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Sample records for subacute stroke patients

  1. Changes of resting cerebral activities in subacute ischemic stroke patients

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    Ping Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to detect the difference in resting cerebral activities between ischemic stroke patients and healthy participants, define the abnormal site, and provide new evidence for pathological mechanisms, clinical diagnosis, prognosis prediction and efficacy evaluation of ischemic stroke. At present, the majority of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies focus on the motor dysfunction and the acute stage of ischemic stroke. This study recruited 15 right-handed ischemic stroke patients at subacute stage (15 days to 11.5 weeks and 15 age-matched healthy participants. A resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan was performed on each subject to detect cerebral activity. Regional homogeneity analysis was used to investigate the difference in cerebral activities between ischemic stroke patients and healthy participants. The results showed that the ischemic stroke patients had lower regional homogeneity in anterior cingulate and left cerebrum and higher regional homogeneity in cerebellum, left precuneus and left frontal lobe, compared with healthy participants. The experimental findings demonstrate that the areas in which regional homogeneity was different between ischemic stroke patients and healthy participants are in the cerebellum, left precuneus, left triangle inferior frontal gyrus, left inferior temporal gyrus and anterior cingulate. These locations, related to the motor, sensory and emotion areas, are likely potential targets for the neural regeneration of subacute ischemic stroke patients.

  2. Neurophysiological characterization of subacute stroke patients: a longitudinal study

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    Giuseppe Lamola

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Various degrees of neural reorganization may occur in affected and unaffected hemispheres in the early phase after stroke and several months later. Recent literature suggests to apply a stratification based on lesion location and to consider patients with cortico-subcortical and subcortical strokes separately: different lesion location may also influence therapeutic response. In this study we used a longitudinal approach to perform TMS assessment (Motor Evoked Potentials, MEP, and Silent Period, SP and clinical evaluations (Barthel Index, Fugl-Meyer Assessment for upper limb motor function and Wolf Motor Function Test in 10 cortical-subcortical and 10 subcortical ischemic stroke patients. Evaluations were performed in a window between 10 and 45 days (t0 and at 3 months after the acute event (t1. Our main finding is that 3 months after the acute event patients affected by subcortical stroke presented a reduction in contralateral SP duration in the unaffected hemisphere; this trend is related to clinical improvement of upper limb motor function. In conclusion, SP proved to be a valid parameter to characterize cortical reorganization patterns in stroke survivors and provided useful information about motor recovery within three months in subcortical patients.

  3. The effect of knee joint Mulligan taping on balance and gait in subacute stroke patients.

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    Hyun, Ki-Hoon; Cho, Hwi-Young; Lim, Chae-Gil

    2015-11-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the effects of Mulligan taping on balance and gait in subacute stroke patients. [Subjects] Thirty patients with subacute stroke were randomly divided into two groups: the experimental group (n = 15) and the control group (n = 15). Mulligan taping was applied to the knee joints of participants in the experimental group while placebo taping was applied to knee joints of subjects in the control group. Biodex was used to assess their balance ability and the GAITRite System was used to test gait. All measurements were performed before and after the intervention. [Results] Dynamic standing balance of the experimental group significantly improved after taping. Gait, gait cadence, velocity, step length, and stride length also improved significantly. However, no significant differences in standing balance or gait were observed for the control group. Furthermore, significant differences in dynamic standing balance, cadence, and velocity were found between the two groups after the intervention. [Conclusion] Our results demonstrate that Mulligan taping is effective for improving balance and gait in subacute stroke patients. Thus, this technique is a potential method for actively facilitating rehabilitation programs for hemiplegia patients.

  4. Peak Cardiorespiratory Responses of Patients with Subacute Stroke During Land and Aquatic Treadmill Exercise.

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    Lee, Yong Ki; Kim, Bo Ryun; Han, Eun Young

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the cardiorespiratory responses of patients with subacute stroke to exercise stress tests with aquatic and land treadmills. Twenty-one consecutive patients who presented with first-ever subacute stroke in 2013-2015. All subjects underwent symptom-limited incremental exercise testing with aquatic and land treadmills. Land treadmill speed started at 1.5 km/h and increased 0.5 km/h every 1 to 2 minutes until maximal tolerable speed was achieved. Thereafter, the grade was elevated by 2% every 2 minutes. In the aquatic treadmill test, subjects were submerged to the xiphoid in 28°C water. Treadmill speed started at 1.5 km/h and was increased 0.5 km/h every 2 minutes thereafter. Cardiorespiratory responses were recorded with aquatic and land treadmills. Compared to land treadmill exercise, aquatic treadmill exercise achieved significantly better peak VO2 (22.0 vs 20.0; P = 0.02), peak metabolic equivalents (6.3 vs 5.8; P = 0.02), and peak rating of perceived exertion (17.6 vs 18.4, P = 0.01). Heart rate and VO2 correlated significantly during both tests (land treadmill: r = 0.96, P aquatic treadmill: r = 0.99, P Aquatic treadmill exercise elicited significantly better peak cardiorespiratory responses than land treadmill exercise and may be as effective for early intensive aerobic training in subacute stroke patients.

  5. Segregation of Spontaneous and Training Induced Recovery from Visual Field Defects in Subacute Stroke Patients

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    Douwe P. Bergsma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Whether rehabilitation after stroke profits from an early start is difficult to establish as the contributions of spontaneous recovery and treatment are difficult to tease apart. Here, we use a novel training design to dissociate these components for visual rehabilitation of subacute stroke patients with visual field defects such as hemianopia. Visual discrimination training was started within 6 weeks after stroke in 17 patients. Spontaneous and training-induced recoveries were distinguished by training one-half of the defect for 8 weeks, while monitoring spontaneous recovery in the other (control half of the defect. Next, trained and control regions were swapped, and training continued for another 8 weeks. The same paradigm was also applied to seven chronic patients for whom spontaneous recovery can be excluded and changes in the control half of the defect point to a spillover effect of training. In both groups, field stability was assessed during a no-intervention period. Defect reduction was significantly greater in the trained part of the defect than in the simultaneously untrained part of the defect irrespective of training onset (p = 0.001. In subacute patients, training contributed about twice as much to their defect reduction as the spontaneous recovery. Goal Attainment Scores were significantly and positively correlated with the total defect reduction (p = 0.01, percentage increase reading speed was significantly and positively correlated with the defect reduction induced by training (epoch 1: p = 0.0044; epoch 2: p = 0.023. Visual training adds significantly to the spontaneous recovery of visual field defects, both during training in the early and the chronic stroke phase. However, field recovery as a result of training in this subacute phase was as large as in the chronic phase. This suggests that patients benefited primarily of early onset training by gaining access to a larger visual field sooner.

  6. Effect of kinesiology taping on hemiplegic shoulder pain and functional outcomes in subacute stroke patients: a randomized controlled study.

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    Huang, Yu C; Leong, Chau P; Wang, Lin; Wang, Lin Y; Yang, Yu C; Chuang, Chien Y; Hsin, Yi J

    2016-12-01

    Hemiplegic shoulder pain (HSP) impedes functional motor recovery of the affected limbs and negatively affects quality of life and daily activities. Kinesiology taping (KT) may provide improvement in hemiplegic shoulder pain and upper extremity function after an acute stroke. To assess the impact of KT on HSP, upper extremity functional outcomes, and the prevention of shoulder soft tissue injury in subacute stroke patients with hemiplegic shoulders during rehabilitation. Randomized, double-blind controlled trial. Rehabilitation unit at a single medical center. Forty-four subacute stroke patients with hemiplegia. Forty-four subacute stroke patients with hemiplegia participated in this study and were randomly allocated to the control group (sham KT) or experimental group (therapeutic KT). In the experimental group, a 3-week therapeutic KT with conventional inpatient rehabilitation was applied for 5 days per week. In the control group, the patients received a 3-week sham KT with conventional inpatient rehabilitation for 5 days per week. Shoulder subluxation, spasticity, hemiplegic shoulder pain, the Fugl-Meyer Assessment for Upper Extremity (FMA-UE), modified Barthel Index (MI), Stroke-Specific Quality of Life (SSQOL) scale, and shoulder sonography were measured before and after treatment. Pain-free flexion was significantly increased in hemiplegic shoulders after therapeutic KT. From 16 (70%) to 20 (87%) patients in the control and from 12 (57%) to 12 (57%) in the experimental groups had HSP after intervention, and a significant difference in the occurrence of HSP was found between these groups after treatment (P0.05). Therapeutic KT may limit the development of HSP and improve shoulder flexion in subacute stroke patients with flaccid shoulders during inpatient rehabilitation. For subacute stroke patients with hemiplegia, therapeutic KT may not provide improvements in the upper extremity function, daily activity, and quality of life over sham KT during conventional

  7. Robot training for hand motor recovery in subacute stroke patients: A randomized controlled trial.

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    Orihuela-Espina, Felipe; Roldán, Giovana Femat; Sánchez-Villavicencio, Israel; Palafox, Lorena; Leder, Ronald; Sucar, Luis Enrique; Hernández-Franco, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Evidence of superiority of robot training for the hand over classical therapies in stroke patients remains controversial. During the subacute stage, hand training is likely to be the most useful. To establish whether robot active assisted therapies provides any additional motor recovery for the hand when administered during the subacute stage (occupational therapy, robot based therapies for hand recovery will show significant differences at subacute stages. A randomized clinical trial. A between subjects randomized controlled trial was carried out on subacute stroke patients (n = 17) comparing robot active assisted therapy (RT) with a classical occupational therapy (OT). Both groups received 40 sessions ensuring at least 300 repetitions per session. Treatment duration was (mean ± std) 2.18 ± 1.25 months for the control group and 2.44 ± 0.88 months for the study group. The primary outcome was motor dexterity changes assessed with the Fugl-Meyer (FMA) and the Motricity Index (MI). Both groups (OT: n = 8; RT: n = 9) exhibited significant improvements over time (Non-parametric Cliff's delta-within effect sizes: dwOT-FMA = 0.5, dwOT-MI = 0.5, dwRT-FMA = 1, dwRT-MI = 1). Regarding differences between the therapies; the Fugl-Meyer score indicated a significant advantage for the hand training with the robot (FMA hand: WRS: W = 8, p hand prehension for RT with respect to OT but failed to reach significance (MI prehension: W = 17.5, p = 0.080). No harm occurred. Robotic therapies may be useful during the subacute stages of stroke - both endpoints (FM hand and MI prehension) showed the expected trend with bigger effect size for the robotic intervention. Additional benefit of the robotic therapy over the control therapy was only significant when the difference was measured with FM, demanding further investigation with larger samples. Implications of this study are important for decision making during therapy administration and resource allocation

  8. Functional electrical stimulation assisted cycling of patients with subacute stroke: kinetic and kinematic analysis.

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    Szecsi, J; Krewer, C; Müller, F; Straube, A

    2008-10-01

    Cycling is a safe and functionally effective exercise for patients with early post-stroke and poor balance. Such exercise is considered even more effective when functional electrical stimulation is added. Our principal aim was to determine the biomechanically quantifiable parameters of cycling that can be improved in patients with subacute hemiparesis by incorporating functional electrical stimulation. These parameters were defined as objective goals that can be achieved in clinical applications. A secondary aim was to determine whether they could be used to identify subjects who would benefit from such therapy. Using a tricycle testbed, we tested 39 subacute (mean 10.9 weeks post-stroke (SD 5.9)), hemiplegic subjects. During isometric measurements we recorded volitional and electrically evoked crank torques, the latter at maximal tolerable intensity. During ergometric measurements, volitional pedaling was alternated with combined pedaling (volitional supported by stimulation), performed at 30-s intervals. Power, smoothness, and symmetry of cycling were evaluated. Twenty-six percent of the subjects significantly improved the smoothness of their cycling with functional electrical stimulation. Only 8% and 10% significantly increased their power and symmetry, respectively. The improvement in smoothness significantly correlated with the capability of the individual to generate electrical torque (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient=0.66 at P=0.001). The smoothness of cycling was the most sensitive parameter improved by functional electrical stimulation. This improvement depended on the amount of torque evoked, and the torque achieved, in turn, correlated with the tolerated intensity of stimulation.

  9. Benign Oligemia in Subacute Stage Is Associated with Borderzone Infarction in Stroke Patients Caused by Intracranial Large Artery Disease.

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    Li, Jingjing; Chen, Xiang-Ya; Soo, Yannie; Leung, Thomas W; Zeng, Jinsheng; Wong, Ka-Sing

    2017-01-01

    CT perfusion (CTP) imaging provides quantitative evaluation of cerebral perfusion flow and volume. Our previous findings showed that benign oligemia caused by intracranial large artery disease may be existent in subacute stroke. We aimed at comparing the topographic patterns and clinical outcome of stroke patients with and without persistent benign oligemia as defined by CTP imaging. Consecutive ischemic stroke patients who were referred for CTP in 2009 were screened. The topographic patterns (cortical, borderzone or perforating artery territory infarcts) were assessed by diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). The clinical outcome was defined by modified Rankin score at 6 months after stroke onset. Totally, 26 stroke patients were recruited. Benign oligemia in subacute stage was detected in 15 patients. The occurrence of borderzone infarction was higher in stroke patients with benign oligemia than those without (p = 0.036). The topographic pattern of DWI may be different between the intracranial arterial disease patients with and without benign oligemia on CTP in subacute stroke. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. [Commercial video games in the rehabilitation of patients with sub-acute stroke: a pilot study].

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    Cano-Manas, M J; Collado-Vazquez, S; Cano-de-la-Cuerda, R

    2017-10-16

    Stroke generates dependence on the patients due to the various impairments associated. The use of low-cost technologies for neurological rehabilitation may be beneficial for the treatment of these patients. To determine whether combined treatment using a semi-immersive virtual reality protocol to an interdisciplinary rehabilitation approach, improve balance and postural control, functional independence, quality of life, motivation, self-esteem and adherence to intervention in stroke patients in subacute stage. A longitudinal prospective study with pre and post-intervention evaluation was carried out. Fourteen were recruited at La Fuenfria Hospital (Spain) and completed the intervention. Experimental intervention was performed during eight weeks in combination with conventional treatment of physiotherapy and occupational therapy. Each session was increased in time and intensity, using commercial video games linked to Xbox 360° videoconsole and Kinect sensor. There were statistical significant improvements in modified Rankin scale (p = 0.04), baropodometry (load distribution, p = 0.03; support surface, p = 0.01), Barthel Index (p = 0.01), EQ-5D Questionnaire (p = 0.01), motivation (p = 0.02), self-esteem (p = 0.01) and adherence to the intervention (p = 0.02). An interdisciplinary rehabilitation approach supplemented with semi-immersive virtual reality seems to be useful for improving balance and postural control, functional independence in basic activities of daily living, quality of life, as well as motivation and self-esteem, with excellent adherence. This intervention modality could be adopted as a therapeutic tool in neurological rehabilitation of stroke patients in subacute stage.

  11. Feasibility and safety of early lower limb robot-assisted training in sub-acute stroke patients: a pilot study.

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    Gandolfi, Marialuisa; Geroin, Christian; Tomelleri, Christopher; Maddalena, Isacco; Kirilova Dimitrova, Eleonora; Picelli, Alessandro; Smania, Nicola; Waldner, Andreas

    2017-12-01

    So far, the development of robotic devices for the early lower limb mobilization in the sub-acute phase after stroke has received limited attention. To explore the feasibility of a newly robotic-stationary gait training in sub-acute stroke patients. To report the training effects on lower limb function and muscle activation. A pilot study. Rehabilitation ward. Two sub-acute stroke inpatients and ten age-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Healthy controls served as normative data. Patients underwent 10 robot-assisted training sessions (20 minutes, 5 days/week) in alternating stepping movements (500 repetitions/session) on a hospital bed in addition to conventional rehabilitation. Feasibility outcome measures were compliance, physiotherapist time, and responses to self-report questionnaires. Efficacy outcomes were bilateral lower limb muscle activation pattern as measured by surface electromyography (sEMG), Motricity Index (MI), Medical Research Council (MRC) grade, and Ashworth Scale (AS) scores before and after training. No adverse events occurred. No significant differences in sEMG activity between patients and healthy controls were observed. Post-training improvement in MI and MRC scores, but no significant changes in AS scores, were recorded. Post-treatment sEMG analysis of muscle activation patterns showed a significant delay in rectus femoris offset (P=0.02) and prolonged duration of biceps femoris (P=0.04) compared to pretreatment. The robot-assisted training with our device was feasible and safe. It induced physiological muscle activations pattern in both stroke patients and healthy controls. Full-scale studies are needed to explore its potential role in post-stroke recovery. This robotic device may enrich early rehabilitation in subacute stroke patients by inducing physiological muscle activation patterns. Future studies are warranted to evaluate its effects on promoting restorative mechanisms involved in lower limb recovery after stroke.

  12. Effects of Arm Weight Support Training to Promote Recovery of Upper Limb Function for Subacute Patients after Stroke with Different Levels of Arm Impairments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chan, Irene H L; Fong, Kenneth N K; Chan, Dora Y L; Wang, Apple Q L; Cheng, Eddy K N; Chau, Pinky H Y; Chow, Kathy K Y; Cheung, Hobby K Y

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of arm weight support training using the ArmeoSpring for subacute patients after stroke with different levels of hemiplegic arm impairments. Methods...

  13. The Efficacy of Balance Training with Video Game-Based Therapy in Subacute Stroke Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial

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    Tramontano, Marco; Shofany, Jacob; Iemma, Antonella; Musicco, Massimo; Paolucci, Stefano; Caltagirone, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    The video game-based therapy emerged as a potential valid tool in improving balance in several neurological conditions with controversial results, whereas little information is available regarding the use of this therapy in subacute stroke patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of balance training using video game-based intervention on functional balance and disability in individuals with hemiparesis due to stroke in subacute phase. Fifty adult stroke patients participated to the study: 25 subjects were randomly assigned to balance training with Wii Fit, and the other 25 subjects were assigned to usual balance therapy. Both groups were also treated with conventional physical therapy (40 min 2 times/day). The main outcome was functional balance (Berg Balance Scale-BBS), and secondary outcomes were disability (Barthel Index-BI), walking ability (Functional Ambulation Category), and walking speed (10-meters walking test). Wii Fit training was more effective than usual balance therapy in improving balance (BBS: 53 versus 48, P = 0.004) and independency in activity of daily living (BI: 98 versus 93, P = 0.021). A balance training performed with a Wii Fit as an add on to the conventional therapy was found to be more effective than conventional therapy alone in improving balance and reducing disability in patients with subacute stroke. PMID:24877116

  14. Speech and Language Therapy for Aphasia following Subacute Stroke

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    Koyuncu, E.; Çam, P.; Altinok, N.; Çalli, D.E.; Yarbay Duman, T.; Özgirgin, N.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the time window, duration and intensity of optimal speech and language therapy applied to aphasic patients with subacute stroke in our hospital. The study consisted of 33 patients being hospitalized for stroke rehabilitation in our hospital with first stroke

  15. Short-time weight-bearing capacity assessment for non-ambulatory patients with subacute stroke: reliability and discriminative power.

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    Stoller, Oliver; Rosemeyer, Heike; Baur, Heiner; Schindelholz, Matthias; Hunt, Kenneth J; Radlinger, Lorenz; Schuster-Amft, Corina

    2015-11-26

    Weight-bearing capacity (WBC) on the hemiparetic leg is crucial for independent walking, and is thus an important outcome to monitor after a stroke. A specific and practical assessment in non-ambulatory patients is not available. This is of importance considering the increasing administration of high intensive gait training for the severely impaired stroke population. The aim was to develop a fast and easy-to-perform assessment for WBC on a foot pressure plate to be used in clinical routine. WBC was assessed in the frontal plane in 30 non-ambulatory patients with subacute stroke and 10 healthy controls under 3 conditions: static, dynamic, and rhythmic. Force-time curves for the hemiparetic leg (patients with stroke) and the non-dominant leg (healthy controls) were normalised as a percentage of body weight (%BW), and the means analysed over 60, 30, and 15 s (static) and the mean of the peak values for 15, 10, 5, 4, and 3 repetition trials (dynamic, rhythmic). The data were tested for discriminative power and reliability. Dynamic and rhythmic tests could discriminate between patients with stroke and healthy controls over all periods (15, 10, 5, 4, and 3 repetitions) (p 0.829] and inter-session reliability (ICC = 0.740) were found for 3 repetitions in the dynamic test with acceptable absolute reliability [standard error of measurement (SEM) <5 %BW, minimal detectable difference (MDD) <12.4 %BW] and no within- or between-test differences (trial 1, p = 0.792; trial 2, p = 0.067; between trials, p = 0.102). Three dynamic repetitions of loading the hemiparetic leg are sufficient to assess WBC in non-ambulatory patients with subacute stroke. This is an important finding regarding the implementation of a fast and easy-to-perform assessment for routine clinical usage in patients with limited standing ability.

  16. Clinical Characteristics of Proper Robot-Assisted Gait Training Group in Non-ambulatory Subacute Stroke Patients

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    Kim, Soo Jeong; Lee, Hye Jin; Hwang, Seung Won; Pyo, Hannah; Yang, Sung Phil; Lim, Mun-Hee; Park, Gyu Lee

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify the clinical characteristics of proper robot-assisted gait training group using exoskeletal locomotor devices in non-ambulatory subacute stroke patients. Methods A total of 38 stroke patients were enrolled in a 4-week robotic training protocol (2 sessions/day, 5 times/week). All subjects were evaluated for their general characteristics, Functional Ambulatory Classification (FAC), Fugl-Meyer Scale (FMS), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Modified Rankin Scale (MRS), Modified Barthel Index (MBI), and Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) at 0, 2, and 4 weeks. Statistical analysis were performed to determine significant clinical characteristics for improvement of gait function after robot-assisted gait training. Results Paired t-test showed that all functional parameters except MMSE were improved significantly (probot-assisted gait training. Therefore, baseline BBS and duration of disease should be considered clinically for gaining walking ability in robot-assisted training group. PMID:27152266

  17. Clinical effectiveness of combined virtual reality and robot assisted fine hand motion rehabilitation in subacute stroke patients.

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    Huang, Xianwei; Naghdy, Fazel; Naghdy, Golshah; Du, Haiping

    2017-07-01

    Robot-assisted therapy is regarded as an effective and reliable method for the delivery of highly repetitive rehabilitation training in restoring motor skills after a stroke. This study focuses on the rehabilitation of fine hand motion skills due to their vital role in performing delicate activities of daily living (ADL) tasks. The proposed rehabilitation system combines an adaptive assist-as-needed (AAN) control algorithm and a Virtual Reality (VR) based rehabilitation gaming system (RGS). The developed system is described and its effectiveness is validated through clinical trials on a group of eight subacute stroke patients for a period of six weeks. The impact of the training is verified through standard clinical evaluation methods and measuring key kinematic parameters. A comparison of the pre- and post-training results indicates that the method proposed in this study can improve fine hand motion rehabilitation training effectiveness.

  18. Electromyographic bridge for promoting the recovery of hand movements in subacute stroke patients: A randomized controlled trial

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    Yu-Xuan Zhou

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The electromyographic bridge (EMGB detects surface electromyographic signals from a non-paretic limb. It then generates electric pulse trains according to the electromyographic time domain features, which can be used to stimulate a paralysed or paretic limb in real time. This strategy can be used for the contralateral control of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES to improve motor function after stroke. The aim of this study was to compare the treat-ment effects of EMGB vs cyclic NMES on wrist and finger impairments in subacute stroke patients. Methods: A total of 42 hemiplegic patients within 6 months of their cerebrovascular accidents were randomly assigned to 4-week treatments with EMGB or cyclic NMES. Each group underwent a standard rehabilitation programme and 10 sessions per week of hand training with EMGB or cyclic NMES. Outcome measures were: Brunnstrom stage, upper extremity components of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Motor Status Scale, voluntary surface electromyographic ratio and active range of motion of the wrist and finger joints. Results: The EMGB group showed significantly greater improvements than the cyclic NMES group on the following measures: Brunnstrom stages for the hand, upper extremity – Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Motor Status Scale, and the voluntary surface electromyographic ratio of wrist and finger extensors. Eleven and 4 participants of the EMGB group who had no active wrist and finger movements, respectively, at the start of the treatment could perform measurable wrist and finger extensions after EMGB training. The corresponding numbers in the cyclic NMES group were only 4 and 1. Conclusion: In the present group of subacute stroke patients, the results favour EMGB over cyclic NMES for augmenting the recovery of volitional wrist and finger motion.

  19. The reliability of repeated TMS measures in older adults and in patients with subacute and chronic stroke

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    Heidi M. Schambra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The reliability of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS measures in healthy older adults and stroke patients has been insufficiently characterized. We determined whether common TMS measures could reliably evaluate change in individuals and in groups using the smallest detectable change (SDC, or could tell subjects apart using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC. We used a single-rater test-retest design in older healthy, subacute stroke, and chronic stroke subjects. At twice daily sessions on two consecutive days, we recorded resting motor threshold, test stimulus intensity, recruitment curves, short-interval intracortical inhibition and facilitation, and long-interval intracortical inhibition. Using variances estimated from a random effects model, we calculated the SDC and ICC for each TMS measure. For all TMS measures in all groups, SDCs for single subjects were large; only with modest group sizes did the SDCs become low. Thus, while these TMS measures cannot be reliably used as a biomarker to detect individual change, they can reliably detect change exceeding measurement noise in moderate-sized groups. For several of the TMS measures, ICCs were universally high, suggesting that they can reliably discriminate between subjects. Though most TMS measures have sufficient reliability in particular contexts, work establishing their validity, responsiveness, and clinical relevance is still needed.

  20. Leap Motion-based virtual reality training for improving motor functional recovery of upper limbs and neural reorganization in subacute stroke patients.

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    Wang, Zun-Rong; Wang, Ping; Xing, Liang; Mei, Li-Ping; Zhao, Jun; Zhang, Tong

    2017-11-01

    Virtual reality is nowadays used to facilitate motor recovery in stroke patients. Most virtual reality studies have involved chronic stroke patients; however, brain plasticity remains good in acute and subacute patients. Most virtual reality systems are only applicable to the proximal upper limbs (arms) because of the limitations of their capture systems. Nevertheless, the functional recovery of an affected hand is most difficult in the case of hemiparesis rehabilitation after a stroke. The recently developed Leap Motion controller can track the fine movements of both hands and fingers. Therefore, the present study explored the effects of a Leap Motion-based virtual reality system on subacute stroke. Twenty-six subacute stroke patients were assigned to an experimental group that received virtual reality training along with conventional occupational rehabilitation, and a control group that only received conventional rehabilitation. The Wolf motor function test (WMFT) was used to assess the motor function of the affected upper limb; functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure the cortical activation. After four weeks of treatment, the motor functions of the affected upper limbs were significantly improved in all the patients, with the improvement in the experimental group being significantly better than in the control group. The action performance time in the WMFT significantly decreased in the experimental group. Furthermore, the activation intensity and the laterality index of the contralateral primary sensorimotor cortex increased in both the experimental and control groups. These results confirmed that Leap Motion-based virtual reality training was a promising and feasible supplementary rehabilitation intervention, could facilitate the recovery of motor functions in subacute stroke patients. The study has been registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (registration number: ChiCTR-OCH-12002238).

  1. Cathodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation of the Right Wernicke's Area Improves Comprehension in Subacute Stroke Patients

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    You, Dae Sang; Kim, Dae-Yul; Chun, Min Ho; Jung, Seung Eun; Park, Sung Jong

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown the appearance of right-sided language-related brain activity in right-handed patients after a stroke. Non-invasive brain stimulation such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) have been shown to modulate excitability in the brain. Moreover, rTMS and…

  2. Effects of integrating rhythmic arm swing into robot-assisted walking in patients with subacute stroke: a randomized controlled pilot study.

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    Kang, Tae-Woo; Oh, Duck-Won; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Cynn, Heon-Seock

    2017-11-14

    This study aimed to identify the effects of rhythmic arm swing during robot-assisted walking training on balance, gait, motor function, and activities of daily living among patients with subacute stroke. Twenty patients with subacute stroke were recruited, and thereafter randomly allocated to either the experimental group that performed the robot-assisted walking training with rhythmic arm swing, or the control group that performed the training in arm fixation. In total, 30 training sessions were carried out. The outcome measures included the 10-m walk test, Berg balance scale, timed up-and-go test, fall index that was measured using the Tetrax system, motor function test of Fugl-Meyer assessment, and modified Barthel index. The patients of both groups showed significant improvement in all parameters after the intervention (P<0.05). The Berg balance scale, Fugl-Meyer assessment, and modified Barthel index scores at post-test appeared to be significantly higher for the experimental group than for the control group (P<0.05). These findings indicate that more favorable effects from robot-assisted walking training in patients with subacute stroke may be obtained by the use of rhythmic arm swing.

  3. Effects of Arm Weight Support Training to Promote Recovery of Upper Limb Function for Subacute Patients after Stroke with Different Levels of Arm Impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene H. L. Chan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of arm weight support training using the ArmeoSpring for subacute patients after stroke with different levels of hemiplegic arm impairments. Methods. 48 inpatients with subacute stroke, stratified into 3 groups from mild to severe upper extremity impairment, were engaged in ArmeoSpring training for 45 minutes daily, 5 days per week for 3 weeks, in addition to conventional rehabilitation. Evaluations were conducted at three measurement occasions: immediately before training (T1; immediately after training (T2; and at a 3-week follow-up (T3 by a blind rater. Results. Shoulder flexion active range of motion, Upper Extremity Scores in the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA, and Vertical Catch had the greatest differences in gain scores for patients between severe and moderate impairments, whereas FMA Hand Scores had significant differences in gain scores between moderate and mild impairments. There was no significant change in muscle tone or hand-path ratios between T1, T2, and T3 within the groups. Conclusion. Arm weight support training is beneficial for subacute stroke patients with moderate to severe arm impairments, especially to improve vertical control such as shoulder flexion, and there were no adverse effects in muscle tone.

  4. Effects of Arm Weight Support Training to Promote Recovery of Upper Limb Function for Subacute Patients after Stroke with Different Levels of Arm Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Irene H. L.; Chan, Dora Y. L.; Wang, Apple Q. L.; Cheng, Eddy K. N.; Chau, Pinky H. Y.; Chow, Kathy K. Y.; Cheung, Hobby K. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of arm weight support training using the ArmeoSpring for subacute patients after stroke with different levels of hemiplegic arm impairments. Methods. 48 inpatients with subacute stroke, stratified into 3 groups from mild to severe upper extremity impairment, were engaged in ArmeoSpring training for 45 minutes daily, 5 days per week for 3 weeks, in addition to conventional rehabilitation. Evaluations were conducted at three measurement occasions: immediately before training (T1); immediately after training (T2); and at a 3-week follow-up (T3) by a blind rater. Results. Shoulder flexion active range of motion, Upper Extremity Scores in the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA), and Vertical Catch had the greatest differences in gain scores for patients between severe and moderate impairments, whereas FMA Hand Scores had significant differences in gain scores between moderate and mild impairments. There was no significant change in muscle tone or hand-path ratios between T1, T2, and T3 within the groups. Conclusion. Arm weight support training is beneficial for subacute stroke patients with moderate to severe arm impairments, especially to improve vertical control such as shoulder flexion, and there were no adverse effects in muscle tone. PMID:27517053

  5. Effects of a 6-Week Aquatic Treadmill Exercise Program on Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Walking Endurance in Subacute Stroke Patients: A PILOT TRIAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Eun Young; Im, Sang Hee

    2017-03-15

    To assess the feasibility and safety of a 6-week course of water walking performed using a motorized aquatic treadmill in individuals with subacute stroke for cardiorespiratory fitness, walking endurance, and activities of daily living. Twenty subacute stroke patents were randomly assigned to aquatic treadmill exercise (ATE) or land-based exercise (LBE). The ATE group (n = 10) performed water-based aerobic exercise on a motorized aquatic treadmill, and the LBE group (n = 10) performed land-based aerobic exercise on a cycle ergometer. Both groups performed aerobic exercise for 30 minutes, 5 times per week for 6 weeks. Primary outcome measures were 6-minute walk test for walking endurance and cardiopulmonary fitness parameters of a symptom-limited exercise tolerance test, and secondary measures were Korean version of the Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI) for activities of daily living. All variables were assessed at baseline and at the end of the intervention. The ATE group showed significant improvements in 6-minute walk test (P = .005), peak oxygen uptake (V·o2peak; P = .005), peak heart rate (P = .007), exercise tolerance test duration (P = .005), and K-MBI (P = .008). The LBE group showed a significant improvement only in K-MBI (P = .012). In addition, improvement in V·o2peak was greater in the ATE than in the LBE group. This preliminary study showed that a 6-week ATE program improved peak aerobic capacity and walking endurance in patients with subacute stroke. The improvement in V·o2peak after an ATE exercise program was greater than that observed after an LBE program. Therefore, ATE effectively improves cardiopulmonary fitness in patients with subacute stroke.

  6. Correlation of deglutition in subacute ischemic stroke patients with peripheral blood adaptive immunity: Essential amino acid improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilani, Roberto; Emilio, Benevolo; Dossena, Maurizia; Baiardi, Paola; Testa, Amidio; Boschi, Federica; Viglio, Simona; Iadarola, Paolo; Pasini, Evasio; Verri, Manuela

    2015-12-01

    We aimed to document in stroke patients peripheral blood immune cell profiles, their relations with neuro-functional tests, and any possible influence of supplemented essential amino acids (EAAs) may have on both the immune system and the relationship of the latter with neuro-function.Forty-two dysphagic stroke patients (27 men; 71±9 years) underwent bio-humoral measurements, neuro-functional tests, including Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and Dysphagia Outcome and Severity Scale (DOSS), and were randomized to receive EAAs 8 g/d (EAA group) or isocaloric maltodextrin (placebo group).At discharge all measurements were repeated 38±1 days after randomization.At admission, total white cell (TWC), neutrophil (N), and lymphocyte (Lymph) counts were normal and the N/Lymph ratio was higher than normal values (<3.0). At discharge, both TWC and N decreased while Lymph increased significantly. As a result, the N/Lymph ratio significantly decreased (P <0.001) returning to normal levels. Absolute Lymph counts and Lymph % TWC correlated positively with DOSS (r = +0.235, P = 0.04 and r = +0.224, P = 0.05, respectively), negatively with C-reactive protein natural logarithm (ln CRP) (P = 0.02 and P = 0.0001, respectively), which is an inflammation marker. N correlated positively with ln CRP (P = 0.001) and had a slight negative association with FIM (P = 0.07). The N/Lymph ratio was inversely related to FIM (r = -0.262, P = 0.02) and DOSS (r = -0.279, P = 0.01). Finally, FIM correlated with DOSS (r = +0.35, P = 0.05).For the regression analysis, the overtime changes of Lymph % TWC correlated significantly with DOSS (P = 0.01). There was a positive correlation between Lymph % TWC and DOSS for the entire stroke population (P = 0.015). While this correlation was not important for the placebo group (P = 0.27), it was significant in the EAA subgroup (P = 0.018).In the sub-acute stroke stage, there may be slight alterations of peripheral blood immune cells. Lymph cells are

  7. The effect of additional core stability exercises on improving dynamic sitting balance and trunk control for subacute stroke patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanas-Valdés, Rosa; Bagur-Calafat, Caritat; Girabent-Farrés, Montserrat; Caballero-Gómez, Fernanda Mª; Hernández-Valiño, Montserrat; Urrútia Cuchí, Gerard

    2016-10-01

    To examine the effect of core stability exercises on trunk control, dynamic sitting and standing balance, gait, and activities of daily living in subacute stroke patients. A randomized controlled trial. Inpatient rehabilitation hospital in two centres. Eighty patients (mean of 23.25 (±16.7) days post-stroke) were randomly assigned to an experimental group and a control group. Both groups underwent conventional therapy for five days/week for five weeks and the experimental group performed core stability exercises for 15 min/day. The patients were assessed before and after intervention. The Trunk Impairment Scale (Spanish-Version) and Function in Sitting Test were used to measure the primary outcome of dynamic sitting balance. Secondary outcome measures were standing balance and gait as evaluated via Berg Balance Scale, Tinetti Test, Brunel Balance Assessment, Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke (Spanish-Version), and activities of daily living using Barthel Index. The experimental group showed statistically significant differences for all of the total scale scores (PCore stability exercises in addition to conventional therapy improves trunk control, dynamic sitting balance, standing balance, gait and activities of daily living in subacute post-stroke patients. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Speech and language therapy for aphasia following subacute stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Koyuncu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the time window, duration and intensity of optimal speech and language therapy applied to aphasic patients with subacute stroke in our hospital. The study consisted of 33 patients being hospitalized for stroke rehabilitation in our hospital with first stroke but without previous history of speech and language therapy. Sixteen sessions of impairment-based speech and language therapy were applied to the patients, 30-60 minutes per day, 2 days a week, for 8 successive weeks. Aphasia assessment in stroke patients was performed with Gülhane Aphasia Test-2 before and after treatment. Compared with before treatment, fluency of speech, listening comprehension, reading comprehension, oral motor evaluation, automatic speech, repetition and naming were improved after treatment. This suggests that 16 seesions of speech and language therapy, 30-60 minutes per day, 2 days a week, for 8 successive weeks, are effective in the treatment of aphasic patients with subacute stroke.

  9. Effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on arterial hemodynamic properties and body composition in paretic upper extremities of patients with subacute stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Chun Huang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neuromuscular electric stimulation (NMES induces repeated muscular contraction, possibly promoting the perfusion/oxygenation of the regional tissues. It remains unclear how NMES influences vascular hemodynamic property and segmental fluid distribution/composition in paretic extremities of hemiplegic patients. Methods: Eleven hemiplegic patients aged 62.6 ± 12.5 years in the subacute stage of stroke received NMES for paretic wrist extensor and flexor muscles 30 min daily, 5 days per week for 4 weeks. The non-paretic upper extremities (NPUE that did not receive NMES served as control. Distribution of fluid to intra/extracellular milieu and arterial hemodynamic properties were determined by using the multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance and pulse wave analysis, respectively. Results: Compared with NPUE without NMES, paretic upper extremity (PUE with NMES revealed a significantly less decrease in arterial blood flow, impedance quotient, slope quotient, and less increase in crest width and crest time of arterial pulse wave. NMES for 4 weeks increased body cell mass in PUE. Furthermore, NPUE without NMES reduced intracellular water, whereas PUE with NMES retarded loss of intracellular water after stroke. Conclusion: NMES therapy increases body cell mass, attenuates reduction of intracellular water, and alleviates arterial hemodynamic disturbance in PUE in subacute stroke. However, stroke-related physical deconditioning may negatively regulate body composition and impair hemodynamic function in NPUE.

  10. Can Lowering the Guidance Force of Robot-Assisted Gait Training Induce a Sufficient Metabolic Demand in Subacute Dependent Ambulatory Patients With Stroke?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, So Young; Han, Eun Young; Kim, Bo Ryun; Chun, Min Ho; Lee, Yong Ki

    2017-04-01

    To assess the effects of guidance force (GF) and gait speed (GS) on cardiorespiratory responses and energy cost in subacute dependent ambulatory patients with stroke. Cross-sectional study. University rehabilitation hospital. Patients with subacute stroke (N=10; mean age, 64.50±19.20y) who were dependent ambulators (functional ambulation category ≤2). Patients participated in cardiorespiratory tests during robot-assisted gait training. Subjects walked at a fixed percentage (50%) of body weight support and various percentages of GF (100%, 80%, and 60%) and GS (1.4 and 1.8km/h). The therapist encouraged patients to maximize their locomotor ability. During the cardiorespiratory tests, oxygen consumption (V˙o2), heart rate, and respiratory exchange ratio were measured continuously to assess cardiometabolic demands. There were no significant differences in cardiometabolic demands according to GS (1.4 vs 1.8km/h). There were no significant differences in cardiometabolic demands according to GF at a GS of 1.4km/h. However, lowering GF decreased V˙o2 when comparing GFs of 100% (6.89±2.38mL/kg/min), 80% (6.46±1.73mL/kg/min), and 60% (5.77±1.71mL/kg/min) at a GS of 1.8km/h (P=.03). Lowering the GF of robot-assisted gait training at a higher GS cannot induce a sufficient cardiometabolic demand for subacute dependent ambulatory patients with stroke. This implies that it is important to take the patient's functional ability into consideration when choosing training protocols. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Nursing Roles and Functions in the Acute and Subacute Rehabilitation of Patients With Stroke: Going All In for the Patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhorn, Leanne; Angel, Sanne; Aadal, Lena

    2016-01-01

    Background: The description of nursing roles and functions in rehabilitation of patients with stroke remains sparse. Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the experienced roles and functions of nurses during in-hospital rehabilitation of patients with stroke. Methods: Within a phenomenological...... hermeneutic approach, 19 nurses working with in-hospital rehabilitation of patients with stroke participated in three focus group interviews during 2013. Findings: The nurses' experiences were described in two themes: (a) the nurse's role and function in relation to the patient's needs 24/7 and (b) the nurse......'s role and function in the interdisciplinary team. Getting to know the patient as a person was essential to the nurses to care for the patient's basic needs; these must come first working with rehabilitation and always include the relatives. Recognition of the team members' individual skills with focus...

  12. Can energy expenditure be accurately assessed using accelerometry-based wearable motion detectors for physical activity monitoring in post-stroke patients in the subacute phase?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandigout, Stéphane; Lacroix, Justine; Ferry, Béatrice; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Compagnat, Maxence; Daviet, Jean-Christophe

    2017-12-01

    Background In the subacute stroke phase, the monitoring of ambulatory activity and activities of daily life with wearable sensors may have relevant clinical applications. Do current commercially available wearable activity trackers allow us to objectively assess the energy expenditure of these activities? The objective of the present study was to compare the energy expenditure evaluated by indirect calorimetry during the course of a scenario consisting of everyday activities while estimating the energy expenditure using several commercialised wearable sensors in post-stroke patients (less than six months since stroke). Method Twenty-four patients (age 68.2 ± 13.9; post-stroke delay 34 ± 25 days) voluntarily participated in this study. Each patient underwent a scenario of various everyday tasks (transfer, walking, etc.). During the implementation, patients wore 14 wearable sensors (Armband, Actigraph GT3X, Actical, pedometer) to obtain an estimate of the energy expenditure. The actual energy expenditure was concurrently determined by indirect calorimetry. Results Except for the Armband worn on the non-plegic side, the results of our study show a significant difference between the energy expenditure values estimated by the various sensors and the actual energy expenditure when the scenario is considered as a whole. Conclusion The present results suggest that, for a series of everyday tasks, the wearable sensors underestimate the actual energy expenditure values in post-stroke patients in the subacute phase and are therefore not accurate. Several factors are likely to confound the results: types of activity, prediction equations, the position of the sensor and the hemiplegia side.

  13. Effect on arm function and cost of robot-assisted group therapy in subacute patients with stroke and a moderately to severely affected arm: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Stefan; Heß, Anke; Werner C, Cordula; Kabbert, Nadine; Buschfort, Rüdiger

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of robot-assisted arm group therapy (RAGT) versus individual arm therapy (IAT) to restore motor function in the moderately to severely affected patient after stroke. Single blind randomized controlled trial. Two in-patient neurological rehabilitation centers. Fifty first time subacute patients with stroke and a non-functional hand. The patients practiced either 30 minutes of RAGT + 30 minutes of IAT (group A) or 2x30 minutes of IAT (group B), per workday for four weeks. The RAGT consisted of six workstations enabling repetitive practice of finger, wrist, forearm and shoulder movements. Patients practiced according to their impairment level on at least two workstations per session. The IAT followed the Motor Relearning Programme, enriched by elements of the impairment-oriented training. Changes of the Fugl Meyer Score (FM, 0-66) between baseline and after 4 weeks, incremental cost effectiveness. Patients were homogeneous at study onset. All patients improved their upper limb motor function over time, but there were no between group differences. The initial (terminal) FM scores were 14.6±9.4 (25.7±16.5) in group A and 16.5±9.8 (31.1±19.1) in group B. The treatment of a single patient with RAGT cost 4.15 €, compared to 10.00 € for a patient to receive IAT. RAGT in combination with IAT was equally effective as a double session of IAT regarding the restoration of upper limb motor functions in moderate to severely affected subacute patients with stroke. The treatment costs for RAGT were less. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Robot-assisted gait training improves brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity and peak aerobic capacity in subacute stroke patients with totally dependent ambulation: Randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Eun Young; Im, Sang Hee; Kim, Bo Ryun; Seo, Min Ji; Kim, Myeong Ok

    2016-10-01

    Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) evaluates arterial stiffness and also predicts early outcome in stroke patients. The objectives of this study were to investigate arterial stiffness of subacute nonfunctional ambulatory stroke patients and to compare the effects of robot-assisted gait therapy (RAGT) combined with rehabilitation therapy (RT) on arterial stiffness and functional recovery with those of RT alone. The RAGT group (N = 30) received 30 minutes of robot-assisted gait therapy and 30 minutes of conventional RT, and the control group (N = 26) received 60 minutes of RT, 5 times a week for 4 weeks. baPWV was measured and calculated using an automated device. The patients also performed a symptom-limited graded exercise stress test using a bicycle ergometer, and parameters of cardiopulmonary fitness were recorded. Clinical outcome measures were categorized into 4 categories: activities of daily living, balance, ambulatory function, and paretic leg motor function and were evaluated before and after the 4-week intervention. Both groups exhibited significant functional recovery in all clinical outcome measures after the 4-week intervention. However, peak aerobic capacity, peak heart rate, exercise tolerance test duration, and baPWV improved only in the RAGT group, and the improvements in baPWV and peak aerobic capacity were more noticeable in the RAGT group than in the control group. Robot-assisted gait therapy combined with conventional rehabilitation therapy represents an effective method for reversing arterial stiffness and improving peak aerobic capacity in subacute stroke patients with totally dependent ambulation. However, further large-scale studies with longer term follow-up periods are warranted to measure the effects of RAGT on secondary prevention after stroke.

  15. Robot-assisted gait training improves brachial–ankle pulse wave velocity and peak aerobic capacity in subacute stroke patients with totally dependent ambulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Eun Young; Im, Sang Hee; Kim, Bo Ryun; Seo, Min Ji; Kim, Myeong Ok

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Brachial–ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) evaluates arterial stiffness and also predicts early outcome in stroke patients. The objectives of this study were to investigate arterial stiffness of subacute nonfunctional ambulatory stroke patients and to compare the effects of robot-assisted gait therapy (RAGT) combined with rehabilitation therapy (RT) on arterial stiffness and functional recovery with those of RT alone. Method: The RAGT group (N = 30) received 30 minutes of robot-assisted gait therapy and 30 minutes of conventional RT, and the control group (N = 26) received 60 minutes of RT, 5 times a week for 4 weeks. baPWV was measured and calculated using an automated device. The patients also performed a symptom-limited graded exercise stress test using a bicycle ergometer, and parameters of cardiopulmonary fitness were recorded. Clinical outcome measures were categorized into 4 categories: activities of daily living, balance, ambulatory function, and paretic leg motor function and were evaluated before and after the 4-week intervention. Results: Both groups exhibited significant functional recovery in all clinical outcome measures after the 4-week intervention. However, peak aerobic capacity, peak heart rate, exercise tolerance test duration, and baPWV improved only in the RAGT group, and the improvements in baPWV and peak aerobic capacity were more noticeable in the RAGT group than in the control group. Conclusion: Robot-assisted gait therapy combined with conventional rehabilitation therapy represents an effective method for reversing arterial stiffness and improving peak aerobic capacity in subacute stroke patients with totally dependent ambulation. However, further large-scale studies with longer term follow-up periods are warranted to measure the effects of RAGT on secondary prevention after stroke. PMID:27741123

  16. Reliability and validity of the de Morton Mobility Index in individuals with sub-acute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Tobias; Marks, Detlef; Thiel, Christian; Grüneberg, Christian

    2018-02-04

    To establish the validity and reliability of the de Morton Mobility Index (DEMMI) in patients with sub-acute stroke. This cross-sectional study was performed in a neurological rehabilitation hospital. We assessed unidimensionality, construct validity, internal consistency reliability, inter-rater reliability, minimal detectable change and possible floor and ceiling effects of the DEMMI in adult patients with sub-acute stroke. The study included a total sample of 121 patients with sub-acute stroke. We analysed validity (n = 109) and reliability (n = 51) in two sub-samples. Rasch analysis indicated unidimensionality with an overall fit to the model (chi-square = 12.37, p = 0.577). All hypotheses on construct validity were confirmed. Internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.94) and inter-rater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.95; 95% confidence interval: 0.92-0.97) were excellent. The minimal detectable change with 90% confidence was 13 points. No floor or ceiling effects were evident. These results indicate unidimensionality, sufficient internal consistency reliability, inter-rater reliability, and construct validity of the DEMMI in patients with a sub-acute stroke. Advantages of the DEMMI in clinical application are the short administration time, no need for special equipment and interval level data. The de Morton Mobility Index, therefore, may be a useful performance-based bedside test to measure mobility in individuals with a sub-acute stroke across the whole mobility spectrum. Implications for Rehabilitation The de Morton Mobility Index (DEMMI) is an unidimensional measurement instrument of mobility in individuals with sub-acute stroke. The DEMMI has excellent internal consistency and inter-rater reliability, and sufficient construct validity. The minimal detectable change of the DEMMI with 90% confidence in stroke rehabilitation is 13 points. The lack of any floor or ceiling effects on hospital admission indicates

  17. Does a cycling program combined with education and followed by coaching promote physical activity in subacute stroke patients? A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanroy, Christel; Vanlandewijck, Yves; Cras, Patrick; Truijen, Steven; Vissers, Dirk; Swinnen, Anke; Bosmans, Matthieu; Wouters, Kristien; Feys, Hilde

    2017-11-05

    To investigate the effects of a three month active cycling program followed by coaching on physical activity in subacute stroke patients. Patients (n = 59; mean age =65.4 ± 10.3) aged ≤80 years with first stroke and able to cycle at 50 revolutions/minute enrolled 3-10 weeks post stroke. Patients were randomly allocated to three month active cycling group (n = 33) or to a control group (n = 26), 3 x 30 minutes training/week. Afterwards, the active cycling group was randomized into a coaching (n = 15) versus non-coaching group (n = 16) for nine months. Physical activity was measured by objective and self-reported measures, which were taken before/after the active cycling program and during six and 12 months, except the Baecke-questionnaire, which was used at baseline and 12 months. A significant difference was found in Baecke/sport (95% confidence interval: 0.06, 2.24; p = 0.039) between the active cycling group and the control group, in patients with severe motor function deficits at baseline. Patients in the control group performed significant less sports at 12 months (mean Baecke/sport baseline =3.07 ± 1.21, mean Baecke/sport 12months  = 1.43 ± 0.98; p = 0.01). Furthermore, all groups showed significant changes over time in all measures at three months (except: Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities, diary/Mets*minutes-moderate) and 12 month and additionally in a subgroup with severe motor function deficits (except diary Mets*minutes-sedentary). When active cycling combined with education is used in subacute patients with severe motor function deficits, more sport participation might be observed after one year. No other significant group differences were found over time. In all groups, however, patients showed significant improvement over time in physical activity measures. Future work is needed to explore the most effective coaching approach after an aerobic training

  18. Use of a Robotic Device for the Rehabilitation of Severe Upper Limb Paresis in Subacute Stroke: Exploration of Patient/Robot Interactions and the Motor Recovery Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Duret

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This pioneering observational study explored the interaction between subacute stroke inpatients and a rehabilitation robot during upper limb training. 25 stroke survivors (age 55±17 years; time since stroke, 52±21 days with severe upper limb paresis carried out 16 sessions of robot-assisted shoulder/elbow training (InMotion 2.0, IMT, Inc., MA, USA combined with standard therapy. The values of 3 patient/robot interaction parameters (a guidance parameter: Stiffness, a velocity-related parameter: Slottime, and Robotic Power were compared between sessions 1 (S1, 4 (S4, 8 (S8, 12 (S12, and 16 (S16. Pre/post Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA scores were compared in 18 patients. Correlations between interaction parameters and clinical and kinematic outcome measures were evaluated. Slottime decreased at S8 (P=0.003, while Guidance decreased at S12 (P=0.008. Robotic Power tended to decrease until S16. FMA scores improved from S1 to S16 (+49%, P=0.002. Changes in FMA score were correlated with the Stiffness parameter (R=0.4, P=0.003. Slottime was correlated with movement velocity. This novel approach demonstrated that a robotic device is a useful and reliable tool for the quantification of interaction parameters. Moreover, changes in these parameters were correlated with clinical and kinematic changes. These results suggested that robot-based recordings can provide new insights into the motor recovery process.

  19. Use of a robotic device for the rehabilitation of severe upper limb paresis in subacute stroke: exploration of patient/robot interactions and the motor recovery process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duret, Christophe; Courtial, Ophélie; Grosmaire, Anne-Gaëlle; Hutin, Emilie

    2015-01-01

    This pioneering observational study explored the interaction between subacute stroke inpatients and a rehabilitation robot during upper limb training. 25 stroke survivors (age 55 ± 17 years; time since stroke, 52 ± 21 days) with severe upper limb paresis carried out 16 sessions of robot-assisted shoulder/elbow training (InMotion 2.0, IMT, Inc., MA, USA) combined with standard therapy. The values of 3 patient/robot interaction parameters (a guidance parameter: Stiffness, a velocity-related parameter: Slottime, and Robotic Power) were compared between sessions 1 (S1), 4 (S4), 8 (S8), 12 (S12), and 16 (S16). Pre/post Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) scores were compared in 18 patients. Correlations between interaction parameters and clinical and kinematic outcome measures were evaluated. Slottime decreased at S8 (P = 0.003), while Guidance decreased at S12 (P = 0.008). Robotic Power tended to decrease until S16. FMA scores improved from S1 to S16 (+49%, P = 0.002). Changes in FMA score were correlated with the Stiffness parameter (R = 0.4, P = 0.003). Slottime was correlated with movement velocity. This novel approach demonstrated that a robotic device is a useful and reliable tool for the quantification of interaction parameters. Moreover, changes in these parameters were correlated with clinical and kinematic changes. These results suggested that robot-based recordings can provide new insights into the motor recovery process.

  20. Walking ability after stroke in patients from Argentina: predictive values of two tests in subjects with subacute hemiplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Marcelo Andrés; Portela, Manuel; Gianella, Matias; Freixes, Orestes; Fernández, Sergio Anibal; Rivas, Maria Elisa; Tanga, Cristobal Osvaldo; Olmos, Lisandro Emilio; Rubel, Ivan Federico

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the predictive values of the trunk control test (TCT) and functional ambulation category (FAC) for independent walking up to 6 months post stroke. [Subjects] Twenty-seven subjects with hemiplegia secondary to a unilateral hemisphere stroke were included. [Methods] The protocol was started at 45 days post stroke, with the TCT and FAC as walking predictors. At 90, 120, and 180 days post stroke, the subjects’ independent walking ability was assessed by using the Wald test. [Results] The TCT was identified as an independent predictor of ambulation at 90, 120, and 180 days. Subjects who scored ≥ 49 in the initial test had 93.8% probability of achieving independent gait at 6 months. The FAC proved that 100% of the subjects who scored 2 at 45 days post stroke walked independently at 90 days, 100% of the subjects who scored 1 walked independently at 120 days, and only 33.3% of the subjects who scored 0 walked independently at 180 days. [Conclusion] The TCT and FAC can predict independent walking at 45 days post stroke. In subjects with FAC 0, the TCT should be used to predict patients who will be able to walk independently. PMID:26504338

  1. Admission C-reactive protein does not predict functional outcomes in patients with strokes in a subacute rehabilitation unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabadi, Meheroz H; Coar, Patricia L; Lukin, Meredith; Lesser, Martin; Blass, John P

    2008-09-01

    Because serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels correlate with the extent of inflammatory reactions, including acute strokes, we tested whether serum CRP levels on admission to a stroke rehabilitation unit help to predict functional outcome at discharge. We measured serum CRP level within 72 hrs of admission to an inpatient stroke rehabilitation unit in 102 successive patients transferred to rehabilitation within 4 wks following stroke and who met inclusion criteria. Patients with normal levels of serum CRP (< or =9.9 mg/dl) on admission to our rehabilitation service were more likely to be discharged home rather than to an institution (66% vs. 44%, P < 0.03). These patients with normal serum CRP had higher absolute values for total functional independence measures and functional independence measures motor scores on admission, as well as on discharge (i.e., less disability). They also had fewer infections or other medical complications. However, the absolute magnitude of improvement (DeltaFIM) and length of stay were similar in the normal and elevated CRP groups. Multivariable logistic regression model did not show serum CRP level on admission to predict rehabilitation functional outcomes. Serum CRP level does not predict functional outcome at discharge on inpatient rehabilitation for stroke.

  2. [Kinesiotherapy prevents shoulder pain in hemiplegic/paretic patients on sub-acute stage post-stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Agnes Irna; Fontes, Sissy Veloso; de Carvalho, Sebastião Marcos Ribeiro; Silvado, Rubens Augusto Brazil; Barbosa, Pedro Marco Karan; Durigan, Alcides; Atallah, Alvaro Nagib; Fukujima, Marcia Maiumi; do Prado, Gilmar Fernandes

    2003-09-01

    Painful shoulder is considered the most common complication of hemiplegic/parethic (H/P) stroke patients. It is a negative factor for neuromotor recovery. To study the effects of kinesiotherapy treatment on shoulder pain prevention, and as a secondary endpoints, to analyze muscle strength of H/P shoulder looking at basic functional active mobility. Twenty one inpatients (12 men, 9 women) aged 26 to 87 years, with post-stroke H/P were submitted to thirty minutes daily program kinesiotherapy, started at 48 hours post-stroke up to their hospital discharge. Patients were evaluated pre and post treatment according to the presence or absence of shoulder pain, movements and shoulder strength, and for presence or absence of basic functional movements. No patient complaining of shoulder pain at the hospital discharge (p<0.001). The muscle strength improved signifcantly for elevation, protusion, abduction and flexion of the shoulder (p<0.001). There was improvement also for functional mobility on moving from dorsal to lateral recumb, from lateral recumb to a seated position and in keeping the seated position (p<0.001). Kinesiotherapy in acute phase of stroke prevented shoulder pain.

  3. Daily repetitive sensory stimulation of the paretic hand for the treatment of sensorimotor deficits in patients with subacute stroke: RESET, a randomized, sham-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattenstroth, Jan C; Kalisch, Tobias; Sczesny-Kaiser, Matthias; Greulich, Wolfgang; Tegenthoff, Martin; Dinse, Hubert R

    2018-01-09

    Repetitive sensory stimulation (RSS) adapts the timing of stimulation protocols used in cellular studies to induce synaptic plasticity. In healthy subjects, RSS leads to widespread sensorimotor cortical reorganization paralleled by improved sensorimotor behavior. Here, we investigated whether RSS reduces sensorimotor upper limb impairment in patients with subacute stroke more effectively than conventional therapy. A single-blinded sham-controlled clinical trial assessed the effectiveness of RSS in treating sensorimotor deficits of the upper limbs. Patients with subacute unilateral ischemic stroke were randomly assigned to receive standard therapy in combination with RSS or with sham RSS. Patients were masked to treatment allocation. RSS consisted of intermittent 20 Hz electrical stimulation applied on the affected hand for 45 min/day, 5 days per week, for 2 weeks, and was transmitted using custom-made stimulation-gloves with built-in electrodes contacting each fingertip separately. Before and after the intervention, we assessed light-touch and tactile discrimination, proprioception, dexterity, grip force, and subtasks of the Jebsen Taylor hand-function test for the non-affected and the affected hand. Data from these quantitative tests were combined into a total performance index serving as primary outcome measure. In addition, tolerability and side effects of RSS intervention were recorded. Seventy one eligible patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive RSS treatment (n = 35) or sham RSS (n = 36). Data of 25 patients were not completed because they were transferred to another hospital, resulting in n = 23 for each group. Before treatment, sensorimotor performance between groups was balanced (p = 0.237). After 2 weeks of the intervention, patients in the group receiving standard therapy with RSS showed significantly better restored sensorimotor function than the control group (standardized mean difference 0.57; 95% CI -0

  4. Combined transcranial direct current stimulation and robot-assisted arm training in subacute stroke patients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, S; Werner, C; Schonhardt, E M; Bardeleben, A; Jenrich, W; Kirker, S G B

    2007-01-01

    Preliminary reports suggest that central stimulation may enhance the effect of conventional physical therapies after stroke. This pilot study examines the safety and methodology of using transcranial direct stimulation (tDCS) with robot-assisted arm training (AT), to inform planning a larger randomised controlled trial. Ten patients, after an ischaemic stroke 4-8 weeks before study onset, no history of epilepsy, participated. Eight had a cortical lesion and 2 had subcortical lesions: all had severe arm paresis and, co-incidentally, 5 had severe aphasia. Over six weeks, they received thirty 20 min-sessions of AT. During the first 7 minutes, 1.5mA of tDCS was applied, with the anode over the lesioned hemisphere and the cathode above the contralateral orbit. Arm and language impairment were assessed with the Fugl-Meyer motor score (FM, full range 0-66) and the Aachener Aphasie Test. No major side effects occurred. Arm function of three patients (two with a subcortical lesion) improved significantly, with FM scores increasing from 6 to 28, 10 to 49 and 11 to 48. In the remaining seven patients, all with cortical lesions, arm function changed little, FM scores did not increase more than 5 points. Unexpectedly, aphasia improved in 4 patients. These procedures are safe, and easy to use in a clinical setting. In future studies, patients should be stratified by degree of arm weakness and lesion site, also the unexpected aphasia improvement warrants following-up.

  5. Virtual Reality Training for Upper Extremity in Subacute Stroke (VIRTUES)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunner, Iris; Skouen, Jan Sture; Hofstad, Håkon

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effectiveness of upper extremity virtual reality rehabilitation training (VR) to time-matched conventional training (CT) in the subacute phase after stroke. Methods: In this randomized, controlled, single-blind phase III multicenter trial, 120 participants with upper...

  6. Shortened constraint-induced movement therapy in subacute stroke - no effect of using a restraint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogårdh, Christina; Vestling, Monika; Sjölund, Bengt H

    2009-01-01

    , no statistically significant differences between the groups were found in any measures at any point in time. CONCLUSION: In this study, no effect of using a restraint in patients with subacute stroke was found. Thus, this component in the constraint-induced therapy concept seems to be of minor importance...

  7. Effects of robot-assisted gait training on cardiopulmonary fitness in subacute stroke patients: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Won Hyuk; Kim, Min Su; Huh, Jung Phil; Lee, Peter K W; Kim, Yun-Hee

    2012-05-01

    . Robot-assisted gait training has the potential to improve cardiopulmonary fitness after stroke, even for patients who are in the early stages of recovery and not independent ambulators. The authors compared the effects of robot-assisted gait training and conventional physical therapy on cardiopulmonary fitness. . A prospective single-blinded, randomized controlled study of 37 patients receiving inpatient rehabilitation was performed within 1 month after stroke onset. The robot-assisted gait training group (n = 20) received 40 minutes of gait training with Lokomat and 60 minutes of conventional physical therapy each day, whereas the control group (n = 17) received 100 minutes of conventional physical therapy daily. Using a semirecumbent cycle ergometer, changes in cardiopulmonary fitness were investigated using incremental exercise testing. Motor and gait functional recovery was measured according to changes in the lower-extremity score of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment Scale (FMA-L), leg score of the Motricity Index (MI-L), and the Functional Ambulation Category (FAC). . Compared with the control group, the robot group showed 12.8% improvement in peak VO(2) after training (P fitness in patients who are not yet independent ambulators, but that may require more than 2 weeks of continued, progressive training.

  8. Virtual reality to augment robot-assisted gait training in non-ambulatory patients with a subacute stroke: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Jeannine; Krewer, Carmen; Bauer, Petra; Koenig, Alexander; Riener, Robert; Müller, Friedemann

    2017-12-21

    Active performance is crucial for motor learning, and, together with motivation, is believed to be associated with a better rehabilitation outcome. Virtual reality (VR) is an innovative approach to engage and motivate patients during training. There is promising evidence for its efficiency in retraining upper limb function. However, there is insufficient proof for its effectiveness in gait training. To evaluate the acceptability of robot-assisted gait training (RAGT) with and without VR and the feasibility of potential outcome measures to guide the planning of a larger randomized controlled trial (RCT). Single-blind randomized controlled pilot trial with two parallel arms. Rehabilitation hospital. Twenty subacute stroke patients (64 ± 9 years) with a Functional Ambulation Classification (FAC) ≤2. 12 sessions (over 4 weeks) of either VR-augmented RAGT (intervention group) or standard RAGT (control group). Acceptability of the interventions (drop-out rate, questionnaire), patients' motivation (Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI), individual mean walking time), and feasibility of potential outcome measures (completion rate and response to interventions) were determined. We found high acceptability of repetitive VR-augmented RAGT. The drop-out rate was 1/11 in the intervention and 4/14 in the control group. Patients of the intervention group spent significantly more time walking in the robot than the control group (per session and total walking time; p<0.03). In both groups, motivation measured with the IMI was high over the entire intervention period. The felt pressure and tension significantly decreased in the intervention group (p<0.01) and was significantly lower than in the control group at the last therapy session (r=-0.66, p=0.005). The FAC is suggested as a potential primary outcome measure for a definitive RCT, as it could be assessed in all patients and showed significant response to interventions (p<0.01). We estimated a sample size of 44 for a future

  9. Is upper limb virtual reality training more intensive than conventional training for patients in the subacute phase after stroke?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunner, Iris; Skouen, Jan Sture; Hofstad, Håkon

    2016-01-01

    Background: Virtual reality (VR) training is thought to improve upper limb (UL) motor function after stroke when utilizing intensive training with many repetitions. The purpose of this study was to compare intensity and content of a VR training intervention to a conventional task-oriented interve......Background: Virtual reality (VR) training is thought to improve upper limb (UL) motor function after stroke when utilizing intensive training with many repetitions. The purpose of this study was to compare intensity and content of a VR training intervention to a conventional task...... training, which may influence recovery. The upcoming results of the VIRTUES trial will show whether this is correlated with an increased effect of VR compared to CT. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02079103, February 27, 2014....

  10. Reliability and validity of the Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest) in people with subacute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinsongkram, Butsara; Chaikeeree, Nithinun; Saengsirisuwan, Vitoon; Viriyatharakij, Nitaya; Horak, Fay B; Boonsinsukh, Rumpa

    2014-11-01

    The Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest) is a new clinical balance assessment tool, but it has never been validated in patients with subacute stroke. The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the BESTest in patients with subacute stroke. This was an observational reliability and validity study. Twelve patients participated in the interrater and intrarater reliability study. Convergent validity was investigated in 70 patients using the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke (PASS), Community Balance and Mobility Scale (CB&M), and Mini-BESTest. The receiver operating characteristic curve was used to calculate the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the BESTest, Mini-BESTest, and BBS in classifying participants into low functional ability (LFA) and high functional ability (HFA) groups based on Fugl-Meyer Assessment motor subscale scores. The BESTest showed excellent intrarater reliability and interrater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient=.99) and was highly correlated with the BBS (Spearman r=.96), PASS (r=.96), CB&M (r=.91), and Mini-BESTest (r=.96), indicating excellent convergent validity. No floor or ceiling effects were observed with the BESTest. In contrast, the Mini-BESTest and CB&M had a floor effect in the LFA group, and the BBS and PASS demonstrated responsive ceiling effects in the HFA group. In addition, the BESTest showed high accuracy as the BBS and Mini-BESTest in separating participants into HFA and LFA groups. Whether the results are generalizable to patients with chronic stroke is unknown. The BESTest is reliable, valid, sensitive, and specific in assessing balance in people with subacute stroke across all levels of functional disability. © 2014 American Physical Therapy Association.

  11. The effects of Nintendo Wii(TM)-based balance and upper extremity training on activities of daily living and quality of life in patients with sub-acute stroke: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şimşek, Tülay Tarsuslu; Çekok, Kübra

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Nintendo Wii(TM)-based balance and upper extremity training on activities of daily living and quality of life in patients with subacute stroke. 42 adults with stroke (mean age (SD) = 58.04 (16.56) years and mean time since stroke (SD) = (55.2 ± 22.02 days (∼8 weeks)) were included in the study. Participants were enrolled from the rehabilitation department of a medical center (a single inpatient rehabilitation facility). Participants were randomly assigned to Nintendo Wii group (n = 20) or Bobath neurodevelopmental treatment (NDT) (n = 22). The treatments were applied for 10 weeks (45-60 minutes/day, 3 days/week) for both of two groups. Nintendo Wii group used five games selected from the Wii sports and Wii Fit packages for upper limb and balance training, respectively. The patients in Bobath NDT group were applied a therapy program included upper extremity activites, strength, balance gait and functional training. The functional independence in daily life activities and health-related quality of life was assessed with Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and Nottingham Health Profile (NHP), respectively. Participant's treatment satisfaction was recorded by using Visual Analogue Scale. A second evaluation (FIM and NHP) occurred after 10 weeks at the end of rehabilitative treatment (post-training). Treatment satisfaction was measured after 10 sessions. There were significant difference between FIM and NHP values in NDT and Nintendo Wii group (p 0.05). The patients in Nintendo Wii group were detected to be better satisfied from the therapy (p Bobath NDT on daily living functions and quality of life in subacute stroke patients.

  12. Masticatory function in subacute TMD patients before and after treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira, L.J.; Steenks, M.H.; Wijer, A. de; Speksnijder, C.M.; Bilt, A. van der

    2009-01-01

    Masticatory function can be impaired in temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) patients. We investigated whether treatment of subacute non-specific TMD patients may influence oral function and clinical outcome measures. Fifteen patients with subacute TMD participated in the study. We quantified

  13. Responsiveness of the Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest) in People With Subacute Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinsongkram, Butsara; Chaikeeree, Nithinun; Saengsirisuwan, Vitoon; Horak, Fay B; Boonsinsukh, Rumpa

    2016-10-01

    The reliability and convergent validity of the Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest) in people with subacute stroke have been established, but its responsiveness to rehabilitation has not been examined. The study objective was to compare the responsiveness of the BESTest with those of other clinical balance tools in people with subacute stroke. This was a prospective cohort study. Forty-nine people with subacute stroke (mean age=57.8 years, SD=11.8) participated in this study. Five balance measures-the BESTest, the Mini-BESTest, the Berg Balance Scale, the Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke Patients, and the Community Balance and Mobility Scale (CB&M)-were used to measure balance performance before and after rehabilitation or before discharge from the hospital, whichever came first. The internal responsiveness of each balance measure was classified with the standardized response mean (SRM); changes in Berg Balance Scale scores of greater than 7 were used as the external standard for determining the external responsiveness. Analysis of the receiver operating characteristic curve was used to determine the accuracy and cutoff scores for identifying participants with balance improvement. Participants received 13.7 days (SD=9.3, range=5-44) of physical therapy rehabilitation. The internal responsiveness of all balance measures, except for the CB&M, was high (SRM=0.9-1.2). The BESTest had a higher SRM than the Mini-BESTest and the CB&M, indicating that the BESTest was more sensitive for detecting balance changes than the Mini-BESTest and the CB&M. In addition, compared with other balance measures, the BESTest had no floor, ceiling, or responsive ceiling effects. The results also indicated that the percentage of participants with no change in scores after rehabilitation was smaller with the BESTest than with the Mini-BESTest and the CB&M. With regard to the external responsiveness, the BESTest had higher accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and posttest accuracy than

  14. Effectiveness of acupuncture combined with rehabilitation for treatment of acute or subacute stroke: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vados, Larissa; Ferreira, Alberto; Zhao, ShouFa; Vercelino, Rafael; Wang, Shu

    2015-06-01

    To determine whether the combination of acupuncture and rehabilitation produces better results in the treatment of acute or subacute stroke sequelae than rehabilitation alone. A systematic review was carried out. A search was conducted in March 2014 using PubMed, Medline, the Cochrane Library, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure database (CNKI) and Wanfang databases. English and Chinese language articles published within 10 years of the search were reviewed for inclusion. Randomised control trials comparing combined treatment with acupuncture and rehabilitation and rehabilitation alone in patients with acute or subacute stroke (onset until 3 months after stroke) were included in this review. Three review authors independently checked the titles and abstracts of trials for inclusion based on selection criteria. Studies measuring changes of motor function, activities of daily living, neurological deficit or spasticity/range of motion during the treatment period and at the end of follow-up were included. 17 trials met the inclusion criteria, of which five were of good quality. 14 trials had results favourable to acupuncture combined with rehabilitation, compared with conventional rehabilitation treatment alone. Acupuncture in combination with rehabilitation may have benefits for the treatment of acute and subacute stroke sequelae in comparison with rehabilitation alone. However, many of the studies were at risk of bias. Future studies should focus on reaching a consensus about the most appropriate modality of acupuncture intervention, and the appropriate length of treatment for both interventions, to maximise the potential synergistic outcomes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Feasibility of Delivering a Dance Intervention for SubAcute Stroke in a Rehabilitation Hospital Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Marika Demers; Patricia McKinley

    2015-01-01

    Dance can be a promising treatment intervention used in rehabilitation for individuals with disabilities to address physical, cognitive and psychological impairments. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the feasibility of a modified dance intervention as an adjunct therapy designed for people with subacute stroke, in a rehabilitation setting. Using a descriptive qualitative study design, a biweekly 45-min dance intervention was offered to individuals with a subacute stroke followed...

  16. Corticomuscular coherence in the acute and subacute phase after stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lisbeth Hoejkjaer; Zibrandtsen, Ivan Chrilles; Wienecke, Troels

    2017-01-01

    cortex and muscles were evaluated from coupling in the frequency domain between EEG and EMG during movement of the paretic hand. Results Corticomuscular coherence (CMC) and intermuscular coherence (IMC) were reduced in patients as compared to controls. Paretic hand motor performance improved within 4......–6 weeks after stroke, but no change was observed in CMC or IMC. Conclusions CMC and IMC were reduced in patients in the early phase after stroke. However, changes in coherence do not appear to be an efficient marker for early recovery of hand function following stroke. Significance This is the first study...

  17. Lack of repercussions of sleep apnea syndrome on recovery and attention disorders at the subacute stage after stroke: a study of 45 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre-Dognin, C; Stana, L; Jousse, M; Lucas, C; Sportouch, P; Bradai, N; Guettard, E; Vicaut, E; Yelnik, A P

    2014-12-01

    Sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) frequently occurs after a stroke. Its association with a poor prognosis is open to discussion. To study, in a physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) unit, the possible repercussions of SAS on neurological and functional recovery as well as attentional abilities following a stroke. Forty-five patients, all of whom had recently had a stroke without previously documented SAS, were screened using the ApneaLink(®) system. An apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) score ≥10 was considered as indicative of SAS. The NIHSS, Fugl-Meyer (FM) and Functional Independence Measure (FIM) Scales were applied on admission and at two months as means of assessing neurological and functional recovery, which was expressed by the difference between the first and the second scores (delta FM, delta NIHSS, delta FIM). The Battery Attention William Lennox (BAWL) Test was given once in order to evaluate attention disorders. SAS severity was categorized according to the AHI. We compared the groups formed (mild, moderate and severe) using the same method. Twenty-eight patients (62.2%) presented AHI ≥ 10. Stroke characteristics were comparable in the SAS+ and the SAS- groups, with average post-stroke time lapse of 26 days, initial average FIM score of 71.2 points ± 26.3 and initial average NIHSS score of 8.9 ± 4.9. The demographic characteristics of the two groups were likewise comparable with the exception of age, as the SAS+ group was pronouncedly older (65.4 vs. 53.5 years). As for delta FIM, which evaluated functional recovery, it averaged 31.8 ± 20.6. Cases of SAS were found to be mild (37.1%), moderate (28.6%) or severe (34.3%). No significant difference was observed on admission or at 2 months as regards the clinical scales or the BAWL test between the two groups or according to severity, except for the NIHSS score at 2 months in the severe sub-group. This study did not demonstrate the supposed repercussions of SAS on the recovery or attentional

  18. Canoe game-based virtual reality training to improve trunk postural stability, balance, and upper limb motor function in subacute stroke patients: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myung-Mo; Shin, Doo-Chul; Song, Chang-Ho

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] This study was aimed at investigating the preliminary therapeutic efficacy and usefulness of canoe game-based virtual reality training for stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Ten stroke patients were randomly assigned to an experimental group (EG; n=5) or a control group (CG; n=5). Patients in both groups participated in a conventional rehabilitation program, but those in the EG additionally participated in a 30-min canoe game-based virtual reality training program 3 days a week for 4 weeks. Therapeutic efficacy was assessed based on trunk postural stability, balance, and upper limb motor function. In addition, the usefulness of canoe game-based virtual reality training was assessed in the EG and therapist group (TG; n=20), which consisted of physical and occupational therapists, by using the System Usability Scale (SUS). [Results] Improvements in trunk postural stability, balance, and upper limb motor function were observed in the EG and CG, but were greater in the EG. The mean SUS scores in the EG and TG were 71 ± 5.2 and 74.2 ± 4.8, respectively. [Conclusion] Canoe game-based virtual reality training is an acceptable and effective intervention for improving trunk postural stability, balance, and upper limb motor function in stroke patients.

  19. Effects of melatonin in experimental stroke models in acute, sub-acute, and chronic stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Wen Lin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Hsiao-Wen Lin, E-Jian LeeNeurophysiology Laboratory, Neurosurgical Service, Department of Surgery, National Cheng Kung University Medical Center and Medical School, Tainan, TaiwanAbstract: Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxy-tryptamine, a naturally occurring indole produced mainly by the pineal gland, is a well known antioxidant. Stroke (cerebral ischemia is the second leading cause of death worldwide. To date, however, effective and safe treatment for stroke remains unavailable. Melatonin is both lipid- and water-soluble and readily crosses the blood–brain barrier (BBB. Increasing evidence has shown that, in animal stroke models, administering melatonin significantly reduces infarct volume, edema, and oxidative damage and improves electrophysiological and behavioral performance. Here, we reviewed studies that assess effects of melatonin on cerebral ischemia in acute, sub-acute, and chronic stages. In addition to its potent antioxidant properties, melatonin exerts antiapoptotic, antiexcitotoxic, anti-inflammatory effects and promotes mitochondrial functions in animals with cerebral ischemia. Given that melatonin shows almost no toxicity to humans and possesses multifaceted protective capacity against cerebral ischemia, it is valuable to consider using melatonin in clinical trials on patients suffering from stroke.Keywords: cerebral ischemia, melatonin, stroke, neuroprotection

  20. Mechanism of Kinect-based virtual reality training for motor functional recovery of upper limbs after subacute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiao; Mao, Yurong; Lin, Qiang; Qiu, Yunhai; Chen, Shaozhen; Li, Le; Cates, Ryan S; Zhou, Shufeng; Huang, Dongfeng

    2013-11-05

    The Kinect-based virtual reality system for the Xbox 360 enables users to control and interact with the game console without the need to touch a game controller, and provides rehabilitation training for stroke patients with lower limb dysfunctions. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, 18 healthy subjects and five patients after subacute stroke were included. The five patients were scanned using functional MRI prior to training, 3 weeks after training and at a 12-week follow-up, and then compared with healthy subjects. The Fugl-Meyer Assessment and Wolf Motor Function Test scores of the hemiplegic upper limbs of stroke patients were significantly increased 3 weeks after training and at the 12-week follow-up. Functional MRI results showed that contralateral primary sensorimotor cortex was activated after Kinect-based virtual reality training in the stroke patients compared with the healthy subjects. Contralateral primary sensorimotor cortex, the bilateral supplementary motor area and the ipsilateral cerebellum were also activated during hand-clenching in all 18 healthy subjects. Our findings indicate that Kinect-based virtual reality training could promote the recovery of upper limb motor function in subacute stroke patients, and brain reorganization by Kinect-based virtual reality training may be linked to the contralateral sensorimotor cortex.

  1. Change of Muscle Architecture following Body Weight Support Treadmill Training for Persons after Subacute Stroke: Evidence from Ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the body weight support treadmill training (BWSTT in rehabilitation therapy has been appreciated for a long time, the biomechanical effects of this training on muscular system remain unclear. Ultrasonography has been suggested to be a feasible method to measure muscle morphological changes after neurological diseases such as stroke, which may help to enhance the understanding of the mechanism underlying the impaired motor function. This study investigated the muscle architectural changes of tibialis anterior and medial gastrocnemius in patients after subacute stroke by ultrasound. As expected, we found the effect of BWSTT on the muscular system. Specifically, the results showed larger pennation angle and muscle thickness of tibialis anterior and longer fascicle length of medial gastrocnemius after the training. The findings of this study suggest that the early rehabilitation training of BWSTT in subacute stage of stroke provides positive changes of the muscle architecture, leading to the potential improvement of the force generation of the muscle. This may not only help us understand changes of subacute stroke in muscular system but also have clinical implications in the evaluation of rehabilitation training after neurological insults.

  2. Validation and reliability of the Spanish version of the Function in Sitting Test (S-FIST) to assess sitting balance in subacute post-stroke adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanas-Valdés, Rosa; Bagur-Calafat, Caritat; Caballero-Gómez, Fernanda Maria; Cervera-Cuenca, Carmen; Moya-Valdés, Raúl; Rodríguez-Rubio, Pere Ramón; Urrútia, Gerard

    2017-09-01

    Function in Sitting Test (FIST) is a clinical functional assessment of sitting balance validated in adults with stroke. For a major use of this, the test is recommended to be translated in Spanish-speaking countries. Translate to Spanish the FIST and determine its intra-rater and inter-rater reliabilities and concurrent validity as a measure of sitting balance in adult individuals with stroke. The original version was translated into Spanish and was agreed by a team of experts. A back-translation into English was subsequently performed and sent to the original author, who approved this version named from now Spanish version of Function in Sitting Test (S-FIST). Sixty post-stroke patients' performance was recorded on a videotape. These videos were then used to carry out four measurements to assess the intra-rater and inter-rater reliabilities; two of these were performed by the same rater and the third and fourth by a second and third rater. The S-FIST meets the following requirements: good construct validity and high correlation with Spanish version of Trunk Impairment Scale 2.0 (S-TIS 2.0) scores (r = 0.791) Spearman's rank, high internal consistency (Cronbach's α-coefficient = 0.97), and high intra-rater and inter-rater reliabilities for the summed scores assessed by intra-class correlation coefficient were 0.999 and 0.997, respectively. The S-FIST is valid and reliable and can be recommended for use in the evaluation of dynamic and sitting balance and trunk control in future research and clinical practice on post-stroke patients. Guidelines for treatment and level of quality of trunk activity can be derived from its use.

  3. Pharyngeal Electrical Stimulation for Treatment of Dysphagia in Subacute Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bath, Philip M W; Scutt, Polly; Love, Jo

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Dysphagia is common after stroke, associated with increased death and dependency, and treatment options are limited. Pharyngeal electric stimulation (PES) is a novel treatment for poststroke dysphagia that has shown promise in 3 pilot randomized controlled trials. METHODS......: We randomly assigned 162 patients with a recent ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke and dysphagia, defined as a penetration aspiration score (PAS) of ≥3 on video fluoroscopy, to PES or sham treatment given on 3 consecutive days. The primary outcome was swallowing safety, assessed using the PAS, at 2 weeks....... Secondary outcomes included dysphagia severity, function, quality of life, and serious adverse events at 6 and 12 weeks. RESULTS: In randomized patients, the mean age was 74 years, male 58%, ischemic stroke 89%, and PAS 4.8. The mean treatment current was 14.8 (7.9) mA and duration 9.9 (1.2) minutes per...

  4. Cerebral Reorganization in Subacute Stroke Survivors after Virtual Reality-Based Training: A Preliminary Study

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang Xiao; Qiang Lin; Wai-Leung Lo; Yu-Rong Mao; Xin-chong Shi; Cates, Ryan S.; Shu-Feng Zhou; Dong-Feng Huang; Le Li

    2017-01-01

    Background Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a promising method for quantifying brain recovery and investigating the intervention-induced changes in corticomotor excitability after stroke. This study aimed to evaluate cortical reorganization subsequent to virtual reality-enhanced treadmill (VRET) training in subacute stroke survivors. Methods Eight participants with ischemic stroke underwent VRET for 5 sections per week and for 3 weeks. fMRI was conducted to quantify the activit...

  5. [Motor dysfunction in stroke of subacute stage treated with acupuncture: multi-central randomized controlled study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Fang; Fang, Jian-Qiao; Wu, Yuan-Yuan; Ma, Rui-Jie; Xu, Shou-Yu; Shen, Lai-Hua; Luo, Kai-Tao; Gao, Feng; Bao, Ye-Hua; Ni, Ke-Feng; Li, Li-Ping

    2014-04-01

    To verify the clinical efficacy of acupuncture on motor dysfunction in ischemic stroke of subacute stage. The multi-central randomized controlled trial was adopted. One hundred and twenty-six cases of ischemic stroke of subacute stage were randomized into an acupuncture group (61 cases) and a conventional treatment group (65 cases). The basic treatment of western internal medicine and rehabilitation training were applied to the patients of the two groups. In the acupuncture group, acupuncture was supplemented at the body points located on the extensor of the upper limbs and the flexor of the lower limbs. In combination, scalp acupuncture was applied to NS5, MS6 and MS6 on the affected side. The treatment was given 5 times a week and totally 8 weeks were required. The follow-up observation lasted for 3 months. The scores in Fugl-Meyer scale and NIHSS scale and Barthel index were compared between the two groups before treatment, in 4 and 8 weeks of treatment and the 3-month follow-up observation after treatment separately. In 4 and 8 weeks of treatment and the follow-up observation, Fugl-Meyer scale score was improved obviously in the patients of the two groups (all Pacupuncture groupwas im proved much apparently as compared with that in the conventional treatment group [68. 0 (43. 0,86. 5) vs 52. 5 (30.3, 77.0), 77.0 (49.5, 89.0) vs 63. 0 (33.0, 84.0), both P0.05), the results of NIHSS scale at the other time points were all decreased obviously as compared with those before treatment in the patients of the two groups (all Pacupuncture group were reduced much apparently as compared with those in the conventional treatment group [5. 0 (3.0,8.0) vs 7. 0 (3.0,13.8), 4. 0 (1.5,7.0) vs 6.0 (2.0,11.7) ,both Pacupuncture group was much more significant as compared with the conventional treatment group [75. 0 (60. 0,87. 5) vs 65. O (36. 3, 87. 5), PAcupuncture achieves the satisfactory clinical efficacy on motor dysfunction in ischemic stroke of subacute stage.

  6. `An observational report of intensive robotic and manual gait training in sub-acute stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conesa Lucas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of automated electromechanical devices for gait training in neurological patients is increasing, yet the functional outcomes of well-defined training programs using these devices and the characteristics of patients that would most benefit are seldom reported in the literature. In an observational study of functional outcomes, we aimed to provide a benchmark for expected change in gait function in early stroke patients, from an intensive inpatient rehabilitation program including both robotic and manual gait training. Methods We followed 103 sub-acute stroke patients who met the clinical inclusion criteria for Body Weight Supported Robotic Gait Training (BWSRGT. Patients completed an intensive 8-week gait-training program comprising robotic gait training (weeks 0-4 followed by manual gait training (weeks 4-8. A change in clinical function was determined by the following assessments taken at 0, 4 and 8 weeks (baseline, mid-point and end-point respectively: Functional Ambulatory Categories (FAC, 10 m Walking Test (10 MWT, and Tinetti Gait and Balance Scales. Results Over half of the patients made a clinically meaningful improvement on the Tinetti Gait Scale (> 3 points and Tinetti Balance Scale (> 5 points, while over 80% of the patients increased at least 1 point on the FAC scale (0-5 and improved walking speed by more than 0.2 m/s. Patients responded positively in gait function regardless of variables gender, age, aetiology (hemorrhagic/ischemic, and affected hemisphere. The most robust and significant change was observed for patients in the FAC categories two and three. The therapy was well tolerated and no patients withdrew for factors related to the type or intensity of training. Conclusions Eight-weeks of intensive rehabilitation including robotic and manual gait training was well tolerated by early stroke patients, and was associated with significant gains in function. Patients with mid-level gait dysfunction

  7. Aerobic treadmill plus Bobath walking training improves walking in subacute stroke: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eich, H-J; Mach, H; Werner, C; Hesse, S

    2004-09-01

    To evaluate the immediate and long-term effects of aerobic treadmill plus Bobath walking training in subacute stroke survivors compared with Bobath walking training alone. Randomized controlled trial. Rehabilitation unit. Fifty patients, first-time supratentorial stroke, stroke interval less than six weeks, Barthel Index (0-100) from 50 to 80, able to walk a minimum distance of 12 m with either intermittent help or stand-by while walking, cardiovascular stable, minimum 50 W in the bicycle ergometry, randomly allocated to two groups, A and B. Group A 30 min of treadmill training, harness secured and minimally supported according to patients' needs, and 30 min of physiotherapy, every workday for six weeks, speed and inclination of the treadmill were adjusted to achieve a heart rate of HR: (Hrmax-HRrest)*0.6+HRrest; in group B 60 min of daily physiotherapy for six weeks. Primary outcome variables were the absolute improvement of walking velocity (m/s) and capacity (m), secondary were gross motor function including walking ability (score out of 13) and walking quality (score out of 41), blindly assessed before and after the intervention, and at follow-up three months later. Patients tolerated the aerobic training well with no side-effects, significantly greater improvement of walking velocity and capacity both at study end (p =0.001 versus p =0.002) and at follow-up (p Bobath walking training in moderately affected stroke patients was better than Bobath walking training alone with respect to the improvement of walking velocity and capacity. The treatment approach is recommended in patients meeting the inclusion criteria. A multicentre trial should follow to strengthen the evidence.

  8. Is upper limb virtual reality training more intensive than conventional training for patients in the subacute phase after stroke? An analysis of treatment intensity and content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Iris; Skouen, Jan Sture; Hofstad, Håkon; Aßmuss, Jörg; Becker, Frank; Pallesen, Hanne; Thijs, Liselot; Verheyden, Geert

    2016-11-11

    Virtual reality (VR) training is thought to improve upper limb (UL) motor function after stroke when utilizing intensive training with many repetitions. The purpose of this study was to compare intensity and content of a VR training intervention to a conventional task-oriented intervention (CT). A random sample of 50 video recordings was analyzed of patients with a broad range of UL motor impairments (mean age 61y, 22 women). Patients took part in the VIRTUES trial and were randomized to either VR or CT and stratified according to severity of paresis. A standardized scoring form was used to analyze intensity, i.e. active use of the affected UL expressed in % of total time, total active time and total duration of a training session in minutes, content of training and feedback. Two raters collected data independently. Linear regression models as well as descriptive and graphical methods were used. Patients in the VR group spent significantly more time actively practicing with an activity rate of 77.6 (8.9) % than patients in the CT 67.3 (13.9) %, (p = .003). This difference was attributed to the subgroup of patients with initially severe paresis (n = 22). While in VR severely impaired patients spent 80.7 % (4.4 %) of the session time actively; they reached 60.6 (12.1) % in CT. VR and CT also differed in terms of tasks and feedback provided. Our results indicate that patients with severely impaired UL motor function spent more time actively in VR training, which may influence recovery. The upcoming results of the VIRTUES trial will show whether this is correlated with an increased effect of VR compared to CT. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02079103 , February 27, 2014.

  9. Feasibility of Delivering a Dance Intervention for SubAcute Stroke in a Rehabilitation Hospital Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Marika; McKinley, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Dance can be a promising treatment intervention used in rehabilitation for individuals with disabilities to address physical, cognitive and psychological impairments. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the feasibility of a modified dance intervention as an adjunct therapy designed for people with subacute stroke, in a rehabilitation setting. Using a descriptive qualitative study design, a biweekly 45-min dance intervention was offered to individuals with a subacute stroke followed in a rehabilitation hospital, over 4 weeks. The dance intervention followed the structure of an usual dance class, but the exercises were modified and progressed to meet each individual’s needs. The dance intervention, delivered in a group format, was feasible in a rehabilitation setting. A 45-min dance class of moderate intensity was of appropriate duration and intensity for individuals with subacute stroke to avoid excessive fatigue and to deliver the appropriate level of challenge. The overall satisfaction of the participants towards the dance class, the availability of space and equipment, and the low level of risks contributed to the feasibility of a dance intervention designed for individuals in the subacute stage of post-stroke recovery. PMID:25785497

  10. Feasibility of Delivering a Dance Intervention for SubAcute Stroke in a Rehabilitation Hospital Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika Demers

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dance can be a promising treatment intervention used in rehabilitation for individuals with disabilities to address physical, cognitive and psychological impairments. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the feasibility of a modified dance intervention as an adjunct therapy designed for people with subacute stroke, in a rehabilitation setting. Using a descriptive qualitative study design, a biweekly 45-min dance intervention was offered to individuals with a subacute stroke followed in a rehabilitation hospital, over 4 weeks. The dance intervention followed the structure of an usual dance class, but the exercises were modified and progressed to meet each individual’s needs. The dance intervention, delivered in a group format, was feasible in a rehabilitation setting. A 45-min dance class of moderate intensity was of appropriate duration and intensity for individuals with subacute stroke to avoid excessive fatigue and to deliver the appropriate level of challenge. The overall satisfaction of the participants towards the dance class, the availability of space and equipment, and the low level of risks contributed to the feasibility of a dance intervention designed for individuals in the subacute stage of post-stroke recovery.

  11. The effect of arm support combined with rehabilitation games on upper-extremity function in subacute stroke: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prange, Gerdienke B; Kottink, Anke I R; Buurke, Jaap H; Eckhardt, Martine M E M; van Keulen-Rouweler, Bianca J; Ribbers, Gerard M; Rietman, Johan S

    2015-02-01

    Use of rehabilitation technology, such as (electro)mechanical devices or robotics, could partly relieve the increasing strain on stroke rehabilitation caused by an increasing prevalence of stroke. Arm support (AS) training showed improvement of unsupported arm function in chronic stroke. To examine the effect of weight-supported arm training combined with computerized exercises on arm function and capacity, compared with dose-matched conventional reach training in subacute stroke patients. In a single-blind, multicenter, randomized controlled trial, 70 subacute stroke patients received 6 weeks of training with either an AS device combined with computerized exercises or dose-matched conventional training (CON). Arm function was evaluated pretraining and posttraining by Fugl-Meyer assessment (FM), maximal reach distance, Stroke Upper Limb Capacity Scale (SULCS), and arm pain via Visual Analogue Scale, in addition to perceived motivation by Intrinsic Motivation Inventory posttraining. FM and SULCS scores and reach distance improved significantly within both groups. These improvements and experienced pain did not differ between groups. The AS group reported higher interest/enjoyment during training than the CON group. AS training with computerized exercises is as effective as conventional therapy dedicated to the arm to improve arm function and activity in subacute stroke rehabilitation, when applied at the same dose. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Bilateral robotic priming before task-oriented approach in subacute stroke rehabilitation: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yu-Wei; Wu, Ching-Yi; Wang, Wei-En; Lin, Keh-Chung; Chang, Ku-Chou; Chen, Chih-Chi; Liu, Chien-Ting

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the treatment effects of bilateral robotic priming combined with the task-oriented approach on motor impairment, disability, daily function, and quality of life in patients with subacute stroke. A randomized controlled trial. Occupational therapy clinics in medical centers. Thirty-one subacute stroke patients were recruited. Participants were randomly assigned to receive bilateral priming combined with the task-oriented approach (i.e., primed group) or to the task-oriented approach alone (i.e., unprimed group) for 90 minutes/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks. The primed group began with the bilateral priming technique by using a bimanual robot-aided device. Motor impairments were assessed by the Fugal-Meyer Assessment, grip strength, and the Box and Block Test. Disability and daily function were measured by the modified Rankin Scale, the Functional Independence Measure, and actigraphy. Quality of life was examined by the Stroke Impact Scale. The primed and unprimed groups improved significantly on most outcomes over time. The primed group demonstrated significantly better improvement on the Stroke Impact Scale strength subscale ( p = 0.012) and a trend for greater improvement on the modified Rankin Scale ( p = 0.065) than the unprimed group. Bilateral priming combined with the task-oriented approach elicited more improvements in self-reported strength and disability degrees than the task-oriented approach by itself. Further large-scale research with at least 31 participants in each intervention group is suggested to confirm the study findings.

  13. Testing of a Hybrid FES-Robot Assisted Hand Motor Training Program in Sub-Acute Stroke Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRIGORAS, A. V.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available While hands-on therapy is the most commonly used technique for upper limb rehabilitation after stroke, it requires a therapist and residual activity and is best suited for active-assisted exercises. Robotic therapy on the other hand, can provide intention driven training in a motivating environment. We compared a robotic and standard therapy group, allowing intention driven finger flexion/extention respectively active-assisted exercises and a standard therapy only group. A total of 25 patients, 2 to 6 months post–stroke, with moderate motor deficit (Fugl-Meyer Assessment or FMA between 15 and 50, were randomly assigned in one of the groups. Patients practiced 30 minutes of hands-on therapy each day for 2 weeks with a supplementary 30 minutes of robotic therapy each day for patients in the experimental group. Subjects were evaluated using the FMA, Box and Blocks test (BBT and Stroke Impact Scale (SIS before and after the treatment. Patients in the experimental group showed higher average gain in all tests than those in the control group but only the SIS average gain was on the limit of statistical significance. This study shows the potential efficacy of robotic therapy for hand rehabilitation in subacute stroke patients.

  14. Pharyngeal Electrical Stimulation for Treatment of Dysphagia in Subacute Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bath, Philip M W; Scutt, Polly; Love, Jo

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Dysphagia is common after stroke, associated with increased death and dependency, and treatment options are limited. Pharyngeal electric stimulation (PES) is a novel treatment for poststroke dysphagia that has shown promise in 3 pilot randomized controlled trials. METHODS:...

  15. Constraint-induced movement therapy for the upper paretic limb in acute or sub-acute stroke : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, Rinske; Kwakkel, Gert; Bakers, Japie; van Wegen, Erwin

    2011-01-01

    Constraint-induced movement therapy is a commonly used intervention to improve upper limb function after stroke. However, the effectiveness of constraint-induced movement therapy and its optimal dosage during acute or sub-acute stroke is still under debate. To examine the literature on the effects

  16. Constraint-induced movement therapy for the upper paretic limb in acute or sub-acute stroke: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, R.H.M.; Kwakkel, G.; Bakers, J.; van Wegen, E.E.H.

    2011-01-01

    Constraint-induced movement therapy is a commonly used intervention to improve upper limb function after stroke. However, the effectiveness of constraint-induced movement therapy and its optimal dosage during acute or sub-acute stroke is still under debate. To examine the literature on the effects

  17. Individual finger synchronized robot-assisted hand rehabilitation in subacute to chronic stroke: a prospective randomized clinical trial of efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Chang Ho; Seong, Jin Wan; Son, Dae-Sik

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate individual finger synchronized robot-assisted hand rehabilitation in stroke patients. Prospective parallel group randomized controlled clinical trial. The study recruited patients who were ≥18 years old, more than three months post stroke, showed limited index finger movement and had weakened and impaired hand function. Patients with severe sensory loss, spasticity, apraxia, aphasia, disabling hand disease, impaired consciousness or depression were excluded. Patients received either four weeks (20 sessions) of active robot-assisted intervention (the FTI (full-term intervention) group, 9 patients) or two weeks (10 sessions) of early passive therapy followed by two weeks (10 sessions) of active robot-assisted intervention (the HTI (half-term intervention) group, 8 patients). Patients underwent arm function assessments prior to therapy (baseline), and at 2, 4 and 8 weeks after starting therapy. Compared to baseline, both the FTI and HTI groups showed improved results for the Jebsen Taylor test, the wrist and hand subportion of the Fugl-Meyer arm motor scale, active movement of the 2nd metacarpophalangeal joint, grasping, and pinching power (P hand subportion of the Fugl-Meyer arm motor scale (4.3 ± 1.9 vs. 3.4 ± 2.5) after eight weeks. A four-week rehabilitation using a novel robot that provides individual finger synchronization resulted in a dose-dependent improvement in hand function in subacute to chronic stroke patients.

  18. Facilitation of corticospinal excitability by virtual reality exercise following anodal transcranial direct current stimulation in healthy volunteers and subacute stroke subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yeun Joon; Ku, Jeonghun; Cho, Sangwoo; Kim, Hyun Jung; Cho, Yun Kyung; Lim, Teo; Kang, Youn Joo

    2014-01-01

    Background There is growing evidence that the combination of non-invasive brain stimulation and motor skill training is an effective new treatment option in neurorehabilitation. We investigated the beneficial effects of the application of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) combined with virtual reality (VR) motor training. Methods In total, 15 healthy, right-handed volunteers and 15 patients with stroke in the subacute stage participated. Four different conditions (A: active wrist...

  19. Virtual reality training for upper extremity in subacute stroke (VIRTUES): study protocol for a randomized controlled multicenter trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Iris; Skouen, Jan S; Hofstad, Håkon; Strand, Liv I; Becker, Frank; Sanders, Anne-Marthe; Pallesen, Hanne; Kristensen, Tove; Michielsen, Marc; Verheyden, Geert

    2014-09-28

    Novel virtual reality rehabilitation systems provide the potential to increase intensity and offer challenging and motivating tasks. The efficacy of virtual reality systems to improve arm motor function early after stroke has not been demonstrated yet in sufficiently powered studies. The objective of the study is to investigate whether VR training as an adjunct to conventional therapy is more effective in improving arm motor function in the subacute phase after stroke than dose-matched conventional training, to assess patient and therapist satisfaction when working with novel virtual reality training and to calculate cost-effectiveness in terms of resources required to regain some degree of dexterity. Randomized controlled observer-blind trial. Virtual reality systems are promising tools for rehabilitation of arm motor function after stroke. Their introduction in combination with traditional physical and occupational therapy may enhance recovery after stroke, and at the same time demand little personnel resources to increase training intensity. The VIRTUES trial will provide further evidence of VR-based treatment strategies to clinicians, patients and health economists. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02079103.

  20. Cerebral Reorganization in Subacute Stroke Survivors after Virtual Reality-Based Training: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiang; Lin, Qiang; Lo, Wai-Leung; Mao, Yu-Rong; Shi, Xin-Chong; Cates, Ryan S; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Huang, Dong-Feng; Li, Le

    2017-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a promising method for quantifying brain recovery and investigating the intervention-induced changes in corticomotor excitability after stroke. This study aimed to evaluate cortical reorganization subsequent to virtual reality-enhanced treadmill (VRET) training in subacute stroke survivors. Eight participants with ischemic stroke underwent VRET for 5 sections per week and for 3 weeks. fMRI was conducted to quantify the activity of selected brain regions when the subject performed ankle dorsiflexion. Gait speed and clinical scales were also measured before and after intervention. Increased activation in the primary sensorimotor cortex of the lesioned hemisphere and supplementary motor areas of both sides for the paretic foot (p change in voxel counts in the primary sensorimotor cortex of the lesioned hemisphere is significantly correlated with improvement of 10 m walk time after VRET (r = -0.719). We observed improved walking and increased activation in cortical regions of stroke survivors after VRET training. Moreover, the cortical recruitment was associated with better walking function. Our study suggests that cortical networks could be a site of plasticity, and their recruitment may be one mechanism of training-induced recovery of gait function in stroke. This trial is registered with ChiCTR-IOC-15006064.

  1. Cerebral Reorganization in Subacute Stroke Survivors after Virtual Reality-Based Training: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI is a promising method for quantifying brain recovery and investigating the intervention-induced changes in corticomotor excitability after stroke. This study aimed to evaluate cortical reorganization subsequent to virtual reality-enhanced treadmill (VRET training in subacute stroke survivors. Methods. Eight participants with ischemic stroke underwent VRET for 5 sections per week and for 3 weeks. fMRI was conducted to quantify the activity of selected brain regions when the subject performed ankle dorsiflexion. Gait speed and clinical scales were also measured before and after intervention. Results. Increased activation in the primary sensorimotor cortex of the lesioned hemisphere and supplementary motor areas of both sides for the paretic foot (p<0.01 was observed postintervention. Statistically significant improvements were observed in gait velocity (p<0.05. The change in voxel counts in the primary sensorimotor cortex of the lesioned hemisphere is significantly correlated with improvement of 10 m walk time after VRET (r=−0.719. Conclusions. We observed improved walking and increased activation in cortical regions of stroke survivors after VRET training. Moreover, the cortical recruitment was associated with better walking function. Our study suggests that cortical networks could be a site of plasticity, and their recruitment may be one mechanism of training-induced recovery of gait function in stroke. This trial is registered with ChiCTR-IOC-15006064.

  2. Modular Ankle Robotics Training in Early Sub-Acute Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Larry W.; Roy, Anindo; Krywonis, Amanda; Kehs, Glenn; Krebs, Hermano Igo; Macko, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Modular lower extremity (LE) robotics may offer a valuable avenue for restoring neuromotor control after hemiparetic stroke. Prior studies show that visually-guided and visually-evoked practice with an ankle robot (anklebot) improves paretic ankle motor control that translates into improved overground walking. Objective Assess the feasibility and efficacy of daily anklebot training during early sub-acute hospitalization post-stroke. Methods Thirty-four inpatients from a stroke unit were randomly assigned to anklebot (N=18) or passive manual stretching (N=16) treatments. All suffered a first stroke with residual hemiparesis (ankle manual muscle test grade 1/5 to 4/5), and at least trace muscle activation in plantar- or dorsiflexion. Anklebot training employed an “assist-as-needed” approach during > 200 volitional targeted paretic ankle movements, with difficulty adjusted to active range of motion and success rate. Stretching included >200 daily mobilizations in these same ranges. All sessions lasted 1 hour and assessments were not blinded. Results Both groups walked faster at discharge, however the robot group improved more in percent change of temporal symmetry (p=0.032) and also of step length symmetry (p=0.038), with longer nonparetic step lengths in the robot (133%) vs. stretching (31%) groups. Paretic ankle control improved in the robot group, with increased peak (p≤ 0.001) and mean (p≤ 0.01) angular speeds, and increased movement smoothness (p≤ 0.01). There were no adverse events. Conclusion Though limited by small sample size and restricted entry criteria, our findings suggest that modular lower extremity robotics during early sub-acute hospitalization is well tolerated and improves ankle motor control and gait patterning. PMID:24515923

  3. An interdisciplinary visual team in an acute and sub-acute stroke unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Anne; Guldberg, Anne-Mette; Friis, Claus Radmer

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the work of an interdisciplinary visual team in a stroke unit providing early identification and assessment of patients with visual symptoms, and secondly to investigate frequency, type of visual deficits after stroke and self-evaluated impact on everyday life after stroke...

  4. Dose of arm activity training during acute and subacute rehabilitation post stroke: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Kathryn S; Brauer, Sandra G

    2015-12-01

    To determine the dose of activity-related arm training undertaken by stroke survivors during acute and subacute rehabilitation. A systematic review of PubMed, CINAHL and EMBASE up to December 2014 was completed. Studies were eligible if they defined the dose (time or repetitions) of activity-related arm training using observational methods for a cohort of adult stroke survivors receiving acute or subacute rehabilitation. All studies were quality appraised using an evidence-based learning critical appraisal checklist. Data was analysed by method of documented dose per session (minutes, repetitions), environment (acute or subacute rehabilitation) and therapy discipline (physiotherapy, occupational therapy). Ten studies were included: two observed stroke survivors during acute rehabilitation and eight during subacute rehabilitation. During acute rehabilitation, one study reported 4.1 minutes per session during physiotherapy and 11.2 minutes during occupational therapy, while another study reported 5.7 minutes per session during physiotherapy only. During inpatient rehabilitation, activity-related arm training was on average undertaken for 4 minutes per session (range 0.9 to 7.9, n = 4 studies) during physiotherapy and 17 minutes per session (range 9.3 to 28.9, n = 3 studies) during occupational therapy. Repetitions per session were reported by two studies only during subacute rehabilitation. One study reported 23 repetitions per session during physiotherapy and occupational therapy, while another reported 32 repetitions per session across both disciplines. The dose of activity-related arm training during acute and subacute rehabilitation after stroke is limited. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Modular ankle robotics training in early subacute stroke: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Larry W; Roy, Anindo; Krywonis, Amanda; Kehs, Glenn; Krebs, Hermano Igo; Macko, Richard F

    2014-09-01

    BACKGROUND. Modular lower extremity robotics may offer a valuable avenue for restoring neuromotor control after hemiparetic stroke. Prior studies show that visually guided and visually evoked practice with an ankle robot (anklebot) improves paretic ankle motor control that translates into improved overground walking. To assess the feasibility and efficacy of daily anklebot training during early subacute hospitalization poststroke. Thirty-four inpatients from a stroke unit were randomly assigned to anklebot (n = 18) or passive manual stretching (n = 16) treatments. All suffered a first stroke with residual hemiparesis (ankle manual muscle test grade 1/5 to 4/5), and at least trace muscle activation in plantar- or dorsiflexion. Anklebot training employed an "assist-as-needed" approach during >200 volitional targeted paretic ankle movements, with difficulty adjusted to active range of motion and success rate. Stretching included >200 daily mobilizations in these same ranges. All sessions lasted 1 hour and assessments were not blinded. Both groups walked faster at discharge; however, the robot group improved more in percentage change of temporal symmetry (P = .032) and also of step length symmetry (P = .038), with longer nonparetic step lengths in the robot (133%) versus stretching (31%) groups. Paretic ankle control improved in the robot group, with increased peak (P ≤ .001) and mean (P ≤ .01) angular speeds, and increased movement smoothness (P ≤ .01). There were no adverse events. Though limited by small sample size and restricted entry criteria, our findings suggest that modular lower extremity robotics during early subacute hospitalization is well tolerated and improves ankle motor control and gait patterning. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Facilitation of corticospinal excitability by virtual reality exercise following anodal transcranial direct current stimulation in healthy volunteers and subacute stroke subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeun Joon; Ku, Jeonghun; Cho, Sangwoo; Kim, Hyun Jung; Cho, Yun Kyung; Lim, Teo; Kang, Youn Joo

    2014-08-18

    There is growing evidence that the combination of non-invasive brain stimulation and motor skill training is an effective new treatment option in neurorehabilitation. We investigated the beneficial effects of the application of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) combined with virtual reality (VR) motor training. In total, 15 healthy, right-handed volunteers and 15 patients with stroke in the subacute stage participated. Four different conditions (A: active wrist exercise, B: VR wrist exercise, C: VR wrist exercise following anodal tDCS (1 mV, 20 min) on the left (healthy volunteer) or affected (stroke patient) primary motor cortex, and D: anodal tDCS without exercise) were provided in random order on separate days. We compared during and post-exercise corticospinal excitability under different conditions in healthy volunteers (A, B, C, D) and stroke patients (B, C, D) by measuring the changes in amplitudes of motor evoked potentials in the extensor carpi radialis muscle, elicited with single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation. For statistical analyses, a linear mixed model for a repeated-measures covariance pattern model with unstructured covariance within groups (healthy or stroke groups) was used. The VR wrist exercise (B) facilitated post-exercise corticospinal excitability more than the active wrist exercise (A) or anodal tDCS without exercise (D) in healthy volunteers. Moreover, the post-exercise corticospinal facilitation after tDCS and VR exercise (C) was greater and was sustained for 20 min after exercise versus the other conditions in healthy volunteers (A, B, D) and in subacute stroke patients (B, D). The combined effect of VR motor training following tDCS was synergistic and short-term corticospinal facilitation was superior to the application of VR training, active motor training, or tDCS without exercise condition. These results support the concept of combining brain stimulation with VR motor training to promote recovery after a stroke.

  7. Masticatory function in subacute TMD patients before and after treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, L J; Steenks, M H; de Wijer, A; Speksnijder, C M; van der Bilt, A

    2009-06-01

    Masticatory function can be impaired in temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) patients. We investigated whether treatment of subacute non-specific TMD patients may influence oral function and clinical outcome measures. Fifteen patients with subacute TMD participated in the study. We quantified masticatory performance, maximum voluntary bite force, muscle activity and chewing cycle duration before and after treatment. Masticatory performance and bite force of patients were compared with the results obtained for an age- and gender-matched group of subjects without TMD complaints. Furthermore, we determined possible changes in anamnestic and clinical scores from questionnaires (mandibular function impairment questionnaire; MFIQ), pain scores and clinical outcome measures. Maximum bite force significantly increased, although the values after treatment were still significantly lower than those of the subjects without TMD complaints. The corresponding electromyography values did not show significant change after treatment. The masticatory performance of the patients remained unaltered; patients chewed significantly less efficient than controls. The average duration of chewing cycles significantly decreased after treatment. We observed a significant improvement in MFIQ scores. During the clenching and chewing tasks, the visual analogue scale scores were significantly higher than before these tasks. We may conclude that subacute temporomandibular joint disorders negatively influence chewing behaviour. Bite force, chewing cycle duration and also perceived mandibular function significantly improved after treatment, although the masticatory performance remained unaltered.

  8. Evaluation of upper extremity robot-assistances in subacute and chronic stroke subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziherl, Jaka; Novak, Domen; Olenšek, Andrej; Mihelj, Matjaž; Munih, Marko

    2010-10-18

    Robotic systems are becoming increasingly common in upper extremity stroke rehabilitation. Recent studies have already shown that the use of rehabilitation robots can improve recovery. This paper evaluates the effect of different modes of robot-assistances in a complex virtual environment on the subjects' ability to complete the task as well as on various haptic parameters arising from the human-robot interaction. The MIMICS multimodal system that includes the haptic robot HapticMaster and a dynamic virtual environment is used. The goal of the task is to catch a ball that rolls down a sloped table and place it in a basket above the table. Our study examines the influence of catching assistance, pick-and-place movement assistance and grasping assistance on the catching efficiency, placing efficiency and on movement-dependent parameters: mean reaching forces, deviation error, mechanical work and correlation between the grasping force and the load force. The results with groups of subjects (23 subacute hemiparetic subjects, 10 chronic hemiparetic subjects and 23 control subjects) showed that the assistance raises the catching efficiency and pick-and-place efficiency. The pick-and-place movement assistance greatly limits the movements of the subject and results in decreased work toward the basket. The correlation between the load force and the grasping force exists in a certain phase of the movement. The results also showed that the stroke subjects without assistance and the control subjects performed similarly. The robot-assistances used in the study were found to be a possible way to raise the catching efficiency and efficiency of the pick-and-place movements in subacute and chronic subjects. The observed movement parameters showed that robot-assistances we used for our virtual task should be improved to maximize physical activity.

  9. Evaluation of upper extremity robot-assistances in subacute and chronic stroke subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihelj Matjaž

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Robotic systems are becoming increasingly common in upper extremity stroke rehabilitation. Recent studies have already shown that the use of rehabilitation robots can improve recovery. This paper evaluates the effect of different modes of robot-assistances in a complex virtual environment on the subjects' ability to complete the task as well as on various haptic parameters arising from the human-robot interaction. Methods The MIMICS multimodal system that includes the haptic robot HapticMaster and a dynamic virtual environment is used. The goal of the task is to catch a ball that rolls down a sloped table and place it in a basket above the table. Our study examines the influence of catching assistance, pick-and-place movement assistance and grasping assistance on the catching efficiency, placing efficiency and on movement-dependant parameters: mean reaching forces, deviation error, mechanical work and correlation between the grasping force and the load force. Results The results with groups of subjects (23 subacute hemiparetic subjects, 10 chronic hemiparetic subjects and 23 control subjects showed that the assistance raises the catching efficiency and pick-and-place efficiency. The pick-and-place movement assistance greatly limits the movements of the subject and results in decreased work toward the basket. The correlation between the load force and the grasping force exists in a certain phase of the movement. The results also showed that the stroke subjects without assistance and the control subjects performed similarly. Conclusions The robot-assistances used in the study were found to be a possible way to raise the catching efficiency and efficiency of the pick-and-place movements in subacute and chronic subjects. The observed movement parameters showed that robot-assistances we used for our virtual task should be improved to maximize physical activity.

  10. Constraint-induced movement therapy for the upper paretic limb in acute or sub-acute stroke: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijland, Rinske; Kwakkel, Gert; Bakers, Japie; van Wegen, Erwin

    2011-10-01

    Constraint-induced movement therapy is a commonly used intervention to improve upper limb function after stroke. However, the effectiveness of constraint-induced movement therapy and its optimal dosage during acute or sub-acute stroke is still under debate. To examine the literature on the effects of constraint-induced movement therapy in acute or sub-acute stroke. A literature search was performed to identify randomized, controlled trials; studies with the same outcome measure were pooled by calculating the mean difference. Separate quantitative analyses for high-intensity and low-intensity constraint-induced movement therapy were applied when possible. Five randomized, controlled trials were included, comprising 106 participants. The meta-analysis demonstrated significant mean differences in favor of constraint-induced movement therapy for the Fugl-Meyer arm, the Action Research Arm Test, the Motor Activity Log, Quality of Movement and the Grooved Pegboard Test. Nonsignificant mean difference in favor of constraint-induced movement therapy were found for the Motor Activity Log, Amount of Use. Separate analyses for high-intensity and low-intensity constraint-induced movement therapy resulted in significant favorable mean differences for low-intensity constraint-induced movement therapy for all outcome measures, in contrast to high-intensity constraint-induced movement therapy. This meta-analysis demonstrates a trend toward positive effects of high-intensity and low-intensity constraint-induced movement therapy in acute or sub-acute stroke, but also suggests that low-intensity constraint-induced movement therapy may be more beneficial during this period than high-intensity constraint-induced movement therapy. However, these results were based on a small number of studies. Therefore, more trials are needed applying different doses of therapy early after stroke and a better understanding is needed about the different time windows in which underlying mechanisms of

  11. Extra tree forests for sub-acute ischemic stroke lesion segmentation in MR sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Oskar; Wilms, Matthias; von der Gablentz, Janina; Krämer, Ulrike M; Münte, Thomas F; Handels, Heinz

    2015-01-30

    To analyse the relationship between structure and (dys-)function of the brain after stroke, accurate and repeatable segmentation of the lesion area in magnetic resonance (MR) images is required. Manual delineation, the current gold standard, is time consuming and suffers from high intra- and inter-observer differences. A new approach is presented for the automatic and reproducible segmentation of sub-acute ischemic stroke lesions in MR images in the presence of other pathologies. The proposition is based on an Extra Tree forest framework for voxel-wise classification and mainly intensity derived image features are employed. A thorough investigation of multi-spectral variants, which combine the information from multiple MR sequences, finds the fluid attenuated inversion recovery sequence to be both required and sufficient for a good segmentation result. The accuracy can be further improved by adding features extracted from the T1-weighted and the diffusion weighted sequences. The use of other sequences is discouraged, as they impact negatively on the results. Quantitative evaluation was carried out on 37 clinical cases. With a Dice coefficient of 0.65, the method outperforms earlier published methods. The approach proves especially suitable to differentiate between new stroke and other white matter lesions based on the FLAIR sequence alone. This, and the high overlap, renders it suitable for automatic screening of large databases of MR scans, e.g. for a subsequent neuropsychological investigation. Finally, each feature's importance is assessed in detail and the approach's statistical dependency on clinical and image characteristics is investigated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Population-based study of blood biomarkers in prediction of sub-acute recurrent stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Helen C; Burgess, Annette I; Poole, Debbie L; Mehta, Ziyah; Silver, Louise E; Rothwell, Peter M

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose Risk of recurrent stroke is high in the first few weeks after TIA or stroke and clinic risk prediction tools have only limited accuracy, particularly after the hyper-acute phase. Previous studies of the predictive value of biomarkers have been small, been done in selected populations and have not concentrated on the acute phase or on intensively treated populations. We aimed to determine the predictive value of a panel of blood biomarkers in intensively treated patients early after TIA and stroke. Methods We studied 14 blood biomarkers related to inflammation, thrombosis, atherogenesis and cardiac or neuronal cell damage in early TIA or ischaemic stroke in a population-based study (Oxford Vascular Study). Biomarker levels were related to 90-day risk of recurrent stroke as Hazard Ratio (95%CI) per decile increase, adjusted for age and sex. Results Among 1292 eligible patients there were 53 recurrent ischaemic strokes within 90 days. There were moderate correlations (r>0.40; pstroke were weak, with significant associations limited to Interleukin-6 (HR=1.12, 1.01-1.24; p=0.035) and C-reactive protein (1.16, 1.02-1.30; p=0.019). When stratified by type of presenting event, P-selectin predicted stroke after TIA (1.31, 1.03-1.66; p=0.028) and C-reactive protein predicted stroke after stroke (1.16, 1.01-1.34; p=0.042). These associations remained after fully adjusting for other vascular risk factors. Conclusion In the largest study to date, we found very limited predictive utility for early recurrent stroke for a panel of inflammatory, thrombotic and cell damage biomarkers. PMID:25158774

  13. Motor skill changes and neurophysiologic adaptation to recovery-oriented virtual rehabilitation of hand function in a person with subacute stroke: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluet, Gerard G; Patel, Jigna; Qiu, Qinyin; Yarossi, Matthew; Massood, Supriya; Adamovich, Sergei V; Tunik, Eugene; Merians, Alma S

    2017-07-01

    The complexity of upper extremity (UE) behavior requires recovery of near normal neuromuscular function to minimize residual disability following a stroke. This requirement places a premium on spontaneous recovery and neuroplastic adaptation to rehabilitation by the lesioned hemisphere. Motor skill learning is frequently cited as a requirement for neuroplasticity. Studies examining the links between training, motor learning, neuroplasticity, and improvements in hand motor function are indicated. This case study describes a patient with slow recovering hand and finger movement (Total Upper Extremity Fugl-Meyer examination score = 25/66, Wrist and Hand items = 2/24 on poststroke day 37) following a stroke. The patient received an intensive eight-session intervention utilizing simulated activities that focused on the recovery of finger extension, finger individuation, and pinch-grasp force modulation. Over the eight sessions, the patient demonstrated improvements on untrained transfer tasks, which suggest that motor learning had occurred, as well a dramatic increase in hand function and corresponding expansion of the cortical motor map area representing several key muscles of the paretic hand. Recovery of hand function and motor map expansion continued after discharge through the three-month retention testing. This case study describes a neuroplasticity based intervention for UE hemiparesis and a model for examining the relationship between training, motor skill acquisition, neuroplasticity, and motor function changes. Implications for rehabilitation Intensive hand and finger rehabilitation activities can be added to an in-patient rehabilitation program for persons with subacute stroke. Targeted training of the thumb may have an impact on activity level function in persons with upper extremity hemiparesis. Untrained transfer tasks can be utilized to confirm that training tasks have elicited motor learning. Changes in cortical motor maps can be used to document

  14. A randomized, rater-blinded, parallel trial of intensive speech therapy in sub-acute post-stroke aphasia: the SP-I-R-IT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Isabel Pavão; Leal, Gabriela; Fonseca, Isabel; Farrajota, Luísa; Aguiar, Marta; Fonseca, José; Lauterbach, Martin; Gonçalves, Luís; Cary, M Carmo; Ferreira, Joaquim J; Ferro, Jose M

    2013-01-01

    There is conflicting evidence regarding the benefits of intensive speech and language therapy (SLT), particularly because intensity is often confounded with total SLT provided. A two-centre, randomized, rater-blinded, parallel study was conducted to compare the efficacy of 100 h of SLT in a regular (RT) versus intensive (IT) treatment in sub-acute post-stroke aphasia. Consecutive patients with aphasia, within 3 months of a left hemisphere ischemic stroke, were randomized to IT (2 h per day × 5 days per week, 10 weeks) or RT (2 h per week × 50 weeks). Evaluations took place at 10, 50 and 62 weeks. Primary outcome was the frequency of responders, defined by 15% increase of Aphasia Quotient (AQ) from the baseline to 50 weeks. Secondary outcomes were changes from the baseline in AQ and functional communication profile (FCP) at 50 and 62 weeks and improvement stability between 50 and 62 weeks. Thirty patients were randomized and 18 completed the study. No significant differences were found between groups in primary or secondary outcomes, although IT patients (N = 9) obtained higher scores in language measures between 10 and 62 weeks in per protocol analysis. The number of non-completions was identical between groups. This study suggests that, in the sub-acute period following stroke and controlling for the number of hours of SLT provided, there is a trend for a greater improvement in language and functional communication measures with IT compared with RT. The lack of statistical significance in results was probably due to the small sample size. © 2013 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  15. Prognostic factors for disability and sick leave in patients with subacute non-malignant pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin, Gitte H; Pilegaard, Marc S; Vaegter, Henrik B

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aims to identify generic prognostic factors for disability and sick leave in subacute pain patients. SETTING: General practice and other primary care facilities. PARTICIPANTS: Adults (>18 years) with a subacute (≤3-month) non-malignant pain condition. Eligibility...... reporting of all factors examined. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42014008914.......OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aims to identify generic prognostic factors for disability and sick leave in subacute pain patients. SETTING: General practice and other primary care facilities. PARTICIPANTS: Adults (>18 years) with a subacute (≤3-month) non-malignant pain condition. Eligibility...... criteria were cohort studies investigating the prediction of disability or long-term sick leave in adults with a subacute pain condition in a primary care setting. 19 studies were included, referring to a total of 6266 patients suffering from pain in the head, neck, back and shoulders. PRIMARY...

  16. An evaluation of neuropeptide Y status in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuhandan, M; Calik, M; Almaz, V; Taskın, A; Cakmak, A; Selek, S

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the neuropeptide Y values of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. The study comprised 38 patients diagnosed with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis at our clinic, who were being routinely followed-up, together with a control group of 36. Using the Risk and Haddad classification for clinical staging, 16 patients were determined as Stage II and 22 patients as Stage III. Neuropeptide Y values were measured by Enzyme Immunoassay methods. The neuropeptide Y values of the all patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis were found to be significantly high compared to the control group (ppanencephalitis.

  17. Improvements in Force Variability and Structure from Vision- to Memory-Guided Submaximal Isometric Knee Extension in Subacute Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, John W; Stokic, Dobrivoje S

    2017-11-02

    We examined changes in variability, accuracy, frequency composition, and temporal regularity of force signal from vision-guided to memory-guided force-matching tasks in 17 subacute stroke and 17 age-matched healthy subjects. Subjects performed a unilateral isometric knee extension at 10%, 30%, and 50% of peak torque (MVC) for 10 s (3 trials each). Visual feedback was removed at the 5s-mark in the first 2 trials (feedback withdrawal), and 30 s after the second trial the subjects were asked to produce the target force without visual feedback (force recall). The coefficient of variation and constant error were used to quantify force variability and accuracy. Force structure was assessed by the median frequency, relative spectral power in the 0-3 Hz band, and sample entropy of the force signal. At 10% MVC, the force signal in subacute stroke subjects became steadier, more broadband, and temporally more irregular after the withdrawal of visual feedback, with progressively larger error at higher contraction levels. Also, the lack of modulation in the spectral frequency at higher force levels with visual feedback persisted in both the withdrawal and recall conditions. In terms of changes from the visual feedback condition, the feedback withdrawal produced a greater difference between the paretic, non-paretic, and control legs than the force recall. The overall results suggest improvements in force variability and structure from vision- to memory-guided force control in subacute stroke despite decreased accuracy. Different sensory-motor memory retrieval mechanisms seem to be involved in the feedback withdrawal and force recall conditions, which deserves further studies.

  18. Pending Laboratory Tests and the Hospital Discharge Summary in Patients Discharged To Sub-Acute Care

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walz, Stacy E; Smith, Maureen; Cox, Elizabeth; Sattin, Justin; Kind, Amy J. H

    2011-01-01

    ...) tests at the time of hospital discharge for general medical patients. However, the prevalence and communication of pending labs within a high-risk population, specifically those patients discharged to sub-acute care (i.e...

  19. Nursing care for stroke patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tulek, Zeliha; Poulsen, Ingrid; Gillis, Katrin

    2017-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To conduct a survey of the clinical nursing practice in European countries in accordance with the European Stroke Strategies (ESS) 2006, and to examine to what extent the ESS have been implemented in stroke care nursing in Europe. BACKGROUND: Stroke is a leading cause of death...... comprising 61 questions based on the ESS and scientific evidence in nursing practice was distributed to representatives of the European Association of Neuroscience Nurses, who sent the questionnaire to nurses active in stroke care. The questionnaire covered the following areas of stroke care: Organization...... of stroke services, Management of acute stroke and prevention including basic care and nursing, and Secondary prevention. RESULTS: Ninety-two nurses in stroke care in 11 European countries participated in the survey. Within the first 48 hours after stroke onset, 95% monitor patients regularly, 94% start...

  20. Effect of combined low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and virtual reality training on upper limb function in subacute stroke: a double-blind randomized controlled trail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chan-juan; Liao, Wei-jing; Xia, Wen-guang

    2015-04-01

    The effect of combined low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (LF rTMS) and virtual reality (VR) training in patients after stroke was assessed. In a double-blind randomized controlled trial, 112 patients with hemiplegia after stroke were randomly divided into two groups: experimental and control. In experimental group, the patients received LF rTMS and VR training treatment, and those in control group received sham rTMS and VR training treatment. Participants in both groups received therapy of 6 days per week for 4 weeks. The primary endpoint including the upper limb motor function test of Fugl-meyer assessment (U-FMA) and wolf motor function test (WMFT), and the secondary endpoint including modified Barthel index (MBI) and 36-item Short Form Health Survey Questionnaire (SF-36) were assessed before and 4 weeks after treatment. Totally, 108 subjects completed the study (55 in experimental group and 53 in control group respectively). After 4-week treatment, the U-FMA scores [mean difference of 13.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.6 to 22.7, Pstroke, which may provide a better rehabilitation treatment for subacute stroke.

  1. Echocardiographic evaluation of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Çimen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is a slowly progressive, inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease caused by virus infection in the central nervous system. Since there are a limited number of studies in the literature evaluating the cardiovascular functions of patients with SSPE, the present study evaluates the patients with SSPE using tissue Doppler echocardiography and compares them between the control group in order to shed some light on the subject. Methods: The study is a prospective observational study. 49 patients (17 female, 32 male with SSPE were included in the study. Patients were divided into two groups: Stage 2 (n=29 and Stage 3 (n=20. Echocardiographic data were compared with a control group of 26 which is the same average age. All children underwent a detailed echocardiography, which contained an M-mode, pulse Doppler and tissue Doppler imaging. Results: Sinus tachycardia ( >100 beats/min in children was detected in nineteen (38.7% patients. There were not significant differences between parameters of systolic and diastolic function of the heart. Stage 2 group, EF: 69.9±6.4; SF: 39.2±5.58; and MPI (mitral: 0.38±0.03 and MPI (tricuspid: 0.39±0.10. And in the Stage 3 group, EF: 68.5±7.0, SF: 37.8±5.34, MPI (mitral: 0.37±0.09 and MPI (tricuspid: 0.38±0.12. In the control group EF:70.96±5.54; SF:39.96±5.05 and MPI(mitral: 0.35±0.06 MPI (tricuspid:0.36±0.04 and statistically meaningful differences were not found between patients and control groups (p >0.05. Conclusion: Cardiac functions may be preserved and cardiac functions constitute no significant risks of mortality in the advanced stages of patients with Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, which is a group of chronic and bedridden patients.

  2. Perception of stroke among patients with stroke | Ajayi | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The perception of patients to stroke is variable. The aim of this study was to determine the perception of stroke among stroke patients. The study was carried out between January 2004 - December 2004 on all the patients presenting with features of stroke at the Federal Medical Center Ido, Nigeria. Data were collected by ...

  3. Kinematic alterations in the ipsilateral shoulder of patients with hemiplegia due to stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meskers, C.G.M.; Koppe, P.A.; Konijnenbelt, M.; Veeger, H.E.J.; Janssen, T.W.J.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the assumption that shoulder kinematic patterns of the ipsilateral, nonparetic shoulder in hemiplegia are similar to kinematics recorded in a healthy population. Design: Case control study of a convenience sample of ten patients with hemiplegia due to stroke in the subacute

  4. The therapeutic effect of neurologic music therapy and speech language therapy in post-stroke aphasic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kil-Byung; Kim, Yong-Kyun; Lee, Hong-Jae; Yoo, Jeehyun; Hwang, Ji Youn; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Kim, Sung-Kyun

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the therapeutic effect of neurologic music therapy (NMT) and speech language therapy (SLT) through improvement of the aphasia quotient (AQ) in post-stroke aphasic patients. Twenty-one post-stroke, nonfluent aphasia patients who had ischemic/hemorrhagic stroke on radiologic evaluation were divided into the NMT and SLT groups. They received NMT and SLT for 1 month. Language function was assessed by Korean version-Western Aphasia Battery before and after therapy. NMT consisted of therapeutic singing and melodic intonation therapy, and SLT consisted of language-oriented therapy. Significant improvements were revealed in AQ, repetition, and naming after therapy in the NMT group and improvements in repetition in the SLT group of chronic stroke patients (p<0.05). There were significant improvements in language ability in the NMT group of subacute stroke patients. However, there was no significant improvement in the SLT group of subacute stroke patients. We concluded that the two therapies are effective treatments in the chronic stage of stroke and NMT is effective in subacute post-stroke aphasic patients.

  5. Rehabilitative Games for Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pyae

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is one of the major problems in medical and healthcare that can cause severe disability and death of patients especially for older population. Rehabilitation plays an important role in stroke therapy. However, most of the rehabilitative exercises are monotonous and tiring for the patients. For a particular time, they can easily get bored in doing these exercises. The role of patient’s motivation in rehabilitation is vital. Motivation and rehabilitative outcomes are strongly related. Digital games promise to help stroke patients to feel motivated and more engaged in rehabilitative training through motivational gameplay. Most of the commercial games available in the market are not well-designed for stroke patients and their motivational needs in rehabilitation. This study aims at understanding the motivational requirements of stroke patients in doing rehabilitative exercises and living in a post-stroke life. Based on the findings from the literature review, we report factors that can influence the stroke patients’ level of motivation such as social functioning, patient-therapist relationship, goal-setting, and music. These findings are insightful and useful for ideating and designing interactive motivation-driven games for stroke patients. The motivational factors of stroke patients in rehabilitation may help the game designers to design motivation-driven game contexts, contents, and gameplay. Moreover, these findings may also help healthcare professionals who concern stroke patient’s motivation in rehabilitative context. In this paper, we reported our Virtual Nursing Home (VNH concept and the games that we are currently developing and re-designing. Based on this literature review, we will present and test out the ideas how we can integrate these motivational factors in our future game design, development, and enhancement.

  6. Neurally-dissociable cognitive components of reading deficits in subacute stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga eBoukrina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available According to cognitive models of reading, words are processed by interacting orthographic (spelling, phonological (sound and semantic (meaning information. Despite extensive study of the neural basis of reading in healthy participants, little group data exist on patients with reading deficits from focal brain damage pointing to critical neural systems for reading. Here we report on one such study. We have performed neuropsychological testing and MRI on 11 patients with left-hemisphere stroke (<= 5 weeks post stroke. Patients completed tasks assessing cognitive components of reading such as semantics (matching picture or word choices to a target based on meaning, phonology (matching word choices to a target based on rhyming, and orthography (a two-alternative forced choice of the most plausible nonword. They also read aloud pseudowords and words with high or low levels of usage frequency, imageability, and spelling-sound consistency. As predicted by the cognitive model, when averaged across patients, the influence of semantics was most salient for low-frequency, low-consistency words, when phonological decoding is especially difficult. Qualitative subtraction analyses revealed lesion sites specific to phonological processing. These areas were consistent with those shown previously to activate for phonology in healthy participants, including supramarginal, posterior superior temporal, middle temporal, inferior frontal gyri, and underlying white matter. Notable divergence between this analysis and previous functional imaging is the association of lesions in the mid-fusiform gyrus and anterior temporal lobe with phonological reading deficits. This study represents progress toward identifying brain lesion-deficit relationships in the cognitive components of reading. Such correspondences are expected to help not only better understand the neural mechanisms of reading, but may also help tailor reading therapy to individual neurocognitive deficit

  7. Acute versus subacute community-acquired meningitis: Analysis of 611 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Tarek; Salazar, Lucrecia; Hasbun, Rodrigo

    2017-09-01

    Community-acquired meningitis can be classified into acute and subacute presentations by the duration of illness of ≤ or >5 days, respectively. There are currently no studies comparing the clinical features, management decisions, etiologies, and outcomes between acute and subacute presentations.It is a retrospective study of adults with community-acquired meningitis hospitalized in Houston, TX between January 2005 and January 2010. An adverse clinical outcome was defined as a Glasgow Outcome Scale score of ≤4.A total of 611 patients were identified, of which 458 (75%) were acute and 153 subacute (25%). The most common etiologies were unknown in 418 (68.4%), viral in 94 (15.4%), bacterial in 47 (7.7%), fungal in 42 patients (6.9%), and other noninfectious etiologies in 6 (1%). Patients with subacute meningitis were more likely to be immunosuppressed or have comorbidities, had fungal etiologies, and had higher rates of hypoglycorrachia and abnormal neurological findings (P 65 years and abnormal neurological findings were predictive of an adverse clinical outcome in both acute and subacute meningitis, whereas fever was also a significant prognostic factor in acute meningitis. (P meningitis differ in regards to clinical presentations, etiologies, laboratory findings, and management decisions, but did not differ in rates of adverse clinical outcomes. Future studies including thoroughly investigated patients with new diagnostic molecular methods may show different results and outcomes.

  8. Alterations in Aerobic Exercise Performance and Gait Economy Following High-Intensity Dynamic Stepping Training in Persons With Subacute Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leddy, Abigail L; Connolly, Mark; Holleran, Carey L; Hennessy, Patrick W; Woodward, Jane; Arena, Ross A; Roth, Elliot J; Hornby, T George

    2016-10-01

    Impairments in metabolic capacity and economy (O2cost) are hallmark characteristics of locomotor dysfunction following stroke. High-intensity (aerobic) training has been shown to improve peak oxygen consumption in this population, with fewer reports of changes in O2cost. However, particularly in persons with subacute stroke, inconsistent gains in walking function are observed with minimal associations with gains in metabolic parameters. The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in aerobic exercise performance in participants with subacute stroke following high-intensity variable stepping training as compared with conventional therapy. A secondary analysis was performed on data from a randomized controlled trial comparing high-intensity training with conventional interventions, and from the pilot study that formed the basis for the randomized controlled trial. Participants 1 to 6 months poststroke received 40 or fewer sessions of high-intensity variable stepping training (n = 21) or conventional interventions (n = 12). Assessments were performed at baseline (BSL), posttraining, and 2- to 3-month follow-up and included changes in submaximal (Equation is included in full-text article.)O2 ((Equation is included in full-text article.)O2submax) and O2cost at fastest possible treadmill speeds and peak speeds at BSL testing. Significant improvements were observed in (Equation is included in full-text article.)O2submax with less consistent improvements in O2cost, although individual responses varied substantially. Combined changes in both (Equation is included in full-text article.)O2submax and (Equation is included in full-text article.)O2 at matched peak BSL speeds revealed stronger correlations to improvements in walking function as compared with either measure alone. High-intensity stepping training may elicit significant improvements in (Equation is included in full-text article.)O2submax, whereas changes in both peak capacity and economy better reflect gains

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in patients presenting with (sub)acute cerebellar ataxia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Tanja [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Hamburg (Germany); The Johns Hopkins Hospital School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Division of Neuroradiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Thomalla, Goetz [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Neurology, Hamburg (Germany); Goebell, Einar [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Hamburg (Germany); Piotrowski, Anna [The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Baltimore, MD (United States); Yousem, David Mark [The Johns Hopkins Hospital School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Division of Neuroradiology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-02-17

    Acute or subacute cerebellar inflammation is mainly caused by postinfectious, toxic, neoplastic, vascular, or idiopathic processes and can result in cerebellar ataxia. Previous magnetic resonance (MR) studies in single patients who developed acute or subacute ataxia showed varying imaging features. Eighteen patients presenting with acute and subacute onset of ataxia were included in this study. Cases of chronic-progressive/hereditary and noncerebellar causes (ischemia, multiple sclerosis lesions, metastasis, bleedings) were excluded. MR imaging findings were then matched with the clinical history of the patient. An underlying etiology for ataxic symptoms were found in 14/18 patients (postinfectious/infectious, paraneoplastic, autoimmune, drug-induced). In two of five patients without MR imaging findings and three of eight patients with minimal imaging features (cerebellar atrophy, slight signal alterations, and small areas of restricted diffusion), adverse clinical outcomes were documented. Of the five patients with prominent MR findings (cerebellar swelling, contrast enhancement, or broad signal abnormalities), two were lost to follow-up and two showed long-term sequelae. No correlation was found between the presence of initial MRI findings in subacute or acute ataxia patients and their long-term clinical outcome. MR imaging was more flagrantly positive in cases due to encephalitis. (orig.)

  10. Cerebral Reorganization in Subacute Stroke Survivors after Virtual Reality-Based Training: A Preliminary Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xiang Xiao; Qiang Lin; Wai-Leung Lo; Yu-Rong Mao; Xin-chong Shi; Ryan S. Cates; Shu-Feng Zhou; Dong-Feng Huang; Le Li

    2017-01-01

      Background. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a promising method for quantifying brain recovery and investigating the intervention-induced changes in corticomotor excitability after stroke...

  11. Protein consumptions in stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Maghsoudi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Stroke is one of the most common causes of disabilities and death all over the world. The mortality rate of stroke is predicted to be doubled by 2030 in the Middle East countries. Nutrition is an effective strategy in prevention and management of stroke. This study assessed the relationship between various protein types and stroke risk. Materials and Methods: This hospital-based case-control study was performed in a University hospital. The data regarding consumption of usual food intake of 69 cases (46 men and 23 women and 60 controls (30 men and 30 women was collected with a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. The mean consumption of red and white meat and vegetable and processed proteins consumption were compared between two groups. Results: The percent of total of daily protein intake were lower in patients with stroke in both sexes (25.92% vs 30.55% in men and 30.7% vs 31.14% in women. Conclusion: Lower protein consumption may be observed in patients with stroke patients in both sex.

  12. Medical image analysis methods in MR/CT-imaged acute-subacute ischemic stroke lesion: Segmentation, prediction and insights into dynamic evolution simulation models. A critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekik, Islem; Allassonnière, Stéphanie; Carpenter, Trevor K; Wardlaw, Joanna M

    2012-01-01

    Over the last 15 years, basic thresholding techniques in combination with standard statistical correlation-based data analysis tools have been widely used to investigate different aspects of evolution of acute or subacute to late stage ischemic stroke in both human and animal data. Yet, a wave of biology-dependent and imaging-dependent issues is still untackled pointing towards the key question: "how does an ischemic stroke evolve?" Paving the way for potential answers to this question, both magnetic resonance (MRI) and CT (computed tomography) images have been used to visualize the lesion extent, either with or without spatial distinction between dead and salvageable tissue. Combining diffusion and perfusion imaging modalities may provide the possibility of predicting further tissue recovery or eventual necrosis. Going beyond these basic thresholding techniques, in this critical appraisal, we explore different semi-automatic or fully automatic 2D/3D medical image analysis methods and mathematical models applied to human, animal (rats/rodents) and/or synthetic ischemic stroke to tackle one of the following three problems: (1) segmentation of infarcted and/or salvageable (also called penumbral) tissue, (2) prediction of final ischemic tissue fate (death or recovery) and (3) dynamic simulation of the lesion core and/or penumbra evolution. To highlight the key features in the reviewed segmentation and prediction methods, we propose a common categorization pattern. We also emphasize some key aspects of the methods such as the imaging modalities required to build and test the presented approach, the number of patients/animals or synthetic samples, the use of external user interaction and the methods of assessment (clinical or imaging-based). Furthermore, we investigate how any key difficulties, posed by the evolution of stroke such as swelling or reperfusion, were detected (or not) by each method. In the absence of any imaging-based macroscopic dynamic model applied to

  13. Medical image analysis methods in MR/CT-imaged acute-subacute ischemic stroke lesion: Segmentation, prediction and insights into dynamic evolution simulation models. A critical appraisal☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekik, Islem; Allassonnière, Stéphanie; Carpenter, Trevor K.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last 15 years, basic thresholding techniques in combination with standard statistical correlation-based data analysis tools have been widely used to investigate different aspects of evolution of acute or subacute to late stage ischemic stroke in both human and animal data. Yet, a wave of biology-dependent and imaging-dependent issues is still untackled pointing towards the key question: “how does an ischemic stroke evolve?” Paving the way for potential answers to this question, both magnetic resonance (MRI) and CT (computed tomography) images have been used to visualize the lesion extent, either with or without spatial distinction between dead and salvageable tissue. Combining diffusion and perfusion imaging modalities may provide the possibility of predicting further tissue recovery or eventual necrosis. Going beyond these basic thresholding techniques, in this critical appraisal, we explore different semi-automatic or fully automatic 2D/3D medical image analysis methods and mathematical models applied to human, animal (rats/rodents) and/or synthetic ischemic stroke to tackle one of the following three problems: (1) segmentation of infarcted and/or salvageable (also called penumbral) tissue, (2) prediction of final ischemic tissue fate (death or recovery) and (3) dynamic simulation of the lesion core and/or penumbra evolution. To highlight the key features in the reviewed segmentation and prediction methods, we propose a common categorization pattern. We also emphasize some key aspects of the methods such as the imaging modalities required to build and test the presented approach, the number of patients/animals or synthetic samples, the use of external user interaction and the methods of assessment (clinical or imaging-based). Furthermore, we investigate how any key difficulties, posed by the evolution of stroke such as swelling or reperfusion, were detected (or not) by each method. In the absence of any imaging-based macroscopic dynamic model

  14. A retrospective research of HIV-negative cryptococcal meningoencephalitis patients with acute/subacute onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, H; Chen, Q; Xie, Z; Wang, D; Li, M; Zhang, X; Man, Y; Lao, J; Chen, N; Zhou, L

    2016-02-01

    Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis (CM) may present as an acute, subacute, or chronic infection. It manifests as a chronic process in over 75 % of cases, but, sometimes, it presents with a more acute onset, mostly in HIV-associated patients. Until now, there has been no study performed on the clinical features of HIV-negative CM patients with acute/subacute onset. We collected 106 HIV-negative patients diagnosed with CM in our hospital during a 15-year period, analyzed their epidemiological and clinical features, as well as the outcomes, and explored the independent prognosis factors and the factors related to the survival time among them. We found that impaired consciousness (23.4 % vs. 3.4 %, p = 0.017) was more common in CM patients with acute/subacute onset, while decreased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) glucose (51.9 % vs. 75.9 %, p = 0.026) was less common. The ratio of CSF glucose/blood glucose [odds ratio (OR) 0.04, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.004-0.262, p = 0.02], impaired consciousness (OR 5.09, 95 % CI 1.477-17.522, p = 0.01), and hospitalization length (OR 0.98, 95 % CI 0.977-0.999, p = 0.04) were indicated to be not only independent prognosis factors in HIV-negative CM patients with acute/subacute onset, but also factors significantly related to the survival time. The results of our study demonstrated that the contact history and potential history risk factors would not affect the onset process of HIV-negative CM patients, and the mortality, hospitalization length, and survival time has not been related to the onset process. However, the ratio of CSF glucose/blood glucose, consciousness level, and hospitalization length of the HIV-negative CM patients with acute/subacute onset should be of greater focus in the clinical work.

  15. [Hospitalization of non-stroke patients in a Stroke Unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckmann, J G; Stadter, M; Dütsch, M; Handschu, R; Rauch, C; Neundörfer, B

    2004-04-02

    Stroke care in Germany has substantially improved during the last decade. One column of modern stroke care is the institution of stroke unit which allows rapid diagnosis and treatment. The aspect of admission of nonstroke patients to a stroke unit is poorly evaluated. The aim of this study is to evaluate the number of patients who are admitted to a national stroke unit but do not suffer from stroke. Furthermore, we related the proportion of nonstroke referrals to the different referral modes. Observational study recording all suspected stroke referrals with regard to final diagnosis and type of referral during a 12-month period (1.8.2002-31.7.2003). 462 patients were admitted by 4 routes: 74 by paramedics or by self-presentation, 138 by emergency physicians, 144 by primary care doctors, and 106 were transferred from other hospitals. 88 patients (19 %) finally revealed no acute stroke. The most common nonstroke diagnoses were seizure (20 %), dissociative disorders (14 %), cranial nerve disorders (11 %), hypoglycaemia (8 %) and transient global amnesia (7 %). There was no significant difference among the proportion of nonstroke patients referred by ambulance paramedics and self-presentation (15 %), emergency physicians (21 %), primary care doctors (15 %) and interhospital transfer (24 %) [p = 0.222, X (2)-test according to Pearson]. Due to the fact that a number of clinical neurological conditions mimic acute stroke, misdiagnosis of stroke is common. We advocate that all stroke patients are seen early in the course of the disease by a neurologist. An alternative could be that in stroke units of internal medicine hospitals patients are seen by a consulting neurologist. Alternatively, telemedicine might be used and the neurologist on duty of a neurological stroke unit could be consulted.

  16. How feasible is the attainment of community ambulation after stroke? A pilot randomized controlled trial to evaluate community-based physiotherapy in subacute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Susan; McPherson, Kathryn M; McNaughton, Harry K; Rochester, Lynn; Weatherall, Mark

    2008-03-01

    This pilot randomized controlled trial evaluated an assistant-led, community-based intervention to improve community mobility and participation after stroke, and examined the potential for independent community ambulation in people with subacute stroke who present with moderate gait deficit. A multicentre, pilot randomized controlled trial. Three hospitals and three community settings in New Zealand. Thirty post-acute, home-dwelling stroke survivors were randomly allocated to receive intervention in the community (n = 14) or as hospital outpatients (n = 16) twice a week for seven weeks. The community intervention involved practice of functional gait activities in community environments relevant to each participant. Hospital-based physiotherapy was based upon a Motor Relearning approach. The primary outcome measure was gait speed (m/min). Secondary outcomes included endurance (six-minute walk time), Activities-specific Confidence Balance Scale, and the Subjective Index of Physical and Social Outcomes measured at baseline, post intervention and six months. Large gains in gait speed were obtained for participants in both groups: community group mean (SD) 16 (16.1) m/min; physiotherapy group mean (SD) 15.9 (16.1) m/min, maintained at six months. There were no significant differences between groups for primary and secondary outcomes after treatment (P = 0.86 ANOVA) or at six months (P = 0.83 ANOVA). Only 11 participants reported independent community ambulation. Levels of social integration were low to moderate. A community-based gait recovery programme appears a practicable alternative to routine physiotherapy, however independent community ambulation is a challenging rehabilitation goal.

  17. How Reproducible Are Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation-Induced MEPs in Subacute Stroke?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoonhorst, Maurits H. W. J.; Kollen, Boudewijn J.; van den Berg, Peter S. P.; Emmelot, Cornelis H.; Kwakkel, Gert

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and total motor conduction time (TMCT) induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) are used to make assumptions about the prognosis of motor outcome after stroke. Understanding the different sources of variability is fundamental to the concept of

  18. [Nutritional support in stroke patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos Peláez, Rosa; Segurola Gurrutxaga, Hegoi; Bretón Lesmes, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is a public health problem of the first order. In developed countries is one of the leading causes of death, along with cardiovascular disease and cancer. In addition, stroke is the leading cause of permanent disability in adulthood. Many of the patients who survive do so with significant sequelae that limit them in their activities of daily living. Most strokes (80-85%) are due to ischemia, while the rest are hemorrhagic. We have identified many modifiable risk factors, some with an important relationship with dietary factors or comorbidities in wich the diet has a significant impact. The incidence of malnutrition in stroke patients is not well known, but most likely impacts on patient prognosis. Furthermore, the nutritional status of patients admitted for stroke often deteriorates during hospitalization. It is necessary to perform a nutritional assessment of the patient in the early hours of admission, to determine both the nutritional status and the presence of dysphagia. Dysphagia, through alteration of the safety and efficacy of swallowing, is a complication that has an implication for nutritional support, and must be treated to prevent aspiration pneumonia, which is the leading cause of mortality in the stroke patient. Nutritional support should begin in the early hours. In patients with no or mild dysphagia that can be controlled by modifying the texture of the diet, they will start oral diet and oral nutritional supplementation will be used if the patient does not meet their nutritional requirements. There is no evidence to support the use of nutritional supplements routinely. Patients with severe dysphagia, or decreased level of consciousness will require enteral nutrition. Current evidence indicates that early nutrition should be initiated through a nasogastric tube, with any advantages of early feeding gastrostomy. Gastrostomy will be planned when the enteral nutrition support will be expected for long-term (4 weeks). Much evidence points to the

  19. Relationships between calf muscle density and muscle strength, mobility and bone status in the stroke survivors with subacute and chronic lower limb hemiparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, N J; Rombough, R; Brouwer, B

    2010-12-01

    To determine the relationship between muscle density and neuromusculoskeletal status in stroke survivors with subacute and chronic hemiparesis. Community-dwelling adults were recruited into one of 3 groups (11 per group): subacute stroke group (SSG, 1 year post-stroke), or age- and gender-matched control group (CG). Muscle density, muscle mass and tibial bone status (cortical density, mass and polar stress-strain index (pSSI)) were measured bilaterally at the tibial 66% site using peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Muscle strength of ankle plantarflexors and knee extensors was assessed using isokinetic dynamometry. Mobility was assessed using the Berg Balance Scale. Univariate regression analyses by group tested whether side-to-side differences in muscle density and measures of neuromusculoskeletal status were related. In the SSG and CG, relationships were observed for muscle density and ankle plantarflexor strength (R²= 0.365 and 0.503). Muscle density related to muscle mass in the CG only (R²= 0.889). Muscle density related to cortical bone density in the SSG (R²= 0.602) and pSSI in the CSG (R²= 0.434). Muscle density may provide insight into the side-to-side changes in muscle and bone strength following hemiparetic stroke.

  20. Case report: subacute tetraplegia in an immunocompromised patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Daniel; Heidemeier, Anke; Grigoleit, Götz Ulrich; Müllges, Wolfgang

    2017-02-10

    Clinical reasoning in Neurology is based on general associations which help to deduce the site of the lesion. However, even "golden principles" may occasionally be deceptive. Here, we describe the case of subacute flaccid tetraparesis due to motor cortical lesions. To our knowledge, this is the first report to include an impressive illustration of nearly symmetric motor cortical involvement of encephalitis on brain MRI. A 51 year old immunocompromized man developed a high-grade pure motor flaccid tetraparesis over few days. Based on clinical presentation, critical illness polyneuromyopathy was suspected. However, brain MRI revealed symmetrical hyperintensities strictly limited to the subcortical precentral gyrus. An encephalitis, possibly due to CMV infection, turned out to be the most likely cause. While recognition of basic clinical patterns is indispensable in neurological reasoning, awareness of central conditions mimicking peripheral nervous disease may be crucial to detect unsuspected, potentially treatable conditions.

  1. Post-stroke sexual functioning in first stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamam, Y; Tamam, L; Akil, E; Yasan, A; Tamam, B

    2008-07-01

    Although physical problems after stroke have been well studied, there is little information on one of the crucial aspects of the quality of life of those patients, namely sexual functioning and satisfaction. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of stroke on sexual functioning in a stable cohort of Turkish stroke patients with mild or no disability and to assess the relationship between post-stroke sexuality and a number of socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory variables. The sexual functioning of 103 Turkish stroke patients with no disability or mild disability was assessed in two consecutive interviews along with clinical and sociodemographic features. NIH stroke, Glasgow coma, Barthel, and Rankin scales were also applied to assess neurologic status and disability. Most of the patients were male (61%) and illiterate (70%). There was a significant difference between the baseline and post-stroke frequency of sexual activity of the patients. The differences between baseline and post-stroke vaginal lubrication, orgasms and satisfaction were all statistically significant. This latter difference was significant for both genders. Frequency of coitus both prior to and after the stroke was significantly different between males and females. Erection and ejaculation of the males was significantly affected by the stroke, and lubrication and orgasm was affected in the females. Interestingly, fear of recurrent stroke did not differ between genders. Our study has shown that Turkish stroke survivors have sexual health needs during the rehabilitation process, though this has not been addressed previously. Sexual health needs seem to be affected by cultural factors and biases.

  2. Cerebral toxoplasmosis mimicking subacute meningitis in HIV-infected patients; a cohort study from Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rizal Ganiem

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV-associated subacute meningitis is mostly caused by tuberculosis or cryptococcosis, but often no etiology can be established. In the absence of CT or MRI of the brain, toxoplasmosis is generally not considered as part of the differential diagnosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed cerebrospinal fluid real time PCR and serological testing for Toxoplasma gondii in archived samples from a well-characterized cohort of 64 HIV-infected patients presenting with subacute meningitis in a referral hospital in Indonesia. Neuroradiology was only available for 6 patients. At time of presentation, patients mostly had newly diagnosed and advanced HIV infection (median CD4 count 22 cells/mL, with only 17.2% taking ART, and 9.4% PJP-prophylaxis. CSF PCR for T. Gondii was positive in 21 patients (32.8%. Circulating toxoplasma IgG was present in 77.2% of patients tested, including all in whom the PCR of CSF was positive for T. Gondii. Clinically, in the absence of neuroradiology, toxoplasmosis was difficult to distinguish from tuberculosis or cryptococcal meningitis, although CSF abnormalities were less pronounced. Mortality among patients with a positive CSF T. Gondii PCR was 81%, 2.16-fold higher (95% CI 1.04-4.47 compared to those with a negative PCR. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Toxoplasmosis should be considered in HIV-infected patients with clinically suspected subacute meningitis in settings where neuroradiology is not available.

  3. Obturator internus pyomyositis manifested as sciatica in a patient with subacute bacterial endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Wei-Ching; Hsu, Jin-Yi; Chen, Michael Yu-Chih; Liang, Chung-Chao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pyomyositis is a pyogenic infection of the skeletal muscles causing myalgia and fever in patients. Hematogenous seeding engendered by persistent bacteremia and septic embolism is usually the underlying cause of the disease. Trauma, intravenous drug use, and immunodeficiency are the main predisposing factors. Obturator internus pyomyositis with sciatica has not previously been reported. We report a rare case of a patient with subacute bacterial endocarditis presenting with left buttoc...

  4. Patients' and relatives' experience of difficulties following severe traumatic brain injury: the sub-acute stage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Sara; Schönberger, Michael; Poulsen, Ingrid

    2008-01-01

    was low compared to other studies using the EBIQ. Furthermore, the effects of injury severity and general level of functioning had limited impact on the subjective experience of difficulties. Implications of these findings, specifically as they pertain to the sub-acute stage are discussed Udgivelsesdato......The present study aimed to (1) identify the difficulties most frequently reported by individuals with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) at the time of discharge from a sub-acute rehabilitation brain injury unit as well as difficulties reported by their relatives, (2) compare patients......' and relatives' reports of patient difficulties, and (3) explore the role of injury severity, disability and other factors on subjective experience of difficulties. The primary measure was the European Brain Injury Questionnaire (EBIQ) administered to patients and to one of their close relatives at discharge...

  5. Patient preferences for stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Patricia; Edwards, Lloyd; Faurot, Keturah; Williams, Sharon W; Felix, Ana C G

    2010-01-01

    Early aggressive rehabilitation therapies maximize functional recovery. We examined patient-reported preferences for their initial rehabilitation therapy setting during their acute stroke hospitalization and whether there was an association between their preferences and their actual discharge destination. Eligible stroke patients were surveyed during their acute hospital stay at either a primary stroke center or a rural community hospital in North Carolina. Patients were questioned about their knowledge of inpatient rehabilitation, preferences for the initial rehabilitation therapy setting and intensity, and how far from home they were willing to travel to receive therapies. The primary outcome was their actual discharge destination. The exposure variable was their preference for initial rehabilitation therapy setting. Logistic regression models assessed the relationship between the outcome and exposure while controlling for other variables of interest. Among 53 patients surveyed in the study, 85% preferred to be discharged home. After controlling for other factors, discharge to the actual destination of home was associated with a preference for an initial rehabilitation therapy setting of home (OR, 7.19; 95% CI, 1.10-46.89). Patient preference for the initial rehabilitation therapy setting is home. Providers should inquire about patient preference and provide information about treatment options to help inform decision making.

  6. Atrial fibrillation in patients with ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Sandra Kruchov; Frost, Lars; Eagle, Kim A

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation is a major risk factor for ischemic stroke. However, the prognostic impact of atrial fibrillation among patients with stroke is not fully clarified. We compared patient characteristics, including severity of stroke and comorbidity, quality of in-hospital care and o...

  7. Atypical clinical and electroencephalographic pattern in a patient with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Délrio F. Silva

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe an atypical clinical and electroencephalographic (EEG pattern observed during the course of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in a 14 year-old boy. In this patient with a two weeks history of partial complex seizures, the atypical EEG pattern was characterized by an initial left temporal focus which evolved to periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges (PLEDs and, only during the 3rd and 4th weeks the typical bilateral and generalized periodic complexes appeared.

  8. Role of CSF serology in follow-up of subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis patients on treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta E

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE is a progressive inflammatory disease of the central nervous system with poor prognosis and high mortality. No effective treatment has a proven role; oral isoprinosine and intrathecal administration of a-interferon may prolong survival. We report an unusual case of adult onset SSPE patient on treatment with significant clinical improvement, even in the absence of conversion to seronegativity in either CSF or serum, on follow-up serological examination.

  9. Effects of myofascial technique in patients with subacute whiplash associated disorders: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picelli, A; Ledro, G; Turrina, A; Stecco, C; Santilli, V; Smania, N

    2011-12-01

    Whiplash associated disorders commonly affect people after a motor vehicle accident, causing a variety of disabling manifestations. Some manual and physical approaches have been proposed to improve myofascial function after traumatic injuries, in order to effectively reduce pain and functional limitation. To evaluate whether the application of the Fascial Manipulation© technique could be more effective than a conventional approach to improve cervical range of motion in patients with subacute whiplash associated disorders. Pilot randomized clinical trial. Eighteen patients with subacute whiplash associated disorders were randomized into two groups. Group A (N.=9) received three, 30-minute sessions, (every five days during a two week period) of neck Fascial Manipulation©. Group B (N.=9) received ten, 30-minute sessions (five days a week for two consecutive weeks) of neck exercises plus mobilization. Patients were evaluated before, immediately after and two weeks post-treatment. cervical active range of motion (flexion, extension, right lateral-flexion, left lateral-flexion, right rotation, and left rotation). A statistically significant improvement in neck flexion was found after treatment in favour of Group A (60.2±10.8°) compared with Group B (46.3±15.1°). No differences were found between groups for the other primary outcomes at post-treatment or follow-up. The Fascial Manipulation© technique may be a promising method to improve cervical range of motion in patients with subacute whiplash associated disorders. Myofascial techniques may be useful for improving treatment of subacute whiplash associated disorders also reducing their economic burden.

  10. An evaluation of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis patients with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuhandan, M; Cece, H; Calik, M; Karakas, E; Dogan, F; Karakas, O

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the contribution of diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging to the diagnosis and staging of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. The study comprised 26 patients diagnosed with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis at our clinic who were undergoing regular follow-up, and a control group of 18 subjects. Clinical staging was determined by Risk and Haddad classification; 12 at Stage II and 14 at Stage III. Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance images were taken of six areas (frontal, parieto-occipital, cerebellar, deep white matter, thalamus and basal ganglia) and by calculating the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values, and a comparison was made between the stages and with the control group. The ADC values of all the areas of the subacute sclerosing panencephalitis patients were found to be significantly higher compared to the control group (p 0.05). The ADC values of all the areas of the Stage III patients were found to be significantly high compared to the Stage II values (p panencephalitis and to reveal differences between the stages.

  11. Randomized trial of treadmill walking with body weight support to establish walking in subacute stroke: the MOBILISE trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ada, Louise; Dean, Catherine M; Morris, Meg E; Simpson, Judy M; Katrak, Pesi

    2010-06-01

    The main objective of this randomized trial was to determine whether treadmill walking with body weight support was effective at establishing independent walking more often and earlier than current physiotherapy intervention for nonambulatory stroke patients. A randomized trial with concealed allocation, blinded assessment, and intention-to-treat analysis was conducted. One hundred twenty-six stroke patients who were unable to walk were recruited and randomly allocated to an experimental or a control group within 4 weeks of stroke. The experimental group undertook up to 30 minutes per day of treadmill walking with body weight support via an overhead harness whereas the control group undertook up to 30 minutes of overground walking. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants achieving independent walking within 6 months. Kaplan-Meier estimates of the proportion of experimental participants who achieved independent walking were 37% compared with 26% of the control group at 1 month, 66% compared with 55% at 2 months, and 71% compared with 60% at 6 months (P=0.13). The experimental group walked 2 weeks earlier, with a median time to independent walking of 5 weeks compared to 7 weeks for the control group. In addition, 14% (95% CI, -1-28) more of the experimental group were discharged home. Treadmill walking with body weight support is feasible, safe, and tends to result in more people walking independently and earlier after stroke. Trial Registration- ClinicalTrial.gov (NCT00167531).

  12. Stroke in a Patient With HIV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buse Rahime Hasırcı

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Stroke which is a common complication in Human immumodeficiency virus type 1 positive patients is seen between 1% and 5% in clinical series. Vasculopathy and atherogenesis in HIV are the main pathologic mechanisms of stroke. We report a 63 year old man with sudden onset of a right hemiplegia and who was diagnosed as HIV-related stroke.

  13. Dual-mode noninvasive brain stimulation over the bilateral primary motor cortices in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae Yong; Lee, Ahee; Kim, Min Su; Park, Eunhee; Chang, Won Hyuk; Shin, Yong-Il; Kim, Yun-Hee

    2017-01-01

    Noninvasive brain stimulation (NBS) using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has recently been adopted for modulating motor function in stroke patients. We investigated the effect of simultaneous dual-mode stimulation using rTMS and tDCS over the bilateral primary motor cortices (M1) to assess its efficacy as compared to single stimulation using rTMS for the recovery of motor function in subacute stroke patients. Thirty subacute stroke patients were recruited in this study. In the dual-mode stimulation group, 10 Hz rTMS (90% of resting motor threshold, 1,000 pulses) was applied over the ipsilesional M1 for 20 minutes with the simultaneous application of cathodal tDCS (2 mA) on the contralesional M1. The single stimulation group underwent 10 Hz rTMS without tDCS. Ten daily sessions were conducted for two consecutive weeks. The total Fugl-Meyer (FMA-T), upper limb (FMA-UL), and lower limb (FMA-LL) scores were measured before, after, and two months later. The FMA-T and FMA- UL were significantly improved over time in both the dual and single stimulation group (p stimulation group. Dual-mode NBS with the simultaneous application of 10 Hz rTMS and cathodal tDCS over the bilateral M1s was safe and superior to 10 Hz rTMS alone for improving motor function in subacute stroke patients.

  14. Polysomnographic indicators of mortality in stroke patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponsaing, Laura B; Iversen, Helle K; Jennum, Poul

    2017-01-01

    .92; 95 % CI 2.00-49.23; p = 0.005), and there was a trend toward a higher mortality risk with atrial fibrillation/flutter (HR 3.63; 95 % CI 0.97-13.51; p = 0.055). CONCLUSIONS: In stroke patients, the AHI and nocturnal wake time are indicators of increased mortality risk. SRBDs in stroke patients should......PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to assess polysomnographic indicators of increased mortality risk in patients with stroke or a transient ischemic attack (TIA). METHODS: We performed polysomnographies in 63 acute stroke/TIA patients. Mortality data were collected from a national database after...

  15. Mirror therapy enhances upper extremity motor recovery in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirela Cristina, Luca; Matei, Daniela; Ignat, Bogdan; Popescu, Cristian Dinu

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of mirror therapy program in addition with physical therapy methods on upper limb recovery in patients with subacute ischemic stroke. 15 subjects followed a comprehensive rehabilitative treatment, 8 subjects received only control therapy (CT) and 7 subjects received mirror therapy (MT) for 30 min every day, five times a week, for 6 weeks in addition to the conventional therapy. Brunnstrom stages, Fugl-Meyer Assessment (upper extremity), the Ashworth Scale, and Bhakta Test (finger flexion scale) were used to assess changes in upper limb motor recovery and motor function after intervention. After 6 weeks of treatment, patients in both groups showed significant improvements in the variables measured. Patients who received MT showed greater improvements compared to the CT group. The MT treatment results included: improvement of motor functions, manual skills and activities of daily living. The best results were obtained when the treatment was started soon after the stroke. MT is an easy and low-cost method to improve motor recovery of the upper limb.

  16. The evaluation of cerebral oxygenation by oximetry in patients with ischaemic stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet G

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: To evaluate the clinical significance of estimation of the regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2 in the patients with ischaemic stroke by the cerebral oximetry during acute, sub-acute and chronic phases. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In this prospective study, 24 patients with ischaemic stroke in the middle cerebral artery territory were included. A detailed clinical examination and appropriate laboratory investigations were carried out. The rSO2 was determined by oximetery (INVOS 3100-SD bilaterally on the first, third, seventh, and fifteenth days. The blood pressure, the peripheral capillary oxygen saturation and the arterial blood gas values were noted too. the changes were evaluated along with Glasgow coma scale (GCS using unpaired student t-test and one way ANOVA test. RESULTS: There were significant differences between the rSO2 values in acute, subacute and chronic phases on the side of the lesion (p value < 0.05. The values of oxygen saturation gradually increased throughout the chronic phase. These values showed a positive correlation with GCS, but the results were not significant statistically. The rSO2 values were also significantly higher on the non-lesional side than those on the lesion side in the acute phase (p= 0.0034, the discrepancy disappeared during the sub-acute and chronic phases. CONCLUSION: Cerebral oximetry can be used as a measure to evaluate the cerebral oxygenation during the various phases of ischaemic stroke. It has a potential to serve as a useful marker for detection of cerebral oxygenation imbalances, to judge the effectiveness of the management and for the follow-up of patients with ischaemic stroke.

  17. Acupuncture Enhances Effective Connectivity between Cerebellum and Primary Sensorimotor Cortex in Patients with Stable Recovery Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zijing Xie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that stimulation of acupuncture at motor-implicated acupoints modulates activities of brain areas relevant to the processing of motor functions. This study aims to investigate acupuncture-induced changes in effective connectivity among motor areas in hemiparetic stroke patients by using the multivariate Granger causal analysis. A total of 9 stable recovery stroke patients and 8 healthy controls were recruited and underwent three runs of fMRI scan: passive finger movements and resting state before and after manual acupuncture stimuli. Stroke patients showed significantly attenuated effective connectivity between cortical and subcortical areas during passive motor task, which indicates inefficient information transmissions between cortical and subcortical motor-related regions. Acupuncture at motor-implicated acupoints showed specific modulations of motor-related network in stroke patients relative to healthy control subjects. This specific modulation enhanced bidirectionally effective connectivity between the cerebellum and primary sensorimotor cortex in stroke patients, which may compensate for the attenuated effective connectivity between cortical and subcortical areas during passive motor task and, consequently, contribute to improvement of movement coordination and motor learning in subacute stroke patients. Our results suggested that further efficacy studies of acupuncture in motor recovery can focus on the improvement of movement coordination and motor learning during motor rehabilitation.

  18. Pulmonary involvement in patients with Guillain–Barré syndrome in subacute phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meeka Khanna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the pulmonary function in Guillain–Barre syndrome (GBS patients in subacute phase and find clinical correlates of pulmonary dysfunction. Methods: This was a single-center, prospective, cross-sectional, hospital-based study in GBS patients performed in Department of Neurological Rehabilitation at a tertiary care institute. Clinical examination for pulmonary function was done by measuring chest expansion. The pulmonary function tests were carried out by Spirometry kit Microquark Cosmed, Italy. Fatigue was assessed by Fatigue Severity Scale, disability status by Hughes Disability Scale (HDS, and muscle weakness by Medical Research Council sum scores. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was performed by Stata 11. The significance of P value was adjudged against an alpha of 0.05. Results: Twenty-eight patients were included with 17 (61% men and mean age of 31 years. Median duration of symptoms was 16.5 days. There were 10 (36% demyelinating and 18 (64% axonal variants. Twenty-six (93% patients scored more than 2 on HDS. All study participants reported fatigue. Twenty-two (78.6% patients had chest expansion of <2.5 cm. Spirometry showed restrictive pulmonary dysfunction in 23 (79% patients. Significant correlation was found between abnormal pulmonary function test and chest expansion (P = 0.003. Conclusion: Pulmonary dysfunction in GBS is common even during subacute phase. It needs to be identified and managed appropriately for better clinical outcome.

  19. Pulmonary Involvement in Patients with Guillain–Barré Syndrome in Subacute Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Meeka; Rawat, Nidhi; Gupta, Anupam; Nagappa, Madhu; Taly, Arun B.; Rukmani, M. R.; Sathyaprabha, T. N.; Haldar, Partha

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the pulmonary function in Guillain–Barre syndrome (GBS) patients in subacute phase and find clinical correlates of pulmonary dysfunction. Methods: This was a single-center, prospective, cross-sectional, hospital-based study in GBS patients performed in Department of Neurological Rehabilitation at a tertiary care institute. Clinical examination for pulmonary function was done by measuring chest expansion. The pulmonary function tests were carried out by Spirometry kit Microquark Cosmed, Italy. Fatigue was assessed by Fatigue Severity Scale, disability status by Hughes Disability Scale (HDS), and muscle weakness by Medical Research Council sum scores. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was performed by Stata 11. The significance of P value was adjudged against an alpha of 0.05. Results: Twenty-eight patients were included with 17 (61%) men and mean age of 31 years. Median duration of symptoms was 16.5 days. There were 10 (36%) demyelinating and 18 (64%) axonal variants. Twenty-six (93%) patients scored more than 2 on HDS. All study participants reported fatigue. Twenty-two (78.6%) patients had chest expansion of <2.5 cm. Spirometry showed restrictive pulmonary dysfunction in 23 (79%) patients. Significant correlation was found between abnormal pulmonary function test and chest expansion (P = 0.003). Conclusion: Pulmonary dysfunction in GBS is common even during subacute phase. It needs to be identified and managed appropriately for better clinical outcome. PMID:28694622

  20. Pulmonary Involvement in Patients with Guillain-Barré Syndrome in Subacute Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Meeka; Rawat, Nidhi; Gupta, Anupam; Nagappa, Madhu; Taly, Arun B; Rukmani, M R; Sathyaprabha, T N; Haldar, Partha

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the pulmonary function in Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) patients in subacute phase and find clinical correlates of pulmonary dysfunction. This was a single-center, prospective, cross-sectional, hospital-based study in GBS patients performed in Department of Neurological Rehabilitation at a tertiary care institute. Clinical examination for pulmonary function was done by measuring chest expansion. The pulmonary function tests were carried out by Spirometry kit Microquark Cosmed, Italy. Fatigue was assessed by Fatigue Severity Scale, disability status by Hughes Disability Scale (HDS), and muscle weakness by Medical Research Council sum scores. Statistical analysis was performed by Stata 11. The significance of P value was adjudged against an alpha of 0.05. Twenty-eight patients were included with 17 (61%) men and mean age of 31 years. Median duration of symptoms was 16.5 days. There were 10 (36%) demyelinating and 18 (64%) axonal variants. Twenty-six (93%) patients scored more than 2 on HDS. All study participants reported fatigue. Twenty-two (78.6%) patients had chest expansion of <2.5 cm. Spirometry showed restrictive pulmonary dysfunction in 23 (79%) patients. Significant correlation was found between abnormal pulmonary function test and chest expansion (P = 0.003). Pulmonary dysfunction in GBS is common even during subacute phase. It needs to be identified and managed appropriately for better clinical outcome.

  1. Timing of reactive stepping among individuals with sub-acute stroke: effects of ‘single-task’ and ‘dual-task’ conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Schinkel-Ivy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Performance decrements in balance tasks are often observed when a secondary cognitive task is performed simultaneously. This study aimed to determine whether increased cognitive load resulted in altered reactive stepping in individuals with sub-acute stroke, compared to a reactive stepping trial with no secondary task. The secondary purpose was to determine whether differences existed between the first usual-response trial, subsequent usual-response trials, and the dual-task condition. Individuals with sub-acute stroke were exposed to external perturbations to elicit reactive steps. Perturbations were performed under a usual-response (single-task and dual-task condition. Measures of step timing and number of steps were based on force plate and video data, respectively; these measures were compared between the usual-response and dual-task trials, and between the first usual-response trial, later usual-response trials (trials 2–5 and a dual-task trial. A longer time of unloading onset and greater number of steps were identified for the first usual-response trial compared to later usual-response trials. No significant differences were identified between usual-response and dual-task trials. Although improvements were observed from the first to subsequent usual-response lean-and-release trials, performance then tended to decrease with the introduction of the dual-task condition. These findings suggest that when introduced after usual-response trials, the dual-task trial may represent the first trial of a new condition, which may be beneficial in reducing the potential for adaptation that may occur after multiple repetitions of a reactive stepping task. Therefore, these findings may lend support to the introduction of a new condition (i.e. a dual-task trial in addition to usual-response trials when assessing reactive balance in individuals with stroke.

  2. [Nutrition for elderly acute stroke patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Lisa; Iversen, Per Ole; Hauge, Truls

    2008-09-11

    Elderly people have an increased risk of malnutrition due to biological and physiological changes and underlying disease. Almost 90% of the stroke patients are older than 65 years, and the consequences of acute stroke may lead to additional nutritional problems. This paper reviews nutritional therapy for stroke patients. PubMed was searched (non-systematically) for prospective cohort studies of occurrence, diagnostics and consequences of undernutrition in stroke patients. Randomized trials were examined to identify clinical effects of oral protein and energy supplements or tube feeding on nutritional status and intake, functional status, infections, length of stay, quality of life and mortality. 8-35% of stroke patients are undernourished. Body weight is one of the most important parameters for assessment of nutritional status. Dysphagia occurs in up to 80% of patients with acute stroke and increases the risk of undernutrition, which again leads to prolonged length of stay, reduced functional status and poorer survival. Early nasogastric tube feeding does not increase the risk of pneumonia and may improve survival after six months. Oral supplements lead to a significantly improved nutritional intake in undernourished stroke patients, as well as improved nutritional status and survival in undernourished elderly. Nutritional treatment can improve the clinical outcome after an acute stroke, provided that there are good procedures for follow-up and monitoring of the treatment.

  3. Reducing depressive or anxiety symptoms in post-stroke patients: Pilot trial of a constructive integrative psychosocial intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yihong; Mpofu, Elias; Athanasou, James

    2017-01-01

    About 30% of stroke survivors clinically have depressive symptoms at some point following stroke and anxiety prevalence is around 20-25%. The purpose of this brief report is to evaluate a pilot trial of a constructive integrative psychosocial intervention (CIPI) over standard care in post-stroke depression or anxiety. Patients were randomly assigned to either CIPI ( n = 23) or standard care ( n = 19). Patients were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale at the 1 st , 3 rd , and 6 th months to monitor changes of mood. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test indicated that compared to admission baseline, patients with the intervention had significantly normal post-stroke depression symptom levels at the 1 st , 3 rd , and 6 th months ( P < 0.005). CIPI appears to be of incremental value in treating depression as well as anxiety in subacute care.

  4. Using robot fully assisted functional movements in upper-limb rehabilitation of chronic stroke patients: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caimmi, Marco; Chiavenna, Andrea; Scano, Alessandro; Gasperini, Giulio; Giovanzana, Chiara; Molinari Tosatti, Lorenzo; Molteni, Franco

    2017-06-01

    Robotic rehabilitation is promising to promote function in stroke patients. The assist as needed training paradigm has shown to stimulate neuroplasticity but often cannot be used because stroke patients are too impaired to actively control the robot against gravity. To verify whether a rehabilitation intervention based on robot fully assisted reaching against gravity (RCH) and hand-to-mouth (HTM) can promote upper-limb function in chronic stroke. Cohort study. Chronic stroke outpatients referring to the robotic rehabilitation lab of a rehabilitation centre. Ten chronic stroke patients with mild to moderate upper-limb hemiparesis. Patients underwent 12 sessions (3 per week) of robotic treatment using an end-effector robot Every session consisted of 20 minutes each of RCH and HtM; movements were fully assisted, but patients were asked to try to actively participate. The Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) was the primary outcome measure; Medical Research Council and Modified Ashworth Scale were the secondary outcome measures. All patients, but one, show functional improvements (FMA section A-D, mean increment 7.2±3.9 points, Probotic intervention based on functional movements, fully assisted, can be effective in promoting function in chronic stroke patients. These results are promising considering the short time of the intervention (1 month) and the time from the stroke event, which was large (27±20 months). A larger study, comprehensive of objective instrumental measures, is necessary to confirm the results. This intervention could be extended even to subacute stroke and other neurological disorders.

  5. Obturator internus pyomyositis manifested as sciatica in a patient with subacute bacterial endocarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wei-Ching; Hsu, Jin-Yi; Chen, Michael Yu-Chih; Liang, Chung-Chao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pyomyositis is a pyogenic infection of the skeletal muscles causing myalgia and fever in patients. Hematogenous seeding engendered by persistent bacteremia and septic embolism is usually the underlying cause of the disease. Trauma, intravenous drug use, and immunodeficiency are the main predisposing factors. Obturator internus pyomyositis with sciatica has not previously been reported. We report a rare case of a patient with subacute bacterial endocarditis presenting with left buttock pain and sciatica. Computed tomography confirmed the diagnosis of obturator internus pyomyositis. The patient was discharged uneventfully after successful antibiotic treatment. The mortality rate of patients who have pyomyositis comorbid with another condition or disease is extremely high. Early diagnosis and aggressive management are imperative. PMID:27472717

  6. Inapparent lung involvement in patients with the subacute juvenile type of paracoccidioidomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Restrepo

    1989-02-01

    Full Text Available Three patients with the diagnosis of subacute juvenile paracoccidioidomycosis who, at the time of their first visit, had no signs or symptoms of lung involvement, were studied. Initially the diagnosis was confirmed by the observation of P. brasiliensis in biopsy material obtained from clinically involved lymphadenopathies. The lung X-rays done in all patients, did not reveal pathologic changes, although it was possible to observe and isolate the fungus from sputum samples obtained from the three patients. This fact reinforces the pulmonary genesis of the mycosis and proofs the existence of a pulmonary primary infection, even in patients with the juvenile manifestations, in whom the lung component is obscured by the predominant lymph node involvement.

  7. Tongue-to-palate resistance training improves tongue strength and oropharyngeal swallowing function in subacute stroke survivors with dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H D; Choi, J B; Yoo, S J; Chang, M Y; Lee, S W; Park, J S

    2017-01-01

    Tongue function can affect both the oral and pharyngeal stages of the swallowing process, and proper tongue strength is vital for safe oropharyngeal swallowing. This trial investigated the effect of tongue-to-palate resistance training (TPRT) on tongue strength and oropharyngeal swallowing function in stroke with dysphagia patients. This trial was performed using a 4-week, two-group, pre-post-design. Participants were allocated to the experimental group (n = 18) or the control group (n = 17). The experimental group performed TPRT for 4 weeks (5 days per week) and traditional dysphagia therapy, whereas the control group performed traditional dysphagia therapy on the same schedule. Tongue strength was measured using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument. Swallowing function was measured using the videofluoroscopic dysphagia scale (VDS) and penetration-aspiration scale (PAS) based on a videofluoroscopic swallowing study. Experimental group showed more improved in the tongue strength (both anterior and posterior regions, P = 0·009, 0·015). In addition, the experimental group showed more improved scores on the oral and pharyngeal phase of VDS (P = 0·029, 0·007), but not on the PAS (P = 0·471), compared with the control group. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of TPRT in increasing tongue muscle strength and improving swallowing function in patients with post-stroke dysphagia. Therefore, we recommend TPRT as an easy and simple rehabilitation strategy for improving swallowing in patients with dysphagia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Neuroimaging in stroke and non-stroke pusher patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiza Elaine Grespan Santos-Pontelli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Pusher behavior (PB is a disorder of postural control affecting patients with encephalic lesions. This study has aimed to identify the brain substrates that are critical for the occurrence of PB, to analyze the influence of the midline shift (MS and hemorrhagic stroke volume (HSV on the severity and prognosis of the PB. We identified 31 pusher patients of a neurological unit, mean age 67.4±11.89, 61.3% male. Additional neurological and functional examinations were assessed. Neuroimaging workup included measurement of the MS, the HSV in patients with hemorrhagic stroke, the analysis of the vascular territory, etiology and side of the lesion. Lesions in the parietal region (p=0.041 and thalamus (p=0.001 were significantly more frequent in PB patients. Neither the MS nor the HSV were correlated with the PB severity or recovery time.

  9. Acute and subacute cardiac complications following radiotherapy in patients with left breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salari

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Radiation to some parts of the heart is unavoidable in the therapeutic course of primary tumors in many kinds of cancer, including breast cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of acute and subacute cardiac complications following radiotherapy in patients with left breast cancer. "nMethods: In this study, we enrolled 53 patients with left breast cancer who underwent mastectomy or lumpectomy between September 2005 and September 2006 in Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, and subsequently underwent chemotherapy with anthracyclines (<450mg/m2 and Endoxan plus taxane/fFluorouracil followed by radiotherapy. In all patients, electrocardiography and echocardiography were performed before initiation of radiotherapy, immediately after radiotherapy and again three and six months later to check for radiotherapy-induced cardiac complications such as pericardial effusion, valvular lesions, left ventricular dysfunction, conduction system disturbances and other variables. "nResults: Thirty-nine patients completed the follow-up period. Among these, 10 (25.6% patients experienced cardiac complications following radiotherapy. Among these, mild pericardial effusion in seven (53.85% patients, mild mitral regurgitation in three cases (23.08% and Right Bundle Branch Block (RBBB in two cases (15.38% were the most common complications. We found no correlation between cardiac complication and tumor dose, dose fraction and type of chemotherapy protocol. We noted no cases of new or more serious complications, such as cardiomyopathies or coronary artery disease, nor any changes in ejection fraction by the end of the follow-up period. "nConclusion: In patients with left breast cancer, acute and subacute cardiac complications following radiotherapy are not serious and have no clinical significance. Further studies are needed for more assessments in this area.

  10. Rehabilitation of a patient with stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurba Barman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a significant cause of long-term disability world-wide. The post-stroke disabilities are due to loss of locomotion, activity of daily living, cognition and communication skills. Rehabilitation is an integral part of medical management and continues longitudinally through acute care, post-acute care and community reintegration. The objectives of stroke rehabilitation are to maximize the functional independence, minimize the disabilities, reintegrate back into the home and community and improve the self-esteem of patient. A comprehensive stroke rehabilitation service should provide early assessment of impairments and disabilities, management and prevention of complications and well-organized rehabilitation program in both in-patient and out-patient settings. A multidisciplinary or interdisciplinary team approach is necessary to reduce the post-stroke disabilities. It has many members, including physicians, physical therapists, occupational therapists, speech and language pathologists, orthotist, psychotherapists, social workers, vocational rehabilitation therapists, rehabilitation nurse, patients, families and other caregivers. Physicians caring for patients with stroke during rehabilitation must be aware of potential medical complications, as well as a number of special problems that may complicate recovery, including cognitive deficits, aphasia, dysphagia, urinary incontinence, shoulder pain, spasticity, falls and depression. Involvement of patient and caregivers in the rehabilitation process is essential. This article outlines the salient features of the early comprehensive rehabilitation after stroke.

  11. Deep venous thrombosis in stroke patients during rehabilitation phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Yukihiro

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the incidence, factors, and effects of antiplatelet and anticoagulant agents on sub-acute and chronic ischemic stroke patients during the rehabilitation phase for rates of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) from the perspective for rehabilitation medicine. In this study of 272 patients undergoing rehabilitation for completed cerebral infarction, multiple circumference measurements of calf and thigh along with presence or absence of symptoms (congestion, swelling, skin redness, warmth, pain, pigmentation, fever and/or Homan sign or Luck's sign) documented in the physical examination were recorded in all patients. Patients with these symptoms suggestive of DVT were included for D-dimer assay and venous duplex ultrasonography to confirm presence of DVT. DVT was documented in 24 patients (8.8%), most of whom displayed distal DVT on the hemiparetic side. A significant association was seen between occurrence of DVT and more severe lower limb paresis, manifesting as gait disturbance, severe calf muscle spasticity, use of ankle-foot orthosis (AFO). A significant increase in development of DVT was associated with severe spasticity in hemiparetic calf muscles (odds ratio (OR) 28.2; 95% confidence interval (CI), 6.9-113.5). Cilostazol seemed to be the only effective antiplatelet drug for preventing DVT in cerebral infarction patients. Incidence of DVT in the rehabilitation phase following stroke was not low, which was predominant as distal DVT on the hemiparetic side. Lower limb paresis, gait disturbance, calf muscle spasticity and use of AFO contributed to occurrence of DVT. It is likely that micro-injuries in the venous endothelium due to spasticity and AFO might cause DVT. Cilostazol seems effective for protecting against venous endothelial damage following DVT.

  12. Motor Imagery Impairment in Postacute Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niclas Braun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Not much is known about how well stroke patients are able to perform motor imagery (MI and which MI abilities are preserved after stroke. We therefore applied three different MI tasks (one mental chronometry task, one mental rotation task, and one EEG-based neurofeedback task to a sample of postacute stroke patients (n=20 and age-matched healthy controls (n=20 for addressing the following questions: First, which of the MI tasks indicate impairment in stroke patients and are impairments restricted to the paretic side? Second, is there a relationship between MI impairment and sensory loss or paresis severity? And third, do the results of the different MI tasks converge? Significant differences between the stroke and control groups were found in all three MI tasks. However, only the mental chronometry task and EEG analysis revealed paresis side-specific effects. Moreover, sensitivity loss contributed to a performance drop in the mental rotation task. The findings indicate that although MI abilities may be impaired after stroke, most patients retain their ability for MI EEG-based neurofeedback. Interestingly, performance in the different MI measures did not strongly correlate, neither in stroke patients nor in healthy controls. We conclude that one MI measure is not sufficient to fully assess an individual’s MI abilities.

  13. Physical Activity in Hospitalised Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya West

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to examine the amount and type of physical activity engaged in by people hospitalised after stroke. Method. We systematically reviewed the literature for observational studies describing the physical activity of stroke patients. Results. Behavioural mapping, video recording and therapist report are used to monitor activity levels in hospitalised stroke patients in the 24 included studies. Most of the patient day is spent inactive (median 48.1%, IQR 39.6%–69.3%, alone (median 53.7%, IQR 44.2%–60.6% and in their bedroom (median 56.5%, IQR 45.2%–72.5%. Approximately one hour per day is spent in physiotherapy (median 63.2 minutes, IQR 36.0–79.5 and occupational therapy (median 57.0 minutes, IQR 25.1–58.5. Even in formal therapy sessions limited time is spent in moderate to high level physical activity. Low levels of physical activity appear more common in patients within 14 days post-stroke and those admitted to conventional care. Conclusions. Physical activity levels are low in hospitalised stroke patients. Improving the description and classification of post stroke physical activity would enhance our ability to pool data across observational studies. The importance of increasing activity levels and the effectiveness of interventions to increase physical activity after stroke need to be tested further.

  14. Comparisons of DSA and MR angiography with digital subtraction angiography in 151 patients with subacute spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, George K C; Siu, Deyond Y W; Ahuja, Anil T; King, Ann D; Yu, Simon C H; Zhu, Xian L; Poon, Wai S

    2010-05-01

    To exclude underlying vascular abnormalities in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage, the traditional paradigm requires investigation using digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in both the acute and subacute phases. We investigated whether MRI and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), in the subacute stage of intracerebral hematoma, had high positive predictive values (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) in screening for vascular abnormality in the routine clinical setting. In a regional neurosurgical center in Hong Kong, we retrospectively reviewed 151 patients investigated with both MRI and DSA for underlying structural vascular abnormalities during the subacute phase. Sensitivity, specificity, and intermodality agreement were assessed. A total of 70/151 (46%) vascular lesions accountable for the hemorrhage were found. Patients with vascular abnormalities tended to be younger (mean age+/-standard deviation [SD], 33+/-15years), less likely to be hypertensive (6.3%), and the lesion was more likely to be accompanied by intraventricular hemorrhage (22%). In terms of cerebral arteriovenous malformation and dural arteriovenous fistulas, MRI/MRA had a PPV of 0.98 and a NPV of 1.00. We concluded that MRI/MRA was able to detect most structural vascular abnormalities in the subacute phase in most patients and, thus, its use is recommended as the screening test.

  15. Marked Atrophic Changes of the Brain in a Patient with Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Faizan; Assad, Salman; Nadeem, Muhammad; Zahid, Mehr

    2017-08-21

    Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis (SSPE) is a debilitating disorder associated with the measles infection in childhood. It is a very rare manifestation in children. It usually presents with measles before the age of two. We report a similar case of SSPE in a 14-year-old girl who developed this life-threatening condition in spite of receiving the measles vaccination. Despite the vaccination, the patient had suffered from measles before the age of two. This highlights the dilemma of ineffective vaccinations in developing countries. We also describe the radiologic features of SSPE in this patient, with marked atrophy seen in the occipital region following hyperintensities noticed at a relatively earlier stage.

  16. Exercise for depressive symptoms in stroke patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Janice J; Reime, Birgit

    2014-08-01

    The objective was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that examined the effects of structured exercise on depressive symptoms in stroke patients. We searched for published randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effect of structured exercise programs (e.g. functional, resistance, or aerobic training) on depressive symptoms. The mean effect size, a 95% confidence interval (CI) and I-squared (I(2)) for heterogeneity were estimated. Sensitivity analyses were conducted. Thirteen studies (n = 1022) were included in the meta-analysis. Exercise resulted in less depressive symptoms immediately after the exercise program ended, standardized mean difference = -0.13 [95% CI = -0.26, -0.01], I(2) = 6%, p = 0.03, but these effects were not retained with longer term follow-up. Exercise appeared to have a positive effect on depressive symptoms across both the subacute (≤6 months post stroke) and chronic stage of recovery (>6 months). There was a significant effect of exercise on depressive symptoms when higher intensity studies were pooled, but not for lower intensity exercise protocols. Antidepressant medication use was not documented in the majority of studies and thus, its potential confounding interaction with exercise could not be assessed. Exercise may be a potential treatment to prevent or reduce depressive symptoms in individuals with subacute and chronic stroke. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Aspirin resistant patients with recent ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla-Guerra, L; Navas-Alcántara, M S; Fernández-Moreno, M C

    2014-04-01

    Some patients with a recent ischemic stroke who are being treated with aspirin as an antiaggregant suffer a new ischemic stroke. These patients (15-25%) have been called unresponsive to aspirin or aspirin resistant. The aspirin-resistant patients have a four-time greater risk of suffering a stroke. Furthermore, these strokes are generally more severe, with increased infarct volume and greater risk of recurrence. There is currently no ideal laboratory test to detect the resistance to the antiaggregant effect of aspirin. The study of resistance to aspirin would only be indicated in selected cases. In these patients, one should first rule out any "pseudo-resistance" to aspirin (lack of compliance, concomitant treatments that interfere with the action of the aspirin). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  18. The Stroke unit Discharge Guideline, a prognostic framework for the discharge outcome from the hospital stroke unit. A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.; van Limbeek, J.; Peusens, G.; Rulkens, M.; Dankoor, K.; Vermeulen, M.; de Haan, R. J.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate which factors during the subacute phase post stroke have predictive value for the discharge outcome from the hospital stroke unit. Methods: In a prospective cohort of 338 patients admitted to a hospital stroke unit 26 potentially prognostic factors, arranged in clinical and

  19. Humor, laughter, and the cerebellum: insights from patients with acute cerebellar stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, B; Andrzejewski, K; Göricke, S; Wondzinski, E; Siebler, M; Wild, B; Timmann, D

    2013-12-01

    Extent of cerebellar involvement in cognition and emotion is still a topic of ongoing research. In particular, the cerebellar role in humor processing and control of laughter is not well known. A hypermetric dysregulation of affective behavior has been assumed in cerebellar damage. Thus, we aimed at investigating humor comprehension and appreciation as well as the expression of laughter in 21 patients in the acute or subacute state after stroke restricted to the cerebellum, and in the same number of matched healthy control subjects. Patients with acute and subacute cerebellar damage showed preserved comprehension and appreciation of humor using a validated humor test evaluating comprehension, funniness and aversiveness of cartoons ("3WD Humor Test"). Additionally, there was no difference when compared to healthy controls in the number and intensity of facial reactions and laughter while observing jokes, humorous cartoons, or video sketches measured by the Facial Action Coding System. However, as depression scores were significantly increased in patients with cerebellar stroke, a concealing effect of accompanying depression cannot be excluded. Current findings add to descriptions in the literature that cognitive or affective disorders in patients with lesions restricted to the cerebellum, even in the acute state after damage, are frequently mild and might only be present in more sensitive or specific tests.

  20. Stroke patients' delay of emergency treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelmblink, Finn; Holmström, Inger; Kjeldmand, Dorte

    2010-06-01

    Scand J Caring Sci; 2010; 24; 307-311 Stroke patients' delay of emergency treatment Treatment of stroke victims with fibrinolysis should take place within a time limit of 3 hours. In spite of comprehensive endeavours to reduce hospital arrival time, too many patients still delay arrival beyond this time limit. This qualitative case study explored the meaning of acute stroke and treatment to four patients with more than 24-hour delayed arrival. The setting of the study was the catchment area of a university hospital. Semi-structured interviews were analysed through the empirical psychological, phenomenological method. An essence was found which was constituted by four themes. The essence of stroke symptoms and treatment was: 'Threatened control of bodily function, autonomy and integrity'. When the patients fell ill they acted as if nothing had happened. They treated their body like a defective device. In encounters with physicians they demanded to be met as a person by a person; otherwise they rejected both the physician and her or his prescriptions. They did not involve their near ones in decision-making. The conclusions were the following: Health care information about how to act in cases of early stroke symptoms may need to imbue people with an understanding of how early treatment of neurological symptoms and preserved control of life are intimately connected. Furthermore emergency care of acute stroke patients might need to take place in an organisation where patients are sure to be met by physicians as a person by a person.

  1. Recovery of slow-5 oscillations in a longitudinal study of ischemic stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. La

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional networks in resting-state fMRI are identified by characteristics of their intrinsic low-frequency oscillations, more specifically in terms of their synchronicity. With advanced aging and in clinical populations, this synchronicity among functionally linked regions is known to decrease and become disrupted, which may be associated with observed cognitive and behavioral changes. Previous work from our group has revealed that oscillations within the slow-5 frequency range (0.01–0.027 Hz are particularly susceptible to disruptions in aging and following a stroke. In this study, we characterized longitudinally the changes in the slow-5 oscillations in stroke patients across two different time-points. We followed a group of ischemic stroke patients (n = 20 and another group of healthy older adults (n = 14 over two visits separated by a minimum of three months (average of 9 months. For the stroke patients, one visit occurred in their subacute window (10 days to 6 months after stroke onset, the other took place in their chronic window (>6 months after stroke. Using a mid-order group ICA method on 10-minutes eyes-closed resting-state fMRI data, we assessed the frequency distributions of a component's representative time-courses for differences in regards to slow-5 spectral power. First, our stroke patients, in their subacute stage, exhibited lower amplitude slow-5 oscillations in comparison to their healthy counterparts. Second, over time in their chronic stage, those same patients showed a recovery of those oscillations, reaching near equivalence to the healthy older adult group. Our results indicate the possibility of an eventual recovery of those initially disrupted network oscillations to a near-normal level, providing potentially a biomarker for stroke recovery of the cortical system. This finding opens new avenues in infra-slow oscillation research and could serve as a useful biomarker in future treatments aimed at recovery.

  2. Prognostic factors for disability and sick leave in patients with subacute non-malignant pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin, Gitte H; Pilegaard, Marc S; Vaegter, Henrik B

    2016-01-01

    criteria were cohort studies investigating the prediction of disability or long-term sick leave in adults with a subacute pain condition in a primary care setting. 19 studies were included, referring to a total of 6266 patients suffering from pain in the head, neck, back and shoulders. PRIMARY....... The quality of evidence was presented according to the GRADE WG recommendations. Several factors were found to be associated with disability at follow-up for at least two different pain symptoms. However, owing to insufficient studies, no generic risk factors for sick leave were identified. CONCLUSIONS...... that these factors may not play as large a role as expected in developing disability due to a pain condition. Quality of evidence was moderate, low or very low, implying that confidence in the results is limited. Large prospective prognostic factor studies are needed with sufficient study populations and transparent...

  3. Assessing the existence of dissociative PTSD in sub-acute patients of whiplash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Maj; Hyland, Philip; Armour, Cherie

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies investigating dissociative posttraumatic stress disorder (D-PTSD) have emerged. However, there is a lack of studies investigating D-PTSD following a wider range of traumatic exposure. Thus, the present study investigates D-PTSD using latent class analysis (LCA) in sub......-acute patients of whiplash and associated risk factors. The results of LCA showed a three-class solution primarily distributed according to PTSD symptom severity and thus no indication of D-PTSD. Dissociative symptoms, psychological distress (i.e. anxiety/depression), and pain severity significantly predicted...... PTSD severity. Combined, the results support the component model of dissociation and PTSD, while still stressing the importance of dissociative symptoms when planning treatment for PTSD....

  4. [Pharmacokinetics of digoxin in middle-aged and elderly patients in the subacute period of myocardial infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovlev, S V; Glezer, M G; Kholodov, L E; Mikhaĭlov, A A; Grigor'eva, E A

    1986-05-01

    Elderly and old patients with subacute myocardial infarction showed elevated gastrointestinal digoxin absorption rates and a tendency to increased bioavailability of the drug, as compared to similar parameters in infarction-free patients of the same age, so that blood digoxin peaks were higher in the former. The demonstrated absorption changes may be related to limited physical activity of the myocardial infarction patients examined. Digoxin pharmacokinetic patterns are analysed with reference to baseline myocardial contractility.

  5. Hemiplegic limb synergies in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welmer, Anna-Karin; Holmqvist, Lotta Widén; Sommerfeld, Disa K

    2006-02-01

    To describe the extent to which the voluntary movements of hemiparetic stroke patients are restricted to the hemiplegic limb synergies (which are marked by the inability to master individual joint movements) described by Brunnström. The study also aimed to describe the extent to which the synergies are related to functioning. In a prospective observational study design, 64 consecutive hemiparetic stroke patients were assessed with Brunnström's hemiplegic limb synergies, the modified Ashworth scale for spasticity, the Rivermead mobility index, and the Barthel ADL index. Three months after stroke, 8 of the 64 patients were moving completely or partly within the synergies. All patients whose movements were restricted to the synergies also exhibited spasticity. Hemiparetic patients whose movements were restricted to the synergies had significantly worse functioning scores than hemiparetic patients whose movements were not restricted to the synergies although severe disabilities were seen in both groups. Three months after stroke, the voluntary movements of only 13% of hemiparetic stroke patients were restricted to the synergies. The synergies were associated with spasticity and activity limitations. The use of the synergies might only be suitable for a small fraction of hemiparetic patients-namely, those displaying spasticity.

  6. Validation of the Essen Stroke Risk Score and the Stroke Prognosis Instrument II in Chinese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xia; Wang, Yilong; Zhao, Xingquan; Wang, Chunxue; Li, Hao; Liu, Liping; Zhou, Yong; Xu, Jie; Wang, Yongjun

    2011-12-01

    Little was known about the predictive accuracy of the Essen Stroke Risk Score and the Stroke Prognostic Instrument II in Chinese patients with stroke. We evaluated the predictive accuracy of both Essen Stroke Risk Score and Stroke Prognostic Instrument II scores for both recurrent stroke and combined vascular events using data from a prospective cohort of 11 384 patients with acute ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack admitted to 132 urban hospitals throughout China. The cumulative 1-year event rates were 16% (95% CI, 15%-16%) for recurrent stroke and 18% (95% CI, 18%-19%) for combined vascular events. Both event rates were significantly higher in patients with transient ischemic attack and increased significantly from lower to higher Essen Stroke Risk Score and Stroke Prognostic Instrument II categories. Essen Stroke Risk Score and Stroke Prognostic Instrument II had similar predictive accuracies for each study outcome. In Chinese patients with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack, both Essen Stroke Risk Score and Stroke Prognostic Instrument II scores are equally able to stratify the risk of recurrent stroke and combined vascular events.

  7. MEMORY SONGS DECREASE DEPRESSION FOR STROKE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmayetty Harmayetty

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biological, physical and phsycosocial changes in stroke patient could be a stressor that induced a depression state. There would be an emotional disturbance in stroke patient and stroke attack would be recurrent, if it was not treated. One of the alternative techniques to reduce depression is musical therapy especially memory songs. Method: This study was used a quasy experimental pre-post test purposive sampling design. The population was stroke patients who treated in Neurological Ward A and Stroke Unit Dr Soetomo Hospital Surabaya. There were 12 respondents divided into 6 respondents for treatment group and 6 respondents for control group. The independent variable was music (memory song and dependent variable was depression. Data were collected by using questionnaire which adapted from Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Geriatric Depression Rating Scale, then analyzed by using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and Mann Whitney U Test with significance level α≤0.05. Result: The result showed that there was a difference between pre test and post test in depression (p=0.0196 and there was a difference in the depression between treatment group and control group (p=0.002. Discussion: It can be concluded that music (memory songs has an effect to the depression of stroke patient. Further studies are needed to concerning other factors that may affect the relaxation technique especially in listening music.

  8. Perfusion differences on SPECT and PWI in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuutinen, Juho; Liu, Yawu; Laakso, Mikko P; Karonen, Jari O; Vanninen, Esko J; Kuikka, Jyrki T; Aronen, Hannu J; Vanninen, Ritva L

    2009-10-01

    The purposes of the present study were to compare the flow defect volumes on perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (PWI) and (99m)Tc-labeled ethylcysteinate dimer ((99m)Tc-ECD) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) at acute and subacute stages of ischemic stroke and to analyze the relationship between the detected flow defects on the two methods and neurological status and clinical outcomes. Perfusion defects on PWI and SPECT were measured within 48 h and on day 8 of the onset of stroke from 22 patients with their first-ever acute supratentorial ischemic stroke. The primary neurological status was evaluated prior to the imaging. Clinical outcome was assessed at 3 months after the onset of the stroke. The volumes of cerebral blood flow (CBF) defects did not differ between SPECT and PWI within the 48-h examinations. However, the volume of CBF defect was significantly larger on SPECT than on PWI on day 8 (p = 0.03). Within the 48-h examinations, the CBF defect volumes on SPECT and PWI were comparably related to the neurological status. On day 8, the CBF defect volume on SPECT showed higher correlation to the neurological status and more precisely predicted the clinical outcomes at 3 months than PWI. (99m)TC-ECD-SPECT and PWI both have ability to detect cerebral hypoperfusion in patients with ischemic stroke but with some differences. The value of SPECT is more accurate in terms of the delayed outcome, such as prognosis and rehabilitation planning.

  9. MIME robotic device for upper-limb neurorehabilitation in subacute stroke subjects: A follow-up study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lum, Peter S; Burgar, Charles G; Van der Loos, Machiel; Shor, Peggy C; Majmundar, Matra; Yap, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    ...) was compared with conventional therapy. Similar to a previous study in chronic stroke, combined unilateral and bilateral robotic training had advantages compared with conventional therapy, producing larger improvements on a motor...

  10. Effect of Virtual Reality on Postural and Balance Control in Patients with Stroke: A Systematic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To critically evaluate the studies that were conducted over the past 10 years and to assess the impact of virtual reality on static and dynamic balance control in the stroke population. Method. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials published between January 2006 and December 2015 was conducted. Databases searched were PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. Studies must have involved adult patients with stroke during acute, subacute, or chronic phase. All included studies must have assessed the impact of virtual reality programme on either static or dynamic balance ability and compared it with a control group. The Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro scale was used to assess the methodological quality of the included studies. Results. Nine studies were included in this systematic review. The PEDro scores ranged from 4 to 9 points. All studies, except one, showed significant improvement in static or dynamic balance outcomes group. Conclusions. This review provided moderate evidence to support the fact that virtual reality training is an effective adjunct to standard rehabilitation programme to improve balance for patients with chronic stroke. The effect of VR training in balance recovery is less clear in patients with acute or subacute stroke. Further research is required to investigate the optimum training intensity and frequency to achieve the desired outcome.

  11. Effect of Virtual Reality on Postural and Balance Control in Patients with Stroke: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling; Ding, Ming Hui; Lin, Qiang; Li, Hai; Zhao, Jiang Li; Xu, Zhi Qin; Bian, Rui Hao

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To critically evaluate the studies that were conducted over the past 10 years and to assess the impact of virtual reality on static and dynamic balance control in the stroke population. Method. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials published between January 2006 and December 2015 was conducted. Databases searched were PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. Studies must have involved adult patients with stroke during acute, subacute, or chronic phase. All included studies must have assessed the impact of virtual reality programme on either static or dynamic balance ability and compared it with a control group. The Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale was used to assess the methodological quality of the included studies. Results. Nine studies were included in this systematic review. The PEDro scores ranged from 4 to 9 points. All studies, except one, showed significant improvement in static or dynamic balance outcomes group. Conclusions. This review provided moderate evidence to support the fact that virtual reality training is an effective adjunct to standard rehabilitation programme to improve balance for patients with chronic stroke. The effect of VR training in balance recovery is less clear in patients with acute or subacute stroke. Further research is required to investigate the optimum training intensity and frequency to achieve the desired outcome. PMID:28053988

  12. Effect of Virtual Reality on Postural and Balance Control in Patients with Stroke: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling; Lo, Wai Leung Ambrose; Mao, Yu Rong; Ding, Ming Hui; Lin, Qiang; Li, Hai; Zhao, Jiang Li; Xu, Zhi Qin; Bian, Rui Hao; Huang, Dong Feng

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To critically evaluate the studies that were conducted over the past 10 years and to assess the impact of virtual reality on static and dynamic balance control in the stroke population. Method. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials published between January 2006 and December 2015 was conducted. Databases searched were PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. Studies must have involved adult patients with stroke during acute, subacute, or chronic phase. All included studies must have assessed the impact of virtual reality programme on either static or dynamic balance ability and compared it with a control group. The Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale was used to assess the methodological quality of the included studies. Results. Nine studies were included in this systematic review. The PEDro scores ranged from 4 to 9 points. All studies, except one, showed significant improvement in static or dynamic balance outcomes group. Conclusions. This review provided moderate evidence to support the fact that virtual reality training is an effective adjunct to standard rehabilitation programme to improve balance for patients with chronic stroke. The effect of VR training in balance recovery is less clear in patients with acute or subacute stroke. Further research is required to investigate the optimum training intensity and frequency to achieve the desired outcome.

  13. Obstructive sleep apnea in ischemic stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliye Tosun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea in patients with ischemic stroke and to evaluate the effectiveness of nasal continuous positive airway pressure treatment. METHODS: Overnight polysomnography was performed by a computerized system in 19 subjects with ischemic stroke. Patients with an apnea-hypopnea index > 5 were considered to have obstructive sleep apnea. The appropriate level of continuous positive airway pressure for each patient was determined during an all-night continuous positive airway pressure determination study. Attended continuous positive airway pressure titration was performed with a continuous positive airway pressure auto-titrating device. RESULTS: Obstructive sleep apnea prevalence among patients with ischemic stroke was 73.7%. The minimum SaO2 was significantly lower, and the percent of total sleep time in the wake stage and stage 1 sleep was significantly longer in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. In two patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea, we observed a decrease in the apnea-hypopnea index, an increase in mean wake time, mean SaO2, and minimum SaO2, and alterations in sleep structures with continuous positive airway pressure treatment. CONCLUSION: As the diagnosis and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea is of particular importance in secondary stroke prevention, we suggest that the clinical assessment of obstructive sleep apnea be part of the evaluation of stroke patients in rehabilitation units, and early treatment should be started.

  14. Development of the Stroke-unit Discharge Guideline: choice of assessment instruments for prediction in the subacute phase post-stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Ronald; van Limbeek, Jacques; de Haan, Rob

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the design of an evidence-based dataset of assessment instruments for the prognostic factors of the Stroke-unit Discharge Guideline (SDG), a consensus based guideline for the decision of the discharge destination from the hospital stroke unit. In our

  15. OF STROKE PATIENTS IN IBADAN.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The parietal and frontal lobes were affected when lesions occur in single site while caudate nucleus, putamen and ventricles are commonly affected when lesion is in more that. 2 sites. The occipital lobe i.e. posterior cerebral artery territory is infrequently involved. KEY WORDS: Cranial, Computerized Tomography, Stroke.

  16. Acupuncture therapy for stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Wang, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Acupuncture is one of the most important parts of Traditional Chinese Medicine, has been used for more than 3000 years as prevention and treatment for various diseases in China as well as in adjacent regions, and is widely accepted in western countries in recent years. More and more clinical trials revealed that acupuncture shows positive effect in stroke, not only as a complementary and alternative medicine for poststroke rehabilitation but also as a preventive strategy which could induce cerebral ischemic tolerance, especially when combined with modern electrotherapy. Acupuncture has some unique characteristics, which include acupoint specificity and parameter-dependent effect. It also involves complicated mechanism to exert the beneficial effect on stroke. Series of clinical trials have shown that acupuncture primarily regulates the release of neurochemicals, hemorheology, cerebral microcirculation, metabolism, neuronal activity, and the function of specific brain region. Animal studies showed that the effects of acupuncture therapy on stroke were possibly via inhibition of postischemic inflammatory reaction, stimulation of neurogenesis and angiogenesis, and influence on neural plasticity. Mechanisms for its preconditioning effect include activity enhancement of antioxidant, regulation of the endocannabinoid system, and inhibition of apoptosis. Although being controversial, acupuncture is a promising preventive and treatment strategy for stroke, but further high-quality clinical trials would be needed to provide more confirmative evidence. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The integrated care pathway for post stroke patients (iCaPPS): a shared care approach between stakeholders in areas with limited access to specialist stroke care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Aziz, Aznida Firzah; Mohd Nordin, Nor Azlin; Ali, Mohd Fairuz; Abd Aziz, Noor Azah; Sulong, Saperi; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed

    2017-01-13

    Lack of intersectoral collaboration within public health sectors compound efforts to promote effective multidisciplinary post stroke care after discharge following acute phase. A coordinated, primary care-led care pathway to manage post stroke patients residing at home in the community was designed by an expert panel of specialist stroke care providers to help overcome fragmented post stroke care in areas where access is limited or lacking. Expert panel discussions comprising Family Medicine Specialists, Neurologists, Rehabilitation Physicians and Therapists, and Nurse Managers from Ministry of Health and acadaemia were conducted. In Phase One, experts chartered current care processes in public healthcare facilities, from acute stroke till discharge and also patients who presented late with stroke symptoms to public primary care health centres. In Phase Two, modified Delphi technique was employed to obtain consensus on recommendations, based on current evidence and best care practices. Care algorithms were designed around existing work schedules at public health centres. Indication for patients eligible for monitoring by primary care at public health centres were identified. Gaps in transfer of care occurred either at post discharge from acute care or primary care patients diagnosed at or beyond subacute phase at health centres. Essential information required during transfer of care from tertiary care to primary care providers was identified. Care algorithms including appropriate tools were summarised to guide primary care teams to identify patients requiring further multidisciplinary interventions. Shared care approaches with Specialist Stroke care team were outlined. Components of the iCaPPS were developed simultaneously: (i) iCaPPS-Rehab© for rehabilitation of stroke patients at community level (ii) iCaPPS-Swallow© guided the primary care team to screen and manage stroke related swallowing problems. Coordinated post stroke care monitoring service for patients

  18. Tau proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Deniz; Yilmaz, Deniz; Uyar, Neval Y; Senbil, Nesrin; Gurer, Yavuz; Anlar, Banu

    2010-06-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases characterized by cytoskeletal deformation and neurofibrillary tangles are associated with altered levels of tau and related proteins in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Neuronal or glial fibrillary tangles have been shown in 20% of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) patients. We therefore investigated CSF samples from 60 newly diagnosed SSPE and 31 neurological control patients for total tau (t-tau), phosphorylated tau (p-tau), and S100-B levels by ELISA. There was no difference between patient and control groups in t-tau and S100-B levels. p-Tau was lower in the SSPE group (p=0.009). Past history of measles infection, measles immunization status, latent period between measles and onset of SSPE, duration of symptoms, frequency of myoclonia, neurological deficit index, stage and progression rate of the disease, CSF glucose levels and cell counts, CSF and serum measles IgG titer, distribution of lesions on brain magnetic resonance imaging were not related to t-tau, p-tau and S100-B levels. Mental status and age were negatively correlated with t-tau, and male gender and EEG abnormalities were associated with higher t-tau levels. The levels of tau proteins in our patients suggest there is no, or only scarce and immature, neurofibrillary tangle formation in SSPE. Autopsy studies showing neurofibrillary tangles might have examined older patients with longer disease and more parenchymal involvement. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Expression of defective measles virus genes in brain tissues of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baczko, K.; Liebert, U.G.; Billeter, M.; Cattaneo, R.; Budka, H.; Ter Meulen, V.

    1986-08-01

    The persistence of measles virus in selected areas of the brains of four patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) was characterized by immunohistological and biochemical techniques. The five measles virus structural proteins were never simultaneously detectable in any of the bran sections. Nucleocapsid proteins and phosphoproteins were found in every diseased brain area, whereas hemagglutinin protein was detected in two cases, fusion protein was detected in three cases, and matrix protein was detected in only one case. Also, it could be shown that the amounts of measles virus RNA in the brains differed from patient to patient and in the different regions investigated. In all patients, plus-strand RNAs specific for these five viral genes could be detected. However, the amounts of fusion and hemagglutinin mRNAs were low compared with the amounts in lytically infected cells. The presence of particular measles virus RNAs in SSPE-infected brains did not always correlate with mRNA activity. In in vitro translations, the matrix protein was produced in only one case, and the hemagglutinin protein was produced in none. These results indicate that measles virus persistence in SSPE is correlated with different defects of several genes which probably prevent assembly of viral particles in SSPE-infected brain tissue.

  20. National Trends in Patients Hospitalized for Stroke and Stroke Mortality in France, 2008 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecoffre, Camille; de Peretti, Christine; Gabet, Amélie; Grimaud, Olivier; Woimant, France; Giroud, Maurice; Béjot, Yannick; Olié, Valérie

    2017-11-01

    Stroke is the leading cause of death in women and the third leading cause in men in France. In young adults (ie, stroke was observed at a local scale between 1985 and 2011. After the implementation of the 2010 to 2014 National Stroke Action Plan, this study investigates national trends in patients hospitalized by stroke subtypes, in-hospital mortality, and stroke mortality between 2008 and 2014. Hospitalization data were extracted from the French national hospital discharge databases and mortality data from the French national medical causes of death database. Time trends were tested using a Poisson regression model. From 2008 to 2014, the age-standardized rates of patients hospitalized for ischemic stroke increased by 14.3% in patients stroke was stable (+2.0%), irrespective of age and sex. The proportion of patients hospitalized in stroke units substantially increased. In-hospital mortality decreased by 17.1% in patients with ischemic stroke. From 2008 to 2013, stroke mortality decreased, except for women between 45 and 64 years old and for people aged ≥85 years. An increase in cardiovascular risk factors and improved stroke management may explain the increase in the rates of patients hospitalized for ischemic stroke. The decrease observed for in-hospital stroke mortality may be because of recent improvements in acute-phase management. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Clues to occult cancer in patients with ischemic stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk Jae Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that hidden malignancy could be detected in patients with cryptogenic stroke without active cancer when they showed the distinctive characteristics of cancer-related stroke. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Among 2,562 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke, patients with cryptogenic stroke were analyzed and categorized into two groups according to the presence of active cancer: cryptogenic stroke with active cancer (cancer-related stroke, CA-stroke group and without active cancer (CR-stroke group. Patients with active lung cancer without stroke were also recruited for comparison purposes (CA-control. Clinical factors, lesion patterns on diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI, and laboratory findings were analyzed among groups. A total of 348 patients with cryptogenic stroke were enrolled in this study. Among them, 71 (20.4% patients had active cancer at the time of stroke. The D-dimer levels were significantly higher in patients with CA-stroke than those with CR-stroke or CA-control (both p<0.001. Regarding lesion patterns, patients with CA-stroke mostly had multiple lesions in multiple vascular territories, while more than 80% of patients with CR-stroke had single/multiple lesions in a single vascular territory (P<0.001. D-dimer levels (OR 1.11 per 1 µg/mL increase; 95% CI 1.06-1.15; P<0.001 and DWI lesion patterns (OR 7.13; 95% CI 3.42-14.87; P<0.001 were independently associated with CA-stroke. Workup for hidden malignancy was performed during hospitalization in 10 patients who showed elevated D-dimer levels and multiple infarcts involving multiple vascular territories but had no known cancer, and it revealed hidden malignancies in all the patients. CONCLUSION: Patients with CA-stroke have distinctive D-dimer levels and lesion patterns. These characteristics can serve as clues to occult cancer in patients with cryptogenic stroke.

  2. 'Finding a balance' in involving patients in goal setting early after stroke: a physiotherapy perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, A; Roberts, A R; Freeman, J A

    2014-09-01

    Collaborative goal setting (between patient and professional) confers benefits within stroke and neurological rehabilitation, and is recommended in clinical guidelines. However, evidence suggests that patient participation in rehabilitation goal setting is not maximized, particularly within the hospital setting. The purpose of this study was to investigate physiotherapists' perceptions about their experiences of collaborative goal setting with patients in the sub-acute stages after stroke, in the hospital setting. This qualitative study employed constructivist grounded theory methodology. Nine physiotherapists, of varying experience, were selected using purposive then theoretical sampling from three National Health Service hospital stroke units in England. Semi-structured interviews were conducted, audio-recorded and transcribed. Transcripts were coded and analysed using the constant comparative method of grounded theory to find common themes. Three themes emerged from the data: 1) 'coming to terms with stroke' - the individual patient journey; 2) the evolution of goal setting skill - the individual physiotherapist journey; and 3) 'finding a balance' - managing expectations and negotiating interactions. A provisional grounded theory was constructed, which highlighted that, from the physiotherapists' perspective, collaboration with patients within goal setting early after stroke involved finding a balance between numerous different drivers, which have the potential to compete. Patient-directed and therapist-directed goal setting approaches could be viewed as opposite ends of a continuum, along which patient-centred goal setting is possible. Physiotherapists perceived that collaborating with patients in goal setting was important but challenging. Goal setting interactions with other professionals, patients and families were perceived as complex, difficult and requiring significant effort. The importance of individuality and temporality were recognized suggesting that

  3. Communication in conversation in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseaux, Marc; Daveluy, Walter; Kozlowski, Odile

    2010-07-01

    In stroke patients, it has been suggested that communication disorders could result from lexical and syntactic disorders in left hemisphere lesions and from pragmatics problems in right lesions. However, we have little information on patient behaviour in dyadic communication, especially in conversation. Here, we analyzed the various processes participating in communication difficulties at the rehabilitation phase (1-6 months) post-stroke, in order to define the main mechanisms of verbal and non-verbal communication (VC, NVC) disorders and their relationship with aphasic disorders. Sixty-three patients were recruited, who belonged to six groups, with left or right cortico-sub-cortical (L-CSC, R-CSC) or sub-cortical (L-SC, R-SC), frontal (Fro) or posterior fossa (PF) lesions. They were compared with an equivalent control group (gender, age, education level). We used the Lille Communication Test, which comprises three parts: participation to communication (greeting, attention, engagement), verbal communication (verbal comprehension, speech outflow, intelligibility, word production, syntax, verbal pragmatics and verbal feedback) and non-verbal communication (understanding gestures, affective expressivity, producing gestures, pragmatics and feedback). We also used the Functional Communication Profile and the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination (BDAE). Decrease in participation was found in L-CSC, R-CSC and Fro patients. Verbal communication was essentially disrupted in L-SCS and L-SC groups, including by verbal pragmatic disorders, and to a lesser degree in frontal patients. Nonverbal communication was mainly affected in R-CSC patients, especially by pragmatic difficulties. L-CSC patients showed an increase in gesture production, compensating for aphasia. In conclusion, communication disorders were relatively complex and could not be summarised by syntactical and lexical difficulties in left stroke and pragmatic problems in right stroke. The former also showed severe

  4. [The stroke patient and his family].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, A

    1984-01-01

    The study deals with an investigation of families who have to cope with the stroke of an older family member. The psychological reactions of the patient and the caregiver, related to the chronic disease and home care, are analyzed and a response hierarchy is delineated, as well. Moreover the burden, the patients and primary caregivers report, are given. Additionally, the most important dimensions of the "cognitive representation" the patient holds of his situation are investigated.

  5. Oro-facial impairment in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmel, M; Ono, T; Lam, O L T; Müller, F

    2017-04-01

    Stroke is considered one of the leading causes of death and acquired disability with a peak prevalence over the age of 80 years. Stroke may cause debilitating neurological deficiencies that frequently result in sensory deficits, motor impairment, muscular atrophy, cognitive deficits and psychosocial impairment. Oro-facial impairment may occur due to the frequent involvement of the cranial nerves' cortical representation areas, central nervous system pathways or motoneuron pools. The aim of this narrative, non-systematic review was to discuss the implications of stroke on oro-facial functions and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). Stroke patients demonstrate an impaired masticatory performance, possibly due to reduced tongue forces and disturbed oral sensitivity. Furthermore, facial asymmetry is common, but mostly discrete and lip restraining forces are reduced. Bite force is not different between the ipsi- and contra-lesional side. In contrast, the contra-lesional handgrip strength and tongue-palate contact during swallowing are significantly impaired. OHRQoL is significantly reduced mainly because of the functional impairment. It can be concluded that impaired chewing efficiency, dysphagia, facial asymmetry, reduced lip force and OHRQoL are quantifiable symptoms of oro-facial impairment following a stroke. In the absence of functional rehabilitation, these symptoms seem not to improve. Furthermore, stroke affects the upper limb and the masseter muscle differently, both, at a functional and a morphological level. The rehabilitation of stroke survivors should, therefore, also seek to improve the strength and co-ordination of the oro-facial musculature. This would in turn help improve OHRQoL and the masticatory function, subsequently preventing weight loss and malnutrition. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Caregiver’s overload as a result of the admission of mental patients to a subacute unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rosario Andueza Doce

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetive: Knowing the level of emotional overload which the main informal caregiver of a mentally ill person has to undergo when admitted to a subacute unit, and valuing the existence of mood disorders (anxiety or depression in the caregiver himself/herself, along with the impact for the caregiver of the patient admitted in a subacute unit. Method: A descriptive and transversal study carried out from a sample of 32 main caregivers of patients in the Unite of the Subacute in the Psyquiatric Hospital of Zaldibar, during 2010, being the measure instruments for that purpose the Zarit Scales for Caregiver Burden and the Goldberg Anxiety and Depression Scale (GADS. Results: The level of overload presented by a 53% of these caregivers is intense, coupled by a predominantly anxious mood with an average of 5.34 on the Goldberg Anxiety and Depression Scale (GADS. After admission, 69% of these caregivers reduce the overlead, and 59.5% improve in both anxiety and depression. Conclusions: The task of caring falls primarily on parents who expressed particularly fear for the future of their sons and daughters, and feel that they depend heavely on them wich generate a lot of overload.

  7. Treatment of hyperglycaemia in patients with acute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla-Guerra, L; Fernández-Moreno, M C; Hewitt, J

    2016-03-01

    The proportion of diabetic patients who are hospitalised for stroke has been increasing in recent years, currently reaching almost a third of all cases of stroke. In addition, about half of patients with acute stroke present hyperglycaemia in the first hours of the stroke. Although hyperglycaemia in the acute phase of stroke is associated with a poor prognosis, its treatment is currently a topic of debate. There is no evidence that the adminstration of intravenous insulin to these patients offers benefits in terms of the evolution of the stroke. New studies in development, such as the SHINE study (Stroke Hyperglycemia Insulin Network Effort), may contribute to clarifying the role of intensive control of glycaemia during the acute phase of the stroke. Ultimately, patients who have presented with stroke should be screened for diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  8. [Profile and evolution of chronic complex patients in a subacute unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gual, Neus; Yuste Font, Anna; Enfedaque Montes, Belen; Blay Pueyo, Carles; Martín Álvarez, Remedios; Inzitari, Marco

    2017-11-01

    To improve the management of geriatric pluripathologic patients in Catalonia, the identification of chronic complex patient (PCC) or patients with advanced chronic disease (MACA) has been promoted. Patients with exacerbated chronic diseases are promoted to be admitted in subacute units (SG) located in intermediate hospitals and specialized in geriatric care, as an alternative to acute hospital. The results of the care process in patients identified as PCC/MACA in SG have not been evaluated. Descriptive-comparative, cross-sectional, and quantitative study. SG located in intermediate care hospital. Consecutive patients admitted in the SG during 6months. We compared baseline characteristics (demographic, clinical and geriatric assessment data), results at discharge and 30days post-discharge between PCC/MACA patients versus other patients. Of 244 patients (mean age±SD=85,6±7,5; 65.6%women), 91 (37,3%) were PCC/MACA (PCC=79,1%, MACA=20,9%). These, compared with unidentified patients, had greater comorbidity (Charlson index=3,2±1,8 vs 2,0; p=0,001) and polypharmacy (9,5±3,7 drugs vs 8,1±3,8; p=0,009). At discharge, the return to usual residence and mortality were comparable. PCC/MACA had higher mortality adding the mortality at 30day post-discharge (15,4% vs 8%; p=0,010). In a multi-variable analysis, PCC/MACA identification (p=0,006), as well as a history of dementia (p=0,004), was associated with mortality. Although PCC/MACA patients had higher readmission rate at 30day (18,7% vs 10,5%; p=0,014), in the multivariable analyses, only male, polypharmacy, and heart failure were independently associated to readmission. Despite having more comorbidity and polypharmacy, the outcomes of patients identified as PCC/MACA at discharge of SG, were comparable with other patients, although they experienced more readmissions within 30days, possibly due to comorbidity and polypharmacy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Energy expenditure of stroke patients during postural control tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houdijk, J.H.P.; ter Hoeve, N.; Nooijen, Carla; Reintjes, D.; Tolsma, M.; Lamoth, C.J.C.

    Two common impairments in patients after stroke are loss of balance control and fatigue. We propose that both could be inter-related. The purpose of this study was to investigate the metabolic energy demand for balance control in patients after stroke during upright standing. Ten stroke patients and

  10. Serum Copeptin Predicts Severity and Recurrent Stroke in Ischemic Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wan-Zhong; Wang, Xiao-Bo; Li, Huan-Ting; Dong, Mei; Ji, Xiang

    2017-10-01

    Several studies investigated the prognostic role of copeptin in stroke. The aim of this study is to assess copeptin levels in serum, and investigate their associations with risk of recurrent stroke in a 1-year follow-up study in patients with ischemic stroke. In this post hoc analysis, serum levels of copeptin and NIH stroke scale (NIHSS) were measured at the time of admission in a cohort of 316 patients with ischemic stroke. The end point was stroke recurrence after 1-year follow-up. We used logistic regression model to assess the relationship between copeptin levels and risk recurrent stroke. Logistic regression analysis considering traditional risk factors showed a relationship between serum copeptin levels and moderate-to-high clinical severity when serum copeptin was used as a continuous variable (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.03-1.09). In the follow-up, 54 patients (17.1%) had a stroke recurrence. The stroke recurrence events distribution across the copeptin quartiles ranged between 5.1% (first quartile) to 23.1% (fourth quartile). In multivariate models comparing the third (OR = 2.78; 95% CI 1.85-3.53) and fourth quartiles (OR = 4.00; 95% CI 2.86-6.50) against the first quartile of the copeptin, levels of copeptin were associated with stroke recurrence events. A higher serum copeptin level is a predictor of both severity at admission and stroke recurrence at 1-year in stroke patients.

  11. Copeptin Levels in Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke and Stroke Mimics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Matthias; Ebinger, Martin; Kunz, Alexander; Rozanski, Michal; Waldschmidt, Carolin; Weber, Joachim E; Winter, Benjamin; Koch, Peter M; Nolte, Christian H; Hertel, Sabine; Ziera, Tim; Audebert, Heinrich J

    2015-09-01

    Copeptin levels are increased in patients diagnosed with stroke and other vascular diseases. Copeptin elevation is associated with adverse outcome, predicts re-events in patients with transient ischemic attack and is used in ruling-out acute myocardial infarction. We evaluated whether copeptin can also be used as a diagnostic marker in the prehospital stroke setting. We prospectively examined patients with suspected stroke on the Stroke Emergency Mobile-an ambulance that is equipped with computed tomography and point-of-care laboratory. A blood sample was taken from patients immediately after arrival. We analyzed copeptin levels in patients with final hospital-based diagnosis of stroke or stroke mimics as well as in vascular or nonvascular patients. In addition, we examined the associations of symptom onset with copeptin levels and the prognostic value of copeptin in patients with stroke. Blood samples of 561 patients were analyzed. No significant differences were seen neither between cerebrovascular (n=383) and other neurological (stroke mimic; n=90) patients (P=0.15) nor between vascular (n=391) and nonvascular patients (n=170; P=0.57). We could not detect a relationship between copeptin levels and time from onset to blood draw. Three-month survival status was available in 159 patients with ischemic stroke. Copeptin levels in nonsurviving patients (n=8: median [interquartile range], 27.4 [20.2-54.7] pmol/L) were significantly higher than in surviving patients (n=151: median [interquartile range], 11.7 [5.2-30.9] pmol/L; P=0.024). In the prehospital setting, copeptin is neither appropriate to discriminate between stroke and stroke mimic patients nor between vascular and nonvascular patients. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01382862. The Pre-Hospital Acute Neurological Therapy and Optimization of Medical Care in Stroke Patients study (PHANTOM-S) was registered (NCT01382862). This sub-study was observational and not registered separately

  12. Hypertensive patients using thiazide diuretics as primary stroke prevention make better functional outcome after ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Hong-Mo; Lin, Wei Chun; Wang, Cheng-Hsien; Lin, Leng-Chieh

    2014-10-01

    Thiazides have been used for the control of blood pressure and primary prevention of ischemic stroke. No previous studies have assessed the influence of thiazides on functional prognosis after ischemic stroke. Demographics, prestroke conditions, poststroke National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, and clinical and laboratory parameters were prospectively registered in 216 Taiwanese patients. One hundred forty patients who completed follow-up 3 months after experiencing ischemic stroke were assessed with the modified Rankin scale as functional prognoses. Twenty-one patients used thiazide to control hypertension before experiencing ischemic stroke. No differences of stroke subtypes and comorbidities before stroke were observed between the 2 groups. The emergency department National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale was lesser among thiazide users (4 [2-7] versus 6 [4-16], P = .02). Among 140 patients who completed follow-up in 90 days, thiazide users had more favorable functional status (modified Rankin scale ≤2: 42.4% versus 26.9%, P = .02, odds ratio 3.34, 95%, confidence interval .130-.862). Hypertensive patients treated with thiazides long term had a lesser severity of stroke and better functional outcomes after ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Does robot-assisted gait rehabilitation improve balance in stroke patients? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinnen, Eva; Beckwée, David; Meeusen, Romain; Baeyens, Jean-Pierre; Kerckhofs, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the improvements in balance after robot-assisted gait training (RAGT) in stroke patients. Two databases were searched: PubMed and Web of Knowledge. The most important key words are "stroke," "RAGT," "balance," "Lokomat," and "gait trainer." Studies were included if stroke patients were involved in RAGT protocols, and balance was determined as an outcome measurement. The articles were checked for methodological quality by 2 reviewers (Cohen's κ = 0.72). Nine studies were included (7 true experimental and 2 pre-experimental studies; methodological quality score, 56%-81%). In total, 229 subacute or chronic stroke patients (70.5% male) were involved in RAGT (3 to 5 times per week, 3 to 10 weeks, 12 to 25 sessions). In 5 studies, the gait trainer was used; in 2, the Lokomat was used; in 1 study, a single-joint wearable knee orthosis was used; and in 1 study, the AutoAmbulator was used. Eight studies compared RAGT with other gait rehabilitation methods. Significant improvements (no to large effect sizes, Cohen's d = 0.01 to 3.01) in balance scores measured with the Berg Balance Scale, the Tinetti test, postural sway tests, and the Timed Up and Go test were found after RAGT. No significant differences in balance between the intervention and control groups were reported. RAGT can lead to improvements in balance in stroke patients; however, it is not clear whether the improvements are greater compared with those associated with other gait rehabilitation methods. Because a limited number of studies are available, more specific research (eg, randomized controlled trials with larger, specific populations) is necessary to draw stronger conclusions.

  14. Improving stroke care for patients at Cavan hospital [poster

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murugasu, G Dr.

    2013-07-01

    Under the Quality and Continuing Care Directorate (QCCD) in stroke care Cavan General Hospital was identified as a hospital that received a large number of stroke and TIA patients. A programme was established to improve services to this population.

  15. Pneumonia in acute stroke patients fed by nasogastric tube

    OpenAIRE

    Dziewas, R; M. Ritter; Schilling, M.; Konrad, C.; Oelenberg, S; Nabavi, D; Stogbauer, F.; Ringelstein, E; Ludemann, P

    2004-01-01

    Background: Aspiration pneumonia is the most important acute complication of stroke related dysphagia. Tube feeding is usually recommended as an effective and safe way to supply nutrition in dysphagic stroke patients.

  16. Stroke Risk Perception in Atrial Fibrillation Patients is not Associated with Clinical Stroke Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournaise, Anders; Skov, Jane; Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Leppin, Anja

    2015-11-01

    Clinical risk stratification models, such as the CHA2DS2-VASc, are used to assess stroke risk in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients. No study has yet investigated whether and to which extent these patients have a realistic perception of their personal stroke risk. The purpose of this study was to investigate and describe the association between AF patients' stroke risk perception and clinical stroke risk. In an observational cross-sectional study design, we surveyed 178 AF patients with a mean age of 70.6 years (SD 8.3) in stable anticoagulant treatment (65% treatment duration >12 months). Clinical stroke risk was scored through the CHA2DS2-VASc, and patients rated their perceived personal stroke risk on a 7-point Likert scale. There was no significant association between clinical stroke risk assessment and patients' stroke risk perception (rho = .025; P = .741). Approximately 60% of the high-risk patients had an unrealistic perception of their own stroke risk, and there was no significant increase in risk perception from those with a lower compared with a higher risk factor load (χ(2) = .010; P = .522). Considering possible negative implications in terms of lack of motivation for lifestyle behavior change and adequate adherence to the treatment and monitoring of vitamin K antagonist, the apparent underestimation of risk by large subgroups warrants attention and needs further investigation with regard to possible behavioral consequences. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Improving transitions in acute stroke patients discharged to home: the Michigan stroke transitions trial (MISTT) protocol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mathew J Reeves; Anne K Hughes; Amanda T Woodward; Paul P Freddolino; Constantinos K Coursaris; Sarah J Swierenga; Lee H Schwamm; Michele C Fritz

    2017-01-01

    Background For some stroke patients and caregivers, navigating the transition between hospital discharge and returning home is associated with substantial psychosocial and health-related challenges...

  18. The application of cycling and cycling combined with feedback in the rehabilitation of stroke patients: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, David; Santos, Cristina P; Martins, Maria

    2015-02-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of long-term disabilities, such as hemiparesis, inability to walk without assistance, and dependence of others in the activities of daily living. Motor function rehabilitation after stroke demands for methods oriented to the recovery of the walking capacity. Because of the similarities with walking, cycling leg exercise may present a solution to this problem. The aim of this article is to review the state of the art applications of cycling leg exercise as a (1) motor function rehabilitation method and an (2) aerobic training method for stroke patients as well as the commonly used (3) assessment tools. The cycling characteristics and applications, the applied test protocols as well as the tools used to assess the state and the recovery of patients and types of cycling devices are presented. In addition, the potential benefits of the use of other therapies, like feedback, together with cycling are explored. The application of cycling leg exercise alone and combined with feedback in stroke rehabilitation approaches has shown promising results. Positive effects on motor abilities were found in subacute and chronic patients. However, larger and normalized studies and assessments are needed because there is a high heterogeneity in the patients' characteristics, protocols and metrics. This wil allow the comparison between different studies related with cycling. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Patient behaviour at the time of stroke onset: a cross-sectional survey of patient response to stroke symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellon, L; Doyle, F; Williams, D; Brewer, L; Hall, P; Hickey, A

    2016-06-01

    Revascularisation treatment with thrombolysis must be initiated within 4.5 h following ischaemic stroke symptom onset. Despite its proven benefits, thrombolysis therapy is underused, with patient delay in presenting to hospital with symptoms identified as the leading barrier. This study aimed to examine help-seeking behaviour at stroke onset, in order to understand delays in accessing acute medical care for stroke symptoms. 149 consecutive patients hospitalised with ischaemic stroke were interviewed at 72 h poststroke with the Stroke Awareness Questionnaire and the Response to Symptoms Questionnaire. Sixty per cent of stroke cases presented to the ED within 3.5 h of stroke onset. Knowledge of stroke symptoms and risk factors was poor, with 40% unable to correctly define a stroke. Bystander recognition of symptoms (p=0.03) and bystander initiation of Emergency Medical Services was associated with ED presentation within 3.5 h (p=0.03). This study provides insights into patient response when a stroke occurs, with the presence and action of others highlighted as critical in fast response to stroke symptoms. Knowledge of stroke warning signs and risk factors was low among stroke survivors. Findings highlight the complexity of changing help-seeking behaviour during stroke onset, and provide directions for public education efforts to reduce prehospital delay. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Complex regional pain syndrome in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocabas, Hilal; Levendoglu, Funda; Ozerbil, Onder Murat; Yuruten, Betigul

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the incidence, and the factors influencing the development, of complex regional pain syndrome-I in the upper extremity in hemiplegic patients within the first 28 weeks following a stroke. We followed up 82 stroke patients. All patients were evaluated at weeks 2, 6, 14 and 28 after suffering a stroke. Outcomes were assessed using passive range of motion of shoulder, presence of subluxation, Ashworth score, Motricity index arm score, Brunnstrom stages and depression score. The incidence of complex regional pain syndrome-I was 48.8% in the first 28 weeks. Significant correlation was found between complex regional pain syndrome-I and the presence of subluxation, Ashworth score, Motricity index arm score, Brunnstrom stage and depression score (r=0.259, P=0.019; r=0.271, P=0.014; r=-0.393, Pspasticity of shoulder muscles and muscle strength. In order to prevent the development of complex regional pain syndrome-I, exercises directed at increasing the range of motion for the glenohumeral joint, strengthening shoulder muscles and reduction of spasticity will establish the integrity of the shoulder joint.

  1. Pediatric Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Neurology Image Library Search The Internet Stroke Center Patients & Families About Stroke Stroke Diagnosis Stroke ... communicate with your child’s doctor. Symptoms of a Stroke Stroke is an injury to part of the ...

  2. Pre-stroke apathy symptoms are associated with an increased risk of delirium in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimiec, Elzbieta; Kowalska, Katarzyna; Pasinska, Paulina; Klimkowicz-Mrowiec, Aleksandra; Szyper, Aleksandra; Pera, Joanna; Slowik, Agnieszka; Dziedzic, Tomasz

    2017-08-09

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms can be interrelated to delirium. We aimed to investigate an association between pre-stroke neuropsychiatric symptoms and the risk of delirium in stroke patients. We included 606 patients (median age: 73, 53% female) with stroke or transient ischemic attack admitted within 48 hours from symptoms onset. We assessed delirium on a daily basis during the first 7 days of hospitalization. To make diagnosis of delirium we used DSM-5 criteria. We used Neuropsychiatric Inventory to assess neuropsychiatric symptoms occurring within 4 weeks prior to stroke. We diagnosed delirium in 28.2% of patients. On univariate analysis, higher score of pre-stroke depression (OR: 1.58, 95% CI: 1.04-2.40, P = 0.03), apathy (OR: 2.23, 95% CI: 1.44-3.45, P stroke severity, right hemisphere lesion, pre-stroke cognitive decline, pre-stroke disability and infections, higher apathy score (OR: 2.03, 95% CI: 1.17-3.50, P = 0.01), but no other neuropsychiatric symptoms, remained independent predictor of delirium. We conclude that pre-stroke apathy symptoms are associated with increased risk of delirium in stroke patients.

  3. Physical activity patterns of acute stroke patients managed in a rehabilitation focused stroke unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Tanya; Bernhardt, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive stroke unit care, incorporating acute care and rehabilitation, may promote early physical activity after stroke. However, previous information regarding physical activity specific to the acute phase of stroke and the comprehensive stroke unit setting is limited to one stroke unit. This study describes the physical activity undertaken by patients within 14 days after stroke admitted to a comprehensive stroke unit. This study was a prospective observational study. Behavioural mapping was used to determine the proportion of the day spent in different activities. Therapist reports were used to determine the amount of formal therapy received on the day of observation. The timing of commencement of activity out of bed was obtained from the medical records. On average, patients spent 45% (SD 25) of the day in some form of physical activity and received 58 (SD 34) minutes per day of physiotherapy and occupational therapy combined. Mean time to first mobilisation out of bed was 46 (SD 32) hours post-stroke. This study suggests that commencement of physical activity occurs earlier and physical activity is at a higher level early after stroke in this comprehensive stroke unit, when compared to studies of other acute stroke models of care.

  4. D-dimer levels and stroke progression in patients with acute ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, L-H; Sandset, E C; Sandset, P M

    2011-01-01

    Krarup L-H, Sandset EC, Sandset PM, Berge E. D-dimer levels and stroke progression in patients with acute ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation. Acta Neurol Scand: 2011: 124: 40-44. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Background -  Patients with acute ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation...... progression was defined as a ≥3-point worsening on the Scandinavian Stroke Scale during the first 48 h after randomization. Blood samples were analyzed for D-dimer, prothrombin fragment 1 + 2, soluble fibrin monomer, and C-reactive protein. Results -  A total of 382 patients were included in the analyses...

  5. AGE AND GENDER DIFFERENCES IN ACUTE STROKE HOSPITAL PATIENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kes, Vanja Bašić; Jurašić, Miljenka-Jelena; Zavoreo, Iris; Lisak, Marijana; Jelec, Vjekoslav; Matovina, Lucija Zadro

    2016-03-01

    Stroke is the second leading cause of death and the most important cause of adult disability worldwide and in Croatia. In the past, stroke was almost exclusively considered to be a disease of the elderly; however, today the age limit has considerably lowered towards younger age. The aim of this study was to determine age and gender impact on stroke patients in a Croatian urban area during one-year survey. The study included all acute stroke patients admitted to our Department in 2004. A compiled stroke questionnaire was fulfilled during hospitalization by medical personnel on the following items: stroke risk factors including lifestyle habits (smoking and alcohol), pre-stroke physical ability evaluation, stroke evolution data, laboratory and computed tomography findings, outcome data and post-stroke disability assessment. Appropriate statistical analysis of numerical and categorical data was performed at the level of p alcohol intake. Additionally, age analysis showed that heart conditions and smoking were more prevalent among older stroke patients. In conclusion, considerable differences were established between age and gender stroke patient groups, confirming the need of permanent national stroke registry and subsequent targeted action in secondary care, and prevention with education on risk factors, preferably personally tailored.

  6. Evaluation of Motor Recovery in Adult Patients with Hemiplegic stroke

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Assessment of treatment efficacy through outcomes evaluation is an established practice in stroke rehabilitation. The evaluation of motor recovery is a cornerstone of the assessment of patients with stroke; and an integral component of stroke rehabilitation. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate ...

  7. Admission Blood Pressure of Stroke Patients and Its Relationship to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: High blood pressure is often said to be associated with poor outcome in stroke. However, there remains some uncertainly about the relationship of blood pressure to mortality in stroke. Objective: This study seeks to determine the influence of admission blood pressure on early mortality of stroke patients at the ...

  8. Intracranial arteriopathy in young patients with ischaemic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulder, M.M.M.

    2013-01-01

    In young patients with stroke, there is a considerable delay to the correct diagnosis and awareness among both the general population and health care professionals is low. Improved knowledge about the mode of presentation, stroke mimics, causes and risk factors for stroke in the young, may lead to

  9. Perfusion differences on SPECT and PWI in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuutinen, Juho [Kuopio University Hospital, University of Kuopio, Department of Neurology, Kuopio (Finland); Liu, Yawu; Laakso, Mikko P. [Kuopio University Hospital, University of Kuopio, Department of Neurology, Kuopio (Finland); Kuopio University Hospital, University of Kuopio, Department of Clinical Radiology, P. O. Box 1777, Kuopio (Finland); Karonen, Jari O. [Mikkeli Central Hospital, Department of Radiology, Mikkeli (Finland); Vanninen, Esko J. [Kuopio University Hospital, University of Kuopio, Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Kuopio (Finland); Kuikka, Jyrki T. [Kuopio University Hospital, University of Kuopio, Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Kuopio (Finland); Niuvanniemi Hospital, Kuopio (Finland); Aronen, Hannu J. [University of Turku, Department of Radiology, Turku (Finland); Vanninen, Ritva L. [Kuopio University Hospital, University of Kuopio, Department of Clinical Radiology, P. O. Box 1777, Kuopio (Finland)

    2009-10-15

    The purposes of the present study were to compare the flow defect volumes on perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (PWI) and {sup 99m}Tc-labeled ethylcysteinate dimer ({sup 99m}Tc-ECD) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) at acute and subacute stages of ischemic stroke and to analyze the relationship between the detected flow defects on the two methods and neurological status and clinical outcomes. Perfusion defects on PWI and SPECT were measured within 48 h and on day 8 of the onset of stroke from 22 patients with their first-ever acute supratentorial ischemic stroke. The primary neurological status was evaluated prior to the imaging. Clinical outcome was assessed at 3 months after the onset of the stroke. The volumes of cerebral blood flow (CBF) defects did not differ between SPECT and PWI within the 48-h examinations. However, the volume of CBF defect was significantly larger on SPECT than on PWI on day 8 (p = 0.03). Within the 48-h examinations, the CBF defect volumes on SPECT and PWI were comparably related to the neurological status. On day 8, the CBF defect volume on SPECT showed higher correlation to the neurological status and more precisely predicted the clinical outcomes at 3 months than PWI. {sup 99m}TC-ECD-SPECT and PWI both have ability to detect cerebral hypoperfusion in patients with ischemic stroke but with some differences. The value of SPECT is more accurate in terms of the delayed outcome, such as prognosis and rehabilitation planning. (orig.)

  10. Is there influence of the load addition during treadmill training on cardiovascular parameters and gait performance in patients with stroke? A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Tatiana Souza; Chaves da Silva, Tállyta Camyla; Carlos, Renata; de Souza E Silva, Emília Márcia Gomes; Lacerda, Matheus Oliveira; Spaniol, Ana Paula; Lindquist, Ana Raquel Rodrigues

    2017-01-01

    Although exercises involving both lower limbs are indicated for aerobic training, stroke patients have shown expressive asymmetry between the paretic and non-paretic lower limb (NPLL). Performing activities that stimulate the paretic limb during aerobic exercise may optimize training results. To evaluate if there is influence of load addition on NPLL during treadmill training on cardiovascular parameters and gait performance of subacute stroke patients. Thirty-eight stroke subjects with gait deficits were randomized into experimental group, which underwent treadmill training with a mass attached on NPLL, and control group, which underwent only treadmill training. Interventions lasted 2 weeks (9 sessions). Main outcomes were heart rate, arterial blood pressure, gait speed and distance covered. Assessments occurred at rest, 10th and 20th minutes of the session and immediately after each session. There was improvement in speed and walking distance in both groups. All cardiovascular parameters had showed no changes compared to 1st and 9th sessions and there were no differences between groups within each session. Load addition on NPLL did not alter cardiovascular parameters and gait training provide better gait performance of subacute stroke patients, which indicates this therapy can be considered useful and safe for these patients.

  11. Social work after stroke: identifying demand for support by recording stroke patients' and carers' needs in different phases after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padberg, Inken; Knispel, Petra; Zöllner, Susanne; Sieveking, Meike; Schneider, Alice; Steinbrink, Jens; Heuschmann, Peter U; Wellwood, Ian; Meisel, Andreas

    2016-07-20

    Previous studies examining social work interventions in stroke often lack information on content, methods and timing over different phases of care including acute hospital, rehabilitation and out-patient care. This limits our ability to evaluate the impact of social work in multidisciplinary stroke care. We aimed to quantify social-work-related support in stroke patients and their carers in terms of timing and content, depending on the different phases of stroke care. We prospectively collected and evaluated data derived from a specialized "Stroke-Service-Point" (SSP); a "drop in" center and non-medical stroke assistance service, staffed by social workers and available to all stroke patients, their carers and members of the public in the metropolitan region of Berlin, Germany. Enquiries from 257 consenting participants consulting the SSP between March 2010 and April 2012 related to out-patient and in-patient services, therapeutic services, medical questions, medical rehabilitation, self-help groups and questions around obtaining benefits. Frequency of enquiries for different topics depended on whether patients were located in an in-patient or out-patient setting. The majority of contacts involved information provision. While the proportion of male and female patients with stroke was similar, about two thirds of the carers contacting the SSP were female. The social-work-related services provided by a specialized center in a German metropolitan area were diverse in terms of topic and timing depending on the phase of stroke care. Targeting the timing of interventions might be important to increase the impact of social work on patient's outcome.

  12. The ABCD(2) Score is Highly Predictive of Stroke in Minor Ischemic Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghandehari, Kavian; Ahmadi, Fahimeh; Ebrahimzadeh, Saeed; Shariatinezhad, Keyvan; Ghandehari, Kosar

    2012-06-01

    Stroke risk prediction scores have been designed to stratify risk of recurrent cerebrovascular events in transient ischemic attack (TIA) and minor ischemic stroke (MIS) patients. Consecutive TIA or MIS patients referred to Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad were enrolled in a prospective cohort study during 2010-2011. Only TIA or MIS patients presenting within 24 h from the onset of symptoms were recruited. MIS was considered as ischemic stroke with NIHSS ABCD(2) scoring system for recurrent stroke or TIA was quantified by the area under the cure (AUC) using the c statistics. Three hundred ninety-three TIA patients (238 males, 155 females) and 118 MIS patients (77 males, 41 females) were enrolled in the study. One hundred seventeen strokes (23.2%), 99 TIA (19.6%), and 11 vascular death (2.2%) occurred within 3 months postevent in the whole of our 511 patients with minor ischemic events. The ABCD(2) score had a weak predictive value for 3 months and 3 days recurrent stroke in our TIA patients (AUC = 0.599, AUC = 0.591), but a high predictive value for 3 months and 3 days recurrent stroke in our MIS patients (AUC = 0.727, AUC = 0.728), respectively. The ABCD(2) score is highly predictive of short-term recurrent stroke in MIS patients but not TIA cases, despite its creation for TIA cohorts.

  13. Thrombolysis outcomes in acute ischemic stroke patients with prior stroke and diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishra, N K; Ahmed, N; Davalos, A

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with concomitant diabetes mellitus (DM) and prior stroke (PS) were excluded from European approval of alteplase in stroke. We examined the influence of DM and PS on the outcomes of patients who received thrombolytic therapy (T; data from Safe Implementation of Thrombolysis in...

  14. An approach of patients with ischemic stroke to primary and secondary stroke prevention in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowacki, Przemysław; Porebska, Agata; Bajer-Czajkowska, Anna; Zywica, Adrian; Koziarska, Dorota; Podbielski, Jarosław

    2007-01-01

    The stroke mortality rate in the Polish population is significantly higher than the average stroke mortality in Western Europe. It may prove a poor "initial" health condition of the Polish population which is afflicted with many life-threatening diseases which are at the same time the major risk factors for both: first ever and recurrent stroke. The aim of our study was to evaluate what is an attitude of Polish people with first-ever or recurrent stroke to keeping under control the most important risk factors for ischemic stroke. 1282 consecutive patients with ischemic stroke were examined and categorized as individuals with first ever (group I - 980 patients) and recurrent stroke (group II - 302 patients). The data on the patients' previous history of stroke and vascular modifiable risk factors diagnosed before the onset of stroke: arterial hypertension (AH), type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), ischemic heart disease (IHD), atrial fibrillation (AF), cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption were determined. The treatment with antiplatelet agents or oral anticoagulants was also taken into account. More than one-third ofpatients, irrespective of group admitted that they had treated AH unsystematically or not treated at all. Based on initial blood pressure, it may be suspected, that also individuals declaring systematic AH treatment, did not do it effectively. It also concerned the type 2 DM - glycemic control remained unsatisfactory within the period preceding first-ever and recurrent stroke. After first stroke, the patients haven't changed their habits considering tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption. The anticoagulants were used relatively seldom in relation to recommendations in both group of patients. The main risk factors for ischemic stroke are poorly controlled by Polish patients before first ever stroke. After the first cerebrovascular event they usually don't change their habits, which lead to recurrent stroke. In Poland the educational strategies regarding

  15. Electrodermal Recording and fMRI to Inform Sensorimotor Recovery in Stroke Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntosh, Bradley J.; McIlroy, William E.; Mraz, Richard; Staines, W. Richard; Black, Sandra E.; Graham, Simon J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) appears to be useful for investigating motor recovery after stroke. Some of the potential confounders of brain activation studies, however, could be mitigated through complementary physiological monitoring. Objective To investigate a sensorimotor fMRI battery that included simultaneous measurement of electrodermal activity in subjects with hemiparetic stroke to provide a measure related to the sense of effort during motor performance. Methods Bilateral hand and ankle tasks were performed by 6 patients with stroke (2 subacute, 4 chronic) during imaging with blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI using an event-related design. BOLD percent changes, peak activation, and laterality index values were calculated in the sensorimotor cortex. Electrodermal recordings were made concurrently and used as a regressor. Results Sensorimotor BOLD time series and percent change values provided evidence of an intact motor network in each of these well-recovered patients. During tasks involving the hemiparetic limb, electrodermal activity changes were variable in amplitude, and electrodermal activity time-series data showed significant correlations with fMRI in 3 of 6 patients. No such correlations were observed for control tasks involving the unaffected lower limb. Conclusions Electrodermal activity activation maps implicated the contralesional over the ipsilesional hemisphere, supporting the notion that stroke patients may require higher order motor processing to perform simple tasks. Electrodermal activity recordings may be useful as a physiological marker of differences in effort required during movements of a subject’s hemiparetic compared with the unaffected limb during fMRI studies. PMID:18784267

  16. Improving stroke care: Quality of care and health education in patients with a stroke or transient ischemic attack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Maasland (Lisette)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis focuses on the applicability of results of clinical trials of stroke and TIA patients in everyday practice and on measurement of quality of stroke care. A third aim is to further expand an underexposed aspect of stroke care, namely health education in stroke patients. Chapter

  17. Short- and long-term prognosis for very old stroke patients. The Copenhagen Stroke Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Lars Peter; Jørgensen, H S; Reith, J

    2004-01-01

    stroke onset. By way of multiple logistic regression and survival analyses very old age was independently related to short- and long-term mortality and nursing home placement independent of other clinical characteristics. RESULTS: 16% of patients were 85 years or older at the time of stroke onset. More...... stroke very old age predicted mortality or nursing home placement (OR 3.9; 95% CI 2.1-7.3), and long-term mortality (HR 2.0; 95% CI 1.6-2.5). However, other factors such as onset stroke severity, pre-existing disability and atrial fibrillation were also significant independent predictors of prognosis......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The very old are expected to become a growing part of the stroke population in the industrialised part of the world. The aims of this study were to evaluate clinical characteristics of patients aged 85 years or more at stroke onset and to investigate very old age...

  18. European Stroke Organisation (ESO) guidelines for the management of temperature in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntaios, George; Dziedzic, Tomasz; Michel, Patrik; Papavasileiou, Vasileios; Petersson, Jesper; Staykov, Dimitre; Thomas, Brenda; Steiner, Thorsten

    2015-08-01

    Hyperthermia is a frequent complication in patients with acute ischemic stroke. On the other hand, therapeutically induced hypothermia has shown promising potential in animal models of focal cerebral ischemia. This Guideline Document presents the European Stroke Organisation guidelines for the management of temperature in patients with acute ischemic stroke. A multidisciplinary group identified related questions and developed its recommendations based on evidence from randomized controlled trials elaborating the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach. This Guideline Document was reviewed within the European Stroke Organisation and externally and was approved by the European Stroke Organisation Guidelines Committee and the European Stroke Organisation Executive Committee. We found low-quality evidence, and therefore, we cannot make any recommendation for treating hyperthermia as a means to improve functional outcome and/or survival in patients with acute ischemic stroke and hyperthermia; moderate evidence to suggest against routine prevention of hyperthermia with antipyretics as a means to improve functional outcome and/or survival in patients with acute ischemic stroke and normothermia; very low-quality evidence to suggest against routine induction of hypothermia as a means to improve functional outcome and/or survival in patients with acute ischemic stroke. The currently available data about the management of temperature in patients with acute ischemic stroke are limited, and the strengths of the recommendations are therefore weak. We call for new randomized controlled trials as well as recruitment of eligible patients to ongoing randomized controlled trials to allow for better-informed recommendations in the future. © 2015 World Stroke Organization.

  19. Clinically significant changes in the emotional condition of relatives of patients with severe traumatic brain injury during sub-acute rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Anne; Kristensen, Karin Spangsberg; Poulsen, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate clinically significant change in the emotional condition of relatives of patients with severe traumatic brain injury during sub-acute rehabilitation. Methods: Participants were 62 pairs of relatives and patients. Relatives completed the anxiety and depression scales from...

  20. Malnutrition in subacute care

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Jorja Claire

    2017-01-01

    Malnutrition is a significant problem across all healthcare settings because of its high prevalence and association with adverse outcomes for patients and increased healthcare costs. There is a paucity of research considering subacute patients’ nutritional status and how this changes throughout inpatient stay. Additionally, a stronger evidence base for strategies to prevent and treat malnutrition specifically in this setting is required. This thesis aimed to address these research gaps to con...

  1. Obturator internus pyomyositis manifested as sciatica in a patient with subacute bacterial endocarditis: A rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wei-Ching; Hsu, Jin-Yi; Chen, Michael Yu-Chih; Liang, Chung-Chao

    2016-07-01

    Pyomyositis is a pyogenic infection of the skeletal muscles causing myalgia and fever in patients. Hematogenous seeding engendered by persistent bacteremia and septic embolism is usually the underlying cause of the disease. Trauma, intravenous drug use, and immunodeficiency are the main predisposing factors.Obturator internus pyomyositis with sciatica has not previously been reported. We report a rare case of a patient with subacute bacterial endocarditis presenting with left buttock pain and sciatica.Computed tomography confirmed the diagnosis of obturator internus pyomyositis. The patient was discharged uneventfully after successful antibiotic treatment.The mortality rate of patients who have pyomyositis comorbid with another condition or disease is extremely high. Early diagnosis and aggressive management are imperative.

  2. Balance control in hemiparetic stroke patients: main tools for evaluation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    de Oliveira, Clarissa Barros; de Medeiros, Italo Roberto Torres; Frota, Norberto Anizio Ferreira; Greters, Mário Edvin; Conforto, Adriana B

    2008-01-01

    Balance problems in hemiparetic patients after stroke can be caused by different impairments in the physiological systems involved in postural control, including sensory afferents, movement strategies...

  3. Decreasing Stroke Code to CT Time in Patients Presenting with Stroke Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalnins, Aleksandrs; Mickelsen, L Jake; Marsh, Daisha; Zorich, Christoph; Casal, Stephanie; Tai, Waimei Amy; Vora, Nirali; Olalia, Gennette; Wintermark, Max; Larson, David B

    2017-01-01

    Guided quality improvement (QI) programs present an effective means to streamline stroke code to computed tomography (CT) times in a comprehensive stroke center. Applying QI methods and a multidisciplinary team approach may decrease the stroke code to CT time in non-prenotified emergency department (ED) patients presenting with symptoms of stroke. The aim of this project was to decrease this time for non-prenotified stroke code patients from a baseline mean of 20 minutes to one less than 15 minutes during an 18-week period by applying QI methods in the context of a structured QI program. By reducing this time, it was expected that the door-to-CT time guideline of 25 minutes could be met more consistently. Through the structured QI program, we gained an understanding of the process that enabled us to effectively identify key drivers of performance to guide project interventions. As a result of these interventions, the stroke code to CT time for non-prenotified stroke code patients decreased to a mean of less than 14 minutes. This article reports these methods and results so that others can similarly improve the time it takes to perform nonenhanced CT studies in non-prenotified stroke code patients in the ED. ©RSNA, 2017.

  4. Respiratory function and functional capacity in chronic stroke patients 1

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Anna Cláudia Martinez; Silva, Nathália Grasielle Marinho; Diniz, Gisele do Carmo Leite; Pessoa, Bruno Porto; Scalzo, Paula Luciana

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Cerebrovascular accident (CVA) or stroke results in weakness of the trunk muscles and physical unfitness. Objectives: To evaluate respiratory changes caused by stroke and correlate them with the functional capacity of chronic stroke patients who were treated at the Clinical Center of Physical Therapy of the Pontifical Catholic University of Minas Gerais, Betim. Methods: Fifteen patients were recruited for assessment of respiratory function and functional capacity. W...

  5. Improved nutritional status in elderly patients 6 months after stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brynningsen, Peter Krogh; Husted, Steen; Damsgaard, Else Marie Skjøde

    2007-01-01

    variables was 31 (35 %) at 1 week and was reduced to 20 (22 %) at 6 months. CONCLUSION: 35 % of elderly patients with ischemic stroke admitted to a geriatric rehabilitation unit were malnourished 1 week after stroke. Particularly serum proteins and body fat were affected. Follow-up of nutritional variables...... showed improvement for serum proteins, and 22 % of the patients were malnourished 6 months after stroke....

  6. Improved nutritional status in elderly patients 6 months after stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brynningsen, P K; Damsgaard, Else Marie; Husted, Steen

    2007-01-01

    was 31 (35 %) at 1 week and was reduced to 20 (22 %) at 6 months. CONCLUSION: 35 % of elderly patients with ischemic stroke admitted to a geriatric rehabilitation unit were malnourished 1 week after stroke. Particularly serum proteins and body fat were affected. Follow-up of nutritional variables showed...... improvement for serum proteins, and 22 % of the patients were malnourished 6 months after stroke. Udgivelsesdato: null-null...

  7. Content of conventional therapy for the severely affected arm during subacute rehabilitation after stroke: An analysis of physiotherapy and occupational therapy practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Lex D; van Wijck, Frederike; Stewart, Roy E; Geurts, Alexander C H; Dijkstra, Pieter U

    2018-01-01

    Physiotherapy (PT) and occupational therapy (OT) are key professions providing treatment for the arm after stroke; however, knowledge about the content of these treatments is scant. Detailed data are needed to replicate interventions, evaluate their effective components, and evaluate PT and OT practice. This paper describes PT and OT treatment for the severely affected arm in terms of duration, content according to components and categories of the International Classification of Human Functioning, Disability and Health, and to analyze differences between professions. Design: This is a retrospective analysis of randomized trial data. 46 patients after stroke with poor arm motor control recruited from inpatient neurological units from three rehabilitation centers in the Netherlands. PTs and OTs recorded duration and content of arm treatment interventions for 8 weeks using a bespoke treatment schedule with 15 International Classification of Human Functioning, Disability and Health categories. PTs and OTs spent on average 4-7 min per treatment session (30 min) on arm treatment. OTs spent significantly more time providing arm treatment and treatment at the activities level than PTs. PTs spent 79% of their arm treatment time on body functions, OTs 41%. OTs spent significantly more time on "moving around using transportation," "self care," and "household tasks" categories. Patients after stroke with a severely affected arm and an unfavorable prognosis for arm motor recovery receive little arm-oriented PT and OT. Therapists spent most arm treatment time on body functions. There was a considerable overlap in the content of PT and OT in 12 of the 15 categories. Results can be generalized only to patients with poor arm motor control and may not represent practice in other countries. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. What is the diagnostic value of head MRI after negative head CT in ED patients presenting with symptoms atypical of stroke?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammoud, Khaled; Lanfranchi, Michael; Li, Sean X; Mehan, William A

    2016-08-01

    The diagnostic value of head magnetic resonance imaging after negative head computed tomography for emergency department patients with vague neurologic symptoms, such as dizziness and altered mental status, remains an ongoing discussion. The objective of this study is to detect the subgroup of patients with such presentations having minor strokes whom may benefit from primary and secondary stroke prevention. We conducted a retrospective analysis and stratified patient risk factors associated with positive findings on subsequent head MRI ordered by the emergency department physician following a normal head CT. Two hundred fifty-two patients presenting with atypical stroke symptoms to the emergency department had a negative head CT followed by head MRI within 24 h ordered by emergency department clinician (123 males and 129 females; mean age of 59.4). Twenty nine of the 252 patients (11.5 %) had findings of acute to subacute infarct on the subsequent MRI. Positive MRI findings were statistically correlated with the following variables: age (p stroke (p stroke or transient ischemic attack to exclude a CT occult or minor ischemic stroke.

  9. Ischemic stroke subtype is associated with outcome in thrombolyzed patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitz, Marie Louise; Simonsen, C Z; Svendsen, M L

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The impact of ischemic stroke subtype on clinical outcome in patients treated with intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator (IV-tPA) is sparsely examined. We studied the association between stroke subtype and clinical outcome in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-evaluated patients...

  10. Environmental barriers experienced by stroke patients in Musanze ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Patients with stroke experience a number of environmental barriers, limiting their re-integration. Information regarding the barriers experienced by patients with stroke in a specific setting such as the Musanze district in Rwanda would assist with the development of rehabilitation programmes that would take into ...

  11. Stroke at a tertiary medical institution in Northern Nigeria: Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Little is known about the burden of stroke in the northern part of Nigeria as most studies in the country have been in the southern part. The objective of this study was to study the profile of stroke patients and predictors of outcome in a tertiary health centre in Katsina, North-Western Nigeria.. Patients and Method: ...

  12. Association between pneumonia in acute stroke stage and 3-year mortality in patients with acute first-ever ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi-Jing; Weng, Wei-Chieh; Su, Feng-Chieh; Peng, Tsung-I; Chien, Yu-Yi; Wu, Chia-Lun; Lee, Kuang-Yung; Wei, Yi-Chia; Lin, Shun-Wen; Zhu, Jun-Xiao; Huang, Wen-Yi

    2016-11-01

    The influence of pneumonia in acute stroke stage on the clinical presentation and long-term outcomes of patients with acute ischemic stroke is still controversial. We investigate the influence of pneumonia in acute stroke stage on the 3-year outcomes of patients with acute first-ever ischemic stroke. Nine-hundred and thirty-four patients with acute first-ever ischemic stroke were enrolled and had been followed for 3years. Patients were divided into two groups according to whether pneumonia occurred during acute stroke stage or not. Clinical presentations, risk factors for stroke, laboratory data, co-morbidities, and outcomes were recorded. The result showed that a total of 100 patients (10.7%) had pneumonia in acute stroke stage. The prevalence of older age, atrial fibrillation was significantly higher in patients with pneumonia in acute stroke stage. Total anterior circulation syndrome and posterior circulation syndrome occurred more frequently among patients with pneumonia in acute stroke stage (Ppneumonia in acute stroke stage is a significant predictor of 3-year mortality (hazard ratio=6.39, 95% confidence interval=4.03-10.11, Ppneumonia during the acute stroke stage is associated with increased risk of 3-year mortality. Interventions to prevent pneumonia in acute stroke stage might improve ischemic stroke outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Michael H; Meatherall, Bonnie; Nikolic, Ana; Cannon, Kristine; Fonseca, Kevin; Joseph, Jeffrey T; MacDonald, Judy; Pabbaraju, Kanti; Tellier, Raymond; Wong, Sallene; Koch, Marcus W

    2016-03-01

    We present a case of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis that developed in a previously healthy 29-year-old pregnant woman who had returned from a trip to rural India shortly before the onset of symptoms. She was admitted to hospital at 27 weeks' gestation with a history of cognitive decline and difficulty completing simple tasks. She had no clinical signs of infection. The working diagnosis was autoimmune encephalitis, although extensive investigations did not lead to a final classifying diagnosis. The patient became comatose and developed hypertension, and an emergency caesarean section was done at 31 weeks to deliver the child, who seemed healthy. The patient died about 6 weeks after the onset of symptoms. The patient was found to have had subacute sclerosing panencephalitis at autopsy. In this Grand Round, we review the clinical features and treatment of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, and the epidemiological and public health aspects of the case. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. White matter changes in stroke patients. Relationship with stroke subtype and outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leys, D; Englund, E; Del Ser, T

    1999-01-01

    with vascular dementia. WMC are more frequent in patients with lacunar infarcts, deep intracerebral hemorrhages, cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy and cerebral amyloid angiopathy. After an acute ischemic stroke, WMC are associated with a higher risk...... of death or dependency, recurrent stroke of any type, cerebral bleeding under anticoagulation, myocardial infarction, and poststroke dementia. WMC in stroke patients are often associated with small-vessel disease and lead to a higher risk of death, and poor cardiac and neurological outcome. However...

  15. Factors Leading to Improved Gait Function in Patients with Subacute or Chronic Central Nervous System Impairments Who Receive Functional Training with the Robot Suit Hybrid Assistive Limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Masahiko; Kobayashi, Shigetaka; Kinjo, Yuki; Hokama, Yohei; Sugawara, Kenichi; Tsuchida, Yukio; Tominaga, Daisuke; Ishiuchi, Shogo

    2017-12-01

    The factors that lead to the improvement of gait function in patients with diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) who use a hybrid assistive limb (HAL) are not yet fully understood. The purpose of the present study was to analyze these factors to determine the prognosis of the patients' gait function. Patients whose CNS disease was within 180 days since onset were designated as the subacute-phase patients, and patients whose disease onset had occurred more than 180 days previously were designated as chronic-phase patients. Fifteen subacute-phase patients and 15 chronic-phase patients were given HAL training. The study analyzed how post-training walking independence in these patients was affected by the following factors: age, disease, lesion area, lower limb function, balance, period until the start of training, number of training sessions, additional rehabilitation, higher-order cognitive dysfunction, HAL model, and the use of a non-weight-bearing walking-aid. In subacute-phase patients, walking independence was related to lower limb function (rs = 0.35). In chronic-phase patients, there was a statistically significant correlation between post-training walking independence and balance (rs = 0.78). In addition, in patients with a severe motor dysfunction that was accompanied by inattention and global cognitive dysfunction, little improvement occurred, even with double-leg model training, because they had difficulty wearing the device. The results demonstrated that the factors that improved walking independence post HAL training differed between patients with subacute- and chronic-stage CNS diseases. The findings may serve as valuable information for future HAL training of patients with CNS diseases.

  16. Utility of Ward-Based Retinal Photography in Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Shaun; Brown, Michael; Stirling, Verity; Vignarajan, Janardhan; Prentice, David; Kanagasingam, Yogesan

    2017-03-01

    Improvements in acute care of stroke patients have decreased mortality, but survivors are still at increased risk of future vascular events and mitigation of this risk requires thorough assessment of the underlying factors leading to the stroke. The brain and eye share a common embryological origin and numerous similarities exist between the small vessels of the retina and brain. Recent population-based studies have demonstrated a close link between retinal vascular changes and stroke, suggesting that retinal photography could have utility in assessing underlying stroke risk factors and prognosis after stroke. Modern imaging equipment can facilitate precise measurement and monitoring of vascular features. However, use of this equipment is a challenge in the stroke ward setting as patients are frequently unable to maintain the required seated position, and pupil dilatation is often not feasible as it could potentially obscure important neurological signs of stroke progression. This small study investigated the utility of a novel handheld, nonmydriatic retinal camera in the stroke ward and explored associations between retinal vascular features and stroke risk factors. This camera circumvented the practical limitations of conducting retinal photography in the stroke ward setting. A positive correlation was found between carotid disease and both mean width of arterioles (r = .40, P = .00571) and venules (r = .30, P = .0381). The results provide further evidence that retinal vascular features are clinically informative about underlying stroke risk factors and demonstrate the utility of handheld retinal photography in the stroke ward. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Complementary and alternative medicine treatments among stroke patients in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandian, Jeyaraj Durai; Toor, Gagan; Arora, Rajni; Kaur, Paramdeep; Dheeraj, K V; Bhullar, Ranjeet Singh; Sylaja, Padmawati N

    2012-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is commonly used by persons with stroke throughout the world, particularly in Asia. The objectives of this study were to determine the frequency of CAM use and the factors that predict the use of CAM in stroke patients. This study was carried out in the stroke units of Christian Medical College, Ludhiana, and Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram, India, from June 2010 to December 2010. Participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire (≥ 6 months post stroke). Outcomes were assessed using a modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Three hundred fourteen stroke patients were interviewed; mean age was 57.4 ± 12.9 years, and 230 (73.2%) patients were men. Of 314 patients, 114 (36.3%) had used the following CAM treatments: ayurvedic massage, 67 (59.3%); intravenous fluids, 22 (19.5%); herbal medicines, 17 (15%); homeopathy, 15 (13.3%); witchcraft, 3 (2.7%); acupuncture, 3 (2.7%); opium intake, 10 (8.8%); and other nonconventional treatments, 10 (8.8%). Patients with severe stroke (P 2;P < .0001) often used CAM treatments. More than one-third of the patients in this study opted for CAM. Presence of limb weakness, dysphagia, dyslipidemia, hypertension, hemorrhagic stroke, severe stroke, and poor outcome predicted the use of CAM.

  18. Risk factors for swallowing dysfunction in stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Flávia Ferraz Barros Baroni

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Stroke is a frequent cause of dysphagia. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate in a tertiary care hospital the prevalence of swallowing dysfunction in stroke patients, to analyze factors associated with the dysfunction and to relate swallowing dysfunction to mortality 3 months after the stroke. METHODS: Clinical evaluation of deglutition was performed in 212 consecutive patients with a medical and radiologic diagnosis of stroke. The occurrence of death was determined 3 months after the stroke. RESULTS: It was observed that 63% of the patients had swallowing dysfunction. The variables gender and specific location of the lesion were not associated with the presence or absence of swallowing dysfunction. The patients with swallowing dysfunction had more frequently a previous stroke, had a stroke in the left hemisphere, motor and/or sensitivity alterations, difficulty in oral comprehension, alteration of oral expression, alteration of the level of consciousness, complications such as fever and pneumonia, high indexes on the Rankin scale, and low indexes on the Barthel scale. These patients had a higher mortality rate. CONCLUSIONS: Swallowing evaluation should be done in all patients with stroke, since swallowing dysfunction is associated with complications and an increased risk of death.

  19. Risk factors of pre-operational aortic rupture in acute and subacute Stanford type A aortic dissection patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhuo-Dong; Liu, Yang; Zhu, Jiang; Wang, Jun; Lu, Fang-Lin; Han, Lin; Xu, Zhi-Yun

    2017-12-01

    Aortic rupture is one of the main causes of early death in acute and subacute Stanford type A aortic dissection (ATAAD) patients. This study aimed to analyze potential risk factors for pre-operational aortic rupture in ATAAD patients. We retrospectively reviewed aortic dissection cases treated between May 2013 and May 2016 in Changhai Hospital, Shanghai. A total of 329 patients with ATAAD were included in the final analysis, and 31 patients died of aortic rupture before surgery. Clinical data on basic characteristics, clinical presentation, and biochemical measurements for all 329 patients were analyzed. The in-hospital aortic rupture rate was 9.4% (31/329), and the rupture accounted for 47% (31/66) of all in-hospital deaths of ATAAD patients. Patients who experienced rupture were significantly older (P0.7 ng/mL (OR: 9.28; 95% CI, 1.72-50.06; P=0.010), and D-dimer level ≥10 µg/mL (OR: 13.37; 95% CI, 2.18-81.97; P=0.005). Aortic rupture accounted for 47% of all in-hospital deaths among patient with ATAAD. Shock, pain requiring medication, a troponin level >0.7 ng/mL and a D-dimer level ≥10 µg/mL are independent risk factors for aortic rupture in these patients.

  20. [Data Analysis of Subacute Patients with Registered Information in the Minimum Basic Data Set for Social-Healthcare (CMBD-RSS), Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meléndez Frigola, Cristina; Arroyo Borrell, Elena; Saez, Marc

    2016-10-03

    It is necessary to deepen in the knowledge of the Basic Minimum Set of Data (CMBD-RSS) of patients with chronic pathology associated and frequent hospitalisations (the subacute care). The aim of this study was to analyse the sanitary information of these patients, once initiated the subacute program. We used data of 660 patients hospitalised in the subacute care unit at the Santa Caterina Hospital, sanitary region of Girona, from October 2013 to December 2014. The CMBD data base was analysed using SPSS Statistics 15.0. We verified the relationship between variables i.e. length of stay and age; origin of the patient admission and length of stay (Mann-Whitney U Test); main diagnosis and length of stay (Kruskal-Wallis). We also studied the relationship between origin of the patient admission and main diagnosis (Chi-square test and Cramer's V). The average age of patients was 83 years old, and mainly female profile (55%). Five illnesses concentrated 80% of all patients' diagnosed diseases (mental health problems, nervous system diseases, circulatory problems, respiratory system problems and genitourinary infections). Patients admitted from hospitals had a shorter length of stay (8 days) than patients admitted from home (9 days). 80% of cases patients come back home after the hospital discharge. People with chronic pathology associated and frequent hospitalisations are an important group of risk. Elderly and clinical decompensations add complexity to these cases. The evaluation of these patients at the admission and discharge procedures optimise the use of the resources.

  1. Clinical nutrition and gastrointestinal dysfunction in critically ill stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patejdl, Robert; Kästner, Matthias; Kolbaske, Stephan; Wittstock, Matthias

    2017-11-01

    Background Data on the epidemiology and risk factors of altered gastrointestinal motility (AGIM) is virtually lacking for patients suffering from non-traumatic neurologic diseases and stroke. This study investigated whether patterns of AGIM differ between patients with stroke and other severe acute brain diseases. Methods Clinical records of stroke and non-stroke patients treated at a neurological intensive care unit (ICU) were reviewed at day 1-5 and at day 10 after admission. The data was analyzed for the course of enteral/parenteral nutrition and for and for signs and symptoms of gastrointestinal dysfunction. The study included data of 76 patients, 57 with stroke (stroke group, SG) and 19 with other neurological diseases (non-stroke group, NSG). Results Basic demographic as well as clinical baseline characteristics and alimentation regime were similar in both groups. At least one sign of AGIM was seen in 33/57 (58%) SG and in 15/19 (79%) NSG patients (P = 0.099). Regurgitation was significantly more frequent among patients from the NSG (P < 0.05). Subjects from the NSG also spent a higher proportion of time with at least one symptom of AGIM present (P < 0.05). Conclusions For the first time, this study investigated the prevalence of AGIM in patients suffering from severe stroke. The prevalence of disturbed gastrointestinal function was found to be high in stroke patients, but was lower than in a group of non-stroke patients with similar general disease severity and baseline characteristics.

  2. Neuropsychological performance in patients with subcortical stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviane Pinheiro Campos de Andrade

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI is characterized by cognitive compromise predominantly of executive dysfunction. OBJECTIVES: To assess cognitive functions in VCI, focusing on executive functions, to observe functional losses in relation to activities of daily living (ADLs and to detect early symptoms prior to the onset of dementia. METHODS: We evaluated healthy subjects matched for gender, education and age to patients with diagnosis of subcortical vascular disease who had a stroke classified into three groups: 1 vascular lesions and no impairment; 2 vascular cognitive impairment with no dementia (VCIND; 3 vascular dementia (VaD. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The performance on neuropsychological tests differed among groups, worsening with increased impairment level. The probable VaD group demonstrated impaired performance in memory, processing speed and verbal production, while the VCIND group showed attention deficits. CONCLUSION: Impairment in executive functions and difficulties in ADLs allow us to differentiate levels of impairment in groups of subcortical vascular disease.

  3. Lipoprotein (a) and carotid atherosclerosis in young patients with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Nathalie; Ruidavets, Jean Bernard; Farghali, Ahmed; Guidolin, Brigitte; Perret, Bertrand; Larrue, Vincent

    2011-12-01

    Elevated lipoprotein (a) concentration is associated with carotid atherosclerosis in middle-aged and older patients with ischemic stroke. This association has not been explored in young patients with stroke. A retrospective analysis of data from patients aged 16 to 54 years consecutively treated for acute ischemic stroke in a tertiary stroke unit during 4.5 years was performed. We graded carotid atherosclerosis using carotid duplex as: no atherosclerosis (A); plaque without stenosis (B); or stenosis≥50% (C). One hundred ninety-six patients were included (male/female: 119/77; mean age±SD: 44.3±8.6 years): 115 in Group A; 67 in Group B; and 14 in Group C. Multivariate analysis using polynomial logistic regression showed a graded association of lipoprotein (a) plasma concentration with carotid atherosclerosis (Patherosclerosis in young adults with ischemic stroke. This association was strong, graded, and independent of traditional risk factors including cholesterol.

  4. Short- and long-term prognosis for very old stroke patients. The Copenhagen Stroke Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Lars Peter; Jørgensen, H S; Reith, J

    2004-01-01

    stroke onset. By way of multiple logistic regression and survival analyses very old age was independently related to short- and long-term mortality and nursing home placement independent of other clinical characteristics. RESULTS: 16% of patients were 85 years or older at the time of stroke onset. More...... old had hypertension (25% versus 34%, P = 0.02) and diabetes (14% versus 22%, P = 0.01). In adjusted multiple regression models, very old age predicted short-term mortality (OR 2.5; 95% CI 1.5-4.2), and discharge to nursing home or in-hospital mortality (OR 2.7; 95% CI 1.7-4.4). Five years after...... after stroke. CONCLUSIONS: In this study very old age per se was a strong predictor of outcome and mortality after stroke. Apart from very old age, factors such as prestroke medical and functional status, and onset stroke severity should be taken into consideration when planning treatment...

  5. Variables That Best Differentiate In-Patient Acute Stroke from Stroke-Mimics with Acute Neurological Deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Natteru

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Strokes and stroke-mimics have been extensively studied in the emergency department setting. Although in-hospital strokes are less studied in comparison to strokes in the emergency department, they are a source of significant direct and indirect costs. Differentiating in-hospital strokes from stroke-mimics is important. Thus, our study aimed to identify variables that can differentiate in-hospital strokes from stroke-mimics. Methods. We present here a retrospective analysis of 93 patients over a one-year period (2009 to 2010, who were evaluated for a concern of in-hospital strokes. Results. About two-thirds (57 of these patients were determined to have a stroke, and the remaining (36 were stroke-mimics. Patients with in-hospital strokes were more likely to be obese (p=0.03, have been admitted to the cardiology service (p=0.01, have atrial fibrillation (p=0.03, have a weak hand or hemiparesis (p=0.03, and have a prior history of stroke (p=0.05, whereas, when the consults were called for “altered mental status” but no other deficits (p<0.0001, it is likely a stroke-mimic. Conclusion. This study demonstrates that in-hospital strokes are a common occurrence, and knowing the variables can aid in their timely diagnosis and treatment.

  6. Stroke

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pollack, Allan; Harrison, Christopher; Henderson, Joan; Miller, Graeme

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, about 50,000 Australians had a stroke (cerebrovascular accident (CVA)). The risk of stroke is associated with increased age, previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack, hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus (DM...

  7. Renal Dysfunction in Post-Stroke Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Chwojnicki

    Full Text Available The presence of chronic kidney disease (CKD is an indicator of a worse long-term prognosis in patients with ischemic stroke (IS. Unfortunately, not much is known about renal function in the population of post-IS subjects. The aim of our study was to assess the prevalence of renal damage and impaired renal function (IRF in the population of post-IS subjects.This prospective analysis concerned 352 consecutive post-IS survivors hospitalized in Pomeranian stroke centers (Poland in 2009. In this group estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR according to MDRD (modification of diet in renal diseases and CKD-EPI (Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration formulas and urine albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR were determined.Among survivors decreased eGFR (<60 mL/min./1.73m2 according to MDRD or CKD-EPI or ACR≥30mg/g were detected in 40.38% (23.07% Men, 55.32% Women; P<0.01. The highest prevalence of IRF was noted in post-IS subjects with atheromatic and lacunar IS. In multivariate analysis the ACR≥30mg/g was predicted by older age, diabetes mellitus (DM and physical disability (modified Rankin scale 3-5 pts.. The association with reduced eGFR was proved for sex (female, DM and physical disability.CKD is a frequently occurring problem in the group of post-IS subjects, especially after lacunar and atheromatic IS. Post-IS patients, mainly the elderly women, with physical disability and diabetes mellitus, should be regularly screened for CKD. This could reduce the risk of further cardiovascular events and delay the progression of IRF.

  8. Patients living in impoverished areas have more severe ischemic strokes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleindorfer, Dawn; Lindsell, Christopher; Alwell, Kathleen A; Moomaw, Charles J; Woo, Daniel; Flaherty, Matthew L; Khatri, Pooja; Adeoye, Opeolu; Ferioli, Simona; Kissela, Brett M

    2012-08-01

    Initial stroke severity is one of the strongest predictors of eventual stroke outcome. However, predictors of initial stroke severity have not been well-described within a population. We hypothesized that poorer patients would have a higher initial stroke severity on presentation to medical attention. We identified all cases of hospital-ascertained ischemic stroke occurring in 2005 within a biracial population of 1.3 million. "Community" socioecomic status was determined for each patient based on the percentage below poverty in the census tract in which the patient resided. Linear regression was used to model the effect of socioeconomic status on stroke severity. Models were adjusted for race, gender, age, prestroke disability, and history of medical comorbidities. There were 1895 ischemic stroke events detected in 2005 included in this analysis; 22% were black, 52% were female, and the mean age was 71 years (range, 19-104). The median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale was 3 (range, 0-40). The poorest community socioeconomic status was associated with a significantly increased initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale by 1.5 points (95% confidence interval, 0.5-2.6; P<0.001) compared with the richest category in the univariate analysis, which increased to 2.2 points after adjustment for demographics and comorbidities. We found that increasing community poverty was associated with worse stroke severity at presentation, independent of other known factors associated with stroke outcomes. Socioeconomic status may impact stroke severity via medication compliance, access to care, and cultural factors, or may be a proxy measure for undiagnosed disease states.

  9. ACTIVLIM-Stroke: a crosscultural Rasch-built scale of activity limitations in patients with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batcho, Charles Sèbiyo; Tennant, Alan; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

    2012-03-01

    This study describes the development of a Rasch-built scale measuring activity limitations in stroke patients, named ACTIVLIM-Stroke. This new Rasch-built measure was constructed based on stroke patients' perceptions of difficulty in performing daily activities. Patients were recruited from inpatient and outpatient rehabilitation departments in Belgium and Benin. A 73-item questionnaire was completed by 204 participants. A random subsample of 83 subjects was given the questionnaire a second time. Data were analyzed using RUMM2030 software. After successive Rasch analyses, the ACTIVLIM-Stroke questionnaire, a unidimensional and linear 20-item measure of activity limitations, was constructed. All 20 items fulfilled Rasch requirements (overall and individual item fit, category discrimination, invariance, local response independence, and nonredundancy in item difficulty). This simple patient-based scale encompasses a large range of activities related to self-care, transfer, mobility, manual ability, and balance. The ACTIVLIM-Stroke questionnaire exhibited high internal validity, excellent internal consistency, and good crosscultural validity. The test-retest reliability of item difficulty hierarchy (intraclass correlation coefficient=0.99) and patient location (intraclass correlation coefficient=0.92) were both excellent. Furthermore, it showed good external construct validity using correlations with the Functional Independence Measure motor and the Barthel Index and a higher discriminating capacity than either of these widely used indices. The ACTIVLIM-Stroke questionnaire has good psychometric qualities and provides accurate measures of activity limitations in patients with stroke. It is recommended for evaluating clinical and research interventions in patients with stroke, because it provides a higher discrimination and might be more sensitive to change.

  10. Dysphagia in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke: Early Dysphagia Screening May Reduce Stroke-Related Pneumonia and Improve Stroke Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khaled, Mohamed; Matthis, Christine; Binder, Andreas; Mudter, Jonas; Schattschneider, Joern; Pulkowski, Ulrich; Strohmaier, Tim; Niehoff, Torsten; Zybur, Roland; Eggers, Juergen; Valdueza, Jose M; Royl, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Dysphagia is associated with poor outcome in stroke patients. Studies investigating the association of dysphagia and early dysphagia screening (EDS) with outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) are rare. The aims of our study are to investigate the association of dysphagia and EDS within 24 h with stroke-related pneumonia and outcomes. Over a 4.5-year period (starting November 2007), all consecutive AIS patients from 15 hospitals in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, were prospectively evaluated. The primary outcomes were stroke-related pneumonia during hospitalization, mortality, and disability measured on the modified Rankin Scale ≥2-5, in which 2 indicates an independence/slight disability to 5 severe disability. Of 12,276 patients (mean age 73 ± 13; 49% women), 9,164 patients (74%) underwent dysphagia screening; of these patients, 55, 39, 4.7, and 1.5% of patients had been screened for dysphagia within 3, 3 to 72 h following admission. Patients who underwent dysphagia screening were likely to be older, more affected on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, and to have higher rates of neurological symptoms and risk factors than patients who were not screened. A total of 3,083 patients (25.1%; 95% CI 24.4-25.8) had dysphagia. The frequency of dysphagia was higher in patients who had undergone dysphagia screening than in those who had not (30 vs. 11.1%; p dysphagia had a higher rate of pneumonia than those without dysphagia (29.7 vs. 3.7%; p dysphagia was associated with increased risk of stroke-related pneumonia (OR 3.4; 95% CI 2.8-4.2; p dysphagia was independently correlated with an increase in mortality (OR 3.2; 95% CI 2.4-4.2; p Dysphagia exposes stroke patients to a higher risk of pneumonia, disability, and death, whereas an EDS seems to be associated with reduced risk of stroke-related pneumonia and disability. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Effects of Music Therapy on Mood in Stroke Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dong Soo; Park, Yoon Ghil; Choi, Jung Hwa; Im, Sang-Hee; Jung, Kang Jae; Cha, Young A; Jung, Chul Oh; Yoon, Yeo Hoon

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effects of music therapy on depressive mood and anxiety in post-stroke patients and evaluate satisfaction levels of patients and caregivers. Materials and Methods Eighteen post-stroke patients, within six months of onset and mini mental status examination score of over 20, participated in this study. Patients were divided into music and control groups. The experimental group participated in the music therapy program for four weeks. Psychological status was evaluated...

  12. Combined arm stretch positioning and neuromuscular electrical stimulation during rehabilitation does not improve range of motion, shoulder pain or function in patients after stroke : a randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Lex D.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Gerritsen, Johan; Geurts, Alexander C. H.; Postema, Klaas

    2013-01-01

    Question: Does static stretch positioning combined with simultaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) in the subacute phase after stroke have beneficial effects on basic arm body functions and activities? Design: Multicentre randomised trial with concealed allocation, assessor blinding,

  13. Stroke severity may predict causes of readmission within one year in patients with first ischemic stroke event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Cheng-Yang; Lin, Huey-Juan; Hu, Ya-Han; Sung, Sheng-Feng

    2017-01-15

    Readmissions after stroke are costly. Risk assessment using information available upon admission could identify high-risk patients for potential interventions to reduce readmissions. Baseline stroke severity has been suspected to be a factor in readmission; however, the exact nature of the impact has not been adequately understood. Hospitalized adult patients with first-ever ischemic stroke were identified from a nationwide administrative database. Stroke severity was assessed using a validated claims-based stroke severity index. Cox proportional hazards models were used to investigate the relationship between stroke severity and first readmission within one year. Of the 10,877 patients, 4295 (39.5%) were readmitted in one year. The cumulative risk of readmission was 34.1%, 44.7%, and 62.9% in patients with mild, moderate, and severe stroke, respectively. Patients with greater stroke severity had a significantly higher adjusted risk of first readmission for infection, metabolic disorders, neurological sequelae, and pulmonary diseases, whereas those with lesser stroke severity were prone to first readmission due to accidents. Stroke severity did not affect the risk of first readmission for recurrent stroke/transient ischemic attack, other cardiovascular events, malignancy, ulcers/upper gastrointestinal bleeding, kidney diseases, and others. Stroke severity in patients with first-ever ischemic stroke not only predicts readmission but also relates to the cause of readmission. Our results might provide important information for tailoring discharge planning to prevent readmissions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Stroke Risk Factors among Patients in a Nigerian Teaching Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Purpose: Epidemiological studies have identified modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for stroke. The aim of this study was to describe the risk factors in stroke patients admitted in a Nigerian teaching hospital. Methods: This is a prospective study carried out in the Jos University Teaching Hospital in ...

  15. Assessing the Cognitive Regulation of Emotion in Depressed Stroke Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Margaret A.; Andrewes, David G.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the psychometric properties of a simple scale for measuring positive interpersonal attitudes of depressed stroke patients, with regard to their cognitive limitations. Two versions of the Attitudes Towards Relationships Scale were developed and administered to depressed stroke (n = 48) and control rheumatic/orthopaedic (n = 45)…

  16. Multidisciplinary rehabilitation outcomes of stroke patients in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multidisciplinary rehabilitation can be implemented to address disability post stroke. The aim of this study was to determine outcomes of stroke patients managed by a multidisciplinary team at a step-down facility in the Western Cape. A longitudinal observational study was used to measure outcomes at baseline and ...

  17. Clinical application of computerized evaluation and re-education biofeedback prototype for sensorimotor control of the hand in stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Hsiu-Yun

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemianaesthesia patients usually exhibit awkward and inefficient finger movements of the affected hands. Conventionally, most interventions emphasize the improvement of motor deficits, but rarely address sensory capability and sensorimotor control following stroke. Thus it is critical for stroke patients with sensory problems to incorporate appropriate strategies for dealing with sensory impairment, into traditional hand function rehabilitation programs. In this study, we used a custom-designed computerized evaluation and re-education biofeedback (CERB prototype to analyze hand grasp performances, and monitor the training effects on hand coordination for stroke patients with sensory disturbance and without motor deficiency. Methods The CERB prototype was constructed to detect momentary pinch force modulation for 14 sub-acute and chronic stroke patients with sensory deficiency and 14 healthy controls. The other ten chronic stroke patients (ranges of stroke period: 6–60 months were recruited to investigate the effects of 4-weeks computerized biofeedback treatments on the hand control ability. The biofeedback procedures provide visual and auditory cues to the participants when the interactive force of hand-to-object exceeded the target latitude in a pinch-up-holding task to trigger optimal motor strategy. Follow-up measurements were conducted one month after training. The hand sensibility, grip forces and results of hand functional tests were recorded and analyzed. Results The affected hands of the 14 predominant sensory stroke patients exhibited statistically significant elevation in the magnitude of peak pinch force (p = 0.033 in pinching and lifting-up tasks, and poor results for hand function tests (p = 0.005 than sound hands did. In addition, the sound hands of patients were less efficient in force modulation (p = 0.009 than the hands of healthy subjects were. Training with the biofeedback system produced

  18. Determinants of Length of Stay in Stroke Patients: A Geriatric Rehabilitation Unit Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalay, Ayce; Turhan, Nur

    2009-01-01

    The objective was to identify the predictors of length of stay--the impact of age, comorbidity, and stroke subtype--on the outcome of geriatric stroke patients. One hundred and seventy stroke patients (129 first-ever ischemic, 25 hemorrhagic, and 16 ischemic second strokes) were included in the study. The Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project…

  19. Oxygen-ozone therapy for herniated lumbar disc in patients with subacute partial motor weakness due to nerve root compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Olio, Massimo; Princiotta, Ciro; Cirillo, Luigi; Budai, Caterina; de Santis, Fabio; Bartolini, Stefano; Serchi, Elena; Leonardi, Marco

    2014-10-31

    Intradiscal oxygen-ozone (O2-O3) chemonucleolysis is a well-known effective treatment for pain caused by protruding disc disease and nerve root compression due to bulging or herniated disc. The most widely used therapeutic combination is intradiscal injection of an O2-O3 mixture (chemonucleolysis), followed by periradicular injection of O2-O3, steroid and local anaesthetic to enhance the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect. The treatment is designed to resolve pain and is administered to patients without motor weakness, whereas patients with acute paralysis caused by nerve root compression undergo surgery 24-48h after the onset of neurological deficit. This paper reports on the efficacy of O2-O3 chemonucleolysis associated with anti-inflammatory foraminal injection in 13 patients with low back pain and cruralgia, low back pain and sciatica and subacute partial motor weakness caused by nerve root compression unresponsive to medical treatment. All patients were managed in conjunction with our colleagues in the Neurosurgery Unit of Bellaria Hospital and the IRCCS Institute of Neurological Sciences, Bologna. The outcomes obtained are promising: 100% patients had a resolution of motor weakness, while 84.6% had complete pain relief. Our results demonstrate that O2-O3 therapy can be considered a valid treatment option for this category of patients.

  20. Rehabilitation of hand in subacute tetraplegic patients based on brain computer interface and functional electrical stimulation: a randomised pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuagwu, Bethel C. A.; Wallace, Leslie; Fraser, Mathew; Vuckovic, Aleksandra

    2016-12-01

    Objective. To compare neurological and functional outcomes between two groups of hospitalised patients with subacute tetraplegia. Approach. Seven patients received 20 sessions of brain computer interface (BCI) controlled functional electrical stimulation (FES) while five patients received the same number of sessions of passive FES for both hands. The neurological assessment measures were event related desynchronization (ERD) during movement attempt, Somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) of the ulnar and median nerve; assessment of hand function involved the range of motion (ROM) of wrist and manual muscle test. Main results. Patients in both groups initially had intense ERD during movement attempt that was not restricted to the sensory-motor cortex. Following the treatment, ERD cortical activity restored towards the activity in able-bodied people in BCI-FES group only, remaining wide-spread in FES group. Likewise, SSEP returned in 3 patients in BCI-FES group, having no changes in FES group. The ROM of the wrist improved in both groups. Muscle strength significantly improved for both hands in BCI-FES group. For FES group, a significant improvement was noticed for right hand flexor muscles only. Significance. Combined BCI-FES therapy results in better neurological recovery and better improvement of muscle strength than FES alone. For spinal cord injured patients, BCI-FES should be considered as a therapeutic tool rather than solely a long-term assistive device for the restoration of a lost function.

  1. Stroke occurring in patients with cognitive impairment or dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solène Moulin

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT One in six patients admitted for stroke was previously demented. These patients have less access to appropriate stroke care, although little is known about their optimal management. Objective To determine how pre-stroke cognitive impairment can be detected, its mechanism, and influence on outcome and management. Methods Literature search. Results (i A systematic approach with the Informant Questionnaire of Cognitive Decline in the Elderly is recommended; (ii Pre-stroke cognitive impairment may be due to brain lesions of vascular, degenerative, or mixed origin; (iii Patients with pre-stroke dementia, have worse outcomes, more seizures, delirium, and depression, and higher mortality rates; they often need to be institutionalised after their stroke; (iv Although the safety profile of treatment is not as good as that of cognitively normal patients, the risk:benefit ratio is in favour of treating these patients like others. Conclusion Patients with cognitive impairment who develop a stroke have worse outcomes, but should be treated like others.

  2. Improving pain assessment and managment in stroke patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbitt, Julian; Moxham, Sian; ramadurai, gopinath; Williams, Lucy

    2015-01-01

    Stroke patients can experience a variety of pain. Many stroke patients have co-morbidities such as osteoporosis, arthritis or diabetes causing diabetic neuropathy. As well as pain from other long term conditions, stroke patients can experience central post-stroke pain, headaches, and musculoskeletal issues such as hypertonia, contractures, spasticity, and subluxations. These stroke patients can also have communication difficulties in the form of expressive dysphasia and/or global aphasia. Communication difficulties can result in these patients not expressing their pain and therefore not having it assessed, leading to inadequate pain relief that could impact their rehabilitation and recovery. By implementing an observational measurement of pain such as the Abbey pain scale, patients with communication difficulties can have their pain assessed and recorded. Initially 30% of patients on the acute stroke ward did not have their pain assessed and adequately recorded and 15% of patients had inadequate pain relief. The patient was assessed if they were in pain and therefore not receiving adequate pain relief by measuring their pain on the Abbey pain scale. After introducing the Abbey pain scale and creating a nurse advocate, an improvement was shown such that only 5% of patients did not have their pain recorded and all had adequate pain relief. PMID:26732690

  3. How much physical therapy for patients with stroke?

    OpenAIRE

    Brocklehurst, J C; Andrews, K; Richards, B; Laycock, P J

    1978-01-01

    The use of physiotherapy, occupational therapy, and speech therapy for patients with stroke was investigated, and the three treatments were compared. Out of 135 patients with stroke surviving at two weeks, 107 received physiotherapy, but only 35 received occupational therapy and 19 speech therapy. Those who received most physiotherapy were the most severely disabled and had the worst prognosis, and, although almost no recovery occurred after six months, 30 patients continued with treatment be...

  4. Variations in Kinematics during Clinical Gait Analysis in Stroke Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Julien Boudarham; Nicolas Roche; Didier Pradon; Céline Bonnyaud; Djamel Bensmail; Raphael Zory

    2013-01-01

    In addition to changes in spatio-temporal and kinematic parameters, patients with stroke exhibit fear of falling as well as fatigability during gait. These changes could compromise interpretation of data from gait analysis. The aim of this study was to determine if the gait of hemiplegic patients changes significantly over successive gait trials. Forty two stroke patients and twenty healthy subjects performed 9 gait trials during a gait analysis session. The mean and variability of spatio-tem...

  5. Increased insulin-like growth factor-1 levels in cerebrospinal fluid of advanced subacute sclerosing panencephalitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Deniz; Yüksel, Deniz; Gökkurt, Didem; Oguz, Hava; Anlar, Banu

    2016-07-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a progressive, lethal disease. Brain histopathology in certain SSPE patients shows, neurofibrillary tangles composed of abnormally phosphorylated, microtubule-associated protein tau (PHF-tau). Because the, phosphorylation of tau is inhibited by insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), we investigated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) insulin and IGF-1 levels in SSPE patients. In this study CSF IGF-1 and insulin levels of 45 SSPE and 25 age-matched control patients were investigated. CSF IGF-1 levels were significantly higher in SSPE patients at stage 4, compared to other stages (p 0.05). CSF insulin and IGF-1 levels were both positively correlated with serum measles IgG. The correlation between CSF insulin and IGF-1 levels and serum measles virus IgG titer may be the result of, insulin activating IGF-1 receptors, and consequently, IGF-1 stimulating, plasma cells and enhancing IgG production. Increased IGF-1 may also, inhibit the phosphorylation of tau. Further studies examining the, correlation between IGF-1, insulin, tau, and PHF-tau levels in the same, patients may clarify any possible pathogenetic relation between these, pathways. Copyright © 2016 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Poor nutritional status of older subacute patients predicts clinical outcomes and mortality at 18 months of follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, K; Nichols, C; Bowden, S; Milosavljevic, M; Lambert, K; Barone, L; Mason, M; Batterham, M

    2012-11-01

    Older malnourished patients experience increased surgical complications and greater morbidity compared with their well-nourished counterparts. This study aimed to assess whether nutritional status at hospital admission predicted clinical outcomes at 18 months follow-up. A retrospective analysis of N=2076 patient admissions (65+ years) from two subacute hospitals, New South Wales, Australia. Analysis of outcomes at 18 months, according to nutritional status at index admission, was performed in a subsample of n = 476. Nutritional status was determined within 72 h of admission using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). Outcomes, obtained from electronic patient records, included hospital readmission rate, total Length of Stay (LOS), change in level of care at discharge and mortality. Survival analysis, using a Cox proportional hazards model, included age, sex, Major Disease Classification, mobility and LOS at index admission as covariates. At baseline, 30% of patients were malnourished and 53% were at risk of malnutrition. LOS was higher in malnourished and at risk, compared with well-nourished patients (median (interquartile range): 34 (21, 58); 26 (15, 41); 20 (14, 26) days, respectively; Pnutritional intervention following hospital discharge.

  7. Costs of stroke and stroke services: Determinants of patient costs and a comparison of costs of regular care and care organised in stroke services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koopmanschap Marc A

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stroke is a major cause of death and long-term disability in Western societies and constitutes a major claim on health care budgets. Organising stroke care in a stroke service has recently been demonstrated to result in better health effects for patients. This paper discusses patient costs after stroke and compares costs between regular and stroke service care. Methods Costs were calculated within the framework of the evaluation of three experiments with stroke services in the Netherlands. Cost calculations are base on medical consumption data and actual costs. Results 598 patients were consecutively admitted to hospital after stroke. The average total costs of care per patient for the 6 month follow-up are estimated at €16,000. Costs are dominated by institutional and accommodation costs. Patients who die after stroke incur less costs. For patients that survive the acute phase, the most important determinants of costs are disability status and having a partner – as they influence patients' stroke careers. These determinants also interact. The most efficient stroke service experiment was most successful in co-ordinating patient flow from hospital to (nursing home, through capacity planning and efficient discharge procedures. In this region the costs of stroke service care are the same as for regular stroke care. The other experiments suffered from waiting lists for nursing homes and home care, leading to "blocked beds" in hospitals and nursing homes and higher costs of care. Costs of co-ordination are estimated at about 3% of total costs of care. Conclusion This paper demonstrates that by organising care for stroke patients in a stroke service, better health effects can be achieved with the same budget. In addition, it provides insight in need, predisposing and enabling factors that determine costs of care after stroke.

  8. Association Between Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Genotype and Upper Extremity Motor Outcome After Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Won Hyuk; Park, Eunhee; Lee, Jungsoo; Lee, Ahee; Kim, Yun-Hee

    2017-06-01

    The identification of intrinsic factors for predicting upper extremity motor outcome could aid the design of individualized treatment plans in stroke rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to identify prognostic factors, including intrinsic genetic factors, for upper extremity motor outcome in patients with subacute stroke. A total of 97 patients with subacute stroke were enrolled. Upper limb motor impairment was scored according to the upper limb of Fugl-Meyer assessment score at 3 months after stroke. The prediction of upper extremity motor outcome at 3 months was modeled using various factors that could potentially influence this impairment, including patient characteristics, baseline upper extremity motor impairment, functional and structural integrity of the corticospinal tract, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor genotype. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression models were used to identify the significance of each factor. The independent predictors of motor outcome at 3 months were baseline upper extremity motor impairment, age, stroke type, and corticospinal tract functional integrity in all stroke patients. However, in the group with severe motor impairment at baseline (upper limb score of Fugl-Meyer assessment derived neurotrophic factor genotype was also an independent predictor of upper extremity motor outcome 3 months after stroke. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor genotype may be a potentially useful predictor of upper extremity motor outcome in patients with subacute stroke with severe baseline motor involvement. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Cortical modulation of cardiac autonomic activity in ischemic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinescu, Victor; Matei, Daniela; Cuciureanu, Dan; Corciova, Calin; Ignat, Bogdan; Popescu, Cristian Dinu

    2016-12-01

    The cardiovascular system is regulated by the autonomic nervous system, under cortical modulation. Stroke can induce cardiac autonomic imbalance, therefore, causing secondary cardiovascular complications. Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is a simple method to appraise the autonomic nervous function. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cardiac autonomic activity in patients that suffered an ischemic stroke in middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory. Using Biopac Acquisition System, we monitored ECG in rest condition and during Ewing's tests. From these measurements, HRV parameters (using time and frequency domain analysis) were determined in 20 right MCA and 20 left MCA ischemic stroke patients, in the first 6 months after the acute event. Data were compared with 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. All the patients were right handed. In ischemic stroke patients, HRV parameters were significantly modified compared to controls (p < 0.05) and we found asymmetric responses to different stimulation autonomic tests between right and left hemisphere. Parameters illustrating the parasympathetic predominance in time domain (RMSSD) and frequency domain (HF) analysis were higher in left hemisphere stroke compared to right hemisphere stroke patients (p < 0.01) in resting state. From Ewing's battery test, patients with left hemisphere ischemic stroke showed predominance of parasympathetic activity to deep breathing (p < 0.01), while HRV parameters in right hemisphere ischemic stroke patients described a reduced cardiac parasympathetic innervation (p < 0.01). Cardiac autonomic imbalance occurs more often after right hemisphere ischemic stroke. HRV study may highlight cardiac dysfunctions that increase the risk of cardiovascular complications and portends a poor long-term outcome.

  10. Diagnostic value of prehospital ECG in acute stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobinger, Tobias; Kallmünzer, Bernd; Kopp, Markus; Kurka, Natalia; Arnold, Martin; Heider, Stefan; Schwab, Stefan; Köhrmann, Martin

    2017-05-16

    To investigate the diagnostic yield of prehospital ECG monitoring provided by emergency medical services in the case of suspected stroke. Consecutive patients with acute stroke admitted to our tertiary stroke center via emergency medical services and with available prehospital ECG were prospectively included during a 12-month study period. We assessed prehospital ECG recordings and compared the results to regular 12-lead ECG on admission and after continuous ECG monitoring at the stroke unit. Overall, 259 patients with prehospital ECG recording were included in the study (90.3% ischemic stroke, 9.7% intracerebral hemorrhage). Atrial fibrillation (AF) was detected in 25.1% of patients, second-degree or greater atrioventricular block in 5.4%, significant ST-segment elevation in 5.0%, and ventricular ectopy in 9.7%. In 18 patients, a diagnosis of new-onset AF with direct clinical consequences for the evaluation and secondary prevention of stroke was established by the prehospital recordings. In 2 patients, the AF episodes were limited to the prehospital period and were not detected by ECG on admission or during subsequent monitoring at the stroke unit. Of 126 patients (48.6%) with relevant abnormalities in the prehospital ECG, 16.7% received medical antiarrhythmic therapy during transport to the hospital, and 6.4% were transferred to a cardiology unit within the first 24 hours in the hospital. In a selected cohort of patients with stroke, the in-field recordings of the ECG detected a relevant rate of cardiac arrhythmia. The results can add to the in-hospital evaluation and should be considered in prehospital care of acute stroke. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  11. The aesthetic and cultural pursuits of patients with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Clare; Cassidy, Aoife; O'Neill, Desmond; Moss, Hilary

    2013-11-01

    There has been an increasing interest in the arts in health care, with a suggestion that the arts and aesthetics can augment patient outcomes in stroke and other illnesses. Designing such programmes requires better knowledge of the artistic, aesthetic, and cultural pursuits of people affected by stroke. The aim of this study was to obtain the insights of this group about the profile of art and aesthetic activities in their lives and the influence of stroke on these aspects. Patients attending a stroke service were administered questions adapted from the Irish Arts Council's 2006 questionnaire on participation in aesthetics and cultural pursuits. Information was also collected on stroke type and present functional and cognitive status. Thirty-eight patients were interviewed. Of these, 20 were inpatients in hospital at the time of the interview and 18 were interviewed in an outpatient setting. Popular activities included mainstream cinema, listening to music, dancing, attending plays or musicals, and being outdoors. Many patients ceased these activities after their stroke, mostly because of health issues and inaccessibility. Most of the patients valued the importance of the arts in the health-care setting. This study gives a perspective for the first time on the aesthetic and cultural pursuits of stroke patients before their stroke. It portrays a wide variety of cultural and leisure activities and the cessation of these poststroke. It revealed the restrictions patients felt on gaining access to leisure pursuits both while in hospital and following discharge. Copyright © 2013 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Incidence of aphasia in patients experiencing an ischemic stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Mc, Francisca; Lavados G, Pablo; Olavarría I, Verónica

    2017-02-01

    Sequelae after a stroke are common and may lead to disability. Aphasia - defined as an acquired language disturbance - can cause important limitations in quality of life. To describe the epidemiological features of patients who had an aphasia after a first episode of ischemic stroke and their functional outcome at six months. Review of a database of a population study on the incidence, 30-day case fatality rate, and prognosis of stroke performed in a northern Chilean city between 2000 and 2002. Aphasia was diagnosed in 28 of 142 patients in whom the disorder was sought (20%). The projected incidence rate in the city where the study was carried out is 7.06 per 100,000 inhabitants. The mean age of these 28 patients was 66 ± 20 years and 53% were women. The main risk factor for stroke was hypertension in 62%. The etiology of stroke was undetermined in 64% of these patients. Partial anterior circulation infarction was the most common stroke location in 61%. Twenty percent of patients with a first episode of ischemic stroke have aphasia.

  13. Stroke rehabilitation and patients with multimorbidity: a scoping review protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L.A. Nelson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Stroke care presents unique challenges for clinicians, as most strokes occur in the context of other medical diagnoses. An assessment of capacity for implementing “best practice” stroke care found clinicians reporting a strong need for training specific to patient/system complexity and multimorbidity. With mounting patient complexity, there is pressure to implement new models of healthcare delivery for both quality and financial sustainability. Policy makers and administrators are turning to clinical practice guidelines to support decision-making and resource allocation. Stroke rehabilitation programs across Canada are being transformed to better align with the Canadian Stroke Strategy’s Stroke Best Practice Recommendations. The recommendations provide a framework to facilitate the adoption of evidence-based best practices in stroke across the continuum of care. However, given the increasing and emerging complexity of patients with stroke in terms of multimorbidity, the evidence supporting clinical practice guidelines may not align with the current patient population. To evaluate this, electronic databases and gray literature will be searched, including published or unpublished studies of quantitative, qualitative or mixed-methods research designs. Team members will screen the literature and abstract the data. Results will present a numerical account of the amount, type, and distribution of the studies included and a thematic analysis and concept map of the results. This review represents the first attempt to map the available literature on stroke rehabilitation and multimorbidity, and identify gaps in the existing research. The results will be relevant for knowledge users concerned with stroke rehabilitation by expanding the understanding of the current evidence.

  14. Variability of stroke patients meeting endovascular stroke trial criteria in a non-clinical trial setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugate, Jennifer E; Brinjikji, Waleed; Cloft, Harry; Kallmes, David F; Rabinstein, Alejandro A

    2017-12-19

    Five randomized trials proving the efficacy and safety of mechanical embolectomy for ischemic stroke within 8hours used differing radiological methods to select patients. We aimed to evaluate the proportion of patients in clinical practice that would meet radiological criteria for inclusion in these trials. Retrospective study of ischemic stroke patients at a large academic medical center who were considered for endovascular stroke therapy based on confirmed intracranial large vessel occlusion from April 2010-November 2014. All patients underwent computed tomography (CT) perfusion and CT angiogram. Of 119 patients, median age was 69 years (IQR 57-79) and median NIHSS 18 (IQR 14-21). Most patients had ASPECTS≥6 (n=105, 88.2%). All 119 patients met radiological criteria for MR CLEAN while 105 (88.2%) met criteria for SWIFT-PRIME, 96 (80.7%) for REVASCAT, 80/116 (69.0%) for EXTEND-IA, and 74 (62.2%) for ESCAPE. About half (n=58,48.7%) were treated with IV rtPA and 66 (56%) underwent endovascular therapy. Any intracranial hemorrhage was more common in patients undergoing endovascular therapy than in those who were not (36% vs. 17%, P=0.034). The frequency of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) did not significantly differ between these groups (6% vs. 4%, P=0.691). The proportion of patients with acute stroke and large vessel occlusion presenting within 8 hours that would meet radiological criteria for endovascular stroke trials varies considerably (62-100%) in a cohort outside of clinical trials from an academic comprehensive stroke center. Thus, the radiological criteria used for candidate selection in daily practice will greatly influence the proportion of patients treated with endovascular therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Computed tomography scan in the evaluation of patients with stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PK Chhetri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cerebrovascular accident is a frequent cause of death and disability in most parts of the globe. The incidence of cerebrovascular diseases increases with age and the number of strokes is projected to increase as the elderly population grows. This study was undertaken to determine the type of stroke and also to relate the risks factors associated with stroke. Hundred consecutive patients presenting with stroke in the emergency department / neurology clinic were subjected to computed tomography scan of the brain. Sixty – four patients had ischemic infarct and 36 had intracranial hemorrhage which included 2 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage and 1 with underlying cavernous angioma. Ischemic stroke was thus commoner than hemorrhagic stroke. Previous infarct or lacunes were noted in 25 % of the patients presenting with stroke. Risk factors were present in most (77 % of the patients presenting with stroke. Among the various risk factors, the single most common was smoking seen in 38 cases, followed by hypertension in 28 cases, obesity in 8 cases and diabetes in 3 cases. Twenty- one patients had multiple combinations of the above risk factors. Among the multiple risk factors, combination of alcohol and smoking was the commonest seen in 11 cases, followed by hypertension and obesity in 8 cases and alcohol with obesity in 2 cases. Change in lifestyle and eating habits may thus help reduce the incidence of stroke. Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal,2012,Vol-8,No-2, 24-31 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v8i2.6834

  16. Costs of stroke and stroke services: Determinants of patient costs and a comparison of costs of regular care and care organised in stroke services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Koopmanschap (Marc); W.J.M. Scholte op Reimer (Wilma); J.D.H. van Wijngaarden (Jeroen); N.J.A. van Exel (Job)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Stroke is a major cause of death and long-term disability in Western societies and constitutes a major claim on health care budgets. Organising stroke care in a stroke service has recently been demonstrated to result in better health effects for patients.

  17. Costs of stroke and stroke services: Determinants of patient costs and a comparison of costs of regular care and care organised in stroke services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.J.A. van Exel (Job); M.A. Koopmanschap (Marc); J.D.H. van Wijngaarden (Jeroen); W.J.M. Scholte op Reimer (Wilma)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Stroke is a major cause of death and long-term disability in Western societies and constitutes a major claim on health care budgets. Organising stroke care in a stroke service has recently been demonstrated to result in better health effects for patients. This paper discusses

  18. Progress in sensorimotor rehabilitative physical therapy programs for stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia-Ching; Shaw, Fu-Zen

    2014-08-16

    Impaired motor and functional activity following stroke often has negative impacts on the patient, the family and society. The available rehabilitation programs for stroke patients are reviewed. Conventional rehabilitation strategies (Bobath, Brunnstrom, proprioception neuromuscular facilitation, motor relearning and function-based principles) are the mainstream tactics in clinical practices. Numerous advanced strategies for sensory-motor functional enhancement, including electrical stimulation, electromyographic biofeedback, constraint-induced movement therapy, robotics-aided systems, virtual reality, intermittent compression, partial body weight supported treadmill training and thermal stimulation, are being developed and incorporated into conventional rehabilitation programs. The concept of combining valuable rehabilitative procedures into "a training package", based on the patient's functional status during different recovery phases after stroke is proposed. Integrated sensorimotor rehabilitation programs with appropriate temporal arrangements might provide great functional benefits for stroke patients.

  19. A cerebrovascular stroke following endoscopy for an elderly patient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and mortality following upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The following incident is a case report of a cerebrovascular accident following diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for an elderly patient with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Keywords: Gastrointestinal bleeding; Endoscopy; Complications; Stroke ...

  20. Presence of Ideomotor Apraxia in Stroke Patients with Pusher Syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kwon, Yong Hyun; Kwon, Jung Won; Park, Sang Young; Lee, Mi Young; Jang, Sung Ho; Kim, Chung Sun

    2011-01-01

    [Purpose] Pusher syndrome, which is a disorder of postural balance that occurs in hemiparetic stroke patients, is characterized by a particular tendency to strongly push toward the hemiparetic side...

  1. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with stroke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with stroke admitted to three tertiary hospitals in Zimbabwe: A retrospective one-year study. Farayi Kaseke, Aimee Stewart, Lovemore Gwanzura, James Hakim, Vasco Chikwasha ...

  2. Prevention of pressure ulcers in patients undergoing sub-acute rehabilitation after severe brain injury: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Marianne Brostrup; Wolffbrandt, Mia Moth; Poulsen, Ingrid

    2018-01-09

    The aim of this study was to uncover efforts made by healthcare professionals to prevent pressure ulcers (PUs) in patients with severe brain injury undergoing treatment at a sub-acute rehabilitation department. PUs is a major burden for patients and also generate considerable healthcare costs. PUs are, nevertheless, prevalent in both secondary and primary care. In this qualitative study, we performed 24-hour observation on four patients undergoing rehabilitation for severe brain injury. An observation guide was developed inspired by the Braden Scale and Spradley's theory and methods. Observations were analysed using content analysis. Patricia Benner's aspects of clinical grasp were employed in the interpretation of the observations. One overarching theme was identified: "Professionalism expressed by preventing intervention, involving the patient, employing clinical grasp and professional pride". Seven subcategories were summed up into the following three categories: Organisation of clinical practice, Professional assessment and Interactions with the patient. The healthcare professionals' actions to prevent PUs consisted of attaining the necessary knowledge about PU care and performing the activities. However, our observations revealed one important additional aspect; a very distinct impression that the healthcare professionals were committed to learning about the patients' former life and actively used this knowledge in their planning and provision of daily patient care. We believe this commitment has a very positive effect on prevention of PUs. Professional knowledge about prevention of PU is a necessary requisite, but is not sufficient to ensure effective treatment. To transfer knowledge into practice, we recommend that patients' rehabilitation days be planned in such a manner that activities, mobilisation and training are conducted throughout the day and evening. We also recommend that professional staff are encouraged to seek information about the former life

  3. Effects of robot-assisted upper limb rehabilitation in stroke patients: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertani, Rachele; Melegari, Corrado; De Cola, Maria C; Bramanti, Alessia; Bramanti, Placido; Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore

    2017-09-01

    Technology-supported training is emerging as a solution to support therapists in their efforts providing high-intensity, repetitive, and task-specific treatment, in order to enhance the recovery process. The aim of this review is to assess the effectiveness of different robotic devices (end-effector and exoskeleton robots) in comparison with any other type of intervention. Furthermore, we aim to assess whether or not better improvements are obtained in the sub-acute phase after stroke onset than in the chronic phase. A research was conducted in the electronic bibliographic databases Cochrane, MEDLINE, and EMBASE. A total of 17 studies were included: 14 randomized controlled trials, 2 systematic reviews, and one meta-analysis. Fugl-Meyer and modified Ashworth scale were selected to measure primary outcomes, i.e., motor function and muscle tone. Functional independence measure and motor activity log were selected to measure secondary outcomes, i.e., activities of daily living. In comparison with conventional therapy, the robot-assisted rehabilitation is more effective in improving upper limb motor function recovery, especially in chronic stroke patients. No significant improvements are observed in the reduction of muscle tone or daily living activities. The present systematic review shows that the use of robotic devices can positively affect the recovery of arm function in patients with stroke.

  4. Brain plasticity and rehabilitation in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Yukihiro

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, our understanding of motor learning, neuroplasticity and functional recovery after the occurrence of brain lesion has grown significantly. Novel findings in basic neuroscience have provided an impetus for research in motor rehabilitation. The brain reveals a spectrum of intrinsic capacities to react as a highly dynamic system which can change the properties of its neural circuits. This brain plasticity can lead to an extreme degree of spontaneous recovery and rehabilitative training may modify and boost the neuronal plasticity processes. Animal studies have extended these findings, providing insight into a broad range of underlying molecular and physiological events. Neuroimaging studies in human patients have provided observations at the systems level that often parallel findings in animals. In general, the best recoveries are associated with the greatest return toward the normal state of brain functional organization. Reorganization of surviving central nervous system elements supports behavioral recovery, for example, through changes in interhemispheric lateralization, activity of association cortices linked to injured zones, and organization of cortical representational maps. Evidence from animal models suggests that both motor learning and cortical stimulation alter intracortical inhibitory circuits and can facilitate long-term potentiation and cortical remodeling. Current researches on the physiology and use of cortical stimulation animal models and in humans with stroke related hemiplegia are reviewed in this article. In particular, electromyography (EMG) -controlled electrical muscle stimulation improves the motor function of the hemiparetic arm and hand. A multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) studies in which the hemoglobin levels in the brain were non-invasively and dynamically measured during functional activity found that the cerebral blood flow in the injured sensory-motor cortex area is greatest during an EMG-controlled FES

  5. Prevalence of risk factors for ischaemic stroke and their treatment among a cohort of stroke patients in Dublin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonnell, R

    2000-10-01

    The majority of strokes are due to ischaemia. Risk factors include atrial fibrillation, hypertension and smoking. The incidence can be reduced by addressing these risk factors. This study examines the prevalence of risk factors and their treatment in a cohort of patients with ischaemic stroke registered on a Dublin stroke database.

  6. Systematic Review of Hospital Readmissions in Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsan Rao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previous evidence on factors and causes of readmissions associated with high-impact users of stroke is scanty. The aim of the study was to investigate common causes and pattern of short- and long-term readmissions stroke patients by conducting a systematic review of studies using hospital administrative data. Common risk factors associated with the change of readmission rate were also examined. Methods. The literature search was conducted from 15 February to 15 March 2016 using various databases, such as Medline, Embase, and Web of Science. Results. There were a total of 24 studies (n=2,126,617 included in the review. Only 4 studies assessed causes of readmissions in stroke patients with the follow-up duration from 30 days to 5 years. Common causes of readmissions in majority of the studies were recurrent stroke, infections, and cardiac conditions. Common patient-related risk factors associated with increased readmission rate were age and history of coronary heart disease, heart failure, renal disease, respiratory disease, peripheral arterial disease, and diabetes. Among stroke-related factors, length of stay of index stroke admission was associated with increased readmission rate, followed by bowel incontinence, feeding tube, and urinary catheter. Conclusion. Although risk factors and common causes of readmission were identified, none of the previous studies investigated causes and their sequence of readmissions among high-impact stroke users.

  7. Stroke in Patients With Aortic Stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Anders Møller; Dalsgaard, Morten; Bang, Casper N

    2014-01-01

    ], 1.1-6.6), CHA2DS2-VASc score (HR 1.4 per unit; 95% CI, 1.1-1.8), diastolic blood pressure (HR, 1.4 per 10 mm Hg; 95% CI, 1.1-1.8), and AVR with concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting (HR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.4-7.2, all P≤0.026) were independently associated with stroke. Incident stroke predicted......, and poststroke survival a secondary outcome. Cox models treating AVR as a time-varying covariate were adjusted for atrial fibrillation and congestive heart failure, hypertension, age≥75 years, diabetes mellitus, stroke/transient ischemic attack, vascular disease, age 65-74 years and female sex (CHA2DS2-VASc......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There are limited data on risk stratification of stroke in aortic stenosis. This study examined predictors of stroke in aortic stenosis, the prognostic implications of stroke, and how aortic valve replacement (AVR) with or without concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting...

  8. A Telescreening Tool to Detect Aphasia in Patients with Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoon-Hee; Park, Hae Kyung; Ahn, Ki-hwan; Son, Yeon-joo; Paik, Nam-Jong

    2015-09-01

    Early identification of patients with stroke-induced aphasia is essential because it is a significant disability affecting daily life and is linked to poor functional outcome after stroke. However, most patients with stroke are unable to undergo aphasia evaluation and detection and therefore remain undiagnosed. The purpose of this study is to develop a valid, reliable mobile aphasia screening test (MAST) for patients in remote locations. To accomplish this, we enrolled patients with (n=30) and without (n=30) stroke-induced aphasia. A MAST, which adopted the Korean version of the shortened version of the Frenchay Aphasia Screening Test (K-FAST), was designed as an iPad(®) (Apple, Cupertino, CA) application. To validate the MAST, we compared its performance with that of the Korean version of the Western Aphasia Battery (K-WAB) and conventional shortened FAST paper version (K-FAST). We analyzed interrater and internal reliability, using Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and assessed the diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and power. There was significant correlation between K-FAST and MAST (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]=0.995, paphasia in patients with stroke. This telescreening test may overcome the limitations of test administration and may be a convenient and cost-effective alternative to the existing aphasia screening tests for patients with stroke.

  9. Hypertension unawareness among Chinese patients with first-ever stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinqin Cao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The low rates of hypertension treatment and control, partly due to its unawareness, are the main causes of the high stroke incidence in China. The purpose of this study was to evaluate hypertension unawareness amongst patients with first-ever stroke and to detect factors associated with its unawareness. Methods We selected those diagnosed with hypertension from patients with first-ever stroke registered in the Nanjing Stroke Registry Program between 2004 and 2014. These hypertensives were divided as being aware or unaware of their hypertension by using a brief questionnaire conducted shortly after the stroke. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify potential factors associated with hypertension unawareness. Results Of the 5309 patients with first-ever stroke, 3732 (70.3 % were diagnosed with hypertension. Among which, 593 (15.9 % were unaware of their hypertension at the time of stroke onset. Lower-level of education (primary school or illiteracy and smoking were associated positively with hypertension unawareness; while advanced age, overweight, diabetes mellitus, heart diseases and family history of stroke were associated negatively with hypertension unawareness. Annual data analyzed indicated that the rate of hypertension awareness increased during the past 11 years (r = 0.613, P = 0.045 for trends. Conclusions A substantial proportion (15.9 % of Chinese patients with hypertension had not been aware of this covert risk until an overt stroke occurred. Hypertension unawareness was associated with lower educational levels and smoking, which address the importance of health education especially in these individuals.

  10. Hospital Discharge Disposition of Stroke Patients in Tennessee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jin S; Hu, Zhen; Fell, Nancy; Heath, Gregory W; Qayyum, Rehan; Sartipi, Mina

    2017-09-01

    Early determination of hospital discharge disposition status at an acute admission is extremely important for stroke management and the eventual outcomes of patients with stroke. We investigated the hospital discharge disposition of patients with stroke residing in Tennessee and developed a predictive tool for clinical adoption. Our investigational aims were to evaluate the association of selected patient characteristics with hospital discharge disposition status and predict such status at the time of an acute stroke admission. We analyzed 127,581 records of patients with stroke hospitalized between 2010 and 2014. Logistic regression was used to generate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals to examine the factor outcome association. An easy-to-use clinical predictive tool was built by using integer-based risk scores derived from coefficients of multivariable logistic regression. Among the 127,581 records of patients with stroke, 86,114 (67.5%) indicated home discharge and 41,467 (32.5%) corresponded to facility discharge. All considered patient characteristics had significant correlations with hospital discharge disposition status. Patients were at greater odds of being discharged to another facility if they were women; older; black; patients with a subarachnoid or intracerebral hemorrhage; those with the comorbidities of diabetes mellitus, heart disease, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, arrhythmia, or depression; those transferred from another hospital; or patients with Medicare as the primary payer. A predictive tool had a discriminatory capability with area under the curve estimates of 0.737 and 0.724 for derivation and validation cohorts, respectively. Our investigation revealed that the hospital discharge disposition pattern of patients with stroke in Tennessee was associated with the key patient characteristics of selected demographics, clinical indicators, and insurance status. These analyses resulted in the development of an easy-to-use predictive

  11. Beyond stroke : Description and evaluation of an effective intervention to support family caregivers of stroke patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schure, Lidwien M.; van den Heuvel, Elisabeth T. P.; Stewart, Roy E.; Sanderman, Robbert; de Witte, Luc P.; Meyboom-de Jong, Betty

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of a group support program and a home visiting program for family caregivers of stroke patients. It also examined the best fit between intervention variant and family caregiver and patient characteristics. van den

  12. Transthoracic echocardiography in Thai patients with acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piriyapong, Tapawas; Dharmasaroja, Pompatr A; Muengtaweepongsa, Sombat; Piyayotai, Dilok; Hutayanon, Pisit

    2012-01-01

    Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is routinely performed to look for the cardiac sources of emboli in many Western stroke centers. Due to a limitation of resources in Thailand, echocardiography is done in only some patients with acute ischemic stroke. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the need for cardiac investigations, especially TTE, in Thai patients with acute ischemic stroke. Two-hundred and seven patients with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA), who had TTE results during August 2006 to November 2008, were studied. Patients were divided into 2 groups by the risk of cardioembolism: low- versus high-risk groups. All echocardiography results were reviewed and classified by the need for management change following the echocardiography. Abnormal TTE results indicating a need for change in management were found in 4% (4/102) and 18% (18/105) in low- and high- risk patients, respectively The results of ECG alone led to change in management in 17% (36 patients). Atrial fibrillation was the most common cause of cardioembolism, which was found in 35 patients (17%). Because of limited resources in Thailand, ECG should be routinely performed on all ischemic stroke patients and TTE in patients with high risk for cardioembolism. However larger studies are still needed to clarify the benefits of echocardiography in low-risk patients.

  13. Progress in sensorimotor rehabilitative physical therapy programs for stroke patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia-Ching; Shaw, Fu-Zen

    2014-01-01

    Impaired motor and functional activity following stroke often has negative impacts on the patient, the family and society. The available rehabilitation programs for stroke patients are reviewed. Conventional rehabilitation strategies (Bobath, Brunnstrom, proprioception neuromuscular facilitation, motor relearning and function-based principles) are the mainstream tactics in clinical practices. Numerous advanced strategies for sensory-motor functional enhancement, including electrical stimulation, electromyographic biofeedback, constraint-induced movement therapy, robotics-aided systems, virtual reality, intermittent compression, partial body weight supported treadmill training and thermal stimulation, are being developed and incorporated into conventional rehabilitation programs. The concept of combining valuable rehabilitative procedures into “a training package”, based on the patient’s functional status during different recovery phases after stroke is proposed. Integrated sensorimotor rehabilitation programs with appropriate temporal arrangements might provide great functional benefits for stroke patients. PMID:25133141

  14. Is air transport of stroke patients faster than ground transport?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesselfeldt, Rasmus; Gyllenborg, Jesper; Steinmetz, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Helicopters are widely used for interhospital transfers of stroke patients, but the benefit is sparsely documented. We hypothesised that helicopter transport would reduce system delay to thrombolytic treatment at the regional stroke centre. METHODS: In this prospective controlled...... observational study, we included patients referred to a stroke centre if their ground transport time exceeded 30 min, or they were transported by a secondarily dispatched, physician-staffed helicopter. The primary endpoint was time from telephone contact to triaging neurologist to arrival in the stroke centre....... Secondary endpoints included modified Rankin Scale at 3 months, 30-day and 1-year mortality. RESULTS: A total of 330 patients were included; 265 with ground transport and 65 with helicopter, of which 87 (33%) and 22 (34%), received thrombolysis, respectively (p=0.88). Time from contact to triaging...

  15. Case study of the physiotherapy treatment of a patient after stroke with left hemiparesis

    OpenAIRE

    Damborová, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Title: Case study of the physiotherapy treatment of a patient after stroke with left hemiparesis. Aims: The aim of this thesis was to gain theoretical knowledge about stroke and the development of case study of a patient after ischemic stroke with left hemiparesis. Summary: This bachelor thesis deals with the stroke. The thesis consists of two parts. In the general section is described the definition of stroke, anatomy of the blood supply of the brain and classification of the stroke. The fol...

  16. Modified Atkins diet induces subacute selective ragged-red-fiber lysis in mitochondrial myopathy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahola, Sofia; Auranen, Mari; Isohanni, Pirjo; Niemisalo, Satu; Urho, Niina; Buzkova, Jana; Velagapudi, Vidya; Lundbom, Nina; Hakkarainen, Antti; Muurinen, Tiina; Piirilä, Päivi; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Suomalainen, Anu

    2016-11-01

    Mitochondrial myopathy (MM) with progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO) is a common manifestation of mitochondrial disease in adulthood, for which there is no curative therapy. In mice with MM, ketogenic diet significantly delayed progression of the disease. We asked in this pilot study what effects high-fat, low-carbohydrate "modified Atkins" diet (mAD) had for PEO/MM patients and control subjects and followed up the effects by clinical, morphological, transcriptomic, and metabolomic analyses. All of our five patients, irrespective of genotype, showed a subacute response after 1.5-2 weeks of diet, with progressive muscle pain and leakage of muscle enzymes, leading to premature discontinuation of the diet. Analysis of muscle ultrastructure revealed selective fiber damage, especially in the ragged-red-fibers (RRFs), a MM hallmark. Two years of follow-up showed improvement of muscle strength, suggesting activation of muscle regeneration. Our results indicate that (i) nutrition can modify mitochondrial disease progression, (ii) dietary counseling should be part of MM care, (iii) short mAD is a tool to induce targeted RRF lysis, and (iv) mAD, a common weight-loss method, may induce muscle damage in a population subgroup. © 2016 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  17. The first genetic characterization of a D4 measles virus strain derived from a patient with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic-Jelecki, Jelena; Baricevic, Marijana; Santak, Maja; Harcet, Matija; Tešović, Goran; Marusic Della Marina, Branka; Forcic, Dubravko

    2013-07-01

    Measles virus (MV) strains derived from patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE), SSPE strains, possess numerous mutations when compared to viruses belonging to the same genotype and circulating in similar time period. Although many SSPE strains have been extensively characterized, none of them belongs to D4 genotype which currently predominates in Europe where it has caused a number of recent outbreaks/epidemics. We sequenced an MV derived from a patient with long-term SSPE; the virus was named MVs/Zagreb.CRO/30.06[D4] (SSPE). Initial genetic analysis showed that it belongs to D4 genotype. The sequences of genes encoding matrix and fusion proteins indicate premature protein terminations. Putative hemagglutin (H) protein is lengthened for 20 amino acids, which is the longest H protein elongation so far found in SSPE viruses. Nucleotides 1421 A, 1422 G, 1507 C and 1542 C in nucleoprotein gene open reading frame seem to be specific for this D4 strain, differentiating it from other D4 non-SSPE strains. Besides, a unique mutation at position 543 of H protein was found, histidine instead of tyrosine. As persistent MV infections are initially established by "normal" wild-type MV strains, the presented comparative analyses describe alterations that could be involved in the maintenance of persistent infection, disease development and progression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Robot-assisted Therapy in Stroke Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Won Hyuk; Kim, Yun-Hee

    2013-09-01

    Research into rehabilitation robotics has grown rapidly and the number of therapeutic rehabilitation robots has expanded dramatically during the last two decades. Robotic rehabilitation therapy can deliver high-dosage and high-intensity training, making it useful for patients with motor disorders caused by stroke or spinal cord disease. Robotic devices used for motor rehabilitation include end-effector and exoskeleton types; herein, we review the clinical use of both types. One application of robot-assisted therapy is improvement of gait function in patients with stroke. Both end-effector and the exoskeleton devices have proven to be effective complements to conventional physiotherapy in patients with subacute stroke, but there is no clear evidence that robotic gait training is superior to conventional physiotherapy in patients with chronic stroke or when delivered alone. In another application, upper limb motor function training in patients recovering from stroke, robot-assisted therapy was comparable or superior to conventional therapy in patients with subacute stroke. With end-effector devices, the intensity of therapy was the most important determinant of upper limb motor recovery. However, there is insufficient evidence for the use of exoskeleton devices for upper limb motor function in patients with stroke. For rehabilitation of hand motor function, either end-effector and exoskeleton devices showed similar or additive effects relative to conventional therapy in patients with chronic stroke. The present evidence supports the use of robot-assisted therapy for improving motor function in stroke patients as an additional therapeutic intervention in combination with the conventional rehabilitation therapies. Nevertheless, there will be substantial opportunities for technical development in near future.

  19. Managing the patient at risk for a second stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Michael A

    2005-04-01

    Cerebrovascular disease is a major cause of mortality world-wide, and the prevalence is expected to increase as a result of projected demographic trends. Aggressive antihypertensive therapy is one intervention that has proven highly effective in reducing the risk of stroke, with relatively small blood pressure reductions affording measurable benefit even in patients not conventionally considered hypertensive. Comparative clinical trials are revealing evidence of differential impacts of antihypertensive classes on the incidence of cerebrovascular disease that will probably be important for therapeutic choice in patients with risk factors for stroke. In particular, the role of the renin-angiotensin system in cerebrovascular disease has come under scrutiny as a result of evidence that angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), but perhaps not angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, can reduce the risk of a first stroke to a greater degree than might be expected from their effects on blood pressure alone. Although preclinical evidence suggests that there are differential effects of the type 1 and type 2 receptor activation, the clinical relevance of this is not yet known. Furthermore, the effect on the incidence of stroke conferred by blood pressure control in the early morning hours - the time when the incidence of strokes peaks--has not been tested. Some evidence for the beneficial effect of an ARB on secondary stroke prevention comes from the MOrbidity and mortality after Stroke --Eprosartan compared with nitrendipine in Secondary prevention study (MOSES), which showed that the ARB protected against cerebro- and cardiovascular events in hypertensive patients with a previous stroke over and above the protection offered by blood pressure control. These hypotheses are among those being examined in two current large-scale trials: the Prevention Regimen For Effectively avoiding Second Strokes (PRoFESS), and The ONgoing Telmisartan Alone and in combination with Ramipril

  20. Treadmill walking with body weight support in subacute non-ambulatory stroke improves walking capacity more than overground walking: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Catherine M; Ada, Louise; Bampton, Julie; Morris, Meg E; Katrak, Pesi H; Potts, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    Is treadmill walking with body weight support during inpatient rehabilitation detrimental to walking quality compared with assisted overground walking? Does it result in better walking capacity, perception of walking or community participation? Analysis of secondary outcomes of a randomised trial with concealed allocation, assessor blinding and intention-to-treat analysis. 126 patients unable to walk within 4 weeks of a stroke who were undergoing inpatient rehabilitation. The experimental group undertook up to 30 minutes of treadmill walking with body weight support via an overhead harness per day while the control group undertook up to 30 minutes of overground walking. The secondary outcomes were walking quality and capacity, walking perception, community participation and falls. Six months after entering the study, there was no difference between the groups of independent walkers in terms of speed (MD 0.10 m/s, 95% CI -0.06 to 0.26) or stride (MD 6 cm, 95% CI -7 to 19). The independent walkers in the experimental group walked 57 m further (95% CI 1 to 113) in the 6 min walk than those in the control group. The experimental group (walkers and non-walkers) rated their walking 1 point out of 10 (95% CI 0.1 to 1.9) higher than the control group. There was no difference between the groups in community participation or number of falls. Treadmill training with body weight support results in better walking capacity and perception of walking compared to overground walking without deleterious effects on walking quality.

  1. Early warning score predicts acute mortality in stroke patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liljehult, J; Christensen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Clinical deterioration and death among patients with acute stroke are often preceded by detrimental changes in physiological parameters. Systematic and effective tools to identify patients at risk of deterioration early enough to intervene are therefore needed. The aim of the study wa...... tool for identifying patients at risk of dying after acute stroke. Readily available physiological parameters are converted to a single score, which can guide both nurses and physicians in clinical decision making and resource allocation.......OBJECTIVES: Clinical deterioration and death among patients with acute stroke are often preceded by detrimental changes in physiological parameters. Systematic and effective tools to identify patients at risk of deterioration early enough to intervene are therefore needed. The aim of the study...... was to investigate whether the aggregate weighted track and trigger system early warning score (EWS) can be used as a simple observational tool to identify patients at risk and predict mortality in a population of patients with acute stroke. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients admitted with acute stroke...

  2. Dabigatran in Secondary Stroke Prevention: Clinical Experience with 106 Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia DeFelipe-Mimbrera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Our aim was to analyze our clinical experience with dabigatran etexilate in secondary stroke prevention. Methods. We retrospectively included patients starting dabigatran etexilate for secondary stroke prevention from March 2010 to December 2012. Efficacy and safety variables were registered. Results. 106 patients were included, median follow-up of 12 months (range 1–31. Fifty-six females (52.8%, mean age 76.4 (range 50–95, SD 9.8, median CHADS2 4 (range 2–6, CHA2DS2-VASc 5 (range 2–9, and HAS-BLED 2 (range 1–5. Indication for dabigatran etexilate was ischemic stroke in 101 patients and acute cerebral hemorrhage (CH due to warfarin in 5 (4.7%. Dabigatran etexilate 110 mg bid was prescribed in 71 cases (67% and 150 mg bid was prescribed in the remaining. Seventeen patients (16% suffered 20 complications during follow-up. Ischemic complications (10 were 6 transient ischemic attacks (TIA, 3 ischemic strokes, and 1 acute coronary syndrome. Hemorrhagic complications (10 were CH (1, gastrointestinal bleeding (6, mild hematuria (2, and mild metrorrhagia (1, leading to dabigatran etexilate discontinuation in 3 patients. Patients with previous CH remained uneventful. Three patients died (pneumonia, congestive heart failure, and acute cholecystitis and 9 were lost during follow-up. Conclusions. Dabigatran etexilate was safe and effective in secondary stroke prevention in clinical practice, including a small number of patients with previous history of CH.

  3. Orientation in the acute and chronic stroke patient: impact on ADL and social activities. The Copenhagen Stroke Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, P M; Jørgensen, H S; Nakayama, H; Raaschou, H O; Olsen, T S

    1996-04-01

    To determine the influence of initially lowered orientation on rehabilitation outcome in stroke patients, and how decreased orientation 6 months after stroke influences ADL and social activities. Prospective, consecutive, and community based. A stroke unit receiving all acute stroke patients from a well-defined catchment area. All stages of rehabilitation were completed within the unit. 524 patients with acute stroke. Basic ADL assessed by the Barthel Index (BI) at discharge; discharge placement; higher level ADL and social functions assessed by the Frenchay Activity Index(FAI) at a 6-month follow-up. The independent influence of orientation in acute stroke on rehabilitation outcome was analyzed with multiple linear and logistic regression models, using initial stroke severity (Scandinavian Neurologic Stroke Scale), initial BI, age, sex, comorbidity, prior stroke, and marital status as covariates. A one-point decrease in orientation decreased BI with 9 points (coefficient b=8.66, SE(b)=1.02,porientation at this point still exerted a marked, negative influence on ADL and social functions (BI: coefficient b=12.06, SE(b)=1.95,porientation influences basic ADL and higher level ADL and social activities in acute as well as chronic stroke. This finding suggests that rehabilitation of memory and attention might be relevant in stroke patients with impaired orientation.

  4. Variability in Criteria for Emergency Medical Services Routing of Acute Stroke Patients to Designated Stroke Center Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Nikolay; Koenig, William; Bosson, Nichole; Song, Sarah; Saver, Jeffrey L; Mack, William J; Sanossian, Nerses

    2015-09-01

    Comprehensive stroke systems of care include routing to the nearest designated stroke center hospital, bypassing non-designated hospitals. Routing protocols are implemented at the state or county level and vary in qualification criteria and determination of destination hospital. We surveyed all counties in the state of California for presence and characteristics of their prehospital stroke routing protocols. Each county's local emergency medical services agency (LEMSA) was queried for the presence of a stroke routing protocol. We reviewed these protocols for method of stroke identification and criteria for patient transport to a stroke center. Thirty-three LEMSAs serve 58 counties in California with populations ranging from 1,175 to nearly 10 million. Fifteen LEMSAs (45%) had stroke routing protocols, covering 23 counties (40%) and 68% of the state population. Counties with protocols had higher population density (1,500 vs. 140 persons per square mile). In the six counties without designated stroke centers, patients meeting criteria were transported out of county. Stroke identification in the field was achieved using the Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Screen in 72%, Los Angeles Prehospital Stroke Screen in 7% and a county-specific protocol in 22%. California EMS prehospital acute stroke routing protocols cover 68% of the state population and vary in characteristics including activation by symptom onset time and destination facility features, reflecting matching of system design to local geographic resources.

  5. Subacute thyroiditis--61 cases review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, S C; Jap, T S; Ho, L T; Ching, K N

    1989-02-01

    To examine the hospitalized patients with available data suggesting subacute thyroiditis, we have reviewed 80 hospital charts over the last 11 years and the data demonstrated 61 patients (48 females, 13 males, Aged 22-75 years) had evidence of subacute thyroiditis clinically or pathologically. Fifty seven of those patients had the clinical manifestation of severe tenderness over the neck, and others were painless. The thyroid function test were abnormal in 53% (30/57) of cases. All had rapid sedimentation rate (46/46). The thyroid antibodies were positive in 26% (10/39) of cases. Sixteen patients received unnecessary thyroid operation and complicated with hypothyroidism with or without hypoparathyroidism in two cases. In conclusion, all patients with painful or painless goiter should be appreciated carefully with additional study such as aspiration cytology to avoid misdiagnosis and inappropriate management.

  6. A task-specific interactive game-based virtual reality rehabilitation system for patients with stroke: a usability test and two clinical experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Joon-Ho; Ryu, Hokyoung; Jang, Seong Ho

    2014-03-06

    Virtual reality (VR) is not commonly used in clinical rehabilitation, and commercial VR gaming systems may have mixed effects in patients with stroke. Therefore, we developed RehabMaster™, a task-specific interactive game-based VR system for post-stroke rehabilitation of the upper extremities, and assessed its usability and clinical efficacy. A participatory design and usability tests were carried out for development of RehabMaster with representative user groups. Two clinical trials were then performed. The first was an observational study in which seven patients with chronic stroke received 30 minutes of RehabMaster intervention per day for two weeks. The second was a randomised controlled trial of 16 patients with acute or subacute stroke who received 10 sessions of conventional occupational therapy only (OT-only group) or conventional occupational therapy plus 20 minutes of RehabMaster intervention (RehabMaster + OT group). The Fugl-Meyer Assessment score (FMA), modified Barthel Index (MBI), adverse effects, and drop-out rate were recorded. The requirements of a VR system for stroke rehabilitation were established and incorporated into RehabMaster. The reported advantages from the usability tests were improved attention, the immersive flow experience, and individualised intervention. The first clinical trial showed that the RehabMaster intervention improved the FMA (P = .03) and MBI (P = .04) across evaluation times. The second trial revealed that the addition of RehabMaster intervention tended to enhance the improvement in the FMA (P = .07) but did not affect the improvement in the MBI. One patient with chronic stroke left the trial, and no adverse effects were reported. The RehabMaster is a feasible and safe VR system for enhancing upper extremity function in patients with stroke.

  7. Types, outcome and risk factors of stroke in Tribal Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jittendra K; Ranjan, Piyush; Kumari, Archana; Dahale, Amol S; Jha, Rajendra; Das, Ranjan

    2013-12-01

    Studies suggest that ethnicity and racial factors has an important role in the variation in epidemiology of stroke. The present study was conducted to assess the subtypes, risk factors, and outcome of stroke in the tribal community of Jharkhand state and to compare it with that in the non-tribals from the same geographical location. We carried out a hospital-based prospective observational study at Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences-Ranchi. Patients of acute stroke, reporting to the medical outpatient department and emergency department from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2010 were studied. Computed tomography scan was done immediately and again after 24 h to confirm the diagnosis of stroke. To compare the findings between tribal and non-tribal patients, we used chi-square test/Fisher exact test as appropriate. Of the total 1156 patients included in the study, 536 were tribals, while 620 were non-tribals. Significant differences were found in tribal stroke patients as compared with non-tribals: mean age of tribal subjects was 53·8 years (60·8 years in non-tribals); stroke in young individual was present in 25% of tribal subjects (17% in non-tribals, P = 0·01); primary intracerebral hemorrhage variety was present in 31% of tribals (18% in non-tribals, P-value tribal subjects (35% among non-tribals, P = 0·02). Hypertension and alcohol abuse was found to be associated with intracerebral hemorrhage in tribal subjects, although no such association was found in non-tribals. Tribals have early onset, poor outcomes and higher proportion of ICH compared to non-tribals. [Correction added after online publication 7 Aug 2012: The sentence "Tribals have early with non-tribals." in the Conclusion section of the abstract was deleted.]. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2012 World Stroke Organization.

  8. Knowledge of Stroke Risk Factors and Warning Signs in Patients with Recurrent Stroke or Recurrent Transient Ischaemic Attack in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jittima Saengsuwan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a global burden. It is not known whether patients who are most at risk of stroke (recurrent stroke or recurrent transient ischaemic attack have enough knowledge of stroke risk factors and warning signs. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of stroke risk factors and warning signs in this high-risk population. We performed a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study of patients with recurrent stroke or recurrent TIA admitted to Srinagarind Hospital and Khon Kaen Hospital, Thailand. A total of 140 patients were included in the study (age 65.6±11.3 years [mean ± SD], 62 females. Using an open-ended questionnaire, nearly one-third of patients (31.4% could not name any risk factors for stroke. The most commonly recognized risk factors were hypertension (35%, dyslipidemia (28.6%, and diabetes (22.9%. Regarding stroke warning signs, the most commonly recognized warning signs were sudden unilateral weakness (61.4%, sudden trouble with speaking (25.7%, and sudden trouble with walking, loss of balance, or dizziness (21.4%. Nineteen patients (13.6% could not identify any warning signs. The results showed that knowledge of stroke obtained from open-ended questionnaires is still unsatisfactory. The healthcare provider should provide structured interventions to increase knowledge and awareness of stroke in these patients.

  9. Epidemiology of Stroke in Costa Rica: A 7-Year Hospital-Based Acute Stroke Registry of 1319 Consecutive Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrealba-Acosta, Gabriel; Carazo-Céspedes, Kenneth; Chiou, Sy Han; O'Brien, Anthony Terrence; Fernández-Morales, Huberth

    2017-12-25

    Limited data on stroke exist for Costa Rica. Therefore, we created a stroke registry out of patients with stroke seen in the Acute Stroke Unit of the Hospital Calderon Guardia. We analyzed 1319 patients enrolled over a 7-year period, which incorporated demographic, clinical, laboratory, and neuroimaging data. The mean age of patients with stroke was 68.0 ± 15.5 years. Seven hundred twenty-five were men and the age range was 13-104 years. The most prevalent risk factors were hypertension (78.8%), dyslipidemia (36.3%), and diabetes (31.9%). Fifteen percent had atrial fibrillation and 24.7% had a previous stroke or transient ischemic attack. Prevalence of hypertension and atrial fibrillation increased with age; however, younger patients were more associated with thrombophilia. We documented 962 (72.9%) ischemic and 270 (20.5%) hemorrhagic strokes. Of the ischemic strokes, 174 (18.1%) were considered secondary to large-artery atherothrombosis, 175 (18.2%) were due to cardiac embolism, 19 (2.0%) were due to lacunar infarcts, and 25 (2.6%) were due to other determined causes. Five hundred sixty-nine (59.1%) remained undetermined. Atherothrombotic strokes were mostly associated with dyslipidemia, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and obesity, whereas lacunar infarcts were associated with hypertension, smoking, sedentary lifestyle, and previous stroke or transient ischemic attack. Of our patients, 69.9% scored between 0 and 9 in the initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). We found differences in sociodemographic features, risk factors, and stroke severity among stroke subtypes. Risk factor prevalence was similar to other registries involving Hispanic populations. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. All rights reserved.

  10. Mortality and use of psychotropic medication in patients with stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Baandrup, Lone; Iversen, Helle K

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The study sought to describe whether psychotropic medication may have long-term side effects in patients with stroke compared with controls. SETTING: Use of national register data from healthcare services were identified from the Danish National Patient Registry in Denmark. Information...... about psychotropic medication use was obtained from the Danish Register of Medicinal Product Statistics. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate all-cause mortality in relation to the use of benzodiazepines, antidepressants and antipsychotics in patients with stroke and matched controls. PARTICIPANTS: Patients...... with a diagnosis of stroke and either no drug use or preindex use of psychotropic medication (n=49,968) and compared with control subjects (n=86,100) matched on age, gender, marital status and community location. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: All-cause mortality. RESULTS: All-cause mortality was higher in patients...

  11. Anticoagulant treatment in patients with atrial fibrillation and ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunner-Frandsen, Nicole; Dammann Andersen, Andreas; Ashournia, Hamoun

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac dysrhythmia, with a lifetime risk of 25%, and it is a well-known independent risk factor for ischemic stroke. Over the last 15 years, efforts have been made to initiate relevant treatment in patients with AF. A retrospective study....... RESULTS: A total of 4134 patients were included in the study. Overall, the yearly proportion of patients with known AF varied between 9% and 18%. No significant change was observed (P = .511). The proportion of patients with known AF treated with anticoagulants at the time of the stroke and the proportion...... was observed. An explanation could be an increase in the prevalence of AF in the general population, leaving the proportion of patients admitted with ischemic stroke unchanged. Other risk factors have been sought reduced as well with the implementation of national guidelines regarding hypertension...

  12. Spontaneous Low Frequency Oscillations in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillip, Dorte; Schytz, Henrik Winther; Iversen, Helle Klingenberg

    2014-01-01

    patients admitted to the stroke unit with symptoms of ischemic stroke. 11/29 patients received thrombolytic therapy. NIRS examination was conducted 2 days (median time) from stroke onset. NIRS optodes were placed on each side of the head with a 3 cm source-detector distance. Using transfer function.......09-0.11 Hz range are affected by changes in cerebral autoregulation (CA), which is altered following stroke. We examined oxyHb LFOs at bed-side as a marker of CA in the subacute phase in stroke patients with or without recombinant tissue plasminogen activator thrombolytic therapy. Methods: We recruited 29...... analysis, inter-hemispheric phase shift and amplitude ratio of the oxyHb oscillations in the 0.09-0.11 Hz range were assessed. Results: The correlation between NIHSS scores at admission and oxyHb parameters revealed a significant positive correlation between stroke severity at admission and inter...

  13. Availability of informal caregivers in surviving stroke patients in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Silke; Borgermans, Liesbeth; Van Casteren, Viviane; Vanthomme, Katrien; Devroey, Dirk

    2014-12-01

    To quantify the availability of informal caregivers in surviving stroke patients residing at home in Belgium. National estimates on the availability of informal caregivers were made using data from a nationwide observational registration of family physicians working in sentinel practices and a nationwide administrative database for reimbursement of hospitals in Belgium. A total of 189 Belgian family physicians (FPs) from 141 practices participated in the study and recorded 326 patients (144 men and 182 women) with stroke. These FPs reach 1.5% of the Belgian population. After 1 month, 71% of the male and 75% of the female stroke survivors received support from family caregivers (p = 0.547). After 6 months, the percentage of male patients who received support from family caregivers decreased to 60% compared with 75% in female (p = 0.038). Of all patients with stroke admitted to Belgian hospitals during the reference year 2009 (n = 16.437), 8.997 returned home. Based on the findings from the sentinel practices, it is estimated that a mean of 73% (n = 6.568) and 67.5% (n = 6.073) of surviving patients with stroke can rely on informal caregivers in their home setting after one and 6 months, respectively. A vast majority of surviving stroke patients in Belgium can rely on informal caregivers in their home setting, but their availability rapidly decreases 6 months after the event. These findings underline the importance of proactive health policy making in stroke care taking into account the potentially decreasing number of available informal caregivers in the decades to come. © 2013 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  14. The balance effect of acupuncture therapy among stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Wei; Wang, Wei-Te; Yang, Tsung-Hsien; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Chen, Guan-Yu; Lin, Li-Fong

    2014-08-01

    To analyze how acupuncture therapy affects balance in patients experiencing their first stroke and to identify the stroke group with greatest improvement in balance after acupuncture intervention. Retrospective case-control study. Ward of a medical university hospital. A total of 629 stroke patients were enrolled initially; 345 patients met the study criteria and 132 were analyzed (66 each in the study and control groups). The study group received physiotherapy combined with acupuncture and the control group received only physiotherapy. The Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke patients (PASS) was used to evaluate balance. This balance scale system can be subdivided into static balance (PASS-MP, maintain posture) and dynamic balance (PASS-CP, change posture). This study revealed no statistically significant improvement of balance in the study group (t test). When patients with high Brunnstrom stage (Br stage) and low Br stage were analyzed separately, once again no statistical difference was detected between the study and control groups of those with high Br stage. However, among low-Br stage patients, the study group showed significant improvement in static balance (mean PASS-MP score±standard deviation: 4.7±3.7) compared with the control group (PASS-MP score: 2.8±2.7) (pstroke patients with a low Br stage, acupuncture therapy can improve static balance during rehabilitation. However, the effect on balance was limited among high-Br stage patients. This study provides information valuable to patients with hemiplegic stroke because it suggests that acupuncture can be used to improve balance. A prospective double-blind, randomized, controlled study design is recommended for future studies in patients with hemiplegic stroke.

  15. Immune Dysfunction in HIV infected stroke patients: Role of low CD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Whether or not low CD4 count directly contributes to stroke among HIV infected stroke patients is yet to be elucidated. This study aimed to ascertain the role of low CD4 count in the pathophysiology of stroke in HIV infection. This was a hospital-based, case-control study. Sixty five (65) consecutive stroke patients (36 males ...

  16. Time use of stroke patients with stroke admitted for rehabilitation in skilled nursing facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, C.J.; Buijck, B.I.; Stegen, J.C. van der; Eijk, M.S. van; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.; Hafsteinsdottir, T.B.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe the time use of patients with stroke in five Skilled Nursing Facilities (SNFs) in the Netherlands, focusing on the time spent on therapeutic activities, nontherapeutic activities, interaction with others, and the location where the activities took place. Evidence suggest that

  17. [Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic approaches to optimization of the use of digoxin in the subacute period of myocardial infarction in late middle-age and elderly patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovlev, S V; Glezer, M G; Kholodov, L E; Chistova, V S; Mikhaĭlov, A A

    1986-09-01

    The efficiency of digoxin in elderly and old patients with subacute myocardial infarction is dependent on the original disorders of left-ventricular systolic phase structure. Changes in systolic phase structural parameters in the presence of supporting digoxin therapy show correspondence to changes of these parameters in response to a single digoxin dose. Digoxin's positive inotropic effect was similar in patients with the sinus rhythm and those with atrial fibrillation. The positive inotropic action of digoxin is not associated with a negative chronotropic effect in patients with sinus rhythm and normal heart rate.

  18. Physiotherapists have accurate expectations of their patients' future health-related quality of life after first assessment in a subacute rehabilitation setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhail, Steven M; Nalder, Emily; Hill, Anne-Marie; Haines, Terry P

    2013-01-01

    Expectations held by health professionals and their patients are likely to affect treatment choices in subacute inpatient rehabilitation settings for older adults. There is a scarcity of empirical evidence evaluating whether health professionals expectations of the quality of their patients' future health states are accurate. A prospective longitudinal cohort investigation was implemented to examine agreement (kappa coefficients, exact agreement, limits-of-agreement, and intraclass-correlation coefficients) between physiotherapists' (n = 23) prediction of patients' discharge health-related quality of life (reported on the EQ-5D-3L) and the actual health-related quality of life self-reported by patients (n = 272) at their discharge assessment (using the EQ-5D-3L). The mini-mental state examination was used as an indicator of patients' cognitive ability. Overall, 232 (85%) patients had all assessment data completed and were included in analysis. Kappa coefficients (exact agreement) ranged between 0.37-0.57 (58%-83%) across EQ-5D-3L domains in the lower cognition group and 0.53-0.68 (81%-85%) in the better cognition group. Physiotherapists in this subacute rehabilitation setting predicted their patients' discharge health-related quality of life with substantial accuracy. Physiotherapists are likely able to provide their patients with sound information regarding potential recovery and health-related quality of life on discharge. The prediction accuracy was higher among patients with better cognition than patients with poorer cognition.

  19. PHARMACOECONOMIC EFFECTIVENESS OF NAFTIDROFURYL IN PATIENTS WITH ISCHEMIC STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Bogolepova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study objective is to conduct a pharmacoeconomic analysis of naftidrofuryl effectiveness in patients with ischemic stroke.Materials and methods. The work is based on the results of clinical studies of effectiveness, tolerability, and safety of naftidrofuryl in patients who suffered an ischemic stroke. The study design included data on 1000 patients of 45 and older with first-time acute cerebrovascular disease of ischemic type.Results. Direct medical costs for the chosen patient cohort per the Standard of stroke treatment current at the time of the study were 730 575 189 rubles, in case of naftidrofuryl inclusion they were 476 467 620 rubles. Cost minimization is 254 107 569 rubles. Indirect nonmedical costs associated with temporary incapacity for work for treatment per the Standard of stroke treatment were 124 156 950 rubles, and 64 559 180 rubles for naftidrofuryl use which demonstrates the drug’s economic benefit. Budget impact analysis has shown that the possible savings constitute 7.59 %.Conclusion. Inclusion of naftidrofuryl into treatment of patients with ischemic stroke is justified as it decreases duration of rehabilitation. This leads to a positive economic effect expressed as decreased direct and non-direct medical costs.

  20. Highly sensitive troponin T in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J K; Ueland, T; Aukrust, P

    2012-01-01

    in decedents than in survivors. After adjustment for stroke severity, C-reactive protein, age, NT-proBNP and prior heart and/or renal failure, hsTnT levels were not a significant predictor of long-term all-cause or cardiovascular mortality. Conclusion: Elevated levels of hsTnT are frequently present......Background: Newly developed troponin assays have superior diagnostic and prognostic performance in acute coronary syndrome (ACS), when compared to conventional troponin assays; however, highly sensitive troponin has not been evaluated in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Methods: Highly...... sensitive troponin T (hsTnT) was measured daily during the first 4 days in 193 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke without overt ACS or atrial fibrillation. The patients were previously tested normal with a fourth-generation TnT assay. The patients were followed for 47 months, with all...

  1. Pseudotumor cerebri secondary to subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayçiçek, Ali; Işcan, Akin; Ceçe, Hasan

    2009-05-01

    Unusual presentations are not rare in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Five patients initially diagnosed with pseudotumor cerebri were ultimately determined to have pseudotumor cerebri secondary to subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. The present study retrospectively reviewed 56 cases history, neurologic symptoms, and clinical and laboratory data, as well as the outcomes. On admission, five patients (group 1) presenting with pseudotumor cerebri exhibited bilateral papilledema, and in each of them cranial magnetic resonance imaging revealed small lateral ventricles, effacement of the subarachnoid space, and no mass lesion. On admission, 51 patients (group 2) had no pseudotumor cerebri findings. The year of original measles infection, the interval between measles and onset of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, and initial neurologic symptoms were similar, but length of symptoms before diagnosis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis was shorter in group 1, and the clinical stage of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis on admission was more advanced in group 2. Cerebrospinal fluid mean open pressure was 378 +/- 22 H(2)O in group 1 and 146 +/- 28 H(2)O in group 2; cerebrospinal fluid antibody was 2038 +/- 768 U/L in group 1 and was 664 +/- 214 U/L in group 2. Only three of the five patients with pseudotumor cerebri had typical periodic discharges on electroencephalographic examination. These findings suggest that subacute sclerosing panencephalitis can cause pseudotumor cerebri.

  2. Prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in stroke patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibaek, Sigrid; Gard, Gunvor; Klarskov, Peter

    2008-01-01

    , symptoms of urinary incontinence on admission, and use of analgesics were significantly associated with severity, whereas the prevalence and bother of LUTS could not be associated with other patient characteristics. CONCLUSION: LUTS are highly prevalent in stroke patients and have a major impact on daily......AIMS: The aims of this study were primarily to investigate the prevalence, severity and impact on daily life of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (LUTS) in a clinical sample of stroke patients and secondly to identify factors associated with LUTS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross...

  3. Feasibility and efficacy of a robotic device for hand rehabilitation in hemiplegic stroke patients: a randomized pilot controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanoglio, Fabio; Bernocchi, Palmira; Mulè, Chiara; Garofali, Francesca; Mora, Chiara; Taveggia, Giovanni; Scalvini, Simonetta; Luisa, Alberto

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of robot-assisted hand rehabilitation in improving arm function abilities in sub-acute hemiplegic patients. Randomized controlled pilot study. Inpatient rehabilitation centers. Thirty hemiplegic stroke patients (Ashworth spasticity index hand training with Gloreha, a hand rehabilitation glove that provides computer-controlled, repetitive, passive mobilization of the fingers, with multisensory feedback. Patients in the CG received the same amount of time in terms of conventional hand rehabilitation. Hand motor function (Motricity Index, MI), fine manual dexterity (Nine Hole Peg Test, NHPT) and strength (Grip and Pinch test) were measured at baseline and after rehabilitation, and the differences, (Δ) mean(standard deviation), compared between groups. Results Twenty-seven patients concluded the program: 14 in the TG and 13 in the CG. None of the patients refused the device and only one adverse event of rheumatoid arthritis reactivation was reported. Baseline data did not differ significantly between the two groups. In TG, ΔMI 23(16.4), ΔNHPT 0.16(0.16), ΔGRIP 0.27(0.23) and ΔPINCH 0.07(0.07) were significantly greater than in CG, ΔMI 5.2(9.2), ΔNHPT 0.02(0.07), ΔGRIP 0.03(0.06) and ΔPINCH 0.02(0.03)] ( p=0.002, p=0.009, p=0.003 and p=0.038, respectively). Gloreha Professional is feasible and effective in recovering fine manual dexterity and strength and reducing arm disability in sub-acute hemiplegic patients.

  4. Possible progression of subacute lupus erythematosus--case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brănişteanu, Daciana Elena; Lăbonţu, Andreea; Ciobanu, Delia; Stoleriu, Gabriela; Brănişteanu, D; Oanţă, A

    2014-01-01

    Subacute lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a specific form of lupus erythematosus characterized by prevalently cutaneous manifestations usually with a good prognosis. It is more common in patients aged 15 to 70 years, and there is a female predilection. This form accounts for 10% of all lupus erythematosus cases. We present the case of a 57-year-old male patient diagnosed at age 35 with chronic psoriasiform subacute lupus erythematosus, pathologically confirmed at the Iaşi Dermatology Clinic. At the age of 54 years he had multiple ischemic strokes, followed by deterioration of general status, and at 56 years deep vein thrombosis in the right leg. The patient presented the erythematous-squamous lesions specific to psoriasiform SLE localized both on the upper third of the body and knees and associated with submucosal lesions of the lower lip, oral mucosa and appendages. The patient also presented hypo- and hyperpigmentated atrophic scar-like lesions. Laboratory tests performed during the last two admissions showed the presence of anti-ds DNA and antiphospholipid antibodies, inflammatory syndrome, and nitrogen retention syndrome. Treatment consisted of systemic and local dermatocorticoids and associated medication, emollient lotions and creams with SPF 50+, with slowly favorable progression. The peculiarity of the case lies in the chronic progression without significant systemic involvement for 19 years, and then in 2 years the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome and a shift to systemic lupus erythematosus to occur.

  5. Ultrasonographic Findings in Hemiplegic Knees of Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Pin Yang

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and radiologic asymmetric arthritic differences between paralyzed and nonparalyzed limbs of stroke patients have been reported. Arthritic pathology aggravates motor dysfunction and compromises rehabilitation. Musculoskeletal ultrasonography plays an important role in showing soft tissue and the articular cartilage of the knee. Fifty-nine patients with either ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke-induced right or left hemiplegia were recruited to evaluate soft-tissue and intra-articular cartilage changes in hemiplegic knees of stroke patients using ultrasonography. An additional 15 subjects (30 knees without knee disease or a history of knee trauma or surgery were used as controls. There were significant differences in suprapatellar effusion and patellar tendinitis between hemiplegic and nonhemiplegic knees. Suprapatellar effusion and pes anserinus tendinitis were correlated with Brunnstrom stage. The length of time since stroke onset was not significantly correlated with positive ultrasonographic findings in hemiplegic knees. In conclusion, ultrasonography is useful for detecting periarticular soft-tissue changes and intra-articular lesions in hemiplegic knees of stroke patients.

  6. Guideline clinical nutrition in patients with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Rainer; Smoliner, Christine; Jäger, Martin; Warnecke, Tobias; Leischker, Andreas H; Dziewas, Rainer

    2013-12-01

    Stroke is regularly accompanied by dysphagia and other factors associated with decreased nutritional intake. Dysphagia with aspiration pneumonia and insufficient nutritional intake lead to worse outcome after stroke.This guideline is the first chapter of the guideline "Clinical Nutrition in Neurology" of the German Society for Clinical Nutrition (DGEM) which itself is one part of a comprehensive guideline about all areas of Clinical Nutrition. The thirty-one recommendations of the guideline are based on a systematic literature search and review, last updated December 31, 2011. All recommendations were discussed and consented at several consensus conferences with the entire DGEM guideline group. The recommendations underline the importance of an early screening and assessment of dysphagia and give advice for an evidence based and comprehensive nutritional management to avoid aspiration, malnutrition and dehydration.

  7. Correlation between clot density and recanalization success or stroke etiology in acute ischemic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagani, Manoj; Kallmes, David F; Brinjikji, Waleed

    2017-06-01

    Background Predicting recanalization success for patients undergoing endovascular treatment for acute ischemic stroke is of significant interest. Studies have previously correlated the success of recanalization with the density of the clot. We evaluated clot density and its relationship to revascularization success and stroke etiology. Methods We conducted a retrospective review of 118 patients undergoing intra-arterial therapy for acute ischemic stroke. Mean and maximum thrombus density was measured by drawing a circular region of interest on an axial slice of a non-contrast computed tomography scan. T-tests were used to compare clot density to recanalization success or to stroke etiology, namely large artery atherosclerosis and cardioembolism. Recanalization success was compared in four device groups: aspiration, stent retriever, aspiration and stent retriever, and all other. Results There was no significant difference in the mean clot density in patients with successful ( n = 80) versus unsuccessful recanalization ( n = 38, 50.1 ± 7.4 Hounsfield unit (HU) vs. 53 ± 12.7 HU; P = 0.17). Comparing the large artery thromboembolism ( n = 35) to the cardioembolic etiology group ( n = 56), there was no significant difference in mean clot density (51.5 ± 7.7 HU vs. 49.7 ± 8.5 HU; P = 0.31). A subgroup analysis of middle cerebral artery occlusions ( n = 65) showed similar, non-statistically significant differences between groups. There was no difference in the rate of recanalization success in patients with a mean clot density greater than 50 HU or less than 50 HU in each of the four device groups. Conclusions There was no relationship between clot density and revascularization success or stroke etiology in our study. More research is needed to determine if clot density can predict recanalization rates or indicate etiology.

  8. Leukoaraiosis and ventricular enlargement in patients with ischemic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijdra, A.; Verbeeten, B.

    1991-01-01

    We studied the relationship between ventricular size and nonspecific periventricular lucency on computed tomograms (leukoaraiosis) in 192 patients with ischemic stroke. Leukoaraiosis did not occur in 21 patients less than 50 years of age; ventricular size could not be measured in an additional 29.

  9. A System for Monitoring Stroke Patients in a Home Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, Bart; van Beijnum, Bernhard J.F.; Weusthof, Marcel H.H.; Hofs, D.H.W.; van Meulen, Fokke; Luinge, Hendrik J.; Lorussi, Frederico; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Veltink, Petrus H.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the changes of functional capacity and performance of stroke patients after returning home from a rehabilitation hospital is unknown for a physician, having no objective information about the intensity and quality of a patient's daily-life activities. Therefore, there is a need to develop

  10. Visual impairment in stroke patients--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, K M; Midelfart, A; Thomassen, L; Melms, A; Wilhelm, H; Hoff, J M

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 30% of all stroke patients suffer from post-stroke visual impairment. Hemianopia is the most common symptom, but also neglect, diplopia, reduced visual acuity, ptosis, anisocoria, and nystagmus are frequent. Partial or complete recovery of visual disorders can occur, but many patients suffer permanent disability. This disability is often less evident than impairment of motor and speech functions, but is negatively correlated with rehabilitation outcome and can lead to a significant reduction in day-to-day functioning. To be visually impaired after stroke reduces quality of life and causes social isolation because of difficulties in navigating/orientating in the surroundings. A thorough diagnosis including targeted examination and later follow-up with eye examination and perimetry is essential in order to establish the extent of the visual impairment and to select the best rehabilitation strategy. Patients seem to profit from visual rehabilitation focused on coping strategies. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. NDT competence of nurses caring for patients with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafsteinsdóttir, Thóra B; Grypdonck, Maria H F

    2004-10-01

    Neurodevelopmental treatment (NDT) is the most used rehabilitation approach in the treatment of patients with stroke in the Western world today, despite the lack of evidence for its efficacy. The aim of this study was to conduct an intervention check and measure the nurses' competence, in positioning stroke patients according to the NDT approach. The sample consisted of 144 nurses in six neurological wards who were observed while positioning stroke patients according to the NDT approach. The nurses' combined mean competence scores within the wards was 195 (70%) of 280 (100%) possible, and for each ward the mean score varied between 181 (65%) and 206 (74%). This study indicates that nurses working in hospitals where the NDT approach has been implemented have the knowledge and skills to provide NDT nursing.

  12. Development of virtual reality proprioceptive rehabilitation system for stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sangwoo; Ku, Jeonghun; Cho, Yun Kyung; Kim, In Young; Kang, Youn Joo; Jang, Dong Pyo; Kim, Sun I

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the virtual reality (VR) proprioception rehabilitation system was developed for stroke patients to use proprioception feedback in upper limb rehabilitation by blocking visual feedback. To evaluate its therapeutic effect, 10 stroke patients (onset>3 month) trained proprioception feedback rehabilitation for one week and visual feedback rehabilitation for another week in random order. Proprioception functions were checked before, a week after, and at the end of training. The results show the click count, error distance and total error distance among proprioception evaluation factors were significantly reduced after proprioception feedback training compared to visual feedback training (respectively, p=0.005, p=0.001, and p=0.007). In addition, subjects were significantly improved in conventional behavioral tests after training. In conclusion, we showed the effectiveness and possible use of the VR to recover the proprioception of stroke patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Pre-stroke employment results in better patient-reported outcomes after minor stroke: Short title: Functional outcomes after minor stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Elisabeth B; Lawrence, Erin; Hillis, Argye E; Chen, Karen; Gottesman, Rebecca F; Llinas, Rafael H

    2017-12-27

    Individuals with "minor stroke" lack a dense hemiparesis or aphasia; however, commonly endorse persistent cognitive and motor problems despite low NIHSS scores. They also report problems with mood, energy, and the ability to think clearly that are less well characterized. Socioeconomic factors and stroke severity can influence patient-reported outcomes. In this study we explore patient-reported outcomes and the influence of these factors after minor stroke. Patients returning to clinic post-stroke with an NIHSS of ≤ 4 were administered a scale to quantify problems with daily activities and resulting functional burden, along with measures of fatigue and depression. T-tests, chi square analysis, and linear regression were used to compare functional outcomes of patients to controls (TIA or stroke mimic (n = 40)), and evaluate the association between patient-reported outcomes, stroke characteristics, and socioeconomic factors. 151 stroke patients were seen a mean 83.6 days post-infarct. Patients reported more problems (11.7 versus 6.9, p = 0.02), resulting in higher functional burden (26.5 versus 12.3, p = 0.01), increased depression (p = 0.07), and greater fatigue (p = 0.02) compared to controls. There was no relationship between stroke characteristics (other than NIHSS), baseline education, income, marital status, or living situation and perception of recovery; however, those actively working prior to their stroke reported better outcomes across all categories (p for each <0.02), and differences persisted in multivariable regression models. Prior occupational status may represent an important prognostic indicator for patients with minor stroke. Individuals working at the time of their infarct report better functional outcomes irrespective of age or stroke severity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. 99mTc-bicisate reliably images CBF in chronic brain diseases but fails to show reflow hyperemia in subacute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, N A; Sperling, B

    1994-01-01

    of 115 cases were collected, and of these 105 were considered technically adequate, comprising 18 normal subjects, 18 senile dementia, eight epilepsy, one brain tumor, eight chronic head trauma, and 52 stroke cases. As expected, bicisate gave better spatial resolution than Xe. Agreement between...

  15. The use of a modified Delphi procedure for the determination of 26 prognostic factors in the sub-acute stage of stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Ronald; Ihnenfeldt, Daniela; Vermeulen, Marinus; de Haan, Rob; van Limbeek, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to reach consensus about the prognostic factors when deciding the discharge destination from a hospital stroke unit, and to construct a prognostic conceptual framework. To realise an optimal integration of knowledge from research findings and from clinical experience by

  16. Physical fitness training for stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazzelli, Miriam; Saunders, David H; Greig, Carolyn A; Mead, Gillian E

    2011-11-09

    Levels of physical fitness are low after stroke. It is unknown whether improving physical fitness after stroke reduces disability. To determine whether fitness training after stroke reduces death, dependence, and disability. The secondary aims were to determine the effects of training on physical fitness, mobility, physical function, quality of life, mood, and incidence of adverse events. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (last searched April 2010), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, July 2010), MEDLINE (1966 to March 2010), EMBASE (1980 to March 2010), CINAHL (1982 to March 2010), SPORTDiscus (1949 to March 2010), and five additional databases (March 2010). We also searched ongoing trials registers, handsearched relevant journals and conference proceedings, screened reference lists, and contacted experts in the field. Randomised trials comparing either cardiorespiratory training or resistance training, or both, with no intervention, a non-exercise intervention, or usual care in stroke survivors. Two review authors independently selected trials, assessed quality, and extracted data. We analysed data using random-effects meta-analyses. Diverse outcome measures limited the intended analyses. We included 32 trials, involving 1414 participants, which comprised cardiorespiratory (14 trials, 651 participants), resistance (seven trials, 246 participants), and mixed training interventions (11 trials, 517 participants). Five deaths were reported at the end of the intervention and nine at the end of follow-up. No dependence data were reported. Diverse outcome measures made data pooling difficult. The majority of the estimates of effect were not significant. Cardiorespiratory training involving walking improved maximum walking speed (mean difference (MD) 8.66 metres per minute, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.98 to 14.34), preferred gait speed (MD 4.68 metres per minute, 95% CI 1.40 to 7.96) and walking

  17. Silent stroke in patients with transient ischemic attack or minor ischemic stroke. The Dutch TIA Trial Study Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herderscheê, D.; Hijdra, A.; Algra, A.; Koudstaal, P. J.; Kappelle, L. J.; van Gijn, J.

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We studied silent stroke (i.e., infarcts on computed tomographic scan not related to later symptoms) in patients after transient ischemic attack or minor ischemic stroke. METHODS: Ours is a cross-sectional study of 2,329 patients who were randomized in a secondary prevention

  18. Preventive Ceftriaxone in Patients with Stroke Treated with Intravenous Thrombolysis: Post Hoc Analysis of the Preventive Antibiotics in Stroke Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeij, Jan-Dirk; Westendorp, Willeke F.; Roos, Yvo B.; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van de Beek, Diederik; Nederkoorn, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    The Preventive Antibiotics in Stroke Study (PASS), a randomized open-label masked endpoint trial, showed that preventive ceftriaxone did not improve functional outcome at 3 months in patients with acute stroke (adjusted common OR 0.95; 95% CI 0.82-1.09). Post-hoc analyses showed that among patients

  19. An associative Brain-Computer-Interface for acute stroke patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mrachacz-Kersting, Natalie; Stevenson, Andrew James Thomas; Aliakbaryhosseinabadi, Susan

    2016-01-01

    An efficient innovative Brain-Computer-Interface system that empowers chronic stroke patients to control an artificial activation of their lower limb muscle through task specific motor intent has been tested in the past. In the current study it was applied to acute stroke patients. The system...... (tibialis anterior). This activation is precisely and individually timed such that the sensory signal arising from the stimulation reaches the motor cortex during its maximum activation due to the intention. The output of the motor cortical area representing the dorsiflexor muscles was significantly...

  20. Dabigatran in Secondary Stroke Prevention: Clinical Experience with 106 Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Alicia DeFelipe-Mimbrera; Araceli Alonso Cánovas; Marta Guillán; Consuelo Matute; Susana Sainz de la Maza; Antonio Cruz; Rocío Vera; Jaime Masjuan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Our aim was to analyze our clinical experience with dabigatran etexilate in secondary stroke prevention. Methods. We retrospectively included patients starting dabigatran etexilate for secondary stroke prevention from March 2010 to December 2012. Efficacy and safety variables were registered. Results. 106 patients were included, median follow-up of 12 months (range 1–31). Fifty-six females (52.8%), mean age 76.4 (range 50–95, SD 9.8), median CHADS2 4 (range 2–6), CHA2DS2-VASc 5 ...

  1. Enhancement of Cortical Excitability and Lower Limb Motor Function in Patients With Stroke by Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Min Cheol; Kim, Dae Yul; Park, Dae Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Motor dysfunction in the lower limbs is a common sequela in stroke patients. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to determine if applying transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the primary motor cortex helps enhance cortical excitability. Furthermore, we evaluate if combination anodal tDCS and conventional physical therapy improves motor function in the lower limbs. Twenty-four patients with early-stage stroke were randomly assigned to 2 groups: 1) the tDCS group, in which patients received 10 sessions of anodal tDCS and conventional physical therapy; and 2) the sham group, in which patients received 10 sessions of sham stimulation and conventional physical therapy. One day before and after intervention, the motor-evoked potential (MEP) of the affected tibialis anterior muscle was evaluated and motor function was assessed using the lower limb subscale of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA-LE), lower limb Motricity Index (MI-LE), Functional Ambulatory Category (FAC), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), and gait analysis. The MEPs in the tDCS group became shorter in latency and higher in amplitude after intervention in comparison with the sham group. Improvements in FMA-LE and MI-LE were greater in the tDCS group, but no significant differences in FAC or BBS scores were found. Also, the changes observed on the gait analyses did not significantly differ between the tDCS and sham groups. Combination anodal tDCS and conservative physical therapy appears to be a beneficial therapeutic modality for improving motor function in the lower limbs in patients with subacute stroke. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Value of the MSH classification in the hemiplegic stroke patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo-Otaola, S; de la Villa, F M

    The functional prognosis of patients should be known when planning their rehabilitation treatment. To find the prognostic value of the MSH classification for hemiplegic patients, which is based on the clinical deficits seen after the stroke, and to distinguish between the M group (motor deficit), MS group (motor and sensory deficits) and the MSH group (motor, sensory and homonymous deficits). A prospective analytical study was made of the hemiplegic patients admitted consecutively to the Rehabilitation Department after strokes. The initial examination was made 17 days (CI: 15-19) after the stroke. Satisfactory functional results were considered to be obtaining a Barthel index of > 90 together with the ability to walk unaided on level ground six months after the stroke. Of the 55 patients finally included in the study, 23 were in group M (41.8%) 21 in group MS (38.1%) and 11 patients in group MSH (20.1%). Walking ability and function in the different cohorts showed a statistically significant difference. Whilst 96% of the patients with pure hemiparesia (group M) attained a satisfactory degree of independence in walking, only 54% of the patients with three associated deficits (MSH) achieved this. Even more difference was found with acquired functional independence, since whilst 82% of group M attained a good degree of autonomy in carrying out everyday activities, only 18% of the MSH group achieved this. The remaining patients (MS group) had intermediate results. The MSH classification is, soon after having a stroke, a useful means of determining the functional prognosis of hemiplegic patients.

  3. Help seeking behavior and onset-to-alarm time in patients with acute stroke: sub-study of the preventive antibiotics in stroke study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zock, E.; Kerkhoff, H.; Kleyweg, R. P.; van Bavel-Ta, T. B. V.; Scott, S.; Kruyt, N. D.; Nederkoorn, P. J.; van de Beek, D.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with acute stroke often do not seek immediate medical help, which is assumed to be driven by lack of knowledge of stroke symptoms. We explored the process of help seeking behavior in patients with acute stroke, evaluating knowledge about stroke symptoms, socio-demographic and clinical

  4. Effects of music therapy on mood in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Soo; Park, Yoon Ghil; Choi, Jung Hwa; Im, Sang-Hee; Jung, Kang Jae; Cha, Young A; Jung, Chul Oh; Yoon, Yeo Hoon

    2011-11-01

    To investigate the effects of music therapy on depressive mood and anxiety in post-stroke patients and evaluate satisfaction levels of patients and caregivers. Eighteen post-stroke patients, within six months of onset and mini mental status examination score of over 20, participated in this study. Patients were divided into music and control groups. The experimental group participated in the music therapy program for four weeks. Psychological status was evaluated with the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) before and after music therapy. Satisfaction with music therapy was evaluated by a questionnaire. BAI and BDI scores showed a greater decrease in the music group than the control group after music therapy, but only the decrease of BDI scores were statistically significant (p=0.048). Music therapy satisfaction in patients and caregivers was affirmative. Music therapy has a positive effect on mood in post-stroke patients and may be beneficial for mood improvement with stroke. These results are encouraging, but further studies are needed in this field.

  5. Effects of Music Therapy on Mood in Stroke Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Soo; Choi, Jung Hwa; Im, Sang-Hee; Jung, Kang Jae; Cha, Young A; Jung, Chul Oh; Yoon, Yeo Hoon

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effects of music therapy on depressive mood and anxiety in post-stroke patients and evaluate satisfaction levels of patients and caregivers. Materials and Methods Eighteen post-stroke patients, within six months of onset and mini mental status examination score of over 20, participated in this study. Patients were divided into music and control groups. The experimental group participated in the music therapy program for four weeks. Psychological status was evaluated with the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) before and after music therapy. Satisfaction with music therapy was evaluated by a questionnaire. Results BAI and BDI scores showed a greater decrease in the music group than the control group after music therapy, but only the decrease of BDI scores were statistically significant (p=0.048). Music therapy satisfaction in patients and caregivers was affirmative. Conclusion Music therapy has a positive effect on mood in post-stroke patients and may be beneficial for mood improvement with stroke. These results are encouraging, but further studies are needed in this field. PMID:22028163

  6. Multiple Complications Due to Subacute Suppurative Otitis Media

    OpenAIRE

    Qirjazi, Brikena; Bardhyli, Dolores; Hoxhallari, Xhevair

    2012-01-01

    Subacute otitis media is a well-known pathology of ENT practice which is easily diagnosed and subsequently treated in the outpatient clinic. The rate of complications in acute otitis media is lower than in chronic otitis media. We present here the history of a young patient with subacute otitis media who developed both localized labyrinthitis and facial palsy requiring surgical treatment. We conclude that the treatment of subacute otitis media should be carefully monitored because complicatio...

  7. Stroke and stroke mimics: a case of high grade glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Wolffenbüttel Argenti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical diagnosis of acute stroke is inaccurate approximately 10%-30% of the time, which can lead to unnecessary administration of thrombolytic therapy or delays in appropriate therapy. Rapid and accurate neuroimaging triage is essential to guide therapy and exclude mimics. Although many conditions that mimic stroke clinically have imaging appearances that can overlap acute stroke, these conditions can be differentiated in most cases by using a careful pattern-based approach. We describe a case of 67 yo male patient who had a clinic of wakeup stroke and at the first magnetic resonance image (MRI it was found that was an acute stroke of middle cerebral artery.The patient did not improve and a second MRI  revelead a two times growth of the lesion, and the MRI findings were compatible with tumor. At the surgery they found a infiltrative lesion and the anatomopathological exam showed that it was a high grade glioma.The diagnosis of ischemic stroke is often straight forward; however, the clinical diagnosis of acute stroke is inaccurate in many cases. Furthermore, many of these conditions, such as encephalitis, mass lesions, seizures, hypoglycemia, transient global amnesia (TGA,demyelinating disease, drug toxicity, and metabolic disturbances, have imaging appearances that can mimic acute or subacute infarction; however, an accurate diagnosis can often be made by using a pattern-based approach.

  8. Chinese Medicine Patterns in Patients with Post-Stroke Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nou-Ying Tang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A stroke often results in post-stroke dementia, a rapid decline in memory and intelligence causing dysfunctions in daily life. The Chinese medicine doctor uses 4 examinations of inspection, listening, smelling, and feeling to determine the Chinese medicine pattern (CMP. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the CMP in patients with post-stroke dementia. A total of 101 stroke patients were examined, consistent with the DSM IV diagnostic criteria of the American Psychiatric Association, as well as the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke-Association International pour Ia Recherche et I’Enseignement en Neurosciences vascular dementia diagnostic criteria of post-stroke dementia. Results: 100 patients (99.0% were KEDP (kidney essence deficiency pattern, shèn jīng kuī xū zhèng, 腎精虧虛證, 83 patients were AHLYP (ascendant hyperactivity of liver yang pattern, gān yáng shàng kàng zhèng, 肝陽上亢證, 83 patients were QBDP (qi-blood deficiency pattern, qì xuè kuī xū zhèng, 氣血虧虛證, 81 patients were SBOCP (static blood obstructing the collaterals pattern, yū xuè zǔ luò zhèng, 瘀血阻絡證, 72 patients were BSTRP (bowels stagnation turbidity retention pattern, fǔ zhì zhuó liú zhèng, 腑滯濁留證, 50 patients were FHIEP (fire heat interior excess pattern, huǒ rè nèi sheng zhèng, 火熱內盛證, and 39 participants (38.6% were PTOOP (phlegm turbidity obstructing the orifices pattern, tán zhuó zǔ qiào zhèng, 痰濁阻竅證; one to 31 patients have at least 2 CMPs simultaneously. In conclusion, the most CMP is KEDP CMP in the post-stroke dementia patients, and one patient may have one or at least 2 CMPs simultaneously.

  9. Estimated Impact of Emergency Medical Service Triage of Stroke Patients on Comprehensive Stroke Centers: An Urban Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Brian S; Adeoye, Opeolu; Sucharew, Heidi; Broderick, Joseph P; McMullan, Jason; Khatri, Pooja; Widener, Michael; Alwell, Kathleen S; Moomaw, Charles J; Kissela, Brett M; Flaherty, Matthew L; Woo, Daniel; Ferioli, Simona; Mackey, Jason; Martini, Sharyl; De Los Rios la Rosa, Felipe; Kleindorfer, Dawn O

    2017-08-01

    The American Stroke Association recommends that Emergency Medical Service bypass acute stroke-ready hospital (ASRH)/primary stroke center (PSC) for comprehensive stroke centers (CSCs) when transporting appropriate stroke patients, if the additional travel time is ≤15 minutes. However, data on additional transport time and the effect on hospital census remain unknown. Stroke patients ≥20 years old who were transported from home to an ASRH/PSC or CSC via Emergency Medical Service in 2010 were identified in the Greater Cincinnati area population of 1.3 million. Addresses of all patients' residences and hospitals were geocoded, and estimated travel times were calculated. We estimated the mean differences between the travel time for patients taken to an ASRH/PSC and the theoretical time had they been transported directly to the region's CSC. Of 929 patients with geocoded addresses, 806 were transported via Emergency Medical Service directly to an ASRH/PSC. Mean additional travel time of direct transport to the CSC, compared with transport to an ASRH/PSC, was 7.9±6.8 minutes; 85% would have ≤15 minutes added transport time. Triage of all stroke patients to the CSC would have added 727 patients to the CSC's census in 2010. Limiting triage to the CSC to patients with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score of ≥10 within 6 hours of onset would have added 116 patients (2.2 per week) to the CSC's annual census. Emergency Medical Service triage to CSCs based on stroke severity and symptom duration may be feasible. The impact on stroke systems of care and patient outcomes remains to be determined and requires prospective evaluation. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Language-specific dysgraphia in Korean stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ji Hye; Suh, Mee Kyung; Kim, HyangHee

    2010-12-01

    We investigated how changes in the writing of 14 Korean stroke patients reflect the unique features of the Korean writing system. The Korean writing system, Han-geul, has both linguistic and visuospatial/constructive characteristics. In the visuospatial construction of a syllable, the component consonant(s) and vowel(s) must be arranged from top-to-bottom and/or left-to-right within the form of a square. This syllabic organization, unique to Korean writing, may distinguish dysgraphia in Korean patients from the disorder in other languages, and reveal the effects of stroke on visuospatial/constructive abilities. We compared 2 groups of patients affected by stroke, 1 group with left hemisphere (LH) lesions and the other with right hemisphere (RH) lesions. We instructed them to write from a dictation of 90 monosyllabic stimuli, each presented with a real word cue. Patients had to repeat a target syllable and a word cue, and then to write the target syllable only. Patients with LH and RH lesions produced qualitatively different error patterns. While the LH lesion group produced primarily linguistic errors, visuospatial/constructive errors predominated in the group with RH lesions. With regard to language-specific features, these Korean patients with RH lesions produced diverse visuospatial/constructive errors not commonly observed in dysgraphia of the English language. Language-specific writing errors by Korean stroke patients reflect the unique characteristics of Korean writing, which include the arrangement of strokes and graphemes within a square syllabic form by dimensional and spatial rules. These findings support the notion that the Korean writing system possesses a language-specific nature with both linguistic and visuospatial/constructive processes. Distinctive patterns of dysgraphia in the Korean language also suggest interactivity between linguistic and visuospatial/constructive levels of processing. This study is noteworthy for its systematic description of

  11. Resistant hypertension, patient characteristics, and risk of stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Ying Hung

    Full Text Available Little is known about the prognosis of resistant hypertension (RH in Asian population. This study aimed to evaluate the impacts of RH in Taiwanese patients with hypertension, and to ascertain whether patient characteristics influence the association of RH with adverse outcomes.Patients aged ≥45 years with hypertension were identified from the National Health Insurance Research Database. Medical records of 111,986 patients were reviewed in this study, and 16,402 (14.6% patients were recognized as having RH (continuously concomitant use of ≥3 anti-hypertensive medications, including a diuretic, for ≥2 years. Risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE, a composite of all-cause mortality, acute coronary syndrome, and stroke [included both fatal and nonfatal events] in patients with RH and non-RH was analyzed. A total of 11,856 patients experienced MACE in the follow-up period (average 7.1±3.0 years. There was a higher proportion of females in the RH group, they were older than the non-RH (63.1 vs. 60.5 years patients, and had a higher prevalence of cardiovascular co-morbidities. Overall, patients with RH had higher risks of MACE (adjusted HR 1.17; 95%CI 1.09-1.26; p<0.001. Significantly elevated risks of stroke (10,211 events; adjusted HR 1.17; 95%CI 1.08-1.27; p<0.001, especially ischemic stroke (6,235 events; adjusted HR 1.34; 95%CI 1.20-1.48; p<0.001, but not all-cause mortality (4,594 events; adjusted HR 1.06; 95%CI 0.95-1.19; p = 0.312 or acute coronary syndrome (2,145 events; adjusted HR 1.17; 95%CI 0.99-1.39; p = 0.070 were noted in patients with RH compared to those with non-RH. Subgroup analysis showed that RH increased the risks of stroke in female and elderly patients. However, no significant influence was noted in young or male patients.Patients with RH were associated with higher risks of MACE and stroke, especially ischemic stroke. The risks were greater in female and elderly patients than in male or young

  12. Prevention of pressure ulcers in patients undergoing sub-acute rehabilitation after severe brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sachs, Marianne Brostrup; Wolffbrandt, Mia Moth; Poulsen, Ingrid

    2018-01-01

    and methods. Observations were analysed using content analysis. Patricia Benner's aspects of clinical grasp were employed in the interpretation of the observations. FINDINGS: One overarching theme was identified: "Professionalism expressed by preventing intervention, involving the patient, employing clinical...

  13. Geriatric rehabilitation of stroke patients in nursing homes : a study protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruit-van Eijk, M.; Buijck, B.I.; Zuidema, S.U.; Voncken, F.L.M.; Geurts, A.C.H.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Geriatric patients are typically underrepresented in studies on the functional outcome of rehabilitation after stroke. Moreover, most geriatric stroke patients do probably not participate in intensive rehabilitation programs as offered by rehabilitation centers. As a result, very few

  14. The risk of ischaemic stroke in primary antiphospholipid syndrome patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radin, M; Schreiber, K; Cecchi, I

    2018-01-01

    thrombosis and were receiving vitamin K antagonist (VKA), with international normalized ratio target 2-3; one patient had a history of a previous arterial event receiving treatment with VKA target international normalized ratio 2-3 plus low dose aspirin; and one patient had a history of previous pregnancy...... up for 12 months. RESULTS: In 10 (28%) out of 36 PAPS patients [mean age 41 years (SD 13.4), 70% female], the suspicion of an acute stroke was confirmed by brain magnetic resonance imaging. Sixty per cent of these patients were history of previous venous...... morbidity receiving only low dose aspirin. Time in the therapeutic range for patients receiving VKA was 77.7% (SD 6.6%). Hypercholesterolaemia was significantly higher in patients with confirmed stroke compared to those without (P

  15. Patient-Centered Research into Outcomes Stroke Patients Prefer and Effectiveness Research: Implementing the patient-driven research paradigm to aid decision making in stroke care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Ying; O'Brien, Emily C; Fonarow, Gregg C; Olson, DaiWai M; Schwamm, Lee H; Hannah, Deidre; Lindholm, Brianna; Maisch, Lesley; Lytle, Barbara L; Greiner, Melissa A; Wu, Jingjing; Peterson, Eric D; Pencina, Michael J; Hernandez, Adrian F

    2015-07-01

    Stroke is common and costly, annually depriving the lives and well-being of 800,000 Americans. Despite demonstrated efficacy in clinical trials, questions remain about the safety and clinical effectiveness of various treatment options given patient characteristics, conditions, preferences, and their desired outcomes. The Patient-Centered Research Into Outcomes Stroke Patients Prefer and Effectiveness Research (PROSPER) is a Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute-sponsored project designed to help patients, physicians, and other stakeholders make informed decisions regarding stroke care and improve outcomes through patient-centered comparative effectiveness research. The primary outcomes identified and prioritized by stroke patients are "home time" (time spent alive and outside a hospital) and major adverse cardiovascular events. With inputs from stroke patients themselves, a series of comparative safety and effectiveness analyses will be performed across 3 prioritized therapeutic areas identified as important by stroke survivors: oral anticoagulants, statin therapy, and antidepressants. We obtained data from Get With the Guidelines-Stroke linked with Medicare claims and follow-up telephone interviews. Our combined retrospective and prospective research strategy allows the evaluation of the safety and effectiveness of various treatment options and patient-centered longitudinal outcomes. To ensure the rapid translation of findings into clinical practice, results will be disseminated to stroke survivors, caregivers, and health care providers through traditional and social media, including an online decision aid tool. PROSPER is a patient-centered outcome research study guided by patients, caregivers, and the broader health care community. By addressing knowledge gaps in treatment uncertainties through comparative effectiveness research, PROSPER has the potential to improve decision making in stroke care and patient outcomes reflecting individual patient

  16. How a Stroke Is Diagnosed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Neurology Image Library Search The Internet Stroke Center Patients & Families About Stroke Stroke Diagnosis Stroke ... Diagnosis » How a Stroke is Diagnosed How a Stroke is Diagnosed How a Stroke is Diagnosed Lab ...

  17. Subacute posttraumatic complaints and psychological distress in trauma patients with or without mild traumatic brain injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Koning, M.E.; Gareb, Barzi; El Moumni, M.; Scheenen, M. E.; van der Horn, H. J.; Timmerman, M. E.; Spikman, J. M.; van der Naalt, J.

    Objective: To identify the frequency, nature and profile of complaints for trauma patients with and without mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), and to assess their relation to anxiety and depression. Methods: A prospective cohort study in a level-one trauma centre was conducted. Mild traumatic brain

  18. Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause to help prevent a future stroke. Medical History and Physical Exam Your doctor will ask you ... clots from getting larger. Two common medicines are aspirin and clopidogrel. Medical Procedures If you have carotid ...

  19. Review of nutrition support and evaluation in stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo-li WU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition is common after stroke, usually caused by cognitive disorder, dysphagia, paralysis, sensorimotor disability and visual field defect. Many researches indicate that the initiation of early enteral nutrition in stroke patients would own enormous clinical benefits, including a decrease in the risk of death and infectious diseases, shorter hospital stay and lower health expenditure. However, irregular nutrition management could increase the incidence of hypostatic pneumonia and urinary tract infection. Therefore, both European Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ESPEN and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN recommended that nutrition screening and assessment and nutrition support be initiated as soon as possible, preferably within 24 h of hospital admission, to improve clinical outcomes. Chinese neurologists and patients have accepted this concept and have done many worthful studies in the past few years. This paper summarized the common methods of nutrition assessment and measurement of interstinal barrier function, in order to monitor the nutritional status of stroke patients, and push the establishment and improvement of nutrition support system for stroke patients in China. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.04.004

  20. Characterization of Hospitalized Ischemic Stroke Patients in Palestine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pearson Chi-square and independent t test were used in the univariate analysis. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine the independent predictors of in-hospital mortality rates among the patients. Statistical testing and graphics were carried out using SPSS 15. Results: We identified 153 ischemic stroke ...

  1. Stroke prevalence amongst sickle cell disease patients in Nigeria: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stroke prevalence amongst sickle cell disease patients in Nigeria: a multi-centre study. AJ Madu, NA Galadanci, AM Nalado, KU Garba, OF Fowodu, A Hassan, M Inyama, A Oluwaseun, T Nwagha, OG Ibegbulam, S Ocheni, E Ifeoma, A Ikefuna, B Chukwu, OE Chide, J Orkuma, I Malachy, K Korubo, US Anike, A Kingsley, ...

  2. NDT-competence of nurses caring for patients with stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H.F. Grypdonck; Dr. T.B. Hafsteinsdóttir

    2004-01-01

    NeuroDevelopmental Treatment (NDT) is the most used rehabilitation approach in the treatment of patients with stroke in the Western world today, despite the lack of evidence for its efficacy. The aim of this study was to conduct an intervention check and measure the nurses' competence, in

  3. Length of hospital stay and discharge delays in stroke patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Straten, A.; van der Meulen, J. H.; van den Bos, G. A.; Limburg, M.

    1997-01-01

    In The Netherlands, many stroke patients stay in the hospital for some time merely waiting for discharge placement. This indicates an inefficient use of hospital resources, as well as a possible deficiency in the quality of care, because hospitals are not adequately equipped to care for these

  4. Towards evidence-based physiotherapy for patients with stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Peppen, R.P.S.

    2008-01-01

    The first aim of the thesis was to collect and review systematically, and to appraise critically the available evidence stemming from physiotherapy and physiotherapy-related studies in patients with stroke. It can be concluded that the application of physiotherapy improves performance to execute

  5. Personality and Vulnerability to Depression in Stroke Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aben, I.; Denollet, J.K.L.; Lousberg, R.; Verhey, F.; Wojciechowski, F.; Honig, A.

    2002-01-01

    Conclusions¿ Neuroticism is an important predictor of PSD, a finding that emphasizes the need to take personality into account as a potential vulnerability factor for depression in stroke patients. Research on PSD should aim at delineating the interplay between neurological and psychological factors

  6. Virtual Reality–Augmented Rehabilitation for Patients Following Stroke

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alma S Merians; David Jack; Rares Boian; Marilyn Tremaine; Grigore C Burdea; Sergei V Adamovich; Michael Recce; Howard Poizner

    2002-01-01

    ...) The purpose of this case report is to describe computerized training in a virtual reality (VR) environment as an enhancement to existing methods of retraining the hand in patients in the later phase of recovery after a stroke. Although studies have demonstrated that physical therapy can improve the recovery rate of upper-extremity function, (3,5) th...

  7. Multiple Complications Due to Subacute Suppurative Otitis Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xhevair Hoxhallari

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Subacute otitis media is a well-known pathology of ENT practice which is easily diagnosed and subsequently treated in the outpatient clinic. The rate of complications in acute otitis media is lower than in chronic otitis media. We present here the history of a young patient with subacute otitis media who developed both localized labyrinthitis and facial palsy requiring surgical treatment. We conclude that the treatment of subacute otitis media should be carefully monitored because complications may occur. Surgical treatment and pressure release can be efficient for the treatment of a peripheral facial palsy in the course of acute or subacute otitis media.

  8. Effect of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on motor cortical excitability and sensory nerve conduction velocity in subacute-stage incomplete spinal cord injury patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hyun Gyu; Ji, Sang-Goo; Kim, Myoung-Kwon

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to determine whether repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation can improve sensory recovery of the lower extremities in subacute-stage spinal cord injury patients. [Subjects and Methods] This study was conducted on 20 subjects with diagnosed paraplegia due to spinal cord injury. These 20 subjects were allocated to an experimental group of 10 subjects that underwent active repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation or to a control group of 10 subjects that underwent sham repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. The SCI patients in the experimental group underwent active repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and conventional rehabilitation therapy, whereas the spinal cord injury patients in the control group underwent sham repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and conventional rehabilitation therapy. Participants in both groups received therapy five days per week for six-weeks. Latency, amplitude, and sensory nerve conduction velocity were assessed before and after the six week therapy period. [Results] A significant intergroup difference was observed for posttreatment velocity gains, but no significant intergroup difference was observed for amplitude or latency. [Conclusion] repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation may be improve sensory recovery of the lower extremities in subacute-stage spinal cord injury patients.

  9. Different Perfusion Patterns in a Patient with Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudilosso, Salvatore; Laredo, Carlos; Urra, Xabier; Chamorro, Ángel

    2017-05-01

    A 29-year-old male patient with aphasia and mild weakness of the right arm arrived at the emergency room 4 hours after symptom onset. The computed tomography perfusion showed a typical delay in the time-based maps in the left occipital lobe and another hyperperfused area in the left frontal lobe. The follow-up magnetic resonance imaging confirmed cortical ischemic lesions in both areas. This case shows that besides hypoperfusion, hyperperfusion can also be found in the first stages of acute stroke, and it is highly suggestive of established ischemic lesions. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of patients with stroke monitored by home care programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Railka de Souza Oliveira

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the patient with a stroke in home treatment, investigating physical capacity, mental status and anthropometric analysis. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Fortaleza/CE, from January to April of 2010. Sixty-one individuals monitored by a home care program of three tertiary hospitals were investigated, through interviews and the application of scales. The majority of individuals encountered were female (59%, elderly, bedridden, with a low educational level, a history of other stroke, a high degree of dependence for basic (73.8% and instrumental (80.3 % activities of daily living, and a low cognitive level (95.1%. Individuals also presented with tracheostomy, gastric feeding and urinary catheter, difficulty hearing, speaking, chewing, swallowing, and those making daily use of various medications. It was concluded that home care by nurses is an alternative for care of those individuals with a stroke.

  11. Evaluation of patients with stroke monitored by home care programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Railka de Souza Oliveira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the patient with a stroke in home treatment, investigating physical capacity, mental status and anthropometric analysis. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Fortaleza/CE, from January to April of 2010. Sixty-one individuals monitored by a home care program of three tertiary hospitals were investigated, through interviews and the application of scales. The majority of individuals encountered were female (59%, elderly, bedridden, with a low educational level, a history of other stroke, a high degree of dependence for basic (73.8% and instrumental (80.3 % activities of daily living, and a low cognitive level (95.1%. Individuals also presented with tracheostomy, gastric feeding and urinary catheter, difficulty hearing, speaking, chewing, swallowing, and those making daily use of various medications. It was concluded that home care by nurses is an alternative for care of those individuals with a stroke.

  12. Validating Imaging Biomarkers of Cerebral Edema in Patients with Severe Ischemic Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Albert J.; Sheth, Kevin N.; Kimberly, W. Taylor; Chaudhry, Zeshan A.; Elm, Jordan J.; Jacobson, Sven; Davis, Stephen M.; Donnan, Geoffrey A.; Albers, Gregory W.; Stern, Barney J.; González, R. Gilberto

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose There is no validated neuroimaging marker for quantifying brain edema. We sought to test whether MRI-based metrics would reliably change during the early subacute period in a manner consistent with edema and whether they would correlate with relevant clinical endpoints. Methods Serial MRI studies from patients in the EPITHET trial with initial diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) lesion volume >82 cm3 were analyzed. Two independent readers outlined the hemisphere and lateral ventricle on the involved side and calculated respective volumes at baseline and day 3 to 5. We assessed inter-rater agreement, volume change between scans and the association of volume change with early neurological deterioration (END: NIHSS score worsening ≥4 points), 90-day modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score 0–4 and mortality. Results Of 12 patients who met study criteria, average baseline and follow-up DWI lesion size was 138 cm3 and 234 cm3, respectively. Mean time to follow-up MRI was 62 hours. Concordance correlation coefficients between readers were >0.90 for both hemisphere and ventricle volume assessment. Mean percent hemisphere volume increase was 16.2±8.3% (p<.0001), and mean percent ventricle volume decrease was 45.6±16.9% (p<0.001). Percent hemisphere growth predicted END (area under the curve [AUC]=0.92, p=0.0005) and 90-day mRS 0–4 (AUC 0.80, p=0.02). Conclusions In this exploratory analysis of severe ischemic stroke patients, statistically significant changes in hemisphere and ventricular volumes within the first week are consistent with expected changes of cerebral edema. MRI-based analysis of hemisphere growth appears to be a suitable biomarker for edema formation. PMID:22325573

  13. Heart rate as a predictor of stroke in high-risk, hypertensive patients with previous stroke or transient ischemic attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandset, Else Charlotte; Berge, Eivind; Kjeldsen, Sverre E; Julius, Stevo; Holzhauer, Björn; Krarup, Lars-Henrik; Hua, Tsushung A

    2014-01-01

    Risk factors for first stroke are well established, but less is known about risk factors for recurrent stroke. In the present analysis, we aimed to assess the effect of heart rate and other possible predictors of stroke in a hypertensive population with previous stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). The Valsartan Antihypertensive Long-Term Use Evaluation trial was a multicentre, double-masked, randomized controlled, parallel group trial comparing the effects of an angiotensin receptor blocker (valsartan) and a calcium channel blocker (amlodipine) in patients with hypertension and high cardiovascular risk. We used Cox proportional hazard models to investigate the effect of baseline variables on the risk of stroke. Quadratic terms of the continuous variables were entered in the models to test for linearity. Of 15,245 patients included in the trial, 3014 had a previous stroke or TIA at baseline and were included in the present analysis. Stroke recurrence occurred in 239 patients (7.9%) during a median of 4.5 years of follow-up. Resting heart rate (per 10 beats per minute; hazard ratio [HR], 2.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18-6.58) and diabetes mellitus at baseline (HR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.03-2.10) were significantly associated with an increased risk of stroke recurrence in the multivariable analysis. In high-risk, hypertensive patients with previous stroke or TIA, resting heart rate was the strongest predictor of recurrent stroke. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of mental practice embedded in daily therapy compared to therapy as usual in adult stroke patients in Dutch nursing homes: design of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beurskens Anna J

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental practice as an additional cognitive therapy is getting increased attention in stroke rehabilitation. A systematic review shows some evidence that several techniques in which movements are rehearsed mentally might be effective but not enough to be certain. This trial investigates whether mental practice can contribute to a quicker and/or better recovery of stroke in two Dutch nursing homes. The objective is to investigate the therapeutic potential of mental practice embedded in daily therapy to improve individually chosen daily activities of adult stroke patients compared to therapy as usual. In addition, we will investigate prognostic variables and feasibility (process evaluation. Methods A randomised, controlled, observer masked prospective trial will be conducted with adult stroke patients in the (subacute phase of stroke recovery. Over a six weeks intervention period the control group will receive multi professional therapy as usual. Patients in the experimental group will be instructed how to perform mental practice, and will receive care as usual in which mental practice is embedded in physical, occupation and speech therapy sessions. Outcome will be assessed at six weeks and six months. The primary outcome measure is the patient-perceived effect on performance of daily activities as assessed by an 11-point Likert Scale. Secondary outcomes are: Motricity Index, Nine Hole Peg Test, Barthel Index, Timed up and Go, 10 metres walking test, Rivermead Mobility Index. A sample size of the patients group and all therapists will be interviewed on their opinion of the experimental program to assess feasibility. All patients are asked to keep a log to determine unguided training intensity. Discussion Advantages and disadvantages of several aspects of the chosen design are discussed. Trial registration ISRCTN27582267

  15. Measuring Upper Limb Capacity in Patients After Stroke : Reliability and Validity of the Stroke Upper Limb Capacity Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwink, Annemieke; Roorda, Leo D.; Smits, Wendy; Molenaar, Ivo W.; Geurts, Alexander C.

    Houwink A, Roorda LD, Smits W, Molenaar IW, Geurts AC. Measuring upper limb capacity in patients after stroke: reliability and validity of the Stroke Upper Limb Capacity Scale. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2011;92:1418-22. Objective: To investigate the interrater reliability and construct validity of the

  16. Mediterranean Diet in patients with acute ischemic stroke: Relationships between Mediterranean Diet score, diagnostic subtype, and stroke severity index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Casuccio, Alessandra; Buttà, Carmelo; Pecoraro, Rosaria; Di Raimondo, Domenico; Della Corte, Vittoriano; Arnao, Valentina; Clemente, Giuseppe; Maida, Carlo; Simonetta, Irene; Miceli, Giuseppe; Lucifora, Benedetto; Cirrincione, Anna; Di Bona, Danilo; Corpora, Francesca; Maugeri, Rosario; Iacopino, Domenico Gerardo; Pinto, Antonio

    2015-11-01

    Adherence to a Mediterranean Diet appears to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease, as well as the risk of death due to cardiovascular disease. No study has addressed the association between diagnostic subtype of stroke and its severity and adherence to a Mediterranean Diet in subjects with acute ischemic stroke. To evaluate the association between Mediterranean Diet adherence, TOAST subtype, and stroke severity by means of a retrospective study. The type of acute ischemic stroke was classified according to the TOAST criteria. All patients admitted to our ward with acute ischemic stroke completed a 137-item validated food-frequency questionnaire adapted to the Sicilian population. A scale indicating the degree of adherence to the traditional Mediterranean Diet was used (Me-Di score: range 0-9). 198 subjects with acute ischemic stroke and 100 control subjects without stroke. Stroke subjects had a lower mean Mediterranean Diet score compared to 100 controls without stroke. We observed a significant positive correlation between Me-Di score and SSS score, whereas we observed a negative relationship between Me-Di score and NIHSS and Rankin scores. Subjects with atherosclerotic (LAAS) stroke subtype had a lower mean Me-Di score compared to subjects with other subtypes. Multinomial logistic regression analysis in a simple model showed a negative relationship between MeDi score and LAAS subtype vs. lacunar subtype (and LAAS vs. cardio-embolic subtype). Patients with lower adherence to a Mediterranean Diet are more likely to have an atherosclerotic (LAAS) stroke, a worse clinical presentation of ischemic stroke at admission and a higher Rankin score at discharge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Stroke in a patient with tuberculous meningitis and HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bruna Pasticci

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Tuberculous meningitis (TBM is a devastating disease. TBM occurs more commonly in HIV infected patients. The influence of HIV co-infection on clinical manifestations and outcome of TBM is not well defined. Yet, some differences have been observed and stroke has been recorded to occur more frequently. This study reports on an HIV infected Caucasian female with lung, meningeal tuberculosis and stroke due to a cortical sub-cortical ischemic lesion.TBM was documented in the absence of neurologic symptoms. At the same time, miliary lung TB caused by multi-susceptible Mycobacterium tuberculosis was diagnosed. Anti-TB therapy consisting of a combination of four drugs was administered. The patient improved and was discharged five weeks later. In conclusion, TBM and multiple underling pathologies including HIV infection, as well as other risk factors can lead to a greater risk of stroke. Moreover, drug interactions and their side effects add levels of complexity. TBM must be included in the differential diagnosis of HIV infected patients with stroke and TBM treatment needs be started as soon as possible before the onset of vasculopathy.

  18. Combining MRI with NIH Stroke Scale Thresholds to Predict Outcome in Acute Ischemic Stroke – Value for Patient Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Pamela W.; Pulli, Benjamin; Copen, William A.; Hirsch, Joshua A.; Leslie-Mazwi, Thabele; Schwamm, Lee H.; Wu, Ona; González, R.Gilberto; Yoo, Albert J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose We sought to validate a previously described model combining clinical and MRI thresholds to predict outcome in acute ischemic stroke in a larger cohort, and evaluate effects of reperfusion therapy and stroke side. Materials and Methods 123 consecutive anterior circulation AIS patients underwent MRI within 6 hours of stroke onset. DWI and PWI volumes were measured. Lesion volume and NIH Stroke Scale Score thresholds were used in models predicting good three-month clinical outcome (mRS 0-2). Patients were stratified by treatment and stroke side. Results ROC analysis demonstrated 95.6% and 100% specificity for DWI > 70mL and NIH Stroke Scale Score > 20 to predict poor outcome, and 92.7% and 91.3% specificity for PWI (mean transit time) 50mL and NIH Stroke Scale Score < 8 to predict good outcome. Combining clinical and imaging thresholds led to 88.8% (71/80) positive predictive value with 65.0% (80/123) prognostic yield. 100 percent specific thresholds for DWI (103 versus 31 mL) and NIHSSS (20 versus 17) to predict poor outcome were significantly higher in treated (intravenous and/or intraarterial) versus untreated patients. Prognostic yield was lower in right versus left-sided strokes for all thresholds (10.4-20.7 vs. 16.9-40.0%). Patients with right-sided strokes had higher 100 percent specific DWI (103.1 vs. 74.8 mL) thresholds for poor outcome, and positive predictive value was lower. Conclusion Our predictive model is validated in a much larger patient cohort. Outcome may be predicted in up to two-thirds of patients, and thresholds are affected by stroke side and reperfusion therapy. PMID:25258369

  19. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with acute ischemic stroke is associated with more severe stroke and worse outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdeldyem, Sabry M; Goda, Tarek; Khodeir, Samy A; Abou Saif, Sabry; Abd-Elsalam, Sherief

    There is a paucity of data regarding the association between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and acute ischemic stroke. Stroke is largely preventable, so that knowledge of risk factors is essential to achieve reductions in the stroke rate and resulting disease burden. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prognostic value of NAFLD on stroke severity and outcome. We prospectively studied 200 patients who were admitted with acute ischemic stroke between September 2013 and August 2015. Demographic and vascular risk factors were detailed for all subjects. The severity of stroke was assessed with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score at admission. NAFLD was defined as serum alanine aminotransferase and/or aspartate aminotransferase levels above the upper limit of normal in the absence of other causes of elevated aminotransferase levels. The outcome was assessed with the modified Rankin scale score at discharge. NAFLD was found in 42.5% of the study population. The prevalence of diabetes was significantly higher among patients with NAFLD than those without NAFLD (P = .001). Waist circumference was significantly higher among patients with NAFLD than those without NAFLD (P < .05). Patients with NAFLD had significantly higher glucose, Triglycerides, Low density lipoprotein, serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase than those without NAFLD (P < .05 for each comparison). National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score at admission and modified Rankin scale score at discharge were significantly higher in patients with NAFLD than those without NAFLD (P < .05 for each comparison). NAFLD was found in 42.5% of acute ischemic stroke patients. NAFLD might be associated with more severe stroke and worse outcome. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Case report: Rapid improvement of crossed cerebellar diaschisis after intravascular laser irradiation of blood in a case of stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wan-Hua; Lin, Shiou-Ping; Chang, Shin-Tsu

    2017-01-01

    Crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD) is a poor prognostic factor after stroke because without immediate cerebral reperfusion no further improvements in the patient's condition can be achieved. We investigated the clinical effects of intravascular laser irradiation therapy (ILIB) on CCD and evaluated the therapeutic effect in the sub-acute post-stroke stage. The 77-year-old male with cerebral infarction in the territory of the right anterior cerebral artery only underwent conservative treatment including hydration and aspirin in the acute post-stroke stage. He was diagnosed as stroke based on the clinical presentations and imaging findings. Once the patient was in stable condition, he underwent a daily hour-long ILIB (He-Ne laser) for ten consecutive days during the sub-acute post-stroke stage. We used single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) before and after intravascular laser irradiation to detect changes in cerebral and cerebellar perfusion. Then, we compared the two images. CCD was detected using the first SPECT. After intervention by ILIB, the second SPECT showed greater perfusion in the affected cerebellar hemisphere. We found that ILIB helped eliminate CCD, which was previously shown to be an untreatable condition using any intervention during the sub-acute post-stroke stage. Stroke patients could therefore greatly benefit from ILIB.

  1. Health services should collect feedback from inpatients at the point of service: opinions from patients and staff in acute and subacute facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Stephen D; Redden-Hoare, Jane; Dunning, Trisha L; Hughes, Andrew J; Dolley, Pamela J

    2015-12-01

    Point of service feedback (POSF) enables patients to give health services feedback about their experiences during or immediately after care. Despite the increasing use of POSF, little is known regarding patients' and staffs' opinions of this practice and whether they consider it acceptable or useful. The study aimed to determine patient and staff opinions regarding POSF. A cross-sectional survey. Acute and subacute healthcare facilities. Two hundred and forty-seven patients and 221 staff. Participants indicated that patients should be invited to evaluate health services when they are in hospital or subacute care and improving services was the most important reason for doing so. Staff indicated that: collecting patients' feedback during their stay was an important part of providing care and not an interruption to it (n = 187 of 221, 85%); collecting patients' feedback was best done with a variety of methods; talking directly with patients during their stay was the preferred option (n = 161 of 219, 74%). More patients preferred to: give feedback during their stay (51%) than after discharge from care (15%); give feedback by talking with someone (45%) than completing a questionnaire (31%). Some patients (14%) were concerned about reprisals from staff if they gave negative feedback. POSF can be acceptable and useful for evaluating health services and should be incorporated into a person-centred approach that allows patients to choose from a variety of feedback options both during and after their stay. To be most useful, feedback should be incorporated into a quality improvement system. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  2. Methods to improve patient recruitment and retention in stroke trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berge, Eivind; Stapf, Christian; Al-Shahi Salman, Rustam

    2016-01-01

    Background: The success of randomized-controlled stroke trials is dependent on the recruitment and retention of a sufficient number of patients, but fewer than half of all trials meet their target number of patients. Methods: We performed a search and review of the literature, and conducted...... a survey and workshop among 56 European stroke trialists, to identify barriers, suggest methods to improve recruitment and retention, and make a priority list of interventions that merit further evaluation. Results: The survey and workshop identified a number of barriers to patient recruitment...... and retention, from patients’ incapacity to consent, to handicaps that prevent patients from participation in trial-specific follow-up. Methods to improve recruitment and retention may include simple interventions with individual participants, funding of research networks, and reimbursement of new treatments...

  3. A COMPAR A TIVE STUDY OF SELECTIVE INDICATOR PROFILES IN PATIENTS WITH ISCHEMIC STROKE AND HEMORRHAGIC STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanaswamy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Urban India, stroke accounts for 1% mortality in all hospital admissions. The pathogenic role of increased plasma fibrinogen level in causing stroke has been recently reinforced. It was therefore of interest to measure plasma fibrinogen level in patients with ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke and to compare it with lipid profile. Also to sell if fibrinogen levels increase if patient has hypertension, diabetes, smoking and alcohol intake. METHODS: The study was conducted in Victoria Hospital and Bowring & Lady Curzon Hospital attached to Bangalore medical college and Research Institute. Study included 30 patients of Ischemic stroke, 20 patients of Hemorrhagic stroke and 50 age and sex matched controls. Plasma Fibrinogen level s and lipid profile were analyzed in cases and controls. Duration of the study was 2 years. RESULTS: Most common age group in our study was 61 - 70 years. Males (62% were more than females (38%. 16 patients were Diabetics (32% and 21 were Hypertensives (42%. 40% of patients had elevated total cholesterol, 20% had elevated Triglycerides, 26% had high LDL value, 36% had Low HDL levels, 32% had high VLDL value. Mean fibrinogen levels are significantly raised in cases (411.50+111.56 mg/dl compared to controls (313.76+71.24 mg/dl. Among patients with Ischemic stroke, mean fibrinogen level was 439.63+106.93 mg/dl and in hemorrhagic stroke mean level was 370.1+105.83 mg/dl. In Correlation of levels of lipid profile with levels of fibrinogen in Ischemic stroke cases, Pearson correlation showed moderate correlation for Fibrinogen vs T chol, small correlation for Fibrinogen vs TGL, Fibrinogen vs LDL and Fibrinogen vs VLDL and negative correlation for Fibrinogen vs HDL in cases and statistically significant difference for Fibrinogen vs T chol. In Hemorrhagic stroke cases, Pearson correlation showed negative correlation for Fibrinogen vs T chol, Fibrinogen vs TGL and Fibrinogen vs HDL, and trivial correlation for Fibrinogen

  4. GERSTMANN?S SYNDROME IN ACUTE STROKE PATIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Zukic, Sanela; MRKONJIC Zamir; Sinanovic, Osman; Vidovic, Mirjana; Kojic, Biljana

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Gerstmann in 1924. observed in a few patients a concomitant impairment in discriminating their own fingers, writing by hand, distinguishing left from right and performing calculations. He claimed that this tetrad of symptoms constituted a syndromal entity, assigned it to a lesion of the dominant parietal lobe. Since than, Gerstmann`s syndrome (GS) was enigma for neuropsychologists. The aim of this study was to analyze frequency and clinical features of GS among acute stroke patient...

  5. Adaptable healing patient room for stroke patients. A staff evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daemen, E M L; Flinsenberg, I C M; Van Loenen, E J; Cuppen, R P G; Rajae-Joordens, R J E

    2014-01-01

    This article is part of the focus theme of Methods of Information in Medicine on "Pervasive Intelligent Technologies for Health". This paper addresses the evaluation with hospital staff of an in-patient environment that supports patients, family, nursing staff and medical specialists during the recovery process of neurology patients and especially patients recovering from a stroke. We describe the methods that were used to evaluate the Adaptive Daily Rhythm Atmospheres (ADRA), Artificial Skylight (AS) and Adaptive Stimulus Dosage (ASD) concepts. The goal of this evaluation was to gather qualitative and quantitative feedback from hospital staff about the usefulness, the usability and desirability of the Adaptive Daily Rhythm Atmospheres (ADRA), Artificial Skylight (AS) and Adaptive Stimulus Dosage (ASD) concepts that were implemented as different phases of a novel healing patient room. This paper reports the effects of these concepts with regard to 1) the healing process of the patient and 2) the workflow of the staff. These results are part of a larger R&D project and provide the initial feedback in an iterative user-centered design methodology. After signing informed consents, the group of participants was taken to the laboratory environment where they were introduced to the Adaptive Healing Environment Patient Room and where they could also experience the room. Then, the participants were seated next to the patient bed so they had a similar viewing angle as the patients. The participants received a booklet with questionnaires. The items on this questionnaire addressed the influence on the healing process (i.e., the possible effect the concept/phase has on the healing process of the patient, meaning faster recovery, better sleep and enhanced well-being) and influence on the workflow (i.e., the possible effect of such a concept/phase on the working activities of the staff in the ward). We presented every concept (AS and ASD) and all the phases of ADRA. After every

  6. Suicidal ideation and attempts in patients with stroke: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jae Ho; Kim, Jung Bin; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2016-10-01

    Stroke is known to be associated with an increase in the risk for suicide. However, there are very few population-based studies investigating the risk of suicidal ideation and attempts in patients with stroke. The purpose of this study was to compare the risk of suicidal ideation and attempts between patients with stroke and population without stroke using nationwide survey data. Individual-level data were obtained from 228,735 participants (4560 with stroke and 224,175 without stroke) of the 2013 Korean Community Health Survey. Demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, physical health status, and mental health status were compared between patients with stroke and population without stroke. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to investigate the independent effects of the stroke on suicidal ideation and attempts. Stroke patients had more depressive mood (12.6 %) than population without stroke (5.7 %, p suicidal ideation (24.4 %) and attempts (1.3 %) than population without stroke (9.8 and 0.4 %, respectively; both p suicidal ideation (OR 1.65, 95 % CI 1.52-1.79) and suicidal attempts (OR 1.64, 95 % CI 1.21-2.22), adjusting for demographics, socioeconomic factors, and physical health and mental health factors. We found that stroke increased the risk for suicidal ideation and attempts, independent of other factors that are known to be associated with suicidality, suggesting that stroke per se may be an independent risk factor for suicidality.

  7. GERSTMANN’S SYNDROME IN ACUTE STROKE PATIENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukic, Sanela; Mrkonjic, Zamir; Sinanovic, Osman; Vidovic, Mirjana; Kojic, Biljana

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Gerstmann in 1924. observed in a few patients a concomitant impairment in discriminating their own fingers, writing by hand, distinguishing left from right and performing calculations. He claimed that this tetrad of symptoms constituted a syndromal entity, assigned it to a lesion of the dominant parietal lobe. Since than, Gerstmann`s syndrome (GS) was enigma for neuropsychologists. The aim of this study was to analyze frequency and clinical features of GS among acute stroke patients. Patients and methods: We prospectively analyzed 194 acute stroke patients (average age 65±11.06 years, male 113 (58.2%), female 81 (41.8%) hospitalized at department of Neurology, University Clinical Center tuzla, during the six mounths in 2010. For clinical assessment of agraphia, alexia and acalculia we used Minessota test for differential diagnosis of aphasia’s. Results: Among these acute stroke patients, 59 (30.40%) had alexia, agraphia and acalculia or different combinations of these disorders. two patients (3.4%) had agraphia and acalculia associated with other part of tetrad of GS: fi nger agnosia and left-right disorientation. they both where men, right handed, and cranial computed tomography scan showed ischemic lesion in the left parietal and left temporoparietal lobe. Conclusion: Gerstmann`s syndrome is rare clinical entity, and has the high value in localization and the lesion is mainly localized to angular gyrus of the dominant hemisphere. PMID:23378691

  8. Variations in kinematics during clinical gait analysis in stroke patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Boudarham

    Full Text Available In addition to changes in spatio-temporal and kinematic parameters, patients with stroke exhibit fear of falling as well as fatigability during gait. These changes could compromise interpretation of data from gait analysis. The aim of this study was to determine if the gait of hemiplegic patients changes significantly over successive gait trials. Forty two stroke patients and twenty healthy subjects performed 9 gait trials during a gait analysis session. The mean and variability of spatio-temporal and kinematic joint parameters were analyzed during 3 groups of consecutive gait trials (1-3, 4-6 and 7-9. Principal component analysis was used to reduce the number of variables from the joint kinematic waveforms and to identify the parts of the gait cycle which changed during the gait analysis session. The results showed that i spontaneous gait velocity and the other spatio-temporal parameters significantly increased, and ii gait variability decreased, over the last 6 gait trials compared to the first 3, for hemiplegic patients but not healthy subjects. Principal component analysis revealed changes in the sagittal waveforms of the hip, knee and ankle for hemiplegic patients after the first 3 gait trials. These results suggest that at the beginning of the gait analysis session, stroke patients exhibited phase of adaptation,characterized by a "cautious gait" but no fatigue was observed.

  9. Variations in Kinematics during Clinical Gait Analysis in Stroke Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudarham, Julien; Roche, Nicolas; Pradon, Didier; Bonnyaud, Céline; Bensmail, Djamel; Zory, Raphael

    2013-01-01

    In addition to changes in spatio-temporal and kinematic parameters, patients with stroke exhibit fear of falling as well as fatigability during gait. These changes could compromise interpretation of data from gait analysis. The aim of this study was to determine if the gait of hemiplegic patients changes significantly over successive gait trials. Forty two stroke patients and twenty healthy subjects performed 9 gait trials during a gait analysis session. The mean and variability of spatio-temporal and kinematic joint parameters were analyzed during 3 groups of consecutive gait trials (1–3, 4–6 and 7–9). Principal component analysis was used to reduce the number of variables from the joint kinematic waveforms and to identify the parts of the gait cycle which changed during the gait analysis session. The results showed that i) spontaneous gait velocity and the other spatio-temporal parameters significantly increased, and ii) gait variability decreased, over the last 6 gait trials compared to the first 3, for hemiplegic patients but not healthy subjects. Principal component analysis revealed changes in the sagittal waveforms of the hip, knee and ankle for hemiplegic patients after the first 3 gait trials. These results suggest that at the beginning of the gait analysis session, stroke patients exhibited phase of adaptation,characterized by a “cautious gait” but no fatigue was observed. PMID:23799100

  10. [Effectiveness of an individualised physiotherapy program versus group therapy on neck pain and disability in patients with acute and subacute mechanical neck pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antúnez Sánchez, Leonardo Gregorio; de la Casa Almeida, María; Rebollo Roldán, Jesús; Ramírez Manzano, Antonio; Martín Valero, Rocío; Suárez Serrano, Carmen

    To compare the efficacy in reducing neck pain and disability in an individualised physiotherapy treatment with group treatment in acute and subacute mechanical neck pain. Randomised clinical trial. Health Area of University Hospital Virgen del Rocío, Seville, Spain. A total of 90 patients diagnosed with mechanical neck pain of up to one month onset, distributed randomly into two groups: (i)individualised treatment; (ii)group treatment. The treatment consisted of 15 sessions of about 60minutes for both groups. Individual treatment consisted of 15minutes of infrared heat therapy, 17minutes of massage, and analytical passive stretching of the trapezius muscles and angle of the scapula. The group treatment consisted of a program of active mobilisation, isometric contractions, self-stretching, and postural recommendations. Pain was measured at the beginning and end of treatment pain using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and an algometer applied on the trapezius muscles and angle of the scapula, and neck disability using the Neck Disability Index. Both treatments were statistically significant (P<.001) in improving all variables. Statistically significant differences (P<.001) were found for all of them in favour of individualised treatment compared to group treatment. Patients with acute or subacute mechanical neck pain experienced an improvement in pain and neck disability after receiving either of the physiotherapy treatments used in our study, with the individual treatment being more effective than collective. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of Cognitive Impairment on Functional Outcome in Stroke

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    Nurdan Paker

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the cognitive impairment on functional status in patients with subacute stroke. Fifty-two patients with subacute stroke were included in the study. Mini mental state examination (MMSE test was used for the evaluation of cognitive status. Patients were separated into two groups according to their cognitive functions. Functional follow-up parameters were activities of daily living (ADL, global recovery and ambulation status. All patients were evaluated on admission to rehabilitation unit, at discharge and 6 months after discharge. Forty-four patients were completed the study. Mean age was 66 and 57 years; disease duration on admission was 4,8 and 3,5 months in the cognitively impaired and normal groups, respectively. Significant improvement was found in terms of functional follow-up parameters in both groups at discharge (<.05. Functional follow-up parameters did not show statistically significant difference between the groups. But community ambulation rate was higher in cognitively normal group at the sixth month visit. As a result of this study, inpatient rehabilitation was effective both cognitively normal and impaired subacute stroke patients.

  12. Declining patient functioning and caregiver burden/health: the Minnesota stroke survey--quality of life after stroke study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Melissa M; Smith, Maureen A; Martinson, Brian C; Kind, Amy; Luepker, Russell V

    2008-10-01

    Caregivers of stroke patients may adapt to changes in patient functioning over time. If adaptation occurs, then caregiver burden and health may be influenced more by worsening in patient functioning than by static levels of functioning. This study examines the relationship between patients' baseline and changes in functioning and caregivers' subjective and objective burden as well as their health. Only stroke patients who had caregivers were included in this analysis (N = 356). Stroke patients (n = 281) or their proxies (n = 75) were interviewed within 4 months of hospital discharge and patients' medical records were abstracted. The primary caregiver also was interviewed at approximately the same time as the patient or proxy (N = 356). In all but one of the 75 proxy cases, the proxy was the patient's caregiver. Binomial and ordinal logistic regression models were used. Declining patient neurological functioning predicted greater objective burden and subjective burden relating to consequences for caregivers' personal lives, but it did not predict caregiver health. The impact a patient's stroke has on a caregiver's personal life and the number of hours spent caring for the patient appear to be a function of the changes of the patient's status over time rather than a function of a "snapshot" of their functioning at baseline. If these results are confirmed, interventions to protect caregivers may be indicated for stroke patients who continue to decline after hospital discharge.

  13. How is nursing care for stroke patients organised? Nurses' views on best praactices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Jette; Struwe, Jytte Holm; Baernholdt, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    In the developed world, stroke is the third leading cause of death (DSFA 2009) In Denmark there are 12400 new patients every year and 30000 - 40000 people living with long-term after stroke. This group consists mainly of people aged 80 years and older. When these patients have a stroke...

  14. Apixaban compared with warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation and previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Easton, J Donald; Lopes, Renato D; Bahit, M Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    In the ARISTOTLE trial, the rate of stroke or systemic embolism was reduced by apixaban compared with warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Patients with AF and previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA) have a high risk of stroke. We therefore aimed to assess the efficacy...

  15. Effects of a high-intensity task-oriented training on gait performance early after stroke: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Outermans, J.C.; van Peppen, R.P.; Wittink, H.; Takken, T.; Kwakkel, G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the feasibility and the effects on gait of a high intensity task-oriented training, incorporating a high cardiovascular workload and large number of repetitions, in patients with subacute stroke, when compared to a low intensity physiotherapy-programme. Design and subjects:

  16. Anthropometric evaluation in diabetic patients with ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holanda Maurus Marques de Almeida

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Strokes are one of the most common causes of mortality and long term severe disability. Risk factors for stroke include: age, gender, diabetes mellitus (DM, hypertension, and many others. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate obesity and hypertension in patients affected by acute ischemic stroke. METHOD: We compared the anthropometric variables between type II diabetic patients and non-diabetic patients. We evaluated a total of 60 patients, divided into two groups: 34 non-diabetic patients and a group of 26 type II diabetic subjects. RESULTS: The predominance of obesity, as well as hypertension, was very high among the studied groups, presenting no differences among the waist-hip ratio (WHR values of the study group compared to the ones of the control group. CONCLUSION: The predominance of obesity was very high among the studied groups and there was prevalence the android type obesity. There was no significative difference in the anthropometric evaluation by the measurement of WHR and the waist in the groups.

  17. Upper limb neurorehabilitation in patients with stroke using haptic device system: reciprocal bi-articular muscle activities reflect as a result of improved circle-drawing smoothness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Tasuku; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Lee, Hokyoo; Suzuki, Tadashi; Komeda, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Muscular co-contraction resulted in corrected elbow and shoulder joint stiffness; however, this correction neither ameliorated endpoint oscillation nor assisted in the execution of smooth two-joint arm movements. We hypothesised that the reacquisition of smooth arm movements became synonymous with the restoration of time-domain reciprocal electromyographic (EMG) activities in biarticular arm muscles. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not the restored reciprocal EMG activities in biarticular arm muscles reflected improved smooth motor performance in patients with stroke after 10 days of two-joint arm-movement training. Three male patients with sub-acute stroke with left-arm paralysis performed circle-drawing tasks using a haptic device system for upper limb neuromuscular rehabilitation. After the training, the movement velocities and achievement periods increased with the enhancement of the reciprocal EMG activities in biarticular arm muscles, and there was less jerkness in movement after training for the same duration. Patients with stroke could achieve smooth motor performance with the restoration of the reciprocal EMG activities in biarticular arm muscles. Therefore, the reciprocal EMG activities in biarticular arm muscles in response to circle drawing would be an index for the progressive improvements of smooth motor functions in the upper limbs.

  18. Female caregivers and stroke severity determines caregiver stress in stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Menon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stroke is among the major causes of short- and long-term disability. This study aimed to understand the caregivers (CGs stress in stroke survivors. Materials and Methods: A 22-item questionnaire was administered to 201 CGs of stroke survivors. The variables tested were physical and mental health, social support, financial, and personal problems. CGs were divided into Group A (Barthel index [BI] 75 according to patient's BI, according to gender (male and female CG and relation; spouses (wife, husband, daughters, sons, daughter-in-law, grandchildren, and rest (father, mother, brother, sister, and in-laws. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version–21. Data were analyzed to determine which variables of the patient effects the CG stress. Results: Majority of the CGs (74.62% were females. 65% of CGs graded their burden as moderate to severe. 81% of CGs had left their work for caregiving. More than half of the CGs felt sleep disturbance and physical strain. Psychological instability and financial burdens were reported in 3/4th of CGs. Group A CGs faced more sleep, financial, health, and social life disturbance. Patient's bladder and bowel problems, shoulder pain, patients noncooperative attitude for medication administration, and physiotherapy were more upsetting for Group A CGs. Female CGs were subjected to more sleep disturbance, physical and psychological stress, faced more difficulty regarding the patient's bladder, bowel, personal hygiene needs, and physiotherapy. Female CGs felt less motivated in caregiving than male CGs. Wives and daughters-in-law experienced more burden. Time spent and burden perceived was more by female CGs (χ2 = 15.199, P = 0.002 than males (χ2 = 11.931, P = 0.018; wives and daughters than other relations (χ2 = 32.184, P = 0.000, (χ2 = 35.162, P = 0.019. Conclusion: Our study showed that caregiving burden was predominantly shouldered by females CGs. CGs faced physical, psychological, and socioeconomic

  19. Toll-Like Receptor 3 and Interferon β mRNA Expressions Were Increased in Peripheral Blood of Ischemic Stroke Patients with Good Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lingna; Pan, Jingrui; Peng, Qingxia; Dong, Zhaofei; Wang, Yidong

    2017-03-01

    Innate immunity plays an important role in brain ischemic injury, but there are only few studies on the effects of toll-like receptors (TLRs) on cerebral infarction patients up to now. We aimed to evaluate the TLR mRNA expression of patients with different outcomes. Eighty-six cases suffering from cerebral infarction within 14 days were assigned into the good outcome group (n = 47) and the bad outcome group (n = 39) depending on the modified Rankin Scale scores (mRS ≤2 at 90 days following stroke onset was good outcome). We measured the mRNA expression of TLRs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients at 24 hours, 3 days, 4 days, 7 days, and 14 days from onset. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score and infarction volume were assessed on admission and at 7-14 days, respectively. Only TLR3 mRNA expression of the good outcome group was higher than that of the bad outcome group at acute and subacute phases. TLR7 expressions of the good outcome group increased within 3 days following stroke onset. Moreover, the two groups had no significant differences in terms of mRNA expressions of TLR2, TLR4, TLR8, and TLR9. The expression of interferon β of the good outcome group was higher than that of the bad outcome group, and it had a positive correlation with the expressions of TLR3 and interferon regulatory factor 3. TLR3 and interferon β mRNA expressions were increased in the peripheral blood of ischemic stroke patients with good outcome, which may imply their neuroprotection. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Predictive value of stroke discharge diagnoses in the Danish National Patient Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lühdorf, Pernille; Overvad, Kim; Schmidt, Erik B

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: To determine the positive predictive values for stroke discharge diagnoses, including subarachnoidal haemorrhage, intracerebral haemorrhage and cerebral infarction in the Danish National Patient Register. METHODS: Participants in the Danish cohort study Diet, Cancer and Health with a stroke...

  1. Clinical and neurophysiological peculiarities in patients with ischemic supratentorial stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kuznietsov

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work – optimization of diagnostic and prognostic arrangements in patients with ischemic supratentorial stroke in acute period by revealing of pathoneurophysiological peculiarities of realization of clinical pattern and stroke acute period outcome on the basis of clinical neurophysiological comparisons depending on the subtypes of stroke according to The Oxfordshire Community Stroke Classification. Material and methods: Clinical and computed electroencephalography investigations of 118 patients (mean age 67,9±0,8 in acute period of ischemic supratentorial stroke (firstly appeared was made. Depending on clinical subtype of the stroke that was detected during admission according to The Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project classification (OCSP all patients were devided into 3 groups: 1st – 50 patients with total anterior circulation infarct (TACI-subtype, 2nd – 38 patients with partial anterior circulation infarct (PACI and 3rd – 30 patients with lacunar infarct (LACI. Clinical examination included Rankin scale graduation and NIHSS detection. Separately for intact and affected hemisphere value of absolute (mcv2 and relative (% spectrum rhythm activity (RSRA of δ- (0,5-4 Hertz, θ- (4-8 Hertz, α- (8-13 Hertz, β- (13-35 Hertz range, and θlo- (4-6 Hertz, θhi- (6-8 Hertz, αlo- (8-10 Hertz, αhi - (10-13 Hertz, βlo- (13-25 Hertz та βhi- (25-35 Hertz subranges were evaluated. Results: The level of RSRA in δ- and θ-range in affected hemisphere exceeded the same parameters in patients with stroke PACI-subtype and LACI-subtype in 2,3 and 3,0 times respectively (p<0,01. The same time RSRA in α-, β-ranges, αlo-, αhi-, βlo-subranges in comparison with PACI-subtype was lower in 2,4; 2,1; 2,5; 2,4 and 1,6 times respectively (p<0,01; in comparison with LACI-subtype – in 3,4; 1,7; 3,3; 1,5 and 1,9 times respectively (p<0,01. Spectral structure of intact hemisphere EEG-pattern in patients with TACI-subtype of ischemic

  2. Observational practice of incentive spirometry in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Íllia N D F; Fregonezi, Guilherme A F; Florêncio, Rêncio B; Campos, Tânia F; Ferreira, Gardênia H

    Stroke may lead to several health problems, but positive effects can be promoted by learning to perform physical therapy techniques correctly. To compare two different types of observational practice (video instructions and demonstration by a physical therapist) during the use of incentive spirometry (IS). A total of 20 patients with diagnosis of stroke and 20 healthy individuals (56±9.7 years) were allocated into two groups: one with observational practice with video instructions for the use of IS and the other with observational practice with demonstration by a physical therapist. Ten attempts for the correct use of IS were carried out and the number of errors and the magnitude of response were evaluated. The statistic used to compare the results was the three-way ANOVA test. The stroke subjects showed less precision when compared to the healthy individuals (mean difference 1.80±0.38) 95%CI [1.02-2.52], pstroke subjects showed more errors with the video instructions (mean difference 1.5±0.5, 95%CI [0.43-2.56] (p=0.08)) and therapist demonstration (mean difference 2.40±0.52, 95%CI [1.29-3.50] (p=0.00)) when compared to the healthy individuals. The stroke subjects had a worse performance in learning the use of volume-oriented incentive spirometry when compared to healthy individuals; however, there was no difference between the types of observational practice, suggesting that both may be used to encourage the use of learning IS in patients with stroke. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Post-stroke depression as a predictor of caregivers burden of acute ischemic stroke patients in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Dong-Mei; Huang, Ling-Ling; Dou, Jin; Wang, Xiao-Xiao; Wang, Pei-Xi

    2017-08-29

    Our aim was to explore the independent attribution of Post-stroke depression (PSD) to caregiver burden of acute ischemic stroke patients. A cross-sectional survey was performed with 271 acute ischemic stroke patients in the Huai-He Hospital and First People's Hospital of Kaifeng City in China. PSD was assessed by Self-rating Depressive Scale, and caregiver burden was assessed by Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview. Clustered logistic regression was applied to identify the impact of PSD on caregiver burden. As results, female patients, normal muscle strength and PSD were associated with caregiver burden. PSD correlated with an independent influence of 17.2% on the risk of caregiver burden, The independent influence of PSD on caregiver burden was smaller than that of social-demographics of caregivers and clinical factors of stroke patients This study suggests that PSD may have a modest influence on caregiver burden.

  4. Case study of physioterapy treatment of patient after hemoragic stroke with left hemiparesis

    OpenAIRE

    Waldmann, Tadeáš

    2014-01-01

    Title: Case study of physioterapy treatment of a patient after hemoragic stroke with left hemiparesis. Objectives: The aim of the thesis is to obtain academic findings about stroke concerning anatomy, pathology, therapetuic approaches and methods which can be utilised in cases of stroke. The specific part focuses on the therapeutic care of a patient after hemorragic stroke which was taken during a month practice at Regional hospital Kladno Spa Summary: The theory of the thesis discusses anato...

  5. Retrospective Assessment of the Implementation of Critical Pathway in Stroke Patients in a Single University Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jin Hoan; Byun, Ha Young; Son, Seungnam; Lee, Joong Hoon; Yoon, Chul Ho; Lee, Eun Shin; Shin, Heesuk; Oh, Min-Kyun

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of the implementation of critical pathway (CP) in stroke patients treated at a single university hospital. Methods A retrospective medical review collected data from 497 patients who had suffered acute stroke in the rehabilitation center. Stroke outcomes were compared between before and after the implementation of CP based on factors including demographic factors, stroke characteristics, pre-existing medical conditions, medical complications, functional state...

  6. New standardized nursing cooperation workflow to reduce stroke thrombolysis delays in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Y

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Yan Zhou,1 Zhuojun Xu,2 Jiali Liao,1 Fangming Feng,1 Lai Men,3 Li Xu,2 Yanan He,2 Gang Li2 1Nursing Department, Shanghai East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 2Department of Neurology, Shanghai East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 3Paddington Dental Practice, London, UK Objective: We assessed the effectiveness of a new standardized nursing cooperation workflow in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS to reduce stroke thrombolysis delays.Patients and methods: AIS patients receiving conventional thrombolysis treatment from March to September 2015 were included in the control group, referred to as T0. The intervention group, referred to as T1 group, consisted of AIS patients receiving a new standardized nursing cooperation workflow for intravenous thrombolysis (IVT at the emergency department of Shanghai East Hospital (Shanghai, People’s Republic of China from October 2015 to March 2016. Information was collected on the following therapeutic techniques used: application or not of thrombolysis, computed tomography (CT time, and door-to-needle (DTN time. A nursing coordinator who helped patients fulfill the medical examinations and diagnosis was appointed to T1 group. In addition, a nurse was sent immediately from the stroke unit to the emergency department to aid the thrombolysis treatment.Results: The average value of the door-to-CT initiation time was 38.67±5.21 min in the T0 group, whereas it was 14.39±4.35 min in the T1 group; the average values of CT completion-to-needle time were 55.06±4.82 and 30.26±3.66 min; the average values of DTN time were 100.43±6.05 and 55.68±3.62 min, respectively; thrombolysis time was improved from 12.8% (88/689 in the T0 group to 32.5% (231/712 in the T1 group (all P<0.01. In addition, the new standardized nursing cooperation workflow decreased the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS scores at 24 h (P<0

  7. The Effect of Anemia on the Functional Outcomes of the Stroke Patients and the Efficiency of their Stroke Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tik; Ganasekaran, Ganesh

    2015-06-01

    There has been limited study focusing on the functional outcomes of stroke patients' after rehabilitation, such as functional improvement and discharge destination, length of stay (LOS), and complication rate. A retrospective study was conducted on 123 consecutive patients who were admitted to The Prince Charles Hospital Rehabilitation Unit from January 2011 to December 2012 with clinically defined stroke syndromes. Functional Independence Measure (FIM) score was used to measure the functional improvement. Anemia is defined by using the World Health Organization's criteria (hemoglobin concentration in men types of stroke were all comparable in both anemic and nonanemic groups. It was found that, when selecting only the patients with ischemic stroke for comparison (103 patients), there was a significantly higher FIM score improvement (discharge FIM - admission FIM) in nonanemic group (P = .042). FIM efficiency (FIM change/LOS) was also significantly higher in the nonanemic group (P = .027). Higher percentage of patients were discharged home in nonanemic group (94.3% versus 73.3%, P = .006). In addition, higher rate of complications was found in anemic group (60% versus 39%, P = .049). Anemia appears to have a significant effect on the functional improvement and discharge outcomes for patients who had an ischemic stroke. Anemia may also increase the complication rate and affect the efficiency of stroke rehabilitation for those patients. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Technique of diffusion weighted imaging and its application in stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Enzhong; Tian, Jie; Han, Ying; Wang, Huifang; Li, Wu; He, Huiguang

    2003-05-01

    To study the application of diffusion weighted imaging and image post processing in the diagnosis of stroke, especially in acute stroke, 205 patients were examined by 1.5 T or 1.0 T MRI scanner and the images such as T1, T2 and diffusion weighted images were obtained. Image post processing was done with "3D Med System" developed by our lab to analyze data and acquire the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map. In acute and subacute stage of stroke, the signal in cerebral infarction areas changed to hyperintensity in T2- and diffusion-weighted images, normal or hypointensity in T1-weighted images. In hyperacute stage, however, the signal was hyperintense just in the diffusion weighted imaes; others were normal. In the chronic stage, the signal in T1- and diffusion-weighted imaging showed hypointensity and hyperintensity in T2 weighted imaging. Because ADC declined obviously in acute and subacute stage of stroke, the lesion area was hypointensity in ADC map. With the development of the disease, ADC gradually recovered and then changed to hyperintensity in ADC map in chronic stage. Using diffusion weighted imaging and ADC mapping can make a diagnosis of stroke, especially in the hyperacute stage of stroke, and can differentiate acute and chronic stroke.

  9. What happens to stroke patients after hospital discharge?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Noone, I

    2001-05-01

    Of 231 stroke patients discharged from hospital, 34 patients (14.7%) had died when reviewed 6 months later. Of 195 survivors, 115 (58%) were independent and living in the community. The remaining 80 (42%) patients were dependent. The majority of dependent patients were in institutional care but 29 (36%) were residing in the community of whom a substantial number were not receiving physiotherapy, occupational therapy or day care. Patients who were dependent in nursing homes were less likely to have received physiotherapy (48% versus 70%) or occupational therapy (28% versus 60%) compared to disabled patients in hospital based extended nursing care. 45 patients (24%) had been re-admitted to hospital although only 48% of patients had been reviewed in hospital outpatients since discharge. 64% of patients were on anti-thrombotic treatment. This survey suggests that 6 months after hospital discharge, most stroke patients are still alive and living in the community. Many of the dependent survivors have ongoing unmet medical and rehabilitation needs.

  10. Determinants of geriatric patients' quality of life after stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buijck, Bianca I; Zuidema, Sytse U; Spruit-van Eijk, Monica; Bor, Hans; Gerritsen, Debby L; Koopmans, Raymond T C M

    2014-01-01

    Geriatric patients' physical disabilities, dependency on care, and possible psychological ill-being may negatively affect both the patient's quality of life and the informal caregiver burden. Focusing on this interrelationship which can be particularly prominent in geriatric patients with stroke, the objective of this study was to identify determinants of patients' quality of life and informal caregiver burden. This is a prospective, multicentre, cohort study. Data were collected in 84 geriatric home-dwelling patients with stroke three months after their rehabilitation period in skilled nursing facilities (SNFs). We assessed patients' quality of life, depressive complaints, neuropsychiatric symptoms, balance, (instrumental) activities of daily living, and informal caregiver burden. Linear regression models were constructed to study the association between the variables. For several domains, high quality of life of these geriatric patients was associated with high functional independence, less neuropsychiatric symptoms, and less depressive complaints. Informal caregiver burden was not associated with patients' quality of life, but patients' neuropsychiatric symptoms were a significant determinant of high informal caregiver burden. The presence of neuropsychiatric symptoms (more specifically depressive complaints) negatively affects the quality of life of geriatric patients. Their neuropsychiatric symptoms also affect caregiver burden. Health care professionals in SNFs can play an important role in providing the necessary psychosocial support and aftercare.

  11. Aphasia and activities of daily living in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gialanella, Bernardo; Prometti, Paola; Vanoglio, Fabio; Comini, Laura; Santoro, Raffaele

    2016-12-01

    Few studies have investigated the relationships between aphasia and activities of daily living (ADLs) in stroke patients. This study was aimed firstly to determine which task within the ADLs has poorer functional recovery in stroke patients with aphasia after rehabilitation, second to identify which specific task is related to aphasia. This is a prospective and observational study. Inpatients of our Rehabilitation Unit. The study was carried out in 219 patients with primary diagnosis of stroke with (104) and without aphasia (115). All patients underwent usual rehabilitation. Aachen Aphasia Test and Functional Independence Measure scale were used to assess severity of aphasia and ADLs, respectively. Gain in ADLs was the main outcome measure. At the end of rehabilitation patients with aphasia had lower gain in bathing, dressing upper body, dressing lower body, toileting, stair climbing, and higher gain in social interaction, problem solving, and memory with respect to patients without aphasia. However, when data were adjusted for side of hemiplegia, Fugl-Meyer score and trunk control test, patients with aphasia showed lower gain in dressing upper body (P=0.027), dressing lower body (P=0.009), lower toileting (P=0.027), and higher gain in social interaction (Paphasia was an important determinant of gain in bathing (β=0.26), dressing upper body (β=0.24), dressing lower body (β=0.22), lower toileting (β=0.22), and social interaction (β=-0.29). The current study points out that, after usual rehabilitation, the patients with aphasia show a poor gain in personal care activities and higher gain in social interaction. Knowledge of these findings: 1) can guide the rehabilitation team in selecting specific and appropriate therapies aimed to give patient with aphasia the highest possible functional independence in ADLs; 2) is useful to family members and social rehabilitation services for domiciliary management of patients with aphasia.

  12. Stroke warning campaigns: delivering better patient outcomes? A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mellon L

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Lisa Mellon,1 Frank Doyle,1 Daniela Rohde,1 David Williams,2 Anne Hickey1 1Department of Psychology, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, Ireland; 2Department of Geriatric and Stroke Medicine, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, Ireland Background: Patient delay in presenting to hospital with stroke symptoms remains one of the major barriers to thrombolysis treatment, leading to its suboptimal use internationally. Educational interventions such as mass media campaigns and community initiatives aim to reduce patient delays by promoting the signs and symptoms of a stroke, but no consistent evidence exists to show that such interventions result in appropriate behavioral responses to stroke symptoms. Methods: A systematic literature search and narrative synthesis were conducted to examine whether public educational interventions were successful in the reduction of patient delay to hospital presentation with stroke symptoms. Three databases, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO, were searched to identify quantitative studies with measurable behavioral end points, including time to hospital presentation, thrombolysis rates, ambulance use, and emergency department (ED presentations with stroke. Results: Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria: one randomized controlled trial, two time series analyses, three controlled before and after studies, five uncontrolled before and after studies, two retrospective observational studies, and two prospective observational studies. Studies were heterogeneous in quality; thus, meta-analysis was not feasible. Thirteen studies examined prehospital delay, with ten studies reporting a significant reduction in delay times, with a varied magnitude of effect. Eight studies examined thrombolysis rates, with only three studies reporting a statistically significant increase in thrombolysis administration. Five studies examined ambulance usage, and four reported a statistically significant increase in ambulance

  13. The effect of aphasia upon personality traits, depression and anxiety among stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehata, Ghaydaa A; El Mistikawi, Taha; Risha, Al Sayed K; Hassan, Huda S

    2015-02-01

    Post-stroke patients with aphasia have higher levels of psychological distress. We aimed to find the relation between post-stroke aphasia and depression, anxiety and personality traits. One month after stroke, 61 consecutive patients with stroke were included in this study. Thirty post-stroke patients with aphasia and 31 patients without aphasia. We used the following scales a clinical-friendly: Aphasic test, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, Hamilton anxiety and Beck Depression Inventory. Depression and anxiety were more prominent among patients with aphasia than stroke without aphasia. Psychosis was more prominent among post-stroke patients with aphasia. Our results may not exclusively exclude pre-morbid personality traits. Our study highlights the growing need to develop community rehabilitation services in the developing world, which address both physical and psychological morbidity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The role of multimodal imaging in stroke code patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau García, M; Pérez Bea, M; López Medina, A

    In stroke code patients, multimodal imaging workup encompasses various imaging techniques, including baseline computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, diffusion MR imaging, CT or MR perfusion studies, and CT or MR angiography, that are used to rule out bleeding, confirm arterial occlusion, establish tissue viability, and help select candidates for endovascular treatment as early as possible. Five recently published relevant clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of mechanical thrombectomy in proximal arterial occlusions; all these trials used different imaging techniques to select patients. Analyzing these trials and the scientific literature, we conclude that conventional CT interpreted with the Alberta Stroke Programme Computed Tomography Score (ASPECTS) and CT or MR angiography should always be used (level of evidence I, grade of recommendation A) and that CT and MR perfusion studies are useful in specific circumstances. Copyright © 2017 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Combined Cognitive-Strategy and Task-Specific Training Improve Transfer to Untrained Activities in Subacute Stroke: An Exploratory Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Sara; Polatajko, Helene; Baum, Carolyn; Rios, Jorge; Cirone, Dianne; Doherty, Meghan; Wolf, Timothy

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of the Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP) approach compared with usual outpatient rehabilitation on activity and participation in people Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM), the Stroke Impact Scale Participation Domain, the Community Participation Index, and the Self-Efficacy Gauge. A total of 35 eligible participants were randomized; 26 completed the intervention. Post intervention, PQRS change scores demonstrated that CO-OP had a medium effect over usual care on trained self-selected activities (d = 0.5) and a large effect on untrained activities (d = 1.2). At a 3-month follow-up, PQRS change scores indicated a large effect of CO-OP on both trained (d = 1.6) and untrained activities (d = 1.1). CO-OP had a small effect on COPM and a medium effect on the Community Participation Index perceived control and on the Self-Efficacy Gauge. CO-OP was associated with a large treatment effect on follow-up performances of self-selected activities and demonstrated transfer to untrained activities. A larger trial is warranted. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Monitoring mobility assistive device use in post-stroke patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boissy, Patrice; Hester, Todd; Sherrill, Delsey

    2007-01-01

    Mobility assistive devices (MAD) such as canes can improve mobility and allow independence in the performance of mobility-related tasks. The use of MAD is often prescribed for stroke survivors. Despite their acknowledged qualities, MAD in real life conditions are typically underutilized, misused ...... accelerometers, gyroscopes, and a load cell to identify the task a patient was performing and examine the use of the cane in the context of the task....

  17. Association of the APOE, MTHFR and ACE genes polymorphisms and stroke in Zambian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masharip Atadzhanov

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of APOE, MTHFR and ACE polymorphisms with stroke in the Zambian population. We analyzed 41 stroke patients and 116 control subjects all of Zambian origin for associations between the genotype of the APOE, MTHFR and ACE polymorphisms and stroke. The APOE ε2ε4 genotype showed increased risk for hemorrhagic stroke (P<0.05 and also a high risk for ischemic stroke (P=0.05. There was complete absence of the APOE ε2ε2 and the MTHFR TT genotypes in the Zambian population. The difference between cases and controls was not significant for the other genetic variants when analyzed for relationship between stroke, stroke subtype and genotype. We show that genetic variation at the APOE locus affects susceptibility to stroke. No detectable association were observed for the MTHFR and ACE genotypes and stroke in the Zambian population.

  18. Interventional Radiology: Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AND REIMBURSEMENT Diseases and conditions Home Patient Center Stroke Stroke What is stroke? A stroke occurs when blood flow to the brain is ... reduced or cut off. Within minutes of a stroke, brain cells begin to die and cause the ...

  19. Predicting Recovery Potential for Individual Stroke Patients Increases Rehabilitation Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinear, Cathy M; Byblow, Winston D; Ackerley, Suzanne J; Barber, P Alan; Smith, Marie-Claire

    2017-04-01

    Several clinical measures and biomarkers are associated with motor recovery after stroke, but none are used to guide rehabilitation for individual patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of upper limb predictions in stroke rehabilitation, by combining clinical measures and biomarkers using the Predict Recovery Potential (PREP) algorithm. Predictions were provided for patients in the implementation group (n=110) and withheld from the comparison group (n=82). Predictions guided rehabilitation therapy focus for patients in the implementation group. The effects of predictive information on clinical practice (length of stay, therapist confidence, therapy content, and dose) were evaluated. Clinical outcomes (upper limb function, impairment and use, independence, and quality of life) were measured 3 and 6 months poststroke. The primary clinical practice outcome was inpatient length of stay. The primary clinical outcome was Action Research Arm Test score 3 months poststroke. Length of stay was 1 week shorter for the implementation group (11 days; 95% confidence interval, 9-13 days) than the comparison group (17 days; 95% confidence interval, 14-21 days; P=0.001), controlling for upper limb impairment, age, sex, and comorbidities. Therapists were more confident (P=0.004) and modified therapy content according to predictions for the implementation group (Prehabilitation efficiency after stroke without compromising clinical outcome. URL: http://anzctr.org.au. Unique identifier: ACTRN12611000755932. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Cerebellar theta burst stimulation in stroke patients with ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnì, Sonia; Ponzo, Viviana; Caltagirone, Carlo; Koch, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Evidence for effective improvement of the symptoms of cerebellar stroke is still limited. Here, we investigated the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied over the injured cerebellar hemisphere in six patients with posterior circulation stroke. We applied a two-week course of cerebellar intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS). Before and after the iTBS treatment, paired-pulse TMS methods were used to explore: i) the functional connectivity between the cerebellar hemisphere and the contralateral primary motor cortex (M1), by means of the cerebellar brain inhibition (CBI) protocol; and ii) the intracortical circuits in the contralateral M1, by means of the short intra-cortical inhibition (SICI) and intra-cortical facilitation (ICF) protocols. Patients were also evaluated using the Modified International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (MICARS). Cerebellar iTBS induced a decrease in CBI and an increase in ICF at an interstimulus interval of 15 msec. These neurophysiological changes were paralleled by a clinical improvement, shown by the MICARS posture and gait subscale scores. Cerebellar iTBS could be a promising tool to promote recovery of cerebellar stroke patients.

  1. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Improves Audioverbal Memory in Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazuta, Toshinari; Takeda, Kotaro; Osu, Rieko; Tanaka, Satoshi; Oishi, Ayako; Kondo, Kunitsugu; Liu, Meigen

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether anodal transcranial direct current stimulation over the left temporoparietal area improved audioverbal memory performance in stroke patients. Twelve stroke patients with audioverbal memory impairment participated in a single-masked, crossover, and sham-controlled experiment. The anodal or sham transcranial direct current stimulation was applied during the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, which evaluates the ability to recall a list of 15 heard words over five trials. The number of correctly recalled words was compared between the anodal and sham conditions and the influence of transcranial direct current stimulation on serial position effect of the 15 words was also examined. The increase in the number of correctly recalled words from the first to the fifth trial was significantly greater in the anodal condition than in the sham condition (P primacy region) over the second to fifth trial trials, but not in the middle (next five words) or recency (last five words) regions. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation over the left temporoparietal area improved audioverbal memory performance and induced the primacy effect in stroke patients.

  2. Effect of dual tasks on balance ability in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Gui Bin; Park, Eun Cho

    2015-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of training using dual tasks on balance ability in stroke patients. [Subjects] Forty stroke patients were divided into a dual-task training group (N = 20) and a single task training group (N = 20) randomly. [Methods] The subjects in the single-task traing group stood in a comfortable position, faced a therapist, then threw a Swiss ball back and forth. They then performed balance training in which they raised and lowered their ankles while facing forward or moved objects from one table to another. The DTG performed dual tasks, which involved performing a task on an unstable surface using a balance pad. Both groups received training 30 min per day, five times per week, for eight weeks. [Results] The DTG showed significant increases in weight distribution rate, anterior limit of stability, posterior limit of stability, and BBS scores compared with the STG. [Conclusion] According to the results of this study, dual-task training and single-task training were effective in improving balance in stroke patients, dual task training is more effective for increasing balance ability.

  3. Knowledge of stroke risk factors among primary care patients with previous stroke or TIA: a questionnaire study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strender Lars-Erik

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Survivers of stroke or transient ischaemic attacks (TIA are at risk of new vascular events. Our objective was to study primary health care patients with stroke/TIA regarding their knowledge about risk factors for having a new event of stroke/TIA, possible associations between patient characteristics and patients' knowledge about risk factors, and patients' knowledge about their preventive treatment for stroke/TIA. Methods A questionnaire was distributed to 240 patients with stroke/TIA diagnoses, and 182 patients (76% responded. We asked 13 questions about diseases/conditions and lifestyle factors known to be risk factors and four questions regarding other diseases/conditions ("distractors". The patients were also asked whether they considered each disease/condition to be one of their own. Additional questions concerned the patients' social and functional status and their drug use. The t-test was used for continuous variables, chi-square test for categorical variables, and a regression model with variables influencing patient knowledge was created. Results Hypertension, hyperlipidemia and smoking were identified as risk factors by nearly 90% of patients, and atrial fibrillation and diabetes by less than 50%. Few patients considered the distractors as stroke/TIA risk factors (3-6%. Patients with a family history of cardiovascular disease, and patients diagnosed with carotid stenosis, atrial fibrillation or diabetes, knew these were stroke/TIA risk factors to a greater extent than patients without these conditions. Atrial fibrillation or a family history of cardiovascular disease was associated with better knowledge about risk factors, and higher age, cerebral haemorrhage and living alone with poorer knowledge. Only 56% of those taking anticoagulant drugs considered this as intended for prevention, while 48% of those taking platelet aggregation inhibitors thought this was for prevention. Conclusions Knowledge about hypertension

  4. Prehospital triage for endovascular clot removal in acute stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yu; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Tsumura, Kohtaro; Ueda, Toshihiro; Suzuki, Kazunari; Sugiyama, Makoto; Nozaki, Hiroyuki; Kawaguchi, Shojiro; Nakane, Makoto; Nagashima, Goro; Kitamura, Takayuki; Yokomine, Kengo; Sasanuma, Jinichi

    2017-01-01

    To establish prehospital triage in accordance with the new guidelines for endovascular therapy, we retrospectively analyzed the monitoring data of the city-wide transportation system using the Maria Prehospital Stroke Scale (MPSS), a novel prehospital stroke scale for emergency medical technicians (EMTs) to predict the likelihood of thrombolytic therapy after transportation. Kawasaki City, Japan, has six comprehensive stroke centers (CSCs) and six primary stroke centers (PSCs). In CSCs, endovascular therapy can be carried out 24 h a day, 7 days a week, but not in PSCs. There is no "drip and ship" protocol for further endovascular therapy from PSCs to CSCs. We determined the predictive value of MPSS scoring by the EMTs for the performance of endovascular therapy after transportation. There were 2031 patients (mean age, 71.1 ± 13.3 years) registered from April 2012 to March 2015. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the MPSS score and type of stroke center were independent predictors for performance of endovascular therapy. In particular, the odds ratio (OR) for endovascular therapy was significant for MPSS score 3 (OR, 2.914; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.152-7.372; P = 0.024), MPSS score 4 (OR, 5.474; 95%CI, 2.300-13.029; P = 0.000), and MPSS score 5 (OR, 11.459; 95%CI, 4.334-30.296; P = 0.000) when MPSS score 1 was set as a reference. The diagnostic accuracy of the MPSS score evaluated by EMTs was 0.689 (95%CI, 0.627-0.751). Prehospital triage using MPSS scores evaluated by EMTs can predict the likelihood of performance of endovascular therapy after transportation, and may become a tool offering a flexible solution for designing a new transportation protocol.

  5. Innovative gait robot for the repetitive practice of floor walking and stair climbing up and down in stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldner Andreas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stair climbing up and down is an essential part of everyday's mobility. To enable wheelchair-dependent patients the repetitive practice of this task, a novel gait robot, G-EO-Systems (EO, Lat: I walk, based on the end-effector principle, has been designed. The trajectories of the foot plates are freely programmable enabling not only the practice of simulated floor walking but also stair climbing up and down. The article intended to compare lower limb muscle activation patterns of hemiparetic subjects during real floor walking and stairs climbing up, and during the corresponding simulated conditions on the machine, and secondly to demonstrate gait improvement on single case after training on the machine. Methods The muscle activation pattern of seven lower limb muscles of six hemiparetic patients during free and simulated walking on the floor and stair climbing was measured via dynamic electromyography. A non-ambulatory, sub-acute stroke patient additionally trained on the G-EO-Systems every workday for five weeks. Results The muscle activation patterns were comparable during the real and simulated conditions, both on the floor and during stair climbing up. Minor differences, concerning the real and simulated floor walking conditions, were a delayed (prolonged onset (duration of the thigh muscle activation on the machine across all subjects. Concerning stair climbing conditions, the shank muscle activation was more phasic and timely correct in selected patients on the device. The severely affected subject regained walking and stair climbing ability. Conclusions The G-EO-Systems is an interesting new option in gait rehabilitation after stroke. The lower limb muscle activation patterns were comparable, a training thus feasible, and the positive case report warrants further clinical studies.

  6. Declining Patient Functioning and Caregiver Burden/Health: The Minnesota Stroke Survey-Quality of Life after Stroke Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Melissa M.; Smith, Maureen A.; Martinson, Brian C.; Kind, Amy; Luepker, Russell V.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Caregivers of stroke patients may adapt to changes in patient functioning over time. If adaptation occurs, then caregiver burden and health may be influenced more by worsening in patient functioning than by static levels of functioning. This study examines the relationship between patients' baseline and changes in functioning and…

  7. Ability of electrical stimulation therapy to improve the effectiveness of robotic training for paretic upper limbs in patients with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyasaka, Hiroyuki; Orand, Abbas; Ohnishi, Hitoshi; Tanino, Genichi; Takeda, Kotaro; Sonoda, Shigeru

    2016-11-01

    We investigated whether untriggered neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) can increase the effectiveness of shoulder and elbow robotic training in patients with hemiparesis. Thirty subacute stroke patients were randomly equally allocated to robot only (RO) and robot and electrical stimulation (RE) groups. During training, shoulder and elbow movements were trained by operating the robotic arm with the paretic arm, and the robotic device helped to move the arm. In the RE group, the anterior deltoid and triceps brachii muscles were electrically stimulated at sub-motor threshold intensity. Training was performed (approximately 1h/day, 5 days/week for 2 weeks) in addition to regular rehabilitation. Active range of motion (ROM) values of shoulder flexion and abduction, and Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA) scores were measured before and after training. Active shoulder ROM was significantly better after than before training in the RE group; however, no such improvement was noted in the RO group. FMA scores were significantly better in both groups, and there was no significant difference between the groups. Untriggered NMES might increase the effectiveness of shoulder and elbow robotic training in patients with hemiparesis. Additionally, NMES at a sub-motor threshold during robotic training might facilitate activation of paretic muscles, resulting in paralysis improvement. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Rehabilitation of stroke and cerebellar patients

    OpenAIRE

    Bashir, Shahid; Rüegg, Dieter

    2007-01-01

    Le but de cette thèse est celui d’analyser, d’une part, comment la performance motrice des patients avec des attaques cérébrales peut être amélioré à travers un entraînement avec un ergomètre à bras et, d’autre part, et la performance des patients cérébelleux qui s’entraînent avec l’escalade. La thèse consiste dans trois parties expérimentales. La première partie concerne la réhabilitation des patients avec des attaques cérébrales parmi un ergomètre à bras et le développement d’un index qui p...

  9. Clinically significant changes in the emotional condition of relatives of patients with severe traumatic brain injury during sub-acute rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Anne; Kristensen, Karin Spangsberg; Poulsen, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate clinically significant change in the emotional condition of relatives of patients with severe traumatic brain injury during sub-acute rehabilitation. Methods: Participants were 62 pairs of relatives and patients. Relatives completed the anxiety and depression scales from.......2% and 58.1% of relatives had scores above cut-off values on the anxiety and depression scales, respectively. On the anxiety scale 69.7% of these experienced a reliable improvement according to the Reliable Change Index (RCI) and 45.5% also obtained CSC, as their end-point was below the cut-off value....... On the depression scale the corresponding figures were 44.4% and 41.7%, respectively. When comparing relatives with and without CSC, we found that CSC in symptoms of anxiety was associated with significantly better functional improvement during rehabilitation and a shorter period of post-traumatic amnesia...

  10. An Investigation of the Use of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Stroke Patients in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chang Liao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The use of complementary and alternative medicine in critical illness is increasing worldwide. This study investigates how traditional Chinese medicine (TCM is used in stroke patients. Methods. Using Taiwan National Health Insurance reimbursement claims, we compared the annual use of TCM between stroke patients and general population, identifying 15,330 patients with a new onset of stroke in 2000–2009. The sociodemographic status and medical comorbidities between stroke patients receiving TCM services and those without using the service were compared. Results. The use of TCM was higher in stroke patients than in the general population, 27.9% versus 25.4% in 2000 and 32.7% versus 27.8% in 2009, respectively, and grew consistently from 2000 to 2009. Among stroke patients, women, younger patients, white-collar employees, higher-income residents, and those living in areas with more TCM physicians were more likely to use TCM. Stroke patients using rehabilitation services were more likely to have more TCM visits (OR = 2.28, 95% CI = 1.96–2.66 and higher expenditure on TCM (OR = 2.67, 95% CI = 2.29–3.12 compared with stroke patients without rehabilitation. Conclusion. TCM is popular and well accepted in Taiwan. Patients with stroke have a higher TCM utilization rate than people without stroke.

  11. The prevalence of HIV among patients admitted with stroke at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stroke and HIV infection are both common medical problems in the day to day clinical practice. Although data from developed countries confirm HIV infection as a risk for stroke the exact underlying mechanism is still unclear. Little data exist on the magnitude of HIV among patients with stroke in Tanzania.

  12. Time of presentation of stroke patients in a tertiary hospital in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The management of stroke had a radical change in the last decade. This revolution followed the finding that carefully selected patient with acute ischemic stroke can benefit from thrombolytic therapy. The drug has to be given within 3 hours of the stroke to be of benefit. Administration of the drug later than this ...

  13. Predicting outcome in patients with chronic stroke: findings of a 3-year follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Port, I.G.L. van de

    2006-01-01

    This thesis is based on the findings of the FuPro-Stroke study (the Stroke section of the Functional Prognostification and disability study on neurological disorders), which is a multicentre, prospective cohort study among patients with stroke, who were included during inpatient rehabilitation. The

  14. time of presentation of stroke patients for ct imaging in a nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges in developing countries like Nigeria often lead to delayed presentation of stroke ... haemorrhagic stroke. However, 18 (21.7%) patients had apparently normal CT findings. The mean presentation time for CT imaging was 70 hours (SD ±94 hours). ..... Stroke Nursing; Council on Epidemiology and. Prevention ...

  15. Pain among institutionalized stroke patients and its relation to emotional distress and social engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Almenkerk, S.; Depla, M.F.I.A.; Smalbrugge, M.; Eefsting, J.A.; Hertogh, C.M.P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pain is a frequent long-term consequence of stroke, but its relation to emotional and social well-being is poorly studied in stroke populations. We aimed to identify the prevalence of substantial pain among institutionalized stroke patients and to explore its relation to emotional distress

  16. The Effects of Infection on Severe Stroke Patients in the Neurological Intensive Care Unit in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Heyin; Li, Shujuan; Li, Haiying; Hu, Wenli

    2017-12-05

    To study the effects of infection on severe stroke patients in the Neurological Intensive Care Unit (NICU) and to find the related risk factors for mortality of severe stroke patients. We conducted a retrospective study including 343 patients with ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke and staying more than 2 patient-days in the NICU at Beijing Chaoyang Hospital from January 2011 to December 2015 to analyze the infection features of patients with severe stroke in the Neurological Intensive Care Unit. The mortality rate, hospital staying time, hospital costs, infection time and different infection sources were analyzed and Logistic analysis was performed to find the related risk factors for mortality of severe stroke patients. All analysis were conducted using SPSS 18.0. The mortality rate, hospital staying time and hospital costs of stroke patients between infected and uninfected patients were higher in infected patients than the uninfected patients, P<0.05, and except for the hospital staying time, mortality rate and hospital costs were both significantly higher in infected patients. Respiratory tract infection was the most common infection type at all time periods, P<0.05. However, urinary tract infection increased at 72 h after stroke compared with the infection within 72 h after stroke. Blood sugar level, mean arterial pressure, scores of APACHE II, history of stoke, history of heart diseases, infections and respiratory tract infection were significantly different in dead patients compared with the alive patients, P<0.05. Logistic multivariate regression analysis showed that except for history of heart diseases, the other six factors were all associated with mortality of stroke patients and were independent risk factors for mortality of stroke patients. Infection can significantly influence the mortality rate, hospital costs of stroke patients and is an independent risk factors for mortality of stroke patients.

  17. Burden and perceived health status among caregivers of stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carod-Artal, Francisco Javier; Ferreira Coral, Luciane; Trizotto, Daniele Stieven; Menezes Moreira, Clarissa

    2009-01-01

    To identify the main determinants of burden and perceived health status in caregivers of Brazilian stroke survivors. Cross-sectional study. Caregivers answered the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Zarit caregiver burden interview (ZCBI) and EuroQol. Patients were assessed with the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale, Barthel index (BI), modified-Rankin scale (m-RS), Mini Mental State Examination and HADS. 200 caregiver-patient dyads were assessed. Caregivers were significantly younger (42 vs. 57.7 years) and had more years of formal education (10 vs. 7.8 years); p caregivers were females, and 41% were spouses. The prevalence of anxiety disorders was significantly higher in female caregivers than in males (26.1 vs. 10.9%; p = 0.04). ZCBI mean score was 27.2, and female caregivers had significantly worse scores (28.7 vs. 22.3, p = 0.003). ZCBI mean score significantly increased (worsened) as the severity of the disease, based on m-RS, increased. ZCBI mean scores were significantly higher in wives than in other relatives (31.4 vs. 22.6; ANOVA, p caregiver's factors (female sex, depression as measured by HADS-depression) were independent predictors of caregiver's burden (r2 adjusted = 0.48; p Caregiver's mood was the most consistent factor influencing caregiver burden and perceived health in stroke caregivers. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Nurses 'must' control of the nutritional needs of stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mould, Jacqui

    The aim of this observational study was to review nutritional practice within an acute stroke unit (ASU) and compare practice against National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidance, National Patient Safety Agency (NPSA) guidelines, and the National Stroke Agenda. 'Observations of Care', a well recognized approach and part of the Royal College of Nursing clinical leadership programme, was undertaken along with a traditional audit to review nutritional care in the ASU. Usually undertaken by persons outside of the team to prevent bias, in this situation the bias was minimized as the auditor was new to the team. Current practice was evaluated and it was important for the team to have ownership of the assessment process. This article also reviews the prevalence of malnutrition in hospitals and the importance of nutritional assessment, the use of screening tools and types of diet that best maintain optimum outcomes. Patients who have experienced a stroke can face a range of problems that influence dietary intake. On admission, 16-31% are already malnourished.

  19. Dysarthria following stroke: the patient's perspective on management and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Marian C; Clark, Alexander M; Dickson, Sylvia; Paton, Gillian; Barbour, Rosaline S

    2011-10-01

    To explore the perceptions of people with stroke-related dysarthria in relation to the management and rehabilitation of dysarthria. Qualitative semi-structured interviews. Community setting Subjects: Twenty-four people with an acquired dysarthria as a result of a stroke in the previous three years. All were living at home at the time of the interview. None exhibited a co-existing impairment (for example, aphasia, apraxia or cognitive impairment) that might have contributed to their communicative experiences. Participants described the considerable efforts they made to maximize their communicative effectiveness prior to, and during, communicative interactions. Activities described included careful articulation and vocal projection as well as more inconspicuous strategies including pre-planning interactions, focused, effortful speech and word substitution. Communication was facilitated by a range of strategies including drafting, rehearsal, manoeuvring and ongoing monitoring and repair. Self-led speech rehabilitation activities were functionally based and often undertaken regularly. Some novel reading-aloud and speaking-aloud activities were described. The quantity and nature of inconspicuous, internalized, cognitive activities people with dysarthria engage in to maximize their communicative effectiveness should be considered in evaluating the impact of dysarthria following stroke. Focusing upon externally observable characteristics alone is insufficient. Challenging, functionally relevant, patient-focused activities, materials and targets are more likely to be perceived by the patient as relevant and worthwhile and are thus more likely to ensure adherence to recommended rehabilitation activities.

  20. Bipolar Disorder after Stroke in an Elderly Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Calvão de Melo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The onset of bipolar disorder (BD secondary to a stroke event is a rare clinical entity. Although it may be related to specific regions of the brain, several other factors have been linked to its expression such as subcortical atrophy or chronic vascular burden. While precise locations and cerebral circuits involved in the bipolarity expression after stroke still need to be determined, their investigation represents an opportunity to study brain function and BD etiopathogenesis. We present a BD secondary to multiple subcortical biparietal lacunar infarctions, a lacunar infarction in left putamen and an ischemic lesion at the cerebral trunk evolving the right median portion, in a 65-year-old male patient who experienced manic, hypomanic, and depressive episodes, after 6, 10, and 16 months, respectively, of the cerebrovascular events.

  1. Clinical Approach to the Standardization of Oriental Medical Diagnostic Pattern Identification in Stroke Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Han Jung Kim; Hyung Sup Bae; Seong Uk Park; Sang Kwan Moon; Jung Mi Park; Woo Sang Jung

    2010-01-01

    In Korea, many stroke patients receive oriental medical care, in which pattern-identification plays a major role. Pattern-identification is Oriental Medicine's unique diagnostic system. This study attempted to standardize oriental medical pattern-identification for stroke patients. This was a community-based multicenter study that enrolled stroke patients within 30 days after their ictus. We assessed the patients' general characteristics and symptoms related to pattern-identification. Each pa...

  2. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d deficiency in ischemic stroke and subtypes in Indian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Jaydip Ray; Mridula, K Rukmini; Alladi, Suvarna; Anamika, A; Umamahesh, M; Balaraju, Banda; Swath, A; Bandaru, Vcs Srinivasarao

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is common across all age groups and may contribute to cardiovascular diseases. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency causing ischemic stroke has been documented in recent reports. To investigate the association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency with ischemic stroke and subtypes. We recruited 250 consecutive ischemic stroke patients and 250 age and sex matched controls attending the Department of Neurology, at Yashoda hospital, Hyderabad, India, from January 2011 to December 2012. All ischemic stroke patients underwent stroke subtyping. We measured 25-hydroxyvitamin D by chemiluminescence test, serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, and C-reactive protein (CRP) in cases and controls. Out of 250 stroke patients, 190 (76%) were men and mean age was 58.4±11.1 years (age range-26-89 years). 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency was observed in 122 (48.8%) stroke patients and 79 (31.6%) controls (P=0.001). Among stroke patients, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency was found in 54.9% (50/91) of patients with large artery atherosclerosis, 54% (20/37) in cardioembolic stroke, 44.4% (20/45) in small artery diseases, 42.8% (15/35) in stroke of other determined etiology and 40.4% (17/42) in stroke of un-determined etiology. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed an independent association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency with ischemic stroke (odds ratio: 1.6; 95% CI 1.2-2.8). The association was strongest with large artery atherosclerosis (odds ratio: 2.4; 95% CI 1.6-3.5) and cardioembolic stroke (odds ratio: 2.0; 95% CI 1.0-3.2). We found that 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency had an independent association with ischemic stroke. The association was established in large artery arthrosclerosis and cardioembolic stroke.

  3. Trends in in-hospital mortality among patients with stroke in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The incidence and burden of stroke in China is increasing rapidly. However, little is known about trends in mortality during stroke hospitalization. The objectives of this study were to assess trends of in-hospital mortality among patients with stroke and explore influence factors of in-hospital death after stroke in China. METHODS: 109 grade III class A hospitals were sampled by multistage stratified cluster sampling. All patients admitted to hospitals between 2007 and 2010 with a discharge diagnosis of stroke were included. Trends in in-hospital mortality among patients with stroke were assessed. Influence factors of in-hospital death after stroke were explored using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Overall stroke hospitalizations increased from 79,894 in 2007 to 85,475 in 2010, and in-hospital mortality of stroke decreased from 3.16% to 2.30% (P<0.0001. The percentage of severe patients increased while odds of mortality (2010 versus 2007 decreased regardless of stroke type: subarachnoid hemorrhage (OR 0.792, 95% CI = 0.636 to 0.987, intracerebral hemorrhage (OR 0.647, 95% CI = 0.591 to 0.708, and ischemic stroke (OR 0.588, 95% CI = 0.532 to 0.649. In multivariable analyses, older age, male, basic health insurance, multiple comorbidities and severity of disease were linked to higher odds of in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The mortality of stroke hospitalizations decreased likely reflecting advancements in stroke care and prevention. Decreasing of mortality with increasing of severe stroke patients indicated that we should pay more attention to rehabilitation and life quality of stroke patients. Specific individual and hospital-level characteristics may be targets for facilitating further declines.

  4. A foodservice approach to enhance energy intake of elderly subacute patients: a pilot study to assess impact on patient outcomes and cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jorja; Porter, Judi; Truby, Helen; Huggins, Catherine E

    2017-05-01

    effective strategies are required to support the nutritional status of patients. to evaluate a foodservice nutrition intervention on a range of participant outcomes and estimate its cost. parallel controlled pilot study. subacute hospital ward. all consecutively admitted adult patients were eligible for recruitment under waiver of consent. the intervention was a modified hospital menu developed by substituting standard items with higher energy options. The control was the standard menu. All participants received usual multidisciplinary care. Outcomes were change in weight and hand grip strength (HGS) between admission and day 14 and; energy and protein intake and patient satisfaction with the foodservice at day 14. The additional cost of the intervention was also estimated. the median (interquartile range) age of participants (n = 122) was 83 (75-87) years and length of stay was 19 (11-32) days. One-third (38.5%) were malnourished at admission. There was no difference in mean (SD) HGS change (1.7 (5.1) versus 1.4 (5.8) kg, P = 0.798) or weight change (-0.55 (3.43) versus 0.26 (3.33) %, P = 0.338) between the intervention and control groups, respectively. The intervention group had significantly higher mean (SD) intake of energy (132 (38) versus 105 (34) kJ/kg/day, P = 0.003) and protein (1.4 (0.6) versus 1.1 (0.4) g protein/kg/day, P = 0.035). Both groups were satisfied with the foodservice. The additional cost was £4.15/participant/day. in this pilot, the intervention improved intake and may be a useful strategy to address malnutrition. Further consideration of clinical and cost implications is required in a fully powered study.

  5. Effects of a "test in-train out" walking program versus supervised standard rehabilitation in chronic stroke patients: a feasibility and pilot randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagoni, Anna M; Cavazza, Stefano; Ferraresi, Giovanni; Grassi, Guido; Felisatti, Michele; Lamberti, Nicola; Basaglia, Nino; Manfredini, Fabio

    2016-06-01

    The loss of normal ambulatory function after stroke, besides causing disability, leads to progressive deconditioning and exposes patients to increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and recurrent stroke. Conventional rehabilitation is mainly limited to the subacute period after stroke. Effective, safe and sustainable interventions for patients and healthcare system, including the long-term, should be identified. To verify the feasibility, safety and preliminary efficacy of an original home-based rehabilitation model compared to a standard supervised program in chronic hemiplegic stroke survivors. Pilot, two-arm, parallel group, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Community-dwelling poststroke patient/Hospital. Twelve chronic hemiplegic stroke patients (age=66.5±11.9 years, males, N.=9). Participants were randomly assigned for a 10-week period to a structured home-based exercise program (N.=6) and a standard supervised group-setting program (N.=6). The feasibility outcomes included adherence to interventions, retention rate and safety. Satisfaction was also evaluated by the Client Satisfaction Questionnaire. Efficacy was assessed by the 6-minute walk test, Timed Up and Go and Stair Climb tests. The impact on Quality-of-life was estimated using the physical activity domain of the Short Form-36 questionnaire. Operators' time consuming was also calculated. Adherence was 91% in the home-based exercise group and 92% in the standard supervised group. The retention rate was 100%, with no adverse events reported and high satisfaction scores for both interventions. 6-minute walk test and physical activity domain significantly increased in both groups (P=0.03). Timed Up and Go improved in both groups, significantly for the home-based exercise group (P=0.03) while Stair Climb remained stable. Time required to operators to implement the home-based exercise program was 15 hours vs. 30 hours for the standard supervised one. In a sample of hemiplegic chronic stroke patients

  6. INDEPENDENCE FUNCTIONS OF STROKE PATIENTS WITH "GAIT" EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlina Marlina

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Stroke is a cerebro vascular disease which has clinical manifestation based on the location and the damaged lesion. The disorder of oxygen flow to the brain results clinical manifestation called hemipharese or the de fi ciency of some parts of extremities which is indicated by the muscle deficiency. Effect of exercise gait program in needed in order to recover the strength functional self care of which is indicated by the improve strength extremitas. The aimed of this study was to analyze the effect of exercise gait to the improvement of functionalself care of the patients at Sigli General Hospital in Kabupaten Pidie Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam. Methods: A quasi experimental with pretest-postest group design was used in this study. Thirty four patients were selected by using non probability sampling (consecutive sampling tehnigue as the sample of the study. Fourteen days of exercise gait program were given to the patient. An evaluation to the result of the program was conducted after fourteen days by measuring functional self care of the subjects. Result: The statistical analysis showed that the average of the stroke patiens functional self care is significantly after the treatment (p=0.000. There was a relationship between patients age and the functional selfcare (p=0.000 and there was no relationship between sex and the functional self care (p=0.148. There was also no relationship between risk factor the functional self care (p=0.13. Discussion: This study recommended the use of exercise gait to improve functional self care of stroke patients in order to improve their ability to do daily living activities.

  7. Effect of Virtual Reality on Cognition in Stroke Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bo Ryun; Kim, Lee Suk; Park, Ji Young

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of virtual reality on the recovery of cognitive impairment in stroke patients. Method Twenty-eight patients (11 males and 17 females, mean age 64.2) with cognitive impairment following stroke were recruited for this study. All patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups, the virtual reality (VR) group (n=15) or the control group (n=13). The VR group received both virtual reality training and computer-based cognitive rehabilitation, whereas the control group received only computer-based cognitive rehabilitation. To measure, activity of daily living cognitive and motor functions, the following assessment tools were used: computerized neuropsychological test and the Tower of London (TOL) test for cognitive function assessment, Korean-Modified Barthel index (K-MBI) for functional status evaluation, and the motricity index (MI) for motor function assessment. All recruited patients underwent these evaluations before rehabilitation and four weeks after rehabilitation. Results The VR group showed significant improvement in the K-MMSE, visual and auditory continuous performance tests (CPT), forward digit span test (DST), forward and backward visual span tests (VST), visual and verbal learning tests, TOL, K-MBI, and MI scores, while the control group showed significant improvement in the K-MMSE, forward DST, visual and verbal learning tests, trail-making test-type A, TOL, K-MBI, and MI scores after rehabilitation. The changes in the visual CPT and backward VST in the VR group after rehabilitation were significantly higher than those in the control group. Conclusion Our findings suggest that virtual reality training combined with computer-based cognitive rehabilitation may be of additional benefit for treating cognitive impairment in stroke patients. PMID:22506159

  8. [Elements of system semiotics of the brain and head with cranial vessels of patients with stroke and with risk of stroke development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makomela, N M

    2007-01-01

    By means of a multispiral computer and magnetic resonance tomography 211 patients with an ischemic stroke, 109 patients with hemorrhagic stroke, 41 patients with an arterial hypertensia, 43 patients with aneurism, 58 patients with discirculation encephalopathy, 125 patients with ischemic illness of heart, practically healthy 62 have been observed. The author found high frequency of pathological deformations of carotid and vertebral arteries of not closed arterial circle, calcification of the pineal body and vascular plexus of lateral ventricles. cysts of maxillary sinuses of patients with stroke in comparison with patients at risk of the development of stroke and practically healthy subjects.

  9. Autonomic symptoms in hypertensive patients with post-acute minor ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idiaquez, Juan; Farias, Hector; Torres, Francisco; Vega, Jorge; Low, David A

    2015-12-01

    Most studies regarding autonomic dysfunction in ischemic stroke are limited to heart rate and blood pressure changes during the acute phase. However, there are few data on quantitative assessment of autonomic symptoms. We sought to assess autonomic symptoms in hypertensive ischemic stroke patients. In 100 hypertensive patients (45 with symptomatic ischemic stroke (6 months after stroke onset) and 55 without stroke), we assessed autonomic symptoms using the Scale for Outcomes in Parkinson disease-Autonomic (SCOPA-AUT). The age (mean ± standard deviation) for the stroke group was 66 ± 12 and 63 ± 15 for the without stroke group (P=0.8). Orthostatic hypotension occurred in 3.6% of the stroke group and 4.4% in the group without stroke. The total SCOPA-AUT score was higher in the stroke group compared with the group without stroke (P=0.001). Domain scores for gastrointestinal (P=0.001), urinary (P=0.005) and cardiovascular (P=0.001) were higher in the stroke group. No differences were found when comparing the total SCOPA-AUT scores for stroke subtypes (P=0.168) and for lateralization (P=0.6). SCOPA AUT scores were correlated with depression scores (P=0.001) but not with stroke severity (P=0.2). Autonomic symptoms, especially, gastrointestinal, urinary and cardiovascular function, were significantly increased in hypertensive patients with minor ischemic stroke. Symptoms were associated with depression but not with the characteristic of the stroke. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Guidelines for the early management of patients with acute ischemic stroke: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauch, Edward C; Saver, Jeffrey L; Adams, Harold P; Bruno, Askiel; Connors, J J Buddy; Demaerschalk, Bart M; Khatri, Pooja; McMullan, Paul W; Qureshi, Adnan I; Rosenfield, Kenneth; Scott, Phillip A; Summers, Debbie R; Wang, David Z; Wintermark, Max; Yonas, Howard

    2013-03-01

    The authors present an overview of the current evidence and management recommendations for evaluation and treatment of adults with acute ischemic stroke. The intended audiences are prehospital care providers, physicians, allied health professionals, and hospital administrators responsible for the care of acute ischemic stroke patients within the first 48 hours from stroke onset. These guidelines supersede the prior 2007 guidelines and 2009 updates. Members of the writing committee were appointed by the American Stroke Association Stroke Council's Scientific Statement Oversight Committee, representing various areas of medical expertise. Strict adherence to the American Heart Association conflict of interest policy was maintained throughout the consensus process. Panel members were assigned topics relevant to their areas of expertise, reviewed the stroke literature with emphasis on publications since the prior guidelines, and drafted recommendations in accordance with the American Heart Association Stroke Council's Level of Evidence grading algorithm. The goal of these guidelines is to limit the morbidity and mortality associated with stroke. The guidelines support the overarching concept of stroke systems of care and detail aspects of stroke care from patient recognition; emergency medical services activation, transport, and triage; through the initial hours in the emergency department and stroke unit. The guideline discusses early stroke evaluation and general medical care, as well as ischemic stroke, specific interventions such as reperfusion strategies, and general physiological optimization for cerebral resuscitation. Because many of the recommendations are based on limited data, additional research on treatment of acute ischemic stroke remains urgently needed.

  11. Outcome and Risk Factors Presented in Old Patients Above 80 Years of Age Versus Younger Patients After Ischemic Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, Line; Christensen, Louisa; Christensen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    . METHODS: The analysis was based on consecutive patients admitted within 6 hours after stroke onset and discharged with ischemic stroke, surviving at least 3 months after ictus. To prevent bias, the analysis was based on a registry from before implementation of tissue plasminogen activator treatment; all...... of age or older presented with significantly more severe strokes than younger patients, median Scandinavian Stroke Scale score 39 vs 42 (P = .003). Median mRS score before stroke was significantly higher in patients aged 80 years or older (P ictus (P...

  12. Increased levels of elastin-derived peptides in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with lacunar stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzvetanov, P; Nicoloff, G; Rousseff, R; Christova, P

    2008-03-01

    To investigate whether elastin-derived peptides (EDP) are detectable in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of healthy controls and of patients with acute brain ischemia and if so to assess possible trends in EDP levels in different groups of ischemic stroke patients (small-vessel disease vs. other ischemic strokes; first-ever vs. recurrent stroke). Levels of EDP were determined by ELISA in blood sera and CSF of 80 patients with acute ischemic stroke (mean age 61.5+/-10.8; age range 47-70; 22 women) and in 15 healthy age- and sex-matched controls (mean age 57.3+/-13.4; age range 50-65). The patients were divided into a group with first ever lacunar stroke (27); first ever non-lacunar ischemic stroke (27) and recurrent stroke (26). EDP were measured early (mean 7 days, range 1-15) after stroke onset. Serum EDP levels were mildly higher in recurrent strokes as compared to first ever lacunar lesion and controls. However, in the CSF the concentrations of EDP in stroke patients were strongly elevated (from 2 up to 30 times depending on subgroup) as compared with healthy subjects. The highest level of EDP in CSF and in the serum was found in recurrent strokes. Subgroup analysis revealed a trend for significantly higher EDP concentrations in CSF in lacunar and recurrent stroke as compared with non-lacunar. This study is the first application of elastin peptide measurement to human CSF and stroke patients. The increased levels of EDP were detected in CSF of patients with lacunar and recurrent strokes.

  13. Reversed Robin Hood syndrome in acute ischemic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Andrei V; Sharma, Vijay K; Lao, Annabelle Y; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Malkoff, Marc D; Alexandrov, Anne W

    2007-11-01

    Recurrent hemodynamic and neurological changes with persisting arterial occlusions may be attributable to cerebral blood flow steal from ischemic to nonaffected brain. Transcranial Doppler monitoring with voluntary breath-holding and serial NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores were obtained in patients with acute middle cerebral artery or internal carotid artery occlusions. The steal phenomenon was detected as transient, spontaneous, or vasodilatory stimuli-induced velocity reductions in affected arteries at the time of velocity increase in normal vessels. The steal magnitude (%) was calculated as [(MFVm-MFVb)/MFVb]x100, where m=minimum and b=baseline mean flow velocities (MFV) during the 15- to 30-second period of a total 30 second of breath-holding. Six patients had steal phenomenon on transcranial Doppler (53 to 73 years, NIHSS 4 to 15 points). Steal magnitude ranged from -15.0% to -43.2%. All patients also had recurrent neurological worsening (>2 points increase in NIHSS scores) at stable blood pressure. In 3 of 5 patients receiving noninvasive ventilatory correction for snoring/sleep apnea, no further velocity or NIHSS score changes were noted. Our descriptive study suggests possibility to detect and quantify the cerebral steal phenomenon in real-time. If the steal is confirmed as the cause of neurological worsening, reversed Robin Hood syndrome may identify a target group for testing blood pressure augmentation and noninvasive ventilatory correction in stroke patients.

  14. Auditory rehabilitation after stroke: treatment of auditory processing disorders in stroke patients with personal frequency-modulated (FM) systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koohi, Nehzat; Vickers, Deborah; Chandrashekar, Hoskote; Tsang, Benjamin; Werring, David; Bamiou, Doris-Eva

    2017-03-01

    Auditory disability due to impaired auditory processing (AP) despite normal pure-tone thresholds is common after stroke, and it leads to isolation, reduced quality of life and physical decline. There are currently no proven remedial interventions for AP deficits in stroke patients. This is the first study to investigate the benefits of personal frequency-modulated (FM) systems in stroke patients with disordered AP. Fifty stroke patients had baseline audiological assessments, AP tests and completed the (modified) Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Hearing Handicap Inventory for Elderly questionnaires. Nine out of these 50 patients were diagnosed with disordered AP based on severe deficits in understanding speech in background noise but with normal pure-tone thresholds. These nine patients underwent spatial speech-in-noise testing in a sound-attenuating chamber (the "crescent of sound") with and without FM systems. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for 50% correct speech recognition performance was measured with speech presented from 0° azimuth and competing babble from ±90° azimuth. Spatial release from masking (SRM) was defined as the difference between SNRs measured with co-located speech and babble and SNRs measured with spatially separated speech and babble. The SRM significantly improved when babble was spatially separated from target speech, while the patients had the FM systems in their ears compared to without the FM systems. Personal FM systems may substantially improve speech-in-noise deficits in stroke patients who are not eligible for conventional hearing aids. FMs are feasible in stroke patients and show promise to address impaired AP after stroke. Implications for Rehabilitation This is the first study to investigate the benefits of personal frequency-modulated (FM) systems in stroke patients with disordered AP. All cases significantly improved speech perception in noise with the FM systems, when noise was spatially separated from the

  15. BCI-FES: could a new rehabilitation device hold fresh promise for stroke patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Brittany M; Williams, Justin; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2014-11-01

    It has been known that stroke constitutes a major source of acquired disability, with nearly 800,000 new strokes each year in the USA alone. While advances in public and preventative health have helped reduce stroke incidence in high-income countries in recent decades, growth of the aging population, increasing stroke rates in low- to middle-income countries and medical advances that have reduced stroke mortality are all contributing to an increase in stroke survivors worldwide. Large numbers of stroke survivors have residual motor deficits. This editorial will provide an introduction to a class of new therapies being investigated with the aim of improving motor outcomes in stroke patients that uses what is known as brain-computer interface technology.

  16. Combined arm stretch positioning and neuromuscular electrical stimulation during rehabilitation does not improve range of motion, shoulder pain or function in patients after stroke: a randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Gerritsen; K. Postema; L.D. de Jong; A.C. Geurts; P.U. Dijkstra

    2013-01-01

    doi: 10.1016/S1836-9553(13)70201-7 QUESTION: Does static stretch positioning combined with simultaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) in the subacute phase after stroke have beneficial effects on basic arm body functions and activities? DESIGN: Multicentre randomised trial with

  17. Improving stroke patients' care: a patient held record is not enough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lampe Fiona

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stroke patients' care in hospital tends to be poorly organised, with poor communication and a lack of information being frequent sources of complaint. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a patient-held record (PHR would result in greater patient satisfaction and better care planning for stroke patients. Methods A time series control (6 months - intervention (8 months - control (6 months was used among London teaching hospital general medical and geriatric medicine inpatient wards. All stroke patients admitted to the wards during the intervention phase received a PHR and were instructed in its use. Demographic, stroke severity, social factors and outcomes were collected from all stroke patients during all phases of the study. Results Of 252 stroke patients aged 46 to 98 years entered into the study, by six months after admission 118 (46.8% had died. PHR and control group patients were well matched in terms of socio-demographic characteristics and pre-stroke ability. At six months after admission, 119 (97% patients responded to the questionnaire. Just over half (56%, 13 of intervention group patients recalled receiving a PHR. Of those patients, 59% reported reading the PHR, 27% had lost their PHR, and two-thirds said they had difficulties encouraging staff to write in the PHR. Half felt that possession of the PHR was more trouble than it was worth. PHR group patients were more satisfied with the recovery they had made (79% vs. 59%, p=0.04, but felt less able to talk to staff about their problems (61% vs. 82%, p=0.02. PHR group patients reported receiving fewer explanations about their condition (18% vs. 33%, p=0.12 and treatment (26% vs. 45%, p=0.07, and were more afraid of asking doctors questions (21% vs. 4%, p=0.01 than controls. PHR group patients were no better prepared for hospital discharge than control group patients, and both groups were ill-informed about services and benefits that might have helped

  18. Brain magnetic resonance imaging findings in cryptogenic stroke patients under 60 years with patent foramen oval