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Sample records for subacute toxicity evaluation

  1. Evaluation of acute and subacute toxicities of aqueous ethanolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the acute and subacute toxicities of hydro-ethanolic extract of leaves of Senna alata (L.) Roxb. in Swiss mice and Wistar albino rats. The mice were divided into 6 groups of 10 animals and each group received once by intra gastric gavages 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 times 1000 mg/kg dose of extract. Distilled water ...

  2. Evaluation of acute and subacute toxicity of Alstonia congensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extract demonstrated good hypoglycaemic effects by lowering the plasma sugar level and also had some beneficial and reduction effects on cardiovascular risk factors. There was no evidence of drug-induced symptoms or death at all the doses of the extract administered in acute study but subacute results revealed a ...

  3. Acute and subacute toxicity evaluation of ethanolic extract from fruits of Schinus molle in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Adriana; Minetti, Alejandra; Bras, Cristina; Zanetti, Noelia

    2007-09-25

    Ethanolic and hexanic extracts from fruits and leaves of Schinus molle showed ability to control several insect pests. Potential vertebrate toxicity associated with insecticidal plants requires investigation before institutional promotion. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute and subacute toxicity of ethanolic extracts from fruits of Schinus molle in rats. The plant extract was added to the diet at 2g/kg body weight/day during 1 day to evaluate acute toxicity and at 1g/kg body weight/day during 14 days to evaluate subacute toxicity. At the end of the exposure and after 7 days, behavioral and functional parameters in a functional observational battery and motor activity in an open field were assessed. Finally, histopathological examinations were conducted on several organs. In both exposures, an increase in the arousal level was observed in experimental groups. Also, the landing foot splay parameter increased in the experimental group after acute exposure. Only the subacute exposure produced a significant increase in the motor activity in the open field. All these changes disappeared after 7 days. None of the exposures affected the different organs evaluated. Our results suggest that ethanolic extracts from fruits and leaves of Schinus molle should be relatively safe to use as insecticide.

  4. Evaluation of Acute and Subacute Oral Toxicity of the Ethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxicity tests of 95% ethanol extract of the root of Antidesma acidum were studied in male and female rats. The oral acute toxicity test at 5,000 mg/kg revealed that the ethanol extract did not produce toxic effects on signs, general behavious, mortality and gross appearance of internal organs of rats. Furthermore, the oral ...

  5. Acute and Sub-Acute Toxicity Evaluation of the Methanolic Extract of Alstonia scholaris Stem Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris Bello

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Alstonia scholaris has been used by traditional medicine practitioners since the medieval ages for the treatment of diseases. The aim of this research was to evaluate the acute and sub-acute oral toxicity of its methanolic extract. The acute toxicity test was conducted using Sprague Dawley (SD rats. The methanolic extract of Alstonia scholaris stem bark (ASME was administrated in a single dose of 2000 mg/kg via oral gavage; and the animals were observed for any behavioral changes or mortality. In the sub-acute toxicity study, SD rats received three doses of ASME (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg for 28 days via oral gavage. During these 28 days of treatment, the rats were observed weekly for toxicity symptoms. Following the 28-day treatment, the rats were sacrificed for hematological, biochemical and histopathology studies. In the acute toxicity study, Alstonia scholaris was found to be non-toxic at a dose of 2000 mg/kg b.w. In the sub-acute toxicity study, significant variations in body weight, hematological and biochemical parameters were observed in the experimental groups at the dose of 500 and 1000 mg/kg with the death of two female rats being recorded at the highest dose (1000 mg/kg b.w.. Histopathological studies revealed slight degeneration (lesion and centrilobular necrosis in the liver, which was most expressed in the highest-dose group. These results demonstrate that, while a single dose and short term oral intake of Alstonia scholaris bark extract caused no toxicity up to a dose of 2000 mg/kg b.w., toxic effects manifested in the long term treatment at the highest dose (500 and 1000 mg/kg. The long-term toxic effect was found to be associated with alterations in hematological compositions and end-organ damage to the liver. Thus, prolonged use of high doses of ASME orally should be discouraged and lower doses encouraged.

  6. Acute and subacute oral toxicity evaluation of Tephrosia purpurea extract in rodents

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    Talib Hussain

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the acute and subacute toxicity of 50% ethanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea (T. purpurea in rodents. Methods: The acute toxicity test was conducted in Swiss albino mice. The extract of T. purpurea was administrated in single doses of 50, 300 and 2000 mg/ kg and observed for behavioral changes and mortality, if any. In subacute toxicity study, Wistar rats of either sex were administered two doses of T. purpurea i.e., 200 and 400 mg/kg (One-tenth and one-fifth of the maximum tolerated dose, p.o. for 4 weeks. During 28 days of treatment, rats were observed weekly for any change in their body weight, food and water intake. At the end of 28 days, rats were sacrificed for hematological, biochemical and histopathology study. Results: In the acute toxicity study, T. purpurea was found to be well tolerated upto 2 000 mg/kg, produced neither mortality nor changes in behavior in mice. In subacute toxicity study, T. purpurea at dose level of 200 and 400 mg/kg did not produce any significant difference in their body weight, food and water intake when compared to vehicle treated rats. It also showed no significant alteration in hematological and biochemical parameters in experimental groups of rats apart from a decrease in aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphate content at the dose of 400 mg/kg. Histopathological study revealed normal architecture of kidney and liver of T. purpurea treated rats. Conclusions: These results demonstrated that there is a wide margin of safety for the therapeutic use of T. purpurea and further corroborated the traditional use of this extract as an anti hepatocarcinogenic agent

  7. Evaluation of acute and sub-acute toxicity of Pinus eldarica bark extract in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Ghadirkhomi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pinus eldarica (P. eldarica is one of the most common pines in Iran which has various bioactive constituents and different uses in traditional medicine. Since there is no documented evidence for P. eldarica safety, the acute and sub-acute oral toxicities of hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark were investigated in male and female Wistar rats in this study. Materials and Methods: In the acute study, a single dose of extract (2000 mg/kg was orally administered and animals were monitored for 7 days. In the sub-acute study, repeated doses (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day of the extract were administered for 28 days and biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters were evaluated. Results: Our results showed no sign of toxicity and no mortality after single or repeated administration of P. eldarica. The median lethal dose (LD50 of P. eldarica was determined to be higher than 2000 mg/kg. The mean body weight and most of the biochemical and hematological parameters showed normal levels.  There were only significant decreases in serum triglyceride levels at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg of the extract in male rats (pConclusion: Oral administration of the hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark may be considered as relatively non-toxic particularly at the doses of 125 and 250 mg/kg.

  8. Phytochemical, sub-acute toxicity, and antibacterial evaluation of Cordia sebestena leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osho, Adeleke; Otuechere, Chiagoziem A; Adeosun, Charles B; Oluwagbemi, Tolu; Atolani, Olubunmi

    2016-03-01

    In Nigeria, Cordia sebestena (Boraginaceae), an understudied medicinal plant, is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. In this study, we investigated the chemical composition, antibacterial potential, and sub-acute toxicity of C. sebestena leaves. Ethyl acetate extracts were analyzed using thin layer chromatography (TLC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometry. The antibacterial potential of the extracts was tested against five standard bacteria, namely Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Clinical observations and blood parameters were used to evaluate the possible toxicity of C. sebestena. The TLC profile yielded 39 fractions, which were pooled to nine combined sub-fractions (A-I). The FTIR spectrum of sub-fraction H indicated the presence of aliphatic C-H stretching vibration at 2922 and 2850 cm-1, C=O stretch at 1734 and 1708 cm-1, and C=C stretch of aromatics and aliphatics at 1464 and (shoulder) 1618 cm-1, respectively. The fractions of the C. sebestena ethyl acetate leaf extract showed antibacterial potential across board, but fraction H had the highest antibacterial activity against B. cereus and S. aureus. The study also indicated the relatively low toxicity profile of the ethyl acetate leaf extract of C. sebestena in the liver of rats. The study showed that C. sebestena leaves have strong antibacterial potential and low toxicity, thereby underlying the scientific basis for their folkloric use in the management of microbial infections and its associated complications.

  9. Sub-acute toxicity evaluation of ethanol extract of rheumatic tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sub-acute toxicity profile of Rheumatic Tea Formula (RTF), a polyherbal tea consisting of Salix alba, Eucalyptus globulus and Albizia chevalieri was investigated in wistar rats of both sexes. Wistar rats were orally administered three different doses of ethanol extract of RTF for 28 days after which the effect on body weight, ...

  10. Evaluation of acute and subacute toxicity of aqueous extract of Crassocephalum rubens leaves in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewale, Olusola B; Onasanya, Amos; Anadozie, Scholastica O; Abu, Miriam F; Akintan, Idowu A; Ogbole, Catherine J; Olayide, Israel I; Afolabi, Olakunle B; Jaiyesimi, Kikelomo F; Ajiboye, Bashir O; Fadaka, Adewale O

    2016-07-21

    Crassocephalum rubens is found throughout tropical Africa including the Indian Ocean islands. The leaves are commonly eaten in form of soups and sauces in South-Western Nigeria, also in other humid zones of Africa. Traditionally, it is used as an antidote against any form of poisoning; used to treat stomach and liver complaints; and externally to treat burns, sore eyes, earache, leprosy and breast cancer. In this study, acute and subacute toxicity of aqueous extract of C. rubens leaves was evaluated in rats in order to assess its safety profile. In acute toxicity study, rats were given a single oral administration of aqueous extract of C. rubens leaves at graded doses (250-5000mg/kg). The animals were monitored for behavioural changes and possible mortality over a period of 24h and thereafter, for 14 days. In the subacute toxicity study, rats of both sexes were administered C. rubens orally at doses of 250mg/kg, 500mg/kg, 750mg/kg and 1000mg/kg body weight daily, for 28 days. Rats were observed weekly for any changes in general behaviour and body weights. In addition, other relevant parameters were assayed at the end of the main and reversibility study periods. There was no observed adverse effect; including mortality in the animals. The extract caused no significant difference in the body weights as well as organs weights of treated groups when compared with the control groups. Haematological and biochemical parameters also revealed no toxic effects of the extract on rats. Histological assessments were normal in liver and kidney. It can therefore be suggested based on the results from this study that aqueous extract of C. rubens leaves, at dosage levels up to 1000mg/kg, is non-toxic and could also offer protection on some body tissues. Aqueous extract of C. rubens could therefore, be considered safe. This study supports the application of Crassocephalum rubens in traditional medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of the subacute and subchronic toxicity of inhaled EDS hydrotreated naphtha in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, R H; Hinz, J P

    1987-07-01

    Inhalation studies were conducted to assess the subacute and subchronic toxicity of EDS hydrotreated naphtha (HN). In the subacute toxicity study, male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to various concentrations of HN vapor (0.2, 1.0, and 5.0 g/m3) 6 hr/day for 5 consecutive days. Following 2 recovery days, the animals were exposed for 4 additional days and then sacrificed on the 12th study day. In the subchronic toxicity study, a similar protocol was utilized; however, the animals were exposed 5 days/week for 13 weeks. Following a 2-week recovery period, the animals were sacrificed. Parameters examined in both studies included survival, growth, clinical observations, urinalysis, blood chemistry at necropsy, and microscopic examination of selected tissues. There was some evidence of systemic effects associated with repeated inhalation exposure to HN, although these effects were mild and were primarily confined to the high-exposure groups. The major systemic effect appeared to be renal toxicity in male rats as evidenced by increased urinary excretion of renal epithelial cells, creatinine, glucose, and protein and decreased urine osmolality. However, the absence of consistent pathologic changes in the kidneys of these animals suggested that the lesions were either slight or reversible during the 2-week recovery period.

  12. Toxicological evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil: acute and subacute toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yun-xia; Cao, Mei; Shi, Dong-xia; Yin, Zhong-qiong; Jia, Ren-yong; Xu, Jiao; Wang, Chuan; Lv, Cheng; Liang, Xiao-xia; He, Chang-liang; Yang, Zhi-rong; Zhao, Jian

    2013-03-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica), popularly known as traditional medicine is a native plant in India. Neem oil is a vegetable oil derived from seeds or fruits of the neem tree through pressing or solvent extraction, and largely used in popular medicine to have antifungal, antibacterial, antimalarial, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory, as well as immunemodulatory properties in different animal species. In the present study, acute and 28-day subacute toxicity tests were carried out. In the acute toxicity test, the LD50 values of neem oil were found to be 31.95g/kg. The subacute treatment with neem oil failed to change body weight gain, food and water consumption. Serum biochemistry analysis showed no significant differences in any of the parameters examined under the dose of 1600mg/kg/day. Histopathological exams showed that the target organs of neem oil were testicle, liver and kidneys up to the dose of 1600mg/kg/day. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of acute and subacute toxicity of hydroethanolic extract of Dolichandra unguis-cati L. leaves in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calil Brondani, Juliana; Reginato, Fernanda Ziegler; da Silva Brum, Evelyne; de Souza Vencato, Marina; Lima Lhamas, Cibele; Viana, Carine; da Rocha, Maria Izabel Ugalde Marques; de Freitas Bauermann, Liliane; Manfron, Melânia Palermo

    2017-04-18

    Dolichandra unguis-cati L. is a native climbing plant of Brazil, popularly known as "unha de gato". It has been traditionally used mainly as an antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor agent, yet little toxicological information is found in the literature. To identify the chemical composition of the hydroethanolic extract obtained from the leaves of Dolichandra uniguis-cati and to evaluate the acute and subacute toxicity in male and female rats, in order to assess the safety profile of this plant. In the acute study, a single dose (2000mg/kg) of the extract was orally administered to male and female rats. In the subacute study, the extract was orally administered to male and female rats at doses 100, 200 and 400mg/kg for 28 days. Behavioral changes, catalase and tbars evaluations, biochemical, hematological and histopathological analysis were determined. The extract' chemical composition was accessed through UHPLC/MS. Chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, vanillinic acid, p-coumaric acid, rosmarinic acid, trans-cinnamic acid, luteolin, apigenin, quercitrin and quercetin were identified in the extract. In the acute treatment, the extract was classified as safe (category 5), according to the OECD guide. In relation to the subacute study, females showed a reduction in AST (100, 200 and 400mg/kg), ALT (200mg/kg) and BUN (100 and 200mg/kg) levels, while male rats 400mg/kg presented an increase in AST levels. The Chol dosage significantly decreased in female rats in a dose-dependent manner, whereas for male rats this parameter showed no statistically significant reductions. No behavioral and histopathological changes were recorded. Our results indicate that the hydroethanolic extract of Dolichandra unguis-cati leaves did not present relevant toxic effects when administered orally to male and female rats. The extract also showed a potential hypocholesterolemic activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mammalian Toxicological Evaluation of TNT Wastewaters. Volume II. Acute and Subacute Mammalian Toxicity of TNT and LAP Mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-01

    lContinued) ’ in rats; subacute toxicity in mice; anemia; testicular atrophy; uterine U hypoplasia; hemosiderosis ; SGPT; cholesterol; unscheduled DNA...food intake, mild to moderate hemolytic anemia, 5. enlarged splee s and (usually) livers, hemosiderosis of the spleen, and colored urine.! Testicular...temporary with mice); mild to moderate anemia; alterations in organ weights, including enlarged spleens and (usually) livers; hemosiderosis of the spleen

  15. Acute and subacute toxicities of defatted ethanolic extract of Moringa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moringa oleifera seeds are widely accepted as a nutritional supplement. The seeds are consumed and are sold on the shelf of nature, herbal shops, pharmacy and supermarkets. They are consumed as herbal remedy for various diseases. This study was designed to evaluate the acute and sub-acute toxicity of defatted ...

  16. Subacute toxicity assessment of annatto in rat

    OpenAIRE

    Bautista, Ana Rita Pedreira Lapa; E.L.T. Moreira; Batista, Márcio Santos; Miranda, M.S.; Gomes, I. C. S.

    2004-01-01

    Texto completo:acesso restrito. p. 625-629 Increased human use of annatto (Bixa orellana L), a red yellow food colorant, demands generation of toxicity data. The toxic effects of annatto powder (bixin 27%) have been assessed following administration of a subacute regimen (4 weeks, 20 doses) in Wistar male and female rats. A full study with three dose levels was considered unnecessary since no sign of toxicity had been noted in a preliminary experiment with 1000 mg/kg body weight/day as ...

  17. Subacute toxicity of propyl gallate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strik JJTWA; Danse LHJC; Helleman PW; van Leeuwen FXR; Speijers GJA; Vaessen HAMG

    1986-01-01

    The 4 week oral toxicity of propyl gallate in rats, exposed to 0, 1000, 5000 and 25000 mg/kg feed, was investigated. Parameters studied comprised growth, food and water intake, biochemistry, hematology, organ weights and histopathology. In the highest dose group both females and males gained less

  18. Preclinical Studies Evaluating Subacute Toxicity and Therapeutic Efficacy of LQB-118 in Experimental Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha-Júnior, Edézio Ferreira; Martins, Thiago Martino; Canto-Cavalheiro, Marilene Marcuzzo; Marques, Paulo Roberto; Portari, Elyzabeth Avvad; Coelho, Marsen Garcia Pinto; Netto, Chaquip Daher; Costa, Paulo Roberto Ribeiro; Sabino, Katia Costa de Carvalho; Torres-Santos, Eduardo Caio

    2016-06-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is the most severe form of leishmaniasis and is the second major cause of death by parasites, after malaria. The arsenal of drugs against leishmaniasis is small, and each has a disadvantage in terms of toxicity, efficacy, price, or treatment regimen. Our group has focused on studying new drug candidates as alternatives to current treatments. The pterocarpanquinone LQB-118 was designed and synthesized based on molecular hybridization, and it exhibited antiprotozoal and anti-leukemic cell line activities. Our previous work demonstrated that LQB-118 was an effective treatment for experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis. In this study, we observed that treatment with 10 mg/kg of body weight/day LQB-118 orally inhibited the development of hepatosplenomegaly with a 99% reduction in parasite load. An in vivo toxicological analysis showed no change in the clinical, biochemical, or hematological parameters. Histologically, all of the analyzed organs were normal, with the exception of the liver, where focal points of necrosis with leukocytic infiltration were observed at treatment doses 5 times higher than the therapeutic dose; however, these changes were not accompanied by an increase in transaminases. Our findings indicate that LQB-118 is effective at treating different clinical forms of leishmaniasis and presents no relevant signs of toxicity at therapeutic doses; thus, this framework is demonstrated suitable for developing promising drug candidates for the oral treatment of leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Subacute toxicity assessment of annatto in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, A R P L; Moreira, E L T; Batista, M S; Miranda, M S; Gomes, I C S

    2004-04-01

    Increased human use of annatto (Bixa orellana L), a red yellow food colorant, demands generation of toxicity data. The toxic effects of annatto powder (bixin 27%) have been assessed following administration of a subacute regimen (4 weeks, 20 doses) in Wistar male and female rats. A full study with three dose levels was considered unnecessary since no sign of toxicity had been noted in a preliminary experiment with 1000 mg/kg body weight/day as was recommended by the OECD guideline. In this study, annatto administered by gavage at a dose level of 2000 mg/kg/day decreased male body weight gain, but had no effect on either food intake or food conversion efficiency. Haematological and plasma biochemical examination as well necropsy performed at the end of administration (29th day) and observation (43rd day) periods revealed no alterations related with annatto administration. Kidney apoptosis occurred in 20% treated female rats in restricted areas without proliferation or tubular segments modification. The precise nature of apoptosis was not investigated in the present study. These findings suggest that annatto was no toxic to the rat.

  20. Evaluation of subacute toxicity of methanolic/aqueous preparation of aerial parts of O. sanctum in Wistar rats: Clinical, haematological, biochemical and histopathological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raina, P; Chandrasekaran, C V; Deepak, M; Agarwal, A; Ruchika, K-G

    2015-12-04

    Ocimum sanctum, commonly known as Holy Basil or Tulsi has been used in Ayurveda as a demulcent, stimulant, expectorant; in the treatment of bronchitis, skin infections, malaria, diarrhoea, dysentery, arthritis, gastric and inflammatory disorders. We have previously shown that methanolic/aqueous extract of O. sanctum did not induce genotoxicity and other toxic effects in acute oral toxicity study. In the present report, we have performed sub-acute toxicity of methanolic/aqueous preparation of O. sanctum in Wistar rats to evaluate whether it induced any chronic toxic effects. In subacute toxicity study, animals received O. sanctum extract (OSE) by oral gavage at the doses of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day (n=5/group/sex) for 28 days. At the end of the study, the animals were sacrificed and evaluated for the effect of OSE on clinical, haematological, biochemical and histopathological parameters. The rats treated with OSE did not show any change in body weight, food and water consumption, motor activity, sensory reactivity and foot splay measurements. There were no significant changes in haematological, pathological and biochemical parameters; and histopathology of tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, heart, and testis/ovary) among rats of either sex. OSE at a dose of 1000 mg/kg showed significant increase of Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) (19.8 ± 0.8; 18.7 ± 0.5) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) (41.8 ± 1.1; 39.3 ± 0.7) in male and female rats in comparison to their respective controls (MCH: 17.7 ± 0.3; 17.4 ± 0.3; MCHC: 37.8 ± 0.5; 36.1 ± 0.2). Urine parameters (appearance, blood, nitrate, leucocyte, glucose, ketone, pH, protein and specific gravity) in both the male and female rats were comparable to their respective controls. In addition, no changes were observed in the vital organs of rats at macroscopic and microscopic levels. Our results showed that oral administration of OSE was not toxic to male and female Wistar rats upto the highest

  1. Subacute Oral Toxicity Assessment of Alchornea cordifolia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To assess Alchornea cordifolia, a medicinal plant with numerous biological actions and uses in traditional medicine, for possible toxicity in rats. Methods: The probable effect of the ethanol extract of Alchornea cordifolia (250 - 2000 mg/kg, p.o.) by gavage was evaluated on blood cellular elements and chemistry, ...

  2. Subacute Oral Toxicity Assessment of Alchornea cordifolia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2010-10-21

    Oct 21, 2010 ... Purpose: To assess Alchornea cordifolia, a medicinal plant with numerous biological actions and uses in traditional medicine, for possible toxicity in rats. Methods: The probable effect of the ethanol extract of Alchornea cordifolia (250 - 2000 mg/kg, p.o.) by gavage was evaluated on blood cellular elements ...

  3. Subacute (90 days) oral toxicity studies of Kombucha tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, R; Singh, M; Rao, P V; Bhattacharya, R; Kumar, P; Sugendran, K; Kumar, O; Pant, S C; Singh, R

    2000-12-01

    Kombucha tea (KT) is a popular health beverage and is used as an alternative therapy. KT is prepared by placing the kombucha culture in solution of tea and sugar and allowing to ferment. The inoculum is a fungus consisting of symbiotic colony of yeast and bacteria. KT is consumed in several countries and is believed to have prophylactic and therapeutic benefits in a wide variety of ailments, viz., intestinal disorders, arthritis, ageing and stimulation of immunological system. Though KT is used in several parts of the world its beneficial effects and adverse effects have not been scientifically evaluated. Since there are no animal toxicological data on KT, subacute oral toxicity study was carried out. Five groups of rats were maintained: (a) control group given tap water orally, (b) KT given 2 ml/kg orally, (c) plain tea (PT) given 2 ml/kg orally, (d) KT given in drinking water, 1% (v/v) and (e) PT given in drinking water, 1% (v/v). The rats were given this treatment daily for a period of 90 days. Weekly records of weight, feed intake, water intake and general behaviour were monitored. There was no significant difference in the growth of the animals as evidenced by the progressive body weight change. The organ to body weight ratio and histological evaluation did not show any toxic signs. The haematological and biochemical variables were within the clinical limits. The study indicates that rats fed KT for 90 days showed no toxic effects.

  4. Acute and Subacute Toxic Study of Aqueous Leaf Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Results: For the acute toxicit test, no death and signs of poisoning were observed in the treated groups. In the subacute .... Subcute toxicity test. The animals were divided into six groups of six animals each. The treatments were given by intraperitoneal injection. Group 1 served ... produce significant changes in behavior,.

  5. Anti-diabetic effects of Inonotus obliquus polysaccharides-chromium (III) complex in type 2 diabetic mice and its sub-acute toxicity evaluation in normal mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cong; Chen, Zhongqin; Pan, Yuxiang; Gao, Xudong; Chen, Haixia

    2017-10-01

    Polysaccharides are important bioactive ingredients from Inonotus obliquus. This study aimed to synthesize and characterize a novel I. obliquus polysaccharides-chromium (III) complex (UIOPC) and investigate the anti-diabetic effects in streptozotocin (STZ) induced type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) mice and sub-acute toxicity in normal mice. The molecular weight of UIOPC was about 11.5 × 10 4 Da with the chromium content was 13.01% and the chromium was linked with polysaccharides through coordination bond. After treatment of UIOPC for four weeks, the body weight, fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels, plasma insulin levels of the diabetic mice were significantly reduced when compared with those of the diabetic mice (p < 0.05). The results on serum profiles and antioxidant enzymes activities revealed that UIOPC had a positive effect on hypoglycemic and antioxidant ability. Histopathology results showed that UIOPC could effectively alleviate the STZ-lesioned tissues in diabetic mice. Furthermore, high dose administration of UIOPC had no obviously influence on serum profiles levels and antioxidant ability of the normal mice and the organ tissues maintained organized and integrity in the sub-acute toxicity study. These results suggested that UIOPC might be a good candidate for the functional food or pharmaceuticals in the treatment of T2DM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of safety margins of Chenopodium album seed decoction: 14-day subacute toxicity and microbicidal activity studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mondal Nirup B

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sperm immobilizing activity and plausible mechanism of action of Chenopodium album seed decoction (CAD have been elucidated in our earlier studies. The present study has been carried out to explore the safety standards of CAD along with microbicidal properties as prerequisite for its use as a topically applicable vaginal contraceptive. Methods The safety standards of CAD were assessed by a Hemolytic index determination using rabbit erythrocytes, to set the doses of the other experiments, b Dermal irritancy test using refined version of Draize scoring system on rabbits, c Possible effect on local tissues and reproductive performance in female rats after fourteen daily single dose application, d PCNA staining- to evaluate the effect of CAD on vaginal tissue proliferation, e TUNEL assay- to examine its ability to induce in situ apoptosis in the vaginal tissue sections of the treated animals, and f Microbicidal activity- to explore the effect of CAD on the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Candida albicans. Results In vitro irritation studies on rabbit erythrocytes revealed the hemolytic index of CAD to be 8.2 mg/ml. The dermal irritation test showed it to be a non-irritant even at higher doses. Intra vaginal application of CAD in rat vagina for 14 consecutive days caused slight reversible inflammation on vaginal epithelial cells at doses as high as 82 mg/ml. However, at this dose level it neither had any adverse effect on vaginal tissue proliferation nor did it cause in situ apoptosis as evident from PCNA staining and TUNEL assay. Fertility and fecundity were restored 4-15 days after withdrawal of CAD application. At dose level 10 times that of its spermicidal MEC (minimum effective concentration, CAD did not block the growth of Lactobacillus, although the size of individual colony was marginally reduced. However, growth of the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans was completely inhibited with 20 mg/ml of CAD. Conclusion The

  7. Alternative acute oral toxicity assessment under REACH based on sub-acute toxicity values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gissi, Andrea; Louekari, Kimmo; Hoffstadt, Laurence; Bornatowicz, Norbert; Aparicio, Alberto Martin

    2017-01-01

    The REACH Regulation requires information on acute oral toxicity for substances produced or imported in quantities greater than one ton per year. When registering, animal testing should be used as last resort. The standard acute oral toxicity test requires use of animals. Therefore, the European Chemicals Agency examined whether alternative ways exist to generate information on acute oral toxicity. The starting hypothesis was that low acute oral toxicity can be predicted from the results of low toxicity in oral sub-acute toxicity studies. Proving this hypothesis would allow avoiding acute toxicity oral testing whenever a sub-acute oral toxicity study is required or available and indicates low toxicity. ECHA conducted an analysis of the REACH database and found suitable studies on both acute oral and sub-acute oral toxicities for 1,256 substances. 415 of these substances had low toxicity in the sub-acute toxicity study (i.e., NO(A)EL at or above the limit test threshold of 1,000 mg/kg). For 98% of these substances, low acute oral toxicity was also reported (i.e., LD50 above the classification threshold of 2,000 mg/kg). On the other hand, no correlation was found between lower NO(A)ELs and LD50. According to the REACH Regulation, this approach for predicting acute oral toxicity needs to be considered as part of a weight of evidence analysis. Therefore, additional sources of information to support this approach are presented. Ahead of the last REACH registration deadline, in 2018, ECHA estimates that registrants of about 550 substances can omit the in vivo acute oral toxicity study by using this adaptation.

  8. Acute and sub-acute oral toxicity assessment of the hydroalcoholic extract of Withania somnifera roots in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabu, P C; Panchapakesan, S; Raj, C David

    2013-08-01

    Withania somnifera is a widely used medicinal plant for several disorders. Toxicity studies on Withania somnifera are not available. Acute and sub-acute oral toxicities of Withania somnifera root extract in Wistar rats were evaluated in the present study. In the acute toxicity study, WSR extract was administered to five rats at 2000 mg/kg, once orally and were observed for 14 days. No toxic signs/mortality were observed. In the sub-acute study, WSR extract was administered once daily for 28 days to rats at 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg, orally. No toxic signs/mortality were observed. There were no significant changes (P lesions were observed. The present investigation demonstrated that the no observed adverse effect level was 2000 mg/kg body weight per day of hydroalcoholic extract of W. somnifera in rats and hence may be considered as non-toxic. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Assessment of acute and subacute toxic effects of the Saudi folk herb Retama raetam in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardi M. Algandaby

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Repeated administration of methanolic extract of RR (250 mg/kg has a low nephrotoxic subacute toxicity potential, while it might have hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic, and mutagenic effects at higher doses.

  10. Safety studies of homoeopathic drugs in acute, sub-acute and chronic toxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surender Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Homoeopathic drugs are frequently recommended in day to day life as therapeutic agents by homoeopathic practitioners. However, safety of homoeopathic drugs remains a challenge because of the high variability of chemical components involved. Aim: The objective of the present study was to investigate the acute, subacute, and chronic oral toxicity of different homoeopathic drugs (Ferrum phosphoricum 3X, Ferrum phosphoricum 6X, Calcarea phosphoricum 6X, and Magnesium phosphoricum 6X in experimental models. Materials and Methods: In acute oral toxicity study, homoeopathic drugs were administered orally at 2000mg/kg body weight, and animals were observed for toxic symptoms till 10 days as per the OECD guidelines. For subacute and chronic toxicity study, homoeopathic drugs were administered for 28 and 180 days, respectively, as per the OECD guidelines. At the end of 28 and 180 days, the animals were sacrificed and toxicity parameters were assessed. Histopathological evaluation of different organs was also performed to assess any toxicity. Results: In acute toxicity study, no mortality was found at a dose of 2000 mg/kg which indicates that oral LD50of homoeopathic drugs were more than 2000 mg/kg. The administration of drugs at a dose of 70 mg/kg body weight for 28 and 180 days did not produce any significant change in haematological and biochemical parameters of male and female rats as compared to normal control group. No pathological changes were observed in histology of various organs of treated rats as compared to normal control animals. Conclusion: These homoeopathic drugs are safe & produce no toxicity when administered for longer duration.

  11. Acute and 28-day sub-acute oral toxicity evaluation of two dietary bamboo charcoal powders in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhen-chao; Luo, Sha; Zhong, Yu-ting; Li, Xiao; Chen, Jin-yao; Zhang, Li-shi

    2015-04-01

    No data were available on the acute oral toxicity, short-term oral toxicity of vegetable carbon in animals. This study was designed to evaluate the safety of two commercially available dietary bamboo charcoal powders (BCP1 and BCP2). The size distribution of the two powders was determined by a Mastersizer 2000 laser particle size analyzer prior to the in vivo safety studies. For the acute toxicity study, a single dose of 11.24 g/kg body weight of BCP1 and BCP2 was given once orally to healthy Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Mortality and clinical symptoms were observed and recorded for the first 30 min after treatment, at 4 h post-administration, and then at least once daily for 14 days after administration. In the repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity study, BCP1 and BCP2 were administered orally at doses of 2.81, 5.62, and 11.24 g/kg body weight for 28 days to SD rats. Animals were sacrificed and organs and blood samples were analyzed. Results showed that both BCP1 and BCP2 were micro-sized and various in size. In the acute toxicity and the repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity studies, BCP caused neither mortality nor visible signs of toxicity in rats. No significant differences were found in the relative organ weights or in biochemical parameters in BCP treated groups compared to a control group. No treatment-related histological changes were observed in the organs of these animals. Based on these data, it is concluded that the median lethal dose (LD50) of BCP for both male and female rats is more than 11.24 g/kg body weight and the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) is >11.24 g/kg body weight for 28 days.

  12. Acute and sub-acute oral toxicity of Dracaena cinnabari resin methanol extract in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Afifi, Nashwan Abdullah; Alabsi, Aied Mohammed; Bakri, Marina Mohd; Ramanathan, Anand

    2018-02-05

    Dracaena cinnabari (DC) is a perennial tree that located on the Southern coast of Yemen native to the Socotra Island. This tree produces a deep red resin known as the Dragon's blood, the Twobrother's Blood or Damm Alakhwain. The current study performed to evaluate the safety of the DC resin methanol extract after a single or 28 consecutive daily oral administrations. In assessing the safety of DC resin methanol extract, acute and sub-acute oral toxicity tests performed following OECD guidelines 423 and 407, respectively, with slight modifications. In acute oral toxicity test, DC resin methanol extract administered to female Sprague Dawley rats by oral gavage at a single dose of 300 and 2000 mg/kg body weight. Rats observed for toxic signs for 14 days. In sub-acute oral toxicity test, DC resin methanol extract administered to the rats by oral gavage at 500, 1000, and 1500 mg/kg body weight daily up to 28 days to male and female Spradgue Dawley rats. The control and high dose in satellite groups were also maintained and handled as the previous groups to determine the late onset toxicity of DC resin methanol extract. At the end of each test, hematological and biochemical analysis of the collected blood were performed as well as gross and microscopic pathology. In acute oral toxicity, no treatment-related death or toxic signs were observed. It revealed that the DC resin methanol extract could be well tolerated up to the dose 2000 mg/kg body weight and could be classified as Category 5. The sub-acute test observations indicated that there are no treatment-related changes up to the high dose level compared to the control. Food consumption, body weight, organ weight, hematological parameters, biochemical parameters and histopathological examination (liver, kidney, heart, spleen and lung) revealed no abnormalities. Water intake was significantly higher in the DC resin methanol extract treated groups compared to the control. This study demonstrates tolerability of DC

  13. Acute and sub-acute toxicity study of Clerodendrum inerme, Jasminum mesnyi Hance and Callistemon citrinus

    OpenAIRE

    Bharat Bhushan; Satish Sardana; Gulshan Bansal

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study acute and sub-acute toxicity study of Clerodendrum inerme (C. inerme), Jasminum mesnyi (J. mesnyi) Hance and Callistemon citrinus (C. citrinus). Methods: The acute toxicity test was conducted in Swiss albino mice. The extracts of C. inerme, J. mesnyi Hance and C. citrinus was administered in single dose of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 g/kg and observed for behavioral changes and mortality, if any. In sub-acute toxicity study, Wistar rats of either sex were administer...

  14. Nanosilver induces minimal lung toxicity or inflammation in a subacute murine inhalation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Shaughnessy Patrick T

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing interest in the environmental and health consequences of silver nanoparticles as the use of this material becomes widespread. Although human exposure to nanosilver is increasing, only a few studies address possible toxic effect of inhaled nanosilver. The objective of this study was to determine whether very small commercially available nanosilver induces pulmonary toxicity in mice following inhalation exposure. Results In this study, mice were exposed sub-acutely by inhalation to well-characterized nanosilver (3.3 mg/m3, 4 hours/day, 10 days, 5 ± 2 nm primary size. Toxicity was assessed by enumeration of total and differential cells, determination of total protein, lactate dehydrogenase activity and inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Lungs were evaluated for histopathologic changes and the presence of silver. In contrast to published in vitro studies, minimal inflammatory response or toxicity was found following exposure to nanosilver in our in vivo study. The median retained dose of nanosilver in the lungs measured by inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES was 31 μg/g lung (dry weight immediately after the final exposure, 10 μg/g following exposure and a 3-wk rest period and zero in sham-exposed controls. Dissolution studies showed that nanosilver did not dissolve in solutions mimicking the intracellular or extracellular milieu. Conclusions Mice exposed to nanosilver showed minimal pulmonary inflammation or cytotoxicity following sub-acute exposures. However, longer term exposures with higher lung burdens of nanosilver are needed to ensure that there are no chronic effects and to evaluate possible translocation to other organs.

  15. Subacute toxicity evaluation of KR-33493, FAF1 inhibitor for a new anti-parkinson's disease agent, after oral administration in rats and dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jong-Woo; Yu, Changsun; Lee, Jong-Hwa; Moon, Kyoung-Sik; Kim, Eunhee; Yoo, Sung-Eun; Koo, Tae-Sung

    2016-11-01

    KR33493, a newly developed FAS-associated factor 1 (FAF1) inhibitor for Parkinson's disease, is being evaluated in a Phase I clinical trial. In the present study, the subchronic toxicity of KR33493 in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and beagle dogs was investigated at various oral doses for 28 and 14 days, respectively. During the study, food consumption, body weights, organ weights, gross findings, and mortality were examined; and ophthalmoscopy, electrocardiography, hematology, serum biochemistry, urinalysis, histopathology, and toxicokinetics were performed. In rats, weight gain decreased in both sexes at 500 mg/kg/day, with no significant differences. In dogs, some significant differences compared with the control were found during the trial; however, at the end of recovery periods, these were no longer observed and there was no dose correlation. Some histopathological findings were observed, but these were considered as incidental changes. Since no other significant changes were observed, doses above 500 and 1000 mg/kg KR33493 in rat and dogs, respectively, caused no observed adverse effects. Therefore, based on these results, the Phase 1 clinical trial for KR33493 was approved by the Korean Food & Drug Administration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of the acute and sub-acute toxicity of the ethanolic extract of Pericampylus glaucus (Lam. Merr. in BALB/c mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kifayatullah

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: The result indicates that the oral administration of Pericampylus glaucus (Lam. Merr. extract did not produce any significant toxic effect in BALB/c mice. Hence, the extract can be utilized safely for therapeutic use in pharmaceutical formulations.

  17. Comparative in vivo assessment of the subacute toxicity of gold and silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Mansee; Mohanty, Ipseeta Ray; Maheswari, Ujjwala; Dayal, Navami; Suman, Rajesh; Joshi, D. S.

    2014-04-01

    In spite of the projected therapeutic potentials of gold nanoparticles (GNP) and silver nanoparticles (SNP), very limited data are available on the interaction of nanoparticles with the biological systems. The present investigation was designed to evaluate as well as compare the subacute toxicity of GNP and SNP. Stable suspensions of GNP and SNP with mean particle diameter 10 and 25 nm, respectively, were prepared. Wistar rats were orally fed SNP (3 mg/kg) or GNP (20 μg/kg), once a day for 21 days. Biochemical indices (creatinine phosphokinase-MB, urea, blood urea nitrogen, aspartate transaminase, alkaline alanine transferase) and histopathological features of the liver, heart, brain, lungs, and kidney were evaluated for signs of toxicity. A significant decline in hepatic and renal function in the GNP treated group was observed as compared to SNP. GNP was found to be relatively more toxic on the lungs and SNP on the myocardial tissue as compared to SNP and GNP treatments, respectively. Interestingly, neither SNP nor GNP adversely affected the basal architecture of the brain as compared to sham. The present study demonstrated that GNP was significantly more noxious on the liver and kidney as compared with SNP.

  18. Biocompatible lutein-polymer-lipid nanocapsules: Acute and subacute toxicity and bioavailability in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Arunkumar; Hindupur, Ravi; Vallikannan, Baskaran

    2016-12-01

    Lutein-poly-(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-phospholipid (PL) nanocapsules were prepared (henceforth referred as lutein nanocapsules) and studied for acute, subacute oral toxicity and bioavailability of lutein in mice. Prior to examining the safety of lutein nanocapsules, particle size, zeta potential, surface morphology and interaction between lutein, PLGA and PL were studied. In acute study, mice were gavaged with a single dose of lutein nanocapsules at 0.1, 1, 10 and 100mg/kg body weight (BW) and examined for 2weeks, while in subacute study, daily mice were gavaged with a dose of 1 and 10mg/kg BW for 4weeks. Results revealed that mean size and zeta value of lutein nanocapsules were 140nm and -44mV, respectively. Acute and subacute toxicity studies did not show any mortality or treatment related adverse effect in clinical observations, ophthalmic examinations, body and organ weights. No toxicity related findings were observed in hematology, histopathology and other blood and tissue clinical chemistry parameters. In subacute study, no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of lutein nanocapsules was found to be at a dose of 10mg/kg BW. Feeding lutein nanocapsules resulted in a significant (plutein level in plasma and tissue compared to the control group. Lutein nanocapsules did not cause toxicity in mice. However, human trials are warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Subacute oral toxicity investigation of nanoparticulate and ionic silver in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadrup, Niels; Löschner, Katrin; Bergström, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Subacute toxicity of 14 nm nanoparticulate silver (Ag-NP) stabilised with polyvinylpyrrolidone and ionic silver in the form of silver acetate (Ag-acetate) was investigated in four-week-old Wistar rats. Animals received orally by gavage the following: vehicle control (10 $, 6 #); Ag-NP at doses: 2...

  20. Sub-acute toxicity study on the aqueous extract of Albizia zygia stem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sub-acute toxicity study on the aqueous extract of Albizia zygia stem bark. ... Morphological (body weight and organ weight indices), haematological {white blood cell (WBC), red blood cell (RBC), haemoglobin, haematocrit, and platelet counts}, biochemical {alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase ...

  1. Toxicity assessment of zinc oxide nanoparticles using sub-acute and sub-chronic murine inhalation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Although ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) are used in many commercial products and the potential for human exposure is increasing, few in vivo studies have addressed their possible toxic effects after inhalation. We sought to determine whether ZnO NPs induce pulmonary toxicity in mice following sub-acute or sub-chronic inhalation exposure to realistic exposure doses. Methods Mice (C57Bl/6) were exposed to well-characterized ZnO NPs (3.5 mg/m3, 4 hr/day) for 2 (sub-acute) or 13 (sub-chronic) weeks and necropsied immediately (0 wk) or 3 weeks (3 wks) post exposure. Toxicity was assessed by enumeration of total and differential cells, determination of total protein, lactate dehydrogenase activity and inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid as well as measurements of pulmonary mechanics. Generation of reactive oxygen species was assessed in the lungs. Lungs were evaluated for histopathologic changes and Zn content. Zn concentration in blood, liver, kidney, spleen, heart, brain and BAL fluid was measured. Results An elevated concentration of Zn2+ was detected in BAL fluid immediately after exposures, but returned to baseline levels 3 wks post exposure. Dissolution studies showed that ZnO NPs readily dissolved in artificial lysosomal fluid (pH 4.5), but formed aggregates and precipitates in artificial interstitial fluid (pH 7.4). Sub-acute exposure to ZnO NPs caused an increase of macrophages in BAL fluid and a moderate increase in IL-12(p40) and MIP-1α, but no other inflammatory or toxic responses were observed. Following both sub-acute and sub-chronic exposures, pulmonary mechanics were no different than sham-exposed animals. Conclusions Our ZnO NP inhalation studies showed minimal pulmonary inflammation, cytotoxicity or lung histopathologic changes. An elevated concentration of Zn in the lung and BAL fluid indicates dissolution of ZnO NPs in the respiratory system after inhalation. Exposure concentration, exposure mode and time post

  2. Subacute toxicity assessment of water disinfection byproducts on zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rácz, Gergely; Csenki, Zsolt; Kovács, Róbert; Hegyi, Arpád; Baska, Ferenc; Sujbert, László; Zsákovics, Ivett; Kis, Renáta; Gustafson, Ryan; Urbányi, Béla; Szende, Béla

    2012-07-01

    Disinfection of raw water is essential to the production of drinking water. However, by-products of disinfection may exert toxic effects. The potential toxic effects of two of these compounds, 4-ethylbenzaldehyde (EBA) and 2,4-difluoroaniline (DFA) were investigated using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) model. The two compounds, dissolved, were introduced in duplicate aquariums containing zebrafish in two different concentrations based on LC50 values. The aquarium water containing EBA or DFA was changed every 96 h throughout the 3 months of treatment. Behavior of the fish in each replicate was inspected twice daily. In course of treatment with both concentrations, fish exposed to DFA displayed behavior associated with visible anxiety, while EBA treated were lethargic and did not evade capture. Application of both concentrations of each component into the aquarium water resulted in dystrophic lesions in the liver, kidney and skin of the fish while preneoplastic lesions and tumors were not observed.

  3. Safety assessment of Withania somnifera extract standardized for Withaferin A: Acute and sub-acute toxicity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shruti B; Rao, Nirav J; Hingorani, Lal L

    2016-03-01

    The use of Withania somnifera is increasing due to a number of its chemical constituents found useful for health. The present study was carried out to investigate the potential adverse effects (if any) of a standardized Withania somnifera extract (WSE) in rats following acute and sub chronic administration. The toxicity study was performed in Wistar rats by oral administration. An acute toxicity study was done at the dose of 2000 mg/kg. In the sub-acute study, Wistar rats (10/sex/group) were administered via gavage 0 (control), 500, 1000, 2000 mg/kg body weight/day of WSE for 28 days. Among two additional satellite groups, one group did not receive any drug while the second group received 2000 mg/kg/day for 28 days. At the end of study, the animals sacrificed and their body weight, hematology, serum chemistry, and histopathology evaluation was done. In acute toxicity studies, oral LD50 of WSE in Wistar rats was greater than 2000 mg/kg body weight. Compared to the control group in sub-acute toxicity study, administration of extract did not show any toxicologically significant treatment related changes in clinical observations, ophthalmic examination, body weight gain, feed consumption, clinical pathology evaluation, and organ weight. Hematological and serum chemistry parameters were within the normal limits. Terminal necropsy did not reveal any treatment related gross or histopathological findings. Based on this study, the no-observed-adverse-effect-level of WSE is 2000 mg/kg body weight, the highest level tested. Copyright © 2016 Transdisciplinary University, Bangalore and World Ayurveda Foundation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Subacute Toxicity Profile of Lacidipine Nanoformulation in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupesh Shirodkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at investigating the safety of Lacidipine (LCDP loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs in Wistar rats. NLCs were formulated using ultrasound dispersion technique. Animals were orally treated once daily with NLCs containing 0.140 mg, 0.350 mg, and 0.875 mg of LCDP as low, medium, and high dose per kg body weight, respectively, during 28 days along with blank formulation and pure LCDP. Control rats were fed with water. Animals were observed throughout experiment period and their body weight was recorded once weekly. Overnight fasted rats were sacrificed on the 29th day. Study revealed no signs or symptoms of toxicity or morbidity. No significant changes in the body weight were observed between treated and control group. Significant increase in left testis weight and liver weight was observed in male and female rats, respectively. Haematological estimation revealed significant decrease in haemoglobin count in male rats while female rats showed significant increase in granulocyte count. All the serum clinical parameters were within the normal range and no gross histopathological changes were observed. No delayed effect was noted in satellite group. The results indicate that developed LCDP loaded NLCs are safe when administered orally in rats.

  5. Toxic effects of ackee oil (Blighia sapida L) following subacute administration to rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, P; Gardner, M; Poddar, S; Choo-Kang, E; Coard, K; Rickards, E

    1992-03-01

    Subacute intraperitoneal administration of the lipid portion of the unripe ackee arillus, referred to as "ackee oil", resulted in marked neutropenia (p less than 0.001) and increase in platelets (p less than 0.01) without anaemia, in rats. Blood urea, sodium and aspartate aminotransferase levels were significantly decreased but glucose and bilirubin levels were similar to those of controls. The lungs showed areas of petechial haemorrhages and a dose-related perivascular and peribronchial mononuclear cell infiltration. The pulmonary toxicity may be interpreted as a hypersensitive reaction to ackee oil. Further research is in progress on the neutropenic effects of ackee oil.

  6. Subacute toxicity of nano-selenium compared to other selenium species in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benko, Ilona; Nagy, Gabor; Tanczos, Bence; Ungvari, Eva; Sztrik, Attila; Eszenyi, Peter; Prokisch, Jozsef; Banfalvi, Gaspar

    2012-12-01

    Sixteen groups of mice were fed diets containing different selenium species to compare their toxicity. Inorganic sodium selenate and sodium hydroselenite, elementary nanoSe, organic Sel-Plex, and Lacto-MicroSelenium were administered for 14 d at concentrations of 0.5, 5, and 50 ppm Se, equivalent to 0.5, 5, and 50 mg Se/kg food, corresponding to an estimated 4, 40, and 400 µg/kg body weight/d Se uptake, respectively. At the end of the treatment, body, liver, spleen, kidney, heart, and brain weights were measured, mice were subjected to necropsy, and histological examinations were performed on the liver. At lower Se doses (0.5 and 5 ppm) a moderate reduction was observed in the number of bone marrow and white blood cells and in granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming units (GM-CFUs) relative to the untreated control group of mice. A comparison of lowest toxic doses of sodium selenite in mice (0.5 ppm) and mallard (10 ppm) indicates that birds are more resistant to Se than rodents. In mice, a small but measurable weight loss was observed after 5 ppm selenate and LactoMicroSe treatment. The most significant changes took place after 50-ppm administration in body and spleen weight, hematology, and liver histology. Toxicity was more pronounced when inorganic Se was applied than after subacute application of Sel-Plex, nanoSe, or LactoMicroSe. To summarize the effects, the authors' 14-d murine subacute toxicity study showed that the toxicity of Se species decreased in the following order: selenate > selenite > nanoSe > Sel-Plex > LactoMicroSe. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  7. Acute and subacute (28-day) toxicity studies of ionic liquid, didecyldimethyl ammonium acesulfamate, in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodynis-Liebert, Jadwiga; Nowicki, Michał; Adamska, Teresa; Ewertowska, Małgorzata; Kujawska, Małgorzata; Petzke, Ewelina; Konwerska, Aneta; Ostalska-Nowicka, Danuta; Pernak, Juliusz

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate acute and subacute oral toxicity of an ionic liquid, didecyldimethylammonium acesulfamate [DDA][Ace], in rats. The compound tested was classified to the fourth toxicity class with a fixed LD(50) cut-off value of 500 mg/kg. Organ pathology induced by [DDA][Ace] in acute experiments included exfoliation of the surface layer of the digestive tract and alveolar septa in lung parenchyma. In a subacute experiment, rats were administered 10, 50, and 100 mg/kg/day [DDA][Ace] for 28 days. Reduced body weight gain and reduced food consumption was observed in mid- and high-dose rats. Statistically significant hematology changes were found mostly in high-dose groups of both sexes: increases in hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, and mean platelet volume. Statistically significant changes in clinical chemistry parameters included increases in the GGT, SDH, and LDH activity and bilirubin concentration, and decreases in triglycerides, glucose, and inorganic phosphorus concentration. No treatment-related microscopic changes were observed. Under the conditions of this study, the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level of [DDA][Ace] was considered to be 10 mg/kg/day.

  8. The Study on Acute and Subacute Toxicity and Anti-Cancer Effects of cultivated wild ginseng Herbal acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Rok, Kwon

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The purpose of this study was to investigate acute and subacute toxicity and sarcoma-180 anti-cancer effects of herbal acupuncture with cultivated wild ginseng (distilled in mice and rats. Methods : Balb/c mice were injected intravenous with cultivated wild ginseng herbal acupuncture for LD50 and acute toxicity test. Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intravenous with cultivated wild ginseng herbal acupuncture for subacute toxicity test. The cultivated wild ginseng herbal-acupuncture was injected at the tail vein of mice. Results : 1. In acute LD50 toxicity test, there was no mortality thus unable to attain the value. 2. Examining the toxic response in the acute toxicity test, there was no sign of toxication. 3. In acute toxic test, running biochemical serum test couldn't yield any differences between the control and experiment groups. 4. In subacute toxicity test, there was no sign of toxication in the experimental groups and didn't show any changes in weight compared to the normal group. 5. In subacute toxicity test, biochemical serum test showed significant increase of Total albumin, Albumin, and Glucose in the experimental group I compared with the control group. Significant decrease of GOT, ALP, GPT, and Triglyceride were shown. In experiment group II, only Glucose showed significant increase compared with the control group. 6. Measuring survival rate for anti-cancer effects of Sarcoma-180 cancer cell line, all the experimental groups showed significant increase in survival rate. 7. Measuring NK cell activity rate, no significant difference was shown throughout the groups. 8. Measuring Interleukin-2 productivity rate, all the experimental groups didn't show significant difference. 9. For manifestation of cytokine mRNA, significant decrease of interleukin-10 was witnessed in the experimental group compared to the control group. Conclusion : According to the results, we can conclude cultivated wild ginseng herbal acupuncture

  9. Subacute toxicity study on sup(99m)Tc stannous glucoheptonate injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belbeck, L.; Bowen, B.M.; Jeu, J.; Richardson, M. (McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada))

    1981-07-01

    A subacute toxicity study on sup(99m)Tc stannous glucoheptonate was performed with rats, dogs and rabbits, injected intravenously at ten to 100 times the human dose on a body weight basis. There were no abnormalities in the clinical status of any of the animals. No changes were found in urinalysis, blood chemistry or hematology in the rabbits nor in gross examination, renal histology or bone marrow smears in rats and rabbits. Hepatic histology was also done. A focal area of necrosis in a liver of one rabbit that had been injected with 100 times the human dose was observed using light microscopy. Examination by electron microscopy in another group of rats and rabbits was prompted by the observation of that lesion. This revealed vacuolated and dilated smooth endoplasmic reticulum and degranulated and vesiculated rough endoplasmic reticulum in all the test livers. X-ray microanalysis indicates that the ultrastructural changes are linked to the deposition of tin.

  10. [Studies on distribution, excretion and subacute toxicity of squalane in dogs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, H; Koga, N; Oguri, K; Yoshimura, H; Inoue, H; Sato, K; Ohkubo, M

    1989-05-01

    In the previous papers, we demonstrated, by using rats, that squalane (2,6,10,15,19,23-hexamethyltetracosane) could stimulate the fecal excretion of 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran, which was regarded as the most important etiologic agent of yusho among PCB and PCDF congeners found in the causal rice oil. We also reported that, in rats, squalane was not essentially absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, and did not show any appreciable side effects during the 3-month treatment. In the present paper, we have investigated the distribution, excretion and subacute toxicity of squalane in beagle dogs. The fecal excretion of squalane accounted for about 83% of dose during the initial 2 days after administration at a single oral dose of 1,200 mg/kg to male dogs. On day 3, absorbed squalane was mostly distributed to the hair and the skin, and the concentrations in these tissues were decreased on day 6. These results suggested that most of squalane administered orally was not absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, but a part was absorbed and excreted through the hair. In addition, squalane distributed into the liver was found to be eliminated rather slowly. A long-term (13-week) treatments with squalane orally at doses of 400 mg/kg/day or 1,200 mg/kg/day in male and female dogs, resulted also in accumulation of squalane in the liver at a level of about 3% (400 mg/kg) or about 6% (1,200 mg/kg) of the daily dose. This accumulation of squalane in the liver was highest among all the tissues. Nevertheless, no appreciable toxic signs were observed in the serum biochemical tests and the hepatic functional test for squalane groups. Therefore, squalane accumulating in the liver, did not seem to disturb the hepatic physiological functions. It was suggested also in a long-term treatment that the skin and the hair played the most important role in the elimination of squalane. In conclusion, the present studies on subacute toxicity tests suggested that squalane did not give any

  11. An evaluation of neuropeptide Y status in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuhandan, M; Calik, M; Almaz, V; Taskın, A; Cakmak, A; Selek, S

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the neuropeptide Y values of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. The study comprised 38 patients diagnosed with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis at our clinic, who were being routinely followed-up, together with a control group of 36. Using the Risk and Haddad classification for clinical staging, 16 patients were determined as Stage II and 22 patients as Stage III. Neuropeptide Y values were measured by Enzyme Immunoassay methods. The neuropeptide Y values of the all patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis were found to be significantly high compared to the control group (ppanencephalitis.

  12. Echocardiographic evaluation of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Çimen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is a slowly progressive, inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease caused by virus infection in the central nervous system. Since there are a limited number of studies in the literature evaluating the cardiovascular functions of patients with SSPE, the present study evaluates the patients with SSPE using tissue Doppler echocardiography and compares them between the control group in order to shed some light on the subject. Methods: The study is a prospective observational study. 49 patients (17 female, 32 male with SSPE were included in the study. Patients were divided into two groups: Stage 2 (n=29 and Stage 3 (n=20. Echocardiographic data were compared with a control group of 26 which is the same average age. All children underwent a detailed echocardiography, which contained an M-mode, pulse Doppler and tissue Doppler imaging. Results: Sinus tachycardia ( >100 beats/min in children was detected in nineteen (38.7% patients. There were not significant differences between parameters of systolic and diastolic function of the heart. Stage 2 group, EF: 69.9±6.4; SF: 39.2±5.58; and MPI (mitral: 0.38±0.03 and MPI (tricuspid: 0.39±0.10. And in the Stage 3 group, EF: 68.5±7.0, SF: 37.8±5.34, MPI (mitral: 0.37±0.09 and MPI (tricuspid: 0.38±0.12. In the control group EF:70.96±5.54; SF:39.96±5.05 and MPI(mitral: 0.35±0.06 MPI (tricuspid:0.36±0.04 and statistically meaningful differences were not found between patients and control groups (p >0.05. Conclusion: Cardiac functions may be preserved and cardiac functions constitute no significant risks of mortality in the advanced stages of patients with Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, which is a group of chronic and bedridden patients.

  13. Combined subacute toxicity of copper and antiparasitic albendazole to the earthworm (Eisenia fetida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuhong; Li, Hongshuang; Li, Xuemei; Sun, Zhenjun

    2016-03-01

    Copper (Cu) is one of the most common metal contaminants, and albendazole (ABZ) is a veterinary drug with a high efficacy against helminthes. It is believed that the two may co-exist in soil. In this study, the combined subacute toxicity of Cu exposure (0, 80, 120, 160 mg kg(-1)) and ABZ exposure (0, 3, 9 mg kg(-1)) in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were observed using three approaches, namely chronic growth and reproduction, antioxidant enzyme activity, and earthworm Cu residue. The results have shown that the toxicity of Cu on cocoon hatching success and biomass was alleviated by presence of low concentrations of ABZ (3 mg kg(-1)) during a 56-day exposure period. However, the sensitivity of the earthworms' reproduction to Cu increased with the presence of high concentrations of ABZ (9 mg kg(-1)), indicating a reduction beginning at a Cu concentration of 80 mg kg(-1), in the cocoon number, hatching success, and biomass. In addition, the three enzyme activities exhibited different responsive patterns, indicating inducement in the catalase and glutathione peroxidase, and inhibition in the superoxide dismutase, which were dependent on the exposure times and concentrations. In regard to the earthworm Cu residue, when increasing Cu exposure concentrations, the internal Cu concentrations tended to level off, exhibited a linear pattern at the Cu concentration range of 40 to 120 mg kg(-1), and showed a stable trend above 120 mg kg(-1). The results of the present study can potentially provide important information regarding the combined toxicity of the veterinary drugs and the heavy metals in soil.

  14. Acute and subacute toxicity of copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO(4)5.H(2)O) in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Keehae; Heo, Gang-Joon

    2009-03-01

    Chemicals are used for treatment of aquatic diseases, but there is little data available about copper sulfate in small ornamental fish. The aim of the present study was to determine the TLm(24h) and evaluate the toxicity of copper sulfate in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata). The fish were subjected to an acute toxicity test for 24 hr, and the results showed a TLm(24h) value of 1.17 ppm. Severe hyperplasia and exfoliation of the epithelial cells of gill lamellae and obstruction of the internal cavities of renal tubules with necrotized renal epithelial cells sloughed from the basement membrane were observed. However, no significant changes, except for mild curling of gill lamellae, were found in a subacute toxicity test in which fish were exposed to 1/10 of the TLm(24h) value for 1 week. Therefore, use of less than 0.12 ppm of copper sulfate may be recommended as a therapeutic level.

  15. Clinical and Radiological Evaluation of Children with Subacute Sclerosan Panencephalitis

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    Ahmet İrdem

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 65 children with Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis (SSPE who admittedto our clinic between September 1998 and December 2002 were retrospectively evaluated interms of clinical and radiological findings.The most common symptoms and findings at admission were myoklonia (31 patients, 47%, behaveral changes (18 patients, 27.7 % and convulsion (8 patients, 12 %. There was atrauma history initiating symptoms in 14 patients (21.5 %. Neurological symptoms presentedsignificantly earlier in patients who had measles before 2 years of age compared to others(p0.05. The clinical stage of the patients at admission was determined based on Risk veHaddad classification. The most frequent stage was IIA (21 patients, 32.2%, IIC (17patients, 26.2% and IIB (16 patients, 24.6%. At the follow-up period, 46 (71% patients wasdepended to bed. The mean time interval between SSPE initiation age and bed dependencywas 4.68 ± 4.05 months (1-17 months.Of the 31 patients who underwent cranial magnetic rezonans imaging (MRI, 15patients (48.38% had pathological findings, the most frequent findings were cortical vesubcortical lesions. Of the 24 patients who underwent cranial tomographi, 22 (91.6% werenormal. Of the remaining two, one had atrophy and the other had increase in contrast. All ofthe patients underwent rutine EEG test. Fifty-four (83.1% of these had periodic complexhigh slow wave activity.The clinical findings and Electro Encephalographi results are important parameters inthe diagnosis of SSPE. Cranial tomographi is not useful in the diagnosis of SSPE. However,cranial MRI findings is pathologic only in the half of the patients.

  16. Subacute pulmonary toxicity of copper indium gallium diselenide following intratracheal instillations into the lungs of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akiyo; Hirata, Miyuki; Shiratani, Masaharu; Koga, Kazunori; Kiyohara, Yutaka

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the pulmonary toxicity of copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) solar cells on 62 8-wk-old rats. Male Wistar rats were given 0.5, 5 or 50 mg/kg of CIGS particles, intratracheally, 3 times for a week. Control rats were given vehicle, distilled water, only. These rats were euthanized 0, 1 or 3 wk after the final instillation serially, and toxicological effects were determined. None of the CIGS-treated groups exhibited suppression of body weight gain compared with the control group. The relative lung weight in the CIGS 5 mg/kg-treated and 50 mg/kg-treated groups were significantly increased compared with that in the control group throughout the observation period. Although serum copper (Cu) and selenium (Se) concentrations were not affected by instillations of CIGS particles, the indium (In) levels increased with the passage of time in the CIGS 5 mg/kg-treated and 50 mg/kg-treated groups. However, the serum gallium (Ga) levels decreased in the CIGS 50 mg/kg-treated group from 0 to 3 wk. The content of each metal in the lung increased depending on the dose instilled and was constant during observation periods. Histopathologically, foci of slight to severe pulmonary inflammatory response and exudation were present among all the CIGS-treated groups, and the severity of these lesions worsened with the passage of time. The present results clearly demonstrate that CIGS particles caused subacute pulmonary toxicity and that dissolution of CIGS particles in the lung was considerably slow when repeated intratracheal instillations were given to rats.

  17. Acute and Subacute Toxicity In Vivo of Thermal-Sprayed Silver Containing Hydroxyapatite Coating in Rat Tibia

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    Masatsugu Tsukamoto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the incidence of implant-associated infection, we previously developed a novel coating technology using hydroxyapatite (HA containing silver (Ag. This study examined in vivo acute and subacute toxicity associated with the Ag-HA coating in rat tibiae. Ten-week-old rats received implantation of HA-, 2% Ag-HA-, or 50% Ag-HA-coated titanium rods. Concentrations of silver in serum, brain, liver, kidneys, and spleen were measured in the acute phase (2–4 days after treatment and subacute phase (4–12 weeks after treatment. Biochemical and histological examinations of those organs were also performed. Mean serum silver concentration peaked in the acute phase and then gradually decreased. Mean silver concentrations in all examined organs from the 2% Ag-HA coating groups showed no significant differences compared with the HA coating group. No significant differences in mean levels of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine, or blood urea nitrogen were seen between the three groups and controls. Histological examinations of all organs revealed no abnormal pathologic findings. No acute or subacute toxicity was seen in vivo for 2% Ag-HA coating or HA coating. Ag-HA coatings on implants may represent biologically safe antibacterial biomaterials and may be of value for reducing surgical-site infections related to implantation.

  18. Acute and subacute toxicity in vivo of thermal-sprayed silver containing hydroxyapatite coating in rat tibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Masatsugu; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Ando, Yoshiki; Noda, Iwao; Eto, Shuichi; Akiyama, Takayuki; Yonekura, Yutaka; Sonohata, Motoki; Mawatari, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    To reduce the incidence of implant-associated infection, we previously developed a novel coating technology using hydroxyapatite (HA) containing silver (Ag). This study examined in vivo acute and subacute toxicity associated with the Ag-HA coating in rat tibiae. Ten-week-old rats received implantation of HA-, 2% Ag-HA-, or 50% Ag-HA-coated titanium rods. Concentrations of silver in serum, brain, liver, kidneys, and spleen were measured in the acute phase (2-4 days after treatment) and subacute phase (4-12 weeks after treatment). Biochemical and histological examinations of those organs were also performed. Mean serum silver concentration peaked in the acute phase and then gradually decreased. Mean silver concentrations in all examined organs from the 2% Ag-HA coating groups showed no significant differences compared with the HA coating group. No significant differences in mean levels of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine, or blood urea nitrogen were seen between the three groups and controls. Histological examinations of all organs revealed no abnormal pathologic findings. No acute or subacute toxicity was seen in vivo for 2% Ag-HA coating or HA coating. Ag-HA coatings on implants may represent biologically safe antibacterial biomaterials and may be of value for reducing surgical-site infections related to implantation.

  19. Huso huso Acute and subacute toxicity study of ethanolic extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acute toxicity profiles of ... body weight changes, haematology, plasma biochemical parameters, relative organ weight (ROW) were evaluated. ... to ascertain its effect on the male reproductive system as well as its effect on chronic administration.

  20. Iron and nickel complexes with heterocyclic ligands: stability, synthesis, spectral characterization, antimicrobial activity, acute and subacute toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchoucha, Afaf; Terbouche, Achour; Zaouani, Mohamed; Derridj, Fazia; Djebbar, Safia

    2013-07-01

    The synthesis and characterization by elemental analysis, emission atomic spectroscopy, TG measurements, magnetic measurements, FTIR, (1)H NMR, UV-visible spectra and conductivity of a series of iron (II) and nickel (II) complexes with two heterocyclic ligands (L(1)(SMX): sulfamethoxazole and L(2)(MIZ): metronidazole) used in pharmaceutical field and with a new ligand derived benzoxazole (L(3)(MPBO): 2-(5-methylpyridine-2-yl)benzoxazole), were reported. The formulae obtained for the complexes are: [M(L(1))2 Cl2]·nH2O, [M(L(2))2Cl2(H2O)2]·H2O and [M(L(3))2(OH)2]·nH2O. Stability constants of these complexes have been determined by potentiometric methods in water-ethanol (90:10, v/v) mixture at a 0.2 mol L(-1) ionic strength (NaCl) and at 25.0±0.1 °C. Sirko program was used to determine the protonation constants as well as the binding constants of three species [ML2H2](2+), [ML2] and [ML](2+). The antimicrobial activity of the ligands and complexes was evaluated in vitro against different human bacteria and fungi using agar diffusion method. Iron sulfamethoxazole complex showed a remarkable inhibition of bacteria growth especially on Staphylococcus aureus and P. aeruginosa. The iron metronidazole complex is active against yeasts especially on Candida tropicalis strain. Nickel complexes presented different antibacterial and antifungal behavior's against bacteria and fungal. The acute toxicity study revealed that the iron complexes are not toxic at 2000 mg/kg dose orally administrated. LD50 for nickel complexes was determined using graphical method. No significant differences in the body weights between the control and the treated groups of both rat sexes in subacute toxicity study using for iron complexes. Hematological and clinical blood chemistry analysis revealed no toxicity effects of the iron complexes. Pathologically, neither gross abnormalities nor histopathological changes were observed for these complexes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights

  1. Determination of toxicity of subacute treatment of some plant growth regulators on rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Ismail; Tuluce, Yasin

    2007-12-01

    potential enzyme MPO activity significantly increased in the spleen of rats treated with both doses of NAA and TIBA whereas ADA activity significantly decreased in the spleen of rats treated with 100 ppm dose of NAA and TIBA. The observations presented led us to conclude that the administrations of subacute NAA, 2,4-D, and TIBA promote MDA content, inhibit the antioxidative defense system and activate or inhibit immune potential enzymes in the rat's spleen and lung tissues. These data suggest that PGRs produced substantial organ toxicity in the lung and spleen during the period of a 25-day subacute exposure.

  2. Acute and subacute toxicity of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon 1-methylnaphthalene to the shallow-water coral Porites divaricata: Application of a novel exposure protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renegar, D Abigail; Turner, Nicholas R; Riegl, Bernhard M; Dodge, Richard E; Knap, Anthony H; Schuler, Paul A

    2017-01-01

    Previous research evaluating hydrocarbon toxicity to corals and coral reefs has generally focused on community-level effects, and results often are not comparable between studies because of variability in hydrocarbon exposure characterization and evaluation of coral health and mortality during exposure. Toxicity of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon 1-methylnaphthalene to the coral Porites divaricata was assessed in a constant exposure toxicity test utilizing a novel toxicity testing protocol uniquely applicable to shallow-water corals, which considered multiple assessment metrics and evaluated the potential for post-exposure mortality and/or recovery. Acute and subacute effects (gross morphological changes, photosynthetic efficiency, mortality, and histologic cellular changes) were evaluated during pre-exposure (4 wk), exposure (48 h), and post-exposure recovery (4 wk) periods. Coral condition scores were used to determine a 48-h median effective concentration of 7442 μg/L. Significant physical and histological changes resulted from exposure to 640 μg/L and 5427 μg/L 1-methylnaphthalene, with a 1-d to 3-d delay in photosynthetic efficiency effects (ΔF/Fm). Pigmented granular amoebocyte area was found to be a potentially useful sublethal endpoint for this species. Coral mortality was used to estimate a 48-h median lethal concentration of 12 123 μg/L. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:212-219. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  3. SUBACUTE AND MULTIGENERATIONAL TOXICITY EVALUATION OF CASTOR OIL POLYMER INGESTION IN RATS AVALIAÇÃO DA TOXICIDADE SUBAGUDA E MULTIGERACIONAL DA INGESTÃO DE DERIVADO DO POLÍMERO DE MAMONA EM RATOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Chierice

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Castor oil polymer is a biomaterial that can be used to fill bone defects. Biomaterials should present some characteristics such as: biocompatibility, inert, absence of toxin radical and vapour discharge and permit the organism to recognize them as a part of their structure. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in water ingestion, feed intake, weight gain and toxic effects in rats (Rattus norvegicus after ingestion of 0, 10, 25 and 50% of castor oil polymer (COP, Ricinus communis. In groups that received 10 and 25% of COP the weight gain was smaller than the control group. Feed intake in control group was greater than in groups 10 and 50% COP. The intake of castor oil polymer reduced feed intake and water ingest probably because of the palatability of the product. In the second part of this study (multigenerational there were no toxic effects in the offspring, as external birth defects or alterations incompatible with life, in spite of the fact that lower weight were observed in males and females of the second generation.

    KEY WORDS: Biomaterials, bone defects, polymer, Ricinus communis. Os biomateriais são polímeros artificiais desenvolvidos para substituir tecidos orgânicos danificados e preencherem falhas ósseas. Eles devem apresentar características como a biocompatibilidade, serem inertes, não liberarem vapores e radicais tóxicos e permitirem ao organismo reconhecê-los como parte de sua estrutura. Procurou-se determinar a ingestão de água, o consumo de ração, ganho de peso e possível efeito tóxico decorrentes da ingestão de três doses (10%, 25% e 50% do derivado do polímero de mamona (PM, Ricinus communis, adicionado à água de bebida, em ratos (Rattus norvegicus. Nos grupos que receberam 10% e 25% do PM, o ganho de peso foi menor (P?0,05, quando comparado ao grupo-controle. O consumo de ração nos grupos que receberam 10% e 50% de PM foi menor em relação ao grupo-controle. A ingestão do pol

  4. Subacute toxicity of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in male rats: emotional behavior and pathophysiological examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Naima Rihane Ben; Amara, Salem; Mrad, Imen; Ben-Slama, Imen; Jeljeli, Mustapha; Omri, Karim; El Ghoul, Jaber; El Mir, Lassaad; Rhouma, Khemais Ben; Abdelmelek, Hafedh; Sakly, Mohsen

    2015-06-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) have a wide range of applications in many fields (paint, industry, medicine, additives in food colorants, and nutritional products). Over the past decade research, TiO2 NPs have been focused on the potential toxic effects of these useful materials. In the present study, we investigated the effects of subacute exposure to TiO2 NPs on emotional behavior in adult Wistar rats, the biochemical parameters, and the histology of organs. Animals were injected intraperitoneally (ip) with TiO2 NPs (20 mg/kg body weight) every 2 days for 20 days. The elevated plus-maze test showed that subacute TiO2 NPs treatment increased significantly the anxious index (AI) compared to control group. The toxicological parameters were assessed 24 h and 14 days after the last injection of TiO2 NPs. Subacute exposure to nanoparticles increased the AST/ALT enzyme ratio and LDH activity. However, the blood cell count remained unchanged, except the platelet count increase. Histological examination showed a little inflammation overall. Moreover, our results provide strong evidence that the TiO2 NPs can induce the liver pathological changes of rats. The intraperitoneal injection of TiO2 NPs increased the accumulation of titanium in the liver, lung, and the brain. The results suggest that TiO2 NPs could alter the neurobehavioral performance of adult Wistar rats and promotes alterations in hepatic tissues.

  5. An evaluation of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis patients with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuhandan, M; Cece, H; Calik, M; Karakas, E; Dogan, F; Karakas, O

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the contribution of diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging to the diagnosis and staging of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. The study comprised 26 patients diagnosed with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis at our clinic who were undergoing regular follow-up, and a control group of 18 subjects. Clinical staging was determined by Risk and Haddad classification; 12 at Stage II and 14 at Stage III. Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance images were taken of six areas (frontal, parieto-occipital, cerebellar, deep white matter, thalamus and basal ganglia) and by calculating the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values, and a comparison was made between the stages and with the control group. The ADC values of all the areas of the subacute sclerosing panencephalitis patients were found to be significantly higher compared to the control group (p 0.05). The ADC values of all the areas of the Stage III patients were found to be significantly high compared to the Stage II values (p panencephalitis and to reveal differences between the stages.

  6. Determination of acute toxicity and the effects of sub-acute concentrations of CuO nanoparticles on blood parameters in Rutilus rutilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolreza Jahanbakhshi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Copper oxidenanoparticles have different industrial applications so it is inevitable that nanoparticulate products finally find their way into aquatic ecosystems. Nevertheless there is little information available about their effects on some of edible fish. The present study aims to determine the acute toxicity and evaluate the effect of two sub-acute concentrations (50 and 70% 96 h LC50 of CuO-NPs on some hematological and biochemical parameters of R. rutilus. Materials and Methods:225 healthy specimen of R. rutilus (mean weight 5.52±1.2 g; mean length 6.20±0.2 cm were transported to the laboratory. In order to prepare the stock solution, CuO-NPs was dispersed in pure water with ultrasonication (50-60 kHz for 15 min every day before dosing. At first, R. rutilus was exposed to CuO-NPs to determine the lethal concentration (LC50 value. Following acute test, fish were treated with sub-acute concentrations of CuO-NPs (50 and 70% 96 h-LC50 at with one control group (no CuO-NPs for a week to determine the changes in the level of some plasma hematological and biochemical parameters. Results:The 96 h-LC50 values of CuO-NPs was 2.19±0.003 mg/l. R. rutilus exhibited significantly lower RBC count, Hb and Hct values and a significant increase in the WBC numbers, MCH, MCHC and MCV indices (p

  7. The Study on Acute and Subacute Toxicity and Sarcoma-180 Anti-cancer Effects of Carthami Tinctor-Fructus Herbal-acupuncture(CF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Suk An

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate acute and subacute toxicity and sarcoma-180 anti-cancer effects of herbal acupuncture with Carthami- Tinctorii fructus (CF in mice and rats. Method: Balb/c mice were injected intraperitoneally with Carthami - Tinctorii fructus (CF for LD50 and acute toxicity test. Sprague Dawley rats were injected intraperitoneally with Carthami- Tinctorii fructus (CF for subacute toxicity test. The Carthami- Tinctorii fructus herbal-acupuncture was injected on Chung-wan (CV12 of mice with Sarcoma-180 cancer cell line. Results: 1. LD50 was uncountable as none of the subjects expired during the test. 2. In acute toxicity test, toxic symptoms were not detected, but the body weight of mice was increased in treatment Ⅰ, treatment Ⅱ groups, compared to the normal group.(p<0.05 3. In acute toxicity test of serum biochemical values of mice, glucose was increased in treatment Ⅰ and treatment Ⅱ groups, total cholesterol was increased in treatment I group, GOT was decreased in treatment Ⅱ group, and GPT was decreased in treatment Ⅰ group, compared to the normal group.(p<0.05 4. The clinical signs and the body weight of mice treated with 0.1 cc, 0.2cc Carthami- Tinctorii fructus (CF were not affected during the subacute toxicity test. 5. In subacute toxicity test, treatment groups didn't show significant changes in complete blood count test (CBC of rats, compared to the nonnal group.(p<0.05 6. In subacute toxicity test of serum biochemical values of rats, uric acid was decreased in treatment Ⅰ and treatment Ⅱ groups, compared to the nonnal group, triglyceride was decreased in treatment I group, compared to the normal group, GOT and GPT were decreased in treatment I and treatment Ⅱ groups, and alkaline phosphatase was decreased in treatment Ⅰ and treatment Ⅱ groups, compared to the normal group.(p<0.05 7. Median survival time was increased in all the treatment groups for Sarcoma-180 cancer cell

  8. Antagonistic effects of Spirulina platensis against sub-acute deltamethrin toxicity in mice: Biochemical and histopathological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Daim, Mohamed; El-Bialy, Badr E; Rahman, Haidy G Abdel; Radi, Abeer M; Hefny, Hany A; Hassan, Ahmed M

    2016-02-01

    Spirulina platensis (SP); a microalga with high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, acts as a food supplement in human and as many animal species. Deltamethrin (DLM) is a synthetic pyrethroid with broad spectrum activities against acaricides and insects and widely used for veterinary and agricultural purposes. Exposure to DLM leads to hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic and neurotoxic side effects for human and many species, including birds and fish. The present study was undertaken to examine the potential hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, neuroprotective and antioxidant effects of SP against sub-acute DLM toxicity in male mice. DLM intoxicated animals revealed a significant increase in serum hepatic and renal injury biomarkers as well as TNF-α level and AChE activity. Moreover, liver, kidney and brain lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress markers were altered due to DLM toxicity. Spirulina normalized the altered serum levels of AST, ALT, APL, LDH, γ-GT, cholesterol, uric acid, urea, creatinine AChE and TNF-α. Furthermore, it reduced DLM-induced tissue lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide and oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner. Collectively, that Spirulina supplementation could overcome DLM-induced hepatotoxicty, nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity by abolishing oxidative tissue injuries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Acute and Sub-Acute Toxicity of Aqueous Extract of Nauclea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the dose – toxicity profile of the aqueous extract of Nauclea latifolia stem bark. (AQE). Methods: .... filtered and lyophilized and the dried residue was diluted appropriately with water for oral administration to the experimental animals. Acute toxicity test ..... the removal of metabolic wastes from the blood.

  10. Reliability and validity of the Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest) in people with subacute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinsongkram, Butsara; Chaikeeree, Nithinun; Saengsirisuwan, Vitoon; Viriyatharakij, Nitaya; Horak, Fay B; Boonsinsukh, Rumpa

    2014-11-01

    The Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest) is a new clinical balance assessment tool, but it has never been validated in patients with subacute stroke. The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the BESTest in patients with subacute stroke. This was an observational reliability and validity study. Twelve patients participated in the interrater and intrarater reliability study. Convergent validity was investigated in 70 patients using the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke (PASS), Community Balance and Mobility Scale (CB&M), and Mini-BESTest. The receiver operating characteristic curve was used to calculate the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the BESTest, Mini-BESTest, and BBS in classifying participants into low functional ability (LFA) and high functional ability (HFA) groups based on Fugl-Meyer Assessment motor subscale scores. The BESTest showed excellent intrarater reliability and interrater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient=.99) and was highly correlated with the BBS (Spearman r=.96), PASS (r=.96), CB&M (r=.91), and Mini-BESTest (r=.96), indicating excellent convergent validity. No floor or ceiling effects were observed with the BESTest. In contrast, the Mini-BESTest and CB&M had a floor effect in the LFA group, and the BBS and PASS demonstrated responsive ceiling effects in the HFA group. In addition, the BESTest showed high accuracy as the BBS and Mini-BESTest in separating participants into HFA and LFA groups. Whether the results are generalizable to patients with chronic stroke is unknown. The BESTest is reliable, valid, sensitive, and specific in assessing balance in people with subacute stroke across all levels of functional disability. © 2014 American Physical Therapy Association.

  11. Acute and subacute toxicity tests of madder root, natural colorant extracted from madder (Rubia tinctorum), in (C57BL/6 X C3H)F1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ino, N; Tanaka, T; Okumura, A; Morishita, Y; Makita, H; Kato, Y; Nakamura, M; Mori, H

    1995-01-01

    As part of the safety assessment of madder root (MR), a food colorant extracted from madder (Rubia tinctorum), toxicity tests were undertaken using (C57BL/6 x C3H)F1 mice of both sexes. An acute toxicity test was performed by 14-day administration of MR dissolved in distilled water by gavage at doses of 0, 500, 2000, 3500, and 5000 mg/kg body weight to groups of each sex. One male mouse dosed at 5000 mg/kg body weight was dead before the end of the study, indicating that the maximum tolerated dose of MR was between 3500 and 5000 mg/kg body weight. A subacute toxicity test of MR was performed using 62 mice of each sex, mixing their diets with MR at concentrations of 0, 0.3, 0.6, 1.25, 2.5, and 5% for 90 days. All mice tolerated these doses of MR well. The body weight gains of either sex were not affected by the treatment. None of the mice treated with MR showed clinical signs of toxicity. Histopathological examinations showed retention cysts of the kidneys and epidermal vaginal cysts in a few of the treated or control mice. No hyperplastic, preneoplastic, and neoplastic lesions and no pathological findings of toxicity were found. These results suggest that dietary exposure of MR at these doses has no acute or subacute toxic effects on mice.

  12. Responsiveness of the Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest) in People With Subacute Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinsongkram, Butsara; Chaikeeree, Nithinun; Saengsirisuwan, Vitoon; Horak, Fay B; Boonsinsukh, Rumpa

    2016-10-01

    The reliability and convergent validity of the Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest) in people with subacute stroke have been established, but its responsiveness to rehabilitation has not been examined. The study objective was to compare the responsiveness of the BESTest with those of other clinical balance tools in people with subacute stroke. This was a prospective cohort study. Forty-nine people with subacute stroke (mean age=57.8 years, SD=11.8) participated in this study. Five balance measures-the BESTest, the Mini-BESTest, the Berg Balance Scale, the Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke Patients, and the Community Balance and Mobility Scale (CB&M)-were used to measure balance performance before and after rehabilitation or before discharge from the hospital, whichever came first. The internal responsiveness of each balance measure was classified with the standardized response mean (SRM); changes in Berg Balance Scale scores of greater than 7 were used as the external standard for determining the external responsiveness. Analysis of the receiver operating characteristic curve was used to determine the accuracy and cutoff scores for identifying participants with balance improvement. Participants received 13.7 days (SD=9.3, range=5-44) of physical therapy rehabilitation. The internal responsiveness of all balance measures, except for the CB&M, was high (SRM=0.9-1.2). The BESTest had a higher SRM than the Mini-BESTest and the CB&M, indicating that the BESTest was more sensitive for detecting balance changes than the Mini-BESTest and the CB&M. In addition, compared with other balance measures, the BESTest had no floor, ceiling, or responsive ceiling effects. The results also indicated that the percentage of participants with no change in scores after rehabilitation was smaller with the BESTest than with the Mini-BESTest and the CB&M. With regard to the external responsiveness, the BESTest had higher accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and posttest accuracy than

  13. Sub-acute toxicity and biochemical effects of extracts of Anaphe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ataxia syndrome which is characterized by sudden onset of severe muscular tremor and gait ataxia has been shown to be associated with the consumption of the larvae of Anaphe venata in South Western part of Nigeria. In this report, the sub -acute toxicity and biochemical effects of polar and nonpolar extracts of Anaphe ...

  14. Acute and Sub-acute Toxicity Profile of Aqueous Leaf Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Acute toxicity study was performed by administering a single oral dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight of the extract to 5 rats while distilled water was given to another 5 ... Histopathology did not reveal any sign of lesions or pathological changes in the organs that could be attributed to treatment with the plant extract.

  15. Subacute (28-day) toxicity of furfural in Fischer 344 rats: a comparison of the oral and inhalation route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arts, Josje H E; Muijser, Hans; Appel, Marko J; Frieke Kuper, C; Bessems, Jos G M; Woutersen, Ruud A

    2004-09-01

    The subacute oral and inhalation toxicity of furfural vapour was studied in Fischer 344 rats to investigate whether route-to-route extrapolation could be employed to derive the limit value for inhalation exposure from oral toxicity data. Groups of 5 rats per sex were treated by gavage daily for 28 days at dose levels of 6-192 mg/kg bw/day, or exposed by inhalation to concentrations of 20-1280 mg/m3 (6 h/day, 5 days/week) or 160-1280 mg/m3 (3 h/day, 5 days/week) for 28 days. Controls received vehicle (corn oil) or were exposed to clean air. Daily oral treatment with the highest dose of furfural (initially 192 mg/kg bw/day, later reduced to 144 mg/kg bw/day and finally to 120 mg/kg bw/day) resulted in mortality, and in increases in absolute and relative kidney and liver weight in surviving females of this group. Exposure of rats by inhalation for 6 h/day, 5 days/week for 28 days induced mortality at concentrations of 640 mg/m3 and above within 1-8 days. At 640 mg/m3 (3 h/day) and at 320 mg/m3 (3 and 6 h/day) and below, however, exposure was tolerated without serious clinical effects. In contrast, histopathological nasal changes were seen even at the lowest concentration of 20 mg/m3. With increasing exposure concentration, the nasal effects increased in incidence and severity and also expanded from the anterior part to the posterior part, including the olfactory epithelium. It was concluded that the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for oral toxicity was 96 mg/kg bw/day. The NOAEL for systemic inhalation toxicity was comparable, i.e. 92 mg/kg bw/day (corresponding to 320 mg/m3 (6 h/day) or 640 mg/m3 (3 h/day)) assuming 100% absorption. The presence of the histopathological nasal changes at the lowest tested concentration of 20 mg/m3 (corresponding to 6 mg/kg bw/day) proves that for locally acting substances like furfural extrapolation from the oral to the inhalation route is not valid.

  16. Haematolohical Profile of Subacute Oral Toxicity of Molybdenum and Ameliorative Efficacy of Copper Salt in Goats

    OpenAIRE

    Kusum; Raina, R.; Verma, P. K.; Pankaj, N. K.; Kant, V.; Kumar, J.; Srivastava, A. K.

    2010-01-01

    Molybdenum toxicity produces a state of secondary hypocuprosis, resulting into alterations in normal hematological profile. In the present study, ammonium molybdate alone and with copper sulfate (II) pentahydrate (ameliorative agent) was administered orally for 30 consecutive days in healthy goats of group 1 and 2, respectively, to access the effect on the hematological profile on different predetermined days of dosing. Administration of ammonium molybdate alone produced significant decline i...

  17. [On the subacute toxicity of labetalol (AH5158): a combined alpha-and beta-adrenoceptor blocking agent (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimpo, K; Yokoi, Y; Fujiwara, S; Togashi, H; Tanabe, T

    1980-11-01

    Subacute toxicity and recovery tests of labetalol hydrochloride, alpha- and beta-adrenoceptor blocking agent, were carried out using male and female Wistar strain rats. The drug was orally administered at 50, 150, 450 or 1000 mg/kg/day for 1 month. In all the drug-treated groups, increase in salivation was observed from immediately to 15 minutes after dosing through the treatment period. Eight of the 10 males and 9 of the 10 females in the group treated with 1000 mg/kg/day died of intoxication. Suppression of body weight gain was observed in male rats in the 450 and 1000 mg/kg/day groups and in female rats in the 1000 mg/kg/day group. In the 150 mg/kg/day and higher dose groups, water consumption showed a tendency to increase as compared with that of control group. Increase in urine volume was observed in female rats in the 450 mg/kg/day group. In the serum biochemical examination, slight elevation in potassium levels was noted in the 150 and 450 mg/kg/day groups. In histopathological findings, some abnormalities were found in the groups treated at 150 mg/kg/day and higher. Major abnormalities found in organs were; congestion and hypremia of various organs due to vasodilation, swelling of parenchymatous cells in liver and kidneys, and loose arrangement and change in the thickness of muscle fibers in cardiac and skeletal muscles. None of these abnormal findings was found in any examination in recovery tests.

  18. Haematolohical profile of subacute oral toxicity of molybdenum and ameliorative efficacy of copper salt in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusum; Raina, R; Verma, P K; Pankaj, N K; Kant, V; Kumar, J; Srivastava, A K

    2010-07-01

    Molybdenum toxicity produces a state of secondary hypocuprosis, resulting into alterations in normal hematological profile. In the present study, ammonium molybdate alone and with copper sulfate (II) pentahydrate (ameliorative agent) was administered orally for 30 consecutive days in healthy goats of group 1 and 2, respectively, to access the effect on the hematological profile on different predetermined days of dosing. Administration of ammonium molybdate alone produced significant decline in the mean values of hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), total leukocyte count (TLC), total erythrocyte count (TEC), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), with a significant increase in neutrophil level and mean corpuscular volume (MCV). However, values of erythrocyte sedimentation rate, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and differential leukocyte count were not significantly altered. On comparing observations of ameliorative group with the group 1 goats, it is concluded that the ameliorative copper salt has beneficial effects in alleviating the alterations in the values of Hb, PCV, TLC, TEC, MCV, MCHC, and neutrophils.

  19. Evaluation of upper extremity robot-assistances in subacute and chronic stroke subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziherl, Jaka; Novak, Domen; Olenšek, Andrej; Mihelj, Matjaž; Munih, Marko

    2010-10-18

    Robotic systems are becoming increasingly common in upper extremity stroke rehabilitation. Recent studies have already shown that the use of rehabilitation robots can improve recovery. This paper evaluates the effect of different modes of robot-assistances in a complex virtual environment on the subjects' ability to complete the task as well as on various haptic parameters arising from the human-robot interaction. The MIMICS multimodal system that includes the haptic robot HapticMaster and a dynamic virtual environment is used. The goal of the task is to catch a ball that rolls down a sloped table and place it in a basket above the table. Our study examines the influence of catching assistance, pick-and-place movement assistance and grasping assistance on the catching efficiency, placing efficiency and on movement-dependent parameters: mean reaching forces, deviation error, mechanical work and correlation between the grasping force and the load force. The results with groups of subjects (23 subacute hemiparetic subjects, 10 chronic hemiparetic subjects and 23 control subjects) showed that the assistance raises the catching efficiency and pick-and-place efficiency. The pick-and-place movement assistance greatly limits the movements of the subject and results in decreased work toward the basket. The correlation between the load force and the grasping force exists in a certain phase of the movement. The results also showed that the stroke subjects without assistance and the control subjects performed similarly. The robot-assistances used in the study were found to be a possible way to raise the catching efficiency and efficiency of the pick-and-place movements in subacute and chronic subjects. The observed movement parameters showed that robot-assistances we used for our virtual task should be improved to maximize physical activity.

  20. Evaluation of upper extremity robot-assistances in subacute and chronic stroke subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihelj Matjaž

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Robotic systems are becoming increasingly common in upper extremity stroke rehabilitation. Recent studies have already shown that the use of rehabilitation robots can improve recovery. This paper evaluates the effect of different modes of robot-assistances in a complex virtual environment on the subjects' ability to complete the task as well as on various haptic parameters arising from the human-robot interaction. Methods The MIMICS multimodal system that includes the haptic robot HapticMaster and a dynamic virtual environment is used. The goal of the task is to catch a ball that rolls down a sloped table and place it in a basket above the table. Our study examines the influence of catching assistance, pick-and-place movement assistance and grasping assistance on the catching efficiency, placing efficiency and on movement-dependant parameters: mean reaching forces, deviation error, mechanical work and correlation between the grasping force and the load force. Results The results with groups of subjects (23 subacute hemiparetic subjects, 10 chronic hemiparetic subjects and 23 control subjects showed that the assistance raises the catching efficiency and pick-and-place efficiency. The pick-and-place movement assistance greatly limits the movements of the subject and results in decreased work toward the basket. The correlation between the load force and the grasping force exists in a certain phase of the movement. The results also showed that the stroke subjects without assistance and the control subjects performed similarly. Conclusions The robot-assistances used in the study were found to be a possible way to raise the catching efficiency and efficiency of the pick-and-place movements in subacute and chronic subjects. The observed movement parameters showed that robot-assistances we used for our virtual task should be improved to maximize physical activity.

  1. Size-Dependent Toxicity Differences of Intratracheally Instilled Manganese Oxide Nanoparticles: Conclusions of a Subacute Animal Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Máté, Zsuzsanna; Horváth, Edina; Kozma, Gábor; Simon, Tímea; Kónya, Zoltán; Paulik, Edit; Papp, András; Szabó, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    Incomplete information on toxicological differences of micro- and nanometer-sized particles raised concerns about the effects of the latter on health and environment. Besides chemical composition, size and surface-to-volume ratio of nanoparticles (NPs) can affect toxicity. To investigate size-dependent toxicity differences, we used particles made of dioxide of the neurotoxic heavy metal manganese (Mn), typically found in inhaled metal fumes, in three size ranges (size A, 9.14 ± 1.98 nm; size B, 42.36 ± 8.06 nm; size C, 118.31 ± 25.37 nm). For modeling the most frequent route of exposure to Mn, NPs were given to rats for 6 weeks by intratracheal instillation. Of each NP size, 3 or 6 mg/kg body weight was given while control animals were vehicle treated. Neurotoxicity was assessed by measuring spontaneous locomotor activity in an open field and by recording spontaneous and evoked electrical activity from the somatosensory cortical area. Mn content of brain, lung, and blood, measured by ICP-MS, were correlated to the observed functional alterations to see the relationship between Mn load and toxic effects. Body weight gain and organ weights were measured as general toxicological indices. The toxicity of size A and size B NPs proved to be stronger compared to size C NPs, seen most clearly in decreased body weight gain and altered spontaneous cortical activity, which were also well correlated to the internal Mn dose. Our results showed strong effect of size on NP toxicity, thus, beyond inappropriateness of toxicity data of micrometer-sized particles in evaluation of NP exposure, differentiation within the nano range may be necessary.

  2. Pathophysiological evaluation of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) by continuous ruminal pH monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shigeru

    2016-02-01

    Evaluation of the radio-transmission pH-measurement system for monitoring the ruminal pH and subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) in cattle is described. This is done in order to reveal the possible application of this system for detection and pathophysiological research of SARA by continuous ruminal pH measurement. The possibility of using this system for assessment of the ruminal pH in SARA cattle, and the presence of negative correlation between the ruminal pH and ruminal temperature in heathy and SARA cattle were determined. In addition, the 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing analysis showed that the ruminal microbial community was simpler in SARA cattle, and the bacterial numbers in SARA cattle were lower than those in healthy hay-fed cattle. Concentrate feeding might have reduced the diversity of the ruminal microbial community. Changes in the ruminal microbial community of SARA cattle might be related to the changes in ruminal pH followed by the decrease in the number of some bacteria. Continuous monitoring of the ruminal pH using the radio-transmission pH-measurement system would be applied for detection and prevention of SARA in the field and pathophysiological research of SARA, including ruminal zymology and bacteriology, which have been determined previously by sampling of the ruminal fluid and measuring of ruminal pH. © 2015 The Authors. Animal Science Journal published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  3. EVALUATION OF DIPYRIDAMOLE ON ACUTE AND SUBACUTE MODELS OF INFLAMMATION IN MALE WISTAR RATS: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angadi Netravathi B, Hiremath Shrishail V , Suranagi Vijayalakshmi V.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Atherosclerosis and its complications remains the major cause of death and premature disability. Atherogenesis involves elements of inflammation, a process that now provides a unifying theme in the pathogenesis of the disease. Anti-platelet drugs are currently used in the treatment of atherosclerosis and its complications. Our study evaluated the influence of dipyridamole on acute and sub-acute models of inflammation in male Wistar rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats (150-200g were divided into three groups i.e. control, Aspirin and dipyridamole (n=6 animals in each group. The effect of dipyridamole, administered orally, on inflammation was studied using acute (carrageenan induced rat paw edema and sub-acute (cotton pellet granuloma and histopathological examination of grass piths models. Experiment was conducted according to the Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision on Experiments on Animals (CPCSEA guidelines. Analysis was done using one way ANOVA followed by Post Hoc Test of Dunnets. P<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Dipyridamole showed significant inhibition of rat paw edema in acute model (P<0.01 and granuloma dry weight, in sub acute model of inflammation when compared to control (P<0.01. Histopathological examination of grass pith revealed markedly reduced fibroblasts, granulation tissue, fibrous tissue and collagen in dipyridamole group when compared to control. Conclusion: Dipyridamole exhibited a significant anti inflammatory activity in acute and sub-acute models of inflammation.

  4. Evaluation of the antidepressant-like effects of acute and sub-acute administration of crocin and crocetin in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Amin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the putative antidepressant effects of crocin and crocetin, two major active ingredients of Crocus sativus L. (saffron using mice in two different regimens of acute and sub-acute administration. Material and Methods: In acute treatment, antidepressant-like activities of crocin and crocetin (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg, i.p. were evaluated using forced swim test (FST. In sub-acute study (21 times with 24-h intervals, antidepressant-like effects of oral administration of drugs were examined using FST and tail suspension test (TST. Locomotor activity and motor coordination were studied using open field and rotarod tests, respectively. Results: Acute treatment with crocin (40 mg/kg and crocetin (20 and 40 mg/kg produced antidepressant-like effect in FST without affecting the baseline locomotion in mice. Sub-acute oral administration of crocin significantly decreased immobility time only at the highest dose (100 mg/kg. Crocetin (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg was able to decrease immobility time in FST and TST. Locomotor activity and coordination of mice were not affected by crocin or crocetin. Conclusion: Since higher doses of crocin was required to show antidepressant effects, more efficacy of crocetin may be concluded. This observation provides further support for metabolism of crocin to crocetin following oral administration.

  5. European medicinal and edible plants associated with subacute and chronic toxicity part I: Plants with carcinogenic, teratogenic and endocrine-disrupting effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristanc, Luka; Kreft, Samo

    2016-06-01

    In recent decades, the use of herbal medicines and food products has been widely embraced in many developed countries. These products are generally highly accepted by consumers who often believe that "natural" equals "safe". This is, however, an oversimplification because several botanicals have been found to contain toxic compounds in concentrations harmful to human health. Acutely toxic plants are in most cases already recognised as dangerous as a result of their traditional use, but plants with subacute and chronic toxicity are difficult or even impossible to detect by traditional use or by clinical research studies. In this review, we systematically address major issues including the carcinogenicity, teratogenicity and endocrine-disrupting effects associated with the use of herbal preparations with a strong focus on plant species that either grow natively or are cultivated in Europe. The basic information regarding the molecular mechanisms of the individual subtypes of plant-induced non-acute toxicity is given, which is followed by a discussion of the pathophysiological and clinical characteristics. We describe the genotoxic and carcinogenic effects of alkenylbenzenes, pyrrolizidine alkaloids and bracken fern ptaquiloside, the teratogenicity issues regarding anthraquinone glycosides and specific alkaloids, and discuss the human health concerns regarding the phytoestrogens and licorice consumption in detail. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Toxicity evaluation and hazard review Cold Smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archuleta, M.M.; Stocum, W.E.

    1993-12-01

    Cold Smoke is a dense white smoke produced by the reaction of titanium tetrachloride and aqueous ammonia aerosols. Early studies on the toxicity of this nonpyrotechnically generated smoke indicated that the smoke itself is essentially non-toxic (i.e. exhibits to systemic toxicity or organ damage due to exposure) under normal deployment conditions. The purpose of this evaluation was to review and summarize the recent literature data available on the toxicity of Cold Smoke, its chemical constituents, and its starting materials.

  7. Toxicity assessment of zinc oxide nanoparticles using sub-acute and sub-chronic murine inhalation models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adamcakova-Dodd, Andrea; Stebounova, Larissa V; Kim, Jong Sung; Vorrink, Sabine U; Ault, Andrew P; O'Shaughnessy, Patrick T; Grassian, Vicki H; Thorne, Peter S

    2014-01-01

    Although ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) are used in many commercial products and the potential for human exposure is increasing, few in vivo studies have addressed their possible toxic effects after inhalation...

  8. Acute and subacute pulmonary toxicity and mortality in mice after intratracheal instillation of ZnO nanoparticles in three laboratories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; Stoeger, Tobias; van den Brule, Sybille

    2015-01-01

    .5 and 25μg on a range of parameters. However, mice that survived a high dose (50μg; 2.7mg/kg) had an increased pulmonary collagen accumulation (fibrosis) at a similar level as a high bolus dose of crystalline silica. The recovery from these toxicological effects appeared dose-dependent. The results......Inhalation is the main pathway of ZnO exposure in the occupational environment but only few studies have addressed toxic effects after pulmonary exposure to ZnO nanoparticles (NP). Here we present results from three studies of pulmonary exposure and toxicity of ZnO NP in mice. The studies were...... prematurely terminated because interim results unexpectedly showed severe pulmonary toxicity. High bolus doses of ZnO NP (25 up to 100μg; ≥1.4mg/kg) were clearly associated with a dose dependent mortality in the mice. Lower doses (≥6μg; ≥0.3mg/kg) elicited acute toxicity in terms of reduced weight gain...

  9. Ophthalmic examination as a means to diagnose Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis: an optical coherence tomography and ultrawide field imaging evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Koushik; Chawla, Rohan; Mittal, Kanhaiya; Farmania, Rajni; Venkatesh, Pradeep; Gulati, Sheffali

    2017-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a potentially fatal complication of measles. The authors report a case of recurrent myoclonic jerks under investigation, whose ophthalmic examination pointed to the diagnosis. A 12-year-old boy with recurrent episodes of myoclonic jerks was found to have optic disc pallor and an irregular macular scar with pigmentation in the left eye. The retinal finding proved to be a strong diagnostic clue for SSPE. There was a history of exanthematous fever in childhood. Antibodies against measles were detected in both the cerebrospinal fluid and serum. Retinitis with intraretinal and subretinal hemorrhage in the right eye was noted 6-weeks after the initial presentation. The authors describe the importance of ophthalmic evaluation in cases of recurrent myoclonic jerks. Optical coherence tomographic features and ultrawide field imaging characteristics of a case of SSPE are described.

  10. Evaluate the early changes of myocardial fibers in rhesus monkey during sub-acute stage of myocardial infarction using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuqing; Cai, Wei; Wang, Lei; Xia, Rui

    2016-05-01

    The deterioration of cardiac mechanical function starts from the micro-alterations in the myocardial fibers after myocardial infarction (MI) due to the heart beats derived from the systole and diastole of the myocardial fibers. So, we want to evaluate quantitatively the early changes of myocardial fibers in rhesus monkey during sub-acute MI stage. Three fixed hearts with infarction after left anterior descending coronary artery ligation for 7days and eight age-matched intact controls were scanned by ex-vivo diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) to measure apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), fractional anisotropy (FA) and helix angle (HA). In comparison with healthy controls, FA and transmural range of HA in MI regions showed a significant reduction whereas ADC showed a significant increment (pmyocardial fibers shifted further to left-handed helix around the infarcted and adjacent myocardium but shifted further to right-handed helix in remote myocardium. HA is sensitive to evaluate quantitatively the early changes of myocardial fibers in sub-acute MI rhesus monkeys. The myocardial fibers in normal monkeys are similar to those in normal humans, suggesting that early changes of myocardial fibers in sub-acute MI monkeys can contribute to more accurately understand those in patients suffering sub-acute MI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Acute and Subacute Inhalation Toxicity Study in Rats Exposed to Pyrotechnically-Disseminated M18 Red Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-12

    Command USEPA: United States Environmental Protection Agency VMD: Veterinary Medicine Division I. NON-TECHNICAL SYNOPSIS The inhalation toxicity of a...staff will provide the Veterinary Medicine Office a current emergency contact roster. In an emergency, the animal care staff will phone the numbers...uniquely identified by number via cage card and tail marking. (CD® is a registered trademark of Charles River Laboratories International , Inc.; Teklad® and

  12. Toxicity evaluation of PAH mixtures using Microtox

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompkins, J.; Guthrie, E.; Pfaender, F. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are produced from both natural and anthropogenic combustion processes. PAHs are known to be toxic and carcinogenic, are prevalent at many hazardous waste sites, and pose a potential risk to both ecological and human health. To date, few researchers have assessed the toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mixtures. The toxicity of chrysene, anthracene, pyrene, phenanthrene, fluoranthrene, acenaphthene, fluorene, and naphthalene were evaluated using Microtox, and acute toxicity assay that uses bioluminescent bacteria, Photobacterium phosphoreum, to measure toxicity. In this study, the toxicities of 2, 3, and 4 ring PAHs were determined for individual compounds. Synergistic or additive effects of PAH mixtures was assessed by comparing the toxicity of mixtures with that of pure compounds. Each PAH or mixture was evaluated at their respective water solubility concentrations, For individual PAHs tested, the toxicity of PAHs is inversely related to water solubility. Mixtures of two and three PAHs with disparate water solubilities resulted in synergistic interactions. Antagonistic interactions, a decrease in toxicity, were observed for mixtures of similar water solubilities.

  13. Toxicity evaluations of various carbon nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uo, Motohiro; Akasaka, Tsukasa; Watari, Fumio; Sato, Yoshinori; Tohji, Kazuyuki

    2011-01-01

    After the discovery of fullerene and carbon nanotubes, various carbon nanomaterials were discovered or synthesized. The carbon nanomaterials have remarkable properties, different from bulk materials with the same chemical composition, and are therefore useful for industrial applications. However, the toxicity of nanomaterials may also differ from that of the bulk materials; this difference poses a concern. The physical similarity of nanomaterials to asbestos has led to evaluations for toxicity by many researchers using various methods. In this review, we compile and compare the toxicity evaluations of each carbon nanomaterial.

  14. Subacute Ruminal Acidosis and Evaluation of Blood Gas Analysis in Dairy Cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Gianesella

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Subacute Ruminal Acidosis (SARA corresponds to an imbalance between lactate-producing bacteria and lactate-using bacteria, which results in a change in ruminal pH associated with a prevalent consumption of rapidly fermentable carbohydrates. In our study, 216 primiparus and multiparus dairy cows were selected from 20 Italian intensive dairy herds and were divided into three groups based on the risk of SARA. All the dairy cows had high average milk production. After blood sampling, a complete blood gas analysis was performed. One-way ANOVA was performed to compare the three groups. O2 Cont, PCO2, blood pH, O2Hb, urinary pH, and rumen pH were significantly lower in cows with rumen pH<5.5. These results indicate that blood gas analysis is a valuable tool to diagnose acidosis in dairy cows because it provides good assessment of acidosis while being less invasive than rumen pH analysis.

  15. Mucopenetrating nanoparticles for enhancement of oral bioavailability of furosemide: In vitro and in vivo evaluation/sub-acute toxicity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwan, Salma El-Sayed; Sokar, Magda Samir; Abdelmonsif, Doaa Ali; El-Kamel, Amal Hassan

    2017-06-30

    The aim of this study was to formulate and evaluate chitosan (CS)/alginate (ALG) nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with furosemide (FSM) in an attempt to enhance its release, permeability and bioavailability. Non-everted gut sac method was used to evaluate the ex vivo permeation of FSM from its suspension and the selected CS/ALG NPs formulation. The pharmacokinetic parameters of FSM subsequent to oral administration of the selected formulation were assessed in rats. In vivo subacute toxicity study of the prepared blank and FSM loaded formulations was evaluated in rats. The selected optimized formulation (F3) showed optimum particle size (PS), polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential (ZP) and acceptable percentage entrapment efficiency (%EE) of 253.8nm±4.6, 0.25±0.03, -35mV±1 and 96%±1, respectively. The release profile of FSM from the selected formulation was characterized by initial burst effect in 0.1N HCl. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) demonstrated a smooth surface and spherical shape for the lyophilized optimized NPs. Selected CS/ALG NPs (F3) presented a significant enhancement (p≤0.01) in permeation parameters of FSM as well as in T max , C max , AUC 0-24 and AUC 0-∞ . Subacute toxicity study results revealed that the selected formulation was safe and nontoxic. The histopathological inspection of the stomach and small intestine tissues of the loaded NPs (F3) and blank groups reflected no obvious signs of cellular toxicity or inflammatory reaction. CS/ALG NPs loaded with FSM enhanced both drug release and mucus-penetrating ability leading to an overall increase in FSM bioavailability. In addition, the in vivo subacute toxicity study results indicated the safety of the prepared NPs for oral drug delivery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of nutritional and sub-acute toxicological study of plant based supplement of Achyranthes aspera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Nudrat; Dar, Nabeela G; Imran, Hina; Sohail, Tehmina; Asghar, Uzma; Yaqeen, Zahra; Syed, Shazia; Jamil, Khalid

    2014-09-01

    The present study was conducted for the nutritional, microbiological and toxicological evaluation of test compound having main ingredient Achyranthes aspera. Nutritional value assessment, microbiological analysis and toxicological studies were conducted according to the standard reported methods which exhibited that A. aspera contains moisture 4.05%, proteins 20.54%, fats 0.903%, ash 20.25%, carbohydrates 54,26% and energy 294 Kcal. Vitamin profile was found to be B(1) 0.27mg/100g, B(2) 0.28mg/100g, B(3) 0.58mg/100g, B(6) 0.27mg/100g and B(9) 39μg/100g. The content of sodium, calcium, magnesium, potassium, chloride and phosphorus was found to be 1119.67, 5385.23, 5446.08, 1343.6, 675880.73 and 1447.5mg/kg respectively and trace metals i.e. iron, copper, zinc, manganese and aluminum were detected as 283.05, 8.062, 48.37, 16.12 and 9.853 mg/kg respectively. The microbiological result indicated that the compound qualifies the international standards of microbial limit and was found free from Salmonella species. The toxicological study was conducted to find safe use of Achyranthes aspera compound in human as a nutritive supplement in blood disorders. The toxicity studies exhibited that the test compound has a good effect on general health as an increase in body weights of animals of test group was noticed as compared to that of control group. Blood parameters before and after the study were monitored which confirms our hypothesis by showing an increase in hemoglobin from 9.133 to 10.96, RBC count from 3.11 to 3.6, WBC count from 5.68 to 5.73 and platelets from 245 to 319.

  17. NMR-based metabonomic study of the sub-acute toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in rats after oral administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Qian; Yan, Guangyan; Deng, Pengchi; Peng, Feng; Lin, Hongjun; Xu, Youzhi; Cao, Zhixing; Zhou, Tian; Xue, Aiqin; Wang, Yanli; Cen, Xiaobo; Zhao, Ying-Lan

    2010-03-01

    As titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are widely used commercially, their potential toxicity on human health has attracted particular attention. In the present study, the oral toxicological effects of TiO2 NPs (dosed at 0.16, 0.4 and 1 g kg - 1, respectively) were investigated using conventional approaches and metabonomic analysis in Wistar rats. Serum chemistry, hematology and histopathology examinations were performed. The urine and serum were investigated by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) using principal components and partial least squares discriminant analysis. The metabolic signature of urinalysis in TiO2 NP-treated rats showed increases in the levels of taurine, citrate, hippurate, histidine, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), citrulline, α-ketoglutarate, phenylacetylglycine (PAG) and acetate; moreover, decreases in the levels of lactate, betaine, methionine, threonine, pyruvate, 3-D-hydroxybutyrate (3-D-HB), choline and leucine were observed. The metabonomics analysis of serum showed increases in TMAO, choline, creatine, phosphocholine and 3-D-HB as well as decreases in glutamine, pyruvate, glutamate, acetoacetate, glutathione and methionine after TiO2 NP treatment. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were elevated and mitochondrial swelling in heart tissue was observed in TiO2 NP-treated rats. These findings indicate that disturbances in energy and amino acid metabolism and the gut microflora environment may be attributable to the slight injury to the liver and heart caused by TiO2 NPs. Moreover, the NMR-based metabolomic approach is a reliable and sensitive method to study the biochemical effects of nanomaterials.

  18. NMR-based metabonomic study of the sub-acute toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in rats after oral administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bu Qian; Lin Hongjun; Xu Youzhi; Cao Zhixing; Zhou Tian; Zhao Yinglan [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Yan Guangyan; Cen Xiaobo [National Chengdu Center for Safety Evaluation of Drugs, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Deng Pengchi [Analytical and Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Peng Feng [Department of Thoracic Oncology of Cancer Center and State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Xue Aiqin [Institute of Bioengineering, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University Road 2, Xiasha, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Wang Yanli, E-mail: alancenxb@sina.com [Tianjin Children' s Hospital, Tianjin 300074 (China)

    2010-03-26

    As titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO{sub 2} NPs) are widely used commercially, their potential toxicity on human health has attracted particular attention. In the present study, the oral toxicological effects of TiO{sub 2} NPs (dosed at 0.16, 0.4 and 1 g kg{sup -1}, respectively) were investigated using conventional approaches and metabonomic analysis in Wistar rats. Serum chemistry, hematology and histopathology examinations were performed. The urine and serum were investigated by {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) using principal components and partial least squares discriminant analysis. The metabolic signature of urinalysis in TiO{sub 2} NP-treated rats showed increases in the levels of taurine, citrate, hippurate, histidine, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), citrulline, {alpha}-ketoglutarate, phenylacetylglycine (PAG) and acetate; moreover, decreases in the levels of lactate, betaine, methionine, threonine, pyruvate, 3-D-hydroxybutyrate (3-D-HB), choline and leucine were observed. The metabonomics analysis of serum showed increases in TMAO, choline, creatine, phosphocholine and 3-D-HB as well as decreases in glutamine, pyruvate, glutamate, acetoacetate, glutathione and methionine after TiO{sub 2} NP treatment. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were elevated and mitochondrial swelling in heart tissue was observed in TiO{sub 2} NP-treated rats. These findings indicate that disturbances in energy and amino acid metabolism and the gut microflora environment may be attributable to the slight injury to the liver and heart caused by TiO{sub 2} NPs. Moreover, the NMR-based metabolomic approach is a reliable and sensitive method to study the biochemical effects of nanomaterials.

  19. Sub-Acute toxicological evaluation of the aqueous stem bark extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brachystegia eurycoma is a mainstay in the treatment of malaria, diabetes, hypertension, microbial infections and inflammatory conditions in folkloric medicine in Eastern ... Overall, the results suggest that aqueous extract of B. eurycoma stem bark is not toxic in rats, although it has a tendency to activate the immune system.

  20. Mammalian Toxicological Evaluations of TNT Wastewaters. Volume III. Acute and Subacute Mammalian Toxicity of Condensate Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-04-01

    produced a mild, compensatory anemia (transitory; not I observed at 24 weeks), hemosiderosis of the spleen accompanied in some cases by congestion...reticulocytosis; testicular atrophy; uterine hyperplasia; hemosiderosis ; neuropathy; head trauma; cardiac arrhythmia; LDH; mutagens.I I 20 ABSTRACT... hemosiderosis of the spleen; testicular atrophy with atrophy and aspermia of the epididymis and moderate focal interstitial cell hyperplasia; hyperplasia of

  1. Antimicrobial evaluation, acute and sub-acute toxicity studies of Allium sativum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir Lawal

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: The extract caused selective changes in some biochemical parameters of organ function; however, since only mild alteration was observed at a dose of 300 mg/kg, the garlic bulb may be considered to be relatively safe and could be explored as an oral remedy at this dose.

  2. Acute and subacute toxicity tests of onion coat, natural colorant extracted from onion (Allium cepa L.), in (C57BL/6 x C3H)F1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, T; Tanaka, T; Mori, H; Kato, Y; Nakamura, M

    1993-01-01

    The toxicity test of onion coat colorant (OC), a food colorant extracted from onion (Allium cepa L.), was undertaken using (C57BL/6 x C3H)F1 mice of both sexes for the safety assessment of this product. The acute toxicity test was performed by administration of OC suspended in corn oil by gavage at doses of 2500, 5000, 7500, and 10,000 mg/kg body weight to groups of 5 or 6 males and 6 or 7 females, maintained for 14 d. Six of 12 females dosed at 10,000 mg/kg body weight and 3 of 11 females dosed at 7500 mg/kg body weight were dead before the end of the study, indicating that the tolerated dose of OC was between 7500 and 5000 mg/kg body weight. The subacute toxicity test of OC was examined using 123 mice of both sexes (62 males and 61 females) by feeding a diet mixed with OC at concentrations of 5, 2.5, 1.25, 0.6, and 0.3% for 90 d. All mice tolerated these doses of OC well. The body weight gains of male and female mice were not affected by the treatment. Histopathological examinations showed that hyperplastic changes in the esophagus, forestomach, pancreas, cervix, and endometrium of mice were found in treated and control mice. However, their incidences were not related to the dose of OC. Moreover, only a spontaneous ovarian teratoma was found in an OC-treated mouse. These results suggest that OC has no acute and subacute toxic effects in mice.

  3. Acute and subacute toxicological evaluation of the aerial extract of Monsonia angustifolia E. Mey. ex. A. Rich in Wistar rats

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Afolayan, AJ

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available single oral dose of 5000mg/kg (b.w.). For the 28-day daily oral dosing, the extract was administered at 75, 150, and 300mg/kg b.w.; 1% ethanol in sterile distilled water was used as control. Clinical toxicity signs were subsequently evaluated. At a single...

  4. Evaluation of the systemic innate immune response and metabolic alterations of nonlactating cows with diet-induced subacute ruminal acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Lecompte, J C; Kroeker, A D; Ceballos-Márquez, A; Li, S; Plaizier, J C; Gomez, D E

    2014-12-01

    Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) increases lipopolysaccharide endotoxin in the rumen, which might translocate into the systemic circulation, triggering a cascade of clinical and immunological alterations. The objective of this study was to characterize the clinical immune and metabolic responses to ruminal-derived lipopolysaccharide in nonlactating cows induced with SARA using 2 challenges, a grain-based SARA challenge (GBSC) or an alfalfa-pellet SARA challenge (APSC). Six dry, nonlactating Holstein cows were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square arrangement of treatments with 4-wk experimental cycles. All cows received the control diet containing 70% forage and 30% mixed concentrates (dry matter basis) for 3 wk. In wk 4, cows received a control diet, GBSC (38% wheat-barley pellets, 32% other mixed concentrate, and 30% forages), or APSC (45% mixed concentrate, 32% alfalfa pellets, and 23% other forages). Total plasma proteins and immunology-related proteins, acute phase proteins, blood cells, serum chemistry, mRNA gene expression of peripheral blood cell surface markers, and selected proinflammatory cytokines were evaluated. Ruminal pH was lower in both groups with induced SARA compared with a control group. Ruminal endotoxins were higher in GBSC; however, plasma endotoxin was not detected in any study group. No significant differences in feed intake, rectal temperature, white blood cell counts, or differentials were found between control and SARA challenge groups; changes in glucose, urea, Ca, and Mg were observed in SARA groups. Total plasma proteins were lower in both SARA groups, and acute phase proteins were higher in GBSC. The expression of CD14, MD2, and TLR4 mRNA in peripheral blood leukocytes was not affected by SARA induction. The induction of SARA as a result of GBSC or APSC challenge was successful; however, LPS was not detected in plasma. Changes in clinical, metabolic, and inflammatory responses were not observed in the SARA-challenged cows, suggesting that

  5. Evaluation of toxicity profile of leaf base extract of Sorghum bicolor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-19

    Jan 19, 2009 ... acute and sub-acute toxicity effects of mature dry leaf base of S. bicolor to ... The test routes were both intraperitoneal and oral. The administration of the extract in both rats and mice was done in phases. The first phase involved the administration of widely differing ..... Ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats.

  6. Can the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) Be Used as a Nutrition Evaluation Tool for Subacute Inpatients over an Average Length of Stay?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, K E; Cooper, P L; Stewart, A J; Huggins, C E

    2015-12-01

    The prevalence of malnutrition in subacute inpatient settings has been reported to be 30-50%. While there are a number of nutrition evaluation tools which have been validated to diagnose malnutrition, the use of a validated nutrition evaluation tool to measure changes in nutritional status during an average length of stay for a subacute inpatient has not yet been tested. This study aims to determine the potential of the full MNA (full Mini Nutritional Assessment) and MNA (Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form) scores to measure change in nutritional status over an average subacute inpatient stay (21 days). A prospective observational study. The study was performed in three Rehabilitation and Geriatric Evaluation and Management (GEM) wards of the Kingston Centre, Monash Health, Melbourne, Australia. All patients ≥65 years admitted to these wards with an expected length of stay of at least 14 days were considered for inclusion in this study. Nutritional status was assessed on admission using the full MNA as part of usual dietetic care and patients were provided with nutrition intervention/diet therapy based on full MNA classification. Full MNA score (0-30), MNA score (0-14), anthropometry (weight and height) and nutritional biochemistry (serum albumin, transthyretin and C-reactive protein) were compared between admission and day 20.5 ± 2.4. Mean age (± SD) of 83 ± 7 years, n=114. For those patients diagnosed at risk of malnutrition or malnourished (n=103), there were significant increases in full MNA score (1.8 ± 2.4, passessment (passessment (passessment (p=0.019) and self-perceived health and nutrition states (p=0.033). Both the MNA and full MNA can be used to evaluate nutrition progress within the subacute inpatient setting over a three week time period, thereby providing clinicians with feedback on a patient's nutrition progress and assisting with ongoing care planning. Due to its ease of use and shorter time required to complete, the MNA may be the

  7. High Resolution ECG for Evaluation of Heart Function During Exposure to Subacute Hypobaric Hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupet, Petra; Finderle, Zarko; Schlegel, Todd T.; Princi, Tanja; Starc, Vito

    2010-01-01

    High altitude climbing presents a wide spectrum of health risks, including exposure to hypobaric hypoxia. Risks are also typically exacerbated by the difficulty in appropriately monitoring for early signs of organ dysfunction in remote areas. We investigated whether high resolution advanced ECG analysis might be helpful as a non-invasive and easy-to-use tool (e.g., instead of Doppler echocardiography) for evaluating early signs of heart overload in hypobaric hypoxia. Nine non-acclimatized healthy trained alpine rescuers (age 43.7 plus or minus 7.3 years) climbed in four days to the altitude of 4,200 m on Mount Ararat. Five-minute high-resolution 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs) were recorded (Cardiosoft) in each subject at rest in the supine position on different days but at the same time of day at four different altitudes: 400 m (reference altitude), 1,700 m, 3,200 m and 4,200 m. Changes in conventional and advanced resting ECG parameters, including in beat-to-beat QT and RR variability, waveform complexity, signal-averaged, high-frequency and spatial/spatiotemporal ECG was estimated by calculation of the regression coefficients in independent linear regression models. A p-value of less than 0.05 was adopted as statistically significant. As expected, the RR interval and its variability both decreased with increasing altitude, with trends k = -96 ms/1000 m with p = 0.000 and k = -9 ms/1000 m with p = 0.001, respectively. Significant changes were found in P-wave amplitude, which nearly doubled from the lowest to the highest altitude (k = 41.6 microvolt/1000 m with p = 0.000), and nearly significant changes in P-wave duration (k = 2.9 ms/1000 m with p = 0.059). Changes were less significant or non-significant in other studied parameters including those of waveform complexity, signal-averaged, high-frequency and spatial/spatiotemporal ECG. High resolution ECG analysis, particularly of the P wave, shows promise as a tool for monitoring early changes in heart function

  8. Comparison of the toxicity profiles of ISIS 1082 and ISIS 2105, phosphorothioate oligonucleotides, following subacute intradermal administration in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, S P; Grillone, L R; Orr, J L; Bruner, R H; Kornbrust, D J

    1997-01-15

    The systemic toxicity of two phosphorothioate oligonucleotides specific for herpes simplex viruses (ISIS 1082) and human papiloma virus (ISIS 2105) were evaluated following repeated intradermal injections of vehicle control, 0.33, 2.17, or 21.7 mg/kg daily to Sprague-Dawley rats (10/sex/group) for 14 days. Animals were sacrificed 1 day after the last dose, except for a portion of the ISIS 1082-treated animals (5/sex/group) which were maintained for an additional 14-day recovery period. The profile of alterations noted for both compounds was very similar. Other than local signs of irritation at the site of injection, there were no clinical signs of toxicity or treatment-related mortality, but there was a slight decrease in body weight gain for the 21.7 mg/kg dose groups. Alterations in hematology parameters included dose-dependent thrombocytopenia and anemia. Alterations in serum chemistry parameters were suggestive of mild alterations in hepatic metabolism, with increases in liver transaminases and bilirubin, along with decreases in albumin and cholesterol. Both spleen and liver weights were significantly elevated in a dose-dependent fashion. Histopathological alterations noted in liver, kidney, lung, injection site skin, and spleen were characterized as perivascular and interstitial infiltrates of macrophages and monocytes. Additional microscopic alterations in the spleen included mild lymphoid hyperplasia (seen in lymph nodes as well), and extramedullary hematopoiesis. Treatment-related cytopenias were likely related to mild, focal hypocellularity in the bone marrow. Alterations in ISIS 1082-treated animals were only partially reversed following the 14-day treatment-free period. In conclusion, repeated intradermal administration of ISIS 1082 and ISIS 2105 produced a similar spectrum of toxicities, with liver, kidney, spleen, and bone marrow being identified as target tissues.

  9. Biological Parameters for Evaluating the Toxic Potency of Petroleum Ether Extract of Wattakaka volubilis in Wistar Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velmani Gopal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study investigated the toxic properties of petroleum ether extract of Wattakaka (W. volubilis in Wistar female rats. Methods: An in vitro brine shrimp lethality bioassay was studied in A. Salina nauplii, and the lethality concentrations were assessed for petroleum ether extract of W. volubilis. A water soluble portion of the test extract was used in different concentrations from 100-1000 μg/mL of 1 mg/mL stock solution. A 24-hours incubation with a 1-mL aliquot in 50 mL of aerated sea water was considered to calculate the percentage rate of dead nauplii with test extract administration against a potassium-dichromate positive control. The acute and the sub-acute toxicities of petroleum ether extract of W. volubilis were evaluated orally by using gavage in female Wistar rats. Food and water intake, body weight, general behavioral changes and mortality of animals were noted. Toxicity or death was evaluated following the administration of petroleum ether extract for 28 consecutive days in the female rats. Serum biochemical parameters, such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, bilirubin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, total protein, glucose, urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium and α-amylase levels, were measured in the toxicity evaluations. Pathological changes in isolated organs, such as the liver, kidneys, and pancreas, were also examined using hematoxylin and eosin dye fixation after the end of the test extract’s administration. Results: The results of the brine-shrimp assay indicate that the evaluated concentrations of petroleum ether extract of W. volubilis were found to be non-toxic. In the acute and the sub-acute toxicity evaluations, no significant differences were observed between the control animals and the animals treated with extract of W. volubilis. No abnormal histological changes were observed in any of the animal groups treated with petroleum ether extract of W. volubilis

  10. Toxicity And Immunomodulatory Activity Of Fractions Of Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated immunomodulatory properties and the sub-acute toxicity profile of two fractions of the aqueous alcoholic extract of the dried calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa in experimental animals. Immunomodulatory activity was evaluated using red blood cell-induced immunostimulation. The fractions were not found to ...

  11. Acute and sub-acute toxicological assessment of the aqueous seed extract of Persea americana mill (Lauraceae) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozolua, Raymond I; Anaka, Ogochukwu N; Okpo, Stephen O; Idogun, Sylvester E

    2009-07-03

    The aqueous seed extract of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) is used by herbalists in Nigeria for the management of hypertension. As part of our on-going scientific evaluation of the extract, we designed the present study to assess its acute and sub-acute toxicity profiles in rats. Experiments were conducted to determine the oral median lethal dose (LD(50)) and other gross toxicological manifestations on acute basis. In the sub-acute experiments, the animals were administered 2.5 g/kg (p.o) per day of the extract for 28 consecutive days. Animal weight and fluid intake were recorded during the 28 days period. Terminally, kidneys, hearts, blood/sera were obtained for weight, haematological and biochemical markers of toxicity. Results show that the LD(50) could not be determined after a maximum dose of 10 g/kg. Sub-acute treatment with the extract neither affected whole body weight nor organ-to-body weight ratios but significantly increased the fluid intake (P americana is safe on sub-acute basis but extremely high doses may not be advisable.

  12. Quantum chemistry based quantitative structure-activity relationships for modeling the (sub)acute toxicity of substituted mononitrobenzenes in aquatic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zvinavashe, E.; Murk, A.J.; Vervoort, J.; Soffers, A.E.M.F.; Freidig, A.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.

    2006-01-01

    Fifteen experimental literature data sets on the acute toxicity of substituted nitrobenzenes to algae (Scenedesmus obliquus, Chlorella pyrenoidosa, C. vulgaris), daphnids (Daphnia magna, D. carinata), fish (Cyprinus carpio, Poecilia reticulata), protozoa (Tetrahymena pyriformis), bacteria

  13. EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE REFERENCE TOXICANTS FOR USE IN THE EARTHWORM TOXICITY TEST

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of the 14-d earthworm toxicity test to aid in the evaluation of the ecological impact of contaminated soils is becoming increasingly widespread. However,the method is in need of further standardization. As part of this continuing process, the choice of reference toxicants...

  14. Sensitivity and specificity of subacute computerized neurocognitive testing and symptom evaluation in predicting outcomes after sports-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Brian C; Collins, Michael W; Lovell, Mark R

    2011-06-01

    Concussions affect an estimated 136 000 high school athletes yearly. Computerized neurocognitive testing has been shown to be appropriately sensitive and specific in diagnosing concussions, but no studies have assessed its utility to predict length of recovery. Determining prognosis during subacute recovery after sports concussion will help clinicians more confidently address return-to-play and academic decisions. To quantify the prognostic ability of computerized neurocognitive testing in combination with symptoms during the subacute recovery phase from sports-related concussion. Cohort study (prognosis); Level of evidence, 2. In sum, 108 male high school football athletes completed a computer-based neurocognitive test battery within 2.23 days of injury and were followed until returned to play as set by international guidelines. Athletes were grouped into protracted recovery (>14 days; n = 50) or short-recovery (≤14 days; n = 58). Separate discriminant function analyses were performed using total symptom score on Post-Concussion Symptom Scale, symptom clusters (migraine, cognitive, sleep, neuropsychiatric), and Immediate Postconcussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing neurocognitive scores (verbal memory, visual memory, reaction time, processing speed). Multiple discriminant function analyses revealed that the combination of 4 symptom clusters and 4 neurocognitive composite scores had the highest sensitivity (65.22%), specificity (80.36%), positive predictive value (73.17%), and negative predictive value (73.80%) in predicting protracted recovery. Discriminant function analyses of total symptoms on the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale alone had a sensitivity of 40.81%; specificity, 79.31%; positive predictive value, 62.50%; and negative predictive value, 61.33%. The 4 symptom clusters alone discriminant function analyses had a sensitivity of 46.94%; specificity, 77.20%; positive predictive value, 63.90%; and negative predictive value, 62.86%. Discriminant function

  15. Comparative Evaluation of the Impact of Subacute Exposure of Smokeless Tobacco and Tobacco Smoke on Rat Testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonah Sydney Aprioku

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of 30-day exposure to tobacco smoke (TS, smokeless tobacco (ST, and nicotine on reproductive parameters and oxidative biomarkers in prepubertal and adult male rats. Sperm motility was reduced by 77.5 and 89.0% in TS and ST exposed prepubertal rats and 71.1 and 86.4% in adult rats, respectively. Sperm count was also reduced by 64.7 and 89.9% in prepubertal rats and 64.9 and 47.0% in adult rats, respectively. Nicotine decreased sperm motility (82.2% and count (62.6% in prepubertal rats but caused no effect in adult rats. There were no changes in sperm morphology; testosterone was decreased, while LH and FSH were increased in exposed rats, when compared with control. Malondialdehyde levels in testes of exposed rats were increased, and GSH, SOD, and catalase were altered. Results indicate that subacute exposure of tobacco products alters sperm characteristics in a rank order of ST > TS > nicotine, which may be linked to increase in oxidative stress in the testis.

  16. Toxicity and antinociceptive effects of Hamelia patens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Josabad Alonso-Castro

    Full Text Available Abstract Many medicinal herbs are used in folk medicine without taking into account their toxicity. Hamelia patens Jacq. (Rubiaceae, a Mexican endemic species, is used for the empirical treatment of pain. The aim of this work was to evaluate the toxicity and antinociceptive effects of ethanolic extracts of H. patens leaves. The toxicity of H. patens leaves (500–5000 mg/kg was evaluated in acute (14 days and subacute (28 days assays. In the subacute assay, a blood analysis (both hematology and chemistry was carried out. The antinociceptive effects of H. patens leaves (50–200 mg/kg were evaluated using thermal-induced nociception (hot plate and the chemical-induced nociceptive tests (acid acetic and formalin. In the acute toxicity test, the LD50 estimated for H. patens leaves was 2964 mg/kg i.p. and >5000 mg/kg p.o., whereas in the subacute test HPE did not affect hematological or biochemical parameters. In chemical-induced nociception models, H. patens (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. showed antinociceptive effects with similar activity than 100 mg/kg naproxen. In the hot plate test, HPE at 100 mg/kg (17% and 200 mg/kg (25% showed moderate antinociceptive effects. HPE could be a good source of antinociceptive agents because of its good activity and low toxicity.

  17. Evaluation of the acute toxicity of refined petroleum products against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Static and static-renewal evaluation of the acute toxicity of three refined petroleum products — petrol, kerosene and diesel — against two freshwater animals, the mollusc Pila ovata and the fish Poecilia reticulata, was conducted in the laboratory. Petrol, kerosene and diesel were found to be moderately toxic to the test ...

  18. Brine Shrimp Toxicity Evaluation Of Some Tanzanian Plants Used ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plants which are used by traditional healers in Tanzania have been evaluated to obtain preliminary data of their toxicity using the brine shrimps test. The results indicate that 9 out of 44 plant species whose extracts were tested exhibited high toxicity with LC50 values below 20μg/ml. These include Aloe lateritia Engl.

  19. Acute oral toxicity and cytotoxicological evaluation of the ethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute toxicity and cytotoxicity of ethanol extract of Samanea tubulosa (EESt) pods were evaluated in Swiss mice. Acute toxicity studies were conducted based on OECD guidelines 420, where the limit test dose was 5000 mg/kg. Observation was made and recorded systemically for 1, 2, 4 and 24 h after the administration of ...

  20. Malnutrition in subacute care

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Jorja Claire

    2017-01-01

    Malnutrition is a significant problem across all healthcare settings because of its high prevalence and association with adverse outcomes for patients and increased healthcare costs. There is a paucity of research considering subacute patients’ nutritional status and how this changes throughout inpatient stay. Additionally, a stronger evidence base for strategies to prevent and treat malnutrition specifically in this setting is required. This thesis aimed to address these research gaps to con...

  1. Organophosphorus insecticides: Toxic effects and bioanalytical tests for evaluating toxicity during degradation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Mirjana B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphorus insecticides have been the most applied group of insecticides for the last two decades. Their main toxic effects are related to irreversible inactivation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE. Actually, they covalently bind to serine OH group in the enzyme active site forming phosphorylated enzyme that cannot hydrolyze acetylcholine. Organophosphorus insecticides in the environment undergo the natural degradation pathway including mainly homogeneous and heterogeneous hydrolysis (especially at high pH generating non-inhibiting products. Additionally, thio organophosphates are easily oxidized by naturally present oxidants and UV light, forming more toxic and stable oxons. Thus, oxidative degradation procedures, generally referred as advanced oxidation processes (AOP, have been applied for their efficient removal from contaminated waters. The most applied bioassays to monitor the organophosphate toxicity i.e. the detoxification degree during AOP are Vibrio fischeri and AChE bioassays. Vibrio fischeri toxicity test exploits bioluminescence as the measure of luciferase activity of this marine bacterium, whereas AChE bioassay is based on AChE activity inhibition. Both bioanalytical techniques are rapid (several minutes, simple, sensitive and reproducible. Vibrio fischeri test seems to be a versatile indicator of toxic compounds generated in AOP for organophosphorus insecticides degradation. However, detection of neurotoxic AChE inhibitors, which can be formed in AOP of some organophosphates, requires AChE bioassays. Therefore, AChE toxicity test is more appropriate for monitoring the degradation processes of thio organophosphates, because more toxic oxo organophosphates might be formed and overlooked by Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition. In addition, during organophosphates removal by AOP, compounds with strong genotoxic potential may be formed, which cannot be detected by standard toxicity tests. For this reason, determination of

  2. Chromatographic evaluation of the toxicity in fish of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez-Saldaña, José María; Escuder-Gilabert, Laura; Medina-Hernández, María José; Villanueva-Camañas, Rosa María; Sagrado, Salvador

    2005-01-05

    Ecotoxicity assessment is essential before placing new chemical substances on the market. An investigation of the use of the chromatographic retention (log k) in biopartitioning micellar chromatography (BMC) as an in vitro approach to evaluate the toxicity in fish of pesticides (acute toxicity levels as pLC(50)) is proposed. A heterogeneous data set of 85 pesticides from six chemical families with available experimental fish toxicity data (ECOTOX database from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)) was used. For pesticides exhibiting non-polar narcosis mechanism in fish (non-specific toxicity), more reliable models and precise pLC(50) estimations are obtained from log k (quantitative retention-activity relationships, QRAR) than from log P (quantitative structure-activity relationships, QSAR) or ECOSAR (ECOSAR program from U.S. EPA).

  3. How feasible is the attainment of community ambulation after stroke? A pilot randomized controlled trial to evaluate community-based physiotherapy in subacute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Susan; McPherson, Kathryn M; McNaughton, Harry K; Rochester, Lynn; Weatherall, Mark

    2008-03-01

    This pilot randomized controlled trial evaluated an assistant-led, community-based intervention to improve community mobility and participation after stroke, and examined the potential for independent community ambulation in people with subacute stroke who present with moderate gait deficit. A multicentre, pilot randomized controlled trial. Three hospitals and three community settings in New Zealand. Thirty post-acute, home-dwelling stroke survivors were randomly allocated to receive intervention in the community (n = 14) or as hospital outpatients (n = 16) twice a week for seven weeks. The community intervention involved practice of functional gait activities in community environments relevant to each participant. Hospital-based physiotherapy was based upon a Motor Relearning approach. The primary outcome measure was gait speed (m/min). Secondary outcomes included endurance (six-minute walk time), Activities-specific Confidence Balance Scale, and the Subjective Index of Physical and Social Outcomes measured at baseline, post intervention and six months. Large gains in gait speed were obtained for participants in both groups: community group mean (SD) 16 (16.1) m/min; physiotherapy group mean (SD) 15.9 (16.1) m/min, maintained at six months. There were no significant differences between groups for primary and secondary outcomes after treatment (P = 0.86 ANOVA) or at six months (P = 0.83 ANOVA). Only 11 participants reported independent community ambulation. Levels of social integration were low to moderate. A community-based gait recovery programme appears a practicable alternative to routine physiotherapy, however independent community ambulation is a challenging rehabilitation goal.

  4. Different patterns of kidney toxicity after subacute administration of Na-nitrilotriacetic acid and Fe-nitrilotriacetic acid to Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahnemann, R; Leibold, E; Kittel, B; Mellert, W; Jäckh, R

    1998-11-01

    Na-nitrilotriacetic acid (Na3NTA) and Fe-nitrilotriacetic acid (FeNTA) have both been described to cause tumors in the urinary tract of rodents. However, these effects were observed using different modes of administration at extremely different dose levels and explained by different mechanisms. Whereas FeNTA causes an iron overload of cells and is genotoxic in various assays, Na3NTA is predominantly bound to zinc in vivo and thereby causes cytotoxic effects in the urinary tract. In contrast to FeNTA, Na3NTA requires high dose levels to produce tumors. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of Na3NTA and FeNTA on cellular proliferation, histopathology, lipid peroxidation, and 8-OH-2'-deoxyguanosine levels in the kidneys as well as on the urinary excretion of Ca, Fe, and Zn. For evaluation of DNA synthesis both compounds were administered for 1 or 4 weeks to 14-week-old male Wistar rats at a tumor causing dose, Na3NTA via the diet at 150 ppm and 20,000 ppm (approximately 9 and approximately 1000 mg/kg/day) and FeNTA i.p. at 25 mg/kg/day. An osmotic minipump, containing 20 mg/ml BrdU, was implanted subcutaneously 7 days before necropsy. Na3NTA showed nearly no effect on DNA replication after 1 week but a strong reaction after 4 weeks. The increase was 10- to 18-fold in different renal compartments. The enhancement of proliferation in the proximal tubules was nearly twice that in the distal tubules. In contrast, FeNTA caused DNA replication during the first week, and this was restricted to the proximal tubules. After 4 weeks there was an 18-fold increase in the outer stripe and no effect in the inner stripe of the outer medulla. The data presented give evidence to the assumption that both substances increase cell proliferation as a compensatory mechanism, causing different pattern of tubular proliferation in terms of time course and affected cell types. Both Na3NTA at 20,000 ppm and FeNTA led to increased lipid peroxidation, whereas increased levels of 8-OH-2

  5. Toxicity Evaluation of Pig Slurry Using Luminescent Bacteria and Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyan Chen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Biogas slurry has become a serious pollution problem and anaerobic digestion is widely applied to pig manure treatment for environmental protection and energy recovery. To evaluate environmental risk of the emission of biogas slurry, luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri, larvae and embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio were used to detect the acute and development toxicity of digested and post-treated slurry. Then the ability of treatment process was evaluated. The results showed that digested slurry displayed strong toxicity to both zebrafish and luminescent bacteria, while the EC50 for luminescent bacteria and the LC50 for larvae were only 6.81% (v/v and 1.95% (v/v respectively, and embryonic development was inhibited at just 1% (v/v. Slurry still maintained a high level of toxicity although it had been treated by membrane bioreactor (MBR, while the LC50 of larvae was 75.23% (v/v and there was a little effect on the development of embryos and V. fischeri; the results also revealed that the zebrafish larvae are more sensitive than embryos and luminescent bacteria to pig slurry. Finally, we also found the toxicity removal rate was higher than 90% after the treatment of MBR according to toxicity tests. In conclusion, further treatment should be used in pig slurry disposal or reused of final effluent.

  6. Evaluating the toxicity of selected types of nanochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vineet; Kumari, Avnesh; Guleria, Praveen; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a fast growing field that provides for the development of materials that have new dimensions, novel properties, and a broader array of applications. Various scientific groups are keen about this technology and are devoting themselves to the development of more, new, and better nanomaterials. In the near future, expectations are that no field will be left untouched by the magical benefits available through application of nanotechnology. Presently, there is only limited knowledge concerning the toxicological effects of NPs. However, it is now known that the toxic behavior of NPs differ from their bulk counterparts. Even NPs that have the same chemical composition differ in their toxicological properties; the differences in toxicity depend upon size, shape, and surface covering. Hence, before NPs are commercially used it is most important that they be subjected to appropriate toxicity evaluation. Among the parameters of NPs that must be evaluated for their effect on toxicity are surface charges, types of coating material, and reactivity of NPs. In this article, we have reviewed the literature pertinent to the toxicity of metal oxide NPs, metallic NPs, quantum dots (QDs), silica (SiO2) NPs, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and certain other carbon nanomaterials (NMs). These NPs have already found a wide range of applications around the world. In vitro and in vivo studies on NPs have revealed that most are toxic to animals. However, their toxic behavior varies with their size, shape, surface charge, type of coating material and reactivity. Dose, route of administration, and exposure are critical factors that affect the degree of toxicity produced by any particular type of NP. It is for this reason that we believe a careful and rigorous toxicity testing is necessary before any NP is declared to be safe for broad use. We also believe that an agreed upon testing system is needed that can be used to suitably, accurately, and economically assess the toxicity of NPs

  7. Evaluation of Daphnia magna as an indicator of Toxicity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance evaluation of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with special reference to toxicity reduction using Daphnia magna straus as test organism is very important to study the likely adverse effects of the treated wastewater on the aquatic ecosystem of receiving waters and to detect common environmentally ...

  8. Evaluation of toxic effects of metformin hydrochloride and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of toxic effects of metformin hydrochloride and glibenclamide on some organs of male rats. ... Twenty one rats were divided into three groups of seven rats each; group 1 served as control, groups 2 and 3 received GB and MET at doses of 5 and 30 mg/kg, respectively, for 21 days by oral gavage. Results indicate ...

  9. Surge of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lisel V Richter-Joubert; Donovan Jacobs; Tracy Kilborn

    2017-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a poorly understood complication of measles infection, presenting in up to 1 in 2500 infected children, resulting in devastating neurocognitive outcomes and a high mortality rate...

  10. Dialysis anaemia caused by subacute zinc toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, J J; Row, P G

    1977-06-04

    Nine out of ten patients dialysed in a satellite dialysis unit became severely anaemic over a 2-month period. The onset of anaemia coincided with the installation of a new galvanised-iron water softener in the dialysate water-supply system. An activated carbon filter was installed and haemoglobin levels returned towards previous values. Two patients on home dialysis showed similar falls in haemoglobin after the installation of galvanised iron piping in their dialysate water-supply systems; these problems also resolved after carbon filtration of the dialysis water. It is suggested that elution of zinc from galvanised iron can cause anaemia in dialysis patients. Carbon filtration removes of 95-99% of the zinc eluted.

  11. Subacute Oral Toxicity Assessment of Alchornea cordifolia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2010-10-21

    Oct 21, 2010 ... Histopathological assessment of liver sections of treated-rats showed normal architecture at doses < ... to provoke hepatic damage in mice [10]. In view of ..... 6. Olaleye MT, Adegboye OO, Akindahunsi AA. Alchornea cordifolia extract protects Wistar albino rats against acetaminophen-induced liver damage.

  12. Evaluation of acute toxicity potential of water hyacinth leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenbiao; Guo, Xiaoguang; Huang, Mingliang

    2014-06-01

    Although higher protein yield per hectare of water hyacinth than that of soy, high protein content of its leaves and good essential amino acid pattern have been proven, its dietary toxicity for human or animal consumption has not yet been evaluated. Therefore, the acute toxicity of water hyacinth leaves has been evaluated by an animal feeding test. The concentrations of common toxic metals including cadmium, lead, platinum, palladium, tin, mercury, barium, silver, stibium and aluminum in the water hyacinth leaf powder (WHLP) used for the animal feeding test were within their maximum limits in food additives as reported by the World Health Organization. The median lethal dose (LD50) of WHLP was more than 16 g kg(-1) body weight. In the study, after feeding for 7 and 28 days, the body weight of all the mice increased. The results of hematological analysis, clinical biochemical analysis, histopathological evaluation, general dissection or investigations of internal organs, appearance and behavior observations did not indicate any adverse effects from the diet containing WHLP. It is therefore concluded that water hyacinth leaves are not acutely toxic. © The Author(s) 2012.

  13. Toxicity evaluation and hazard review for Rigid Foam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archuleta, M.M.; Stocum, W.E.

    1994-02-01

    Rigid Foam is a chemical delay foam used to completely encapsulate an object or to block access to an area. Prior studies have indicated that the final foam product is essentially non-toxic. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and summarize the current chemical and toxicological data available on the components of Rigid Foam and to update the information available on the toxicity of the final Rigid Foam product. Since the possibility exists for a partial deployment of Rigid Foam where only one of the components is released, this study also examined the toxicity of its chemical constituents. Rigid Foam is composed of an {open_quotes}A{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}B{close_quotes} Component. The {open_quotes}A{close_quotes} component is primarily a polymeric isocyanate and the {open_quotes}B{close_quotes} component is a mixture of polyols. In addition to the primary constituents, dichlorodifluoromethane and trichlorofluoromethane are present as blowing agents along with catalysts and silicone surfactants necessary for foaming. The pre-deployed {open_quotes}A{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}B{close_quotes} components are stored in separate vessels and are brought together in static mixing nozzles for dispersal. The results of this evaluation indicate that a completely deployed Rigid Foam under normal conditions is essentially non-toxic as determined previously. However, in the event of a partial deployment or deployment of an individual component directly at an unprotected individual, the degree of hazard is increased due to the toxic and corrosive nature of the individual constituents. The health hazard would depend on the properties of the material to which the person was exposed.

  14. Photocatalytic degradation of rosuvastatin: Analytical studies and toxicity evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Tiele Caprioli, E-mail: tiele@enq.ufrgs.br [Chemical Engineering Department, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Rua Engenheiro Luiz Englert s/n, CEP: 90040-040 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Pizzolato, Tânia Mara [Chemical Institute, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Avenida Bento Gonçalves, 9500, CEP: 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Arenzon, Alexandre [Ecology Center, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Avenida Bento Gonçalves, 9500, CEP: 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Segalin, Jeferson [Biotechnology Center, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Avenida Bento Gonçalves, 9500, CEP: 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Lansarin, Marla Azário [Chemical Engineering Department, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Rua Engenheiro Luiz Englert s/n, CEP: 90040-040 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2015-01-01

    Photocatalytic degradation of rosuvastatin, which is a drug that has been used to reduce blood cholesterol levels, was studied in this work employing ZnO as catalyst. The experiments were carried out in a temperature-controlled batch reactor that was irradiated with UV light. Preliminary the effects of the photocatalyst loading, the initial pH and the initial rosuvastatin concentration were evaluated. The experimental results showed that rosuvastatin degradation is primarily a photocatalytic process, with pseudo-first order kinetics. The byproducts that were generated during the oxidative process were identified using nano-ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (nano-UPLC–MS/MS) and acute toxicity tests using Daphnia magna were done to evaluate the toxicity of the untreated rosuvastatin solution and the reactor effluent. - Highlights: • The photocatalytic degradation of rosuvastatin was studied under UV irradiation. • Commercial catalyst ZnO was used. • Initial rosuvastatin concentration, photocatalyst loading and pH were evaluated. • The byproducts generated during the oxidative process were detected and identified. • Acute toxicity tests using Daphnia magna were carried out.

  15. Evaluation of nano-specific toxicity of zinc oxide, copper oxide, and silver nanoparticles through toxic ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Weicheng; Liu, Xiawei; Bao, Shaopan; Xiao, Bangding; Fang, Tao, E-mail: fangt@ihb.ac.cn [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology (China)

    2016-12-15

    For safety and environmental risk assessments of nanomaterials (NMs) and to provide essential toxicity data, nano-specific toxicities, or excess toxicities, of ZnO, CuO, and Ag nanoparticles (NPs) (20, 20, and 30 nm, respectively) to Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in short-term (6 h) and long-term (48 h) bioassays were quantified based on a toxic ratio. ZnO NPs exhibited no nano-specific toxicities, reflecting similar toxicities as ZnO bulk particles (BPs) (as well as zinc salt). However, CuO and Ag NPs yielded distinctly nano-specific toxicities when compared with their BPs. According to their nano-specific toxicities, the capability of these NPs in eliciting hazardous effects on humans and the environment was as follows: CuO > Ag > ZnO NPs. Moreover, long-term bioassays were more sensitive to nano-specific toxicity than short-term bioassays. Overall, nano-specific toxicity is a meaningful measurement to evaluate the environmental risk of NPs. The log T{sub e}{sup particle} value is a useful parameter for quantifying NP nano-specific toxicity and enabling comparisons of international toxicological data. Furthermore, this value could be used to determine the environmental risk of NPs.

  16. Evaluation of the developmental toxicity of annatto in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paumgartten, F J R; De-Carvalho, R R; Araujo, I B; Pinto, F M; Borges, O O; Souza, C A M; Kuriyama, S N

    2002-11-01

    Annatto, a dye extracted from Bixa orellana seeds, is used as a color additive in butter, cheese and in a variety of other foods as well as in drugs and cosmetics. Toxicological data on annatto and on its main carotenoid pigment bixin are still scarce. In this study we evaluated the developmental toxicity of annatto (28% of bixin). Annatto (0, 31.2, 62.5, 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight/day) was given by gavage to Wistar rats on days 6-15 of pregnancy. Ceasarean sections were performed on day 21. Implantations, living and dead fetuses and resorptions were recorded. Fetuses were weighed and examined for externally-visible anomalies. One-third of fetuses from each litter was examined for visceral anomalies by a microsectioning technique. The remaining fetuses were cleared and stained with Alizarin Red S for skeleton evaluation. No adverse effect of annatto on the mothers was noted. No increase in embryolethality and no reduction of fetal body weight were observed among annatto-exposed rats. Annatto did not induce any increase in the incidence of externally-visible, visceral or skeletal anomalies in the exposed offspring. These findings suggest that annatto was neither maternally toxic nor embryotoxic in the rat. Therefore, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for annatto-induced maternal and developmental toxicity was 500 mg/kg body weight/day or greater (or > or = 140 mg bixin/kg body weight/day) by the oral route.

  17. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Michael H; Meatherall, Bonnie; Nikolic, Ana; Cannon, Kristine; Fonseca, Kevin; Joseph, Jeffrey T; MacDonald, Judy; Pabbaraju, Kanti; Tellier, Raymond; Wong, Sallene; Koch, Marcus W

    2016-03-01

    We present a case of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis that developed in a previously healthy 29-year-old pregnant woman who had returned from a trip to rural India shortly before the onset of symptoms. She was admitted to hospital at 27 weeks' gestation with a history of cognitive decline and difficulty completing simple tasks. She had no clinical signs of infection. The working diagnosis was autoimmune encephalitis, although extensive investigations did not lead to a final classifying diagnosis. The patient became comatose and developed hypertension, and an emergency caesarean section was done at 31 weeks to deliver the child, who seemed healthy. The patient died about 6 weeks after the onset of symptoms. The patient was found to have had subacute sclerosing panencephalitis at autopsy. In this Grand Round, we review the clinical features and treatment of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, and the epidemiological and public health aspects of the case. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Using single-species toxicity tests, community-level responses, and toxicity identification evaluations to investigate effluent impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maltby, L.; Clayton, S.A.; Yu, H.; McLoughlin, N.; Wood, R.M.; Yin, D.

    2000-01-01

    Whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests are increasingly used to monitor compliance of consented discharges, but few studies have related toxicity measured using WET tests to receiving water impacts. Here the authors adopt a four-stage procedure to investigate the toxicity and biological impact of a point source discharge and to identify the major toxicants. In stage 1, standard WET tests were employed to determine the toxicity of the effluent. This was then followed by an assessment of receiving water toxicity using in situ deployment of indigenous (Gammarus pulex) and standard (Daphnia magna) test species. The third stage involved the use of biological survey techniques to assess the impact of the discharge on the structure and functioning of the benthic macroinvertebrate community. In stage 4, toxicity identification evaluations (TIE) were used to identify toxic components in the effluent. Receiving-water toxicity and ecological impact detected downstream of the discharge were consistent with the results of WET tests performed on the effluent. Downstream of the discharge, there was a reduction in D. magna survival, in G. pulex survival and feeding rate, in detritus processing, and in biotic indices based on macroinvertebrate community structure. The TIE studies suggested that chlorine was the principal toxicant in the effluent.

  19. TOXICITY EVALUATION OF NEW ENGINEERED NANOMATERIALS IN ZEBRAFISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Violetta Brundo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the nanoparticles on the marine organisms, depends on their size, chemical composition, surface structure, solubility and shape.In order to take advantage from their activity, preserving the surrounding environment from a possible pollution, we are trying to trap the nanoparticles into new nanomaterials. The nanomaterials tested were synthesized proposing a ground-breaking approach by an upside-down vision of the Au/TiO2nano-system to avoid the release of nanoparticles. The system was synthesized by wrapping Au nanoparticles with a thin layer of TiO2. The non-toxicity of the nano-system was established by testing the effect of the material on zebrafish larvae. Danio rerio o zebrafish was considered a excellent model for the environmental biomonitoring of aquatic environments and the Zebrafish Embryo Toxicity Test is considered an alternative method of animal test. For this reason zebrafish larvae were exposed to different concentrations of nanoparticles of TiO2 and Au and new nanomaterials. As biomarkers of exposure, we evaluated the expression of metallothioneins by immunohistochemistry analysis and western blotting analysis also. The results obtained by toxicity test showed that neither mortality as well as sublethal effects were induced by the different nanomaterials and nanoparticles tested. Only zebrafish larvae exposed to free Au nanoparticles showed a different response to anti-MT antibody. In fact, the immunolocalization analysis highlighted an increase of the metallothioneins synthesis.

  20. Phytochemical analysis and toxicological evaluation of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The work evaluated the behavioral and toxicological effects and its consequences on hematological parameters and the phytochemical analysis of Jatropha tanjorensis leaf. Acute and sub-acute toxicity studies were done on Wistar albino mice and rats for 14 days and 28 days respectively. Hematological parameters of the ...

  1. Toxicity of electronic waste leachates to Daphnia magna: screening and toxicity identification evaluation of different products, components, and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lithner, Delilah; Halling, Maja; Dave, Göran

    2012-05-01

    Electronic waste has become one of the fastest growing waste problems in the world. It contains both toxic metals and toxic organics. The aim of this study was to (1) investigate to what extent toxicants can leach from different electronic products, components, and materials into water and (2) identify which group of toxicants (metals or hydrophobic organics) that is causing toxicity. Components from five discarded electronic products (cell phone, computer, phone modem, keyboard, and computer mouse) were leached in deionised water for 3 days at 23°C in concentrations of 25 g/l for metal components, 50 g/l for mixed-material components, and 100 g/l for plastic components. The water phase was tested for acute toxicity to Daphnia magna. Eighteen of 68 leachates showed toxicity (with immobility of D. magna ≥ 50% after 48 h) and came from metal or mixed-material components. The 8 most toxic leachates, with 48 h EC(50)s ranging from 0.4 to 20 g/l, came from 2 circuit sheets (key board), integrated drive electronics (IDE) cable clips (computer), metal studs (computer), a circuit board (computer mouse), a cord (phone modem), mixed parts (cell phone), and a circuit board (key board). All 5 electronic products were represented among them. Toxicity identification evaluations (with C18 and CM resins filtrations and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid addition) indicated that metals caused the toxicity in the majority of the most toxic leachates. Overall, this study has shown that electronic waste can leach toxic compounds also during short-term leaching with pure water.

  2. Evaluation of Chronic Nanosilver Toxicity to Adult Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Pecoraro

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is rapidly growing with nanoparticles produced and utilized in a wide range of commercial products worldwide. Among the different types of nanomaterials produced, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs occupy a predominant position and they are used in electronics, clothing, food industry, cosmetics and medical devices. Nanosilver has also showed excellent performance in antibacterial application. Nowadays, the increasing use of AgNPs has put the evidence on their possible toxicity to the human health and the impact on the environment. This paper focus on adverse effects of AgNPs in adult of Danio rerio. Fishes exposed to increasing concentrations (8, 45, and 70 μg/l silver nanoparticles (AgNPs, 25 nm in average diameter and after treatment for 30 days, was quickly euthanized in MS-222. We have evaluated bioaccumulation of AgNPs using ICP-MS and analyzed histological changes, biomarkers of oxidative damage and gene expression in the gut, liver and gills tissues of AgNPs-treated zebrafish. The histological analysis showed lesions of secondary lamellae of the gills with different degrees of toxicity such as hyperplasia, lamellar fusion, subepithelial edema, and even in some cases telangiectasia. Huge necrosis of the intestinal villi was found in the gut. No lesion was detected in the liver. The analysis revealed a high expression of metallothioneins 1 (MTs 1 in animals exposed to AgNPs compared to the control group. The ICP-MS analysis shows that the amount of particles absorbed in all treated samples is almost the same. We can affirm that AgNPs toxicity linked more to their size and state of aggregation than to their concentrations. Silver nanoparticles can damage gills and gut because they are able to pass through the mucosal barrier thanks to their small size. The damage is still reversible because it is not documented injury to the basal membrane.

  3. Toxicity after radiochemotherapy for glioblastoma using temozolomide - a retrospective evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niewald Marcus

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Retrospective evaluation of toxicity and results after radiochemotherapy for glioblastoma. Methods 46 patients with histopathologically proven glioblastoma received simultaneous radiochemotherapy (RCT. The mean age at the beginning of therapy was 59 years, the mean Karnofsky performance index 80%. 44 patients had been operated on before radiotherapy, two had not. A total dose of 60 Gy was applied in daily single fractions of 2.0 Gy within six weeks, 75 mg/m2/day Temozolomide were given orally during the whole radiotherapy period. Results A local progression could be diagnosed in 34/46 patients (70%. The median survival time amounted to 13.6 months resulting in one-year and two-year survival probabilities of 48% and 8%, respectively. Radiotherapy could be applied completely in 89% of the patients. Chemotherapy could be completed according to schedule only in 56.5%, the main reason being blood toxicity (50% of the interruptions. Most of those patients suffered from leucopenia and/or thrombopenia grade III and IV CTC (Common toxicity criteria. Further reasons were an unfavourable general health status or a rise of liver enzymes. The mean duration of thrombopenia and leucopenia amounted to 64 and 20 days. In two patients, blood cell counts remained abnormal until death. In two patients we noticed a rise of liver enzymes. In one of these in the healing phase of hepatitis a rise of ASAT and ALAT CTC grade IV was diagnosed. These values normalized after termination of temozolomide medication. One patient died of pneumonia during therapy. Conclusion Our survival data were well within the range taken from the literature. However, we noticed a considerable frequency and intensity of side effects to bone marrow and liver. These lead to the recommendations that regular examinations of blood cell count and liver enzymes should be performed during therapy and temozolomide should not be applied or application should be terminated according to

  4. Evaluating trivalent chromium toxicity on wild terrestrial and wetland plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukina, A O; Boutin, C; Rowland, O; Carpenter, D J

    2016-11-01

    Elevated chromium levels in soil from mining can impact the environment, including plants. Mining of chromium is concentrated in South Africa, several Asian countries, and potentially in Northern Ontario, Canada, raising concerns since chromium toxicity to wild plants is poorly understood. In the first experiment, concentration-response tests were conducted to evaluate effects of chromium on terrestrial and wetland plants. Following established guidelines using artificial soil, seeds of 32 species were exposed to chromium (Cr(3+)) at concentrations simulating contamination (0-1000 mg kg(-1)). This study found that low levels of chromium (250 mg kg(-1)) adversely affected the germination of 22% of species (33% of all families), while higher levels (500 and 1000 mg kg(-1)) affected 69% and 94% of species, respectively, from 89% of the families. Secondly, effects on seedbanks were studied using soil collected in Northern Ontario and exposed to Cr(3+) at equivalent concentrations (0-1000 mg kg(-1)). Effects were less severe in the seedbank study with significant differences only observed at 1000 mg kg(-1). Seeds exposed to Cr(3+) during stratification were greatly affected. Seed size was a contributing factor as was possibly the seed coat barrier. This study represents an initial step in understanding Cr(3+) toxicity on wild plants and could form the basis for future risk assessments. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Oral toxicity of elephant foot yam (Amorphophallus paeoniifolius tuber in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadu Nandan Dey

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: Amorphophallus paeoniifolius tuber is an important constituent of Ayurvedic system of medicine. The tuber of this plant has high medicinal value and is consumed as a food. It is associated with acridity (itchy sensation in mouth and throat upon oral consumption and presence of high oxalates raphides. Aims: To evaluate the acute and subacute oral toxicity studies of methanolic (APME and aqueous (APAE extracts of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius tuber in Swiss albino mice according to OECD guidelines. Methods: In acute oral toxicity study, the mice were orally administered a single dose of APME or APAE (2000 mg/kg and clinical signs and mortality were observed for 14 days. In subacute (repeated dose oral toxicity study, the mice were administered once daily, orally with APME or APAE (1000 mg/kg up to 28 days. The parameters assessed were behavior, clinical signs, body weight, feed and water consumption, urinary, biochemical, hematological and major organ weights and histology. Results: In acute toxicity study, there was no treatment related mortality and morbidity in any of the group. In subacute toxicity study, there were no significant changes in behavior, body weight, feed and water consumption, urinary, biochemical, hematological and organ weight and histological parameters compared to vehicle treated group. There was no treatment related mortality or morbidity. Conclusions: Administration of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius tuber, individually in acute and 28 days repeated dose in mice, did not exhibit any toxicity or adverse effect at the doses used.

  6. Evaluation of the genotoxic and antigenotoxic effects after acute and subacute treatments with açai pulp (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) on mice using the erythrocytes micronucleus test and the comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Juliana Carvalho; Antunes, Lusânia Maria Greggi; Aissa, Alexandre Ferro; Darin, Joana D'arc Castania; De Rosso, Veridiana Vera; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; Bianchi, Maria de Lourdes Pires

    2010-01-01

    Açai, the fruit of a palm native to the Amazonian basin, is widely distributed in northern South America, where it has considerable economic importance. Whereas individual polyphenolics compounds in açai have been extensively evaluated, studies of the intact fruit and its biological properties are lacking. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate the in vivo genotoxicity of açai and its possible antigenotoxicity on doxorubicin (DXR)-induced DNA damage. The açai pulp doses selected were 3.33, 10.0 and 16.67g/kg b.w. administered by gavage alone or prior to DXR (16mg/kg b.w.) administered by intraperitoneal injection. Swiss albino mice were distributed in eight groups for acute treatment with açai pulp (24h) and eight groups for subacute treatment (daily for 14 consecutive days) before euthanasia. The negative control groups were treated in a similar way. The results of chemical analysis suggested the presence of carotenoids, anthocyanins, phenolic, and flavonoids in açai pulp. The endpoints analyzed were micronucleus induction in bone marrow and peripheral blood cells polychromatic erythrocytes, and DNA damage in peripheral blood, liver and kidney cells assessed using the alkaline (pH >13) comet assay. There were no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) between the negative control and the groups treated with the three doses of açai pulp alone in all endpoints analyzed, demonstrating the absence of genotoxic effects. The protective effects of açai pulp were observed in both acute and subacute treatments, when administered prior to DXR. In general, subacute treatment provided greater efficiency in protecting against DXR-induced DNA damage in liver and kidney cells. These protective effects can be explained as the result of the phytochemicals present in açai pulp. These results will be applied to the developmental of food with functional characteristics, as well as to explore the characteristics of açai as a health promoter

  7. Subacute thyroiditis--61 cases review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, S C; Jap, T S; Ho, L T; Ching, K N

    1989-02-01

    To examine the hospitalized patients with available data suggesting subacute thyroiditis, we have reviewed 80 hospital charts over the last 11 years and the data demonstrated 61 patients (48 females, 13 males, Aged 22-75 years) had evidence of subacute thyroiditis clinically or pathologically. Fifty seven of those patients had the clinical manifestation of severe tenderness over the neck, and others were painless. The thyroid function test were abnormal in 53% (30/57) of cases. All had rapid sedimentation rate (46/46). The thyroid antibodies were positive in 26% (10/39) of cases. Sixteen patients received unnecessary thyroid operation and complicated with hypothyroidism with or without hypoparathyroidism in two cases. In conclusion, all patients with painful or painless goiter should be appreciated carefully with additional study such as aspiration cytology to avoid misdiagnosis and inappropriate management.

  8. Sequential toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) for characterizing toxicity of Venice Lagoon sediments: comparison of two different approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picone, Marco; Bergamin, Martina; Volpato, Elisa; Delaney, Eugenia; Turetta, Clara; Ranaldo, Martina; Capodaglio, Gabriele; Nasci, Cristina

    2009-02-01

    A toxicity identification evaluation phase-I (TIE-1) procedure was carried out on five pore water samples extracted from sediments of the Venice Lagoon previously investigated to assess both chemical contamination and toxic effects on the biota. Two different sequential TIE procedures were tested. A first sequence (TIE-1) provided for adding Na2S2O3, adding Na-EDTA, filtering, elution through a C18-SPE column and removing ammonia using the macroalgae Ulva rigida Agardh 1823, while a second procedure (TIE-2) was set up using U. rigida treatment for ammonia removal as first step, keeping unchanged the sequence of the other manipulations. Two different exposure time to the macroalgae were tested (3-h and 15-h). Sperm-cell toxicity test with the echinoid Paracentrotus lividus and embryotoxicity tests with the bivalves Mytilus galloprovincialis and Crassostrea gigas were performed on pore-water samples to assess the effect of the sequential treatments on the overall toxicity. The results confirmed that ammonia contribution to toxicity is strong in most of the samples and that metals, specially Cu, are of concern at least in three sites. The TIE-2 procedure provided more reliable results for the samples characterized by high ammonia contribution to the overall toxicity, whereas the results of TIE-1 and TIE-2 were equivalent for the samples where ammonia contribution was not prevailing. Chemical analyses and test results showed that a 3-h U. rigida exposure is suitable to remove ammonia toxicity minimizing potential metal up-take.

  9. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: A clinical appraisal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jagtap, Sujit Abajirao; Nair, M D; Kambale, Harsha J

    2013-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare chronic, progressive encephalitis affecting primarily children and young adults, caused by a persistent infection of immune resistant measles virus...

  10. A close look at EEG in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Nurhak; Cokar, Ozlem; Bolukbasi, Feray; Demirbilek, Veysi; Yapici, Zuhal; Yalcinkaya, Cengiz; Direskeneli, Guher Saruhan; Yentur, Sibel; Onal, Emel; Yilmaz, Gulden; Dervent, Aysin

    2013-08-01

    To define atypical clinical and EEG features of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis that may require an overview of differential diagnosis. A total of 66 EEGs belonging to 53 (17 females and 36 males) consecutive patients with serologically confirmed subacute sclerosing panencephalitis were included in this study. Patient files and EEG data were evaluated retrospectively. EEGs included in the study were sleep-waking EEGs and/or sleep-waking video-EEG records with at least 2 hours duration. Cranial MRIs of the patients taken 2 months before or after the EEG records were included. Age range at the onset of the disease was 15 to 192 months (mean age: 80.02 months). Epilepsy was diagnosed in 21 (43%) patients. Among epileptic seizures excluding myoclonic jerks, generalized tonic-clonic type constituted the majority (58%). Tonic seizures were documented during the video-EEG recordings in four patients. Epileptogenic activities were found in 56 (83%) EEG recordings. They were localized mainly in frontal (58%), posterior temporal, parietal, occipital (26%), and centrotemporal (8%) regions. Multiple foci were detected in 26 recordings (39%). Epileptiform activities in the 39 (59%) EEGs appeared as unilateral or bilateral diffuse paroxysmal discharges. Recognition of uncommon clinical and EEG findings of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, especially in countries where subacute sclerosing panencephalitis has not been eliminated yet, could be helpful in prevention of misdiagnosis and delay in the management of improvable conditions.

  11. Critical evaluation of toxic versus beneficial effects of methylglyoxal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, D; Chaudhuri, B S; Ray, M; Ray, S

    2009-10-01

    In various organisms, an array of enzymes is involved in the synthesis and breakdown of methylglyoxal. Through these enzymes, it is intimately linked to several other physiologically important metabolites, suggesting that methylglyoxal has some important role to play in the host organism. Several in vitro and in vivo studies showed that methylglyoxal acts specifically against different types of malignant cells. These studies culminated in a recent investigation to evaluate a methylglyoxal-based formulation in treating a small group of cancer patients, and the results were promising. Methylglyoxal acts against a number of pathogenic microorganisms. However, recent literature abounds with the toxic effects of methylglyoxal, which are supposed to be mediated through methylglyoxal-derived advanced glycation end products (AGE). Many diseases such as diabetes, cataract formation, hypertension, and uremia are proposed to be intimately linked with methylglyoxal-derived AGE. However methylglyoxal-derived AGE formation and subsequent pathogenesis might be a very minor event because AGE are nonspecific reaction products that are derived through the reactions of carbonyl groups of reducing sugars with amino groups present in the side chains of lysine and arginine and in terminal amino groups of proteins. Moreover, the results of some in vitro experiments with methylglyoxal under non-physiological conditions were extrapolated to the in vivo situation. Some experiments even showed contradictory results and were differently interpreted. For this reason conclusions about the potential beneficial effects of methylglyoxal have often been neglected, thus hindering the advancement of medical science and causing some confusion in fundamental understanding. Overall, the potential beneficial effects of methylglyoxal far outweigh its possible toxic role in vivo, and it should be utilized for the benefit of suffering humanity.

  12. Evaluation of Selected Subacute Effects of the Nitrotoluene Group of Munitions Compounds on Fish and Potential Use in Aquatic Toxicity Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    tubules with associated tubule necrosis, and atypical neuromast cells with necrotic epithelium in the lateral line mechanoreceptors . The uptake...and gills. As previously noted, the most severe lesions occurred in the kidney, liver and gills. Lateral line mechanoreceptor lesions, high brain...Cope, O.B., "Some effects TEPA, an insect chemosterilant on the guppy, (Poecilia reticulata)", Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 98:280-287(69) Trump, B.F., Jones

  13. Evaluation of acute toxicity of babassu mesocarp in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth S. B. Barroqueiro

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The safety of babassu mesocarp (Orbignya phalerata Mart., Arecaceae, which exhibited anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic activities, was evaluated by determining the potential acute toxicity in mice. A lyophilized ethanol extract of babassu mesocarp (BME was administered to C3H/HePas mice (10/group in a single dose of 1000, 3000 and 5000 mg/kg, by gavage. General behavior adverse effects and mortality were determined for up to fourteen days. Selected biochemical parameters including glucose, triacylglyceride, cholesterol, urea, alkaline phosphatase and creatinine were determined by colorimetric assay. The heart, liver, spleen, kidneys and brain were weighted and evaluated macro and microscopically. The median lethal dose (LD50 of BME was greater than 5000 mg/kg. No behavior or body weight alterations were detected after the treatment. The acute treatment with BME has no effect on macroscopic and microscopic aspect of examined organs. Instead, BME increased the alkaline phosphatase and reduced the urea concentration in all groups. A significant increase on triacylglyceride was detected in the group BME1000. In conclusion, the acute treatment with high doses of BME can affect some biochemical parameters with a long lasting effect, although any change was detected at tissue level or body and organ weight.

  14. Evaluation of toxic action of fluorides on agricultural plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Grishko

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The toxicity of potassium fluoride, sodium fluoride and ammonium fluoride for pea, maize, oat and onion was studied. It was found that the level of the toxic influence had grown with increase of fluoride concentration in the media of growth (from 5 to 100 mg of F–/l. By increase of the toxic influence the agricultural crops are disposed in the following row: oat < onion < maize < pea. Ammonium fluoride demonstrates lesser toxicity, than potassium and sodium fluorides. Under low concentrations of fluoride compounds (5 and 10 mg of F–/l stimulation of roots growth is noted only for the oat.

  15. Evaluation of soil toxicity at Joliet Army Ammunition Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simini, M.; Amos, J.C. [Geo-Centers, Inc., Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States). Gunpowder Branch; Wentsel, R.S.; Checkai, R.T.; Phillips, C.T.; Chester, N.A. [Army ERDEC, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States); Major, M.A. [Army CHPPM, Frederick, MD (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Environmental toxicity testing and chemical analyses of soil were performed as part of an ecological risk assessment at the Joliet Army Ammunition Plant (JAAP), Joliet, Illinois. Soils were collected from an area where munitions were loaded, assembled, and packed (area L7, group 1), and from an area where waste explosives were burned on unprotected soil (area L2). Control samples were collected from an adjacent field. Soil toxicity was determined using early seedling growth and vigor tests, earthworm survival and growth tests, and Microtox{reg_sign} assays. Relative toxicity of soils was determined within each area based on statistical significant (p = 0.05) of plant and earthworm growth and survival, and the effective concentration at which luminescence of the bacterium Photobacterium phosphoreum was reduced by 50% (EC50) in the Microtox assay. Samples were designated as having high, moderate, or no significant toxicity. Soil that had significant toxicity according to at least one test, and representative samples showing no toxicity, were analyzed for munitions via HPLC. Chemical residues found in soils were 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT); 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB); 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT); 2,6-dinitrotoluene; 2-amino-4,6-DNT; 4-amino-2,6-DNT; 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX); and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX). All soils with no significant toxicity were void of these chemicals. However, some soils void of munitions still showed toxicity that may have been caused by elevated levels of heavy metals. Linear regressions of toxicity test results vs. chemical concentrations showed that TNT and TNB accounted for most off the soil toxicity. Lowest-observable-effect concentrations (LOEC) of TNT were determined from these data. This study presents a simple, relatively inexpensive methodology for assessing toxicity of soils containing TNT, RDX, and other contaminants related to munitions production.

  16. Investigations on rumen and claw health of different wild ruminants related to subacute ruminal acidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Schilcher, B; Baumgartner, K; Liesegang, A

    2010-01-01

    In this study four ruminant species of Nuremberg Zoo were evaluated for subacute ruminal acidosis according to the feeding management. Parameters of microbiological fermentation of the rumen as well as rumen tissue samples were examined. Additionally, investigations on claw health, in terms of laminitis were made. Three of the four species, all grass- and roughage feeders, showed severe characteristics of subacute ruminal acidosis due to a diet high in fermentable carbohydrates and low in fib...

  17. Toxicity evaluation and hazard review for o-Chlorobenzylidene Malononitrile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archuleta, M.M.; Stocum, W.E.

    1993-12-01

    Ortho-Chlorobenzylidene Malononitrile (CS) is one of a number of riot control agents referred to as tear gas, although it is in fact a particulate suspension. The toxicity of this material has been studied in various detail. The purpose of this study was to review and summarize the literature data available on the toxicity of CS.

  18. USE OF CARBOXYLESTERASE ACTIVITY TO REMOVE PYRETHROID-ASSOCIATED TOXICITY TO CERIODAPHNIA DUBIA AND HYALELLA AZTECA IN TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION EVALUATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelock, Craig E.; Miller, Jeff L.; Miller, Mike J.; Phillips, Bryn M.; Huntley, Sarah A.; Gee, Shirley J.; Tjeerdema, Ronald S.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2006-01-01

    Increases in the use and application of pyrethroid insecticides have resulted in concern regarding potential effects on aquatic ecosystems. Methods for the detection of pyrethroids in receiving waters are required to monitor environmental levels of these insecticides. One method employed for the identification of causes of toxicity in aquatic samples is the toxicity identification evaluation (TIE); however, current TIE protocols do not include specific methods for pyrethroid detection. Recent work identified carboxylesterase treatment as a useful method for removing/detecting pyrethroid-associated toxicity. The present study has extended this earlier work and examined the ability of carboxylesterase activity to remove permethrin- and bifenthrin-associated toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella azteca in a variety of matrices, including laboratory water, Sacramento River (CA, USA) water, and Salinas River (CA, USA) interstitial water. Esterase activity successfully removed 1,000 ng/L of permethrin-associated toxicity and 600 ng/L of bifenthrin-associated toxicity to C. dubia in Sacramento River water. In interstitial water, 200 ng/L of permethrin-associated toxicity and 60 ng/L of bifenthrin-associated toxicity to H. azteca were removed. The selectivity of the method was validated using heat-inactivated enzyme and bovine serum albumin, demonstrating that catalytically active esterase is required. Further studies showed that the enzyme is not significantly inhibited by metals. Matrix effects on esterase activity were examined with municipal effluent and seawater in addition to the matrices discussed above. Results confirmed that the esterase retains catalytic function in a diverse array of matrices, suggesting that this technique can be adapted to a variety of aquatic samples. These data demonstrate the utility of carboxylesterase treatment as a viable step to detect the presence of pyrethroids in receiving waters. PMID:16629136

  19. Evaluation of the male reproductive toxicity of gallium arsenide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomhard, Ernst M; Cohen, Samuel M; Gelbke, Heinz-Peter; Williams, Gary M

    2012-10-01

    Gallium arsenide is an important semiconductor material marketed in the shape of wafers and thus is not hazardous to the end user. Exposure to GaAs particles may, however, occur during manufacture and processing. Potential hazards require evaluation. In 14-week inhalation studies with small GaAs particles, testicular effects have been reported in rats and mice. These effects occurred only in animals whose lungs showed marked inflammation and also had hematologic changes indicating anemia and hemolysis. The time- and concentration-dependent progressive nature of the lung and blood effects together with bioavailability data on gallium and arsenic lead us to conclude that the testicular/sperm effects are secondary to hypoxemia resulting from lung damage rather than due to a direct chemical effect of gallium or arsenide. Conditions leading to such primary effects are not expected to occur in humans at production and processing sites. This has to be taken into consideration for any classification decision for reproductive toxicity; especially a category 1 according to the EU CLP system is not warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Drinking to toxicity: college students referred for emergency medical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharasch, Sigmund J; McBride, David R; Saitz, Richard; Myers, Ward P

    2016-06-08

    In 2009, a university adopted a policy of emergency department transport of students appearing intoxicated on campus. The objective was to describe the change in ED referrals after policy initiation and describe a group of students at risk for acute alcohol-related morbidity. A retrospective cohort of university students during academic years 2007-2011 (September-June) transported to local ED's was evaluated. Data were compared 2 years prior to initiation of the policy and 3 years after and included total number of ED transports and blood or breath alcohol level. 971 Students were transported to local ED's. The mean number of yearly transports 2 years prior to policy initiation was 131 and 3 years after was 236 (56 % increase, p alcohol level obtained. The mean alcohol level was 193 mg/dL. Twenty percent of students had alcohol levels greater than 250 mg/dL. Adoption of a university alcohol policy was followed by a significant increase in ED transports of intoxicated students. College students identified as intoxicated frequently drank to toxicity.

  1. Establishment of a bioassay for the toxicity evaluation and quality control of Aconitum herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yi; Wang, Jia-bo; Zhao, Yan-ling; Shan, Li-mei; Li, Bao-cai; Fang, Fang; Jin, Cheng; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2012-01-15

    Currently, no bioassay is available for evaluating the toxicity of Aconitum herbs, which are well known for their lethal cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity. In this study, we established a bioassay to evaluate the toxicity of Aconitum herbs. Test sample and standard solutions were administered to rats by intravenous infusion to determine their minimum lethal doses (MLD). Toxic potency was calculated by comparing the MLD. The experimental conditions of the method were optimized and standardized to ensure the precision and reliability of the bioassay. The application of the standardized bioassay was then tested by analyzing 18 samples of Aconitum herbs. Additionally, three major toxic alkaloids (aconitine, mesaconitine, and hypaconitine) in Aconitum herbs were analyzed using a liquid chromatographic method, which is the current method of choice for evaluating the toxicity of Aconitum herbs. We found that for all Aconitum herbs, the total toxicity of the extract was greater than the toxicity of the three alkaloids. Therefore, these three alkaloids failed to account for the total toxicity of Aconitum herbs. Compared with individual chemical analysis methods, the chief advantage of the bioassay is that it characterizes the total toxicity of Aconitum herbs. An incorrect toxicity evaluation caused by quantitative analysis of the three alkaloids might be effectively avoided by performing this bioassay. This study revealed that the bioassay is a powerful method for the safety assessment of Aconitum herbs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Dredged Material Evaluations: Review of Zooplankton Toxicity Test Methods for Marine Water Quality Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    for elutriate toxicity tests are fish, invertebrates ( crustaceans ), and zooplankton. Freshwater evaluations (following CWA regulations) use standard...one species each representative of phytoplankton or zooplankton, crustacean or mollusk, and fish species chosen from ERDC TN-DOER-R24 September...Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and ASTM. Much of this work has focused on full life-cycle testing of the epibenthic

  3. Toxicity evaluation of single and mixed antifouling biocides using the Strongylocentrotus intermedius sea urchin embryo test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heng; Li, Yan; Huang, Honghui; Xu, Xue; Wang, Yonghua

    2011-03-01

    The present study evaluated the single and mixed toxicities of commonly used antifouling biocides (copper pyrithione, Sea nine 211, dichlofluanid, tolylfluanid, and Irgarol 1051) on the early embryogenesis of sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius. Their toxicities were quantified in terms of the median effective concentration (EC50) reducing the embryogenesis success by 50%. For individual biocides to the embryos, the toxicity was in order of copper pyrithione>Sea nine 211> tolylfluanid>dichlofluanid>Irgarol 1051. The toxicities of mixture (binary, ternary, quaternary, and quinary) of compounds, evaluated by toxic unit, additivity index, and mixture toxicity index, showed that the copper pyrithione-Sea nine 211 combination was the most toxic with the EC50 value of 7.87 nM in all mixtures. Synergistic enhancements of toxicity were observed for all mixtures except the combination of tolylfluanid-Sea nine 211, revealing antagonistic effect. Both the concentration addition and independent action concepts failed to accurately predict the mixture toxicities of the antifouling combinations; thus, a new log K(OW)-based model was developed to predict the combined toxicities of these antifouling chemicals, which were capable of predicting the mixture toxicities of antifouling biocides (R(2)=0.33). Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  4. Injury to skeletal muscle of mice following acute and sub-acute pregabalin exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Moshiri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Pregabalin (PGB is a new antiepileptic drug that has received FDA approval for patient who suffers from central neuropathic pain, partial seizures, generalized anxiety disorder, fibromyalgia and sleep disorders. This study was undertaken to evaluate the possible adverse effects of PGB on the muscular system of mice. Materials and Methods: To evaluate the effect of PGB on skeletal muscle, the animals were exposed to a single dose of 1, 2 or 5 g /kg or daily doses of 20, 40 or 80 mg/kg for 21 days, intraperitoneally (IP. Twaenty-four hr after the last drug administration, all animals were sacrificed. The level of fast-twitch skeletal muscle troponin I and CK-MM activity were evaluated in blood as an indicator of muscle injury. Skeletal muscle pathological findings were also reported as scores ranging from 1 to 3 based on the observed lesion. Results: In the acute and sub-acute toxicity assay IP injection of PGB significantly increased the activity and levels of CK-MM and fsTnI compared to the control group. Sub-acute exposure to PGB caused damages that include muscle atrophy, infiltration of inflammatory cells and cell degeneration. Conclusion: PGB administration especially in long term care causes muscle atrophy with infiltration of inflammatory cells and cell degeneration. The fsTnI and CK-MM are reliable markers in PGB-related muscle injury. The exact mechanisms behind the muscular damage are unclear and necessitate further investigations.

  5. Cost-effectiveness of an intensive group training protocol compared to physiotherapy guideline care for sub-acute and chronic low back pain: design of a randomised controlled trial with an economic evaluation. [ISRCTN45641649].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Roer, Nicole; van Tulder, Maurits W; Barendse, Johanna M; van Mechelen, Willem; Franken, Willemien K; Ooms, Arjan C; de Vet, Henrica C W

    2004-11-23

    Low back pain is a common disorder in western industrialised countries and the type of treatments for low back pain vary considerably. In a randomised controlled trial the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of an intensive group training protocol versus physiotherapy guideline care for sub-acute and chronic low back pain patients is evaluated. Patients with back pain for longer than 6 weeks who are referred to physiotherapy care by their general practitioner or medical specialist are included in the study. The intensive group training protocol combines exercise therapy with principles of behavioural therapy ("graded activity") and back school. This training protocol is compared to physiotherapy care according to the recently published Low Back Pain Guidelines of the Royal Dutch College for Physiotherapy. Primary outcome measures are general improvement, pain intensity, functional status, work absenteeism and quality of life. The direct and indirect costs will be assessed using cost diaries. Patients will complete questionnaires at baseline and 6, 13, 26 and 52 weeks after randomisation. No trials are yet available that have evaluated the effect of an intensive group training protocol including behavioural principles and back school in a primary physiotherapy care setting and no data on cost-effectiveness and cost-utility are available.

  6. Cost-effectiveness of an intensive group training protocol compared to physiotherapy guideline care for sub-acute and chronic low back pain: design of a randomised controlled trial with an economic evaluation. [ISRCTN45641649

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franken Willemien K

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low back pain is a common disorder in western industrialised countries and the type of treatments for low back pain vary considerably. Methods In a randomised controlled trial the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of an intensive group training protocol versus physiotherapy guideline care for sub-acute and chronic low back pain patients is evaluated. Patients with back pain for longer than 6 weeks who are referred to physiotherapy care by their general practitioner or medical specialist are included in the study. The intensive group training protocol combines exercise therapy with principles of behavioural therapy ("graded activity" and back school. This training protocol is compared to physiotherapy care according to the recently published Low Back Pain Guidelines of the Royal Dutch College for Physiotherapy. Primary outcome measures are general improvement, pain intensity, functional status, work absenteeism and quality of life. The direct and indirect costs will be assessed using cost diaries. Patients will complete questionnaires at baseline and 6, 13, 26 and 52 weeks after randomisation. Discussion No trials are yet available that have evaluated the effect of an intensive group training protocol including behavioural principles and back school in a primary physiotherapy care setting and no data on cost-effectiveness and cost-utility are available.

  7. Use of toxicity assays for evaluating the effectiveness of groundwater remediation with Fenton’s reagent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusk, Kresten Ole; Bennedsen, Lars Rønn; Christophersen, Mette

    evaluates in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) using modified Fenton’s reagent (H2O2 + chelated Fe2+) as a groundwater remedy. Three injections were performed over a period to test treatment efficacy. Performance monitoring samples were collected from two depths both prior to and during treatment, and analyzed...... treatment with Fenton’s reagent the toxicity had increased and now needed 7100 times dilution to reduce toxicity to the LC10 probably due to mobilization of metals. It is concluded that toxicity assay is a useful tool for evaluating samples from contaminated sites and that toxicity assays and chemical...

  8. Use of toxicity assays for evaluating the effectiveness of groundwater remediation with Fenton’s reagent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusk, Kresten Ole; Bennedsen, Lars; Christophersen, Mette

    2011-01-01

    evaluates in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) using modified Fenton’s reagent (H2O2 + chelated Fe2+) as a groundwater remedy. Three injections were performed over a period to test treatment efficacy. Performance monitoring samples were collected from two depths both prior to and during treatment, and analyzed...... treatment with Fenton’s reagent the toxicity had increased and now needed 7100 times dilution to reduce toxicity to the LC10 probably due to mobilization of metals. It is concluded that toxicity assay is a useful tool for evaluating samples from contaminated sites and that toxicity assays and chemical...

  9. Hyperfixation of Tc-99m ECD in subacute cortical infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Seung; Kweon, Sun Uck; Ryu, Jin Sook; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Lee, Hee Kyung [College of Medicine, Ulsan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    It has been known that hyperfixation of Tc-99m ECD (HF) is not shown in subacute cerebral infarction because the brain distribution of Tc-99m ECD reflects not only perfusion but also the metabolic status of brain tissue. However, we observed several cases with HF in the subacute pure cortical infarction. To find out the cause of HF in subacute cortical infarction. We assessed the difference in associated cerebral hemodynamics and clinical findings between the subacute cortical infarctions with and without HF. We reviewed 16 patients (63.8{+-}8.6 yr, M/F: 15/1) with pure cortical infarction not involving adjacent subcortical white matter on MRI. All patients underwent acetazolamide stress brain perfusion SPECT using Tc-99m ECD and MRI at subacute period (7.3{+-}4.4 days from ictus). Uptake of Tc-99m ECD in infarcted cortex was assessed visually comparing the contralateral side. To assess the difference in associate clinical findings between the infarctions with and without HF, rCVR of the cerebral territory including infarcted cortex, extent of Gd-enhancement on MRI. Intervals between SPECT and ictus, and the presence of associated ICA stenosis were evaluated. Infarctions were focal (n=8) or multifocal (n=8) and located in frontoparietal cortices on MRI. Twelve patients were accompanied with ipsilateral ICA stenosis. Resting SPECT showed increased cortical uptake (=HF) in 7 patients and decreased in 9. rCVR of the MCA territory was preserved in all of the 7 patients with HF, compared with 4 of the 9 patients without HF (p=0.03). Gd-enhancement was minimal in all of the 7 patients with HF, compared with of the 0 patients without HF (p=0.03). Presence of ipsilateral ICA stenosis and intervals from ictus were not different (p>0.1) Subacute cerebral cortical infarction with HF was more frequently associated with preserved rCVR and minimal destruction of the blood-brain barrier than that without HF. Our findings suggest that HF may result from luxury perfusion of

  10. Sediment quality assessment and Toxicity Identification Evaluation studies in Lavaca Bay, Texas -- An estuarine Superfund site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, R.S.; Biedenbach, J. [National Biological Service, Corpus Christi, TX (United States). Texas Gulf Coast Field Station; Hooten, R.; May, L.; Teas, T. [Texas A and M Univ., Corpus Christi, TX (United States). Center for Coastal Studies

    1995-12-31

    A sediment quality assessment survey was conducted in the Lavaca Bay system which has been designated a Superfund site because of elevated concentrations of mercury and other contaminants (e.g., PAHs) in the sediments. Twenty-four stations were sampled in the initial survey. Sediment pore water was extracted pneumatically and the toxicity of the pore water determined using the sea urchin fertilization and embryological development assays. Based on the results of the toxicity tests, aliquots of the toxic sediments were analyzed for metals, PAHs, and pesticides. Based on these results, several of the most toxic sites were resampled and a preliminary Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) was performed with the pore water using the sea urchin fertilization test. Preliminary results indicated that the toxic components were removed by adsorption on a C-18 column but were not affected by EDTA additions and, therefore, the primary toxicants are hydrophobic in nature.

  11. Population growth rate determinants for Arbacia: Evaluating ecological relevance of toxicity test endpoints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nacci, D.; Gleason, T.; Munns, W.R. Jr. [Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI (United States). Environmental Research Lab.

    1995-12-31

    A population dynamics model for the sea urchin, Arbacia punctulata, was recently developed incorporating life stage endpoints frequently measured in acute and chronic toxicity studies. Model elasticity analysis was used to demonstrate that population growth rate was influenced most by adult survival and least by early life stage success, calling into question the ecological relevance of results from standardized Arbacia fertilization and larval development toxicity tests. Two approaches were used to continue this evaluation. Actual and hypothetical dose-response curves for toxicant exposures over multiple life stages were used to evaluate contributions to population growth rate of stage-specific toxicant effects. Additionally, relationships between critical life stages were developed from laboratory data for Arbacia. The results of this analysis underscore the importance of understanding both endpoint sensitivity to toxicants and sensitivity of population growth rate to test endpoints in determining the ecological relevance of toxicity tests results.

  12. Evaluation of some biological activities of the extracts of corn silk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethanol and aqueous extracts obtained from the leaves and corn silk of maize were evaluated for antibacterial efficacy especially that there is a folklore claim that they have medicinal value. The aqueous corn silk extract was further used to investigate other biological properties such as acute and sub-acute toxicities; ...

  13. Field bioassay to evaluate contact and residual toxicities of insecticides to carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floate, K D; Elliott, R H; Doane, J F; Gillott, C

    1989-12-01

    A 2-yr field study evaluated the effects of selected insecticides on Bembidion obscurellum Motschulsky and Bembidion quadrimaculatum L., carabid predators of the wheat midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana (Géhin). A bioassay method using caged beetles indicated that insecticides differed significantly in their contact and residual toxicities when applied at maximum recommended field rates. Deltamethrin, the least toxic insecticide, caused approximately 30% mortality in both beetle species, but its residual toxicity on the soil remained constant for 1 wk. Dimethoate was initially more toxic (73% mortality) than deltamethrin but less toxic after 1 wk (12% mortality). Carbofuran and chlorpyrifos, the most toxic contact sprays, caused 83 to 100% mortality. After 1 wk, the residual toxicity of carbofuran had declined markedly (5% mortality) whereas the toxicity of chlorpyrifos remained high (82% mortality). Pitfall trapping was an inconclusive method of evaluating the toxicity of insecticidal sprays to carabid adults. In plots treated with carbofuran, pitfall catches of Bembidion species were not significantly different from those in control plots during a 6-wk period after spraying. In plots treated with chlorpyrifos, catches of Bembidion species were significantly lower than those in control plots 3-16 d after spraying, but not thereafter. Results suggested that adult immigration and residual toxicity influence pitfall catches and recovery of carabid populations after spraying.

  14. Evaluation of toxicity: Whole-sediment versus overlying-water exposures with amphipod Hyalella azteca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, C.G.; Ivey, C.D.; Brunson, E.L.; Hardesty, D.K.; Kemble, N.E.

    2000-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the toxicity of whole-sediment versus overlying-water exposures to the amphipod Hyalella azteca using field-collected sediments. Severe toxic effects (5-63% survival) were observed with amphipods exposed for 10 d in direct contact with sediment. In contrast, amphipods exposed only to overlying water in these sediment exposures did not exhibit any toxic effects.

  15. Survey of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yusaku; Hashimoto, Koichi; Iinuma, Kazuie; Ohtsuka, Yoko; Ichiyama, Takashi; Kusuhara, Koichi; Nomura, Keiko; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Aiba, Hideo; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Hosoya, Mitsuaki

    2012-12-01

    Investigators conducted a retrospective epidemiological study of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, a fatal disease caused by measles infection, over the past few years in Japan. Data on 118 cases obtained from a questionnaire sent to attending physicians were analyzed. The annual incidence of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis was approximately 0.03 cases per million from 2001 to 2005. Children infected with measles at a young age (panencephalitis, and those infected before 6 months of age showed earlier onset. Because a positive correlation was found between the prevalence of measles and the onset of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, particularly among children infected at an early age, it is vital to eradicate measles infection by vaccination.

  16. Laboratory evaluation of toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis , neem oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.), remains a major pest of brassica crops worldwide. Chemical control of this pest remains difficult due to the rapid development of resistance to insecticides and to their effect on natural enemies. The objective of this study was to assess the toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), ...

  17. Toxicity Evaluation and Cytogenetic Screening of Process Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of toxic substances on aquatic lives from a wastewater indiscriminately discharged into the environment during oil and gas exploration activities in Nigeria is the focus of this study. A plant bioassay, the Allium cepa test, was used for the cytogenotoxicity screening of process water on root growth inhibition and ...

  18. Evaluating the toxicity of permeability enhanchers of polyethylene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-06-18

    Jun 18, 2010 ... Active Agents on Membranes. Thesis (Ph. D.)-University of London,. 1996. Depart. of Pharmacy London, UK. OCLC: 53674106. Gould LA, Lansley AB, Brown MB, Forbes B, Martin GP (2000). Mitgation of Surfactants Erythrocyte Toxicity by Egy Phosphatidyl- choline. J. Pharm. Parmacol. 52(10): 1203-1209.

  19. Evaluation of antibacterial activity and acute toxicity of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-03

    Jun 3, 2008 ... seasons, in the southern parts of Nigeria. It is also popularly used by children and local farmers a .... and HCl (Silva et al., 1993; Houghton and Raman, 1998), tannins with 1% gelatin and 5% ferric chloride solution, and ... active component of these herbal remedies. In the acute toxicity study of the extract, ...

  20. Bioassays for the evaluation of landfill leachate toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, David John Lawrence; Tyrrel, Sean Ferguson; Smith, Richard; Farrow, Steve

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the application of bioassays for assessing the toxicity hazard posed by landfill leachate discharged to an aquatic environment. Landfill leachate is a complex mixture of chemicals; thus it is difficult to assess the risk posed to aquatic wildlife using standard chemical identification techniques, such as gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). From this review it is clear that toxicity testing, using species that represent the different trophic levels, is a superior way to predict the risk posed by discharge than chemical analysis. Previous studies assessed leachate toxicity using bacteria, algae, plants, invertebrates, fish, and genotoxicity. Studies showed that leachate exhibits a wide range of toxicities to the species tested. Ammonia, alkalinity, heavy metals, and recalcitrant organics were identified to be the cause of adverse responses from the test organisms. Concentrations of these chemicals were found to depend upon the types of waste landfilled. As part of this review, Slooff analysis was applied to published results to calculate the sensitivity of test species. It was concluded that Lemna minor and Thamnocephalus platyurus were the most sensitive tests and, Vibrio fischeri (Microtox) was the least sensitive test available. Little is known about the sensitivity of each species to the different types of waste that might have been landfilled. A battery of tests needed for a more accurate assessment of landfill leachate is proposed. Some of the more common tests have been replaced by more sensitive tests that produce more relevant results for the industry and regulators.

  1. Phytochemical composition and acute toxicity evaluation of aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the phytochemical constituents and acute toxicity of the aqueous root bark extract of Securidaca longipedunculata Linn. The result of phytochemical screening revealed the presence of some secondary metabolites of pharmacological significance in the aqueous root bark extract ...

  2. Acute oral toxicity and cytotoxicological evaluation of the ethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucas Nicolau

    2015-02-02

    Feb 2, 2015 ... Acute toxicity studies were conducted based on OECD guidelines 420, where the limit test dose was 5000 mg/kg. Observation was made and recorded systemically for 1, 2, 4 and 24 h after the administration of dose for skin changes, morbidity, aggression and sensitivity of the behavior of the animals.

  3. Evaluation of the concentration of toxic metals in cosmetic products ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cosmetics were analyzed for heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury and nickel) after digestion with concentrated acids HNO3: H2SO4: HClO4 in ratio 2:2:1. The concentrations of the selected toxic heavy metals were determined in duplicate using a Buck 205 flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. All the ...

  4. Toxicity Evaluation and Cytogenetic Screening of Process Water 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. K.J. Umar

    ABSTRACT: The effect of toxic substances on aquatic lives from a wastewater indiscriminately discharged into the environment during oil ... treatment of process water before its discharge into water bodies to avoid cyto-genetic damages to aquatic lives. Keywords: ..... of the pesticides phosdrin and bladex in. Tradescantia ...

  5. Single and joint action toxicity evaluation of insecticide and laundry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Further analysis based on the isobologram model was in conformity with RTU and SR models. The significance of this study showed the relevance of joint action toxicity studies in setting realistic safe limits in order to protect aquatic organisms. Therefore, proper disposal and management strategies for wastes should be ...

  6. Scientific evaluation of the acute toxicity and 13-week subchronic toxicity of Rheum emodi rhizome extracts in Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ben-Gui; Feng, Yong; Wang, Shu

    2014-04-01

    Rheum emodi has been used as an edible and medicinal plant in Tibet and Kashmir for a long period of time, while safety evaluation of this plant has not yet been investigated. In this study, acute and subchronic oral toxicity studies of aqueous extract of R. emodi (AERE) rhizome were conducted in SD rats. Animals were treated with a single dose of 1000, 2000, 4000 or 10,000 mg/kg of AERE in the acute toxicity. In subchronic oral toxicity, animals were randomly divided into four groups (10 rats/sex/group) and received doses of 0, 1000, 2000, and 4000 mg/kg/d of AERE for 90 days. Daily clinical observations, weekly measurement of body weight and food consumption were conducted. Blood and urine were collected on days 91 to measure changes. At necropsy, selected organs were weighed and recorded, and histological examination was performed. During the subchronic oral toxicity study, no mortality, obvious treatment-related clinical signs and urinalysis parameters were observed. Differences in weight gain, food consumption, hematology, biochemistry, relative organ weight and histopathology examinations between the treated group and the control group were not considered treatment-related. Our results indicated that the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for AERE was 4000 mg/kg/d in both genders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Removal of organic contaminant toxicity from sediments - Early work toward development of a toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebo, J.A.; Huckins, J.N.; Petty, J.D.; Ho, K.T.

    1999-01-01

    Work was performed to determine the feasibility of selectively detoxifying organic contaminants in sediments. The results of this research will be used to aid in the development of a scheme for whole-sediment toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs). The context in which the method will be used inherently restricts the treatments to which the sediments can be subjected: Sediments cannot be significantly altered physically or chemically and the presence and bioavailabilities of other toxicants must not be changed. The methodological problem is daunting because of the requirement that the detoxification method be relatively fast and convenient together with the stipulation that only innocuous and minimally invasive treatments be used. Some of the experiments described here dealt with degrees of decontamination (i.e., detoxification as predicted from instrumental measurements) of spiked sediments rather than with degrees of detoxification as gauged by toxicity tests (e.g., 48-h toxicity tests with amphipods). Although the larger TIE scheme itself is mostly outside the scope of this paper, theoretical aspects of bioavailability and of the desorption of organic contaminants from sediments are discussed.

  8. Recent Developments in Whole Sediment Toxicity Identification Evaluations: Innovations in Manipulations and Endpoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole sediment Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) methods were developed primarily in the late 1990s and early 2000s in research programs dedicated to developing manipulations and endpoints to characterize and identify causes of toxicity to benthic freshwater and marine org...

  9. Evaluation of levels of select toxic metals in commonly used herbal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials/Methods :Herbal medicines (n=8) were purchased from on-the-street vendors and evaluated for levels of five toxic metals (Lead, Nickel, Mercury, Cadmium and Arsenic).Analysis of toxic metals was carried out in the analytical services laboratory of the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) Ibadan using ...

  10. Biochemical and hematological effects of acute and sub-acute administration to ethyl acetate fraction from the stem bark Scutia buxifolia Reissek in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Andreia R H; Moreira, Laís da R; Brum, Evelyne da S; de Freitas, Mayara L; Boligon, Aline A; Athayde, Margareth L; Roman, Silvane S; Mazzanti, Cinthia M; Brandão, Ricardo

    2014-05-14

    Scutia buxifolia is a native tree of Southern Brazil, Uruguay, and Argentina, which is popularly known as "coronilha" and it is used as a cardiotonic, antihypertensive and diuretic substance. The aim of this study was to assess the acute and sub-acute toxicity of the ethyl acetate fraction from the stem bark Scutia buxifolia in male and female mice. The toxicity studies were based on the guidelines of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD-guidelines 423 and 407). In an acute study, a single dose of 2000 mg/kg of Scutia buxifolia was administered orally to male and female mice. Mortality, behavioral changes, and biochemical and hematological parameters were evaluated. In the sub-acute study, Scutia buxifolia was administered orally to male and female mice at doses of 100, 200, and 400mg/kg/day for 28 days. Behavioral changes and biochemical, hematological, and histological analysis were evaluated. The acute administration of Scutia buxifolia did not cause changes in behavior or mortality. Male and female mice presented decreased levels of platelets. Female mice presented decreased levels of leukocytes. On the other hand, in a sub-acute toxicity study, we observed no behavioral changes in male or female mice. Our results demonstrated a reduction in glucose levels in male mice treated to 200 and 400mg/kg of Scutia buxifolia. Aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) activity was increased by Scutia buxifolia at 400mg/kg in male mice. In relation to the hematological parameters, male mice presented a reduction in hemoglobin (HGB) and hematocrit (HCT) when treated to 400mg/kg of plant fraction. Female mice showed no change in these parameters. Histopathological examination of liver tissue showed slight abnormalities that were consistent with the biochemical variations observed. Scutia buxifolia, after acute administration, may be classified as safe (category 5), according to the OECD guide. However, the alterations observed, after sub-acute

  11. MRI in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuncay, R. [Department of Neurology, Istanbul Medical Faculty, University of Istanbul (Turkey); Akman-Demir, G. [Department of Neurology, Istanbul Medical Faculty, University of Istanbul (Turkey); Goekyigit, A. [Department of Neurology, Istanbul Medical Faculty, University of Istanbul (Turkey); Eraksoy, M. [Department of Neurology, Istanbul Medical Faculty, University of Istanbul (Turkey); Barlas, M. [Department of Neurology, Istanbul Medical Faculty, University of Istanbul (Turkey); Tolun, R. [Department of Neurology, Istanbul Medical Faculty, University of Istanbul (Turkey); Guersoy, G. [Department of Neurology, Istanbul Medical Faculty, University of Istanbul (Turkey)

    1996-10-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a progressive, slow virus infection of the brain, caused by the measles virus, attacking children and young adults. We investigated 15 patients with SSPE by MRI, with 5 normal and 10 pathological results. In the early period, lesions were in the grey matter and subcortical white matter. They were asymmetrical and had a predilection for the posterior parts of the hemispheres. Later, high-signal changes in deep white matter and severe cerebral atrophy were observed. Parenchymal lesions significantly correlated with the duration of disease. A significant relationship between MRI findings and clinical stage was observed in the 1st year of the disease. (orig.). With 4 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Short communication: Noninvasive indicators to identify lactating dairy cows with a greater risk of subacute rumen acidosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gao, X; Oba, M

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate if milk urea nitrogen (MUN) and milk fat content could be used as the noninvasive indicator to identify cows with greater or lower risk of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA...

  13. Familial subacute sclerosing panencephalitis associated with short latency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vinod; Gupta, Vineet B; Eisenhut, Michael

    2008-03-01

    The familial recurrence of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is rare. The study of such cases and a comparison of intrafamilial with sporadic cases of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis may shed light on important pathogenetic factors. We report on the occurrence of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in two brothers from rural India, who contracted measles infection simultaneously at ages 3 and 11 years. They developed subacute sclerosing panencephalitis 21 and 37 months later, respectively. A diagnosis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis was based on history, electroencephalographic changes, and significantly raised levels of cerebrospinal-fluid anti-measles virus immunoglobulin G. A comparison of intrafamilial with sporadic cases of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis revealed that latency in familial subacute sclerosing panencephalitis involved a median of 6.4 years (range, 1.0-10.9), significantly (P panencephalitis from the Indian subcontinent. We confirmed a more rapid manifestation of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis after measles virus infection in intrafamilial compared with sporadic subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

  14. EVALUATION OF TOXICITY OF HEAVY METALS FOR ESCHERICHIA COLI GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kalantari, S. Ghaffari

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Iron is essential to virtually all organisms but it can be toxic in excess. High concentration of iron and other trace elements could restricted bacterial growth and modify their metabolic pattern as well. However, this study aimed to find out the influence of iron, chromium, cadmium and synergism or antagonism between these elements on growth of a gram negative bacterium. In the series of experiments, E. coli has been cultured in a nutrient broth which supplemented with Fe+2, Fe+3, Cr+3, Cd+2 alone or in combination with together, at 37°C for 5 h. Bacterial growth was measured every half an hour using spectrophotometer. Findings obtained from this study indicated that bacterial growth reduced at presence of 1 mM/L concentration of Fe+3 and 0.5 mM/L Fe+2 in comparison with control. Growth of the bacteria was completely inhibited by 1 mM/L concentration of iron (II. Chromium has also inhibitory effects on growth of the bacteria and cadmium is very toxic. Cr+3 and Cd+ have antagonism effect with iron on the growth of bacteria. This work suggested that trace elements could interact in their metabolism in bacteria. It has also concluded that toxic effects of trace element could be another view against pathogenic bacteria particularly in complex with antibacterial activity of various antibiotics.

  15. Mealtime interruptions, assistance and nutritional intake in subacute care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Judi; Wilton, Anita; Collins, Jorja

    2016-09-01

    Protected mealtimes is an initiative to support increased nutritional intake for all hospitalised patients, particularly those who are malnourished. The increased focus on maximising independence of patients in the subacute setting may provide a supportive environment for implementing these strategies. The aim of the present study was to gain insight into subacute ward practices at mealtimes under usual conditions (i.e. at baseline) where no protected mealtimes policy was implemented. Participants were patients aged ≥65 years recruited from subacute care facilities at a large healthcare network in Victoria, Australia. Participants were observed at mealtimes and mid meals (i.e. morning tea, afternoon tea and supper) to determine daily energy and protein intake, provision of mealtime assistance and mealtime interruptions. Almost all participants received assistance when it was needed, with positive and negative interruptions experienced by 56.2% and 76.2% of participants, respectively. There was an energy deficit of approximately 2 MJ per day between average intake and estimated requirements. In conclusion, mealtime practices were suboptimal, with particularly high rates of negative interruptions. Protected mealtimes is one strategy that may improve the mealtime environment to support patients' dietary intake. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate its implementation and effects.

  16. Evaluation of Chemical Warfare Agent Percutaneous Vapor Toxicity: Derivation of Toxicity Guidelines for Assessing Chemical Protective Ensembles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, A.P.

    2003-07-24

    Percutaneous vapor toxicity guidelines are provided for assessment and selection of chemical protective ensembles (CPEs) to be used by civilian and military first responders operating in a chemical warfare agent vapor environment. The agents evaluated include the G-series and VX nerve agents, the vesicant sulfur mustard (agent HD) and, to a lesser extent, the vesicant Lewisite (agent L). The focus of this evaluation is percutaneous vapor permeation of CPEs and the resulting skin absorption, as inhalation and ocular exposures are assumed to be largely eliminated through use of SCBA and full-face protective masks. Selection of appropriately protective CPE designs and materials incorporates a variety of test parameters to ensure operability, practicality, and adequacy. One aspect of adequacy assessment should be based on systems tests, which focus on effective protection of the most vulnerable body regions (e.g., the groin area), as identified in this analysis. The toxicity range of agent-specific cumulative exposures (Cts) derived in this analysis can be used as decision guidelines for CPE acceptance, in conjunction with weighting consideration towards more susceptible body regions. This toxicity range is bounded by the percutaneous vapor estimated minimal effect (EME{sub pv}) Ct (as the lower end) and the 1% population threshold effect (ECt{sub 01}) estimate. Assumptions of exposure duration used in CPE certification should consider that each agent-specific percutaneous vapor cumulative exposure Ct for a given endpoint is a constant for exposure durations between 30 min and 2 hours.

  17. Pseudotumor cerebri secondary to subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayçiçek, Ali; Işcan, Akin; Ceçe, Hasan

    2009-05-01

    Unusual presentations are not rare in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Five patients initially diagnosed with pseudotumor cerebri were ultimately determined to have pseudotumor cerebri secondary to subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. The present study retrospectively reviewed 56 cases history, neurologic symptoms, and clinical and laboratory data, as well as the outcomes. On admission, five patients (group 1) presenting with pseudotumor cerebri exhibited bilateral papilledema, and in each of them cranial magnetic resonance imaging revealed small lateral ventricles, effacement of the subarachnoid space, and no mass lesion. On admission, 51 patients (group 2) had no pseudotumor cerebri findings. The year of original measles infection, the interval between measles and onset of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, and initial neurologic symptoms were similar, but length of symptoms before diagnosis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis was shorter in group 1, and the clinical stage of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis on admission was more advanced in group 2. Cerebrospinal fluid mean open pressure was 378 +/- 22 H(2)O in group 1 and 146 +/- 28 H(2)O in group 2; cerebrospinal fluid antibody was 2038 +/- 768 U/L in group 1 and was 664 +/- 214 U/L in group 2. Only three of the five patients with pseudotumor cerebri had typical periodic discharges on electroencephalographic examination. These findings suggest that subacute sclerosing panencephalitis can cause pseudotumor cerebri.

  18. Evaluation of analgesic, antipyretic activity and toxicity study of Bryonia laciniosa in mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, T; Perumal, P; Kumar, R Sambath; Vamsi, M L M; Gomathi, P; Mazumder, U K; Gupta, M

    2004-01-01

    Analgesic, antipyretic activity and toxicity study of the leaves of Bryonia laciniosa Linn. (Family: Cucurbitaceae) was evaluated in the standard animal models. The methanol extract of Bryonia laciniosa (MEBL) was evaluated by hot plate and acetic acid-induced writhing methods to assess analgesic activity. The antipyretic activity of the extract was also evaluated by normal body temperature and yeast-induced hyperpyrexia. The extract showed significant analgesic and antipyretic activity. The MEBL was further evaluated for toxicity at the doses of 125 and 250 mg/kg administered orally for 14 days in rats. At the end of experiments, the blood, liver function and kidney metabolism were observed. The hematological profile and different biochemical parameters such as SGOT, SGPT and ALP were estimated. The present study revealed that MEBL exhibited significant analgesic and antipyretic activity in the tested experimental animal models. The toxicity study indicates that the extract is not toxic at the tested doses.

  19. Evaluation of toxicity of sediment samples collected from the Santa Ana National Wildlife Refuge, Texas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of sediments collected from the Santa Ana National Wildlife Refuge, Hidalgo Co in southern Texas, USA. A...

  20. Toxicity evaluation of pharmaceutical wastewaters using the alga Scenedesmus obliquus and the bacterium Vibrio fischeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xin; Zuo, Jiane; Tang, Xinyao; Li, Ruixia; Li, Zaixing; Zhang, Fei

    2014-02-15

    The toxicity of pharmaceutical wastewaters has recently been the focus of the public in China. This study aimed to evaluate the conventional pollution parameters and toxicities of different raw and treated pharmaceutical wastewaters to algae Scenedesmus obliquus and bacteria Vibrio fischeri. Wastewater samples were collected from 16 pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plants in China. The results of the conventional parameters analysis indicated that the total suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia (NH3-N), and total phosphorus (TP) were largely removed after treatment. Pharmaceutical effluents were mainly polluted with organics and phosphorus as indicated by the average COD (388 mg/L) and TP (3.16 mg/L) concentrations. The toxicity test results indicated that the influent samples were toxic to both test species. Although the toxicities could be remarkably reduced after treatment, 10 out of the 16 effluent samples exceeded the acute toxicity discharge limit of the Chinese national standards. Spearman rank correlation coefficients indicated a significantly positive correlation between the toxicity values of S. obliquus and V. fischeri. Compared with S. obliquus, V. fischeri detected more pharmaceutical effluent samples with toxicities. Meanwhile, the toxicity indicators were significantly and positively correlated with the COD and NH3-N concentrations based on a Spearman rank correlation analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Sediment toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) studies at marine sites suspected of ordnance contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, R S; Nipper, M; Biedenbach, J M; Hooten, R L; Miller, K; Saepoff, S

    2001-10-01

    A sediment quality assessment survey and subsequent toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) study was conducted at several sites in Puget Sound, Washington. The sites were previously suspected of contamination with ordnance compounds. The initial survey employed sea urchin porewater toxicity tests to locate the most toxic stations. Sediments from the most toxic stations were selected for comprehensive chemical analyses. Based on the combined information from the toxicity and chemical data, three adjacent stations in Ostrich Bay were selected for the TIE study. The results of the phase I TIE suggested that organics and metals were primarily responsible for the observed toxicity in the sea urchin fertilization test. In addition to these contaminants, ammonia was also contributing to the toxicity for the sea urchin embryological development test. The phase II TIE study isolated the majority of the toxicity in the fraction containing nonpolar organics with high log K(ow), but chemical analyses failed to identify a compound present at a concentration high enough to be responsible for the observed toxicity. The data suggest that some organic or organometallic contaminant(s) that were not included in the comprehensive suite of chemical analyses caused the observed toxicological responses.

  2. EVALUATION OF TOXICITY OF HEAVY METALS FOR ESCHERICHIA COLI GROWTH

    OpenAIRE

    N. Kalantari, S. Ghaffari

    2008-01-01

    Iron is essential to virtually all organisms but it can be toxic in excess. High concentration of iron and other trace elements could restricted bacterial growth and modify their metabolic pattern as well. However, this study aimed to find out the influence of iron, chromium, cadmium and synergism or antagonism between these elements on growth of a gram negative bacterium. In the series of experiments, E. coli has been cultured in a nutrient broth which supplemented with Fe+2, Fe+3, Cr+3, Cd+...

  3. Evaluation of joint toxicity of nitroaromatic compounds and copper to Photobacterium phosphoreum and QSAR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Limin; Zhang, Xujia; Yuan, Xing; Zhao, Yuanhui; Zhang, Dongmei; Qin, Weichao

    2012-11-30

    The individual toxicities of Cu and 11 nitroaromatic compounds to Photobacterium phosphoreum were determined. The toxicity was expressed as the concentrations causing a 50% inhibition of bioluminescence after 15 min exposure (IC(50)). To evaluate the joint effect between the metal ion and the 11 nitroaromatic compounds, the joint toxicity of Cu and 11 nitroaromatic compounds were measured at different Cu concentrations (0.2IC(50), 0.5IC(50) and 0.8IC(50)), respectively. The result shows that the binary joint effect between Cu and nitroaromatic compounds is mainly simple addition at the low Cu concentration (0.2IC(50)). However, an antagonism effect, 55% and 64%, was observed between Cu and 11 nitroaromatic compounds for Cu at medium and high concentrations (0.5IC(50) and 0.8IC(50)). Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis was performed to study the joint toxicity for the 11 nitroaromatic compounds. The result shows that the toxicity of nitroaromatic compounds is related to descriptors of Connolly solvent-excluded volume (CSEV) and dipolarity/polarizability (S) at low Cu concentration. On the other hand, the toxicity is related to Connolly accessible area (CAA) at medium and high Cu concentrations. The result indicates that different QSAR models on complex mixtures need to be developed to assess the ecological risk in real environments. Using single toxic data to evaluate the toxic effect of mixtures may result in wrong conclusions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Subacute posttraumatic ascending myelopathy: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Wang, G

    2017-07-01

    A literature review. Our aim was to summarise the history, epidemiology, aetiological mechanism, pathological study, clinical and radiological evaluation, treatment and prognosis of subacute posttraumatic ascending myelopathy (SPAM). Medical literature on SPAM were searched in the PubMed, Medline, Ovid and Embase databases. The cases of SPAM reported in literature were analysed, and the history, epidemiology, aetiological mechanism, pathological study, clinical and radiological evaluation, treatment and prognosis of SPAM were summarised. SPAM remains a relatively rare disorder occurring within the first few weeks after spinal cord injury (SCI). The incidence rate ranges from 0.42% to 1% among all SCI. SPAM is likely to occur in young and middle-aged male patients. Risk factors of SPAM include complete injury, low blood pressure, early postoperative mobilisation and nonsurgical treatment. SPAM is well recognised according to typical clinical manifestation and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics. There is no effective therapy for this neurological deterioration. The prognosis of SPAM is poor. There is usually a slight improvement of one or more level(s) below the maximal level of deterioration. The mortality rate is approximately 10%.

  5. An evaluation of the toxicity of contaminated sediments from Waukegan Harbor, Illinois, following remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemble, N.E.; Hardesty, D.G.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Johnson, B. Thomas; Dwyer, F.J.; MacDonald, D.D.

    2000-01-01

    Waukegan Harbor in Illinois was designated as a Great Lakes Area of Concern due to high concentrations of sediment-associated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The objective of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of 20 sediment samples collected after remediation (primarily dredging) of Waukegan Harbor for PCBs. A 42-day whole sediment toxicity test with the amphipod Hyalella azteca (28-day sediment exposure followed by a 14-day reproductive phase) and sediment toxicity tests with Microtox® were conducted to evaluate sediments from Waukegan Harbor. Endpoints measured were survival, growth, and reproduction (amphipods) and luminescent light emission (bacteria). Survival of amphipods was significantly reduced in 6 of the 20 sediment samples relative to the control. Growth of amphipods (either length or weight) was significantly reduced relative to the control in all samples. However, reproduction of amphipods identified only two samples as toxic relative to the control. The Microtox basic test, conducted with organic extracts of sediments identified only one site as toxic. In contrast, the Microtox solid-phase test identified about 50% of the samples as toxic. A significant negative correlation was observed between reproduction and the concentration of three polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) normalized to total organic carbon. Sediment chemistry and toxicity data were evaluated using sediment quality guidelines (consensus-based probable effect concentrations, PECs). Results of these analyses indicate that sediment samples from Waukegan Harbor were toxic to H. azteca contaminated at similar contaminant concentrations as sediment samples that were toxic to H. azteca from other areas of the United States. The relationship between PECs and the observed toxicity was not as strong for the Microtox test. The results of this study indicate that the first phase of sediment remediation in Waukegan Harbor successfully lowered concentrations of PCBs at the site

  6. Comparison of acute and subacute genitourinary and gastrointestinal adverse events of radiotherapy for prostate cancer using intensity-modulated radiation therapy, three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, permanent implant brachytherapy and high-dose-rate brachytherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morimoto, Masahiro; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Konishi, Koji; Isohashi, Fumiaki; Takahashi, Yutaka; Ogata, Toshiyuki; Koizumi, Masahiko; Teshima, Teruki; Bijl, Henk P; van der Schaaf, Arjen; Langendijk, Johannes A; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    AIMS AND BACKGROUND: To examine acute and subacute urinary and rectal toxicity in patients with localized prostate cancer monotherapeutically treated with the following four radiotherapeutic techniques: intensity-modulated radiation therapy, three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy,

  7. Evaluation of single and joint toxicity of perfluorooctane sulfonate and zinc to Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri: Acute toxicity, bioaccumulation and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiaoqin; Qu, Ruijuan; Yan, Liqing; Wang, Liansheng; Wang, Zunyao

    2016-01-15

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and zinc have been detected in aquatic environment widely. In order to study the combined effects of PFOS and Zn, a series of experiments was conducted to explore the acute mortality, bioaccumulation and antioxidant status of Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri. The acute toxicity was evaluated by calculating 24h-EC50 values, and it was observed that 24h-EC50 values in single and joint treatments decreased with decreasing pH value or increasing exposure concentration. Toxic unit analysis suggested that the combined effects of the PFOS+Zn binary mixture were mostly simple addition, with 8 groups showing synergism and only one group showing antagonism. The analysis of internal Zn and PFOS concentration showed that the possible interaction between Zn and PFOS can affect the bioaccumulation of the two chemicals in L. hoffmeisteri. In addition, oxidative stress status was assessed by measuring oxidation-related biochemical parameters such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and malondialdehyde, and the integrated biomarker response index was estimated to rank the toxicity order. Exposures to Zn and PFOS were found to evoke some changes in the antioxidant defense system, and a strong self-adaptive ability was noticed for L. hoffmeisteri after 10 d exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Carcinogenicity of acrylonitrile and evaluation of approaches to pathogenetic correction of acrylate toxicity and antitumorigenic anthracycline doxorubicin toxicity during chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarskikh, M M; Shumbasov, M A; Kolesnikov, S I

    2013-01-01

    Statistical analysis within the 20-year period showed that approximately 49% of workers who were exposed to widespread industrial poison acrylonitrile subsequently died from malignancy of different localization. The conducted experimental investigations demonstrated that acrylonitrile with the subacute intoxication of animals, the anti-tumor antibiotic doxorubicin, their combination, interwoven tumor and tumor developed against the background the introduction of acrylate and subsequent treatment doxorubicin led to onset of free-radical reactions. These reactions by themselves might stimulate development of malignancy. This fact confirms the need for antioxidant tracking of chemotherapy of tumors in the similar clinical cases.

  9. Field Validation of Toxicity Tests to Evaluate the Potential for Beneficial Use of Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Bidwell; Jonathan Fisher; Naomi Cooper

    2008-03-31

    This study investigated potential biological effects of produced water contamination derived from occasional surface overflow and possible subsurface intrusion at an oil production site along the shore of Skiatook Lake, Oklahoma. We monitored basic chemistry and acute toxicity to a suite of standard aquatic test species (fathead minnow-Pimephales promelas, Daphnia pulex, Daphnia magna, and Ceriodaphnia dubia) in produced water and in samples taken from shallow groundwater wells on the site. Toxicity identification evaluations and ion toxicity modeling were used to identify toxic constituents in the samples. Lake sediment at the oil production site and at a reference site were also analyzed for brine intrusion chemically and by testing sediment toxicity using the benthic invertebrates, Chironomus dilutus, and Hyallela azteca. Sediment quality was also assessed with in situ survival and growth studies with H. azteca and the Asian clam, Corbicula fluminea, and by benthic macroinvertebrate community sampling. The produced water was acutely toxic to the aquatic test organisms at concentrations ranging from 1% to 10% of the whole produced water sample. Toxicity identification evaluation and ion toxicity modeling indicated major ion salts and hydrocarbons were the primary mixture toxicants. The standardized test species used in the laboratory bioassays exhibited differences in sensitivity to these two general classes of contaminants, which underscores the importance of using multiple species when evaluating produced water toxicity. Toxicity of groundwater was greater in samples from wells near a produced water injection well and an evaporation pond. Principle component analyses (PCA) of chemical data derived from the groundwater wells indicated dilution by lake water and possible biogeochemical reactions as factors that ameliorated groundwater toxicity. Elevated concentrations of major ions were found in pore water from lake sediments, but toxicity from these ions was

  10. Identifying the causes of sediment-associated toxicity in urban waterways in South China: incorporating bioavailabillity-based measurements into whole-sediment toxicity identification evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xiaoyi; Li, Huizhen; Ma, Ping; You, Jing

    2015-08-01

    Sediments in urban waterways of Guangzhou, China, were contaminated by a variety of chemicals and showed prevalent toxicity to benthic organisms. A combination of whole-sediment toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) and bioavailability-based extraction was used to identify the causes of sediment toxicity. Of the 6 sediment samples collected, 4 caused 100% mortality to Chironomus dilutus in 10-d bioassays, and the potential toxicants were assessed using TIE in these sediments after dilution. The results of phase I characterization showed that organic contaminants were the principal contributors to the mortality of the midges in 2 sediments and that metals and organics jointly caused the mortality in the other 2 sediments. Ammonia played no role in the mortality for any samples. Conventional toxic unit analysis in phase II testing identified Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn as the toxic metals, with cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, deltamethrin, and fipronils being the toxic organics. To improve the accuracy of identifying the toxicants, 4-step sequential extraction and Tenax extraction were conducted to analyze the bioavailability of the metals and organics, respectively. Bioavailable toxic unit analysis narrowed the list of toxic contributors, and the putative toxicants included 3 metals (Zn, Ni, and Pb) and 3 pesticides (cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and fipronils). Metals contributed to the mortality in all sediments, but sediment dilution reduced the toxicity and confounded the characterization of toxicity contribution from metals in 2 sediments in phase I. Incorporating bioavailability-based measurements into whole-sediment TIE improved the accuracy of identifying the causative toxicants in urban waterways where multiple stressors occurred and contributed to sediment toxicity jointly. © 2015 SETAC.

  11. Evaluation of pesticide toxicities with differing mechanisms using Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Qin-Li; Ju, Jing-Juan; Li, Yun-Hui; Liu, Ran; Pu, Yue-Pu; Yin, Li-Hong; Wang, Da-Yong

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to (1) determine whether model organism Caenorhabditis elegans was sensitive to pesticides at the maximum concentration limits regulated by national agency standards, and (2) examine the multi-biological toxicities occurring as a result of exposure to pesticides. Five pesticides, namely, chlorpyrifos, imibacloprid, buprofezin, cyhalothrin, and glyphosate, with four different mechanisms of action were selected for the investigation. In accordance with national agency requirements, 4 exposed groups were used for each tested pesticide with the concentration scales ranging from 1.0 x 10(-3) to 1 mg/L. L4 larvae were exposed for 24 and 72 h, respectively. Endpoints of locomotion, propagation, and development were selected for the assay as parameters of toxicity. After exposure for 24 h, both the body bend frequency and head thrash frequency of nematodes exposed to chlorpyrifos, imibacloprid, and cyhalothrin decreased in a concentration-dependent manner, and there were significant differences between exposed groups at maximum concentration level (MCL) compared to control. The generation time of nematodes exposed to buprofezin 24 h significantly increased in a concentration-dependent manner in the highest exposed group. When exposed for 72 h, the body bend frequency and head thrash frequency of nematodes exposed to cyhalothrin markedly decreased at MCL. The generation time and brood size of nematodes exposed to buprofezin were reduced in a concentration-dependent manner. The behavior of nematodes was sensitive to pesticides with neurotoxic properties, while pesticides affecting insect growth modified the reproductive system. The effects of pesticides on nematodes exposed for 24 h appeared more sensitive than with exposure for 72 h. Caenorhabditis elegans may thus be used for assessing the adverse effects of pesticide residues in aquatic environment.

  12. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Jose; Issacson, Richard S; Koppel, Barbara S

    2010-10-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a chronic encephalitis occurring after infection with measles virus. The prevalence of the disease varies depending on uptake of measles vaccination, with the virus disproportionally affecting regions with low vaccination rates. The physiopathology of the disease is not fully understood; however, there is evidence that it involves factors that favour humoral over cellular immune response against the virus. As a result, the virus is able to infect the neurons and to survive in a latent form for years. The clinical manifestations occur, on average, 6 years after measles virus infection. The onset of SSPE is insidious, and psychiatric manifestations are prominent. Subsequently, myoclonic seizures usually lead to a final stage of akinetic mutism. The diagnosis is clinical, supported by periodic complexes on electroencephalography, brain imaging suggestive of demyelination, and immunological evidence of measles infection. Management of the disease includes seizure control and avoidance of secondary complications associated with the progressive disability. Trials of treatment with interferon, ribavirin, and isoprinosine using different methodologies have reported beneficial results. However, the disease shows relentless progression; only 5% of individuals with SSPE undergo spontaneous remission, with the remaining 95% dying within 5 years of diagnosis.

  13. Evaluation of the Treatment Process of Landfill Leachate Using the Toxicity Assessment Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aifeng Qiu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Landfill leachate is composed of a complex composition with strong biological toxicity. The combined treatment process of coagulation and sedimentation, anaerobics, electrolysis, and aerobics was set up to treat landfill leachate. This paper explores the effect of different operational parameters of coagulation and sedimentation tanks and electrolytic cells, while investigating the combined process for the removal efficiency of physicochemical indices after processing the landfill leachate. Meanwhile, a battery of toxicity tests with Vibrio fischeri, zebrafish larvae, and embryos were conducted to evaluate acute toxicity and calculated the toxicity reduction efficiency after each treatment process. The combined treatment process resulted in a 100% removal efficiency of Cu, Cd and Zn, and a 93.50% and an 87.44% removal efficiency of Ni and Cr, respectively. The overall removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD, ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N, and total nitrogen (TN were 93.57%, 97.46% and 73.60%, respectively. In addition, toxicity test results showed that the acute toxicity of landfill leachate had also been reduced significantly: toxicity units (TU decreased from 84.75 to 12.00 for zebrafish larvae, from 82.64 to 10.55 for zebrafish embryos, and from 3.41 to 0.63 for Vibrio fischeri. The combined treatment process was proved to be an efficient treatment method to remove heavy metals, COD, NH4+-N, and acute bio-toxicity of landfill leachate.

  14. Proton pump inhibitor-induced subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandholdt, L H; Laurinaviciene, R; Bygum, Anette

    2014-01-01

    Drug-induced subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE) has been known in the literature since 1985 and is increasingly recognized.......Drug-induced subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE) has been known in the literature since 1985 and is increasingly recognized....

  15. Masticatory function in subacute TMD patients before and after treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira, L.J.; Steenks, M.H.; Wijer, A. de; Speksnijder, C.M.; Bilt, A. van der

    2009-01-01

    Masticatory function can be impaired in temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) patients. We investigated whether treatment of subacute non-specific TMD patients may influence oral function and clinical outcome measures. Fifteen patients with subacute TMD participated in the study. We quantified

  16. Evidence-based toxicity evaluation and scheduling of Chinese herbal medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ellie J Y; Chen, Yuling; Huang, Johnson Q; Li, Kong M; Razmovski-Naumovski, Valentina; Poon, Josiah; Chan, Kelvin; Roufogalis, Basil D; McLachlan, Andrew J; Mo, Sui-Lin; Yang, Depo; Yao, Meicun; Liu, Zhaolan; Liu, Jianping; Li, George Q

    2013-03-07

    While there is an increasing number of toxicity report cases and toxicological studies on Chinese herbal medicines, the guidelines for toxicity evaluation and scheduling of Chinese herbal medicines are lacking. The aim of this study was to review the current literature on potentially toxic Chinese herbal medicines, and to develop a scheduling platform which will inform an evidence-based regulatory framework for these medicines in the community. The Australian and Chinese regulations were used as a starting point to compile a list of potentially toxic herbs. Systematic literature searches of botanical and pharmaceutical Latin name, English and Chinese names and suspected toxic chemicals were conducted on Medline, PubMed and Chinese CNKI databases. Seventy-four Chinese herbal medicines were identified and five of them were selected for detailed study. Preclinical and clinical data were summarised at six levels. Based on the evaluation criteria, which included risk-benefit analysis, severity of toxic effects and clinical and preclinical data, four regulatory classes were proposed: Prohibited for medicinal usage, which are those with high toxicity and can lead to injury or death, e.g., aristolochia; Restricted for medicinal usage, e.g., aconite, asarum, and ephedra; Required warning label, e.g., coltsfoot; and Over-the-counter herbs for those herbs with a safe toxicity profile. Chinese herbal medicines should be scheduled based on a set of evaluation criteria, to ensure their safe use and to satisfy the need for access to the herbs. The current Chinese and Australian regulation of Chinese herbal medicines should be updated to restrict the access of some potentially toxic herbs to Chinese medicine practitioners who are qualified through registration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of effects of long term exposure on lethal toxicity with mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Vibha; Yu, Qiming J; Connell, Des W

    2014-02-01

    The relationship between exposure time (LT50) and lethal exposure concentration (LC50) has been evaluated over relatively long exposure times using a novel parameter, Normal Life Expectancy (NLT), as a long term toxicity point. The model equation, ln(LT50) = aLC50(ν) + b, where a, b and ν are constants, was evaluated by plotting lnLT50 against LC50 using available toxicity data based on inhalation exposure from 7 species of mammals. With each specific toxicant a single consistent relationship was observed for all mammals with ν always mammals and then be extended to estimate toxicity at any exposure time with other mammals. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Application of Toxicity Identification and Evaluation Procedures for Dredged Material Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    complex . The evaluation of environmental impacts from these alternative management strategies typically requires more data than the assessment of...analysis • Enhance phototoxicity • Preferentially extract and dose test organisms • Measure toxicant in organism • Measure DNA damage [8,10-15...toxicity [16-20] Cationic Metals • Cadmium • Chromium • Copper • Iron • Lead • Silver • Zinc • SIR-300 resin • EDTA • CM resin • Reduce

  19. Evaluation on joint toxicity of chlorinated anilines and cadmium to Photobacterium phosphoreum and QSAR analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Hao, E-mail: realking163@163.com [School of Life and Chemistry, Jiangsu Second Normal University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210013 (China); Wang, Chao; Shi, Jiaqi [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210023 (China); Chen, Lei [School of Life and Chemistry, Jiangsu Second Normal University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210013 (China)

    2014-08-30

    Highlights: • Cd has different effects on joint toxicity when in different concentrations. • The toxicity of most binary mixtures decreases when Cd concentration rises. • Different QSAR models are developed to predict the joint toxicity. • Descriptors in QSARs can help to elucidate the joint toxicity mechanism. • Van der Waals’ force or complexation may reduce the toxicity of mixtures. - Abstract: The individual IC{sub 50} (the concentrations causing a 50% inhibition of bioluminescence after 15 min exposure) of cadmium ion (Cd) and nine chlorinated anilines to Photobacterium phosphoreum (P. phosphoreum) were determined. In order to evaluate the combined effects of the nine chlorinated anilines and Cd, the toxicities of chlorinated anilines combined with different concentrations of Cd were determined, respectively. The results showed that the number of chlorinated anilines manifesting synergy with Cd decreased with the increasing Cd concentration, and the number manifesting antagonism decreased firstly and then increased. The joint toxicity of mixtures at low Cd concentration was weaker than that of most binary mixtures when combined with Cd at medium and high concentrations as indicated by TU{sub Total}. QSAR analysis showed that the single toxicity of chlorinated anilines was related to the energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (E{sub LUMO}). When combined with different concentrations of Cd, the toxicity was related to the energy difference (E{sub HOMO} − E{sub LUMO}) with different coefficients. Van der Waals’ force or the complexation between chlorinated anilines and Cd had an impact on the toxicity of combined systems, which could account for QSAR models with different physico-chemical descriptors.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in patients presenting with (sub)acute cerebellar ataxia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Tanja [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Hamburg (Germany); The Johns Hopkins Hospital School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Division of Neuroradiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Thomalla, Goetz [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Neurology, Hamburg (Germany); Goebell, Einar [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Hamburg (Germany); Piotrowski, Anna [The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Baltimore, MD (United States); Yousem, David Mark [The Johns Hopkins Hospital School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Division of Neuroradiology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-02-17

    Acute or subacute cerebellar inflammation is mainly caused by postinfectious, toxic, neoplastic, vascular, or idiopathic processes and can result in cerebellar ataxia. Previous magnetic resonance (MR) studies in single patients who developed acute or subacute ataxia showed varying imaging features. Eighteen patients presenting with acute and subacute onset of ataxia were included in this study. Cases of chronic-progressive/hereditary and noncerebellar causes (ischemia, multiple sclerosis lesions, metastasis, bleedings) were excluded. MR imaging findings were then matched with the clinical history of the patient. An underlying etiology for ataxic symptoms were found in 14/18 patients (postinfectious/infectious, paraneoplastic, autoimmune, drug-induced). In two of five patients without MR imaging findings and three of eight patients with minimal imaging features (cerebellar atrophy, slight signal alterations, and small areas of restricted diffusion), adverse clinical outcomes were documented. Of the five patients with prominent MR findings (cerebellar swelling, contrast enhancement, or broad signal abnormalities), two were lost to follow-up and two showed long-term sequelae. No correlation was found between the presence of initial MRI findings in subacute or acute ataxia patients and their long-term clinical outcome. MR imaging was more flagrantly positive in cases due to encephalitis. (orig.)

  1. Development of Pattern Recognition Techniques for the Evaluation of Toxicant Impacts to Multispecies Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-22

    Chlorella vulgaris , Lyngbya sp. Nitzschia kutzigiana (Diatom 216), Scenedesmus obliquus, Selenastrum capricornutum, Stigeoclonium sp., and Ulothrix sp...world. Large amounts are used by the military and airline carriers. As with most petroleum products, Jet-A consists of numerous constituents with...Olympia, WA. Toxicity evaluation of petroleum mixtures. SETAC Microcosm Workshop. Design and data analysis of microcosms for pesticide evaluations

  2. Toxicity Evaluation of Through Fish Bioassay Raw Bulk Drug Industry Wastewater After Electrochemical Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Satyanarayan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering the high pollution potential that the synthetic Bulk Drug industry Wastewater (BDW possesses due to the presence of variety of refractory organics, toxicity evaluation is of prime importance in assessing the efficiency of the applied wastewater treatment system and in establishing the discharge standards. Therefore, in this study the toxic effects of high strength bulk drug industry wastewater before and after electrochemical treatment on common fish Lebistes reticulatus-(peter were studied under laboratory conditions. Results indicated that wastewater being very strong in terms of color, COD and BOD is found to be very toxic to the studied fish. The LC50 values for raw wastewater and after electrochemical treatment with carbon and aluminium electrodes for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours ranged between, 2.5-3.6%, 6.8-8.0%, 5.0-5.8% respectively. Carbon electrode showed marginally better removals for toxicity than aluminium electrode. It was evident from the studies that electrochemical treatment reduces toxicity in proportion to the removal efficiency shown by both the electrodes. The reduction in toxicity after treatment indicates the intermediates generated are not toxic than the parent compounds. Furthermore, as the electrochemical treatment did not result in achieving disposal standards it could be used only as a pre-treatment and the wastewater needs further secondary treatment before final disposal.

  3. Toxicity evaluation of a bioslurry process treating soils spiked with explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocheleau, S.; Cimpoia, R.; Paquet, L.; Van Koppen, I.; Guiot, S. R.; Hawari, G.; Sunahura, G. I. [National Research Council of Canada, Biotechnology Research Inst., Montreal, PQ (Canada); Ampleman, S.; Thiboutot, S. [Dept of National Defence, Defence Research Establishment, Val Cartier, PQ (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    The toxicity of four bioslurry reactors treating TNT and RDX-spiked soils was evaluated using a control bioslurry reactor to assess the endogenous toxicity of the process. A variety of ecotoxicity tests were performed, among them bacterial toxicity (Microtox{sup T}M), phytoplanktonic growth inhibition (Selanestrum caprocomutum), bacterial mutagenicity (fluctuation test), terrestrial phytotoxicity (inhibition of Lactiva salva root elongation), earthworm mortality and growth inhibition. Microtox{sup T}M toxicity values initially were very high in both bioslurry reactors spiked with TNT. Initial toxicity was also detected by algal growth inhibition, earthworm mortality, genotoxicity and mutagenicity tests. Endogenous toxicity of the bioslurry process was detected using the Microtox{sup T}M and lettuce root elongation inhibition tests. The soluble phase of the control bioslurry was also found to be genotoxic, suggesting that the bioslurry process may have contained potentially genotoxic compounds. At the end of the biotreatment, results showed that the bioslurry process reduced toxicity using all of the bioassays, except earthworm mortality and growth inhibition tests in both RDX-spiked bioslurries.

  4. Toxicity evaluation of 2-hydroxybiphenyl and other compounds involved in studies of fossil fuels biodesulphurisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, L; Paixão, S M

    2011-10-01

    The acute toxicity of some compounds used in fossil fuels biodesulphurisation studies, on the respiration activity, was evaluated by Gordonia alkanivorans and Rhodococcus erythropolis. Moreover, the effect of 2-hydroxybiphenyl on cell growth of both strains was also determined, using batch (chronic bioassays) and continuous cultures. The IC₅₀ values obtained showed the toxicity of all the compounds tested to both strains, specially the high toxicity of 2-HBP. These results were confirmed by the chronic toxicity data. The toxicity data sets highlight for a higher sensitivity to the toxicant by the strain presenting a lower growth rate, due to a lower cells number in contact with the toxicant. Thus, microorganisms exhibiting faster generation times could be more resistant to 2-HBP accumulation during a BDS process. The physiological response of both strains to 2-HBP pulse in a steady-state continuous culture shows their potential to be used in a future fossil fuel BDS process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Subacute haematotoxicity after PRRT with {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-octreotate: prognostic factors, incidence and course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergsma, Hendrik; Konijnenberg, Mark W.; Kam, Boen L.R.; Teunissen, Jaap J.M.; Kooij, Peter P.; Krenning, Eric P.; Kwekkeboom, Dik J. [Erasmus University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Herder, Wouter W. de [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Franssen, Gaston J.H.; Eijck, Casper H.J. van [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Surgery, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-03-15

    In peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT), the bone marrow (BM) is one of the dose-limiting organs. The accepted dose limit for BM is 2 Gy, adopted from {sup 131}I treatment. We investigated the incidence and duration of haematological toxicity and its risk factors in patients treated with PRRT with {sup 177}Lu-DOTA{sup 0}-Tyr{sup 3}-octreotate ({sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE). Also, absorbed BM dose estimates were evaluated and compared with the accepted 2 Gy dose limit. The incidence and duration of grade 3 or 4 haematological toxicity (according to CTCAE v3.0) and risk factors were analysed. Mean BM dose per unit (gigabecquerels) of administered radioactivity was calculated and the correlations between doses to the BM and haematological risk factors were determined. Haematological toxicity (grade 3/4) occurred in 34 (11 %) of 320 patients. In 15 of the 34 patients, this lasted more than 6 months or blood transfusions were required. Risk factors significantly associated with haematological toxicity were: poor renal function, white blood cell (WBC) count <4.0 x 10{sup 9}/l, age over 70 years, extensive tumour mass and high tumour uptake on the OctreoScan. Previous chemotherapy was not associated. The mean BM dose per administered activity in 23 evaluable patients was 67 ± 7 mGy/GBq, resulting in a mean BM dose of 2 Gy in patients who received four cycles of 7.4 GBq {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE. Significant correlations between (cumulative) BM dose and platelet and WBC counts were found in a selected group of patients. The incidence of subacute haematological toxicity after PRRT with {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE is acceptable (11 %). Patients with impaired renal function, low WBC count, extensive tumour mass, high tumour uptake on the OctreoScan and/or advanced age are more likely to develop grade 3/4 haematological toxicity. The BM dose limit of 2 Gy, adopted from {sup 131}I, seems not to be valid for PRRT with {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE. (orig.)

  6. Oxidant and antioxidant status in children with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caksen, Hüseyin; Ozkan, Mustafa; Cemek, Mustafa; Cemek, Fatma

    2014-11-01

    We analyzed serum alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, retinol, and ascorbic acid levels and malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione concentrations on erythrocyte and cerebrospinal fluid in 30 patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis to evaluate oxidant and antioxidant status. Serum alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, retinol, ascorbic acid levels, and erythrocyte and cerebrospinal fluid reduced glutathione concentrations were decreased; however, erythrocyte and cerebrospinal fluid malondialdehyde levels were increased in the patients. Cerebrospinal fluid malondialdehyde levels were different between clinical stages of the disease (P panencephalitis and that antioxidants were increased as defense mechanisms of the organism against oxidative damage. © The Author(s) 2013.

  7. Safety Evaluation of Oral Toxicity of Carica papaya Linn. Leaves: A Subchronic Toxicity Study in Sprague Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakiah Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The subchronic toxicity effect of the leaf extract of Carica papaya Linn. in Sprague Dawley (SD rats was investigated in this study. The extract was prepared by dissolving the freeze dried extract of the leaves in distilled water and was administered orally to SD rats (consisted of 10 rats/sex/group at 0 (control, 0.01, 0.14, and 2 g/kg body weight (BW for 13 weeks. General observation, mortality, and food and water intake were monitored throughout the experimental period. Hematological and biochemical parameters, relative organ weights, and histopathological changes were evaluated. The study showed that leaf extract when administered for 13 weeks did not cause any mortality and abnormalities of behavior or changes in body weight as well as food and water intake. There were no significant differences observed in hematology parameters between treatment and control groups; however significant differences were seen in biochemistry values, for example, LDH, creatinine, total protein, and albumin. However, these changes were not associated with histopathological changes. In conclusion, the results suggested that daily oral administration of rats with C. papaya leaf extract for 13 weeks at a dose up to fourteen times the levels employed in traditional medicine practice did not cause any significant toxic effect.

  8. Evaluating the toxicity of permeability enhanchers of polyethylene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of polyethylene glycol brij ethers surfactants group on red blood cells as a model for biological membranes. Also in this study, physicochemical properties including emulsification index (E24), foam producing activity (Fh) and critical micelle concentration (cmc) were studied.

  9. Evaluation of the toxicity of organic matter in marine sediments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.

    The inhibitory effects of the organics from the sediment along the east coast of India on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in-vitro were evaluated. Sediment samples collected from the surface layers at various depths were extracted. Each of the extracts...

  10. Metabolomic application in toxicity evaluation and toxicological biomarker identification of natural product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dan-Qian; Chen, Hua; Chen, Lin; Tang, Dan-Dan; Miao, Hua; Zhao, Ying-Yong

    2016-05-25

    Natural product plays a vital role in disease prevention and treatment since the appearance of civilization, but the toxicity severely hinders its wide use. In order to avoid toxic effect as far as possible and use natural product safely, more comprehensive understandings of toxicity are urgently required. Since the metabolome represents the physiological or pathological status of organisms, metabolomics-based toxicology is of significance to observe potential injury before toxins have caused physiological or pathological damages. Metabolomics-based toxicology can evaluate toxicity and identify toxicological biomarker of natural product, which is helpful to guide clinical medication and reduce adverse drug reactions. In the past decades, dozens of metabolomic researches have been implemented on toxicity evaluation, toxicological biomarker identification and potential mechanism exploration of nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, cardiotoxicity and central nervous system toxicity induced by pure compounds, extracts and compound prescriptions. In this paper, metabolomic technology, sample preparation, data process and analysis, and metabolomics-based toxicological research of natural product are reviewed, and finally, the potential problems and further perspectives in toxicological metabolomic investigations of natural product are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of methods for laboratory culture and toxicity testing of the endangered desert pupfish, Cyprinodon macularius, and evaluation of the acute toxicity of selenium

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We conducted a series of studies to evaluate methods for laboratory culture and toxicity testing with the endangered desert pupfish, Cyprinodon macularius. This...

  12. Evaluation of CNT toxicity by comparison to tattoo ink

    OpenAIRE

    Hara,Kazuo; Aoki, Kaoru; Usui, Yuki; Shimizu, Masayuki; Narita, Nobuyo; Ogihara, Nobuhide; Nakamura, Koichi; Ishigaki, Norio; Sano, Kenji; Haniu, Hisao; Kato, Hiroyuki; Nishimura, Naoyuki; Kim, Yoong Ahm; Taruta, Seiichi; Saito, Naoto

    2011-01-01

    The absence of an optimal nano-sized reference material has been the biggest obstacle in evaluating the safety of carbon nanotubes as biomaterials. In this study, black tattoo inks, which have a long history of use by humans, are shown to be suitable reference materials composed of nano-sized carbon black particles. We have also demonstrated that multi-walled carbon nanotubes have comparable basic safety properties to those of tattoo inks when used as biomaterials.

  13. TRITOX: a multiple parameter evaluation of tritium toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carsten, A.L.

    1982-01-01

    The increased use of nuclear reactors for power generation will lead to the introduction of tritium into the environment. The need for assessing possible immediate and long-term effects of exposure to this tritium led to the development of a broad program directed towards evaluating the possible somatic and genetic effects of continuous exposure to tritiated water (HTO). Among the parameters measured are the genetic, cytogenetic, reproductive efficiency, growth, nonspecific lifetime shortening, bone marrow cellularity and stem cell content, relative biological effectiveness as compared to /sup 137/Cesium gamma exposure, and related biochemical and microdosimetric evaluations. These parameters have been evaluated on animals maintained on HTO at 10 to 100 times the maximum permissible concentration (0.03 - 3.0 ..mu..Ci/ml) for HTO. Dominant lethal mutations, chromosome aberrations in regenerating liver, increased sister chromatid exchanges in bone marrow and reduction in bone marrow stem cell content have been observed at the higher concentrations. The relative biological effectiveness for HTO ingestion as compared to external /sup 137/Cesium gamma exposures has been found to be between 1 and 2.

  14. Toxicity evaluation of petroleum blending streams: inhalation subchronic toxicity/neurotoxicity study of a light alkylate naphtha distillate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, C; Lapadula, E; Breglia, R; Bui, Q; Burnett, D; Koschier, F; Podhasky, P; White, R; Mandella, R; Hoffman, G

    1998-10-23

    A 13-wk inhalation study was conducted with Sprague-Dawley CD rats (12/sex/group) were exposed by inhalation for 13 weeks to a light alkylate naphtha distillate (LAND-2, C4-C10; average molecular weight 89.2) at actual average concentrations of 0 (room air), 668, 2220, or 6646 ppm, 6 h/d, 5 d/wk; 12 additional rats/sex in the control and high dose groups were held after final exposure for a 4-wk recovery period. The highest exposure concentration was 75% of the lower explosive limit. Standard parameters of subchronic toxicity were measured throughout the study; at necropsy, organs were weighed and tissues processed for microscopic evaluation. Neurotoxicity evaluations consisted of motor activity (MA) and a functional operational battery (FOB) measured pretest, during 5, 9, and 14 wk of the study, and after the 4-wk recovery period. Whole-body perfusion and microscopic examination of selected organs and nervous tissue from the control and high dose rats were conducted at the end of exposure. No test-related mortality or effects on physical signs, body weight, or food consumption were observed. Statistically significant increases in absolute and relative kidney weights in high-exposure males correlated with microscopically observed hyaline droplet formation and renal nephropathy, effects in male rats that are not toxicologically significant for humans. Increased liver weights in both sexes at the highest dose had no microscopic correlate and appeared reversible after the 4-wk recovery period. Exposure to LAND-2 at any dose did not produce neurotoxicity measured by MA, FOB, or neuropathology. The no-observed-effects level (NOEL) for LAND-2 was 2220 ppm for subchronic toxicity and > or =26646 ppm for neurotoxicity.

  15. Ecotoxicological evaluation of leachate from the Limeira sanitary landfill with a view to identifying acute toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Euclides Stipp Paterniani

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Final disposal of solid waste is still a cause for serious impacts on the environment. In sanitary landfills, waste undergoes physical, chemical, and biological decomposition, generating biogas and leachate. Leachate is a highly toxic liquid with a very high pollution potential. The purpose of this work is to evaluate toxicity of in natura leachate samples collected from Limeira Sanitary Landfill, in Limeira, SP. The ecotoxicological evaluation comprised acute toxicity assays using as test organisms Daphnia Similis, seeds of Eruca sativa (arugula, and Allium cepa roots (onion. Analyses of color, pH, turbidity, conductivity, hardness, nitrogen, total organic carbon (TOC, adsorbable organic halogen (AOX, and metals were also carried out. The main results for Eruca sativa (arugula and Allium cepa (onion indicated that the diluted leachate 50% presented similar toxicity to the phenol solution of 1000 mg.L-1 for arugula and 2000 mg.L-1 for onion. With the solution of Cr+6 concentrations of 3000 mg.L-1 for arugula and 2000 mg.L-1 for onion were found. For analyses with Daphnia Similis the EC50 was 9.3% on average. This way it was possible to observe that biological tests are necessary to evaluate the pollution in the effluents or water bodies. These tests serve to determine the toxic potential of a chemical agent or complex mixture.

  16. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis: The Foothold in Undervaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Rebecca L; Kann, Dylan; Rassbach, Caroline E; Schwenk, Hayden T; Ritter, Jana M; Rota, Paul A; Elbers, Jorina

    2016-12-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a fatal complication of measles infection. We present a case of a fully vaccinated 3-year-old boy who was diagnosed with and treated for autoimmune encephalitis before arriving at a diagnosis of SSPE. We discuss the challenges of diagnosing SSPE in developed countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluating Potential Risks of Food Allergy and Toxicity of Soy Leghemoglobin Expressed in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yuan; He, Xiaoyun; Andoh-Kumi, Kwame; Fraser, Rachel Z; Lu, Mei; Goodman, Richard E

    2017-09-18

    The Soybean (Glycine max) leghemoglobin c2 (LegHb) gene was introduced into Pichia pastoris yeast for sustainable production of a heme-carrying protein, for organoleptic use in plant-based meat. The potential allergenicity and toxicity of LegHb and 17 Pichia host-proteins each representing ≥1% of total protein in production batches are evaluated by literature review, bioinformatics sequence comparisons to known allergens or toxins, and in vitro pepsin digestion. Literature searches found no evidence of allergenicity or toxicity for these proteins. There are no significant sequence matches of LegHb to known allergens or toxins. Eleven Pichia proteins have modest identity matches to minor environmental allergens and 13 Pichia proteins have significant matches to proteins from toxic sources. Yet the matched allergens and toxins have similar matches to proteins from the commonly consumed yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, without evidence of food allergy or toxicity. The demonstrated history of safe use indicates additional tests for allergenicity and toxicity are not needed. The LegHb and Pichia sp. proteins were rapidly digested by pepsin at pH 2. These results demonstrate that foods containing recombinant soy LegHb produced in Pichia sp. are unlikely to present an unacceptable risk of allergenicity or toxicity to consumers. © 2017 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Sub-acute insulin therapy does not affect long-term visiospatial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Insulin is a common hypoglycaemic agent used to treat diabetes, but it has also been reported to exert other effects on the body including modulation cognition. Reported findings on insulin effect on learning and memory are scanty and often conflicting. This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of sub-acute insulin ...

  19. An Evaluation of Select Test Variables Potentially Affecting Acute Oil Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echols, Brandi S; Smith, A; Gardinali, P; Rand, G

    2016-02-01

    In the wake of the Deepwater Horizon incident (2010) in the Gulf of Mexico, an abundance of research studies have been performed, but the methodologies used have varied making comparisons and replication difficult. In this study, acute toxicity tests with mysids and inland silversides were performed to examine the effect of different variables on test results. The toxicity test variables evaluated in this study included (1) open versus closed static test chambers, (2) natural versus artificial diluent, (3) aerated versus nonaerated test solution, and (4) low versus medium energy water-accommodated (WAF) mixing energies. The use of tests using natural or artificial diluent showed no difference in either toxicity test or analytical chemistry results. Based on median lethal concentrations (LC50) of WAFs of unweathered oil (MASS), mysid tests performed in closed chambers were approximately 41 % lower than LC50 values from open-chamber studies, possibly a result of the presence of low-molecular weight volatile aromatics (i.e., naphthalenes). This research also showed that using a medium-energy WAF (with a 20–25 % vortex) increases the number of chemical components compared with low-energy WAF, thus affecting the composition of the exposure media and increasing toxicity. The comparison of toxic units as a measure of the potential toxicity of fresh and weathered oils showed that weathered oils (e.g., Juniper, CTC) are less toxic than the unweathered MASS oil. In the event of future oil spills, these variables should be considered to ensure that data regarding the potential toxicity and environmental risk are of good quality and reproducible.

  20. Subchronic toxicity evaluation of potassium bromate in Fischer 344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Darol E; Layko, Debra K; Cantwell, Katherine E; Willson, Gabrielle A; Thomas, Russell S

    2013-11-01

    Male F344 rats were exposed to potassium bromate (KBrO₃) in drinking water at concentrations of 0, 5, 20, 100, 200, or 400 mg/L for 2 or 13 weeks. Endpoints evaluated included clinical observations, body weights, serum chemistry, gross pathology, organ weights, and select tissue histopathology (kidney, lung, liver, thyroid, and tunica vaginalis). Weekly body weight and water consumption means were similar between KBrO₃ and control groups throughout the study. Increases in kidney weights were observed in rats of the 400 mg/L group following 2- or 13-weeks exposure. Hyaline droplets were observed in renal tubules of rats of the 200 and 400 mg/L groups following 2 weeks exposure and in rats of the 400 mg/L group at 13 weeks. There were no KBrO₃-related microscopic findings in the lung, liver, thyroid, and tunica vaginalis at the 2- and 13-week time points. A no observed effect level of 100 mg/L KBrO₃ (8.1 mg/kg/day) was selected based on the absence of microscopic alterations in the kidney. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of developmental toxicant identification using gene expression profiling in embryonic stem cell differentiation cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dartel, Dorien A M; Pennings, Jeroen L A; de la Fonteyne, Liset J J; Brauers, Karen J J; Claessen, Sandra; van Delft, Joost H; Kleinjans, Jos C S; Piersma, Aldert H

    2011-01-01

    The murine embryonic stem cell test (EST) is an alternative testing method designed to assess potential developmental toxicity of compounds. The implementation of transcriptomics in the EST has been shown to reduce the culture duration and improve endpoint evaluation and is expected to result in an enhanced predictability and definition of the applicability domain. We evaluated the identification of developmental toxicity in the EST using two gene sets ("Van_Dartel_heartdiff_24h" and "EST biomarker genes") defined in our earlier studies. Nonexposed embryonic stem cells (ESC) differentiation cultures were sampled 0, 24, and 48 h after initiation of differentiation. Additionally, cultures exposed to 12 diverse well-characterized positive and negative developmental toxicants were isolated 24 h after the onset of exposure. Inhibition of ESC differentiation was evaluated in parallel by morphological scoring on culture day 10. Transcriptomics analysis was conducted using the Affymetrix Gene Chips platform. We applied principal component analysis on the basis of the two predefined gene sets to define the "differentiation track" that represents ESC differentiation. The significance of derivations in the gene expression-based differentiation track because of compound exposures were evaluated to determine developmental toxicity of tested compounds. We successfully predicted developmental toxicity using transcriptomics for 83% (10/12) and 67% (8/12) of the compounds, respectively, using the two predefined gene sets ("Van_Dartel_heartdiff_24h" and "EST biomarker genes"). Our study suggests that the application of transcriptomics may improve the applicability of the EST for the prediction of the developmental toxicity of chemicals.

  2. Oscillometry complements spirometry in evaluation of subjects following toxic inhalation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth I. Berger

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The World Trade Center (WTC destruction released dust and fumes into the environment. Although many community members developed respiratory symptoms, screening spirometry was usually normal. We hypothesised that forced oscillation testing would identify functional abnormalities undetected by spirometry and that symptom severity would relate to magnitude of abnormalities measured by oscillometry. A symptomatic cohort (n=848 from the Bellevue Hospital WTC Environmental Health Center was evaluated and compared to an asymptomatic cohort (n=475 from the New York City Department of Health WTC Health Registry. Spirometry and oscillometry were performed. Oscillometry measurements included resistance (R5 and frequency dependence of resistance (R5−20. Spirometry was normal for the majority of subjects (73.2% symptomatic versus 87.6% asymptomatic, p<0.0001. In subjects with normal spirometry, R5 and R5−20 were higher in symptomatic versus asymptomatic subjects (median (interquartile range R5 0.436 (0.206 versus 0.314 (0.129 kPa·L−1·s−1, p<0.001; R5−20 0.075 (0.085 versus 0.004 (0.042 kPa·L−1·s−1, p<0.0001. In symptomatic subjects, R5 and R5−20 increased with increasing severity and frequency of wheeze (p<0.05. Measurement of R5–20 correlated with the presence and severity of symptoms even when spirometry was within normal limits. These findings are in accord with small airway abnormalities as a potential explanation of the respiratory symptoms.

  3. Oscillometry complements spirometry in evaluation of subjects following toxic inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Kenneth I.; Turetz, Meredith; Liu, Mengling; Shao, Yongzhao; Kazeros, Angeliki; Parsia, Sam; Caplan-Shaw, Caralee; Friedman, Stephen M.; Maslow, Carey B.; Marmor, Michael; Goldring, Roberta M.

    2015-01-01

    The World Trade Center (WTC) destruction released dust and fumes into the environment. Although many community members developed respiratory symptoms, screening spirometry was usually normal. We hypothesised that forced oscillation testing would identify functional abnormalities undetected by spirometry and that symptom severity would relate to magnitude of abnormalities measured by oscillometry. A symptomatic cohort (n=848) from the Bellevue Hospital WTC Environmental Health Center was evaluated and compared to an asymptomatic cohort (n=475) from the New York City Department of Health WTC Health Registry. Spirometry and oscillometry were performed. Oscillometry measurements included resistance (R5) and frequency dependence of resistance (R5−20). Spirometry was normal for the majority of subjects (73.2% symptomatic versus 87.6% asymptomatic, p<0.0001). In subjects with normal spirometry, R5 and R5−20 were higher in symptomatic versus asymptomatic subjects (median (interquartile range) R5 0.436 (0.206) versus 0.314 (0.129) kPa·L−1·s−1, p<0.001; R5−20 0.075 (0.085) versus 0.004 (0.042) kPa·L−1·s−1, p<0.0001). In symptomatic subjects, R5 and R5−20 increased with increasing severity and frequency of wheeze (p<0.05). Measurement of R5–20 correlated with the presence and severity of symptoms even when spirometry was within normal limits. These findings are in accord with small airway abnormalities as a potential explanation of the respiratory symptoms. PMID:27730155

  4. Application of leaching tests for toxicity evaluation of coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsiridis, V.; Samaras, P.; Kungolos, A.; Sakellaropoullos, G.P. [Technological Educational Institute for West Macedonia, Kozani (Greece). Dept. for Pollution Control Technology

    2006-08-15

    The toxic properties of coal fly ash samples obtained from various coal combustion power plants were evaluated in this work using physicochemical analyses and bioassays. Physicochemical analyses showed that heavy metals present in solid samples included Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn. The results of the chemical analysis of eluates deduced by the application of standard leaching tests according to EN 12457-2 and Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) methods indicated that the compounds contained in fly ashes could potentially be transferred to the liquid phase depending upon the leaching method used. Heavy metal concentrations were higher in TCLP eluates, indicating that the initial pH value of the leaching medium significantly affected the transfer of these elements to the liquid phase. Tests conducted with the photobacterium Vibrio fischeri (Microtox test), the crustacean Daphnia magna, and the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus were used to assess toxicity of eluates obtained by both leaching tests. Daphnia magna was the most sensitive test organism. The EN 12457-2 method proved to be more reliable for toxicity evaluation of eluates. In contrast, the TCLP method showed some interference owing to acetic acid toxicity, and precipitation occurred after pH adjustment of eluates from acid to neutral range. The toxicity of both fly ashes and the corresponding solid leaching residues of EN 12457-2 and TCLP leaching tests was also measured using the Microtox Basic Solid phase Test. The results generated with this bioassay indicated that toxicity was greatly influenced by the pH status of the solid samples.

  5. CASE STUDY 6.26: UNSUCCESSFUL TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATIONS MANIPULATIONS: SEAWATER BUFFERS AND STERILIZATION METHODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper summarizes several unsuccessful attempts to develop Toxicity Identification and Evaluation (TIE) manipulations for aqueous samples during the first 5 years of our research. The first part of the paper explores irradiation as a sterilization technique to discern if sam...

  6. Anticoagulant activity of isolated coumarins (suberosin and suberenol) and toxicity evaluation of Ferulago carduchorum in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golfakhrabadi, Fereshteh; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Ardakani, Mohammad Reza Shams; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Akbarzadeh, Tahmineh; Ahmadabadi, Amir Nili; Ebrahimi, Azin; Yousefbeyk, Fatemeh; Hassanzadeh, Alireza; Khanavi, Mahnaz

    2014-10-01

    Ferulago carduchorum Boiss. & Hausskn. (Apiaceae) is known as Chavil in Persian which grows in west of Iran. Local people add Chavil to dairy and oil ghee as a natural preservative to extend the expiration date. The goal of this survey is the safety evaluation of the total extract of F. carduchorum in rats by determining both oral acute and subchronic toxicities; furthermore, the anticoagulant activity of isolated coumarins was evaluated. The aerial parts of F. carduchorum were extracted by the percolation method. The anticoagulant activity of isolated coumarins was evaluated and the total extract was used to investigate acute and subchronic toxicity in rats. In the subchronic toxicity model, doses of 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg of the extract were administered to treated groups for 30 consecutive days by gavage. According to the results of acute toxicity, the LD50 of Chavil extract was more than 2000 mg/kg. The subchronic study showed no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the groups treated with extract and control groups in hematological (erythrocyte, total and differential leukocyte, hematocrit, hemoglobin, platelet count) and biochemical parameter (glucose, albumin, cholesterol, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase) evaluations. The isolated coumarins (suberosin and suberenol) prolonged the prothrombin time (PT) at doses of 3 and 6 mg/kg compared with control (p coumarins showed anticoagulant effect in rats.

  7. Evaluation of the toxicity of sediments from the Anniston PCB Site to the mussel Lampsilis siliquoidea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Allison; Sinclair, Jesse A.; MacDonald, Donald D.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Kemble, Nile E.; Kunz, James L.

    2015-01-01

    The Anniston Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Site is located in the vicinity of the municipality of Anniston in Calhoun County, in the north-eastern portion of Alabama. Although there are a variety of land-use activities within the Choccolocco Creek watershed, environmental concerns in the area have focused mainly on releases of PCBs to aquatic and riparian habitats. PCBs were manufactured by Monsanto, Inc. at the Anniston facility from 1935 to 1971. The chemicals of potential concern (COPCs) in sediments at the Anniston PCB Site include: PCBs, mercury, metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of PCB-contaminated sediments to the juvenile fatmucket mussel (Lampsilis siliquoidea) and to characterize relationships between sediment chemistry and the toxicity of sediment samples collected from the Anniston PCB Site using laboratory sediment testing. Samples were collected in August 2010 from OU-4 of the Anniston PCB Site, as well as from selected reference locations. A total of 32 samples were initially collected from six test sites and one reference site within the watershed. A total of 23 of these 32 samples were evaluated in 28-day whole-sediment toxicity tests conducted with juvenile mussels (L. siliquoidea). Physical and chemical characterization of whole sediment included grain size, total organic carbon (TOC), nutrients, PCBs, parent and alkylated PAHs, organochlorine pesticides, PCDD/PCDFs, total metals, simultaneously extracted metals (SEM), and acid volatile sulfide (AVS). Sediment collected from Snow Creek and Choccolocco Creek contained a variety of COPCs. Organic contaminants detected in sediment included PCBs, organochlorine pesticides, PCDDs/PCDFs, and PAHs. In general, the highest

  8. Acute Amiodarone Pulmonary Toxicity After Surgical Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teerakanok, Jirapat; Tantrachoti, Pakpoom; Chariyawong, Phumpattra; Nugent, Kenneth

    2016-12-01

    Amiodarone can cause toxicity in several organs, including amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity which is a subacute or chronic complication. Amiodarone-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in postoperative patients is a rare acute complication. The PubMed and Google Scholar databases were searched. Seven retrospective and prospective case series and 10 case reports of amiodarone-induced postoperative ARDS were reviewed. All patients received amiodarone chronically or during the perioperative period. Forty-three out of 285 patients (15%) reported in the retrospective and prospective studies developed amiodarone-induced ARDS. Most of the patients were men in age group 60-80 who had undergone cardiothoracic surgery. All patients had general anesthesia and exposure to high concentrations of oxygen. The onset of symptoms ranged from 2 hours to 2 weeks after surgery. The mortality rate of amiodarone-induced ARDS after surgery was approximately 10%. Ten case reports were evaluated using Naranjo criteria. Two cases had definite amiodarone toxicity, and 8 had probable toxicity based on these criteria. The incidence of amiodarone-induced postoperative ARDS was approximately 15% in these studies. Most operations involved cardiothoracic surgery. Elderly patients on high-dose and long-term amiodarone treatment were at increased risk. This diagnosis is challenging owing to the lack of definite diagnostic criteria; careful clinical evaluation and early drug withdrawal may reduce the severity of this complication. Copyright © 2016 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Human normal bronchial epithelial cells: a novel in vitro cell model for toxicity evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqiang Feng

    Full Text Available Human normal cell-based systems are needed for drug discovery and toxicity evaluation. hTERT or viral genes transduced human cells are currently widely used for these studies, while these cells exhibited abnormal differentiation potential or response to biological and chemical signals. In this study, we established human normal bronchial epithelial cells (HNBEC using a defined primary epithelial cell culture medium without transduction of exogenous genes. This system may involve decreased IL-1 signaling and enhanced Wnt signaling in cells. Our data demonstrated that HNBEC exhibited a normal diploid karyotype. They formed well-defined spheres in matrigel 3D culture while cancer cells (HeLa formed disorganized aggregates. HNBEC cells possessed a normal cellular response to DNA damage and did not induce tumor formation in vivo by xenograft assays. Importantly, we assessed the potential of these cells in toxicity evaluation of the common occupational toxicants that may affect human respiratory system. Our results demonstrated that HNBEC cells are more sensitive to exposure of 10~20 nm-sized SiO2, Cr(VI and B(aP compared to 16HBE cells (a SV40-immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells. This study provides a novel in vitro human cells-based model for toxicity evaluation, may also be facilitating studies in basic cell biology, cancer biology and drug discovery.

  10. Human normal bronchial epithelial cells: a novel in vitro cell model for toxicity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wenqiang; Guo, Juanjuan; Huang, Haiyan; Xia, Bo; Liu, Hongya; Li, Jie; Lin, Shaolin; Li, Tiyuan; Liu, Jianjun; Li, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Human normal cell-based systems are needed for drug discovery and toxicity evaluation. hTERT or viral genes transduced human cells are currently widely used for these studies, while these cells exhibited abnormal differentiation potential or response to biological and chemical signals. In this study, we established human normal bronchial epithelial cells (HNBEC) using a defined primary epithelial cell culture medium without transduction of exogenous genes. This system may involve decreased IL-1 signaling and enhanced Wnt signaling in cells. Our data demonstrated that HNBEC exhibited a normal diploid karyotype. They formed well-defined spheres in matrigel 3D culture while cancer cells (HeLa) formed disorganized aggregates. HNBEC cells possessed a normal cellular response to DNA damage and did not induce tumor formation in vivo by xenograft assays. Importantly, we assessed the potential of these cells in toxicity evaluation of the common occupational toxicants that may affect human respiratory system. Our results demonstrated that HNBEC cells are more sensitive to exposure of 10~20 nm-sized SiO2, Cr(VI) and B(a)P compared to 16HBE cells (a SV40-immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells). This study provides a novel in vitro human cells-based model for toxicity evaluation, may also be facilitating studies in basic cell biology, cancer biology and drug discovery.

  11. Safety assessment and global regulatory requirements for genetic toxicity evaluations of medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przygoda, Robert T

    2017-06-01

    Medical devices have the potential to leach substances which, depending on the contact category of the device, can directly contact the human body. Hence, appropriate evaluation for genetic toxicity as part of the biocompatibility risk assessment is critical. The biocompatibility risk assessment of medical devices is guided by the ISO 10993 series of standards. The recently revised ISO 10993-3 (2014) provides guidance on evaluating the genotoxicity, carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity potential of medical devices. The revised standard includes the use of risk assessments and chemical characterization in addition to traditional genetic toxicity tests. The ISO 10993-3 standard provides guidance on the selection and preparation of test samples, and the selection of tests to evaluate genetic toxicity. Although conformance to ISO 10993-3 is required by various national regulatory agencies for specific medical device categories, there are still differences in the interpretation of the requirements within the standard which may require additional testing. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 58:375-379, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Subacute Toxicity of RDX and TNT in Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-07-19

    observed. Renal microcalculi and bone marrow hemosiderosis are both encountered occasionally in random dog populations. The small group sizes, three per...microcalculi in the renal pelvis was higher in 4 the test animals, in particular, those treated with RDX. The incidence of hemosiderosis of the bone marrow was...microcalculi and of bone marrow hemosiderosis highly precarious. 10 June 1974 WALTER F. LOEB, V.M.D., Ph.D. I •LU BIONETICS Utton A-1 70 LITTON

  13. Subacute Toxicity of RDX and TNT in Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-04-05

    Lil.lililoi * *7.83 1 _ rtPitilr Peur t tli~af. v neuI i f , 1iIcurd (Cervii-aI) MUCsulvIt y b tAMIat LIII - Eye, t ell; _ _ -IIJ3 *37 89 L iv.er -Optjl iL Hkt%46v h5tiItIiioh-5 Abvi~i Iun w I J U I U1ld) = Ut iSu perv v~ltOou

  14. Acute and Subacute Toxic Study of Aqueous Leaf Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kg and observed continuously for the first 4 h, then hourly for the next 24 h, and finally, 6-hourly for 72 h. Control animals received orally normal saline. The rats were observed carefully for mortality, pain as well as respiratory movements.

  15. Calendula officinalis: Central depressive effect and subacute toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Parente, Leila M. L.; Costa, Elson A.; Matos, Lécia G.; Paula, José R.; Cunha, Luiz C.; Júnior, Geraldo V.; Silveira, Nusa A.

    2009-01-01

    Flores da Calendula officinalis L. (calêndula) vêm sendo utilizadas popularmente como cicatrizante, antiinflamatório e sedativo, entre outras atividades. Os principais componentes químicos encontrados nas flores são óleos essenciais, ácido salicílico, carotenóides, flavonóides, taninos e saponinas triterpênicas. Atividades ansiolítica e analgésica foram relatadas em plantas que apresentam flavonóides em sua composição. Nesse trabalho a atividade do extrato etanólico das flores da ...

  16. Acute and Subacute Oral Toxicity of Periodate in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-17

    Transient increases in gastrointestinal pH and degeneration of parietal cells, hemolytic effects including hemoglobinuria and hemosiderin deposits in...and degeneration of parietal cells, hemolytic effects including hemoglobinuria and hemosiderin deposits in the kidneys, and non-specific fatty changes

  17. Chemical oxidation of sulfadiazine by the Fenton process: kinetics, pathways, toxicity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji-Feng; Zhou, Shi-Biao; Xiao, An-Guo; Li, Wen-Jun; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigated sulfadiazine oxidation by the Fenton process under various reaction conditions. The reaction conditions tested in the experiments included the initial pH value of reaction solutions, and the dosages of ferrous ions and hydrogen peroxide. Under the reaction conditions with pH 3, 0.25 mM of ferrous ion and 2 mM of hydrogen peroxide, a removal efficiency of nearly 100% was achieved for sulfadiazine. A series of intermediate products including 4-OH-sulfadiazine/or 5-OH-sulfadiazine, 2-aminopyrimidine, sulfanilamide, formic acid, and oxalic acid were identified. Based on these products, the possible oxidation pathway of sulfadiazine by Fenton's reagent was proposed. The toxicity evaluation of reaction solutions showed increased antimicrobial effects following the Fenton oxidation process. The results from this study suggest that the Fenton oxidation process could remove sulfadiazine, but also increase solution toxicity due to the presence of more toxic products.

  18. Paper-disc method: An efficient assay for evaluating metal toxicity to soil algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Sun-Hwa; An, Youn-Joo

    2016-09-01

    The probabilistic ecological risk assessment using terrestrial toxicity data has been mainly based on microfauna or mesofauna. Soil algae, which are food source for microfauna and mesofauna, may be alternatively used for assessing soil toxicity. However, there are no internationally recommended guidelines for soil algal bioassays, and the collection of algae from the test soils has some limitations. In this study, we suggested the paper-disc method as an easy-to-use alternative. This method has been widely used for testing the antibacterial toxicity of various chemicals in agar media by measuring the diameter of the inhibition zone around the disc. We adapted the paper-disc method for screening the toxicity of copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni) to the soil alga Chlorococcum infusionum using various evaluation endpoints, such as growth zone, chlorophyll fluorescence, and photosynthetic activity. Chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic activity decreased with the increasing concentrations of Cu(+2) or Ni(+2) contaminated soils. Algal growth zone was analyzed visually and showed similar results to those of chlorophyll fluorescence. The direct ethanol extraction method and indirect culture medium extraction method were similarly effective; however, the former was easier to perform, while the latter might facilitate the analysis of additional endpoints in future studies. Overall, the results suggested that the paper-disc method was not only a user-friendly assay for screening soil toxicity, but also effective due to its association with indirect soil quality indicators. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation on joint toxicity of chlorinated anilines and cadmium to Photobacterium phosphoreum and QSAR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hao; Wang, Chao; Shi, Jiaqi; Chen, Lei

    2014-08-30

    The individual IC50 (the concentrations causing a 50% inhibition of bioluminescence after 15min exposure) of cadmium ion (Cd) and nine chlorinated anilines to Photobacterium phosphoreum (P. phosphoreum) were determined. In order to evaluate the combined effects of the nine chlorinated anilines and Cd, the toxicities of chlorinated anilines combined with different concentrations of Cd were determined, respectively. The results showed that the number of chlorinated anilines manifesting synergy with Cd decreased with the increasing Cd concentration, and the number manifesting antagonism decreased firstly and then increased. The joint toxicity of mixtures at low Cd concentration was weaker than that of most binary mixtures when combined with Cd at medium and high concentrations as indicated by TUTotal. QSAR analysis showed that the single toxicity of chlorinated anilines was related to the energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (ELUMO). When combined with different concentrations of Cd, the toxicity was related to the energy difference (EHOMO-ELUMO) with different coefficients. Van der Waals' force or the complexation between chlorinated anilines and Cd had an impact on the toxicity of combined systems, which could account for QSAR models with different physico-chemical descriptors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Safety Evaluation of Potential Toxic Metals Exposure from Street Foods Consumed in Mid-West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. C. Ekhator

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Street-vended foods offer numerous advantages to food security; nevertheless, the safety of street food should be considered. This study has investigated the level of potential toxic metal (Pb, Cd, Hg, Sb, Mn, and Al contamination among street-vended foods in Benin City and Umunede. Methods. Twenty street food samples were purchased from vendors at bus stops. Metals were analyzed with atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The methods developed by the US EPA were employed to evaluate the potential health risk of toxic metals. Results. The concentrations of the toxic metals in mg/kg were in the range of Pb (0.014–1.37, Cd (0.00–0.00017, Hg (0.00–0.00014, Sb (0.00–0.021, Mn (0.00–0.012, and Al (0.00–0.22. All the toxic metals except Pb were below permissible limit set by WHO, EU, and USEPA. The daily intake, hazard quotient, and hazard index of all toxic metals except for Pb in some street foods were below the tolerable daily intake and threshold value of 1, indicating an insignificant health risk. Total cancer risk was within the priority risk level of 1.0E-04 but higher than the acceptable risk level of 1E-06. Conclusion. Consumption of some of these street foods is of public health concern.

  1. Evaluation of semiochemical toxicity to Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus and Anopheles quadrimaculatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Phillip E; Mann, Rajinder S; Butler, Jerry F

    2010-05-01

    Mosquitoes are the most important vectors of human pathogens. Wide-scale use of pesticides has led to the development of resistance to most common insecticide groups. The need to develop novel products that have a low impact on human health and the environment is well established. The toxicity of selected semiochemicals with molecular structures indicative of insecticidal activity was determined against adult Aedes aegypti (L.) and Anopheles quadrimaculatus (Say). The two most active insecticides against Ae. aegypti were also evaluated against Ae. albopictus (Skuse). Fifteen semiochemicals classified as terpenoid alcohols, ketones or carboxylic esters showed toxicity to both mosquito species. Geranyl acetone (LC(50) = 38.51 microg cm(-2)) followed by citronellol (LC(50) = 48.55 microg cm(-2)) were the most toxic compounds to Ae. aegypti, while geraniol and lavonax, with LC(50) values of 31.88 and 43.40 microg cm(-2), showed the highest toxicity to An. quadrimaculatus. Both geranyl acetone and citronellol were highly toxic to Ae. albopioctus. No semiochemical showed fumigation activity against either species. All semiochemicals persisted for less than 24 h when tested on filter paper. Quantification of LC(50) values of several semiochemicals against Ae. Aegypti, An. quadrimaculatus and Ae. albopioctus showed that semiochemicals not only modify insect behaviors but also hold potential as potent insecticides for mosquito control programs.

  2. Laboratory evaluation of Ethiopian local plant Phytolacca dodecandra extract for its toxicity effectiveness against aquatic macroinvertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunamoorthi, K; Bishaw, D; Mulat, T

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the toxicity effectiveness of berries crude extract of Endod [vernacular name (local native language, Amharic); Phytolacca dodecandra] against aquatic macroinvertebrates Baetidae (Mayflies) and Hydropsychidae (Caddisflies), under laboratory conditions. In Ethiopia, toxic plant, berries of Phytolacca dodecandra are being commonly used for washing clothes and to control fresh water snails. Macroinvertebrates are useful biological indicators of change in the aquatic ecosystems. The present study clearly revealed that the LC50 and LC90 values for berries crude extract of Phytolacca dodecandra against Baetidae were 181.94 and 525.78 mg/l and lethal doses (LC50 and LC90) required for Hydropsychidae were 1060.69 and 4120.4 mg/l respectively. The present investigation demonstrated that Baetidae was more susceptible than Hydropsychidae, even at shorter exposure period of 2 h. From our preliminary investigation the toxicity effectiveness of crude extracts of Phytolacca dodecandra has been clearly shown. In addition, it requires further explorations which address both the toxicity activity and the active principles that are responsible for its toxicity effectiveness. Ultimately, the release/introduction of Phytolacca dodecandra plant berries extracts into the river/streams leads to disruption of food chain in the aquatic ecosystem. Therefore, at this moment preserving the aquatic ecosystem is extremely essential and inevitable.

  3. Safety Evaluation of Potential Toxic Metals Exposure from Street Foods Consumed in Mid-West Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekhator, O C; Udowelle, N A; Igbiri, S; Asomugha, R N; Igweze, Z N; Orisakwe, O E

    2017-01-01

    Objective. Street-vended foods offer numerous advantages to food security; nevertheless, the safety of street food should be considered. This study has investigated the level of potential toxic metal (Pb, Cd, Hg, Sb, Mn, and Al) contamination among street-vended foods in Benin City and Umunede. Methods. Twenty street food samples were purchased from vendors at bus stops. Metals were analyzed with atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The methods developed by the US EPA were employed to evaluate the potential health risk of toxic metals. Results. The concentrations of the toxic metals in mg/kg were in the range of Pb (0.014-1.37), Cd (0.00-0.00017), Hg (0.00-0.00014), Sb (0.00-0.021), Mn (0.00-0.012), and Al (0.00-0.22). All the toxic metals except Pb were below permissible limit set by WHO, EU, and USEPA. The daily intake, hazard quotient, and hazard index of all toxic metals except for Pb in some street foods were below the tolerable daily intake and threshold value of 1, indicating an insignificant health risk. Total cancer risk was within the priority risk level of 1.0E - 04 but higher than the acceptable risk level of 1E - 06. Conclusion. Consumption of some of these street foods is of public health concern.

  4. Toxicity of Halifax Harbour sediments: An evaluation of the Microtox solid phase bioassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, N.H.; Wells, P.G. [Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada). School for Resource and Environmental Studies

    1995-12-31

    Subtidal sediments were collected from 8 stations in Halifax Harbour, N.S., in July and August, 1992, to initiate a study of sediment toxicity and hazards near the proposed location of a sewage treatment plant and outfall. A set of 110 samples was evaluated. Interstitial water from aerobic surface (0--2cm) and anaerobic subsurface (2-4cm) sediments was analyzed by the Microtox{reg_sign} toxicity test protocol; the sediment particles were analyzed using the Microtox Solid Phase Test (SPT). Toxicity was expressed as 5, 15, and 30min-EC50`s for the interstitial samples, and 5min-EC50`s for the sediments, the endpoint being the inhibition of photoluminescence of Photobacterium phosphoreum. Interstitial water from surface and subsurface sediments from all stations was usually non-toxic, when compared to a phenol standard. The mean 5min-EC50 of surface sediments (n = 57) was 5,433mg/L; the mean 5min-EC50 of subsurface sediments (n = 50) was 804 mg/L. Toxicity thresholds were compared with NRC sediment reference materials and a selection of natural sediments; then ranked based on criteria suggested by Environment Canada. Intra- and inter-sample variability in toxicity at different locations in relation to time, sediment depth, sediment properties, types and concentrations of contaminants, was evaluated by multivariate and PCA techniques. An experiment with marine reference sediments (certified for PAHs and trace metals) and their mixtures showed the ability of the STP to discriminate between different levels of contaminated sediments, i.e. a dose-response relationship was demonstrated. This laboratory-field study provided insights into the sensitivity, reproducibility, significance and discriminatory ability of the Microtox{reg_sign} SPT, characteristics necessary for its deployment in a tiered hazard assessment of contaminated harbor sediments.

  5. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE): an insight into the diagnostic errors from a tertiary care university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prashanth, L K; Taly, A B; Sinha, S; Ravi, V

    2007-06-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a progressive disease caused by wild-type measles virus leading to premature death. Early diagnosis may help in medical interventions and counseling. The aim of this study was to ascertain diagnostic errors and their possible causes. Retrospective case record analysis of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, evaluated over a 10-year period, was performed. The following data were analyzed: initial symptoms and diagnosis, interval between onset of symptoms to diagnosis, and implications of delayed diagnosis. Among the 307 patients evaluated, initial diagnosis by various health care professionals was other than subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in 242 patients (78.8%). These included seizures, absence seizures, metachromatic leukodystrophy, Schilder's disease, cerebral palsy, hemiparkinsonism, Wilson's disease, vasculitis, spinocerebellar ataxia, motor neuron disease, nutritional amblyopia, tapetoretinal degeneration, catatonic schizophrenia, and malingering, among others. The interval between precise diagnosis and first reported symptom was 6.2 +/- 11.3 months (range, 0.2-96 months; median, 3 months). Forty-four patients (14.3%) who had symptoms for more than 1 year before the precise diagnosis had a protracted course as compared to the rest of the cohort ( P = .0001). Early and accurate diagnosis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis needs a high index of suspicion.

  6. Changes of resting cerebral activities in subacute ischemic stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to detect the difference in resting cerebral activities between ischemic stroke patients and healthy participants, define the abnormal site, and provide new evidence for pathological mechanisms, clinical diagnosis, prognosis prediction and efficacy evaluation of ischemic stroke. At present, the majority of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies focus on the motor dysfunction and the acute stage of ischemic stroke. This study recruited 15 right-handed ischemic stroke patients at subacute stage (15 days to 11.5 weeks and 15 age-matched healthy participants. A resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan was performed on each subject to detect cerebral activity. Regional homogeneity analysis was used to investigate the difference in cerebral activities between ischemic stroke patients and healthy participants. The results showed that the ischemic stroke patients had lower regional homogeneity in anterior cingulate and left cerebrum and higher regional homogeneity in cerebellum, left precuneus and left frontal lobe, compared with healthy participants. The experimental findings demonstrate that the areas in which regional homogeneity was different between ischemic stroke patients and healthy participants are in the cerebellum, left precuneus, left triangle inferior frontal gyrus, left inferior temporal gyrus and anterior cingulate. These locations, related to the motor, sensory and emotion areas, are likely potential targets for the neural regeneration of subacute ischemic stroke patients.

  7. Neuronal loss is an early component of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Deniz; Diren, Barış; Ulubay, Hakan; Altunbaşak, Sakir; Anlar, Banu

    2014-09-02

    We performed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies in a group of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) in order to estimate the pathologic process underlying the phenotypic variability. Patients with SSPE who had MRI including DTI and MRS examinations were evaluated according to their clinical status as determined by the SSPE Scoring System and their mental age as determined by tests appropriate for age and developmental level. Comparisons of fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and metabolite ratios of frontal periventricular white matter, parieto-occipital periventricular white matter, and globus pallidus in both hemispheres were made between control and SSPE groups, and between SSPE subgroups. Control (n = 18) and SSPE (n = 39) groups differed in all DTI and MRS parameters except FA, choline (Cho), and Cho/creatine (Cr). SSPE cases had higher ADC and lower N-acetylaspartate (NAA), NAA/Cho, and NAA/Cr in all regions of interest, suggesting cell loss. Disease progression rate and neurologic deficit appeared to be associated with the degree of ADC elevation and NAA reduction: the group with severe global deterioration had the lowest NAA (230.75 ± 197.97 in forceps minor), and rapid progression was associated with acute reduction in NAA. The combination of MRS and diffusion MRI findings suggests neuronal loss can be a primary target in rapidly or subacutely progressing SSPE, and preservation or regeneration of axonal structure may be beneficial in chronic cases. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  8. Speech and language therapy for aphasia following subacute stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Koyuncu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the time window, duration and intensity of optimal speech and language therapy applied to aphasic patients with subacute stroke in our hospital. The study consisted of 33 patients being hospitalized for stroke rehabilitation in our hospital with first stroke but without previous history of speech and language therapy. Sixteen sessions of impairment-based speech and language therapy were applied to the patients, 30-60 minutes per day, 2 days a week, for 8 successive weeks. Aphasia assessment in stroke patients was performed with Gülhane Aphasia Test-2 before and after treatment. Compared with before treatment, fluency of speech, listening comprehension, reading comprehension, oral motor evaluation, automatic speech, repetition and naming were improved after treatment. This suggests that 16 seesions of speech and language therapy, 30-60 minutes per day, 2 days a week, for 8 successive weeks, are effective in the treatment of aphasic patients with subacute stroke.

  9. Evaluation of processed borax as antidote for aconite poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Prasanta Kumar; Prajapati, Pradeep K; Shukla, Vinay J; Ravishankar, Basavaiah

    2017-06-09

    Aconite root is very poisonous; causes cardiac arrhythmias, ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia. There is no specific antidote for aconite poisoning. In Ayurveda, dehydrated borax is mentioned for management of aconite poisoning. The investigation evaluated antidotal effect of processed borax against acute and sub-acute toxicity, cardiac toxicity and neuro-muscular toxicity caused by raw aconite. For acute protection Study, single dose of toxicant (35mg/kg) and test drug (22.5mg/kg and 112.5mg/kg) was administered orally, and then 24h survival of animals was observed. The schedule was continued for 30 days in sub-acute protection Study with daily doses of toxicant (6.25mg/kg), test drug (22.5mg/kg and 112.5mg/kg) and vehicle. Hematological and biochemical tests of blood and serum, histopathology of vital organs were carried out. The cardiac activity Study was continued for 30 days with daily doses of toxicant (6.25mg/kg), test drug (22.5mg/kg), processed borax solution (22.5mg/kg) and vehicle; ECG was taken after 1h of drug administration on 1TB, 15th and on 30th day. For neuro-muscular activity Study, the leech dorsal muscle response to 2.5µg of acetylcholine followed by response of toxicant at 25µg and 50µg doses and then response of test drug at 25µg dose were recorded. Protection index indicates that treated borax gave protection to 50% rats exposed to the lethal dose of toxicant in acute protection Study. Most of the changes in hematological, biochemical parameters and histopathological Study induced by the toxicant in sub-acute protection Study were reversed significantly by the test drug treatment. The ventricular premature beat and ventricular tachyarrhythmia caused by the toxicant were reversed by the test drug indicate reversal of toxicant induced cardio-toxicity. The acetylcholine induced contractions in leech muscle were inhibited by toxicant and it was reversed by test drug treatment. The processed borax solution is found as an

  10. Evaluation of the toxicity and antiulcerogenic activity of the ethanol extract of Maytenus obtusifolia Mart. leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Samara de Lira Mota

    Full Text Available Maytenus obtusifolia is used in folk medicine for the treatment of serious ulcers, general inflammations and cancer. Despite of the ethnopharmacological importance of this species, no study was conducted to evaluate its toxicity and antiulcerogenic activity. In this study, we evaluated the toxicity and antiulcerogenic property of the ethanol extract of the leaves of Maytenus obtusifolia (MO-EtOH. The MO-EtOH (10-1000 µg/mL showed low toxicity for larvae of A. salina with LC50 higher than 1000 µg/mL. The MO-EtOH (2000 mg/kg, p.o. did not change the body and organs weight of the mice, but it was observed an increase in the water consumption of males and a decrease in the food consumption of females. During the study no deaths and no macroscopic changes in the organs were observed in the mice. MO-EtOH (62.5, 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg and lansoprazole (30 mg/kg significantly reduced the ulcerative index for 65.58 ± 8.74, 43.00 ± 9.53, 15.50 ± 7.56, 54.75 ± 8.88 and 36.13 ± 9.55, respectively, in comparison with saline 82.13 ± 12.48. In conclusion, the MO-EtOH showed low toxicity and antiulcerogenic activity, confirming the popular use of M. obtusifolia.

  11. Brainstem involvement in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pawan; Singh, Dileep; Singh, Maneesh Kumar; Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Kohli, Neera

    2011-01-01

    The parieto-occipital region of the brain is most frequently and severely affected in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE). The basal ganglia, cerebellum and corpus callosum are less commonly involved. Brainstem involvement is rarely described in SSPE, and usually there is involvement of other regions of the brain. We describe a patient with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis with brain magnetic resonance imaging showing extensive brainstem involvement without significant involvement of other cortical structures. Though rarely described in SSPE, one should be aware of such brainstem and cerebellum involvement, and SSPE should be kept in mind when brainstem signal changes are seen in brain MRI with or without involvement of other regions of brain to avoid erroneous reporting.

  12. Multiple Complications Due to Subacute Suppurative Otitis Media

    OpenAIRE

    Qirjazi, Brikena; Bardhyli, Dolores; Hoxhallari, Xhevair

    2012-01-01

    Subacute otitis media is a well-known pathology of ENT practice which is easily diagnosed and subsequently treated in the outpatient clinic. The rate of complications in acute otitis media is lower than in chronic otitis media. We present here the history of a young patient with subacute otitis media who developed both localized labyrinthitis and facial palsy requiring surgical treatment. We conclude that the treatment of subacute otitis media should be carefully monitored because complicatio...

  13. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis in a Child with Recurrent Febrile Seizures

    OpenAIRE

    Ayşe Kartal; Ayşegül Neşe Çıtak Kurt; Tuğba Hirfanoğlu; Kürşad Aydın; Ayşe Serdaroğlu

    2015-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a devastating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) caused by persistent mutant measles virus infection. The diagnosis of SSPE is based on characteristic clinical and EEG findings and demonstration of elevated antibody titres against measles in cerebrospinal fluid. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis can have atypical clinical features at the onset. Herein, we report an unusual case of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in a child with recu...

  14. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in immunized Thai children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusiwilai, Khanittha; Viravan, Sorawit

    2011-12-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease with high mortality and poor prognosis. This is caused by persistent defective measles virus infection. Clinical presentations are variable including behavioral-cognitive change, myoclonic seizure, visual problem, spasticity or abnormal movement. The authors report a case of 10 year-old boy, previously healthy with complete immunization, presenting with frequent myoclonic jerks, abnormal movements, spasticity and altered mental status. Electroencephalographic (EEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and laboratory findings are typical for SSPE.

  15. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis presenting as mania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggarwal Ashish

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE is a rare, invariably fatal degenerative disease of the central nervous system developing after measles infection. Besides neurological symptoms as initial presenting symptoms, rare reports of its presentation with pure psychiatric symptoms have been reported. We here report a case of 14 year old male who initially presented with manic symptoms and then subsequently diagnosed to be suffering from SSPE. Improtance of ruling our organic conditions is emphasized.

  16. Late Onset Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis: Presenting Psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Altunkaynak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis (SSPE is the late complication of measles and is characterized by seizures, myoclonus, ataxia, behavioral and personality changes, extrapyramidal dysfunctions and vision problems. A 19 year old female patient with SSPE who was followed up at psychiatry clinic with the diagnosis of atypical psychotic disorder was presented. While psychiatric signs and symptoms were dominant, she was diagnosed as SSPE.

  17. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: serial electroencephalographic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulff, C H

    1982-01-01

    A total of 42 EEGs from five patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis were studied. Periodic complexes were noticed in 35 (83%) of these. The interval between the complexes shortened in all patients with progression of the illness. The gradual EEG changes may reflect the increasing number of infected cells as well as an on-going accumulation of immature virus structures. The records without complexes were either from the early onset (one record) or terminal stage (six records). PMID:7086454

  18. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis presenting as mania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Ashish; Khandelwal, Ashish; Jain, Manish; Jiloha, R. C.

    2011-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare, invariably fatal degenerative disease of the central nervous system developing after measles infection. Besides neurological symptoms as initial presenting symptoms, rare reports of its presentation with pure psychiatric symptoms have been reported. We here report a case of 14 year old male who initially presented with manic symptoms and then subsequently diagnosed to be suffering from SSPE. Improtance of ruling our organic conditions is emphasized. PMID:21808475

  19. Are Free Ion Activity Models Sufficient Alternatives to Biotic Ligand Models in Evaluating Metal Toxic Impacts in Terrestrial Environments?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Larsen, Henrik Fred

    Metal partitioning between solid and aqueous phases and speciation in soil pore water control the bioavailability of toxic forms of metals, while protons and base cations can mitigate metal ecotoxicity by competitive interactions with biotic ligands. e employment of BLMs to evaluate toxicity...... toxicity scores show large variability even for soils located in close proximity to each other, selection of FIAMs is also justied in deriving soil quality criteria. It remains to be investigated at what spatial scale the FIAMs are a good alternative to TBLMs in evaluating metal toxic impacts...

  20. Evaluation of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles Toxicity Using Chlorophyll a Fluorescence Imaging in Lemna gibba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Perreault

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs, used in antifouling paints of boats, are released in the environment and can induce toxicity to aquatic organisms. In this report, we used chlorophyll a fluorescence imaging to evaluate CuO NPs toxicity in Lemna gibba. This approach allowed to evaluate the differential effect of CuO NPs on photosynthesis of whole L. gibba plants. Exposure to 0.1 to 0.4 g/L CuO NPs during 48h induced strong inhibition of photosynthetic processes resulting in a decrease of plant growth. By using fluorescence imaging, different photosynthetic parameters were evaluated simultaneously in microplate conditions. Imaging of FO fluorescence yield showed the decrease of leaf photosynthetic active surface for whole plants exposed to CuO NPs. This method showed that CuO NPs inhibited photosystem II maximal, photosystem II operational quantum yields, and photochemical quenching of fluorescence associated with electron transport. Nonphotochemical fluorescence quenching as an indicator of energy dissipation not used in photosynthesis was shown to be increased by the effect of CuO NPs. Such approach in microplate conditions provides synchronous high repetition measurements for numerous plants. This study may give a reliable methodological approach to evaluate toxicity risk of NPs in aquatic ecosystems.

  1. Multiple Complications Due to Subacute Suppurative Otitis Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xhevair Hoxhallari

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Subacute otitis media is a well-known pathology of ENT practice which is easily diagnosed and subsequently treated in the outpatient clinic. The rate of complications in acute otitis media is lower than in chronic otitis media. We present here the history of a young patient with subacute otitis media who developed both localized labyrinthitis and facial palsy requiring surgical treatment. We conclude that the treatment of subacute otitis media should be carefully monitored because complications may occur. Surgical treatment and pressure release can be efficient for the treatment of a peripheral facial palsy in the course of acute or subacute otitis media.

  2. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in a child with recurrent febrile seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartal, Ayşe; Çıtak Kurt, Ayşegül Neşe; Hirfanoğlu, Tuğba; Aydın, Kürşad; Serdaroğlu, Ayşe

    2015-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a devastating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) caused by persistent mutant measles virus infection. The diagnosis of SSPE is based on characteristic clinical and EEG findings and demonstration of elevated antibody titres against measles in cerebrospinal fluid. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis can have atypical clinical features at the onset. Herein, we report an unusual case of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in a child with recurrent febrile seizures. The disease progressed with an appearance of myoclonic jerks, periodic high amplitude generalized complexes on EEG, and elevated titers of measles antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid leading to the final diagnosis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

  3. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis in a Child with Recurrent Febrile Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Kartal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE is a devastating disease of the central nervous system (CNS caused by persistent mutant measles virus infection. The diagnosis of SSPE is based on characteristic clinical and EEG findings and demonstration of elevated antibody titres against measles in cerebrospinal fluid. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis can have atypical clinical features at the onset. Herein, we report an unusual case of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in a child with recurrent febrile seizures. The disease progressed with an appearance of myoclonic jerks, periodic high amplitude generalized complexes on EEG, and elevated titers of measles antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid leading to the final diagnosis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

  4. Evaluation of the subchronic toxicity of kefir by oral administration in Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Damiana Diniz Rosa; Maria do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio; Tania Pérez Bueno; Ernesto Vega Cañizares; Lilian Sánchez Miranda; Betty Mancebo Dorbignyi; Dainé Chong Dubí; Ivette Espinosa Castaño; Łukasz Marcin Grześkowiak; Célia Lucia de Luces Fortes Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Kefir is obtained by fermentation of milk with complex microbial populations present in kefir grains. Several health-promoting benefits have been attributed to kefir consumption. Objective: The objective of this work was to conduct a subchronic toxicity study, offering the rats normal or high-doses of kefir and evaluating growth, hematology and blood chemistry, as well as assessing bacterial translocation and the integrity of the intestinal mucosa of animals. Methods: Wistar rat...

  5. Evaluation of toxicity of the mycotoxin citrinin using yeast ORF DNA microarray and Oligo DNA microarray

    OpenAIRE

    Nobumasa Hitoshi; Ishizawa Yo-hei; Ueda Youji; Suzuki Yoshiteru; Kitagawa Emiko; Iwahashi Hitoshi; Kuboki Yoshihide; Hosoda Hiroshi; Iwahashi Yumiko

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Mycotoxins are fungal secondary metabolites commonly present in feed and food, and are widely regarded as hazardous contaminants. Citrinin, one of the very well known mycotoxins that was first isolated from Penicillium citrinum, is produced by more than 10 kinds of fungi, and is possibly spread all over the world. However, the information on the action mechanism of the toxin is limited. Thus, we investigated the citrinin-induced genomic response for evaluating its toxicity...

  6. Evaluation of the Pulmonary Toxicity of Ambient Particulate Matter from Camp Victory, Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Lewis, R. S. Thomas, and G. D. Chapman. 2012. Biological responses in rats exposed to cigarette smoke and Middle East sand (dust). Inhal. Toxicol. 24...Toxicol. 21: 327–336. Esmaeil, N., M. Gharagozloo, A. Rezaei, and G. Grunig. 2014. Dust events, pulmonary dis- eases and immune system . Am. J. Clin...online DOI: 10.1080/15287394.2015.1072611 EVALUATION OF THE PULMONARY TOXICITY OF AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER FROM CAMP VICTORY, IRAQ K. L. Porter1, F. H. Y

  7. In Vivo and In Vitro Toxicity Evaluation of Polyprenols Extracted from Ginkgo biloba L. Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Zhang Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyprenols of Ginkgo biloba L. leaves (GBP are a new type of lipid with 14–24 isoprenyl units, which in humans have strong bioactivity like the dolichols. A large amount of work showed that GBP had good antibacterial activity and powerful protective effects against acute hepatic injury induced by carbon tetrachloride and alcohol, as well as antitumor activity, but the safety of GBP was not considered. The current study was designed to evaluate the toxicity of these polyprenols. Acute toxicity in mice was observed for 14 days after GBP oral dosing with 5, 7.5, 10, 15 and 21.5 g/kg body weight (b. wt. Further, an Ames toxicity assessment was carried out by plate incorporation assay on spontaneous revertant colonies of TA97, TA98, TA100 and TA102, with GBP doses designed as 8, 40, 200, 1000 and 5000 μg/dish, and subchronic toxicity was evaluated in rats for 91 days at GBP doses of 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg b. wt./day. The weight, food intake, hematological and biochemical indexes, the ratio of viscera/body weight, and histopathological examinations of tissue slices of organs were all investigated. The results showed that no animal behavior and appearance changes and mortality were seen during the observation period with 21.5 g/kg GBP dose in the acute toxicity test. Also, no mutagenicity effects were produced by GBP (mutation rate < 2 on the four standard Salmonella strains (p > 0.05 in the Ames toxicity test. Furthermore, the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL of GBP was 2000 mg/kg for 91 days feeding of rats in the subchronic toxicity tests. Results also showed the hematological and biochemical indexes as well as histopathological examination changed within a small range, and all clinical observation indexes were normal. No other distinct impacts on cumulative growth of body weight, food intake and food utilization rate were discovered with GBP. No significant difference was discovered for the rats’ organ weight and the ratio of viscera

  8. Toxicity evaluation of ZnO nanostructures on L929 fibroblast cell line using MTS assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhori, Siti Khadijah Mohd; Mahmud, Shahrom; Ann, Ling Chuo [Nano-optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory (NOR.), School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, USM, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Mohamed, Azman Seeni; Saifuddin, Siti Nazmin [Integrative Medicine Cluster, Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Bandar Putra Bertam, 13200 Kepala Batas, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Masudi, Sam’an Malik; Mohamad, Dasmawati [Craniofacial Science Laboratory, School of Dentistry, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    ZnO has wide applications in medical and dentistry apart from being used as optoelectronic devices such as solar cells, photodetectors, sensors and light emitting diodes (LEDs). Therefore, the toxicity evaluation is important to know the toxicity level on normal cell line. The toxicity of two grades ZnO nanostructures, ZnO-4 and ZnO-8 have been carried out using cytotoxicity test of MTS assay on L929 rat fibroblast cell line. Prior to that, ZnO-4 and ZnO-8 were characterized for its morphology, structure and optical properties using FESEM, X-ray diffraction, and Photoluminescence respectively. The two groups revealed difference in morphology and exhibit slightly shifted of near band edge emission of Photoluminescence other than having a similar calculated crystallite size of nanostructures. The viability of cells after 72h were obtained and the statistical significance value was calculated using SPSS v20. The p value is more than 0.05 between untreated and treated cell with ZnO. This insignificant value of p>0.05 can be summarized as a non-toxic level of ZnO-4 and ZnO-8 on the L929 cell line.

  9. Oxidation of ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin by ferrate(VI): Products identification, and toxicity evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Bin, E-mail: Bin.Yang@csiro.au [CSIRO Land and Water, Waite Campus, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, South Australia 5064 (Australia); Kookana, Rai S.; Williams, Mike [CSIRO Land and Water, Waite Campus, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, South Australia 5064 (Australia); Ying, Guang-Guo [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Du, Jun; Doan, Hai; Kumar, Anupama [CSIRO Land and Water, Waite Campus, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, South Australia 5064 (Australia)

    2016-12-15

    Ferrate(VI) (Fe(VI)) has been known to react with emerging organic contaminants containing electron-rich organic moieties, such as phenols, anilines, olefins, reduced sulfur and deprotonated amines. Oxidation of fluoroquinolone antibiotics, ciprofloxacin (CIP) and enrofloxacin (ENR), by Fe(VI) were investigated for their reaction products and toxicity changes as well as biodegradability of these products. Ten products were identified for both CIP and ENR reactions with Fe(VI) using a high-resolution accurate-mass Orbitrap mass analyzer. Structural changes to the CIP and ENR molecule included dealkylation, formation of alcohols and amides in piperazine ring and oxygen transfer to the double bond in quinolone structure. An enamine formation mechanism was tentatively proposed to facilitate the interpretation of CIP and ENR oxidation pathways. Toxicity evaluation using Microbial Assay for toxicity Risk Assessment (MARA) bioassay indicated that Fe(VI) oxidation products of CIP and ENR contributed negligible antibacterial potency and Fe(VI) oxidation treatment can remove the residual toxicity of CIP and ENR impacted source waters. The Fe(VI) oxidation treatment resulted in formation of relatively more biodegradable products (based on in silico assessment) than their corresponding parent compounds. The results showed that Fe(VI) has a good potential to degrade fluoroquinolone antibiotics and their antimicrobial potency in natural waters.

  10. Evaluation of the toxicity of Araribá (Centrolobium tomentosum using brine Shrimp test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Carlos de Sá Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the dawn of medicine, man has used natural products for the treatment of disease. There has been a recent increase in studies of the therapeutic characteristics plants in popular use in many places of the world. In this context, the species Centrolobium tomentosum, Fabaceae, known popularly as Araribá or Araruva, is used in Brazilian folk medicine as an astringent for wound treatment and bruises due to the large amount of tannins contained in the bark. This work used toxicity tests to assess the biological activity of ethanolic extracts from C. tomentosum with the specific objectives of obtaining concentrated extracts from the bark and wood of this species and determining the total phenols and tannins present in these extracts. We collected araribá samples in order to obtain ethanolic extracts through the percolation process. We then made a qualitative chemical identification of hydrolysable tannins and condensed tannins. We used the Folin-Ciocalteu method for the phenols quantification and the casein precipitation method for the tannins determination. The toxicity of extracts was evaluated using the brine shrimp bioassay (Artemia salina, in which the C. tomentosum bark extract showed moderate toxicity, with estimated LC50 = 416 μg.ml-1, whereas the leaves and wood extracts of this species showed low toxicity with LC50 = 537 μg.ml-1 and 826 μg.ml-1, respectively.

  11. Toxicity evaluation of ZnO nanostructures on L929 fibroblast cell line using MTS assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhori, Siti Khadijah Mohd; Mahmud, Shahrom; Ann, Ling Chuo; Mohamed, Azman Seeni; Saifuddin, Siti Nazmin; Masudi, Sam'an Malik; Mohamad, Dasmawati

    2015-04-01

    ZnO has wide applications in medical and dentistry apart from being used as optoelectronic devices such as solar cells, photodetectors, sensors and light emitting diodes (LEDs). Therefore, the toxicity evaluation is important to know the toxicity level on normal cell line. The toxicity of two grades ZnO nanostructures, ZnO-4 and ZnO-8 have been carried out using cytotoxicity test of MTS assay on L929 rat fibroblast cell line. Prior to that, ZnO-4 and ZnO-8 were characterized for its morphology, structure and optical properties using FESEM, X-ray diffraction, and Photoluminescence respectively. The two groups revealed difference in morphology and exhibit slightly shifted of near band edge emission of Photoluminescence other than having a similar calculated crystallite size of nanostructures. The viability of cells after 72h were obtained and the statistical significance value was calculated using SPSS v20. The p value is more than 0.05 between untreated and treated cell with ZnO. This insignificant value of p>0.05 can be summarized as a non-toxic level of ZnO-4 and ZnO-8 on the L929 cell line.

  12. Sediment toxicity identification evaluation (TIE phases I and II) based on microscale bioassays for diagnosing causes of toxicity in coastal areas affected by domestic sewage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Mariana Aliceda; Alves, Aline Vecchio; de Cássia Muniz, Cynthia; Pusceddu, Fabio Hermes; Gusso-Choueri, Paloma Kachel; Santos, Aldo Ramos; Choueri, Rodrigo Brasil

    2017-07-01

    Domestic sewage is a major problem in highly urbanized coastal areas worldwide. In the present study, toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) phases I and II were applied to sediment interstitial water from 2 locations along the São Paulo coast in southeastern Brazil: the sewage outfalls from the city of Santos, a densely urbanized area, and the city of Bertioga, a less urbanized area. An adapted microscale sea urchin embryo-larval development bioassay was employed. Phase TIE-I manipulations were 1) ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) addition, 2) aeration at modified pH, 3) C18 solid-phase extraction (SPE), and 4) addition of Na 2 S 2 O 3 . The results of the Santos TIE-I indicated toxicity by sulfides and substances with affinity to C18 resin. In Bertioga, toxicity was the result of NH 3 , metals, and arsenic, as well as substances with affinity to C18 resin. Phase TIE-II aimed to specify the causes of toxicity by testing the toxicity of eluates of the sublation and C18 SPE manipulation. The results reinforced the role of both surfactants and nonpolar compounds as causative agents of toxicity in both Santos and Bertioga. Chemical analyses of sediment interstitial water or whole sediment ruled out the influence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the toxicity of both sampling sites. Other hydrophobic substances may play a role in the toxicity of Santos and Bertioga effluents. Efforts to remove such substances from sanitary effluents must be prioritized. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1820-1832. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  13. Subacute presentation of propionic acidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Carmen; Macías, Carlos; de la Sierra García-Valdecasas, Maria; Pérez, Manuel; del Portal, Luis Ruiz; Jiménez, Luis Manuel

    2007-12-01

    Propionic acidemia is a hereditary metabolic disease caused by a deficiency of enzyme propionyl-CoA carboxylase, which is involved in the catabolism of ramified amino acids, odd-chain fatty acids, and other metabolites; the deficiency of this enzyme leads to an accumulation of toxic substances in the body. There are various forms of clinical presentation (severe neonatal, chronic intermittent, or slow and gradual). The case presented in this study was of a slow and insidious evolution form that was diagnosed when the child was 9 months old. Intracranial magnetic resonance imaging showed a slight increase in the signal intensity in sequences measured in T2 in addition to a restriction of the diffusion at the level of both putamens, which, together with biochemical and genetic analyses, confirmed the diagnosis of propionic acidemia. After initiating treatment involving a diet that was low in proteins, carnitine, and biotin, and an open-formula diet of ramified amino acids, the patient made progress, showing signs of improved hypotonia and increased weight gain. His vomiting stopped, and ketoacidosis was corrected.

  14. A colour preference technique to evaluate acrylamide-induced toxicity in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Laibing; Raghupathy, Rakesh Kotapati; Albalawi, Aishah; Zhao, Zhenkai; Reilly, James; Xiao, Qing; Shu, Xinhua

    2017-09-01

    The zebrafish has become a commonly used vertebrate model for toxicity assessment, of particular relevance to the study of toxic effects on the visual system because of the structural similarities shared by zebrafish and human retinae. In this article we present a colour preference-based technique that, by assessing the functionality of photoreceptors, can be used to evaluate the effects of toxicity on behaviour. A digital camera was used to record the locomotor behaviour of individual zebrafish swimming in a water tank consisting of two compartments separated by an opaque perforated wall through which the fish could pass. The colour of the lighting in each compartment could be altered independently (producing distinct but connected environments of white, red or blue) to allow association of the zebrafish's swimming behaviour with its colour preference. The functionality of the photoreceptors was evaluated based on the ability of the zebrafish to sense the different colours and to swim between the compartments. The zebrafish tracking was carried out using our algorithm developed with MATLAB. We found that zebrafish preferred blue illumination to white, and white illumination to red. Acute treatment with acrylamide (2mM for 36h) resulted in a marked reduction in locomotion and a concomitant loss of colour-preferential swimming behaviour. Histopathological examination of acrylamide-treated zebrafish eyes showed that acrylamide exposure had caused retinal damage. The colour preference tracking technique has applications in the assessment of neurodegenerative disorders, as a method for preclinical appraisal of drug efficacy and for behavioural evaluation of toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effectiveness evaluation of an integrated automatic termomechanic massage system (SMATH® system in non-specific sub-acute and chronic low back pain - a randomized double-blinded controlled trial, comparing SMATH therapy versus sham therapy: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazzolari Rita

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low back pain (LBP is a major health problem in modern society, with 70-85% of the population experiencing LBP at some time in their lives. Each year, 5-10% of the workforce misses work due to LBP, most for less than 7 days. Almost 10% of all patients are at risk of developing chronic pain and disability. Little clinical evidence is available for the majority of treatments used in LBP therapy. However, moderate evidence exists for interdisciplinary rehabilitation, exercise, acupuncture, spinal manipulation, and cognitive behavioral therapy for subacute and chronic LBP. The SMATH® system (system for automatic thermomechanic massage in health is a new medical device (MD that combines basic principles of mechanical massage, thermotherapy, acupressure, infrared therapy, and moxibustion. SMATH® is suitable for automatic multidisciplinary treatment on patients with non-specific sub-acute and chronic LBP. Methods/design This paper describes the protocol for a double-blinded, sham-controlled, randomized, single-center short term clinical trial in patients with non-specific sub-acute and chronic LBP aged 18 to 70 years. The primary outcome will be the effectiveness of SMATH® versus sham therapy (medical device without active principles determined by evaluating self perceived physical function with Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ scores after 4 weeks of treatment (end of treatment. Major secondary outcome will be effectiveness of SMATH® determined by evaluating self perceived physical function comparing RMDQ scores between end of treatment and baseline. The trial part of the study will take 7 months while observational follow-up will take 11 months. The sample size will be 72 participants (36 for each arm. The project has been approved by the Ethical Committee of Cremona Hospital, Italy on 29 November 2010. Discussion Compared to other medical specialties, physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM has not yet received

  16. Induction of oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptosis in mouse liver after sub-acute oral exposure to zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vyom; Singh, Poonam; Pandey, Alok K; Dhawan, Alok

    2012-06-14

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles are finding applications in a wide range of products including cosmetics, food packaging, imaging, etc. This increases the likelihood of human exposure to these nanoparticles through dermal, inhalation and oral routes. Presently, the majority of the studies concerning ZnO nanoparticle toxicity have been conducted using in vitro systems which lack the complex cell-cell, cell-matrix interactions and hormonal effects found in the in vivo scenario. The present in vivo study in mice was aimed at investigating the oral toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles. Our results showed a significant accumulation of nanoparticles in the liver leading to cellular injury after sub-acute oral exposure of ZnO nanoparticles (300 mg/kg) for 14 consecutive days. This was evident by the elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) serum levels and pathological lesions in the liver. ZnO nanoparticles were also found to induce oxidative stress indicated by an increase in lipid peroxidation. The DNA damage in the liver and kidney cells of mice was evaluated by the Fpg-modified Comet assay which revealed a significant (plesions in liver indicating oxidative stress as the cause of DNA damage. The TUNEL assay revealed an induction of apoptosis in the liver of mice exposed to ZnO nanoparticles compared to the control. Our results conclusively demonstrate that sub-acute oral exposure to ZnO nanoparticles in mice leads to an accumulation of nanoparticles in the liver causing oxidative stress mediated DNA damage and apoptosis. These results also suggest the need for a complete risk assessment of any new engineered nanoparticle before its arrival into the consumer market. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluations of dual attractant toxic sugar baits for surveillance and control of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dual attractant toxic sugar baits (D-ATSB) containing two host kairomones, L-lactic (LA) and 1-octen-3-ol (O), and fruit-based attractants were evaluated through four experiments to determine if host kairomones could a. enhance attraction of a fruit-based toxic sugar bait (ATSB), and b. increase the...

  18. Toxicity of Graphene Shells, Graphene Oxide, and Graphene Oxide Paper Evaluated with Escherichia coli Biotests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremova, Ludmila V.; Vasilchenko, Alexey S.; Rakov, Eduard G.; Deryabin, Dmitry G.

    2015-01-01

    The plate-like graphene shells (GS) produced by an original methane pyrolysis method and their derivatives graphene oxide (GO) and graphene oxide paper (GO-P) were evaluated with luminescent Escherichia coli biotests and additional bacterial-based assays which together revealed the graphene-family nanomaterials' toxicity and bioactivity mechanisms. Bioluminescence inhibition assay, fluorescent two-component staining to evaluate cell membrane permeability, and atomic force microscopy data showed GO expressed bioactivity in aqueous suspension, whereas GS suspensions and the GO-P surface were assessed as nontoxic materials. The mechanism of toxicity of GO was shown not to be associated with oxidative stress in the targeted soxS::lux and katG::lux reporter cells; also, GO did not lead to significant mechanical disruption of treated bacteria with the release of intracellular DNA contents into the environment. The well-coordinated time- and dose-dependent surface charge neutralization and transport and energetic disorders in the Escherichia coli cells suggest direct membrane interaction, internalization, and perturbation (i.e., “membrane stress”) as a clue to graphene oxide's mechanism of toxicity. PMID:26221608

  19. Antileishmanial, Toxicity, and Phytochemical Evaluation of Medicinal Plants Collected from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseer Ali Shah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is an important parasitic problem and is in focus for development of new drugs all over the world. Objective of the present study was to evaluate phytochemical, toxicity, and antileishmanial potential of Jurinea dolomiaea, Asparagus gracilis, Sida cordata, and Stellaria media collected from different areas of Pakistan. Dry powder of plants was extracted with crude methanol and fractionated with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water solvents in escalating polarity order. Qualitative phytochemical analysis of different class of compounds, that is, alkaloids, saponins, terpenoids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, coumarins, phlobatannins, flavonoids, phenolics, and tannins, was tested. Its appearance was observed varying with polarity of solvent used for fractionation. Antileishmanial activity was performed against Leishmania tropica KWH23 promastigote. Potent antileishmanial activity was observed for J. dolomiaea methanol extract (IC50=10.9±1.1 μg/mL in comparison to other plant extracts. However, J. dolomiaea “ethyl acetate fraction” was more active (IC50=5.3±0.2 μg/mL against Leishmania tropica KWH23 among all plant fractions as well as standard Glucantime drug (6.0±0.1 μg/mL. All the plants extract and its derived fraction exhibited toxicity in safety range (LC50 >100 in brine shrimp toxicity evaluation assay.

  20. 35__200 - 204__Musa - Toxicity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ABSTRACT. Sub-acute toxicity profile of Rheumatic Tea Formula (RTF), a polyherbal tea consisting of Salix alba, Eucalyptus globulus and Albizia chevalieri was investigated in wistar rats of both sexes. Wistar rats were orally administered three different doses of ethanol extract of RTF for 28 days after which the effect on ...

  1. Evaluation of the anthelmintic activity and toxicity of an aqueous extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Dias da Silva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. da Silva G.D., Botura M.B., de Lima H.G., de Oliveira J.V.A., Moreira E.L.T., Santos F.O., de Souza T.S., de Almeida M.A.O. & Batatinha M.J.M. Evaluation of the anthelmintic activity and toxicity of an aqueous extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides in goats. [Avaliação da atividade anti-helmíntica e toxicidade do extrato aquoso de Chenopodium ambrosioides em caprinos.] Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(Supl.1:156-162, 2016. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ci- ência Animal nos Trópicos, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Av. Ademar de Barros, 500, Ondina, Salvador, BA 40170-110, Brasil. E-mail: mjmb@ufba.br The objective of this study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of an aqueous extract (AE from Chenopodium ambrosioides on goat gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs and its toxic effects. The anthelmintic activity in vitro was investigated using the inhibition of egg hatching assay (EHA, while cytotoxicity on Vero cells was evaluated using the MTT test. In vivo, thirty goats that were naturally infected with GINs were divided into three groups: group I, treated with a daily dose of AE C. ambrosioides (700mg/kg for eight days; group II (positive control, treated with a single dose of levamisole phosphate (6.3mg/kg; and Group III, untreated (negative control. Treatment efficacy was assessed on the basis of egg counts (FEC, faecal cultures and post-mortem worm burden counts. Clinical and laboratory evaluations were performed to detect toxic effects associated with treatment. In the EHA, the EC50 and EC90 corresponded to 1.6 and 1.9mg/mL, respectively. The AE promoted a slight reduction in cell viability in the cytotoxicity test. The AE reduced (p <0.05 the number of infective larvae of the genera Haemonchus and Oesophagostomum. The anthelmintic treatment of goats with AE C.ambrosioides resulted in moderate efficacy against infective larvae, but revealed neither ovicidal nor toxic activity towards adult nematodes. No toxic

  2. Evaluation of different biological test systems to assess the toxicity of metabolites from fungal biocontrol agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrobek, Anke; Boss, Désirée; Défago, Geneviève; Butt, Tariq M; Maurhofer, Monika

    2006-02-08

    The development of fungal biocontrol agents (BCAs) as alternatives to chemical pesticides is of increasing public interest. Tools to assess the toxicity of the secondary metabolites that these BCAs produce are often not available or existing methods have not yet been evaluated for these compounds. This study compares five different test systems, which include a representative bacterium, protozoan, arthropod and insect and human cell lines, as regards their sensitivity. It also compares the cost in time and resources for conducting the tests. Pure metabolites and crude extracts from two fungal BCAs as well as two chemical pesticides (hoestar and chlorpyrifos) and the mycotoxin patulin were employed as test compounds. All tests systems proved to be suitable for toxicity studies of metabolites from fungal BCAs and showed different grades of sensitivity to the different substances. The possibility of employing an array of test systems to determine ecotoxicological properties is discussed.

  3. Mesenchymal stem cell application in children with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuşkonmaz, Bariş; Uçkan, Duygu; Yalnizoğlu, Dilek; Günel, Mintaze; Karli Oğuz, Kader; Konuşkan, Bahadir; Anlar, Banu

    2015-09-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a serious, often fatal disease that responds poorly to current treatment modalities. Recently, the ability of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to produce neurotrophic factors and inflammatory molecules has placed them among potential treatment agents for neurological conditions. We report the results of four patients treated with MSC for SSPE. The patients were followed up clinically, and by periodical laboratory evaluations, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and electroencephalography. One patient deteriorated to stage III of the disease, two patients remained in the same stage, and one died from disease progression and respiratory problems. Neurological findings and electroencephalography scores were consistent with the clinical course of the patient whereas MRI showed new inflammatory lesions in two patients. This is the first report of the application of MSC in SSPE. No benefit is demonstrated. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  4. Rat Brain Biogenic Amine Levels during Acute and Subacute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rat Brain Biogenic Amine Levels during Acute and Subacute Phosphamidon Treatment with Reference to Behavioral Tolerance. ... African Research Review ... The present study examines if the levels of amine neurotransmitter substances in rat brain regions are altered during acute and sub-acute treatment with an ...

  5. A Bayesian adaptive Phase I-II clinical trial for evaluating efficacy and toxicity with delayed outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmeiners, Joseph S; Modiano, Jaime

    2014-02-01

    In traditional Phase-I oncology trials, the safety of a new chemotherapeutic agent is tested in a dose escalation study to identify the maximum tolerated dose, which is defined as the highest dose with acceptable toxicity. An alternate approach is to jointly model toxicity and efficacy and allow dose finding to be directed by a prespecified trade-off between efficacy and toxicity. With this goal in mind, several designs have been proposed to jointly model toxicity and efficacy in a Phase I-II dose escalation study. A factor limiting the use of these designs is that toxicity and efficacy must be observed in a timely manner. One approach to overcoming this problem is to model toxicity and efficacy as time-to-event outcomes. This would allow new subjects to be enrolled before full information is available for previous subjects while incorporating partial information when adaptively assigning new subjects to a dose level. We propose a Phase I-II dose escalation study for evaluating toxicity and efficacy with delayed outcomes by jointly modeling toxicity and efficacy as time-to-event outcomes. We apply our proposed design to a Phase I-II clinical trial of a novel targeted toxin for canine hemangiosarcoma. Our simulation results show that our design identifies the optimal dose at a similar rate to dose finding that treats toxicity and efficacy as binary outcomes, but with substantial savings in study duration. Our proposed design has acceptable operating characteristics and dramatically reduces the trial duration compared to a design that considers toxicity and efficacy as binary outcomes, but comes at the cost of enrolling additional subjects when all dose levels are unacceptable. We developed a novel Phase I-II design that accounts for delayed outcomes by modeling toxicity and efficacy as time-to-event outcomes. Our design has similar operating characteristics to efficacy/toxicity trade-off designs that consider efficacy and toxicity as binary outcomes, but with a

  6. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praticò, A D; Saporito, M; Iacono, O; Castellano-Chiodo, D; Pavone, P

    2011-02-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a progressive neurological disorder of childhood and early adolescence caused by persistent defective measles virus. Clinical manifestations appear many years after the acute measles infection. The incidence of SSPE has substantially declined after the introduction of an effective vaccine. We report a case of a child with SSPE that began with atonia, dysarthria, and intellectual deterioration without the presence of any particular EEG anomalies. We have reported this girl who was affected by this severe affliction in the hope that, because of the rarity of SSPE, it would not go undiagnosed.

  7. Subacute Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus Triggered by Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kolm

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The origin of collagen autoimmune diseases is not fully understood. Some studies postulate a mechanism of molecular mimicry or heterologous immunity following viral infections triggering autoimmunity. Apart from infections, other exogenous factors such as visible light or X-rays have been reported to incite autoimmunity. Case Report: We report a case of histologically and serologically confirmed subacute lupus erythematosus (SCLE following radiotherapy for breast cancer. Discussion: The close temporal and spatial correlation between radiotherapy and onset of SCLE in this patient suggests that an autoimmune reaction may have been triggered locally by functionally altering the immune system and breaking self-tolerance.

  8. Cereals Bond Trounces Subacute Rumen Acidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Akbar Nikkhah

    2015-01-01

    This perspective article provides a feasible ideology based on which modern ruminant enterprises will learn to vigilantly include mixtures of hard and soft cereal grains in optimizing rumen environment. Subacute Rumen Acidosis (SARA), variably defined as a common and economically important metabolic disease, occurs arguably when rumen pH declines below 5.8-6 for a long-lasting period of time of several hours. Prolonged SARA reduces high-producing dairy and bee...

  9. Bioassay-guided evaluation of Dioscorea villosa - an acute and subchronic toxicity, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lima, Claudio Moreira; Lima, Adriana Karla; Melo, Marcelia G Dória; Serafini, Mairim Russo; Oliveira, Dênisson Lima; de Almeida, Enrik Barbosa; Barreto, Rosana Souza Siqueira; Nogueira, Paulo Cesar de Lima; Moraes, Valéria Regina de Souza; Oliveira, Edica Ramone Andrade; de Albuquerque, Jr, Ricardo Luiz Cavalcanti; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J; Araújo, Adriano Antunes Souza

    2013-01-01

    .... In this regard, we carried out to evaluated both antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities in experimental models and assess the toxic effects of the acute (single dose) and subchronic (30 days...

  10. Antigenotoxic effect of acute, subacute and chronic treatments with Amazonian camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) juice on mice blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Francisco Carlos; Arruda, Andrelisse; Ledel, Alexandre; Dauth, Cíntia; Romão, Nathalia Faria; Viana, Rafaele Nazário; de Barros Falcão Ferraz, Alexandre; Picada, Jaqueline Nascimento; Pereira, Patrícia

    2012-07-01

    Myrciaria dubia, a plant native to the Amazon region, stands out as a fruit rich in vitamin C and other metabolites with nutritional potential. We evaluated the antioxidant, genotoxic and antigenotoxic potential of M. dubia juice on blood cells of mice after acute, subacute and chronic treatments. Flavonoids and vitamin C present in the fruit of M. dubia were quantified. In vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH assay. Blood samples were collected for analysis after treatment, and the alkaline comet assay was used to analyze the genotoxic and antigenotoxic activity (ex vivo analysis using H(2)O(2)). The amount of vitamin C per 100mL of M. dubia was 52.5mg. DPPH assay showed an antioxidant potential of the fruit. No M. dubia concentration tested exerted any genotoxic effect on mice blood cells. In the ex vivo test, the juice demonstrated antigenotoxic effect, and acute treatment produced the most significant results. After the treatments, there was no evidence of toxicity or death. In conclusion, our data show that M. dubia juice has antigenotoxic and antioxidant activities, though with no genotoxicity for blood cells. Nevertheless, more in-depth studies should be conducted to assess the safety of this fruit for human consumption. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Synthesis, structure and toxicity evaluation of ethanolamine nitro/chloronitrobenzoates: a combined experimental and theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisan, Manuela; Halip, Liliana; Bourosh, Paulina; Chicu, Sergiu Adrian; Chumakov, Yurii

    2017-12-06

    Nitroaromatic and chloronitroaromatic compounds have been a subject of great interest in industry and recently in medical-pharmaceutic field. 2-Chloro-4-nitro/2-chloro-5-nitrobenzoic acids and 4-nitrobenzoic acid are promising new agents for the treatment of main infectious killing diseases in the world: immunodeficiency diseases and tuberculosis. New ethanolamine nitro/chloronitrobenzoates were synthesized and characterized by X-ray crystallography, UV-vis, FT-IR and elementary analysis techniques. The toxicity of the compounds prepared and correspondent components was evaluated using Hydractinia echinata as test system. A significant lower toxicity was observed for nitro-derivative compared with chloronitro-derivatives and individual components. Crystallographic studies, together with the chemical reactivity and stability profiles resulted from density functional theory and ab initio molecular orbital calculations, explain the particular behavior of ethanolamine 4-nitrobenzoate in biological test. The experimental and theoretical data reveal the potential of these compounds to contribute to the design of new active pharmaceutical ingredients with lower toxicity.

  12. Evaluation of Toxicity Ranking for Metal Oxide Nanoparticles via an in Vitro Dosimetry Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rong; Liu, Haoyang Haven; Ji, Zhaoxia; Chang, Chong Hyun; Xia, Tian; Nel, Andre E; Cohen, Yoram

    2015-09-22

    It has been argued that in vitro toxicity testing of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) should consider delivered dose (i.e., NP mass settled per suspension volume) rather than relying exclusively on administered dose (initial NP mass concentration). Delivered dose calculations require quantification of NP sedimentation in tissue cell culture media, taking into consideration fundamental suspension properties. In this article, we calculate delivered dose using a first-principles "particles in a box" sedimentation model, which accounts for the particle size distribution, fractal dimension, and permeability of agglomerated NPs. The sedimentation model was evaluated against external and our own experimental sedimentation data for metal oxide NPs. We then utilized the model to construct delivered dose-response analysis for a library of metal oxide NPs (previously used for hazard ranking and prediction making) in different cell culture media. Hierarchical hazard ranking of the seven (out of 24) toxic metal oxide NPs in our library, using EC50 calculated on the basis of delivered dose, did not measurably differ from our ranking based on administered dose. In contrast, simplified sedimentation calculations based on the assumption of impermeable NP agglomerates of a single average size significantly underestimated the settled NPs' mass, resulting in misinterpretation of toxicity ranking. It is acknowledged that in vitro dose-response outcomes are likely to be shaped by complex toxicodynamics, which include NP/cellular association, triggering of dynamic cell response pathways involved in NP uptake, and multiple physicochemical parameters that influence NP sedimentation and internalization.

  13. Evaluation of toxicity and biodegradability of choline chloride based deep eutectic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radošević, Kristina; Bubalo, Marina Cvjetko; Srček, Višnje Gaurina; Grgas, Dijana; Dragičević, Tibela Landeka; Redovniković, Ivana Radojčić

    2015-02-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have been dramatically expanding in popularity as a new generation of environmentally friendly solvents with possible applications in various industrial fields, but their ecological footprint has not yet been thoroughly investigated. In the present study, three choline chloride-based DESs with glucose, glycerol and oxalic acid as hydrogen bond donors were evaluated for in vitro toxicity using fish and human cell line, phytotoxicity using wheat and biodegradability using wastewater microorganisms through closed bottle test. Obtained in vitro toxicity data on cell lines indicate that choline chloride: glucose and choline chloride:glycerol possess low cytotoxicity (EC50>10 mM for both cell lines) while choline chloride:oxalic acid possess moderate cytotoxicity (EC50 value 1.64 mM and 4.19 mM for fish and human cell line, respectively). Results on phytotoxicity imply that tested DESs are non-toxic with seed germination EC50 values higher than 5000 mg L(-1). All tested DESs were classified as'readily biodegradable' based on their high levels of mineralization (68-96%). These findings indicate that DESs have a green profile and a good prospect for a wider use in the field of green technologies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of the teratogenic potential and reproductive toxicity of coal-derived naphtha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, R H; Hinz, J P; Traul, K A

    1986-06-15

    Liquids which are derived from coal liquefaction processes and boil above approximately 250 degrees C have induced terata in rats. However, few studies have addressed the teratogenic potential of coal liquids which boil below 250 degrees C. The present studies evaluated the reproductive and teratogenic potential of EDS hydrotreated naphtha, a refined coal liquid boiling below 177 degrees C. These studies were conducted by inhalation exposures with Sprague-Dawley rats at target vapor concentrations of 0.2, 1.0, and 5.0 g/m3. The first study assessed teratogenesis. There was no evidence that inhalation exposures for 6 hr per day between Days 6 and 19 of gestation induced maternal toxicity, fetal toxicity, or malformation. In a second study, rats were exposed for 6 hr per day, 5 days per week for 13 weeks, and then mated to assess reproductive toxicity. There was little evidence that inhalation exposure to EDS hydrotreated naphtha adversely affected reproductive performance or fetal development in Sprague-Dawley rats. A low incidence of malformations was observed in treated groups, but these malformations were probably not treatment related.

  15. Synthesis and Toxicity Evaluation of Some N4-Aryl Substituted 5-Trifluoromethoxyisatin-3-thiosemicarbazones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Yaqub

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A series of twenty one N4-aryl substituted 5-trifluoromethoxyisatin-3-thiosemicarbazones 3a-3u was synthesized by the reaction of trifluoromethoxyisatin 1 with different arylthiosemicarbazides 2 in aqueous ethanol (50%, containing a few drops of acetic acid. Their structures were established on the basis of analytical (CHN and spectral (IR, 1H-NMR, EIMS data. All the synthesized compounds were evaluated for their toxicity potential by a brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Ten compounds i.e., 3a, 3e, 3i-3l and 3n-3q proved to be active in this assay, displaying promising toxicity (LD50 = 1.11 × 10−5 M − 1.80 × 10−4 M. Amongst these, 3k, 3n and 3o were found to be the most active ones (LD50 = 1.11 × 10−5 M − 1.43 × 10−5 M. Compound 3k showed the highest activity with a LD50 value of 1.11 × 10−5 M and can, therefore, be used as a lead for further studies. Structure-activity relationship (SAR studies revealed that the presence of strong inductively electron-attracting trifluoromethoxy substituent at position-5 of the isatin moiety played an important role in inducing or enhancing toxic potentiality of some of the synthesized compounds.

  16. Detailed toxicity evaluation of β-cyclodextrin coated iron oxide nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelat, Ruchita; Chandra, Sudeshna; Khanna, Aparna

    2017-09-20

    The application of iron oxide nanoparticles [IONPs] in biomedical research is progressively increasing, leading to the rapid development of biocompatible and surface modified IONPs. However, there is still a need of information pertaining to its cellular and acute toxicity profile. This work reports the synthesis of β-cyclodextrin coated iron oxide nanoparticles (βCD-IONPs) and their characterization using spectroscopic (FT-IR), thermal (TGA) and surface analysis (TEM, SEM, BET and Zeta potential). All the characterization techniques displayed the synthesis of well dispersed, rod shaped βCD-IONPs of 45nm. Time dependent cellular uptake of these nanoparticles was also evaluated using Prussian blue staining. Further, cytocompatibility analysis was executed in mouse fibroblast cell line (NIH 3T3) using MTT and LDH assays, respectively which did not show any cytotoxic indications of βCD-IONPs. Finally, acute toxicity analysis was carried out in female Wistar rats according to OECD guidelines 420. Rats were exposed to the highest dose (2000mg/kg) of βCD-IONPs along with control and observed for 14days. After two weeks of administration, tissues and blood were collected and subjected to histopathological and biochemical analysis (SGOT, SGPT and ALP). Animals were sacrificed and gross necropsy was carried out. It has been shown that βCD-IONPs does not have any significant toxic effect at the cellular level. Thus, this study provides new perspectives for future biomedical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of Complex Toxicity of Canbon Nanotubes and Sodium Pentachlorophenol Based on Earthworm Coelomocytes Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Xiao, Yao; Li, Mei; Ji, Funian; Hu, Changwei; Cui, Yibin

    2017-01-01

    As a standard testing organism in soil ecosystems, the earthworm Eisenia fetida has been used widely in toxicity studies. However, tests at the individual level are time- and animal-consuming, with limited sensitivity. Earthworm coelomocytes are important for the assimilation and elimination of exogenous compounds and play a key role in the processes of phagocytosis and inflammation. In this study, we explored an optimal condition to culture coelomocytes of E. fetida in vitro and investigated the cytotoxicity of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and sodium pentachlorophenol (PCP-Na) using coelomocytes via evaluating lethal toxicity, oxidative stress, membrane damage, and DNA damage. The results showed that coelomocytes can be successfully cultured in vitro in primary under the RPMI-1640 medium with 2-4×104 cells/well (1-2×105 cells/mL) in 96-well plates at 25°C without CO2. Both MWCNTs and PCP-Na could cause oxidative damage and produce ROS, an evidence for lipid peroxidation with MDA generation and SOD and CAT activity inhibition at high stress. The two chemicals could separately damage the cell membrane structure, increasing permeability and inhibiting mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). In addition, our results indicate that PCP-Na may be adsorbed onto MWCNTs and its toxicity on earthworm was accordingly alleviated, while a synergetic effect was revealed when PCP-Na and MWCNTs were added separately. In summary, coelomocyte toxicity in in vitro analysis is a sensitive method for detecting the adverse effects of carbon nanotubes combined with various pollutants.

  18. Toxicity-based criteria for the evaluation of textile wastewater treatment efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordova Rosa, E V; Simionatto, E L; de Souza Sierra, M M; Bertoli, S L; Radetski, C M

    2001-04-01

    Brazilian textile mills import wastewater treatment technologies, performances of which are generally evaluated only on a physicochemical basis. Thus, a battery of bioassays was used to evaluate the performance of an ozonation system to treat textile effluents. Comparative toxicological profiles for bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), algae (Scenedesmus subspicatus), daphnia (Daphnia magna), fish (Poecilia reticulata), and plants (soybean--Glycine max, rice--Oryza sativa, and wheat--Triticum aestivum), as well as genotoxic effects (Vicia faba micronucleus assay), are presented for both raw and ozonated textile effluents. The relative sensitivity of bioassays (or end points) to textile effluents found in this study in decreasing order was plant enzymes > bacteria > algae daphnids approximately = plant biomass approximately = germination rate > fish. No significant genotoxic effect was found. We have concluded that ozonation was relatively effective in reducing toxicity of textile effluents. Bioassays used in this study proved to be sensitive and reliable tools for determining the toxicity of industrial effluents, and thus they can be used to evaluate emerging technology efficiency.

  19. Cerebral Reorganization in Subacute Stroke Survivors after Virtual Reality-Based Training: A Preliminary Study

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang Xiao; Qiang Lin; Wai-Leung Lo; Yu-Rong Mao; Xin-chong Shi; Cates, Ryan S.; Shu-Feng Zhou; Dong-Feng Huang; Le Li

    2017-01-01

    Background Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a promising method for quantifying brain recovery and investigating the intervention-induced changes in corticomotor excitability after stroke. This study aimed to evaluate cortical reorganization subsequent to virtual reality-enhanced treadmill (VRET) training in subacute stroke survivors. Methods Eight participants with ischemic stroke underwent VRET for 5 sections per week and for 3 weeks. fMRI was conducted to quantify the activit...

  20. Evaluation of ability of reference toxicity tests to identify stress in laboratory populations of the amphipod Hyalella azteca

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, E.W.; Dwyer, F.J.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Greer, E.I.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Rabeni, C.F.

    1999-01-01

    Standard methods for conducting toxicity tests imply that the condition of test organisms can be established using reference toxicity tests. However, only a limited number of studies have evaluated whether reference toxicity tests can actually be used to determine if organisms are in good condition at the start of a test. We evaluated the ability of reference toxicants to identify stress associated with starvation in laboratory populations of the amphipod Hyalella azteca using acute toxicity tests and four reference toxicants: KCl, CdCl2, sodium pentachlorophenate (NaPCP), and carbaryl. Stress associated with severe starvation was observed with exposure of amphipods to carbaryl or NaPCP but not with exposure to KCl or CdCl2 (i.e., lower LC50 with severe starvation). Although the LC50s for NaPCP and carbaryl were statistically different between starved and fed amphipods, this difference may not be biologically significant given the variability expected in acute lethality tests. Stress associated with sieving, heat shock, or cold shock of amphipods before the start of a test was not evident with exposure to carbaryl or KCl as reference toxicants. The chemicals evaluated in this study provided minimal information about the condition of the organisms used to start a toxicity test. Laboratories should periodically perform reference toxicity tests to assess the sensitivity of life stages or strains of test organisms. However, use of other test acceptability criteria required in standard methods such as minimum survival, growth, or reproduction of organisms in the control treatment at the end of a test, provides more useful information about the condition of organisms used to start a test compared to data generated from reference toxicity tests.

  1. Clinical profile of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Muhammad; Naz, Farrah; Malik, Akbar; Hamid, Haroon

    2008-08-01

    To describe the clinical manifestations of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in children. Case series. This study was conducted in the Department of Neurology at The Children's Hospital and the Institute of Child Health, Lahore, from April 2005 to April 2007. Fifty patients were diagnosed as subacute sclerosing panencephalitis during the study period. Their diagnosis was based on a detailed history, clinical examination, presence of antimeasles antibodies in Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) and typical electroencephalogram (EEG). The findings were described as average, mean and percentages. Fifty patients were included in this study. The average age of the patients was 8 years. Thirty-eight (76%) were males and 12 (24%) were females. The average duration of symptoms before presentation was 66.72 days. History of measles infection was present in 31 patients (62%) and measles vaccination in 43 patients (86%). Motor regression was present in all (100%) patients and cognition decline in 43 patients (86%). Seizures were focal (10%), generalized tonicclonic (16%) and myoclonic (74%). Burst-suppression pattern Electroencephalogram (EEG) and the antimeasles antibody in CSF were positive in 100% of patients. SSPE is an indicator of high incidence of measles infection among the paediatric population even among vaccinated children. Males are more common sufferers. SSPE can present with different types of seizures, cognition decline and motor regression being supported by suggestive EEG and presence of anti-measles antibodies in CSF.

  2. Outcome determinants of subacute low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, Kaija; Malmivaara, Antti; Mutanen, Pertti; Pohjolainen, Timo; Roine, Risto; Hurri, Heikki

    2003-12-01

    Descriptive prognostic study. To identify outcome determinants of subacute low back pain. The factors predicting recovery from prolonged back pain among working adults are largely unknown. One hundred sixty-four employed patients with subacute (duration of pain 4-12 weeks) daily low back pain were recruited from primary health care to a randomized study. Data on potential predictive factors were collected before randomization. In multiple regressions using repeated measures analysis, the treatment received was adjusted when determining the impact of the predictive factors. Dependent outcome variables used were pain, perceived functional disability, generic health-related quality of life, satisfaction with care, days on sick leave, use of health care, and costs of health care consumption measured, at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. Age and intensity of pain at baseline predicted most of the outcomes. The perceived risk of not recovering was a stronger determinant of outcome than gender, education, or self-rated health status (which did not have any predictive value) or body mass index, expectations of treatment effect, satisfaction with work, or the presence of radicular symptoms below the knee (only slight predictive value). The only factors predicting the duration of sick leave were the duration of sick leave at baseline and the type of occupation. Age and intensity of pain are the strongest predictors of outcome. Accumulation of days on sick leave is predicted by the duration of sick leave at entry and the type of work, but not by pain, perceived disability, or satisfaction with work.

  3. Evaluation of sediment toxicity in different Portuguese estuaries: Ecological impact of metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafim, A.; Company, R.; Lopes, B.; Pereira, C.; Cravo, A.; Fonseca, V. F.; França, S.; Bebianno, M. J.; Cabral, H. N.

    2013-09-01

    Estuaries are exposed to multiple sources of different pollutants which tend to be trapped in sediments. Estuarine sediments can become reservoirs of contaminants that under certain circumstances may be released back to the water column, increasing their availability to the biota. Therefore, assessing sediment quality, of which toxicity testing is one of the lines-of-evidence, is a key element in ecological risk assessment strategies for these ecosystems. The use of Vibrio fischeri as luminescence bacteria is particularly effective in evaluating contaminated sediment. In this study, the ecotoxicity of sediments from five Portuguese estuaries (Aveiro, Tejo, Sado, Mira and Guadiana), was evaluated with a bioassay considering the 50% bioluminescence reduction of V. fischeri bacterium (EC50). Also, the levels of metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contaminants (PAHs) were determined in the same sites. Moreover the Sediment Quality Guideline Quotient index (SQG-Q) was assessed for all sediments. The EC50 values varied significantly between estuaries but were strongly correlated with the metal concentrations in the different sites. In general Tejo estuary show higher toxicity levels compared to the other estuaries (5-min EC50 values of 5.6 mg mL-1). The integration of sediment contamination data shows that regarding the metallic contamination all sites are moderately impacted, with a higher SQG-Q in the Tejo estuary. On the other hand, when this index is applied to the PAHs levels, all sites are considered unimpacted. This suggests that metal contaminants are the most significant cause of toxicity in these sediments. Nevertheless, other factors can be relevant for this outcome due to the geochemical complexity of estuarine sediments (which affects contaminant speciation and bioavailability) and probably the presence of multiple xenobiotics in these sediments.

  4. Toxicity evaluation of new agricultural fungicides in primary cultured cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regueiro, Jorge; Olguín, Nair; Simal-Gándara, Jesús; Suñol, Cristina

    2015-07-01

    Fungicides are crucial for food protection as well as for the production of crops of suitable quality and quantity to provide a viable economic return. Like other pesticides, fungicides are widely sprayed on agricultural land, especially in wine-growing areas, from where they can move-off after application. Furthermore, residues of these agrochemicals can remain on crops after harvest and even after some food processing operations, being a major exposure pathway. Although a relatively low toxicity has been claimed for this kind of compounds, information about their neurotoxicity is still scarce. In the present study, nine fungicides recently approved for agricultural uses in the EU - ametoctradin, boscalid, cyazofamid, dimethomorph, fenhexamid, kresoxim-methyl, mepanipyrim, metrafenone and pyraclostrobin - have been evaluated for their toxicity in primary cultured mouse cortical neurons. Exposure to 0.1-100µM for 7 days in vitro resulted in a dose-dependent toxicity in the MTT cell viability assay. Strobilurin fungicides kresoxim-methyl (KR) and pyraclostrobin (PY) were the most neurotoxic compounds (lethal concentration 50 were in the low micromolar and nanomolar levels, respectively) causing a rapid raise in intracellular calcium [Ca(2+)]i and strong depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential. KR- and PY-induced cell death was reversed by the calcium channels blockers MK-801 and verapamil, suggesting that calcium entry through NMDA receptors and voltage-operated calcium channels are involved in KR- and PY-induced neurotoxicity. These results highlight the need for further evaluation of their neurotoxic effects in vivo. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of ATC as an Orally Administered Drug in Treatment of Cadmium Toxicity of Rat Organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nabilaldine Fatemi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of N-tetramethylene dithiocarbamate (ATC as a chelating agent on the excretion of cadmium was evaluated in cadmium-poisoned Wistar rats following administration through food and drink. The present research aimed to characterize the potential efficiency of ATC as an orally administered chelator drug after cadmium administration for 60 days. This chelator significantly enhanced the urinary and biliary excretion of cadmium and restored the altered levels of iron. Cadmium and iron concentrations in different tissues were determined by graphite furnace and flame atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS and F AAS methods, respectively. The chelation therapy results show that ATC is able to remove cadmium ions from different tissues while iron concentration returned to the normal level and the clinical symptoms were also reduced. In summary, we conclude that ATC is able to mobilize and promote the excretion of cadmium in rat organs and reduce the side effects and general symptoms of toxicity caused by cadmium and might be useful for preliminary testing of the efficacy of chelating agents in human body. However, these results should be confirmed in different experimental models before extrapolation to other systems. This testing procedure of course does not provide all the relevant answers for evaluating the efficiency of chelating agents in cadmium toxicity.

  6. The effectiveness and cost-evaluation of manual therapy and physical therapy in patients with sub-acute and chronic non specific neck pain. Rationale and design of a Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Assen Luite

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Manual Therapy applied to patients with non specific neck pain has been investigated several times. In the Netherlands, manual therapy as applied according to the Utrecht School of Manual Therapy (MTU has not been the subject of a randomized controlled trial. MTU differs in diagnoses and treatment from other forms of manual therapy. Methods/Design This is a single blind randomized controlled trial in patients with sub-acute and chronic non specific neck pain. Patients with neck complaints existing for two weeks (minimum till one year (maximum will participate in the trial. 180 participants will be recruited in thirteen primary health care centres in the Netherlands. The experimental group will be treated with MTU during a six week period. The control group will be treated with physical therapy (standard care, mainly active exercise therapy, also for a period of six weeks. Primary outcomes are Global Perceived Effect (GPE and functional status (Neck Disability Index (NDI-DV. Secondary outcomes are neck pain (Numeric Rating Scale (NRS, Eurocol, costs and quality of life (SF36. Discussion This paper presents details on the rationale of MTU, design, methods and operational aspects of the trial. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00713843

  7. Single fiber electromyography. A method for the evaluation of motor axonopathy during toxicity studies in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeppi, U; Teste, M; Siegenthaler, U

    1981-11-01

    In man, single fiber electromyography is used as a very sensitive indicator for the assessment of functional changes in motor nerves. The purpose of the present study was to adapt the above testing procedure to allow repeated investigations of dogs used in subchronic toxicity tests. Experiments were performed on anesthetized pure-bred beagle dogs. Action potentials from single muscle fibers in response to electrical stimulation of motor nerves were recorded with Medelec microelectrodes, amplified with a Medelec system and monitored on a Tektronic oscilloscope. Repeated electrical stimulation with pulses of 0.03 msec and 1 p.p.s. produced characteristic action potentials of single muscle fibers consisting of a positive, followed by a negative, deflection having a duration of from 500 to 800 microseconds altogether. Successive potentials occurred with a variable latency (the jitter) ranging from +/- 5 to 15 microseconds. Quantitative evaluation of the jitter will allow the clinical evaluation of motor axonopathies in dogs.

  8. CT Findings in Acute, Subacute, and Chronic Ischemic Colitis: Suggestions for Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Iacobellis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This paper aims at evaluating CT findings of occlusive and nonocclusive ischemic colitis (IC, in correlation with the etiology and the different phases of the disease. Materials and Methods. CT examination and clinical history of 32 patients with proven IC were retrospectively reviewed. The CT findings were analyzed according to the different phases of the disease (acute, subacute, and chronic. Results. Among the 32 CT examinations performed in the acute phase, 62.5% did not present signs of occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA or inferior mesenteric artery (IMA, whereas IMA occlusion was detected in 37.5% of CT examinations. In the acute phase, the presence of pericolic fluid was found in 100% of patients undergoing progressive resorption from acute to subacute phase if an effective reperfusion occurred; the bowel wall thickening was observed in 28.1% patients in acute phase and in 86.4% patients evaluated in subacute phase. The unthickened colonic wall was found in all conditions where ischemia was not followed by effective reperfusion (71.9% of cases, and it was never found in chronic phase, when the colon appeared irregularly thickened. Conclusion. CT allows determining the morphofunctional alterations associated with the IC discriminating the occlusive forms from the nonocclusive forms. CT, furthermore, allows estimating the timing of ischemic damage.

  9. [Use of infusoria Paramecium caudatum for the evaluation of the toxicity of antigens of different causative quarantine agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukova, S I; Adel'shin, F K; Khrapova, N P; Piven', N N; Proshina, O B; Zasiadkina, A V; Plekhanova, N G; Avrorova, I V

    2005-01-01

    The results of the evaluation of the toxicity of bacterial antigens obtained from the causative agents of plaque, glanders, melioidosis, cholera on infusoria of the species P. caudatum, as well as on cell lines L-929, CHO K-1 and peritoneal macrophages of BALB/c mice, are presented. As revealed in this study, the method of toxicity determination on infusoria is similar in its sensitivity to the methods of testing on. CHO K-1 and L-929 cells, but the former is simpler, more available and permits the determination of toxic doses producing disturbances in the vital activity of the infusoria, but not leading to their death.

  10. Effects of myofascial technique in patients with subacute whiplash associated disorders: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picelli, A; Ledro, G; Turrina, A; Stecco, C; Santilli, V; Smania, N

    2011-12-01

    Whiplash associated disorders commonly affect people after a motor vehicle accident, causing a variety of disabling manifestations. Some manual and physical approaches have been proposed to improve myofascial function after traumatic injuries, in order to effectively reduce pain and functional limitation. To evaluate whether the application of the Fascial Manipulation© technique could be more effective than a conventional approach to improve cervical range of motion in patients with subacute whiplash associated disorders. Pilot randomized clinical trial. Eighteen patients with subacute whiplash associated disorders were randomized into two groups. Group A (N.=9) received three, 30-minute sessions, (every five days during a two week period) of neck Fascial Manipulation©. Group B (N.=9) received ten, 30-minute sessions (five days a week for two consecutive weeks) of neck exercises plus mobilization. Patients were evaluated before, immediately after and two weeks post-treatment. cervical active range of motion (flexion, extension, right lateral-flexion, left lateral-flexion, right rotation, and left rotation). A statistically significant improvement in neck flexion was found after treatment in favour of Group A (60.2±10.8°) compared with Group B (46.3±15.1°). No differences were found between groups for the other primary outcomes at post-treatment or follow-up. The Fascial Manipulation© technique may be a promising method to improve cervical range of motion in patients with subacute whiplash associated disorders. Myofascial techniques may be useful for improving treatment of subacute whiplash associated disorders also reducing their economic burden.

  11. Evaluation of the toxic potential of cefotaxime in the third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahul; Jyoti, Smita; Naz, Falaq; Siddique, Yasir Hasan

    2015-05-25

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the toxic potential of cefotaxime in the third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ)Bg(9). Cefotaxime at final concentration of 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 μg/ml was mixed in the diet and the larvae were exposed to the selected doses for 6, 12, 24, 48 h. The hsp70 expression, trypan blue exclusion test, in situ histochemical β-galactosidase activity, lipid peroxidation, total protein content, glutathione (GSH) content, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity, protein carbonyl content, caspase 3 and 9 activity, apoptotic index and comet assay were taken as parameters for the study. The larvae exposed to 40, 60 and 80 μg/ml for 12, 24 and 48 h showed a dose and duration dependent significant increase in the activity of β-galactosidase and lipid peroxidation but decrease in the total GSH content as compared to unexposed larvae. The decrease in protein content was observed in the larvae exposed to 40, 60 and 80 μg/ml of cefotaxime for 24 and 48 h. The larvae exposed to 40, 60 and 80 μg/ml of cefotaxime for 24 and 48 h showed a dose and duration dependent increase in the tissue damage, GST, caspase 3 and 9 activity, PC content, apoptosis and the DNA tail length (comet assay). The result suggests that the cefotaxime is toxic at 40, 60 and 80 μg/ml of doses for the third instar larvae of transgenic D. melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ)Bg(9). Cefotaxime at 10 and 20 μg/ml was not toxic for any duration of exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of reduced food intake on the parameters of toxicity evaluation in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Junya; Izumi, Tomoko; Sunouchi, Mana; Arima, Kazunori; Tsutsumi, Shunsuke

    2015-08-01

    It is crucial to evaluate the variations in the toxicity parameters in experimental animals during the development of new drugs. Reduced food intake has been reported to have an impact on the toxicity parameters in rats; however, there are few reports of such studies in dogs. The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of reduced food intake on the general toxicity parameters and their reversibility in dogs. Male beagle dogs were fed 300 g/day of diet for 12 weeks in the control group, and 150 g/day for the first 8 weeks and 200 g/day for the subsequent 4 weeks in the low feeding group. During the following 4-week recovery period, the amount of feeding was set at 300 g/day. There were no clinical changes in any of the dogs. The low feeding group showed a body weight loss of 9.0%, 16.7% and 14.3% relative to the pre-test values at Week 4, 8 and 12, respectively. The following changes from the pre-test values and/or the control group in the examined parameters were observed in this group: decreased heart rate, prolonged PR interval on the ECG, decreased leukocyte count, and increased serum free fatty acid and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase levels. Significant changes of these parameters were not observed any more during the recovery period. This fact supports biological or physiological reaction to reduced food intake. These results are considered to represent useful information for toxicologists to distinguish between the direct effects of drugs and the changes attributable to reduced food intake.

  13. Embryonic Zebrafish Model - A Well-Established Method for Rapidly Assessing the Toxicity of Homeopathic Drugs - Toxicity Evaluation of Homeopathic Drugs Using Zebrafish Embryo Model -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu R Gupta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Advancements in nanotechnology have led to nanoparticle (NP use in various fields of medicine. Although the potential of NPs is promising, the lack of documented evidence on the toxicological effects of NPs is concerning. A few studies have documented that homeopathy uses NPs. Unfortunately, very few sound scientific studies have explored the toxic effects of homeopathic drugs. Citing this lack of high-quality scientific evidence, regulatory agencies have been reluctant to endorse homeopathic treatment as an alternative or adjunct treatment. This study aimed to enhance our insight into the impact of commercially-available homeopathic drugs, to study the presence of NPs in those drugs and any deleterious effects they might have, and to determine the distribution pattern of NPs in zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio. Methods: Homeopathic dilutions were studied using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy with selected area electron diffraction (SAED. For the toxicity assessment on Zebrafish, embryos were exposed to a test solution from 4 - 6 hours post-fertilization, and embryos/larvae were assessed up to 5 days post-fertilization (dpf for viability and morphology. Toxicity was recorded in terms of mortality, hatching delay, phenotypic defects and metal accumulation. Around 5 dpf was found to be the optimum developmental stage for evaluation. Results: The present study aimed to conclusively prove the presence of NPs in all high dilutions of homeopathic drugs. Embryonic zebrafish were exposed to three homeopathic drugs with two potencies (30CH, 200CH during early embryogenesis. The resulting morphological and cellular responses were observed. Exposure to these potencies produced no visibly significant malformations, pericardial edema, and mortality and no necrotic and apoptotic cellular death. Conclusion: Our findings clearly demonstrate that no toxic effects were observed for these three homeopathic drugs at the potencies and

  14. Toxicity ranking and toxic mode of action evaluation of commonly used agricultural adjuvants on the basis of bacterial gene expression profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Nobels

    Full Text Available The omnipresent group of pesticide adjuvants are often referred to as "inert" ingredients, a rather misleading term since consumers associate this term with "safe". The upcoming new EU regulation concerning the introduction of plant protection products on the market (EC1107/2009 includes for the first time the demand for information on the possible negative effects of not only the active ingredients but also the used adjuvants. This new regulation requires basic toxicological information that allows decisions on the use/ban or preference of use of available adjuvants. In this study we obtained toxicological relevant information through a multiple endpoint reporter assay for a broad selection of commonly used adjuvants including several solvents (e.g. isophorone and non-ionic surfactants (e.g. ethoxylated alcohols. The used assay allows the toxicity screening in a mechanistic way, with direct measurement of specific toxicological responses (e.g. oxidative stress, DNA damage, membrane damage and general cell lesions. The results show that the selected solvents are less toxic than the surfactants, suggesting that solvents may have a preference of use, but further research on more compounds is needed to confirm this observation. The gene expression profiles of the selected surfactants reveal that a phenol (ethoxylated tristyrylphenol and an organosilicone surfactant (ethoxylated trisiloxane show little or no inductions at EC(20 concentrations, making them preferred surfactants for use in different applications. The organosilicone surfactant shows little or no toxicity and good adjuvant properties. However, this study also illustrates possible genotoxicity (induction of the bacterial SOS response for several surfactants (POEA, AE, tri-EO, EO FA and EO NP and one solvent (gamma-butyrolactone. Although the number of compounds that were evaluated is rather limited (13, the results show that the used reporter assay is a promising tool to rank commonly

  15. Evaluating the male and female reproductive toxicity of high-boiling petroleum substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, F Jay; Gray, Thomas M; Roberts, Linda G; Roth, Randy N; Nicolich, Mark J; Simpson, Barry J

    2013-11-01

    To meet the EPA HPV Chemical Challenge Program requirement for reproductive toxicity data on sponsored high-boiling petroleum substances (HBPS), an analysis was conducted using the results of 39 repeat-dose and 59 developmental rat dermal toxicity studies on HBPS samples spanning the boiling range of the sponsored substances, and the results of three one-generation reproductive toxicity studies on two samples spanning the concentration range of polycyclic aromatic compounds of sponsored substances. The analysis found little evidence of male or female reproductive tract toxicity based on histopathology, reproductive organ weight, and sperm parameters, and no evidence of effects on fertility, while significant developmental toxicity and/or systemic repeat-dose toxicity were frequently observed. Among 14 samples of HBPS tested in both repeat-dose toxicity and developmental toxicity studies, there were no studies in which an adverse reproductive tract finding occurred at a dose lower than that producing developmental toxicity or other adverse effects in repeat-dose toxicity studies. The current analysis supports the hypothesis that effects in developmental and/or repeat-dose toxicity studies of HBPS occur at doses lower than those that might affect fertility in rat one-generation reproductive studies. When adequate developmental and repeat-dose toxicity studies are available, a reproductive toxicity study of HBPS appears unnecessary. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Concurrent evaluation of general, immune, and genetic toxicity endpoints as part of an integrated testing strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schisler, Melissa R; Sura, Radhakrishna; Visconti, Nicolo R; Sosinski, Lindsay K; Murphy, Lynea A; LeBaron, Matthew J; Boverhof, Darrell R

    2014-08-01

    Integrated testing strategies involve the assessment of multiple endpoints within a single toxicity study and represent an important approach for reducing animal use and streamlining testing. The present study evaluated the ability to combine general, immune, and genetic toxicity endpoints into a single study. Specifically, this study evaluated the impact of sheep red blood cell (SRBC) immunization, as part of the T-cell dependent antibody response (TDAR) assay, on organ weights, micronuclei (MN) formation (bone marrow and peripheral blood), and the Comet assay response in the liver of female F344/DuCrl rats treated with cyclophosphamide (CP) a known immunosuppressive chemical and genotoxicant. For the TDAR assay, treatment with CP resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in the antibody response with a suppression of greater than 95% at the high dose. Injection with SRBC had no impact on evaluated organ weights, histopathology, hematology, and clinical chemistry parameters. Analysis of MN formation in bone marrow and peripheral blood revealed a dose-dependent increase in response to CP treatment. Injection with SRBC had no impact on the level of MN in control animals and did not alter the dose response of CP. There was a slight increase in liver DNA damage in response to CP as measured by the Comet assay; however, injection with SRBCs did not alter this endpoint. Overall these data provide strong support for the concurrent assessment of general, immune, and genetic toxicology endpoints within a single study as part of an integrated testing strategy approach. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis presenting as neuromyelitis optica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut, Tushar Premraj; Singh, Maneesh Kumar; Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Naphade, Pravin Umakant

    2012-12-14

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a slowly progressing inflammatory and degenerative disorder of the brain caused by a mutant measles virus. The diagnosis of SSPE is based on characteristic clinical and EEG findings (periodic complexes) and demonstration of elevated antibody titres against measles in cerebrospinal fluid. SSPE can have atypical clinical features at the onset. The authors here report a case of a 3-year-old child who presented with vision loss followed 15 months later by quadriparesis with bladder involvement. These clinical features resembled that of neuromyelitis optica. However, as the disease progressed, appearance of myoclonic jerks, periodic discharges on EEG and positive cerebrospinal fluid serology for measles led to the final diagnosis of SSPE.

  18. Basal ganglia lesions in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelson James Almeida

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The parieto-occipital region of the brain is the most frequently and severely affected in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE. The basal ganglia, cerebellum and corpus callosum are less commonly involved. We describe a patient with SSPE confirmed by neuropathology based on brain magnetic resonance imaging showing extensive basal ganglia involvement and no significant involvement of other cortical structures. Though rarely described in SSPE, clinicians should be aware of this involvement. SSPE should be kept in mind when changes in basal ganglia signal are seen on brain magnetic resonance imaging with or without involvement of other regions of the human brain to avoid erroneous etiological diagnosis of other pathologies causing rapidly progressive dementia.

  19. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis Presenting with Hemidystonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hepsen Mine Serin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a case of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE in an 11-year-old boy who presented with hemidystonia. Electroencephalogram (EEG revealed periodic epileptiform discharges which did not disappear with diazepam induction. His cranial magnetic resonance imaging was normal. SSPE diagnosis was considered and it was confirmed with the identification of measles antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid. SSPE is a progressive disease. Hemidystonia is not an expected presentation of SSPE. We aimed to emphasize that SSPE may present with different clinical findings such as hemidystonia. (The Me­di­cal Bul­le­tin of Ha­se­ki 2014; 52: 137-9

  20. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and chronic viral encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anlar, Banu

    2013-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a chronic infection of the central nervous system associated with the presence of mutant measles virus in the brain. It presents as a progressive, usually fatal disease. The diagnosis is based on clinical criteria and an elevated titer of measles antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Electroencephalography and imaging studies provide supportive laboratory data. A brain biopsy is indicated only when CSF serology is negative or equivocal in a suspected case to assess the presence of inclusion bodies, measles virus antigens, or viral RNA. Among many drugs and methods tried in the treatment, the highest rate of stabilization or improvement was obtained with intraventricular human lymphoblastoid interferon-α and oral inosiplex. Further research for more available and efficient therapeutic regimens is warranted. Measles and SSPE are preventable by maintenance of high rates of immunization in the population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus presenting as poikiloderma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hughes, R

    2012-02-01

    Subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE) is a recognised variant of lupus erythematosus (LE), which accounts for 10-15% of all cases of cutaneous LE, occurring most commonly in young to middle-aged white women. Diagnosis is based on the detection of anti-Ro\\/SS-A antibodies in the skin and serum, characteristic clinical and histological cutaneous involvement, and relatively mild systemic involvement. Several unusual variants of SCLE have been reported including erythrodermic SCLE, SCLE with vitiligo-like lesions, acral SCLE and bullous SCLE. Poikoilodermatous SCLE is a recognised but rare variant of SCLE. There are currently only two case reports, comprising five individual cases, in the literature. We present a case of SCLE in which the main clinical findings were an extensive photodistributed poikilodermatous rash and alopecia.

  2. An evaluation of cause-effect relationships between polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and sediment toxicity to benthic invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchsman, Phyllis C; Barber, Timothy R; Lawton, Jennifer C; Leigh, Katrina B

    2006-10-01

    Cause-effect sediment-quality benchmarks for the protection of benthic invertebrates are needed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to support predictive risk assessments and retrospective evaluations of the causes of observed sediment toxicity. An in-depth evaluation of PCB aquatic toxicity and organic carbon partitioning was conducted to predict sediment effect concentrations using the equilibrium partitioning (EqP) approach. This evaluation was limited to invertebrate toxicity data, because PCBs may exert toxicity to invertebrates and fish via different toxicological mechanisms. As a result of differences in organic carbon partitioning among PCBs of differing levels of chlorination, the estimated EqP benchmarks increase with increasing degree of chlorination for various commercial and environmental PCB mixtures. Studies of spiked sediment toxicity using PCBs were reviewed, and their results generally were consistent with EqP predictions. Additionally, toxicity and benthic community data were reviewed for eight PCB-contaminated sites; these data also showed agreement with EqP predictions. None of these lines of evidence supports previously proposed, empirical sediment-quality guidelines for PCBs. Reasons for the lack of agreement between cause-effect and association-based benchmarks are discussed, and areas of future research to further refine EqP predictions for PCBs are identified.

  3. Evaluation of the sub-chronic toxicity of a standardized flavonoid extract of safflower in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhilin; Liu, Runzhe; Pu, Xiaoping; Sun, Yi; Zhao, Xin

    2017-04-01

    Carthamus tinctorius L., or safflower, is an annual herbaceous crop belonging to the family Asteraceae, which is cultivated throughout China and used as a traditional Chinese medicine. Our previous study revealed anti-Parkinson's disease effects of an isolated standardized safflower flavonoid extract (SAFE). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential sub-chronic toxicity of SAFE. Male and female Sprague Dawley rats received three doses of SAFE (100, 300, and 500 mg/kg) q.d. by gavage for four weeks. Body weights were measured during the experiment, and blood samples were collected once per week for hematological and serum biochemical parameters. Major organs were examined after execution and histopathological analyses were performed. Body weight gain in the administration groups showed no decline compared to the control group. However, there were changes in values of aspartate transaminase (p < 0.05), alanine transaminase (p < 0.05), and blood glucose (p < 0.05) between treatments. SAFE influenced parameters related to platelets in rats receiving SAFE for both sexes under different dosages (p < 0.05). No histopathological changes were observed. SAFE might have influence on conglomeration of platelets, transaminases, and blood glucose. SAFE caused no significant toxicity and further studies may be needed to ensure safety of SAFE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of resistance to Al toxicity in wild graminae of acid meadows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Poozesh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In acid soils, aluminium toxicity is the primary factor limiting crop and forage production. At soil pH < 5.0, Al solubility increases and Al appears to be rhizotoxic. The objectives of the present study were to compare Al tolerance among wild graminae of acid meadows and to evaluate the relation between a plant functional trait and the Al resistance, in nutrient solution. In addition, a sensitive Lolium perenne variety was included as a control. There was a great difference among the graminaceous species tested, when compared by relative root elongation and critical Al activity corresponding to 50% root elongation reduction. The {Al 3+}50 activities were 3, 13 , 14 et 26 µM for Lolium perenne, Molinia coerulea, Holcus lanatus and Danthonia decumbens, respectively. No relation was found between the functional trait leaf dry matter content (LDMC and Al resistance. Holcus lanatus, tolerant to Al toxicity, with a low LDMC, would deserve a further study of its nutritional qualities for cattle. The very tolerant D. decumbens, with a high LDMC, would present an interest for a later study of the mechanisms of tolerance to Al and possibly, for other applications like the protection of the very acid soils against erosion.

  5. Evaluation of the toxic effect of star fruit on serum biochemical parameters in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Z Y; Teh, C C; Rao, N K; Chin, J H

    2010-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the toxic effect of Averrhoa carambola (star fruit) juice at different storage conditions in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Twenty female rats weighing 180 +/- 20 g were randomly assigned into four groups with five rats per group (n = 5). First group served as the control group, fed with distilled water (vehicle). Second, third and fourth groups were orally treated with juice of A. carambola stored for 0, 1 and 3 h respectively for 14 days. Cage-side observations were done daily after each treatment. Body weight, food consumption and water intake were recorded on day-0, day-3, day-7 and day-14. All rats were fasted overnight prior to blood collection through cardiac puncture on day-15. The levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), urea and creatinine in blood serum were measured. Data were analyzed using Dunnett's test. From the results obtained, there was no lethality found and LD(50) could not be determined. Increment of ALT levels (Pcarambola juice stored for 3 h. On the basis of these results, we can conclude that A. carambola juice stored for 0 hand 1 h are safe to be consumed. However, juice stored for 3 h exerts toxic effect on rat liver at hepatocellular level.

  6. In Vitro Evaluation of the Ophthalmic Toxicity Profile of Chlorhexidine and Propamidine Isethionate Eye Drops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Ferreiro, Anxo; Santiago-Varela, María; Gil-Martínez, María; González-Barcia, Miguel; Luaces-Rodríguez, Andrea; Díaz-Tome, Victoria; Pardo, María; Méndez, José Blanco; Piñeiro-Ces, Antonio; Rodríguez-Ares, María Teresa; Lamas, Maria Jesus; Otero-Espinar, Francisco J

    2017-04-01

    Acanthamoeba keratitis causes frequent epithelial lesions that fully expose the corneal stroma. The aim of this study was to determine the toxic profile of chlorhexidine and propamidine eye drops. We used primary human keratocytes in cell culture in combination with a novel technology that evaluates dynamic real-time cytotoxicity through impedance analysis. Additional studies such as a classic cell viability test (WST-1®), a bovine corneal opacity and permeability assay, and an irritation eye study (Hen's Egg Test [HET]) have been made. Both eye drop formulations showed a time- and concentration-dependent toxicity profile, in which long periods and high concentrations were more detrimental to cells. In prolonged times of exposure, propamidine is more harmful to cells than chlorhexidine. On the contrary, no irritation has been detected in using the HET-chorioallantoic membrane test and no alterations in the corneal transparency nor permeability was produced by the treatment with both eye drops. In culture assay, chlorhexidine eye drops have proven to be less cytotoxic than Brolene® for a long contact period of time, but no signs of irritation or alterations in transparency or permeability have been observed in the cornea after both treatments.

  7. Evaluation of the toxicity and hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous extracts of Cnidoscolus quercifolius Pohl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Lira

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic degenerative diseases, and it is estimated to increase worldwide to around 415 million and to impact 642 million in 2040. Research shows that some plants are sources of bioactive compounds against diabetes. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the oral toxicity and the hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous extract of the leaves of Cnidoscolus quercifolius Pohl. Diabetes was induced in Swiss mice with streptozotocin and the mice were treated with an aqueous extract of C. quercifolius leaves for a period of 30 days. Phytochemical analysis showed that the extract was rich in flavonoids, catechins and triterpenoid, which did not show any mortality and behavioral alterations in mice treated with 200, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg body weight of the extract for 14 days. Histopathological analysis of organs (kidney, pancreas, liver from mice treated with the 2000 mg/kg extract revealed no architectural change. In the present study, we found a 29% reduction in glucose levels in animals receiving 200 mg/kg body weight. These results are very promising because they showed that C. quercifolius had a hypoglycemic effect and did not present oral toxicity, thus being a new source of compounds for the control of diabetes.

  8. Evaluating the Spatial Distribution of Toxic Air Contaminants in Multiple Ecosystem Indicators in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanus, L.; Simonich, S. L.; Rocchio, J.; Flanagan, C.

    2013-12-01

    Toxic air contaminants originating from agricultural areas of the Central Valley in California threaten vulnerable sensitive receptors including surface water, vegetation, snow, sediments, fish, and amphibians in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region. The spatial distribution of toxic air contaminants in different ecosystem indicators depends on variation in atmospheric concentrations and deposition, and variation in air toxics accumulation in ecosystems. The spatial distribution of organic air toxics and mercury at over 330 unique sampling locations and sample types over two decades (1990-2009) in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region were compiled and maps were developed to further understand spatial patterns and linkages between air toxics deposition and ecological effects. Potential ecosystem impacts in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region include bioaccumulation of air toxics in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, reproductive disruption, and immune suppression. The most sensitive ecological end points in the region that are affected by bioaccumulation of toxic air contaminants are fish. Mercury was detected in all fish and approximately 6% exceeded human consumption thresholds. Organic air toxics were also detected in fish yielding variable spatial patterns. For amphibians, which are sensitive to pesticide exposure and potential immune suppression, increasing trends in current and historic use pesticides are observed from north to south across the region. In other indicators, such as vegetation, pesticide concentrations in lichen increase with increasing elevation. Current and historic use pesticides and mercury were also observed in snowpack at high elevations in the study area. This study shows spatial patterns in toxic air contaminants, evaluates associated risks to sensitive receptors, and identifies data gaps. Future research on atmospheric modeling and information on sources is needed in order to predict which ecosystems are the

  9. Subacute transverse myelitis with Lyme profile dissociation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajjan, Mohammed

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Transverse myelitis is a very rare neurologic syndrome with an incidence per year of 1-5 per million population. We are presenting an interesting case of subacute transverse myelitis with its MRI (magnetic resonance imaging and CSF (cerebrospinal fluid findings. Case: A 46-year-old African-American woman presented with decreased sensation in the lower extremities which started three weeks ago when she had a 36-hour episode of sore throat. She reported numbness up to the level just below the breasts. Lyme disease antibodies total IgG (immunoglobulin G and IgM (immunoglobulin M in the blood was positive. Antinuclear antibody profile was within normal limits. MRI of the cervical spine showed swelling in the lower cervical cord with contrast enhancement. Cerebrospinal fluid was clear with negative Borrelia Burgdorferi IgG and IgM. Herpes simplex, mycoplasma, coxiella, anaplasma, cryptococcus and hepatitis B were all negative. No oligoclonal bands were detected. Quick improvement ensued after she was given IV Ceftriaxone for 7 days. The patient was discharged on the 8th day in stable condition. She continued on doxycycline for 21 days. Conclusions: Transverse myelitis should be included in the differential diagnosis of any patient presenting with acute or subacute myelopathy in association with localized contrast enhancement in the spinal cord especially if flu-like prodromal symptoms were reported. Lyme disease serology is indicated in patients with neurological symptoms keeping in mind that dissociation in Lyme antibody titers between the blood and the CSF is possible.

  10. Subacute Thyroiditis Developed in Identical Twins Two Years Apart

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    HAMAGUCHI, Erika; NISHIMURA, Yasuyuki; KANEKO, Shuichi; TAKAMURA, Toshinari

    2005-01-01

    .... Subacute thyroiditis was diagnosed and prednisone was administered. Two years later, her identical twin sister, who lives separately, was referred to our hospital because of neck pain, low-grade fever, and palpitation...

  11. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis of the Brainstem as a Clinical Entity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pavan S. Upadhyayula; Jason Yang; John K. Yue; Joseph D. Ciacci

    2017-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare progressive neurological disorder of early adolescence caused by persistent infection of the measles virus, which remains prevalent worldwide despite an effective vaccine...

  12. Angiosarcoma of the Heart Presenting as Subacute Pericarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Alexandra L; Wilklow, Frank E; Olivier, John J; Joseph, Georges J; Glancy, David Luke

    2017-03-15

    A young woman, who presented with what appeared to be subacute pericarditis, was found to have primary angiosarcoma of the heart, a condition that is nearly always fatal regardless of the therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Early Evolution of the Toxicity Identification Evaluation Process: Contributions from the USEPA Effluent Testing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of its whole effluent testing program, the USEPA developed an effects-directed analysis (EDA) approach to identifying the cause of toxicity in toxic effluents or ambient waters, an EDA process termed a “Toxicity Identification Evaluation” (TIE), which is the focus of this...

  14. Using a Sediment Quality Triad approach to evaluate benthic toxicity in the Lower Hackensack River, New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Mary T; Conder, Jason M; Fuchsman, Phyllis C; Martello, Linda B; Wenning, Richard J

    2007-07-01

    A Sediment Quality Triad (SQT) study consisting of chemical characterization in sediment, sediment toxicity and bioaccumulation testing, and benthic community assessments was performed in the Lower Hackensack River, New Jersey. Chemistry data in sediment and porewater were evaluated based on the equilibrium partitioning approach and other published information to investigate the potential for chemical effects on benthic organisms and communities. Relationships were supported by laboratory toxicity and bioaccumulation experiments to characterize chemical effects and bioavailability. Benthic community results were evaluated using a regional, multimetric benthic index of biotic integrity and four heterogeneity indices. Evidence of slight benthic community impairment was observed in five of nine sediment sample stations. Severe lethal toxicity to amphipods (Leptocheirus plumulosus) occurred in four of these five stations. Although elevated total chromium concentrations in sediment (as high as 1900 mg/kg) were the rationale for conducting the investigation, toxicity was strongly associated with concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) rather than total chromium. PAH toxic units (SigmaPAH TU) in sediment and SigmaPAH concentrations in laboratory organisms from the bioaccumulation experiment showed a clear dose-response relationship with toxicity, with 0% survival observed in sediments in which SigmaPAH TU > 1-2 and SigmaPAH concentrations in Macoma nasuta were >2 micromol/g, lipid weight. Metals detected in sediment and porewater, with the possible exception of copper, did not correlate with either toxicity or levels in tissue, likely because acid-volatile sulfide levels exceeded concentrations of simultaneous extracted metals at all sample locations. The study reinforces the value of using multiple lines of evidence approaches such as the SQT and the importance of augmenting chemical and biological analyses with modeling and/or other approaches to

  15. Subacute cannabinoid treatment: anticonvulsant activity and withdrawal excitability in mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Karler, R.; Turkanis, S. A.

    1980-01-01

    1 The effects of subacute treatment with cannabidiol, delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 9-THC), phenytoin and phenobarbitone on anticonvulsant activity and on withdrawal excitability in mice were compared in three electrically induced seizure-threshold tests. 2 In the maximal electroshock-threshold test, subacute treatment did not alter the anticonvulsant activity of cannabidiol, phenytoin or phenobarbitone, but tolerance developed to delta 9-THC. 3 In the 60 Hz electroshock-threshold test,...

  16. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: brain stem involvement in a peculiar pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senol, U. [Akdeniz University, Antalya (Turkey). Faculty of Medicine; Haspolat, S. [Akdeniz University, Antalya (Turkey). Dept. of Child Neurology; Cevikol, C. [Akdeniz University, Antalya (Turkey). Dept. of Radiodiagnostics; Saatci, I. [Hacettepe University (Turkey). Medical Faculty

    2000-12-01

    The most common pattern in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, is in the cerebral hemisphere white matter on T2-weighted images with or without atrophy. Brain-stem lesions are rare. We report brain-stem involvement in two children with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. A peculiar pattern, with involvement of the pons with extension to both middle cerebellar peduncles and substantia nigra but sparing the pontine tegmentum, is suggested. (orig.)

  17. Biogenic silver nanoparticles based on trichoderma harzianum: synthesis, characterization, toxicity evaluation and biological activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilger, Mariana; Pasquoto-Stigliani, Tatiane; Bilesky-Jose, Natália; Grillo, Renato; Abhilash, P. C.; Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes; Lima, Renata De

    2017-03-01

    White mold is an agricultural disease caused by the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, which affects important crops. There are different ways of controlling this organism, but none provides inhibition of its resistance structures (sclerotia). Nanotechnology offers promising applications in agricultural area. Here, silver nanoparticles were biogenically synthesized using the fungus Trichoderma harzianum and characterized. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were evaluated, and the nanoparticles were initially tested against white mold sclerotia. Their effects on soybean were also investigated with no effects observed. The nanoparticles showed potential against S. sclerotiorum, inhibiting sclerotia germination and mycelial growth. Nanoparticle characterization data indicated spherical morphology, satisfactory polydispersity and size distribution. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity assays showed that the nanoparticles caused both the effects, although, the most toxic concentrations were above those applied for white mold control. Given the potential of the nanoparticles against S. sclerotiorum, we conclude that this study presents a first step for a new alternative in white mold control.

  18. The modified pulse-spray method using Urokinase in subacute and chronic thrombotic arterial occlusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Youn Kil; Hahn, Seong Tae; Baek, Jee Hee; Kim, Choon Yul; Shinn, Kyung Sub [The Catholic Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the modified pulse-spray method using Urokinase(UK) in subacute and chronic thrombotic arterial occlusion. Modified pulse-spray methods using UK were performed in seven patients with subacute (1 week-1month) to chronic (1month-5years) occlusive symptoms such as limb pain, claudication and impotence. Angiographic examination revealed thrombotic occlusion of the aorta, common iliac arteries, brachial arterio-venous hemodialysis graft and femoro-popliteal bypass graft. The patients underwent thrombolysis using modified pulse-spray and additional constant infusion of UK. In the presence of underlying stenosis or organized clots, balloon angioplasty or stent placement was performed. Complete lysis was obtained in five of seven patients. For initial lysis, the mean dose of UK was 420,000 units, and the mean modified pulse-spray time was 50 minutes. Mean total dose of UK and mean total time for complete lysis were 800,000 units and 161 minutes, respectively. Thrombolysis of the femoro-popliteal bypass graft failed due to severe occlusion of the distal anastomosis. Partial lysis was achieved in one patient with aorto-illac occlusion, but further thrombolysis was stopped due to bleeding at the puncture site. The modified pulse-spray method using UK is effective in treating subacute and chronic arterial thrombotic occlusion. It augments the speed, safety and efficacy of thrombolysis. When underlying stenosis or organized clots remain after thrombolysis, ballon angioplasty or stent placement would be helpful.

  19. Acetylcysteine in the treatment of subacute sinusitis: A double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahtouee, Mehrzad; Monavarsadegh, Gholamhosein; Ahmadipour, Mohammadjavad; Motieilangroodi, Mazyar; Motamed, Niloofar; Saberifard, Jamshid; Eghbali, Seyyedsajjad; Adibi, Hooman; Maneshi, Hesam; Malekizadeh, Hasan

    2017-01-01

    Sinusitis is a common disease with harmful effects on the health and finances of patients and the economy of the community. It is easily treated in most of its acute stages but is associated with some management difficulties as it goes toward chronicity. Therefore, we tried to improve the treatment of subacute sinusitis by using acetylcysteine, which is a safe mucolytic and antioxidant agent. Thirty-nine adult patients with subacute sinusitis proved by computed tomography (CT) were enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. They received oral amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and normal saline nasal drops for 10 days and oral pseudoephedrine for 7 days. In addition, the patients received acetylcysteine (600 mg orally, once daily) in the intervention group or placebo in the control group for 10 days. A paranasal CT scan was taken at baseline and 30 days after patients finished the treatment and was evaluated quantitatively by Lund-Mackay (LM) score. Symptoms and some aspects of quality of life also were assessed at baseline and 14 days after initiation and 30 days after termination of the treatment via the Sino-Nasal Outcome Test questionnaire. The groups showed no significant difference in LM score after treatment. A positive correlation was observed between the LM and SNOT-20 scores. We concluded that adding oral acetylcysteine to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, pseudoephedrine, and intranasal normal saline has no benefit for the treatment of subacute sinusitis.

  20. Serial diffusion-weighted imaging in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanemura, Hideaki; Aihara, Masao

    2008-06-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis may be associated with clinical features of frontal lobe dysfunction. We previously reported that frontal lobe volume falls significantly as clinical stage progresses, using three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging-based brain volumetry. The hypothesis that frontal volume increases correlate with clinical improvement, however, was not tested in our previous study. Therefore, we reevaluated our patient with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, to determine whether apparent diffusion coefficient maps can characterize the clinical course of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. We studied an 8-year-old boy with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, using serial diffusion-weighted imaging magnetic resonance imaging, and measured the regional apparent diffusion coefficient. The regional apparent diffusion coefficient of the frontal lobe decreased significantly with clinical progression, whereas it increased to within normal range during clinical improvements. The apparent diffusion coefficient of the other regions did not change. These results suggest that the clinical signs of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis are attributable to frontal lobe dysfunction, and that apparent diffusion coefficient measurements may be useful in predicting the clinical course of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

  1. Air toxics evaluation of ABB Combustion Engineering Low-Emission Boiler Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesnor, J.D. [ABB/Combustion Engineering, Inc., Windsor, CT (United States)

    1993-10-26

    The specific goals of the program are to identify air toxic compounds that might be emmitted from the new boiler with its various Air Pollution Control device for APCD alternatives in levels of regulatory concern. For the compounds thought to be of concern, potential air toxic control methodologies will be suggested and a Test Protocol will be written to be used in the Proof of Concept and full scale tests. The following task was defined: Define Replations and Standards; Identify Air Toxic Pollutants of Interest to Interest to Utility Boilers; Assesment of Air Toxic By-Products; State of the Art Assessment of Toxic By-Product Control Technologies; and Test Protocol Definition.

  2. Use of toxicity identification evaluations to determine the pesticide mitigation effectiveness of on-farm vegetated treatment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, John [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Department of Environmental Studies, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Marine Pollution Studies Laboratory, Granite Canyon, 34500 Highway 1, Monterey, CA 93940 (United States)], E-mail: jwhunt@ucdavis.edu; Anderson, Brian [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Marine Pollution Studies Laboratory, Granite Canyon, 34500 Highway 1, Monterey, CA 93940 (United States)], E-mail: anderson@ucdavis.edu; Phillips, Bryn [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Marine Pollution Studies Laboratory, Granite Canyon, 34500 Highway 1, Monterey, CA 93940 (United States)], E-mail: bmphillips@ucdavis.edu; Tjeerdema, Ron [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Marine Pollution Studies Laboratory, Granite Canyon, 34500 Highway 1, Monterey, CA 93940 (United States)], E-mail: rstjeerdema@ucdavis.edu; Largay, Bryan [Largay Hydrologic Sciences, LLC, 160 Farmer Street Felton, CA 95018-9416 (United States)], E-mail: bryan.largay@sbcglobal.net; Beretti, Melanie [Resources Conservation District of Monterey County, 744-A La Guardia Street, Salinas, CA 93905 (United States)], E-mail: beretti.melanie@rcdmonterey.org; Bern, Amanda [California Regional Water Quality Control Board, Central Coast Region, 895 Aerovista Place, Suite 101, San Luis Obispo, CA 93401 (United States)], E-mail: abern@waterboards.ca.gov

    2008-11-15

    Evidence of ecological impacts from pesticide runoff has prompted installation of vegetated treatment systems (VTS) along the central coast of California, USA. During five surveys of two on-farm VTS ponds, 88% of inlet and outlet water samples were toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia. Toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs) indicated water toxicity was caused by diazinon at VTS-1, and chlorpyrifos at VTS-2. Diazinon levels in VTS-1 were variable, but high pulse inflow concentrations were reduced through dilution. At VTS-2, chlorpyrifos concentrations averaged 52% lower at the VTS outlet than at the inlet. Water concentrations of most other pesticides averaged 20-90% lower at VTS outlets. All VTS sediment samples were toxic to amphipods (Hyalella azteca). Sediment TIEs indicated toxicity was caused by cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin at VTS-1, and chlorpyrifos and permethrin at VTS-2. As with water, sediment concentrations were lower at VTS outlets, indicating substantial reductions in farm runoff pesticide concentrations. - Toxicity identification evaluations identified key pesticides in agricultural runoff, and their concentrations were reduced by farmer-installed vegetated treatment systems.

  3. An Optical Biosensor from Green Fluorescent Escherichia coli for the Evaluation of Single and Combined Heavy Metal Toxicities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedi Futra

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A fluorescence-based fiber optic toxicity biosensor based on genetically modified Escherichia coli (E. coli with green fluorescent protein (GFP was developed for the evaluation of the toxicity of several hazardous heavy metal ions. The toxic metals include Cu(II, Cd(II, Pb(II, Zn(II, Cr(VI, Co(II, Ni(II, Ag(I and Fe(III. The optimum fluorescence excitation and emission wavelengths of the optical biosensor were 400 ± 2 nm and 485 ± 2 nm, respectively. Based on the toxicity observed under optimal conditions, the detection limits of Cu(II, Cd(II, Pb(II, Zn(II, Cr(VI, Co(II, Ni(II, Ag(I and Fe(III that can be detected using the toxicity biosensor were at 0.04, 0.32, 0.46, 2.80, 100, 250, 400, 720 and 2600 μg/L, respectively. The repeatability and reproducibility of the proposed biosensor were 3.5%–4.8% RSD (relative standard deviation and 3.6%–5.1% RSD (n = 8, respectively. The biosensor response was stable for at least five weeks, and demonstrated higher sensitivity towards metal toxicity evaluation when compared to a conventional Microtox assay.

  4. An optical biosensor from green fluorescent Escherichia coli for the evaluation of single and combined heavy metal toxicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futra, Dedi; Heng, Lee Yook; Ahmad, Asmat; Surif, Salmijah; Ling, Tan Ling

    2015-05-28

    A fluorescence-based fiber optic toxicity biosensor based on genetically modified Escherichia coli (E. coli) with green fluorescent protein (GFP) was developed for the evaluation of the toxicity of several hazardous heavy metal ions. The toxic metals include Cu(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), Zn(II), Cr(VI), Co(II), Ni(II), Ag(I) and Fe(III). The optimum fluorescence excitation and emission wavelengths of the optical biosensor were 400 ± 2 nm and 485 ± 2 nm, respectively. Based on the toxicity observed under optimal conditions, the detection limits of Cu(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), Zn(II), Cr(VI), Co(II), Ni(II), Ag(I) and Fe(III) that can be detected using the toxicity biosensor were at 0.04, 0.32, 0.46, 2.80, 100, 250, 400, 720 and 2600 μg/L, respectively. The repeatability and reproducibility of the proposed biosensor were 3.5%-4.8% RSD (relative standard deviation) and 3.6%-5.1% RSD (n = 8), respectively. The biosensor response was stable for at least five weeks, and demonstrated higher sensitivity towards metal toxicity evaluation when compared to a conventional Microtox assay.

  5. A systematic evaluation of chemicals in hydraulic-fracturing fluids and wastewater for reproductive and developmental toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Elise G; Ettinger, Adrienne S; Leaderer, Brian P; Bracken, Michael B; Deziel, Nicole C

    2017-01-01

    Hydraulic-fracturing fluids and wastewater from unconventional oil and natural gas development contain hundreds of substances with the potential to contaminate drinking water. Challenges to conducting well-designed human exposure and health studies include limited information about likely etiologic agents. We systematically evaluated 1021 chemicals identified in hydraulic-fracturing fluids (n=925), wastewater (n=132), or both (n=36) for potential reproductive and developmental toxicity to triage those with potential for human health impact. We searched the REPROTOX database using Chemical Abstract Service registry numbers for chemicals with available data and evaluated the evidence for adverse reproductive and developmental effects. Next, we determined which chemicals linked to reproductive or developmental toxicity had water quality standards or guidelines. Toxicity information was lacking for 781 (76%) chemicals. Of the remaining 240 substances, evidence suggested reproductive toxicity for 103 (43%), developmental toxicity for 95 (40%), and both for 41 (17%). Of these 157 chemicals, 67 had or were proposed for a federal water quality standard or guideline. Our systematic screening approach identified a list of 67 hydraulic fracturing-related candidate analytes based on known or suspected toxicity. Incorporation of data on potency, physicochemical properties, and environmental concentrations could further prioritize these substances for future drinking water exposure assessments or reproductive and developmental health studies.

  6. Synthesis and toxicity evaluation of hydrophobic ionic liquids for volatile organic compounds biodegradation in a two-phase partitioning bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Castillo, Alfredo Santiago [Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Rennes, CNRS, UMR 6226, 11 Allée de Beaulieu, CS 50837, 35708 Rennes Cedex 7 (France); Université européenne de Bretagne (France); Guihéneuf, Solène, E-mail: solene.guiheneuf@wanadoo.fr [Université européenne de Bretagne, Université de Rennes 1, Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, UMR, CNRS 6226, Groupe Ingénierie Chimique & Molécules Pour le Vivant (ICMV), Bât. 10A, Campus de Beaulieu, Avenue du Général Leclerc, CS 74205, 35042 Rennes cedex (France); Le Guével, Rémy [Plate-forme ImPACcell Structure Fédérative de Recherche BIOSIT Université de Rennes 1, Bat. 8, Campus de Villejean, 2 Avenue du Pr. Leon Bernard, CS 34317, 35043 Rennes Cedex (France); Biard, Pierre-François [Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Rennes, CNRS, UMR 6226, 11 Allée de Beaulieu, CS 50837, 35708 Rennes Cedex 7 (France); Université européenne de Bretagne (France); and others

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Description of a VOC depollution system suitable with industrial processes, TPPB. • Novel association of TPPB and hydrophobic ionic liquids. • Synthesis of several hydrophobic ionic liquids designed to fit desired properties. • Toxicity evaluation of these ILs towards cells, animals and bacteria. - Abstract: Synthesis of several hydrophobic ionic liquids (ILs), which might be selected as good candidates for degradation of hydrophobic volatile organic compounds in a two-phase partitioning bioreactor (TPPB), were carried out. Several bioassays were also realized, such as toxicity evaluation on activated sludge and zebrafish, cytotoxicity, fluoride release in aqueous phase and biodegradability in order to verify their possible effects in case of discharge in the aquatic environment and/or human contact during industrial manipulation. The synthesized compounds consist of alkylimidazoliums, functionalized imidazoliums, isoqinoliniums, triazoliums, sulfoniums, pyrrolidiniums and morpholiniums and various counter-ions such as: PF{sub 6}{sup −}, NTf{sub 2}{sup −} and NfO{sup −}. Toxicity evaluation on activated sludge of each compound (5% v/v of IL) was assessed by using a glucose uptake inhibition test. Toxicity against zebrafish and cytotoxicity were evaluated by the ImPACCell platform of Rennes (France). Fluoride release in water was estimated by regular measurements using ion chromatography equipment. IL biodegradability was determined by measuring BOD{sub 28} of aqueous samples (compound concentration,1 mM). All ILs tested were not biodegradable; while some of them were toxic toward activated sludge. Isoquinolinium ILs were toxic to human cancerous cell lines. Nevertheless no toxicity was found against zebrafish Danio rerio. Only one IL released fluoride after long-time agitation.

  7. Evaluation and structure-activity relationship study of acute toxicity of naphthoquinones to Photobacterium phosphoreum, Photobacterium T3B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Feng; Guo, Jing; Li, Zhen; Li, Li Ying; Zhang, Jin Yang; Zhang, Jin Hua; Lian, Jie; Song, Wen Hua; Zhu, Lin

    2010-08-01

    The acute toxicities of five naphthoquinone compounds to Photobacterium phosphoreum were determined. We evaluated the mechanism of toxicity using the structure-activity relationship technique. The results showed that some factors, including the species of substituents, shape/size of molecule and oil-water partition coefficient (log P) played the important roles in the interaction between the naphthoquinones and the target. Among of these, the toxicities of Atovaquone and Buparvaquone were lower than the other naphthoquinones we tested because of the alkyl-substitution with the bigger volume and strong hydrophobicity. Conversely, Menadione had the highest toxicity because of the appropriate log P and shape/size of molecule resulting in the easier interaction with the target.

  8. Automated evaluation of pharmaceutically active ionic liquids' (eco)toxicity through the inhibition of human carboxylesterase and Vibrio fischeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Susana P F; Justina, Vanessa D; Bica, Katharina; Vasiloiu, Maria; Pinto, Paula C A G; Saraiva, M Lúcia M F S

    2014-01-30

    The toxicity of 16 pharmaceutical active ionic liquids (IL-APIs) was evaluated by automated approaches based on sequential injection analysis (SIA). The implemented bioassays were centered on the inhibition of human carboxylesterase 2 and Vibrio fischeri, in the presence of the tested compounds. The inhibitory effects were quantified by calculating the inhibitor concentration required to cause 50% of inhibition (EC50). The EC50 values demonstrated that the cetylpyridinium group was one of the most toxic cations and that the imidazolium group was the less toxic. The obtained results provide important information about the safety of the studied IL-APIs and their possible use as pharmaceutical drugs. The developed automated SIA methodologies are robust screening bioassays, and can be used as a generic tools to identify the (eco)toxicity of the structural elements of ILs, contributing to a sustainable development of drugs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of the patients diagnosed with Stevens Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis: a single center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çekiç, Şükrü; Canıtez, Yakup; Sapan, Nihat

    2016-09-01

    Stevens Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis are severe acute mucocutaneous diseases. In this study, we evaluated the clinical aspects of Steven Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis and Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis overlap patients who admitted to our clinics in the last five years. Eleven patients diagnosed as Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis and Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis overlap in Department of Pediatric Allergy in Uludağ University School of Medicine were included in this study. Clinical findings, laboratory tests and response to treatments were evaluated via electronic files. Two of the patients had Stevens-Johnson syndrome, four had Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis overlap, and five had toxic epidermal necrolysis. The median period for drug usage was 10 days (2-44 days). Herpes simpleks virus IgM antibody was detected two patients. The median healing time was 38 days 26-94 days). Maculopapular eruptions and oral mucositis were seen in all patients. Vesicul or bullae, epidermal detachment and ocular involvement in 10 of patients. Wound care, H1 antihistamine and methyl prednisolon were used in all patients, intravenous immunoglobulin were used in 7 patients and cyclosporine in 1 patient. Sequel lesions developed in 2 of the patients and there was no death. Anticonvulsants, antibiotics and non steroid anti-inflammatory drugs play a major role in the etiology of Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis. Anticonvulsants are associated with severe disease. The patients with proper wound care and treatment with immunosuppressive drugs can be recovered without or with minimal sequelae.

  10. Clinical manifestations and arsenic methylation after a rare subacute arsenic poisoning accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Yi; Zheng, Quanmei; Li, Bing; Li, Xin; Jin, Yaping; Lv, Xiuqiang; Qu, Guang; Sun, Guifan

    2008-06-01

    One hundred and four workers ingested excessive levels of arsenic in an accident caused by leakage of pipeline in a copper-smelting factory. Clinical examinations were performed by physicians in a local hospital. Excreted urinary arsenic species were determined by cold trap hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. In the initial toxic phase, gastrointestinal symptoms were predominant (83 people, 79.8%). Most patients showed leucopenia (72 people, 69.2%), and increased serum alanine aminotransferase (84 people, 80.8%) and aspartate aminotransferase (58 people, 55.8%). Thirty-five patients (33.6%) had elevated red blood cells in urine. After 17 days of admission, many subjects (45 people, 43.3%) developed peripheral neuropathy and 25 of these 45 patients (24.0%) showed a decrease in motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity. In the comparison of urinary arsenic metabolites among subacute arsenic-poisoned, chronic high arsenic-exposed and control subjects, we found that subacute arsenic-poisoned patients had significantly elevated proportions of urinary inorganic arsenic (iAs) and methylarsonic acid (MMA) but reduced proportion of urinary dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) compared with chronic high arsenic-exposed and control subjects. Chronic exposed subjects excreted higher proportions of iAs and MMA but lower proportions of DMA in urine compared with control subjects. These results suggest that gastrointestinal symptoms, leucopenia, and hepatic and urinary injury are predominant in the initial phase of subacute arsenic poisoning. Peripheral neuropathy is the most frequent manifestation after the initial phase. The biomethylation of arsenic decreases in a dose rate-dependent manner.

  11. Relationship of hepatotoxicity and the target tissue dose of decabrominated diphenyl ether in subacutely exposed Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćurčić Marijana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Based on numerous studies in animals, the most prominent toxic effects of decabrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-209 are observed in the liver, thyroid hormone homeostasis, reproductive and nervous systems. BDE-209 exhibits its toxic effects partly through the aryl hydrocarbon (Ah receptor and consequent induction of hepatic microsomal enzymes. The aim of this study was to assess the hepatotoxic effect vs target tissue dose of BDE-209 in the subacutely orally exposed Wistar rats. Methods. Effects were examined on male Wistar rats, weighing 200-240 g, exposed to doses of 1,000, 2,000 or 4,000 mg BDE-209/kg body weight (bw/day by gavage during 28 days. Animals were treated according to the decision of the Ethics Committee of the Military Medical Academy, No 9667-1/2011. Evaluation of the hepatotoxic effect was based on: relative liver weight water and food intake, biochemical parameters of liver function [aspartate amino transferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, gama glutamyl transferase (γ-GT], and oxidative stress parameters in liver homogenates [malondialdehiyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD, -SH] and morphological and pathohistological changes in the liver. For the assessment of internal dose - response relationship, lower confidence limit of Benchmark dose (BMDL of 5% or 10% i.e. BMDL5 or BMDL10, were calculated using PROAST software. Results. After the application of 1,000, 2,000 or 4,000 mg BDE-209/kg bw/day, the concentrations of BDE-209 measured in liver were 0.269, 0.569 and 0.859 mg/kg of liver wet weight, (ww respectively. Internal doses correlated with external (r = 0.972; p < 0.05 according to equation: internal dose (mg BDE-209/kg of liver ww = 0.0002 x external dose (mg/kg bw/day + 0.0622. Hepato-toxicity was demonstrated based on significant increase in AST and γ-GT activities and the degree of histopathological changes. The lowest BMDL5 of 0.07228 mg BDE-209/kg of liver ww

  12. Evaluation of toxicity of the mycotoxin citrinin using yeast ORF DNA microarray and Oligo DNA microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobumasa Hitoshi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycotoxins are fungal secondary metabolites commonly present in feed and food, and are widely regarded as hazardous contaminants. Citrinin, one of the very well known mycotoxins that was first isolated from Penicillium citrinum, is produced by more than 10 kinds of fungi, and is possibly spread all over the world. However, the information on the action mechanism of the toxin is limited. Thus, we investigated the citrinin-induced genomic response for evaluating its toxicity. Results Citrinin inhibited growth of yeast cells at a concentration higher than 100 ppm. We monitored the citrinin-induced mRNA expression profiles in yeast using the ORF DNA microarray and Oligo DNA microarray, and the expression profiles were compared with those of the other stress-inducing agents. Results obtained from both microarray experiments clustered together, but were different from those of the mycotoxin patulin. The oxidative stress response genes – AADs, FLR1, OYE3, GRE2, and MET17 – were significantly induced. In the functional category, expression of genes involved in "metabolism", "cell rescue, defense and virulence", and "energy" were significantly activated. In the category of "metabolism", genes involved in the glutathione synthesis pathway were activated, and in the category of "cell rescue, defense and virulence", the ABC transporter genes were induced. To alleviate the induced stress, these cells might pump out the citrinin after modification with glutathione. While, the citrinin treatment did not induce the genes involved in the DNA repair. Conclusion Results from both microarray studies suggest that citrinin treatment induced oxidative stress in yeast cells. The genotoxicity was less severe than the patulin, suggesting that citrinin is less toxic than patulin. The reproducibility of the expression profiles was much better with the Oligo DNA microarray. However, the Oligo DNA microarray did not completely overcome cross

  13. Evaluation of the toxicity of graphene oxide exposure to the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Yan, Liang; Wu, Qian; Li, Yijian; Li, Qiyou; Chen, Siyu; Yang, Yuli; Gu, Zhanjun; Xu, Haiwei; Yin, Zheng Qin

    2016-11-01

    Graphene and its derivatives are the new carbon nanomaterials with the prospect for great applications in electronics, energy storage, biosensors and medicine. However, little is known about the toxicity of graphene or its derivatives in the case of occasional or repeated ocular exposure. We performed in vitro and in vivo studies to evaluate the toxicity of graphene oxide (GO) exposure to the eye. Primary human corneal epithelium cells (hCorECs) and human conjunctiva epithelium cells (hConECs) were exposed to GO (12.5-100 μg/mL). Acute GO exposure (2 h) did not induce cytotoxicity to hCorECs. However, short-term GO exposure (24 h) exerted significant cytotoxicity to hCorECs and hConECs with increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Glutathione (GSH) reduced the GO-induced cytotoxicity. We further performed acute eye irritation tests in albino rabbits according to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guidelines, and the rabbits did not exhibit corneal opacity, conjunctival redness, abnormality of the iris, or chemosis at any time point after the instillation of 100 μg/mL of GO. However, 5-day repeated GO exposure (50 and 100 μg/mL) caused reversible mild corneal opacity, conjunctival redness and corneal epithelium damage to Sprague-Dawley rats, which was also alleviated by GSH. Therefore, our study suggests that GO-induced time- and dose-dependent cytotoxicity to hCorECs and hConECs via oxidative stress. Occasional GO exposure did not cause acute eye irritation; short-term repeated GO exposure generally resulted in reversible damage to the eye via oxidative stress, which may be alleviated by the antioxidant GSH.

  14. Drug solubilization and in vitro toxicity evaluation of lipoamino acid surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménard, Nathalie; Tsapis, Nicolas; Poirier, Cécile; Arnauld, Thomas; Moine, Laurence; Lefoulon, François; Péan, Jean-Manuel; Fattal, Elias

    2012-02-28

    To improve solubilization of a water insoluble anticancer drug, novel surfactants were synthesized. All surfactants derived from lysine, with a so-called nitrilo triacetic acid (NTA) polar head, and differed from the length and saturation degree of their hydrophobic moieties: C19:0-NTA, C20:4-NTA, C25:0-NTA and C25:4-NTA. Self-assembling properties and critical micellar concentration (CMC) values were determined using pyrene fluorescence and cytotoxicity using MTT and LDH assays on endothelial cells. Surfactant haemolytic activity and drug solubilization capacity were also evaluated. All surfactants self-assemble with low CMC values from 0.012 to 0.430 mg/mL. Cytotoxicity assays showed that C20:4-NTA and C25:0-NTA were less cytotoxic than polysorbate 80. Unsaturations and alkane chain length have a marked influence on toxicity. Saturated surfactants had a similar haemolytic activity, explained by their low CMC values and the linear configuration of their hydrophobic tail. C20:4-NTA and C25:4-NTA were less haemolytic than polysorbate 80. Furthermore, C19:0-NTA, C25:0-NTA and C25:4-NTA increased drug solubility from <0.15 μg/mL up to 7 mg/mL, with 46% (w/w) drug loading, due to their linear and flexible hydrophobic chain configuration, as evidenced by molecular modelling. Although these solubilizers are promising, a compromise between drug solubilization and toxicity remains to be found. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Labeling efficiency and toxicity evaluation of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots on Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jin-Yun; Jia, Li-Min; Song, Wu-Qi; Zhang, Wen-Li; Fu, Ying-Mei; Zhang, Ying; Cao, Wen-Wu; Sun, Ye; Zheng, Jin-Hua; Zhang, Feng-Min

    2014-06-01

    In comparison with conventional organic dyes, quantum dots (QDs) have unique optical and electronic properties, which provide QDs with a wide scope of prospective application in biology and biomedicine. However, the toxicity of QDs and the fluorescence intensity of labeled bacteria must precede their application in bacterial imaging and tracing in vivo. Here, we show that treatment with CaCl2 significantly improved bacterial labeling efficiency of CdSe/ZnS QDs with the CdSe core size of 3.1 nm (relative fluorescence unit (RFU) value and ratio of fluorescent E. coli) with rising CdSe/ZnS QDs concentration in a concentration-dependent manner. At 12.5 nmol/L CdSe/ZnS QDs concentration, labeled Escherichia coli ( E. coli) DH5 α appeared as short rod-shaped and luminescent with normal size, and the survival rate and ultrastructure did not change in comparison to the control. But the ratio of fluorescent bacteria and RFU were very low. However, the survival rate of transformed E. coli was significantly inhibited by high CdSe/ZnS QDs concentrations (≥25 nmol/L). Moreover, internalization of CdSe/ZnS QDs resulted in ultrastructure damage of transformed E. coli in a concentration-dependent manner (≥25 nmol/L). Therefore, CdSe/ZnS QDs may not suitable for tracing of bacteria in vivo. Moreover, our study also revealed that colony-forming capability assay and transmission electron microscopy could be used to comprehensively evaluate the toxicity of QDs on labeled bacteria. Our findings do provide a new direction toward the improvement and modification of QDs for use in imaging and tracing studies in vivo.

  16. Evaluation of an acute oral gavage method for assessment of pesticide toxicity in terrestrial amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Douglas J; Mathis, Michael B; Kee, Faith; Whatling, Paul; Clerkin, David; Staveley, Jane; Habig, Clifford

    2017-09-02

    Development of an acute oral toxicity test with a terrestrial-phase amphibian was considered necessary to remove the uncertainty within the field of agrochemical risk assessments. The bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus) was selected for use as it is a representative of the family Ranidae and historically this species has been used as an amphibian test model species. Prior to definitive study, oral gavage methods were developed with fenthion and tetraethyl pyrophosphate. Dimethoate and malathion were subsequently tested with both male and female juvenile bullfrogs in comprehensive acute oral median lethal dose (LD50) studies. Juvenile bullfrogs were administered a single dose of the test article via oral gavage of a single gelatin capsule of dimethoate technical (dimethoate) or neat liquid Fyfanon® Technical (synonym malathion), returned to their respective aquaria, and monitored for survival for 14 d. The primary endpoint was mortality, whereas behavioral responses, food consumption, body weight, and snout-vent length (SVL) were used to evaluate indications of sublethal toxicity (secondary endpoints). Acute oral LD50 values (95% fiducial interval) for dimethoate were 1459 (1176-1810, males) and 1528 (1275-1831, females), and for malathion they were 1829 (1480-2259, males) and 1672 (1280-2183, females) mg active substance/kg body weight, respectively. Based on the results of these studies, the methodology for the acute oral gavage administration of test items to terrestrial-phase amphibians was demonstrated as being a practical method of providing data for risk assessments. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;9999:1-15. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  17. Evaluation of toxicity of the mycotoxin citrinin using yeast ORF DNA microarray and Oligo DNA microarray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwahashi, Hitoshi; Kitagawa, Emiko; Suzuki, Yoshiteru; Ueda, Youji; Ishizawa, Yo-hei; Nobumasa, Hitoshi; Kuboki, Yoshihide; Hosoda, Hiroshi; Iwahashi, Yumiko

    2007-01-01

    Background Mycotoxins are fungal secondary metabolites commonly present in feed and food, and are widely regarded as hazardous contaminants. Citrinin, one of the very well known mycotoxins that was first isolated from Penicillium citrinum, is produced by more than 10 kinds of fungi, and is possibly spread all over the world. However, the information on the action mechanism of the toxin is limited. Thus, we investigated the citrinin-induced genomic response for evaluating its toxicity. Results Citrinin inhibited growth of yeast cells at a concentration higher than 100 ppm. We monitored the citrinin-induced mRNA expression profiles in yeast using the ORF DNA microarray and Oligo DNA microarray, and the expression profiles were compared with those of the other stress-inducing agents. Results obtained from both microarray experiments clustered together, but were different from those of the mycotoxin patulin. The oxidative stress response genes – AADs, FLR1, OYE3, GRE2, and MET17 – were significantly induced. In the functional category, expression of genes involved in "metabolism", "cell rescue, defense and virulence", and "energy" were significantly activated. In the category of "metabolism", genes involved in the glutathione synthesis pathway were activated, and in the category of "cell rescue, defense and virulence", the ABC transporter genes were induced. To alleviate the induced stress, these cells might pump out the citrinin after modification with glutathione. While, the citrinin treatment did not induce the genes involved in the DNA repair. Conclusion Results from both microarray studies suggest that citrinin treatment induced oxidative stress in yeast cells. The genotoxicity was less severe than the patulin, suggesting that citrinin is less toxic than patulin. The reproducibility of the expression profiles was much better with the Oligo DNA microarray. However, the Oligo DNA microarray did not completely overcome cross hybridization. PMID:17408496

  18. Evaluation of toxicity of polluted marine sediments from Bahia Salina Cruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Lozano, Maria Cristina; Mendez-Rodriguez, Lia C; Maeda-Martinez, Alejandro M; Murugan, Gopal; Vazquez-Botello, Alfonso

    2010-01-01

    Bahia Salina Cruz, Oaxaca, Mexico is a major center of oil and refined product distribution on the Mexican Pacific coast. From the start of oil industry operations in 1979, negative effects from discharges of treated effluents in the bay have been a constant concern for local communities. We analyzed 28 surface sediment samples obtained in June, 2002 to evaluate the level of toxicity in the littoral zone, port-harbor, and La Ventosa estuary in Bahia Salina Cruz. The extractable organic matter concentration was high (1,213 to 7,505 micro g g(-1)) in 5 of 7 stations from the port and harbor, whereas it was low in 12 of 16 stations in the littoral zone (36 to 98 micro g g(-1)). The total aromatic hydrocarbon concentration was highest (57 to 142 micro g g(-1)) in the port and harbor compared to the La Ventosa estuary and the littoral zone. Among the heavy metals analyzed, cadmium exceeded the effects range-low values associated with adverse biological effects. The geo-accumulation index of sediments was moderate to strong contamination at 5 stations in the nonlittoral and 6 stations in the littoral zone. The enrichment of lead, zinc, and cadmium at 5 stations from the littoral, port, and harbor suggest that these metals are of anthropogenic origin. Bioassay tests of elutriates of sediments on nauplii of Artemia franciscana and Artemia sp. showed that the port and harbor were more toxic than the La Ventosa estuary and the coastal zone. The Microtox test (Vibrio fischeri) did not show a similar response with the solid phase of the sediments. The results of this study indicate that the high levels of organic content and metals in the sediments of port-harbor and the La Ventosa estuary are mainly caused by anthropogenic activities.

  19. Evaluation of cardiovascular toxicity of carbon nanotubes functionalized with sodium hyaluronate in oral regenerative medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.V. Joviano-Santos

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that carbon nanotubes (CNTs associated with sodium hyaluronate (HY-CNTs accelerate bone repair in the tooth sockets of rats. Before clinical application of HY-CNTs, it is important to assess their biocompatibility. Moreover, cardiac toxicity may be caused by the translocation of these particles to the blood stream. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible changes in cardiovascular function in male Wistar rats whose tooth sockets were treated with either CNTs or HY-CNTs (100 μg/mL, 0.1 mL. Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored in conscious rats 7 days after treatment. Cardiac function was evaluated using the Langendorff perfusion technique. The data showed no changes in blood pressure or heart rate in rats treated with either CNTs or HY-CNTs, and no significant changes in cardiac function were found in any of the groups. To confirm these findings, experiments were conducted in rats injected intraperitoneally with a high concentration of either CNTs or HY-CNTs (0.75 mg/kg. The same parameters were analyzed and similar results were observed. The results obtained 7 days following injection indicate that the administration of low concentrations of CNTs or HY-CNTs directly into tooth sockets did not cause any significant change in cardiovascular function in the rats. The present findings support the possibility of using these biocomposites in humans.

  20. Evaluation of cardiovascular toxicity of carbon nanotubes functionalized with sodium hyaluronate in oral regenerative medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joviano-Santos, J.V.; Sá, M.A.; De Maria, M.L.A.; Almeida, T.C.S. [Departamento de Morfologia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Geraldo, V.; Oliveira, S.; Ladeira, L.O. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Ferreira, A.J. [Departamento de Morfologia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2014-05-23

    It has been demonstrated that carbon nanotubes (CNTs) associated with sodium hyaluronate (HY-CNTs) accelerate bone repair in the tooth sockets of rats. Before clinical application of HY-CNTs, it is important to assess their biocompatibility. Moreover, cardiac toxicity may be caused by the translocation of these particles to the blood stream. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible changes in cardiovascular function in male Wistar rats whose tooth sockets were treated with either CNTs or HY-CNTs (100 μg/mL, 0.1 mL). Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored in conscious rats 7 days after treatment. Cardiac function was evaluated using the Langendorff perfusion technique. The data showed no changes in blood pressure or heart rate in rats treated with either CNTs or HY-CNTs, and no significant changes in cardiac function were found in any of the groups. To confirm these findings, experiments were conducted in rats injected intraperitoneally with a high concentration of either CNTs or HY-CNTs (0.75 mg/kg). The same parameters were analyzed and similar results were observed. The results obtained 7 days following injection indicate that the administration of low concentrations of CNTs or HY-CNTs directly into tooth sockets did not cause any significant change in cardiovascular function in the rats. The present findings support the possibility of using these biocomposites in humans.

  1. Toxicity evaluation of vinasse and biosolid samples in diplopod midgut: heat shock protein in situ localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Maria Paula Mancini; Moreira-de-Sousa, Cristina; de Souza, Raphael Bastão; Ansoar-Rodríguez, Yadira; Silva-Zacarin, Elaine Cristina Mathias; Fontanetti, Carmem Silvia

    2017-09-01

    Large amounts of residues generated by agricultural, urban and industrial activities are dumped daily on the soil. This practice deserves special attention because it causes serious environmental problems. This study evaluated the toxic potential of the sugarcane vinasse, a by-product of the sugar-alcohol industry, and the biosolid, a residue produced by wastewater treatment plants, both widely used as fertilizers. The evaluation was performed through bioassays using a typical soil bioindicator, the diplopod Rhinocricus padbergi. The specimens were exposed to soils containing these residues in concentrations that are compatible with the Brazilian regulation for agricultural use. Semi-quantitative immunolabelling analyses of the stress protein HSP70 were performed on the midgut of the studied diplopods. There was a significant increase in the immunolabelling of HSP70 proteins as a response to xenobiotics from both residues, particularly in regions where the function of the cells is the detoxification of the organ (e.g. the hepatic cell layer and specific regions of the epithelium). Higher immunolabelling was observed in the specimens exposed to vinasse in comparison with the biosolid exposure. This demonstrates that the substances in the tested residues had proteotoxic action in the exposed animals and induced a cytoprotective response, which led to higher stress protein immunolabelling. Therefore, caution is needed for the use of such residues in agriculture.

  2. A microcosm system to evaluate the toxicity of the triazine herbicide simazine on aquatic macrophytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vervliet-Scheebaum, Marco, E-mail: marco.vervliet@biologie.uni-freiburg.d [Plant Biotechnology, Faculty of Biology, University of Freiburg, Schaenzlestr. 1, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Straus, Alain [Plant Biotechnology, Faculty of Biology, University of Freiburg, Schaenzlestr. 1, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Tremp, Horst [Institute for Environmental Sciences, University Koblenz-Landau, Fortstr. 7, 76829 Landau (Germany); Hamer, Mick [Ecological Sciences, Syngenta Crop Protection AG, Jealott' s Hill International Research Centre, Bracknell, Berkshire RG42 6EY (United Kingdom); Maund, Stephen J. [Ecological Sciences, Syngenta Crop Protection AG, 4002 Basel (Switzerland); Wagner, Edgar [Plant Biotechnology, Faculty of Biology, University of Freiburg, Schaenzlestr. 1, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Schulz, Ralf [Institute for Environmental Sciences, University Koblenz-Landau, Fortstr. 7, 76829 Landau (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    This study evaluates the effects of the triazine herbicide simazine in an outdoor pond microcosm test system that contained two submerged rooted species (Myriophyllum spicatum and Elodea canadensis) and two emergent rooted species (Persicaria amphibia and Glyceria maxima) over a period of 84 days. Simazine was applied to the microcosms at nominal concentrations of 0.05, 0.5 and 5 mg/L. General biological endpoints and physiological endpoints were used to evaluate herbicide toxicity on macrophytes and the algae developing naturally in the system. Concentration-related responses of macrophytes and algae were obtained for the endpoints selected, resulting in a no observed ecologically adverse effect concentration (NOEAEC) at simazine concentrations of 0.05 mg active ingredient/L after 84 days. E. canadensis was the most negatively affected species based on length increase, which was consistently a very sensitive parameter for all macrophytes. The experimental design presented might constitute a suitable alternative to conventional laboratory single-species testing. - Simazine at concentrations of 0.05 mg/L does not cause long-term negative effects to aquatic macrophytes or algae.

  3. Acute toxicity evaluation of cutting fluids used in manufacturing processes to Poecilia reticulata and Daphnia magna

    OpenAIRE

    William Gerson Matias; Cátia Regina Silva de Carvalho-Pinto; Débora Monteiro Brentano; Alexandre Magno de Paula Dias

    2006-01-01

    Grinding operations are very significant among the manufacturing processes of the metal-mechanic industry. In conventional grinding, cutting fluids are of great concern for improving productivity, but also for being hazardous to the environment. In order to contribute to the knowledge of the actual toxic effects of these products in aquatic environments, the present work assesses the toxicity potential through acute toxicity tests of three different kinds of cutting fluids, with three differe...

  4. Development and Evaluation of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity Tests for Assessing the Hazards of Environmental Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-08-01

    place the 35 number on the dorsal surface. Five groups of 5 males were assigned to treatment groups, randomized by block design using body weights as...extracts frogs or embryos. Methods of ^^"^^t the soil for 60 to 90 days. Methods (SCFE) via earthworms or other food and^recrexposur contaminated and of...Spills 4 2. The Need for Reproductive Toxicity Testing 3. Reproductive Toxicity Assay Design 4. The Need for Developmental Toxicity Testing 5

  5. Molecular docking study to evaluate the carcinogenic potential and mammalian toxicity of thiophosphonate pesticides by cluster and discriminant analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu, Alina-Maria; Ilia, Gheorghe

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the carcinogenic potential and mammalian toxicity on rodents, based on the quantitative relationship models between structure and biological activity (QSAR), were evaluated. The carcinogenicity and acute toxicity were evaluated by docking molecular physicochemical descriptors, on a series of 33 thiophosphonates. These properties, mainly hydrophobicity, electronic distribution, hydrogen bonding characteristics, molecule size and flexibility, and the presence of various pharmacophoric features, influence the behavior of molecule in a living organism, including bioavailability, transport properties, affinity to proteins, reactivity, toxicity, metabolic stability and many others. The model was validated using linear regression methods: principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares (PLS) and multiple linear regression (MLR); non-linear regression methods: cluster analysis (CA) and discriminant analysis (DA); and neural network analysis: probabilistic neural network (PNN), identifying the best predictor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparative evaluation of acute and chronic toxicities of CuO nanoparticles and bulk using Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, Ana Letícia de O F; Melegari, Silvia Pedroso; Ouriques, Luciane Cristina; Matias, William Gerson

    2014-08-15

    Copper oxide (CuO) has various applications, as highlighted by the incorporation of this compound as a biocide of antifouling paints for coating ships and offshore oil platforms. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the aquatic toxicity of CuO nanoparticles (NPs) and microparticles (MPs) through acute and chronic toxicity tests with the freshwater microcrustacean Daphnia magna and an acute toxicity test with the bioluminescent marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri. Acute toxicity results for D. magna in tests with CuO NPs (EC50, 48 h=22 mg L(-1)) were ten times higher than those for tests with CuO MPs (EC50, 48 h=223.6 mg L(-1)). In both periods of exposure of V. fischeri, the CuO NPs (EC50, 15m 248±56.39 - equivalent to 12.40%; EC50, 30 m 257.6±30.8 mg L(-1) - equivalent to 12.88%) were more toxic than the CuO MPs (EC50, 15m 2404.6±277.4 - equivalent to 60.10%; EC50, 30 m 1472.9±244.7 mg L(-1) - equivalent to 36.82%). In chronic toxicity tests, both forms of CuO showed significant effects (p<0.05) on the growth and reproduction parameters of the D. magna relative to the control. Additionally, morphological changes, such as lack of apical spine development and malformed carapaces in D. magna, were observed for organisms after the chronic test. The toxicity results demonstrate that CuO NPs have a higher level of toxicity than CuO MPs, emphasizing the need for comparative toxicological studies to correctly classify these two forms of CuO with identical CAS registration numbers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of male germ cell toxicity in rats: correlation between sperm head morphology and sperm comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, P P; Kushwaha, S; Tripathi, D N; Jena, G B

    2010-12-21

    The present study was aimed to investigate the germ cell toxicity of doxorubicin and find out the possible correlation between sperm head morphological evaluation and sperm comet assay, which are used to assess male germ cell toxicity. The correlation between these two assays was validated using a potent germ cell toxicant, doxorubicin, in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Doxorubicin was administered intra-peritionally at the doses of 1.25, 2.5 and 5mg/kg weekly once for a period of 5 weeks and all the animals were sacrificed after 1 week of receiving the last dose. The germ cell toxicity of doxorubicin was assessed using oxidative stress parameters, sperm head morphology, sperm comet assay, halo assay and histology in testes as the end point of evaluation. A significant increase in the % abnormality in sperm head was found in the animals treated with 2.5 and 5mg/kg/week doxorubicin. Doxorubicin treatment significantly increased the DNA damage of sperm in a dose-dependent manner as observed by sperm comet assay parameters. A strong positive correlation was observed between the sperm head morphological evaluation and the sperm comet assay. Therefore, it can be concluded that the damage in genetic material of sperm may result into abnormalities in the sperm head morphology. The sperm head morphological evaluation is considered to be essential for the assessment of male germ cell toxicity by several regulatory bodies like the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH). However, acceptance of the sperm comet assay by regulatory authorities as a standard genotoxicity test for assessing male germ cell toxicity still requires further validation of the assay. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparative evaluation of acute toxicity by Vibrio fischeri and fern spore based bioassays in the follow-up of toxic chemicals degradation by photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marugán, Javier; Bru, David; Pablos, Cristina; Catalá, Myriam

    2012-04-30

    The development of efficient bioassays is a necessary step for cost-effective environmental monitoring and evaluation of novel decontamination technologies. Marine Vibrio fischeri kits have demonstrated to be extremely sensitive but lack of ecological relevance, especially when assessing impacts on freshwater higher organisms. A novel riparian are fern spore microbioassay could merge higher ecological relevance and reduced costs. The aim of this work is the comparative evaluation of the V. fischeri and fern spore bioassays for the follow up of detoxification processes of water contaminated with cyanide and phenol by advanced oxidation technologies, using heterogeneous photocatalysis as example. In both cases, EC(50) values differed significantly for V. fischeri commercial kit, V. fischeri lab cultures and Polystichum setiferum fern spores (1.9, 16 and 101 mg cyanide L(-1) and 27.0, 49.3 and 1440 mg phenol L(-1), respectively). Whereas V. fischeri bioassays are extremely sensitive and dilution series must be prepared, toxicant solutions can be directly applied to spores. Spore microbioassay was also useful in the follow up of photoxidation processes of cyanide and phenol, also reflecting the formation of intermediate degradation by-products even more toxic than phenol. We conclude that this new microbioassay is a promising cost-effective tool for the follow up of decontamination processes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigation of neurotoxic and immunotoxic effects of some plant growth regulators at subacute and subchronic applications on rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, Ismail; Celik, Ismail

    2015-12-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of subacute and subchronic treatment of some plant growth regulators (PGRs), such as abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA3), on neurological and immunological biomarkers in various tissues of rats. The activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butrylcholinesterase (BChE) were selected as biomarkers for neurotoxic biomarkers. Adenosine deaminase (ADA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were measured as indicators for immunotoxic investigation purpose. Wistar albino rats were orally administered with 25 and 50 ppm of PGRs ad libitum for 25-50 days continuously with drinking water. The treatment of PGRs caused different effects on the activities of enzymes. Results showed that the administrations of ABA and GA3 increased AChE and BChE activities in some tissues of rats treated with both the dosages and periods of ABA and GA3. With regard to the immunotoxic effects, ADA activity fluctuated, while MPO activity increased after subacute and subchronic exposure of treated rat tissues to both dosages when compared with the controls. The observations presented led us to conclude that the administrations of PGRs at subacute and subchronic exposure increased AChE, BChE, and MPO activities, while fluctuating the ADA activity in various tissues of rats. This may reflect the potential role of these parameters as useful biomarkers for toxicity of PGRs. © The Author(s) 2013.

  10. Acute toxicity evaluation of explosive wastewater by bacterial bioluminescence assays using a freshwater luminescent bacterium, Vibrio qinghaiensis sp. Nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhengfang; Zhao, Quanlin; Zhang, Mohe; Gao, Yuchen

    2011-02-28

    The compositions of explosive wastewater generated from TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) purification stage were characterized by using UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) and gas chromatograph/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). The acute toxicity was evaluated by bacterium bioluminescence assay using a freshwater luminescent bacterium (Vibrio qinghaiensis sp. Nov.) and a marine luminescent bacterium (Photobacterium phosphoreum). The results showed that the wastewater's biodegradability was poor due to the high amount of chemical oxygen demand (COD). The main organic components were dinitrotoluene sulfonates (DNTS) with small amount of TNT, dinitrotoluene (DNT), mononitrotoluene (MNT) and other derivatives of nitrobenzene. It was highly toxic to luminescent bacteria P. phosphoreum and V. qinghaiensis sp. Nov. After reaction time of 15 min, the relative concentration of toxic pollutants (expressed as reciprocal of dilution ratio of wastewater) at 50% of luminescence inhibition ratio was 5.32×10(-4) for P. phosphoreu, while that was 4.34×10(-4) for V. qinghaiensis. V. qinghaiensis is more sensitive and suitable for evaluating the wastewater's acute toxicity than P. phosphoreum. After adsorption by resin, the acute toxicity can be greatly reduced, which is helpful for further treatment by biological methods. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Automated evaluation of pharmaceutically active ionic liquids’ (eco)toxicity through the inhibition of human carboxylesterase and Vibrio fischeri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Susana P.F.; Justina, Vanessa D. [REQUIMTE, Departamento de Ciências Químicas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, n° 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Bica, Katharina; Vasiloiu, Maria [Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Applied and Synthetic Chemistry, A-1060 Vienna (Austria); Pinto, Paula C.A.G., E-mail: ppinto@ff.up.pt [REQUIMTE, Departamento de Ciências Químicas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, n° 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Saraiva, M. Lúcia M.F.S., E-mail: lsaraiva@ff.up.pt [REQUIMTE, Departamento de Ciências Químicas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, n° 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal)

    2014-01-30

    Highlights: • IL-APIs toxicity on humans and aquatic environment was evaluated by inhibition assays. • The inhibition assays were implemented through automated screening bioassays. • Automation of bioassays enabled a rigorous control of the reaction conditions. • EC{sub 50} obtained provide vital information on IL-APIs safety and potential use as drugs. -- Abstract: The toxicity of 16 pharmaceutical active ionic liquids (IL-APIs) was evaluated by automated approaches based on sequential injection analysis (SIA). The implemented bioassays were centered on the inhibition of human carboxylesterase 2 and Vibrio fischeri, in the presence of the tested compounds. The inhibitory effects were quantified by calculating the inhibitor concentration required to cause 50% of inhibition (EC{sub 50}). The EC{sub 50} values demonstrated that the cetylpyridinium group was one of the most toxic cations and that the imidazolium group was the less toxic. The obtained results provide important information about the safety of the studied IL-APIs and their possible use as pharmaceutical drugs. The developed automated SIA methodologies are robust screening bioassays, and can be used as a generic tools to identify the (eco)toxicity of the structural elements of ILs, contributing to a sustainable development of drugs.

  12. Pre-clinical toxicity and immunogenicity evaluation of a MUC1-MBP/BCG anti-tumor vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Boqi; Wang, Juan; Guo, Yingying; Chen, Tanxiu; Ni, Weihua; Yuan, Hongyan; Zhang, Nannan; Xie, Fei; Tai, Guixiang

    2016-04-01

    Mucin 1 (MUC1), as an oncogene, plays a key role in the progression and tumorigenesis of many human adenocarcinomas and is an attractive target in tumor immunotherapy. Our previous study showed that the MUC1-MBP/BCG anti-tumor vaccine induced a MUC1-specific Th1-dominant immune response, simulated MUC1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte killing activity, and could significantly inhibit MUC1-expression B16 cells' growth in mice. To help move the vaccine into a Phase I clinical trial, in the current study, a pre-clinical toxicity and immunogenicity evaluation of the vaccine was conducted. The evaluation was comprised of a single-dose acute toxicity study in mice, repeat-dose chronic toxicity and immunogenicity studies in rats, and pilot toxicity and immunogenicity studies in cynomolgus monkeys. The results showed that treatment with the MUC1-MBP/BCG anti-tumor vaccine did not cause any organ toxicity, except for arthritis or local nodules induced by BCG in several rats. Furthermore, the vaccine significantly increased the levels of IFN-γ in rats, indicating that Th1 cells were activated. In addition, the results showed that the MUC1-MBP/BCG anti-tumor vaccine induced a MUC1-specific IgG antibody response both in rats and cynomolgus monkeys. Collectively, these data are beneficial to move the MUC1-MBP/BCG anti-tumor vaccine into a Phase I clinical trial. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: clinical and demographic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafique, Arshad; Amjad, Nida; Chand, Prem; Zaidi, Syed Sohail Zahoor; Rana, Muhammad Suleman; Ahmed, Khalid; Ibrahim, Shahnaz

    2014-08-01

    To determine the clinical and demographic characteristics of children diagnosed with Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE). Case series. The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from January 2000 to June 2012. A retrospective analysis was done, regarding medical charts of 43 children under the age of 16 years with a discharge diagnosis of SSPE. Demographic and clinical characteristics were recorded. RESULTS were expressed as percentages. Most of the 43 patients were male (72%). The average age at presentation was 8.7 years with average duration of symptoms being 100.6 days. History of measles was present in 17 patients (39.5%). All children had seizures at presentation and 65% had cognitive impairment. Most patients required poly therapy for control of seizures. Sodium valproate was the most commonly used anti-epileptic agent; Isoprinosine was tried in 22 (51%) patients. CSF for antimeasles antibodies was positive in approximately 86% of the 40 (93%) children. EEG showed burst suppression pattern in 36 (83.7%) cases. Forty-two patients (97.6%) were discharged home in a vegetative state. SSPE is progressive neurodegenerative disorder. It can be prevented by timely immunization against measles. Measles antibody in the CSF is diagnostic for SSPE and is helpful in early diagnosis. Most patients experience a gradual but progressive decline in motor and cognitive functions.

  14. Evaluation of acute toxicity and the effect of single injected doses of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-12

    Jul 12, 2010 ... This study was designed to determine the median lethal dose (LD50) of ... Acute toxicity study. The toxicity study was carried out using forty (40) female Sprague-. Dawley rats weighing 150 - 200 g, procured from the Animal House ... Animals were provided with food and water immediately after injecting the.

  15. Evaluation of the toxicity and reversibility profile of the aqueous seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hunteria umbellata (K. Schum.) Hallier f. (family: Apocynaceae) is reputed for the folkloric management of labour, pain and swellings, stomach ulcers, diabetes, obesity, and anaemia, with no scientific report of its toxicity and reversibility profile. The present study was, therefore, aimed at investigating the in vivo toxicity and ...

  16. Acute toxicity evaluation of cutting fluids used in manufacturing processes to Poecilia reticulata and Daphnia magna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Gerson Matias

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Grinding operations are very significant among the manufacturing processes of the metal-mechanic industry. In conventional grinding, cutting fluids are of great concern for improving productivity, but also for being hazardous to the environment. In order to contribute to the knowledge of the actual toxic effects of these products in aquatic environments, the present work assesses the toxicity potential through acute toxicity tests of three different kinds of cutting fluids, with three different usage times. The tests were carried out using the fish Poecilia reticulate and the microcrustacean Daphnia magna as test organisms. These tests made it possible to determine the Median Lethal Concentration (LC50 for the fish and the Median Effective Concentration (EC50 for the microcrustacean. The results indicate that, after storage, the toxicity potential of cutting fluids decreases. However, in the three situations investigated, the product presented a high toxicity potential, which reinforces the need of special care in its handling, usage and disposal.

  17. Toxicity of cholecalciferol overdosage in white albino mice | Ogamba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is need to determine the effect of this vitamin overdosage in animals and possibly extrapolate the findings to human beings. Aim: To determine subacute and chronic toxicity of cholecalciferol overdosage in white albino mice. Methods: Increasing doses of cholecalciferol were given to three groups of white albino mice ...

  18. Toxicity And Immunomodulatory Activity Of Fractions Of Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The two fractions caused a significant reduction in production of tissue necrosis factor – alpha and an increase in interleukin 10 (IL-10). Keywords: Hibiscus sabdariffa, plant extract and fractions, sub-acute toxicity, immuno-modulatory activity, cytokine production. African Journal of Trad, Comp and Alternative Medicine Vol.

  19. Evaluation of the subchronic toxicity of kefir by oral administration in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz Rosa, Damiana; Gouveia Peluzio, Maria do Carmo; Pérez Bueno, Tania; Vega Cañizares, Ernesto; Sánchez Miranda, Lilian; Mancebo Dorbignyi, Betty; Chong Dubí, Dainé; Espinosa Castaño, Ivette; Marcin Grzes Kowiak, Lukasz; Fortes Ferreira, Célia Lucia de Luces

    2014-06-01

    Kefir is obtained by fermentation of milk with complex microbial populations present in kefir grains. Several health-promoting benefits have been attributed to kefir consumption. The objective of this work was to conduct a subchronic toxicity study, offering the rats normal or high-doses of kefir and evaluating growth, hematology and blood chemistry, as well as assessing bacterial translocation and the integrity of the intestinal mucosa of animals. Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 6/group): control group received 0.7 mL of water, kefir group received 0.7 mL/day of kefir, (normodose), and Hkefir group received 3.5 mL/day of kefir (fivefold higher dose). Feeding was carried out by gavage. The animals were housed in individual cages and maintained under standard conditions for 4 weeks. The normodose and high-dose of kefir supplementation did not harm the animals since growth, hematology and blood chemistry in rats, as well as the potential pathogenicity in tissues were within normal limits, demonstrating that consumption of normodose and highdose of kefir are safe. In addition, administration of the normodose of kefir reduced cholesterol levels and improved the intestinal mucosa of the rats. These results demonstrate that the consumption of kefir is safe. Importantly, while damages are not seen for the high-dose, the normodose consumption is recommended due to the pronounced beneficial effects, as safety is concerned. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity and Acute Toxicity of Clausena excavata Leaves Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaymaa Fadhel Abbas Albaayit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clausena excavata (Lour., locally known as “Kemantu hitam,” is a common plant in Malaysian folklore medicine. This study evaluated the antioxidant properties of the solvent extracts of C. excavata leaves and determined the acute toxicity of methanolic extract C. excavata (MECE leaves in Sprague-Dawley rats. Harvested leaves were dried and subjected to solvent extraction using petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol in succession. The antioxidant activity of each extract was determined using the ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl dihydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity. The total phenolic content (TPC and total flavonoids content (TFC were estimated by Folin-Ciocalteu and ethanolic aluminium chloride method, respectively. The chloroform extract was found to be highest in flavonoid content, while the methanolic extract showed the highest TPC and antioxidant activity. There was no mortality in rats treated with MECE leaves even at a high dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight. However, the MECE leaves produced mild to moderate pathological changes in the liver and kidneys, shown by mild degenerative changes and leucocyte infiltration. The extract did not affect the haematological parameters or relative weights of the liver or kidneys. Overall, the MECE leaves have potent antioxidant activity and are presumed safe to be used orally as health-promoting product at low to moderate doses.

  1. Magnetic nanogels as dual triggered anticancer drug delivery: Toxicity evaluation on isolated rat liver mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadighian, Somayeh; Rostamizadeh, Kobra; Hosseini, Mir-Jamal; Hamidi, Mehrdad; Hosseini-Monfared, Hassan

    2017-08-15

    This study aimed to evaluate bio-safety of magnetic chitosan nanogels as dual triggered drug carrier for doxorubicin through analysis of mitochondrial function. In the present study, chitosan/TPP nanogels containing magnetite nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared according to the ionotropic gelation method as novel pH-sensitive magnetic nanogels. The NPs showed outstanding entrapment efficiency for doxorubicin (76.6%) with a sustained and high extent of drug release in the acidic media (pH=5-7) compared to the neutral media. Various mitochondrial functional parameters including complex II activity, MDA amount, GSH level, membrane potential collapse, swelling, apoptosis and release of cytochrome c were used to investigate the bio-safety of the nanogels. The findings revealed that the extent of mitochondrial dysfunction of doxorubicin were in the order of free doxorubicin>doxorubicin loaded magnetic nanogels=>doxorubicin loaded Nanogels. The results also revealed that the nanogels and the magnetite nanogels seem to possess promising capability as a safe carrier in comparison of the toxic potential effect of free doxorubicin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Chemical constituents and evaluation of the toxic and antioxidant activities of Averrhoa carambola leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique H. Moresco

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The liquid-liquid partitioning of a crude hydroalcoholic extract of Averrhoa carambola L., Oxalidaceae, leaves led to the isolation of a sterol and three flavone C-glycosides. From the n-hexane fraction β-sitosterol was isolated and from the ethyl acetate fraction apigenin-6-C-β-L-fucopyranoside (1 and apigenin6-C-(2"-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-β-L-fucopyranoside (2 were obtained. Apigenin6-C-(2"-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (3 was isolated from the n-butanol fraction. Compound 3 is new, while 1 and 2 have been previously isolated from A. carambola. The antioxidant activity was measured using the DPPH radical scavenging assay and reducing power of iron (III to iron (II ions. The ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions showed the most antioxidant activity. As evaluated by ability of the sample to scavenge DPPH the IC50 values were 90.92 and 124.48 µg/ mL, respectively. In the assay of reducing power these fractions presented 135.64 and 125.12 of ascorbic acid equivalents, respectively. The antioxidant activity exhibited a significant relationship with the phenolic content (r² = 0.997, but a poor relationship with the flavonoids content (r² = 0.424. The n-hexane fraction was the only fraction to present good toxicity using A. salina with LC50 800.2 µg/mL.

  3. Chemical constituents and evaluation of the toxic and antioxidant activities of Averrhoa carambola leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique H. Moresco

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The liquid-liquid partitioning of a crude hydroalcoholic extract of Averrhoa carambola L., Oxalidaceae, leaves led to the isolation of a sterol and three flavone C-glycosides. From the n-hexane fraction β-sitosterol was isolated and from the ethyl acetate fraction apigenin-6-C-β-L-fucopyranoside (1 and apigenin6-C-(2"-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-β-L-fucopyranoside (2 were obtained. Apigenin6-C-(2"-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (3 was isolated from the n-butanol fraction. Compound 3 is new, while 1 and 2 have been previously isolated from A. carambola. The antioxidant activity was measured using the DPPH radical scavenging assay and reducing power of iron (III to iron (II ions. The ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions showed the most antioxidant activity. As evaluated by ability of the sample to scavenge DPPH the IC50 values were 90.92 and 124.48 µg/ mL, respectively. In the assay of reducing power these fractions presented 135.64 and 125.12 of ascorbic acid equivalents, respectively. The antioxidant activity exhibited a significant relationship with the phenolic content (r² = 0.997, but a poor relationship with the flavonoids content (r² = 0.424. The n-hexane fraction was the only fraction to present good toxicity using A. salina with LC50 800.2 µg/mL.

  4. [Toxicity evaluation of sewage treatment plant effluent of chemical industrial park along the Yangtze River on rat testicular germ cells in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guan-Jiu; Wang, Xiao-Yi; Shi, Wei; Bai, Chou-Yong; Wu, Jiang; Liu, Hong-Ling; Yu, Hong-Xia

    2009-05-15

    By using rat testicular germ cells in vitro toxicity testing method based on original cells culture, the reproduction toxicity of sewage treatment plant effluent of Chemical Industrial Park along the Yangtze River was evaluated, through cells changes in morphologic, activity and viability parameters. The results showed that both of the effluents from new developed Chemical Industrial Park A and provincial Chemical Industrial Park B contain reproductive toxic substances. The toxicity of Park A has more significant undergone changes in cells activity of sertoli cells (p Park B. Sepermatogenic cells are more sensitive in indicating reproduction toxicity for testicular, compared with leyding cells and sertoli cells. This study demonstrated that, as an indispensable and complementary tool for water quality assessment, rat testicular germ cells in vitro toxicity testing based on original cells culture can be used to comprehensively evaluate the reproduction toxicity of sewage treatment plant effluent, and provide prompt and useful discharge quality information.

  5. Evaluating the environmental impact of artificial sweeteners: a study of their distributions, photodegradation and toxicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Ziye; Jiang, Yanan; Tsoi, Yeuk-Ki; Leung, Kelvin Sze-Yin

    2014-04-01

    to neutralize this prolonged environmental threat, the feasibility of UV/TiO2 as an effective mineralization process in wastewater treatment was evaluated for both sweeteners. Under an environmental and technical relevant condition, a >84% removal rate recorded within 30 min and complete photomineralization was achieved within 2 h and delivering the best cost efficiency comparing to existing removal methods. A compilation of distribution, degradation, toxicity and attenuation results presented in this paper will go through critical discussions to explore some current issues and to pinpoint solutions for a better control in the emergent contamination of artificial sweeteners. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. An evaluation of the osmole gap as a screening test for toxic alcohol poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu-Laban Riyad B

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The osmole gap is used routinely as a screening test for the presence of exogenous osmotically active substances, such as the toxic alcohols ethylene glycol and methanol, particularly when the ability to measure serum concentrations of the substances is not available. The objectives of this study were: 1 to measure the diagnostic accuracy of the osmole gap for screening for ethylene glycol and methanol exposure, and 2 to identify whether a recently proposed modification of the ethanol coefficient affects the diagnostic accuracy. Methods Electronic laboratory records from two tertiary-care hospitals were searched to identify all patients for whom a serum ethylene glycol and methanol measurement was ordered between January 1, 1996 and March 31, 2002. Cases were eligible for analysis if serum sodium, blood urea nitrogen, glucose, ethanol, ethylene glycol, methanol, and osmolality were measured simultaneously. Serum molarity was calculated using the Smithline and Gardner equation and ethanol coefficients of 1 and 1.25 mOsm/mM. The diagnostic accuracy of the osmole gap was evaluated for identifying patients with toxic alcohol levels above the recommended threshold for antidotal therapy and hemodialysis using receiver-operator characteristic curves, likelihood ratios, and positive and negative predictive values. Results One hundred and thirty-one patients were included in the analysis, 20 of whom had ethylene glycol or methanol serum concentrations above the threshold for antidotal therapy. The use of an ethanol coefficient of 1.25 mOsm/mM yielded higher specificities and positive predictive values, without affecting sensitivity and negative predictive values. Employing an osmole gap threshold of 10 for the identification of patients requiring antidotal therapy resulted in a sensitivity of 0.9 and 0.85, and a specificity of 0.22 and 0. 5, with equations 1 and 2 respectively. The sensitivity increased to 1 for both equations for the

  7. Acute toxicity evaluation, antibacterial, antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects of Melastoma malabathricum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnajar, Zahra A Amin; Abdulla, Mahmood A; Ali, Hapipah M; Alshawsh, Mohammed A; Hadi, A Hamid A

    2012-03-20

    Melastoma malabathricum (MM) is a well-known plant in Malaysian traditional medicine, locally known as senduduk. Its ethanol and aqueous extracts have been used in the present investigation to study the immunomodulatory role on human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC), and the DPPH, ABTS and FRAP free radical scavenging activities were also measured. Total flavonoids and total phenolic contents were assayed and the antibacterial effect was tested against four species of bacteria; two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae) and two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Klebsilla pneumonia). The tests were carried out using the disc diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) methods. Moreover, the acute toxicity was evaluated in vivo on the ethanol extract of MM to establish its safety when administered orally. In our results, both extracts of MM showed abilities to scavenge DPPH and ABTS free radicals, IC(50) values: (11.599 ± 0.84, 10.573 ± 0.58 µmol/L) and (62.657 ± 0.78, 63.939 ± 0.48 µmol/L) for ethanol and aqueous extracts respectively. Indeed the ethanol extract evidenced high phenolic content (384.33 ± 0.005 mg/g), flavonoids contents (85.8 ± 0.009 mg/g) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (33,590 ± 0.038 mmol/g), with high activity against S. aureus and S. agalactiae (11 ± 0.3 and 12 ± 0.6 mm inhibition zones). Likewise, the percentage of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) viability was increased in response to MM, IC(50) values (1.781 ± 1.2 and 6.545 ± 0.93 µg/mL) for ethanol and aqueous extracts, respectively. In addition, our results showed that the MM extract is safe even at a high dose of 5,000 mg/kg and has no oral toxicity. These findings suggest the excellent medicinal bioactivity of MM and explain the popularity of this plant in the folk medicine as a remedy for different illnesses.

  8. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis in a Child with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Co-Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Maurya, Pradeep Kumar; Thakkar, Mayur Deepak; Kulshreshtha, Dinkar; Singh, Ajai Kumar; Thacker, Anup Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is a fatal infectious disease of childhood caused by persistence of the measles virus in the brain. The effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection on subacute sclerosing panencephalitis remains elusive and rare. We report a child who developed subacute sclerosing panencephalitis following a short latency period and a rapidly progressive course with HIV co-infection.

  9. Antinociceptive Activity and Toxicity Evaluation of the Fatty Oil from Plukenetia polyadenia Mull. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Amanda S; de Lima, Anderson B; Albuquerque, Thayana Lucy F; Silveira, Tiago S; do Nascimento, José Luiz M; da Silva, Joyce Kelly R; Ribeiro, Alcy F; Maia, José Guilherme S; Bastos, Gilmara N T

    2015-04-30

    Seed oil (Pp-oil) of Plukenetia polyadenia is used by native people of the Brazilian Amazon against arthritis and rheumatism, spreading it on the arms and legs to reduce the pain and inflammation. Pp-oil was obtained by pressing dried seeds at room temperature to give a 47.0% yield of oil. It was then subjected to fatty acid composition analysis. The principal fatty acids were linoleic acid (46.5%), α-linolenic acid (34.4%) and oleic acid (13.9%). Then, it was evaluated for its antinociceptive activity in mice, using the acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, hot plate and formalin test models. Additionally, its toxicity was determined. The Pp-oil proved to have no toxicological effects, showing dose-dependent antinociceptive effect under chemical stimulation. At oral doses of 25-100 mg/kg, Pp-oil significantly reduced the abdominal writhes in the writhing test. A higher oral dose of 200 mg/kg did not induce alterations in the latency time of the hot plate test when compared to the control, suggesting an analgesic activity of peripheral origin. At oral doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg, the Pp-oil significantly reduced the second phase of the algic stimulus in the formalin test. In addition, the antinociception of Pp-oil was reversed by naloxone in the evaluation of its mechanism of action. Therefore, the Pp-oil proved to be safe at very high doses and to show significant analgesic properties. The role of Pp-oil is still being investigated with respect the mechanism of action, but the results suggest that opiod receptors could be involved in the antinociception action observed for the oil of P. polyadenia.

  10. Antinociceptive Activity and Toxicity Evaluation of the Fatty Oil from Plukenetia polyadenia Mull. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda S. Mota

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Seed oil (Pp-oil of Plukenetia polyadenia is used by native people of the Brazilian Amazon against arthritis and rheumatism, spreading it on the arms and legs to reduce the pain and inflammation. Pp-oil was obtained by pressing dried seeds at room temperature to give a 47.0% yield of oil. It was then subjected to fatty acid composition analysis. The principal fatty acids were linoleic acid (46.5%, α-linolenic acid (34.4% and oleic acid (13.9%. Then, it was evaluated for its antinociceptive activity in mice, using the acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, hot plate and formalin test models. Additionally, its toxicity was determined. The Pp-oil proved to have no toxicological effects, showing dose-dependent antinociceptive effect under chemical stimulation. At oral doses of 25–100 mg/kg, Pp-oil significantly reduced the abdominal writhes in the writhing test. A higher oral dose of 200 mg/kg did not induce alterations in the latency time of the hot plate test when compared to the control, suggesting an analgesic activity of peripheral origin. At oral doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg, the Pp-oil significantly reduced the second phase of the algic stimulus in the formalin test. In addition, the antinociception of Pp-oil was reversed by naloxone in the evaluation of its mechanism of action. Therefore, the Pp-oil proved to be safe at very high doses and to show significant analgesic properties. The role of Pp-oil is still being investigated with respect the mechanism of action, but the results suggest that opiod receptors could be involved in the antinociception action observed for the oil of P. polyadenia.

  11. Evaluation of cationic polyamidoamine dendrimers' dermal toxicity in the rat skin model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winnicka, Katarzyna; Wroblewska, Magdalena; Sosnowska, Katarzyna; Car, Halina; Kasacka, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers are multi-branched, three-dimensional polymers with unique architecture, which makes these molecules attractive for medical and pharmaceutical applications. Using PAMAM as drug carriers for topical delivery might be beneficial as they only produce a transient effect without skin irritation. To evaluate the dermal toxicity of cationic PAMAM dendrimers generation 2 and generation 3, skin irritation studies were performed in vivo in the rat skin model. After 10 days topical application of various concentrations of PAMAM-NH2 (0.3 mg/mL, 3 mg/mL, 6 mg/mL, 30 mg/mL, 300 mg/mL), skin irritation was evaluated by visual, histopathological, and immunohistochemical examination. Microscopic assessment after hematoxylin-eosin staining revealed significant morphological changes of epidermal cells after application of PAMAM-NH2 at a concentration of ≥6 mg/mL. Morphological alterations of epidermal cells included cytoplasmic vacuolization of keratinocytes in the basal and spinous layers. Cytomorphological changes in keratinocytes, overall picture of the epidermis, and histopathological changes in the dermis were dose dependent. Detected alterations concerned hyperplasia of connective tissue fibers and leukocyte infiltration. Visible granulocyte infiltration in the upper dermis and sockets formed by necrotic, cornified cells in the hyperplastic foci of epithelium were also noted. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that increased nuclear immunoreactivity to PCNA correlated with the concentration of PAMAM-NH2, but no significant differences in the cell proliferation activity in skin treated with PAMAM-NH2 generation 2 or generation 3 were observed. Significantly higher expression of PCNA extended throughout the skin layers might suggest abnormal cell proliferation, which, as a consequence, might even lead to neoplastic changes.

  12. Evaluation of Corophium orientale as bioindicator for Venice Lagoon: sensitivity assessment and toxicity-score proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picone, Marco; Bergamin, Martina; Novelli Alessandra, Arizzi; Noventa, Seta; Delaney, Eugenia; Barbanti, Andrea; Ghirardini, Annamaria Volpi

    2008-05-01

    The 96-h water-only exposure and 10-d sediment toxicity tests with the amphipod Corophium orientale were performed in order to enhance the knowledge about its overall sensitivity and its applicability to Venice Lagoon sediments. The values obtained with cadmium as reference toxicant demonstrated a certain variability of the LC(50); the higher value was found in spring and the lower in late summer. Tests with other pure chemicals (Ni, Total Ammonia, Sodium Dodecyl-Sulphate) showed good discriminatory power; the toxicity gradient observed was: Cd (LC(50) of 3.3 mg/L)>SDS (LC(50) of 8.7 mg/L)>total ammonia (LC(50) of 126mg/L)>Ni (LC(50) of 352 mg/L). Sediment toxicity test results were used to obtain information on non-treatment factors (grain-size, TOC content) that could act as confounding factors, and to develop a site-specific toxicity-score based on minimum significant difference approach. Confounding factors seem not to affect test results. The procedure to develop the toxicity score took into account the relatively lower sensitivity of C. orientale with respect to other amphipods commonly used in toxicity tests (Ampelisca abdita and Rhepoxynius abronius).

  13. Evaluation of N-methylpyrrolidone and its oxidative products toxicity utilizing the Microtox assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, H.L. [Susquehanna River Basin Commission, Harrisburg, PA (United States); Striebig, B.A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1999-06-01

    N-Methylpyrrolidone (NMP) is a cyclic nitrogen-containing organic chemical used to replace more volatile and toxic organic solvents in paint coating and cleaning applications. The Marine Corps Multi-Commodity Maintenance Center was concerned that the high NMP and organic levels in process water would upset treatment processes at the Industrial Process Water Plant (IWP). The NMP contaminated process water was oxidized by a semicontinuous advanced oxidation reactor to reduce the organic concentration. The oxidative byproducts of NMP were identified by GC/MS and tested for their toxicity. A toxicity test, utilizing the Microtox toxicity assay, revealed that methylsuccinimide was the most toxic identifiable product of NMP oxidation. The toxicity of the process water was reduced as methylsuccinimide and was further oxidized to succinimide and other amine products. The results indicate that NMP contaminated process water should be oxidized past the N-methylsuccinimide compound prior to standard industrial process water treatment procedures, so as to reduce toxicity concerns associated with NMP contaminated process water.

  14. Prospective Evaluation of Severe Skin Toxicity and Pain During Postmastectomy Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pignol, Jean-Philippe, E-mail: j.p.pignol@erasmusmc.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus University, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Vu, Thi Trinh Thuc [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier de l' Université de Montréal, Montreal, Québec (Canada); Mitera, Gunita [Department of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Bosnic, Sandy [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Verkooijen, Helena M. [Imaging Division, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Truong, Pauline [Department of Radiation Oncology, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada)

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively capture acute toxicities and pain associated with postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT), to analyze patient and treatment risk factors for severe side effects. Methods and Materials: Women referred for PMRT were prospectively enrolled and assessed weekly during and after radiation therapy. The endpoint included severe National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Effects grade 3 moist desquamation, other skin symptoms, and pain. Results: Of 257 patients, 73 (28.4%) experienced extensive moist desquamation, 84 (32.7%) Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Effects skin toxicity grade 3, and 57 (22.2%) a pain impacting on daily life activities. Among symptoms only grade 3 moist desquamation was significantly associated with severe pain (P<.001). On multivariate analysis, smoking, high-energy photons, and skin bolus were significantly associated with severe moist desquamation. Skin toxicity doubled for smokers, with 40% severe pain, 48% grade 3 moist desquamation, and 64% grade 3 skin toxicity. Without skin bolus 4.2% had severe pain, none moist desquamation, and 2.1% grade 3 skin toxicity. When skin bolus was used on alternate days, the frequency increased to 15% for pain, 22% for moist desquamation, and 26% for grade 3 skin toxicity. When bolus was used daily, 32% had pain, 41% moist desquamation, and 47% grade 3 skin toxicity. Symptoms peaked 1 to 2 weeks after the end of PMRT. Conclusions: The present cohort study suggests excessive radiation toxicity after PMRT. Among factors associated with an increase of toxicity are smoking habits and the use of skin bolus.

  15. Toxicоlogical evaluation of the plant products using Brine Shrimp (Artemia salina L. model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Меntor R. Hamidi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Many natural products could serve as the starting point in the development of modern medicines because of their numerous biological and pharmacological activities. However, some of them are known to carry toxicological properties as well. In order to achieve a safe treatment with plant products, numerous research studies have recently been focused on both pharmacology and toxicity of medicinal plants. Moreover, these studies employed efforts for alternative biological assays. Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay is the most convenient system for monitoring biological activities of various plant species. This method is very useful for preliminary assessment of toxicity of the plant extracts. Rapidness, simplicity and low requirements are several advantages of this assay. However, several conditions need to be completed, especially in the means of standardized experimental conditions (temperature, pH of the medium, salinity, aeration and light. The toxicity of herbal extracts using this assay has been determined in a concentration range of 10, 100 and 1000 µg/ml of the examined herbal extract. Most toxicity studies which use the Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay determine the toxicity after 24 hours of exposure to the tested sample. The median lethal concentration (LC50 of the test samples is obtained by a plot of percentage of the dead shrimps against the logarithm of the sample concentration. LC50 values are estimated using a probit regression analysis and compared with either Meyer’s or Clarkson’s toxicity criteria. Furthermore, the positive correlation between Meyer’s toxicity scale for Artemia salina and Gosselin, Smith and Hodge’s toxicity scale for higher animal models confirmed that the Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay is an excellent predictive tool for the toxic potential of plant extracts in humans.

  16. Type and Timing of Rehabilitation Following Acute and Subacute Spinal Cord Injury: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Anthony S; Marino, Ralph J; Kalsi-Ryan, Sukhvinder; Middleton, James W; Tetreault, Lindsay A; Dettori, Joseph R; Mihalovich, Kathryn E; Fehlings, Michael G

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature to address the following clinical questions: In adult patients with acute and subacute complete or incomplete traumatic SCI, (1) does the time interval between injury and commencing rehabilitation affect outcome?; (2) what is the comparative effectiveness of different rehabilitation strategies, including different intensities and durations of treatment?; (3) are there patient or injury characteristics that affect the efficacy of rehabilitation?; and (4) what is the cost-effectiveness of various rehabilitation strategies? A systematic search was conducted for literature published through March 31, 2015 that evaluated rehabilitation strategies in adults with acute or subacute traumatic SCI at any level. Studies were critically appraised individually and the overall strength of evidence was evaluated using methods proposed by the GRADE (Grades of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation) working group. The search strategy yielded 384 articles, 19 of which met our inclusion criteria. Based on our results, there was no difference between body weight-supported treadmill training and conventional rehabilitation with respect to improvements in Functional Independence Measure (FIM) Locomotor score, Lower Extremity Motor Scores, the distance walked in 6 minutes or gait velocity over 15.2 m. Functional electrical therapy resulted in slightly better FIM Motor, FIM Self-Care, and Spinal Cord Independence Measure Self-Care subscores compared with conventional occupational therapy. Comparisons using the Toronto Rehabilitation Institute Hand Function Test demonstrated no differences between groups in 7 of 9 domains. There were no clinically important differences in Maximal Lean Test, Maximal Sidewards Reach Test, T-shirt Test, or the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure between unsupported sitting training and standard in-patient rehabilitation. The current evidence base for

  17. Re-evaluation of metal bioaccumulation and chronic toxicity in Hyalella azteca using saturation curves and the biotic ligand model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgmann, U.; Norwood, W.P.; Dixon, D.G

    2004-10-01

    Bioaccumulation by Hyalella of all metals studied so far in our laboratory was re-evaluated to determine if the data could be explained satisfactorily using saturation models. Saturation kinetics are predicted by the biotic ligand model (BLM), now widely used in modelling acute toxicity, and are a pre-requisite if the BLM is to be applied to chronic toxicity. Saturation models provided a good fit to all the data. Since these are mechanistically based, they provide additional insights into metal accumulation mechanisms not immediately apparent when using allometric models. For example, maximum Cd accumulation is dependent on the hardness of the water to which Hyalella are acclimated. The BLM may need to be modified when applied to chronic toxicity. Use of saturation models for bioaccumulation, however, also necessitates the need for using saturation models for dose-response relationships in order to produce unambiguous estimates of LC50 values based on water and body concentrations. This affects predictions of toxicity at very low metal concentrations and results in lower predicted toxicity of mixtures when many metals are present at low concentrations.

  18. A Research Synthesis of Therapeutic Interventions for Whiplash-Associated Disorder (WAD: Part 3 – Interventions for Subacute WAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Teasell

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Whiplash-associated disorder (WAD represents a significant public health problem, resulting in substantial social and economic costs throughout the industrialized world. While many treatments have been advocated for patients with WAD, scientific evidence supporting their effectiveness is often lacking. A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the strength of evidence associated with various WAD therapies. Multiple databases (including Web of Science, EMBASE and PubMed were searched to identify all studies published from January 1980 through March 2009 that evaluated the effectiveness of any clearly defined treatment for acute (less than two weeks, subacute (two to 12 weeks or chronic (longer than 12 weeks WAD. The present article, the third in a five-part series, evaluates the evidence for interventions initiated during the subacute phase of WAD. Thirteen studies that met the inclusion criteria were identified, six of which were randomized controlled trials with ‘good’ overall methodology (median Physiotherapy Evidence Database score of 6. Although some evidence was identified to support the use of interdisciplinary interventions and chiropractic manipulation, the evidence was not strong for any of the evaluated treatments. There is a clear need for further research to evaluate interventions aimed at treating patients with subacute WAD because there are currently no interventions satisfactorily supported by the research literature.

  19. A research synthesis of therapeutic interventions for whiplash-associated disorder (WAD): part 3 - interventions for subacute WAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teasell, Robert W; McClure, J Andrew; Walton, David; Pretty, Jason; Salter, Katherine; Meyer, Matthew; Sequeira, Keith; Death, Barry

    2010-01-01

    Whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) represents a significant public health problem, resulting in substantial social and economic costs throughout the industrialized world. While many treatments have been advocated for patients with WAD, scientific evidence supporting their effectiveness is often lacking. A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the strength of evidence associated with various WAD therapies. Multiple databases (including Web of Science, EMBASE and PubMed) were searched to identify all studies published from January 1980 through March 2009 that evaluated the effectiveness of any clearly defined treatment for acute (less than two weeks), subacute (two to 12 weeks) or chronic (longer than 12 weeks) WAD. The present article, the third in a five-part series, evaluates the evidence for interventions initiated during the subacute phase of WAD. Thirteen studies that met the inclusion criteria were identified, six of which were randomized controlled trials with 'good' overall methodology (median Physiotherapy Evidence Database score of 6). Although some evidence was identified to support the use of interdisciplinary interventions and chiropractic manipulation, the evidence was not strong for any of the evaluated treatments. There is a clear need for further research to evaluate interventions aimed at treating patients with subacute WAD because there are currently no interventions satisfactorily supported by the research literature.

  20. A research synthesis of therapeutic interventions for whiplash-associated disorder (WAD): Part 3 – interventions for subacute WAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teasell, Robert W; McClure, J Andrew; Walton, David; Pretty, Jason; Salter, Katherine; Meyer, Matthew; Sequeira, Keith; Death, Barry

    2010-01-01

    Whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) represents a significant public health problem, resulting in substantial social and economic costs throughout the industrialized world. While many treatments have been advocated for patients with WAD, scientific evidence supporting their effectiveness is often lacking. A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the strength of evidence associated with various WAD therapies. Multiple databases (including Web of Science, EMBASE and PubMed) were searched to identify all studies published from January 1980 through March 2009 that evaluated the effectiveness of any clearly defined treatment for acute (less than two weeks), subacute (two to 12 weeks) or chronic (longer than 12 weeks) WAD. The present article, the third in a five-part series, evaluates the evidence for interventions initiated during the subacute phase of WAD. Thirteen studies that met the inclusion criteria were identified, six of which were randomized controlled trials with ‘good’ overall methodology (median Physiotherapy Evidence Database score of 6). Although some evidence was identified to support the use of interdisciplinary interventions and chiropractic manipulation, the evidence was not strong for any of the evaluated treatments. There is a clear need for further research to evaluate interventions aimed at treating patients with subacute WAD because there are currently no interventions satisfactorily supported by the research literature. PMID:21038009

  1. Epilepsy in children with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jović, Nebojša J

    2013-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare, progressive, fatal neurodegenerative disease of childhood and early adolescence caused by defective measles virus. The initial symptoms of SSPE usually involve regression in cognitive functioning and behavior or recurrent myoclonic jerks. Seizures revealing SSPE and epilepsy during the clinical course can occur. The aim of the study was to analyze clinical and EEG characteristics of both initially occurred seizures and epilepsy which developed in the course of the disease. Retrospective study was carried out on 19 children (14 boys, 5 girls) with SSPE diagnosed and treated at our Clinic from 1995 to 2010. Seizures revealed SSPE in our patients aged from 6.5 to 11.5 years (mean 8.6 years). SSPE onset ranged from 4.5 to 16.5 years (mean 10.05). Complete vaccination was performed in nine patients. Cognitive and behavioral decline was preceeded by 6-18 months in two children with intractable focal motor seizures with secondary generalization, one child with complex partial seizures and one with atypical absences. During the clinical course of the disease epilepsy developed in 10 (52.6%) cases, including four patients with seizures as the initial SSPE sign. It occurred mainly in the first year, while in three cases seizures appeared between 1 and 5 years of the disease evolution. Myoclonus was present independently from seizures. No significant inter-group differences were found relating to the type of SSPE progression and history of epilepsy. The only child with fulminant SSPE presented with initial seizures. Favorable seizure control was achieved in 60.0% patients. Intractable epilepsy developed in four patients. Atypical SSPE presentation can include mainly focal intractable seizures. Epilepsy developed during clinical course in 52.6% cases. No significant influence was found of the history of epilepsy on the type of SSPE progression.

  2. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: A clinical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagtap, Sujit Abajirao; Nair, M D; Kambale, Harsha J

    2013-10-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare chronic, progressive encephalitis affecting primarily children and young adults, caused by a persistent infection of immune resistant measles virus. The aim of the present study is to describe the clinical profile and natural history of patients with SSPE. We collected data of patients with SSPE during 2004-2010 who fulfilled Dyken's criteria. We analyzed demographical, clinical, electrophysiological, and imaging features. Study included 34 patients, 26 (76.5%) males with age of onset from 3 to 31 years. Twenty one patients were below 15 years of age formed childhood SSPE and 13 above 15 years of age constituted adult onset group. 85.3% had low-socioeconomic status. Eleven received measles vaccination and seven were unvaccinated. 59.9% patients had measles history. Most common presenting symptom was scholastic backwardness (52.5%) followed by seizures (23.5%). Three patients each had cortical blindness, macular degeneration, decreased visual acuity, and optic atrophy. Electroencephalographic (EEG) showed long interval periodic complexes and cerebrospinal fluid anti-measles antibody was positive in all. Magnetic resonance imaging was done in 70.5% with was abnormal in 52.5%. Mean incubation period of SSPE after measles was 9.6 years. The follow-up duration was 1-10 years, (average of 2 years). Only one patient died from available data of follow-up, 9 were stable and 10 deteriorated in the form of progression of staging. SSPE is common in low-socioeconomic status. The profile of adult onset did not differ from childhood onset SSPE, except for a longer interval between measles infection and presence of the ophthalmic symptom as presenting feature in adult onset group.

  3. Epilepsy in children with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Nebojša J.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE is a rare, progressive, fatal neurodegenerative disease of childhood and early adolescence caused by defective measles virus. The initial symptoms of SSPE usually involve regression in cognitive functioning and behavior or recurrent myoclonic jerks. Seizures revealing SSPE and epilepsy during the clinical course can occur. Objective. The aim of the study was to analyze clinical and EEG characteristics of both initially occurred seizures and epilepsy which developed in the course of the disease. Methods. Retrospective study was carried out on 19 children (14 boys, 5 girls with SSPE diagnosed and treated at our Clinic from 1995 to 2010. Seizures revealed SSPE in our patients aged from 6.5 to 11.5 years (mean 8.6 years. Results. SSPE onset ranged from 4.5 to 16.5 years (mean 10.05. Complete vaccination was performed in nine patients. Cognitive and behavioral decline was preceeded by 6-18 months in two children with intractable focal motor seizures with secondary generalization, one child with complex partial seizures and one with atypical absences. During the clinical course of the disease epilepsy developed in 10 (52.6% cases, including four patients with seizures as the initial SSPE sign. It occurred mainly in the first year, while in three cases seizures appeared between 1 and 5 years of the disease evolution. Myoclonus was present independently from seizures. No significant inter-group differences were found relating to the type of SSPE progression and history of epilepsy. The only child with fulminant SSPE presented with initial seizures. Favorable seizure control was achieved in 60.0% patients. Intractable epilepsy developed in four patients. Conclusion. Atypical SSPE presentation can include mainly focal intractable seizures. Epilepsy developed during clinical course in 52.6% cases. No significant influence was found of the history of epilepsy on the type of SSPE progression.

  4. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: A clinical appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujit Abajirao Abajirao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE is a rare chronic, progressive encephalitis affecting primarily children and young adults, caused by a persistent infection of immune resistant measles virus. The aim of the present study is to describe the clinical profile and natural history of patients with SSPE. Methods: We collected data of patients with SSPE during 2004-2010 who fulfilled Dyken′s criteria. We analyzed demographical, clinical, electrophysiological, and imaging features. Results: Study included 34 patients, 26 (76.5% males with age of onset from 3 to 31 years. Twenty one patients were below 15 years of age formed childhood SSPE and 13 above 15 years of age constituted adult onset group. 85.3% had low-socioeconomic status. Eleven received measles vaccination and seven were unvaccinated. 59.9% patients had measles history. Most common presenting symptom was scholastic backwardness (52.5% followed by seizures (23.5%. Three patients each had cortical blindness, macular degeneration, decreased visual acuity, and optic atrophy. Electroencephalographic (EEG showed long interval periodic complexes and cerebrospinal fluid anti-measles antibody was positive in all. Magnetic resonance imaging was done in 70.5% with was abnormal in 52.5%. Mean incubation period of SSPE after measles was 9.6 years. The follow-up duration was 1-10 years, (average of 2 years. Only one patient died from available data of follow-up, 9 were stable and 10 deteriorated in the form of progression of staging. Conclusion: SSPE is common in low-socioeconomic status. The profile of adult onset did not differ from childhood onset SSPE, except for a longer interval between measles infection and presence of the ophthalmic symptom as presenting feature in adult onset group.

  5. Results of Toxicity Identification Evaluations (TIE`S) conducted on the A-01 outfall and its contributory waste streams, July 1996--February 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    1997-03-01

    Toxicity tests were conducted at nine locations during the summer of 1996. The results indicated that A-01B, A-01C, A-03, A-04, A-05 and A-01 were toxic to the test species, Ceriodaphnia dubia, while A-01A, A-06, and WE-01 were not toxic. Beginning in August 1996, Toxicity Identification Evaluations (TIE`s) were initiated on all toxic outfalls in order to identify the toxicants responsible for the observed toxicity. A complete TIE was performed on A-01 because it is the regulatory compliance point for all of the combined waste streams that were tested. Only the portions of a TIE that are related to metal and chlorine toxicity were performed on the remaining locations because existing data indicated that metals and chlorine were present in potentially toxic quantities at these locations, and there was no evidence that other toxicants would be expected to be present in toxic amounts. The results of the TIE`s indicate that metals are responsible for most of the toxicity at all of the outfalls that were toxic and that chlorine contributed to the toxicity at two of the outfalls. Specifically, the toxicity at A-01B, A-01C, and A-01 was due to copper; the toxicity at A-03 was due to primarily to copper, although zinc also contributed to the toxicity; the toxicity at A-04 was due primarily to copper, with residual chlorine and zinc contributing to the toxicity; and the toxicity at A-05 was due primarily to copper, with residual chlorine contributing to the toxicity. A-03 was the most toxic outfall, with 100% mortality occurring at concentrations as low as 12.5% effluent. A-03 was found to have concentrations of copper, lead, and zinc that exceeded EPA water quality criteria by approximately two orders of magnitude. The metal concentrations at A-01 and WE-01, which is located approximately 0.5 miles downstream from A-01 were similar. However, A-01 was toxic, while WE-01 was not.

  6. TOXICITY EVALUATION OF THROUGH FISH BIOASSAY RAW BULK DRUG INDUSTRY WASTEWATER AFTER ELECTROCHEMICAL TREATMENT

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A M Deshpande; S Satyanarayan

    2011-01-01

    ... the discharge standards. Therefore, in this study the toxic effects of high strength bulk drug industry wastewater before and after electrochemical treatment on common fish Lebistes reticulatus-(peter...

  7. Evaluation of Common Use Brominated Flame Retardant (BFR) Toxicity Using a Zebrafish Embryo Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usenko, Crystal Y; Abel, Erika L; Hopkins, Aaron; Martinez, Gerardo; Tijerina, Jonathan; Kudela, Molly; Norris, Nick; Joudeh, Lana; Bruce, Erica D

    2016-09-02

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are used to reduce the flammability of plastics, textiles, and electronics. BFRs vary in their chemical properties and structures, and it is expected that these differences alter their biological interactions and toxicity. Zebrafish were used as the model organism for assessing the toxicity of nine structurally-diverse BFRs. In addition to monitoring for overt toxicity, the rate of spontaneous movement, and acetylcholinesterase and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities were assessed following exposure. The toxicities of BFRs tested can be ranked by LC50 as tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) banned. These results suggest that zebrafish are sensitive to exposure to BFRs and can be used as a comparative screening model, as well as to determine alterations in behavior following exposure and probe mechanisms of action.

  8. Evaluation of Daphnia ambigua for Routine Aquatic Toxicity Testing at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States); Harmon, S.M. [University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Short-term whole effluent toxicity testing, which is currently a requirement of the U.S. EPA`s National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES), commonly uses the cladoceran species Ceriodaphnia dubia. Despite the advantages to using a common test species to model the toxic effects of effluents, it could be argued that toxicity test results would be more meaningful if a wider variety of test organisms were commonly used. One particular argument against C. dubia is that tests conducted with this species do not always reflect local, site-specific conditions. The careful selection and use of an indigenous test species would produce a more realistic model of local instream effects and would account for regional differences in water quality. Permitted effluent discharges from Savannah River Site (SRS), a government weapons facility operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, require toxicity testing with C. dubia. However, water quality in these receiving streams is markedly different (lower pH and hardness) from standard laboratory water used for the culturing and testing of C. dubia, and it has been shown that this receiving water presents varying degrees of toxicity to C. dubia. Based on these results, it is possible that toxic effects observed during an effluent study could be the result of test organism stress from the dilution water and not the effects of SRS effluents. Therefore, this study addressed the substitution of C. dubia with an indigenous cladoceran species, Daphnia ambigua for routine regulatory testing at SRS. Given the indigenous nature of this species, combined with the fact that it has been successfully cultured by other investigators, D. ambigua was ideal for consideration as a replacement for C. dubia, but further study of the overall success and sensitivity of laboratory-reared D. ambigua was required. This investigation determined that D. ambigua could be laboratory cultured with only minimal changes to established regulatory protocol and

  9. Current therapies and future perspectives in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatli, Burak; Ekici, Bariş; Ozmen, Meral

    2012-04-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is a progressive neurological disorder of children and young adults caused by a measles virus that became defective by persisting in the host. According to the results of clinical trials, antiviral and/or immunomodulatory therapy can slow the progression of the disease and improve life expectancy in patients. However, its long-term effects and eventual outcome remain debatable due to conflicting results and its lack of effect on the rapidly progressive form of the disease. Possible future therapies for subacute sclerosing panencephalitis are RNAi and antiapoptotic agents, which are currently in the hypothetical and experimental stages of research.

  10. Development of Techniques for the Evaluation of Toxicant Impacts to Multispecies Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-28

    the physical and chemical structure of the SAM and MFC multispecies toxicity tests. The media are identical except for the addition of NaHCO3 in the...showing initial (day 11I) and final (day 63) peaks. due to volatization , photooxidation, biotransformation, and biodegradation. 3.2 Short-term toxicity...then soaked in 2N HCl for at least one hour, rinsed ten times with distilled water, dried and finally autoclaved for 30 minutes. Microcosm medium

  11. Evaluation of the acute and subchronic toxicity of Aster tataricus L.F. ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... on the liver; much less on the heart. The LD50 was 15.74 g/kg BW in mice, and the subchronic toxicity study, used a dosage of 0.34 g/kg/d.BW, showed that the toxic components of Aster tataricus L. f. were mainly concentrated in the petroleum ether fraction, followed by the ethyl acetate fraction, the n-butyl alcohol fraction, ...

  12. Evaluation of acute toxicity of genabilic acid (menbutone 10%) in rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    El Okle, S. O.; Tohamy, G. H.; Lebda, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    A complete investigation of the acute toxicity of a choleretic compound, menbutone, was performed in rabbits, including lethal dose for 50% of rabbits determination, clinical signs observation and in vivo and post-mortem examinations. Haematological, biochemical and histopathological changes resulting from intramuscular injection of menbutone were also investigated at dose 400 mg/kg body weight. Acute toxicity of menbutone at dose of 400 mg/kg BW induced interstitial myocarditis and multifoca...

  13. Biomarker evaluation of skeletal muscle toxicity following clofibrate administration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodié, Karen; Buck, Wayne R; Pieh, Julia; Liguori, Michael J; Popp, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    The use of sensitive biomarkers to monitor skeletal muscle toxicity in preclinical toxicity studies is important for the risk assessment in humans during the development of a novel compound. Skeletal muscle toxicity in Sprague Dawley Rats was induced with clofibrate at different dose levels for 7 days to compare standard clinical pathology assays with novel skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle biomarkers, gene expression and histopathological changes. The standard clinical pathology assays aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and creatine kinase (CK) enzyme activity were compared to novel biomarkers fatty acid binding protein 3 (Fabp3), myosin light chain 3 (Myl3), muscular isoform of CK immunoreactivity (three isoforms CKBB, CKMM, CKMB), parvalbumin (Prv), skeletal troponin I (sTnI), cardiac troponin T (cTnT), cardiac troponin I (cTnI), CKMM, and myoglobin (Myo). The biomarker elevations were correlated to histopathological findings detected in several muscles and gene expression changes. Clofibrate predominantly induced skeletal muscle toxicity of type I fibers of low magnitude. Useful biomarkers for skeletal muscle toxicity were AST, Fabp3, Myl3, (CKMB) and sTnI. Measurements of CK enzyme activity by a standard clinical assay were not useful for monitoring clofibrate-induced skeletal muscle toxicity in the rat at the doses used in this study. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of acute toxicity and teratogenic effects of plant growth regulators by Daphnia magna embryo assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai-Sung; Lu, Chi-Yuan; Chang, Shih-Hsien

    2011-06-15

    This study selected common plant growth regulators (Atonik, Cytokinin, Ethephon, Gibberellic acid and Paclobutrazol) to investigate their biological toxicity to the waters of the important biological indicator Daphnia magna. The methods used in this study included traditional neonate acute toxicity test, new Daphnia embryo toxicity test, and teratogenic embryo test. The study concluded that the acute toxicity of the five PGRs to Daphnia neonate had EC(50) value range of 1.9-130.5 mg l(-1), while acute toxicity of PGRs on Daphnia embryo had EC(50) value range of 0.2-125 mg l(-1); the Daphnia embryos' LOEC values (0.05-48 mg l(-1)) for the five PGRs were lower than embryo EC(50) values. The toxic ratios of 48 h EC(50) (neonate)/48 h LOEC (embryo) for 5 PGRs were 19-512 times. The study found that teratogenic effects of Paclobutrazol and Cytokinin induced in embryo were higher than those of most other PGRs. Microscopic observation of the teratogenic effects showed that all 5 PGRs induced malformations of the second antenna, rostrum, Malpighian tube, sensory bristles, and tail spine as well as function loss and death. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of chronic toxicity of Kushta Sammulfar (calx of Arsenic trioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athar Parvez Ansari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sammulfar (arsenic trioxide is a notorious poison and has extensively been studied for its toxicity. It is in use for various purposes for centuries and is used even today as a therapeutic agent in the form of kushta (calx in traditional systems of medicine, particularly Unani medicine, but without apparent safety data. The present study, therefore, was conducted to produce data for prolong use of calx of arsenic trioxide. The calx (test drug was prepared by the method described in National Formulary of Unani Medicine. The study was carried in healthy Wistar rats of either sex; weighing 150-250 g; 2-3 months of age, in a dose dependent manner, following the methods of Gupta et al. (2002, Ghosh (2008 and Klaassan (2008. The animals were divided into four groups of 10 animals each. Group I served as control, where as group II, III and IV were used for three dose levels of the test drug i.e. low (8.75 mg–1 kg, medium (17.50 mg–1 kg and higher (26.25 mg–1 kg. Standard parameters usually applied for chronic toxicity studies were considered. The study revealed dose dependent toxicity. Usual signs of chronic toxicity were observed during the study. Low dose of Kushta Sammulfar (KSF did not produce remarkable toxic effects. Mild to moderate toxicity was seen in KSF-II and KSF-III.

  16. In Vitro Toxicity Evaluation of Caffeine Imprinted Polymer (CAF-MIP for Decaffeination Method on Normal Chang Liver Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Hashim

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Over consuming of caffeine is one of the factors to a few health problems such as insomnia, hypertension and cardiovascular disease. This preliminary study was conducted to evaluate the Caffeine-Imprinted Polymer (CAF-MIP toxicity that was synthesized for a new alternative method for decaffeination. It is crucial to evaluate the toxicity of CAF-MIP as this product is potential to be used as complimentary with any drinks containing caffeine. In this study, the CAF-MIP toxicity potential was confirmed on Normal Chang Liver cell (NCLC based on its IC50 value and acridine orange and propidium iodide (AO/PI staining for mode of cell death observation. Proliferation assay was also conducted after 24, 48 and 72 hours at 30 µg/ml on NCLC and it showed that CAF-MIP promote NCLC growth as shown by at various concentration of CAF-MIP increase the percentage of NCLC viability. Observation under light microscopes on NCLC incubated wit CAF-MIP and NIP showed the normal, viable cell morphology, cuboidal and monolayer cell morphology and this can be seen with green fluorescence when view under fluorescence microscope. In conclusion, from this study, it is proved that the CAF-MIP does not initiate toxicity effects on human liver cells, meanwhile induction of cell proliferation was observed.

  17. Evaluation of the in vitro ocular toxicity of the fortified antibiotic eye drops prepared at the Hospital Pharmacy Departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anxo Fernández-Ferreiro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of parenteral antibiotic eye drop formulations with non-marketed compositions or concentrations, commonly called fortified antibiotic eye drops, is a common practice in Ophthalmology in the hospital setting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro ocular toxicity of the main fortified antibiotic eye drops prepared in the Hospital Pharmacy Departments. We have conducted an in vitro experimental study in order to test the toxicity of gentamicin, amikacin, cefazolin, ceftazidime, vancomycin, colistimethate sodium and imipenem-cilastatin eye drops; their cytotoxicity and acute tissue irritation have been evaluated. Cell-based assays were performed on human stromal keratocytes, using a cell-based impedance biosensor system [xCELLigence Real-Time System Cell Analyzer (RTCA], and the Hen’s Egg Test for the ocular irritation tests. All the eye drops, except for vancomycin and imipenem, have shown a cytotoxic effect dependent on concentration and time; higher concentrations and longer exposure times will cause a steeper decline in the population of stromal keratocytes. Vancomycin showed a major initial cytotoxic effect, which was reverted over time; and imipenem appeared as a non-toxic compound for stromal cells. The eye drops with the highest irritating effect on the ocular surface were gentamicin and vancomycin. Those antibiotic eye drops prepared at the Hospital Pharmacy Departments included in this study were considered as compounds potentially cytotoxic for the ocular surface; this toxicity was dependent on the concentration used

  18. Prospective Evaluation of Acute Toxicity and Quality of Life After IMRT and Concurrent Chemotherapy for Anal Canal and Perianal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Kathy; Cummings, Bernard J.; Lindsay, Patricia; Skliarenko, Julia; Craig, Tim [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Le, Lisa W. [Department of Biostatistics, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Brierley, James; Wong, Rebecca; Dinniwell, Robert; Bayley, Andrew J.; Dawson, Laura A.; Ringash, Jolie [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Krzyzanowska, Monika K.; Moore, Malcolm J.; Chen, Eric X. [Department of Medical Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Easson, Alexandra M. [Department of Surgical Oncology, Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Kassam, Zahra; Cho, Charles [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Kim, John, E-mail: John.Kim@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: A prospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate toxicity, quality of life (QOL), and clinical outcomes in patients treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and concurrent chemotherapy for anal and perianal cancer. Methods and Materials: From June 2008 to November 2010, patients with anal or perianal cancer treated with IMRT were eligible. Radiation dose was 27 Gy in 15 fractions to 36 Gy in 20 fractions for elective targets and 45 Gy in 25 fractions to 63 Gy in 35 fractions for gross targets using standardized, institutional guidelines, with no planned treatment breaks. The chemotherapy regimen was 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin C. Toxicity was graded with the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3. QOL was assessed with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 and CR29 questionnaires. Correlations between dosimetric parameters and both physician-graded toxicities and patient-reported outcomes were evaluated by polyserial correlation. Results: Fifty-eight patients were enrolled. The median follow-up time was 34 months; the median age was 56 years; 52% of patients were female; and 19% were human immunodeficiency virus—positive. Stage I, II, III, and IV disease was found in 9%, 57%, 26%, and 9% of patients, respectively. Twenty-six patients (45%) required a treatment break because of acute toxicity, mainly dermatitis (23/26). Acute grade 3 + toxicities included skin 46%, hematologic 38%, gastrointestinal 9%, and genitourinary 0. The 2-year overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), colostomy-free survival (CFS), and cumulative locoregional failure (LRF) rates were 90%, 77%, 84%, and 16%, respectively. The global QOL/health status, skin, defecation, and pain scores were significantly worse at the end of treatment than at baseline, but they returned to baseline 3 months after treatment. Social functioning and appetite scores were

  19. First Chemical Evaluation and Toxicity of Casinga-cheirosa to Balb-c Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirce M. Estork

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Laetia suaveolens, known as “casinga-cheirosa”, crude extract EB719 has previously shown cytotoxic activity against prostate cancer and squamous cell carcinoma. For the first time, seven molecules were isolated from its apolar—α-tocopherol (1 and sitosterol (2—and polar—3-O-caffeoylquinic acid (3, 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid (4, 5-O-feruloylquinic acid (5, hyperoside (6, and isoquercitrin (7—fractions. Acute toxicity was determined in a two-stage experiment: (1 a reduced number of Balb-c male mice received 5000 mg/kg of EB719 to allow evaluation of general activity and other 27 parameters, plus death, up to the establishment of non-lethal dose (NLD, as well as lethal dose 50% (LD50; (2 NLD was administered and diazepam introduced as reference drug. EB719 showed LD50 = 178.0 mg/kg, and NLD 156.3 mg/kg. In stage one EB719 did not influence general activity, but provoked impairment in grasp reflexes, tail squeeze and breathing; piloerection and cyanosis were increased. In stage two, alterations occurred in auricular reflex, piloerection and breathing after diazepam administration, but not in response to EB719. Intestinal hemorrhage caused by local bleeding was observed after necropsy, and may be the main cause of animals’ death other than a systemic effect of the extract. Although the isolated compounds are biologically and pharmacologically active in both men and animal systems, it is premature to relate their occurrence in EB719 to the observed intestine hemorrhage in mice.

  20. ADMET Evaluation in Drug Discovery. Part 17: Development of Quantitative and Qualitative Prediction Models for Chemical-Induced Respiratory Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Tailong; Chen, Fu; Liu, Hui; Sun, Huiyong; Kang, Yu; Li, Dan; Li, Youyong; Hou, Tingjun

    2017-07-03

    As a dangerous end point, respiratory toxicity can cause serious adverse health effects and even death. Meanwhile, it is a common and traditional issue in occupational and environmental protection. Pharmaceutical and chemical industries have a strong urge to develop precise and convenient computational tools to evaluate the respiratory toxicity of compounds as early as possible. Most of the reported theoretical models were developed based on the respiratory toxicity data sets with one single symptom, such as respiratory sensitization, and therefore these models may not afford reliable predictions for toxic compounds with other respiratory symptoms, such as pneumonia or rhinitis. Here, based on a diverse data set of mouse intraperitoneal respiratory toxicity characterized by multiple symptoms, a number of quantitative and qualitative predictions models with high reliability were developed by machine learning approaches. First, a four-tier dimension reduction strategy was employed to find an optimal set of 20 molecular descriptors for model building. Then, six machine learning approaches were used to develop the prediction models, including relevance vector machine (RVM), support vector machine (SVM), regularized random forest (RRF), extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost), naïve Bayes (NB), and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Among all of the models, the SVM regression model shows the most accurate quantitative predictions for the test set (q2ext = 0.707), and the XGBoost classification model achieves the most accurate qualitative predictions for the test set (MCC of 0.644, AUC of 0.893, and global accuracy of 82.62%). The application domains were analyzed, and all of the tested compounds fall within the application domain coverage. We also examined the structural features of the compounds and important fragments with large prediction errors. In conclusion, the SVM regression model and the XGBoost classification model can be employed as accurate prediction tools

  1. Toxicity evaluation of trap and skeet shooting targets to aquatic test species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, K N; Hutton, D G; Boeri, R L; Ward, T J; Stahl, R G

    1995-12-01

    : Large quantities of trap and skeet clay targets are used in shooting activities around the United States. For example, the number of targets used since 1970 has averaged approximately 560 million a year. A number of acute and chronic tests were performed to determine the toxicity of Remington Arms Company Blue Rock(®) trap and skeet target fragments upon selected freshwater and marine organisms. These studies were undertaken in support of an environmental impact study of trap and skeet shooting activities at a major gun club in the northeast United States. Targets were composed of approximately 67% dolomitic limestone, 32% petroleum pitch and 1% fluorescent aqueous paint (painted targets only). The majority of samples were painted, new targets obtained from the manufacturer and painted and aged targets collected around a shooting range. Additional tests were conducted using non-painted, new targets and leachates prepared from both painted, new and aged targets. Targets were crushed to small fragments and were either directly added to the test vessels at extremely high concentrations ranging from 670 to 600 000 mgl(-1) or used in leachate tests. In direct tests all target materials were essentially non-toxic to marine and freshwater organisms, except for the non-painted new targets which exhibited minimal acute toxicity to Daphnia magna (48 h EC 50=2200 mgl(-1)). In leachate tests, the leachate was not-toxic to mysid shrimp, the only organism tested. Additional samples of crushed targets were analysed for the presence of selected priority pollutants (EP toxicity test) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The targets did not exhibit the characteristics of toxicity as determined by the EP toxicity test but did contain substantial amounts of PAHs. However, results from new and aged targets suggest that PAH are tightly bound in the petroleum pitch and limestone matrix and are unlikely to be readily available in the environment. The potential impact of targets

  2. Toxicity evaluation of petroleum blending streams: inhalation subchronic toxicity/neurotoxicity study of a light catalytic reformed naphtha distillate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, C; Bui, Q; Breglia, R; Burnett, D; Koschier, F; Lapadula, E; Podhasky, P; White, R

    2000-08-11

    A 13-wk whole-body inhalation study was conducted with Sprague-Dawley CD rats (16/sex/group) exposed to a light catalytic reformed naphtha distillate (LCRN-D, CAS number 64741-63-5) at target concentrations of 0, 750, 2500, and 7500 ppm for 6 h/d, 5 d/wk. Sixteen rats per sex in the control and high-dose groups were maintained after final exposure for a 4-wk recovery period. The highest exposure concentration was 75% of the lower explosive limit. Standard parameters of subchronic toxicity were measured throughout the study; at necropsy, organs were weighed and tissues processed for microscopic evaluation. Neurotoxicity evaluations consisted of motor activity (MA) and a functional operational battery (FOB) measured pretest, throughout exposure and after the recovery period. Neuropathology was evaluated at termination. No test-related mortality or effects on physical signs, body weight, food consumption, or clinical chemistry were observed. In males exposed to 7500-ppm LCRN-D, a statistically significant decrease in white blood cell counts and lymphocyte counts was observed at the termination of exposure that was not present in animals after the 4-wk recovery period. However, mean corpuscular volume was slightly decreased in high-dose males after the recovery period. Statistically significant increases in kidney weights relative to body weights in 7500-ppm male rats correlated with microscopically observed hyaline droplet formation and renal tubule dilation, indicative of light hydrocarbon nephropathy, a condition in male rats that is not toxicologically significant for humans. Statistically significant decrease in absolute and relative spleen weights in 7500-ppm male rats correlated with decreases in hematologic parameters but had no microscopic correlate and was not observed in animals after 4 wk of recovery. This mild, reversible effect in white blood cell populations may relate to the presence of aromatics in the distillate. The only effect of LCRN-D on

  3. Evaluation of toxicity after periocular and intravitreal administration of carboplatin in rabbit eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisa Darsová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the extent of toxicity of focal carboplatin administration and to identify the dose limiting toxicity in rabbit eyes depending on administered concentrations. New Zealand white male rabbits (n = 18 were treated with 1 of 3 regimens: a single periocular injection of 15 mg of carboplatin (group I, a single periocular injection of 30 mg of carboplatin (group II and a single transcorneal intravitreal injection of 0.05 mg of carboplatin (group III. Ophthalmologic examinations and vitreous samplings were performed under dissociative anaesthesia at regular intervals during next 2 (groups I and III or 3 (group II weeks. Carboplatin concentrations in vitreous samples were assessed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. At the end of experiments, all rabbit eyes were obtained for histopathologic examination. Clinical and histological evidence of toxicity was graded into four grades according to anatomical structures of the rabbit eye. The dose limiting toxicity was reached in group II after periocular injection of 30 mg of carboplatin and in group III after intravitreal injection of 0.05 mg of carboplatin. No systemic toxicity was observed in any group. Focal carboplatin administration may decrease systemic exposure to this cytotoxic drug in the retinoblastoma treatment. This moreover suggests that focal carboplatin administration is a promising approach and challenge for advanced retinoblastoma chemotherapy.

  4. Chronic toxicity evaluation of Morinda citrifolia fruit and leaf in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad Shalan, Nor Aijratul Asikin; Mustapha, Noordin M; Mohamed, Suhaila

    2017-02-01

    Noni (Morinda citrifolia) leaf and fruit are used as food and medicine. This report compares the chronic toxicity of Noni fruit and edible leaf water extracts (two doses each) in female mice. The 6 months study showed the fruit extract produced chronic toxicity effects at the high dose of 2 mg/ml drinking water, evidenced through deteriorated liver histology (hepatocyte necrosis), reduced liver length, increased liver injury marker AST (aspartate aminotransferase) and albumin reduction, injury symptoms (hypoactivity, excessive grooming, sunken eyes and hunched posture) and 40% mortality within 3 months. This hepatotoxicity results support the six liver injury reports in humans which were linked to chronic noni fruit juice consumption. Both doses of the leaf extracts demonstrated no observable toxicity. The hepatotoxicity effects of the M. citrifolia fruit extract in this study is unknown and may probably be due to the anthraquinones in the seeds and skin, which had potent quinone reductase inducer activity that reportedly was 40 times more effective than l-sulforaphane. This report will add to current data on the chronic toxicity cases of Morinda citrifolia fruit. No report on the chronic toxicity of Morinda citrifolia fruit in animal model is available for comparison. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of the toxicity of α-(phenylselanyl) acetophenone in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casaril, Angela M; Martinez, Débora Martins; Ricordi, Vanesssa Gentil; Alves, Diego; Lenardão, Eder João; Schultze, Eduarda; Collares, Tiago; Seixas, Fabiana Kömmling; Savegnago, Lucielli

    2015-12-01

    Selenium is an essential micronutrient with several biological roles in the human body, but supra nutritional consumption can cause toxic effects. The potential deleterious effects of organoselenium compounds are controversial. The compound α-(phenylselanyl) acetophenone (PSAP) exhibits antioxidant, antidepressant-like and glutathione peroxidase-like activity, which makes important the elucidation of any toxic effects. Hence, the present study aims to investigate the in vitro toxicity of PSAP in Chinese Hamster ovary cells (through MTT assay) and analyse its genotoxicity using the comet assay in mice leukocytes after acute or chronic treatments, alongside with biochemical analyses. Our results demonstrate that the oral administration of PSAP in acute (1, 5, 10, 50, 200 mg/kg) and chronic (1, 10, 50, 200 mg/kg) doses did not cause genotoxicity. The compound presented cytotoxic effect in the MTT assay just at 500 μM after 24 h of administration and at 250 and 500 μM after 48 and 72 h of administration. According to biochemical analysis, PSAP presented a minor toxic effect by altering δ-ALA-D activity in liver and catalase activity in kidney at the highest tested concentration. Taking together, these data indicate that PSAP has low toxic effects after chronic administration in mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of silica nanoparticle toxicity after topical exposure for 90 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Hwa Jung; Seong, Nak-won; So, Byoung Joon; Seo, Heung-sik; Kim, Jun-ho; Hong, Jeong-Sup; Park, Myeong-kyu; Kim, Min-Seok; Kim, Yu-Ri; Cho, Kyu-Bong; Seo, Mu Yeb; Kim, Meyoung-Kon; Maeng, Eun Ho; Son, Sang Wook

    2014-01-01

    Silica is a very common material that can be found in both crystalline and amorphous forms. Well-known toxicities of the lung can occur after exposure to the crystalline form of silica. However, the toxicities of the amorphous form of silica have not been thoroughly studied. The majority of in vivo studies of amorphous silica nanoparticles (NPs) were performed using an inhalation exposure method. Since silica NPs can be commonly administered through the skin, a study of dermal silica toxicity was necessary to determine any harmful effects from dermal exposures. The present study focused on the results of systemic toxicity after applying 20 nm colloidal silica NPs on rat skin for 90 days, in accordance with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development test guideline 411 with a good laboratory practice system. Unlike the inhalation route or gastrointestinal route, the contact of silica NPs through skin did not result in any toxicity or any change in internal organs up to a dose of 2,000 mg/kg in rats.

  7. Evaluation of radiological versus chemical toxicity limits for varying enrichments of uranium for Department of Energy facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Peter; Rabovsky, Joel; Foulke, Judith

    2010-02-01

    On 8 June 2007, the Department of Energy amended its occupational radiation protection rule Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection. The Department of Energy revised the radiation weighting factors, tissue weighting factors, and most of the dosimetric terms used in Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 835 to reflect the recommendations for assessing dose and associated terminology from ICRP Publication 60, 1990 Recommendations of the ICRP on Radiological Protection. In support of the amendment, the Department of Energy is revising its guidance documents on evaluation of radiological vs. chemical toxicity limits for varying enrichments of uranium. The revised guidance is based on the updated dosimetric models and provides a useful tool for evaluating when either radiological or chemical toxicity concerns are more limiting.

  8. Evaluation of the developmental toxicity of formamide in New Zealand white rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Julia D; Price, Catherine J; Marr, Melissa C; Myers, Christina B; Jahnke, Gloria D

    2002-09-01

    Naturally mated female New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits (24/group) received formamide (35, 70, or 140 mg/kg/day) or vehicle (1 ml/kg deionized/distilled water) by gavage on gestational days (GD) 6 through 29. The study was conducted using a 2-replicate design. Maternal food consumption (absolute and relative), body weight, and clinical signs were monitored at regular intervals throughout gestation. One and four maternal deaths occurred at the low and high doses, respectively. Abortions or early deliveries were noted in 0, 2, 2, and 8 females in the 0, 35, 70, and 140-mg/kg/day dose groups, respectively. Other clinical signs associated with formamide exposure were minimal: primarily reduced or absent fecal output at the high dose (2-13 animals/day). Also at the high dose, maternal body weight was significantly depressed on GD 21, 24, and 27 (87-90% of the control value); maternal body weight gain was significantly reduced for GD 12 to 15, 18 to 21, and 21 to 24 (treated animals gained less than 1 g, or lost up to 100 g). In addition, maternal body weight gain was reduced at the middle dose for GD 18 to 21. Maternal body weight gain, corrected for gravid uterine weight, was unaffected. Relative maternal food consumption in the high-dose group was 34-59% of control intake from GD 12 through GD 24, but was comparable to controls thereafter. At termination (GD 30), confirmed-pregnant females (9-20 per group) were evaluated for clinical status, liver weights, and gestational outcome; live fetuses were examined for external, visceral, and skeletal malformations and variations. Maternal liver weight (absolute or relative to body weight) was unaffected by treatment, but gravid uterine weight at the high dose was 71% of the control value. A significantly increasing trend was noted for the percent non-live implants per litter. In addition, although not statistically significant from the control group, the values for the percent late fetal deaths per litter and percent non

  9. Multidisciplinary biopsychosocial rehabilitation for subacute low back pain among working age adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, K; Malmivaara, A; van Tulder, M; Roine, R; Jauhiainen, M; Hurri, H; Koes, B

    2003-01-01

    Multidisciplinary biopsychosocial rehabilitation programs are widely applied for chronic low back pain patients. The biopsychosocial approach can also prevent chronicity, by providing rehabilitation for patients who still have pain past the initial acute phase. Nevertheless, multidisciplinary treatment programmes are often laborious and long processes and require good collaboration between the patient, the rehabilitation team and the work place. By using workplace visits and developing close relationships with occupational health care providers, one might expect patients' working ability to improve. The objective of this systematic review was to determine the effectiveness of multidisciplinary rehabilitation for subacute low back pain among working age adults. The reviewed studies for this review were electronically identified from MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycLIT, CENTRAL, Medic, the Science Citation Index, reference checking and consulting experts in the rehabilitation field. The original search was planned and performed for the broader area of musculoskeletal disorders. Trials on subacute low back pain were separated afterwards. The literature search was last updated in November 2002 in EMBASE and MEDLINE. From all references identified in our original search, we selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomised controlled clinical trials (CCTs). Trials had to assess the effectiveness of multidisciplinary rehabilitation for working age patients suffering from subacute low back pain (more than four weeks but less than three months). The rehabilitation program was required to be multidisciplinary, i.e., it had to consist of a physician's consultation plus either a psychological, social or vocational intervention, or a combination of these. Four reviewers blinded to journal and author selected trials that met the specified inclusion criteria. Two experts in the field of rehabilitation evaluated the clinical relevance and applicability of the findings of the

  10. Development of gel with Matricaria recutita L. extract for topic application and evaluation of physical-chemical stability and toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Queiroz, Maria B. R.; Marcelino, Natália B.; Ribeiro, Marcos V.; Espindola, Laila S.; Cunha, Francisco R.; Silva, Mônica V. da

    2009-01-01

    Matricaria recutita L. (Asteraceae), better known as chamomile, has been used due to its pharmacological properties. Laboratory-manufactured gels with chamomile extract were developed with the evaluation of the physical-chemical stability, as well as the study of its toxicity. The extractive solution was prepared by maceration with ethyl alcohol 95%. Part of the chamomile extractive ethanolic solution (CEES) was concentrated in rotoevaporator, obtaining a raw chamomile extract (RCE). For the ...

  11. EVALUATION OF BEST AVAILABLE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR TOXICS -TBACT- DOUBLE SHELL TANK FARMS PRIMARY VENTILATION SYSTEMS SUPPORTING WASTE TRANSFER OPERATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HAAS CC; KOVACH JL; KELLY SE; TURNER DA

    2010-06-24

    This report is an evaluation of Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (tBACT) for installation and operation of the Hanford double shell (DST) tank primary ventilation systems. The DST primary ventilation systems are being modified to support Hanford's waste retrieval, mixing, and delivery of single shell tank (SST) and DST waste through the DST storage system to the Waste Treatment and Immobilizaiton Plant (WTP).

  12. EVALUATION OF BEST AVAILABLE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR TOXICS (TBACT) DOUBLE SHELL TANK FARMS PRIMARY VENTILATION SYSTEM SUPPORTING WASTE TRANSFER OPERATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KELLY SE; HAASS CC; KOVACH JL; TURNER DA

    2010-06-03

    This report is an evaluation of Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (tBACT) for installation and operation of the Hanford double shell (DST) tank primary ventilation systems. The DST primary ventilation systems are being modified to support Hanford's waste retrieval, mixing, and delivery of single shell tank (SST) and DST waste throught the DST storage system to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP).

  13. Resolving MRI abnormalities with progression of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winer, J.B. (Saint Mary' s Hospital, Birmingham (UK)); Pires, M.; Kermode, A.; Ginsberg, L. (National Hospital for Nervous Diseases, Birmingham (UK)); Rossor, M. (Saint Mary' s Hospital, Birmingham (UK) National Hospital for Nervous Diseases, Birmingham (UK))

    1991-04-01

    Serial MRI was performed on a 15 year old girl with Subacute Sclerosing Pan-encephalitis (SSPE). After a period of remission she entered a phase of progressive deterioration. A repeat MRI showed significant resolution of the previous abnormalities. Her pathology and MRI scans are discussed.

  14. Epilepsia partialis continua in children with fulminant subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravljanac, Ruzica; Jovic, Nebojsa; Djuric, Milena; Nikolic, Ljubica

    2011-12-01

    Various inflammatory diseases of central nervous system, including subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, could cause epilepsia partialis continua. Two boys with epilepsia partialis continua with onset in terminal phase of atypical subacute sclerosing panencephalitis have been reported. Children were not vaccinated against measles, and the second case had history of measles at an early age. In both cases, the onset of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis was characterized by altered behavior and cognitive decline with very fast mental and neurological deterioration. One boy was suffering from complex partial seizures and myoclonic jerks synchronous with periodic electroencephalographic pattern. Diagnosis was proved by increased titers of antimeasles antibodies in both serum and cerebrospinal fluid. In terminal phase of the disease, epilepsia partialis continua of localized group of the muscles was diagnosed, with good response to intravenous infusion of midazolam. Surface electroencephalographic recordings during epilepsia partialis continua did not show the epileptic discharges. During the terminal phase of the disease, no other type of seizures and movement disorders were recognized, except epilepsia partialis continua. In spite of the treatment, period from the onset of disease to death lasted less than 3 months, suggesting very fulminant course of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

  15. High-Dose Intravenous Ribavirin Therapy for Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Shigeta, Shiro; Mori, Shuichi; Tomoda, Akemi; Shiraishi, Seiji; Miike, Teruhisa; Suzuki, Hitoshi

    2001-01-01

    Two patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) were treated safely and effectively with high doses of intravenous ribavirin combined with intraventricular alpha interferon. The ribavirin concentrations maintained in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid were higher than those which inhibit SSPE virus replication in vitro and in vivo. PMID:11181386

  16. Treatment of acute and subacute dorsal perilunate fracture dislocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Kucuk

    2014-04-01

    Outcomes: Results of the perilunate fracture dislocations treated in acute or subacute phase by open reduction and internal fixation via dorsal approach are satisfactory. There is a strong demand for prospective, randomized studies to compare the results of different treatment modalities. [Hand Microsurg 2014; 3(1.000: 1-7

  17. Speech and Language Therapy for Aphasia following Subacute Stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koyuncu, E.; Çam, P.; Altinok, N.; Çalli, D.E.; Yarbay Duman, T.; Özgirgin, N.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the time window, duration and intensity of optimal speech and language therapy applied to aphasic patients with subacute stroke in our hospital. The study consisted of 33 patients being hospitalized for stroke rehabilitation in our hospital with first stroke

  18. Virtual Reality Training for Upper Extremity in Subacute Stroke (VIRTUES)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunner, Iris; Skouen, Jan Sture; Hofstad, Håkon

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effectiveness of upper extremity virtual reality rehabilitation training (VR) to time-matched conventional training (CT) in the subacute phase after stroke. Methods: In this randomized, controlled, single-blind phase III multicenter trial, 120 participants with upper...

  19. Synthesis of β-cyclodextrin hydrogel nanoparticles for improving the solubility of dexibuprofen: characterization and toxicity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Qandeel; Ahmad, Mahmood; Minhas, Muhammad Usman

    2017-11-01

    This study was aimed to enhance aqueous solubility of dexibuprofen through designing β-cyclodextrin (βCD) hydrogel nanoparticles and to evaluate toxicological potential through acute toxicity studies in rats. Dexibuprofen is a non-steroidal analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug that is one of safest over the counter medications. However, its clinical effectiveness is hampered due to poor aqueous solubility. βCD hydrogel nanoparticles were prepared and characterized by percent yield, drug loading, solubilization efficiency, FTIR, XRD, DSC, FESEM and in-vitro dissolution studies. Acute oral toxicity study was conducted to assess safety of oral administration of prepared βCD hydrogel nanoparticles. βCD hydrogel nanoparticles dramatically enhanced the drug loading and solubilization efficiency of dexibuprofen in aqueous media. FTIR, TGA and DSC studies confirmed the formation of new and a stable nano-polymeric network and interactions of dexibuprofen with these nanoparticles. Resulting nanoparticles were highly porous with 287 nm in size. XRD analysis revealed pronounced reduction in crystalline nature of dexibuprofen within nanoparticles. Release of dexibuprofen in βCD hydrogel nanoparticles was significantly higher compared with dexibuprofen tablet at pH 1.2 and 6.8. In acute toxicity studies, no significant changes in behavioral, physiological, biochemical or histopathologic parameters of animals were observed. The efficient preparation, high solubility, excellent physicochemical characteristics, improved dissolution and non-toxic βCD hydrogel nanoparticles may be a promising approach for oral delivery of lipophilic drugs.

  20. Evaluation of marine phytoplankton toxicity by application of marine invertebrate bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Aylagas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum and the haptophyte Prymnesium parvum are well known for their toxin production and negative effects in marine coastal environments. A. minutum produces toxins which cause paralytic shellfish poisoning in humans and can affect copepods, shellfish and other marine organisms. Toxins of P. parvum are associated with massive fish mortalities resulting in negative impacts on the marine ecosystem and large economic losses in commercial aquaculture. The aim of this work is to improve our knowledge about the reliability of the use of marine invertebrate bioassays to detect microalgae toxicity, by performing: (i a 24- to 48-h test with the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana; (ii a 48-hour embryo-larval toxicity test with the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus; and (iii a 72-h test with the amphipod Corophium multisetosum. The results indicate that A. franciscana and P. lividus larvae are sensitive to the toxicity of A. minutum and P. parvum. LC50 comparison analysis between the tested organisms reveals that A. franciscana is the most sensitive organism for A. minutum. These findings suggest that the use of different organizational biological level bioassays appears to be a suitable tool for A. minutum and P. parvum toxicity assessment.

  1. Evaluation of some toxic metals in blood samples of smokers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine some toxic elements in the blood of cigarette and tobacco pipe smokers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: The study setting was Riyadh, the capital city of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh City. Male volunteers, aged 20 - 58 year, whose blood samples were collected, were classified into three groups of ...

  2. Evaluation and comparison of alpha- and beta-amanitin toxicity on MCF-7 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Ertuğrul; Bayram, Recep; Yaykaşli, Kürşat Oğuz; Yilmaz, İsmail; Bayram, Sait; Yaykaşli, Emine; Yavuz, Muhsine Zeynep; Gepdıremen, Ali Akçahan

    2014-01-01

    Alpha- and beta-amanitins are the main toxins of the poisonous Amanita phalloides mushroom. Although there are many studies available concerning alpha-amanitin, there are limited data about beta-amanitin in the literature. Therefore, this study is aimed at comparing the toxic effects of alpha- and beta-amanitin on the MCF-7 cell line. The alpha- and beta-amanitins used for this research were purified from Amanita phalloides by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography. The MCF-7 breast cancer cell line was used, and specific concentrations of the toxins (100, 10, 1, 0.1, and 0.01 μg/mL) were applied to the cells. The MTT test was performed to determine the level of toxicity, and the quantity of protein in the cell was measured using the biuret test. The aLpha-amanitin showed a higher toxicity at 36 h, while the highest inhibition of protein synthesis by the beta-amanitin was observed at 24 h. It was shown that the beta-amanitin may be responsible for toxicity, like alpha-amanitin, in Amanita phalloides mushroom poisoning. The early inhibition of protein synthesis for beta-amanitin might be useful for future experiments and research.

  3. Screening for angiogenic inhibitors in zebrafish to evaluate a predictive model for developmental vascular toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemically-induced vascular toxicity during embryonic development may cause a wide range of adverse effects. To identify putative vascular disrupting chemicals (pVDCs), a predictive signature was constructed from U.S. EPA ToxCast high-throughput screening (HTS) assays that map to...

  4. Toxicity evaluation of prodigiosin from Serratia marcescens in a Caenorhabditis elegans model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seah, Siew-Wei; Nathan, Sheila; Wan, Kiew-Lian

    2016-11-01

    Serratia marcescens produces several secondary metabolites, including a red antimicrobial pigment, prodigiosin. There is considerable interest in prodigiosin and its derivatives due to their anticancer and immunosuppressive properties. Prodigiosin has also become the main choice of red dye in textiles. As prodigiosin has potentially high commercial value, there is a demand to develop high-throughput and cost-effective bioprocesses for prodigiosin production. However little is still known about its toxicity. This study was carried out to investigate the toxicity effect of prodigiosin. To determine if prodigiosin was potentially toxic to eukaryotic systems, the S. marcescens ATCC 274 wild type (Sma 274) and the non-prodigiosin producer S. marcescens Bizio WF mutant ATCC 29635 (WF mutant) were grown under the optimised conditions for prodigiosin production and fed to the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The mean time to death (TDmean) for Sma 274-infected worms assayed on agar was 112.6 hours while the WF mutant culture had a TDmean of 104.4 hours. However, the nematode killing kinetics were not significantly different between the prodigiosin-producing and non-producing S. marcescens strains (p>0.05). In lieu of its non-toxic property, prodigiosin has the potential to be developed for safe therapeutic applications and as a safe environmental friendly bio-dye.

  5. Prospective Evaluation of Severe Skin Toxicity and Pain During Postmastectomy Radiation Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pignol, Jean-Philippe; Thi Trinh Thuc Vu, [Unknown; Mitera, Gunita; Bosnic, Sandy; Verkooijen, Helena M.; Truong, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively capture acute toxicities and pain associated with postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT), to analyze patient and treatment risk factors for severe side effects. Methods and Materials: Women referred for PMRT were prospectively enrolled and assessed weekly during and after

  6. Evaluation of toxic trace metals Cd and Pb in Arabian Sea waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sanzgiri, S.; Mesquita, A.; Kureishy, T.W.; SenGupta, R.

    An attempt has been made to present a picture of the distribution of toxic trace elements Cd and Pb in the Northern Arabian Sea by applying an improved analytical technique for the detection of dissolved forms of the metals at nanogram levels...

  7. Selection of a Battery of Rapid Toxicity Sensors for Drinking Water Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Strategic Diagnostics, nc., Newark, DE) measured changes in natural bioluminescence roduced by the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri (Bulich, 1979...tates et al., 2003). Toxic substances decreased light output, hich was measured using a photometer.Vibrio fischeri supplied n a standard freeze-dried

  8. Toxicity evaluation of boron nitride nanospheres and water-soluble boron nitride in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Wang, Hui; Tang, Chengchun; Lei, Shijun; Shen, Wanqing; Wang, Cong; Wang, Guobin; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Boron nitride (BN) nanomaterials have been increasingly explored for potential biological applications. However, their toxicity remains poorly understood. Using Caenorhabditis elegans as a whole-animal model for toxicity analysis of two representative types of BN nanomaterials - BN nanospheres (BNNSs) and highly water-soluble BN nanomaterial (named BN-800-2) - we found that BNNSs overall toxicity was less than soluble BN-800-2 with irregular shapes. The concentration thresholds for BNNSs and BN-800-2 were 100 µg·mL-1 and 10 µg·mL-1, respectively. Above this concentration, both delayed growth, decreased life span, reduced progeny, retarded locomotion behavior, and changed the expression of phenotype-related genes to various extents. BNNSs and BN-800-2 increased oxidative stress levels in C. elegans by promoting reactive oxygen species production. Our results further showed that oxidative stress response and MAPK signaling-related genes, such as GAS1, SOD2, SOD3, MEK1, and PMK1, might be key factors for reactive oxygen species production and toxic responses to BNNSs and BN-800-2 exposure. Together, our results suggest that when concentrations are lower than 10 µg·mL-1, BNNSs are more biocompatible than BN-800-2 and are potentially biocompatible material.

  9. Evaluation of acute toxicity of genabilic acid (menbutone 10% in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. El Okle

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 A complete investigation of the acute toxicity of a choleretic compound, menbutone, was performed in rabbits, including lethal dose for 50% of rabbits determination, clinical signs observation and in vivo and post-mortem examinations. Haematological, biochemical and histopathological changes resulting from intramuscular injection of menbutone were also investigated at dose 400 mg/kg body weight. Acute toxicity of menbutone at dose of 400 mg/kg BW induced interstitial myocarditis and multifocal necrosis, whereas serum creatine phosphokinase, creatinine phosphokinase-MB isoenzyme and aspartate aminotransferase activities were significantly increased. Elevation of serum alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities and total bilirubin level associated with lowered albumin content was consistent with histopathological changes of hepatic tissues; hepatic necrosis and fatty infiltration were pronounced indicators of injuries. Renal tubular necrosis and interstitial nephritis were also observed in intoxicated rabbits. Menbutone also induced variations in some haematological parameters. We concluded that acute toxicity of menbutone in rabbits occurred at accidental high doses, as the lethal dose was about 50 fold over the recommended therapeutic dose for other animals. Cardiac muscle, liver and kidneys are the main target organs for menbutone toxicity. Menbutone is not recommended for use in rabbits suffering from any cardiacand hepatic disorders, especially in overdosing situations.

  10. Evaluation of some toxic metals in blood samples of smokers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt, 3Pharmaceutical Chemistry Department, College of Pharmacy,. King Saud ... Purpose: To determine some toxic elements in the blood of cigarette and tobacco pipe smokers in. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia ..... smoking on students at College of Applied Medical. Sciences ...

  11. Evaluation of toxicity equivalent calculations for use with data from in vitro aromatase inhibition assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    With growing investment in alternatives to traditional animal toxicity tests, the next generation of risk assessment must interpret new streams of data to identify hazards and protect humans and wildlife populations. If the effects of a chemical can be characterized by a battery...

  12. an evaluation of the toxic effects of hyptis suaveolens in rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... were found to include saponin, tannin and flavonoids. Histopathological examination of the liver revealed fatty changes and congestion of the central vein as the major indicator of hepatic damage. Key Words: Hyptis suaveolens; Labiatae; rats; toxicity. Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine Vol.7 2003: 49-52 ...

  13. Evaluation of methods for predicting the toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, W.; Barhoumi, R.; Burghardt, R.C. [and others] [Texas A & M University, College Station, TX (USA). Dept. of Veterinary Anatomy and Public Health and Department of Civil Engineering

    2001-04-15

    Risk assessments of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures are hindered by a lack of reliable information on the potency of both mixtures and their individual components. This paper examines methods for approximating the toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mixtures. PAHs were isolated from a coal tar and then separated by ring number using HPLC. Five fractions (A-E) were generated, each possessing a unique composition and expected potency. The toxicity of each fraction was measured in the Salmonella/mutagenicity assay and the Chick Embryo Screening Test (CHEST). Their abilities to induce ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase and to inhibit gap junction intercellular communication in rat liver Clone 9 cells were also measured. In the Salmonella/mutagenicity assay, fractions were predicted to have potencies in the order C {gt} E {gt} B {gt} A. Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for fractions A-E were in the order E {ge} D {gt} C {gt} B {gt} A. TEF values were 20 652, 20 929, 441, 306 and 74.1 {mu}g of BaP equiv/g, respectively. A lack of agreement between assay-predicted potencies and chemical analysis-predicted potencies was observed with other assays and other methods of calculation. The results demonstrate the limitations of using a single method to predict the toxicity of a complex PAH mixture. 41 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Psychiatric comorbidities in a young man with subacute myelopathy induced by abusive nitrous oxide consumption: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mancke F

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Falk Mancke,1,2,* Gintare Kaklauskaite,1,* Jennifer Kollmer,3 Markus Weiler1 1Department of Neurology, 2Department of General Psychiatry, Center for Psychosocial Medicine, 3Department of Neuroradiology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Nitrous oxide (N2O, a long-standing anesthetic, is known for its recreational use, and its consumption is on the rise. Several case studies have reported neurological and psychiatric complications of N2O use. To date, however, there has not been a study using standardized diagnostic procedures to assess psychiatric comorbidities in a patient consuming N2O. Here, we report about a 35-year-old male with magnetic resonance imaging confirmed subacute myelopathy induced by N2O consumption, who suffered from comorbid cannabinoid and nicotine dependence as well as abuse of amphetamines, cocaine, lysergic acid diethylamide, and ketamine. Additionally, there was evidence of a preceding transient psychotic and depressive episode induced by synthetic cannabinoid abuse. In summary, this case raises awareness of an important mechanism of neural toxicity, with which physicians working in the field of ­substance-related disorders should be familiar. In fact, excluding N2O toxicity in patients with recognized substance-related disorders and new neurological deficits is compulsory, as untreated for months the damage to the nervous system is at risk of becoming irreversible. Keywords: addictive disorders, laughing gas, subacute combined degeneration, substance use disorder, vitamin B12 deficiency

  15. Evaluation of alpha and gamma aluminum oxide nanoparticle accumulation, toxicity, and depuration in Artemia salina larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Mehmet; Demir, Veysel; Arslan, Zikri; Daniels, James; Farah, Ibrahim O; Bogatu, Corneliu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, Artemia salina (crustacean filter feeders) larvae were used as a test model to investigate the toxicity of aluminum oxide nanoparticles (Al2O3 NPs) on marine microorganisms. The uptake, toxicity, and elimination of α-Al2O3 (50 nm and 3.5 μm) and γ-Al2O3 (5 nm and 0.4 μm) NPs were studied. Twenty-four and ninety-six hour exposures of different concentrations of Al2O3 NPs to Artemia larvae were conducted in a seawater medium. When suspended in water, Al2O3 NPs aggregated substantially with the sizes ranging from 6.3 nm to >0.3 µm for spherical NPs and from 250 to 756 nm for rod-shaped NPs. The phase contrast microscope images showed that NPs deposited inside the guts as aggregates. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis showed that large particles (3.5 μm α-Al2O3) were not taken up by Artemia, whereas fine NPs (0.4 μm γ-Al2O3) and ultra-fine NPs (5 nm γ-Al2O3 and 50 nm α-Al2O3) accumulated substantially. Differences in toxicity were detected as changing with NP size and morphology. The malondialdehyde levels indicated that smaller γ-Al2O3 (5 nm) NPs were more toxic than larger γ-Al2O3 (0.4 µm) particulates in 96 h. The highest mortality was measured as 34% in 96 h for γ-Al2O3 NPs (5 nm) at 100 mg/L (LC50 > 100 mg/L). γ-Al2O3 NPs were more toxic than α-Al2O3 NPs at all conditions. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Boron-containing acids: preliminary evaluation of acute toxicity and access to the brain determined by Raman scattering spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Ursúa, Marvin A; Farfán-García, Eunice D; López-Cabrera, Yessica; Querejeta, Enrique; Trujillo-Ferrara, José G

    2014-01-01

    Boron-containing compounds (BCCs), particularly boron containing acids (BCAs), have become attractive moieties or molecules in drug development. It has been suggested that when functional groups with boron atoms are added to well-known drugs, the latter are conferred with greater potency and efficacy in relation to their target receptors. However, the use of BCAs in drug development is limited due to the lack of a toxicological profile. Consequently, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute toxicity of boric and boronic acids. Thus, a determination was made of the lethal dose (LD50) of test compounds in male CD1 mice, as well as the effective dose required to negatively affect spontaneous motor activity and to produce notable behavioral abnormalities. After treatment of animals at different doses, macroscopic observations were made from a necropsy, and Raman scattering spectroscopic studies were carried out on brain tissue samples. In general, the results show that most of the tested BCAs have very low toxicity, evidenced by the high doses required to induce notable toxic effects (greater than 100 mg/kg of body weight for all compounds, except for 3-thyenilboronic acid). Such toxic effects, presumably mediated by action on the CNS, include eye damage, gastrointestinal effects (e.g., gastric-gut dilatation and fecal retention), sedation, hypnosis and/or trembling. This preliminary toxicological profile suggests that BCAs can be considered potential therapeutic agents or moieties to be added to other compounds in the development of new drugs. Future studies are required to explore possible chronic toxicity of BCCs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Acute, sub-chronic oral toxicity studies and evaluation of antiulcer activity of Sooktyn in experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phool Chandra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sooktyn (SKN, mineralo-herbal drug which is being used largely by the patients for its extremely good therapeutic value to treat the gastric ulcers. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the toxicity studies and antiulcer activity of SKN. Acute and sub-chronic toxicities were studied in male and female Wistar rats. A single acute SKN of 2 000 mg/kg was administered by oral gavage for acute toxicity. Sub-chronic doses were 400 and 800 mg/kg/day. The major toxicological end points examined included animal body weight and food intake, selected tissue weights, and detailed gross necropsy. In addition, we examined blood elements: hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte count, total leukocyte count and MCH, MCHC and platelets as well as biochemical parameters: urea, sugar, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total proteins, and creatinine. Also, anti-ulcer activity was carried out by employing indomethacin, ethanol, pylorus ligation, and hypothermic-stress-induced ulcer models. LD 50 may be greater than 2 000 mg/kg (orally for SKN and there were no signs of toxicity on 28 days sub-chronic oral administration of 400 and 800 mg/kg of SKN in rats on the basis of blood elements and biochemical parameters. The ulcer indices decrease in all ulcer models with 66.62%, 61.24%, 80.18%, and 74.76% in indomethacin, ethanol, pylorus ligation, and hypothermic-stress-induced ulcer models, respectively. The results suggest that SKN has no signs of toxicity at 2 000 mg/kg body weight of rats orally; sub-chronically. The drug is safe and has antiulcer activity.

  18. Acute, sub-chronic oral toxicity studies and evaluation of antiulcer activity of Sooktyn in experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Phool; Sachan, Neetu; Kishore, Kamal; Ghosh, Ashoke Kumar

    2012-04-01

    Sooktyn (SKN), mineralo-herbal drug which is being used largely by the patients for its extremely good therapeutic value to treat the gastric ulcers. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the toxicity studies and antiulcer activity of SKN. Acute and sub-chronic toxicities were studied in male and female Wistar rats. A single acute SKN of 2 000 mg/kg was administered by oral gavage for acute toxicity. Sub-chronic doses were 400 and 800 mg/kg/day. The major toxicological end points examined included animal body weight and food intake, selected tissue weights, and detailed gross necropsy. In addition, we examined blood elements: hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte count, total leukocyte count and MCH, MCHC and platelets as well as biochemical parameters: urea, sugar, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total proteins, and creatinine. Also, anti-ulcer activity was carried out by employing indomethacin, ethanol, pylorus ligation, and hypothermic-stress-induced ulcer models. LD(50) may be greater than 2 000 mg/kg (orally) for SKN and there were no signs of toxicity on 28 days sub-chronic oral administration of 400 and 800 mg/kg of SKN in rats on the basis of blood elements and biochemical parameters. The ulcer indices decrease in all ulcer models with 66.62%, 61.24%, 80.18%, and 74.76% in indomethacin, ethanol, pylorus ligation, and hypothermic-stress-induced ulcer models, respectively. The results suggest that SKN has no signs of toxicity at 2 000 mg/kg body weight of rats orally; sub-chronically. The drug is safe and has antiulcer activity.

  19. Amiodarone Pulmonary Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Wolkove

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Amiodarone is an antiarrhythmic agent commonly used to treat supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias. This drug is an iodine-containing compound that tends to accumulate in several organs, including the lungs. It has been associated with a variety of adverse events. Of these events, the most serious is amiodarone pulmonary toxicity. Although the incidence of this complication has decreased with the use of lower doses of amiodarone, it can occur with any dose. Because amiodarone is widely used, all clinicians should be vigilant of this possibility. Pulmonary toxicity usually manifests as an acute or subacute pneumonitis, typically with diffuse infiltrates on chest x-ray and high-resolution computed tomography. Other, more localized, forms of pulmonary toxicity may occur, including pleural disease, migratory infiltrates, and single or multiple nodules. With early detection, the prognosis is good. Most patients diagnosed promptly respond well to the withdrawal of amiodarone and the administration of corticosteroids, which are usually given for four to 12 months. It is important that physicians be familiar with amiodarone treatment guidelines and follow published recommendations for the monitoring of pulmonary as well as extrapulmonary adverse effects.

  20. Amiodarone pulmonary toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkove, Norman; Baltzan, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Amiodarone is an antiarrhythmic agent commonly used to treat supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias. This drug is an iodine-containing compound that tends to accumulate in several organs, including the lungs. It has been associated with a variety of adverse events. Of these events, the most serious is amiodarone pulmonary toxicity. Although the incidence of this complication has decreased with the use of lower doses of amiodarone, it can occur with any dose. Because amiodarone is widely used, all clinicians should be vigilant of this possibility. Pulmonary toxicity usually manifests as an acute or subacute pneumonitis, typically with diffuse infiltrates on chest x-ray and high-resolution computed tomography. Other, more localized, forms of pulmonary toxicity may occur, including pleural disease, migratory infiltrates, and single or multiple nodules. With early detection, the prognosis is good. Most patients diagnosed promptly respond well to the withdrawal of amiodarone and the administration of corticosteroids, which are usually given for four to 12 months. It is important that physicians be familiar with amiodarone treatment guidelines and follow published recommendations for the monitoring of pulmonary as well as extrapulmonary adverse effects. PMID:19399307

  1. Toxicological evaluation of the flavonoid-rich extract from Maydis stigma: Subchronic toxicity and genotoxicity studies in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ke-Zheng; Zhang, Song-Yan; Zhou, Hong-Li

    2016-11-04

    Maydis stigma (corn silk) has a long history of use as a traditional herbal medicine or functional food in China and many other countries and has been listed in the Chinese Pharmacopea. However, little data about its potential toxicity is available. In this study, we evaluated the subchronic toxicity and genotoxicity of the flavonoid-rich extract from Maydis stigma (FMS) in mice. In the subchronic toxicity study, the FMS was administered orally to mice at doses of 2.50, 5.00 and 10.00g/kg/day for 28 consecutive days. At the end of experiment, general clinical signs, mortality, haematological, biochemical and histopathological parameters were examined. The genotoxicity of FMS was also evaluated by the micronucleus assay and the sperm malformation assay. All animals survived until the scheduled necropsy, and no statistically significant or toxicologically relevant differences were observed in any of the FMS-treatment groups, compared with the control group. The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) was determined as 10.00g/kg/day. Based on the results of the micronucleus assay and the sperm malformation assay, no evidence of genotoxicity was found either in somatic cells or germ cells even at an experimental upper limit dose (10.00g/kg/day). The results of the present studies might support the safe use of FMS as a functional food, food additive and natural remedy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of the Toxicity and Toxicokinetics of Cereulide from an Emetic Bacillus cereus Strain of Milk Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifang Cui

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus is an opportunistic foodborne agent causing food poisoning and many infectious diseases. The heat-stable emetic toxin cereulide is one of the most prevalent toxins produced by pathogenic B. cereus, resulting in symptoms such as emesis and liver failure. In the present work, the toxicity and toxicokinetics of cereulide from an emetic B. cereus isolate (CAU45 of raw milk were evaluated. The production of cereulide was tested by a cytotoxicity test and enzyme immunoassay, and confirmed by the presence of the ces (cereulide synthetase gene and the ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS method. All results showed that the amount and toxicity of cereulide produced by CAU45 was 7 to 15.3 folds higher than the reference emetic B. cereus DSMZ 4312. Cereulide in plasma was collected at different time points after a single intravenous injection to evaluate its toxicokinetics in rabbits. The maximum concentration of cereulide was achieved in 2.6 ± 3.4 h after administration, with the elimination half-life of 10.8 ± 9.1 h, which expands our understanding of the toxic effects of cereulide. Together, it suggests that urgent sanitary practices are needed to eliminate emetic toxins and emetic B. cereus in raw milk.

  3. Evidence of hair loss after subacute exposure to 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, a mustard analog, and beneficial effects of N-acetyl cysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Diptendu; Mukherjee, Shyamali; Smith, Milton G; Das, Salil K

    2004-01-01

    Mustard gas has been used as a vesicant chemical warfare agent. However, a suitable biomarker for monitoring mustard gas exposure is not known. We observed that the hairs of the guinea pigs exposed intratracheally to subacute doses of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), a mustard analog, came out very easily though there was no sign of skin lesions or skin damage. Also the hairs looked rough and dry and lost the shiny glaze. There was no recovery from this hair loss, though the animals never became hairless, following CEES exposure. Hairs were observed in this study both visually and with light microscopy. Treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) prior to CEES exposure could prevent the hair loss completely. Hence, sudden hair loss might be a good biomarker for subacute exposure of mustard gas to subjects at risks when the victims might have no other visible symptom of toxicity. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Drinking water toxicity study of the environmental contaminant--Bromate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongmei, Liu; Zhiwei, Wang; Qi, Zhu; Fuyi, Cui; Yujuan, Shan; Xiaodong, Liu

    2015-12-01

    Bromate is a byproduct of water disinfection that is produced when waters contain bromide treated with ozone. To investigate the level of the toxicity of bromate and find the most sensitive indicators in a short time, a series of toxicological assessments were conducted including the acute toxicity, cumulative toxicity, genetic toxicity and subacute toxicity of bromate (using Potassium Bromate to represent bromate). The LD50 of orally administered Potassium Bromate was 215 mg/kg in Wistar rats and 464 mg/kg in ICR mice. The cumulative toxicity of Potassium Bromate was not obvious. The Ames test, mouse bone marrow cell micronucleus test and mouse sperm abnormality test did not indicate mutagenicity. The results of the subacute study did not exhibit significant differences in most of the parameters, except the white blood cell count, which was significantly decreased in male rats. In addition, Potassium Bromate influenced the albumin, creatinine, total cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose levels in male rats to various extents. A thorough analysis of the above tests clearly demonstrates that bromate has toxicity, not obvious cumulative toxicity and the white blood cell count can be used as an indicator to reflect the toxicity of bromate and investigate bromate's toxic mechanism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Quantitative analysis coupled with toxic evaluation to investigate the influence of sulfur-fumigation on the quality of Chrysanthemum morifolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ke; Cao, Gang; Xu, Zhiwei; Chen, Xiaocheng

    2014-09-01

    In the present study, quantitative analysis coupled with toxic evaluation was applied to investigate the influence of sulfur-fumigation on the quality of Chrysanthemum morifolium. The results showed that the average contents of six flavonoids (cynaroside, hyperoside, isoquercitrin, luteolin, apigenin, and diosmetin) in sulfur-fumigated C. morifolium samples decreased by about 6.2%, 3.5%, 22.0%, 33.3%, 26.0%, and 36.9%, respectively, while the average contents of two organic acids (chlorogenic acid and isochlorogenic acid A) in sulfur-fumigated C. morifolium samples increased by about 16.8% and 7.6%, respectively. Furthermore, high dosage sulfur-fumigated C. morifolium could induce hydropic degeneration in epithelial cells of the renal tubule and interstitial edema. This indicates that sulfur-fumigated C. morifolium may lead to renal toxicity.

  6. Evaluation of toxicity and genotoxicity of 2-chlorophenol on bacteria, fish and human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlastos, Dimitris; Antonopoulou, Maria; Konstantinou, Ioannis

    2016-05-01

    Due to the extensive use of chlorophenols (CPs) in anthropogenic activities, 2-Chlorophenol (2-CP), among other CPs, can enter aquatic ecosystems and can be harmful to a variety of organisms, including bacteria, fish and humans, that are exposed directly and/or indirectly to such contaminated environments. Based on the existing knowledge and in order to move a step forward, the purpose of this study is to investigate the toxic and mainly the genotoxic effects of 2-CP using a combination of bioassays. The tests include the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri and micronuclei induction in the erythrocytes of Carassius auratus as well as in cultured human lymphocytes. The results obtained reveal that 2-CP is able to induce dose-dependent toxic and genotoxic effects on the selected tested concentrations under the specific experimental conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Detached leaf culture: viability to evaluate 2,4-D toxicity symptoms in cotton apex leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da C Centurion, Maria Aparecida P; Correia, Núbia M; Sanches, Vivaldo César R

    2005-01-01

    To study the viability of detached leaf culture technique, studies were carried out with detached leaves from cotton apex (true trilobed leaves). The prepared leaves were sprayed with 2,4-D amine and ester, at rates of 10, 30, 70, and 100% of the recommended doses. Detached leaves without herbicide spray were used as controls. Simultaneously, a greenhouse experiment was conducted with the same treatments as used for the detached leaves experiment. Toxicity was measured through a 0-to-5 grading according to the percentage of affected leaf area in the detached leaves experiment or examining the affected rate of whole plant as indicated in the greenhouse. Results showed that the ester form of the herbicide induced earlier and more severe toxicity symptoms in detached leaves and greenhouse grown plants. Positive and significant correlations (p cotton plants grown in the greenhouse (r= - 0.92 and -0.92, respectively).

  8. Evaluation of ameliorative effect of curcumin on imidacloprid-induced male reproductive toxicity in wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonare, Milindmitra; Kumar, Manoj; Raut, Sachin; More, Amar; Doltade, Sagar; Badgujar, Prarabdh; Telang, Avinash

    2016-10-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the toxic effects of imidacloprid (IM) on male reproductive system and ameliorative effect of curcumin (CMN) in male Wistar rats. For this purpose, IM (45 and 90 mg/kg, body weight) and CMN (100 mg/kg, body weight) were administered orally to the rats either alone or in combinations for a period of 28 days. At the end of experiment, male reproductive toxicity parameters (total sperm count and sperm abnormalities), testosterone level, steroidal enzymatic activity [3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) and 17β-HSD], and oxidative stress indicators were estimated in testis and plasma. IM treatments resulted in significant decrease (p < 0.05) in total epididymal sperm count, sperm motility, live sperm count, and increase (p < 0.05) in sperm abnormalities. Activities of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, lactate dehydrogenase-x, and sorbitol dehydrogenase were significantly increased (p < 0.05), while, 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD enzymatic activity along with testosterone concentration in testis and plasma were decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in IM-treated rats. IM exposure resulted in significant increase (p < 0.05) in LPO and decrease (p < 0.05) in GSH level along with decreased activities of CAT, SOD, GPx, and GST. IM-treated rats showed histopathological alterations in testis and epididymis. However, the reproductive toxicity parameters, oxidative stress indicators, and histopathological changes were minimized and functional restorations were noticed by co-administration of CMN in IM-treated rats. The results of this study suggest that IM-induced male reproductive toxic effects could be ameliorated by CMN supplementation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1250-1263, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Evaluation and comparison of alpha- and beta-amanitin toxicity on MCF-7 cell line

    OpenAIRE

    KAYA, Ertuğrul; BAYRAM, Recep; YAYKAŞLI, Kürşat Oğuz; YILMAZ, İsmail; BAYRAM, Sait

    2015-01-01

    Alpha- and beta-amanitins are the main toxins of the poisonous Amanita phalloides mushroom. Although there are many studies available concerning alpha-amanitin, there are limited data about beta-amanitin in the literature. Therefore, this study is aimed at comparing the toxic effects of alpha- and beta-amanitin on the MCF-7 cell line. Materials and methods: The alpha- and beta-amanitins used for this research were purified from Amanita phalloides by preparative high-performance liquid chrom...

  10. Electrochemical degradation of sulfonamides at BDD electrode: Kinetics, reaction pathway and eco-toxicity evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabiańska, Aleksandra; Białk-Bielińska, Anna; Stepnowski, Piotr [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Gdansk, ul. Wita Stwosza 63, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Stolte, Stefan [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Gdansk, ul. Wita Stwosza 63, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); UFT-Centre of Environmental Research and Sustainable Technology, University of Bremen, Leobener Straße UFT, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Siedlecka, Ewa Maria, E-mail: ewa.siedlecka@ug.edu.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Gdansk, ul. Wita Stwosza 63, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • SNs were electrochemically oxidized at BDD in one compartment reactor. • The efficiency of SN degradation was the highest in effluents from municipal WWTP. • The electro-degradation SNs based on oxidation but reduction was also possible. • Electrochemical oxidation of SNs led in some cases to mixtures toxic to L. minor. - Abstract: The investigation dealt with electrochemical oxidation of five sulfonamides (SNs): sulfadiazine (SDZ), sulfathiazole (STZ), sulfamerazine (SMR), sulfamethazine (SMN) and sulfadimethoxine (SDM) in aqueous solution at boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode. All studied sulfonamides were degraded according to a pseudo first order kinetics. The structure of SNs had no significant effect on the values of pseudo first order rate constants. Increased degradation efficiency was observed in higher temperature and in acidic pH. Due to the presence of chlorine and nitrate SNs were more effectively oxidized from municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents than from pure supporting electrolyte Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The intermediates identified by LC–MS and GC–MS analysis suggested that the hydroxyl radicals attack mainly the S-N bond, but also the aromatic ring systems (aniline, pyrimidine or triazole) of SNs. Finally, the toxicity of the SNs solutions and effluents after electrochemical treatment was assessed through the measurement of growth inhibition of green algae (Scenedesmus vacualatus) and duckweed (Lemna minor). Toxicity of SMR, STZ, SMN solutions before and after electrochemical oxidation and SDM solution after the process in L. minor test was observed. No significant toxicity of studied SNs was observed in algae test.

  11. Evaluation of Common Use Brominated Flame Retardant (BFR Toxicity Using a Zebrafish Embryo Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal Y. Usenko

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Brominated flame retardants (BFRs are used to reduce the flammability of plastics, textiles, and electronics. BFRs vary in their chemical properties and structures, and it is expected that these differences alter their biological interactions and toxicity. Zebrafish were used as the model organism for assessing the toxicity of nine structurally-diverse BFRs. In addition to monitoring for overt toxicity, the rate of spontaneous movement, and acetylcholinesterase and glutathione-S-transferase (GST activities were assessed following exposure. The toxicities of BFRs tested can be ranked by LC50 as tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA < 4,4′-isopropylidenebis[2-(2,6-dibromophenoxylethanol] (TBBPA-OHEE < Pentabromochlorocyclohexane (PBCH < 2-ethylhexyl 2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (TBB < hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD < hexabromobenzene (HBB < Tetrabromophthalic anhydride (PHT4. No adverse effect was observed in di(2-ethylhexyl tetrabromophthalate (TBPH or dibromoneopentyl glycol (DBNPG-treated embryos. The rate of spontaneous movement was decreased in a concentration-dependent manner following exposure to four of the nine compounds. GST activity was elevated following treatment with PBCH, TBBPA, HBCD, and HBB. The results indicate that exposure to several BFRs may activate an antioxidant response and alter behavior during early development. Some of the BFRs, such as TBBPA and TBBPA-OHEE, induced adverse effects at concentrations lower than chemicals that are currently banned. These results suggest that zebrafish are sensitive to exposure to BFRs and can be used as a comparative screening model, as well as to determine alterations in behavior following exposure and probe mechanisms of action.

  12. Oxidation of triclosan by ferrate: Reaction kinetics, products identification and toxicity evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Bin [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Ying Guangguo, E-mail: guang-guo.ying@csiro.au [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhao Jianliang; Zhang Lijuan; Fang Yixiang [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Nghiem, Long Duc [School of Civil Mining and Environmental Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia)

    2011-02-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Triclosan reacted rapidly with ferrate. {yields} Oxidation resulted in a decrease in algal toxicity. {yields} No inhibition of algae growth from ferrate. - Abstract: The oxidation of triclosan by commercial grade aqueous ferrate (Fe(VI)) was investigated and the reaction kinetics as a function of pH (7.0-10.0) were experimentally determined. Intermediate products of the oxidation process were characterized using both GC-MS and RRLC-MS/MS techniques. Changes in toxicity during the oxidation process of triclosan using Fe(VI) were investigated using Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata growth inhibition tests. The results show that triclosan reacted rapidly with Fe(VI), with the apparent second-order rate constant, k{sub app}, being 754.7 M{sup -1} s{sup -1} at pH 7. At a stoichiometric ratio of 10:1 (Fe(VI):triclosan), complete removal of triclosan was achieved. Species-specific rate constants, k, were determined for reaction of Fe(VI) with both the protonated and deprotonated triclosan species. The value of k determined for neutral triclosan was 6.7({+-}1.9) x 10{sup 2} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}, while that measured for anionic triclosan was 7.6({+-}0.6) x 10{sup 3} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}. The proposed mechanism for the oxidation of triclosan by the Fe(VI) involves the scission of ether bond and phenoxy radical addition reaction. Coupling reaction may also occur during Fe(VI) degradation of triclosan. Overall, the degradation processes of triclosan resulted in a significant decrease in algal toxicity. The toxicity tests showed that Fe(VI) itself dosed in the reaction did not inhibit green algae growth.

  13. Toxicity evaluations of nanoclays and thermally degraded b