ..... The dietary choices of small carnivores such as the Red Fox will depend primarily ... Similarly, feeding on carrion would be most cost effective. The.

  11. Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area Transportation Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area is a popular Bureau of Land Management natural area located near Las Vegas, Nevada. Red Rock Canyon experiences heavy congestion on its Scenic Drive and associated parking areas, due to high volumes of visit...

  12. Studies on cytotoxicity and antitumor screening of red and white ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... 2Department of Botany, Government Arts College (Autonomous), Salem – 636 007, Tamilnadu, India. ... namely red and black coloured seeds (red form) and the ... development induced by Dalton's Lymphoma Ascites.

  13. Bioavailability and Biokinetics of Anthocyanins From Red Grape Juice and Red Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Bitsch

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In a comparative study, 9 healthy volunteers ingested a single oral dose of 400 mL red grape juice or red wine with dose-adjusted anthocyanin content (283.5 mg or 279.6 mg, resp. in crossover. The content of anthocyanin glucosides was detected in plasma and urinary excretion. Additionally, the plasmatic antioxidant activity was assessed after intake. Based on the plasma content, biokinetic criteria of the single anthocyanins were calculated, such as AUC, cmax, tmax, and the elimination rate t1/2. The urinary excretion of total anthocyanins differed significantly and amounted to 0.18% (red wine and 0.23% (red grape juice of the administered dose. Additionally, the plasmatic antioxidant activity increased to higher levels after juice ingestion compared to wine. The intestinal absorption of the anthocyanins of red grape juice seemed to be improved compared to red wine, suggesting a possible synergistic effect of the glucose content of the juice. The improved absorption resulted in an enhanced plasmatic bioactivity.

  14. Growth and replication of red rain cells at 121°C and their red fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangappa, Rajkumar; Wickramasinghe, Chandra; Wainwright, Milton; Kumar, A. Santhosh; Louis, Godfrey

    2010-09-01

    We have shown that the red cells found in the Red Rain (which fell on Kerala, India, in 2001) survive and grow after incubation for periods of up to two hours at 121°C . Under these conditions daughter cells appear within the original mother cells and the number of cells in the samples increases with length of exposure to 121°C. No such increase in cells occurs at room temperature, suggesting that the increase in daughter cells is brought about by exposure of the Red Rain cells to high temperatures. This is an independent confirmation of results reported earlier by two of the present authors, claiming that the cells can replicate under high pressure at temperatures upto 300°C. The flourescence behaviour of the red cells is shown to be in remarkable correspondence with the extended red emission observed in the Red Rectagle planetary nebula and other galactic and extragalactic dust clouds, suggesting, though not proving an extraterrestrial origin.

  15. Seeing Red: Inside the Science and Politics of the IUCN Red List

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M Campbell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Red List of Threatened Species™ (hereafter Red List is the International Union for the Conservation of Nature′s most recognisable product. The Red List categorises the conservation status of species on a global scale using ′the most objective, scientifically-based information′. Completing Red List assessments is the job of the Species Survival Commission (SSC, and assessments are most often conducted by species specialist groups within the SSC. In the SSC′s Marine Turtle Specialist Group (MTSG, assessments have been contested. Debate is often couched in scientific terms, focused on data availability and the relevance of Red List criteria for marine turtles. However, given the potential conservation impacts of such listings, much more is at stake. In this paper, I analyse an exchange among MTSG members that resulted when the draft Red List assessment for the hawksbill sea turtle was circulated to the group in June 2007. The suggested listing of hawksbill turtles as ′critically endangered′ sparked an email exchange that highlighted not only the scientific, but also the political, economic, and value-based dimensions of the debate. I draw on ideas of co-production and boundary work to analyse both the debate and the MTSG′s response to an associated crisis of legitimacy, and to provide insights into the science-policy interface in conservation.

  16. Physical and Chemical Properties of Sintering Red Mud and Bayer Red Mud and the Implications for Beneficial Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Dong-Yan

    2012-01-01

    Performances of two common types of red mud, Bayer red mud and Sintering red mud, were investigated in this research. Their compositions, mechanical properties and microstructure characterization were measured through XRD, TG and SEM analysis. Their shear strength, particle size, density and hydraulic characteristics also had been performed. Huge differences between the basic mineral types of these two kinds of red mud also can be found. The comparison of compositions shows that CaCO3 content in Sintering red mud is higher, Bayer red mud has more hazardous elements such as As, Pb and Hg and both have a high concentration of radioactivity. The micro particle of Bayer red mud is finer and more disperse, but the Sintering red mud has higher shear strength. Combining the TG and hydraulic characteristics analysis, it can be shown that Bayer red mud has higher value of water content and Sintering red mud has higher hydraulic conductivity. The paper then illustrates that Sintering red mud can become the main filling material of supporting structure of red mud stocking yard. Bayer red mud has a high reuse value and also can be used as a mixing material of masonry mortar.

  17. Comparative Study of Betacyanin Profile and Antimicrobial Activity of Red Pitahaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) and Red Spinach (Amaranthus dubius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Yi Yi; Dykes, Gary; Lee, Sui Mae; Choo, Wee Sim

    2017-03-01

    Betacyanins are reddish to violet pigments that can be found in red pitahaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) and red spinach (Amaranthus dubius). This study investigated the impact of sub-fractionation (solvent partitioning) on betacyanin content in both plants. Characterization of betacyanins and evaluation of their antimicrobial activities were also carried out. Betanin was found in both plants. In addition, isobetanin, phyllocactin and hylocerenin were found in red pitahaya whereas amaranthine and decarboxy-amaranthine were found in red spinach. Sub-fractionated red pitahaya and red spinach had 23.5 and 121.5 % more betacyanin content, respectively, than those without sub-fractionation. Sub-fractionation increased the betanin and decarboxy-amaranthine content in red pitahaya and red spinach, respectively. The betacyanin fraction from red spinach (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] values: 0.78-3.13 mg/mL) demonstrated a better antimicrobial activity profile than that of red pitahaya (MIC values: 3.13-6.25 mg/mL) against nine Gram-positive bacterial strains. Similarly, the red spinach fraction (MIC values: 1.56-3.13 mg/mL) was more active than the red pitahaya fraction (MIC values: 3.13-6.25 mg/mL) against five Gram-negative bacterial strains. This could be because of a higher amount of betacyanin, particularly amaranthine in the red spinach.

  18. Seasonal variation in the structure of red reflectance of leaves from yellow poplar, red oak, and red maple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakke, Thomas W.; Wergin, William P.; Erbe, Eric F.; Harnden, Joann M.

    1993-01-01

    The light scattered from leaves was measured as a function of view angle in the principal plane for yellow poplar, red oak, and red maple. The source was a parallel-polarized helium-neon laser. Yellow poplar leaves had the highest reflectance of the three species, which may have been due to its shorter palisade cells and more extensive spongy mesophyll. Prior to senescence, there was a significant decrease, but not total extinction, in the reflectance of the beam incident at 60 deg from nadir on the adaxial side of the leaves of all three species. Low-temperature SEM observations showed differences in the surface wax patterns among the three species but did not indicate a cause of the reflectance changes other than possibly the accumulation and aging of the wax.

  19. Diseño de una red WAN

    OpenAIRE

    Labella Sanz, Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    Disseny d'una xarxa WAN, formada per una xarxa d'Accés HFC, una xarxa de Commutació ATM i una xarxa de Transport SDH. Diseño de una red WAN, formada por una red de Acceso HFC, una red de Conmutación ATM y una red de Transporte SDH. WAN network design consisting of a HFC access network, an ATM switching network and a SDH transport network.

  20. Experience Reverses the Red Effect among Chinese Stockbrokers

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Tengxiao; Han, Buxin

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has shown that the color red influences psychological functioning. Red is hypothesized to be linked to aggression and danger in evolution, and these links are enhanced by culture-specific uses of red. Thus, color meanings are thought to be grounded in biologically based proclivities and learned associations. However, to date, there has been no direct evidence for the influence of experience on the red effect. This study focused on whether experience could change the psychologi...

  1. Far red bioluminescence from two deep-sea fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widder, E A; Latz, M I; Herring, P J; Case, J F

    1984-08-03

    Spectral measurements of red bioluminescence were obtained from the deep-sea stomiatoid fishes Aristostomias scintillans (Gilbert) and Malacosteus niger (Ayres). Red luminescence from suborbital light organs extends to the near infrared, with peak emission at approximately 705 nanometers in the far red. These fishes also have postorbital light organs that emit blue luminescence with maxima between 470 and 480 nanometers. The red bioluminescence may be due to an energy transfer system and wavelength-selective filtering.

  2. Maxillofacial and mandibular phenotypes in the skulls of red Sokoto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work examined phenotypic expressions in the anatomy of the mandible and maxillofacial region of the Red Sokoto and Sahel goats in Nigeria. The infraorbital foramen was placed above premolar two (PM2) in Red Sokoto but above premolar one (PM1) in Sahel. The Red Sokoto displayed interdigital septa (ruggae) ...

  3. EST data - RED | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data ...st.zip File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/red/LATEST/red_est.zip File size: 629 KB Simple search U...ase Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us EST data - RED | LSDB Archive ...

  4. 7 CFR 29.3052 - Red color (R).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Red color (R). 29.3052 Section 29.3052 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Red color (R). A brownish red. [24 FR 8771, Oct. 29, 1959. Redesignated at 47 FR 51722, Nov. 17, 1982...

  5. 7 CFR 29.3068 - Tannish-red color (FR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tannish-red color (FR). 29.3068 Section 29.3068 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Type 93) § 29.3068 Tannish-red color (FR). A light red shaded toward tan. [24 FR 8771, Oct. 29, 1959...

  6. 7 CFR 29.1044 - Orange Red (FR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Orange Red (FR). 29.1044 Section 29.1044 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1044 Orange Red (FR). A yellowish red. [42 FR 21092, Apr. 25, 1977. Redesignated at 47 FR...

  7. 21 CFR 660.30 - Reagent Red Blood Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reagent Red Blood Cells. 660.30 Section 660.30...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.30 Reagent Red Blood Cells. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of the product shall be...

  8. Hidden values in bauxite residue (red mud): Recovery of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Current iron recovery techniques using red mud are depicted. • Advantages and disadvantages exist in different recovering processes. • Economic and environmental friendly integrated usage of red mud is promising. - Abstract: Bauxite residue (red mud) is a hazardous waste generated from alumina refining industries. Unless managed properly, red mud poses significant risks to the local environment due to its extreme alkalinity and its potential impacts on surface and ground water quality. The ever-increasing generation of red mud poses significant challenges to the aluminium industries from management perspectives given the low proportion that are currently being utilized beneficially. Red mud, in most cases, contains elevated concentrations of iron in addition to aluminium, titanium, sodium and valuable rare earth elements. Given the scarcity of iron supply globally, the iron content of red mud has attracted increasing research interest. This paper presents a critical overview of the current techniques employed for iron recovery from red mud. Information on the recovery of other valuable metals is also reviewed to provide an insight into the full potential usage of red mud as an economic resource rather than a waste. Traditional hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy are being investigated continuously. However, in this review several new techniques are introduced that consider the process of iron recovery from red mud. An integrated process which can achieve multiple additional values from red mud is much preferred over the single process methods. The information provided here should help to improve the future management and utilization of red mud

  9. Hidden values in bauxite residue (red mud): Recovery of metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravi, E-mail: ravi.naidu@unisa.edu.au

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Current iron recovery techniques using red mud are depicted. • Advantages and disadvantages exist in different recovering processes. • Economic and environmental friendly integrated usage of red mud is promising. - Abstract: Bauxite residue (red mud) is a hazardous waste generated from alumina refining industries. Unless managed properly, red mud poses significant risks to the local environment due to its extreme alkalinity and its potential impacts on surface and ground water quality. The ever-increasing generation of red mud poses significant challenges to the aluminium industries from management perspectives given the low proportion that are currently being utilized beneficially. Red mud, in most cases, contains elevated concentrations of iron in addition to aluminium, titanium, sodium and valuable rare earth elements. Given the scarcity of iron supply globally, the iron content of red mud has attracted increasing research interest. This paper presents a critical overview of the current techniques employed for iron recovery from red mud. Information on the recovery of other valuable metals is also reviewed to provide an insight into the full potential usage of red mud as an economic resource rather than a waste. Traditional hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy are being investigated continuously. However, in this review several new techniques are introduced that consider the process of iron recovery from red mud. An integrated process which can achieve multiple additional values from red mud is much preferred over the single process methods. The information provided here should help to improve the future management and utilization of red mud.

  10. Zonal surface wind jets across the Red Sea due to mountain gap forcing along both sides of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Houshuo; Farrar, J. Thomas; Beardsley, Robert C.; Chen, Ru; Chen, Changsheng

    2009-01-01

    [1] Mesoscale atmospheric modeling over the Red Sea, validated by in-situ meteorological buoy data, identifies two types of coastal mountain gap wind jets that frequently blow across the longitudinal axis of the Red Sea: (1) an eastward

  11. Flaring red dwarf stars: news from Crimea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gershberg, Roald E

    1998-01-01

    Important phenomena are briefly described which have recently been discovered in the Crimean studies of flaring red dwarf stars believed to be the most common type of variable stars in the Galaxy. These phenomena include (i) long-lived radiation from a blueshifted component in the ionized-helium λ 4686 A emission line in the active state of one such star, (ii) a long-lived absorption component in the stellar flare light curves with a lifetime exceeding that of the conventional flare emission, and (iii) solarcycle-like activity periodicity of the star EV Lac, whose mass is only 0.3 solar masses. In theoretical terms, a red dwarf star spot model is constructed which, in contrast to the commonly accepted model, agrees well with the solar spot picture. (physics of our days)

  12. Flaring red dwarf stars: news from Crimea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gershberg, Roald E [Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, Nauchnyi, Crimea (Ukraine)

    1998-08-31

    Important phenomena are briefly described which have recently been discovered in the Crimean studies of flaring red dwarf stars believed to be the most common type of variable stars in the Galaxy. These phenomena include (i) long-lived radiation from a blueshifted component in the ionized-helium {lambda} 4686 A emission line in the active state of one such star, (ii) a long-lived absorption component in the stellar flare light curves with a lifetime exceeding that of the conventional flare emission, and (iii) solarcycle-like activity periodicity of the star EV Lac, whose mass is only 0.3 solar masses. In theoretical terms, a red dwarf star spot model is constructed which, in contrast to the commonly accepted model, agrees well with the solar spot picture. (physics of our days)

  13. Molecular biodiversity of Red Sea demosponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erpenbeck, Dirk; Voigt, Oliver; Al-Aidaroos, Ali M; Berumen, Michael L; Büttner, Gabriele; Catania, Daniela; Guirguis, Adel Naguib; Paulay, Gustav; Schätzle, Simone; Wörheide, Gert

    2016-04-30

    Sponges are important constituents of coral reef ecosystems, including those around the Arabian Peninsula. Despite their importance, our knowledge on demosponge diversity in this area is insufficient to recognize, for example, faunal changes caused by anthropogenic disturbances. We here report the first assessment of demosponge molecular biodiversity from Arabia, with focus on the Saudi Arabian Red Sea, based on mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal molecular markers gathered in the framework of the Sponge Barcoding Project. We use a rapid molecular screening approach on Arabian demosponge collections and analyze results in comparison against published material in terms of biodiversity. We use a variable region of 28S rDNA, applied for the first time in the assessment of demosponge molecular diversity. Our data constitutes a solid foundation for a future more comprehensive understanding of sponge biodiversity of the Red Sea and adjacent waters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Red wine: A drink to your heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, T.S. Mohamed; Basha, S. Darbar

    2010-01-01

    Mortality and morbidity are still high in cardiovascular disease (CVD). Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury leading to myocardial infarction is one of the most frequent causes of the death in humans. Atherosclerosis and generation of reactive oxygen species through oxidative stress is the major risk factor for CVD. From the literature collection, it has been identified that moderate consumption of red wine helps in preventing CVD through several mechanisms, including increasing the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol plasma levels, decreasing platelet aggregation, by antioxidant effects, and by restoration of endothelial function. The aim of this review is to discuss the accumulating evidence that suggests that red wine possesses a diverse range of biological actions and may be beneficial in the prevention of CVD. PMID:21264180

  15. Molecular biodiversity of Red Sea demosponges

    KAUST Repository

    Erpenbeck, Dirk; Voigt, Oliver; Al-Aidaroos, Ali M.; Berumen, Michael L.; Bü ttner, Gabriele; Catania, Daniela; Guirguis, Adel Naguib; Paulay, Gustav; Schä tzle, Simone; Wö rheide, Gert

    2016-01-01

    Sponges are important constituents of coral reef ecosystems, including those around the Arabian Peninsula. Despite their importance, our knowledge on demosponge diversity in this area is insufficient to recognize, for example, faunal changes caused by anthropogenic disturbances. We here report the first assessment of demosponge molecular biodiversity from Arabia, with focus on the Saudi Arabian Red Sea, based on mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal molecular markers gathered in the framework of the Sponge Barcoding Project. We use a rapid molecular screening approach on Arabian demosponge collections and analyze results in comparison against published material in terms of biodiversity. We use a variable region of 28S rDNA, applied for the first time in the assessment of demosponge molecular diversity. Our data constitutes a solid foundation for a future more comprehensive understanding of sponge biodiversity of the Red Sea and adjacent waters.

  16. Molecular biodiversity of Red Sea demosponges

    KAUST Repository

    Erpenbeck, Dirk

    2016-01-07

    Sponges are important constituents of coral reef ecosystems, including those around the Arabian Peninsula. Despite their importance, our knowledge on demosponge diversity in this area is insufficient to recognize, for example, faunal changes caused by anthropogenic disturbances. We here report the first assessment of demosponge molecular biodiversity from Arabia, with focus on the Saudi Arabian Red Sea, based on mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal molecular markers gathered in the framework of the Sponge Barcoding Project. We use a rapid molecular screening approach on Arabian demosponge collections and analyze results in comparison against published material in terms of biodiversity. We use a variable region of 28S rDNA, applied for the first time in the assessment of demosponge molecular diversity. Our data constitutes a solid foundation for a future more comprehensive understanding of sponge biodiversity of the Red Sea and adjacent waters.

  17. Improvements to the Red List Index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart H M Butchart

    Full Text Available The Red List Index uses information from the IUCN Red List to track trends in the projected overall extinction risk of sets of species. It has been widely recognised as an important component of the suite of indicators needed to measure progress towards the international target of significantly reducing the rate of biodiversity loss by 2010. However, further application of the RLI (to non-avian taxa in particular has revealed some shortcomings in the original formula and approach: It performs inappropriately when a value of zero is reached; RLI values are affected by the frequency of assessments; and newly evaluated species may introduce bias. Here we propose a revision to the formula, and recommend how it should be applied in order to overcome these shortcomings. Two additional advantages of the revisions are that assessment errors are not propagated through time, and the overall level extinction risk can be determined as well as trends in this over time.

  18. Mantle helium in the Red Sea brines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupton, J.E.; Weiss, R.F.; Craig, H.

    1977-01-01

    It is stated that He isotope studies of terrestrial samples have shown the existence of two He components that are clearly distinct from atmospheric He. These are termed 'crustal' He and 'mantle' He; the latter was discovered as 'excess 3 He' in deep ocean water and attributed to a flux of primordial He from the mantle. Studies of the 3 He/ 4 He ratio in deep Pacific water and in He trapped in submarine basalt glasses showed that this 'mantle' component is characterised by ratios about ten times the atmospheric ratio and 100 times the ratio in 'crustal' He. Basalt glasses from other deep sea waters also showed similar ratios, and it is indicated that 'mantle' He in areas in which new lithosphere is being formed has a unique and uniform isotopic signature. Measurements of He and Ne are here reported that reveal additional information on the origin of Red Sea brines and their relationship to the Red Sea rifts. (U.K.)

  19. Lower Red River Meadow Stream Restoration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    As part of a continuing effort to restore anadromous fish populations in the South Fork Clearwater River basin of Idaho, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund the Lower Red River Meadow Restoration Project (Project). The Project is a cooperative effort with the Idaho Soil and Water Conservation District, Nez Perce National Forest, Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), and the Nez Perce Tribe of Idaho. The proposed action would allow the sponsors to perform stream bank stabilization, aquatic and riparian habitat improvement activities on IDFG's Red River Management Area and to secure long-term conservation contracts or agreements for conducting streambank and habitat improvement activities with participating private landowners located in the Idaho County, Idaho, study area. This preliminary Environmental Assessment (EA) examines the potential environmental effects of stabilizing the stream channel, restoring juvenile fish rearing habitat and reestablishing a riparian shrub community along the stream

  20. [Red lip defects. Reconstructive techniques and indications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, E; Stricker, M; Duroure, F

    2002-10-01

    The attractive color of the red lip must be the object of very meticulous reconstruction in their form and pigmentation. This can be done only by using the buccal mucosa. The graf is less indicated. There are multiple local flaps that have been proposed using the same lip, the jugal mucosa and the tongue. The authors will show the principal procedures found in the literature.

  1. Red wine: A drink to your heart

    OpenAIRE

    Saleem, T.S. Mohamed; Basha, S. Darbar

    2010-01-01

    Mortality and morbidity are still high in cardiovascular disease (CVD). Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury leading to myocardial infarction is one of the most frequent causes of the death in humans. Atherosclerosis and generation of reactive oxygen species through oxidative stress is the major risk factor for CVD. From the literature collection, it has been identified that moderate consumption of red wine helps in preventing CVD through several mechanisms, including increasing the high-de...

  2. Red Wine Polyphenols and Vascular Function

    OpenAIRE

    Botden, Ilse

    2012-01-01

    textabstractHippocrates, the father of modern medicine, said many centuries ago: “let food be your medicine.” Today, this quote still shows its value, amongst others by the !nding that red wine consumption attributes to a healthy life style, reducing the risk to develop cardiovascular diseases. Cardiovascular diseases are one of the leading causes of death in many economically developed countries as well as in emerging economies.1 It has become a global epidemic problem, with type 2 diabetes,...

  3. Red Wine Polyphenols for Cancer Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    He, Shan; Sun, Cuirong; Pan, Yuanjiang

    2008-01-01

    Conventional cancer therapies, the second leading cause of death worldwide, result in serious side effects and, at best, merely extend the patient's lifespan by a few years. Searching for effective prevention is of high priority in both basic and clinical sciences. In recent decades natural products have been considered to be an important source of cancer chemopreventive agents. Red wine polyphenols, which consisted of various powerful antioxidants such as flavonoids and stilbenes, have been ...

  4. Quality Characteristics of Appalachian Red Oak Lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janice K Wiedenbeck; Charles J. Gatchell; Elizabeth S. Walker

    1995-01-01

    Red oak lumber defect information derived from a well-constructed board data bank was analyzed. The potential utility of No. 1 Common and No. 2A Common lumber is indicated by the finding that 23 percent of the No. 1 Common boards and 35 percent of the No. 2A Common boards in the data bank contain clear-face cutting percentages that meet the minimum requirement for the...

  5. 1992 Data Bank for Red Oak Lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles J. Gatchell; Janice K. Wiedenbeck; Elizabeth S. Walker; Elizabeth S. Walker

    1992-01-01

    The 1992 Data Bank for Red Oak Lumber is a collection of fully described FAS, Selects, No. 1 Common, and No. 2A Common boards (a total of 1,578 at present). The data bank has two unique features to aid in sample selection. The first feature is the double grading of FAS, No. 1 Common, and No. 2A Common boards to reflect the surface area in grading cuttings when grading...

  6. Red junglefowl have individual body odors

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Anna-Carin; Jensen, Per; Elgland, Mathias; Laur, Katriann; Fyrner, Timmy; Konradsson, Peter; Laska, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Olfaction may play an important role in regulating bird behavior, and has been suggested to be involved in feather-pecking. We investigated possible differences in the body odors of red junglefowl females by using an automated olfactometer which assessed the ability of trained mice to discriminate between the odors of uropygial gland secretions (the main carrier of potential individual odors in chickens) of six feather-pecked and six non-pecked birds. All mice were clearly able to discriminat...

  7. Diseño de red WAN

    OpenAIRE

    Spadaro, Gustavo Fabián

    2012-01-01

    Diseño de una Red WAN, para un operador de nivel internacional, con cobertura mundial, para brindar servicios de VPN, internet para empresas. Disseny d'una Xarxa WAN, per a un operador de nivell internacional, amb cobertura mundial, per brindar serveis de VPN, internet per a empreses. WAN Network Design for an international operator with global coverage, to provide VPN services, Internet for companies.

  8. The Red Book and clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bygott, Catherine

    2012-09-01

    Jung's work is fundamentally an experience, not an idea. From this perspective, I attempt to bridge conference, consulting room and living psyche by considering the influence of the 'Red Book' on clinical practice through the subtle and imaginal. Jung's journey as a man broadens out to have relevance for women. His story is individual but its archetypal foundation finds parallel expression in analytic practice today. © 2012, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  9. Formation and spreading of Red Sea Outflow Water in the Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Ping; Bower, Amy S.; Smethie, William M.; Pratt, Larry J.

    2015-09-01

    Hydrographic data, chlorofluorocarbon-12 (CFC-12) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) measurements collected in March 2010 and September-October 2011 in the Red Sea, as well as an idealized numerical experiment are used to study the formation and spreading of Red Sea Outflow Water (RSOW) in the Red Sea. Analysis of inert tracers, potential vorticity distributions, and model results confirm that RSOW is formed through mixed-layer deepening caused by sea surface buoyancy loss in winter in the northern Red Sea and reveal more details on RSOW spreading rates, pathways, and vertical structure. The southward spreading of RSOW after its formation is identified as a layer with minimum potential vorticity and maximum CFC-12 and SF6. Ventilation ages of seawater within the RSOW layer, calculated from the partial pressure of SF6 (pSF6), range from 2 years in the northern Red Sea to 15 years at 17°N. The distribution of the tracer ages is in agreement with the model circulation field which shows a rapid transport of RSOW from its formation region to the southern Red Sea where there are longer circulation pathways and hence longer residence time due to basin wide eddies. The mean residence time of RSOW within the Red Sea estimated from the pSF6 age is 4.7 years. This time scale is very close to the mean transit time (4.8 years) for particles from the RSOW formation region to reach the exit at the Strait of Bab el Mandeb in the numerical experiment.

  10. Molecular biodiversity of Red Sea demosponges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erpenbeck, Dirk; Voigt, Oliver; Al-Aidaroos, Ali M.; Berumen, Michael L.; Büttner, Gabriele; Catania, Daniela; Guirguis, Adel Naguib; Paulay, Gustav; Schätzle, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Sponges are important constituents of coral reef ecosystems, including those around the Arabian Peninsula. Despite their importance, our knowledge on demosponge diversity in this area is insufficient to recognize, for example, faunal changes caused by anthropogenic disturbances. We here report the first assessment of demosponge molecular biodiversity from Arabia, with focus on the Saudi Arabian Red Sea, based on mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal molecular markers gathered in the framework of the Sponge Barcoding Project. We use a rapid molecular screening approach on Arabian demosponge collections and analyze results in comparison against published material in terms of biodiversity. We use a variable region of 28S rDNA, applied for the first time in the assessment of demosponge molecular diversity. Our data constitutes a solid foundation for a future more comprehensive understanding of sponge biodiversity of the Red Sea and adjacent waters. - Highlights: •First assessment of demosponge molecular biodiversity from Arabia •Rapid molecular screening approach on Arabian demosponge collections •Assessment of 28S 'C-Region' for demosponge barcoding •Data for a future comprehensive understanding of sponge biodiversity of the Red Sea

  11. Alcohol, red wine and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollin, S D; Jones, P J

    2001-05-01

    The objective of this article is to review the existing literature concerning the effects and mechanisms of action of red wine consumption vs. other alcoholic beverages on the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Of particular interest is the form and quantity of alcohol consumed. This relationship between alcohol consumption and mortality is well supported by epidemiologic studies, which have suggested that different forms of alcohol alter the relative risk values for mortality from CVD. Although not without exception, current evidence from epidemiologic and experimental studies suggests a protective effect against the development of CVD with moderate consumption of red wine. The exact nature of the protective effect remains to be established. However, mechanisms including LDL oxidation and alterations in hemostatic variables are being increasingly recognized as contributory. Key components of red wine thought to be responsible for the protective effects include phenolic compounds and alcohol content. Despite the research presented, some questions relating to the current recommendations regarding moderate alcohol consumption and cardiovascular health remain. However, collectively, the literature aids in understanding some of the ways in which alcoholic beverages and their components affect the health of our population.

  12. Red Sea as a source for bioprospecting

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2015-12-12

    King-Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) is located on the shores of the Red Sea in Saudi Arabia. The Red Sea is well known for its unique environment, harboring various microbes capable of surviving in salty brines. We collected sediment samples from brine pool adjacent to the Thuwal cold seeps in the Red Sea. The taxonomic analysis showed the diversity and abundance of bacterial and archaeal operational taxonomic units (OUT). Recently we established in the laboratory a microdroplet technology to encapsulate single cells. This technology enables us to analyze single-cell genomes and perform the high-throughput screening. The genomes of both cultivable and uncultivable organisms can be analyzed. We envision the collection of complimentary data, obtained by various techniques, such as single-cell genomics, metagenomics, and transcriptomics. That will enable us not only to understand the environment and microorganism communities but also will allow to discover the previously unknown genes, pathways, and whole genomes. These data will facilitate the enhancement of biological and chemical producers, and pave the way for bioprospecting.

  13. Abrupt warming of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Raitsos, D. E.

    2011-07-19

    Coral reef ecosystems, often referred to as “marine rainforests,” concentrate the most diverse life in the oceans. Red Sea reef dwellers are adapted in a very warm environment, fact that makes them vulnerable to further and rapid warming. The detection and understanding of abrupt temperature changes is an important task, as ecosystems have more chances to adapt in a slowly rather than in a rapid changing environment. Using satellite derived sea surface and ground based air temperatures, it is shown that the Red Sea is going through an intense warming initiated in the mid-90s, with evidence for an abrupt increase after 1994 (0.7°C difference pre and post the shift). The air temperature is found to be a key parameter that influences the Red Sea marine temperature. The comparisons with Northern Hemisphere temperatures revealed that the observed warming is part of global climate change trends. The hitherto results also raise additional questions regarding other broader climatic impacts over the area.

  14. Red junglefowl have individual body odors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Anna-Carin; Jensen, Per; Elgland, Mathias; Laur, Katriann; Fyrner, Timmy; Konradsson, Peter; Laska, Matthias

    2010-05-01

    Olfaction may play an important role in regulating bird behavior, and has been suggested to be involved in feather-pecking. We investigated possible differences in the body odors of red junglefowl females by using an automated olfactometer which assessed the ability of trained mice to discriminate between the odors of uropygial gland secretions (the main carrier of potential individual odors in chickens) of six feather-pecked and six non-pecked birds. All mice were clearly able to discriminate between all individual red junglefowl odors, showing that each bird has an individual body odor. We analyzed whether it was more difficult to discriminate between the odors of two feather-pecked, or two non-pecked birds, than it was to discriminate between the odors of two randomly selected birds. This was not the case, suggesting that feather-pecked birds did not share a common odor signature. Analyses using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry showed that the composition of aliphatic carboxylic acids in uropygial gland secretions differed consistently between individuals. However, chemical composition did not vary according to feather-pecking status. We conclude that red junglefowl have individual body odors which appear to be largely based on differences in the relative abundance of aliphatic carboxylic acids, but there is no evidence of systematic differences between the body odors of pecked and non-pecked birds.

  15. Energetic Efficiency of red palm oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron Jiménez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to determine the energy efficiency in the production of red palm oil (Elaeis guineensis by using the biophysical indicator EROI, postulated by the Ecological Economics. This indicator is applied to compare the energy used in the preparation of synthetic fertilizers (to fill its nutritional demands versus the energy contained in the oil. In 2009, there were 195.550 hectares of land planted with African palm in Ecuador (INEC, 2011. In addition, between 2002 and 2009, there were 2,7 million tons of red oil (FEDEPAL, 2010. It is determined that for each unit of energy consumed, 4.82 units of energy are contained in the red oil. The energy used in making pesticides for cultivation, consumed in transportation, refining, and post harvest is excluded because this other energy would drastically reduce the absolute data of the indicator, which is already inefficient for the high energy consumption it requires to generate the energy contained in the oil. On the other hand, agroecology has proven to be more efficient in the generation of energy per unit of invested energy (Altieri et. al., 2010; Moore, 2004.

  16. Red Dragon drill missions to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldmann, Jennifer L.; Stoker, Carol R.; Gonzales, Andrew; McKay, Christopher P.; Davila, Alfonso; Glass, Brian J.; Lemke, Larry L.; Paulsen, Gale; Willson, David; Zacny, Kris

    2017-12-01

    We present the concept of using a variant of a Space Exploration Technologies Corporation (SpaceX) Dragon space capsule as a low-cost, large-capacity, near-term, Mars lander (dubbed ;Red Dragon;) for scientific and human precursor missions. SpaceX initially designed the Dragon capsule for flight near Earth, and Dragon has successfully flown many times to low-Earth orbit (LEO) and successfully returned the Dragon spacecraft to Earth. Here we present capsule hardware modifications that are required to enable flight to Mars and operations on the martian surface. We discuss the use of the Dragon system to support NASA Discovery class missions to Mars and focus in particular on Dragon's applications for drilling missions. We find that a Red Dragon platform is well suited for missions capable of drilling deeper on Mars (at least 2 m) than has been accomplished to date due to its ability to land in a powered controlled mode, accommodate a long drill string, and provide payload space for sample processing and analysis. We show that a Red Dragon drill lander could conduct surface missions at three possible targets including the ice-cemented ground at the Phoenix landing site (68 °N), the subsurface ice discovered near the Viking 2 (49 °N) site by fresh impact craters, and the dark sedimentary subsurface material at the Curiosity site (4.5 °S).

  17. Red mud flocculation process in alumina production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorova, E. R.; Firsov, A. Yu

    2018-05-01

    The process of thickening and washing red mud is a gooseneck of alumina production. The existing automated systems of the thickening process control involve stabilizing the parameters of the primary technological circuits of the thickener. The actual direction of scientific research is the creation and improvement of models and systems of the thickening process control by model. But the known models do not fully consider the presence of perturbing effects, in particular the particle size distribution in the feed process, distribution of floccules by size after the aggregation process in the feed barrel. The article is devoted to the basic concepts and terms used in writing the population balance algorithm. The population balance model is implemented in the MatLab environment. The result of the simulation is the particle size distribution after the flocculation process. This model allows one to foreseen the distribution range of floccules after the process of aggregation of red mud in the feed barrel. The mud of Jamaican bauxite was acting as an industrial sample of red mud; Cytec Industries of HX-3000 series with a concentration of 0.5% was acting as a flocculant. When simulating, model constants obtained in a tubular tank in the laboratories of CSIRO (Australia) were used.

  18. Moisture sorption of Thai red curry powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudathip Inchuen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Moisture sorption study was conducted on Thai red curry powder prepared by two different drying methods, viz. microwave and hot-air drying. Moisture sorption isotherms of the red curry powder at 30 C and water activity in the range of 0.113-0.970 were determined by a static gravimetric method. The isotherms exhibited Type III behaviour. The moisture sorption data were fitted to several sorption models and a non-linear regression analysis method was used to evaluate the constants of the sorption equations. The fit was evaluated using the coefficient of determination (R2, the reduced chi-square (2 and the root mean square error (RMSE. The GAB model followed by the Lewiski-3 model gave the best fit to the experimental data. The monolayer moisture content, taken as the safe minimum moisture level in the red curry powder, was determined using the BET equation and was found to range between 0.080 - 0.085 gram water per gram dry matter.

  19. Abrupt warming of the Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raitsos, D. E.; Hoteit, I.; Prihartato, P. K.; Chronis, T.; Triantafyllou, G.; Abualnaja, Y.

    2011-07-01

    Coral reef ecosystems, often referred to as “marine rainforests,” concentrate the most diverse life in the oceans. Red Sea reef dwellers are adapted in a very warm environment, fact that makes them vulnerable to further and rapid warming. The detection and understanding of abrupt temperature changes is an important task, as ecosystems have more chances to adapt in a slowly rather than in a rapid changing environment. Using satellite derived sea surface and ground based air temperatures, it is shown that the Red Sea is going through an intense warming initiated in the mid-90s, with evidence for an abrupt increase after 1994 (0.7°C difference pre and post the shift). The air temperature is found to be a key parameter that influences the Red Sea marine temperature. The comparisons with Northern Hemisphere temperatures revealed that the observed warming is part of global climate change trends. The hitherto results also raise additional questions regarding other broader climatic impacts over the area.

  20. The color red reduces snack food and soft drink intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genschow, Oliver; Reutner, Leonie; Wänke, Michaela

    2012-04-01

    Based on evidence that the color red elicits avoidance motivation across contexts (Mehta & Zhu, 2009), two studies investigated the effect of the color red on snack food and soft drink consumption. In line with our hypothesis, participants drank less from a red labeled cup than from a blue labeled cup (Study 1), and ate less snack food from a red plate than from a blue or white plate (Study 2). The results suggest that red functions as a subtle stop signal that works outside of focused awareness and thereby reduces incidental food and drink intake. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.