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Sample records for subacute toxicity studies

  1. Acute and Subacute Toxic Study of Aqueous Leaf Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Results: For the acute toxicit test, no death and signs of poisoning were observed in the treated groups. In the subacute .... Subcute toxicity test. The animals were divided into six groups of six animals each. The treatments were given by intraperitoneal injection. Group 1 served ... produce significant changes in behavior,.

  2. Subacute (90 days) oral toxicity studies of Kombucha tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, R; Singh, M; Rao, P V; Bhattacharya, R; Kumar, P; Sugendran, K; Kumar, O; Pant, S C; Singh, R

    2000-12-01

    Kombucha tea (KT) is a popular health beverage and is used as an alternative therapy. KT is prepared by placing the kombucha culture in solution of tea and sugar and allowing to ferment. The inoculum is a fungus consisting of symbiotic colony of yeast and bacteria. KT is consumed in several countries and is believed to have prophylactic and therapeutic benefits in a wide variety of ailments, viz., intestinal disorders, arthritis, ageing and stimulation of immunological system. Though KT is used in several parts of the world its beneficial effects and adverse effects have not been scientifically evaluated. Since there are no animal toxicological data on KT, subacute oral toxicity study was carried out. Five groups of rats were maintained: (a) control group given tap water orally, (b) KT given 2 ml/kg orally, (c) plain tea (PT) given 2 ml/kg orally, (d) KT given in drinking water, 1% (v/v) and (e) PT given in drinking water, 1% (v/v). The rats were given this treatment daily for a period of 90 days. Weekly records of weight, feed intake, water intake and general behaviour were monitored. There was no significant difference in the growth of the animals as evidenced by the progressive body weight change. The organ to body weight ratio and histological evaluation did not show any toxic signs. The haematological and biochemical variables were within the clinical limits. The study indicates that rats fed KT for 90 days showed no toxic effects.

  3. Acute and sub-acute toxicity study of Clerodendrum inerme, Jasminum mesnyi Hance and Callistemon citrinus

    OpenAIRE

    Bharat Bhushan; Satish Sardana; Gulshan Bansal

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study acute and sub-acute toxicity study of Clerodendrum inerme (C. inerme), Jasminum mesnyi (J. mesnyi) Hance and Callistemon citrinus (C. citrinus). Methods: The acute toxicity test was conducted in Swiss albino mice. The extracts of C. inerme, J. mesnyi Hance and C. citrinus was administered in single dose of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 g/kg and observed for behavioral changes and mortality, if any. In sub-acute toxicity study, Wistar rats of either sex were administer...

  4. Sub-acute toxicity study on the aqueous extract of Albizia zygia stem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sub-acute toxicity study on the aqueous extract of Albizia zygia stem bark. ... Morphological (body weight and organ weight indices), haematological {white blood cell (WBC), red blood cell (RBC), haemoglobin, haematocrit, and platelet counts}, biochemical {alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase ...

  5. Safety studies of homoeopathic drugs in acute, sub-acute and chronic toxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surender Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Homoeopathic drugs are frequently recommended in day to day life as therapeutic agents by homoeopathic practitioners. However, safety of homoeopathic drugs remains a challenge because of the high variability of chemical components involved. Aim: The objective of the present study was to investigate the acute, subacute, and chronic oral toxicity of different homoeopathic drugs (Ferrum phosphoricum 3X, Ferrum phosphoricum 6X, Calcarea phosphoricum 6X, and Magnesium phosphoricum 6X in experimental models. Materials and Methods: In acute oral toxicity study, homoeopathic drugs were administered orally at 2000mg/kg body weight, and animals were observed for toxic symptoms till 10 days as per the OECD guidelines. For subacute and chronic toxicity study, homoeopathic drugs were administered for 28 and 180 days, respectively, as per the OECD guidelines. At the end of 28 and 180 days, the animals were sacrificed and toxicity parameters were assessed. Histopathological evaluation of different organs was also performed to assess any toxicity. Results: In acute toxicity study, no mortality was found at a dose of 2000 mg/kg which indicates that oral LD50of homoeopathic drugs were more than 2000 mg/kg. The administration of drugs at a dose of 70 mg/kg body weight for 28 and 180 days did not produce any significant change in haematological and biochemical parameters of male and female rats as compared to normal control group. No pathological changes were observed in histology of various organs of treated rats as compared to normal control animals. Conclusion: These homoeopathic drugs are safe & produce no toxicity when administered for longer duration.

  6. Acute and subacute (28-day) toxicity studies of ionic liquid, didecyldimethyl ammonium acesulfamate, in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodynis-Liebert, Jadwiga; Nowicki, Michał; Adamska, Teresa; Ewertowska, Małgorzata; Kujawska, Małgorzata; Petzke, Ewelina; Konwerska, Aneta; Ostalska-Nowicka, Danuta; Pernak, Juliusz

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate acute and subacute oral toxicity of an ionic liquid, didecyldimethylammonium acesulfamate [DDA][Ace], in rats. The compound tested was classified to the fourth toxicity class with a fixed LD(50) cut-off value of 500 mg/kg. Organ pathology induced by [DDA][Ace] in acute experiments included exfoliation of the surface layer of the digestive tract and alveolar septa in lung parenchyma. In a subacute experiment, rats were administered 10, 50, and 100 mg/kg/day [DDA][Ace] for 28 days. Reduced body weight gain and reduced food consumption was observed in mid- and high-dose rats. Statistically significant hematology changes were found mostly in high-dose groups of both sexes: increases in hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, and mean platelet volume. Statistically significant changes in clinical chemistry parameters included increases in the GGT, SDH, and LDH activity and bilirubin concentration, and decreases in triglycerides, glucose, and inorganic phosphorus concentration. No treatment-related microscopic changes were observed. Under the conditions of this study, the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level of [DDA][Ace] was considered to be 10 mg/kg/day.

  7. The Study on Acute and Subacute Toxicity and Anti-Cancer Effects of cultivated wild ginseng Herbal acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Rok, Kwon

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The purpose of this study was to investigate acute and subacute toxicity and sarcoma-180 anti-cancer effects of herbal acupuncture with cultivated wild ginseng (distilled in mice and rats. Methods : Balb/c mice were injected intravenous with cultivated wild ginseng herbal acupuncture for LD50 and acute toxicity test. Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intravenous with cultivated wild ginseng herbal acupuncture for subacute toxicity test. The cultivated wild ginseng herbal-acupuncture was injected at the tail vein of mice. Results : 1. In acute LD50 toxicity test, there was no mortality thus unable to attain the value. 2. Examining the toxic response in the acute toxicity test, there was no sign of toxication. 3. In acute toxic test, running biochemical serum test couldn't yield any differences between the control and experiment groups. 4. In subacute toxicity test, there was no sign of toxication in the experimental groups and didn't show any changes in weight compared to the normal group. 5. In subacute toxicity test, biochemical serum test showed significant increase of Total albumin, Albumin, and Glucose in the experimental group I compared with the control group. Significant decrease of GOT, ALP, GPT, and Triglyceride were shown. In experiment group II, only Glucose showed significant increase compared with the control group. 6. Measuring survival rate for anti-cancer effects of Sarcoma-180 cancer cell line, all the experimental groups showed significant increase in survival rate. 7. Measuring NK cell activity rate, no significant difference was shown throughout the groups. 8. Measuring Interleukin-2 productivity rate, all the experimental groups didn't show significant difference. 9. For manifestation of cytokine mRNA, significant decrease of interleukin-10 was witnessed in the experimental group compared to the control group. Conclusion : According to the results, we can conclude cultivated wild ginseng herbal acupuncture

  8. Subacute toxicity study on sup(99m)Tc stannous glucoheptonate injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belbeck, L.; Bowen, B.M.; Jeu, J.; Richardson, M. (McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada))

    1981-07-01

    A subacute toxicity study on sup(99m)Tc stannous glucoheptonate was performed with rats, dogs and rabbits, injected intravenously at ten to 100 times the human dose on a body weight basis. There were no abnormalities in the clinical status of any of the animals. No changes were found in urinalysis, blood chemistry or hematology in the rabbits nor in gross examination, renal histology or bone marrow smears in rats and rabbits. Hepatic histology was also done. A focal area of necrosis in a liver of one rabbit that had been injected with 100 times the human dose was observed using light microscopy. Examination by electron microscopy in another group of rats and rabbits was prompted by the observation of that lesion. This revealed vacuolated and dilated smooth endoplasmic reticulum and degranulated and vesiculated rough endoplasmic reticulum in all the test livers. X-ray microanalysis indicates that the ultrastructural changes are linked to the deposition of tin.

  9. Subacute toxicity assessment of annatto in rat

    OpenAIRE

    Bautista, Ana Rita Pedreira Lapa; E.L.T. Moreira; Batista, Márcio Santos; Miranda, M.S.; Gomes, I. C. S.

    2004-01-01

    Texto completo:acesso restrito. p. 625-629 Increased human use of annatto (Bixa orellana L), a red yellow food colorant, demands generation of toxicity data. The toxic effects of annatto powder (bixin 27%) have been assessed following administration of a subacute regimen (4 weeks, 20 doses) in Wistar male and female rats. A full study with three dose levels was considered unnecessary since no sign of toxicity had been noted in a preliminary experiment with 1000 mg/kg body weight/day as ...

  10. [Studies on distribution, excretion and subacute toxicity of squalane in dogs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, H; Koga, N; Oguri, K; Yoshimura, H; Inoue, H; Sato, K; Ohkubo, M

    1989-05-01

    In the previous papers, we demonstrated, by using rats, that squalane (2,6,10,15,19,23-hexamethyltetracosane) could stimulate the fecal excretion of 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran, which was regarded as the most important etiologic agent of yusho among PCB and PCDF congeners found in the causal rice oil. We also reported that, in rats, squalane was not essentially absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, and did not show any appreciable side effects during the 3-month treatment. In the present paper, we have investigated the distribution, excretion and subacute toxicity of squalane in beagle dogs. The fecal excretion of squalane accounted for about 83% of dose during the initial 2 days after administration at a single oral dose of 1,200 mg/kg to male dogs. On day 3, absorbed squalane was mostly distributed to the hair and the skin, and the concentrations in these tissues were decreased on day 6. These results suggested that most of squalane administered orally was not absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, but a part was absorbed and excreted through the hair. In addition, squalane distributed into the liver was found to be eliminated rather slowly. A long-term (13-week) treatments with squalane orally at doses of 400 mg/kg/day or 1,200 mg/kg/day in male and female dogs, resulted also in accumulation of squalane in the liver at a level of about 3% (400 mg/kg) or about 6% (1,200 mg/kg) of the daily dose. This accumulation of squalane in the liver was highest among all the tissues. Nevertheless, no appreciable toxic signs were observed in the serum biochemical tests and the hepatic functional test for squalane groups. Therefore, squalane accumulating in the liver, did not seem to disturb the hepatic physiological functions. It was suggested also in a long-term treatment that the skin and the hair played the most important role in the elimination of squalane. In conclusion, the present studies on subacute toxicity tests suggested that squalane did not give any

  11. Subacute toxicity of propyl gallate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strik JJTWA; Danse LHJC; Helleman PW; van Leeuwen FXR; Speijers GJA; Vaessen HAMG

    1986-01-01

    The 4 week oral toxicity of propyl gallate in rats, exposed to 0, 1000, 5000 and 25000 mg/kg feed, was investigated. Parameters studied comprised growth, food and water intake, biochemistry, hematology, organ weights and histopathology. In the highest dose group both females and males gained less

  12. Subacute toxicity assessment of annatto in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, A R P L; Moreira, E L T; Batista, M S; Miranda, M S; Gomes, I C S

    2004-04-01

    Increased human use of annatto (Bixa orellana L), a red yellow food colorant, demands generation of toxicity data. The toxic effects of annatto powder (bixin 27%) have been assessed following administration of a subacute regimen (4 weeks, 20 doses) in Wistar male and female rats. A full study with three dose levels was considered unnecessary since no sign of toxicity had been noted in a preliminary experiment with 1000 mg/kg body weight/day as was recommended by the OECD guideline. In this study, annatto administered by gavage at a dose level of 2000 mg/kg/day decreased male body weight gain, but had no effect on either food intake or food conversion efficiency. Haematological and plasma biochemical examination as well necropsy performed at the end of administration (29th day) and observation (43rd day) periods revealed no alterations related with annatto administration. Kidney apoptosis occurred in 20% treated female rats in restricted areas without proliferation or tubular segments modification. The precise nature of apoptosis was not investigated in the present study. These findings suggest that annatto was no toxic to the rat.

  13. Safety assessment of Withania somnifera extract standardized for Withaferin A: Acute and sub-acute toxicity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shruti B; Rao, Nirav J; Hingorani, Lal L

    2016-03-01

    The use of Withania somnifera is increasing due to a number of its chemical constituents found useful for health. The present study was carried out to investigate the potential adverse effects (if any) of a standardized Withania somnifera extract (WSE) in rats following acute and sub chronic administration. The toxicity study was performed in Wistar rats by oral administration. An acute toxicity study was done at the dose of 2000 mg/kg. In the sub-acute study, Wistar rats (10/sex/group) were administered via gavage 0 (control), 500, 1000, 2000 mg/kg body weight/day of WSE for 28 days. Among two additional satellite groups, one group did not receive any drug while the second group received 2000 mg/kg/day for 28 days. At the end of study, the animals sacrificed and their body weight, hematology, serum chemistry, and histopathology evaluation was done. In acute toxicity studies, oral LD50 of WSE in Wistar rats was greater than 2000 mg/kg body weight. Compared to the control group in sub-acute toxicity study, administration of extract did not show any toxicologically significant treatment related changes in clinical observations, ophthalmic examination, body weight gain, feed consumption, clinical pathology evaluation, and organ weight. Hematological and serum chemistry parameters were within the normal limits. Terminal necropsy did not reveal any treatment related gross or histopathological findings. Based on this study, the no-observed-adverse-effect-level of WSE is 2000 mg/kg body weight, the highest level tested. Copyright © 2016 Transdisciplinary University, Bangalore and World Ayurveda Foundation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Acute and subacute toxicities of defatted ethanolic extract of Moringa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moringa oleifera seeds are widely accepted as a nutritional supplement. The seeds are consumed and are sold on the shelf of nature, herbal shops, pharmacy and supermarkets. They are consumed as herbal remedy for various diseases. This study was designed to evaluate the acute and sub-acute toxicity of defatted ...

  15. Antagonistic effects of Spirulina platensis against sub-acute deltamethrin toxicity in mice: Biochemical and histopathological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Daim, Mohamed; El-Bialy, Badr E; Rahman, Haidy G Abdel; Radi, Abeer M; Hefny, Hany A; Hassan, Ahmed M

    2016-02-01

    Spirulina platensis (SP); a microalga with high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, acts as a food supplement in human and as many animal species. Deltamethrin (DLM) is a synthetic pyrethroid with broad spectrum activities against acaricides and insects and widely used for veterinary and agricultural purposes. Exposure to DLM leads to hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic and neurotoxic side effects for human and many species, including birds and fish. The present study was undertaken to examine the potential hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, neuroprotective and antioxidant effects of SP against sub-acute DLM toxicity in male mice. DLM intoxicated animals revealed a significant increase in serum hepatic and renal injury biomarkers as well as TNF-α level and AChE activity. Moreover, liver, kidney and brain lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress markers were altered due to DLM toxicity. Spirulina normalized the altered serum levels of AST, ALT, APL, LDH, γ-GT, cholesterol, uric acid, urea, creatinine AChE and TNF-α. Furthermore, it reduced DLM-induced tissue lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide and oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner. Collectively, that Spirulina supplementation could overcome DLM-induced hepatotoxicty, nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity by abolishing oxidative tissue injuries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. The Study on Acute and Subacute Toxicity and Sarcoma-180 Anti-cancer Effects of Carthami Tinctor-Fructus Herbal-acupuncture(CF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Suk An

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate acute and subacute toxicity and sarcoma-180 anti-cancer effects of herbal acupuncture with Carthami- Tinctorii fructus (CF in mice and rats. Method: Balb/c mice were injected intraperitoneally with Carthami - Tinctorii fructus (CF for LD50 and acute toxicity test. Sprague Dawley rats were injected intraperitoneally with Carthami- Tinctorii fructus (CF for subacute toxicity test. The Carthami- Tinctorii fructus herbal-acupuncture was injected on Chung-wan (CV12 of mice with Sarcoma-180 cancer cell line. Results: 1. LD50 was uncountable as none of the subjects expired during the test. 2. In acute toxicity test, toxic symptoms were not detected, but the body weight of mice was increased in treatment Ⅰ, treatment Ⅱ groups, compared to the normal group.(p<0.05 3. In acute toxicity test of serum biochemical values of mice, glucose was increased in treatment Ⅰ and treatment Ⅱ groups, total cholesterol was increased in treatment I group, GOT was decreased in treatment Ⅱ group, and GPT was decreased in treatment Ⅰ group, compared to the normal group.(p<0.05 4. The clinical signs and the body weight of mice treated with 0.1 cc, 0.2cc Carthami- Tinctorii fructus (CF were not affected during the subacute toxicity test. 5. In subacute toxicity test, treatment groups didn't show significant changes in complete blood count test (CBC of rats, compared to the nonnal group.(p<0.05 6. In subacute toxicity test of serum biochemical values of rats, uric acid was decreased in treatment Ⅰ and treatment Ⅱ groups, compared to the nonnal group, triglyceride was decreased in treatment I group, compared to the normal group, GOT and GPT were decreased in treatment I and treatment Ⅱ groups, and alkaline phosphatase was decreased in treatment Ⅰ and treatment Ⅱ groups, compared to the normal group.(p<0.05 7. Median survival time was increased in all the treatment groups for Sarcoma-180 cancer cell

  17. Alternative acute oral toxicity assessment under REACH based on sub-acute toxicity values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gissi, Andrea; Louekari, Kimmo; Hoffstadt, Laurence; Bornatowicz, Norbert; Aparicio, Alberto Martin

    2017-01-01

    The REACH Regulation requires information on acute oral toxicity for substances produced or imported in quantities greater than one ton per year. When registering, animal testing should be used as last resort. The standard acute oral toxicity test requires use of animals. Therefore, the European Chemicals Agency examined whether alternative ways exist to generate information on acute oral toxicity. The starting hypothesis was that low acute oral toxicity can be predicted from the results of low toxicity in oral sub-acute toxicity studies. Proving this hypothesis would allow avoiding acute toxicity oral testing whenever a sub-acute oral toxicity study is required or available and indicates low toxicity. ECHA conducted an analysis of the REACH database and found suitable studies on both acute oral and sub-acute oral toxicities for 1,256 substances. 415 of these substances had low toxicity in the sub-acute toxicity study (i.e., NO(A)EL at or above the limit test threshold of 1,000 mg/kg). For 98% of these substances, low acute oral toxicity was also reported (i.e., LD50 above the classification threshold of 2,000 mg/kg). On the other hand, no correlation was found between lower NO(A)ELs and LD50. According to the REACH Regulation, this approach for predicting acute oral toxicity needs to be considered as part of a weight of evidence analysis. Therefore, additional sources of information to support this approach are presented. Ahead of the last REACH registration deadline, in 2018, ECHA estimates that registrants of about 550 substances can omit the in vivo acute oral toxicity study by using this adaptation.

  18. Preclinical Studies Evaluating Subacute Toxicity and Therapeutic Efficacy of LQB-118 in Experimental Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha-Júnior, Edézio Ferreira; Martins, Thiago Martino; Canto-Cavalheiro, Marilene Marcuzzo; Marques, Paulo Roberto; Portari, Elyzabeth Avvad; Coelho, Marsen Garcia Pinto; Netto, Chaquip Daher; Costa, Paulo Roberto Ribeiro; Sabino, Katia Costa de Carvalho; Torres-Santos, Eduardo Caio

    2016-06-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is the most severe form of leishmaniasis and is the second major cause of death by parasites, after malaria. The arsenal of drugs against leishmaniasis is small, and each has a disadvantage in terms of toxicity, efficacy, price, or treatment regimen. Our group has focused on studying new drug candidates as alternatives to current treatments. The pterocarpanquinone LQB-118 was designed and synthesized based on molecular hybridization, and it exhibited antiprotozoal and anti-leukemic cell line activities. Our previous work demonstrated that LQB-118 was an effective treatment for experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis. In this study, we observed that treatment with 10 mg/kg of body weight/day LQB-118 orally inhibited the development of hepatosplenomegaly with a 99% reduction in parasite load. An in vivo toxicological analysis showed no change in the clinical, biochemical, or hematological parameters. Histologically, all of the analyzed organs were normal, with the exception of the liver, where focal points of necrosis with leukocytic infiltration were observed at treatment doses 5 times higher than the therapeutic dose; however, these changes were not accompanied by an increase in transaminases. Our findings indicate that LQB-118 is effective at treating different clinical forms of leishmaniasis and presents no relevant signs of toxicity at therapeutic doses; thus, this framework is demonstrated suitable for developing promising drug candidates for the oral treatment of leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Huso huso Acute and subacute toxicity study of ethanolic extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acute toxicity profiles of ... body weight changes, haematology, plasma biochemical parameters, relative organ weight (ROW) were evaluated. ... to ascertain its effect on the male reproductive system as well as its effect on chronic administration.

  20. Evaluation of acute and subacute toxicities of aqueous ethanolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the acute and subacute toxicities of hydro-ethanolic extract of leaves of Senna alata (L.) Roxb. in Swiss mice and Wistar albino rats. The mice were divided into 6 groups of 10 animals and each group received once by intra gastric gavages 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 times 1000 mg/kg dose of extract. Distilled water ...

  1. Evaluation of subacute toxicity of methanolic/aqueous preparation of aerial parts of O. sanctum in Wistar rats: Clinical, haematological, biochemical and histopathological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raina, P; Chandrasekaran, C V; Deepak, M; Agarwal, A; Ruchika, K-G

    2015-12-04

    Ocimum sanctum, commonly known as Holy Basil or Tulsi has been used in Ayurveda as a demulcent, stimulant, expectorant; in the treatment of bronchitis, skin infections, malaria, diarrhoea, dysentery, arthritis, gastric and inflammatory disorders. We have previously shown that methanolic/aqueous extract of O. sanctum did not induce genotoxicity and other toxic effects in acute oral toxicity study. In the present report, we have performed sub-acute toxicity of methanolic/aqueous preparation of O. sanctum in Wistar rats to evaluate whether it induced any chronic toxic effects. In subacute toxicity study, animals received O. sanctum extract (OSE) by oral gavage at the doses of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day (n=5/group/sex) for 28 days. At the end of the study, the animals were sacrificed and evaluated for the effect of OSE on clinical, haematological, biochemical and histopathological parameters. The rats treated with OSE did not show any change in body weight, food and water consumption, motor activity, sensory reactivity and foot splay measurements. There were no significant changes in haematological, pathological and biochemical parameters; and histopathology of tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, heart, and testis/ovary) among rats of either sex. OSE at a dose of 1000 mg/kg showed significant increase of Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) (19.8 ± 0.8; 18.7 ± 0.5) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) (41.8 ± 1.1; 39.3 ± 0.7) in male and female rats in comparison to their respective controls (MCH: 17.7 ± 0.3; 17.4 ± 0.3; MCHC: 37.8 ± 0.5; 36.1 ± 0.2). Urine parameters (appearance, blood, nitrate, leucocyte, glucose, ketone, pH, protein and specific gravity) in both the male and female rats were comparable to their respective controls. In addition, no changes were observed in the vital organs of rats at macroscopic and microscopic levels. Our results showed that oral administration of OSE was not toxic to male and female Wistar rats upto the highest

  2. Biocompatible lutein-polymer-lipid nanocapsules: Acute and subacute toxicity and bioavailability in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Arunkumar; Hindupur, Ravi; Vallikannan, Baskaran

    2016-12-01

    Lutein-poly-(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-phospholipid (PL) nanocapsules were prepared (henceforth referred as lutein nanocapsules) and studied for acute, subacute oral toxicity and bioavailability of lutein in mice. Prior to examining the safety of lutein nanocapsules, particle size, zeta potential, surface morphology and interaction between lutein, PLGA and PL were studied. In acute study, mice were gavaged with a single dose of lutein nanocapsules at 0.1, 1, 10 and 100mg/kg body weight (BW) and examined for 2weeks, while in subacute study, daily mice were gavaged with a dose of 1 and 10mg/kg BW for 4weeks. Results revealed that mean size and zeta value of lutein nanocapsules were 140nm and -44mV, respectively. Acute and subacute toxicity studies did not show any mortality or treatment related adverse effect in clinical observations, ophthalmic examinations, body and organ weights. No toxicity related findings were observed in hematology, histopathology and other blood and tissue clinical chemistry parameters. In subacute study, no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of lutein nanocapsules was found to be at a dose of 10mg/kg BW. Feeding lutein nanocapsules resulted in a significant (plutein level in plasma and tissue compared to the control group. Lutein nanocapsules did not cause toxicity in mice. However, human trials are warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Subacute Oral Toxicity Assessment of Alchornea cordifolia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To assess Alchornea cordifolia, a medicinal plant with numerous biological actions and uses in traditional medicine, for possible toxicity in rats. Methods: The probable effect of the ethanol extract of Alchornea cordifolia (250 - 2000 mg/kg, p.o.) by gavage was evaluated on blood cellular elements and chemistry, ...

  4. Subacute Oral Toxicity Assessment of Alchornea cordifolia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2010-10-21

    Oct 21, 2010 ... Purpose: To assess Alchornea cordifolia, a medicinal plant with numerous biological actions and uses in traditional medicine, for possible toxicity in rats. Methods: The probable effect of the ethanol extract of Alchornea cordifolia (250 - 2000 mg/kg, p.o.) by gavage was evaluated on blood cellular elements ...

  5. Evaluation of acute and subacute toxicity of Alstonia congensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extract demonstrated good hypoglycaemic effects by lowering the plasma sugar level and also had some beneficial and reduction effects on cardiovascular risk factors. There was no evidence of drug-induced symptoms or death at all the doses of the extract administered in acute study but subacute results revealed a ...

  6. Acute and Sub-Acute Toxicity Evaluation of the Methanolic Extract of Alstonia scholaris Stem Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris Bello

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Alstonia scholaris has been used by traditional medicine practitioners since the medieval ages for the treatment of diseases. The aim of this research was to evaluate the acute and sub-acute oral toxicity of its methanolic extract. The acute toxicity test was conducted using Sprague Dawley (SD rats. The methanolic extract of Alstonia scholaris stem bark (ASME was administrated in a single dose of 2000 mg/kg via oral gavage; and the animals were observed for any behavioral changes or mortality. In the sub-acute toxicity study, SD rats received three doses of ASME (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg for 28 days via oral gavage. During these 28 days of treatment, the rats were observed weekly for toxicity symptoms. Following the 28-day treatment, the rats were sacrificed for hematological, biochemical and histopathology studies. In the acute toxicity study, Alstonia scholaris was found to be non-toxic at a dose of 2000 mg/kg b.w. In the sub-acute toxicity study, significant variations in body weight, hematological and biochemical parameters were observed in the experimental groups at the dose of 500 and 1000 mg/kg with the death of two female rats being recorded at the highest dose (1000 mg/kg b.w.. Histopathological studies revealed slight degeneration (lesion and centrilobular necrosis in the liver, which was most expressed in the highest-dose group. These results demonstrate that, while a single dose and short term oral intake of Alstonia scholaris bark extract caused no toxicity up to a dose of 2000 mg/kg b.w., toxic effects manifested in the long term treatment at the highest dose (500 and 1000 mg/kg. The long-term toxic effect was found to be associated with alterations in hematological compositions and end-organ damage to the liver. Thus, prolonged use of high doses of ASME orally should be discouraged and lower doses encouraged.

  7. NMR-based metabonomic study of the sub-acute toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in rats after oral administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Qian; Yan, Guangyan; Deng, Pengchi; Peng, Feng; Lin, Hongjun; Xu, Youzhi; Cao, Zhixing; Zhou, Tian; Xue, Aiqin; Wang, Yanli; Cen, Xiaobo; Zhao, Ying-Lan

    2010-03-01

    As titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are widely used commercially, their potential toxicity on human health has attracted particular attention. In the present study, the oral toxicological effects of TiO2 NPs (dosed at 0.16, 0.4 and 1 g kg - 1, respectively) were investigated using conventional approaches and metabonomic analysis in Wistar rats. Serum chemistry, hematology and histopathology examinations were performed. The urine and serum were investigated by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) using principal components and partial least squares discriminant analysis. The metabolic signature of urinalysis in TiO2 NP-treated rats showed increases in the levels of taurine, citrate, hippurate, histidine, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), citrulline, α-ketoglutarate, phenylacetylglycine (PAG) and acetate; moreover, decreases in the levels of lactate, betaine, methionine, threonine, pyruvate, 3-D-hydroxybutyrate (3-D-HB), choline and leucine were observed. The metabonomics analysis of serum showed increases in TMAO, choline, creatine, phosphocholine and 3-D-HB as well as decreases in glutamine, pyruvate, glutamate, acetoacetate, glutathione and methionine after TiO2 NP treatment. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were elevated and mitochondrial swelling in heart tissue was observed in TiO2 NP-treated rats. These findings indicate that disturbances in energy and amino acid metabolism and the gut microflora environment may be attributable to the slight injury to the liver and heart caused by TiO2 NPs. Moreover, the NMR-based metabolomic approach is a reliable and sensitive method to study the biochemical effects of nanomaterials.

  8. NMR-based metabonomic study of the sub-acute toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in rats after oral administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bu Qian; Lin Hongjun; Xu Youzhi; Cao Zhixing; Zhou Tian; Zhao Yinglan [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Yan Guangyan; Cen Xiaobo [National Chengdu Center for Safety Evaluation of Drugs, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Deng Pengchi [Analytical and Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Peng Feng [Department of Thoracic Oncology of Cancer Center and State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Xue Aiqin [Institute of Bioengineering, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University Road 2, Xiasha, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Wang Yanli, E-mail: alancenxb@sina.com [Tianjin Children' s Hospital, Tianjin 300074 (China)

    2010-03-26

    As titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO{sub 2} NPs) are widely used commercially, their potential toxicity on human health has attracted particular attention. In the present study, the oral toxicological effects of TiO{sub 2} NPs (dosed at 0.16, 0.4 and 1 g kg{sup -1}, respectively) were investigated using conventional approaches and metabonomic analysis in Wistar rats. Serum chemistry, hematology and histopathology examinations were performed. The urine and serum were investigated by {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) using principal components and partial least squares discriminant analysis. The metabolic signature of urinalysis in TiO{sub 2} NP-treated rats showed increases in the levels of taurine, citrate, hippurate, histidine, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), citrulline, {alpha}-ketoglutarate, phenylacetylglycine (PAG) and acetate; moreover, decreases in the levels of lactate, betaine, methionine, threonine, pyruvate, 3-D-hydroxybutyrate (3-D-HB), choline and leucine were observed. The metabonomics analysis of serum showed increases in TMAO, choline, creatine, phosphocholine and 3-D-HB as well as decreases in glutamine, pyruvate, glutamate, acetoacetate, glutathione and methionine after TiO{sub 2} NP treatment. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were elevated and mitochondrial swelling in heart tissue was observed in TiO{sub 2} NP-treated rats. These findings indicate that disturbances in energy and amino acid metabolism and the gut microflora environment may be attributable to the slight injury to the liver and heart caused by TiO{sub 2} NPs. Moreover, the NMR-based metabolomic approach is a reliable and sensitive method to study the biochemical effects of nanomaterials.

  9. Acute and Subacute Inhalation Toxicity Study in Rats Exposed to Pyrotechnically-Disseminated M18 Red Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-12

    Command USEPA: United States Environmental Protection Agency VMD: Veterinary Medicine Division I. NON-TECHNICAL SYNOPSIS The inhalation toxicity of a...staff will provide the Veterinary Medicine Office a current emergency contact roster. In an emergency, the animal care staff will phone the numbers...uniquely identified by number via cage card and tail marking. (CD® is a registered trademark of Charles River Laboratories International , Inc.; Teklad® and

  10. Acute and subacute toxicity evaluation of ethanolic extract from fruits of Schinus molle in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Adriana; Minetti, Alejandra; Bras, Cristina; Zanetti, Noelia

    2007-09-25

    Ethanolic and hexanic extracts from fruits and leaves of Schinus molle showed ability to control several insect pests. Potential vertebrate toxicity associated with insecticidal plants requires investigation before institutional promotion. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute and subacute toxicity of ethanolic extracts from fruits of Schinus molle in rats. The plant extract was added to the diet at 2g/kg body weight/day during 1 day to evaluate acute toxicity and at 1g/kg body weight/day during 14 days to evaluate subacute toxicity. At the end of the exposure and after 7 days, behavioral and functional parameters in a functional observational battery and motor activity in an open field were assessed. Finally, histopathological examinations were conducted on several organs. In both exposures, an increase in the arousal level was observed in experimental groups. Also, the landing foot splay parameter increased in the experimental group after acute exposure. Only the subacute exposure produced a significant increase in the motor activity in the open field. All these changes disappeared after 7 days. None of the exposures affected the different organs evaluated. Our results suggest that ethanolic extracts from fruits and leaves of Schinus molle should be relatively safe to use as insecticide.

  11. Acute and sub-acute oral toxicity assessment of the hydroalcoholic extract of Withania somnifera roots in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabu, P C; Panchapakesan, S; Raj, C David

    2013-08-01

    Withania somnifera is a widely used medicinal plant for several disorders. Toxicity studies on Withania somnifera are not available. Acute and sub-acute oral toxicities of Withania somnifera root extract in Wistar rats were evaluated in the present study. In the acute toxicity study, WSR extract was administered to five rats at 2000 mg/kg, once orally and were observed for 14 days. No toxic signs/mortality were observed. In the sub-acute study, WSR extract was administered once daily for 28 days to rats at 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg, orally. No toxic signs/mortality were observed. There were no significant changes (P lesions were observed. The present investigation demonstrated that the no observed adverse effect level was 2000 mg/kg body weight per day of hydroalcoholic extract of W. somnifera in rats and hence may be considered as non-toxic. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Acute and subacute oral toxicity evaluation of Tephrosia purpurea extract in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talib Hussain

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the acute and subacute toxicity of 50% ethanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea (T. purpurea in rodents. Methods: The acute toxicity test was conducted in Swiss albino mice. The extract of T. purpurea was administrated in single doses of 50, 300 and 2000 mg/ kg and observed for behavioral changes and mortality, if any. In subacute toxicity study, Wistar rats of either sex were administered two doses of T. purpurea i.e., 200 and 400 mg/kg (One-tenth and one-fifth of the maximum tolerated dose, p.o. for 4 weeks. During 28 days of treatment, rats were observed weekly for any change in their body weight, food and water intake. At the end of 28 days, rats were sacrificed for hematological, biochemical and histopathology study. Results: In the acute toxicity study, T. purpurea was found to be well tolerated upto 2 000 mg/kg, produced neither mortality nor changes in behavior in mice. In subacute toxicity study, T. purpurea at dose level of 200 and 400 mg/kg did not produce any significant difference in their body weight, food and water intake when compared to vehicle treated rats. It also showed no significant alteration in hematological and biochemical parameters in experimental groups of rats apart from a decrease in aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphate content at the dose of 400 mg/kg. Histopathological study revealed normal architecture of kidney and liver of T. purpurea treated rats. Conclusions: These results demonstrated that there is a wide margin of safety for the therapeutic use of T. purpurea and further corroborated the traditional use of this extract as an anti hepatocarcinogenic agent

  13. Evaluation of safety margins of Chenopodium album seed decoction: 14-day subacute toxicity and microbicidal activity studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mondal Nirup B

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sperm immobilizing activity and plausible mechanism of action of Chenopodium album seed decoction (CAD have been elucidated in our earlier studies. The present study has been carried out to explore the safety standards of CAD along with microbicidal properties as prerequisite for its use as a topically applicable vaginal contraceptive. Methods The safety standards of CAD were assessed by a Hemolytic index determination using rabbit erythrocytes, to set the doses of the other experiments, b Dermal irritancy test using refined version of Draize scoring system on rabbits, c Possible effect on local tissues and reproductive performance in female rats after fourteen daily single dose application, d PCNA staining- to evaluate the effect of CAD on vaginal tissue proliferation, e TUNEL assay- to examine its ability to induce in situ apoptosis in the vaginal tissue sections of the treated animals, and f Microbicidal activity- to explore the effect of CAD on the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Candida albicans. Results In vitro irritation studies on rabbit erythrocytes revealed the hemolytic index of CAD to be 8.2 mg/ml. The dermal irritation test showed it to be a non-irritant even at higher doses. Intra vaginal application of CAD in rat vagina for 14 consecutive days caused slight reversible inflammation on vaginal epithelial cells at doses as high as 82 mg/ml. However, at this dose level it neither had any adverse effect on vaginal tissue proliferation nor did it cause in situ apoptosis as evident from PCNA staining and TUNEL assay. Fertility and fecundity were restored 4-15 days after withdrawal of CAD application. At dose level 10 times that of its spermicidal MEC (minimum effective concentration, CAD did not block the growth of Lactobacillus, although the size of individual colony was marginally reduced. However, growth of the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans was completely inhibited with 20 mg/ml of CAD. Conclusion The

  14. Assessment of acute and subacute toxic effects of the Saudi folk herb Retama raetam in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardi M. Algandaby

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Repeated administration of methanolic extract of RR (250 mg/kg has a low nephrotoxic subacute toxicity potential, while it might have hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic, and mutagenic effects at higher doses.

  15. Evaluation of the subacute and subchronic toxicity of inhaled EDS hydrotreated naphtha in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, R H; Hinz, J P

    1987-07-01

    Inhalation studies were conducted to assess the subacute and subchronic toxicity of EDS hydrotreated naphtha (HN). In the subacute toxicity study, male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to various concentrations of HN vapor (0.2, 1.0, and 5.0 g/m3) 6 hr/day for 5 consecutive days. Following 2 recovery days, the animals were exposed for 4 additional days and then sacrificed on the 12th study day. In the subchronic toxicity study, a similar protocol was utilized; however, the animals were exposed 5 days/week for 13 weeks. Following a 2-week recovery period, the animals were sacrificed. Parameters examined in both studies included survival, growth, clinical observations, urinalysis, blood chemistry at necropsy, and microscopic examination of selected tissues. There was some evidence of systemic effects associated with repeated inhalation exposure to HN, although these effects were mild and were primarily confined to the high-exposure groups. The major systemic effect appeared to be renal toxicity in male rats as evidenced by increased urinary excretion of renal epithelial cells, creatinine, glucose, and protein and decreased urine osmolality. However, the absence of consistent pathologic changes in the kidneys of these animals suggested that the lesions were either slight or reversible during the 2-week recovery period.

  16. Evaluation of Acute and Subacute Oral Toxicity of the Ethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxicity tests of 95% ethanol extract of the root of Antidesma acidum were studied in male and female rats. The oral acute toxicity test at 5,000 mg/kg revealed that the ethanol extract did not produce toxic effects on signs, general behavious, mortality and gross appearance of internal organs of rats. Furthermore, the oral ...

  17. Evaluation of acute and sub-acute toxicity of Pinus eldarica bark extract in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Ghadirkhomi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pinus eldarica (P. eldarica is one of the most common pines in Iran which has various bioactive constituents and different uses in traditional medicine. Since there is no documented evidence for P. eldarica safety, the acute and sub-acute oral toxicities of hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark were investigated in male and female Wistar rats in this study. Materials and Methods: In the acute study, a single dose of extract (2000 mg/kg was orally administered and animals were monitored for 7 days. In the sub-acute study, repeated doses (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day of the extract were administered for 28 days and biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters were evaluated. Results: Our results showed no sign of toxicity and no mortality after single or repeated administration of P. eldarica. The median lethal dose (LD50 of P. eldarica was determined to be higher than 2000 mg/kg. The mean body weight and most of the biochemical and hematological parameters showed normal levels.  There were only significant decreases in serum triglyceride levels at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg of the extract in male rats (pConclusion: Oral administration of the hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark may be considered as relatively non-toxic particularly at the doses of 125 and 250 mg/kg.

  18. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: serial electroencephalographic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulff, C H

    1982-01-01

    A total of 42 EEGs from five patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis were studied. Periodic complexes were noticed in 35 (83%) of these. The interval between the complexes shortened in all patients with progression of the illness. The gradual EEG changes may reflect the increasing number of infected cells as well as an on-going accumulation of immature virus structures. The records without complexes were either from the early onset (one record) or terminal stage (six records). PMID:7086454

  19. Acute and sub-acute oral toxicity of Dracaena cinnabari resin methanol extract in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Afifi, Nashwan Abdullah; Alabsi, Aied Mohammed; Bakri, Marina Mohd; Ramanathan, Anand

    2018-02-05

    Dracaena cinnabari (DC) is a perennial tree that located on the Southern coast of Yemen native to the Socotra Island. This tree produces a deep red resin known as the Dragon's blood, the Twobrother's Blood or Damm Alakhwain. The current study performed to evaluate the safety of the DC resin methanol extract after a single or 28 consecutive daily oral administrations. In assessing the safety of DC resin methanol extract, acute and sub-acute oral toxicity tests performed following OECD guidelines 423 and 407, respectively, with slight modifications. In acute oral toxicity test, DC resin methanol extract administered to female Sprague Dawley rats by oral gavage at a single dose of 300 and 2000 mg/kg body weight. Rats observed for toxic signs for 14 days. In sub-acute oral toxicity test, DC resin methanol extract administered to the rats by oral gavage at 500, 1000, and 1500 mg/kg body weight daily up to 28 days to male and female Spradgue Dawley rats. The control and high dose in satellite groups were also maintained and handled as the previous groups to determine the late onset toxicity of DC resin methanol extract. At the end of each test, hematological and biochemical analysis of the collected blood were performed as well as gross and microscopic pathology. In acute oral toxicity, no treatment-related death or toxic signs were observed. It revealed that the DC resin methanol extract could be well tolerated up to the dose 2000 mg/kg body weight and could be classified as Category 5. The sub-acute test observations indicated that there are no treatment-related changes up to the high dose level compared to the control. Food consumption, body weight, organ weight, hematological parameters, biochemical parameters and histopathological examination (liver, kidney, heart, spleen and lung) revealed no abnormalities. Water intake was significantly higher in the DC resin methanol extract treated groups compared to the control. This study demonstrates tolerability of DC

  20. Subacute toxicity of nano-selenium compared to other selenium species in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benko, Ilona; Nagy, Gabor; Tanczos, Bence; Ungvari, Eva; Sztrik, Attila; Eszenyi, Peter; Prokisch, Jozsef; Banfalvi, Gaspar

    2012-12-01

    Sixteen groups of mice were fed diets containing different selenium species to compare their toxicity. Inorganic sodium selenate and sodium hydroselenite, elementary nanoSe, organic Sel-Plex, and Lacto-MicroSelenium were administered for 14 d at concentrations of 0.5, 5, and 50 ppm Se, equivalent to 0.5, 5, and 50 mg Se/kg food, corresponding to an estimated 4, 40, and 400 µg/kg body weight/d Se uptake, respectively. At the end of the treatment, body, liver, spleen, kidney, heart, and brain weights were measured, mice were subjected to necropsy, and histological examinations were performed on the liver. At lower Se doses (0.5 and 5 ppm) a moderate reduction was observed in the number of bone marrow and white blood cells and in granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming units (GM-CFUs) relative to the untreated control group of mice. A comparison of lowest toxic doses of sodium selenite in mice (0.5 ppm) and mallard (10 ppm) indicates that birds are more resistant to Se than rodents. In mice, a small but measurable weight loss was observed after 5 ppm selenate and LactoMicroSe treatment. The most significant changes took place after 50-ppm administration in body and spleen weight, hematology, and liver histology. Toxicity was more pronounced when inorganic Se was applied than after subacute application of Sel-Plex, nanoSe, or LactoMicroSe. To summarize the effects, the authors' 14-d murine subacute toxicity study showed that the toxicity of Se species decreased in the following order: selenate > selenite > nanoSe > Sel-Plex > LactoMicroSe. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  1. Nanosilver induces minimal lung toxicity or inflammation in a subacute murine inhalation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Shaughnessy Patrick T

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing interest in the environmental and health consequences of silver nanoparticles as the use of this material becomes widespread. Although human exposure to nanosilver is increasing, only a few studies address possible toxic effect of inhaled nanosilver. The objective of this study was to determine whether very small commercially available nanosilver induces pulmonary toxicity in mice following inhalation exposure. Results In this study, mice were exposed sub-acutely by inhalation to well-characterized nanosilver (3.3 mg/m3, 4 hours/day, 10 days, 5 ± 2 nm primary size. Toxicity was assessed by enumeration of total and differential cells, determination of total protein, lactate dehydrogenase activity and inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Lungs were evaluated for histopathologic changes and the presence of silver. In contrast to published in vitro studies, minimal inflammatory response or toxicity was found following exposure to nanosilver in our in vivo study. The median retained dose of nanosilver in the lungs measured by inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES was 31 μg/g lung (dry weight immediately after the final exposure, 10 μg/g following exposure and a 3-wk rest period and zero in sham-exposed controls. Dissolution studies showed that nanosilver did not dissolve in solutions mimicking the intracellular or extracellular milieu. Conclusions Mice exposed to nanosilver showed minimal pulmonary inflammation or cytotoxicity following sub-acute exposures. However, longer term exposures with higher lung burdens of nanosilver are needed to ensure that there are no chronic effects and to evaluate possible translocation to other organs.

  2. Toxicological evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil: acute and subacute toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yun-xia; Cao, Mei; Shi, Dong-xia; Yin, Zhong-qiong; Jia, Ren-yong; Xu, Jiao; Wang, Chuan; Lv, Cheng; Liang, Xiao-xia; He, Chang-liang; Yang, Zhi-rong; Zhao, Jian

    2013-03-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica), popularly known as traditional medicine is a native plant in India. Neem oil is a vegetable oil derived from seeds or fruits of the neem tree through pressing or solvent extraction, and largely used in popular medicine to have antifungal, antibacterial, antimalarial, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory, as well as immunemodulatory properties in different animal species. In the present study, acute and 28-day subacute toxicity tests were carried out. In the acute toxicity test, the LD50 values of neem oil were found to be 31.95g/kg. The subacute treatment with neem oil failed to change body weight gain, food and water consumption. Serum biochemistry analysis showed no significant differences in any of the parameters examined under the dose of 1600mg/kg/day. Histopathological exams showed that the target organs of neem oil were testicle, liver and kidneys up to the dose of 1600mg/kg/day. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Phytochemical, sub-acute toxicity, and antibacterial evaluation of Cordia sebestena leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osho, Adeleke; Otuechere, Chiagoziem A; Adeosun, Charles B; Oluwagbemi, Tolu; Atolani, Olubunmi

    2016-03-01

    In Nigeria, Cordia sebestena (Boraginaceae), an understudied medicinal plant, is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. In this study, we investigated the chemical composition, antibacterial potential, and sub-acute toxicity of C. sebestena leaves. Ethyl acetate extracts were analyzed using thin layer chromatography (TLC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometry. The antibacterial potential of the extracts was tested against five standard bacteria, namely Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Clinical observations and blood parameters were used to evaluate the possible toxicity of C. sebestena. The TLC profile yielded 39 fractions, which were pooled to nine combined sub-fractions (A-I). The FTIR spectrum of sub-fraction H indicated the presence of aliphatic C-H stretching vibration at 2922 and 2850 cm-1, C=O stretch at 1734 and 1708 cm-1, and C=C stretch of aromatics and aliphatics at 1464 and (shoulder) 1618 cm-1, respectively. The fractions of the C. sebestena ethyl acetate leaf extract showed antibacterial potential across board, but fraction H had the highest antibacterial activity against B. cereus and S. aureus. The study also indicated the relatively low toxicity profile of the ethyl acetate leaf extract of C. sebestena in the liver of rats. The study showed that C. sebestena leaves have strong antibacterial potential and low toxicity, thereby underlying the scientific basis for their folkloric use in the management of microbial infections and its associated complications.

  4. Sub-acute toxicity evaluation of ethanol extract of rheumatic tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sub-acute toxicity profile of Rheumatic Tea Formula (RTF), a polyherbal tea consisting of Salix alba, Eucalyptus globulus and Albizia chevalieri was investigated in wistar rats of both sexes. Wistar rats were orally administered three different doses of ethanol extract of RTF for 28 days after which the effect on body weight, ...

  5. Subacute oral toxicity investigation of nanoparticulate and ionic silver in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadrup, Niels; Löschner, Katrin; Bergström, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Subacute toxicity of 14 nm nanoparticulate silver (Ag-NP) stabilised with polyvinylpyrrolidone and ionic silver in the form of silver acetate (Ag-acetate) was investigated in four-week-old Wistar rats. Animals received orally by gavage the following: vehicle control (10 $, 6 #); Ag-NP at doses: 2...

  6. Evaluation of acute and subacute toxicity of aqueous extract of Crassocephalum rubens leaves in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewale, Olusola B; Onasanya, Amos; Anadozie, Scholastica O; Abu, Miriam F; Akintan, Idowu A; Ogbole, Catherine J; Olayide, Israel I; Afolabi, Olakunle B; Jaiyesimi, Kikelomo F; Ajiboye, Bashir O; Fadaka, Adewale O

    2016-07-21

    Crassocephalum rubens is found throughout tropical Africa including the Indian Ocean islands. The leaves are commonly eaten in form of soups and sauces in South-Western Nigeria, also in other humid zones of Africa. Traditionally, it is used as an antidote against any form of poisoning; used to treat stomach and liver complaints; and externally to treat burns, sore eyes, earache, leprosy and breast cancer. In this study, acute and subacute toxicity of aqueous extract of C. rubens leaves was evaluated in rats in order to assess its safety profile. In acute toxicity study, rats were given a single oral administration of aqueous extract of C. rubens leaves at graded doses (250-5000mg/kg). The animals were monitored for behavioural changes and possible mortality over a period of 24h and thereafter, for 14 days. In the subacute toxicity study, rats of both sexes were administered C. rubens orally at doses of 250mg/kg, 500mg/kg, 750mg/kg and 1000mg/kg body weight daily, for 28 days. Rats were observed weekly for any changes in general behaviour and body weights. In addition, other relevant parameters were assayed at the end of the main and reversibility study periods. There was no observed adverse effect; including mortality in the animals. The extract caused no significant difference in the body weights as well as organs weights of treated groups when compared with the control groups. Haematological and biochemical parameters also revealed no toxic effects of the extract on rats. Histological assessments were normal in liver and kidney. It can therefore be suggested based on the results from this study that aqueous extract of C. rubens leaves, at dosage levels up to 1000mg/kg, is non-toxic and could also offer protection on some body tissues. Aqueous extract of C. rubens could therefore, be considered safe. This study supports the application of Crassocephalum rubens in traditional medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative in vivo assessment of the subacute toxicity of gold and silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Mansee; Mohanty, Ipseeta Ray; Maheswari, Ujjwala; Dayal, Navami; Suman, Rajesh; Joshi, D. S.

    2014-04-01

    In spite of the projected therapeutic potentials of gold nanoparticles (GNP) and silver nanoparticles (SNP), very limited data are available on the interaction of nanoparticles with the biological systems. The present investigation was designed to evaluate as well as compare the subacute toxicity of GNP and SNP. Stable suspensions of GNP and SNP with mean particle diameter 10 and 25 nm, respectively, were prepared. Wistar rats were orally fed SNP (3 mg/kg) or GNP (20 μg/kg), once a day for 21 days. Biochemical indices (creatinine phosphokinase-MB, urea, blood urea nitrogen, aspartate transaminase, alkaline alanine transferase) and histopathological features of the liver, heart, brain, lungs, and kidney were evaluated for signs of toxicity. A significant decline in hepatic and renal function in the GNP treated group was observed as compared to SNP. GNP was found to be relatively more toxic on the lungs and SNP on the myocardial tissue as compared to SNP and GNP treatments, respectively. Interestingly, neither SNP nor GNP adversely affected the basal architecture of the brain as compared to sham. The present study demonstrated that GNP was significantly more noxious on the liver and kidney as compared with SNP.

  8. Acute and Subacute Toxicity In Vivo of Thermal-Sprayed Silver Containing Hydroxyapatite Coating in Rat Tibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatsugu Tsukamoto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the incidence of implant-associated infection, we previously developed a novel coating technology using hydroxyapatite (HA containing silver (Ag. This study examined in vivo acute and subacute toxicity associated with the Ag-HA coating in rat tibiae. Ten-week-old rats received implantation of HA-, 2% Ag-HA-, or 50% Ag-HA-coated titanium rods. Concentrations of silver in serum, brain, liver, kidneys, and spleen were measured in the acute phase (2–4 days after treatment and subacute phase (4–12 weeks after treatment. Biochemical and histological examinations of those organs were also performed. Mean serum silver concentration peaked in the acute phase and then gradually decreased. Mean silver concentrations in all examined organs from the 2% Ag-HA coating groups showed no significant differences compared with the HA coating group. No significant differences in mean levels of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine, or blood urea nitrogen were seen between the three groups and controls. Histological examinations of all organs revealed no abnormal pathologic findings. No acute or subacute toxicity was seen in vivo for 2% Ag-HA coating or HA coating. Ag-HA coatings on implants may represent biologically safe antibacterial biomaterials and may be of value for reducing surgical-site infections related to implantation.

  9. Acute and subacute toxicity in vivo of thermal-sprayed silver containing hydroxyapatite coating in rat tibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Masatsugu; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Ando, Yoshiki; Noda, Iwao; Eto, Shuichi; Akiyama, Takayuki; Yonekura, Yutaka; Sonohata, Motoki; Mawatari, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    To reduce the incidence of implant-associated infection, we previously developed a novel coating technology using hydroxyapatite (HA) containing silver (Ag). This study examined in vivo acute and subacute toxicity associated with the Ag-HA coating in rat tibiae. Ten-week-old rats received implantation of HA-, 2% Ag-HA-, or 50% Ag-HA-coated titanium rods. Concentrations of silver in serum, brain, liver, kidneys, and spleen were measured in the acute phase (2-4 days after treatment) and subacute phase (4-12 weeks after treatment). Biochemical and histological examinations of those organs were also performed. Mean serum silver concentration peaked in the acute phase and then gradually decreased. Mean silver concentrations in all examined organs from the 2% Ag-HA coating groups showed no significant differences compared with the HA coating group. No significant differences in mean levels of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine, or blood urea nitrogen were seen between the three groups and controls. Histological examinations of all organs revealed no abnormal pathologic findings. No acute or subacute toxicity was seen in vivo for 2% Ag-HA coating or HA coating. Ag-HA coatings on implants may represent biologically safe antibacterial biomaterials and may be of value for reducing surgical-site infections related to implantation.

  10. Toxicity assessment of zinc oxide nanoparticles using sub-acute and sub-chronic murine inhalation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Although ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) are used in many commercial products and the potential for human exposure is increasing, few in vivo studies have addressed their possible toxic effects after inhalation. We sought to determine whether ZnO NPs induce pulmonary toxicity in mice following sub-acute or sub-chronic inhalation exposure to realistic exposure doses. Methods Mice (C57Bl/6) were exposed to well-characterized ZnO NPs (3.5 mg/m3, 4 hr/day) for 2 (sub-acute) or 13 (sub-chronic) weeks and necropsied immediately (0 wk) or 3 weeks (3 wks) post exposure. Toxicity was assessed by enumeration of total and differential cells, determination of total protein, lactate dehydrogenase activity and inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid as well as measurements of pulmonary mechanics. Generation of reactive oxygen species was assessed in the lungs. Lungs were evaluated for histopathologic changes and Zn content. Zn concentration in blood, liver, kidney, spleen, heart, brain and BAL fluid was measured. Results An elevated concentration of Zn2+ was detected in BAL fluid immediately after exposures, but returned to baseline levels 3 wks post exposure. Dissolution studies showed that ZnO NPs readily dissolved in artificial lysosomal fluid (pH 4.5), but formed aggregates and precipitates in artificial interstitial fluid (pH 7.4). Sub-acute exposure to ZnO NPs caused an increase of macrophages in BAL fluid and a moderate increase in IL-12(p40) and MIP-1α, but no other inflammatory or toxic responses were observed. Following both sub-acute and sub-chronic exposures, pulmonary mechanics were no different than sham-exposed animals. Conclusions Our ZnO NP inhalation studies showed minimal pulmonary inflammation, cytotoxicity or lung histopathologic changes. An elevated concentration of Zn in the lung and BAL fluid indicates dissolution of ZnO NPs in the respiratory system after inhalation. Exposure concentration, exposure mode and time post

  11. Subacute Toxicity Profile of Lacidipine Nanoformulation in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupesh Shirodkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at investigating the safety of Lacidipine (LCDP loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs in Wistar rats. NLCs were formulated using ultrasound dispersion technique. Animals were orally treated once daily with NLCs containing 0.140 mg, 0.350 mg, and 0.875 mg of LCDP as low, medium, and high dose per kg body weight, respectively, during 28 days along with blank formulation and pure LCDP. Control rats were fed with water. Animals were observed throughout experiment period and their body weight was recorded once weekly. Overnight fasted rats were sacrificed on the 29th day. Study revealed no signs or symptoms of toxicity or morbidity. No significant changes in the body weight were observed between treated and control group. Significant increase in left testis weight and liver weight was observed in male and female rats, respectively. Haematological estimation revealed significant decrease in haemoglobin count in male rats while female rats showed significant increase in granulocyte count. All the serum clinical parameters were within the normal range and no gross histopathological changes were observed. No delayed effect was noted in satellite group. The results indicate that developed LCDP loaded NLCs are safe when administered orally in rats.

  12. Combined subacute toxicity of copper and antiparasitic albendazole to the earthworm (Eisenia fetida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuhong; Li, Hongshuang; Li, Xuemei; Sun, Zhenjun

    2016-03-01

    Copper (Cu) is one of the most common metal contaminants, and albendazole (ABZ) is a veterinary drug with a high efficacy against helminthes. It is believed that the two may co-exist in soil. In this study, the combined subacute toxicity of Cu exposure (0, 80, 120, 160 mg kg(-1)) and ABZ exposure (0, 3, 9 mg kg(-1)) in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were observed using three approaches, namely chronic growth and reproduction, antioxidant enzyme activity, and earthworm Cu residue. The results have shown that the toxicity of Cu on cocoon hatching success and biomass was alleviated by presence of low concentrations of ABZ (3 mg kg(-1)) during a 56-day exposure period. However, the sensitivity of the earthworms' reproduction to Cu increased with the presence of high concentrations of ABZ (9 mg kg(-1)), indicating a reduction beginning at a Cu concentration of 80 mg kg(-1), in the cocoon number, hatching success, and biomass. In addition, the three enzyme activities exhibited different responsive patterns, indicating inducement in the catalase and glutathione peroxidase, and inhibition in the superoxide dismutase, which were dependent on the exposure times and concentrations. In regard to the earthworm Cu residue, when increasing Cu exposure concentrations, the internal Cu concentrations tended to level off, exhibited a linear pattern at the Cu concentration range of 40 to 120 mg kg(-1), and showed a stable trend above 120 mg kg(-1). The results of the present study can potentially provide important information regarding the combined toxicity of the veterinary drugs and the heavy metals in soil.

  13. Subacute toxicity assessment of water disinfection byproducts on zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rácz, Gergely; Csenki, Zsolt; Kovács, Róbert; Hegyi, Arpád; Baska, Ferenc; Sujbert, László; Zsákovics, Ivett; Kis, Renáta; Gustafson, Ryan; Urbányi, Béla; Szende, Béla

    2012-07-01

    Disinfection of raw water is essential to the production of drinking water. However, by-products of disinfection may exert toxic effects. The potential toxic effects of two of these compounds, 4-ethylbenzaldehyde (EBA) and 2,4-difluoroaniline (DFA) were investigated using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) model. The two compounds, dissolved, were introduced in duplicate aquariums containing zebrafish in two different concentrations based on LC50 values. The aquarium water containing EBA or DFA was changed every 96 h throughout the 3 months of treatment. Behavior of the fish in each replicate was inspected twice daily. In course of treatment with both concentrations, fish exposed to DFA displayed behavior associated with visible anxiety, while EBA treated were lethargic and did not evade capture. Application of both concentrations of each component into the aquarium water resulted in dystrophic lesions in the liver, kidney and skin of the fish while preneoplastic lesions and tumors were not observed.

  14. Evaluation of acute and subacute toxicity of hydroethanolic extract of Dolichandra unguis-cati L. leaves in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calil Brondani, Juliana; Reginato, Fernanda Ziegler; da Silva Brum, Evelyne; de Souza Vencato, Marina; Lima Lhamas, Cibele; Viana, Carine; da Rocha, Maria Izabel Ugalde Marques; de Freitas Bauermann, Liliane; Manfron, Melânia Palermo

    2017-04-18

    Dolichandra unguis-cati L. is a native climbing plant of Brazil, popularly known as "unha de gato". It has been traditionally used mainly as an antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor agent, yet little toxicological information is found in the literature. To identify the chemical composition of the hydroethanolic extract obtained from the leaves of Dolichandra uniguis-cati and to evaluate the acute and subacute toxicity in male and female rats, in order to assess the safety profile of this plant. In the acute study, a single dose (2000mg/kg) of the extract was orally administered to male and female rats. In the subacute study, the extract was orally administered to male and female rats at doses 100, 200 and 400mg/kg for 28 days. Behavioral changes, catalase and tbars evaluations, biochemical, hematological and histopathological analysis were determined. The extract' chemical composition was accessed through UHPLC/MS. Chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, vanillinic acid, p-coumaric acid, rosmarinic acid, trans-cinnamic acid, luteolin, apigenin, quercitrin and quercetin were identified in the extract. In the acute treatment, the extract was classified as safe (category 5), according to the OECD guide. In relation to the subacute study, females showed a reduction in AST (100, 200 and 400mg/kg), ALT (200mg/kg) and BUN (100 and 200mg/kg) levels, while male rats 400mg/kg presented an increase in AST levels. The Chol dosage significantly decreased in female rats in a dose-dependent manner, whereas for male rats this parameter showed no statistically significant reductions. No behavioral and histopathological changes were recorded. Our results indicate that the hydroethanolic extract of Dolichandra unguis-cati leaves did not present relevant toxic effects when administered orally to male and female rats. The extract also showed a potential hypocholesterolemic activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Subacute pulmonary toxicity of copper indium gallium diselenide following intratracheal instillations into the lungs of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akiyo; Hirata, Miyuki; Shiratani, Masaharu; Koga, Kazunori; Kiyohara, Yutaka

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the pulmonary toxicity of copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) solar cells on 62 8-wk-old rats. Male Wistar rats were given 0.5, 5 or 50 mg/kg of CIGS particles, intratracheally, 3 times for a week. Control rats were given vehicle, distilled water, only. These rats were euthanized 0, 1 or 3 wk after the final instillation serially, and toxicological effects were determined. None of the CIGS-treated groups exhibited suppression of body weight gain compared with the control group. The relative lung weight in the CIGS 5 mg/kg-treated and 50 mg/kg-treated groups were significantly increased compared with that in the control group throughout the observation period. Although serum copper (Cu) and selenium (Se) concentrations were not affected by instillations of CIGS particles, the indium (In) levels increased with the passage of time in the CIGS 5 mg/kg-treated and 50 mg/kg-treated groups. However, the serum gallium (Ga) levels decreased in the CIGS 50 mg/kg-treated group from 0 to 3 wk. The content of each metal in the lung increased depending on the dose instilled and was constant during observation periods. Histopathologically, foci of slight to severe pulmonary inflammatory response and exudation were present among all the CIGS-treated groups, and the severity of these lesions worsened with the passage of time. The present results clearly demonstrate that CIGS particles caused subacute pulmonary toxicity and that dissolution of CIGS particles in the lung was considerably slow when repeated intratracheal instillations were given to rats.

  16. Toxic effects of ackee oil (Blighia sapida L) following subacute administration to rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, P; Gardner, M; Poddar, S; Choo-Kang, E; Coard, K; Rickards, E

    1992-03-01

    Subacute intraperitoneal administration of the lipid portion of the unripe ackee arillus, referred to as "ackee oil", resulted in marked neutropenia (p less than 0.001) and increase in platelets (p less than 0.01) without anaemia, in rats. Blood urea, sodium and aspartate aminotransferase levels were significantly decreased but glucose and bilirubin levels were similar to those of controls. The lungs showed areas of petechial haemorrhages and a dose-related perivascular and peribronchial mononuclear cell infiltration. The pulmonary toxicity may be interpreted as a hypersensitive reaction to ackee oil. Further research is in progress on the neutropenic effects of ackee oil.

  17. Subacute toxicity of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in male rats: emotional behavior and pathophysiological examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Naima Rihane Ben; Amara, Salem; Mrad, Imen; Ben-Slama, Imen; Jeljeli, Mustapha; Omri, Karim; El Ghoul, Jaber; El Mir, Lassaad; Rhouma, Khemais Ben; Abdelmelek, Hafedh; Sakly, Mohsen

    2015-06-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) have a wide range of applications in many fields (paint, industry, medicine, additives in food colorants, and nutritional products). Over the past decade research, TiO2 NPs have been focused on the potential toxic effects of these useful materials. In the present study, we investigated the effects of subacute exposure to TiO2 NPs on emotional behavior in adult Wistar rats, the biochemical parameters, and the histology of organs. Animals were injected intraperitoneally (ip) with TiO2 NPs (20 mg/kg body weight) every 2 days for 20 days. The elevated plus-maze test showed that subacute TiO2 NPs treatment increased significantly the anxious index (AI) compared to control group. The toxicological parameters were assessed 24 h and 14 days after the last injection of TiO2 NPs. Subacute exposure to nanoparticles increased the AST/ALT enzyme ratio and LDH activity. However, the blood cell count remained unchanged, except the platelet count increase. Histological examination showed a little inflammation overall. Moreover, our results provide strong evidence that the TiO2 NPs can induce the liver pathological changes of rats. The intraperitoneal injection of TiO2 NPs increased the accumulation of titanium in the liver, lung, and the brain. The results suggest that TiO2 NPs could alter the neurobehavioral performance of adult Wistar rats and promotes alterations in hepatic tissues.

  18. Acute and subacute toxicity tests of madder root, natural colorant extracted from madder (Rubia tinctorum), in (C57BL/6 X C3H)F1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ino, N; Tanaka, T; Okumura, A; Morishita, Y; Makita, H; Kato, Y; Nakamura, M; Mori, H

    1995-01-01

    As part of the safety assessment of madder root (MR), a food colorant extracted from madder (Rubia tinctorum), toxicity tests were undertaken using (C57BL/6 x C3H)F1 mice of both sexes. An acute toxicity test was performed by 14-day administration of MR dissolved in distilled water by gavage at doses of 0, 500, 2000, 3500, and 5000 mg/kg body weight to groups of each sex. One male mouse dosed at 5000 mg/kg body weight was dead before the end of the study, indicating that the maximum tolerated dose of MR was between 3500 and 5000 mg/kg body weight. A subacute toxicity test of MR was performed using 62 mice of each sex, mixing their diets with MR at concentrations of 0, 0.3, 0.6, 1.25, 2.5, and 5% for 90 days. All mice tolerated these doses of MR well. The body weight gains of either sex were not affected by the treatment. None of the mice treated with MR showed clinical signs of toxicity. Histopathological examinations showed retention cysts of the kidneys and epidermal vaginal cysts in a few of the treated or control mice. No hyperplastic, preneoplastic, and neoplastic lesions and no pathological findings of toxicity were found. These results suggest that dietary exposure of MR at these doses has no acute or subacute toxic effects on mice.

  19. Mammalian Toxicological Evaluation of TNT Wastewaters. Volume II. Acute and Subacute Mammalian Toxicity of TNT and LAP Mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-01

    lContinued) ’ in rats; subacute toxicity in mice; anemia; testicular atrophy; uterine U hypoplasia; hemosiderosis ; SGPT; cholesterol; unscheduled DNA...food intake, mild to moderate hemolytic anemia, 5. enlarged splee s and (usually) livers, hemosiderosis of the spleen, and colored urine.! Testicular...temporary with mice); mild to moderate anemia; alterations in organ weights, including enlarged spleens and (usually) livers; hemosiderosis of the spleen

  20. Studying toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkus, A.; LeBlanc, L.; Kim, C.; Van Beneden, R.; Mayer, G.

    2006-01-01

    With funding from the George Mitchell Center for the Environment at the University of Maine, a team of scientists used a simple laboratory-based sediment resuspension design, and two well-established aquatic toxicology models, fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and zebrafish (Danio rerio), to evaluate if resuspension of Penobscot river sediment significantly elevates the toxicity of river water and to provide preliminary information on the types of chemicals likely to desorb during resuspension. The group collected sediments from two sites with known chemical contamination downstream of the Great Works and Veazie dams. The sediments were examined to determine the dynamics of PAH desorption and degradation under different resuspension frequencies. The scientists used clarified water from resuspension experiments for toxicity tests with the water-flea Ceriodaphnia dubia, and other aquatic test organisms to infer toxicity from sediments from northern California rivers. Data from the study will help ascertain whether metals and/or xenoestrogens are present in the desorption water and give insight into possible avenues of sediment remediation.

  1. Acute and subacute toxicity of copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO(4)5.H(2)O) in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Keehae; Heo, Gang-Joon

    2009-03-01

    Chemicals are used for treatment of aquatic diseases, but there is little data available about copper sulfate in small ornamental fish. The aim of the present study was to determine the TLm(24h) and evaluate the toxicity of copper sulfate in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata). The fish were subjected to an acute toxicity test for 24 hr, and the results showed a TLm(24h) value of 1.17 ppm. Severe hyperplasia and exfoliation of the epithelial cells of gill lamellae and obstruction of the internal cavities of renal tubules with necrotized renal epithelial cells sloughed from the basement membrane were observed. However, no significant changes, except for mild curling of gill lamellae, were found in a subacute toxicity test in which fish were exposed to 1/10 of the TLm(24h) value for 1 week. Therefore, use of less than 0.12 ppm of copper sulfate may be recommended as a therapeutic level.

  2. Determination of toxicity of subacute treatment of some plant growth regulators on rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Ismail; Tuluce, Yasin

    2007-12-01

    potential enzyme MPO activity significantly increased in the spleen of rats treated with both doses of NAA and TIBA whereas ADA activity significantly decreased in the spleen of rats treated with 100 ppm dose of NAA and TIBA. The observations presented led us to conclude that the administrations of subacute NAA, 2,4-D, and TIBA promote MDA content, inhibit the antioxidative defense system and activate or inhibit immune potential enzymes in the rat's spleen and lung tissues. These data suggest that PGRs produced substantial organ toxicity in the lung and spleen during the period of a 25-day subacute exposure.

  3. Anti-diabetic effects of Inonotus obliquus polysaccharides-chromium (III) complex in type 2 diabetic mice and its sub-acute toxicity evaluation in normal mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cong; Chen, Zhongqin; Pan, Yuxiang; Gao, Xudong; Chen, Haixia

    2017-10-01

    Polysaccharides are important bioactive ingredients from Inonotus obliquus. This study aimed to synthesize and characterize a novel I. obliquus polysaccharides-chromium (III) complex (UIOPC) and investigate the anti-diabetic effects in streptozotocin (STZ) induced type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) mice and sub-acute toxicity in normal mice. The molecular weight of UIOPC was about 11.5 × 10 4 Da with the chromium content was 13.01% and the chromium was linked with polysaccharides through coordination bond. After treatment of UIOPC for four weeks, the body weight, fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels, plasma insulin levels of the diabetic mice were significantly reduced when compared with those of the diabetic mice (p < 0.05). The results on serum profiles and antioxidant enzymes activities revealed that UIOPC had a positive effect on hypoglycemic and antioxidant ability. Histopathology results showed that UIOPC could effectively alleviate the STZ-lesioned tissues in diabetic mice. Furthermore, high dose administration of UIOPC had no obviously influence on serum profiles levels and antioxidant ability of the normal mice and the organ tissues maintained organized and integrity in the sub-acute toxicity study. These results suggested that UIOPC might be a good candidate for the functional food or pharmaceuticals in the treatment of T2DM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Iron and nickel complexes with heterocyclic ligands: stability, synthesis, spectral characterization, antimicrobial activity, acute and subacute toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchoucha, Afaf; Terbouche, Achour; Zaouani, Mohamed; Derridj, Fazia; Djebbar, Safia

    2013-07-01

    The synthesis and characterization by elemental analysis, emission atomic spectroscopy, TG measurements, magnetic measurements, FTIR, (1)H NMR, UV-visible spectra and conductivity of a series of iron (II) and nickel (II) complexes with two heterocyclic ligands (L(1)(SMX): sulfamethoxazole and L(2)(MIZ): metronidazole) used in pharmaceutical field and with a new ligand derived benzoxazole (L(3)(MPBO): 2-(5-methylpyridine-2-yl)benzoxazole), were reported. The formulae obtained for the complexes are: [M(L(1))2 Cl2]·nH2O, [M(L(2))2Cl2(H2O)2]·H2O and [M(L(3))2(OH)2]·nH2O. Stability constants of these complexes have been determined by potentiometric methods in water-ethanol (90:10, v/v) mixture at a 0.2 mol L(-1) ionic strength (NaCl) and at 25.0±0.1 °C. Sirko program was used to determine the protonation constants as well as the binding constants of three species [ML2H2](2+), [ML2] and [ML](2+). The antimicrobial activity of the ligands and complexes was evaluated in vitro against different human bacteria and fungi using agar diffusion method. Iron sulfamethoxazole complex showed a remarkable inhibition of bacteria growth especially on Staphylococcus aureus and P. aeruginosa. The iron metronidazole complex is active against yeasts especially on Candida tropicalis strain. Nickel complexes presented different antibacterial and antifungal behavior's against bacteria and fungal. The acute toxicity study revealed that the iron complexes are not toxic at 2000 mg/kg dose orally administrated. LD50 for nickel complexes was determined using graphical method. No significant differences in the body weights between the control and the treated groups of both rat sexes in subacute toxicity study using for iron complexes. Hematological and clinical blood chemistry analysis revealed no toxicity effects of the iron complexes. Pathologically, neither gross abnormalities nor histopathological changes were observed for these complexes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights

  5. Subacute (28-day) toxicity of furfural in Fischer 344 rats: a comparison of the oral and inhalation route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arts, Josje H E; Muijser, Hans; Appel, Marko J; Frieke Kuper, C; Bessems, Jos G M; Woutersen, Ruud A

    2004-09-01

    The subacute oral and inhalation toxicity of furfural vapour was studied in Fischer 344 rats to investigate whether route-to-route extrapolation could be employed to derive the limit value for inhalation exposure from oral toxicity data. Groups of 5 rats per sex were treated by gavage daily for 28 days at dose levels of 6-192 mg/kg bw/day, or exposed by inhalation to concentrations of 20-1280 mg/m3 (6 h/day, 5 days/week) or 160-1280 mg/m3 (3 h/day, 5 days/week) for 28 days. Controls received vehicle (corn oil) or were exposed to clean air. Daily oral treatment with the highest dose of furfural (initially 192 mg/kg bw/day, later reduced to 144 mg/kg bw/day and finally to 120 mg/kg bw/day) resulted in mortality, and in increases in absolute and relative kidney and liver weight in surviving females of this group. Exposure of rats by inhalation for 6 h/day, 5 days/week for 28 days induced mortality at concentrations of 640 mg/m3 and above within 1-8 days. At 640 mg/m3 (3 h/day) and at 320 mg/m3 (3 and 6 h/day) and below, however, exposure was tolerated without serious clinical effects. In contrast, histopathological nasal changes were seen even at the lowest concentration of 20 mg/m3. With increasing exposure concentration, the nasal effects increased in incidence and severity and also expanded from the anterior part to the posterior part, including the olfactory epithelium. It was concluded that the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for oral toxicity was 96 mg/kg bw/day. The NOAEL for systemic inhalation toxicity was comparable, i.e. 92 mg/kg bw/day (corresponding to 320 mg/m3 (6 h/day) or 640 mg/m3 (3 h/day)) assuming 100% absorption. The presence of the histopathological nasal changes at the lowest tested concentration of 20 mg/m3 (corresponding to 6 mg/kg bw/day) proves that for locally acting substances like furfural extrapolation from the oral to the inhalation route is not valid.

  6. Acute and Sub-acute Toxicity Profile of Aqueous Leaf Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Acute toxicity study was performed by administering a single oral dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight of the extract to 5 rats while distilled water was given to another 5 ... Histopathology did not reveal any sign of lesions or pathological changes in the organs that could be attributed to treatment with the plant extract.

  7. Acute and subacute toxicity of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon 1-methylnaphthalene to the shallow-water coral Porites divaricata: Application of a novel exposure protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renegar, D Abigail; Turner, Nicholas R; Riegl, Bernhard M; Dodge, Richard E; Knap, Anthony H; Schuler, Paul A

    2017-01-01

    Previous research evaluating hydrocarbon toxicity to corals and coral reefs has generally focused on community-level effects, and results often are not comparable between studies because of variability in hydrocarbon exposure characterization and evaluation of coral health and mortality during exposure. Toxicity of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon 1-methylnaphthalene to the coral Porites divaricata was assessed in a constant exposure toxicity test utilizing a novel toxicity testing protocol uniquely applicable to shallow-water corals, which considered multiple assessment metrics and evaluated the potential for post-exposure mortality and/or recovery. Acute and subacute effects (gross morphological changes, photosynthetic efficiency, mortality, and histologic cellular changes) were evaluated during pre-exposure (4 wk), exposure (48 h), and post-exposure recovery (4 wk) periods. Coral condition scores were used to determine a 48-h median effective concentration of 7442 μg/L. Significant physical and histological changes resulted from exposure to 640 μg/L and 5427 μg/L 1-methylnaphthalene, with a 1-d to 3-d delay in photosynthetic efficiency effects (ΔF/Fm). Pigmented granular amoebocyte area was found to be a potentially useful sublethal endpoint for this species. Coral mortality was used to estimate a 48-h median lethal concentration of 12 123 μg/L. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:212-219. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  8. European medicinal and edible plants associated with subacute and chronic toxicity part I: Plants with carcinogenic, teratogenic and endocrine-disrupting effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristanc, Luka; Kreft, Samo

    2016-06-01

    In recent decades, the use of herbal medicines and food products has been widely embraced in many developed countries. These products are generally highly accepted by consumers who often believe that "natural" equals "safe". This is, however, an oversimplification because several botanicals have been found to contain toxic compounds in concentrations harmful to human health. Acutely toxic plants are in most cases already recognised as dangerous as a result of their traditional use, but plants with subacute and chronic toxicity are difficult or even impossible to detect by traditional use or by clinical research studies. In this review, we systematically address major issues including the carcinogenicity, teratogenicity and endocrine-disrupting effects associated with the use of herbal preparations with a strong focus on plant species that either grow natively or are cultivated in Europe. The basic information regarding the molecular mechanisms of the individual subtypes of plant-induced non-acute toxicity is given, which is followed by a discussion of the pathophysiological and clinical characteristics. We describe the genotoxic and carcinogenic effects of alkenylbenzenes, pyrrolizidine alkaloids and bracken fern ptaquiloside, the teratogenicity issues regarding anthraquinone glycosides and specific alkaloids, and discuss the human health concerns regarding the phytoestrogens and licorice consumption in detail. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Haematolohical Profile of Subacute Oral Toxicity of Molybdenum and Ameliorative Efficacy of Copper Salt in Goats

    OpenAIRE

    Kusum; Raina, R.; Verma, P. K.; Pankaj, N. K.; Kant, V.; Kumar, J.; Srivastava, A. K.

    2010-01-01

    Molybdenum toxicity produces a state of secondary hypocuprosis, resulting into alterations in normal hematological profile. In the present study, ammonium molybdate alone and with copper sulfate (II) pentahydrate (ameliorative agent) was administered orally for 30 consecutive days in healthy goats of group 1 and 2, respectively, to access the effect on the hematological profile on different predetermined days of dosing. Administration of ammonium molybdate alone produced significant decline i...

  10. Subacute toxicopathological studies of methotrexate in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Patel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A toxico-pathological study was undertaken to assess the effects of Methotrexate administration in Wistar rats by performing the hematology, serum biochemical analysis and associated histopathological changes in visceral organs. Materials and Methods: Rats in 4 treatment groups with 6 male and 6 female rats each were administered methotrexate (Group II to IV at the dose rate of 0.062, 0.125 and 0.250 mg/kg body weight respectively and distilled water (Group I as vehicle control for 28 days. Hematological parameters viz., total erythrocyte count, haemoglobin, packed cell volume, MCV, MCH and MCHC, total leukocyte count and differential leukocyte count and serum biochemical parameters viz., aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, total protein, albumin, globulin (Calculated were estimated after 28 days. Necropsy examination was performed in all sacrificed animals and gross lesions were recorded. Tissue samples (lung, liver, kidney, intestine, testes and heart were collected in 10% formalin solution for histo-pathological examination. Results: The dose dependent reduction in body weight, feed consumption, RBCs count, packed cell volume, haemoglobin, total leucocyte count, neutrophil count, total protein and albumin was observed in animals of group II, III and IV along with significant increase in lymphocyte count, AST, ALT, AKP, creatinine and BUN in animals of methotrexate treated group IV followed by group III. No significant change in monocyte, eosinophil and basophil counts were observed in any treatment groups. All the rats exposed to methotrexate at three different dose levels revealed dose dependent pathological changes characterized by degeneration, necrosis, congestion, haemorrhage and vascular changes. The main target organs affected were liver, kidney, lungs and testes. Conclusion: It can be concluded from this study that sub-acute exposure to methotrexate

  11. Adult fulminant subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: pathological and molecular studies--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souraud, J B; Faivre, A; Waku-Kouomou, D; Gaillard, T; Aouad, N; Meaudre, E; Wild, F T; Fouet, B; Soulard, R

    2009-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is an uncommon progressive neurological disorder caused by a persistent defective measles virus, typically affecting children. We describe a case of fulminant subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in a 25-year-old male. Brain tissue biopsy showed histologic evidence of encephalitis with eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies (Cowdry Type A and B), intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies, perivascular lymphoplasmacytic infiltration and gliosis. Immunohistochemical studies were positive using an anti-measles antibody. Reverse transcriptase-PCR detected measles virus RNA and phylogenetic analysis indicated a C2 genotype. The rare adult-onset form is often atypical and difficult to diagnose and should be included in the differential diagnosis of subacute "unexplained" neurological diseases and uncommon infectious disorders.

  12. Haematolohical profile of subacute oral toxicity of molybdenum and ameliorative efficacy of copper salt in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusum; Raina, R; Verma, P K; Pankaj, N K; Kant, V; Kumar, J; Srivastava, A K

    2010-07-01

    Molybdenum toxicity produces a state of secondary hypocuprosis, resulting into alterations in normal hematological profile. In the present study, ammonium molybdate alone and with copper sulfate (II) pentahydrate (ameliorative agent) was administered orally for 30 consecutive days in healthy goats of group 1 and 2, respectively, to access the effect on the hematological profile on different predetermined days of dosing. Administration of ammonium molybdate alone produced significant decline in the mean values of hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), total leukocyte count (TLC), total erythrocyte count (TEC), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), with a significant increase in neutrophil level and mean corpuscular volume (MCV). However, values of erythrocyte sedimentation rate, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and differential leukocyte count were not significantly altered. On comparing observations of ameliorative group with the group 1 goats, it is concluded that the ameliorative copper salt has beneficial effects in alleviating the alterations in the values of Hb, PCV, TLC, TEC, MCV, MCHC, and neutrophils.

  13. Acute and Sub-Acute Toxicity of Aqueous Extract of Nauclea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the dose – toxicity profile of the aqueous extract of Nauclea latifolia stem bark. (AQE). Methods: .... filtered and lyophilized and the dried residue was diluted appropriately with water for oral administration to the experimental animals. Acute toxicity test ..... the removal of metabolic wastes from the blood.

  14. Determination of acute toxicity and the effects of sub-acute concentrations of CuO nanoparticles on blood parameters in Rutilus rutilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolreza Jahanbakhshi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Copper oxidenanoparticles have different industrial applications so it is inevitable that nanoparticulate products finally find their way into aquatic ecosystems. Nevertheless there is little information available about their effects on some of edible fish. The present study aims to determine the acute toxicity and evaluate the effect of two sub-acute concentrations (50 and 70% 96 h LC50 of CuO-NPs on some hematological and biochemical parameters of R. rutilus. Materials and Methods:225 healthy specimen of R. rutilus (mean weight 5.52±1.2 g; mean length 6.20±0.2 cm were transported to the laboratory. In order to prepare the stock solution, CuO-NPs was dispersed in pure water with ultrasonication (50-60 kHz for 15 min every day before dosing. At first, R. rutilus was exposed to CuO-NPs to determine the lethal concentration (LC50 value. Following acute test, fish were treated with sub-acute concentrations of CuO-NPs (50 and 70% 96 h-LC50 at with one control group (no CuO-NPs for a week to determine the changes in the level of some plasma hematological and biochemical parameters. Results:The 96 h-LC50 values of CuO-NPs was 2.19±0.003 mg/l. R. rutilus exhibited significantly lower RBC count, Hb and Hct values and a significant increase in the WBC numbers, MCH, MCHC and MCV indices (p

  15. Drinking water toxicity study of the environmental contaminant--Bromate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongmei, Liu; Zhiwei, Wang; Qi, Zhu; Fuyi, Cui; Yujuan, Shan; Xiaodong, Liu

    2015-12-01

    Bromate is a byproduct of water disinfection that is produced when waters contain bromide treated with ozone. To investigate the level of the toxicity of bromate and find the most sensitive indicators in a short time, a series of toxicological assessments were conducted including the acute toxicity, cumulative toxicity, genetic toxicity and subacute toxicity of bromate (using Potassium Bromate to represent bromate). The LD50 of orally administered Potassium Bromate was 215 mg/kg in Wistar rats and 464 mg/kg in ICR mice. The cumulative toxicity of Potassium Bromate was not obvious. The Ames test, mouse bone marrow cell micronucleus test and mouse sperm abnormality test did not indicate mutagenicity. The results of the subacute study did not exhibit significant differences in most of the parameters, except the white blood cell count, which was significantly decreased in male rats. In addition, Potassium Bromate influenced the albumin, creatinine, total cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose levels in male rats to various extents. A thorough analysis of the above tests clearly demonstrates that bromate has toxicity, not obvious cumulative toxicity and the white blood cell count can be used as an indicator to reflect the toxicity of bromate and investigate bromate's toxic mechanism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Sub-acute toxicity and biochemical effects of extracts of Anaphe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ataxia syndrome which is characterized by sudden onset of severe muscular tremor and gait ataxia has been shown to be associated with the consumption of the larvae of Anaphe venata in South Western part of Nigeria. In this report, the sub -acute toxicity and biochemical effects of polar and nonpolar extracts of Anaphe ...

  17. Acute and Subacute Toxic Study of Aqueous Leaf Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kg and observed continuously for the first 4 h, then hourly for the next 24 h, and finally, 6-hourly for 72 h. Control animals received orally normal saline. The rats were observed carefully for mortality, pain as well as respiratory movements.

  18. [On the subacute toxicity of labetalol (AH5158): a combined alpha-and beta-adrenoceptor blocking agent (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimpo, K; Yokoi, Y; Fujiwara, S; Togashi, H; Tanabe, T

    1980-11-01

    Subacute toxicity and recovery tests of labetalol hydrochloride, alpha- and beta-adrenoceptor blocking agent, were carried out using male and female Wistar strain rats. The drug was orally administered at 50, 150, 450 or 1000 mg/kg/day for 1 month. In all the drug-treated groups, increase in salivation was observed from immediately to 15 minutes after dosing through the treatment period. Eight of the 10 males and 9 of the 10 females in the group treated with 1000 mg/kg/day died of intoxication. Suppression of body weight gain was observed in male rats in the 450 and 1000 mg/kg/day groups and in female rats in the 1000 mg/kg/day group. In the 150 mg/kg/day and higher dose groups, water consumption showed a tendency to increase as compared with that of control group. Increase in urine volume was observed in female rats in the 450 mg/kg/day group. In the serum biochemical examination, slight elevation in potassium levels was noted in the 150 and 450 mg/kg/day groups. In histopathological findings, some abnormalities were found in the groups treated at 150 mg/kg/day and higher. Major abnormalities found in organs were; congestion and hypremia of various organs due to vasodilation, swelling of parenchymatous cells in liver and kidneys, and loose arrangement and change in the thickness of muscle fibers in cardiac and skeletal muscles. None of these abnormal findings was found in any examination in recovery tests.

  19. Cerebral Reorganization in Subacute Stroke Survivors after Virtual Reality-Based Training: A Preliminary Study

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang Xiao; Qiang Lin; Wai-Leung Lo; Yu-Rong Mao; Xin-chong Shi; Cates, Ryan S.; Shu-Feng Zhou; Dong-Feng Huang; Le Li

    2017-01-01

    Background Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a promising method for quantifying brain recovery and investigating the intervention-induced changes in corticomotor excitability after stroke. This study aimed to evaluate cortical reorganization subsequent to virtual reality-enhanced treadmill (VRET) training in subacute stroke survivors. Methods Eight participants with ischemic stroke underwent VRET for 5 sections per week and for 3 weeks. fMRI was conducted to quantify the activit...

  20. Lymphocyte subsets at different stages of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: a study with monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrosu, M G; Cianchetti, C; Ennas, M G

    1986-01-01

    Lymphocyte subsets in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and peripheral blood were studied using monoclonal antibodies, in patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, eight of whom were at stage 2 and seven at stage 4. Eighteen subjects affected with non immunological diseases constituted the controls. Regardless of the stage, patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis had lower percentages of OKT3+ (pan-T) cells in both CSF and peripheral blood, with an increase of OKIa+ cells (B cells, macrophages and active T cells) in peripheral blood. A difference was found in the proportion of OKT4+ (helper-inducer) and OKT8+ (suppressor/cytotoxic) cells in relation to the stage, the most striking finding being a significant decrease of OKT8+ with an increase of T4/T8 ratio in peripheral blood at an early stage. PMID:2942644

  1. Toxicity assessment of zinc oxide nanoparticles using sub-acute and sub-chronic murine inhalation models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adamcakova-Dodd, Andrea; Stebounova, Larissa V; Kim, Jong Sung; Vorrink, Sabine U; Ault, Andrew P; O'Shaughnessy, Patrick T; Grassian, Vicki H; Thorne, Peter S

    2014-01-01

    Although ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) are used in many commercial products and the potential for human exposure is increasing, few in vivo studies have addressed their possible toxic effects after inhalation...

  2. Toxicity studies of fullerenes and derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolosnjaj, Jelena; Szwarc, Henri; Moussa, Fathi

    2007-01-01

    Due to their unique properties, fullerenes, a model of carbon-based nanoparticles, have attracted considerable interest in many fields of research including material science and biomedical applications. The potential and the growing use of fullerenes and their mass production have raised several questions about their safety and environmental impact. Available data clearly shows that pristine C60 has no acute or sub-acute toxicity in a large variety of living organisms, from bacteria and fungal to human leukocytes, and also in drosophila, mice, rats and guinea pigs. In contrast to chemically--either covalently or noncovalently--modified fullerenes, some C60 derivatives can be highly toxic. Furthermore, under light exposure, C60 is an efficient singlet oxygen sensitizer. Therefore, if pristine C60 is absolutely nontoxic under dark conditions, this is not the case under UV-Visible irradiation and in the presence of O2 where ffullerene solutions can be highly toxic through 1O2 formation. This chapter offers a general review of the studies on the toxicity of [60]fullerene or C60, the most abundant fullerene, and its derivatives.

  3. Subacute toxicity experiment with rats fed a diet containing ergotaminetartrate. 1 General toxicology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speijers GJA; Krajnc-Franken MAM; van Leeuwen FXR; Danse LHJC; Loeber JG; Elvers LH; Hoejenbos-Spithout HHM; Janssen GB

    1992-01-01

    In this study reduced food intake, food efficiency and growth were noticed at dose levels of 100 mg EAT/kg diet and higher. Slight changes in the red blood parameters were seen in the 100 and 500 mg EAT/kg diet dose groups. Urea concentration was increased in the females of the highest dose group.

  4. Acute and subacute toxicity tests of onion coat, natural colorant extracted from onion (Allium cepa L.), in (C57BL/6 x C3H)F1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, T; Tanaka, T; Mori, H; Kato, Y; Nakamura, M

    1993-01-01

    The toxicity test of onion coat colorant (OC), a food colorant extracted from onion (Allium cepa L.), was undertaken using (C57BL/6 x C3H)F1 mice of both sexes for the safety assessment of this product. The acute toxicity test was performed by administration of OC suspended in corn oil by gavage at doses of 2500, 5000, 7500, and 10,000 mg/kg body weight to groups of 5 or 6 males and 6 or 7 females, maintained for 14 d. Six of 12 females dosed at 10,000 mg/kg body weight and 3 of 11 females dosed at 7500 mg/kg body weight were dead before the end of the study, indicating that the tolerated dose of OC was between 7500 and 5000 mg/kg body weight. The subacute toxicity test of OC was examined using 123 mice of both sexes (62 males and 61 females) by feeding a diet mixed with OC at concentrations of 5, 2.5, 1.25, 0.6, and 0.3% for 90 d. All mice tolerated these doses of OC well. The body weight gains of male and female mice were not affected by the treatment. Histopathological examinations showed that hyperplastic changes in the esophagus, forestomach, pancreas, cervix, and endometrium of mice were found in treated and control mice. However, their incidences were not related to the dose of OC. Moreover, only a spontaneous ovarian teratoma was found in an OC-treated mouse. These results suggest that OC has no acute and subacute toxic effects in mice.

  5. Developing an ICF core set for sub-acute stages of spinal cord injury in Taiwan: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hung-Chou; Yen, Tze-Hsun; Chang, Kwang-Hwa; Lin, Yen-Nung; Wang, Yen-Ho; Liou, Tsan-Hon

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an ICF core set describing sub-acute spinal cord injury (SCI) specifically for Taiwanese patients. A consensus process using three rounds of Delphi technique was conducted. Twenty multidisciplinary participants from various institutions were recruited. The questionnaire used in this study comprised 118 ICF second-level categories relevant to the sub-acute stage of SCI. A five-point Likert scale was used, and participants were asked to assign weights to the effect of each category on activities of daily life after SCI. The consensus among ratings was assessed using Spearman's rho and semi-interquartile range (SIQR) indices. The core set for post-acute SCI was developed from categories that attained a mean score of ≥3.8 in the third round of the Delphi exercise. The core set for sub-acute SCI contained 58 categories. Of these, 24 comprised the component of body functions (b), 5 comprised body structures (s), 21 comprised activities and participation (d), and 8 comprised environmental factors (e). The preliminary core set for sub-acute SCI offers a comprehensive system of disability assessment and verification after people have sustained an SCI. Further validation is required. Implication for Rehabilitation The preliminary core set for sub-acute SCI offers a comprehensive system for disability assessment related to SCI among Taiwanese patients. This core set reflected problems commonly encountered by patients with SCI. This core set reflects appropriate cultural and geographic perspectives in adjustment to SCI.

  6. Acute and subacute pulmonary toxicity and mortality in mice after intratracheal instillation of ZnO nanoparticles in three laboratories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; Stoeger, Tobias; van den Brule, Sybille

    2015-01-01

    .5 and 25μg on a range of parameters. However, mice that survived a high dose (50μg; 2.7mg/kg) had an increased pulmonary collagen accumulation (fibrosis) at a similar level as a high bolus dose of crystalline silica. The recovery from these toxicological effects appeared dose-dependent. The results......Inhalation is the main pathway of ZnO exposure in the occupational environment but only few studies have addressed toxic effects after pulmonary exposure to ZnO nanoparticles (NP). Here we present results from three studies of pulmonary exposure and toxicity of ZnO NP in mice. The studies were...... prematurely terminated because interim results unexpectedly showed severe pulmonary toxicity. High bolus doses of ZnO NP (25 up to 100μg; ≥1.4mg/kg) were clearly associated with a dose dependent mortality in the mice. Lower doses (≥6μg; ≥0.3mg/kg) elicited acute toxicity in terms of reduced weight gain...

  7. [Toxicity study of realgar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Aihua; Li, Chunying; Wang, Jinhua; Xue, Baoyun; Li, Hua; Yang, Bing; Wang, Jingyu; Xie, Qing; Nilsen, Odd Georg

    2011-07-01

    To investigate the toxicity of realgar and provide the scientific basis for safety use of realgar in clinic. Acute toxicity was tested by single oral administration. Chronic toxicity of realgar was tested at different dose levels (5, 10, 20, 80, 160 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1)) which correspond to 1/2, 1, 2, 8, 16 times of human dose levels. The rats were treated with the test substances through oral administration once daily for successively 90 days. Urinary qualitative test, blood routine examination, serum chemistry measurement, and histomorphologic observation were conducted at day 30, 60 and 90. Toxic changes related to the treatment of realgar and no-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) was evaluated. With the content of 90% total arsenic and 1.696 mg x g(-1) soluble asenic, LD50 of Realgar with oral administration was 20.5 g x kg(-1) (corresponding to 34.8 mg x kg(-1) soluble arsenic), equivalent to 12 812 times of clinical daily dose for an adult. Realgar can cause kidney toxicity or/and liver toxicity after administration for over 30, 60 or 90 days respectively. The kidney was more sensitive to realgar than liver. Based on repeated dose toxicity study, NOAELs were 160 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) for 30 day's administration, 20 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) for 60 day's administration, 10 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) for 90 day's administration respectively. Thus, for safety use of realgar, it is recommended that the daily doses of realgar (with soluble arsenic realgar can cause kidney and liver pathological change, so the doses and administration duration should be limited. The suggestion is as follows: realgar which contains soluble arsenic < or = 1.7 mg x g(-1) should be used less than 2 weeks at daily dose 160 mg, less than 4 weeks at the dose of 20 mg and less than 6 weeks at the dose of 10 mg.

  8. Neurophysiological characterization of subacute stroke patients: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Lamola

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Various degrees of neural reorganization may occur in affected and unaffected hemispheres in the early phase after stroke and several months later. Recent literature suggests to apply a stratification based on lesion location and to consider patients with cortico-subcortical and subcortical strokes separately: different lesion location may also influence therapeutic response. In this study we used a longitudinal approach to perform TMS assessment (Motor Evoked Potentials, MEP, and Silent Period, SP and clinical evaluations (Barthel Index, Fugl-Meyer Assessment for upper limb motor function and Wolf Motor Function Test in 10 cortical-subcortical and 10 subcortical ischemic stroke patients. Evaluations were performed in a window between 10 and 45 days (t0 and at 3 months after the acute event (t1. Our main finding is that 3 months after the acute event patients affected by subcortical stroke presented a reduction in contralateral SP duration in the unaffected hemisphere; this trend is related to clinical improvement of upper limb motor function. In conclusion, SP proved to be a valid parameter to characterize cortical reorganization patterns in stroke survivors and provided useful information about motor recovery within three months in subcortical patients.

  9. Effect of kinesiology taping on hemiplegic shoulder pain and functional outcomes in subacute stroke patients: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu C; Leong, Chau P; Wang, Lin; Wang, Lin Y; Yang, Yu C; Chuang, Chien Y; Hsin, Yi J

    2016-12-01

    Hemiplegic shoulder pain (HSP) impedes functional motor recovery of the affected limbs and negatively affects quality of life and daily activities. Kinesiology taping (KT) may provide improvement in hemiplegic shoulder pain and upper extremity function after an acute stroke. To assess the impact of KT on HSP, upper extremity functional outcomes, and the prevention of shoulder soft tissue injury in subacute stroke patients with hemiplegic shoulders during rehabilitation. Randomized, double-blind controlled trial. Rehabilitation unit at a single medical center. Forty-four subacute stroke patients with hemiplegia. Forty-four subacute stroke patients with hemiplegia participated in this study and were randomly allocated to the control group (sham KT) or experimental group (therapeutic KT). In the experimental group, a 3-week therapeutic KT with conventional inpatient rehabilitation was applied for 5 days per week. In the control group, the patients received a 3-week sham KT with conventional inpatient rehabilitation for 5 days per week. Shoulder subluxation, spasticity, hemiplegic shoulder pain, the Fugl-Meyer Assessment for Upper Extremity (FMA-UE), modified Barthel Index (MI), Stroke-Specific Quality of Life (SSQOL) scale, and shoulder sonography were measured before and after treatment. Pain-free flexion was significantly increased in hemiplegic shoulders after therapeutic KT. From 16 (70%) to 20 (87%) patients in the control and from 12 (57%) to 12 (57%) in the experimental groups had HSP after intervention, and a significant difference in the occurrence of HSP was found between these groups after treatment (P0.05). Therapeutic KT may limit the development of HSP and improve shoulder flexion in subacute stroke patients with flaccid shoulders during inpatient rehabilitation. For subacute stroke patients with hemiplegia, therapeutic KT may not provide improvements in the upper extremity function, daily activity, and quality of life over sham KT during conventional

  10. Standardized activities of daily living in presence of sub-acute low-back pain: A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svendsen, Jacob H.; Svarrer, Heine; Laessoe, Uffe; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé; Madeleine, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to investigate how sub-acute low-back pain (LBP) patients differed with respect to control in movements and muscle activation during standardized tasks representing daily living activities, and explore relationships between cognition and measured motor performance.

  11. [Commercial video games in the rehabilitation of patients with sub-acute stroke: a pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-Manas, M J; Collado-Vazquez, S; Cano-de-la-Cuerda, R

    2017-10-16

    Stroke generates dependence on the patients due to the various impairments associated. The use of low-cost technologies for neurological rehabilitation may be beneficial for the treatment of these patients. To determine whether combined treatment using a semi-immersive virtual reality protocol to an interdisciplinary rehabilitation approach, improve balance and postural control, functional independence, quality of life, motivation, self-esteem and adherence to intervention in stroke patients in subacute stage. A longitudinal prospective study with pre and post-intervention evaluation was carried out. Fourteen were recruited at La Fuenfria Hospital (Spain) and completed the intervention. Experimental intervention was performed during eight weeks in combination with conventional treatment of physiotherapy and occupational therapy. Each session was increased in time and intensity, using commercial video games linked to Xbox 360° videoconsole and Kinect sensor. There were statistical significant improvements in modified Rankin scale (p = 0.04), baropodometry (load distribution, p = 0.03; support surface, p = 0.01), Barthel Index (p = 0.01), EQ-5D Questionnaire (p = 0.01), motivation (p = 0.02), self-esteem (p = 0.01) and adherence to the intervention (p = 0.02). An interdisciplinary rehabilitation approach supplemented with semi-immersive virtual reality seems to be useful for improving balance and postural control, functional independence in basic activities of daily living, quality of life, as well as motivation and self-esteem, with excellent adherence. This intervention modality could be adopted as a therapeutic tool in neurological rehabilitation of stroke patients in subacute stage.

  12. Modular ankle robotics training in early subacute stroke: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Larry W; Roy, Anindo; Krywonis, Amanda; Kehs, Glenn; Krebs, Hermano Igo; Macko, Richard F

    2014-09-01

    BACKGROUND. Modular lower extremity robotics may offer a valuable avenue for restoring neuromotor control after hemiparetic stroke. Prior studies show that visually guided and visually evoked practice with an ankle robot (anklebot) improves paretic ankle motor control that translates into improved overground walking. To assess the feasibility and efficacy of daily anklebot training during early subacute hospitalization poststroke. Thirty-four inpatients from a stroke unit were randomly assigned to anklebot (n = 18) or passive manual stretching (n = 16) treatments. All suffered a first stroke with residual hemiparesis (ankle manual muscle test grade 1/5 to 4/5), and at least trace muscle activation in plantar- or dorsiflexion. Anklebot training employed an "assist-as-needed" approach during >200 volitional targeted paretic ankle movements, with difficulty adjusted to active range of motion and success rate. Stretching included >200 daily mobilizations in these same ranges. All sessions lasted 1 hour and assessments were not blinded. Both groups walked faster at discharge; however, the robot group improved more in percentage change of temporal symmetry (P = .032) and also of step length symmetry (P = .038), with longer nonparetic step lengths in the robot (133%) versus stretching (31%) groups. Paretic ankle control improved in the robot group, with increased peak (P ≤ .001) and mean (P ≤ .01) angular speeds, and increased movement smoothness (P ≤ .01). There were no adverse events. Though limited by small sample size and restricted entry criteria, our findings suggest that modular lower extremity robotics during early subacute hospitalization is well tolerated and improves ankle motor control and gait patterning. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Modular Ankle Robotics Training in Early Sub-Acute Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Larry W.; Roy, Anindo; Krywonis, Amanda; Kehs, Glenn; Krebs, Hermano Igo; Macko, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Modular lower extremity (LE) robotics may offer a valuable avenue for restoring neuromotor control after hemiparetic stroke. Prior studies show that visually-guided and visually-evoked practice with an ankle robot (anklebot) improves paretic ankle motor control that translates into improved overground walking. Objective Assess the feasibility and efficacy of daily anklebot training during early sub-acute hospitalization post-stroke. Methods Thirty-four inpatients from a stroke unit were randomly assigned to anklebot (N=18) or passive manual stretching (N=16) treatments. All suffered a first stroke with residual hemiparesis (ankle manual muscle test grade 1/5 to 4/5), and at least trace muscle activation in plantar- or dorsiflexion. Anklebot training employed an “assist-as-needed” approach during > 200 volitional targeted paretic ankle movements, with difficulty adjusted to active range of motion and success rate. Stretching included >200 daily mobilizations in these same ranges. All sessions lasted 1 hour and assessments were not blinded. Results Both groups walked faster at discharge, however the robot group improved more in percent change of temporal symmetry (p=0.032) and also of step length symmetry (p=0.038), with longer nonparetic step lengths in the robot (133%) vs. stretching (31%) groups. Paretic ankle control improved in the robot group, with increased peak (p≤ 0.001) and mean (p≤ 0.01) angular speeds, and increased movement smoothness (p≤ 0.01). There were no adverse events. Conclusion Though limited by small sample size and restricted entry criteria, our findings suggest that modular lower extremity robotics during early sub-acute hospitalization is well tolerated and improves ankle motor control and gait patterning. PMID:24515923

  14. Delirium and high fever are associated with subacute motor deterioration in Parkinson disease: a nested case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Umemura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Parkinson disease (PD, systemic inflammation caused by respiratory infections such as pneumonia frequently occurs, often resulting in delirium in the advanced stages of this disease. Delirium can lead to cognitive and functional decline, institutionalization, and mortality, especially in the elderly. Inflammation causes rapid worsening of PD motor symptoms and signs, sometimes irreversibly in some, but not all, patients. PURPOSE: To identify factors associated with subacute motor deterioration in PD patients with systemic inflammation. METHODS: The association of clinical factors with subacute motor deterioration was analyzed by a case-control study. Subacute motor deterioration was defined as sustained worsening by one or more modified Hoehn and Yahr (H-Y stages. Using multivariable logistic regression incorporating baseline characteristics (age, sex, PD duration, modified H-Y stage, dementia, and psychosis history and statistically selected possible predictors (peak body temperature, duration of leukocytosis, and presence of delirium, the odds ratios for these factors were estimated as relative risks. RESULTS: Of 80 PD patients with systemic inflammation, 26 with associated subacute motor deterioration were designated as cases and the remainder as controls. In the 26 cases, 6 months after its onset the motor deterioration had persisted in 19 patients and resolved in four (three were lost for follow-up. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that delirium and body temperature are significantly associated with motor deterioration after systemic inflammation (P = 0.001 for delirium and P = 0.026 for body temperature, the adjusted odds ratios being 15.89 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.23-78.14 and 2.78 (95% CI: 1.13-6.83, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with PD and systemic inflammation, delirium and high body temperature are strong risk factors for subsequent subacute motor deterioration and such deterioration

  15. Size-Dependent Toxicity Differences of Intratracheally Instilled Manganese Oxide Nanoparticles: Conclusions of a Subacute Animal Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Máté, Zsuzsanna; Horváth, Edina; Kozma, Gábor; Simon, Tímea; Kónya, Zoltán; Paulik, Edit; Papp, András; Szabó, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    Incomplete information on toxicological differences of micro- and nanometer-sized particles raised concerns about the effects of the latter on health and environment. Besides chemical composition, size and surface-to-volume ratio of nanoparticles (NPs) can affect toxicity. To investigate size-dependent toxicity differences, we used particles made of dioxide of the neurotoxic heavy metal manganese (Mn), typically found in inhaled metal fumes, in three size ranges (size A, 9.14 ± 1.98 nm; size B, 42.36 ± 8.06 nm; size C, 118.31 ± 25.37 nm). For modeling the most frequent route of exposure to Mn, NPs were given to rats for 6 weeks by intratracheal instillation. Of each NP size, 3 or 6 mg/kg body weight was given while control animals were vehicle treated. Neurotoxicity was assessed by measuring spontaneous locomotor activity in an open field and by recording spontaneous and evoked electrical activity from the somatosensory cortical area. Mn content of brain, lung, and blood, measured by ICP-MS, were correlated to the observed functional alterations to see the relationship between Mn load and toxic effects. Body weight gain and organ weights were measured as general toxicological indices. The toxicity of size A and size B NPs proved to be stronger compared to size C NPs, seen most clearly in decreased body weight gain and altered spontaneous cortical activity, which were also well correlated to the internal Mn dose. Our results showed strong effect of size on NP toxicity, thus, beyond inappropriateness of toxicity data of micrometer-sized particles in evaluation of NP exposure, differentiation within the nano range may be necessary.

  16. Feasibility and safety of early lower limb robot-assisted training in sub-acute stroke patients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, Marialuisa; Geroin, Christian; Tomelleri, Christopher; Maddalena, Isacco; Kirilova Dimitrova, Eleonora; Picelli, Alessandro; Smania, Nicola; Waldner, Andreas

    2017-12-01

    So far, the development of robotic devices for the early lower limb mobilization in the sub-acute phase after stroke has received limited attention. To explore the feasibility of a newly robotic-stationary gait training in sub-acute stroke patients. To report the training effects on lower limb function and muscle activation. A pilot study. Rehabilitation ward. Two sub-acute stroke inpatients and ten age-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Healthy controls served as normative data. Patients underwent 10 robot-assisted training sessions (20 minutes, 5 days/week) in alternating stepping movements (500 repetitions/session) on a hospital bed in addition to conventional rehabilitation. Feasibility outcome measures were compliance, physiotherapist time, and responses to self-report questionnaires. Efficacy outcomes were bilateral lower limb muscle activation pattern as measured by surface electromyography (sEMG), Motricity Index (MI), Medical Research Council (MRC) grade, and Ashworth Scale (AS) scores before and after training. No adverse events occurred. No significant differences in sEMG activity between patients and healthy controls were observed. Post-training improvement in MI and MRC scores, but no significant changes in AS scores, were recorded. Post-treatment sEMG analysis of muscle activation patterns showed a significant delay in rectus femoris offset (P=0.02) and prolonged duration of biceps femoris (P=0.04) compared to pretreatment. The robot-assisted training with our device was feasible and safe. It induced physiological muscle activations pattern in both stroke patients and healthy controls. Full-scale studies are needed to explore its potential role in post-stroke recovery. This robotic device may enrich early rehabilitation in subacute stroke patients by inducing physiological muscle activation patterns. Future studies are warranted to evaluate its effects on promoting restorative mechanisms involved in lower limb recovery after stroke.

  17. Familial subacute sclerosing panencephalitis associated with short latency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vinod; Gupta, Vineet B; Eisenhut, Michael

    2008-03-01

    The familial recurrence of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is rare. The study of such cases and a comparison of intrafamilial with sporadic cases of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis may shed light on important pathogenetic factors. We report on the occurrence of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in two brothers from rural India, who contracted measles infection simultaneously at ages 3 and 11 years. They developed subacute sclerosing panencephalitis 21 and 37 months later, respectively. A diagnosis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis was based on history, electroencephalographic changes, and significantly raised levels of cerebrospinal-fluid anti-measles virus immunoglobulin G. A comparison of intrafamilial with sporadic cases of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis revealed that latency in familial subacute sclerosing panencephalitis involved a median of 6.4 years (range, 1.0-10.9), significantly (P panencephalitis from the Indian subcontinent. We confirmed a more rapid manifestation of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis after measles virus infection in intrafamilial compared with sporadic subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

  18. Cerebral Reorganization in Subacute Stroke Survivors after Virtual Reality-Based Training: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiang; Lin, Qiang; Lo, Wai-Leung; Mao, Yu-Rong; Shi, Xin-Chong; Cates, Ryan S; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Huang, Dong-Feng; Li, Le

    2017-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a promising method for quantifying brain recovery and investigating the intervention-induced changes in corticomotor excitability after stroke. This study aimed to evaluate cortical reorganization subsequent to virtual reality-enhanced treadmill (VRET) training in subacute stroke survivors. Eight participants with ischemic stroke underwent VRET for 5 sections per week and for 3 weeks. fMRI was conducted to quantify the activity of selected brain regions when the subject performed ankle dorsiflexion. Gait speed and clinical scales were also measured before and after intervention. Increased activation in the primary sensorimotor cortex of the lesioned hemisphere and supplementary motor areas of both sides for the paretic foot (p change in voxel counts in the primary sensorimotor cortex of the lesioned hemisphere is significantly correlated with improvement of 10 m walk time after VRET (r = -0.719). We observed improved walking and increased activation in cortical regions of stroke survivors after VRET training. Moreover, the cortical recruitment was associated with better walking function. Our study suggests that cortical networks could be a site of plasticity, and their recruitment may be one mechanism of training-induced recovery of gait function in stroke. This trial is registered with ChiCTR-IOC-15006064.

  19. Cerebral Reorganization in Subacute Stroke Survivors after Virtual Reality-Based Training: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI is a promising method for quantifying brain recovery and investigating the intervention-induced changes in corticomotor excitability after stroke. This study aimed to evaluate cortical reorganization subsequent to virtual reality-enhanced treadmill (VRET training in subacute stroke survivors. Methods. Eight participants with ischemic stroke underwent VRET for 5 sections per week and for 3 weeks. fMRI was conducted to quantify the activity of selected brain regions when the subject performed ankle dorsiflexion. Gait speed and clinical scales were also measured before and after intervention. Results. Increased activation in the primary sensorimotor cortex of the lesioned hemisphere and supplementary motor areas of both sides for the paretic foot (p<0.01 was observed postintervention. Statistically significant improvements were observed in gait velocity (p<0.05. The change in voxel counts in the primary sensorimotor cortex of the lesioned hemisphere is significantly correlated with improvement of 10 m walk time after VRET (r=−0.719. Conclusions. We observed improved walking and increased activation in cortical regions of stroke survivors after VRET training. Moreover, the cortical recruitment was associated with better walking function. Our study suggests that cortical networks could be a site of plasticity, and their recruitment may be one mechanism of training-induced recovery of gait function in stroke. This trial is registered with ChiCTR-IOC-15006064.

  20. EVALUATION OF DIPYRIDAMOLE ON ACUTE AND SUBACUTE MODELS OF INFLAMMATION IN MALE WISTAR RATS: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angadi Netravathi B, Hiremath Shrishail V , Suranagi Vijayalakshmi V.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Atherosclerosis and its complications remains the major cause of death and premature disability. Atherogenesis involves elements of inflammation, a process that now provides a unifying theme in the pathogenesis of the disease. Anti-platelet drugs are currently used in the treatment of atherosclerosis and its complications. Our study evaluated the influence of dipyridamole on acute and sub-acute models of inflammation in male Wistar rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats (150-200g were divided into three groups i.e. control, Aspirin and dipyridamole (n=6 animals in each group. The effect of dipyridamole, administered orally, on inflammation was studied using acute (carrageenan induced rat paw edema and sub-acute (cotton pellet granuloma and histopathological examination of grass piths models. Experiment was conducted according to the Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision on Experiments on Animals (CPCSEA guidelines. Analysis was done using one way ANOVA followed by Post Hoc Test of Dunnets. P<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Dipyridamole showed significant inhibition of rat paw edema in acute model (P<0.01 and granuloma dry weight, in sub acute model of inflammation when compared to control (P<0.01. Histopathological examination of grass pith revealed markedly reduced fibroblasts, granulation tissue, fibrous tissue and collagen in dipyridamole group when compared to control. Conclusion: Dipyridamole exhibited a significant anti inflammatory activity in acute and sub-acute models of inflammation.

  1. Masticatory function in subacute TMD patients before and after treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira, L.J.; Steenks, M.H.; Wijer, A. de; Speksnijder, C.M.; Bilt, A. van der

    2009-01-01

    Masticatory function can be impaired in temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) patients. We investigated whether treatment of subacute non-specific TMD patients may influence oral function and clinical outcome measures. Fifteen patients with subacute TMD participated in the study. We quantified

  2. Oral toxicity study of certain plant extracts containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şeremet, Oana Cristina; Bărbuceanu, Florica; Ionică, Floriana Elvira; Margină, Denisa Marilena; GuŢu, Claudia Maria; Olaru, Octavian Tudorel; Ilie, Mihaela; Gonciar, Veaceslav; Negreş, Simona; ChiriŢă, Cornel

    2016-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are a class of toxic compounds which are found in plants. Poisoning caused by these toxins is associated with acute and chronic liver damage. Tussilago farfara (coltsfoot), Petasites hybridus (common butterbur), Senecio vernalis (eastern groundsel) and Symphytum officinale (comfrey) are traditional phytotherapic species, which beside the therapeutic bioactive compounds contain PAs. The aim of the paper was to assess the safety of some dry extracts obtained from these species. For the determination of acute toxicity, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Guideline No. 423 was used. For the determination of repeated dose oral toxicity, Senecionis vernalis herba and Symphyti radix extracts (250 mg÷kg) were administrated, by gavage, for 28 days, and their effects on animal weight, liver and biliary functions, hepatic tissue and oxidative stress were investigated. After the acute toxicity testing, the dry extracts were placed in the GHS Category V (LD50>5000 mg÷kg, p.o.). For the subacute toxicity testing, no death or any signs of toxicity were observed. Also, no significant differences in biochemical parameters were observed between control and treated groups. The observed histopathological lesions were non-specific and were not consistent with the data reported in the literature for PAs exposure. In conclusion, the administration for 28 days, of the tested extracts, in a dose which correspond to a PAs concentration over the limits imposed in some countries, produced no hepatic and biliary toxic effects. Further studies, extended over a longer period of time, are needed in order to determine the safety of plant extracts containing PAs.

  3. Effects of myofascial technique in patients with subacute whiplash associated disorders: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picelli, A; Ledro, G; Turrina, A; Stecco, C; Santilli, V; Smania, N

    2011-12-01

    Whiplash associated disorders commonly affect people after a motor vehicle accident, causing a variety of disabling manifestations. Some manual and physical approaches have been proposed to improve myofascial function after traumatic injuries, in order to effectively reduce pain and functional limitation. To evaluate whether the application of the Fascial Manipulation© technique could be more effective than a conventional approach to improve cervical range of motion in patients with subacute whiplash associated disorders. Pilot randomized clinical trial. Eighteen patients with subacute whiplash associated disorders were randomized into two groups. Group A (N.=9) received three, 30-minute sessions, (every five days during a two week period) of neck Fascial Manipulation©. Group B (N.=9) received ten, 30-minute sessions (five days a week for two consecutive weeks) of neck exercises plus mobilization. Patients were evaluated before, immediately after and two weeks post-treatment. cervical active range of motion (flexion, extension, right lateral-flexion, left lateral-flexion, right rotation, and left rotation). A statistically significant improvement in neck flexion was found after treatment in favour of Group A (60.2±10.8°) compared with Group B (46.3±15.1°). No differences were found between groups for the other primary outcomes at post-treatment or follow-up. The Fascial Manipulation© technique may be a promising method to improve cervical range of motion in patients with subacute whiplash associated disorders. Myofascial techniques may be useful for improving treatment of subacute whiplash associated disorders also reducing their economic burden.

  4. Cerebral toxoplasmosis mimicking subacute meningitis in HIV-infected patients; a cohort study from Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rizal Ganiem

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV-associated subacute meningitis is mostly caused by tuberculosis or cryptococcosis, but often no etiology can be established. In the absence of CT or MRI of the brain, toxoplasmosis is generally not considered as part of the differential diagnosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed cerebrospinal fluid real time PCR and serological testing for Toxoplasma gondii in archived samples from a well-characterized cohort of 64 HIV-infected patients presenting with subacute meningitis in a referral hospital in Indonesia. Neuroradiology was only available for 6 patients. At time of presentation, patients mostly had newly diagnosed and advanced HIV infection (median CD4 count 22 cells/mL, with only 17.2% taking ART, and 9.4% PJP-prophylaxis. CSF PCR for T. Gondii was positive in 21 patients (32.8%. Circulating toxoplasma IgG was present in 77.2% of patients tested, including all in whom the PCR of CSF was positive for T. Gondii. Clinically, in the absence of neuroradiology, toxoplasmosis was difficult to distinguish from tuberculosis or cryptococcal meningitis, although CSF abnormalities were less pronounced. Mortality among patients with a positive CSF T. Gondii PCR was 81%, 2.16-fold higher (95% CI 1.04-4.47 compared to those with a negative PCR. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Toxoplasmosis should be considered in HIV-infected patients with clinically suspected subacute meningitis in settings where neuroradiology is not available.

  5. Chronic Toxicity Study of

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reports on effect of petroleum samples on blood and rats pathology are scanty. The current study therefore deals with the laematologica changes on rats induce by the chronic exposure to crude oil (bonny light). Kerosene and gasoline. MATERIALS AND METHODS. 71 male albino rats of 0.2kg body weight obtained.

  6. In vivo toxicity studies of fusarium mycotoxins in the last decade: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escrivá, L; Font, G; Manyes, L

    2015-04-01

    This review summarizes the information regarding the in vivo studies of Fusarium mycotoxins in the last decade. The most common studies are classified as subacute toxicity, subchronic toxicity, acute toxicity, toxicokinetic studies and teratogenicity in order of importance. The most used animals in in vivo studies are pigs, rats, chickens and mice. Fumonisin B1, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, nivalenol and T-2 toxin are the most studied fusarotoxins. Studies with combinations of mycotoxins are also frequent, deoxynivalenol generally being one of them. The predominant route of administration is oral, administered mostly in the form of naturally contaminated feed. Other administration routes also used are intraperitoneal, intravenous and subcutaneous. In vivo research on Fusarium mycotoxins has increased since 2010 highlighting the need for such studies in the field of food and feed safety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Acute and 28-day sub-acute oral toxicity evaluation of two dietary bamboo charcoal powders in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhen-chao; Luo, Sha; Zhong, Yu-ting; Li, Xiao; Chen, Jin-yao; Zhang, Li-shi

    2015-04-01

    No data were available on the acute oral toxicity, short-term oral toxicity of vegetable carbon in animals. This study was designed to evaluate the safety of two commercially available dietary bamboo charcoal powders (BCP1 and BCP2). The size distribution of the two powders was determined by a Mastersizer 2000 laser particle size analyzer prior to the in vivo safety studies. For the acute toxicity study, a single dose of 11.24 g/kg body weight of BCP1 and BCP2 was given once orally to healthy Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Mortality and clinical symptoms were observed and recorded for the first 30 min after treatment, at 4 h post-administration, and then at least once daily for 14 days after administration. In the repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity study, BCP1 and BCP2 were administered orally at doses of 2.81, 5.62, and 11.24 g/kg body weight for 28 days to SD rats. Animals were sacrificed and organs and blood samples were analyzed. Results showed that both BCP1 and BCP2 were micro-sized and various in size. In the acute toxicity and the repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity studies, BCP caused neither mortality nor visible signs of toxicity in rats. No significant differences were found in the relative organ weights or in biochemical parameters in BCP treated groups compared to a control group. No treatment-related histological changes were observed in the organs of these animals. Based on these data, it is concluded that the median lethal dose (LD50) of BCP for both male and female rats is more than 11.24 g/kg body weight and the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) is >11.24 g/kg body weight for 28 days.

  8. [Motor dysfunction in stroke of subacute stage treated with acupuncture: multi-central randomized controlled study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Fang; Fang, Jian-Qiao; Wu, Yuan-Yuan; Ma, Rui-Jie; Xu, Shou-Yu; Shen, Lai-Hua; Luo, Kai-Tao; Gao, Feng; Bao, Ye-Hua; Ni, Ke-Feng; Li, Li-Ping

    2014-04-01

    To verify the clinical efficacy of acupuncture on motor dysfunction in ischemic stroke of subacute stage. The multi-central randomized controlled trial was adopted. One hundred and twenty-six cases of ischemic stroke of subacute stage were randomized into an acupuncture group (61 cases) and a conventional treatment group (65 cases). The basic treatment of western internal medicine and rehabilitation training were applied to the patients of the two groups. In the acupuncture group, acupuncture was supplemented at the body points located on the extensor of the upper limbs and the flexor of the lower limbs. In combination, scalp acupuncture was applied to NS5, MS6 and MS6 on the affected side. The treatment was given 5 times a week and totally 8 weeks were required. The follow-up observation lasted for 3 months. The scores in Fugl-Meyer scale and NIHSS scale and Barthel index were compared between the two groups before treatment, in 4 and 8 weeks of treatment and the 3-month follow-up observation after treatment separately. In 4 and 8 weeks of treatment and the follow-up observation, Fugl-Meyer scale score was improved obviously in the patients of the two groups (all Pacupuncture groupwas im proved much apparently as compared with that in the conventional treatment group [68. 0 (43. 0,86. 5) vs 52. 5 (30.3, 77.0), 77.0 (49.5, 89.0) vs 63. 0 (33.0, 84.0), both P0.05), the results of NIHSS scale at the other time points were all decreased obviously as compared with those before treatment in the patients of the two groups (all Pacupuncture group were reduced much apparently as compared with those in the conventional treatment group [5. 0 (3.0,8.0) vs 7. 0 (3.0,13.8), 4. 0 (1.5,7.0) vs 6.0 (2.0,11.7) ,both Pacupuncture group was much more significant as compared with the conventional treatment group [75. 0 (60. 0,87. 5) vs 65. O (36. 3, 87. 5), PAcupuncture achieves the satisfactory clinical efficacy on motor dysfunction in ischemic stroke of subacute stage.

  9. [Clinical and cytogenetical study on subacute myeloid leukemia in myelodysplastic syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jing-ying; Zhang, Yan; Lu, Dao-pei; Lai, Yue-yun; He, Qi; Shi, Yan

    2005-06-01

    To discuss from the clinical and cytogenetic aspect that part of patients now diagnosed as myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) could be diagnosed early as leukemia and be classified as subacute myeloid leukemia (Sub-AML). Totally 173 patients diagnosed as MDS according to FAB or WHO criteria with complete clinical and cytogenetical data were included in this research. Among them 42 had +8 chromosome aberration, 16 had -7/7q-, and 55 had normal karyotypes and more than 0.10 blast cells in the bone marrow. Short term culture and G-banding techniques and in some specimens fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method were used to do chromosome analysis. Among the detected chromosome aberrations, +8 was the most frequent (42.8%) and then -7/7q-(15.0%); 42 patients with +8 had median blast cell count of 0.08, within a median of 18 months follow-up period 40.0% of the patients evolved to frank leukemia (FL) and the median overall survival was 20 months. 16 patients with -7/7q- had higher blast cell count of 0.135; 43.8% of them developed into FL and the median overall survival was only 10 months within a 20-month follow-up period. 55 patients had normal karyotype but a median blast cell count of 0.148; 52.7% of them patients evolved to FL and the median overall survival was 34 months. Both the +8 and -7/7q- groups have malignant leukemic cell clone, and run a subacute and progressive clinical course; it is suggested they might be classified into Sub-AML. We should keep close watch on the patients who have normal karyotype yet more than 0.10 blast cells, part of whom might suffer from early Sub-AML.

  10. Phytochemical screening and toxicity studies on the methanol extract of the seeds of moringa oleifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajibade, Temitayo Olabisi; Arowolo, Ruben; Olayemi, Funsho Olakitike

    2013-05-07

    The seeds of Moringa oleifera were collected, air-dried, pulverized, and subjected to cold extraction with methanol. The methanol extract was screened phytochemically for its chemical components and used for acute and sub-acute toxicity studies in rats. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, terpenes, alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, and cardiac glycosides but the absence of anthraquinones. Although signs of acute toxicity were observed at a dose of 4,000 mg kg-1 in the acute toxicity test, and mortality was recorded at 5,000 mg kg-1, no adverse effect was observed at concentrations lower than 3,000 mg kg-1. The median lethal dose of the extract in rat was 3,873 mg kg-1. Sub-acute administration of the seed extract caused significant (p<0.05) increase in the levels of alanine and aspartate transferases (ALT and AST), and significant (p<0.05) decrease in weight of experimental rats, at 1,600 mg kg-1. The study concludes that the extract of seeds of M. oleifera is safe both for medicinal and nutritional uses.

  11. Survey of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yusaku; Hashimoto, Koichi; Iinuma, Kazuie; Ohtsuka, Yoko; Ichiyama, Takashi; Kusuhara, Koichi; Nomura, Keiko; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Aiba, Hideo; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Hosoya, Mitsuaki

    2012-12-01

    Investigators conducted a retrospective epidemiological study of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, a fatal disease caused by measles infection, over the past few years in Japan. Data on 118 cases obtained from a questionnaire sent to attending physicians were analyzed. The annual incidence of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis was approximately 0.03 cases per million from 2001 to 2005. Children infected with measles at a young age (panencephalitis, and those infected before 6 months of age showed earlier onset. Because a positive correlation was found between the prevalence of measles and the onset of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, particularly among children infected at an early age, it is vital to eradicate measles infection by vaccination.

  12. Identifying the cause of toxicity in an algal whole effluent toxicity study - an unanticipated toxicant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddy, Rami B; Tapp, Kelly; Rehner, Anita B; Pillard, David A; Schrage, Laura

    2011-10-01

    Toxicity was observed in whole effluent toxicity (WET) studies with the freshwater alga, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, in three consecutive monthly studies, (NOEC=50-75%). Toxicity was not observed to Ceriodaphnia dubia or the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas in concurrent studies. Selected toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) tests were conducted in a tiered approach to eliminate possible toxicants and progressively identify the causative agent. Filtration following alkaline adjustment (pH 10 or 11) was effective in eliminating significant growth effects and also reduced phosphate concentration. The TIE studies confirmed that the observed effluent toxicity was caused by excess ortho-phosphate in the effluent not by overstimulation or related to unfavorable N:P ratios; but due to direct toxicity. The 96-h 25% inhibition concentration (IC25) of ortho-phosphate to P. subcapitata was 3.4 mg L⁻¹ while the maximum acceptable toxicant concentration was 4.8 mg L⁻¹. This study illustrates the value of multi-species testing and also provides an example of an effective TIE using algae identifying an unanticipated toxicant. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of nutritional and sub-acute toxicological study of plant based supplement of Achyranthes aspera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Nudrat; Dar, Nabeela G; Imran, Hina; Sohail, Tehmina; Asghar, Uzma; Yaqeen, Zahra; Syed, Shazia; Jamil, Khalid

    2014-09-01

    The present study was conducted for the nutritional, microbiological and toxicological evaluation of test compound having main ingredient Achyranthes aspera. Nutritional value assessment, microbiological analysis and toxicological studies were conducted according to the standard reported methods which exhibited that A. aspera contains moisture 4.05%, proteins 20.54%, fats 0.903%, ash 20.25%, carbohydrates 54,26% and energy 294 Kcal. Vitamin profile was found to be B(1) 0.27mg/100g, B(2) 0.28mg/100g, B(3) 0.58mg/100g, B(6) 0.27mg/100g and B(9) 39μg/100g. The content of sodium, calcium, magnesium, potassium, chloride and phosphorus was found to be 1119.67, 5385.23, 5446.08, 1343.6, 675880.73 and 1447.5mg/kg respectively and trace metals i.e. iron, copper, zinc, manganese and aluminum were detected as 283.05, 8.062, 48.37, 16.12 and 9.853 mg/kg respectively. The microbiological result indicated that the compound qualifies the international standards of microbial limit and was found free from Salmonella species. The toxicological study was conducted to find safe use of Achyranthes aspera compound in human as a nutritive supplement in blood disorders. The toxicity studies exhibited that the test compound has a good effect on general health as an increase in body weights of animals of test group was noticed as compared to that of control group. Blood parameters before and after the study were monitored which confirms our hypothesis by showing an increase in hemoglobin from 9.133 to 10.96, RBC count from 3.11 to 3.6, WBC count from 5.68 to 5.73 and platelets from 245 to 319.

  14. Interlaminar versus transforaminal epidural steroids for the treatment of subacute lumbar radicular pain: a randomized, blinded, prospective outcome study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharibo, Christopher G; Varlotta, Gerald P; Rhame, Ellen E; Liu, En-Chia James; Bendo, John A; Perloff, Michael D

    2011-01-01

    There is uncertainty in the literature over the relative effectiveness of lumbar epidural interlaminar (IL) steroid injection versus transforaminal (TF) steroid injection for lumbar radiculopathy. Most studies to date have been retrospective, or technically focused. To complete a randomized, blinded, prospective outcome study of the short-term benefit for IL versus TF epidural steroids for the treatment of subacute lumbar radicular pain. Prospective, randomized, blinded, subacute efficacy trial. Tertiary care pain management center, major metropolitan city, United States. After institutional review board approval, 42 age-matched patients with similar lower back pain and unilateral radicular symptoms were enrolled and randomized in a patient and evaluating physician blinded trial to IL or TF epidural steroids from 2007 through 2009. Prior to intervention and 10-16 days after injection, each participant was evaluated by questionnaire and physical exam by an independent physician. All injections were performed by the same physician. Thirty-eight participants completed the study, 18 in the IL group and 20 in the TF group. Four participants required a repeat injection, and 2 participants crossed over to the alternative injection type (IL to TF). Overall, physical exam, diagnostic testing, disability, activity, depression measures, and opioid pill use were similar between the 2 groups, both pre-injection baseline and post-injection improvement. In primary outcomes, the post-injection follow-up Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) was more greatly reduced in the TF group. The NRS decreased from 7.0 ± 1.9 to 3.9 ± 3.1 (mean values +/- standard deviation) in the IL group and 6.4 ± 2.1 to 1.7 ± 1.4 in the TF group. The Oswestry Disability Index was reduced from 37.5 ± 12.6 to 19.0 ± 16.7 in the IL group and 38.3 ± 6.4 to 21.6 ± 16.8 in the TF group. In secondary outcomes, the depression scale was reduced from 4.39 ± 3.22 to 2.28 ± 3.20 in the IL group and 4.10 ± 1.94 to 1

  15. Pseudotumor cerebri secondary to subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayçiçek, Ali; Işcan, Akin; Ceçe, Hasan

    2009-05-01

    Unusual presentations are not rare in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Five patients initially diagnosed with pseudotumor cerebri were ultimately determined to have pseudotumor cerebri secondary to subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. The present study retrospectively reviewed 56 cases history, neurologic symptoms, and clinical and laboratory data, as well as the outcomes. On admission, five patients (group 1) presenting with pseudotumor cerebri exhibited bilateral papilledema, and in each of them cranial magnetic resonance imaging revealed small lateral ventricles, effacement of the subarachnoid space, and no mass lesion. On admission, 51 patients (group 2) had no pseudotumor cerebri findings. The year of original measles infection, the interval between measles and onset of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, and initial neurologic symptoms were similar, but length of symptoms before diagnosis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis was shorter in group 1, and the clinical stage of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis on admission was more advanced in group 2. Cerebrospinal fluid mean open pressure was 378 +/- 22 H(2)O in group 1 and 146 +/- 28 H(2)O in group 2; cerebrospinal fluid antibody was 2038 +/- 768 U/L in group 1 and was 664 +/- 214 U/L in group 2. Only three of the five patients with pseudotumor cerebri had typical periodic discharges on electroencephalographic examination. These findings suggest that subacute sclerosing panencephalitis can cause pseudotumor cerebri.

  16. Acute and subacute toxicity study of ethanolic extract of the stem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-22

    Feb 22, 2010 ... tilis and Salmonella typhii. Ethanolic extract of the stem bark was shown by Tijani et al. .... mainly the brain, heart, lungs, kidneys, liver, intestine, stomach, spleen and testes were removed and weighed. ..... than AST because it is more sensitive to hepatic damage. (Herfindal and Gourley, 2000) and there is a ...

  17. Acute and sub-acute toxicity study of Clerodendrum inerme, Jasminum mesnyi Hance and Callistemon citrinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Bhushan

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The results demonstrated that there is a wide margin of safety for the therapeutic use of each of the four extracts of three plants. The findings also corroborated the traditional use of these extracts.

  18. Antimicrobial evaluation, acute and sub-acute toxicity studies of Allium sativum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir Lawal

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: The extract caused selective changes in some biochemical parameters of organ function; however, since only mild alteration was observed at a dose of 300 mg/kg, the garlic bulb may be considered to be relatively safe and could be explored as an oral remedy at this dose.

  19. Sub-acute toxicity studies on the aqueous extract of Stereospermum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Significant increases in triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL- and HDL- cholesterol levels were also recorded with the dose of 2g/kg. Increases of the organ (liver, kidney, heart and spleen) weights were produced with all doses of Stereospermum kunthianum but histological alterations of these organs were observed with only ...

  20. Antegrade Intramedullary Pinning in Subacute Fifth Metacarpal Neck Fracture After Failed Conservative Treatment: A Prospective Comparative Study With Acute Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Soo Min; Shin, Hyun Dae

    2018-01-24

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of antegrade intramedullary pinning performed for neck fractures with angulations of over 30 degrees after failed conservative treatment during the subacute phase and to compare the radiologic and clinical results with those of acute fractures with angulations of over 30 degrees treated via the same procedure. Seventy-three patients with a fifth metacarpal neck fracture were admitted to our institute between January 2010 and April 2015. Among them, 26 patients with an acute fracture (group 1) and 27 patients with a subacute fracture after failed conservative treatment who met the inclusion/exclusion criteria were investigated. After surgery, improvements in angulation and shortening, visual analog scale score for postoperative pain, Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score, active range of motion, and grip strength were evaluated and compared. The mean durations of surgery from injury were 4.92 and 32.74 days in groups 1 and 2, respectively, with a significant difference (P 0.05). At the final follow-up, the angulation had definitively improved compared with before surgery in both groups (P < 0.001, both). However, there was a slight significant difference in terms of the residual angulation of 3.35 and 5.56 degrees in groups 1 and 2, respectively (P = 0.02). Preoperative shortening was restored in both groups (P < 0.001, both) and the final state of residual shortening were similar (P = 0.06). The final visual analog scale scores, Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand scores, range of motion, and grip strength were all satisfactory in both groups without any significant difference. The failed treatment group, which had been predicted to obtain proper union through the initial use of conservative treatment, provided an adequate indication for noninvasive antegrade pinning. In addition, the current study suggested that closed reduction/immobilization remains a primary recommendation for

  1. Subacute thyroiditis--61 cases review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, S C; Jap, T S; Ho, L T; Ching, K N

    1989-02-01

    To examine the hospitalized patients with available data suggesting subacute thyroiditis, we have reviewed 80 hospital charts over the last 11 years and the data demonstrated 61 patients (48 females, 13 males, Aged 22-75 years) had evidence of subacute thyroiditis clinically or pathologically. Fifty seven of those patients had the clinical manifestation of severe tenderness over the neck, and others were painless. The thyroid function test were abnormal in 53% (30/57) of cases. All had rapid sedimentation rate (46/46). The thyroid antibodies were positive in 26% (10/39) of cases. Sixteen patients received unnecessary thyroid operation and complicated with hypothyroidism with or without hypoparathyroidism in two cases. In conclusion, all patients with painful or painless goiter should be appreciated carefully with additional study such as aspiration cytology to avoid misdiagnosis and inappropriate management.

  2. Mucopenetrating nanoparticles for enhancement of oral bioavailability of furosemide: In vitro and in vivo evaluation/sub-acute toxicity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwan, Salma El-Sayed; Sokar, Magda Samir; Abdelmonsif, Doaa Ali; El-Kamel, Amal Hassan

    2017-06-30

    The aim of this study was to formulate and evaluate chitosan (CS)/alginate (ALG) nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with furosemide (FSM) in an attempt to enhance its release, permeability and bioavailability. Non-everted gut sac method was used to evaluate the ex vivo permeation of FSM from its suspension and the selected CS/ALG NPs formulation. The pharmacokinetic parameters of FSM subsequent to oral administration of the selected formulation were assessed in rats. In vivo subacute toxicity study of the prepared blank and FSM loaded formulations was evaluated in rats. The selected optimized formulation (F3) showed optimum particle size (PS), polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential (ZP) and acceptable percentage entrapment efficiency (%EE) of 253.8nm±4.6, 0.25±0.03, -35mV±1 and 96%±1, respectively. The release profile of FSM from the selected formulation was characterized by initial burst effect in 0.1N HCl. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) demonstrated a smooth surface and spherical shape for the lyophilized optimized NPs. Selected CS/ALG NPs (F3) presented a significant enhancement (p≤0.01) in permeation parameters of FSM as well as in T max , C max , AUC 0-24 and AUC 0-∞ . Subacute toxicity study results revealed that the selected formulation was safe and nontoxic. The histopathological inspection of the stomach and small intestine tissues of the loaded NPs (F3) and blank groups reflected no obvious signs of cellular toxicity or inflammatory reaction. CS/ALG NPs loaded with FSM enhanced both drug release and mucus-penetrating ability leading to an overall increase in FSM bioavailability. In addition, the in vivo subacute toxicity study results indicated the safety of the prepared NPs for oral drug delivery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A randomized, comparative study of dual therapy (doxycycline-rifampin) versus triple therapy (doxycycline-rifampin-levofloxacin) for treating acute/subacute brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanain, Ahmad; Mahdy, Reem; Mohamed, Asmaa; Ali, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare both the efficacy and safety profile of the WHO-recommended, dual therapy (doxycycline-rifampin) to a quinolone-based, triple therapy (doxycycline-rifampin-levofloxacin) for treating acute/subacute brucellosis. We studied 107 consecutive, naïve patients with acute/subacute brucellosis admitted to Assiut University Hospital. Patients were randomly allocated to receive the dual therapy of doxycycline-rifampin (group-A) or to receive the triple therapy of doxycycline-rifampin-levofloxacin (group-B). Acute/subacute brucellosis was diagnosed based on the presence of: (1) contact with animals or fresh animal products, (2) suggestive clinical manifestations of less than one-year duration, and (3) positive antibody titer (1:160) by standard tube agglutination test. There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding their demographic data. Fever was the most frequent manifestation (96.3%). Epigastric pain was the most frequent adverse effect of treatment (12.1%). Group-A patients had a significantly higher relapse rate compared to group-B patients (22.6% versus 9.3%, p-value=0.01). The rate of treatment adverse effects was higher among group-B patients, although not reaching statistical significance (20.4% versus 11.3%, p-value=0.059). Adding levofloxacin to the dual therapy for acute/subacute brucellosis (doxycycline-rifampin) may increase its efficacy in terms of lowering the relapse rate of the disease. Further, larger scale studies are needed before considering modifying the standard, dual therapy for brucellosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Virtual reality training for upper extremity in subacute stroke (VIRTUES): study protocol for a randomized controlled multicenter trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Iris; Skouen, Jan S; Hofstad, Håkon; Strand, Liv I; Becker, Frank; Sanders, Anne-Marthe; Pallesen, Hanne; Kristensen, Tove; Michielsen, Marc; Verheyden, Geert

    2014-09-28

    Novel virtual reality rehabilitation systems provide the potential to increase intensity and offer challenging and motivating tasks. The efficacy of virtual reality systems to improve arm motor function early after stroke has not been demonstrated yet in sufficiently powered studies. The objective of the study is to investigate whether VR training as an adjunct to conventional therapy is more effective in improving arm motor function in the subacute phase after stroke than dose-matched conventional training, to assess patient and therapist satisfaction when working with novel virtual reality training and to calculate cost-effectiveness in terms of resources required to regain some degree of dexterity. Randomized controlled observer-blind trial. Virtual reality systems are promising tools for rehabilitation of arm motor function after stroke. Their introduction in combination with traditional physical and occupational therapy may enhance recovery after stroke, and at the same time demand little personnel resources to increase training intensity. The VIRTUES trial will provide further evidence of VR-based treatment strategies to clinicians, patients and health economists. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02079103.

  5. Effects of integrating rhythmic arm swing into robot-assisted walking in patients with subacute stroke: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Tae-Woo; Oh, Duck-Won; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Cynn, Heon-Seock

    2017-11-14

    This study aimed to identify the effects of rhythmic arm swing during robot-assisted walking training on balance, gait, motor function, and activities of daily living among patients with subacute stroke. Twenty patients with subacute stroke were recruited, and thereafter randomly allocated to either the experimental group that performed the robot-assisted walking training with rhythmic arm swing, or the control group that performed the training in arm fixation. In total, 30 training sessions were carried out. The outcome measures included the 10-m walk test, Berg balance scale, timed up-and-go test, fall index that was measured using the Tetrax system, motor function test of Fugl-Meyer assessment, and modified Barthel index. The patients of both groups showed significant improvement in all parameters after the intervention (P<0.05). The Berg balance scale, Fugl-Meyer assessment, and modified Barthel index scores at post-test appeared to be significantly higher for the experimental group than for the control group (P<0.05). These findings indicate that more favorable effects from robot-assisted walking training in patients with subacute stroke may be obtained by the use of rhythmic arm swing.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in patients presenting with (sub)acute cerebellar ataxia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Tanja [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Hamburg (Germany); The Johns Hopkins Hospital School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Division of Neuroradiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Thomalla, Goetz [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Neurology, Hamburg (Germany); Goebell, Einar [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Hamburg (Germany); Piotrowski, Anna [The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Baltimore, MD (United States); Yousem, David Mark [The Johns Hopkins Hospital School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Division of Neuroradiology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-02-17

    Acute or subacute cerebellar inflammation is mainly caused by postinfectious, toxic, neoplastic, vascular, or idiopathic processes and can result in cerebellar ataxia. Previous magnetic resonance (MR) studies in single patients who developed acute or subacute ataxia showed varying imaging features. Eighteen patients presenting with acute and subacute onset of ataxia were included in this study. Cases of chronic-progressive/hereditary and noncerebellar causes (ischemia, multiple sclerosis lesions, metastasis, bleedings) were excluded. MR imaging findings were then matched with the clinical history of the patient. An underlying etiology for ataxic symptoms were found in 14/18 patients (postinfectious/infectious, paraneoplastic, autoimmune, drug-induced). In two of five patients without MR imaging findings and three of eight patients with minimal imaging features (cerebellar atrophy, slight signal alterations, and small areas of restricted diffusion), adverse clinical outcomes were documented. Of the five patients with prominent MR findings (cerebellar swelling, contrast enhancement, or broad signal abnormalities), two were lost to follow-up and two showed long-term sequelae. No correlation was found between the presence of initial MRI findings in subacute or acute ataxia patients and their long-term clinical outcome. MR imaging was more flagrantly positive in cases due to encephalitis. (orig.)

  7. Quantum chemistry based quantitative structure-activity relationships for modeling the (sub)acute toxicity of substituted mononitrobenzenes in aquatic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zvinavashe, E.; Murk, A.J.; Vervoort, J.; Soffers, A.E.M.F.; Freidig, A.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.

    2006-01-01

    Fifteen experimental literature data sets on the acute toxicity of substituted nitrobenzenes to algae (Scenedesmus obliquus, Chlorella pyrenoidosa, C. vulgaris), daphnids (Daphnia magna, D. carinata), fish (Cyprinus carpio, Poecilia reticulata), protozoa (Tetrahymena pyriformis), bacteria

  8. Evaluation of the acute and sub-acute toxicity of the ethanolic extract of Pericampylus glaucus (Lam. Merr. in BALB/c mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kifayatullah

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: The result indicates that the oral administration of Pericampylus glaucus (Lam. Merr. extract did not produce any significant toxic effect in BALB/c mice. Hence, the extract can be utilized safely for therapeutic use in pharmaceutical formulations.

  9. Subacute toxicity evaluation of KR-33493, FAF1 inhibitor for a new anti-parkinson's disease agent, after oral administration in rats and dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jong-Woo; Yu, Changsun; Lee, Jong-Hwa; Moon, Kyoung-Sik; Kim, Eunhee; Yoo, Sung-Eun; Koo, Tae-Sung

    2016-11-01

    KR33493, a newly developed FAS-associated factor 1 (FAF1) inhibitor for Parkinson's disease, is being evaluated in a Phase I clinical trial. In the present study, the subchronic toxicity of KR33493 in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and beagle dogs was investigated at various oral doses for 28 and 14 days, respectively. During the study, food consumption, body weights, organ weights, gross findings, and mortality were examined; and ophthalmoscopy, electrocardiography, hematology, serum biochemistry, urinalysis, histopathology, and toxicokinetics were performed. In rats, weight gain decreased in both sexes at 500 mg/kg/day, with no significant differences. In dogs, some significant differences compared with the control were found during the trial; however, at the end of recovery periods, these were no longer observed and there was no dose correlation. Some histopathological findings were observed, but these were considered as incidental changes. Since no other significant changes were observed, doses above 500 and 1000 mg/kg KR33493 in rat and dogs, respectively, caused no observed adverse effects. Therefore, based on these results, the Phase 1 clinical trial for KR33493 was approved by the Korean Food & Drug Administration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. ACUTE TOXICITY STUDIES AND ANTIDOTAL THERAPY OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In spite of the myriad of ethno medical uses and agro-feed potential of Jatropha curcas (JC) seeds and the potential for production of biodiesel, toxic properties have been adduced to the plant, especially the seeds. Thus, the current study was done with the aim of investigating the toxicity of the ethanol seed extract of JC in ...

  11. Rat Brain Biogenic Amine Levels during Acute and Subacute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rat Brain Biogenic Amine Levels during Acute and Subacute Phosphamidon Treatment with Reference to Behavioral Tolerance. ... African Research Review ... The present study examines if the levels of amine neurotransmitter substances in rat brain regions are altered during acute and sub-acute treatment with an ...

  12. Prevention of pressure ulcers in patients undergoing sub-acute rehabilitation after severe brain injury: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Marianne Brostrup; Wolffbrandt, Mia Moth; Poulsen, Ingrid

    2018-01-09

    The aim of this study was to uncover efforts made by healthcare professionals to prevent pressure ulcers (PUs) in patients with severe brain injury undergoing treatment at a sub-acute rehabilitation department. PUs is a major burden for patients and also generate considerable healthcare costs. PUs are, nevertheless, prevalent in both secondary and primary care. In this qualitative study, we performed 24-hour observation on four patients undergoing rehabilitation for severe brain injury. An observation guide was developed inspired by the Braden Scale and Spradley's theory and methods. Observations were analysed using content analysis. Patricia Benner's aspects of clinical grasp were employed in the interpretation of the observations. One overarching theme was identified: "Professionalism expressed by preventing intervention, involving the patient, employing clinical grasp and professional pride". Seven subcategories were summed up into the following three categories: Organisation of clinical practice, Professional assessment and Interactions with the patient. The healthcare professionals' actions to prevent PUs consisted of attaining the necessary knowledge about PU care and performing the activities. However, our observations revealed one important additional aspect; a very distinct impression that the healthcare professionals were committed to learning about the patients' former life and actively used this knowledge in their planning and provision of daily patient care. We believe this commitment has a very positive effect on prevention of PUs. Professional knowledge about prevention of PU is a necessary requisite, but is not sufficient to ensure effective treatment. To transfer knowledge into practice, we recommend that patients' rehabilitation days be planned in such a manner that activities, mobilisation and training are conducted throughout the day and evening. We also recommend that professional staff are encouraged to seek information about the former life

  13. Acute and sub-acute toxicological assessment of the aqueous seed extract of Persea americana mill (Lauraceae) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozolua, Raymond I; Anaka, Ogochukwu N; Okpo, Stephen O; Idogun, Sylvester E

    2009-07-03

    The aqueous seed extract of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) is used by herbalists in Nigeria for the management of hypertension. As part of our on-going scientific evaluation of the extract, we designed the present study to assess its acute and sub-acute toxicity profiles in rats. Experiments were conducted to determine the oral median lethal dose (LD(50)) and other gross toxicological manifestations on acute basis. In the sub-acute experiments, the animals were administered 2.5 g/kg (p.o) per day of the extract for 28 consecutive days. Animal weight and fluid intake were recorded during the 28 days period. Terminally, kidneys, hearts, blood/sera were obtained for weight, haematological and biochemical markers of toxicity. Results show that the LD(50) could not be determined after a maximum dose of 10 g/kg. Sub-acute treatment with the extract neither affected whole body weight nor organ-to-body weight ratios but significantly increased the fluid intake (P americana is safe on sub-acute basis but extremely high doses may not be advisable.

  14. Toxic studies on biochemical parameters carried out in rats with Serankottai nei, a siddha drug-milk extract of Semecarpus anacardium nut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayalakshmi, T; Muthulakshmi, V; Sachdanandam, P

    2000-01-01

    A toxicological study was carried out in rats with a Siddha preparation, milk extracts of Semecarpus anacardium nuts. The effect of acute (72 h) and subacute (30 days) treatment of the drug with different dosage on liver and kidney functions and hematological parameters were studied. The acute toxicity studies with this drug did not produce mortality at any dose level given (75-2000 mg/kg body weight). No marked adverse alterations were observed in hematological and biochemical parameters during the subacute toxicity studies (50, 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight). In the subacute treatment, the highest dose (500 mg/kg body weight) alone showed a moderate increase in the level of blood glucose, plasma urea, uric acid, and creatinine. In addition, alteration in lipid profiles were observed which may be attributed to the ghee preparation of the drug. Decrease in urinary urea, uric acid and creatinine levels were also observed. Histopathological examination of vital organs showed normal architecture suggesting no morphological disturbances.

  15. Review of toxicity studies of carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Norihiro; Izumi, Hiroto; Morimoto, Yasuo

    2017-09-28

    We reviewed studies on pulmonary, reproductive, and developmental toxicity caused by carbon nanotubes (CNTs). In paricular, we analyzed how CNT exposure affects the several processes of pulmonary toxicity, including inflammation, injury, fibrosis, and pulmonary tumors. In pulmonary toxicity, there are various processes, including inflammation, injury, fibrosis, respiratory tumor in the lungs, and biopersistence of CNTs and genotoxicity as tumor-related factors, to develop the respiratory tumor. We evaluated the evidence for the carcinogenicity of CNTs in each process. In the fields of reproductive and developmental toxicity, studies of CNTs have been conducted mainly with mice. We summarized the findings of reproductive and developmental toxicity studies of CNTs. In animal studies, exposure to CNTs induced sustained inflammation, fibrosis, lung cancer following long-term inhalation, and gene damage in the lung. CNTs also showed high biopersistence in animal studies. Fetal malformations after intravenous and intraperitoneal injections and intratracheal instillation, fetal loss after intravenous injection, behavioral changes in offsprings after intraperitoneal injection, and a delay in the delivery of the first litter after intratracheal instillation were reported in mice-administered multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) appeared to be embryolethal and teratogenic in mice when given by intravenous injection; moreover, the tubes induced death and growth retardation in chicken embryos. CNTs are considered to have carcinogenicity and can cause lung tumors. However, the carcinogenicity of CNTs may attenuate if the fiber length is shorter. The available data provide initial information on the potential reproductive and developmental toxicity of CNTs.

  16. Comparison of the toxicity profiles of ISIS 1082 and ISIS 2105, phosphorothioate oligonucleotides, following subacute intradermal administration in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, S P; Grillone, L R; Orr, J L; Bruner, R H; Kornbrust, D J

    1997-01-15

    The systemic toxicity of two phosphorothioate oligonucleotides specific for herpes simplex viruses (ISIS 1082) and human papiloma virus (ISIS 2105) were evaluated following repeated intradermal injections of vehicle control, 0.33, 2.17, or 21.7 mg/kg daily to Sprague-Dawley rats (10/sex/group) for 14 days. Animals were sacrificed 1 day after the last dose, except for a portion of the ISIS 1082-treated animals (5/sex/group) which were maintained for an additional 14-day recovery period. The profile of alterations noted for both compounds was very similar. Other than local signs of irritation at the site of injection, there were no clinical signs of toxicity or treatment-related mortality, but there was a slight decrease in body weight gain for the 21.7 mg/kg dose groups. Alterations in hematology parameters included dose-dependent thrombocytopenia and anemia. Alterations in serum chemistry parameters were suggestive of mild alterations in hepatic metabolism, with increases in liver transaminases and bilirubin, along with decreases in albumin and cholesterol. Both spleen and liver weights were significantly elevated in a dose-dependent fashion. Histopathological alterations noted in liver, kidney, lung, injection site skin, and spleen were characterized as perivascular and interstitial infiltrates of macrophages and monocytes. Additional microscopic alterations in the spleen included mild lymphoid hyperplasia (seen in lymph nodes as well), and extramedullary hematopoiesis. Treatment-related cytopenias were likely related to mild, focal hypocellularity in the bone marrow. Alterations in ISIS 1082-treated animals were only partially reversed following the 14-day treatment-free period. In conclusion, repeated intradermal administration of ISIS 1082 and ISIS 2105 produced a similar spectrum of toxicities, with liver, kidney, spleen, and bone marrow being identified as target tissues.

  17. Population-based study of blood biomarkers in prediction of sub-acute recurrent stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Helen C; Burgess, Annette I; Poole, Debbie L; Mehta, Ziyah; Silver, Louise E; Rothwell, Peter M

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose Risk of recurrent stroke is high in the first few weeks after TIA or stroke and clinic risk prediction tools have only limited accuracy, particularly after the hyper-acute phase. Previous studies of the predictive value of biomarkers have been small, been done in selected populations and have not concentrated on the acute phase or on intensively treated populations. We aimed to determine the predictive value of a panel of blood biomarkers in intensively treated patients early after TIA and stroke. Methods We studied 14 blood biomarkers related to inflammation, thrombosis, atherogenesis and cardiac or neuronal cell damage in early TIA or ischaemic stroke in a population-based study (Oxford Vascular Study). Biomarker levels were related to 90-day risk of recurrent stroke as Hazard Ratio (95%CI) per decile increase, adjusted for age and sex. Results Among 1292 eligible patients there were 53 recurrent ischaemic strokes within 90 days. There were moderate correlations (r>0.40; pstroke were weak, with significant associations limited to Interleukin-6 (HR=1.12, 1.01-1.24; p=0.035) and C-reactive protein (1.16, 1.02-1.30; p=0.019). When stratified by type of presenting event, P-selectin predicted stroke after TIA (1.31, 1.03-1.66; p=0.028) and C-reactive protein predicted stroke after stroke (1.16, 1.01-1.34; p=0.042). These associations remained after fully adjusting for other vascular risk factors. Conclusion In the largest study to date, we found very limited predictive utility for early recurrent stroke for a panel of inflammatory, thrombotic and cell damage biomarkers. PMID:25158774

  18. Malnutrition in subacute care

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Jorja Claire

    2017-01-01

    Malnutrition is a significant problem across all healthcare settings because of its high prevalence and association with adverse outcomes for patients and increased healthcare costs. There is a paucity of research considering subacute patients’ nutritional status and how this changes throughout inpatient stay. Additionally, a stronger evidence base for strategies to prevent and treat malnutrition specifically in this setting is required. This thesis aimed to address these research gaps to con...

  19. Ecological risk study on subacute toxicology experiment of streptomycin wastewater for Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qing; Shen, Hongyan

    2017-08-01

    An exposure experiment was conducted to study the effect of different volume fraction of effluent streptomycin wastewater on the activity of the peroxidase (POD) activity and the malondialdehyde (MDA) content in muscles of Zebrafish for 20 days. The results show that POD activity is significantly induced on the eighth day. POD activities in the muscles of Zebrafish exposed to the streptomycin wastewater of 20% exposure group were significantly different (0.01study indicates that low concentration streptomycin wastewater has impacts on the antioxidant defense system and antioxidant ability of Zebrafish.

  20. Repeated Dose 28-Days Oral Toxicity Study of Carica papaya L. Leaf Extract in Sprague Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussin Muhammad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Carica papaya L. leaves have been used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of fevers and cancers. Despite its benefits, very few studies on their potential toxicity have been described. The aim of the present study was to characterize the chemical composition of the leaf extract from ‘Sekaki’ C. papaya cultivar by UPLC-TripleTOF-ESI-MS and to investigate the sub-acute oral toxicity in Sprague Dawley rats at doses of 0.01, 0.14 and 2 g/kg by examining the general behavior, clinical signs, hematological parameters, serum biochemistry and histopathology changes. A total of twelve compounds consisting of one piperidine alkaloid, two organic acids, six malic acid derivatives, and four flavonol glycosides were characterized or tentatively identified in the C. papaya leaf extract. In the sub-acute study, the C. papaya extract did not cause mortality nor were treatment-related changes in body weight, food intake, water level, and hematological parameters observed between treatment and control groups. Some biochemical parameters such as the total protein, HDL-cholesterol, AST, ALT and ALP were elevated in a non-dose dependent manner. Histopathological examination of all organs including liver did not reveal morphological alteration. Other parameters showed non-significant differences between treatment and control groups. The present results suggest that C. papaya leaf extract at a dose up to fourteen times the levels employed in practical use in traditional medicine in Malaysia could be considered safe as a medicinal agent.

  1. Repeated dose 28-days oral toxicity study of Carica papaya L. leaf extract in Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzan, Adlin; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Halim, Siti Zaleha; Rashid, Badrul Amini; Semail, Raja Hazlini Raja; Abdullah, Noordini; Jantan, Ibrahim; Muhammad, Hussin; Ismail, Zakiah

    2012-04-10

    Carica papaya L. leaves have been used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of fevers and cancers. Despite its benefits, very few studies on their potential toxicity have been described. The aim of the present study was to characterize the chemical composition of the leaf extract from 'Sekaki' C. papaya cultivar by UPLC-TripleTOF-ESI-MS and to investigate the sub-acute oral toxicity in Sprague Dawley rats at doses of 0.01, 0.14 and 2 g/kg by examining the general behavior, clinical signs, hematological parameters, serum biochemistry and histopathology changes. A total of twelve compounds consisting of one piperidine alkaloid, two organic acids, six malic acid derivatives, and four flavonol glycosides were characterized or tentatively identified in the C. papaya leaf extract. In the sub-acute study, the C. papaya extract did not cause mortality nor were treatment-related changes in body weight, food intake, water level, and hematological parameters observed between treatment and control groups. Some biochemical parameters such as the total protein, HDL-cholesterol, AST, ALT and ALP were elevated in a non-dose dependent manner. Histopathological examination of all organs including liver did not reveal morphological alteration. Other parameters showed non-significant differences between treatment and control groups. The present results suggest that C. papaya leaf extract at a dose up to fourteen times the levels employed in practical use in traditional medicine in Malaysia could be considered safe as a medicinal agent.

  2. Study on radioprotection effects of clinoptilolite on sub-acute radiation-injured mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na LI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To study the protection effect of clinoptilolite (Cp against radiation injury. Methods  Fortyeight male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into 6 groups, namely normal control group (distilled water + sham irradiation, radiation control group (distilled water + irradiation, 300mg/kg 523 group (200mg/kg nilestriol 24h before irradiation and 100mg/ kg nilestriol 4h after irradiation, 56mg/kg Cp group (56mg/kg Cp + irradiation, 167mg/kg Cp group (167mg/kg Cp + irradiation and 500mg/kg Cp group (500mg/kg Cp + irradiation. Seven days after the administration of the drug, all the mice but those from the normal control group were irradiated with γ-ray irradiation of 137Cs in the dose of 4.0Gy, at the rate of 0.75Gy/min. All the mice were given the drug for 14 days after irradiation. RBC, WBC and PLT counts in peripheral blood, superoxide dismutases (SOD activity, malondialdehyde (MDA level, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px level in blood serum, the content of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA and hematopoietic stem cells in bone marrow were determined. Results  Compared with radiation control group, on 10th day after irradiation, RBC counts in peripheral blood of 56mg/kg Cp group and 167mg/kg Cp group were significantly higher (P<0.05, P<0.01, and WBC counts in peripheral blood of 56mg/kg Cp group and 500mg/kg Cp group were significantly higher (P<0.01. On 14th day after irradiation, compared with radiation control group, the SOD activities in blood serum of three Cp groups were elevated (P<0.05, P<0.01, the GSH-Px levels were elevated in blood serum of 167mg/kg Cp group and 500mg/kg Cp group (P<0.01, the DNA contents were significantly higher in 56mg/kg Cp group and 500mg/kg Cp group (P<0.05, P<0.01, the hematopoietic stem cells were significantly increased in number in bone marrow of three Cp groups (P<0.01. Conclusion  The clinoptilolite possesses protective effect against injury induced by 137Cs γ-irradiation in mice. DOI: 10.11855/j

  3. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in chronic and subacute low back pain patients in India: a triple-arm controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panwar, Ajay; Valupadas, Chandrasekhar; Veeramalla, Madhavarao; Vishwas, Hunsur N

    2017-08-25

    Vitamin D is vital for musculoskeletal health and may be associated with subacute and chronic low back pain. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among chronic low back pain (CLBP) and subacute low back pain (SLBP), and compare the same with healthy controls. This study was designed as triple-arm case-control study comprising of CLBP, SLBP, and controls. SLBP and CLBP cases were consecutively enrolled over 3 months of winter season from November 2016 to January 2017. Serum 25- (OH) vitamin D was estimated for the study subjects and categorical comparison of severity of vitamin D deficiency was done for the cases and controls. A total of 250 CLBP, 177 SLBP cases, and 248 controls were included in the study. Mean (± SD) serum vitamin D levels among CLBP, SLBP, and controls were 20.36 (± 12.56), 21.42 (± 13.20), and 20.84 (± 6.93) ng/ml respectively, the difference being statistically insignificant. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among CLBP, SLBP, and controls which was 53.6, 50.8, and 51.6% respectively, in the three arms. However, the categorical analysis revealed that CLBP and SLBP cases had a significantly higher prevalence of worse categories of vitamin D deficiency. Cases had significantly larger frequency (CLBP vs. controls, 43.6 vs 20.1%, P43.5 vs 20.1%, P = 0.001) of individuals with vitamin D levels ≤ 16 ng/ml (moderate deficiency upper threshold level). Thus, the severe forms of vitamin D deficiency may be causally associated with CLBP and SLBP. The results of the present study revealed that increasing severity of vitamin D deficiency may have a pathogenetic association with chronic low back pain and subacute low back pain. These results may prove to be of significance in framing of future management guidelines for the above clinical conditions.

  4. Toxicity And Immunomodulatory Activity Of Fractions Of Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated immunomodulatory properties and the sub-acute toxicity profile of two fractions of the aqueous alcoholic extract of the dried calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa in experimental animals. Immunomodulatory activity was evaluated using red blood cell-induced immunostimulation. The fractions were not found to ...

  5. Motor skill changes and neurophysiologic adaptation to recovery-oriented virtual rehabilitation of hand function in a person with subacute stroke: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluet, Gerard G; Patel, Jigna; Qiu, Qinyin; Yarossi, Matthew; Massood, Supriya; Adamovich, Sergei V; Tunik, Eugene; Merians, Alma S

    2017-07-01

    The complexity of upper extremity (UE) behavior requires recovery of near normal neuromuscular function to minimize residual disability following a stroke. This requirement places a premium on spontaneous recovery and neuroplastic adaptation to rehabilitation by the lesioned hemisphere. Motor skill learning is frequently cited as a requirement for neuroplasticity. Studies examining the links between training, motor learning, neuroplasticity, and improvements in hand motor function are indicated. This case study describes a patient with slow recovering hand and finger movement (Total Upper Extremity Fugl-Meyer examination score = 25/66, Wrist and Hand items = 2/24 on poststroke day 37) following a stroke. The patient received an intensive eight-session intervention utilizing simulated activities that focused on the recovery of finger extension, finger individuation, and pinch-grasp force modulation. Over the eight sessions, the patient demonstrated improvements on untrained transfer tasks, which suggest that motor learning had occurred, as well a dramatic increase in hand function and corresponding expansion of the cortical motor map area representing several key muscles of the paretic hand. Recovery of hand function and motor map expansion continued after discharge through the three-month retention testing. This case study describes a neuroplasticity based intervention for UE hemiparesis and a model for examining the relationship between training, motor skill acquisition, neuroplasticity, and motor function changes. Implications for rehabilitation Intensive hand and finger rehabilitation activities can be added to an in-patient rehabilitation program for persons with subacute stroke. Targeted training of the thumb may have an impact on activity level function in persons with upper extremity hemiparesis. Untrained transfer tasks can be utilized to confirm that training tasks have elicited motor learning. Changes in cortical motor maps can be used to document

  6. A randomized, rater-blinded, parallel trial of intensive speech therapy in sub-acute post-stroke aphasia: the SP-I-R-IT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Isabel Pavão; Leal, Gabriela; Fonseca, Isabel; Farrajota, Luísa; Aguiar, Marta; Fonseca, José; Lauterbach, Martin; Gonçalves, Luís; Cary, M Carmo; Ferreira, Joaquim J; Ferro, Jose M

    2013-01-01

    There is conflicting evidence regarding the benefits of intensive speech and language therapy (SLT), particularly because intensity is often confounded with total SLT provided. A two-centre, randomized, rater-blinded, parallel study was conducted to compare the efficacy of 100 h of SLT in a regular (RT) versus intensive (IT) treatment in sub-acute post-stroke aphasia. Consecutive patients with aphasia, within 3 months of a left hemisphere ischemic stroke, were randomized to IT (2 h per day × 5 days per week, 10 weeks) or RT (2 h per week × 50 weeks). Evaluations took place at 10, 50 and 62 weeks. Primary outcome was the frequency of responders, defined by 15% increase of Aphasia Quotient (AQ) from the baseline to 50 weeks. Secondary outcomes were changes from the baseline in AQ and functional communication profile (FCP) at 50 and 62 weeks and improvement stability between 50 and 62 weeks. Thirty patients were randomized and 18 completed the study. No significant differences were found between groups in primary or secondary outcomes, although IT patients (N = 9) obtained higher scores in language measures between 10 and 62 weeks in per protocol analysis. The number of non-completions was identical between groups. This study suggests that, in the sub-acute period following stroke and controlling for the number of hours of SLT provided, there is a trend for a greater improvement in language and functional communication measures with IT compared with RT. The lack of statistical significance in results was probably due to the small sample size. © 2013 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  7. Acute and Subacute Toxicity of 7.5% Hypertonic Saline-6% Dextran-70 (HSD) in Dogs. 2. Biochemical and Behavioral Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    hypernatremia . Thus, as part of the new drug the views of the Department of the Army or the Department of b Defense. (AR 360-5) application to FDA for HSD. the...clinical concern in response to hypernatiem~a. 120 [In the present study, a cause-effect relationship between 100 " hypernatremia and behavioral

  8. Different patterns of kidney toxicity after subacute administration of Na-nitrilotriacetic acid and Fe-nitrilotriacetic acid to Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahnemann, R; Leibold, E; Kittel, B; Mellert, W; Jäckh, R

    1998-11-01

    Na-nitrilotriacetic acid (Na3NTA) and Fe-nitrilotriacetic acid (FeNTA) have both been described to cause tumors in the urinary tract of rodents. However, these effects were observed using different modes of administration at extremely different dose levels and explained by different mechanisms. Whereas FeNTA causes an iron overload of cells and is genotoxic in various assays, Na3NTA is predominantly bound to zinc in vivo and thereby causes cytotoxic effects in the urinary tract. In contrast to FeNTA, Na3NTA requires high dose levels to produce tumors. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of Na3NTA and FeNTA on cellular proliferation, histopathology, lipid peroxidation, and 8-OH-2'-deoxyguanosine levels in the kidneys as well as on the urinary excretion of Ca, Fe, and Zn. For evaluation of DNA synthesis both compounds were administered for 1 or 4 weeks to 14-week-old male Wistar rats at a tumor causing dose, Na3NTA via the diet at 150 ppm and 20,000 ppm (approximately 9 and approximately 1000 mg/kg/day) and FeNTA i.p. at 25 mg/kg/day. An osmotic minipump, containing 20 mg/ml BrdU, was implanted subcutaneously 7 days before necropsy. Na3NTA showed nearly no effect on DNA replication after 1 week but a strong reaction after 4 weeks. The increase was 10- to 18-fold in different renal compartments. The enhancement of proliferation in the proximal tubules was nearly twice that in the distal tubules. In contrast, FeNTA caused DNA replication during the first week, and this was restricted to the proximal tubules. After 4 weeks there was an 18-fold increase in the outer stripe and no effect in the inner stripe of the outer medulla. The data presented give evidence to the assumption that both substances increase cell proliferation as a compensatory mechanism, causing different pattern of tubular proliferation in terms of time course and affected cell types. Both Na3NTA at 20,000 ppm and FeNTA led to increased lipid peroxidation, whereas increased levels of 8-OH-2

  9. Serial diffusion-weighted imaging in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanemura, Hideaki; Aihara, Masao

    2008-06-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis may be associated with clinical features of frontal lobe dysfunction. We previously reported that frontal lobe volume falls significantly as clinical stage progresses, using three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging-based brain volumetry. The hypothesis that frontal volume increases correlate with clinical improvement, however, was not tested in our previous study. Therefore, we reevaluated our patient with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, to determine whether apparent diffusion coefficient maps can characterize the clinical course of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. We studied an 8-year-old boy with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, using serial diffusion-weighted imaging magnetic resonance imaging, and measured the regional apparent diffusion coefficient. The regional apparent diffusion coefficient of the frontal lobe decreased significantly with clinical progression, whereas it increased to within normal range during clinical improvements. The apparent diffusion coefficient of the other regions did not change. These results suggest that the clinical signs of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis are attributable to frontal lobe dysfunction, and that apparent diffusion coefficient measurements may be useful in predicting the clinical course of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

  10. Surge of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lisel V Richter-Joubert; Donovan Jacobs; Tracy Kilborn

    2017-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a poorly understood complication of measles infection, presenting in up to 1 in 2500 infected children, resulting in devastating neurocognitive outcomes and a high mortality rate...

  11. Dialysis anaemia caused by subacute zinc toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, J J; Row, P G

    1977-06-04

    Nine out of ten patients dialysed in a satellite dialysis unit became severely anaemic over a 2-month period. The onset of anaemia coincided with the installation of a new galvanised-iron water softener in the dialysate water-supply system. An activated carbon filter was installed and haemoglobin levels returned towards previous values. Two patients on home dialysis showed similar falls in haemoglobin after the installation of galvanised iron piping in their dialysate water-supply systems; these problems also resolved after carbon filtration of the dialysis water. It is suggested that elution of zinc from galvanised iron can cause anaemia in dialysis patients. Carbon filtration removes of 95-99% of the zinc eluted.

  12. Subacute Oral Toxicity Assessment of Alchornea cordifolia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2010-10-21

    Oct 21, 2010 ... Histopathological assessment of liver sections of treated-rats showed normal architecture at doses < ... to provoke hepatic damage in mice [10]. In view of ..... 6. Olaleye MT, Adegboye OO, Akindahunsi AA. Alchornea cordifolia extract protects Wistar albino rats against acetaminophen-induced liver damage.

  13. A descriptive study of pressure pain threshold at 2 standardized sites in people with acute or subacute neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, David M; Macdermid, Joy C; Nielson, Warren; Teasell, Robert W; Nailer, Tamara; Maheu, Phillippe

    2011-09-01

    Cross-sectional convenience sample. To describe the distribution of scores for pressure pain threshold (PPT) at 2 standardized testing sites in people with neck pain of less than 90 days' duration: the angle of the upper trapezius and the belly of the tibialis anterior. A secondary objective was to identify important influences on PPT. PPT may be a valuable assessment and prognostic indicator for people with neck pain. However, to facilitate interpretation of scores, knowledge of means and variance for the target population, as well as factors that might influence scores, is needed. Participants were recruited from community-based physiotherapy clinics and underwent PPT testing using a digital algometer and standardized protocol. Descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviations, quartiles, skewness, and kurtosis) were calculated for the 2 sites. Simple bivariate tests of association were conducted to explore potential moderators. A positively skewed distribution was described for the 2 standardized sites. Significant moderators were sex (male higher than female), age (r = 0.22), and self-reported pain intensity (r = -0.24). Neither litigation status nor most symptomatic/least symptomatic side influenced PPT. This manuscript presents information regarding the expected scores for PPT testing in people with acute or subacute neck pain. Clinicians can compare the results of individual patients against these population values, and researchers can incorporate the significant confounders of age, sex, and self-reported pain intensity into future research designs.

  14. Rehabilitation of hand in subacute tetraplegic patients based on brain computer interface and functional electrical stimulation: a randomised pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuagwu, Bethel C. A.; Wallace, Leslie; Fraser, Mathew; Vuckovic, Aleksandra

    2016-12-01

    Objective. To compare neurological and functional outcomes between two groups of hospitalised patients with subacute tetraplegia. Approach. Seven patients received 20 sessions of brain computer interface (BCI) controlled functional electrical stimulation (FES) while five patients received the same number of sessions of passive FES for both hands. The neurological assessment measures were event related desynchronization (ERD) during movement attempt, Somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) of the ulnar and median nerve; assessment of hand function involved the range of motion (ROM) of wrist and manual muscle test. Main results. Patients in both groups initially had intense ERD during movement attempt that was not restricted to the sensory-motor cortex. Following the treatment, ERD cortical activity restored towards the activity in able-bodied people in BCI-FES group only, remaining wide-spread in FES group. Likewise, SSEP returned in 3 patients in BCI-FES group, having no changes in FES group. The ROM of the wrist improved in both groups. Muscle strength significantly improved for both hands in BCI-FES group. For FES group, a significant improvement was noticed for right hand flexor muscles only. Significance. Combined BCI-FES therapy results in better neurological recovery and better improvement of muscle strength than FES alone. For spinal cord injured patients, BCI-FES should be considered as a therapeutic tool rather than solely a long-term assistive device for the restoration of a lost function.

  15. Acute and Subchronic Toxicity Study of the Median Septum of Juglans regia in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Ravanbakhsh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Median septum of Juglans regia L. (Juglandaceae with anti - diabetic effects has been used in Iranian traditional medicine. The present study estimates both oral acute and subchronic toxicities. Methods: In the oral acute toxicity study, female Wistar rats were treated with doses of 10, 100, 1000, 1600 , 2900 and 5000 mg/ kg of the Juglans regia septum of methanol extract (JRSME, and were monitored for 14 days. In subchronic study, JRSME was administered by gavage at dose of 1000 mg/kg daily in Wistar rats for 28 days. Antioxidant status and biochemical examinations were fulfilled, and the vital organs were subjected to pathological analyses. Results: The extract did not produce any toxic signs or deaths; the medium lethal dose must be higher than 5000 mg/kg. In subchronic study, No significant morpholo gical and histopathological changes were observed in the studied tissues. There was a significant increase in serum malondialdehyde (MDA level in treated group compared to control after 4 weeks of JRSME intake. The treatment of rats resulted in a signific ant reduction of serum urea level (p<0.05, kidney’s xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH activity (p<0.001 and elevation of aldehyde oxidase (AO activity (p<0.05 in kidney. In the treated group, the mean diameter of glomerulus and proximal urine tube epitheliu m stature was slightly greater than control group. A significant increase in serum MDA level is subject for further studies. Conclusion: This study showed that the extract has no acute or subacute adverse effects with dose of 1000 mg/kg. The administratio n of JRSME may improve kidney structure and function and help in treatment of some chronic diseases.

  16. Subchronic toxicity study of GH transgenic carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Ling; Liu, Yu-Mei; Jia, Xu-Dong; Li, Ning; Zhang, Wen-Zhong

    2012-11-01

    A subchronic toxicity study of GH (growth hormone) transgenic carp was carried out with 60 SD rats aged 4 weeks, weight 115∼125 g. Ten male and 10 female rats were allotted into each group. Animals of the three groups (transgenic carp group (GH-TC), parental carp group (PC) and control group) were fed soy- and alfalfa-free diet (SAFD) with 10% GH transgenic carp powder, 10% parental carp powder or 10% common carp powder for 90 consecutive days, respectively. In the end of study, animals were killed by exsanguination via the carotid artery under diethyl ether anesthesia, then weights of heart, liver, kidneys, spleen, thymus, brain, ovaries and uterus/testis were measured. Pathological examination of organs was determined. Endocrine hormones of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroid hormone (T4), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), 17β-estradiol (E2), progesterone (P) and testosterone (T) levels were detected by specific ELISA kit. Parameters of blood routine and blood biochemical were measured. The weights of the body and organs of the rats, food intake, blood routine, blood biochemical test and serum hormones showed no significant differences among the GH transgenic carp-treated, parental carp-treated and control groups (P>0.05). Thus, it was concluded that at the dose level of this study, GH transgenic carp showed no subchronic toxicity and endocrine disruption to SD rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Phytochemical and toxicological studies of Mucuna pruriens leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the phytochemical, acute toxicity, sub-acute toxicity and blood chemistry of the aqueous leaf extract of Mucuna pruriens. Powdered leaf of Mucuna pruriens was extracted by maceration. 24 albino mice used for acute toxicity were administered between 1-8 g/kg body weight of the extract while the control ...

  18. The effect of massage therapy and/or exercise therapy on subacute or long-lasting neck pain--the Stockholm neck trial (STONE): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skillgate, Eva; Bill, Anne-Sylvie; Côté, Pierre; Viklund, Peter; Peterson, Anna; Holm, Lena W

    2015-09-16

    Neck pain is a major health problem in populations worldwide and an economic burden in modern societies due to its high prevalence and costs in terms of health care expenditures and lost productivity. Massage and exercise therapy are widely used management options for neck pain. However, there is a lack of scientific evidence regarding their effectiveness for subacute and long-lasting neck pain. This study protocol describes a randomized controlled trial aiming to determine the effect of massage and/or exercise therapy on subacute and long-lasting neck pain over the course of 1 year. A randomized controlled trial in which at least 600 study participants with subacute or long-lasting nonspecific neck pain will be recruited and randomly allocated to one of four treatment arms: massage therapy (A), exercise therapy (B), exercise therapy plus massage therapy (C) and advice to stay active (D). The study has an E-health approach, and study participants are being recruited through advertising with a mix of traditional and online marketing channels. Web-based self-report questionnaires measure the main outcomes at 7, 12, 26 and 52 weeks after inclusion. The primary outcomes are a clinically important improvement in pain intensity and pain-related disability at follow-up, measured with a modified version of the Chronic Pain Questionnaire (CPQ). The secondary outcomes are global improvement, health-related quality of life (EQ-5D), sick leave, drug consumption and healthcare utilization. Adverse events are measured by questionnaires at return visits to the clinic, and automated text messages (SMSes) survey neck pain intensity and pain-related disability every week over one year. The results of this study will provide clinicians and stakeholders much needed knowledge to plan medical care for subacute and long-lasting neck pain disorders. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN01453590. Date of registration: 3 July 2014.

  19. In vivo toxicity study of Lantana camara

    OpenAIRE

    Badakhshan Mahdi Pour; Sreenivasan Sasidharan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the toxicity of methanol extract of various parts (Root, Stem, Leaf, Flower and Fruit) of Lantana camara (L. Camara) in Artemia salina. Methods: The methanol extracts of L. camara were tested for in vivo brine shrimp lethality assay. Results: All the tested extract exhibited very low toxicity on brine shrimp larva. The results showed that the root extract was the most toxic part of L. camara and may have potential as anticancer agent. Conclusions: Methanolic...

  20. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Michael H; Meatherall, Bonnie; Nikolic, Ana; Cannon, Kristine; Fonseca, Kevin; Joseph, Jeffrey T; MacDonald, Judy; Pabbaraju, Kanti; Tellier, Raymond; Wong, Sallene; Koch, Marcus W

    2016-03-01

    We present a case of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis that developed in a previously healthy 29-year-old pregnant woman who had returned from a trip to rural India shortly before the onset of symptoms. She was admitted to hospital at 27 weeks' gestation with a history of cognitive decline and difficulty completing simple tasks. She had no clinical signs of infection. The working diagnosis was autoimmune encephalitis, although extensive investigations did not lead to a final classifying diagnosis. The patient became comatose and developed hypertension, and an emergency caesarean section was done at 31 weeks to deliver the child, who seemed healthy. The patient died about 6 weeks after the onset of symptoms. The patient was found to have had subacute sclerosing panencephalitis at autopsy. In this Grand Round, we review the clinical features and treatment of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, and the epidemiological and public health aspects of the case. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Toxicity study of diethyl phthalate on Clarias gariepinus fingerlings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny t

    2014-02-12

    Feb 12, 2014 ... Therefore, a study was designed to determine the acute toxicity effects of DEP on a fresh water fish,. Clarias gariepinus ... Key words: Diethyl phthalate, Clarias gariepinus, acute toxicity, sublethal toxicity, heamatology, biochemical, histopathology ..... discharge of DEP-laden effluents and wastes take place.

  2. Alterações nucleares e nucleolares nas panencefalites subagudas esclerosantes Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: histological study of nuclear and nucleolar alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Alencar

    1969-09-01

    Full Text Available Relato de minucioso estudo das alterações nucleares e nucleolares encontradas nas chamadas panencefalites subagudas esclerosantes dos tipos Dawson (4 casos e de Van Bogaert (três casos e na panencefalite nodular de PettDöring (três casos, sendo demonstrada nestes processos mórbidos, pela primeira vez, a ocorrência de fenômenos da anisonucleolinose com extrusão de nucleolinos. Este tipo de alteração nucleolar foi encontrado mais freqüentemente no tipo Pette-Döring que nos tipos Dawson e Van Bogaert, sendo mais um argumento em favor da etiologia viral destes processos.A study of nuclear and nucleolar alterations found in cases of subacute sclerosing leucoencephalitis of van Bogaert (three cases and of Dawson type (four cases and in nodular panencephalitis of Pette-Döring (three cases is reported. In all these types of encephalites there was found anisonucleolinosis with extrusion of nucleolinus, alterations not yet reported in these precesses. These nucleolar changes were found more frequently in Pette-Döring than in Dawson and Van Bogaert types, being a strong argument favouring the viral aetiology of these diseases.

  3. Inter-tester Reliability in Classifying Acute and Subacute Low Back Pain Patients into Clinical Subgroups: A Comparison of Specialists and Non-Specialists. A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paatelma, Markku; Karvqnen, Eira; Heinqnen, Ari

    2009-01-01

    Many systems have been suggested for classifying low back pain (LBP); the most commonly used among physiotherapists involves a pathoanatomical/pathophysiological tissue classification system. Few studies have examined whether this form of classification of LBP disorders can be performed in a reliable manner between specialists with advanced training, or between specialists with advanced training and non-specialists who lack advanced training. The purpose of this paper was to examine the inter-tester reliability of two specialists, and the ability of a specialist and non-specialist to independently classify patients with LBP, utilizing clinical tests and history-based classification methods after a short educational course on the classification system. Subjects were acute or sub-acute patients with LBP who visited their occupational healthcare or municipal healthcare center. Inter-tester reliability between the specialist and non-specialists was at almost the same level: overall Kappa 0.60 (95%CI; 0.40 to 0.85), overall agreement 70%, as between the two specialists: overall Kappa 0.65 (95%CI; 0.33-0.86), overall agreement 77%. The findings suggest that a short educational course can provide rather reliable examination tools to allow non-specialized physiotherapists to classify patients according to tissue origination.

  4. Thirteen Week Oral Toxicity Study of WR238605 with a Thirteen Week Recovery Period in Dogs. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-11

    included extramedullary hematopoiesis and hemosiderin pigment in high dose and to a lesser extent in mid dose males and females. Hemosiderin pigment...DAMD17-92-C-2001 Task Order No.: UIC-5A UIC/TRL Study No.: 097 In the iiver, hemosiderin deposits, Kupffer cell hypertrophy, and subacute...inflammation occurred together in mid and high dose animals sacrificed at the end of the dosing period. Hemosiderin deposits and subacute inflammation of

  5. Liver immunolocation of CYP P450 in an subacute toxicity experiment with Clorpirifos o,o-(3, 5, 6- trichloride -2-pyridyl phosphorotioato in young male tilapia (Oreochromis spp)/Inmunolocalización hepática de CYP P450 en un experimento de toxicidad subaguda por Clorpirifos 0,0-dietil 0-(3, 5, 6-tricloro-2-piridil fosforotioato) en machos juveniles de tilapia (Oreochromis spp)/Inmunolocalização hepática de CYP P450 num teste de toxicidade subaguda por Clorpirifos 0,0-dietil 0-(3, 5, 6-tricloro-2-piridil fosforotioato) em machos juvenis de tilápia (Oreochromis spp.)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jenny G Chaparro; Diego Alfonso Aranzazu Taborda; Laura Urrea; Berardo de J Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    .... The objective of this study is to implement an immunohistochemical technique to immunolocate CYP 1A in the tissue of fish, performing a subacute exposition experiment of Clofopirifos in the liver of young male tilapia...

  6. In vivo toxicity study of Lantana camara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pour, Badakhshan Mahdi; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the toxicity of methanol extract of various parts (Root, Stem, Leaf, Flower and Fruit) of Lantana camara (L. Camara) in Artemia salina. The methanol extracts of L. camara were tested for in vivo brine shrimp lethality assay. All the tested extract exhibited very low toxicity on brine shrimp larva. The results showed that the root extract was the most toxic part of L. camara and may have potential as anticancer agent. Methanolic extract of L. camara is relatively safe on short-term exposure.

  7. Toxicity Assessment for EPA's Hydraulic Fracturing Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains data used to develop multiple manuscripts on the toxicity of chemicals associated with the hydraulic fracturing industry. These manuscripts...

  8. Investigation of neurotoxic and immunotoxic effects of some plant growth regulators at subacute and subchronic applications on rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, Ismail; Celik, Ismail

    2015-12-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of subacute and subchronic treatment of some plant growth regulators (PGRs), such as abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA3), on neurological and immunological biomarkers in various tissues of rats. The activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butrylcholinesterase (BChE) were selected as biomarkers for neurotoxic biomarkers. Adenosine deaminase (ADA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were measured as indicators for immunotoxic investigation purpose. Wistar albino rats were orally administered with 25 and 50 ppm of PGRs ad libitum for 25-50 days continuously with drinking water. The treatment of PGRs caused different effects on the activities of enzymes. Results showed that the administrations of ABA and GA3 increased AChE and BChE activities in some tissues of rats treated with both the dosages and periods of ABA and GA3. With regard to the immunotoxic effects, ADA activity fluctuated, while MPO activity increased after subacute and subchronic exposure of treated rat tissues to both dosages when compared with the controls. The observations presented led us to conclude that the administrations of PGRs at subacute and subchronic exposure increased AChE, BChE, and MPO activities, while fluctuating the ADA activity in various tissues of rats. This may reflect the potential role of these parameters as useful biomarkers for toxicity of PGRs. © The Author(s) 2013.

  9. Prognostic factors for disability and sick leave in patients with subacute non-malignant pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin, Gitte H; Pilegaard, Marc S; Vaegter, Henrik B

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aims to identify generic prognostic factors for disability and sick leave in subacute pain patients. SETTING: General practice and other primary care facilities. PARTICIPANTS: Adults (>18 years) with a subacute (≤3-month) non-malignant pain condition. Eligibility...... reporting of all factors examined. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42014008914.......OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aims to identify generic prognostic factors for disability and sick leave in subacute pain patients. SETTING: General practice and other primary care facilities. PARTICIPANTS: Adults (>18 years) with a subacute (≤3-month) non-malignant pain condition. Eligibility...... criteria were cohort studies investigating the prediction of disability or long-term sick leave in adults with a subacute pain condition in a primary care setting. 19 studies were included, referring to a total of 6266 patients suffering from pain in the head, neck, back and shoulders. PRIMARY...

  10. Midazolam or diazepam administration during electroencephalography helps to diagnose subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Kutluhan; Sahin, Derya Aydin

    2010-08-01

    Although diagnostic contribution of intravenous diazepam administration during electroencephalography (EEG) recording in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis has been known, no another drug with less potential side effects has been studied in this procedure. In this study, diazepam is compared with midazolam in 25 subacute sclerosing panencephalitis-diagnosed children and 10 children with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis-suggesting symptoms, normal EEG findings and no certain diagnosis. Neither midazolam nor diazepam affected typical periodic slow-wave complexes. However, in the patients with atypical EEG abnormalities, midazolam, like diazepam, attenuated sharp or sharp-and-slow waves, and therefore made the identification of periodic slow-wave paroxysms easier. In the patients with normal EEGs, both midazolam and diazepam revealed typical periodic complexes on EEG recording in the same 3 patients. Cerebrospinal fluid examination verified the diagnosis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. The findings suggest that midazolam or diazepam administration increases the contribution of EEG recording in atypical cases with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

  11. Subacute Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus Triggered by Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kolm

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The origin of collagen autoimmune diseases is not fully understood. Some studies postulate a mechanism of molecular mimicry or heterologous immunity following viral infections triggering autoimmunity. Apart from infections, other exogenous factors such as visible light or X-rays have been reported to incite autoimmunity. Case Report: We report a case of histologically and serologically confirmed subacute lupus erythematosus (SCLE following radiotherapy for breast cancer. Discussion: The close temporal and spatial correlation between radiotherapy and onset of SCLE in this patient suggests that an autoimmune reaction may have been triggered locally by functionally altering the immune system and breaking self-tolerance.

  12. A foodservice approach to enhance energy intake of elderly subacute patients: a pilot study to assess impact on patient outcomes and cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jorja; Porter, Judi; Truby, Helen; Huggins, Catherine E

    2017-05-01

    effective strategies are required to support the nutritional status of patients. to evaluate a foodservice nutrition intervention on a range of participant outcomes and estimate its cost. parallel controlled pilot study. subacute hospital ward. all consecutively admitted adult patients were eligible for recruitment under waiver of consent. the intervention was a modified hospital menu developed by substituting standard items with higher energy options. The control was the standard menu. All participants received usual multidisciplinary care. Outcomes were change in weight and hand grip strength (HGS) between admission and day 14 and; energy and protein intake and patient satisfaction with the foodservice at day 14. The additional cost of the intervention was also estimated. the median (interquartile range) age of participants (n = 122) was 83 (75-87) years and length of stay was 19 (11-32) days. One-third (38.5%) were malnourished at admission. There was no difference in mean (SD) HGS change (1.7 (5.1) versus 1.4 (5.8) kg, P = 0.798) or weight change (-0.55 (3.43) versus 0.26 (3.33) %, P = 0.338) between the intervention and control groups, respectively. The intervention group had significantly higher mean (SD) intake of energy (132 (38) versus 105 (34) kJ/kg/day, P = 0.003) and protein (1.4 (0.6) versus 1.1 (0.4) g protein/kg/day, P = 0.035). Both groups were satisfied with the foodservice. The additional cost was £4.15/participant/day. in this pilot, the intervention improved intake and may be a useful strategy to address malnutrition. Further consideration of clinical and cost implications is required in a fully powered study.

  13. Oral toxicity of elephant foot yam (Amorphophallus paeoniifolius tuber in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadu Nandan Dey

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: Amorphophallus paeoniifolius tuber is an important constituent of Ayurvedic system of medicine. The tuber of this plant has high medicinal value and is consumed as a food. It is associated with acridity (itchy sensation in mouth and throat upon oral consumption and presence of high oxalates raphides. Aims: To evaluate the acute and subacute oral toxicity studies of methanolic (APME and aqueous (APAE extracts of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius tuber in Swiss albino mice according to OECD guidelines. Methods: In acute oral toxicity study, the mice were orally administered a single dose of APME or APAE (2000 mg/kg and clinical signs and mortality were observed for 14 days. In subacute (repeated dose oral toxicity study, the mice were administered once daily, orally with APME or APAE (1000 mg/kg up to 28 days. The parameters assessed were behavior, clinical signs, body weight, feed and water consumption, urinary, biochemical, hematological and major organ weights and histology. Results: In acute toxicity study, there was no treatment related mortality and morbidity in any of the group. In subacute toxicity study, there were no significant changes in behavior, body weight, feed and water consumption, urinary, biochemical, hematological and organ weight and histological parameters compared to vehicle treated group. There was no treatment related mortality or morbidity. Conclusions: Administration of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius tuber, individually in acute and 28 days repeated dose in mice, did not exhibit any toxicity or adverse effect at the doses used.

  14. Transabdominal ultrasonography of the ruminal mucosa as a tool to diagnose subacute ruminal acidosis in adult dairy bulls: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmazhari-Anwar, Vahid; Sharifi, Kamran; Mirshahi, Ali; Mohri, Mehrdad; Grünberg, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Subacute rumen acidosis (SARA) is frequently encountered in ruminants on high-concentrate rations and characterized by mild to moderate rumen pH depression. Although the measurement of rumen pH is considered as a gold standard approach to diagnose SARA, rumen fluid collection is conceived as a cumbersome and invasive procedure. In the present study, the suitability of transabdominal ultrasonography to identify structural changes of the rumen mucosa associated with SARA was explored. Five adult rumen canulated bulls previously adjusted to a roughage-based ration were switched in 10-day intervals to rations with increasing concentrate content. Seven rations with a concentrate content ranging from 5% to 95% were fed. The rumen pH and rumen mucosal thickness were measured at the end of each 10-d feeding period. The left flank was divided into 12 acoustic windows and the mean rumen mucosal thickness for each acoustic window determined for each ration. Repeated measure ANOVA and stepwise regression analyses were conducted. Increasing the dietary concentrate content resulted in thickening of rumen mucosa which was most pronounced in the upper part of the ventral rumen sac and the least pronounced in the uppermost and lowermost parts of the rumen. The intersection of a horizontal line going through the costochondral junction and a vertical line coming from the third lumbar vertebra was found to be most suitable to identify animals with rumen pH rumen mucosa has the potential to be a suitable, non-invasive diagnostic tool to identify adult ruminants with SARA.

  15. Study of reproductive toxicity of Combretum leprosum Mart and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most plants culturally used in Brazil for medicine do not have pre-clinical studies of reproductive toxicity, therefore risks of using such products on the reproductive system are unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate possible reproductive toxicity of ethanolic extract of Combretum leprosum Mart and Eicher (EECL) in ...

  16. Subchronic oral toxicity studies with α-cyclodextrin in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lina, B.A.R.; Bär, A.

    2004-01-01

    The toxicity of α-cyclodextrin (α-CD), a cyclic polymer of six α-1,4-linked glucopyranosyl units with potential applications as a food ingredient, more specifically a water-soluble dietary fiber, was examined in a 4-week range finding study and a 13-week oral toxicity study in rats. In the 4-week

  17. [Study on the regulation of autophagy against anticancer drugs' toxicity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Xiao-e; Zhu, Yi; He, Qiao-jun

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is a crucial biological process in eukaryotes, which is involved in cell growth, survival and energy metabolism. It has been confirmed that autophagy mediates toxicity of anticancer drugs, especially in heart, liver and neuron. It is important to understand the function and mechanism of autophagy in anticancer drugs-induced toxicity. Given that autophagy is a double-edged sword in the maintenance of the function of heart, liver and neuron, the autophagy-mediated toxicity are very complicated in the body. We provide a review on the concept of autophagy and current status about autophagy-mediated toxicity of anticancer drugs. The knowledge is crucial in the basic study of anticancer drugs-induced toxicity, and provides some strategies for the development of alleviating the toxicity of anticancer drugs.

  18. Evidence of hair loss after subacute exposure to 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, a mustard analog, and beneficial effects of N-acetyl cysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Diptendu; Mukherjee, Shyamali; Smith, Milton G; Das, Salil K

    2004-01-01

    Mustard gas has been used as a vesicant chemical warfare agent. However, a suitable biomarker for monitoring mustard gas exposure is not known. We observed that the hairs of the guinea pigs exposed intratracheally to subacute doses of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), a mustard analog, came out very easily though there was no sign of skin lesions or skin damage. Also the hairs looked rough and dry and lost the shiny glaze. There was no recovery from this hair loss, though the animals never became hairless, following CEES exposure. Hairs were observed in this study both visually and with light microscopy. Treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) prior to CEES exposure could prevent the hair loss completely. Hence, sudden hair loss might be a good biomarker for subacute exposure of mustard gas to subjects at risks when the victims might have no other visible symptom of toxicity. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Speech and Language Therapy for Aphasia following Subacute Stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koyuncu, E.; Çam, P.; Altinok, N.; Çalli, D.E.; Yarbay Duman, T.; Özgirgin, N.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the time window, duration and intensity of optimal speech and language therapy applied to aphasic patients with subacute stroke in our hospital. The study consisted of 33 patients being hospitalized for stroke rehabilitation in our hospital with first stroke

  20. Safety Assessment of Lactobacillus helveticus KLDS1.8701 Based on Whole Genome Sequencing and Oral Toxicity Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bailiang; Jin, Da; Etareri Evivie, Smith; Li, Na; Yan, Fenfen; Zhao, Li; Liu, Fei; Huo, Guicheng

    2017-09-24

    Lactobacillus helveticus KLDS1.8701 isolated from Chinese traditional fermented dairy product has been shown earlier to possess probiotic potentials but it is important to evaluate its safety in view of its possible use as a probiotic. The aim of the present study is to critically assess the safety of L. helveticus KLDS1.8701 through multiple perspectives. The complete genome of L. helveticus KLDS1.8701 was sequenced to mine for safety-associated genes. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of 15 antimicrobials and the adverse metabolites were determined. Standard acute oral and subacute toxicity studies were conducted in rats. The results in silico disclosed that the genome of L. helveticus KLDS1.8701 carries no transferable antibiotic resistance genes, no virulence factors and only 3 genes related to adverse metabolites. In vitro results showed that L. helveticus KLDS1.8701 was resistant against 6 antimicrobials and did not raise safety concerns about biogenic amine, D-lactic acid and nitroreductase. The results in vivo revealed that no adverse effects on experimental rats were observed in the oral toxicity tests. Overall, findings from this study suggest that L. helveticus KLDS1.8701 is safe and can be used as a potential probiotic for human consumption.

  1. Clinical profile of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Muhammad; Naz, Farrah; Malik, Akbar; Hamid, Haroon

    2008-08-01

    To describe the clinical manifestations of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in children. Case series. This study was conducted in the Department of Neurology at The Children's Hospital and the Institute of Child Health, Lahore, from April 2005 to April 2007. Fifty patients were diagnosed as subacute sclerosing panencephalitis during the study period. Their diagnosis was based on a detailed history, clinical examination, presence of antimeasles antibodies in Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) and typical electroencephalogram (EEG). The findings were described as average, mean and percentages. Fifty patients were included in this study. The average age of the patients was 8 years. Thirty-eight (76%) were males and 12 (24%) were females. The average duration of symptoms before presentation was 66.72 days. History of measles infection was present in 31 patients (62%) and measles vaccination in 43 patients (86%). Motor regression was present in all (100%) patients and cognition decline in 43 patients (86%). Seizures were focal (10%), generalized tonicclonic (16%) and myoclonic (74%). Burst-suppression pattern Electroencephalogram (EEG) and the antimeasles antibody in CSF were positive in 100% of patients. SSPE is an indicator of high incidence of measles infection among the paediatric population even among vaccinated children. Males are more common sufferers. SSPE can present with different types of seizures, cognition decline and motor regression being supported by suggestive EEG and presence of anti-measles antibodies in CSF.

  2. Cost-effectiveness of 40-hour versus 100-hour vocational rehabilitation on work participation for workers on sick leave due to subacute or chronic musculoskeletal pain: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beemster, Timo T; van Velzen, Judith M; van Bennekom, Coen A M; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; Reneman, Michiel F

    2015-07-28

    Although vocational rehabilitation is a widely advocated intervention for workers on sick leave due to subacute or chronic nonspecific musculoskeletal pain, the optimal dosage of effective and cost-effective vocational rehabilitation remains unknown. The objective of this paper is to describe the design of a non-inferiority trial evaluating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of 40-h multidisciplinary vocational rehabilitation compared with 100-h multidisciplinary vocational rehabilitation on work participation for workers on sick leave due to subacute or chronic musculoskeletal pain. A non-inferiority study design will be applied. The study population consists of workers who are on part-time or full-time sick leave due to subacute or chronic nonspecific musculoskeletal pain. Two multidisciplinary vocational rehabilitation programs following the bio-psychosocial approach will be evaluated in this study: 40-h vocational rehabilitation and 100-h vocational rehabilitation, both delivered over a maximum of 15 weeks. The 100-h vocational rehabilitation comprises five modules: work participation coordination, graded activity, cognitive behavioral therapy, group education, and relaxation. The 40-h vocational rehabilitation comprises work participation coordination and a well-reasoned choice from the other four modules. Four rehabilitation centers will participate in this study, each delivering both interventions. Patients will be randomized into one of the interventions, stratified for the duration of sick leave (Cost outcomes are absenteeism, presenteeism, healthcare usage, and travelling costs. Cost-effectiveness will be evaluated from the societal and employer perspectives. The results obtained from this study will be useful for vocational rehabilitation practice and will provide stakeholders with relevant insights into two versions of vocational rehabilitation. Dutch Trial Register identifier: NTR4362 (registered 17 March 2014).

  3. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: A clinical appraisal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jagtap, Sujit Abajirao; Nair, M D; Kambale, Harsha J

    2013-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare chronic, progressive encephalitis affecting primarily children and young adults, caused by a persistent infection of immune resistant measles virus...

  4. Outcome determinants of subacute low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, Kaija; Malmivaara, Antti; Mutanen, Pertti; Pohjolainen, Timo; Roine, Risto; Hurri, Heikki

    2003-12-01

    Descriptive prognostic study. To identify outcome determinants of subacute low back pain. The factors predicting recovery from prolonged back pain among working adults are largely unknown. One hundred sixty-four employed patients with subacute (duration of pain 4-12 weeks) daily low back pain were recruited from primary health care to a randomized study. Data on potential predictive factors were collected before randomization. In multiple regressions using repeated measures analysis, the treatment received was adjusted when determining the impact of the predictive factors. Dependent outcome variables used were pain, perceived functional disability, generic health-related quality of life, satisfaction with care, days on sick leave, use of health care, and costs of health care consumption measured, at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. Age and intensity of pain at baseline predicted most of the outcomes. The perceived risk of not recovering was a stronger determinant of outcome than gender, education, or self-rated health status (which did not have any predictive value) or body mass index, expectations of treatment effect, satisfaction with work, or the presence of radicular symptoms below the knee (only slight predictive value). The only factors predicting the duration of sick leave were the duration of sick leave at baseline and the type of occupation. Age and intensity of pain are the strongest predictors of outcome. Accumulation of days on sick leave is predicted by the duration of sick leave at entry and the type of work, but not by pain, perceived disability, or satisfaction with work.

  5. Acute toxicity, 28-day repeated-dose toxicity and toxicokinetic study of timosaponin BII in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ni; Liu, Baofeng; Zhang, Jie; Long, Yongpeng; Dong, Guoming; Jin, Hongtao; Ma, Baiping

    2017-11-01

    Timosaponin BII (TBII), a major steroidal saponin isolated from Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bge., displays a variety of promising pharmacological activities, such as neuroprotection, enhancement of learning and memory, vascular protection and inhibition of platelet aggregation; therefore, it has been developed as a pharmaceutical for prevention or treatment of dementia. Given the safety concerns surrounding timosaponins and the absence of studies on the safety of TBII, the potential toxicity of TBII was evaluated in toxicity and toxicokinetic studies in rats. In the acute oral toxicity study, loose stools were observed in rats receiving 4000 mg/kg, and the symptoms recovered within 1 day. In the 28-day repeated-dose oral toxicity and toxicokinetic study, rats receiving 540 mg/kg showed loose stools and a slight deceleration of body weight growth in both sexes, and the females also showed a slight decrease in food consumption. Moreover, urinalysis indicated reversible treatment-related toxicity in rats receiving 540 mg/kg. The toxicokinetic study demonstrated a dose-dependent increase in systematic exposure to TBII after 28 successive days of oral treatment with TBII. The accumulation coefficients of TBII were 4.35, 1.70 and 1.81, respectively, in rats that received 60, 180 and 540 mg/kg. The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) is proposed to be 180 mg/kg. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Phytochemical, Proximate and Toxicity Studies of Aqueous Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical, Proximate and Toxicity Studies of Aqueous Extract of Crinum ornatum (Toad's Onion) ... The results indicate that, the bulbs can be considered as a spice that could serve as potential sources of flavouring agent with medicinal benefits. Keywords: Crinum ornatum, Phytochemical, Proximate, Toxicity ...

  7. Treatment of acute and subacute dorsal perilunate fracture dislocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Kucuk

    2014-04-01

    Outcomes: Results of the perilunate fracture dislocations treated in acute or subacute phase by open reduction and internal fixation via dorsal approach are satisfactory. There is a strong demand for prospective, randomized studies to compare the results of different treatment modalities. [Hand Microsurg 2014; 3(1.000: 1-7

  8. Study protocol of cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of a biopsychosocial multidisciplinary intervention in the evolution of non-specific sub-acute low back pain in the working population: cluster randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Kort Nelleke

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low back pain (LBP, with high incidence and prevalence rate, is one of the most common reasons to consult the health system and is responsible for a significant amount of sick leave, leading to high health and social costs. The objective of the study is to assess the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analysis of a multidisciplinary biopsychosocial educational group intervention (MBEGI of non-specific sub-acute LBP in comparison with the usual care in the working population recruited in primary healthcare centres. Methods/design The study design is a cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analysis of a MBEGI in comparison with the usual care of non-specific sub-acute LBP. Measures on effectiveness and costs of both interventions will be obtained from a cluster randomised controlled clinical trial carried out in 38 Catalan primary health care centres, enrolling 932 patients between 18 and 65 years old with a diagnosis of non-specific sub-acute LBP. Effectiveness measures are: pharmaceutical treatments, work sick leave (% and duration in days, Roland Morris disability, McGill pain intensity, Fear Avoidance Beliefs (FAB and Golberg Questionnaires. Utility measures will be calculated from the SF-12. The analysis will be performed from a social perspective. The temporal horizon is at 3 months (change to chronic LBP and 12 months (evaluate the outcomes at long term. Assessment of outcomes will be blinded and will follow the intention-to-treat principle. Discussion We hope to demonstrate the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of MBEGI, see an improvement in the patients' quality of life, achieve a reduction in the duration of episodes and the chronicity of non-specific low back pain, and be able to report a decrease in the social costs. If the intervention is cost-effectiveness and cost-utility, it could be applied to Primary Health Care Centres. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN58719694

  9. Inhalation toxicity studies with 1,3-butadiene. 2. 3 month toxicity study in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crouch, C.N.; Pullinger, D.H.; Gaunt, I.F.

    1979-09-01

    The available toxicological data for 1,3-butadiene are limited and contradictory. Three month toxicity and two year carcinogenicity studies have therefore been initiated to identify any potential hazard to occupationally exposed personnel. The results of the 3 month study are reported in this paper. Five groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 1,3-butadiene gas at atmospheric concentrations of 0, 1000, 2000, 4000, and 8000 ppM v/v respectively, 6 hours/day, 5 days/week for 13 weeks. No untoward effects attributable to exposure were observed, except a moderately increased salivation, particularly in female animals during the last 5 to 8 weeks of exposure, at higher concentrations of butadiene.

  10. An evaluation of neuropeptide Y status in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuhandan, M; Calik, M; Almaz, V; Taskın, A; Cakmak, A; Selek, S

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the neuropeptide Y values of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. The study comprised 38 patients diagnosed with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis at our clinic, who were being routinely followed-up, together with a control group of 36. Using the Risk and Haddad classification for clinical staging, 16 patients were determined as Stage II and 22 patients as Stage III. Neuropeptide Y values were measured by Enzyme Immunoassay methods. The neuropeptide Y values of the all patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis were found to be significantly high compared to the control group (ppanencephalitis.

  11. A close look at EEG in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Nurhak; Cokar, Ozlem; Bolukbasi, Feray; Demirbilek, Veysi; Yapici, Zuhal; Yalcinkaya, Cengiz; Direskeneli, Guher Saruhan; Yentur, Sibel; Onal, Emel; Yilmaz, Gulden; Dervent, Aysin

    2013-08-01

    To define atypical clinical and EEG features of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis that may require an overview of differential diagnosis. A total of 66 EEGs belonging to 53 (17 females and 36 males) consecutive patients with serologically confirmed subacute sclerosing panencephalitis were included in this study. Patient files and EEG data were evaluated retrospectively. EEGs included in the study were sleep-waking EEGs and/or sleep-waking video-EEG records with at least 2 hours duration. Cranial MRIs of the patients taken 2 months before or after the EEG records were included. Age range at the onset of the disease was 15 to 192 months (mean age: 80.02 months). Epilepsy was diagnosed in 21 (43%) patients. Among epileptic seizures excluding myoclonic jerks, generalized tonic-clonic type constituted the majority (58%). Tonic seizures were documented during the video-EEG recordings in four patients. Epileptogenic activities were found in 56 (83%) EEG recordings. They were localized mainly in frontal (58%), posterior temporal, parietal, occipital (26%), and centrotemporal (8%) regions. Multiple foci were detected in 26 recordings (39%). Epileptiform activities in the 39 (59%) EEGs appeared as unilateral or bilateral diffuse paroxysmal discharges. Recognition of uncommon clinical and EEG findings of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, especially in countries where subacute sclerosing panencephalitis has not been eliminated yet, could be helpful in prevention of misdiagnosis and delay in the management of improvable conditions.

  12. Phase 1 clinical study of the acute and subacute safety and proof-of-concept efficacy of carbohydrate-derived fulvic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandy, Justin John; Meeding, Johanna Petronella; Snyman, Jacques René; van Rensburg, Constance Elizabeth Jansen

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the acute and subacute safety and proof-of-concept efficacy of carbohydrate-derived fulvic acid (CHD-FA). In this double-blind study, 30 male volunteers with predetermined atopy were randomly assigned to either Group A or Group B, each consisting of 15 participants. In part 1 of the study, the groups were administered increasing amounts of CHD-FA, ranging from 5 mL to 40 mL, provided that no adverse events had occurred at the previous dosage. In part 2, Group A participants received 20 mL of 3.8% CHD-FA twice daily for 3 days and were monitored for a week. Because no adverse events occurred, Group B received 40 mL of 3.8% CHD-FA twice daily for a period of 3 days. In part 3, both groups received either 40 mL of 3.8% CHD-FA or placebo twice daily for a period of one week, followed by a one-week washout period before crossover to the alternative treatment schedule. Parameters used to establish safety were electrocardiography, a physical examination, a health questionnaire, and hematology and biochemistry, determined at baseline, during regular calculated intervals, and at the end of each part of the study. A skin prick test was done as part of the screening process and, from the result, the allergen the participant was most allergic to was then selected, along with the positive histamine and negative control to be repeated at the start and end of each respective stage. Safety parameters remained constant throughout the trial. A significant decrease in skin prick test results was observed. No severe adverse events occurred, establishing that CHD-FA to be safe at doses up to 40 mL twice daily for a week and that at this dosage CHD-FA acts as an anti-inflammatory agent. These findings confirm earlier animal data.

  13. Phase 1 clinical study of the acute and subacute safety and proof-of-concept efficacy of carbohydrate-derived fulvic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janse van Rensburg CE

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Justin John Gandy, Johanna Petronella Meeding, Jacques René Snyman, Constance Elizabeth Jansen van RensburgDepartment of Pharmacology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South AfricaBackground: The purpose of this research was to determine the acute and subacute safety and proof-of-concept efficacy of carbohydrate-derived fulvic acid (CHD-FA.Methods: In this double-blind study, 30 male volunteers with predetermined atopy were randomly assigned to either Group A or Group B, each consisting of 15 participants. In part 1 of the study, the groups were administered increasing amounts of CHD-FA, ranging from 5 mL to 40 mL, provided that no adverse events had occurred at the previous dosage. In part 2, Group A participants received 20 mL of 3.8% CHD-FA twice daily for 3 days and were monitored for a week. Because no adverse events occurred, Group B received 40 mL of 3.8% CHD-FA twice daily for a period of 3 days. In part 3, both groups received either 40 mL of 3.8% CHD-FA or placebo twice daily for a period of one week, followed by a one-week washout period before crossover to the alternative treatment schedule. Parameters used to establish safety were electrocardiography, a physical examination, a health questionnaire, and hematology and biochemistry, determined at baseline, during regular calculated intervals, and at the end of each part of the study. A skin prick test was done as part of the screening process and, from the result, the allergen the participant was most allergic to was then selected, along with the positive histamine and negative control to be repeated at the start and end of each respective stage.Results: Safety parameters remained constant throughout the trial. A significant decrease in skin prick test results was observed.Conclusion: No severe adverse events occurred, establishing that CHD-FA to be safe at doses up to 40 mL twice daily for a week and that at this dosage CHD-FA acts as an anti

  14. Expression patterns of micro-RNAs 146a, 181a, and 155 in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiş, Uluç; Tüfekçi, Uğur Kemal; Genç, Şermin; Çarman, Kürşat Bora; Bayram, Erhan; Topçu, Yasemin; Kurul, Semra Hız

    2015-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is caused by persistent brain infection of mutated virus, showing inflammation, neurodegeneration, and demyelination. Although many factors are emphasized in the pathogenesis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, the exact mechanism of neurodegeneration remains unknown. Micro-RNAs are small, noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional levels. Micro-RNAs are essential for normal immune system development; besides they are also implicated in the pathogenesis of many chronic inflammatory disorders. The aim of this study is to investigate the expression patterns of micro-RNAs 146a, 181a, and 155 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. We enrolled 39 patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and 41 healthy controls. Quantitative analysis of micro-RNAs 146a, 181a, and 155 were performed using specific stem-loop primers followed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. All of 3 micro-RNAs were upregulated in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis patients. In addition, the level of micro-RNA 155 expression was higher in stage 3 patients. But, micro-RNA 146a and 181a expression levels showed no association or correlation with clinically relevant data. Alteration of peripheral blood mononuclear cell micro-RNAs in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis may shed new light on the pathogenesis of disease and may contribute to the aberrant systemic rise in mRNA levels in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. MIME robotic device for upper-limb neurorehabilitation in subacute stroke subjects: A follow-up study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lum, Peter S; Burgar, Charles G; Van der Loos, Machiel; Shor, Peggy C; Majmundar, Matra; Yap, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    ...) was compared with conventional therapy. Similar to a previous study in chronic stroke, combined unilateral and bilateral robotic training had advantages compared with conventional therapy, producing larger improvements on a motor...

  16. Psychiatric comorbidities in a young man with subacute myelopathy induced by abusive nitrous oxide consumption: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mancke F

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Falk Mancke,1,2,* Gintare Kaklauskaite,1,* Jennifer Kollmer,3 Markus Weiler1 1Department of Neurology, 2Department of General Psychiatry, Center for Psychosocial Medicine, 3Department of Neuroradiology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Nitrous oxide (N2O, a long-standing anesthetic, is known for its recreational use, and its consumption is on the rise. Several case studies have reported neurological and psychiatric complications of N2O use. To date, however, there has not been a study using standardized diagnostic procedures to assess psychiatric comorbidities in a patient consuming N2O. Here, we report about a 35-year-old male with magnetic resonance imaging confirmed subacute myelopathy induced by N2O consumption, who suffered from comorbid cannabinoid and nicotine dependence as well as abuse of amphetamines, cocaine, lysergic acid diethylamide, and ketamine. Additionally, there was evidence of a preceding transient psychotic and depressive episode induced by synthetic cannabinoid abuse. In summary, this case raises awareness of an important mechanism of neural toxicity, with which physicians working in the field of ­substance-related disorders should be familiar. In fact, excluding N2O toxicity in patients with recognized substance-related disorders and new neurological deficits is compulsory, as untreated for months the damage to the nervous system is at risk of becoming irreversible. Keywords: addictive disorders, laughing gas, subacute combined degeneration, substance use disorder, vitamin B12 deficiency

  17. The applicability of the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia for patients with sub-acute neck pain: A qualitive study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool, J.J.M.; Hiralal, S.; Ostelo, R.W.J.G.; van der Veer, K.; Vlaeyen, J.W.S.; Bouter, L.M.; de Vet, H.C.W.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to qualitatively evaluate patients understanding and interpretation of the wording used in test items of the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK). The TSK was developed to measure fear of movement in patients suffering from low back pain. The TSK is being increasingly

  18. Combined transcranial direct current stimulation and robot-assisted arm training in subacute stroke patients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, S; Werner, C; Schonhardt, E M; Bardeleben, A; Jenrich, W; Kirker, S G B

    2007-01-01

    Preliminary reports suggest that central stimulation may enhance the effect of conventional physical therapies after stroke. This pilot study examines the safety and methodology of using transcranial direct stimulation (tDCS) with robot-assisted arm training (AT), to inform planning a larger randomised controlled trial. Ten patients, after an ischaemic stroke 4-8 weeks before study onset, no history of epilepsy, participated. Eight had a cortical lesion and 2 had subcortical lesions: all had severe arm paresis and, co-incidentally, 5 had severe aphasia. Over six weeks, they received thirty 20 min-sessions of AT. During the first 7 minutes, 1.5mA of tDCS was applied, with the anode over the lesioned hemisphere and the cathode above the contralateral orbit. Arm and language impairment were assessed with the Fugl-Meyer motor score (FM, full range 0-66) and the Aachener Aphasie Test. No major side effects occurred. Arm function of three patients (two with a subcortical lesion) improved significantly, with FM scores increasing from 6 to 28, 10 to 49 and 11 to 48. In the remaining seven patients, all with cortical lesions, arm function changed little, FM scores did not increase more than 5 points. Unexpectedly, aphasia improved in 4 patients. These procedures are safe, and easy to use in a clinical setting. In future studies, patients should be stratified by degree of arm weakness and lesion site, also the unexpected aphasia improvement warrants following-up.

  19. Pulmonary Toxicity Studies of Lunar Dusts in Rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chiu-wing; James, John T.

    2009-01-01

    NASA will build an outpost on the lunar surface for long-duration human habitation and research. The surface of the Moon is covered by a layer of fine, reactive dust, and the living quarters in the lunar outpost are expected to be contaminated by lunar dust. Because the toxicity of lunar dust is not known, NASA has tasked its toxicology laboratory to evaluate the risk of exposure to the dust and to establish safe exposure limits for astronauts working in the lunar habitat. Studies of the pulmonary toxicity of a dust are generally done first in rodents by intratracheal/intrapharyngeal instillation. This toxicity screening test is then followed by an inhalation study, which requires much more of the test dust and is labor intensive. Preliminary results obtained by examining lung lavage fluid from dust-treated mice show that lunar dust was somewhat toxic (more toxic than TiO2, but less than quartz dust). More extensive studies are in progress to further examine lung lavage fluid for biomarkers of toxicity and lung tissues for histopathological lesions in rodents exposed to aged and activated (ground) lunar dust samples. In these studies, reference dusts (TiO2 and quartz) of known toxicities and have industrial exposure limits will be studied in parallel so the relative toxicity of lunar dust can be determined. The results from the instillation studies will be useful for choosing exposure concentrations for the animal inhalation study. The animal inhalation exposure will be conducted with lunar dust simulant prior to the study with the lunar dust. The experiment with the simulate will ensure that the study techniques used with actual lunar dust will be successful. The results of instillation and inhalation studies will reveal the toxicological risk of exposures and are essential for setting exposure limits on lunar dust for astronauts living in the lunar habitat.

  20. Toxicity studies using mammalian cells and impedance spectroscopy method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This research presents a study of cell-based Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS sensors employed for testing toxicants in real-time. Mammalian cells are exposed to toxicants and information about cell viability are obtained from impedance measurements. The toxicants used are nicotine, phenol, ammonia and aldicarb. Two different adherent mammalian cells lines and cell culturewares were used to optimize the toxicity study. The cell lines used in this study were: bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC and rat fat pad endothelial cells (RFPEC. The BAECs generated higher impedance values and formed cell monolayers at a faster rate compared to RFPECs. The two cell culturewares used in this study were simple open cell-culture wells and enclosed cell culturewares with microfluidic perfusion barriers. Experimental results indicated that the open wells are not suited for toxicity experiments. The turbulent flow created by pipetting media and toxicants in open cell culture wells disrupts the formation of the cell monolayer. When enclosed culture chambers were used, the flow of the cell culture medium and toxicant solutions were laminar on the cell monolayer. Both finite element simulations and experimental results showed that enclosed perfusion chamber have better performance due to the laminar flow of the solutions. The enclosed perfusion chamber also significantly shortens the response time of the cells when exposed to toxicants compared to the open cell culture wells. The experimental results demonstrated that ECIS biosensors seeded with BAECs inside enclosed cell culture chambers successfully assesses the effect of toxicants on mammalian cells in real-time.

  1. Oral acute toxicity study of selected botanical pesticide plants used ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oral acute toxicity study of selected botanical pesticide plants used by subsistence farmers around the Lake Victoria Basin. M Kamatenesi-Mugisha, JP Buyungo, P Ogwal, A Kasibante, AL Deng, JO Ogendo, MJ Mihale ...

  2. Effects of robot-assisted gait training on cardiopulmonary fitness in subacute stroke patients: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Won Hyuk; Kim, Min Su; Huh, Jung Phil; Lee, Peter K W; Kim, Yun-Hee

    2012-05-01

    . Robot-assisted gait training has the potential to improve cardiopulmonary fitness after stroke, even for patients who are in the early stages of recovery and not independent ambulators. The authors compared the effects of robot-assisted gait training and conventional physical therapy on cardiopulmonary fitness. . A prospective single-blinded, randomized controlled study of 37 patients receiving inpatient rehabilitation was performed within 1 month after stroke onset. The robot-assisted gait training group (n = 20) received 40 minutes of gait training with Lokomat and 60 minutes of conventional physical therapy each day, whereas the control group (n = 17) received 100 minutes of conventional physical therapy daily. Using a semirecumbent cycle ergometer, changes in cardiopulmonary fitness were investigated using incremental exercise testing. Motor and gait functional recovery was measured according to changes in the lower-extremity score of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment Scale (FMA-L), leg score of the Motricity Index (MI-L), and the Functional Ambulation Category (FAC). . Compared with the control group, the robot group showed 12.8% improvement in peak VO(2) after training (P fitness in patients who are not yet independent ambulators, but that may require more than 2 weeks of continued, progressive training.

  3. Acute and Subacute Effects of Urban Air Pollution on Cardiopulmonary Emergencies and Mortality: Time Series Studies in Austrian Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rabczenko

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Daily pollution data (collected in Graz over 16 years and in the Linz over 18 years were used for time series studies (GAM and case-crossover on the relationship with daily mortality (overall and specific causes of death. Diagnoses of patients who had been transported to hospitals in Linz were also available on a daily basis from eight years for time series analyses of cardiopulmonary emergencies. Increases in air pollutant levels over several days were followed by increases in mortality and the observed effects increased with the length of the exposure window considered, up to a maximum of 15 days. These mortality changes in Graz and Linz showed similar patterns like the ones found before in Vienna. A significant association of mortality could be demonstrated with NO2, PM2.5 and PM10 even in summer, when concentrations are lower and mainly related to motor traffic. Cardiorespiratory ambulance transports increased with NO2/PM2.5/PM10 by 2.0/6.1/1.7% per 10 µg/m³ on the same day. Monitoring of NO2 (related to motor traffic and fine particulates at urban background stations predicts acute effects on cardiopulmonary emergencies and extended effects on cardiopulmonary mortality. Both components of urban air pollution are indicators of acute cardiopulmonary health risks, which need to be monitored and reduced, even below current standards.

  4. Acute, subacute and long-term subjective effects of psilocybin in healthy humans: a pooled analysis of experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studerus, Erich; Kometer, Michael; Hasler, Felix; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2011-11-01

    Psilocybin and related hallucinogenic compounds are increasingly used in human research. However, due to limited information about potential subjective side effects, the controlled medical use of these compounds has remained controversial. We therefore analysed acute, short- and long-term subjective effects of psilocybin in healthy humans by pooling raw data from eight double-blind placebo-controlled experimental studies conducted between 1999 and 2008. The analysis included 110 healthy subjects who had received 1-4 oral doses of psilocybin (45-315 µg/kg body weight). Although psilocybin dose-dependently induced profound changes in mood, perception, thought and self-experience, most subjects described the experience as pleasurable, enriching and non-threatening. Acute adverse drug reactions, characterized by strong dysphoria and/or anxiety/panic, occurred only in the two highest dose conditions in a relatively small proportion of subjects. All acute adverse drug reactions were successfully managed by providing interpersonal support and did not need psychopharmacological intervention. Follow-up questionnaires indicated no subsequent drug abuse, persisting perception disorders, prolonged psychosis or other long-term impairment of functioning in any of our subjects. The results suggest that the administration of moderate doses of psilocybin to healthy, high-functioning and well-prepared subjects in the context of a carefully monitored research environment is associated with an acceptable level of risk.

  5. Feasibility of Delivering a Dance Intervention for SubAcute Stroke in a Rehabilitation Hospital Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Marika Demers; Patricia McKinley

    2015-01-01

    Dance can be a promising treatment intervention used in rehabilitation for individuals with disabilities to address physical, cognitive and psychological impairments. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the feasibility of a modified dance intervention as an adjunct therapy designed for people with subacute stroke, in a rehabilitation setting. Using a descriptive qualitative study design, a biweekly 45-min dance intervention was offered to individuals with a subacute stroke followed...

  6. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and chronic viral encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anlar, Banu

    2013-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a chronic infection of the central nervous system associated with the presence of mutant measles virus in the brain. It presents as a progressive, usually fatal disease. The diagnosis is based on clinical criteria and an elevated titer of measles antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Electroencephalography and imaging studies provide supportive laboratory data. A brain biopsy is indicated only when CSF serology is negative or equivocal in a suspected case to assess the presence of inclusion bodies, measles virus antigens, or viral RNA. Among many drugs and methods tried in the treatment, the highest rate of stabilization or improvement was obtained with intraventricular human lymphoblastoid interferon-α and oral inosiplex. Further research for more available and efficient therapeutic regimens is warranted. Measles and SSPE are preventable by maintenance of high rates of immunization in the population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. SUBACUTE AND MULTIGENERATIONAL TOXICITY EVALUATION OF CASTOR OIL POLYMER INGESTION IN RATS AVALIAÇÃO DA TOXICIDADE SUBAGUDA E MULTIGERACIONAL DA INGESTÃO DE DERIVADO DO POLÍMERO DE MAMONA EM RATOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Chierice

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Castor oil polymer is a biomaterial that can be used to fill bone defects. Biomaterials should present some characteristics such as: biocompatibility, inert, absence of toxin radical and vapour discharge and permit the organism to recognize them as a part of their structure. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in water ingestion, feed intake, weight gain and toxic effects in rats (Rattus norvegicus after ingestion of 0, 10, 25 and 50% of castor oil polymer (COP, Ricinus communis. In groups that received 10 and 25% of COP the weight gain was smaller than the control group. Feed intake in control group was greater than in groups 10 and 50% COP. The intake of castor oil polymer reduced feed intake and water ingest probably because of the palatability of the product. In the second part of this study (multigenerational there were no toxic effects in the offspring, as external birth defects or alterations incompatible with life, in spite of the fact that lower weight were observed in males and females of the second generation.

    KEY WORDS: Biomaterials, bone defects, polymer, Ricinus communis. Os biomateriais são polímeros artificiais desenvolvidos para substituir tecidos orgânicos danificados e preencherem falhas ósseas. Eles devem apresentar características como a biocompatibilidade, serem inertes, não liberarem vapores e radicais tóxicos e permitirem ao organismo reconhecê-los como parte de sua estrutura. Procurou-se determinar a ingestão de água, o consumo de ração, ganho de peso e possível efeito tóxico decorrentes da ingestão de três doses (10%, 25% e 50% do derivado do polímero de mamona (PM, Ricinus communis, adicionado à água de bebida, em ratos (Rattus norvegicus. Nos grupos que receberam 10% e 25% do PM, o ganho de peso foi menor (P?0,05, quando comparado ao grupo-controle. O consumo de ração nos grupos que receberam 10% e 50% de PM foi menor em relação ao grupo-controle. A ingestão do pol

  8. Investigations on rumen and claw health of different wild ruminants related to subacute ruminal acidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Schilcher, B; Baumgartner, K; Liesegang, A

    2010-01-01

    In this study four ruminant species of Nuremberg Zoo were evaluated for subacute ruminal acidosis according to the feeding management. Parameters of microbiological fermentation of the rumen as well as rumen tissue samples were examined. Additionally, investigations on claw health, in terms of laminitis were made. Three of the four species, all grass- and roughage feeders, showed severe characteristics of subacute ruminal acidosis due to a diet high in fermentable carbohydrates and low in fib...

  9. A Review: Epigenetic Mechanism in Ochratoxin A Toxicity Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liye; Zhang, Boyang; Dai, Yaqi; Li, Hongyu; Xu, Wentao

    2017-03-23

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a natural contaminant that has displayed nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity in mammals. It contaminates a great variety of foodstuffs and threatens people's lives. The molecular mechanism of OTA-induced toxicity has been studied since 1965. Moreover, epigenetic mechanisms are also studied in OTA-induced toxicity. Additionally, the mode of OTA epigenetic research has been advanced in research hotspots. However, there is still no epigenetic study of OTA-induced toxicity. In this review, we discuss the relationship between these epigenetic mechanisms and OTA-induced toxicity. We found that studies on the epigenetic mechanisms of OTA-induced toxicity all chose the whole kidney or liver as the model, which cannot reveal the real change in DNA methylation or miRNAs or histone in the target sites of OTA. Our recommendations are as follows: (1) the specific target site of OTA should be detected by advanced technologies; and (2) competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNA) should be explored with OTA.

  10. Acute toxicity study of methanolic extract of Asparagus pubescens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The acute toxicity study of methanolic extract of Asparagus pubescens root was studied on rats. The indices of the study were the liver enzymes (transaminases), cholesterol, creatinine and urea serum levels as well as the ionic analysis. Both alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) showed a ...

  11. The use of pig hepatocytes for biotransformation and toxicity studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    1991-01-01

    The three main objectives of this study were, (1) to investigate the possibility to isolate viable hepatocytes from liver samples of pigs, (2) to study their use for biotransformation and toxicity studies, and (3) to demonstrate the value of this model, in particular in the field of residue

  12. MRI in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuncay, R. [Department of Neurology, Istanbul Medical Faculty, University of Istanbul (Turkey); Akman-Demir, G. [Department of Neurology, Istanbul Medical Faculty, University of Istanbul (Turkey); Goekyigit, A. [Department of Neurology, Istanbul Medical Faculty, University of Istanbul (Turkey); Eraksoy, M. [Department of Neurology, Istanbul Medical Faculty, University of Istanbul (Turkey); Barlas, M. [Department of Neurology, Istanbul Medical Faculty, University of Istanbul (Turkey); Tolun, R. [Department of Neurology, Istanbul Medical Faculty, University of Istanbul (Turkey); Guersoy, G. [Department of Neurology, Istanbul Medical Faculty, University of Istanbul (Turkey)

    1996-10-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a progressive, slow virus infection of the brain, caused by the measles virus, attacking children and young adults. We investigated 15 patients with SSPE by MRI, with 5 normal and 10 pathological results. In the early period, lesions were in the grey matter and subcortical white matter. They were asymmetrical and had a predilection for the posterior parts of the hemispheres. Later, high-signal changes in deep white matter and severe cerebral atrophy were observed. Parenchymal lesions significantly correlated with the duration of disease. A significant relationship between MRI findings and clinical stage was observed in the 1st year of the disease. (orig.). With 4 figs., 1 tab.

  13. EFFECT OF POSITIONAL RELEASE TECHNIQUE IN SUBJECTS WITH SUBACUTE TRAPEZITIS

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    Sweety Charles Carvalho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trapezius stretching combined with positional release technique (PRT have found effective in trapezitis, studies are limited to find which technique has shown effective over the other due to lack of control group. The purpose of the study is to find the effect of PRT on pain intensity, functional disability and range of motion in subjects with subacute trapezitis. Method: An experimental study design, selected subjects with subacute trapezitis was randomized into Study and Control group. Total 40 subjects, 20 subjects in each group; data was collected who completed the study. Control group received passive trapezius muscle stretching while Study group received positional release technique with passive trapezius muscle stretching for 8 sessions in 2 weeks. Outcome measurements such as Visual Analogue scale, Neck disability index and cervical Range of motion were measured. Results: There is statistically significant difference (p<0.05 showing improvement in means of VAS, NDI and Range of motion before and after intervention within the groups and there is statistically significant difference when the post-intervention means after 2 weeks of treatment were compared between Study and Control group. Conclusion: It is concluded that the Positional Release Technique with trapezius stretching found to be significantly more added effect than trapezius stretching alone in improving pain, functional disability and cervical movements for subjects with subacute trapezitis.

  14. Hyperfixation of Tc-99m ECD in subacute cortical infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Seung; Kweon, Sun Uck; Ryu, Jin Sook; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Lee, Hee Kyung [College of Medicine, Ulsan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    It has been known that hyperfixation of Tc-99m ECD (HF) is not shown in subacute cerebral infarction because the brain distribution of Tc-99m ECD reflects not only perfusion but also the metabolic status of brain tissue. However, we observed several cases with HF in the subacute pure cortical infarction. To find out the cause of HF in subacute cortical infarction. We assessed the difference in associated cerebral hemodynamics and clinical findings between the subacute cortical infarctions with and without HF. We reviewed 16 patients (63.8{+-}8.6 yr, M/F: 15/1) with pure cortical infarction not involving adjacent subcortical white matter on MRI. All patients underwent acetazolamide stress brain perfusion SPECT using Tc-99m ECD and MRI at subacute period (7.3{+-}4.4 days from ictus). Uptake of Tc-99m ECD in infarcted cortex was assessed visually comparing the contralateral side. To assess the difference in associate clinical findings between the infarctions with and without HF, rCVR of the cerebral territory including infarcted cortex, extent of Gd-enhancement on MRI. Intervals between SPECT and ictus, and the presence of associated ICA stenosis were evaluated. Infarctions were focal (n=8) or multifocal (n=8) and located in frontoparietal cortices on MRI. Twelve patients were accompanied with ipsilateral ICA stenosis. Resting SPECT showed increased cortical uptake (=HF) in 7 patients and decreased in 9. rCVR of the MCA territory was preserved in all of the 7 patients with HF, compared with 4 of the 9 patients without HF (p=0.03). Gd-enhancement was minimal in all of the 7 patients with HF, compared with of the 0 patients without HF (p=0.03). Presence of ipsilateral ICA stenosis and intervals from ictus were not different (p>0.1) Subacute cerebral cortical infarction with HF was more frequently associated with preserved rCVR and minimal destruction of the blood-brain barrier than that without HF. Our findings suggest that HF may result from luxury perfusion of

  15. Phytochemical screening and acute toxicity studies of crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carissa edulis is used traditionally in Nigeria for the treatment of epilepsy, headache, syphilis, rheumatism and sickle cell anaemia. In this study, phytochemical screening was conducted to determine putative active components of Carissa edulis, as well as acute toxicity studies of the ethanolic extract and flavoniod fractions ...

  16. Irritantcy potential and sub acute dermal toxicity study of Pistacia lentiscus fatty oil as a topical traditional remedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djerrou, Zouhir; Djaalab, Hdria; Riachi, Foulla; Serakta, Mennouba; Chettoum, Aziez; Maameri, Zineb; Boutobza, Badaoui; Hamdi-Pacha, Youcef

    2013-01-01

    The current study was undertaken to assess safety of Pistacia lentiscus fruits fatty oil (PLFO) as a topical traditional remedy. A primary skin and eye irritation tests were conducted with New Zealand white rabbits to determine the potential for PLFO to produce irritation from a single application. In addition, a sub acute dermal toxicity study was performed on 18 NZW rabbits to evaluate possible adverse effect following application of PLFO for 28 days. Based on the results of the current study, PLFO is classified as slightly irritating to the skin and the eye of rabbits (Primary Irritation Index (P.I.I.) = 1.037; Ocular Irritation Index (O.I.I.) = 5.33 at 1 h). In the sub-acute toxicity test, PLFO produced neither mortality nor significant differences in the body and organ weights between control group and treated rabbits. However, a reversible irritant contact dermatitis was observed in the treated areas from the end of the second week of application until the end of experiment. This local phenomenon was accompanied by a significant skin thickening (P≤0.01) since the 12(th) day (ANOVA, F = 11, 07143, P = 0, 00765) which is confirmed with an inflammatory granuloma in histological study. Haematological analysis and blood chemistry values of the 2 groups showed no significant differences in any of the parameters examined. In summary, PLFO is minimally irritating to the eye and skin after a single exposure, but it may cause irritant contact dermatitis and a reversible thickening of skin after prolonged use.

  17. Subacute bacterial endocarditis (SBE due to Streptococcus gordonii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Battista

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Endocarditis is an inflammatory state of the endothelium that promotes thrombus formation and tissue damage on the surface of heart valves. Recent studies have reported endocarditis mortality rates ranging from 12% to 46% (2008. The Streptococcus gordonii is a normal inhabitant of the human oral cavity. It is a component of the microbial communities responsible of plaque formation, associated with dental caries and also regarded as the main causative agent in the development of subacute bacterial endocarditis (SBE.

  18. Chronic arsenic toxicity: Studies in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debendranath Guha Mazumder

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic arsenic toxicity (arsenicosis as a result of drinking arsenic-contaminated groundwater is a major environmental health hazard throughout the world, including India. A lot of research on health effects, including genotoxic effect of chronic arsenic toxicity in humans, have been carried out in West Bengal during the last 2 decades. A review of literature including information available from West Bengal has been made to characterize the problem. Scientific journals, monographs, and proceedings of conferences with regard to human health effects, including genotoxicity, of chronic arsenic toxicity have been reviewed. Pigmentation and keratosis are the specific skin diseases characteristic of chronic arsenic toxicity. However, in West Bengal, it was found to produce various systemic manifestations, such as chronic lung disease, characterized by chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive and/or restrictive pulmonary disease, and bronchiectasis; liver diseases, such as non cirrhotic portal fibrosis; polyneuropathy; peripheral vascular disease; hypertension; nonpitting edema of feet/hands; conjunctival congestion; weakness; and anemia. High concentrations of arsenic, greater than or equal to 200 μg/L, during pregnancy were found to be associated with a sixfold increased risk for stillbirth. Cancers of skin, lung, and urinary bladder are the important cancers associated with this toxicity. Of the various genotoxic effects of arsenic in humans, chromosomal aberration and increased frequency of micronuclei in different cell types have been found to be significant. Various probable mechanisms have been incriminated to cause DNA damage because of chronic arsenic toxicity. The results of the study in West Bengal suggest that deficiency in DNA repair capacity, perturbation of methylation of promoter region of p53 and p16 genes, and genomic methylation alteration may be involved in arsenic-induced disease manifestation in humans. P53 polymorphism has been

  19. Characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from acute, sub-acute and sub-clinical staphylococcosis in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeshkumar J. Tirpude

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus bacteria isolated from different clinical presentations of staphylococcosis in rabbits were examined for the production of various virulence factors using biochemical and immunological tests. In the total of 106 S. aureus isolates; toxic shock syndrome toxin-1, staphylococcal enterotoxin-C, DNase, α-haemolysin, β-haemolysin, δ-haemolysin, protein A and clumping factor were observed with a frequency of 33.2, 16.98, 83.96, 69.81, 36.79, 100, 78.30 and 54.72 percent, respectively. No SE-A, SE-B and SE-D producing isolates were recovered in this study. All the S. aureus isolates from acute staphylococcosis produced TSST-1, SE-C and protein A. While δ–haemolysin and clumping factor were not detected in any acute isolates, these factors were observed at a relatively higher frequency in isolates from sub-acute and sub-clinical staphylococcosis. Coagulase type III was observed more predominantly with a frequency of 45.28%, while coagulase types V and VII were not observed in any isolate. Most of the virulence factors belonged to coagulase type III followed by type VI. TSST-1 and SE-C along with coagulase types III and VI could be correlated with the acute and sub-acute staphylococcal infections in rabbits in this study.

  20. Biochemical and hematological effects of acute and sub-acute administration to ethyl acetate fraction from the stem bark Scutia buxifolia Reissek in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Andreia R H; Moreira, Laís da R; Brum, Evelyne da S; de Freitas, Mayara L; Boligon, Aline A; Athayde, Margareth L; Roman, Silvane S; Mazzanti, Cinthia M; Brandão, Ricardo

    2014-05-14

    Scutia buxifolia is a native tree of Southern Brazil, Uruguay, and Argentina, which is popularly known as "coronilha" and it is used as a cardiotonic, antihypertensive and diuretic substance. The aim of this study was to assess the acute and sub-acute toxicity of the ethyl acetate fraction from the stem bark Scutia buxifolia in male and female mice. The toxicity studies were based on the guidelines of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD-guidelines 423 and 407). In an acute study, a single dose of 2000 mg/kg of Scutia buxifolia was administered orally to male and female mice. Mortality, behavioral changes, and biochemical and hematological parameters were evaluated. In the sub-acute study, Scutia buxifolia was administered orally to male and female mice at doses of 100, 200, and 400mg/kg/day for 28 days. Behavioral changes and biochemical, hematological, and histological analysis were evaluated. The acute administration of Scutia buxifolia did not cause changes in behavior or mortality. Male and female mice presented decreased levels of platelets. Female mice presented decreased levels of leukocytes. On the other hand, in a sub-acute toxicity study, we observed no behavioral changes in male or female mice. Our results demonstrated a reduction in glucose levels in male mice treated to 200 and 400mg/kg of Scutia buxifolia. Aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) activity was increased by Scutia buxifolia at 400mg/kg in male mice. In relation to the hematological parameters, male mice presented a reduction in hemoglobin (HGB) and hematocrit (HCT) when treated to 400mg/kg of plant fraction. Female mice showed no change in these parameters. Histopathological examination of liver tissue showed slight abnormalities that were consistent with the biochemical variations observed. Scutia buxifolia, after acute administration, may be classified as safe (category 5), according to the OECD guide. However, the alterations observed, after sub-acute

  1. toxicity study in mice of resins of three commiphora species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    ABSTRACT: Acute toxicity studies of crude extracts of resins of Commiphora myrrha, C. guidottii and. C. erlangeriana, and pure compounds isolated from C. erlangeriana were conducted on Swiss albino mice. The extract from C. erlangeriana had a mean LD50 of 410 mg/kg body weight. However the extracts from.

  2. Oral Toxicity Studies of Hydroalcohol Leaf Extract of Ageratum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Bordeaux, France. Abstract. Purpose: Ageratum conyzoides is an annual herbaceous plant commonly used in African traditional medicine as a purgative, antipyretic, anti-ulcer and wound dressing agent. The objective of this study was to investigate the acute and sub-chronic toxicity of A. conyzoides leaves in Wistar rats.

  3. Toxicity Studies of the Crude Aqueous Root Extract of Albizzia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxicity Studies of the Crude Aqueous Root Extract of Albizzia chevalieri Harms in Albino Rats. Y Saidu, FC Nwachukwu, LS Bilbis, UZ Faruk, AY Abbas. Abstract. Aqueous root extract of Albizzia chevalieri has been reported to possess hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effects. The current work investigated the LD50 of ...

  4. Toxicity study in mice of resins of three Commiphora species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute toxicity studies of crude extracts of resins of Commiphora myrrha, C. guidottii and C. erlangeriana, and pure compounds isolated from C. erlangeriana were conducted on Swiss albino mice. The extract from C. erlangeriana had a mean LD50 of 410 mg/kg body weight. However the extracts from C. myrrha and C.

  5. Toxicity study of diethyl phthalate on Clarias gariepinus fingerlings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diethyl Phthalate (DEP) is used as a plasticizer, a detergent base, in aerosol sprays, as a perfume binder and after shave lotion. It is known to be a contaminant of fresh water and marine ecosystem. Therefore, a study was designed to determine the acute toxicity effects of DEP on a fresh water fish, Clarias gariepinus ...

  6. Pharmacological and toxicity studies of the crude extracts and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory potency of the hydro-ethanol extract and fractions from Hedranthera barteri leaf. Column chromatography of the crude extracts, practical acute toxicity testing and fixed dose procedures were carried out. Effects of the extracts on nociception were assessed by ...

  7. Acute toxicity studies of potassium permanganate in Swiss albino mice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute toxicity study of potassium permanganate was carried out in Swiss albino mice. Potassium permanganate was administered at dose rate of 0.0, 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500, 3000 and 3500mg/kg body weight to groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8, ten per group for LD50 determination. The dead animals were posted for ...

  8. The effects of Nintendo Wii(TM)-based balance and upper extremity training on activities of daily living and quality of life in patients with sub-acute stroke: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şimşek, Tülay Tarsuslu; Çekok, Kübra

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Nintendo Wii(TM)-based balance and upper extremity training on activities of daily living and quality of life in patients with subacute stroke. 42 adults with stroke (mean age (SD) = 58.04 (16.56) years and mean time since stroke (SD) = (55.2 ± 22.02 days (∼8 weeks)) were included in the study. Participants were enrolled from the rehabilitation department of a medical center (a single inpatient rehabilitation facility). Participants were randomly assigned to Nintendo Wii group (n = 20) or Bobath neurodevelopmental treatment (NDT) (n = 22). The treatments were applied for 10 weeks (45-60 minutes/day, 3 days/week) for both of two groups. Nintendo Wii group used five games selected from the Wii sports and Wii Fit packages for upper limb and balance training, respectively. The patients in Bobath NDT group were applied a therapy program included upper extremity activites, strength, balance gait and functional training. The functional independence in daily life activities and health-related quality of life was assessed with Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and Nottingham Health Profile (NHP), respectively. Participant's treatment satisfaction was recorded by using Visual Analogue Scale. A second evaluation (FIM and NHP) occurred after 10 weeks at the end of rehabilitative treatment (post-training). Treatment satisfaction was measured after 10 sessions. There were significant difference between FIM and NHP values in NDT and Nintendo Wii group (p 0.05). The patients in Nintendo Wii group were detected to be better satisfied from the therapy (p Bobath NDT on daily living functions and quality of life in subacute stroke patients.

  9. A pilot study analyzing the effects of Chinese cupping as an adjunct treatment for patients with subacute low back pain on relieving pain, improving range of motion, and improving function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowski, Alycia; Sanford, Susan; Pikowski, Jenna; Fauvell, Daniel; Cimino, David; Caplan, Scott

    2014-02-01

    Cupping, a classic Chinese medicine treatment, is a technique that applies suction cups over soft tissue. Cupping is gaining popularity in physical medicine because of the simplicity in application, minimal adverse effects, and reduction in pain and muscle tenderness. These factors also make it a cost-effective intervention. For this study, cupping was used to treat low back pain (LBP). To evaluate the effectiveness of Chinese cupping in acutely reducing pain, decreasing tenderness to palpation, and improving range of motion for patients with subacute or chronic LBP. Twenty-one patients who reported back pain for at least 8 weeks volunteered at a multidisciplinary holistic outpatient clinic. After completion of a medical screening questionnaire and collection of baseline data, 4 glass cups were applied and pressurized over the lower erector spinae muscles. Baseline data included demographic characteristics and the Oswestry Disability Questionnaire score. Pre- and postintervention data included perceived pain on a visual analog scale (VAS), lumbar spine range of motion, straight-leg raise test (SLR), and pain-pressure threshold (PPT) assessed with a digital force gauge. The data were analyzed by using a Wilcoxon signed-rank test and Spearman rho correlations. Of the 17 patients who completed the study, there were significant post-treatment improvements in VAS scores (p=0.0001), SLR motion on the left (p=0.043), and lumbar flexion range of motion (p=0.016) and improvements in PPT at all 4 investigated points (pcupping may be a low-risk, therapeutic treatment for the prompt reduction of symptoms associated with subacute and chronic low back pain. Cupping may allow patients to progress to functional movement training in a timely manner by promptly reducing pain and muscle tenderness and improving range of motion.

  10. Comparison of acute and subacute genitourinary and gastrointestinal adverse events of radiotherapy for prostate cancer using intensity-modulated radiation therapy, three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, permanent implant brachytherapy and high-dose-rate brachytherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morimoto, Masahiro; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Konishi, Koji; Isohashi, Fumiaki; Takahashi, Yutaka; Ogata, Toshiyuki; Koizumi, Masahiko; Teshima, Teruki; Bijl, Henk P; van der Schaaf, Arjen; Langendijk, Johannes A; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    AIMS AND BACKGROUND: To examine acute and subacute urinary and rectal toxicity in patients with localized prostate cancer monotherapeutically treated with the following four radiotherapeutic techniques: intensity-modulated radiation therapy, three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy,

  11. Mealtime interruptions, assistance and nutritional intake in subacute care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Judi; Wilton, Anita; Collins, Jorja

    2016-09-01

    Protected mealtimes is an initiative to support increased nutritional intake for all hospitalised patients, particularly those who are malnourished. The increased focus on maximising independence of patients in the subacute setting may provide a supportive environment for implementing these strategies. The aim of the present study was to gain insight into subacute ward practices at mealtimes under usual conditions (i.e. at baseline) where no protected mealtimes policy was implemented. Participants were patients aged ≥65 years recruited from subacute care facilities at a large healthcare network in Victoria, Australia. Participants were observed at mealtimes and mid meals (i.e. morning tea, afternoon tea and supper) to determine daily energy and protein intake, provision of mealtime assistance and mealtime interruptions. Almost all participants received assistance when it was needed, with positive and negative interruptions experienced by 56.2% and 76.2% of participants, respectively. There was an energy deficit of approximately 2 MJ per day between average intake and estimated requirements. In conclusion, mealtime practices were suboptimal, with particularly high rates of negative interruptions. Protected mealtimes is one strategy that may improve the mealtime environment to support patients' dietary intake. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate its implementation and effects.

  12. Some scientific landmarks of the MIT radium toxicity studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maletskos, C.J. [Constantine Maletskos, Gloucester, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Until the recent forced termination of the studies on radium toxicity, more than six decades of investigation and research have been devoted to them. These studies involve {approximately}2400 subjects who were exposed to long-term internally deposited radium [high linear energy transfer (LET)], whose health status was evaluated in great detail and whose radiation dosimetry was based on measurements of their actual radium body burdens. The quality and usefulness of these studies are, therefore, in sharp contrast to other human radiation-exposure studies that involve instantaneous or somewhat protracted external low-LET exposures and inferred radiation dose, as in the atomic-bomb survivor studies. As a consequence of national news in 1932 concerning the gruesome death of a prominent Pittsburgh businessman and sportsman, Robley D. Evans became involved with radium toxicity, and its study became an important project when he joined the faculty of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology physics department and set up the interdisciplinary Radioactivity Center.

  13. Masticatory function in subacute TMD patients before and after treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, L J; Steenks, M H; de Wijer, A; Speksnijder, C M; van der Bilt, A

    2009-06-01

    Masticatory function can be impaired in temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) patients. We investigated whether treatment of subacute non-specific TMD patients may influence oral function and clinical outcome measures. Fifteen patients with subacute TMD participated in the study. We quantified masticatory performance, maximum voluntary bite force, muscle activity and chewing cycle duration before and after treatment. Masticatory performance and bite force of patients were compared with the results obtained for an age- and gender-matched group of subjects without TMD complaints. Furthermore, we determined possible changes in anamnestic and clinical scores from questionnaires (mandibular function impairment questionnaire; MFIQ), pain scores and clinical outcome measures. Maximum bite force significantly increased, although the values after treatment were still significantly lower than those of the subjects without TMD complaints. The corresponding electromyography values did not show significant change after treatment. The masticatory performance of the patients remained unaltered; patients chewed significantly less efficient than controls. The average duration of chewing cycles significantly decreased after treatment. We observed a significant improvement in MFIQ scores. During the clenching and chewing tasks, the visual analogue scale scores were significantly higher than before these tasks. We may conclude that subacute temporomandibular joint disorders negatively influence chewing behaviour. Bite force, chewing cycle duration and also perceived mandibular function significantly improved after treatment, although the masticatory performance remained unaltered.

  14. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Jose; Issacson, Richard S; Koppel, Barbara S

    2010-10-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a chronic encephalitis occurring after infection with measles virus. The prevalence of the disease varies depending on uptake of measles vaccination, with the virus disproportionally affecting regions with low vaccination rates. The physiopathology of the disease is not fully understood; however, there is evidence that it involves factors that favour humoral over cellular immune response against the virus. As a result, the virus is able to infect the neurons and to survive in a latent form for years. The clinical manifestations occur, on average, 6 years after measles virus infection. The onset of SSPE is insidious, and psychiatric manifestations are prominent. Subsequently, myoclonic seizures usually lead to a final stage of akinetic mutism. The diagnosis is clinical, supported by periodic complexes on electroencephalography, brain imaging suggestive of demyelination, and immunological evidence of measles infection. Management of the disease includes seizure control and avoidance of secondary complications associated with the progressive disability. Trials of treatment with interferon, ribavirin, and isoprinosine using different methodologies have reported beneficial results. However, the disease shows relentless progression; only 5% of individuals with SSPE undergo spontaneous remission, with the remaining 95% dying within 5 years of diagnosis.

  15. Injury to skeletal muscle of mice following acute and sub-acute pregabalin exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Moshiri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Pregabalin (PGB is a new antiepileptic drug that has received FDA approval for patient who suffers from central neuropathic pain, partial seizures, generalized anxiety disorder, fibromyalgia and sleep disorders. This study was undertaken to evaluate the possible adverse effects of PGB on the muscular system of mice. Materials and Methods: To evaluate the effect of PGB on skeletal muscle, the animals were exposed to a single dose of 1, 2 or 5 g /kg or daily doses of 20, 40 or 80 mg/kg for 21 days, intraperitoneally (IP. Twaenty-four hr after the last drug administration, all animals were sacrificed. The level of fast-twitch skeletal muscle troponin I and CK-MM activity were evaluated in blood as an indicator of muscle injury. Skeletal muscle pathological findings were also reported as scores ranging from 1 to 3 based on the observed lesion. Results: In the acute and sub-acute toxicity assay IP injection of PGB significantly increased the activity and levels of CK-MM and fsTnI compared to the control group. Sub-acute exposure to PGB caused damages that include muscle atrophy, infiltration of inflammatory cells and cell degeneration. Conclusion: PGB administration especially in long term care causes muscle atrophy with infiltration of inflammatory cells and cell degeneration. The fsTnI and CK-MM are reliable markers in PGB-related muscle injury. The exact mechanisms behind the muscular damage are unclear and necessitate further investigations.

  16. Proton pump inhibitor-induced subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandholdt, L H; Laurinaviciene, R; Bygum, Anette

    2014-01-01

    Drug-induced subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE) has been known in the literature since 1985 and is increasingly recognized.......Drug-induced subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE) has been known in the literature since 1985 and is increasingly recognized....

  17. In Vivo Toxicity Studies of Europium Hydroxide Nanorods in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Chitta Ranjan; Abdel Moneim, Soha S.; Wang, Enfeng; Dutta, Shamit; Patra, Sujata; Eshed, Michal; Mukherjee, Priyabrata; Gedanken, Aharon; Shah, Vijay H; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata

    2009-01-01

    Lanthanide nanoparticles and nanorods have been widely used for diagnostic and therapeutic applications in biomedical nanotechnology due to their fluorescence properties and pro-angiogenic to endothelial cells, respectively. Recently, we have demonstrated that europium (III) hydroxide [EuIII(OH)3] nanorods, synthesized by the microwave technique and characterized by several physico-chemical techniques, can be used as pro-angiogenic agents which introduce future therapeutic treatment strategies for severe ischemic heart/limb disease, and peripheral ischemic disease. The toxicity of these inorganic nanorods to endothelial cells was supported by several in vitro assays. To determine the in vivo toxicity, these nanorods were administered to mice through intraperitoneal injection (IP) everyday over a period of seven days in a dose dependent (1.25 to 125 mgKg−1day−1) and time dependent manner (8–60 days). Bio-distribution of europium elements in different organs was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Short-term (S-T) and long-term (L-T) toxicity studies (mice sacrificed on day 8 and 60 for S-T and L-T, respectively) show normal blood hematology and serum clinical chemistry with the exception of a slight elevation of liver enzymes. Histological examination of nanorod treated vital organs (liver, kidney, spleen and lungs) showed no or only mild histological changes that indicate mild toxicity at the higher dose of nanorods. PMID:19616569

  18. Reliability and validity of the de Morton Mobility Index in individuals with sub-acute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Tobias; Marks, Detlef; Thiel, Christian; Grüneberg, Christian

    2018-02-04

    To establish the validity and reliability of the de Morton Mobility Index (DEMMI) in patients with sub-acute stroke. This cross-sectional study was performed in a neurological rehabilitation hospital. We assessed unidimensionality, construct validity, internal consistency reliability, inter-rater reliability, minimal detectable change and possible floor and ceiling effects of the DEMMI in adult patients with sub-acute stroke. The study included a total sample of 121 patients with sub-acute stroke. We analysed validity (n = 109) and reliability (n = 51) in two sub-samples. Rasch analysis indicated unidimensionality with an overall fit to the model (chi-square = 12.37, p = 0.577). All hypotheses on construct validity were confirmed. Internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.94) and inter-rater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.95; 95% confidence interval: 0.92-0.97) were excellent. The minimal detectable change with 90% confidence was 13 points. No floor or ceiling effects were evident. These results indicate unidimensionality, sufficient internal consistency reliability, inter-rater reliability, and construct validity of the DEMMI in patients with a sub-acute stroke. Advantages of the DEMMI in clinical application are the short administration time, no need for special equipment and interval level data. The de Morton Mobility Index, therefore, may be a useful performance-based bedside test to measure mobility in individuals with a sub-acute stroke across the whole mobility spectrum. Implications for Rehabilitation The de Morton Mobility Index (DEMMI) is an unidimensional measurement instrument of mobility in individuals with sub-acute stroke. The DEMMI has excellent internal consistency and inter-rater reliability, and sufficient construct validity. The minimal detectable change of the DEMMI with 90% confidence in stroke rehabilitation is 13 points. The lack of any floor or ceiling effects on hospital admission indicates

  19. Protocol Development and Preliminary Toxicity Study of CBRN Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    developmental problems in offspring. One study found titanium dioxide ( TiO2 ) nanoparticles were present in the placenta, fetal liver and fetal brain. This...lungs, but can also cross into the blood stream and disseminate deeper inside the body to threaten the brain, liver, kidney , and other tissues/organs...is quite different than for micro-sized TiO2 particles, which are considered inert and relatively non-toxic to experimental animals and humans

  20. Subacute posttraumatic ascending myelopathy: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Wang, G

    2017-07-01

    A literature review. Our aim was to summarise the history, epidemiology, aetiological mechanism, pathological study, clinical and radiological evaluation, treatment and prognosis of subacute posttraumatic ascending myelopathy (SPAM). Medical literature on SPAM were searched in the PubMed, Medline, Ovid and Embase databases. The cases of SPAM reported in literature were analysed, and the history, epidemiology, aetiological mechanism, pathological study, clinical and radiological evaluation, treatment and prognosis of SPAM were summarised. SPAM remains a relatively rare disorder occurring within the first few weeks after spinal cord injury (SCI). The incidence rate ranges from 0.42% to 1% among all SCI. SPAM is likely to occur in young and middle-aged male patients. Risk factors of SPAM include complete injury, low blood pressure, early postoperative mobilisation and nonsurgical treatment. SPAM is well recognised according to typical clinical manifestation and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics. There is no effective therapy for this neurological deterioration. The prognosis of SPAM is poor. There is usually a slight improvement of one or more level(s) below the maximal level of deterioration. The mortality rate is approximately 10%.

  1. Ninety day toxicity study of chloroacetic acids in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, H K; Kanz, M F; Campbell, G A; Ansari, G A

    1991-08-01

    Chloroacetic acids are produced in drinking water as a result of disinfection processes. Chloroacetic acids are also metabolites of widely used and toxic halogenated hydrocarbons. Thus, chronic human exposure to these chemicals is likely to occur. The objective of the present study was to examine the toxic effects of monochloroacetic acid (MCA), dichloroacetic acid (DCA), and trichloroacetic acid (TCA) in a 90-day subchronic study in rats via oral exposure by drinking water. Chloroacetic acid solutions were prepared at concentrations which provided an approximate intake of 1/4 the LD50 dose per day: MCA, 1.9 mM; DCA, 80.5 mM; TCA, 45.8 mM. Control rats received distilled water only. After 90 days, major organs were removed, fixed, paraffin embedded, and stained. Light microscopic examination of the major organs revealed variable degrees of alterations in the lung and liver of all three treated groups. In the liver, morphological changes were predominantly localized to the portal triads, which were mildly to moderately enlarged with random bile duct proliferation, extension of portal veins, fibrosis, edema, and occasional foci of inflammation. In the lungs, minimal alterations were observed as foci of perivascular inflammation on small pulmonary veins. Morphological changes in the testes and brain were seen only in the DCA treated group. Testes were atrophic with few spermatocytes and no mature spermatozoa. Focal vacuolation and gliosis were present in the forebrain and brainstem. The results of these studies indicate that, relative to their respective LD50 values, DCA given at 80.5 mM is more toxic than TCA given at 45.8 mM and MCA at 1.9 mM is least toxic.

  2. Relative parameter sensitivity in prenatal toxicity studies with substances classified as developmental toxicants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rorije, E.; van Hienen, F.J.W.; Dang, Z.C.; Hakkert, B.H.; Vermeire, T.; Piersma, A.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071276947

    2012-01-01

    Developmental toxicity testing according to the globally standardized OECD 414 protocol is an important basis for decisions on classification and labeling of developmental toxicants in the European Union (EU). This test requires relatively large animal numbers, given that parental and offspring

  3. Chronic toxicity study of Hyptis suaveolens (L. Poit in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunjong Chaorai

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of water extract of Hyptis suaveolens (H. suaveolens was evaluated for 6-month chronic toxicity in Wistar rats. Control group received distilled water orally 10 ml/kg/day. The extract was orally given to five treatment groups at the doses of 5, 50, 250, 500 and 500 mg/kg/day for 6 months. The last group was served as the recovery group. Changes in the body weights, actual and relative organ weights were not significantly demonstrated in all groups throughout the study. The results of hematological, biochemical parameters and histopathological lesions showed that the extract did not produce any significant doserelated changes. Therefore, it may be concluded that the extract of H. suaveolens at the given doses did not produce any significant toxic effect in rats during 6-month period of the treatment.

  4. Amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity: case study with syndrome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cott, Theodore E; Yehle, Karen S; DeCrane, Susan K; Thorlton, Janet R

    2013-01-01

    Amiodarone is often prescribed for the control of atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. While generally effective, the potential for a variety of side effects is substantial. Pulmonary toxicity, leading to acute or chronic respiratory failure, manifests with cough, dyspnea, infiltrates on chest radiograph, and a potential for progression to death. Although routinely cited as an adverse effect of amiodarone, it is relatively rare in terms of statistical incidence. In an effort to shed light on this syndrome, we present a stereotypical case study in amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity, as a prelude to a review of theorized pathophysiology, epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, therapeutics, monitoring recommendations, and areas for future research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Acute versus subacute community-acquired meningitis: Analysis of 611 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Tarek; Salazar, Lucrecia; Hasbun, Rodrigo

    2017-09-01

    Community-acquired meningitis can be classified into acute and subacute presentations by the duration of illness of ≤ or >5 days, respectively. There are currently no studies comparing the clinical features, management decisions, etiologies, and outcomes between acute and subacute presentations.It is a retrospective study of adults with community-acquired meningitis hospitalized in Houston, TX between January 2005 and January 2010. An adverse clinical outcome was defined as a Glasgow Outcome Scale score of ≤4.A total of 611 patients were identified, of which 458 (75%) were acute and 153 subacute (25%). The most common etiologies were unknown in 418 (68.4%), viral in 94 (15.4%), bacterial in 47 (7.7%), fungal in 42 patients (6.9%), and other noninfectious etiologies in 6 (1%). Patients with subacute meningitis were more likely to be immunosuppressed or have comorbidities, had fungal etiologies, and had higher rates of hypoglycorrachia and abnormal neurological findings (P 65 years and abnormal neurological findings were predictive of an adverse clinical outcome in both acute and subacute meningitis, whereas fever was also a significant prognostic factor in acute meningitis. (P meningitis differ in regards to clinical presentations, etiologies, laboratory findings, and management decisions, but did not differ in rates of adverse clinical outcomes. Future studies including thoroughly investigated patients with new diagnostic molecular methods may show different results and outcomes.

  6. Photocatalytic degradation of rosuvastatin: Analytical studies and toxicity evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Tiele Caprioli, E-mail: tiele@enq.ufrgs.br [Chemical Engineering Department, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Rua Engenheiro Luiz Englert s/n, CEP: 90040-040 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Pizzolato, Tânia Mara [Chemical Institute, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Avenida Bento Gonçalves, 9500, CEP: 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Arenzon, Alexandre [Ecology Center, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Avenida Bento Gonçalves, 9500, CEP: 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Segalin, Jeferson [Biotechnology Center, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Avenida Bento Gonçalves, 9500, CEP: 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Lansarin, Marla Azário [Chemical Engineering Department, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Rua Engenheiro Luiz Englert s/n, CEP: 90040-040 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2015-01-01

    Photocatalytic degradation of rosuvastatin, which is a drug that has been used to reduce blood cholesterol levels, was studied in this work employing ZnO as catalyst. The experiments were carried out in a temperature-controlled batch reactor that was irradiated with UV light. Preliminary the effects of the photocatalyst loading, the initial pH and the initial rosuvastatin concentration were evaluated. The experimental results showed that rosuvastatin degradation is primarily a photocatalytic process, with pseudo-first order kinetics. The byproducts that were generated during the oxidative process were identified using nano-ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (nano-UPLC–MS/MS) and acute toxicity tests using Daphnia magna were done to evaluate the toxicity of the untreated rosuvastatin solution and the reactor effluent. - Highlights: • The photocatalytic degradation of rosuvastatin was studied under UV irradiation. • Commercial catalyst ZnO was used. • Initial rosuvastatin concentration, photocatalyst loading and pH were evaluated. • The byproducts generated during the oxidative process were detected and identified. • Acute toxicity tests using Daphnia magna were carried out.

  7. Subacute presentation of propionic acidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Carmen; Macías, Carlos; de la Sierra García-Valdecasas, Maria; Pérez, Manuel; del Portal, Luis Ruiz; Jiménez, Luis Manuel

    2007-12-01

    Propionic acidemia is a hereditary metabolic disease caused by a deficiency of enzyme propionyl-CoA carboxylase, which is involved in the catabolism of ramified amino acids, odd-chain fatty acids, and other metabolites; the deficiency of this enzyme leads to an accumulation of toxic substances in the body. There are various forms of clinical presentation (severe neonatal, chronic intermittent, or slow and gradual). The case presented in this study was of a slow and insidious evolution form that was diagnosed when the child was 9 months old. Intracranial magnetic resonance imaging showed a slight increase in the signal intensity in sequences measured in T2 in addition to a restriction of the diffusion at the level of both putamens, which, together with biochemical and genetic analyses, confirmed the diagnosis of propionic acidemia. After initiating treatment involving a diet that was low in proteins, carnitine, and biotin, and an open-formula diet of ramified amino acids, the patient made progress, showing signs of improved hypotonia and increased weight gain. His vomiting stopped, and ketoacidosis was corrected.

  8. Preliminary acute toxicity study on imidacloprid in Swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Bagri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To ascertain the maximum tolerated dose (MTD and to investigate the acute oral toxic effects of imidacloprid towards Swiss albino male mice.Materials and Methods: The MTD of imidacloprid was determined in pilot dose range finding study following the standard method. Animals were observed for toxic signs and symptoms after oral administration of MTD of imidacloprid in single dose. The body weights of animals were recorded on alternate day. Animals were sacrificed on 14th day and changes in hematological parameters (Hb, TEC, TLC and DLC and morphometric measurements (length, breadth, thickness and weight of various body organs (heart, liver, spleen, kidney, testis and epididymis were examined. The student's t-test was applied to statistically analyze the results.Results: The MTD of imidacloprid was determined to be 110 mg/kg body weight. The sign and symptoms of acute toxicity were ataxia, rigidity and fasciculation of muscles, protrusion of eye ball and tremors of head. Imidacloprid treatment resulted in decreased body weight gain as compared to the control group. The changes in hematological parameters were not significant between imidacloprid treated and control groups. Also the values of relative organ weights and morphometric measurements of various body organs did not differ significantly between the control and imidacloprid treated animals.Conclusions: MTD of imidacloprid in Swiss albino male mice through oral route was determined for the first time. Study revealed a non-toxic effect of imidacloprid on body weight, relative organs weight, hematological parameters and morphometric measurements of various body organs in mice.

  9. EFFECT OF TASK SPECIFIC MIRROR THERAPY WITH FUNCTIONAL ELECTRICAL STIMULATION ON UPPER LIMB FUNCTION FOR SUBACUTE HEMIPLEGIA

    OpenAIRE

    Sumana Nagapattinam; Vinod Babu. K; Sai Kumar. N; Ayyappan. V.R

    2015-01-01

    Background: The principal target of any stroke rehabilitation is the motor impairments. Many studies have been advocated on the effect of Functional electrical stimulation and Task specific mirror therapy. Hence, the purpose of the study is to find the combined effect of task specific Mirror therapy with Functional Electrical Stimulation on upper limb function for subjects with sub-acute hemiplegia. Methods: An experimental study design, 60 subjects with sub-acute Hemiplegia randomised int...

  10. Short communication: Noninvasive indicators to identify lactating dairy cows with a greater risk of subacute rumen acidosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gao, X; Oba, M

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate if milk urea nitrogen (MUN) and milk fat content could be used as the noninvasive indicator to identify cows with greater or lower risk of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA...

  11. COMPARATIVE STUDY FOR SUBCHRONIC TOXICITY OF VASELINE OIL AND GLYCELAX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Voronkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary therapeutic approaches offer a wide range of laxative agents, which are often used without a control, exceeding the regime recommended. Therefore, the comparative study for subchronic toxicity of both drugs from this group (Vaseline oil and Glycelax appears interesting.The aim of the study was the comparison of a toxic influence of 14-days application of the drugs under study.Methods. The drugs were studied in two doses: higher therapeutic, and toxic, which 10 times exceeds therapeutic dose. We used “Polispektr-8/B” electrocardiograph, BC 2800vet (Mindray hematologic veterinary analyzer, BS-380 (Mindray biochemical analyzer, CL-50 urine analyzer. After the animals autopsy we determined organs’ coefficient (heart, lungs, spleen, liver, stomach, kidneys, adrenals.Results. While studying the ECG of female rats, amplitude of R wave increased after they got Glycelax in both doses. Female rats who got Vaseline oil this index decreased at minimum dose and increased at maximum dose. After Glycelax application, male rats had an increased activity of alanine aminotransferase. After Vaseline oil application at maximum dose, female rats had alkaline phosphatase activity lowered. Female rats, which got a maximum dose of Vaseline oil had a total protein lowered. Glycelax at maximum dose increased the content of bilirubin and its fractions in male and female rats, while Vaseline oil application at maximum dose increased the content of bilirubin in female rats. Male rats which got Glycelax had hemoglobin and hematocrit level increased.Conclusion. At long-term application of Vaseline oil, animals of both genders had heart disorders with possible development of arrhythmia, hepatotoxic effect, lipid exchange dysfunction. After excessive use of Glycelax the above mentioned is added with possible hemoglobin and rheological blood properties level decrease.

  12. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis: The Foothold in Undervaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Rebecca L; Kann, Dylan; Rassbach, Caroline E; Schwenk, Hayden T; Ritter, Jana M; Rota, Paul A; Elbers, Jorina

    2016-12-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a fatal complication of measles infection. We present a case of a fully vaccinated 3-year-old boy who was diagnosed with and treated for autoimmune encephalitis before arriving at a diagnosis of SSPE. We discuss the challenges of diagnosing SSPE in developed countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Pulmonary Toxicity Studies of Lunar Dust in Rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chiu-Wing; James, John T.

    2012-01-01

    NASA has been contemplating returning astronauts to the moon for long-duration habitation and research and using it as a stepping-stone to Mars. Other spacefaring nations are planning to send humans to the moon for the first time. The surface of the moon is covered by a layer of fine dust. Fine terrestrial dusts, if inhaled, are known to pose a health risk to humans. Some Apollo crews briefly exposed to moon dust that adhered to spacesuits and became airborne in the Lunar Module reported eye and throat irritation. The habitable area of any lunar landing vehicle or outpost would inevitably become contaminated with lunar dust. To assess the health risks of exposure of humans to airborne lunar dust, we evaluated the toxicity of Apollo 14 moon dust in animal lungs. Studies of the pulmonary toxicity of a dust are generally first done by intratracheal instillation (ITI) of aqueous suspensions of the test dust into the lungs of rodents. If a test dust is irritating or cytotoxic to the lungs, the alveolar macrophages, after phagocytizing the dust particles, will release cellular messengers to recruit white blood cells (WBCs) and to induce dilation of blood capillary walls to make them porous, allowing the WBCs to gain access to the alveolar space. The dilation of capillary walls also allows serum proteins and water entering the lung. Besides altering capillary integrity, a toxic dust can also directly kill the cells that come into contact with it or ingest it, after which the dead cells would release their contents, including lactate dehydrogenase (a common enzyme marker of cell death or tissue damage). In the treated animals, we lavaged the lungs 1 and 4 weeks after the dust instillation and measured the concentrations of these biomarkers of toxicity in the bronchioalveolar lavage fluids to determine the toxicity of the dust. To assess whether the inflammation and cellular injury observed in the biomarker study would lead to persistent or progressive histopathological

  14. Toxicity Studies of Ethyl Maltol and Iron Complexes in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethyl maltol and iron complexes are products of ethyl maltol and the iron found in the cooking pots used to prepare the Chinese dish, hot-pot. Because their safety is undocumented, the toxicity study of ethyl maltol and iron complexes was conducted in male and female Kunming (KM mice. The animal study was designed based on the preliminary study conducted to determine the median lethal dose (LD50. The doses used in the study were 0, 1/81, 1/27, 1/9, and 1/3 of the LD50 (mg kg body weight (BW−1 day−1 dissolved in the water. The oral LD50 of the ethyl maltol and iron complexes was determined to be 743.88 mg kg BW−1 in mice. The ethyl maltol and iron complexes targeted the endocrine organs including the liver and kidneys following the 90 D oral exposure. Based on the haematological data, the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL of the ethyl maltol and iron complexes was determined to be 1/81 LD50 (9.18 mg kg BW−1 day−1 in both male and female mice. Therefore, we suggest that alternative strategies for preparing the hot-pot, including the use of non-Fe-based cookware, need to be developed and encouraged to avoid the formation of the potentially toxic complexes.

  15. STUDIES OF CHOSEN TOXIC ELEMENTS CONCENTRATION IN MULTIFLOWER BEE HONEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Popiela

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available 72 544x376 Normal 0 21 false false false  The aim of the study was to determine the bioaccumulation level of chosen toxic elements (Zn, Cu, Pb, As and Cd in multiflower honey collected from Brzeg area. Biological material (honey was mineralized using the microwave technique at an elevated pressure in the microprocessor station of pressure in the type Mars 5. Quantitative analysis of elements (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn was performed by plasma spectrometry method using a Varian ICP-AES apparatus. The presence of toxic elements was determined in examined biological materials. The elements fallowed the fallowing decreasing order with respect to their content of honey: Zn>Cu>Pb>As>Cd. The average concentrations of studied elements observed in multi-flower honey were as follows: 6.24 mg.kg-1 of zinc, 2.75 mg.kg-1 of copper, 0.53, 0.071, 0.042 mg.kg-1of lead, arsenic and cadmium, respectively. Lead was the most problematic in bee honey because its average content exceeded the maximum acceptable concentration. Additionally, this metal concentration was 60% higher in studied samples than allowable standard of lead content.doi:10.5219/134 

  16. Tunable functionality and toxicity studies of titanium dioxide nanotube layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feschet-Chassot, E.; Raspal, V.; Sibaud, Y. [Clermont Universite, Universite d' Auvergne, C-BIOSENSS, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont Ferrand (France); Awitor, O.K., E-mail: koawitor@iut.u-clermont1.f [Clermont Universite, Universite d' Auvergne, C-BIOSENSS, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont Ferrand (France); Bonnemoy, F. [Clermont Universite, Universite Blaise Pascal, UMR CNRS 6023, LMGE, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont Ferrand (France); Bonnet, J.L.; Bohatier, J. [Clermont Universite, Universite Blaise Pascal, UMR CNRS 6023, LMGE, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont Ferrand (France); Clermont Universite, Universite d' Auvergne, Laboratoire de Biologie cellulaire, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont Ferrand (France)

    2011-02-01

    In this study, we have developed a simple process to fabricate scalable titanium dioxide nanotube layers which show a tunable functionality. The titanium dioxide nanotube layers were prepared by electrochemical anodization of Ti foil in 0.4 wt.% hydrofluoric acid solution. The nanotube layers structure and morphology were characterized using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The surface topography and wettability were studied according to the anodization time. The sample synthesized displayed a higher contact angle while the current density reached a local minimum. Beyond this point, the contact angles decreased with anodization time. Photo-degradation of acid orange 7 in aqueous solution was used as a probe to assess the photocatalytic activity of titanium dioxide nanotube layers under UV irradiation. We obtained better photocatalytic activity for the sample fabricated at higher current density. Finally we used the Ciliated Protozoan T. pyriformis, an alternative cell model used for in vitro toxicity studies, to predict the toxicity of titanium dioxide nanotube layers in a biological system. We did not observe any characteristic effect in the presence of the titanium dioxide nanotube layers on two physiological parameters related to this organism, non-specific esterases activity and population growth rate.

  17. Toxicity study of ethanolic extract of Chrysanthemum morifolium in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liping; Gu, Liqiang; Chen, Zhongjian; Wang, Ruwei; Ye, Jianfeng; Jiang, Huidi

    2010-08-01

    Chrysanthemum morifolium extract (CME) has many pharmacological effects, and the effective components of CME are luteolin and apigenin which have been reported with cytotoxicity in vitro. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety of CME in Sprague-Dawley (S-D) rats. In the acute toxicity study, a single oral dose of 15 g/kg body weight (bw) CME was administered to rats, then the rats were observed for 14 d. No treatment-related death was observed, and the maximal tolerance dose estimated was greater than 15 g/kg bw in rats. In the long-term toxicity study, the rats were administered daily by gavage at dose levels of 320, 640, and 1280 mg/kg bw/d for consecutive 26 wk followed by 4 wk recovery period. The results showed that no toxicological changes in body weight, food, and water consumption, hematologic examination, blood biochemical examination, organ weight, and microscopic histopathologic examination were found in any treatment group. Therefore, CME is considered to be safe in general in rats at the limited dose level.

  18. Epilepsy in children with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jović, Nebojša J

    2013-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare, progressive, fatal neurodegenerative disease of childhood and early adolescence caused by defective measles virus. The initial symptoms of SSPE usually involve regression in cognitive functioning and behavior or recurrent myoclonic jerks. Seizures revealing SSPE and epilepsy during the clinical course can occur. The aim of the study was to analyze clinical and EEG characteristics of both initially occurred seizures and epilepsy which developed in the course of the disease. Retrospective study was carried out on 19 children (14 boys, 5 girls) with SSPE diagnosed and treated at our Clinic from 1995 to 2010. Seizures revealed SSPE in our patients aged from 6.5 to 11.5 years (mean 8.6 years). SSPE onset ranged from 4.5 to 16.5 years (mean 10.05). Complete vaccination was performed in nine patients. Cognitive and behavioral decline was preceeded by 6-18 months in two children with intractable focal motor seizures with secondary generalization, one child with complex partial seizures and one with atypical absences. During the clinical course of the disease epilepsy developed in 10 (52.6%) cases, including four patients with seizures as the initial SSPE sign. It occurred mainly in the first year, while in three cases seizures appeared between 1 and 5 years of the disease evolution. Myoclonus was present independently from seizures. No significant inter-group differences were found relating to the type of SSPE progression and history of epilepsy. The only child with fulminant SSPE presented with initial seizures. Favorable seizure control was achieved in 60.0% patients. Intractable epilepsy developed in four patients. Atypical SSPE presentation can include mainly focal intractable seizures. Epilepsy developed during clinical course in 52.6% cases. No significant influence was found of the history of epilepsy on the type of SSPE progression.

  19. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: A clinical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagtap, Sujit Abajirao; Nair, M D; Kambale, Harsha J

    2013-10-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare chronic, progressive encephalitis affecting primarily children and young adults, caused by a persistent infection of immune resistant measles virus. The aim of the present study is to describe the clinical profile and natural history of patients with SSPE. We collected data of patients with SSPE during 2004-2010 who fulfilled Dyken's criteria. We analyzed demographical, clinical, electrophysiological, and imaging features. Study included 34 patients, 26 (76.5%) males with age of onset from 3 to 31 years. Twenty one patients were below 15 years of age formed childhood SSPE and 13 above 15 years of age constituted adult onset group. 85.3% had low-socioeconomic status. Eleven received measles vaccination and seven were unvaccinated. 59.9% patients had measles history. Most common presenting symptom was scholastic backwardness (52.5%) followed by seizures (23.5%). Three patients each had cortical blindness, macular degeneration, decreased visual acuity, and optic atrophy. Electroencephalographic (EEG) showed long interval periodic complexes and cerebrospinal fluid anti-measles antibody was positive in all. Magnetic resonance imaging was done in 70.5% with was abnormal in 52.5%. Mean incubation period of SSPE after measles was 9.6 years. The follow-up duration was 1-10 years, (average of 2 years). Only one patient died from available data of follow-up, 9 were stable and 10 deteriorated in the form of progression of staging. SSPE is common in low-socioeconomic status. The profile of adult onset did not differ from childhood onset SSPE, except for a longer interval between measles infection and presence of the ophthalmic symptom as presenting feature in adult onset group.

  20. Epilepsy in children with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Nebojša J.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE is a rare, progressive, fatal neurodegenerative disease of childhood and early adolescence caused by defective measles virus. The initial symptoms of SSPE usually involve regression in cognitive functioning and behavior or recurrent myoclonic jerks. Seizures revealing SSPE and epilepsy during the clinical course can occur. Objective. The aim of the study was to analyze clinical and EEG characteristics of both initially occurred seizures and epilepsy which developed in the course of the disease. Methods. Retrospective study was carried out on 19 children (14 boys, 5 girls with SSPE diagnosed and treated at our Clinic from 1995 to 2010. Seizures revealed SSPE in our patients aged from 6.5 to 11.5 years (mean 8.6 years. Results. SSPE onset ranged from 4.5 to 16.5 years (mean 10.05. Complete vaccination was performed in nine patients. Cognitive and behavioral decline was preceeded by 6-18 months in two children with intractable focal motor seizures with secondary generalization, one child with complex partial seizures and one with atypical absences. During the clinical course of the disease epilepsy developed in 10 (52.6% cases, including four patients with seizures as the initial SSPE sign. It occurred mainly in the first year, while in three cases seizures appeared between 1 and 5 years of the disease evolution. Myoclonus was present independently from seizures. No significant inter-group differences were found relating to the type of SSPE progression and history of epilepsy. The only child with fulminant SSPE presented with initial seizures. Favorable seizure control was achieved in 60.0% patients. Intractable epilepsy developed in four patients. Conclusion. Atypical SSPE presentation can include mainly focal intractable seizures. Epilepsy developed during clinical course in 52.6% cases. No significant influence was found of the history of epilepsy on the type of SSPE progression.

  1. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: A clinical appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujit Abajirao Abajirao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE is a rare chronic, progressive encephalitis affecting primarily children and young adults, caused by a persistent infection of immune resistant measles virus. The aim of the present study is to describe the clinical profile and natural history of patients with SSPE. Methods: We collected data of patients with SSPE during 2004-2010 who fulfilled Dyken′s criteria. We analyzed demographical, clinical, electrophysiological, and imaging features. Results: Study included 34 patients, 26 (76.5% males with age of onset from 3 to 31 years. Twenty one patients were below 15 years of age formed childhood SSPE and 13 above 15 years of age constituted adult onset group. 85.3% had low-socioeconomic status. Eleven received measles vaccination and seven were unvaccinated. 59.9% patients had measles history. Most common presenting symptom was scholastic backwardness (52.5% followed by seizures (23.5%. Three patients each had cortical blindness, macular degeneration, decreased visual acuity, and optic atrophy. Electroencephalographic (EEG showed long interval periodic complexes and cerebrospinal fluid anti-measles antibody was positive in all. Magnetic resonance imaging was done in 70.5% with was abnormal in 52.5%. Mean incubation period of SSPE after measles was 9.6 years. The follow-up duration was 1-10 years, (average of 2 years. Only one patient died from available data of follow-up, 9 were stable and 10 deteriorated in the form of progression of staging. Conclusion: SSPE is common in low-socioeconomic status. The profile of adult onset did not differ from childhood onset SSPE, except for a longer interval between measles infection and presence of the ophthalmic symptom as presenting feature in adult onset group.

  2. Toxicity of coenzyme Q(10): a report of 90-day repeated dose toxicity study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhipeng, Wang; Mingkai, Li; Shuyu, Cui; Min, Jia; Jingru, Meng; Xue, Ma; Yumei, Wu; Xiaoxing, Luo

    2007-12-01

    Potential toxicity of CoQ(10) was studied in rats by oral gavage for 90 days at 500, 1500, and 3000 mg/kg.day. A 15-day recovery period after the administration period was investigated. Body weight and food consumption were measured throughout the study. Meanwhile, clinical observations were recorded. Hematological and blood chemistry parameters were evaluated at both the end of the dosing period and the end of the recovery period. Gross-pathologic and histopathologic examination was performed on select tissues from all animals. No adverse changes in mortality and clinical signs occurred. The body weights of males in the 1500 mg/kg dosage group were slightly reducted; likewise, the food consumption in 3000 mg/kg female rats decreased, but this is not a dose-dependent behavior. Significant change of liver function (TRIGL) and CHOL did not show a dose-dependent effect. Weight of ovary and ovary-to-body weight ratio decreased in the 1500 mg/kg dosage groups. Meanwhile, the uterus -to-body weight ratio increased the in 3000 mg/kg dosage groups. However, there were no significant histopathological changes observed in ovary and uterus: so they were not considered to be adverse. It suggested that CoQ(10) is relatively safe on the test dosage administration. Nevertheless, appetite the body weight, blood lipid and liver function should be observed during long-term clinical administration of this drug with high dosage. Overall, CoQ(10) was well tolerated by male and female rats at dose levels up to 3000 mg/kg.day.

  3. Subacute effects of cervicothoracic spinal thrust/non-thrust in addition to shoulder manual therapy plus exercise intervention in individuals with subacromial impingement syndrome: a prospective, randomized controlled clinical trial pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Alexis A; Donaldson, Megan; Wassinger, Craig A; Emerson-Kavchak, Alicia J

    2017-09-01

    To determine the subacute effects of cervicothoracic spinal thrust/non-thrust in addition to shoulder non-thrust plus exercise in patients with subacromial pathology. This was a randomized, single blinded controlled trial pilot study. This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01753271) and reported according to Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials requirements. Patients were randomly assigned to either shoulder treatment plus cervicothoracic spinal thrust/non-thrust or shoulder treatment-only group. Primary outcomes were average pain intensity (Numeric Pain Rating Scale) and physical function (Shoulder Pain and Disability Index) at 2 weeks, 4 weeks, and patient discharge. 18 patients, mean age 43.1(15.8) years satisfied the eligibility criteria and were analyzed for follow-up data. Both groups showed statistically significant improvements in both pain and function at 2 weeks, 4 weeks, and discharge. The between-group differences for changes in pain or physical function were not significant at any time point. The addition of cervicothoracic spinal thrust/non-thrust to the shoulder treatment-only group did not significantly alter improvement in pain or function in patients with subacromial pathology. Both approaches appeared to provide an equally notable benefit. Both groups improved on all outcomes and met the criteria for clinical relevance for both pain and function. 2b.

  4. Subacute Toxicity of RDX and TNT in Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-07-19

    observed. Renal microcalculi and bone marrow hemosiderosis are both encountered occasionally in random dog populations. The small group sizes, three per...microcalculi in the renal pelvis was higher in 4 the test animals, in particular, those treated with RDX. The incidence of hemosiderosis of the bone marrow was...microcalculi and of bone marrow hemosiderosis highly precarious. 10 June 1974 WALTER F. LOEB, V.M.D., Ph.D. I •LU BIONETICS Utton A-1 70 LITTON

  5. Subacute Toxicity of RDX and TNT in Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-04-05

    Lil.lililoi * *7.83 1 _ rtPitilr Peur t tli~af. v neuI i f , 1iIcurd (Cervii-aI) MUCsulvIt y b tAMIat LIII - Eye, t ell; _ _ -IIJ3 *37 89 L iv.er -Optjl iL Hkt%46v h5tiItIiioh-5 Abvi~i Iun w I J U I U1ld) = Ut iSu perv v~ltOou

  6. Calendula officinalis: Central depressive effect and subacute toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Parente, Leila M. L.; Costa, Elson A.; Matos, Lécia G.; Paula, José R.; Cunha, Luiz C.; Júnior, Geraldo V.; Silveira, Nusa A.

    2009-01-01

    Flores da Calendula officinalis L. (calêndula) vêm sendo utilizadas popularmente como cicatrizante, antiinflamatório e sedativo, entre outras atividades. Os principais componentes químicos encontrados nas flores são óleos essenciais, ácido salicílico, carotenóides, flavonóides, taninos e saponinas triterpênicas. Atividades ansiolítica e analgésica foram relatadas em plantas que apresentam flavonóides em sua composição. Nesse trabalho a atividade do extrato etanólico das flores da ...

  7. Acute and Subacute Oral Toxicity of Periodate in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-17

    Transient increases in gastrointestinal pH and degeneration of parietal cells, hemolytic effects including hemoglobinuria and hemosiderin deposits in...and degeneration of parietal cells, hemolytic effects including hemoglobinuria and hemosiderin deposits in the kidneys, and non-specific fatty changes

  8. STUDY OF THE TOXIC EFFECTS OF CYPERMETHRIN IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Mehmood Hasan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the toxic effects of a commercially available pesticide, cypermethrin (CM, on animals. This pesticide was administered in the form of aerosol spray through a nebulizer. The study was performed in four different groups and a constant dose of the pesticide was administered once, twice, thrice and four times a day to the respective group for a period of 30 days. The animals were then dissected to study the pesticide effects on different organs. The organs were preserved in 10% formalin. The tissues were processed by basic histopathological method and the slides were prepared for observation. The results were recorded on a performa and were quantified by a unique scoring system. It is concluded that the injurious effects to the mentioned organs were dose and frequency dependent.

  9. Subacute granulomatous (de Quervain) thyroiditis: grayscale and color Doppler sonographic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frates, Mary C; Marqusee, Ellen; Benson, Carol B; Alexander, Erik K

    2013-03-01

    To describe the sonographic characteristics of subacute granulomatous (De Quervain) thyroiditis. We retrospectively identified all patients at our institution during the last 11 years who had thyroid sonography with findings suggestive of subacute granulomatous thyroiditis. We then reviewed clinical data and laboratory results to establish the clinical diagnosis. A final diagnosis of subacute granulomatous thyroiditis was made on the basis of clinical symptoms, suppressed thyrotropin, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and/or reduced or absent radionuclide uptake while hyperthyroid. Our study population consisted of 35 patients. Twenty-seven patients (79.4%) met clinical criteria for subacute thyroiditis. Symptoms included neck pain in 26 of 27 patients with subacute thyroiditis. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate ranged from 22 to 101 mm/h. In 21 cases (77.8%), sonography revealed focal, poorly defined, nonovoid areas of decreased echogenicity. Findings were bilateral in 16 patients and unilateral in 5. In the remaining 6, the gland or an entire lobe was diffusely heterogeneous. Color Doppler interrogation was performed in 20 patients. Flow was decreased to the sonographically abnormal areas in 19 (95%) and slightly increased in 1 patient. In all 9 patients who underwent radionuclide scanning, focal defects or large areas of decreased or absent uptake were found during the time of suppressed thyrotropin. Enlarged lymph nodes were noted in 16 patients (59.3%). The positive predictive value of sonography for diagnosing subacute granulomatous thyroiditis is 79.4%. The most common sonographic appearance is poorly defined regions of decreased echogenicity with decreased vascularity in the affected areas.

  10. Acute toxicity study of stone-breaker (Phyllanthus tenellus Roxb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tássia Campos de Lima e Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Phyllanthus tenellus Roxb. is a herbaceous plant native to Brazil and appears frequently in humid environments. This plant is used to treat urolithiasis, inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes and hepatitis B. The acute toxicity and LD50 of an aqueous extract of P. tenellus were determined in laboratory mice and their behavior was analyzed. The intraperitoneal LD50 was calculated by the Karber & Behrens (1964 method, for which a 96% alcoholic extract was concentrated in a rotary evaporator. Male albino mice (Mus musculus were divided into three batches of six animals and observed for 24 hours after administration of the extract, diluted in 0.9% saline, at doses of 500, 1000, 1500, 2000 and 2500 mg / kg. Short-term studies have demonstrated this plant to be non-toxic; however, we found that this species induced agitation in animals, with stereotyped movements, spasms and increased respiratory frequency, as well as signs of depression, such as sleepiness, prostration, dyspnea and a reduction in respiratory frequency.

  11. SUBACUTE HEMATOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF THE YUCATAN SAILFIN MOLLY (POECILIA VELIFERA) EXPOSED TO CADMIUM CHLORIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study focuses on the subacute hematological responses of the Yucatan sailfin molly, Poecilia velifera, exposed to cadmium chloride. Previous studies in other teleosts and mammals have suggested that exposure to cadmium chloride results in a leucocytic response. Fish were exp...

  12. Brainstem involvement in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pawan; Singh, Dileep; Singh, Maneesh Kumar; Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Kohli, Neera

    2011-01-01

    The parieto-occipital region of the brain is most frequently and severely affected in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE). The basal ganglia, cerebellum and corpus callosum are less commonly involved. Brainstem involvement is rarely described in SSPE, and usually there is involvement of other regions of the brain. We describe a patient with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis with brain magnetic resonance imaging showing extensive brainstem involvement without significant involvement of other cortical structures. Though rarely described in SSPE, one should be aware of such brainstem and cerebellum involvement, and SSPE should be kept in mind when brainstem signal changes are seen in brain MRI with or without involvement of other regions of brain to avoid erroneous reporting.

  13. Multiple Complications Due to Subacute Suppurative Otitis Media

    OpenAIRE

    Qirjazi, Brikena; Bardhyli, Dolores; Hoxhallari, Xhevair

    2012-01-01

    Subacute otitis media is a well-known pathology of ENT practice which is easily diagnosed and subsequently treated in the outpatient clinic. The rate of complications in acute otitis media is lower than in chronic otitis media. We present here the history of a young patient with subacute otitis media who developed both localized labyrinthitis and facial palsy requiring surgical treatment. We conclude that the treatment of subacute otitis media should be carefully monitored because complicatio...

  14. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis in a Child with Recurrent Febrile Seizures

    OpenAIRE

    Ayşe Kartal; Ayşegül Neşe Çıtak Kurt; Tuğba Hirfanoğlu; Kürşad Aydın; Ayşe Serdaroğlu

    2015-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a devastating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) caused by persistent mutant measles virus infection. The diagnosis of SSPE is based on characteristic clinical and EEG findings and demonstration of elevated antibody titres against measles in cerebrospinal fluid. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis can have atypical clinical features at the onset. Herein, we report an unusual case of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in a child with recu...

  15. Cost-effectiveness of 40-hour versus 100-hour vocational rehabilitation on work participation for workers on sick leave due to subacute or chronic musculoskeletal pain : study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beemster, Timo T.; van Velzen, Judith M.; van Bennekom, Coen A. M.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.; Reneman, Michiel F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although vocational rehabilitation is a widely advocated intervention for workers on sick leave due to subacute or chronic nonspecific musculoskeletal pain, the optimal dosage of effective and cost-effective vocational rehabilitation remains unknown. The objective of this paper is to

  16. Cost-effectiveness of 40-hour versus 100-hour vocational rehabilitation on work participation for workers on sick leave due to subacute or chronic musculoskeletal pain: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beemster, Timo T.; van Velzen, Judith M.; van Bennekom, Coen A. M.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.; Reneman, Michiel F.

    2015-01-01

    Although vocational rehabilitation is a widely advocated intervention for workers on sick leave due to subacute or chronic nonspecific musculoskeletal pain, the optimal dosage of effective and cost-effective vocational rehabilitation remains unknown. The objective of this paper is to describe the

  17. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in immunized Thai children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusiwilai, Khanittha; Viravan, Sorawit

    2011-12-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease with high mortality and poor prognosis. This is caused by persistent defective measles virus infection. Clinical presentations are variable including behavioral-cognitive change, myoclonic seizure, visual problem, spasticity or abnormal movement. The authors report a case of 10 year-old boy, previously healthy with complete immunization, presenting with frequent myoclonic jerks, abnormal movements, spasticity and altered mental status. Electroencephalographic (EEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and laboratory findings are typical for SSPE.

  18. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis presenting as mania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggarwal Ashish

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE is a rare, invariably fatal degenerative disease of the central nervous system developing after measles infection. Besides neurological symptoms as initial presenting symptoms, rare reports of its presentation with pure psychiatric symptoms have been reported. We here report a case of 14 year old male who initially presented with manic symptoms and then subsequently diagnosed to be suffering from SSPE. Improtance of ruling our organic conditions is emphasized.

  19. Late Onset Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis: Presenting Psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Altunkaynak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis (SSPE is the late complication of measles and is characterized by seizures, myoclonus, ataxia, behavioral and personality changes, extrapyramidal dysfunctions and vision problems. A 19 year old female patient with SSPE who was followed up at psychiatry clinic with the diagnosis of atypical psychotic disorder was presented. While psychiatric signs and symptoms were dominant, she was diagnosed as SSPE.

  20. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis presenting as mania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Ashish; Khandelwal, Ashish; Jain, Manish; Jiloha, R. C.

    2011-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare, invariably fatal degenerative disease of the central nervous system developing after measles infection. Besides neurological symptoms as initial presenting symptoms, rare reports of its presentation with pure psychiatric symptoms have been reported. We here report a case of 14 year old male who initially presented with manic symptoms and then subsequently diagnosed to be suffering from SSPE. Improtance of ruling our organic conditions is emphasized. PMID:21808475

  1. Changes of resting cerebral activities in subacute ischemic stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to detect the difference in resting cerebral activities between ischemic stroke patients and healthy participants, define the abnormal site, and provide new evidence for pathological mechanisms, clinical diagnosis, prognosis prediction and efficacy evaluation of ischemic stroke. At present, the majority of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies focus on the motor dysfunction and the acute stage of ischemic stroke. This study recruited 15 right-handed ischemic stroke patients at subacute stage (15 days to 11.5 weeks and 15 age-matched healthy participants. A resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan was performed on each subject to detect cerebral activity. Regional homogeneity analysis was used to investigate the difference in cerebral activities between ischemic stroke patients and healthy participants. The results showed that the ischemic stroke patients had lower regional homogeneity in anterior cingulate and left cerebrum and higher regional homogeneity in cerebellum, left precuneus and left frontal lobe, compared with healthy participants. The experimental findings demonstrate that the areas in which regional homogeneity was different between ischemic stroke patients and healthy participants are in the cerebellum, left precuneus, left triangle inferior frontal gyrus, left inferior temporal gyrus and anterior cingulate. These locations, related to the motor, sensory and emotion areas, are likely potential targets for the neural regeneration of subacute ischemic stroke patients.

  2. Multiple Complications Due to Subacute Suppurative Otitis Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xhevair Hoxhallari

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Subacute otitis media is a well-known pathology of ENT practice which is easily diagnosed and subsequently treated in the outpatient clinic. The rate of complications in acute otitis media is lower than in chronic otitis media. We present here the history of a young patient with subacute otitis media who developed both localized labyrinthitis and facial palsy requiring surgical treatment. We conclude that the treatment of subacute otitis media should be carefully monitored because complications may occur. Surgical treatment and pressure release can be efficient for the treatment of a peripheral facial palsy in the course of acute or subacute otitis media.

  3. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in a child with recurrent febrile seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartal, Ayşe; Çıtak Kurt, Ayşegül Neşe; Hirfanoğlu, Tuğba; Aydın, Kürşad; Serdaroğlu, Ayşe

    2015-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a devastating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) caused by persistent mutant measles virus infection. The diagnosis of SSPE is based on characteristic clinical and EEG findings and demonstration of elevated antibody titres against measles in cerebrospinal fluid. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis can have atypical clinical features at the onset. Herein, we report an unusual case of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in a child with recurrent febrile seizures. The disease progressed with an appearance of myoclonic jerks, periodic high amplitude generalized complexes on EEG, and elevated titers of measles antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid leading to the final diagnosis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

  4. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis in a Child with Recurrent Febrile Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Kartal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE is a devastating disease of the central nervous system (CNS caused by persistent mutant measles virus infection. The diagnosis of SSPE is based on characteristic clinical and EEG findings and demonstration of elevated antibody titres against measles in cerebrospinal fluid. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis can have atypical clinical features at the onset. Herein, we report an unusual case of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in a child with recurrent febrile seizures. The disease progressed with an appearance of myoclonic jerks, periodic high amplitude generalized complexes on EEG, and elevated titers of measles antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid leading to the final diagnosis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

  5. Acute toxicity studies of Croton membranaceus root extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asare, George A; Sittie, A; Bugyei, K; Gyan, Ben A; Adjei, Samuel; Addo, Phyllis; Wiredu, Edwin K; Nyarko, Alex K; Otu-Nyarko, Lydia S; Adjei, David Nana

    2011-04-12

    Croton membranaceus root and leaf extracts are used in the Bahamas to aromatize tobacco, in Nigeria to improve digestion, and in Ghana, for benign prostate hyperplasia. Despite claims of success there is paucity of information on its toxicity. The aim of this study was to determine if Croton membranaceus has acute toxicity properties. Roots were air-dried in a solar dryer for one week before milling. The powder was extracted with 96% ethanol, freeze-dried and re-extracted with distilled water and freeze-dried. 15 male Sprague-Dawley rats (180-200 g) were divided equally into 2 treatment groups [low dose (LD) and high dose (HD)], plus a control group (C). LD and HD received 1500 and 3000 mg/kg b.wt. Croton membranaceus aqueous extract, respectively, one time and observed for 14 days. Haematological [Full Blood Count and haemoglobin (Hb)], biochemical [bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase (ALA), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total protein, albumin, globulin, alkaline phosphatise (ALP), γ-glutamyltranspetidase (GGT), urea, creatinine, creatinine kinase - Muscle and Brain (CK-MB), creatinine kinase - Total (CK-R)] examinations were performed. Control group's CK-MB (5444±534 U/L) and LD group CK-MB (4014±1016 U/L) were significantly different (p<0.05). Control and the HD group CK-MB (3955±1135 U/L) were significantly different (p<0.05). Both LD and HD CK-R levels (697±197U/L and 732±203 U/L, respectively), were lower than the control (1139±220 U/L) at 48 h and 14 days (p<0.05, p<0.05, respectively). γ-GT levels of the HD group was 4.8±0.4 U/L compared to the Control group value of 0.9±0.2 U/L (p<0.05). Taking all factors into consideration, Croton membranaceus ingestion does not produce general acute toxicity. However, its creatinine kinase lowering ability could be explored. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Speech and language therapy for aphasia following subacute stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Koyuncu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the time window, duration and intensity of optimal speech and language therapy applied to aphasic patients with subacute stroke in our hospital. The study consisted of 33 patients being hospitalized for stroke rehabilitation in our hospital with first stroke but without previous history of speech and language therapy. Sixteen sessions of impairment-based speech and language therapy were applied to the patients, 30-60 minutes per day, 2 days a week, for 8 successive weeks. Aphasia assessment in stroke patients was performed with Gülhane Aphasia Test-2 before and after treatment. Compared with before treatment, fluency of speech, listening comprehension, reading comprehension, oral motor evaluation, automatic speech, repetition and naming were improved after treatment. This suggests that 16 seesions of speech and language therapy, 30-60 minutes per day, 2 days a week, for 8 successive weeks, are effective in the treatment of aphasic patients with subacute stroke.

  7. Effects of melatonin in experimental stroke models in acute, sub-acute, and chronic stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Wen Lin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Hsiao-Wen Lin, E-Jian LeeNeurophysiology Laboratory, Neurosurgical Service, Department of Surgery, National Cheng Kung University Medical Center and Medical School, Tainan, TaiwanAbstract: Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxy-tryptamine, a naturally occurring indole produced mainly by the pineal gland, is a well known antioxidant. Stroke (cerebral ischemia is the second leading cause of death worldwide. To date, however, effective and safe treatment for stroke remains unavailable. Melatonin is both lipid- and water-soluble and readily crosses the blood–brain barrier (BBB. Increasing evidence has shown that, in animal stroke models, administering melatonin significantly reduces infarct volume, edema, and oxidative damage and improves electrophysiological and behavioral performance. Here, we reviewed studies that assess effects of melatonin on cerebral ischemia in acute, sub-acute, and chronic stages. In addition to its potent antioxidant properties, melatonin exerts antiapoptotic, antiexcitotoxic, anti-inflammatory effects and promotes mitochondrial functions in animals with cerebral ischemia. Given that melatonin shows almost no toxicity to humans and possesses multifaceted protective capacity against cerebral ischemia, it is valuable to consider using melatonin in clinical trials on patients suffering from stroke.Keywords: cerebral ischemia, melatonin, stroke, neuroprotection

  8. Injection therapy for subacute and chronic low back pain: an updated Cochrane review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staal, J.B.; Bie, R.A. de; Vet, H.C. de; Hildebrandt, J.; Nelemans, P.

    2009-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). OBJECTIVE: To determine if injection therapy is more effective than placebo or other treatments for patients with subacute or chronic low back pain. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The effectiveness of injection therapy for low

  9. Sub-acute insulin therapy does not affect long-term visiospatial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Insulin is a common hypoglycaemic agent used to treat diabetes, but it has also been reported to exert other effects on the body including modulation cognition. Reported findings on insulin effect on learning and memory are scanty and often conflicting. This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of sub-acute insulin ...

  10. Shortened constraint-induced movement therapy in subacute stroke - no effect of using a restraint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogårdh, Christina; Vestling, Monika; Sjölund, Bengt H

    2009-01-01

    , no statistically significant differences between the groups were found in any measures at any point in time. CONCLUSION: In this study, no effect of using a restraint in patients with subacute stroke was found. Thus, this component in the constraint-induced therapy concept seems to be of minor importance...

  11. Neuronal loss is an early component of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Deniz; Diren, Barış; Ulubay, Hakan; Altunbaşak, Sakir; Anlar, Banu

    2014-09-02

    We performed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies in a group of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) in order to estimate the pathologic process underlying the phenotypic variability. Patients with SSPE who had MRI including DTI and MRS examinations were evaluated according to their clinical status as determined by the SSPE Scoring System and their mental age as determined by tests appropriate for age and developmental level. Comparisons of fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and metabolite ratios of frontal periventricular white matter, parieto-occipital periventricular white matter, and globus pallidus in both hemispheres were made between control and SSPE groups, and between SSPE subgroups. Control (n = 18) and SSPE (n = 39) groups differed in all DTI and MRS parameters except FA, choline (Cho), and Cho/creatine (Cr). SSPE cases had higher ADC and lower N-acetylaspartate (NAA), NAA/Cho, and NAA/Cr in all regions of interest, suggesting cell loss. Disease progression rate and neurologic deficit appeared to be associated with the degree of ADC elevation and NAA reduction: the group with severe global deterioration had the lowest NAA (230.75 ± 197.97 in forceps minor), and rapid progression was associated with acute reduction in NAA. The combination of MRS and diffusion MRI findings suggests neuronal loss can be a primary target in rapidly or subacutely progressing SSPE, and preservation or regeneration of axonal structure may be beneficial in chronic cases. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  12. Study on acute toxicity of amoxicillin wastewater to Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Weifang; Shen, Hongyan

    2017-12-01

    The main research in this paper is to obtain the effect of pharmaceutical wastewater on the acute toxicity of Zebrafish. The experimental method of exposure is used in this research. Experiments were carried out with different groups of pharmaceutical wastewater. Zebrafish was cultivated in a five liter fish tank. In the experiment, according to mortality, initially a 96h preliminary test was carried out at exposure concentrations to determine if the amoxicillin wastewater was toxic and to define the concentration range (24h LC100, 96h LC0) to be employed in the definitive tests. Based on the half lethal concentration of Zebrafish, the acute toxicity of amoxicillin wastewater to Zebrafish was calculated and the toxicity grade of wastewater was determined. In the experiment, the Zebrafish was exposed with amoxicillin wastewater during 96h. The 24h, 48h, 72h and 96h LC50 of amoxicillin wastewater on the Zebrafish were 63.10%, 53.70%, 41.69% and 40.74%, respectively. At 96h, the test time is the longest, and the value of LC50 is the smallest. In the observation period of 96 hours, the LC50 of amoxicillin wastewater were in the range of 40% ~ 60% and the value of Tua is 1 ~ 2. It indicates amoxicillin wastewater is low toxic wastewater when the experimental time is shorter than 48h, amoxicillin wastewater is moderate toxicity wastewater when the experimental time is higher than 48h. According to the experimental data, with the exposure time and the volume percentage of amoxicillin wastewater increases, the mortality rate of Zebrafish is gradually increased and the toxicity of amoxicillin wastewater increases. It indicates that the toxicity of amoxicillin wastewater is the biggest and the effect of wastewater on Zebrafish is greatest. In some ways, the toxicity of amoxicillin wastewater can be affected by the test time.

  13. Pre-treatment ferritin level and alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient can predict mortality rate due to acute/subacute interstitial pneumonia in dermatomyositis treated by cyclosporine a/glucocorticosteroid combination therapy: a case control study [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Isoda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute/subacute interstitial pneumonia in dermatomyositis (DM-A/SIP is a disease associated with a poor prognosis that resists treatment with glucocorticosteroids (GC and progresses rapidly in a period of weeks to months to death. We retrospectively studied outcomes, prognostic factors, and their relations with survival rate in patients with DM-A/SIP treated with early cyclosporine A (CSA/GC combination therapy and 2-hour postdose blood concentration monitoring. METHODS: This study comprised 32 DM-A/SIP patients who were simultaneously treated with CSA and prednisolone. Clinical and laboratory findings were compared between those who died due to DM-A/SIP and those surviving 24 weeks after beginning of therapy. Prognostic factors were extracted, and their relations with the survival rate were evaluated. RESULTS: Of the 32 DM-A/SIP patients, 25 survived, 5 died of DM-A/SIP, and 2 died of infections. In those who died due to DM-A/SIP, ferritin level and the alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient were significantly increased compared with the survivors (P<0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively. Multivariate analyses showed that ferritin and alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient were independent prognostic factors of poor outcome. The survival rate 24 weeks after beginning of treatment was significantly lower in those with a ferritin level of ≥ 600 ng/ml and alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient of ≥ 45 Torr (P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively. All patients with both prognostic factors died, and the outcome was significantly poorer in these patients than in those with one or neither of the prognostic factors (P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: We identified pre-treatment high serum ferritin level and high alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient as poor prognostic factors in DM-A/SIP patients undergoing early CSA/GC combination therapy and showed that the outcomes were poor in patients with both factors.

  14. Feasibility of Delivering a Dance Intervention for SubAcute Stroke in a Rehabilitation Hospital Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Marika; McKinley, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Dance can be a promising treatment intervention used in rehabilitation for individuals with disabilities to address physical, cognitive and psychological impairments. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the feasibility of a modified dance intervention as an adjunct therapy designed for people with subacute stroke, in a rehabilitation setting. Using a descriptive qualitative study design, a biweekly 45-min dance intervention was offered to individuals with a subacute stroke followed in a rehabilitation hospital, over 4 weeks. The dance intervention followed the structure of an usual dance class, but the exercises were modified and progressed to meet each individual’s needs. The dance intervention, delivered in a group format, was feasible in a rehabilitation setting. A 45-min dance class of moderate intensity was of appropriate duration and intensity for individuals with subacute stroke to avoid excessive fatigue and to deliver the appropriate level of challenge. The overall satisfaction of the participants towards the dance class, the availability of space and equipment, and the low level of risks contributed to the feasibility of a dance intervention designed for individuals in the subacute stage of post-stroke recovery. PMID:25785497

  15. Feasibility of Delivering a Dance Intervention for SubAcute Stroke in a Rehabilitation Hospital Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika Demers

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dance can be a promising treatment intervention used in rehabilitation for individuals with disabilities to address physical, cognitive and psychological impairments. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the feasibility of a modified dance intervention as an adjunct therapy designed for people with subacute stroke, in a rehabilitation setting. Using a descriptive qualitative study design, a biweekly 45-min dance intervention was offered to individuals with a subacute stroke followed in a rehabilitation hospital, over 4 weeks. The dance intervention followed the structure of an usual dance class, but the exercises were modified and progressed to meet each individual’s needs. The dance intervention, delivered in a group format, was feasible in a rehabilitation setting. A 45-min dance class of moderate intensity was of appropriate duration and intensity for individuals with subacute stroke to avoid excessive fatigue and to deliver the appropriate level of challenge. The overall satisfaction of the participants towards the dance class, the availability of space and equipment, and the low level of risks contributed to the feasibility of a dance intervention designed for individuals in the subacute stage of post-stroke recovery.

  16. [Advance in study on zearalenone's toxicity and determination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qing-Hua; Xu, Yang

    2005-07-01

    The article is intended to introduce the zearalenone's toxicity, determination methods and prevention. Zearalenone is one of the most widely distributed mycotoxins produces by Fusarium Species, it is harm to animals and human. And it can induce human liver cancer,carcinoma of tesis esophagus cancer. Now we use high-performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, thin layer chromatography, non-toxicity determinations to detect it.

  17. 13-week inhalation toxicity study of menthol cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaworski, C L; Dozier, M M; Gerhart, J M; Rajendran, N; Brennecke, L H; Aranyi, C; Heck, J D

    1997-07-01

    Menthol is a common pharmaceutical, food and tobacco flavouring ingredient used for its minty characteristics and cooling effects. A 13-wk comparative nose-only smoke inhalation toxicity study was conducted using an American-style, cellulose acetate-filtered, non-menthol reference cigarette and a similarly blended test cigarette containing 5000 ppm synthetic l-menthol tobacco. Male and female Fischer 344 rats were exposed for 1 hr/day, 5 days/wk for 13 wk at target mainstream smoke particulate concentrations of 200, 600 or 1200 mg/m3, while control rats were exposed to filtered air. Internal dose biomarkers (blood carboxyhaemoglobin, serum nicotine and serum continine) indicated equivalent exposures were obtained for the two cigarettes. Effects typically noted in rats exposed to high levels of mainstream tobacco smoke were similar for both cigarette types and included reduced body weights (males slightly more affected than females), increased heart-to-body weight ratios and lung weights, and histopathological changes in the respiratory tract. Rats exposed to reference cigarette smoke displayed a dose-related increase in nasal discharge that was not observed in menthol smoke-exposed rats. All smoke-related effects diminished significantly during a 6-wk non-exposure recovery period. The results of this 13-wk smoke inhalation study indicated that the addition of 5000 ppm menthol to tobacco had no substantial effect on the character or extent of the biological responses normally associated with inhalation of mainstream cigarette smoke in rats.

  18. 35__200 - 204__Musa - Toxicity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ABSTRACT. Sub-acute toxicity profile of Rheumatic Tea Formula (RTF), a polyherbal tea consisting of Salix alba, Eucalyptus globulus and Albizia chevalieri was investigated in wistar rats of both sexes. Wistar rats were orally administered three different doses of ethanol extract of RTF for 28 days after which the effect on ...

  19. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE): an insight into the diagnostic errors from a tertiary care university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prashanth, L K; Taly, A B; Sinha, S; Ravi, V

    2007-06-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a progressive disease caused by wild-type measles virus leading to premature death. Early diagnosis may help in medical interventions and counseling. The aim of this study was to ascertain diagnostic errors and their possible causes. Retrospective case record analysis of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, evaluated over a 10-year period, was performed. The following data were analyzed: initial symptoms and diagnosis, interval between onset of symptoms to diagnosis, and implications of delayed diagnosis. Among the 307 patients evaluated, initial diagnosis by various health care professionals was other than subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in 242 patients (78.8%). These included seizures, absence seizures, metachromatic leukodystrophy, Schilder's disease, cerebral palsy, hemiparkinsonism, Wilson's disease, vasculitis, spinocerebellar ataxia, motor neuron disease, nutritional amblyopia, tapetoretinal degeneration, catatonic schizophrenia, and malingering, among others. The interval between precise diagnosis and first reported symptom was 6.2 +/- 11.3 months (range, 0.2-96 months; median, 3 months). Forty-four patients (14.3%) who had symptoms for more than 1 year before the precise diagnosis had a protracted course as compared to the rest of the cohort ( P = .0001). Early and accurate diagnosis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis needs a high index of suspicion.

  20. Dynamics of peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations in the acute and subacute phase of Legionnaires' disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelis P C de Jager

    Full Text Available STUDY OBJECTIVE: Absolute lymphocytopenia is recognised as an important hallmark of the immune response to severe infection and observed in patients with Legionnaires' disease. To explore the immune response, we studied the dynamics of peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations in the acute and subacute phase of LD. METHODS AND RESULTS: EDTA-anticoagulated blood was obtained from eight patients on the day the diagnosis was made through detection of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 antigen in urine. A second blood sample was obtained in the subacute phase. Multiparametric flow cytometry was used to calculate lymphocyte counts and values for B-cells, T-cells, NK cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells. Expression of activation markers was analysed. The values obtained in the subacute phase were compared with an age and gender matched control group. Absolute lymphocyte count (×10⁹/l, median and range significantly increased from 0.8 (0.4-1.6 in the acute phase to 1.4 (0.8-3.4 in the subacute phase. B-cell count showed no significant change, while T-cell count (×10⁶/l, median and range significantly increased in the subacute phase (495 (182-1024 versus 979 (507-2708, p = 0.012 as a result of significant increases in both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell counts (374 (146-629 versus 763 (400-1507, p = 0.012 and 119 (29-328 versus 224 (107-862, p = 0.012. In the subacute phase of LD, significant increases were observed in absolute counts of activated CD4+ T-cells, naïve CD4+ T-cells and memory CD4+ T-cells. In the CD8+ T-cell compartment, activated CD8+ T-cells, naïve CD8+ T-cell and memory CD8+ T-cells were significantly increased (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: The acute phase of LD is characterized by absolute lymphocytopenia, which recovers in the subacute phase with an increase in absolute T-cells and re-emergence of activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. These observations are in line with the suggested role for T-cell activation in the immune response to LD.

  1. Acute Amiodarone Pulmonary Toxicity After Surgical Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teerakanok, Jirapat; Tantrachoti, Pakpoom; Chariyawong, Phumpattra; Nugent, Kenneth

    2016-12-01

    Amiodarone can cause toxicity in several organs, including amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity which is a subacute or chronic complication. Amiodarone-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in postoperative patients is a rare acute complication. The PubMed and Google Scholar databases were searched. Seven retrospective and prospective case series and 10 case reports of amiodarone-induced postoperative ARDS were reviewed. All patients received amiodarone chronically or during the perioperative period. Forty-three out of 285 patients (15%) reported in the retrospective and prospective studies developed amiodarone-induced ARDS. Most of the patients were men in age group 60-80 who had undergone cardiothoracic surgery. All patients had general anesthesia and exposure to high concentrations of oxygen. The onset of symptoms ranged from 2 hours to 2 weeks after surgery. The mortality rate of amiodarone-induced ARDS after surgery was approximately 10%. Ten case reports were evaluated using Naranjo criteria. Two cases had definite amiodarone toxicity, and 8 had probable toxicity based on these criteria. The incidence of amiodarone-induced postoperative ARDS was approximately 15% in these studies. Most operations involved cardiothoracic surgery. Elderly patients on high-dose and long-term amiodarone treatment were at increased risk. This diagnosis is challenging owing to the lack of definite diagnostic criteria; careful clinical evaluation and early drug withdrawal may reduce the severity of this complication. Copyright © 2016 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. In vitro toxicity studies of polymer-coated gold nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rayavarapu, Raja G; Petersen, Wilma; Manohar, Srirang; Van Leeuwen, Ton G [Biomedical Photonic Imaging Group, MIRA Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Twente, PO Box 217, 7500AE Enschede (Netherlands); Hartsuiker, Liesbeth; Otto, Cees [Medical Cell Biophysics, MIRA Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Twente, PO Box 217, 7500AE Enschede (Netherlands); Chin, Patrick; Van Leeuwen, Fijs W B [Division of Diagnostic Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Janssen, Hans, E-mail: S.Manohar@utwente.nl [Division of Cell Biology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-04-09

    We evaluated cellular responses to polymer-treated gold nanorods, which were synthesized using the standard wet-chemistry method that utilizes hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The nanorod dispersions were coated with either polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) or polyethylene glycol (PEG). Two sizes of nanorods were tested, with optical responses peaking at 628 and 773 nm. The cells were from mammary adenocarcinoma (SKBR3), Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO), mouse myoblast (C2C12) and Human Leukemia (HL60) cell lines. Their mitochondrial function following exposure to the nanorods were assessed using the MTS assay. We found PEGylated particles to have superior biocompatibility compared with PSS-coated nanorods, which showed substantial cytotoxicity. Electron microscopy showed no cellular uptake of PEGylated particles compared with their PSS counterparts. PEGylated gold nanorods also exhibited better dispersion stability in the presence of cell growth medium; PSS-coated rods tended to flocculate or cluster. In the case of the PSS particles, toxicity correlated with surface area across the two sizes of nanorods studied.

  3. Short-term toxicity studies of loline alkaloids in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, S C; Munday, J S; Munday, R; Kerby, J W F

    2016-08-01

    Epichloë endophytes have been used successfully in pastoral systems to reduce the impact of insect pests through the expression of secondary metabolites. The use of endophytes could be extended to other plant species, such as cereal crops, where the production of bioactive secondary metabolites would reduce the reliance on pesticides for insect control. The success of this approach is dependent on the selection of an appropriate secondary metabolite target which must not only be effective against insect pests but also be safe for grazing and monogastric animals. The loline alkaloids have been identified as possible target metabolites as they are associated with potent effects on insects and low toxicity to grazing animals. The purpose of the current study was to generate toxicological data on the loline alkaloids in a monogastric system using mice. Male and female mice were fed 415 mg/kg/day total lolines for a 3-week period. The loline treatment caused no statistically significant effect on gross pathology, histology, haematology, blood chemistry, heart rate, blood pressure or motor coordination. Reduced weight gain and food consumption were noted in the loline groups during the initial stages of the experiment. This experiment raises no food safety concerns for the loline alkaloids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Indium acetate toxicity in male reproductive system in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kuo-Hsin; Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Leung, Chung-Man; Chen, Hsin-Pao; Hsu, Ping-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Indium, a rare earth metal characterized by high plasticity, corrosion resistance, and a low melting point, is widely used in the electronics industry, but has been reported to be an environmental pollutant and a health hazard. We designed a study to investigate the effects of subacute exposure of indium compounds on male reproductive function. Twelve-week old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into test and control groups, and received weekly intraperitoneal injections of indium acetate (1.5 mg/kg body weight) and normal saline, respectively, for 8 weeks. Serum indium levels, cauda epididymal sperm count, motility, morphology, chromatin DNA structure, mitochondrial membrane potential, oxidative stress, and testis DNA content were investigated. The indium acetate-treated group showed significant reproductive toxicity, as well as an increased percentage of sperm morphology abnormality, chromatin integrity damage, and superoxide anion generation. Furthermore, positive correlations among sperm morphology abnormalities, chromatin DNA damage, and superoxide anion generation were also noted. The results of this study demonstrated the toxic effect of subacute low-dose indium exposure during the period of sexual maturation on male reproductive function in adulthood, through an increase in oxidative stress and sperm chromatin DNA damage during spermiogenesis, in a rodent model. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Studies on the toxicity of industrial waste to Macrobrachium dayanum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, S.R.; Mathur, R.P.

    1974-01-01

    The toxic substances in industrial wastes, if discharged untreated into the stream can rapidly harm the aquatic life. It is, therefore, necessary to know the permissible concentration of various wastes. This paper presents data obtained from a series of static bioassay experiments conducted to establish the median tolerance limits (TL/sub m/). The distillery waste and the mixed pulp and paper waste were taken and the range of their toxicity was evaluated. Macrobrachium dayanum, a crustacean, was chosen as the test animal because of experimental convenience and suitability. The results on toxicity indicate that distillery waste is more toxic than the mixed pulp and paper factory waste. The toxicity of distillery waste is due to sulphides and H/sub 2/S. The mixed pulp and paper waste contain colloidal particles of cellulose and lignin which are lethal. The statistical analysis shows that both of the wastes are lethal to the animals separately in their natural form. The difference in survival rates is highly significant.

  6. A retrospective research of HIV-negative cryptococcal meningoencephalitis patients with acute/subacute onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, H; Chen, Q; Xie, Z; Wang, D; Li, M; Zhang, X; Man, Y; Lao, J; Chen, N; Zhou, L

    2016-02-01

    Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis (CM) may present as an acute, subacute, or chronic infection. It manifests as a chronic process in over 75 % of cases, but, sometimes, it presents with a more acute onset, mostly in HIV-associated patients. Until now, there has been no study performed on the clinical features of HIV-negative CM patients with acute/subacute onset. We collected 106 HIV-negative patients diagnosed with CM in our hospital during a 15-year period, analyzed their epidemiological and clinical features, as well as the outcomes, and explored the independent prognosis factors and the factors related to the survival time among them. We found that impaired consciousness (23.4 % vs. 3.4 %, p = 0.017) was more common in CM patients with acute/subacute onset, while decreased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) glucose (51.9 % vs. 75.9 %, p = 0.026) was less common. The ratio of CSF glucose/blood glucose [odds ratio (OR) 0.04, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.004-0.262, p = 0.02], impaired consciousness (OR 5.09, 95 % CI 1.477-17.522, p = 0.01), and hospitalization length (OR 0.98, 95 % CI 0.977-0.999, p = 0.04) were indicated to be not only independent prognosis factors in HIV-negative CM patients with acute/subacute onset, but also factors significantly related to the survival time. The results of our study demonstrated that the contact history and potential history risk factors would not affect the onset process of HIV-negative CM patients, and the mortality, hospitalization length, and survival time has not been related to the onset process. However, the ratio of CSF glucose/blood glucose, consciousness level, and hospitalization length of the HIV-negative CM patients with acute/subacute onset should be of greater focus in the clinical work.

  7. Is Boric Acid Toxic to Reproduction in Humans? Assessment of the Animal Reproductive Toxicity Data and Epidemiological Study Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duydu, Yalçın; Başaran, Nurşen; Ustündağ, Aylin; Aydın, Sevtap; Undeğer, Ulkü; Ataman, Osman Yavuz; Aydos, Kaan; Düker, Yalçın; Ickstadt, Katja; Waltrup, Brita Schulze; Golka, Klaus; Bolt, Hermann Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    Boric acid and sodium borates are classified as toxic to reproduction in the CLP Regulation under "Category 1B" with the hazard statement of "H360FD". This classification is based on the reprotoxic effects of boric acid and sodium borates in animal experiments at high doses. However, boron mediated reprotoxic effects have not been proven in epidemiological studies so far. The epidemiological study performed in Bandırma boric acid production plant is the most comprehensive published study in this field with 204 voluntarily participated male workers. Sperm quality parameters (sperm morphology, concentration and motility parameters), FSH, LH and testosterone levels were determined in all participated employees as the reproductive toxicity biomarkers of males. However, boron mediated unfavorable effects on reproduction in male workers have not been determined even in the workers under very high daily boron exposure (0.21 mg B/kg-bw/day) conditions. The NOAEL for rat reproductive toxicity is equivalent to a blood boron level of 2020 ng/g. This level is higher than the mean blood boron concentration (223.89 ± 69.49 ng/g) of the high exposure group workers in Bandırma boric acid production plant (Turkey) by a factor of 9. Accordingly, classifying boric acid and sodium borates under "Category 1B" as "presumed reproductive human toxicant in the CLP regulation seems scientifically not reasonable. The results of the epidemiological studies (including the study performed in China) support for a down-classification of boric acid from the category 1B, H360FD to category 2, H361d, (suspected of damaging the unborn child).

  8. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praticò, A D; Saporito, M; Iacono, O; Castellano-Chiodo, D; Pavone, P

    2011-02-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a progressive neurological disorder of childhood and early adolescence caused by persistent defective measles virus. Clinical manifestations appear many years after the acute measles infection. The incidence of SSPE has substantially declined after the introduction of an effective vaccine. We report a case of a child with SSPE that began with atonia, dysarthria, and intellectual deterioration without the presence of any particular EEG anomalies. We have reported this girl who was affected by this severe affliction in the hope that, because of the rarity of SSPE, it would not go undiagnosed.

  9. Cereals Bond Trounces Subacute Rumen Acidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Akbar Nikkhah

    2015-01-01

    This perspective article provides a feasible ideology based on which modern ruminant enterprises will learn to vigilantly include mixtures of hard and soft cereal grains in optimizing rumen environment. Subacute Rumen Acidosis (SARA), variably defined as a common and economically important metabolic disease, occurs arguably when rumen pH declines below 5.8-6 for a long-lasting period of time of several hours. Prolonged SARA reduces high-producing dairy and bee...

  10. Isoprostan Urin Sebagai Biomarka Keracunan Etanol dan Upaya Detoksikasinya dengan Ekstrak Etanol Kulit Buah Manggis (URINE ISOPROSTANE AS TOXIC BIOMARKER OF ETHANOL AND DETOXICATION EFFORTS BY USING ETHANOL EXTRACT OF SKIN MANGOSTEEN)

    OpenAIRE

    Ni Made Suaniti; Manuntun Manurung

    2017-01-01

    Isoprostane as a marker of oxidative stress which is a toxic metabolite of fatty acids, can be formedafter experiencing lipid peroxidation duo to ethanol. The aim of this study was to analyze the isoprostaneas early detection biomarker in urine of Wistar rats after ethanol consumption in sub-acute, followed byadministration of ethanol extract of rind of mangosteen fruit (EERMF). ELISA was use in this study fordiagnostic method as it can analyze the content of biological fluids even in small a...

  11. Toxicological Study of Ocimum sanctum Linn Leaves: Hematological, Biochemical, and Histopathological Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Gautam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to study the acute and subacute toxicity studies with orally administered 50% ethanolic leaves extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn (OSE. In acute toxicity tests, four groups of mice (n=6/group/sex were orally treated with doses of 200, 600, and 2000 mg/kg, and general behavior, adverse effects, and mortality were recorded for up to 14 days. In subacute toxicity study, rats received OSE by gavage at the doses of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg/day (n=6/group/sex for 28 days, and biochemical, hematological, and histopathological changes in tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, heart, and testis/ovary were determined. OSE did not produce any hazardous symptoms or death and CNS and ANS toxicities in the acute toxicity test. Subacute treatment with OSE did not show any change in body weight, food and water consumption, and hematological and biochemical profiles. In addition, no change was observed both in macroscopic and microscopic aspects of vital organs in rats. Our result showed that Ocimum sanctum extract could be safe for human use.

  12. Effects of Arm Weight Support Training to Promote Recovery of Upper Limb Function for Subacute Patients after Stroke with Different Levels of Arm Impairments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chan, Irene H L; Fong, Kenneth N K; Chan, Dora Y L; Wang, Apple Q L; Cheng, Eddy K N; Chau, Pinky H Y; Chow, Kathy K Y; Cheung, Hobby K Y

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of arm weight support training using the ArmeoSpring for subacute patients after stroke with different levels of hemiplegic arm impairments. Methods...

  13. Induction of oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptosis in mouse liver after sub-acute oral exposure to zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vyom; Singh, Poonam; Pandey, Alok K; Dhawan, Alok

    2012-06-14

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles are finding applications in a wide range of products including cosmetics, food packaging, imaging, etc. This increases the likelihood of human exposure to these nanoparticles through dermal, inhalation and oral routes. Presently, the majority of the studies concerning ZnO nanoparticle toxicity have been conducted using in vitro systems which lack the complex cell-cell, cell-matrix interactions and hormonal effects found in the in vivo scenario. The present in vivo study in mice was aimed at investigating the oral toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles. Our results showed a significant accumulation of nanoparticles in the liver leading to cellular injury after sub-acute oral exposure of ZnO nanoparticles (300 mg/kg) for 14 consecutive days. This was evident by the elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) serum levels and pathological lesions in the liver. ZnO nanoparticles were also found to induce oxidative stress indicated by an increase in lipid peroxidation. The DNA damage in the liver and kidney cells of mice was evaluated by the Fpg-modified Comet assay which revealed a significant (plesions in liver indicating oxidative stress as the cause of DNA damage. The TUNEL assay revealed an induction of apoptosis in the liver of mice exposed to ZnO nanoparticles compared to the control. Our results conclusively demonstrate that sub-acute oral exposure to ZnO nanoparticles in mice leads to an accumulation of nanoparticles in the liver causing oxidative stress mediated DNA damage and apoptosis. These results also suggest the need for a complete risk assessment of any new engineered nanoparticle before its arrival into the consumer market. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Sacha Inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L. powder: acute toxicity, 90 days oral toxicity study and micronucleus assay in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idania Rodeiro

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: Sacha Inchi has been consumed for years by indigenous peoples. Meanwhile, its toxicological potential has not been sufficiently studied. Aims: To assess the acute, sub-chronic toxicity and genotoxicity evaluation of Sacha Inchi powder obtained from Plukenetia volubilis L. Methods: A dose of 2000 mg/kg was orally administered to rats and mice and toxicity symptoms for 14 days were observed. In repeated dose study, the product was orally administered to Sprague Dawley rats of both sexes. Animals received 50, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day of the product for 90 days. At the end, animals were sacrificed and samples were done for hematological and biochemical analysis, organ weighs and histopathological examination. Genotoxicity potential of Sacha Inchi powder was evaluated through micronucleus test in mice. Negative controls received the vehicle (carboxymethyl cellulose, 0.5% used. Results: No morbidity or mortality at 2000 mg/kg of the product were found. Sacha Inchi powder oral administration during 90 days to rats did not lead to death, body weight gain, food consumption, or adverse events. No significant changes on hematological or biochemical parameters, organ weights or histopathological findings were observed. Induction of micronucleus formation attributable to the product was not found in mice. Conclusions: No toxicity effects after oral acute exposure of Sacha Inchi power to rats and mice were observed. Neither toxicity attributable to oral doses of the product up to 500 mg/kg during 90 days to rats were found. Results suggested Sacha Inchi powder does not have genotoxicity potential under our experimental conditions.

  15. Subacute brachial diplegia associated with West Nile virus myelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Sahar F; Ubogu, Eroboghene E

    2012-06-01

    Brachial diplegia is a clinical term used to describe weakness restricted to the upper extremities. We report a case of brachial diplegia associated with West Nile virus infection. A 48-year-old man developed severe painless bilateral upper extremity weakness within a few weeks of a flu-like illness. Clinical examination revealed marked periscapular, shoulder girdle, and humeral muscle atrophy and bilateral scapular winging, with near symmetrical bilateral hypotonic upper extremity weakness. This was associated with clinical signs of an encephalomyelopathy without cognitive or sensory deficits. Electrophysiological studies demonstrated a subacute disorder of motor neurons, their axons or both, involving the cervical and thoracic myotomes, with ongoing denervation. Serological studies confirmed recent West Nile virus (WNV) infection. Gradual improvement occurred following conservative supportive therapies. Progressive brachial diplegia is a rare neuromuscular presentation of WNV neuroinvasive disease. This case report adds to the clinical spectrum of WNV-induced neurologic sequelae. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Subacute liver failure by pseudocirrhotic metastatic breast cancer infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jüngst, Christoph; Krämer, Jens; Schneider, Günther; Lammert, Frank; Zimmer, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Hepatic metastases are common in the clinical course of breast cancer and typically appear as mass lesions. This report describes the case of a 70-year-old woman with a history of breast cancer and no previously known liver disease presenting with the first episode of variceal bleeding and subacute hepatic failure. Imaging studies indicated liver cirrhosis without signs of malignant focal lesions. Comprehensive diagnostic work-up was negative for specific causes of liver disease and provided no evidence for tumor recurrence. Finally transjugular liver biopsy revealed a marked diffuse desmoplastic infiltration by breast cancer cells. Malignant pseudocirrhosis is an unusual pattern of metastatic, tumor spread representing a rare but important differential diagnosis of progressive liver failure. Liver biopsy is the key procedure to establish the diagnosis as imaging studies may mimic cirrhosis.

  17. Chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity study of erythritol in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lina, B.A.R.; Bos-Kuijpers, M.H.M.; Til, H.P.; Bär, A.

    1996-01-01

    The potential toxicity and carcinogenicity of erythritol, a low-calorie sugar substitute, were examined in Wistar Crl:(WI) WU BR rats. Groups of 50 rats of each sex consumed diets with 0, 2, 5, or 10% erythritol, or 10% mannitol, for a period of 104-107 weeks. To each of these main groups, two

  18. Acute toxicity studies of aqueous stem bark extract of Ximenia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... Based on the result of the acute toxicity test, white Swiss albino mice of average weight 25.3 g divided into 3 groups of one animal per group were intraperitoneally/orally administered 1600, 2900 and. 5000 mg/kg body weight, aqueous bark extract in water. Death was monitored over a period of 24 h.

  19. Oral acute toxicity study of selected botanical pesticide plants used ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    Key words: Oral acute toxicity, biopesticide, plant extracts, Lake Victoria Basin. ... Asia in the upland forest areas and open waste areas. It is used .... freeze like water. The essential oils were kept in a fridge so as to minimize their volatile behavior which is catalyzed by relatively high temperature including room temperature.

  20. A Literature Review - Problem Definition Studies on Selected Toxic Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-06-16

    Toxicity... . ....... .. 39 1. Experimental Investigations in Animals ..... ............. .. 39 A. Effect of the Nature of Food ...protein-rich diet ....... .. 40 B. Effect of Other Food Additives ....... .............. .. 40 i. Vitamin C...which is also called plasticized white phosphorus. Epoxy white phosphorus is made from white phosphorus and Bisphenol A-epichlorohydrin, an epoxy resin

  1. Speciation Studies of Some Toxic Metal Complexes of Glycylglycine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    the body, specially the bones and teeth, the kidneys, and the nervous, cardiovascular, immune and reproductive systems.4–6. Lead also interferes with the normal metabolism of calcium in cells and causes it to build up within ... ing of their distribution, mobility, bioavailability, toxicity and for setting environmental quality ...

  2. Oral acute toxicity study of selected botanical pesticide plants used ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    used plants were identified and selected for biosafety assessments namely: Ocimum gratissimum,. Tithonia diversifolia, Eucalyptus ... Key words: Oral acute toxicity, biopesticide, plant extracts, Lake Victoria Basin. INTRODUCTION. There is a ..... breathing (hyperventilation), excess loss of saliva. (salivation) and death of ...

  3. Effects of SiC nanoparticles orally administered in a rat model: Biodistribution, toxicity and elemental composition changes in feces and organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozano, Omar, E-mail: omar.lozanogarcia@fundp.ac.be [Namur Nanosafety Center (NNC), NAmur Research Institute for LIfe Sciences (NARILIS), University of Namur - FUNDP, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Research Centre for the Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR-LARN), University of Namur (FUNDP), Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Laloy, Julie; Alpan, Lütfiye [Namur Nanosafety Center (NNC), NAmur Research Institute for LIfe Sciences (NARILIS), University of Namur - FUNDP, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Department of Pharmacy, NAMEDIC, Namur Thrombosis and Hemostasis Center (NTHC), University of Namur (FUNDP), Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Mejia, Jorge [Namur Nanosafety Center (NNC), NAmur Research Institute for LIfe Sciences (NARILIS), University of Namur - FUNDP, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Research Centre for the Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR-LARN), University of Namur (FUNDP), Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Rolin, Stéphanie [Namur Nanosafety Center (NNC), NAmur Research Institute for LIfe Sciences (NARILIS), University of Namur - FUNDP, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Department of Pharmacy, NAMEDIC, Namur Thrombosis and Hemostasis Center (NTHC), University of Namur (FUNDP), Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Toussaint, Olivier [Namur Nanosafety Center (NNC), NAmur Research Institute for LIfe Sciences (NARILIS), University of Namur - FUNDP, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Laboratory of Biochemistry and Cellular Biology (URBC), University of Namur (FUNDP), Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Dogné, Jean-Michel [Namur Nanosafety Center (NNC), NAmur Research Institute for LIfe Sciences (NARILIS), University of Namur - FUNDP, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Department of Pharmacy, NAMEDIC, Namur Thrombosis and Hemostasis Center (NTHC), University of Namur (FUNDP), Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); and others

    2012-10-15

    Background: Silicon carbide (SiC) presents noteworthy properties as a material such as high hardness, thermal stability, and photoluminescent properties as a nanocrystal. However, there are very few studies in regard to the toxicological potential of SiC NPs. Objectives: To study the toxicity and biodistribution of silicon carbide (SiC) nanoparticles in an in vivo rat model after acute (24 h) and subacute (28 days) oral administrations. The acute doses were 0.5, 5, 50, 300 and 600 mg·kg{sup −1}, while the subacute doses were 0.5 and 50 mg·kg{sup −1}. Results: SiC biodistribution and elemental composition of feces and organs (liver, kidneys, and spleen) have been studied by Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). SiC and other elements in feces excretion increased by the end of the subacute assessment. SiC did not accumulate in organs but some elemental composition modifications were observed after the acute assessment. Histopathological sections from organs (stomach, intestines, liver, and kidneys) indicate the absence of damage at all applied doses, in both assessments. A decrease in the concentration of urea in blood was found in the 50 mg·kg{sup −1} group from the subacute assessment. No alterations in the urine parameters (sodium, potassium, osmolarity) were found. Conclusion: This is the first study that assesses the toxicity, biodistribution, and composition changes in feces and organs of SiC nanoparticles in an in vivo rat model. SiC was excreted mostly in feces and low traces were retrieved in urine, indicating that SiC can cross the intestinal barrier. No sign of toxicity was however found after oral administration. -- Highlights: ► SiC nanoparticles were orally administered to rats in acute and subacute doses. ► SiC was found in low traces in urine. It is mostly excreted in feces within 5 days. ► SiC excretion rate, feces and organ elemental composition change with time. ► No morphological alteration were found on GI tract, liver, kidneys

  4. Changes in Glutamate/NMDA Receptor Subunit 1 Expression in Rat Brain after Acute and Subacute Exposure to Methamphetamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walailuk Kerdsan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine (METH is a psychostimulant drug of abuse that produces long-term behavioral changes including behavioral sensitization, tolerance, and dependence. METH has been reported to induce neurotoxic effects in several areas of the brain via the dopaminergic system. Changes of dopamine function can induce malfunction of the glutamatergic system. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the effects of METH administration on the expression of glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 1 (NMDAR1 in frontal cortex, striatum, and hippocampal formation after acute and subacute exposure to METH by western blotting. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intraperitoneally with a single dose of 8 mg/kg METH, 4 mg/kg/day METH for 14 days and saline in acute, subacute, and control groups, respectively. A significant increase in NMDAR1 immunoreactive protein was found in frontal cortex in the subacute group (P=.036 but not in the acute group (P=.580. Moreover, a significant increase in NMDAR1 was also observed in striatum in both acute (P=.025 and subacute groups (P=.023. However, no significant differences in NMDAR1 in hippocampal formation were observed in either acute or subacute group. The results suggest that an upregulation of NMDA receptor expression may be a consequence of glutamatergic dysfunction induced by METH.

  5. Sediment toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) studies at marine sites suspected of ordnance contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, R S; Nipper, M; Biedenbach, J M; Hooten, R L; Miller, K; Saepoff, S

    2001-10-01

    A sediment quality assessment survey and subsequent toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) study was conducted at several sites in Puget Sound, Washington. The sites were previously suspected of contamination with ordnance compounds. The initial survey employed sea urchin porewater toxicity tests to locate the most toxic stations. Sediments from the most toxic stations were selected for comprehensive chemical analyses. Based on the combined information from the toxicity and chemical data, three adjacent stations in Ostrich Bay were selected for the TIE study. The results of the phase I TIE suggested that organics and metals were primarily responsible for the observed toxicity in the sea urchin fertilization test. In addition to these contaminants, ammonia was also contributing to the toxicity for the sea urchin embryological development test. The phase II TIE study isolated the majority of the toxicity in the fraction containing nonpolar organics with high log K(ow), but chemical analyses failed to identify a compound present at a concentration high enough to be responsible for the observed toxicity. The data suggest that some organic or organometallic contaminant(s) that were not included in the comprehensive suite of chemical analyses caused the observed toxicological responses.

  6. Dermal toxicity studies of technical polychlorinated biphenyls and fractions thereof in rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.G.; Beems, R.B.

    A significant difference in toxicity between 3 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) preparations was found in a prior study: Clophen A 60 and Phenoclor DP6 showing the highest, Aroclor 1260 the lowest, toxicity (Vos and Koeman, 1970). A subsequent study revealed the presence of tetra- and

  7. Toxicity of formaldehyde and acrolein mixtures : in vitro studies using nasal epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cassee, F.R.; Stenhuis, W.S.; Groten, J.P.; Feron, V.J.

    1996-01-01

    In vitro studies with human and rat nasal epithelial cells were carried out to investigate the combined toxicity of formaldehyde and acrolein and the role of aldehyde dehydrogenases in this process. These studies showed that the toxic effect of mixtures of aldehydes was additive. In addition,

  8. Dose of arm activity training during acute and subacute rehabilitation post stroke: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Kathryn S; Brauer, Sandra G

    2015-12-01

    To determine the dose of activity-related arm training undertaken by stroke survivors during acute and subacute rehabilitation. A systematic review of PubMed, CINAHL and EMBASE up to December 2014 was completed. Studies were eligible if they defined the dose (time or repetitions) of activity-related arm training using observational methods for a cohort of adult stroke survivors receiving acute or subacute rehabilitation. All studies were quality appraised using an evidence-based learning critical appraisal checklist. Data was analysed by method of documented dose per session (minutes, repetitions), environment (acute or subacute rehabilitation) and therapy discipline (physiotherapy, occupational therapy). Ten studies were included: two observed stroke survivors during acute rehabilitation and eight during subacute rehabilitation. During acute rehabilitation, one study reported 4.1 minutes per session during physiotherapy and 11.2 minutes during occupational therapy, while another study reported 5.7 minutes per session during physiotherapy only. During inpatient rehabilitation, activity-related arm training was on average undertaken for 4 minutes per session (range 0.9 to 7.9, n = 4 studies) during physiotherapy and 17 minutes per session (range 9.3 to 28.9, n = 3 studies) during occupational therapy. Repetitions per session were reported by two studies only during subacute rehabilitation. One study reported 23 repetitions per session during physiotherapy and occupational therapy, while another reported 32 repetitions per session across both disciplines. The dose of activity-related arm training during acute and subacute rehabilitation after stroke is limited. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Percutaneous vertebroplasty compared to conservative treatment in patients with painful acute or subacute osteoporotic vertebral fractures.Three months follow up in a clinical randomised study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rousing, Rikke

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Study design. Clinical randomised study.    Objective. The aim of this study is to compare PVP to conservative treatment of patients with osteoporotic vertebral fractures in a clinical randomised study with respect to pain, physical and mental outcome, and to asses the risk of adjacent......) were included from January 2001 until January 2008. Patients with acute (assessed with a visual analogue scale and physical and mental outcome were...... assessed by validated questionnaires and tests. Tests, questionnaires, and plain radiographs were performed at the inclusion and after 3 months. Results. Reduction in pain from initial visit to 3 months follow up was comparable in the two groups (p=0.22) from approximate VAS 8.0 to VAS 2.0, intra group...

  10. Prevention of Adriamycin induced cardiotoxicity in rats — A comparative study with subacute angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and nonselective beta blocker therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Godwin Potnuri

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: The present study found an identical therapeutic outcome from ACE inhibition and β blockade with a better attenuation of inflammation and structural preservation with ACE inhibition and superior antioxidant and antiapoptotic effect with βB treatment.

  11. Percutaneous vertebroplasty compared to conservative treatment in patients with painful acute or subacute osteoporotic vertebral fractures: three-months follow-up in a clinical randomized study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rousing, Rikke; Andersen, Mikkel O; Jespersen, Stig M

    2009-01-01

    the risk of adjacent fractures. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: PVP is a therapeutic procedure performed to reduce pain in vertebral lesions. Despite the lack of comparative randomized clinical trials PVP is generally seen as a safe and efficient procedure for painful osteoporotic fractures. METHODS: Fifty......STUDY DESIGN: Clinical randomized study. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to compare percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) to conservative treatment of patients with osteoporotic vertebral fractures in a clinical randomized study with respect to pain, physical and mental outcome, and to asses...... outcome were assessed by validated questionnaires and tests. Tests, questionnaires, and plain radiographs were performed at the inclusion and after 3 months. RESULTS: Reduction in pain from initial visit to 3-month follow-up was comparable in the 2 groups (P = 0.33) from approximate visual analogue scale...

  12. Cerebral glucose metabolism in the course of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, M.; Herholz, K.; Pawlik, G.; Szelies, B.; Juergens, R.H.; Heiss, W.D.

    1989-01-01

    Regional cerebral glucose metabolism was studied in a 15-year-old boy with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis before and after therapy with human interferon beta, using positron emission tomography of fluorine 18-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose. At first examination, metabolism was symmetrically decreased in the thalamus, cerebellum, and all cortical areas except prerolandic motor cortex, but increased in lentiform nucleus. A computed tomographic scan was normal. Six months later, bilateral focal necrosis centered in the previously hypermetabolic putamen was demonstrated by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The caudate nucleus and the superoposterior part of the putamen were spared, still showing increased metabolism. Corresponding with some clinical improvement, cortical glucose consumption rates had returned to a normal level.

  13. A Randomized, Rater-Blinded, Parallel Trial of Intensive Speech Therapy in Sub-Acute Post-Stroke Aphasia: The SP-I-R-IT Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Isabel Pavao; Leal, Gabriela; Fonseca, Isabel; Farrajota, Luisa; Aguiar, Marta; Fonseca, Jose; Lauterbach, Martin; Goncalves, Luis; Cary, M. Carmo; Ferreira, Joaquim J.; Ferro, Jose M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is conflicting evidence regarding the benefits of intensive speech and language therapy (SLT), particularly because intensity is often confounded with total SLT provided. Aims: A two-centre, randomized, rater-blinded, parallel study was conducted to compare the efficacy of 100 h of SLT in a regular (RT) versus intensive (IT)…

  14. Study protocol of effectiveness of a biopsychosocial multidisciplinary intervention in the evolution of non-speficic sub-acute low back pain in the working population: cluster randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roura-Olivan Mercè

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-specific low back pain is a common cause for consultation with the general practitioner, generating increased health and social costs. This study will analyse the effectiveness of a multidisciplinary intervention to reduce disability, severity of pain, anxiety and depression, to improve quality of life and to reduce the incidence of chronic low back pain in the working population with non-specific low back pain, compared to usual clinical care. Methods/Design A Cluster randomised clinical trial will be conducted in 38 Primary Health Care Centres located in Barcelona, Spain and its surrounding areas. The centres are randomly allocated to the multidisciplinary intervention or to usual clinical care. Patients between 18 and 65 years old (n = 932; 466 per arm and with a diagnostic of a non-specific sub-acute low back pain are included. Patients in the intervention group are receiving the recommendations of clinical practice guidelines, in addition to a biopsychosocial multidisciplinary intervention consisting of group educational sessions lasting a total of 10 hours. The main outcome is change in the score in the Roland Morris disability questionnaire at three months after onset of pain. Other outcomes are severity of pain, quality of life, duration of current non-specific low back pain episode, work sick leave and duration, Fear Avoidance Beliefs and Goldberg Questionnaires. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months. Analysis will be by intention to treat. The intervention effect will be assessed through the standard error of measurement and the effect-size. Responsiveness of each scale will be evaluated by standardised response mean and receiver-operating characteristic method. Recovery according to the patient will be used as an external criterion. A multilevel regression will be performed on repeated measures. The time until the current episode of low back pain takes to subside will be analysed by Cox

  15. A comparative study of insecticide toxicity among seven cladoceran species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Hiroyuki; Sakamoto, Masaki; Tanaka, Yoshinari

    2010-11-01

    The sensitivities of seven cladoceran species (Ceriodaphnia reticulata, Chydorus sphaericus, Daphnia galeata, Diaphanosoma brachyurum, Moina macrocopa, Scapholeberis kingi, and Simocephalus vetulus) to carbamate insecticides (carbaryl and methomyl) were investigated by acute toxicity tests. The sensitivities to carbaryl and methomyl were highly correlated among the tested organisms, but the co-tolerance level varied markedly among species. C. reticulata showed the highest sensitivity, whereas M. macrocopa and S. kingi showed the lowest sensitivities to the two insecticides. These results indicate that the degree of chemical impacts on natural communities can vary depending on cladoceran species composition. The highly positive correlation between the EC(50) values for both insecticides indicates that the two chemicals have a shared mode of action on cladoceran species. Unlike previous reports, acute toxicity was not correlated with body size. The results are discussed in relation to community-level experiments, the functions of freshwater ecosystems, and ecological risk assessment.

  16. Lack of repercussions of sleep apnea syndrome on recovery and attention disorders at the subacute stage after stroke: a study of 45 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre-Dognin, C; Stana, L; Jousse, M; Lucas, C; Sportouch, P; Bradai, N; Guettard, E; Vicaut, E; Yelnik, A P

    2014-12-01

    Sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) frequently occurs after a stroke. Its association with a poor prognosis is open to discussion. To study, in a physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) unit, the possible repercussions of SAS on neurological and functional recovery as well as attentional abilities following a stroke. Forty-five patients, all of whom had recently had a stroke without previously documented SAS, were screened using the ApneaLink(®) system. An apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) score ≥10 was considered as indicative of SAS. The NIHSS, Fugl-Meyer (FM) and Functional Independence Measure (FIM) Scales were applied on admission and at two months as means of assessing neurological and functional recovery, which was expressed by the difference between the first and the second scores (delta FM, delta NIHSS, delta FIM). The Battery Attention William Lennox (BAWL) Test was given once in order to evaluate attention disorders. SAS severity was categorized according to the AHI. We compared the groups formed (mild, moderate and severe) using the same method. Twenty-eight patients (62.2%) presented AHI ≥ 10. Stroke characteristics were comparable in the SAS+ and the SAS- groups, with average post-stroke time lapse of 26 days, initial average FIM score of 71.2 points ± 26.3 and initial average NIHSS score of 8.9 ± 4.9. The demographic characteristics of the two groups were likewise comparable with the exception of age, as the SAS+ group was pronouncedly older (65.4 vs. 53.5 years). As for delta FIM, which evaluated functional recovery, it averaged 31.8 ± 20.6. Cases of SAS were found to be mild (37.1%), moderate (28.6%) or severe (34.3%). No significant difference was observed on admission or at 2 months as regards the clinical scales or the BAWL test between the two groups or according to severity, except for the NIHSS score at 2 months in the severe sub-group. This study did not demonstrate the supposed repercussions of SAS on the recovery or attentional

  17. Canoe game-based virtual reality training to improve trunk postural stability, balance, and upper limb motor function in subacute stroke patients: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myung-Mo; Shin, Doo-Chul; Song, Chang-Ho

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] This study was aimed at investigating the preliminary therapeutic efficacy and usefulness of canoe game-based virtual reality training for stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Ten stroke patients were randomly assigned to an experimental group (EG; n=5) or a control group (CG; n=5). Patients in both groups participated in a conventional rehabilitation program, but those in the EG additionally participated in a 30-min canoe game-based virtual reality training program 3 days a week for 4 weeks. Therapeutic efficacy was assessed based on trunk postural stability, balance, and upper limb motor function. In addition, the usefulness of canoe game-based virtual reality training was assessed in the EG and therapist group (TG; n=20), which consisted of physical and occupational therapists, by using the System Usability Scale (SUS). [Results] Improvements in trunk postural stability, balance, and upper limb motor function were observed in the EG and CG, but were greater in the EG. The mean SUS scores in the EG and TG were 71 ± 5.2 and 74.2 ± 4.8, respectively. [Conclusion] Canoe game-based virtual reality training is an acceptable and effective intervention for improving trunk postural stability, balance, and upper limb motor function in stroke patients.

  18. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis presenting as neuromyelitis optica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut, Tushar Premraj; Singh, Maneesh Kumar; Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Naphade, Pravin Umakant

    2012-12-14

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a slowly progressing inflammatory and degenerative disorder of the brain caused by a mutant measles virus. The diagnosis of SSPE is based on characteristic clinical and EEG findings (periodic complexes) and demonstration of elevated antibody titres against measles in cerebrospinal fluid. SSPE can have atypical clinical features at the onset. The authors here report a case of a 3-year-old child who presented with vision loss followed 15 months later by quadriparesis with bladder involvement. These clinical features resembled that of neuromyelitis optica. However, as the disease progressed, appearance of myoclonic jerks, periodic discharges on EEG and positive cerebrospinal fluid serology for measles led to the final diagnosis of SSPE.

  19. Basal ganglia lesions in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelson James Almeida

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The parieto-occipital region of the brain is the most frequently and severely affected in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE. The basal ganglia, cerebellum and corpus callosum are less commonly involved. We describe a patient with SSPE confirmed by neuropathology based on brain magnetic resonance imaging showing extensive basal ganglia involvement and no significant involvement of other cortical structures. Though rarely described in SSPE, clinicians should be aware of this involvement. SSPE should be kept in mind when changes in basal ganglia signal are seen on brain magnetic resonance imaging with or without involvement of other regions of the human brain to avoid erroneous etiological diagnosis of other pathologies causing rapidly progressive dementia.

  20. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis Presenting with Hemidystonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hepsen Mine Serin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a case of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE in an 11-year-old boy who presented with hemidystonia. Electroencephalogram (EEG revealed periodic epileptiform discharges which did not disappear with diazepam induction. His cranial magnetic resonance imaging was normal. SSPE diagnosis was considered and it was confirmed with the identification of measles antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid. SSPE is a progressive disease. Hemidystonia is not an expected presentation of SSPE. We aimed to emphasize that SSPE may present with different clinical findings such as hemidystonia. (The Me­di­cal Bul­le­tin of Ha­se­ki 2014; 52: 137-9

  1. Subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus presenting as poikiloderma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hughes, R

    2012-02-01

    Subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE) is a recognised variant of lupus erythematosus (LE), which accounts for 10-15% of all cases of cutaneous LE, occurring most commonly in young to middle-aged white women. Diagnosis is based on the detection of anti-Ro\\/SS-A antibodies in the skin and serum, characteristic clinical and histological cutaneous involvement, and relatively mild systemic involvement. Several unusual variants of SCLE have been reported including erythrodermic SCLE, SCLE with vitiligo-like lesions, acral SCLE and bullous SCLE. Poikoilodermatous SCLE is a recognised but rare variant of SCLE. There are currently only two case reports, comprising five individual cases, in the literature. We present a case of SCLE in which the main clinical findings were an extensive photodistributed poikilodermatous rash and alopecia.

  2. Subacute transverse myelitis with Lyme profile dissociation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajjan, Mohammed

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Transverse myelitis is a very rare neurologic syndrome with an incidence per year of 1-5 per million population. We are presenting an interesting case of subacute transverse myelitis with its MRI (magnetic resonance imaging and CSF (cerebrospinal fluid findings. Case: A 46-year-old African-American woman presented with decreased sensation in the lower extremities which started three weeks ago when she had a 36-hour episode of sore throat. She reported numbness up to the level just below the breasts. Lyme disease antibodies total IgG (immunoglobulin G and IgM (immunoglobulin M in the blood was positive. Antinuclear antibody profile was within normal limits. MRI of the cervical spine showed swelling in the lower cervical cord with contrast enhancement. Cerebrospinal fluid was clear with negative Borrelia Burgdorferi IgG and IgM. Herpes simplex, mycoplasma, coxiella, anaplasma, cryptococcus and hepatitis B were all negative. No oligoclonal bands were detected. Quick improvement ensued after she was given IV Ceftriaxone for 7 days. The patient was discharged on the 8th day in stable condition. She continued on doxycycline for 21 days. Conclusions: Transverse myelitis should be included in the differential diagnosis of any patient presenting with acute or subacute myelopathy in association with localized contrast enhancement in the spinal cord especially if flu-like prodromal symptoms were reported. Lyme disease serology is indicated in patients with neurological symptoms keeping in mind that dissociation in Lyme antibody titers between the blood and the CSF is possible.

  3. Major histocompatibility complex class I expression on neurons in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and experimental subacute measles encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogate, N.; Yamabe, Toshio; Verma, L.; Dhib-Jalbut, S. [Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    Lack of major histocompatibility class I antigens on neurons has been implicated as a possible mechanism for viral persistence in the brain since these antigens are required for cytotoxic T-lymphocyte recognition of infected cells. In subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE), measles virus (MV) persists in neurons, resulting in a fatal chronic infection. MHC class I mRNA expression was examined in formalin-fixed brain tissue from 6 SSPE patients by in situ hybridization. In addition MHC class I protein expression in MV-infected neurons was examined in experimental Subacute Measles Encephalitis (SME) by double immunohistochemistry. MHC class I mRNA expression was found to be upregulated in SSPE tissues studied, and in 5 out of 6 cases the expression was definitively seen on neurons. The percentage of neurons expressing MHC class I mRNA ranged between 20 to 84% in infected areas. There was no correlation between the degree of infection and expression of MHC class I molecules on neurons. Importantly, the number of neurons co-expressing MHC class I and MV antigens was markedly low, varying between 2 to 8%. Similar results were obtained in SME where 20 to 30% of the neurons expressed MHC class I but < 8% co-expressed MHC class I and MV antigens. Perivascular infiltrating cells in the infected regions in SME expressed IFN{gamma} immunoreactivity. The results suggest that MV may not be directly involved in the induction of MHC class I on neurons and that cytokines such as IFN{gamma} may play an important role. Furthermore, the paucity of neurons co-expressing MHC class I and MV antigens in SSPE and SME suggests that such cells are either rapidly cleared by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), or, alternatively, lack of co-expression of MHC class I on MV infected neurons favors MV persistence in these cells by escaping CTL recognition. 33 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Subacute Thyroiditis Developed in Identical Twins Two Years Apart

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    HAMAGUCHI, Erika; NISHIMURA, Yasuyuki; KANEKO, Shuichi; TAKAMURA, Toshinari

    2005-01-01

    .... Subacute thyroiditis was diagnosed and prednisone was administered. Two years later, her identical twin sister, who lives separately, was referred to our hospital because of neck pain, low-grade fever, and palpitation...

  5. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis of the Brainstem as a Clinical Entity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pavan S. Upadhyayula; Jason Yang; John K. Yue; Joseph D. Ciacci

    2017-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare progressive neurological disorder of early adolescence caused by persistent infection of the measles virus, which remains prevalent worldwide despite an effective vaccine...

  6. Angiosarcoma of the Heart Presenting as Subacute Pericarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Alexandra L; Wilklow, Frank E; Olivier, John J; Joseph, Georges J; Glancy, David Luke

    2017-03-15

    A young woman, who presented with what appeared to be subacute pericarditis, was found to have primary angiosarcoma of the heart, a condition that is nearly always fatal regardless of the therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Toxicity and antinociceptive effects of Hamelia patens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Josabad Alonso-Castro

    Full Text Available Abstract Many medicinal herbs are used in folk medicine without taking into account their toxicity. Hamelia patens Jacq. (Rubiaceae, a Mexican endemic species, is used for the empirical treatment of pain. The aim of this work was to evaluate the toxicity and antinociceptive effects of ethanolic extracts of H. patens leaves. The toxicity of H. patens leaves (500–5000 mg/kg was evaluated in acute (14 days and subacute (28 days assays. In the subacute assay, a blood analysis (both hematology and chemistry was carried out. The antinociceptive effects of H. patens leaves (50–200 mg/kg were evaluated using thermal-induced nociception (hot plate and the chemical-induced nociceptive tests (acid acetic and formalin. In the acute toxicity test, the LD50 estimated for H. patens leaves was 2964 mg/kg i.p. and >5000 mg/kg p.o., whereas in the subacute test HPE did not affect hematological or biochemical parameters. In chemical-induced nociception models, H. patens (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. showed antinociceptive effects with similar activity than 100 mg/kg naproxen. In the hot plate test, HPE at 100 mg/kg (17% and 200 mg/kg (25% showed moderate antinociceptive effects. HPE could be a good source of antinociceptive agents because of its good activity and low toxicity.

  8. A Mechanistic Study on the Amiodarone-Induced Pulmonary Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shammari, Bader; Khalifa, Mohamed; Bakheet, Saleh A.; Yasser, Moustafa

    2016-01-01

    Amiodarone- (AM-) induced pulmonary toxicity (AIPT) is still a matter of research and is poorly understood. In attempting to resolve this issue, we treated Sprague-Dawley rats with AM doses of 80 mg/kg/day/i.p. for one, two, three, and four weeks. The rats were weighed at days 7, 14, 21, and 28 and bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) were obtained to determine total leukocyte count (TLC). For each group, lung weighing, histopathology, and homogenization were performed. Fresh homogenates were used for determination of ATP content, lipid peroxides, GSH, catalase, SOD, GPx, GR activities, NO, and hydroxyproline levels. The results showed a significant decrease in body weight and GSH depletion together with an increase in both lung weight and lung/body weight coefficient in the first week. Considerable increases in lung hydroxyproline level with some histopathological alterations were apparent. Treatment for two weeks produced a significant increase in BAL fluid, TLC, GR activity, and NO level in lung homogenate. The loss of cellular ATP and inhibition of most antioxidative protective enzymatic system appeared along with alteration in SOD activity following daily treatment for three weeks, while, in rats treated with AM for four weeks, more severe toxicity was apparent. Histopathological diagnosis was mostly granulomatous inflammation and interstitial pneumonitis in rats treated for three and four weeks, respectively. As shown, it is obvious that slow oedema formation is the only initiating factor of AIPT; all other mechanisms may occur as a consequence. PMID:26933474

  9. Subacute cannabinoid treatment: anticonvulsant activity and withdrawal excitability in mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Karler, R.; Turkanis, S. A.

    1980-01-01

    1 The effects of subacute treatment with cannabidiol, delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 9-THC), phenytoin and phenobarbitone on anticonvulsant activity and on withdrawal excitability in mice were compared in three electrically induced seizure-threshold tests. 2 In the maximal electroshock-threshold test, subacute treatment did not alter the anticonvulsant activity of cannabidiol, phenytoin or phenobarbitone, but tolerance developed to delta 9-THC. 3 In the 60 Hz electroshock-threshold test,...

  10. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: brain stem involvement in a peculiar pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senol, U. [Akdeniz University, Antalya (Turkey). Faculty of Medicine; Haspolat, S. [Akdeniz University, Antalya (Turkey). Dept. of Child Neurology; Cevikol, C. [Akdeniz University, Antalya (Turkey). Dept. of Radiodiagnostics; Saatci, I. [Hacettepe University (Turkey). Medical Faculty

    2000-12-01

    The most common pattern in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, is in the cerebral hemisphere white matter on T2-weighted images with or without atrophy. Brain-stem lesions are rare. We report brain-stem involvement in two children with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. A peculiar pattern, with involvement of the pons with extension to both middle cerebellar peduncles and substantia nigra but sparing the pontine tegmentum, is suggested. (orig.)

  11. Brain temperature measured by {sup 1}H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy in acute and subacute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Shunrou; Nishimoto, Hideaki; Murakami, Toshiyuki; Ogawa, Akira; Ogasawara, Kuniaki [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Morioka, Iwate (Japan); Yoshioka, Yoshichika [Osaka University, Laboratory of Biofunctional Imaging, WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center, Osaka (Japan); Matsuda, Tsuyoshi [MR Applications and Workflow Asia Pacific, GE Healthcare Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Beppu, Takaaki [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Morioka, Iwate (Japan); Iwate Medical University, Department of Hyperbaric Medicine, Iwate (Japan)

    2016-01-15

    Brain temperature (BT) is associated with the balance between cerebral blood flow and metabolism according to the ''heat-removal'' theory. The present study investigated whether BT is abnormally altered in acute and subacute CO-poisoned patients by using {sup 1}H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Eight adult CO-poisoned patients underwent 3-T magnetic resonance imaging in the acute and subacute phases after CO exposure. MRS was performed on deep cerebral white matter in the centrum semiovale, and MRS-based BT was estimated by the chemical shift difference between water and the N-acetyl aspartate signal. We defined the mean BT + 1.96 standard deviations of the BT in 15 healthy controls as the cutoff value for abnormal BT increases (p < 0.05) in CO-poisoned patients. BT of CO-poisoned patients in both the acute and subacute phases was significantly higher than that of the healthy control group. However, BT in the subacute phase was significantly lower than in the acute phase. On the other hand, no significant difference in body temperature was observed between acute and subacute CO-poisoned patients. BT weakly correlated with body temperature, but this correlation was not statistically significant (rho = 0.304, p = 0.2909). The present results suggest that BT in CO-poisoned patients is abnormally high in the acute phase and remains abnormal in the subacute phase. BT alteration in these patients may be associated with brain perfusion and metabolism rather than other factors such as systemic inflammation and body temperature. (orig.)

  12. Combined treatment of subacute and acute synthetic and venous bypass-graft occlusions with percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy and thrombolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hundt, Walter, E-mail: hundt@med.uni-marburg.de [Department of Radiology, Philipps University Marburg (Germany); Kalinowski, Mark; Stamm, Anna C. [Department of Radiology, Philipps University Marburg (Germany); Portig, Irene [Department of Cardiology, Division of Angiology, Philipps University Marburg (Germany); Swaid, Zaher; Dietz, Carsten; Geks, Josef [Department of Surgery, Philipps University Marburg (Germany); Burbelko, Mykhaylo [Department of Radiology, Philipps University Marburg (Germany)

    2013-12-01

    Introduction: Percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy (PMT) is a third choice of treatment for acute arterial occlusions, in addition to thrombolysis and surgical thrombectomy. The aim of this retrospective study was to compare the combined treatment of PMT and local thrombolysis with thrombolysis therapy alone. Materials and methods: Sixty-nine patients with acute (<14 days [n = 35]) or subacute (14–42 days [n = 34]) femoropopliteal bypass occlusions were treated with PMT combined with thrombolysis. Seventy-two patients with acute [n = 40] or subacute [n = 32] femoropopliteal bypass occlusions were treated with thrombolysis alone. The thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) classification was used to assess the bypass occlusion. Local thrombolysis time and dosage, reopening time, time in the intensive care unit, necessary surgical re-interventions, and clinical outcome were compared between the 2 groups. Results: The TIMI scores were significantly higher in the PMT plus thrombolysis group than in the thrombolysis group (acute occlusions 1188 versus 935, p < 0.001; subacute occlusions 935 versus 605, p < 0.001). The total urokinase dosage, the total hours of thrombolysis, time in the intensive care unit, and total hospital stay in the acute PMT plus thrombolysis group were significantly lesser than those in the thrombolysis group. After 24 h of treatment, the ankle-brachial index improved in all groups (p < 0.001): in the acute and subacute PMT plus thrombolysis group to 0.63 ± 0.14 and 0.43 ± 0.08, respectively; and in the acute and subacute thrombolysis group to 0.51 ± 0.11 and 0.41 ± 0.04, respectively. Conclusions: PMT combined with thrombolysis is a safe and very effective therapy for acute and subacute femoropopliteal bypass occlusions compared to treatment with thrombolysis alone.

  13. Safety Evaluation of Oral Toxicity of Carica papaya Linn. Leaves: A Subchronic Toxicity Study in Sprague Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakiah Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The subchronic toxicity effect of the leaf extract of Carica papaya Linn. in Sprague Dawley (SD rats was investigated in this study. The extract was prepared by dissolving the freeze dried extract of the leaves in distilled water and was administered orally to SD rats (consisted of 10 rats/sex/group at 0 (control, 0.01, 0.14, and 2 g/kg body weight (BW for 13 weeks. General observation, mortality, and food and water intake were monitored throughout the experimental period. Hematological and biochemical parameters, relative organ weights, and histopathological changes were evaluated. The study showed that leaf extract when administered for 13 weeks did not cause any mortality and abnormalities of behavior or changes in body weight as well as food and water intake. There were no significant differences observed in hematology parameters between treatment and control groups; however significant differences were seen in biochemistry values, for example, LDH, creatinine, total protein, and albumin. However, these changes were not associated with histopathological changes. In conclusion, the results suggested that daily oral administration of rats with C. papaya leaf extract for 13 weeks at a dose up to fourteen times the levels employed in traditional medicine practice did not cause any significant toxic effect.

  14. Toxicity of Transition Metal Oxide Nanoparticles: Recent Insights from in vitro Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S. Aronstam

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has evolved to play a prominent role in our economy. Increased use of nanomaterials poses potential human health risk. It is therefore critical to understand the nature and origin of the toxicity imposed by nanomaterials (nanotoxicity. In this article we review the toxicity of the transition metal oxides in the 4th period that are widely used in industry and biotechnology. Nanoparticle toxicity is compellingly related to oxidative stress and alteration of calcium homeostasis, gene expression, pro-inflammatory responses, and cellular signaling events. The precise physicochemical properties that dictate the toxicity of nanoparticles have yet to be defined, but may include element-specific surface catalytic activity (e.g., metallic, semiconducting properties, nanoparticle uptake, or nanoparticle dissolution. These in vitro studies substantially advance our understanding in mechanisms of toxicity, which may lead to safer design of nanomaterials.

  15. Effect of aqueous extract of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) stigma against subacute effect of diazinon on specific biomarkers in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moallem, Seyed Adel; Hariri, Alireza Timcheh; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2014-03-01

    In this study, the effect of aqueous extract of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) stigma was studied against subacute toxicity of diazinon (DZN) on specific biochemical markers in rats. Vitamin E (200 IU/kg) and the aqueous extract of saffron at doses 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg were injected intraperitoneally three times per week alone or with DZN (20 mg/kg/day, orally) for 4 weeks. Red blood cell (RBC) cholinesterase activity was inhibited by DZN and this effect was not affected by vitamin E or saffron plus DZN. The levels of serum tumor necrosis factor-α (inflammation marker), direct 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2α) (oxidative stress marker) and soluble protein-100 β (S100β, neuronal damage marker) were increased significantly by DZN. The saffron extract inhibited the effect of DZN on these biomarkers levels. However, vitamin E was able to only reduce 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2α) and S100β levels. This study showed that the aqueous extract of saffron prevents DZN-induced rise of several specific inflammation, oxidative stress and neuronal damage biomarkers.

  16. Towards Global QSAR Model Building for Acute Toxicity: Munro Database Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil Chavan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A series of 436 Munro database chemicals were studied with respect to their corresponding experimental LD50 values to investigate the possibility of establishing a global QSAR model for acute toxicity. Dragon molecular descriptors were used for the QSAR model development and genetic algorithms were used to select descriptors better correlated with toxicity data. Toxic values were discretized in a qualitative class on the basis of the Globally Harmonized Scheme: the 436 chemicals were divided into 3 classes based on their experimental LD50 values: highly toxic, intermediate toxic and low to non-toxic. The k-nearest neighbor (k-NN classification method was calibrated on 25 molecular descriptors and gave a non-error rate (NER equal to 0.66 and 0.57 for internal and external prediction sets, respectively. Even if the classification performances are not optimal, the subsequent analysis of the selected descriptors and their relationship with toxicity levels constitute a step towards the development of a global QSAR model for acute toxicity.

  17. Toxicity of leachate from weathering plastics: An exploratory screening study with Nitocra spinipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejgarn, Sofia; MacLeod, Matthew; Bogdal, Christian; Breitholtz, Magnus

    2015-08-01

    Between 60% and 80% of all marine litter is plastic. Leachate from plastics has previously been shown to cause acute toxicity in the freshwater species Daphnia magna. Here, we present an initial screening of the marine environmental hazard properties of leachates from weathering plastics to the marine harpacticoid copepod [Crustacea] Nitocra spinipes. Twenty-one plastic products made of different polymeric materials were leached and irradiated with artificial sunlight. Eight of the twenty-one plastics (38%) produced leachates that caused acute toxicity. Differences in toxicity were seen for different plastic products, and depending on the duration of irradiation. There was no consistent trend in how toxicity of leachate from plastics changed as a function of irradiation time. Leachate from four plastics became significantly more toxic after irradiation, two became significantly less toxic and two did not change significantly. Analysis of leachates from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) by liquid chromatography coupled to a full-scan high-resolution mass spectrometer showed that the leachates were a mixture of substances, but did not show evidence of degradation of the polymer backbone. This screening study demonstrates that leachates from different plastics differ in toxicity to N. spinipes and that the toxicity varies under simulated weathering. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Patients' and relatives' experience of difficulties following severe traumatic brain injury: the sub-acute stage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Sara; Schönberger, Michael; Poulsen, Ingrid

    2008-01-01

    was low compared to other studies using the EBIQ. Furthermore, the effects of injury severity and general level of functioning had limited impact on the subjective experience of difficulties. Implications of these findings, specifically as they pertain to the sub-acute stage are discussed Udgivelsesdato......The present study aimed to (1) identify the difficulties most frequently reported by individuals with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) at the time of discharge from a sub-acute rehabilitation brain injury unit as well as difficulties reported by their relatives, (2) compare patients......' and relatives' reports of patient difficulties, and (3) explore the role of injury severity, disability and other factors on subjective experience of difficulties. The primary measure was the European Brain Injury Questionnaire (EBIQ) administered to patients and to one of their close relatives at discharge...

  19. Multidisciplinary biopsychosocial rehabilitation for subacute low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Teresa J; Van Eerd, Dwayne; Irvin, Emma; Couban, Rachel; Koes, Bart W; Malmivaara, Antti; van Tulder, Maurits W; Kamper, Steven J

    2017-06-28

    Low back pain (LBP) is associated with enormous personal and societal burdens, especially when it reaches the chronic stage of the disorder (pain for a duration of more than three months). Indeed, individuals who reach the chronic stage tend to show a more persistent course, and they account for the majority of social and economic costs. As a result, there is increasing emphasis on the importance of intervening at the early stages of LBP.According to the biopsychosocial model, LBP is a condition best understood with reference to an interaction of physical, psychological, and social influences. This has led to the development of multidisciplinary biopsychosocial rehabilitation (MBR) programs that target factors from the different domains, administered by healthcare professionals from different backgrounds.This review is an update of a Cochrane Review on MBR for subacute LBP, which was published in 2003. It is part of a series of reviews on MBR for musculoskeletal pain published by the Cochrane Back and Neck Group and the Cochrane Musculoskeletal Group. To examine the effectiveness of MBR for subacute LBP (pain for a duration of six to 12 weeks) among adults, with a focus on pain, back-specific disability, and work status. We searched for relevant trials in any language by a computer-aided search of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO and two trials registers. Our search is current to 13 July 2016. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of adults with subacute LBP. We included studies that investigated a MBR program compared to any type of control intervention. We defined MBR as an intervention that included a physical component (e.g. pharmacological, physical therapy) in combination with either a psychological, social, or occupational component (or any combination of these). We also required involvement of healthcare professionals from at least two different clinical backgrounds with appropriate training to deliver the component for which they were

  20. Wild-type Measles Virus in Brain Tissue of Children with Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrero, Paola Roxana; Grippo, Jorge; Viegas, Mariana

    2003-01-01

    We studied eight children who had measles at 6 to 10 months of age during the 1998 Argentine measles outbreak and in whom subacute sclerosing panencephalitis developed 4 years later. We report the genetic characterization of brain tissue–associated measles virus samples from three patients. Phylogenetic relationships clustered these viruses with the wild-type D6 genotype isolated during the 1998 outbreak. The children received measles vaccine; however, vaccinal strains were not found. PMID:14609476

  1. Prostate Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy With Injection of Hyaluronic Acid: Acute Toxicities in a Phase 2 Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapet, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.chapet@chu-lyon.fr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); EMR3738, Université Lyon 1, Lyon (France); Decullier, Evelyne; Bin, Sylvie [Pole Information Médicale Evaluation Recherche, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon (France); Université Lyon 1, Lyon (France); EA SIS, Université de Lyon, Lyon (France); Faix, Antoine [Department of Urology, Clinique Beausoleil, Montpellier (France); Ruffion, Alain [Université Lyon 1, Lyon (France); Department of Urology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Jalade, Patrice [Department of Medical Physics, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Fenoglietto, Pascal [Department of Radiation Oncology and Physics, Institut du Cancer de Montpellier, Montpellier (France); Udrescu, Corina; Enachescu, Ciprian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Azria, David [Department of Radiation Oncology and Physics, Institut du Cancer de Montpellier, Montpellier (France)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) in prostate cancer can be developed only if the risk of rectal toxicity is controlled. In a multicenter phase 2 trial, hypofractionated irradiation was combined with an injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) to preserve the rectal wall. Tolerance of the injection and acute toxicity rates are reported. Methods and Materials: The study was designed to assess late grade 2 toxicity rates. The results described here correspond to the secondary objectives. Acute toxicity was defined as occurring during RT or within 3 months after RT and graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. HA tolerance was evaluated with a visual analog scale during the injection and 30 minutes after injection and then by use of the Common Terminology Criteria at each visit. Results: From 2010 to 2012, 36 patients with low-risk to intermediate-risk prostate cancer were included. The HA injection induced a mean pain score of 4.6/10 ± 2.3. Thirty minutes after the injection, 2 patients still reported pain (2/10 and 3/10), which persisted after the intervention. Thirty-three patients experienced at least 1 acute genitourinary toxicity and 20 patients at least 1 acute gastrointestinal toxicity. Grade 2 toxicities were reported for 19 patients with urinary obstruction, frequency, or both and for 1 patient with proctitis. No grade 3 or 4 toxicities were reported. At the 3-month visit, 4 patients described grade 2 obstruction or frequency, and no patients had any grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicities. Conclusions: The injection of HA makes it possible to deliver hypofractionated irradiation over 4 weeks with a dose per fraction of > 3 Gy, with limited acute rectal toxicity.

  2. Is A/A/O process effective in toxicity removal? Case study with coking wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Liu; Wang, Dong; Cao, Di; Na, Chunhong; Quan, Xie; Zhang, Ying

    2017-08-01

    The anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A/A/O) process is the commonly used biological wastewater treatment process, especially for the coking wastewater. However, limit is known about its ability in bio-toxicity removal from wastewater. In this study, we evaluated the performance of A/A/O process in bio-toxicity removal from the coking wastewater, using two test species (i.e. crustacean (Daphnia magna) and zebra fish (Danio rerio)) in respect of acute toxicity, oxidative damage and genotoxicity. Our results showed that the acute toxicity of raw influent was reduced gradually along with A/A/O process and the effluent presented no acute toxicity to Daphnia magna (D. magna) and zebra fish. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in D. magna and zebra fish was promoted by the effluent from each tank of A/A/O process, showing that coking wastewater induced oxidative damage. Herein, the oxidative damage to D. magna was mitigated in the oxic tank, while the toxicity to zebra fish was reduced in the anoxic tank. The comet assays showed that genotoxicity to zebra fish was removed stepwise by A/A/O process, although the final effluent still presented genotoxicity to zebra fish. Our results indicated that the A/A/O process was efficient in acute toxicity removal, but not so effective in the removal of other toxicity (e.g. oxidative damage and genotoxicity). Considering the potential risks of wastewater discharge, further advanced toxicity mitigation technology should be applied in the conventional biological treatment process, and the toxicity index should be introduced in the regulation system of wastewater discharge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Whole effluent toxicity of agricultural irrigation drainwater entering Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge, NV : Acute toxicity studies with fish and aquatic invertebrates

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the acute toxicity studies conducted with samples collected from Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge. The objective of these studies was to...

  4. Brain CT and MRI findings of a long-term case of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoshiba, Kazunori; Ota, Kohei; Komatsuzaki, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Itsuro; Maruyama, Shoichi

    1987-11-01

    Our study involved a long-term case (ten years) of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. The case began with a 23 year-old experiencing visual deterioration. During the course of his illness, amnesia, autism and abnormal behavior were observed without any myoclonus. On the electroencephalogram, periodic synclonous discharge was shown in the early stage of his illness and subsequently disappeared. The brain CT and the MRI disclosed diffuse lesions in both cortical and subcortical areas of the cerebral hemispheres. The location and spread of lesions were more clearly revealed by the MRI than the brain CT. These findings suggest that the MRI is more useful than the brain CT in the diagnosis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

  5. Webinar Presentation: Epidemiologic Studies of the Effects of Toxic Exposures on Brain and Behavior: Neuropsychological Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation, Epidemiologic Studies of the Effects of Toxic Exposures on Brain and Behavior: Neuropsychological Assessment, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2015 Webinar Series: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Neurodevelopment.

  6. Chlorella Vulgaris Alleviates Lead-induced Testicular Toxicity Better than Zingiber Officinale: An Ultrastructural Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa, Hesham N.

    2015-01-01

    Chlorella Vulgaris Alleviates Lead-induced Testicular Toxicity Better than Zingiber Officinale: An Ultrastructural Study   XXIV International Symposium on Morphological Sciences, Prof. Dr. Cemil Bilsel Congress Hall, Faculty of Science, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey. Oral Presentation; 09/2015

  7. Clinical manifestations and arsenic methylation after a rare subacute arsenic poisoning accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Yi; Zheng, Quanmei; Li, Bing; Li, Xin; Jin, Yaping; Lv, Xiuqiang; Qu, Guang; Sun, Guifan

    2008-06-01

    One hundred and four workers ingested excessive levels of arsenic in an accident caused by leakage of pipeline in a copper-smelting factory. Clinical examinations were performed by physicians in a local hospital. Excreted urinary arsenic species were determined by cold trap hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. In the initial toxic phase, gastrointestinal symptoms were predominant (83 people, 79.8%). Most patients showed leucopenia (72 people, 69.2%), and increased serum alanine aminotransferase (84 people, 80.8%) and aspartate aminotransferase (58 people, 55.8%). Thirty-five patients (33.6%) had elevated red blood cells in urine. After 17 days of admission, many subjects (45 people, 43.3%) developed peripheral neuropathy and 25 of these 45 patients (24.0%) showed a decrease in motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity. In the comparison of urinary arsenic metabolites among subacute arsenic-poisoned, chronic high arsenic-exposed and control subjects, we found that subacute arsenic-poisoned patients had significantly elevated proportions of urinary inorganic arsenic (iAs) and methylarsonic acid (MMA) but reduced proportion of urinary dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) compared with chronic high arsenic-exposed and control subjects. Chronic exposed subjects excreted higher proportions of iAs and MMA but lower proportions of DMA in urine compared with control subjects. These results suggest that gastrointestinal symptoms, leucopenia, and hepatic and urinary injury are predominant in the initial phase of subacute arsenic poisoning. Peripheral neuropathy is the most frequent manifestation after the initial phase. The biomethylation of arsenic decreases in a dose rate-dependent manner.

  8. Evaluation of analgesic, antipyretic activity and toxicity study of Bryonia laciniosa in mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, T; Perumal, P; Kumar, R Sambath; Vamsi, M L M; Gomathi, P; Mazumder, U K; Gupta, M

    2004-01-01

    Analgesic, antipyretic activity and toxicity study of the leaves of Bryonia laciniosa Linn. (Family: Cucurbitaceae) was evaluated in the standard animal models. The methanol extract of Bryonia laciniosa (MEBL) was evaluated by hot plate and acetic acid-induced writhing methods to assess analgesic activity. The antipyretic activity of the extract was also evaluated by normal body temperature and yeast-induced hyperpyrexia. The extract showed significant analgesic and antipyretic activity. The MEBL was further evaluated for toxicity at the doses of 125 and 250 mg/kg administered orally for 14 days in rats. At the end of experiments, the blood, liver function and kidney metabolism were observed. The hematological profile and different biochemical parameters such as SGOT, SGPT and ALP were estimated. The present study revealed that MEBL exhibited significant analgesic and antipyretic activity in the tested experimental animal models. The toxicity study indicates that the extract is not toxic at the tested doses.

  9. Toxicity evaluation of petroleum blending streams: inhalation subchronic toxicity/neurotoxicity study of a light alkylate naphtha distillate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, C; Lapadula, E; Breglia, R; Bui, Q; Burnett, D; Koschier, F; Podhasky, P; White, R; Mandella, R; Hoffman, G

    1998-10-23

    A 13-wk inhalation study was conducted with Sprague-Dawley CD rats (12/sex/group) were exposed by inhalation for 13 weeks to a light alkylate naphtha distillate (LAND-2, C4-C10; average molecular weight 89.2) at actual average concentrations of 0 (room air), 668, 2220, or 6646 ppm, 6 h/d, 5 d/wk; 12 additional rats/sex in the control and high dose groups were held after final exposure for a 4-wk recovery period. The highest exposure concentration was 75% of the lower explosive limit. Standard parameters of subchronic toxicity were measured throughout the study; at necropsy, organs were weighed and tissues processed for microscopic evaluation. Neurotoxicity evaluations consisted of motor activity (MA) and a functional operational battery (FOB) measured pretest, during 5, 9, and 14 wk of the study, and after the 4-wk recovery period. Whole-body perfusion and microscopic examination of selected organs and nervous tissue from the control and high dose rats were conducted at the end of exposure. No test-related mortality or effects on physical signs, body weight, or food consumption were observed. Statistically significant increases in absolute and relative kidney weights in high-exposure males correlated with microscopically observed hyaline droplet formation and renal nephropathy, effects in male rats that are not toxicologically significant for humans. Increased liver weights in both sexes at the highest dose had no microscopic correlate and appeared reversible after the 4-wk recovery period. Exposure to LAND-2 at any dose did not produce neurotoxicity measured by MA, FOB, or neuropathology. The no-observed-effects level (NOEL) for LAND-2 was 2220 ppm for subchronic toxicity and > or =26646 ppm for neurotoxicity.

  10. An evaluation of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis patients with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuhandan, M; Cece, H; Calik, M; Karakas, E; Dogan, F; Karakas, O

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the contribution of diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging to the diagnosis and staging of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. The study comprised 26 patients diagnosed with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis at our clinic who were undergoing regular follow-up, and a control group of 18 subjects. Clinical staging was determined by Risk and Haddad classification; 12 at Stage II and 14 at Stage III. Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance images were taken of six areas (frontal, parieto-occipital, cerebellar, deep white matter, thalamus and basal ganglia) and by calculating the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values, and a comparison was made between the stages and with the control group. The ADC values of all the areas of the subacute sclerosing panencephalitis patients were found to be significantly higher compared to the control group (p 0.05). The ADC values of all the areas of the Stage III patients were found to be significantly high compared to the Stage II values (p panencephalitis and to reveal differences between the stages.

  11. Antigenotoxic effect of acute, subacute and chronic treatments with Amazonian camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) juice on mice blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Francisco Carlos; Arruda, Andrelisse; Ledel, Alexandre; Dauth, Cíntia; Romão, Nathalia Faria; Viana, Rafaele Nazário; de Barros Falcão Ferraz, Alexandre; Picada, Jaqueline Nascimento; Pereira, Patrícia

    2012-07-01

    Myrciaria dubia, a plant native to the Amazon region, stands out as a fruit rich in vitamin C and other metabolites with nutritional potential. We evaluated the antioxidant, genotoxic and antigenotoxic potential of M. dubia juice on blood cells of mice after acute, subacute and chronic treatments. Flavonoids and vitamin C present in the fruit of M. dubia were quantified. In vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH assay. Blood samples were collected for analysis after treatment, and the alkaline comet assay was used to analyze the genotoxic and antigenotoxic activity (ex vivo analysis using H(2)O(2)). The amount of vitamin C per 100mL of M. dubia was 52.5mg. DPPH assay showed an antioxidant potential of the fruit. No M. dubia concentration tested exerted any genotoxic effect on mice blood cells. In the ex vivo test, the juice demonstrated antigenotoxic effect, and acute treatment produced the most significant results. After the treatments, there was no evidence of toxicity or death. In conclusion, our data show that M. dubia juice has antigenotoxic and antioxidant activities, though with no genotoxicity for blood cells. Nevertheless, more in-depth studies should be conducted to assess the safety of this fruit for human consumption. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Methiocarb-induced oxidative damage following subacute exposure and the protective effects of vitamin E and taurine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozden, Sibel; Catalgol, Betul; Gezginci-Oktayoglu, Selda; Arda-Pirincci, Pelin; Bolkent, Sehnaz; Alpertunga, Buket

    2009-07-01

    Methiocarb, is used worldwide in agriculture and health programs. Besides its advantages in the agriculture, it causes several toxic effects. In this study, we aimed to investigate subacute effects of methiocarb on lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione (GSH), antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione reductase (GSH-Rd) and histopathological changes in rat tissues. Moreover, we examined the possible protective effects of vitamin E and taurine on methiocarb-induced oxidative damage in rat tissues. Rats were randomly divided into six groups as follows; I-control group; II-methiocarb group; III-vitamin E group; IV-vitamin E+methiocarb group; V-taurine group and VI-taurine+methiocarb group. Methiocarb significantly increased lipid peroxidation in liver and kidney when compared to control groups. Levels of GSH and activities of SOD, CAT and GSH-Px were found to be decreased, while GSH-Rd remained unchanged in rat liver and kidney treated with methiocarb. Pretreatment of vitamin E and taurine resulted in a significant decrease on lipid peroxidation, alleviating effects on GSH and antioxidant enzymes. The degenerative histological changes were less in liver than kidney of rats treated with methiocarb. Pretreatment of vitamin E and taurine showed a protective effect on the histological changes in kidney comparing to the liver of rats treated with methiocarb.

  13. Toxicity evaluation of 2-hydroxybiphenyl and other compounds involved in studies of fossil fuels biodesulphurisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, L; Paixão, S M

    2011-10-01

    The acute toxicity of some compounds used in fossil fuels biodesulphurisation studies, on the respiration activity, was evaluated by Gordonia alkanivorans and Rhodococcus erythropolis. Moreover, the effect of 2-hydroxybiphenyl on cell growth of both strains was also determined, using batch (chronic bioassays) and continuous cultures. The IC₅₀ values obtained showed the toxicity of all the compounds tested to both strains, specially the high toxicity of 2-HBP. These results were confirmed by the chronic toxicity data. The toxicity data sets highlight for a higher sensitivity to the toxicant by the strain presenting a lower growth rate, due to a lower cells number in contact with the toxicant. Thus, microorganisms exhibiting faster generation times could be more resistant to 2-HBP accumulation during a BDS process. The physiological response of both strains to 2-HBP pulse in a steady-state continuous culture shows their potential to be used in a future fossil fuel BDS process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ozonides: intermediates in ozone-induced toxicity : a study on their mechanism of toxic action and detoxification by antioxidants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hempenius, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    Ozone is a major constituent of photochemical smog. The toxicity of ozone is well documented and has been related to its strong oxidative potential. The principal target organ for ozone toxicity is the respiratory system. Unsaturated fatty acids, which are present in both the lipids of the

  15. Brine shrimp lethality and acute oral toxicity studies on Swietenia mahagoni (Linn.) Jacq. seed methanolic extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahgal, Geethaa; Ramanathan, Surash; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Mordi, Mohd. Nizam; Ismail, Sabariah; Mansor, Sharif Mahsufi

    2010-01-01

    Background: The seeds of Swietenia mahagoni have been applied in folk medicine for the treatment of hypertension, diabetes, malaria, amoebiasis, cough, chest pain, and intestinal parasitism. Here we are the first to report on the toxicity of the Swietenia mahagoni crude methanolic (SMCM) seed extract. Methods: SMCM seed extract has been studied for its brine shrimp lethality and acute oral toxicity, in mice. Results: The brine shrimp lethality bioassay shows a moderate cytotoxicity at high concentration. The LC50 for the extract is 0.68 mg/ml at 24 hours of exposure. The LD50 of the SMCM seed extract for acute oral toxicity in mice is greater than 5000 mg/kg. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that Swietenia mahagoni crude methanolic seed extract may contain bioactive compounds of potential therapeutic significance which are relatively safe from toxic effects, and can compromise the medicinal use of this plant in folk medicine. PMID:21808570

  16. Echocardiographic evaluation of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Çimen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is a slowly progressive, inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease caused by virus infection in the central nervous system. Since there are a limited number of studies in the literature evaluating the cardiovascular functions of patients with SSPE, the present study evaluates the patients with SSPE using tissue Doppler echocardiography and compares them between the control group in order to shed some light on the subject. Methods: The study is a prospective observational study. 49 patients (17 female, 32 male with SSPE were included in the study. Patients were divided into two groups: Stage 2 (n=29 and Stage 3 (n=20. Echocardiographic data were compared with a control group of 26 which is the same average age. All children underwent a detailed echocardiography, which contained an M-mode, pulse Doppler and tissue Doppler imaging. Results: Sinus tachycardia ( >100 beats/min in children was detected in nineteen (38.7% patients. There were not significant differences between parameters of systolic and diastolic function of the heart. Stage 2 group, EF: 69.9±6.4; SF: 39.2±5.58; and MPI (mitral: 0.38±0.03 and MPI (tricuspid: 0.39±0.10. And in the Stage 3 group, EF: 68.5±7.0, SF: 37.8±5.34, MPI (mitral: 0.37±0.09 and MPI (tricuspid: 0.38±0.12. In the control group EF:70.96±5.54; SF:39.96±5.05 and MPI(mitral: 0.35±0.06 MPI (tricuspid:0.36±0.04 and statistically meaningful differences were not found between patients and control groups (p >0.05. Conclusion: Cardiac functions may be preserved and cardiac functions constitute no significant risks of mortality in the advanced stages of patients with Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, which is a group of chronic and bedridden patients.

  17. Glutathione, glutathione-related enzymes, and oxidative stress in individuals with subacute occupational exposure to lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrakowski, Michał; Pawlas, Natalia; Hudziec, Edyta; Kozłowska, Agnieszka; Mikołajczyk, Agnieszka; Birkner, Ewa; Kasperczyk, Sławomir

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of subacute exposure to lead on the glutathione-related antioxidant defense and oxidative stress parameters in 36 males occupationally exposed to lead for 40±3.2days. Blood lead level in the examined population increased significantly by 359% due to lead exposure. Simultaneously, erythrocyte glutathione level decreased by 16%, whereas the activity of glutathione-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in erythrocytes and leukocytes decreased by 28% and 10%, respectively. Similarly, the activity of glutathione-S-transferase in erythrocytes decreased by 45%. However, the activity of glutathione reductase in erythrocytes and leukocytes increased by 26% and 6%, respectively, whereas the total oxidant status value in leukocytes increased by 37%. Subacute exposure to lead results in glutathione pool depletion and accumulation of lipid peroxidation products; however, it does not cause DNA damage. Besides, subacute exposure to lead modifies the activity of glutathione-related enzymes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. EBV driven natural killer cell disease of the central nervous system presenting as subacute cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Francesca M; Flavin, Richard; Chen, Daphne; Loftus, Teresa; Looby, Seamus; McCarthy, Allan; de Gascun, Cillian; Jaffe, Elaine S; Nor, Nurul; Javadpour, Mohsen; McCabe, Dominick

    2017-11-01

    Brain biopsy in patients presenting with subacute encephalopathyis never straightforward and only undertaken when a 'treatable condition' is a realistic possibility. This 63 year old right handed, immunocompetent Caucasian woman presented with an 8 month history of rapidly progressive right-sided hearing impairment, a 4 month history of intermittent headaches, tinnitus, 'dizziness', dysphagia, nausea and vomiting, with the subsequent evolution of progressive gait ataxia and a subacute global encephalopathy. The possibility of CJD was raised. Brain biopsy was carried out. Western blot for prion protein was negative. She died 9 days later and autopsy brain examination confirmed widespread subacute infarction due to an EBV positive atypical NK/T-cell infiltrate with positivity for CD3, CD56, granzyme B, perforin and EBER with absence of CD4, CD5 and CD8 expression. Molecular studies for T-cell clonality were attempted but failed due to insufficient DNA quality. Serology was consistent with past EBV infection (EBV VCA and EBNA IgG Positive). There was no evidence of disease outside the CNS. Primary central nervous system NK/T-cell lymphoma is extremely rare. The rare reported cases all present with a discrete intracranial mass, unlike the diffuse infiltrative pattern in this case. Whilst the diffuse interstitial pattern is reminiscent of chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV) seen in other organ systems such as the liver and bone marrow, the clinical presentation and epidemiologic profile are not typical for CAEBV.

  19. The effect of knee joint Mulligan taping on balance and gait in subacute stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Ki-Hoon; Cho, Hwi-Young; Lim, Chae-Gil

    2015-11-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the effects of Mulligan taping on balance and gait in subacute stroke patients. [Subjects] Thirty patients with subacute stroke were randomly divided into two groups: the experimental group (n = 15) and the control group (n = 15). Mulligan taping was applied to the knee joints of participants in the experimental group while placebo taping was applied to knee joints of subjects in the control group. Biodex was used to assess their balance ability and the GAITRite System was used to test gait. All measurements were performed before and after the intervention. [Results] Dynamic standing balance of the experimental group significantly improved after taping. Gait, gait cadence, velocity, step length, and stride length also improved significantly. However, no significant differences in standing balance or gait were observed for the control group. Furthermore, significant differences in dynamic standing balance, cadence, and velocity were found between the two groups after the intervention. [Conclusion] Our results demonstrate that Mulligan taping is effective for improving balance and gait in subacute stroke patients. Thus, this technique is a potential method for actively facilitating rehabilitation programs for hemiplegia patients.

  20. Sub-Chronic Toxicity study of Aqueous extract of Clerodendrum Phlomidis Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta Reena; Duggal Sanjiv; Kapoor Bhupinder

    2012-01-01

    Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn. has been traditionally used for treatment of gynecological disturbances and for agricultural uses. It has been used in many Ayurvedic polyherbal formulations as an immunomodulatory agent. Irrespective of its widespread use, no data on subchronic toxicity has been described. The present study was designed to access sub-chronic toxicity of aqueous extract of Clerodendrum phlomidis leaves. Aqueous extract of Clerodendrum phlomidis leaves was given orally at doses of ...

  1. Harbour sediment toxicity: An italian case study; Valutazione della tossicita` di sedimenti portuali

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellegrini, M. [ICRAM, Istituto Centrale per la -ricerca Scientifica e Tecnologica Applicata al Mare, Rome (Italy); Bigongiari, N.; Mellera, F.; Giuliani, S. [CIBM, Centro Interuniversitario di Biologia Marina, Livorno (Italy); De Poorter, L. R. M. [AquaSense Consultants, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1998-01-01

    Harbour sediments usually contain a complex mixture of compounds originating from industrial and shipping activities. An important tool for the recognition of potential toxic effects of sediments is the use of bioassays. In order to estimate harbour sediment toxicity a specific study was carried out measuring reduction of microbial luminescence (Vibrio fischeri), oyster larvae development impairment (Crassostrea gigas) and amphipod mortality (Corophium volutator). Bioassay results are correlated with data on chemical contaminants (heavy metals, PAHs and PCBs).

  2. Relationship of hepatotoxicity and the target tissue dose of decabrominated diphenyl ether in subacutely exposed Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćurčić Marijana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Based on numerous studies in animals, the most prominent toxic effects of decabrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-209 are observed in the liver, thyroid hormone homeostasis, reproductive and nervous systems. BDE-209 exhibits its toxic effects partly through the aryl hydrocarbon (Ah receptor and consequent induction of hepatic microsomal enzymes. The aim of this study was to assess the hepatotoxic effect vs target tissue dose of BDE-209 in the subacutely orally exposed Wistar rats. Methods. Effects were examined on male Wistar rats, weighing 200-240 g, exposed to doses of 1,000, 2,000 or 4,000 mg BDE-209/kg body weight (bw/day by gavage during 28 days. Animals were treated according to the decision of the Ethics Committee of the Military Medical Academy, No 9667-1/2011. Evaluation of the hepatotoxic effect was based on: relative liver weight water and food intake, biochemical parameters of liver function [aspartate amino transferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, gama glutamyl transferase (γ-GT], and oxidative stress parameters in liver homogenates [malondialdehiyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD, -SH] and morphological and pathohistological changes in the liver. For the assessment of internal dose - response relationship, lower confidence limit of Benchmark dose (BMDL of 5% or 10% i.e. BMDL5 or BMDL10, were calculated using PROAST software. Results. After the application of 1,000, 2,000 or 4,000 mg BDE-209/kg bw/day, the concentrations of BDE-209 measured in liver were 0.269, 0.569 and 0.859 mg/kg of liver wet weight, (ww respectively. Internal doses correlated with external (r = 0.972; p < 0.05 according to equation: internal dose (mg BDE-209/kg of liver ww = 0.0002 x external dose (mg/kg bw/day + 0.0622. Hepato-toxicity was demonstrated based on significant increase in AST and γ-GT activities and the degree of histopathological changes. The lowest BMDL5 of 0.07228 mg BDE-209/kg of liver ww

  3. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: clinical and demographic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafique, Arshad; Amjad, Nida; Chand, Prem; Zaidi, Syed Sohail Zahoor; Rana, Muhammad Suleman; Ahmed, Khalid; Ibrahim, Shahnaz

    2014-08-01

    To determine the clinical and demographic characteristics of children diagnosed with Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE). Case series. The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from January 2000 to June 2012. A retrospective analysis was done, regarding medical charts of 43 children under the age of 16 years with a discharge diagnosis of SSPE. Demographic and clinical characteristics were recorded. RESULTS were expressed as percentages. Most of the 43 patients were male (72%). The average age at presentation was 8.7 years with average duration of symptoms being 100.6 days. History of measles was present in 17 patients (39.5%). All children had seizures at presentation and 65% had cognitive impairment. Most patients required poly therapy for control of seizures. Sodium valproate was the most commonly used anti-epileptic agent; Isoprinosine was tried in 22 (51%) patients. CSF for antimeasles antibodies was positive in approximately 86% of the 40 (93%) children. EEG showed burst suppression pattern in 36 (83.7%) cases. Forty-two patients (97.6%) were discharged home in a vegetative state. SSPE is progressive neurodegenerative disorder. It can be prevented by timely immunization against measles. Measles antibody in the CSF is diagnostic for SSPE and is helpful in early diagnosis. Most patients experience a gradual but progressive decline in motor and cognitive functions.

  4. Quantitative structure-toxicity relationship study of some natural and synthetic coumarins using retention parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabtti El Hadi M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Four lipophilicity descriptors (RM0, b, C0, PC1 for twelve coumarine derivatives were determined by reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography in order to analyze which descriptor best describes the lipophilicity of coumarines investigated. Moreover, possible chemical toxicity of coumarins, expressed as the probability of a compound to cause organ-specific health effects, was calculated using ACD/Tox Suite program. The quantitative relationships between toxicity and molecular descriptors, including experimentally determined lipophilicity descriptors obtained in current study, were investigated using partial least square regression. The best models were obtained for kidney and liver health effects. Quantitative structure-toxicity relationship models revealed the importance of electric polarization descriptors, size descriptors and lipophilicity descriptors. Obtained models were used for the selection of the structural features of the compounds that are significantly affecting their absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity. [Acknowledgements. This work has been supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of Serbia, Grant 172017.

  5. U.S./Mexico Border environmental study toxics release inventory data, 1988--1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Brien, R.F.; LoPresti, C.A.

    1996-02-01

    This is a report on industrial toxic chemical releases and transfers based on information reported to the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI), a database maintained by the USEPA. This document discusses patterns of toxic chemical releases to the atmosphere, to water, to the land, and to underground injection; and transfers of toxic chemicals to Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTW), and for disposal, treatment and other off-site transfers during the TRI reporting years 1988--1992. Geographic coverage is limited to the US side of the ``Border Area``, the geographic area situated within 100 km of the US/Mexico international boundary. A primary purpose of this study is to provide background information that can be used in the future development of potential ``indicator variables`` for tracking environmental and public health status in the Border Area in conjunction with the implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).

  6. Improving the accuracy of admitted subacute clinical costing: an action research approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkennes, Sharon; Arblaster, Ross; Lim, Kim

    2017-08-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to determine whether action research could be used to improve the breadth and accuracy of clinical costing data in an admitted subacute setting Methods The setting was a 100-bed in-patient rehabilitation centre. Using a pre-post study design all admitted subacute separations during the 2011-12 financial year were eligible for inclusion. An action research framework aimed at improving clinical costing methodology was developed and implemented. Results In all, 1499 separations were included in the study. A medical record audit of a random selection of 80 separations demonstrated that the use of an action research framework was effective in improving the breadth and accuracy of the costing data. This was evidenced by a significant increase in the average number of activities costed, a reduction in the average number of activities incorrectly costed and a reduction in the average number of activities missing from the costing, per episode of care. Conclusions Engaging clinicians and cost centre managers was effective in facilitating the development of robust clinical costing data in an admitted subacute setting. Further investigation into the value of this approach across other care types and healthcare services is warranted. What is known about this topic? Accurate clinical costing data is essential for informing price models used in activity-based funding. In Australia, there is currently a lack of robust admitted subacute cost data to inform the price model for this care type. What does this paper add? The action research framework presented in this study was effective in improving the breadth and accuracy of clinical costing data in an admitted subacute setting. What are the implications for practitioners? To improve clinical costing practices, health services should consider engaging key stakeholders, including clinicians and cost centre managers, in reviewing clinical costing methodology. Robust clinical costing data has

  7. Standardized Total Average Toxicity Score: A Scale- and Grade-Independent Measure of Late Radiotherapy Toxicity to Facilitate Pooling of Data From Different Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, Gillian C., E-mail: gillbarnett@doctors.org.uk [University of Cambridge Department of Oncology, Oncology Centre, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Cancer Research-UK Centre for Genetic Epidemiology and Department of Oncology, Strangeways Research Laboratories, Cambridge (United Kingdom); West, Catharine M.L. [School of Cancer and Enabling Sciences, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Christie Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom); Coles, Charlotte E. [University of Cambridge Department of Oncology, Oncology Centre, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Pharoah, Paul D.P. [Cancer Research-UK Centre for Genetic Epidemiology and Department of Oncology, Strangeways Research Laboratories, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Talbot, Christopher J. [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Elliott, Rebecca M. [School of Cancer and Enabling Sciences, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Christie Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom); Tanteles, George A. [Department of Clinical Genetics, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Symonds, R. Paul [Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Wilkinson, Jennifer S. [University of Cambridge Department of Oncology, Oncology Centre, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Dunning, Alison M. [Cancer Research-UK Centre for Genetic Epidemiology and Department of Oncology, Strangeways Research Laboratories, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Burnet, Neil G. [University of Cambridge Department of Oncology, Oncology Centre, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Bentzen, Soren M. [University of Wisconsin, School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Human Oncology, Madison, WI (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: The search for clinical and biologic biomarkers associated with late radiotherapy toxicity is hindered by the use of multiple and different endpoints from a variety of scoring systems, hampering comparisons across studies and pooling of data. We propose a novel metric, the Standardized Total Average Toxicity (STAT) score, to try to overcome these difficulties. Methods and Materials: STAT scores were derived for 1010 patients from the Cambridge breast intensity-modulated radiotherapy trial and 493 women from University Hospitals of Leicester. The sensitivity of the STAT score to detect differences between patient groups, stratified by factors known to influence late toxicity, was compared with that of individual endpoints. Analysis of residuals was used to quantify the effect of these covariates. Results: In the Cambridge cohort, STAT scores detected differences (p < 0.00005) between patients attributable to breast volume, surgical specimen weight, dosimetry, acute toxicity, radiation boost to tumor bed, postoperative infection, and smoking (p < 0.0002), with no loss of sensitivity over individual toxicity endpoints. Diabetes (p = 0.017), poor postoperative surgical cosmesis (p = 0.0036), use of chemotherapy (p = 0.0054), and increasing age (p = 0.041) were also associated with increased STAT score. When the Cambridge and Leicester datasets were combined, STAT was associated with smoking status (p < 0.00005), diabetes (p = 0.041), chemotherapy (p = 0.0008), and radiotherapy boost (p = 0.0001). STAT was independent of the toxicity scale used and was able to deal with missing data. There were correlations between residuals of the STAT score obtained using different toxicity scales (r > 0.86, p < 0.00005 for both datasets). Conclusions: The STAT score may be used to facilitate the analysis of overall late radiation toxicity, from multiple trials or centers, in studies of possible genetic and nongenetic determinants of radiotherapy toxicity.

  8. Changes in exposure temperature lead to changes in pesticide toxicity to earthworms: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velki, Mirna; Ečimović, Sandra

    2015-11-01

    The occurring climate changes will have direct consequences to all ecosystems, including the soil ecosystems. The effects of climate change include, among other, the changes in temperature and greater frequency and intensity of extreme weather conditions. Temperature is an important factor in ecotoxicological investigations since it can act as a stressor and influence the physiological status of organisms, as well as affect the fate and transport of pollutants present in the environment. However, most of so far conducted (eco)toxicological investigations neglected the possible effects of temperature and focused solely on the effects of toxicants on organisms. Considering that temperature can contribute to the toxicity of pollutants, it is of immense importance to investigate whether the change in the exposure temperature will impact the strength of the toxic effects of pollutants present in soil ecosystems. Therefore, in the present study the toxicity of several commonly used pesticides to earthworms was assessed under different exposure temperatures (15, 20 and 25°C). The results showed that changes in exposure temperature lead to changes in susceptibility of earthworms to particular pesticides. Namely, exposures to the same pesticide concentration at different temperatures lead to different toxicity responses. Increase in exposure temperature in most cases caused increase in toxicity, whereas decrease in temperature mostly caused decrease in toxicity. This preliminary study points to need for an in-depth investigation of mechanisms by which temperature affects the toxicity of pesticides and also provides important data for future research on the effects of temperature change on the soil ecosystems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effectiveness evaluation of an integrated automatic termomechanic massage system (SMATH® system in non-specific sub-acute and chronic low back pain - a randomized double-blinded controlled trial, comparing SMATH therapy versus sham therapy: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazzolari Rita

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low back pain (LBP is a major health problem in modern society, with 70-85% of the population experiencing LBP at some time in their lives. Each year, 5-10% of the workforce misses work due to LBP, most for less than 7 days. Almost 10% of all patients are at risk of developing chronic pain and disability. Little clinical evidence is available for the majority of treatments used in LBP therapy. However, moderate evidence exists for interdisciplinary rehabilitation, exercise, acupuncture, spinal manipulation, and cognitive behavioral therapy for subacute and chronic LBP. The SMATH® system (system for automatic thermomechanic massage in health is a new medical device (MD that combines basic principles of mechanical massage, thermotherapy, acupressure, infrared therapy, and moxibustion. SMATH® is suitable for automatic multidisciplinary treatment on patients with non-specific sub-acute and chronic LBP. Methods/design This paper describes the protocol for a double-blinded, sham-controlled, randomized, single-center short term clinical trial in patients with non-specific sub-acute and chronic LBP aged 18 to 70 years. The primary outcome will be the effectiveness of SMATH® versus sham therapy (medical device without active principles determined by evaluating self perceived physical function with Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ scores after 4 weeks of treatment (end of treatment. Major secondary outcome will be effectiveness of SMATH® determined by evaluating self perceived physical function comparing RMDQ scores between end of treatment and baseline. The trial part of the study will take 7 months while observational follow-up will take 11 months. The sample size will be 72 participants (36 for each arm. The project has been approved by the Ethical Committee of Cremona Hospital, Italy on 29 November 2010. Discussion Compared to other medical specialties, physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM has not yet received

  10. Toxicity of cholecalciferol overdosage in white albino mice | Ogamba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is need to determine the effect of this vitamin overdosage in animals and possibly extrapolate the findings to human beings. Aim: To determine subacute and chronic toxicity of cholecalciferol overdosage in white albino mice. Methods: Increasing doses of cholecalciferol were given to three groups of white albino mice ...

  11. Toxicity And Immunomodulatory Activity Of Fractions Of Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The two fractions caused a significant reduction in production of tissue necrosis factor – alpha and an increase in interleukin 10 (IL-10). Keywords: Hibiscus sabdariffa, plant extract and fractions, sub-acute toxicity, immuno-modulatory activity, cytokine production. African Journal of Trad, Comp and Alternative Medicine Vol.

  12. Robot training for hand motor recovery in subacute stroke patients: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orihuela-Espina, Felipe; Roldán, Giovana Femat; Sánchez-Villavicencio, Israel; Palafox, Lorena; Leder, Ronald; Sucar, Luis Enrique; Hernández-Franco, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Evidence of superiority of robot training for the hand over classical therapies in stroke patients remains controversial. During the subacute stage, hand training is likely to be the most useful. To establish whether robot active assisted therapies provides any additional motor recovery for the hand when administered during the subacute stage (occupational therapy, robot based therapies for hand recovery will show significant differences at subacute stages. A randomized clinical trial. A between subjects randomized controlled trial was carried out on subacute stroke patients (n = 17) comparing robot active assisted therapy (RT) with a classical occupational therapy (OT). Both groups received 40 sessions ensuring at least 300 repetitions per session. Treatment duration was (mean ± std) 2.18 ± 1.25 months for the control group and 2.44 ± 0.88 months for the study group. The primary outcome was motor dexterity changes assessed with the Fugl-Meyer (FMA) and the Motricity Index (MI). Both groups (OT: n = 8; RT: n = 9) exhibited significant improvements over time (Non-parametric Cliff's delta-within effect sizes: dwOT-FMA = 0.5, dwOT-MI = 0.5, dwRT-FMA = 1, dwRT-MI = 1). Regarding differences between the therapies; the Fugl-Meyer score indicated a significant advantage for the hand training with the robot (FMA hand: WRS: W = 8, p hand prehension for RT with respect to OT but failed to reach significance (MI prehension: W = 17.5, p = 0.080). No harm occurred. Robotic therapies may be useful during the subacute stages of stroke - both endpoints (FM hand and MI prehension) showed the expected trend with bigger effect size for the robotic intervention. Additional benefit of the robotic therapy over the control therapy was only significant when the difference was measured with FM, demanding further investigation with larger samples. Implications of this study are important for decision making during therapy administration and resource allocation

  13. A multi-endpoint, high-throughput study of nanomaterial toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sang-Kyu; Qu, Xiaolei; Aleman-Meza, Boanerges; Wang, Tianxiao; Riepe, Celeste; Liu, Zheng; Li, Qilin; Zhong, Weiwei

    2015-01-01

    The booming nanotech industry has raised public concerns about the environmental health and safety impact of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). High-throughput assays are needed to obtain toxicity data for the rapidly increasing number of ENMs. Here we present a suite of high-throughput methods to study nanotoxicity in intact animals using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model. At the population level, our system measures food consumption of thousands of animals to evaluate population fitness. At the organism level, our automated system analyzes hundreds of individual animals for body length, locomotion speed, and lifespan. To demonstrate the utility of our system, we applied this technology to test the toxicity of 20 nanomaterials under four concentrations. Only fullerene nanoparticles (nC60), fullerol, TiO2, and CeO2 showed little or no toxicity. Various degrees of toxicity were detected from different forms of carbon nanotubes, graphene, carbon black, Ag, and fumed SiO2 nanoparticles. Aminofullerene and UV irradiated nC60 also showed small but significant toxicity. We further investigated the effects of nanomaterial size, shape, surface chemistry, and exposure conditions on toxicity. Our data are publicly available at the open-access nanotoxicity database www.QuantWorm.org/nano. PMID:25611253

  14. Isoniazid Toxicity among an Older Veteran Population: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnard, Christopher; Gopal, Anand; Linkin, Darren R; Maslow, Joel

    2013-01-01

    our objective was to determine the incidence of toxicity among veterans initiating isoniazid therapy for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and determine whether advancing age was a risk factor for toxicity. we performed a retrospective cohort study among all adults initiating isoniazid treatment for LTBI at a Veterans Medical Center from 1999 to 2005. We collected data on patient demographics, co-morbidities, site of initiation, and treatment outcome. 219 patients initiated isoniazid therapy for LTBI during the period of observation, and the completion of therapy was confirmed in 100 patients (46%). Among 18/219 patients (8%) that discontinued therapy due to a documented suspected toxicity, the median time to onset was 3 months (IQR 1-5 months). In an adjusted Cox regression model, there was no association between discontinuation due to suspected toxicity and advancing age (HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.99, 1.07). In contrast, hepatitis C infection was a significant predictor of cessation due to toxicity in the adjusted analysis (HR 3.03, 95% CI 1.08, 8.52). cessation of isoniazid therapy due to suspected toxicity was infrequently observed among a veteran population and was not associated with advancing age. Alternative LTBI treatment approaches should be further examined in the veteran population.

  15. Isoniazid Toxicity among an Older Veteran Population: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Vinnard

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: our objective was to determine the incidence of toxicity among veterans initiating isoniazid therapy for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI and determine whether advancing age was a risk factor for toxicity. Methods: we performed a retrospective cohort study among all adults initiating isoniazid treatment for LTBI at a Veterans Medical Center from 1999 to 2005. We collected data on patient demographics, co-morbidities, site of initiation, and treatment outcome. Results: 219 patients initiated isoniazid therapy for LTBI during the period of observation, and the completion of therapy was confirmed in 100 patients (46%. Among 18/219 patients (8% that discontinued therapy due to a documented suspected toxicity, the median time to onset was 3 months (IQR 1–5 months. In an adjusted Cox regression model, there was no association between discontinuation due to suspected toxicity and advancing age (HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.99, 1.07. In contrast, hepatitis C infection was a significant predictor of cessation due to toxicity in the adjusted analysis (HR 3.03, 95% CI 1.08, 8.52. Conclusions: cessation of isoniazid therapy due to suspected toxicity was infrequently observed among a veteran population and was not associated with advancing age. Alternative LTBI treatment approaches should be further examined in the veteran population.

  16. Cytotoxicity and oral acute toxicity studies of Lantana camara leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pour, Badakhshan Mahdi; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2011-05-03

    The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicity of Lantana camara methanol extract. In order to evaluate the toxicity of Lantana camara, the acute toxicity of the methanolic extract on adult mice and cytotoxicity test on Vero cell line were investigated. A fixed large dose of 2 g/kg body weight of L. camara leaf extract was administrated by a single oral gavage according to the OECD procedure. In 2 weeks, L. camara leaf extract showed no obvious acute toxicity. While female mice lost body weight after being treated with single dose of leaf extract in acute toxicity test, male ones lost organ mass, particularly for heart and kidney. The biochemical liver function tests showed significantly elevated TBIL and ALT in the L. camara leaf extract treated female mice group compared with the control group. Cytotoxicity effect of leaf extract of L. camara was estimated through a MTT assay. Cytotoxicity tests on Vero cell line disclosed that leaf extract at concentrations up to 500 µg/mL inhibited the growth of cells 2.5 times less than did Triton 100 × 1%. More interestingly, the cytotoxicity initiated to decline at elevated concentrations of this extract. The results of both tests confirm that L. camara shows a pro toxic effect.

  17. Cytotoxicity and Oral Acute Toxicity Studies of Lantana camara Leaf Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badakhshan Mahdi Pour

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicity of Lantana camara methanol extract. Methods: In order to evaluate the toxicity of Lantana camara, the acute toxicity of the methanolic extract on adult mice and cytotoxicity test on Vero cell line were investigated. A fixed large dose of 2 g/kg body weight of L. camara leaf extract was administrated by a single oral gavage according to the OECD procedure. Results: In 2 weeks, L. camara leaf extract showed no obvious acute toxicity. While female mice lost body weight after being treated with single dose of leaf extract in acute toxicity test, male ones lost organ mass, particularly for heart and kidney. The biochemical liver function tests showed significantly elevated TBIL and ALT in the L. camara leaf extract treated female mice group compared with the control group. Cytotoxicity effect of leaf extract of L. camara was estimated through a MTT assay. Cytotoxicity tests on Vero cell line disclosed that leaf extract at concentrations up to 500 µg/mL inhibited the growth of cells 2.5 times less than did Triton 100× 1%. More interestingly, the cytotoxicity initiated to decline at elevated concentrations of this extract. Conclusions: The results of both tests confirm that L. camara shows a pro toxic effect.

  18. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis in a Child with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Co-Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Maurya, Pradeep Kumar; Thakkar, Mayur Deepak; Kulshreshtha, Dinkar; Singh, Ajai Kumar; Thacker, Anup Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is a fatal infectious disease of childhood caused by persistence of the measles virus in the brain. The effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection on subacute sclerosing panencephalitis remains elusive and rare. We report a child who developed subacute sclerosing panencephalitis following a short latency period and a rapidly progressive course with HIV co-infection.

  19. Safety assessment of ocimum basilicum hydroalcoholic extract in wistar rats: acute and subchronic toxicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasekh, Hamid Reza; Hosseinzadeh, Leila; Mehri, Soghra; Kamli-Nejad, Mohammad; Aslani, Majid; Tanbakoosazan, Farahnaz

    2012-01-01

    Ocimum basilicum L. is widely used in folk medicine of many countries including . Both O. basilicum and its oil extract have received considerable attention for their potential medicinal properties, but there are a few reports about possible toxicity of this plant. Therefore, in the present study, acute and subchronic toxicity of O. basilicum hydroalcohlic extract have been evaluated in Wistar rats. For the acute toxicity assessment, five groups of 10 animals (5 male, 5 female) received four different single dose of extract orally, the animals were, then, kept under observation for 14 days. For subchronic toxicity, the animals were divided into four groups (5 male, 5 female) and were gavaged daily by 50, 200 and 500 mg/kg of extract. Mortality, clinical signs, body weight changes, food and water consumption, and hematological and biochemical parameters were monitored during the study period. On the 45th day, animals were sacrificed and gross findings, weight of liver and left kidney and liver histological markers were assessed. The results of acute study indicated that LD50 of O. basilicum is higher than 5 mg/kg. In subchronic study, no adverse effects were observed on serum parameters in male and female rats. The hematological results showed a reduction in the hematocrit, platelets and RBC in both sexes. No abnormalities were observed in other parameters. Based on the results of this study, present data suggest that hematologic system could serve as a target organ in oral toxicity of this plant.

  20. Success rates of first-line antibiotics for culture-negative sub-acute and chronic septic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuckpaiwong, Bavornrit; Phoompoung, Saravut

    2014-09-01

    A combination of surgical and medical treatment is normally required for patients with septic arthritis. Antibiotics selected for use on these patients are normally based on tissue culture results. However, in sub-acute and chronic septic arthritis cases, the results of the culture are usually negative as a result of prior treatment. The present study will investigate the incidence of culture-negative septic arthritis and the outcomes based on the use of first-line drug antibiotics for the treatment of sub-acute and chronic septic arthritis. For the present study, the authors retrospectively reviewed medical records of surgically treated septic arthritis cases over the past 10 years at Siriraj Hospital. The patient culture results, the antibiotics used, and the results of treatment were all recorded and analyzed. One hundredfifty-three septic arthritis patients were reviewed. Sixty-two patients were classified as having been diagnosed with either sub-acute or chronic septic arthritis. Thirty-six of 62 patients (58.1%) had a negative culture result. In the culture-positive patients, 42.3% had Streptococcus, 26.9% had Staphylococcus aureus, 11.5% had other gram positive bacteria, 15.4% had gram-negative bacteria, and 3.8% had tuberculus infection. In the culture-negative sub-acute and chronic group (36 of 62), 23 patients received Cefazolin, nine patients received Cloxacillin, and four patients received Clindamycin. Successful results were 69.9%, 66.7% and 75%, respectively. The present study reflects that the incidence ofculture-negative, sub-acute and chronic septic arthritis is approximately 58.1%. The first-line class of antibiotics remains the appropriate antibiotic choice for these patients because they are still effective for treatment of septic arthritis in up to 70% of all cases.

  1. Estimation of acute oral toxicity using the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) from the 28 day repeated dose toxicity studies in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgheroni, Anna; Kinsner-Ovaskainen, Agnieszka; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Hartung, Thomas; Prieto, Pilar

    2009-02-01

    Acute systemic toxicity is one of the areas of particular concern due to the 2009 deadline set by the 7th Amendment of the Cosmetics Directive (76/768/EEC), which introduces a testing and marketing ban of cosmetic products with ingredients tested on animals. The scientific community is putting considerable effort into developing and validating non-animal alternatives in this area. However, it is unlikely that validated and regulatory accepted alternative methods and/or strategies will be available in March 2009. Following the initiatives undertaken in the pharmaceutical industry to waive the acute oral toxicity testing before going to clinical studies by using information from other in vivo studies, we proposed an approach to identify non-toxic compounds (LD50>2000mg/kg) using information from 28 days repeated dose toxicity studies. Taking into account the high prevalence of non-toxic substances (87%) in the New Chemicals Database, it was possible to set a NOAEL threshold of 200mg/kg that allowed the correct identification of 63% of non-toxic compounds, while cosmetic ingredients.

  2. PD-1 gene polymorphism in children with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskin, Ibrahim Etem; Calık, Mustafa; Abuhandan, Mahmut; Kolsal, Ebru; Celik, Sevim Karakas; Iscan, Akın

    2013-08-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a progressive inflammatory and degenerative disorder of the central nervous system. Several factors influence the risk of chronic brain infection with the mutant measles virus. However, to date, no pathogenic mechanism that may predispose to SSPE has been determined. Studies have indicated that specific polymorphisms in certain host genes are probably involved in impairing the ability of host immune cells to eradicate the measles virus in SSPE patients. Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), a member of the CD28 family, is a negative regulator of the immune system. The purpose of our study was to investigate whether PD-1 gene polymorphisms affect susceptibility to the development of SSPE in Turkish children. In total, 109 subjects (54 SSPE patients and 55 healthy controls) were genotyped for the PD-1.9 C/T (rs2227982) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). The distributions of T alleles in the PD-1.9 polymorphism in SSPE patients and healthy controls were 2.8 and 10.9%, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups; the 95% confidence interval (CI) was 0.06 to 0.85 and the odds ratio (OR) was 0.23 (χ(2) test). Thus, we identified an association between SSPE and the PD-1 rs2227982 gene polymorphism; the frequency of T alleles was higher in controls than in SSPE patients. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Phytochemical screening and acute toxicity study of ethanolic extract of Alpinia galanga in rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subash K.R, Muthulakshmi Bhaarathi G, Jagan Rao N, Binoy Vargheese Cheriyan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpinia galanga is an important ingredient in various herbal formulations has reached extensive acceptability as therapeutic agents for several diseases. The investigation of authentic analytical methods, which can reliably profile the phytochemical composition and studies on toxicity profile, including hematological and biochemical parameters is an important initial step for the establishment of standardization to screen further in search of consistent biological activity. Aim: To screen ethanolic extract of Alpinia galanga for its phytochemical constituents and acute toxicity profile. Methods: Acute toxicity studies done in rodent by OECD guideline 423 and phytochemical analysis by standard laboratory grade reagents. Results The present study revealed the presence of complex phytochemical constituents including phenols and flavanoids. The acute toxicity results has classified the test material to fall under the hazard category 2000mg/kgstudy concludes the safety of ethnobotanical use of Alpinia galanga from acute toxicity results and the presence of various phytochemical constituents in Alpinia galanga may be responsible for its various pharmacological actions documented in traditional medicine.

  4. Use of factorial designs in combination toxicity studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groten, J.P.; Schoen, E.D.; Feron, V.J.

    1996-01-01

    The use of factorial designs, in which n chemicals are studied at x(n) dose levels (x treatment groups), has been put forward as one of the valuable statistical approaches for hazard assessment of chemical mixtures. Very recently a '25 study' was presented to describe interactions between the

  5. Current therapies and future perspectives in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatli, Burak; Ekici, Bariş; Ozmen, Meral

    2012-04-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is a progressive neurological disorder of children and young adults caused by a measles virus that became defective by persisting in the host. According to the results of clinical trials, antiviral and/or immunomodulatory therapy can slow the progression of the disease and improve life expectancy in patients. However, its long-term effects and eventual outcome remain debatable due to conflicting results and its lack of effect on the rapidly progressive form of the disease. Possible future therapies for subacute sclerosing panencephalitis are RNAi and antiapoptotic agents, which are currently in the hypothetical and experimental stages of research.

  6. One Health and the Environment: Toxic Cyanobacteria A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study of environmental health typically focuses on human populations. However, companion animals, livestock and wildlife also experience adverse health effects from environmental pollutants. Animals may experience direct exposure to pollutants unlike people in most ambient ex...

  7. Cerebral blood flow and the response to acetazolamide during the acute, subacute, and chronic stages of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Akira; Yoshinaga, Shinya; Nakayama, Yoshiya; Tomonaga, Masamichi [Fukuoka Univ., Chikushino (Japan). Chikushi Hospital

    1998-10-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and response to acetazolamide were measured during the acute, subacute, and chronic stages after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and correlated with symptomatic vasospasm and clinical outcome in 45 patients who underwent early clipping of ruptured cerebral aneurysms, of whom 18 had symptomatic vasospasm and 27 did not. Xenon-enhanced CT was used to measure CBF in both groups during the acute, subacute, and chronic stages, defined as days 0-4, 5-20, and {>=}21, respectively. Vasoresponse was assessed by the CBF increase in response to 1 g of acetazolamide administered after the baseline CBF study, except in the subacute stage of patients with symptomatic vasospasm. Outcome was scored based on activities of daily living 2-3 months after subarachnoid hemorrhage. CBF values and the response to acetazolamide were preserved during the acute stage but CBF values fell considerably below control values during the subacute stage in patients with vasospasm. The regions with flow values below 15 ml/100 g/min subsequently converted to infarction and the regions with those above 19 ml/100 g/min remained intact without infarction. During the chronic stage, low CBF persisted, but the response to acetazolamide was higher than that of the control group. Outcome scores were good and fair. CBF values were normal during all stages in patients without vasospasm. The response to acetazolamide fell transiently during the subacute stage. All outcome scores were excellent. In conclusion, the CBF informations soon after the onset of symptomatic vasospasm are useful to predict a reversibility of ischemic brain tissue and a final outcome. (K.H.)

  8. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies of three plants used in Cameroonian ethnoveterinary medicine: Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Xanthorrhoeaceae) leaves, Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) seeds or leaves, and Mimosa pudica L. (Fabaceae) leaves in Kabir chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghonjuyi, Ndaleh Wozerou; Tiambo, Christian Keambou; Taïwe, Germain Sotoing; Toukala, Jean Paul; Lisita, Frederico; Juliano, Raquel Soares; Kimbi, Helen Kuokuo

    2016-02-03

    Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Xanthorrhoeaceae), Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) and Mimosa pudica L. (Fabaceae) are widely used in the Cameroonian ethnoveterinary medicine as a panacea, and specifically for gastrointestinal disorders as well as an anthelmintic and antibacterial. The present study evaluated the potential toxicity of the hydroalcoholic extracts of Aloe vera leaves, Carica papaya leaves or seeds, and Mimosa pudica leaves after acute and sub-chronic administration in chicks. For the acute toxicity test a single administration of each of the four hydroalcoholic extracts was given orally at doses ranging from 40 to 5120 mg/kg (n=5/group/sex). In the sub-chronic study, these extracts were given orally as a single administration to chicks at doses of 80, 160, 320 and 640 mg/kg/day for 42 days. The anti-angiogenic properties of these extracts (5-320 µg/mg) were investigated in the chick chorioallantoic membrane in vivo. In the acute toxicity test, none of the four studied hydroalcoholic extracts induced mortality or significant behavioural changes. The sub-acute treatment with the four plant extracts did not alter either the body weight gain or the food and water consumption. However, the results indicated that Aloe vera leaf extract acute treatment by oral route at doses up to 2560 mg/kg did not produce death in 50% (5/10) of chicks during 24h or 14 days of observation, but 20% (2/10) chicks died. The haematological and biochemical analyses did not show significant differences in any of the parameters examined in female or male groups, with the exception of a transient rise in white blood cell counts at high doses (640 mg/kg). Additionally, these extracts did not have the potential for anti-angiogenic effects through the inhibition of neo-angiogenesis in the chick chorioallantoic membrane in vivo. The results showed that the therapeutic use of the hydroalcoholic extracts of Aloe vera leaves, Carica papaya leaves or seeds and Mimosa pudica leaves had very low

  9. Estudo clínico e videofluoroscópico da disfagia na fase subaguda do acidente vascular encefálico Clinical and videofluoroscopic study of dysphagia in patients with cerebrovascular accident in the subacute phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Rodrigues Xerez

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Correlacionar, em pacientes portadores de acidente vascular encefálico (AVE na fase subaguda, as alterações clínicas da deglutição com as observadas na videofluoroscopia. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: De 37 portadores de AVE subagudo confirmado por exame de imagem, 26 pacientes de ambos os sexos, com idade média de 59,69 anos, foram avaliados clínica e videofluoroscopicamente. Consideramos como variáveis para pareamento estatístico os parâmetros clínicos indicativos de penetração/aspiração e sua confirmação na videofluoroscopia. RESULTADOS: Identificamos disfagia em 19 (73% dos 26 pacientes que fizeram videofluoroscopia; dez (38,46% apresentaram penetração/aspiração de líquidos. Os dados resultantes mostraram não existir correlação (p OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical signs of swallowing abnormalities with videofluoroscopy findings in patients with cerebrovascular accident (CVA in the subacute phase. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From a group of 37 patients with subacute CVA confirmed by imaging examinations, 26 patients (male and female; mean age of 59.69 years were clinically and videofluoroscopically evaluated. The clinical parameters for penetration/aspiration of fluids and the confirmation by videofluoroscopy were used for the statistical analysis. RESULTS: Dysphagia was identified in 19 (73% of the 26 patients who were submitted to videofluoroscopy; 10 (38.6% patients presented penetration/aspiration of fluids. The results demonstrated that there was no correlation (p < 0.05 between the occurrence of dysphagia and/or dysartria and penetration/aspiration of fluids observed on videofluoroscopy. There was correlation between penetration/aspiration of liquids observed on videofluoroscopy and the following parameters: condition of the teeth (p = 0.047, face motility (p = 0.019 and sensibility (p = 0.039, and tongue motility (p = 0.012. CONCLUSION: It was not possible to determine the presence of penetration/aspiration of

  10. Irritantcy potential and sub acute dermal toxicity study of Pistacia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current study was undertaken to assess safety of Pistacia lentiscus fruits fatty oil (PLFO) as a topical traditional remedy. A primary skin and eye irritation tests were conducted with New Zealand white rabbits to determine the potential for PLFO to produce irritation from a single application. In addition, a sub acute dermal ...

  11. Toxicity studies of iron-containing ayurvedic drug Kasisa Bhasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satadru Palbag

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kasisa is an important iron-containing mineral drug of ayurvedic Rasa Shastra and employs for various therapeutic uses in anemia, hair growth modulator, eye disorders, skin disorders, etc. Objective: In this study, shodhana was done by triturating in lemon juice and calcination was done by traditional heating arrangement with Kanji (sour gruel method. Both the purified and calcined product of the Kasisa was subjected to histopathological and toxicological study to evaluate the safety of this iron-based ayurvedic medicine. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two adult Charles Foster albino rats of either sex, 16 for each drug (Shodhita Kasisa, Kasisa Bhasma, were taken for the whole study. Toxicological study of the brain, liver, kidney, and spleen was performed. Results: Kasisa Bhasma at higher dose of 100 mg/kg showed some adverse effects in isolated organs of experimental animals, but the extent of damage is minimal compared to Shodhita Kasisa which showed adverse effects at 25-50 mg/kg. Conclusions: Kasisa Bhasma is nontoxic and safer as compared to Shodhita Kasisa. It can be administered at a controlled dose to affect therapeutic efficacy.

  12. Acute toxicity studies and characterisation of local dietary salts in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kanwa and Shem are food additives and also local dietary salts which are commonly used in Nigeria for various purposes both in rural and urban communities. Kanwa and Shem were subjected to acute toxicological studies using the modified Lorke method while the elemental, qualitative analysis and pH were determined ...

  13. Subchronic Toxicity Study on 1,4-Dithiane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    respectively. The left-ear clipped control male in cage 14 had malocclusion (a bite defect) and was excluded from all statistical analyses. An ANOVA on the...to test an oronasal species, e.g., a rabbit . 5.) Studying other compounds (e.g., 1,4-thioxane or other mustard metabolites or 1,3-dithiane) for

  14. Per- and polyfluoro toxicity (LC(50) inhalation) study in rat and mouse using QSAR modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhhatarai, Barun; Gramatica, Paola

    2010-03-15

    Fully or partially fluorinated compounds, known as per- and polyfluorinated chemicals are widely distributed in the environment and released because of their use in different household and industrial products. Few of these long chain per- and polyfluorinated chemicals are classified as emerging pollutants, and their environmental and toxicological effects are unveiled in the literature. This has diverted the production of long chain compounds, considered as more toxic, to short chains, but concerns regarding the toxicity of both types of per- and polyfluorinated chemicals are alarming. There are few experimental data available on the environmental behavior and toxicity of these compounds, and moreover, toxicity profiles are found to be different for the types of animals and species used. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) is applied to a combination of short and long chain per- and polyfluorinated chemicals, for the first time, to model and predict the toxicity on two species of rodents, rat (Rattus) and mouse (Mus), by modeling inhalation (LC(50)) data. Multiple linear regression (MLR) models using the ordinary-least-squares (OLS) method, based on theoretical molecular descriptors selected by genetic algorithm (GA), were used for QSAR studies. Training and prediction sets were prepared a priori, and these sets were used to derive statistically robust and predictive (both internally and externally) models. The structural applicability domain (AD) of the model was verified on a larger set of per- and polyfluorinated chemicals retrieved from different databases and journals. The descriptors involved, the similarities, and the differences observed between models pertaining to the toxicity related to the two species are discussed. Chemometric methods such as principal component analysis (PCA) and multidimensional scaling (MDS) were used to select most toxic compounds from those within the AD of both models, which will be subjected to experimental tests

  15. Biocompatibility study of two diblock copolymeric nanoparticles for biomedical applications by in vitro toxicity testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goñi-de-Cerio, Felipe [GAIKER Technology Centre (Spain); Mariani, Valentina [European Commission, Nanobiosciences Unit, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre (Italy); Cohen, Dror [Dead Sea Laboratories, AHAVA (Israel); Madi, Lea [Tel-Aviv University, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Sackler School of Medicine (Israel); Thevenot, Julie; Oliveira, Hugo [ENSCPB, Université de Bordeaux (France); Uboldi, Chiara; Giudetti, Guido; Coradeghini, Rosella [European Commission, Nanobiosciences Unit, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre (Italy); Garanger, Elisabeth [ENSCPB, Université de Bordeaux (France); Rossi, François [European Commission, Nanobiosciences Unit, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre (Italy); Portugal-Cohen, Meital; Oron, Miriam [Dead Sea Laboratories, AHAVA (Israel); Korenstein, Rafi [Tel-Aviv University, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Sackler School of Medicine (Israel); Lecommandoux, Sébastien [ENSCPB, Université de Bordeaux (France); Ponti, Jessica [European Commission, Nanobiosciences Unit, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre (Italy); Suárez-Merino, Blanca; Heredia, Pedro, E-mail: heredia@gaiker.es [GAIKER Technology Centre (Spain)

    2013-11-15

    Drugs used for chemotherapy normally carry out adverse, undesired effects. Nanotechnology brings about new horizons to tackle cancer disease with a different strategy. One of the most promising approaches is the use of nanocarriers to transport active drugs. These nanocarriers need to have special properties to avoid immune responses and toxicity, and it is critical to study these effects. Nanocarriers may have different nature, but polypeptide-based copolymers have attracted considerable attention for their biocompatibility, controlled and slow biodegradability as well as low toxicity. Little has been done regarding specific nanocarriers toxicity. In this study, we performed a thorough toxicological study of two different block copolymer nanoparticles (NPs); poly(trimethylene carbonate)-block–poly(l-glutamic acid) (PTMC-b–PGA) and poly(ethylene glycol)-block–poly(γ-benzyl-l-glutamate) (PEG-b–PBLG) with sizes between 113 and 131 nm. Low blood–serum–protein interaction was observed. Moreover, general toxicity assays and other endpoints (apoptosis or necrosis) showed good biocompatibility for both NPs. Reactive oxygen species increased in only two cell lines (HepG2 and TK6) in the presence of PTMC-b–PGA. Cytokine production study showed cytokine induction only in one cell line (A549). We also performed the same assays on human skin organ culture before and after UVB light treatment, with a moderate toxicity after treatment independent of NPs presence or absence. Interleukin 1 induction was also observed due to the combined effect of PEG-b–PBLG and UVB light irradiation. Future in vivo studies for biocompatibility and toxicity will provide more valuable information, but, so far, the findings presented here suggest the possibility of using these two NPs as nanocarriers for nanomedical applications, always taking into account the application procedure and the way in which they are implemented.

  16. Subchronic and developmental toxicity studies in rats with Ac-Di-Sol croscarmellose sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Christine; Weiner, Myra L; Kotkoskie, Lois A; Borzelleca, Joseph; Butt, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the subchronic and developmental toxicity of Ac-Di-Sol (croscarmellose sodium). In the subchronic study, groups of Sprague-Dawley rats (20/sex/group) received 0 (control), 10000, or 50000 ppm Ac-Di-Sol in the diet for 90 consecutive days (equivalent to 757 and 893 mg/kg/day for males and females fed 10000 ppm, respectively, and to 3922 and 4721 mg/kg/day for males and females fed 50000 ppm, respectively). No mortality, clinical signs of toxicity, or adverse toxicological effects on hematology or serum chemistry parameters, feed consumption, or ophthalmologic examinations were noted in any treatment group. Body weight gain was depressed in high-dose males during the final 3 weeks. The only treatment-related histological lesion noted was moderate renal mineralization at the corticomedullary junction in one high-dose female. This lesion was not considered a specific effect of Ac-Di-Sol, but rather a secondary effect resulting from a potential increase in urinary pH and renal excretion of sodium due to the high intake of sodium associated with Ac-Di-Sol. In the developmental toxicity study, groups of pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (25/group) received 0 (control), 10000, or 50000 ppm Ac-Di-Sol in the diet on gestational days 6 to 15. No evidence of maternal, fetal, or embryo toxicity was noted. The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for Ac-Di-Sol in both studies exceeds 50000 ppm in the diet, which represents doses of 3922 and 4712 mg/kg/day, for males and females, respectively. The results of these studies demonstrate the low subchronic oral toxicity and developmental toxicity of Ac-Di-Sol, and support the safe use of Ac-Di-Sol in oral applications such as pharmaceuticals, dietary supplements, and sweetener tablets.

  17. Biocompatibility study of two diblock copolymeric nanoparticles for biomedical applications by in vitro toxicity testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goñi-de-Cerio, Felipe; Mariani, Valentina; Cohen, Dror; Madi, Lea; Thevenot, Julie; Oliveira, Hugo; Uboldi, Chiara; Giudetti, Guido; Coradeghini, Rosella; Garanger, Elisabeth; Rossi, François; Portugal-Cohen, Meital; Oron, Miriam; Korenstein, Rafi; Lecommandoux, Sébastien; Ponti, Jessica; Suárez-Merino, Blanca; Heredia, Pedro

    2013-11-01

    Drugs used for chemotherapy normally carry out adverse, undesired effects. Nanotechnology brings about new horizons to tackle cancer disease with a different strategy. One of the most promising approaches is the use of nanocarriers to transport active drugs. These nanocarriers need to have special properties to avoid immune responses and toxicity, and it is critical to study these effects. Nanocarriers may have different nature, but polypeptide-based copolymers have attracted considerable attention for their biocompatibility, controlled and slow biodegradability as well as low toxicity. Little has been done regarding specific nanocarriers toxicity. In this study, we performed a thorough toxicological study of two different block copolymer nanoparticles (NPs); poly(trimethylene carbonate)- block-poly( l-glutamic acid) (PTMC- b-PGA) and poly(ethylene glycol)- block-poly( γ-benzyl- l-glutamate) (PEG- b-PBLG) with sizes between 113 and 131 nm. Low blood-serum-protein interaction was observed. Moreover, general toxicity assays and other endpoints (apoptosis or necrosis) showed good biocompatibility for both NPs. Reactive oxygen species increased in only two cell lines (HepG2 and TK6) in the presence of PTMC- b-PGA. Cytokine production study showed cytokine induction only in one cell line (A549). We also performed the same assays on human skin organ culture before and after UVB light treatment, with a moderate toxicity after treatment independent of NPs presence or absence. Interleukin 1 induction was also observed due to the combined effect of PEG- b-PBLG and UVB light irradiation. Future in vivo studies for biocompatibility and toxicity will provide more valuable information, but, so far, the findings presented here suggest the possibility of using these two NPs as nanocarriers for nanomedical applications, always taking into account the application procedure and the way in which they are implemented.

  18. Characterisation of carbon nanotubes in the context of toxicity studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhanu, D.; Dybowska, A.; Misra, S.K.; Stanley, C.J.; Ruenraroengsak, P.; Boccaccini, A.R.; Tetley, T.D.; Luoma, S.N.; Plant, J.A.; Valsami-Jones, E.

    2009-01-01

    Nanotechnology has the potential to revolutionise our futures, but has also prompted concerns about the possibility that nanomaterials may harm humans or the biosphere. The unique properties of nanoparticles, that give them novel size dependent functionalities, may also have the potential to cause harm. Discrepancies in existing human health and environmental studies have shown the importance of good quality, well-characterized reference nanomaterials for toxicological studies. Here we make a case for the importance of the detailed characterization of nanoparticles, using several methods, particularly to allow the recognition of impurities and the presence of chemically identical but structurally distinct phases. Methods to characterise fully, commercially available multi-wall carbon nanotubes at different scales, are presented. ?? 2009 Berhanu et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  19. A thirteen week ad libitum administration toxicity study of tartrazine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tartrazine is a colorant widely used in food products, drugs and cosmetics. The current study evaluates the effect of sub-chronic ingestion of tartrazine in drinking water at doses of 0, 0.1, 0.45, 1 and 2.5% for 13 weeks in mice. Our results show that female body weight gain and food consumption decreased in all treated ...

  20. Acute oral toxicity and biodistribution study of zinc-aluminium-levodopa nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kura, Aminu Umar; Saifullah, Bullo; Cheah, Pike-See; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Azmi, Norazrina; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2015-03-01

    Layered double hydroxide (LDH) is an inorganic-organic nano-layered material that harbours drug between its two-layered sheets, forming a sandwich-like structure. It is attracting a great deal of attention as an alternative drug delivery (nanodelivery) system in the field of pharmacology due to their relative low toxic potential. The production of these nanodelivery systems, aimed at improving human health through decrease toxicity, targeted delivery of the active compound to areas of interest with sustained release ability. In this study, we administered zinc-aluminium-LDH-levodopa nanocomposite (ZAL) and zinc-aluminium nanocomposite (ZA) to Sprague Dawley rats to evaluate for acute oral toxicity following OECD guidelines. The oral administration of ZAL and ZA at a limit dose of 2,000 mg/kg produced neither mortality nor acute toxic signs throughout 14 days of the observation. The percentage of body weight gain of the animals showed no significant difference between control and treatment groups. Animal from the two treated groups gained weight continuously over the study period, which was shown to be significantly higher than the weight at the beginning of the study ( P lesion or histopathological changes observed in vital organs of the rats. The results suggested that ZAL and ZA at 2,000 mg/kg body weight in rats do not induce acute toxicity in the animals. Elemental analysis of tissues of treated animals demonstrated the wider distribution of the nanocomposite including the brain. In summary, findings of acute toxicity tests in this study suggest that zinc-aluminium nanocomposite intercalated with and the un-intercalated were safe when administered orally in animal models for short periods of time. It also highlighted the potential distribution ability of Tween-80 coated nanocomposite after oral administration.

  1. QSAR study of the toxicity of nitrobenzenes to river bacteria and photobacterium phosphoreum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, X.; Lu, G.; Lang, P. [Northeast Normal Univ., Changchun (China)

    1997-01-01

    Since nitrobenzenes constitute a class of industrial chemicals that are present in Songhua River and probably in many other industrialized countries as well, it is useful to gain insight into their potential hazard to aquatic organisms. For this reason, it was decided to determine data on the toxicity for bacteria in the Songhua River. Furthermore, the toxicity to Ph. phosphoreum was determined in the Microtox assay, in order to further evaluate the usefulness of this assay for hazard assessment. Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) have been developed for aromatic nitro compound toxicity to aquatic species, but no data on the toxicity of nitrobenzenes to environmental bacteria were used. In this study, the toxicity of various substituted nitrobenzenes to bacteria in Songhua River and to Ph. phosphoreum has been investigated, establishing quantitative structure-activity relationships with n-octanol-water partition coefficient (log P), the energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (E{sub LUMO}) and the sum of substituent constant ({Sigma}{sigma}-). 12 refs., 2 tabs.

  2. Mushroom poisoning: a study on circumstances of exposure and patterns of toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk-Jaeger, Katharina M; Rauber-Lüthy, Christine; Bodmer, Michael; Kupferschmidt, Hugo; Kullak-Ublick, Gerd A; Ceschi, Alessandro

    2012-06-01

    Picking wild mushrooms is a popular pastime in Switzerland. Correct identification of the species is difficult for laypersons. Ingestion of toxic mushrooms may result in serious toxicity, including death. The aim of the study is to analyze and describe the circumstances of exposure to mushrooms, and to define the clinical relevance of mushroom poisoning for humans in Central Europe. We performed a retrospective case study and analyzed all inquiries concerning human exposures to mushrooms (n = 5638, 1.2% of all inquiries) which were reported to the Swiss Toxicological Information Centre between January 1995 and December 2009. The most frequent reason for contacting the poison center in cases of adult exposure was toxicity resulting from edible species. Pediatric exposure predominantly occurred from mushrooms found around the home. Severe symptoms have not only been observed after ingestion of non-amatoxin-containing toxic mushrooms, i.e. Boletus sp. and Cortinarius sp., but also after meals of edible species. The mortality of confirmed amatoxin poisonings was high (5/32) compared to other reports. Inquiries regarding mushroom poisoning were a relatively infrequent reason for contacting the poison center. Nevertheless, accidental ingestion of toxic mushrooms can be responsible for severe or fatal poisonings. Although pediatric exposure to mushrooms found around the home has not led to serious toxicity in this study, prevention of exposure is warranted. Inspection of wild mushrooms by a certified mushroom expert or a mycologist seems to be a safe procedure which should be recommended. Copyright © 2012 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Mercury sensing and toxicity studies of novel latex fabricated silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borase, Hemant P; Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Salunkhe, Rahul B; Suryawanshi, Rahul K; Salunke, Bipinchandra K; Patil, Satish V

    2014-11-01

    Safe and eco-friendly alternatives to currently used hazardous chemico-physical methods of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesis are need of time. Rapid, low cost, selective detection of toxic metals in environmental sample is important to take safety action. Toxicity assessment of engineered AgNPs is essential to avoid its side effects on human and non-target organisms. In the present study, biologically active latex from Euphorbia heterophylla (Poinsettia) was utilized for synthesis of AgNPs. AgNPs was of spherical shape and narrow size range (20-50 nm). Occurrence of elemental silver and crystalline nature of AgNPs was analyzed. Role of latex metabolites in reduction and stabilization of AgNPs was analyzed by FT-IR, protein coagulation test and phytochemical analysis. Latex-synthesized AgNPs showed potential in selective and sensitive detection of toxic mercury ions (Hg(2+)) with limit of detection around 100 ppb. Addition of Hg(2+) showed marked deviation in color and surface plasmon resonance spectra of AgNPs. Toxicity studies on aquatic non-target species Daphnia magna showed that latex-synthesized AgNPs (20.66 ± 1.52% immobilization) were comparatively very less toxic than chemically synthesized AgNPs (51.66 ± 1.52% immobilization). Similarly, comparative toxicity study on human red blood cells showed lower hemolysis (4.46 ± 0.01%) by latex-synthesized AgNPs as compared to chemically synthesized AgNPs causing 6.14 ± 0.01% hemolysis.

  4. Proteomics study of silver nanoparticles toxicity on Oryza sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzajani, Fateme; Askari, Hossein; Hamzelou, Sara; Schober, Yvonne; Römpp, Andreas; Ghassempour, Alireza; Spengler, Bernhard

    2014-10-01

    The increasing use of silver nanoparticles, (AgNPs), will inevitably result in their release into the environment and thereby cause the exposure to plants. It was claimed that using AgNPs is a safe and efficient method to preserve and treat agents of disease in agriculture. This study tries to understand the protein populations and sub-populations and follow up environmental AgNPs stresses. To accomplish these, the action of homemade spherical AgNPs colloidal suspension against Oryza sativa L. was investigated by a proteomic approach (2-DE and NanoLC/FT-ICR MS identification). Twenty-eight responsive (decrement/increment in abundance) proteins were identified. Proteomic results revealed that an exposure of O. sativa L., root with different concentrations of AgNPs resulted in an accumulation of protein precursors, indicative of the dissipation of a proton motive force. The identified proteins are involved in oxidative stress tolerance, Ca(2+) regulation and signaling, transcription and protein degradation, cell wall and DNA/RNA/protein direct damage, cell division and apoptosis. The expression pattern of these proteins and their possible involvement in the nontoxicity mechanisms were discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Uptake and toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in terrestrial springtails--studying bioconcentration kinetics and linking toxicity to chemical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stine Nørgaard; Smith, Kilian Eric Christopher; Holmstrup, Martin; Mayer, Philipp

    2013-02-01

    Passive dosing applies a polymer loaded with test compound(s) to establish and maintain constant exposure in laboratory experiments. Passive dosing with the silicone poly(dimethylsiloxane) was used to control exposure of the terrestrial springtail Folsomia candida to six polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in bioconcentration and toxicity experiments. Folsomia candida could move freely on the PAH-loaded silicone, resulting in exposure via air and direct contact. The bioconcentration kinetics indicated efficient uptake of naphthalene, anthracene, and pyrene through air and (near) equilibrium partitioning of these PAHs to lipids and possibly the waxy layer of the springtail cuticle. Toxicities of naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene were related to chemical activity, which quantifies the energetic level and drives spontaneous processes including diffusive biouptake. Chemical activity-response relationships yielded effective lethal chemical activities (La50s) well within the expected range for baseline toxicity (0.01-0.1). Effective lethal body burdens for naphthalene and pyrene exceeded the expected range of 2 to 8 mmol kg(-1) fresh weight, which again indicated the waxy layer to be a sorbing phase. Finally, chemical activities were converted into equilibrium partitioning concentrations in lipids yielding effective lethal concentrations for naphthalene and phenanthrene in good correspondence with the lethal membrane burden for baseline toxicity (40-160 mmol kg(-1) lipid). Passive dosing was a practical approach for tightly controlling PAH exposure, which in turn provided new experimental possibilities and findings. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  6. A study on the differential response of malting barley genotypes to boron toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Aydın, Mehmet; Kaptan, Mustafa Ali; Sümer, Feride Öncan

    2008-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out to study the differential response of eight malting barley genotypes to boron toxicity in Aydın, Turkey. Genotypes were grown with and without the application of 40 kg B ha-1. Total dry matter yield, grain yield and boron concentration of roots, stems, leaves and ears were determined. Boron application resulted in toxicity symptoms at the flag leaves and reduced total dry matter and grain yield as 12.2% and 30.5%. Line 7 gave both the lowest yiel...

  7. beta-Cyclodextrin: 52-week toxicity studies in the rat and dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellringer, M E; Smith, T G; Read, R; Gopinath, C; Olivier, P

    1995-05-01

    A 52-wk toxicity study by dietary administration was performed in Sprague-Dawley rats and in pure-bred beagle dogs with beta-cyclodextrin, a starch derivative that acts as a molecular inclusion agent. Doses of 0 (control), 12,500, 25,000 and 50,000 ppm were selected for the rat study, and 0 (control), 6200, 12,500 and 50,000 ppm were selected for the dog study. The liver and kidney were identified at the histopathological examination as target organs for toxicity in the rat at doses of 50,000 and 25,000 ppm, with the hepatic changes associated with increased plasma liver enzyme and reduced plasma triglyceride concentrations. In the dog study, there was no pathological evidence of systemic toxicity, although there were minor changes in urinalysis and biochemical parameters and a slightly higher incidence of liquid faeces. These changes were considered to be of no toxicological importance. The results in these studies, therefore, indicate that the non-toxic effect level was 12,500 ppm in the rat (equivalent to 654 or 864 mg/kg/day for males or females, respectively) and 50,000 ppm in the dog (equivalent to 1831 or 1967 mg/kg/day for males or females, respectively).

  8. Resolving MRI abnormalities with progression of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winer, J.B. (Saint Mary' s Hospital, Birmingham (UK)); Pires, M.; Kermode, A.; Ginsberg, L. (National Hospital for Nervous Diseases, Birmingham (UK)); Rossor, M. (Saint Mary' s Hospital, Birmingham (UK) National Hospital for Nervous Diseases, Birmingham (UK))

    1991-04-01

    Serial MRI was performed on a 15 year old girl with Subacute Sclerosing Pan-encephalitis (SSPE). After a period of remission she entered a phase of progressive deterioration. A repeat MRI showed significant resolution of the previous abnormalities. Her pathology and MRI scans are discussed.

  9. Epilepsia partialis continua in children with fulminant subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravljanac, Ruzica; Jovic, Nebojsa; Djuric, Milena; Nikolic, Ljubica

    2011-12-01

    Various inflammatory diseases of central nervous system, including subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, could cause epilepsia partialis continua. Two boys with epilepsia partialis continua with onset in terminal phase of atypical subacute sclerosing panencephalitis have been reported. Children were not vaccinated against measles, and the second case had history of measles at an early age. In both cases, the onset of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis was characterized by altered behavior and cognitive decline with very fast mental and neurological deterioration. One boy was suffering from complex partial seizures and myoclonic jerks synchronous with periodic electroencephalographic pattern. Diagnosis was proved by increased titers of antimeasles antibodies in both serum and cerebrospinal fluid. In terminal phase of the disease, epilepsia partialis continua of localized group of the muscles was diagnosed, with good response to intravenous infusion of midazolam. Surface electroencephalographic recordings during epilepsia partialis continua did not show the epileptic discharges. During the terminal phase of the disease, no other type of seizures and movement disorders were recognized, except epilepsia partialis continua. In spite of the treatment, period from the onset of disease to death lasted less than 3 months, suggesting very fulminant course of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

  10. High-Dose Intravenous Ribavirin Therapy for Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Shigeta, Shiro; Mori, Shuichi; Tomoda, Akemi; Shiraishi, Seiji; Miike, Teruhisa; Suzuki, Hitoshi

    2001-01-01

    Two patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) were treated safely and effectively with high doses of intravenous ribavirin combined with intraventricular alpha interferon. The ribavirin concentrations maintained in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid were higher than those which inhibit SSPE virus replication in vitro and in vivo. PMID:11181386

  11. Virtual Reality Training for Upper Extremity in Subacute Stroke (VIRTUES)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunner, Iris; Skouen, Jan Sture; Hofstad, Håkon

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effectiveness of upper extremity virtual reality rehabilitation training (VR) to time-matched conventional training (CT) in the subacute phase after stroke. Methods: In this randomized, controlled, single-blind phase III multicenter trial, 120 participants with upper...

  12. Short-term toxicity studies with triphenyltin compounds in rats and guinea-pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuuren, H.G.; Kroes, R.; Vink, H.H.; Esch, G.J. van

    1966-01-01

    Short-term toxicity studies have been carried out in rats and guinea-pigs fed diets containing triphenyltin acetate (TPTA), triphenyltin hydroxide (TPTH) or triethyltin hydroxide (TETH) for 90 days at levels ranging from 0 to 50 ppm. The lowest dietary levels found to retard growth in rats and

  13. Ninety-day oral toxicity study of lycopene from Blakeslea trispora in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, D.; Kuper, C.F.; Fraile, N.; Estrella, A.; Rodríguez Otero, C.

    2003-01-01

    Lycopene, as a suspension in sunflower oil (20% w/w), was tested for subchronic toxicity by administration at dietary concentrations of 0, 0.25, 0.50, and 1.0% to groups of 20 male and 20 female Wistar rats for a period of 90 days. The lycopene examined in this study was derived from a fungal

  14. Developmental toxicity study of vegetable oil-derived stanol fatty acid esters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slesinski, R.S.; Turnbull, D.; Frankos, V.H.; Wolterbeek, A.P.M.; Waalkens-Berendsen, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    In a standard developmental toxicity study, a mixture of vegetable oil- derived stanol fatty acid esters was administered in the diet to groups of 28 mated female HsdCpb:WU Wistar rats at concentrations that provided 0, 1, 2.5, and 5% total stanols (equivalent to 0, 1.75, 4.38, and 8.76% plant

  15. Prenatal developmental toxicity study with 7-hydroxymatairesinol potassium acetate (HMRlignan) in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolterbeek, A.P.M.; Roberts, A.; Korte, H.; Unkila, M.; Waalkens-Berendsen, D.H.

    2004-01-01

    Plant lignan 7-hydromatairesinol, a novel precursor of the mammalian lignan enterolactone was evaluated in a prenatal developmental toxicity study conducted in the Wistar rat. Mated female rats were fed diets containing 0, 0.25, 1, and 4% (w/w) of 7-hydroxymatairesinol in the form of potassium

  16. One-generation reproductive toxicity study of DHA-rich oil in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blum, R.; Kiy, T.; Waalkens-Berendsen, I.; Wong, A.W.; Roberts, A.

    2007-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids, including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are natural constituents of the human diet. DHA-algal oil is produced through the use of the marine protist, Ulkenia sp. The reproductive toxicity of DHA-algal oil was assessed in a one-generation study. Rats were provided diets

  17. Acute toxicity study and effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Guiera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute toxicity study and effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Guiera senegalensis J. F. Gmel (combretaceae) on trypanosome Brucei brucei induced pathology in albino rats. ... were observed at histopathology in some extract treated groups compared to the infected untreated group, suggesting a dose dependent extract activity.

  18. Oral two-generation reproduction toxicity study with NM-200 synthetic amorphous silica in Wistar rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolterbeek, A.; Oosterwijk, T.; Schneider, S.; Landsiedel, R.; Groot, D. de; Ee, R. van; Wouters, M.; Sandt, H. van de

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic amorphous silica (SAS) like NM-200 is used in a wide variety of technological applications and consumer products. Although SAS has been widely investigated the available reproductive toxicity studies are old and do not cover all requirements of current OECD Guidelines. As part of a

  19. Study on the Potential Toxicity of a Thymoquinone-Rich Fraction Nanoemulsion in Sprague Dawley Tats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maznah Ismail

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxicological studies constitute an essential part of the effort in developing an herbal medicine into a drug product. A newly developed thymoquinone-rich fraction nanoemulsion (TQRFNE has been prepared using a high pressure homogenizer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential acute toxicity of this nanoemulsion in Sprague Dawley rats. The acute toxicity studies were conducted as per the OECD guidelines 425, allowing for the use of test dose limit of 20 mL TQRFNE (containing 44.5 mg TQ/kg. TQRFNE and distilled water (DW as a control were administered orally to both sexes of rats on Day 0 and observed for 14 days. All the animals appeared normal, and healthy throughout the study. There was no observed mortality or any signs of toxicity during the experimental period. The effects of the TQRFNE and DW groups on general behavior, body weight, food and water consumption, relative organ weight, hematology, histopathology, and clinical biochemistry were measured. All the parameters measured were unaffected as compared to the control (DW group. The administration of 20 mL TQRFNE /kg was not toxic after an acute exposure.

  20. Use of the zebrafish larvae as a model to study cigarette smoke condensate toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Lee D; Soo, Evelyn C; Achenbach, John C; Morash, Michael G; Soanes, Kelly H

    2014-01-01

    The smoking of tobacco continues to be the leading cause of premature death worldwide and is linked to the development of a number of serious illnesses including heart disease, respiratory diseases, stroke and cancer. Currently, cell line based toxicity assays are typically used to gain information on the general toxicity of cigarettes and other tobacco products. However, they provide little information regarding the complex disease-related changes that have been linked to smoking. The ethical concerns and high cost associated with mammalian studies have limited their widespread use for in vivo toxicological studies of tobacco. The zebrafish has emerged as a low-cost, high-throughput, in vivo model in the study of toxicology. In this study, smoke condensates from 2 reference cigarettes and 6 Canadian brands of cigarettes with different design features were assessed for acute, developmental, cardiac, and behavioural toxicity (neurotoxicity) in zebrafish larvae. By making use of this multifaceted approach we have developed an in vivo model with which to compare the toxicity profiles of smoke condensates from cigarettes with different design features. This model system may provide insights into the development of smoking related disease and could provide a cost-effective, high-throughput platform for the future evaluation of tobacco products.

  1. Acute and sub-chronic oral toxicity studies of methanol extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute and sub-chronic oral toxicity studies of methanol extract of Clinacanthus nutans in mice. Zainul Amiruddin Zakaria, Mohammad Hafiz Abdul Rahim, Norhafizah Mohtarrudin, Arifah Abdul Kadir, Manraj Singh Cheema, Zuraini Ahmad, Ching Siew Mooi, Siti Farah Md. Tohid ...

  2. A meta-analysis of carbon nanotube pulmonary toxicity studies--how physical dimensions and impurities affect the toxicity of carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernand, Jeremy M; Casman, Elizabeth A

    2014-03-01

    This article presents a regression-tree-based meta-analysis of rodent pulmonary toxicity studies of uncoated, nonfunctionalized carbon nanotube (CNT) exposure. The resulting analysis provides quantitative estimates of the contribution of CNT attributes (impurities, physical dimensions, and aggregation) to pulmonary toxicity indicators in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid: neutrophil and macrophage count, and lactate dehydrogenase and total protein concentrations. The method employs classification and regression tree (CART) models, techniques that are relatively insensitive to data defects that impair other types of regression analysis: high dimensionality, nonlinearity, correlated variables, and significant quantities of missing values. Three types of analysis are presented: the RT, the random forest (RF), and a random-forest-based dose-response model. The RT shows the best single model supported by all the data and typically contains a small number of variables. The RF shows how much variance reduction is associated with every variable in the data set. The dose-response model is used to isolate the effects of CNT attributes from the CNT dose, showing the shift in the dose-response caused by the attribute across the measured range of CNT doses. It was found that the CNT attributes that contribute the most to pulmonary toxicity were metallic impurities (cobalt significantly increased observed toxicity, while other impurities had mixed effects), CNT length (negatively correlated with most toxicity indicators), CNT diameter (significantly positively associated with toxicity), and aggregate size (negatively correlated with cell damage indicators and positively correlated with immune response indicators). Increasing CNT N2 -BET-specific surface area decreased toxicity indicators. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  3. Multidisciplinary biopsychosocial rehabilitation for subacute low back pain among working age adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, K; Malmivaara, A; van Tulder, M; Roine, R; Jauhiainen, M; Hurri, H; Koes, B

    2003-01-01

    Multidisciplinary biopsychosocial rehabilitation programs are widely applied for chronic low back pain patients. The biopsychosocial approach can also prevent chronicity, by providing rehabilitation for patients who still have pain past the initial acute phase. Nevertheless, multidisciplinary treatment programmes are often laborious and long processes and require good collaboration between the patient, the rehabilitation team and the work place. By using workplace visits and developing close relationships with occupational health care providers, one might expect patients' working ability to improve. The objective of this systematic review was to determine the effectiveness of multidisciplinary rehabilitation for subacute low back pain among working age adults. The reviewed studies for this review were electronically identified from MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycLIT, CENTRAL, Medic, the Science Citation Index, reference checking and consulting experts in the rehabilitation field. The original search was planned and performed for the broader area of musculoskeletal disorders. Trials on subacute low back pain were separated afterwards. The literature search was last updated in November 2002 in EMBASE and MEDLINE. From all references identified in our original search, we selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomised controlled clinical trials (CCTs). Trials had to assess the effectiveness of multidisciplinary rehabilitation for working age patients suffering from subacute low back pain (more than four weeks but less than three months). The rehabilitation program was required to be multidisciplinary, i.e., it had to consist of a physician's consultation plus either a psychological, social or vocational intervention, or a combination of these. Four reviewers blinded to journal and author selected trials that met the specified inclusion criteria. Two experts in the field of rehabilitation evaluated the clinical relevance and applicability of the findings of the

  4. Inhalation toxicity studies with 1,3-butadiene 3 two year toxicity/carcinogenicity study in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, P.E.; Glaister, J.R.; Gaunt, I.F.; Pullinger, D.H.

    1987-05-01

    Groups of 110 male and 110 female CD (Sprague-Dawley) rats were exposed to atmospheres containing 0 (control), 1000 or 8000 ppm v/v butadiene for 6 hr/day and 5 days/week. Ten of each sex from each group were killed at 52 weeks. The study was terminated when it was predicted that survival would drop to 20% to 25%. High dose rats had wet, ruffled fur and showed slight incoordination during the first exposure each week. During the second year, mortality in both treated female groups was increased because of humanitarian sacrifice of animals with large subcutaneous masses, while increased mortality in the high dose males was accompanied by an increase of the severity of nephropathy. Body weight was slightly lower than controls in both sexes at the high dose, but statistically significant only over the first 12 weeks. There were no effects in hematological analyses or tests of neuromuscular function that definitely could be associated with treatment. Liver weights at both doses were increased in both sexes with no associated pathological change. Kidney weight was increased in males at the high dose, together with an increase in the severity of nephrosis. There were increases in the incidences of pancreatic exocrine adenoma; uterine sarcoma; Zymbal gland carcinoma; mammary tumors; thyroid follicular cell tumors; and testis Leydig-cell tumors. These data suggest the butadiene is a weak oncogen to the rat under the conditions of exposure used in this study.

  5. THE INFLUENCE OF OXYETHYLIZED ALKYLPHENOLS ON HORMONAL EXCHANGE OF WHITE RATS IN THE SUBACUTE EXPERIMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marakushin DI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Influence of oxyethylized alkylphenols AF9-6, AF9-10 and AF9-12 has been studied in doses 1/10 and 1/100 DL50 on the hormonal profile of white rats in the conditions of subacute experiment. It has been studied, that xenobiotics cause disturbances from the side of the endocrine system at all level of its structurally-functional organization (hypothalamus – hypophysis – thyroid and parathyroid glands – adrenal glands. Neonols manifest polytropic character of action on an organism, which can be attended with formation of the multiple pathological states in the basis of which membrane pathology lies.

  6. Aqueous chlorination of fenamic acids: Kinetic study, transformation products identification and toxicity prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liyun; Li, Jian; Xu, Li

    2017-05-01

    Fenamic acids, one important type of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, are ubiquitous in environmental matrices. Thus it is of high significance to know the fate of them during chlorination disinfection considering their potential toxicity to the environment and humans. In the present study, the chlorination kinetics of three fenamic acids, i.e. mefenamic acid (MEF), tolfenamic acid (TOL) and clofenamic acid (CLO), were examined at different pHs, which followed second-order reaction under studied conditions. The studied fenamic acids degraded fast, with the largest apparent second-order rate coefficient (kapp) values of 446.7 M-1 s-1 (pH 7), 393.3 M-1 s-1 (pH 8) and 360.0 M-1 s-1 (pH 6) for MEF, TOL and CLO, respectively. The transformation products (TPs) were identified by solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer and ion-pair liquid-liquid extraction and injection port derivatization-gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. Despite different numbers of TPs were detected for each studied fenamic acid through these two analytical methods, the types of TPs were almost the same; chlorine substitution, oxidation and the joint oxidation with chlorine substitution are transformation reactions involved in chlorination. Moreover, the total toxicity of the TPs was assayed based on luminescent bacteria. Under different pHs, the different types of TPs might form, resulting in the varied total toxicity. The toxicity of all three fenamic acids chlorinated at pH of 8 was greater than those at pHs of 6 and 7. This study provided the information about the kinetics, transformation and toxicity of three fenamic acids during water chlorination, which is important to the drinking water safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sensitive endpoints in extended one-generation reproductive toxicity study versus two generation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Sofie

    Increasing pressure is exerted by some stakeholders to replace the current “golden standard”, two-generation study (OECD TG 416), by an extended one-generation reproductive toxicity study (EOGRTS), because this would considerably reduce the number of animals and other costs involved in these leng......Increasing pressure is exerted by some stakeholders to replace the current “golden standard”, two-generation study (OECD TG 416), by an extended one-generation reproductive toxicity study (EOGRTS), because this would considerably reduce the number of animals and other costs involved...... during critical period of development in contrast to the parental generation. Retrospective analysis of available two-generation studies, however, indicate that the assessment included in the study of other endpoints in the male offspring such as histopathology of reproductive organs and semen quality...

  8. Effectiveness of acupuncture combined with rehabilitation for treatment of acute or subacute stroke: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vados, Larissa; Ferreira, Alberto; Zhao, ShouFa; Vercelino, Rafael; Wang, Shu

    2015-06-01

    To determine whether the combination of acupuncture and rehabilitation produces better results in the treatment of acute or subacute stroke sequelae than rehabilitation alone. A systematic review was carried out. A search was conducted in March 2014 using PubMed, Medline, the Cochrane Library, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure database (CNKI) and Wanfang databases. English and Chinese language articles published within 10 years of the search were reviewed for inclusion. Randomised control trials comparing combined treatment with acupuncture and rehabilitation and rehabilitation alone in patients with acute or subacute stroke (onset until 3 months after stroke) were included in this review. Three review authors independently checked the titles and abstracts of trials for inclusion based on selection criteria. Studies measuring changes of motor function, activities of daily living, neurological deficit or spasticity/range of motion during the treatment period and at the end of follow-up were included. 17 trials met the inclusion criteria, of which five were of good quality. 14 trials had results favourable to acupuncture combined with rehabilitation, compared with conventional rehabilitation treatment alone. Acupuncture in combination with rehabilitation may have benefits for the treatment of acute and subacute stroke sequelae in comparison with rehabilitation alone. However, many of the studies were at risk of bias. Future studies should focus on reaching a consensus about the most appropriate modality of acupuncture intervention, and the appropriate length of treatment for both interventions, to maximise the potential synergistic outcomes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Reliability and validity of the Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest) in people with subacute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinsongkram, Butsara; Chaikeeree, Nithinun; Saengsirisuwan, Vitoon; Viriyatharakij, Nitaya; Horak, Fay B; Boonsinsukh, Rumpa

    2014-11-01

    The Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest) is a new clinical balance assessment tool, but it has never been validated in patients with subacute stroke. The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the BESTest in patients with subacute stroke. This was an observational reliability and validity study. Twelve patients participated in the interrater and intrarater reliability study. Convergent validity was investigated in 70 patients using the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke (PASS), Community Balance and Mobility Scale (CB&M), and Mini-BESTest. The receiver operating characteristic curve was used to calculate the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the BESTest, Mini-BESTest, and BBS in classifying participants into low functional ability (LFA) and high functional ability (HFA) groups based on Fugl-Meyer Assessment motor subscale scores. The BESTest showed excellent intrarater reliability and interrater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient=.99) and was highly correlated with the BBS (Spearman r=.96), PASS (r=.96), CB&M (r=.91), and Mini-BESTest (r=.96), indicating excellent convergent validity. No floor or ceiling effects were observed with the BESTest. In contrast, the Mini-BESTest and CB&M had a floor effect in the LFA group, and the BBS and PASS demonstrated responsive ceiling effects in the HFA group. In addition, the BESTest showed high accuracy as the BBS and Mini-BESTest in separating participants into HFA and LFA groups. Whether the results are generalizable to patients with chronic stroke is unknown. The BESTest is reliable, valid, sensitive, and specific in assessing balance in people with subacute stroke across all levels of functional disability. © 2014 American Physical Therapy Association.

  10. Acute and subchronic toxicity study of the water extract from Harrisonia perforata Merr. in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seewaboon Sireeratawong

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The water extract from Harrisonia perforata Merr. was studied for acute and subchronic toxicities. The extract at a single dose of 5,000 mg/kg was administered orally to female and male rats (5 males, 5 females. After 14 days, signs and behavioral changes, mortality, gross and histopathological changes of internal organs were examined. The body weight of the male treated rats was significantly decreased when compared to the control group. The extract did not produce signs of toxicity. For the subchronic toxicity test, the extract at doses of 300, 600 and 1,200 mg/kg body weight were orally administeredto rats daily for 90 days (10 males, 10 females. Observation of signs, behavior and health status showed no abnormality in the test groups as compared with the controls. However, the body weight of all male treated rats was significantly decreased when compared to the control group. At the end of the study, necropsy and histopathology examination were performed in all animals in the control group, the test groups and the satellite group in which the extract was discontinued for another 28 days. Body and organ weights, hematological and blood clinical chemistry were also examined. The results suggest that the water extract of Harrisonia perforata Merr. does not cause acute and subchronic toxicities in rats.

  11. Toxicity and biocompatibility profile of 3D bone scaffold developed by Universitas Indonesia: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahyussalim A., J.; Kurniawati, T.; Aprilya, D.; Anggraini, R.; Ramahdita, Ghiska; Whulanza, Yudan

    2017-02-01

    Scaffold as a biomaterial must fulfill some requirements to be safely implanted to the human body. Toxicity and biocompatibility test are needed to evaluate scaffold material in mediating cell proliferation and differentiation, secreting extracelullar matrix and carrying biomolecular signals for cell communication. An in vitro study with mesenchymal stem cells consisted of direct contact test and indirect contact test using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) tetrazolium reduction assay was conducted on 4 scaffolds made of poly-L-lactic acid (PLA), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and hydroxyapatite-poly (vinyl alcohol) composite. There were cells-substrate adhesion impairment, morphological changes, cell death and reduction in cell proliferation seen at 2nd and 6th day in most tested scaffold. Cell count result at day-6 showed proliferation inhibition of more than 50% cell death (inhibition value >50) in all tested scaffold. In MTT assay, two scaffolds were proven non-toxic. In conclusion, various scaffold materials showed different toxicity effect. The toxicity and biocompatibility profile in this study is a preliminary data for further research aiming to use those local-made scaffolds to fill human bone defect in various needs.

  12. Toxicity studies of the water extract from the calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sireeratawong, Seewaboon; Itharat, Arunporn; Khonsung, Parirat; Lertprasertsuke, Nirush; Jaijoy, Kanjana

    2013-01-01

    Acute and chronic toxicities of the water extract from calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa were studied in male and female rats. After 14 days of a single oral administration of test substance 5,000 mg/kg body weight, measurement of the body and organ weights, necropsy and health monitoring were performed. No signs and differences of the weights or behaviour compared to the control rats were observed. The results indicated that the single oral administration of H. sabdariffa extract in the amount of 5,000 mg/kg body weight does not produce acute toxicity. The chronic toxicity was determined by oral feeding both male and female rats daily with the extract at the doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight for 270 days. The examinations of signs, animal behaviour and health monitoring showed no defects in the test groups compared to the control groups. Both test and control groups (day 270th) and satellite group (day 298th) were analysed by measuring their final body and organ weights, taking necropsy, and examining haematology, blood clinical chemistry, and microanatomy. Results showed no differences from the control groups. Overall, our study demonstrated that an oral administration of H. sabdariffa extract at the doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight for 270 days does not cause chronic toxicity in rat.

  13. Enzymatic extract from Ecklonia cava: Acute and subchronic oral toxicity and genotoxicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jun-Won; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Yun-Soon; You, Ji-Ran; Cho, Eun-Young; Yoon, Jung-Hee; Kwon, Euna; Yun, In-Jue; Oh, Je-Hun; Jang, Ja-June; Park, Jin-Sung; Che, Jeong-Hwan; Kang, Byeong-Cheol

    2018-02-01

    Ecklonia cava (EC) is known to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and anticancer properties. Despite its wide use and beneficial properties, comprehensive toxicological information regarding EC extract is currently limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate acute toxicity, subchronic toxicity, and genotoxicity of enzymatic EC extract according to test guidelines published by Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The acute oral LD50 values of this EC extract administered to rats and dogs were estimated to be more than 3000 mg/kg BW. In an oral 13-week toxicity study, changes in body weights of rats exposed to the EC extract up to 3000 mg/kg BW were found to be normal. In addition, repeated doses of EC extract failed to influence any systematic parameters of treatment-related toxic symptoms such as food/water consumption, mortality, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, organ weight, or histopathology. These results indicated that the no-observed-adverse-effect level for the EC extract was 3000 mg/kg/day for male and female rats. Data obtained from Ames test, chromosome aberration assay, and micronucleus assay indicated that EC extract was not mutagenic or clastogenic. Taken together, these results support the safety of enzymatic EC extract as a potential therapeutic for human consumption against various diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Single dose toxicity and biodistribution studies of [{sup 18}F] fluorocholine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Danielle C.; Santos, Priscilla F., E-mail: dcc@cdtn.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gereais (INCT-MM/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Medicina Molecular; Silveira, Marina B.; Ferreira, Soraya Z.; Malamut, Carlos; Silva, Juliana B. da, E-mail: radiofarmacoscdtn@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Pesquisa e Producao de Radiofarmacos; Souza, Cristina M.; Campos, Liliane C.; Ferreira, Enio; Araujo, Marina R.; Cassali, Geovanni D., E-mail: cassalig@icb.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (LPC/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Patologia Comparada

    2013-07-01

    [{sup 18}F]Fluorocholine ({sup 18}FCH) is a valuable tool for non-invasive diagnosis using positron emission tomography (PET). This radiotracer has been proven to be highly effective in detecting recurrences and staging prostate cancer, diagnoses brain, breast, and esophageal tumors and also hepatocellular carcinoma. The higher uptake of fluorocholine by malignant tumors results from increased choline kinase activity due to accelerated cell multiplication and membrane formation. According to the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA), radiopharmaceuticals have to be registered before commercialization. The aim of this work was to evaluate single dose toxicity and biodistribution of {sup 18}FCH in mice, since preclinical safety studies are required for register. Experimental procedures were approved by the Ethics Committee on Animal Use (CEUA-IPEN/SP). Single dose toxicity and biodistribution studies were conducted in Swiss mice. No signs of toxicity were observed during clinical trial. No changes in the parameters which were examined, such as: body weight, food consumption, clinical pathology parameters or lesions microscopic were noted. Biodistribution results indicated high physiological tracer uptake in kidney, liver and heart 30 min after injection. Lower activities were recorded in other organs/tissues: pancreas, intestine, spleen, bone, bladder, muscle, brain and blood. Initial preclinical investigations showed no toxic effects of {sup 18}FCH at investigated doses and a biodistribution profile very similar to other reports in literature. This information is essential to support future human trials. (author)

  15. Surface modification minimizes the toxicity of silver nanoparticles: an in vitro and in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Balaram; Tripathy, Satyajit; Adhikary, Jaydeep; Chattopadhyay, Sourav; Mandal, Debasis; Dash, Sandeep Kumar; Das, Sabyasachi; Dey, Aditi; Dey, Sankar Kumar; Das, Debasis; Roy, Somenath

    2017-08-01

    Currently toxicological research in Silver nanoparticle is a leading issue in medical science. The surface chemistry and physical dimensions of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) play an important role in toxicity. The aim of this present study was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo toxicity of Ag-NPs as well as the alteration of toxicity profile due to surface functionalization (PEG and BSA) and the intracellular signaling pathways involved in nanoparticles mediated oxidative stress and apoptosis in vitro and in vivo system. Ag-NPs released excess Ag+ ions leads to activation of NADPH oxidase and helps in generating the reactive oxygen species (ROS). Silver nanoparticles elicit the production of excess amount of ROS results activation of TNF-α. Ag-NPs activates caspase-3 and 9 which are the signature of mitochondrial pathway. Ag-NPs are responsible to decrease the antioxidant enzymes and imbalance the oxidative status into the cells but functionalization with BSA and PEG helps to protect the adverse effect of Ag-NPs on the cells. This study suggested that Ag-NPs are toxic to normal cells which directly lead with human health. Surface functionalization may open the gateway for further use of Ag-NPs in different area such as antimicrobial and anticancer therapy, industrial use or in biomedical sciences.

  16. Amiodarone Pulmonary Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Wolkove

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Amiodarone is an antiarrhythmic agent commonly used to treat supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias. This drug is an iodine-containing compound that tends to accumulate in several organs, including the lungs. It has been associated with a variety of adverse events. Of these events, the most serious is amiodarone pulmonary toxicity. Although the incidence of this complication has decreased with the use of lower doses of amiodarone, it can occur with any dose. Because amiodarone is widely used, all clinicians should be vigilant of this possibility. Pulmonary toxicity usually manifests as an acute or subacute pneumonitis, typically with diffuse infiltrates on chest x-ray and high-resolution computed tomography. Other, more localized, forms of pulmonary toxicity may occur, including pleural disease, migratory infiltrates, and single or multiple nodules. With early detection, the prognosis is good. Most patients diagnosed promptly respond well to the withdrawal of amiodarone and the administration of corticosteroids, which are usually given for four to 12 months. It is important that physicians be familiar with amiodarone treatment guidelines and follow published recommendations for the monitoring of pulmonary as well as extrapulmonary adverse effects.

  17. Amiodarone pulmonary toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkove, Norman; Baltzan, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Amiodarone is an antiarrhythmic agent commonly used to treat supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias. This drug is an iodine-containing compound that tends to accumulate in several organs, including the lungs. It has been associated with a variety of adverse events. Of these events, the most serious is amiodarone pulmonary toxicity. Although the incidence of this complication has decreased with the use of lower doses of amiodarone, it can occur with any dose. Because amiodarone is widely used, all clinicians should be vigilant of this possibility. Pulmonary toxicity usually manifests as an acute or subacute pneumonitis, typically with diffuse infiltrates on chest x-ray and high-resolution computed tomography. Other, more localized, forms of pulmonary toxicity may occur, including pleural disease, migratory infiltrates, and single or multiple nodules. With early detection, the prognosis is good. Most patients diagnosed promptly respond well to the withdrawal of amiodarone and the administration of corticosteroids, which are usually given for four to 12 months. It is important that physicians be familiar with amiodarone treatment guidelines and follow published recommendations for the monitoring of pulmonary as well as extrapulmonary adverse effects. PMID:19399307

  18. Type and Timing of Rehabilitation Following Acute and Subacute Spinal Cord Injury: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Anthony S; Marino, Ralph J; Kalsi-Ryan, Sukhvinder; Middleton, James W; Tetreault, Lindsay A; Dettori, Joseph R; Mihalovich, Kathryn E; Fehlings, Michael G

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature to address the following clinical questions: In adult patients with acute and subacute complete or incomplete traumatic SCI, (1) does the time interval between injury and commencing rehabilitation affect outcome?; (2) what is the comparative effectiveness of different rehabilitation strategies, including different intensities and durations of treatment?; (3) are there patient or injury characteristics that affect the efficacy of rehabilitation?; and (4) what is the cost-effectiveness of various rehabilitation strategies? A systematic search was conducted for literature published through March 31, 2015 that evaluated rehabilitation strategies in adults with acute or subacute traumatic SCI at any level. Studies were critically appraised individually and the overall strength of evidence was evaluated using methods proposed by the GRADE (Grades of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation) working group. The search strategy yielded 384 articles, 19 of which met our inclusion criteria. Based on our results, there was no difference between body weight-supported treadmill training and conventional rehabilitation with respect to improvements in Functional Independence Measure (FIM) Locomotor score, Lower Extremity Motor Scores, the distance walked in 6 minutes or gait velocity over 15.2 m. Functional electrical therapy resulted in slightly better FIM Motor, FIM Self-Care, and Spinal Cord Independence Measure Self-Care subscores compared with conventional occupational therapy. Comparisons using the Toronto Rehabilitation Institute Hand Function Test demonstrated no differences between groups in 7 of 9 domains. There were no clinically important differences in Maximal Lean Test, Maximal Sidewards Reach Test, T-shirt Test, or the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure between unsupported sitting training and standard in-patient rehabilitation. The current evidence base for

  19. Subacute and Chronic Left Ventricular Myocardial Scar: Accuracy of Texture Analysis on Nonenhanced Cine MR Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baessler, Bettina; Mannil, Manoj; Oebel, Sabrina; Maintz, David; Alkadhi, Hatem; Manka, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To test whether texture analysis (TA) allows for the diagnosis of subacute and chronic myocardial infarction (MI) on noncontrast material-enhanced cine cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) images. Materials and Methods In this retrospective, institutional review board-approved study, 120 patients who underwent cardiac MR imaging and showed large transmural (volume of enhancement on late gadolinium enhancement [LGE] images >20%, n = 72) or small (enhanced volume ≤20%, n = 48) subacute or chronic ischemic scars were included. Sixty patients with normal cardiac MR imaging findings served as control subjects. Regions of interest for TA encompassing the left ventricle were drawn by two blinded, independent readers on cine images in end systole by using a freely available software package. Stepwise dimension reduction and texture feature selection based on reproducibility, machine learning, and correlation analyses were performed for selecting features, enabling the diagnosis of MI on nonenhanced cine MR images by using LGE imaging as the standard of reference. Results Five independent texture features allowed for differentiation between ischemic scar and normal myocardium on cine MR images in both subgroups: Teta1, Perc.01, Variance, WavEnHH.s-3, and S(5,5)SumEntrp (in patients with large MI: all P values cine MR images, with an area under the curve of 0.93 and 0.92, respectively. Conclusion This proof-of-concept study indicates that TA of nonenhanced cine MR images allows for the diagnosis of subacute and chronic MI with high accuracy. © RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  20. Determining appropriateness for rehabilitation or other subacute care: is there a role for utilisation review?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, Christopher J; Eagar, Kathy

    2007-03-13

    Rehabilitation and other forms of subacute care play an important role in the Australian health care system, yet there is ambiguity around clinical definitions of subacute care, how it differs from acute care, where it is best done and what resources are required. This leads to inconsistent and often poorly defined patient selection criteria as well as a lack of research into efficient models of care. A literature review on the potential role of utilisation review in defining levels of care and in facilitating appropriate care, with a focus on the interface between acute care and rehabilitation. In studies using standardised utilisation review tools there is consistent reporting of high levels of 'inappropriate' bed days in acute care settings. These inappropriate bed days include both inappropriate admissions to acute care and inappropriate continuing days of stay. While predominantly an instrument of payers in the United States, concurrent utilisation review programs have also been used outside of the US, where they help in the facilitation of appropriate care. Some utilisation review tools also have specific criteria for determining patient appropriateness for rehabilitation and other subacute care. The high levels of 'inappropriate' care demonstrated repeatedly in international studies using formal programs of utilisation review should not be ignored in Australia. Utilisation review tools, while predominantly developed in the US, may complement other Australian patient flow initiatives to improve efficiency while maintaining patient safety. They could also play a role in the identification of patients who may benefit from transfer from acute care to another type of care and thus be an adjunct to physician assessment. Testing of the available utilisation review tools in the Australian context is now required.

  1. Responsiveness of the Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest) in People With Subacute Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinsongkram, Butsara; Chaikeeree, Nithinun; Saengsirisuwan, Vitoon; Horak, Fay B; Boonsinsukh, Rumpa

    2016-10-01

    The reliability and convergent validity of the Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest) in people with subacute stroke have been established, but its responsiveness to rehabilitation has not been examined. The study objective was to compare the responsiveness of the BESTest with those of other clinical balance tools in people with subacute stroke. This was a prospective cohort study. Forty-nine people with subacute stroke (mean age=57.8 years, SD=11.8) participated in this study. Five balance measures-the BESTest, the Mini-BESTest, the Berg Balance Scale, the Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke Patients, and the Community Balance and Mobility Scale (CB&M)-were used to measure balance performance before and after rehabilitation or before discharge from the hospital, whichever came first. The internal responsiveness of each balance measure was classified with the standardized response mean (SRM); changes in Berg Balance Scale scores of greater than 7 were used as the external standard for determining the external responsiveness. Analysis of the receiver operating characteristic curve was used to determine the accuracy and cutoff scores for identifying participants with balance improvement. Participants received 13.7 days (SD=9.3, range=5-44) of physical therapy rehabilitation. The internal responsiveness of all balance measures, except for the CB&M, was high (SRM=0.9-1.2). The BESTest had a higher SRM than the Mini-BESTest and the CB&M, indicating that the BESTest was more sensitive for detecting balance changes than the Mini-BESTest and the CB&M. In addition, compared with other balance measures, the BESTest had no floor, ceiling, or responsive ceiling effects. The results also indicated that the percentage of participants with no change in scores after rehabilitation was smaller with the BESTest than with the Mini-BESTest and the CB&M. With regard to the external responsiveness, the BESTest had higher accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and posttest accuracy than

  2. The study of the stability, toxicity and antimicrobial effect of allicin solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ghaneian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Allicin is extracted from Garlic, and can attach to the tiol groups of proteins by tiosulfanate group. This attachment leads to damage of various proteins and enzymes of microbes, and can affect wide spectrum of viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. The aim of this study was to investigate the stability, toxicity and antimicrobial effect of allicin solution. Methods: First, serial concentrations of allicin solution were prepared, and exposed to suspension of standard isolates of bacteria (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, andPsodomonasaerogina and fungi (Aspergillusnige rand Candida albicans.The minimum inhibitory concentration(MIC50 and MIC90 of this compound against each isolate was determined. To evaluate the toxicity of allicin solution, the suspension of skin cells of Balb/C mice was prepared, and incubated with serial concentrations of allicin for 6, 12 and 24 h. Then, cell viability was calculated by MTT assay, based on control. To evaluate stability of allicin solution,some pieces of sterilized marble were prepared, and their surfaces were treated with the solution of allicin. After 6, 12 and 24 h,marbles were sampled, inoculated on the nutrient agar, and incubated for 48 h at 37 °C. Finally, the number of colonies grown on each plate was counted. Results: The micro-dilution test showed that allicin solution had antimicrobial effecton the all bacterial and fungal isolates which studied. This study also showed that the toxicity of allicin solution slightly dependent on the time and concentration, but increase the time until 24 h had nota significant impact on the reducing of stability. Conclusions: The allicin solution has antimicrobial activity and its toxicity is negligible. Also, this material has high stability in the environmental conditions. Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, Nanoparticles, Allicin, Toxicity, Stability

  3. Acute toxicity study of tilmicosin-loaded hydrogenated castor oil-solid lipid nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Shuyu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our previous studies demonstrated that tilmicosin-loaded hydrogenated castor oil solid lipid nanoparticles (Til-HCO-SLN are a promising formulation for enhanced pharmacological activity and therapeutic efficacy in veterinary use. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the acute toxicity of Til-HCO-SLN. Methods Two nanoparticle doses were used for the study in ICR mice. The low dose (766 mg/kg.bw with tilmicosin 7.5 times of the clinic dosage and below the median lethal dose (LD50 was subcutaneously administered twice on the first and 7th day. The single high dose (5 g/kg.bw was the practical upper limit in an acute toxicity study and was administered subcutaneously on the first day. Blank HCO-SLN, native tilmicosin, and saline solution were included as controls. After medication, animals were monitored over 14 days, and then necropsied. Signs of toxicity were evaluated via mortality, symptoms of treatment effect, gross and microscopic pathology, and hematologic and biochemical parameters. Results After administration of native tilmicosin, all mice died within 2 h in the high dose group, in the low dose group 3 died after the first and 2 died after the second injections. The surviving mice in the tilmicosin low dose group showed hypoactivity, accelerated breath, gloomy spirit and lethargy. In contrast, all mice in Til-HCO-SLN and blank HCO-SLN groups survived at both low and high doses. The high nanoparticle dose induced transient clinical symptoms of treatment effect such as transient reversible action retardation, anorexy and gloomy spirit, increased spleen and liver coefficients and decreased heart coefficients, microscopic pathological changes of liver, spleen and heart, and minor changes in hematologic and biochemical parameters, but no adverse effects were observed in the nanoparticle low dose group. Conclusions The results revealed that the LD50 of Til-HCO-SLN and blank HCO-SLN exceeded 5 g/kg.bw and thus the

  4. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid cytokine concentrations in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Omer Faruk; Ichiyama, Takashi; Anlar, Banu

    2010-06-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a neurodegenerative disease due to persistent measles virus infection. Its immunopathogenesis is unknown. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-4 concentrations were measured in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum samples from 30 SSPE patients and 19 control subjects by cytometric bead array. CSF and serum IFN-gamma, IL-12 and IL-18 levels were measured in 18 SSPE patients by ELISA. Serum IL-4 and IL-10 (p<0.001), CSF IL-4 (p<0.001) and IL-6 (p=0.049) concentrations were lower, and serum IL-2 concentrations, higher (p=0.001) in SSPE patients. Serum TNF-alpha and IL-6, CSF TNF-alpha, IL-10, and IL-2 concentrations were not different between SSPE and control groups. Serum IFN-gamma levels were higher in stage I and II than stage III patients (p<0.05), whereas there was no difference between stages in terms of other cytokines. The levels of Th2-type cytokines: IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 were suppressed in our SSPE cases. This finding, along with relatively elevated IFN-gamma and IL-2 levels, may suggest more active effector T cells compared to regulatory T cells (Treg), especially induced Treg, in early disease. High serum IL-2 concentrations might indicate peripheral Th1 activation. Discrepancies between various reports in the literature should be examined in view of the ages, stage and treatments of the patients studied. The interplay of various cytokines or cellular systems which may vary over time and between patients. Studies of treatment measures favoring the preservation of the early inflammatory response may be of interest in SSPE. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Emerging Patterns for Engineered Nanomaterials in the Environment: A Review of Fate and Toxicity Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, K.; Keller, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    The technical complexity of measuring ENM fate and transport processes in all environments necessitates identifying trends in these same processes. As part of our research, we collected emerging information on the environmental fate and toxicity of many ENMs and investigated transportation and transformation processes in air, water, and soil. Generally, studies suggest that (i) ENMs will have limited transport in the atmosphere, because they settle rapidly; (ii) ENMs are more stable in freshwater and stormwater than in seawater or groundwater primarily due to variations in ionic strength and the presence of natural organic matter; and (iii) in soil, the fate of ENMs strongly depends on the size of the ENM aggregates and groundwater chemistry, as well as pore and soil particle size. Emerging patterns regarding ENM fate, transport, and exposure combined with emerging information on toxicity indicate the risk is low for most ENMs although current exposure estimates compared with current data on toxicity indicate that at current production and release levels, exposure to Ag, nZVI, and ZnO may cause a toxic response to freshwater and marine species.

  6. Subchronic Toxicity Study of Standardized Methanolic Extract of Mitragyna Speciosa Korth in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Ulul Ilmie Ahmad Nazri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mitragyna speciosa Korth, or better known as ketum, has long been used by traditional folk around Southeast Asia to prevent fatigue from working under hot tropical weather and as a replacement of opium, which can then cause addiction. To date, no findings have been reported of the toxic effect of ketum subchronically (28 days. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the toxicity of subchronic effect of standardised methanolic extract of ketum (SMEMS in Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were orally administered with 100, 200, and 500 mg/kg of SMEMS for 28 days. Body weights were recorded daily. They were terminated at day 28 to obtain data for haematology, biochemistry, and histopathology of the brain, liver, kidney, lung, heart, sciatic nerve, and spinal cord. The SMEMS affected body weight compared to control group. Biochemistry findings showed that liver and kidney were affected with the abnormal values in AST, creatinine, globulin, glucose, total protein, and urea. However, SMEMS produced toxic effect more to liver, kidney, and lung than other organs as observed histopathologically. The results suggested subchronic exposure of ketum is toxic to the physiology of the animals.

  7. How does nutritional state change during a subacute admission? Findings and implications for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, J; Porter, J; Truby, H; Huggins, C E

    2016-05-01

    Nutritional status influences patients' clinical and functional outcomes. The aims were to identify changes in nutritional state during subacute care and associated participant characteristics. A longitudinal study was undertaken with consecutive patients admitted to subacute care wards during a 3-month period. Participants were recruited under a waiver of consent to reflect the usual demographic. Change in classification (malnourished, at risk of malnutrition, well nourished) of the full Mini Nutritional Assessment (full MNA) between admission and discharge was the primary outcome. Weight (kg), mid-arm and calf circumference (cm) change were secondary outcomes. Hand grip strength (kg) and fat-free mass (kg) (assessed using bioelectrical impedance analysis) were measured for a consenting subgroup. Participants (n=248, 36.7% male) had a median age of 80 years and a length of stay of 17 days. On admission, 29.1% were classified as malnourished. By discharge, nutritional classification remained stable for 62.0% of participants (n=132), declined for 10.3% (n=22) and improved for 27.7% (n=59, including 52.5% malnourished on admission). Impaired cognition (odds ratio (OR)=0.169, P=0.002) and higher full MNA score at admission (OR=0.870, P=0.001) reduced odds of improvement in full MNA. There was no change in hand grip strength (n=46), but there was a decline in mean fat-free mass (-1.1 kg, 95% confidence interval: -0.1 to -2.2 kg, P=0.043, n=24). Multidisciplinary care supports the nutritional state of most patients admitted to subacute care. Those with cognitive impairments or at risk of malnutrition were less likely to demonstrate improvement and may benefit from more intensive or tailored nutritional care.

  8. Acute Toxicity Study of “Gadagi” Tea on Rats | Gadanya | Bayero ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute toxicity study was carried out on three most common types of “Gadagi” tea preparations, “sak'',”sada” and “magani”.. LD50 values of each type of the tea were determined. Results of phase I and phase II of the study showed no mortality was recorded in any of the experimental groups of rats in 24hours and up to four ...

  9. Genotoxicity test and subchronic toxicity study with Superba™ krill oil in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, Bruce; Burri, Lena; Berge, Kjetil

    2014-01-01

    The safety of krill oil was assessed in a subchronic toxicity study and in a genotoxicity test. In a 13-week study, rats were fed krill oil or control diets. There were no differences noted in body weight, food consumption or in the functional observation battery parameters in either gender. Differences in both haematology and clinical chemistry values were noted in the krill oil-treated groups. However these findings were of no toxicological significance. Significant decreases in absolute an...

  10. One Year Oral Toxicity Study of WR238605 Succinate in Dogs. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-07-18

    and Mead, D.C. Clin. Chem. 20, 586, 1974. Haptoelobin Antigen- antibody method Ciba-Corning 550 Express Clinical Chemistry System Atlantic... Antibodies Test Kit B-4 ’ £• ET •^ !• Tk ir\\. a f HEMATOLOGY Ervthrocyte Count Electronic counting procedure SysmexKlOOO Hematology Analyzer...100X C-19 ONE YEAR ORAL TOXICITY STUDY OF WR23 8605 SUCCINATE IN DOGS 1 Shf INCIDENCE OF OBSERVATIONS SEX: MALE STUDY: 219 PERIOD D0SE:(mg

  11. Study of 99mTc Pertechnetate Radiopharmaceuticals in Relation to Thyroid Hormone for Toxic and non-Toxic Diffuse Goiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.P. Viantri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abnormalities of the thyroid gland in the form of enlargement of the thyroid gland are called a goiter. Goiter is divided into two types, namely toxic and non-toxic diffuse goiter. Diagnosis could be done with thyroid scan (in vivo and test for thyroid hormone value (in vitro. Thyroid scan is applied by giving injection of 99mTc Pertechnetate as much as 2 - 5 mCi intravenally in the arm and then thyroid gland and salivary glands imaging were conducted in the fifth minute, tenth minute and fifteenth minute using gamma camera. Thyroid hormones test in blood is done with radioimmunoassay method. The same pattern showed the accumulation polad of the radioactive number from quotation of salivary glands. The accumulation percentage activity of 99mTc Pertechnetate in thyroid gland for the case of toxic diffuse goiter is larger than the case of non-toxic diffuse goiter. The results of this study indicate that the predictors for the case of toxic diffuse goiter could be characterized by high thyroid uptake which the the value of T3 hormone 3.3 ng/dl, the value of T4 hormone 165 nmol/l, and the value of TSH hormone 0.2 μIU/ml. While the case of non-toxic diffuse goiter could be characterized by low thyroid uptake which the value of T3 hormone 1.2 ng/dl, the value of T4 hormone 90 nmol/l, and the value of TSH hormone 1.8 μIU/ml

  12. Parental poison prevention practices and their relationship with perceived toxicity: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, B; Groom, L; Prasad, V; Kendrick, D

    2008-12-01

    To describe poison prevention practices for a range of substances and explore the relationship between prevention practices and perceptions of toxicity. Cross-sectional study using a validated postal questionnaire. Parents with children aged 12-35 months on 23 health visitors' caseloads. Areas of various levels of deprivation in Nottingham, UK. Possession and storage of substances, putting substances away immediately after use, and perceptions of toxicity. Dishwasher tablets (68%), toilet cleaner (71%), bleach (74%), oven cleaner (78%), oral contraceptives (80%), and essential oils (81%) were least likely to be stored safely. Children's painkillers (69%), cough medicine (72%), and essential oils (77%) were least likely to be put away immediately after use. More than 50% of parents perceived antibiotics and oral contraceptives as harmful in small quantities and cough medicines as harmful only in large quantities. Six substances perceived by parents to be more harmful were more likely to be put away immediately after use. Parents perceiving dishwasher tablets (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.05 to 3.66), essential oils (OR 2.80, 95% CI 1.35 to 5.81), turpentine (OR 14.54, 95% CI 2.75 to 76.95), and rat/ant killer (OR 15.33, 95% CI 2.01 to 116.82) as more harmful were more likely to store these substances safely. Parents' perceptions of toxicity of substances were sometimes inaccurate. Perceived toxicity was associated with putting substances away immediately after use for six substances and with safe storage for four substances. The effect of addressing perceptions of toxicity on poison prevention practices requires evaluation.

  13. A subchronic toxicity study of ethanol root extract of baked Aconitum flavum in rats

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    Yuanbin Zhang

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The genus Aconitum has strong toxicity, but the acute toxicity of baked Aconitum flavum Hand.-Mazz., Ranunculaceae, was reduced significantly on the premise of keeping anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities. However, the risk associated with long-term use is unknown. In a sub-chronic toxicity study, rats were orally administered A. flavum at doses of 0.76–3.03 g/kg for 90 days and further recovered for 14 days. Our results showed that oral treatment with A. flavum for 90 days caused significant changes in some hematological indicators at doses of 3.03 and 1.52 g/kg, such as red blood cell, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. These results indicated that the A. flavum affects the structure and function of red blood cell. Furthermore, significant changes were observed in the white blood cell at dose of 3.03 g/kg in male rats, which confirmed tissue damage or toxicity. The liver function tests exhibited non-significant alterations in aspertate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and avenin-like storage proteinsgene. But other parameters, such as total protein and albumin were obviously decreased at all doses. A. flavum also caused a significant decrease in glucose, cholesterol and triacylglyceride at all doses. For kidney function, there were significant elevations in urea and creatinine at doses of 3.03 and 1.52 g/kg. The levels of certain electrolytes (Na+, K+ and Cl- were significantly different after 90 days of treatment with A. flavum (3.03 and 1.52 g/kg. Organs were observed by light microscopy after hematoxylin-eosin staining. Hemosiderin depositions in the spleen were observed in the A. flavum group. These data demonstrated that the subtoxicity of A. flavum was reduced considerably by baked, but the subchronic toxicity effects on the liver, kidney and spleen should not be ignored.

  14. The underlying toxicological mechanism of chemical mixtures: a case study on mixture toxicity of cyanogenic toxicants and aldehydes to Photobacterium phosphoreum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Dayong; Lin, Zhifen; Zhou, Xianghong; Yin, Daqiang

    2013-10-15

    Intracellular chemical reaction of chemical mixtures is one of the main reasons that cause synergistic or antagonistic effects. However, it still remains unclear what the influencing factors on the intracellular chemical reaction are, and how they influence on the toxicological mechanism of chemical mixtures. To reveal this underlying toxicological mechanism of chemical mixtures, a case study on mixture toxicity of cyanogenic toxicants and aldehydes to Photobacterium phosphoreum was employed, and both their joint effects and mixture toxicity were observed. Then series of two-step linear regressions were performed to describe the relationships between joint effects, the expected additive toxicities and descriptors of individual chemicals (including concentrations, binding affinity to receptors, octanol/water partition coefficients). Based on the quantitative relationships, the underlying joint toxicological mechanisms were revealed. The result shows that, for mixtures with their joint effects resulting from intracellular chemical reaction, their underlying toxicological mechanism depends on not only their interaction with target proteins, but also their transmembrane actions and their concentrations. In addition, two generic points of toxicological mechanism were proposed including the influencing factors on intracellular chemical reaction and the difference of the toxicological mechanism between single reactive chemicals and their mixtures. This study provided an insight into the understanding of the underlying toxicological mechanism for chemical mixtures with intracellular chemical reaction. © 2013.

  15. Perinatal Toxicity and Carcinogenicity Studies of Styrene –Acrylonitrile Trimer, A Ground Water Contaminant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behl, Mamta; Elmore, Susan A.; Malarkey, David E.; Hejtmancik, Milton R.; Gerken, Diane K.; Chhabra, Rajendra S.

    2015-01-01

    Styrene Acrylonitrile (SAN) Trimer is a by-product in the production of acrylonitrile styrene plastics. Following a report of a childhood cancer cluster in the Toms River section of Dover Township, New Jersey, SAN Trimer was identified as one of the groundwater contaminants at Reich Farm Superfund site in the township. The contaminants from the Reich Farm site’s ground water plume impacted two wells at the Parkway well field. The National Toxicology Program (NTP) studied the toxicity and carcinogenicity of SAN Trimer in rats exposed during their perinatal developmental period and adulthood. The chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity studies in F344/N rats were preceded by 7- and 18-week perinatal toxicity studies to determine the exposure concentrations for the 2-year studies. Subsequently, Fisher 344 pregnant dams were exposed to SAN Trimer containing diet at 400, 800, or 1600 ppm concentrations during gestation, nursing and weaning periods of offspring followed by two year of adult exposures to both male and female pups. There was no statistically significant evidence of carcinogenic activity following SAN-Trimer exposure; however, rare neoplasms in the brain and spinal cord were observed in males and to lesser extent in female rats. These incidences were considered within the range of historical background in the animal model used in the current studies. Therefore, the presence of a few rarely occurring CNS tumors in the treated groups were not judged to be associated with the SAN Trimer exposure. The major finding was a dose-related peripheral neuropathy associated with the sciatic nerves in females and spinal nerve roots in males and females thereby suggesting that SAN trimer is potentially a nervous system toxicant. PMID:24060431

  16. Perinatal toxicity and carcinogenicity studies of styrene-acrylonitrile trimer, a ground water contaminant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behl, Mamta; Elmore, Susan A; Malarkey, David E; Hejtmancik, Milton R; Gerken, Diane K; Chhabra, Rajendra S

    2013-12-06

    Styrene acrylonitrile (SAN) trimer is a by-product in the production of acrylonitrile styrene plastics. Following a report of a childhood cancer cluster in the Toms River section of Dover Township, New Jersey, SAN Trimer was identified as one of the groundwater contaminants at Reich Farm Superfund site in the township. The contaminants from the Reich Farm site's ground water plume impacted two wells at the Parkway well field. The National Toxicology Program (NTP) studied the toxicity and carcinogenicity of SAN Trimer in rats exposed during their perinatal developmental period and adulthood. The chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity studies in F344/N rats were preceded by 7- and 18-week perinatal toxicity studies to determine the exposure concentrations for the 2-year studies. Subsequently, Fisher 344 pregnant dams were exposed to SAN Trimer containing diet at 400, 800, or 1600ppm concentrations during gestation, nursing and weaning periods of offspring followed by two year of adult exposures to both male and female pups. There was no statistically significant evidence of carcinogenic activity following SAN-Trimer exposure; however, rare neoplasms in the brain and spinal cord were observed in males and to lesser extent in female rats. These incidences were considered within the range of historical background in the animal model used in the current studies. Therefore, the presence of a few rarely occurring CNS tumors in the treated groups were not judged to be associated with the SAN Trimer exposure. The major finding was a dose-related peripheral neuropathy associated with the sciatic nerves in females and spinal nerve roots in males and females thereby suggesting that SAN Trimer is potentially a nervous system toxicant. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. Nav1.9 Channel Contributes to Mechanical and Heat Pain Hypersensitivity Induced by Subacute and Chronic Inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Stéphane Lolignier; Muriel Amsalem; François Maingret; Françoise Padilla; Mélanie Gabriac; Eric Chapuy; Alain Eschalier; Patrick Delmas; Jérôme Busserolles

    2011-01-01

    Inflammation is known to be responsible for the sensitization of peripheral sensory neurons, leading to spontaneous pain and invalidating pain hypersensitivity. Given its role in regulating neuronal excitability, the voltage-gated Nav1.9 channel is a potential target for the treatment of pathological pain, but its implication in inflammatory pain is yet not fully described. In the present study, we examined the role of the Nav1.9 channel in acute, subacute and chronic inflammatory pain using ...

  18. Fluorescent spectral studies of the toxic effect of chlororganic pesticides on the biochemical parameters of synaptosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraev, K. M.; Bekshokov, K. S.; Ashurbekov, N. A.; Abdullaeva, N. M.; Israpov, E. Kh.; Gashimov, I. Sh.

    2017-04-01

    The results of the study of the fluorescence spectra of suspensions of synaptosomes, which have been exposed to a chlororganic pesticide, thiamethoxam, at a concentration of 50 MPC during different time periods, at the excitation/emission wavelengths of 290 ± 5/310-600, 340 ± 5/360-700, and 420 ± 5/450-800 nm are given for the first time. It has been demonstrated that the development of intoxication results in weakening of the fluorescence intensity of tryptophan, NAD(P)·H, derivatives of vitamin B6, and vitamin A and in an increase in the fluorescence of pyridoxic acid, lipofuscin, and flavin and porphyrin complexes. The results of the spectral studies indicate that the toxic effect of the chlororganic pesticide for the functioning of living systems is based on free radical toxicity.

  19. Oral dietary developmental toxicity study with polyvinyl acetate phthalate (PVAP) in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMerlis, C C; Schoneker, D R; Borzelleca, J F

    2014-10-01

    Polyvinyl acetate phthalate (PVAP) was evaluated in a developmental toxicity study with Crl:CD(SD) rats. Female rats were provided continual access to the formulated diets on days 6 through 20 of presumed gestation (DGs 6 through 20) at concentrations of 0%, 0.75%, 1.5% and 3%. All surviving rats were sacrificed and Caesarean-sectioned on DG 21. The following parameters were evaluated: viability, clinical observations, body weights, feed consumption, necropsy observations, Caesarean-sectioning and litter observations, including gravid uterine weights, fetal body weights and sex, and fetal gross external, soft tissue and skeletal alterations. There were no treatment-related adverse effects reported in the developmental toxicity study. The maternal and developmental no-observable-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of PVAP was the highest concentration administered, i.e., 3.0% (equivalent to 2324mgPVAP/kg/day). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Developmental toxicity of chloroprene vapors in New Zealand white rabbits. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, T.J.; Evanoff, J.J.; Westerberg, R.B.; Rommereim, R.L.; Weigel, R.J.

    1994-04-01

    Chloroprene, 2-chloro-1,3-butadiene, is a colorless liquid with a pungent ethereal odor that is primarily used as an intermediate in the manufacture of neoprene rubber, and has been used as such since about 1930. This study addressed the potential for chloroprene to cause developmental toxicity in New Zealand white rabbits following gestational exposure to 0, 10, 40, or 175 ppm chloroprene vapors, 6h/dy, 7dy/wk. Each treatment group consisted of 15 artificially inseminated females exposed on 6 through 28 days of gestation (dg). Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice on 29 dg. Implants were enumerated and their status recorded and live fetuses were examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. There were no overt signs of maternal toxicity and the change in maternal body weight over the course of the study was not affected. Exposure of pregnant rabbits to chloroprene vapors on 6-28 dg had no effect on the number of implantation, the mean percent of live pups per litter, or on the incidence of resorptions per litter. The incidence of fetal malformations was not increased by exposure to chloroprene. Results of this study indicate that gestational exposure of New Zealand white rabbits to 10, 40, or 175 ppm chloroprene did not result in observable toxicity to either the dam or the offspring.

  1. Genotoxicity test and subchronic toxicity study with Superba™ krill oil in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Bruce; Burri, Lena; Berge, Kjetil

    2014-01-01

    The safety of krill oil was assessed in a subchronic toxicity study and in a genotoxicity test. In a 13-week study, rats were fed krill oil or control diets. There were no differences noted in body weight, food consumption or in the functional observation battery parameters in either gender. Differences in both haematology and clinical chemistry values were noted in the krill oil-treated groups. However these findings were of no toxicological significance. Significant decreases in absolute and covariant heart weight in some krill oil-treated animals were noted although no corresponding histological changes were observed. In addition, periportal microvesicular hepatocyte vacuolation was noted histologically in males fed 5% krill oil. This finding was not associated with other indications of hepatic dysfunction. Given that the effects of the 13-week toxicity study were non-toxic in nature, the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for the conditions of this study was considered to be 5% krill oil. The genotoxicity experiments documented no mutagenicity of krill oil in bacteria.

  2. Genotoxicity test and subchronic toxicity study with Superba™ krill oil in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Robertson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The safety of krill oil was assessed in a subchronic toxicity study and in a genotoxicity test. In a 13-week study, rats were fed krill oil or control diets. There were no differences noted in body weight, food consumption or in the functional observation battery parameters in either gender. Differences in both haematology and clinical chemistry values were noted in the krill oil-treated groups. However these findings were of no toxicological significance. Significant decreases in absolute and covariant heart weight in some krill oil-treated animals were noted although no corresponding histological changes were observed. In addition, periportal microvesicular hepatocyte vacuolation was noted histologically in males fed 5% krill oil. This finding was not associated with other indications of hepatic dysfunction. Given that the effects of the 13-week toxicity study were non-toxic in nature, the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL for the conditions of this study was considered to be 5% krill oil. The genotoxicity experiments documented no mutagenicity of krill oil in bacteria.

  3. Acute toxicity profiling of the ethyl acetate fraction ofSwietenia macrophyllaseeds andin-vitroneuroprotection studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayyad, Mustak; Tiang, Ning; Kumari, Yatinesh; Goh, Bey Hing; Jaiswal, Yogini; Rosli, Rozita; Williams, Leonard; Shaikh, Mohd Farooq

    2017-02-01

    Swietenia macrophylla (SM) is a medicinally important plant found in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The ethyl acetate fraction of the seeds of S. macrophylla (SMEAF) is reported to exhibit potent anticancer, antitumor, anti-inflammatory and antifeedant activities. Till date, there have been no studies reported on the acute oral toxicity profile of the ethyl acetate fraction of the seeds of SM. The objective of the present study was to determine the acute toxicity of SMEAF and evaluate the in - vitro neuroprotective activity of SMEAF using primary neuronal cell cultures. In acute oral toxicity study, the SMEAF did not produce any lethal signs of morbidity and mortality. Histo-pathological findings, support the safety of SMEAF, as there were no significant changes observed in any of the parameters studied. Based on the results obtained in MTT assay, we infer that SMEAF has a significant neuroprotective effect, as it increased the cell viability and exhibited protection to the neuronal cells against TBHP induced oxidative stress. Thus, SMEAF can be suggested for use in the development of herbal drug formulations with neuroprotective potential.

  4. Chemical toxicity and radioactivity of depleted uranium: The evidence from in vivo and in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asic, Adna; Kurtovic-Kozaric, Amina; Besic, Larisa; Mehinovic, Lejla; Hasic, Azra; Kozaric, Mirza; Hukic, Mirsada; Marjanovic, Damir

    2017-07-01

    The main aim of this review is to summarize and discuss the current state of knowledge on chemical toxicity and radioactivity of depleted uranium (DU) and their effect on living systems and cell lines. This was done by presenting a summary of previous investigations conducted on different mammalian body systems and cell cultures in terms of potential changes caused by either chemical toxicity or radioactivity of DU. In addition, the authors aimed to point out the limitations of those studies and possible future directions. The majority of both in vitro and in vivo studies performed using animal models regarding possible effects caused by acute or chronic DU exposure has been reviewed. Furthermore, exposure time and dose, DU particle solubility, and uranium isotopes as factors affecting the extent of DU effects have been discussed. Special attention has been dedicated to chromosomal aberrations, DNA damage and DNA breaks, as well as micronuclei formation and epigenetic changes, as DU has recently been considered a possible causative factor of all these processes. Therefore, this approach might represent a novel area of study of DU-related irradiation effects on health. Since different studies offer contradictory results, the main aim of this review is to summarize and briefly discuss previously obtained results in order to identify the current opinion on DU toxicity and radioactivity effects in relation to exposure type and duration, as well as DU properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Oral 28-day and developmental toxicity studies of (R)-3-hydroxybutyl (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Kieran; Tchabanenko, Kirill; Pawlosky, Robert; Carter, Emma; Knight, Nicholas S.; Murray, Andrew J.; Cochlin, Lowri E.; King, M. Todd; Wong, Andrea W.; Roberts, Ashley; Robertson, Jeremy; Veech, Richard L.

    2013-01-01

    (R)-3-Hydroxybutyl (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate (ketone monoester) has been developed as an oral source of ketones, which may be utilized for energy. In a 28-day toxicity study, Crl:WI (Wistar) rats received diets containing, as 30% of the calories, ketone monoester (12 and 15 g/kg body weight/day for male and female rats, respectively). Control groups received either carbohydrate- or fat-based diets. Rats in the test group consumed less feed and gained less weight than control animals; similar findings have been documented in studies of ketogenic diets. Between-group differences were noted in selected hematology, coagulation, and serum chemistry parameters; however, values were within normal physiological ranges and/or were not accompanied by other changes indicative of toxicity. Upon gross and microscopic evaluation, there were no findings associated with the ketone monoester. In a developmental toxicity study, pregnant Crl:WI (Han) rats were administered 2 g/kg body weight/day ketone monoester or water (control) via gavage on days 6 through 20 of gestation. No Caesarean-sectioning or litter parameters were affected by the test article. The overall incidence of fetal alterations was higher in the test group; however, there were no specific alterations attributable to the test substance. The results of these studies support the safety of ketone monoester. PMID:22504461

  6. The impact of tobacco additives on cigarette smoke toxicity: a critical appraisal of tobacco industry studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paumgartten, Francisco José Roma; Gomes-Carneiro, Maria Regina; Oliveira, Ana Cecilia Amado Xavier de

    2017-09-21

    Cigarette production involves a number of substances and materials other than just tobacco, paper and a filter. Tobacco additives include flavorings, enhancers, humectants, sugars, and ammonium compounds. Although companies maintain that tobacco additives do not enhance smoke toxicity and do not make cigarettes more attractive or addictive, these claims are questioned by independent researchers. This study reviewed the studies on the effects of tobacco additives on smoke chemistry and toxicity. Tobacco additives lead to higher levels of formaldehyde and minor changes in other smoke analytes. Toxicological studies (bacterial mutagenicity and mammalian cytoxicity tests, rat 90 days inhalation studies and bone-marrow cell micronucleus assays) found that tobacco additives did not enhance smoke toxicity. Rodent assays, however, poorly predicted carcinogenicity of tobacco smoke, and were clearly underpowered to disclose small albeit toxicologically relevant differences between test (with tobacco additives) and control (without tobacco additives) cigarettes. This literature review led to the conclusion that the impact of tobacco additives on tobacco smoke harmfulness remains unclear.

  7. Acute and subchronic oral toxicity studies in rats with nanoscale and pigment grade titanium dioxide particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warheit, D B; Brown, S C; Donner, E M

    2015-10-01

    Data generated using standardized testing protocols for toxicity studies generally provide reproducible and reliable results for establishing safe levels and formulating risk assessments. The findings of three OECD guideline-type oral toxicity studies of different duration in rats are summarized in this publication; each study evaluated different titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles of varying sizes and surface coatings. Moreover, each study finding demonstrated an absence of any TiO2 -related hazards. To briefly summarize the findings: 1) In a subchronic 90-day study (OECD TG 408), groups of young adult male and female rats were dosed with rutile-type, surface-coated pigment-grade TiO2 test particles (d50 = 145 nm - 21% nanoparticles by particle number criteria) by oral gavage for 90 days. The no-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for both male and female rats in this study was 1000 mg/kg bw/day, the highest dose tested. The NOAEL was determined based on a lack of TiO2 particle-related adverse effects on any in-life, clinical pathology, or anatomic/microscopic pathology parameters; 2) In a 28-day repeated-dose oral toxicity study (OECD TG 407), groups of young adult male rats were administered daily doses of two rutile-type, uncoated, pigment-grade TiO2 test particles (d50 = 173 nm by number) by daily oral gavage at a dose of 24,000 mg/kg bw/day. There were no adverse effects measured during or following the end of the exposure period; and the NOAEL was determined to be 24,000 mg/kg bw/day; 3) In an acute oral toxicity study (OECD TG 425), female rats were administered a single oral exposure of surface-treated rutile/anatase nanoscale TiO2 particles (d50 = 73 nm by number) with doses up to 5000 mg/kg and evaluated over a 14-day post-exposure period. Under the conditions of this study, the oral LD50 for the test substance was >5000 mg/kg bw. In summary, the results from these three toxicity studies - each with different TiO2 particulate-types, demonstrated an absence of

  8. A phylogeographical study of the toxic benthic dinoflagellate genus Ostreopsis Schmidt

    OpenAIRE

    Penna, Antonella; Fraga, Santiago; Battocchi, Cecilia; Casabianca, Silvia; Giacobbe, Maria Grazia; Riobó, Pilar; Vernesi, Cristiano

    2010-01-01

    Aim Ostreopsis is a benthic and epiphytic dinoflagellate producing potent toxins widespread in tropical and warm temperate coastal areas world-wide. We tested the hypothesis that as it is benthic, it would show distinct biogeographical patterns in comparison with planktonic species. Here, we analyse sequence variability in ribosomal DNA markers to provide the first phylogeographical study of this toxic benthic dinoflagellate. Location Mediterranean Sea, Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean. ...

  9. Menthol should not be given a free pass based on studies of biomarkers of toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Pamela I; Gardiner, Phillip

    2011-07-01

    Exposure and toxicity studies comparing menthol and nonmenthol cigarettes have resulted in mixed results. On the basis of those results, cigarette manufacturers have concluded that there is no increased harm from the addition of menthol to cigarettes. We propose that such a narrow definition of harm is not appropriate in dealing with the issue of menthol, and its broader negative public health impact. ©2011 AACR

  10. Subacute thyroiditis (de Quervain) presenting as a painless cold nodule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartels, P.C.; Boer, R.O.

    1987-09-01

    A 49-yr-old woman presented with a solid, painless, nontender nodule in the left thyroid lobe. Thyroid scintigraphy revealed a solitary cold area in the left lobe and a slightly decreased 24-hr radioactive iodine thyroid uptake (9%). Although there were no specific clinical or biochemical signs suggesting thyroiditis needle aspiration cytology showed the presence of a subacute thyroiditis. Approximately 1 mo later the entire thyroid gland was affected leading to a completely suppressed thyroid radioiodine uptake and elevated serum thyroid hormone concentrations. This case illustrates that in the early phase of the disease, subacute thyroiditis may present as a solitary, painless, cold nodule and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of such lesions.

  11. Measles-vaccinated Israeli boy with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Har-Even, Ronly; Aichenbaum, Sergio; Rabey, Jose M; Livne, Amir; Bistritzer, Tzvy

    2011-06-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is a rare neurologic disorder of childhood and adolescence. We describe a 16-year-old boy who manifested the disease despite proper vaccinations. He was hospitalized because of bedwetting, involuntary limb movements, abnormal speech, and balance disturbances. Immunoglobulin G antibodies against measles were strongly positive, with a high relative cerebrospinal fluid/serum ratio. Polymerase chain reaction for measles produced negative results. Electroencephalography registered slow activity with high voltage discharges every few seconds, and with triphasic complex morphology. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed diffuse white matter changes, mostly around the posterior regions and lateral ventricles. Treatment with valproic acid, levetiracetam, carbamazepine, and intravenous immunoglobulin G was ineffective. Inosiplex and interferon-β-1a were also administrated. The patient became comatose, with generalized myoclonic jerks, and died 1 year later. An autopsy was not performed. This patient illustrates that subacute sclerosing panencephalitis should be suspected among young vaccinated subjects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis in a Child with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Co-Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, Pradeep Kumar; Thakkar, Mayur Deepak; Kulshreshtha, Dinkar; Singh, Ajai Kumar; Thacker, Anup Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is a fatal infectious disease of childhood caused by persistence of the measles virus in the brain. The effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection on subacute sclerosing panencephalitis remains elusive and rare. We report a child who developed subacute sclerosing panencephalitis following a short latency period and a rapidly progressive course with HIV co-infection. © 2016 Marshfield Clinic.

  13. ASIC1a Deficient Mice Show Unaltered Neurodegeneration in the Subacute MPTP Model of Parkinson Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Komnig

    Full Text Available Inflammation contributes to the death of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson disease and can be accompanied by acidification of extracellular pH, which may activate acid-sensing ion channels (ASIC. Accordingly, amiloride, a non-selective inhibitor of ASIC, was protective in an acute 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP mouse model of Parkinson disease. To complement these findings we determined MPTP toxicity in mice deficient for ASIC1a, the most common ASIC isoform in neurons. MPTP was applied i.p. in doses of 30 mg per kg on five consecutive days. We determined the number of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, assayed by stereological counting 14 days after the last MPTP injection, the number of Nissl positive neurons in the substantia nigra, and the concentration of catecholamines in the striatum. There was no difference between ASIC1a-deficient mice and wildtype controls. We are therefore not able to confirm that ASIC1a are involved in MPTP toxicity. The difference might relate to the subacute MPTP model we used, which more closely resembles the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease, or to further targets of amiloride.

  14. ASIC1a Deficient Mice Show Unaltered Neurodegeneration in the Subacute MPTP Model of Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komnig, Daniel; Imgrund, Silke; Reich, Arno; Gründer, Stefan; Falkenburger, Björn H

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation contributes to the death of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson disease and can be accompanied by acidification of extracellular pH, which may activate acid-sensing ion channels (ASIC). Accordingly, amiloride, a non-selective inhibitor of ASIC, was protective in an acute 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of Parkinson disease. To complement these findings we determined MPTP toxicity in mice deficient for ASIC1a, the most common ASIC isoform in neurons. MPTP was applied i.p. in doses of 30 mg per kg on five consecutive days. We determined the number of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, assayed by stereological counting 14 days after the last MPTP injection, the number of Nissl positive neurons in the substantia nigra, and the concentration of catecholamines in the striatum. There was no difference between ASIC1a-deficient mice and wildtype controls. We are therefore not able to confirm that ASIC1a are involved in MPTP toxicity. The difference might relate to the subacute MPTP model we used, which more closely resembles the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease, or to further targets of amiloride.

  15. The underlying toxicological mechanism of chemical mixtures: A case study on mixture toxicity of cyanogenic toxicants and aldehydes to Photobacterium phosphoreum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Dayong [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Anyang Institute of Technology, Anyang 455000 (China); Lin, Zhifen, E-mail: lzhifen@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhou, Xianghong [Department of Public Management, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Yin, Daqiang [Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2013-10-15

    Intracellular chemical reaction of chemical mixtures is one of the main reasons that cause synergistic or antagonistic effects. However, it still remains unclear what the influencing factors on the intracellular chemical reaction are, and how they influence on the toxicological mechanism of chemical mixtures. To reveal this underlying toxicological mechanism of chemical mixtures, a case study on mixture toxicity of cyanogenic toxicants and aldehydes to Photobacterium phosphoreum was employed, and both their joint effects and mixture toxicity were observed. Then series of two-step linear regressions were performed to describe the relationships between joint effects, the expected additive toxicities and descriptors of individual chemicals (including concentrations, binding affinity to receptors, octanol/water partition coefficients). Based on the quantitative relationships, the underlying joint toxicological mechanisms were revealed. The result shows that, for mixtures with their joint effects resulting from intracellular chemical reaction, their underlying toxicological mechanism depends on not only their interaction with target proteins, but also their transmembrane actions and their concentrations. In addition, two generic points of toxicological mechanism were proposed including the influencing factors on intracellular chemical reaction and the difference of the toxicological mechanism between single reactive chemicals and their mixtures. This study provided an insight into the understanding of the underlying toxicological mechanism for chemical mixtures with intracellular chemical reaction. - Highlights: • Joint effects of nitriles and aldehydes at non-equitoxic ratios were determined. • A novel descriptor, ligand–receptor interaction energy (E{sub binding}), was employed. • Quantitative relationships for mixtures were developed based on a novel descriptor. • The underlying toxic mechanism was revealed based on quantitative relationships. • Two

  16. Sub-chronic toxicity study of a novel herbal-based formulation (Semelil on dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzamfar B

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Semelil (ANGIPARSTM, a novel herbal-based compound containing extract of Melilotus officinalis, was formulated for treatment of chronic wounds, especially diabetic foot ulcer. The purpose of this study was to investigate safety and toxicity effects of intramuscular administration of Semelil in dogs. "nPreliminary one-month study with Semelil was performed on 8 male and female dogs divided into 2 groups, test and control, four animals each. Semelil was administered intramuscularlyat a dose of 0.07 ml/kg body wt. once a day to the animals of the test group, while the control group received sterile saline. During experiments, general state of the animals including the dynamics of body weight changes, appetite, motor activity and behavior, hair condition, ECG parameters, rectal temperature of animals and data of hematological and biochemical tests were monitored for signs of toxicity and side-effects. Finally, morphology and histology analyses were performed using standard methods."nNo adverse health or toxicity effects were observed through the course of the study. No damaging consequences of Semelil injections on the functional state of main organs of the experimental animals were found. This observation gave a good evidence of a favorable safety profile compatible with potential therapeutic use of Semelil.

  17. Toxicity Studies on Novel N-Substituted Bicyclo-Heptan-2-Amines at NMDA Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Farbaniec

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Several novel norcamphor derivatives were designed and synthesized as uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists at the phencyclidine (PCP binding site. Such compounds have potential as ligands for understanding and possibly the treatment of several neurodegenerative disorders and other glutamate-dependent disorders. We examined the toxic effects of the compounds as compared with memantine, an NMDA receptor antagonist that is FDA approved for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, by testing these compounds on two cell lines: MDCK (to mimic blood brain barrier and N2a (a neuronal cell line. The compounds showed toxicity profiles similar to those of memantine i.e., dose dependence above 100 μM and IC50 values above 150 μM for each cell line. It is known that the serum level of memantine under therapeutic conditions in patients is about 1 µM, indicting these compounds could have acceptable therapeutic indexes. 2-Phenyl-N-(2-(piperidin-1-yl ethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-amine (5a was found to possess acceptable toxicity profiles in both cell lines. Interestingly, this was the compound identified as a good lead in our previous studies based on binding and anticonvulsant (MES activity studies. It has thus emerged as an excellent lead compound for further studies.

  18. Aqueous chlorination of levofloxacin: kinetic and mechanistic study, transformation product identification and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Najjar, Nasma Hamdi; Deborde, Marie; Journel, Romain; Vel Leitner, Nathalie Karpel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain further insight into the fate of levofloxacin during the chlorination process. First, a kinetic study was thus performed at pH 7.2, 20 °C and in the presence of an excess of total chlorine. A slower apparent removal of levofloxacin (k ~ 26 M(-1) s(-1)) was noted when sodium thiosulfate was used to stop the chlorination reaction compared to the degradation observed without using a reducing agent (k ~ 4400 M(-1) s(-1)). The formation of a chlorammonium intermediate which could be converted back into the parent compound through a reaction with thiosulfate was thus expected. This intermediate would result from an initial chlorine attack on the tertiary amine function of levofloxacin. Secondly, four chlorination transformation products were detected by LC/UV/MS analysis. The chemical structures of two of them are proposed. It was suggested that these compounds could come from a secondary reaction of the chlorammonium intermediate on levofloxacin. A reactional pathway is then proposed. Finally, a bioassay using Vibrio fisheri was carried out to study the toxicity pattern during levofloxacin chlorination. An increase in toxicity was observed during chlorination suggesting that the first transformations products formed were more toxic than the parent compound. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Paracoccidioidomycosis: acute-subacute clinical form, juvenile type*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Silvio Alencar; Lastória, Joel Carlos; de Camargo, Rosangela Maria Pires; Marques, Mariangela Esther Alencar

    2016-01-01

    The authors report aspects of paracoccidioidomycosis, acute-subacute clinical form, juvenile type, in a 19-year-old female patient. Paracoccidioidomycosis, juvenile type, classically occurs in young patients, both sexes, with lymphoma-like aspects as initial presentation. However, following the natural history of the disease the lymph nodes assume patterns of infectious disease, as an abscess and fistulae. Systemic dissemination of the disease can occur and lethality and morbidity are significant in this clinical presentation. PMID:27438214

  20. Herbal hepatitis: subacute hepatic necrosis secondary to chaparral leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, M; Saibil, F

    1990-04-01

    A 33-year-old woman developed subacute hepatic necrosis after several months of ingestion of Chaparral Leaf, an herbal product. Symptoms first appeared 3 months after she began taking the tablets. The patient unwittingly carried out a clinical challenge by reducing, then increasing, the dose of pills. The public and the medical profession must be wary of all "harmless" nonprescription medications, whether purchased in pharmacies or elsewhere.