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Sample records for subacute dietary toxicity

  1. Subacute toxicity assessment of annatto in rat

    OpenAIRE

    Bautista, Ana Rita Pedreira Lapa; E.L.T. Moreira; Batista, Márcio Santos; Miranda, M.S.; Gomes, I. C. S.

    2004-01-01

    Texto completo:acesso restrito. p. 625-629 Increased human use of annatto (Bixa orellana L), a red yellow food colorant, demands generation of toxicity data. The toxic effects of annatto powder (bixin 27%) have been assessed following administration of a subacute regimen (4 weeks, 20 doses) in Wistar male and female rats. A full study with three dose levels was considered unnecessary since no sign of toxicity had been noted in a preliminary experiment with 1000 mg/kg body weight/day as ...

  2. Subacute toxicity of propyl gallate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strik JJTWA; Danse LHJC; Helleman PW; van Leeuwen FXR; Speijers GJA; Vaessen HAMG

    1986-01-01

    The 4 week oral toxicity of propyl gallate in rats, exposed to 0, 1000, 5000 and 25000 mg/kg feed, was investigated. Parameters studied comprised growth, food and water intake, biochemistry, hematology, organ weights and histopathology. In the highest dose group both females and males gained less

  3. Subacute toxicity assessment of annatto in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, A R P L; Moreira, E L T; Batista, M S; Miranda, M S; Gomes, I C S

    2004-04-01

    Increased human use of annatto (Bixa orellana L), a red yellow food colorant, demands generation of toxicity data. The toxic effects of annatto powder (bixin 27%) have been assessed following administration of a subacute regimen (4 weeks, 20 doses) in Wistar male and female rats. A full study with three dose levels was considered unnecessary since no sign of toxicity had been noted in a preliminary experiment with 1000 mg/kg body weight/day as was recommended by the OECD guideline. In this study, annatto administered by gavage at a dose level of 2000 mg/kg/day decreased male body weight gain, but had no effect on either food intake or food conversion efficiency. Haematological and plasma biochemical examination as well necropsy performed at the end of administration (29th day) and observation (43rd day) periods revealed no alterations related with annatto administration. Kidney apoptosis occurred in 20% treated female rats in restricted areas without proliferation or tubular segments modification. The precise nature of apoptosis was not investigated in the present study. These findings suggest that annatto was no toxic to the rat.

  4. Acute and 28-day sub-acute oral toxicity evaluation of two dietary bamboo charcoal powders in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhen-chao; Luo, Sha; Zhong, Yu-ting; Li, Xiao; Chen, Jin-yao; Zhang, Li-shi

    2015-04-01

    No data were available on the acute oral toxicity, short-term oral toxicity of vegetable carbon in animals. This study was designed to evaluate the safety of two commercially available dietary bamboo charcoal powders (BCP1 and BCP2). The size distribution of the two powders was determined by a Mastersizer 2000 laser particle size analyzer prior to the in vivo safety studies. For the acute toxicity study, a single dose of 11.24 g/kg body weight of BCP1 and BCP2 was given once orally to healthy Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Mortality and clinical symptoms were observed and recorded for the first 30 min after treatment, at 4 h post-administration, and then at least once daily for 14 days after administration. In the repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity study, BCP1 and BCP2 were administered orally at doses of 2.81, 5.62, and 11.24 g/kg body weight for 28 days to SD rats. Animals were sacrificed and organs and blood samples were analyzed. Results showed that both BCP1 and BCP2 were micro-sized and various in size. In the acute toxicity and the repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity studies, BCP caused neither mortality nor visible signs of toxicity in rats. No significant differences were found in the relative organ weights or in biochemical parameters in BCP treated groups compared to a control group. No treatment-related histological changes were observed in the organs of these animals. Based on these data, it is concluded that the median lethal dose (LD50) of BCP for both male and female rats is more than 11.24 g/kg body weight and the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) is >11.24 g/kg body weight for 28 days.

  5. Evaluation of acute and subacute toxicities of aqueous ethanolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the acute and subacute toxicities of hydro-ethanolic extract of leaves of Senna alata (L.) Roxb. in Swiss mice and Wistar albino rats. The mice were divided into 6 groups of 10 animals and each group received once by intra gastric gavages 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 times 1000 mg/kg dose of extract. Distilled water ...

  6. Acute and Subacute Toxic Study of Aqueous Leaf Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Results: For the acute toxicit test, no death and signs of poisoning were observed in the treated groups. In the subacute .... Subcute toxicity test. The animals were divided into six groups of six animals each. The treatments were given by intraperitoneal injection. Group 1 served ... produce significant changes in behavior,.

  7. Acute and subacute toxicities of defatted ethanolic extract of Moringa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moringa oleifera seeds are widely accepted as a nutritional supplement. The seeds are consumed and are sold on the shelf of nature, herbal shops, pharmacy and supermarkets. They are consumed as herbal remedy for various diseases. This study was designed to evaluate the acute and sub-acute toxicity of defatted ...

  8. Subacute Oral Toxicity Assessment of Alchornea cordifolia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To assess Alchornea cordifolia, a medicinal plant with numerous biological actions and uses in traditional medicine, for possible toxicity in rats. Methods: The probable effect of the ethanol extract of Alchornea cordifolia (250 - 2000 mg/kg, p.o.) by gavage was evaluated on blood cellular elements and chemistry, ...

  9. Subacute Oral Toxicity Assessment of Alchornea cordifolia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2010-10-21

    Oct 21, 2010 ... Purpose: To assess Alchornea cordifolia, a medicinal plant with numerous biological actions and uses in traditional medicine, for possible toxicity in rats. Methods: The probable effect of the ethanol extract of Alchornea cordifolia (250 - 2000 mg/kg, p.o.) by gavage was evaluated on blood cellular elements ...

  10. Alternative acute oral toxicity assessment under REACH based on sub-acute toxicity values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gissi, Andrea; Louekari, Kimmo; Hoffstadt, Laurence; Bornatowicz, Norbert; Aparicio, Alberto Martin

    2017-01-01

    The REACH Regulation requires information on acute oral toxicity for substances produced or imported in quantities greater than one ton per year. When registering, animal testing should be used as last resort. The standard acute oral toxicity test requires use of animals. Therefore, the European Chemicals Agency examined whether alternative ways exist to generate information on acute oral toxicity. The starting hypothesis was that low acute oral toxicity can be predicted from the results of low toxicity in oral sub-acute toxicity studies. Proving this hypothesis would allow avoiding acute toxicity oral testing whenever a sub-acute oral toxicity study is required or available and indicates low toxicity. ECHA conducted an analysis of the REACH database and found suitable studies on both acute oral and sub-acute oral toxicities for 1,256 substances. 415 of these substances had low toxicity in the sub-acute toxicity study (i.e., NO(A)EL at or above the limit test threshold of 1,000 mg/kg). For 98% of these substances, low acute oral toxicity was also reported (i.e., LD50 above the classification threshold of 2,000 mg/kg). On the other hand, no correlation was found between lower NO(A)ELs and LD50. According to the REACH Regulation, this approach for predicting acute oral toxicity needs to be considered as part of a weight of evidence analysis. Therefore, additional sources of information to support this approach are presented. Ahead of the last REACH registration deadline, in 2018, ECHA estimates that registrants of about 550 substances can omit the in vivo acute oral toxicity study by using this adaptation.

  11. Subacute (90 days) oral toxicity studies of Kombucha tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, R; Singh, M; Rao, P V; Bhattacharya, R; Kumar, P; Sugendran, K; Kumar, O; Pant, S C; Singh, R

    2000-12-01

    Kombucha tea (KT) is a popular health beverage and is used as an alternative therapy. KT is prepared by placing the kombucha culture in solution of tea and sugar and allowing to ferment. The inoculum is a fungus consisting of symbiotic colony of yeast and bacteria. KT is consumed in several countries and is believed to have prophylactic and therapeutic benefits in a wide variety of ailments, viz., intestinal disorders, arthritis, ageing and stimulation of immunological system. Though KT is used in several parts of the world its beneficial effects and adverse effects have not been scientifically evaluated. Since there are no animal toxicological data on KT, subacute oral toxicity study was carried out. Five groups of rats were maintained: (a) control group given tap water orally, (b) KT given 2 ml/kg orally, (c) plain tea (PT) given 2 ml/kg orally, (d) KT given in drinking water, 1% (v/v) and (e) PT given in drinking water, 1% (v/v). The rats were given this treatment daily for a period of 90 days. Weekly records of weight, feed intake, water intake and general behaviour were monitored. There was no significant difference in the growth of the animals as evidenced by the progressive body weight change. The organ to body weight ratio and histological evaluation did not show any toxic signs. The haematological and biochemical variables were within the clinical limits. The study indicates that rats fed KT for 90 days showed no toxic effects.

  12. Assessment of acute and subacute toxic effects of the Saudi folk herb Retama raetam in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardi M. Algandaby

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Repeated administration of methanolic extract of RR (250 mg/kg has a low nephrotoxic subacute toxicity potential, while it might have hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic, and mutagenic effects at higher doses.

  13. Acute and sub-acute toxicity study of Clerodendrum inerme, Jasminum mesnyi Hance and Callistemon citrinus

    OpenAIRE

    Bharat Bhushan; Satish Sardana; Gulshan Bansal

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study acute and sub-acute toxicity study of Clerodendrum inerme (C. inerme), Jasminum mesnyi (J. mesnyi) Hance and Callistemon citrinus (C. citrinus). Methods: The acute toxicity test was conducted in Swiss albino mice. The extracts of C. inerme, J. mesnyi Hance and C. citrinus was administered in single dose of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 g/kg and observed for behavioral changes and mortality, if any. In sub-acute toxicity study, Wistar rats of either sex were administer...

  14. Evaluation of acute and subacute toxicity of Alstonia congensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extract demonstrated good hypoglycaemic effects by lowering the plasma sugar level and also had some beneficial and reduction effects on cardiovascular risk factors. There was no evidence of drug-induced symptoms or death at all the doses of the extract administered in acute study but subacute results revealed a ...

  15. Sub-acute toxicity evaluation of ethanol extract of rheumatic tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sub-acute toxicity profile of Rheumatic Tea Formula (RTF), a polyherbal tea consisting of Salix alba, Eucalyptus globulus and Albizia chevalieri was investigated in wistar rats of both sexes. Wistar rats were orally administered three different doses of ethanol extract of RTF for 28 days after which the effect on body weight, ...

  16. Biocompatible lutein-polymer-lipid nanocapsules: Acute and subacute toxicity and bioavailability in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Arunkumar; Hindupur, Ravi; Vallikannan, Baskaran

    2016-12-01

    Lutein-poly-(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-phospholipid (PL) nanocapsules were prepared (henceforth referred as lutein nanocapsules) and studied for acute, subacute oral toxicity and bioavailability of lutein in mice. Prior to examining the safety of lutein nanocapsules, particle size, zeta potential, surface morphology and interaction between lutein, PLGA and PL were studied. In acute study, mice were gavaged with a single dose of lutein nanocapsules at 0.1, 1, 10 and 100mg/kg body weight (BW) and examined for 2weeks, while in subacute study, daily mice were gavaged with a dose of 1 and 10mg/kg BW for 4weeks. Results revealed that mean size and zeta value of lutein nanocapsules were 140nm and -44mV, respectively. Acute and subacute toxicity studies did not show any mortality or treatment related adverse effect in clinical observations, ophthalmic examinations, body and organ weights. No toxicity related findings were observed in hematology, histopathology and other blood and tissue clinical chemistry parameters. In subacute study, no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of lutein nanocapsules was found to be at a dose of 10mg/kg BW. Feeding lutein nanocapsules resulted in a significant (plutein level in plasma and tissue compared to the control group. Lutein nanocapsules did not cause toxicity in mice. However, human trials are warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Subacute oral toxicity investigation of nanoparticulate and ionic silver in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadrup, Niels; Löschner, Katrin; Bergström, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Subacute toxicity of 14 nm nanoparticulate silver (Ag-NP) stabilised with polyvinylpyrrolidone and ionic silver in the form of silver acetate (Ag-acetate) was investigated in four-week-old Wistar rats. Animals received orally by gavage the following: vehicle control (10 $, 6 #); Ag-NP at doses: 2...

  18. Sub-acute toxicity study on the aqueous extract of Albizia zygia stem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sub-acute toxicity study on the aqueous extract of Albizia zygia stem bark. ... Morphological (body weight and organ weight indices), haematological {white blood cell (WBC), red blood cell (RBC), haemoglobin, haematocrit, and platelet counts}, biochemical {alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase ...

  19. Evaluation of Acute and Subacute Oral Toxicity of the Ethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxicity tests of 95% ethanol extract of the root of Antidesma acidum were studied in male and female rats. The oral acute toxicity test at 5,000 mg/kg revealed that the ethanol extract did not produce toxic effects on signs, general behavious, mortality and gross appearance of internal organs of rats. Furthermore, the oral ...

  20. Acute and Sub-Acute Toxicity Evaluation of the Methanolic Extract of Alstonia scholaris Stem Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris Bello

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Alstonia scholaris has been used by traditional medicine practitioners since the medieval ages for the treatment of diseases. The aim of this research was to evaluate the acute and sub-acute oral toxicity of its methanolic extract. The acute toxicity test was conducted using Sprague Dawley (SD rats. The methanolic extract of Alstonia scholaris stem bark (ASME was administrated in a single dose of 2000 mg/kg via oral gavage; and the animals were observed for any behavioral changes or mortality. In the sub-acute toxicity study, SD rats received three doses of ASME (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg for 28 days via oral gavage. During these 28 days of treatment, the rats were observed weekly for toxicity symptoms. Following the 28-day treatment, the rats were sacrificed for hematological, biochemical and histopathology studies. In the acute toxicity study, Alstonia scholaris was found to be non-toxic at a dose of 2000 mg/kg b.w. In the sub-acute toxicity study, significant variations in body weight, hematological and biochemical parameters were observed in the experimental groups at the dose of 500 and 1000 mg/kg with the death of two female rats being recorded at the highest dose (1000 mg/kg b.w.. Histopathological studies revealed slight degeneration (lesion and centrilobular necrosis in the liver, which was most expressed in the highest-dose group. These results demonstrate that, while a single dose and short term oral intake of Alstonia scholaris bark extract caused no toxicity up to a dose of 2000 mg/kg b.w., toxic effects manifested in the long term treatment at the highest dose (500 and 1000 mg/kg. The long-term toxic effect was found to be associated with alterations in hematological compositions and end-organ damage to the liver. Thus, prolonged use of high doses of ASME orally should be discouraged and lower doses encouraged.

  1. Acute and subacute toxicity evaluation of ethanolic extract from fruits of Schinus molle in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Adriana; Minetti, Alejandra; Bras, Cristina; Zanetti, Noelia

    2007-09-25

    Ethanolic and hexanic extracts from fruits and leaves of Schinus molle showed ability to control several insect pests. Potential vertebrate toxicity associated with insecticidal plants requires investigation before institutional promotion. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute and subacute toxicity of ethanolic extracts from fruits of Schinus molle in rats. The plant extract was added to the diet at 2g/kg body weight/day during 1 day to evaluate acute toxicity and at 1g/kg body weight/day during 14 days to evaluate subacute toxicity. At the end of the exposure and after 7 days, behavioral and functional parameters in a functional observational battery and motor activity in an open field were assessed. Finally, histopathological examinations were conducted on several organs. In both exposures, an increase in the arousal level was observed in experimental groups. Also, the landing foot splay parameter increased in the experimental group after acute exposure. Only the subacute exposure produced a significant increase in the motor activity in the open field. All these changes disappeared after 7 days. None of the exposures affected the different organs evaluated. Our results suggest that ethanolic extracts from fruits and leaves of Schinus molle should be relatively safe to use as insecticide.

  2. Acute and subacute toxicity tests of madder root, natural colorant extracted from madder (Rubia tinctorum), in (C57BL/6 X C3H)F1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ino, N; Tanaka, T; Okumura, A; Morishita, Y; Makita, H; Kato, Y; Nakamura, M; Mori, H

    1995-01-01

    As part of the safety assessment of madder root (MR), a food colorant extracted from madder (Rubia tinctorum), toxicity tests were undertaken using (C57BL/6 x C3H)F1 mice of both sexes. An acute toxicity test was performed by 14-day administration of MR dissolved in distilled water by gavage at doses of 0, 500, 2000, 3500, and 5000 mg/kg body weight to groups of each sex. One male mouse dosed at 5000 mg/kg body weight was dead before the end of the study, indicating that the maximum tolerated dose of MR was between 3500 and 5000 mg/kg body weight. A subacute toxicity test of MR was performed using 62 mice of each sex, mixing their diets with MR at concentrations of 0, 0.3, 0.6, 1.25, 2.5, and 5% for 90 days. All mice tolerated these doses of MR well. The body weight gains of either sex were not affected by the treatment. None of the mice treated with MR showed clinical signs of toxicity. Histopathological examinations showed retention cysts of the kidneys and epidermal vaginal cysts in a few of the treated or control mice. No hyperplastic, preneoplastic, and neoplastic lesions and no pathological findings of toxicity were found. These results suggest that dietary exposure of MR at these doses has no acute or subacute toxic effects on mice.

  3. Acute and subacute oral toxicity evaluation of Tephrosia purpurea extract in rodents

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    Talib Hussain

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the acute and subacute toxicity of 50% ethanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea (T. purpurea in rodents. Methods: The acute toxicity test was conducted in Swiss albino mice. The extract of T. purpurea was administrated in single doses of 50, 300 and 2000 mg/ kg and observed for behavioral changes and mortality, if any. In subacute toxicity study, Wistar rats of either sex were administered two doses of T. purpurea i.e., 200 and 400 mg/kg (One-tenth and one-fifth of the maximum tolerated dose, p.o. for 4 weeks. During 28 days of treatment, rats were observed weekly for any change in their body weight, food and water intake. At the end of 28 days, rats were sacrificed for hematological, biochemical and histopathology study. Results: In the acute toxicity study, T. purpurea was found to be well tolerated upto 2 000 mg/kg, produced neither mortality nor changes in behavior in mice. In subacute toxicity study, T. purpurea at dose level of 200 and 400 mg/kg did not produce any significant difference in their body weight, food and water intake when compared to vehicle treated rats. It also showed no significant alteration in hematological and biochemical parameters in experimental groups of rats apart from a decrease in aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphate content at the dose of 400 mg/kg. Histopathological study revealed normal architecture of kidney and liver of T. purpurea treated rats. Conclusions: These results demonstrated that there is a wide margin of safety for the therapeutic use of T. purpurea and further corroborated the traditional use of this extract as an anti hepatocarcinogenic agent

  4. Subacute toxicity assessment of water disinfection byproducts on zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rácz, Gergely; Csenki, Zsolt; Kovács, Róbert; Hegyi, Arpád; Baska, Ferenc; Sujbert, László; Zsákovics, Ivett; Kis, Renáta; Gustafson, Ryan; Urbányi, Béla; Szende, Béla

    2012-07-01

    Disinfection of raw water is essential to the production of drinking water. However, by-products of disinfection may exert toxic effects. The potential toxic effects of two of these compounds, 4-ethylbenzaldehyde (EBA) and 2,4-difluoroaniline (DFA) were investigated using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) model. The two compounds, dissolved, were introduced in duplicate aquariums containing zebrafish in two different concentrations based on LC50 values. The aquarium water containing EBA or DFA was changed every 96 h throughout the 3 months of treatment. Behavior of the fish in each replicate was inspected twice daily. In course of treatment with both concentrations, fish exposed to DFA displayed behavior associated with visible anxiety, while EBA treated were lethargic and did not evade capture. Application of both concentrations of each component into the aquarium water resulted in dystrophic lesions in the liver, kidney and skin of the fish while preneoplastic lesions and tumors were not observed.

  5. Evaluation of the subacute and subchronic toxicity of inhaled EDS hydrotreated naphtha in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, R H; Hinz, J P

    1987-07-01

    Inhalation studies were conducted to assess the subacute and subchronic toxicity of EDS hydrotreated naphtha (HN). In the subacute toxicity study, male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to various concentrations of HN vapor (0.2, 1.0, and 5.0 g/m3) 6 hr/day for 5 consecutive days. Following 2 recovery days, the animals were exposed for 4 additional days and then sacrificed on the 12th study day. In the subchronic toxicity study, a similar protocol was utilized; however, the animals were exposed 5 days/week for 13 weeks. Following a 2-week recovery period, the animals were sacrificed. Parameters examined in both studies included survival, growth, clinical observations, urinalysis, blood chemistry at necropsy, and microscopic examination of selected tissues. There was some evidence of systemic effects associated with repeated inhalation exposure to HN, although these effects were mild and were primarily confined to the high-exposure groups. The major systemic effect appeared to be renal toxicity in male rats as evidenced by increased urinary excretion of renal epithelial cells, creatinine, glucose, and protein and decreased urine osmolality. However, the absence of consistent pathologic changes in the kidneys of these animals suggested that the lesions were either slight or reversible during the 2-week recovery period.

  6. Safety studies of homoeopathic drugs in acute, sub-acute and chronic toxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surender Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Homoeopathic drugs are frequently recommended in day to day life as therapeutic agents by homoeopathic practitioners. However, safety of homoeopathic drugs remains a challenge because of the high variability of chemical components involved. Aim: The objective of the present study was to investigate the acute, subacute, and chronic oral toxicity of different homoeopathic drugs (Ferrum phosphoricum 3X, Ferrum phosphoricum 6X, Calcarea phosphoricum 6X, and Magnesium phosphoricum 6X in experimental models. Materials and Methods: In acute oral toxicity study, homoeopathic drugs were administered orally at 2000mg/kg body weight, and animals were observed for toxic symptoms till 10 days as per the OECD guidelines. For subacute and chronic toxicity study, homoeopathic drugs were administered for 28 and 180 days, respectively, as per the OECD guidelines. At the end of 28 and 180 days, the animals were sacrificed and toxicity parameters were assessed. Histopathological evaluation of different organs was also performed to assess any toxicity. Results: In acute toxicity study, no mortality was found at a dose of 2000 mg/kg which indicates that oral LD50of homoeopathic drugs were more than 2000 mg/kg. The administration of drugs at a dose of 70 mg/kg body weight for 28 and 180 days did not produce any significant change in haematological and biochemical parameters of male and female rats as compared to normal control group. No pathological changes were observed in histology of various organs of treated rats as compared to normal control animals. Conclusion: These homoeopathic drugs are safe & produce no toxicity when administered for longer duration.

  7. Subacute Toxicity Profile of Lacidipine Nanoformulation in Wistar Rats

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    Rupesh Shirodkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at investigating the safety of Lacidipine (LCDP loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs in Wistar rats. NLCs were formulated using ultrasound dispersion technique. Animals were orally treated once daily with NLCs containing 0.140 mg, 0.350 mg, and 0.875 mg of LCDP as low, medium, and high dose per kg body weight, respectively, during 28 days along with blank formulation and pure LCDP. Control rats were fed with water. Animals were observed throughout experiment period and their body weight was recorded once weekly. Overnight fasted rats were sacrificed on the 29th day. Study revealed no signs or symptoms of toxicity or morbidity. No significant changes in the body weight were observed between treated and control group. Significant increase in left testis weight and liver weight was observed in male and female rats, respectively. Haematological estimation revealed significant decrease in haemoglobin count in male rats while female rats showed significant increase in granulocyte count. All the serum clinical parameters were within the normal range and no gross histopathological changes were observed. No delayed effect was noted in satellite group. The results indicate that developed LCDP loaded NLCs are safe when administered orally in rats.

  8. Toxic effects of ackee oil (Blighia sapida L) following subacute administration to rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, P; Gardner, M; Poddar, S; Choo-Kang, E; Coard, K; Rickards, E

    1992-03-01

    Subacute intraperitoneal administration of the lipid portion of the unripe ackee arillus, referred to as "ackee oil", resulted in marked neutropenia (p less than 0.001) and increase in platelets (p less than 0.01) without anaemia, in rats. Blood urea, sodium and aspartate aminotransferase levels were significantly decreased but glucose and bilirubin levels were similar to those of controls. The lungs showed areas of petechial haemorrhages and a dose-related perivascular and peribronchial mononuclear cell infiltration. The pulmonary toxicity may be interpreted as a hypersensitive reaction to ackee oil. Further research is in progress on the neutropenic effects of ackee oil.

  9. Evaluation of acute and sub-acute toxicity of Pinus eldarica bark extract in Wistar rats

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    Akram Ghadirkhomi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pinus eldarica (P. eldarica is one of the most common pines in Iran which has various bioactive constituents and different uses in traditional medicine. Since there is no documented evidence for P. eldarica safety, the acute and sub-acute oral toxicities of hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark were investigated in male and female Wistar rats in this study. Materials and Methods: In the acute study, a single dose of extract (2000 mg/kg was orally administered and animals were monitored for 7 days. In the sub-acute study, repeated doses (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day of the extract were administered for 28 days and biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters were evaluated. Results: Our results showed no sign of toxicity and no mortality after single or repeated administration of P. eldarica. The median lethal dose (LD50 of P. eldarica was determined to be higher than 2000 mg/kg. The mean body weight and most of the biochemical and hematological parameters showed normal levels.  There were only significant decreases in serum triglyceride levels at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg of the extract in male rats (pConclusion: Oral administration of the hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark may be considered as relatively non-toxic particularly at the doses of 125 and 250 mg/kg.

  10. Acute and sub-acute oral toxicity of Dracaena cinnabari resin methanol extract in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Afifi, Nashwan Abdullah; Alabsi, Aied Mohammed; Bakri, Marina Mohd; Ramanathan, Anand

    2018-02-05

    Dracaena cinnabari (DC) is a perennial tree that located on the Southern coast of Yemen native to the Socotra Island. This tree produces a deep red resin known as the Dragon's blood, the Twobrother's Blood or Damm Alakhwain. The current study performed to evaluate the safety of the DC resin methanol extract after a single or 28 consecutive daily oral administrations. In assessing the safety of DC resin methanol extract, acute and sub-acute oral toxicity tests performed following OECD guidelines 423 and 407, respectively, with slight modifications. In acute oral toxicity test, DC resin methanol extract administered to female Sprague Dawley rats by oral gavage at a single dose of 300 and 2000 mg/kg body weight. Rats observed for toxic signs for 14 days. In sub-acute oral toxicity test, DC resin methanol extract administered to the rats by oral gavage at 500, 1000, and 1500 mg/kg body weight daily up to 28 days to male and female Spradgue Dawley rats. The control and high dose in satellite groups were also maintained and handled as the previous groups to determine the late onset toxicity of DC resin methanol extract. At the end of each test, hematological and biochemical analysis of the collected blood were performed as well as gross and microscopic pathology. In acute oral toxicity, no treatment-related death or toxic signs were observed. It revealed that the DC resin methanol extract could be well tolerated up to the dose 2000 mg/kg body weight and could be classified as Category 5. The sub-acute test observations indicated that there are no treatment-related changes up to the high dose level compared to the control. Food consumption, body weight, organ weight, hematological parameters, biochemical parameters and histopathological examination (liver, kidney, heart, spleen and lung) revealed no abnormalities. Water intake was significantly higher in the DC resin methanol extract treated groups compared to the control. This study demonstrates tolerability of DC

  11. Subacute toxicity of nano-selenium compared to other selenium species in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benko, Ilona; Nagy, Gabor; Tanczos, Bence; Ungvari, Eva; Sztrik, Attila; Eszenyi, Peter; Prokisch, Jozsef; Banfalvi, Gaspar

    2012-12-01

    Sixteen groups of mice were fed diets containing different selenium species to compare their toxicity. Inorganic sodium selenate and sodium hydroselenite, elementary nanoSe, organic Sel-Plex, and Lacto-MicroSelenium were administered for 14 d at concentrations of 0.5, 5, and 50 ppm Se, equivalent to 0.5, 5, and 50 mg Se/kg food, corresponding to an estimated 4, 40, and 400 µg/kg body weight/d Se uptake, respectively. At the end of the treatment, body, liver, spleen, kidney, heart, and brain weights were measured, mice were subjected to necropsy, and histological examinations were performed on the liver. At lower Se doses (0.5 and 5 ppm) a moderate reduction was observed in the number of bone marrow and white blood cells and in granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming units (GM-CFUs) relative to the untreated control group of mice. A comparison of lowest toxic doses of sodium selenite in mice (0.5 ppm) and mallard (10 ppm) indicates that birds are more resistant to Se than rodents. In mice, a small but measurable weight loss was observed after 5 ppm selenate and LactoMicroSe treatment. The most significant changes took place after 50-ppm administration in body and spleen weight, hematology, and liver histology. Toxicity was more pronounced when inorganic Se was applied than after subacute application of Sel-Plex, nanoSe, or LactoMicroSe. To summarize the effects, the authors' 14-d murine subacute toxicity study showed that the toxicity of Se species decreased in the following order: selenate > selenite > nanoSe > Sel-Plex > LactoMicroSe. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  12. Acute and sub-acute oral toxicity assessment of the hydroalcoholic extract of Withania somnifera roots in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabu, P C; Panchapakesan, S; Raj, C David

    2013-08-01

    Withania somnifera is a widely used medicinal plant for several disorders. Toxicity studies on Withania somnifera are not available. Acute and sub-acute oral toxicities of Withania somnifera root extract in Wistar rats were evaluated in the present study. In the acute toxicity study, WSR extract was administered to five rats at 2000 mg/kg, once orally and were observed for 14 days. No toxic signs/mortality were observed. In the sub-acute study, WSR extract was administered once daily for 28 days to rats at 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg, orally. No toxic signs/mortality were observed. There were no significant changes (P lesions were observed. The present investigation demonstrated that the no observed adverse effect level was 2000 mg/kg body weight per day of hydroalcoholic extract of W. somnifera in rats and hence may be considered as non-toxic. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Toxicological evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil: acute and subacute toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yun-xia; Cao, Mei; Shi, Dong-xia; Yin, Zhong-qiong; Jia, Ren-yong; Xu, Jiao; Wang, Chuan; Lv, Cheng; Liang, Xiao-xia; He, Chang-liang; Yang, Zhi-rong; Zhao, Jian

    2013-03-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica), popularly known as traditional medicine is a native plant in India. Neem oil is a vegetable oil derived from seeds or fruits of the neem tree through pressing or solvent extraction, and largely used in popular medicine to have antifungal, antibacterial, antimalarial, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory, as well as immunemodulatory properties in different animal species. In the present study, acute and 28-day subacute toxicity tests were carried out. In the acute toxicity test, the LD50 values of neem oil were found to be 31.95g/kg. The subacute treatment with neem oil failed to change body weight gain, food and water consumption. Serum biochemistry analysis showed no significant differences in any of the parameters examined under the dose of 1600mg/kg/day. Histopathological exams showed that the target organs of neem oil were testicle, liver and kidneys up to the dose of 1600mg/kg/day. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Acute and subacute (28-day) toxicity studies of ionic liquid, didecyldimethyl ammonium acesulfamate, in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodynis-Liebert, Jadwiga; Nowicki, Michał; Adamska, Teresa; Ewertowska, Małgorzata; Kujawska, Małgorzata; Petzke, Ewelina; Konwerska, Aneta; Ostalska-Nowicka, Danuta; Pernak, Juliusz

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate acute and subacute oral toxicity of an ionic liquid, didecyldimethylammonium acesulfamate [DDA][Ace], in rats. The compound tested was classified to the fourth toxicity class with a fixed LD(50) cut-off value of 500 mg/kg. Organ pathology induced by [DDA][Ace] in acute experiments included exfoliation of the surface layer of the digestive tract and alveolar septa in lung parenchyma. In a subacute experiment, rats were administered 10, 50, and 100 mg/kg/day [DDA][Ace] for 28 days. Reduced body weight gain and reduced food consumption was observed in mid- and high-dose rats. Statistically significant hematology changes were found mostly in high-dose groups of both sexes: increases in hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, and mean platelet volume. Statistically significant changes in clinical chemistry parameters included increases in the GGT, SDH, and LDH activity and bilirubin concentration, and decreases in triglycerides, glucose, and inorganic phosphorus concentration. No treatment-related microscopic changes were observed. Under the conditions of this study, the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level of [DDA][Ace] was considered to be 10 mg/kg/day.

  15. The Study on Acute and Subacute Toxicity and Anti-Cancer Effects of cultivated wild ginseng Herbal acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Rok, Kwon

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The purpose of this study was to investigate acute and subacute toxicity and sarcoma-180 anti-cancer effects of herbal acupuncture with cultivated wild ginseng (distilled in mice and rats. Methods : Balb/c mice were injected intravenous with cultivated wild ginseng herbal acupuncture for LD50 and acute toxicity test. Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intravenous with cultivated wild ginseng herbal acupuncture for subacute toxicity test. The cultivated wild ginseng herbal-acupuncture was injected at the tail vein of mice. Results : 1. In acute LD50 toxicity test, there was no mortality thus unable to attain the value. 2. Examining the toxic response in the acute toxicity test, there was no sign of toxication. 3. In acute toxic test, running biochemical serum test couldn't yield any differences between the control and experiment groups. 4. In subacute toxicity test, there was no sign of toxication in the experimental groups and didn't show any changes in weight compared to the normal group. 5. In subacute toxicity test, biochemical serum test showed significant increase of Total albumin, Albumin, and Glucose in the experimental group I compared with the control group. Significant decrease of GOT, ALP, GPT, and Triglyceride were shown. In experiment group II, only Glucose showed significant increase compared with the control group. 6. Measuring survival rate for anti-cancer effects of Sarcoma-180 cancer cell line, all the experimental groups showed significant increase in survival rate. 7. Measuring NK cell activity rate, no significant difference was shown throughout the groups. 8. Measuring Interleukin-2 productivity rate, all the experimental groups didn't show significant difference. 9. For manifestation of cytokine mRNA, significant decrease of interleukin-10 was witnessed in the experimental group compared to the control group. Conclusion : According to the results, we can conclude cultivated wild ginseng herbal acupuncture

  16. Nanosilver induces minimal lung toxicity or inflammation in a subacute murine inhalation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Shaughnessy Patrick T

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing interest in the environmental and health consequences of silver nanoparticles as the use of this material becomes widespread. Although human exposure to nanosilver is increasing, only a few studies address possible toxic effect of inhaled nanosilver. The objective of this study was to determine whether very small commercially available nanosilver induces pulmonary toxicity in mice following inhalation exposure. Results In this study, mice were exposed sub-acutely by inhalation to well-characterized nanosilver (3.3 mg/m3, 4 hours/day, 10 days, 5 ± 2 nm primary size. Toxicity was assessed by enumeration of total and differential cells, determination of total protein, lactate dehydrogenase activity and inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Lungs were evaluated for histopathologic changes and the presence of silver. In contrast to published in vitro studies, minimal inflammatory response or toxicity was found following exposure to nanosilver in our in vivo study. The median retained dose of nanosilver in the lungs measured by inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES was 31 μg/g lung (dry weight immediately after the final exposure, 10 μg/g following exposure and a 3-wk rest period and zero in sham-exposed controls. Dissolution studies showed that nanosilver did not dissolve in solutions mimicking the intracellular or extracellular milieu. Conclusions Mice exposed to nanosilver showed minimal pulmonary inflammation or cytotoxicity following sub-acute exposures. However, longer term exposures with higher lung burdens of nanosilver are needed to ensure that there are no chronic effects and to evaluate possible translocation to other organs.

  17. Phytochemical, sub-acute toxicity, and antibacterial evaluation of Cordia sebestena leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osho, Adeleke; Otuechere, Chiagoziem A; Adeosun, Charles B; Oluwagbemi, Tolu; Atolani, Olubunmi

    2016-03-01

    In Nigeria, Cordia sebestena (Boraginaceae), an understudied medicinal plant, is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. In this study, we investigated the chemical composition, antibacterial potential, and sub-acute toxicity of C. sebestena leaves. Ethyl acetate extracts were analyzed using thin layer chromatography (TLC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometry. The antibacterial potential of the extracts was tested against five standard bacteria, namely Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Clinical observations and blood parameters were used to evaluate the possible toxicity of C. sebestena. The TLC profile yielded 39 fractions, which were pooled to nine combined sub-fractions (A-I). The FTIR spectrum of sub-fraction H indicated the presence of aliphatic C-H stretching vibration at 2922 and 2850 cm-1, C=O stretch at 1734 and 1708 cm-1, and C=C stretch of aromatics and aliphatics at 1464 and (shoulder) 1618 cm-1, respectively. The fractions of the C. sebestena ethyl acetate leaf extract showed antibacterial potential across board, but fraction H had the highest antibacterial activity against B. cereus and S. aureus. The study also indicated the relatively low toxicity profile of the ethyl acetate leaf extract of C. sebestena in the liver of rats. The study showed that C. sebestena leaves have strong antibacterial potential and low toxicity, thereby underlying the scientific basis for their folkloric use in the management of microbial infections and its associated complications.

  18. Dietary zinc and its toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantzsch, H.J.

    1973-01-01

    First signs of Zn-toxicity in rats appeared at 1000 to 2000 ppm Zn in food. They were characterized by growth inhibition by the appearance of a microcytic hypochromic anemia by a reversible impairment of the ability to reproduce by disturbances in fat metabolism and by Zn-accumulation especially in the liver and the skeleton. Available results in the literature concerning alimentary Zn-toxicity in horses are few. At a daily doses of 8000 mg Zn during gestation there were no noticeable adverse effects either in the mare or the foal. While with young lambs addition of Zn of up to 1000 ppm enhanced growth, food intake and feed efficiency, with older lambs it gave rise to depressions. Available results of experiments with milk cows are equally insufficient. At Zn-concentration of 40 to 80 ppm, which may be reached in normal foodstuff, there appears to be a disturbance in the metabolism of cellulose in the rumen. In spite of this fact and notwithstanding the insufficiently examined influence of high Zn-concentrations in food on the Cu-metabolism, the limit of Zn-tolerance can be given at 1000 mg per kg of food. If dissolved, Zn is far more toxic. With calves there wre no signs of clinical toxicity up to Zn-concentrations in the food of 3000 ppm. Above 900 ppm there appeared depression in growth and deterioration in the feed efficiency. Ae 1700 ppm there was a decrease infood intake. Increased Zn-intake lead to a growing Zn-accumulation in several organs and tissues, with the accumulation in the liver, bones, kidneys, pancreas and the gastrointestinal tract being of special significance. With cessation of Zn-intake in food, Zn-accumulation slowly disappeared. As a result of high Zn-intake there appears to be synergistic and antagonistic interdependent effects with the metabolism of other trace elements (Cu, Fe) and minerals (Ca, Na, P).

  19. Subacute toxicity study on sup(99m)Tc stannous glucoheptonate injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belbeck, L.; Bowen, B.M.; Jeu, J.; Richardson, M. (McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada))

    1981-07-01

    A subacute toxicity study on sup(99m)Tc stannous glucoheptonate was performed with rats, dogs and rabbits, injected intravenously at ten to 100 times the human dose on a body weight basis. There were no abnormalities in the clinical status of any of the animals. No changes were found in urinalysis, blood chemistry or hematology in the rabbits nor in gross examination, renal histology or bone marrow smears in rats and rabbits. Hepatic histology was also done. A focal area of necrosis in a liver of one rabbit that had been injected with 100 times the human dose was observed using light microscopy. Examination by electron microscopy in another group of rats and rabbits was prompted by the observation of that lesion. This revealed vacuolated and dilated smooth endoplasmic reticulum and degranulated and vesiculated rough endoplasmic reticulum in all the test livers. X-ray microanalysis indicates that the ultrastructural changes are linked to the deposition of tin.

  20. Evaluation of acute and subacute toxicity of aqueous extract of Crassocephalum rubens leaves in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewale, Olusola B; Onasanya, Amos; Anadozie, Scholastica O; Abu, Miriam F; Akintan, Idowu A; Ogbole, Catherine J; Olayide, Israel I; Afolabi, Olakunle B; Jaiyesimi, Kikelomo F; Ajiboye, Bashir O; Fadaka, Adewale O

    2016-07-21

    Crassocephalum rubens is found throughout tropical Africa including the Indian Ocean islands. The leaves are commonly eaten in form of soups and sauces in South-Western Nigeria, also in other humid zones of Africa. Traditionally, it is used as an antidote against any form of poisoning; used to treat stomach and liver complaints; and externally to treat burns, sore eyes, earache, leprosy and breast cancer. In this study, acute and subacute toxicity of aqueous extract of C. rubens leaves was evaluated in rats in order to assess its safety profile. In acute toxicity study, rats were given a single oral administration of aqueous extract of C. rubens leaves at graded doses (250-5000mg/kg). The animals were monitored for behavioural changes and possible mortality over a period of 24h and thereafter, for 14 days. In the subacute toxicity study, rats of both sexes were administered C. rubens orally at doses of 250mg/kg, 500mg/kg, 750mg/kg and 1000mg/kg body weight daily, for 28 days. Rats were observed weekly for any changes in general behaviour and body weights. In addition, other relevant parameters were assayed at the end of the main and reversibility study periods. There was no observed adverse effect; including mortality in the animals. The extract caused no significant difference in the body weights as well as organs weights of treated groups when compared with the control groups. Haematological and biochemical parameters also revealed no toxic effects of the extract on rats. Histological assessments were normal in liver and kidney. It can therefore be suggested based on the results from this study that aqueous extract of C. rubens leaves, at dosage levels up to 1000mg/kg, is non-toxic and could also offer protection on some body tissues. Aqueous extract of C. rubens could therefore, be considered safe. This study supports the application of Crassocephalum rubens in traditional medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparative in vivo assessment of the subacute toxicity of gold and silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Mansee; Mohanty, Ipseeta Ray; Maheswari, Ujjwala; Dayal, Navami; Suman, Rajesh; Joshi, D. S.

    2014-04-01

    In spite of the projected therapeutic potentials of gold nanoparticles (GNP) and silver nanoparticles (SNP), very limited data are available on the interaction of nanoparticles with the biological systems. The present investigation was designed to evaluate as well as compare the subacute toxicity of GNP and SNP. Stable suspensions of GNP and SNP with mean particle diameter 10 and 25 nm, respectively, were prepared. Wistar rats were orally fed SNP (3 mg/kg) or GNP (20 μg/kg), once a day for 21 days. Biochemical indices (creatinine phosphokinase-MB, urea, blood urea nitrogen, aspartate transaminase, alkaline alanine transferase) and histopathological features of the liver, heart, brain, lungs, and kidney were evaluated for signs of toxicity. A significant decline in hepatic and renal function in the GNP treated group was observed as compared to SNP. GNP was found to be relatively more toxic on the lungs and SNP on the myocardial tissue as compared to SNP and GNP treatments, respectively. Interestingly, neither SNP nor GNP adversely affected the basal architecture of the brain as compared to sham. The present study demonstrated that GNP was significantly more noxious on the liver and kidney as compared with SNP.

  2. [Studies on distribution, excretion and subacute toxicity of squalane in dogs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, H; Koga, N; Oguri, K; Yoshimura, H; Inoue, H; Sato, K; Ohkubo, M

    1989-05-01

    In the previous papers, we demonstrated, by using rats, that squalane (2,6,10,15,19,23-hexamethyltetracosane) could stimulate the fecal excretion of 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran, which was regarded as the most important etiologic agent of yusho among PCB and PCDF congeners found in the causal rice oil. We also reported that, in rats, squalane was not essentially absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, and did not show any appreciable side effects during the 3-month treatment. In the present paper, we have investigated the distribution, excretion and subacute toxicity of squalane in beagle dogs. The fecal excretion of squalane accounted for about 83% of dose during the initial 2 days after administration at a single oral dose of 1,200 mg/kg to male dogs. On day 3, absorbed squalane was mostly distributed to the hair and the skin, and the concentrations in these tissues were decreased on day 6. These results suggested that most of squalane administered orally was not absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, but a part was absorbed and excreted through the hair. In addition, squalane distributed into the liver was found to be eliminated rather slowly. A long-term (13-week) treatments with squalane orally at doses of 400 mg/kg/day or 1,200 mg/kg/day in male and female dogs, resulted also in accumulation of squalane in the liver at a level of about 3% (400 mg/kg) or about 6% (1,200 mg/kg) of the daily dose. This accumulation of squalane in the liver was highest among all the tissues. Nevertheless, no appreciable toxic signs were observed in the serum biochemical tests and the hepatic functional test for squalane groups. Therefore, squalane accumulating in the liver, did not seem to disturb the hepatic physiological functions. It was suggested also in a long-term treatment that the skin and the hair played the most important role in the elimination of squalane. In conclusion, the present studies on subacute toxicity tests suggested that squalane did not give any

  3. Mammalian Toxicological Evaluation of TNT Wastewaters. Volume II. Acute and Subacute Mammalian Toxicity of TNT and LAP Mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-01

    lContinued) ’ in rats; subacute toxicity in mice; anemia; testicular atrophy; uterine U hypoplasia; hemosiderosis ; SGPT; cholesterol; unscheduled DNA...food intake, mild to moderate hemolytic anemia, 5. enlarged splee s and (usually) livers, hemosiderosis of the spleen, and colored urine.! Testicular...temporary with mice); mild to moderate anemia; alterations in organ weights, including enlarged spleens and (usually) livers; hemosiderosis of the spleen

  4. Combined subacute toxicity of copper and antiparasitic albendazole to the earthworm (Eisenia fetida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuhong; Li, Hongshuang; Li, Xuemei; Sun, Zhenjun

    2016-03-01

    Copper (Cu) is one of the most common metal contaminants, and albendazole (ABZ) is a veterinary drug with a high efficacy against helminthes. It is believed that the two may co-exist in soil. In this study, the combined subacute toxicity of Cu exposure (0, 80, 120, 160 mg kg(-1)) and ABZ exposure (0, 3, 9 mg kg(-1)) in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were observed using three approaches, namely chronic growth and reproduction, antioxidant enzyme activity, and earthworm Cu residue. The results have shown that the toxicity of Cu on cocoon hatching success and biomass was alleviated by presence of low concentrations of ABZ (3 mg kg(-1)) during a 56-day exposure period. However, the sensitivity of the earthworms' reproduction to Cu increased with the presence of high concentrations of ABZ (9 mg kg(-1)), indicating a reduction beginning at a Cu concentration of 80 mg kg(-1), in the cocoon number, hatching success, and biomass. In addition, the three enzyme activities exhibited different responsive patterns, indicating inducement in the catalase and glutathione peroxidase, and inhibition in the superoxide dismutase, which were dependent on the exposure times and concentrations. In regard to the earthworm Cu residue, when increasing Cu exposure concentrations, the internal Cu concentrations tended to level off, exhibited a linear pattern at the Cu concentration range of 40 to 120 mg kg(-1), and showed a stable trend above 120 mg kg(-1). The results of the present study can potentially provide important information regarding the combined toxicity of the veterinary drugs and the heavy metals in soil.

  5. Subacute pulmonary toxicity of copper indium gallium diselenide following intratracheal instillations into the lungs of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akiyo; Hirata, Miyuki; Shiratani, Masaharu; Koga, Kazunori; Kiyohara, Yutaka

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the pulmonary toxicity of copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) solar cells on 62 8-wk-old rats. Male Wistar rats were given 0.5, 5 or 50 mg/kg of CIGS particles, intratracheally, 3 times for a week. Control rats were given vehicle, distilled water, only. These rats were euthanized 0, 1 or 3 wk after the final instillation serially, and toxicological effects were determined. None of the CIGS-treated groups exhibited suppression of body weight gain compared with the control group. The relative lung weight in the CIGS 5 mg/kg-treated and 50 mg/kg-treated groups were significantly increased compared with that in the control group throughout the observation period. Although serum copper (Cu) and selenium (Se) concentrations were not affected by instillations of CIGS particles, the indium (In) levels increased with the passage of time in the CIGS 5 mg/kg-treated and 50 mg/kg-treated groups. However, the serum gallium (Ga) levels decreased in the CIGS 50 mg/kg-treated group from 0 to 3 wk. The content of each metal in the lung increased depending on the dose instilled and was constant during observation periods. Histopathologically, foci of slight to severe pulmonary inflammatory response and exudation were present among all the CIGS-treated groups, and the severity of these lesions worsened with the passage of time. The present results clearly demonstrate that CIGS particles caused subacute pulmonary toxicity and that dissolution of CIGS particles in the lung was considerably slow when repeated intratracheal instillations were given to rats.

  6. Acute and Subacute Toxicity In Vivo of Thermal-Sprayed Silver Containing Hydroxyapatite Coating in Rat Tibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatsugu Tsukamoto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the incidence of implant-associated infection, we previously developed a novel coating technology using hydroxyapatite (HA containing silver (Ag. This study examined in vivo acute and subacute toxicity associated with the Ag-HA coating in rat tibiae. Ten-week-old rats received implantation of HA-, 2% Ag-HA-, or 50% Ag-HA-coated titanium rods. Concentrations of silver in serum, brain, liver, kidneys, and spleen were measured in the acute phase (2–4 days after treatment and subacute phase (4–12 weeks after treatment. Biochemical and histological examinations of those organs were also performed. Mean serum silver concentration peaked in the acute phase and then gradually decreased. Mean silver concentrations in all examined organs from the 2% Ag-HA coating groups showed no significant differences compared with the HA coating group. No significant differences in mean levels of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine, or blood urea nitrogen were seen between the three groups and controls. Histological examinations of all organs revealed no abnormal pathologic findings. No acute or subacute toxicity was seen in vivo for 2% Ag-HA coating or HA coating. Ag-HA coatings on implants may represent biologically safe antibacterial biomaterials and may be of value for reducing surgical-site infections related to implantation.

  7. Acute and subacute toxicity in vivo of thermal-sprayed silver containing hydroxyapatite coating in rat tibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Masatsugu; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Ando, Yoshiki; Noda, Iwao; Eto, Shuichi; Akiyama, Takayuki; Yonekura, Yutaka; Sonohata, Motoki; Mawatari, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    To reduce the incidence of implant-associated infection, we previously developed a novel coating technology using hydroxyapatite (HA) containing silver (Ag). This study examined in vivo acute and subacute toxicity associated with the Ag-HA coating in rat tibiae. Ten-week-old rats received implantation of HA-, 2% Ag-HA-, or 50% Ag-HA-coated titanium rods. Concentrations of silver in serum, brain, liver, kidneys, and spleen were measured in the acute phase (2-4 days after treatment) and subacute phase (4-12 weeks after treatment). Biochemical and histological examinations of those organs were also performed. Mean serum silver concentration peaked in the acute phase and then gradually decreased. Mean silver concentrations in all examined organs from the 2% Ag-HA coating groups showed no significant differences compared with the HA coating group. No significant differences in mean levels of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine, or blood urea nitrogen were seen between the three groups and controls. Histological examinations of all organs revealed no abnormal pathologic findings. No acute or subacute toxicity was seen in vivo for 2% Ag-HA coating or HA coating. Ag-HA coatings on implants may represent biologically safe antibacterial biomaterials and may be of value for reducing surgical-site infections related to implantation.

  8. Toxicity assessment of zinc oxide nanoparticles using sub-acute and sub-chronic murine inhalation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Although ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) are used in many commercial products and the potential for human exposure is increasing, few in vivo studies have addressed their possible toxic effects after inhalation. We sought to determine whether ZnO NPs induce pulmonary toxicity in mice following sub-acute or sub-chronic inhalation exposure to realistic exposure doses. Methods Mice (C57Bl/6) were exposed to well-characterized ZnO NPs (3.5 mg/m3, 4 hr/day) for 2 (sub-acute) or 13 (sub-chronic) weeks and necropsied immediately (0 wk) or 3 weeks (3 wks) post exposure. Toxicity was assessed by enumeration of total and differential cells, determination of total protein, lactate dehydrogenase activity and inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid as well as measurements of pulmonary mechanics. Generation of reactive oxygen species was assessed in the lungs. Lungs were evaluated for histopathologic changes and Zn content. Zn concentration in blood, liver, kidney, spleen, heart, brain and BAL fluid was measured. Results An elevated concentration of Zn2+ was detected in BAL fluid immediately after exposures, but returned to baseline levels 3 wks post exposure. Dissolution studies showed that ZnO NPs readily dissolved in artificial lysosomal fluid (pH 4.5), but formed aggregates and precipitates in artificial interstitial fluid (pH 7.4). Sub-acute exposure to ZnO NPs caused an increase of macrophages in BAL fluid and a moderate increase in IL-12(p40) and MIP-1α, but no other inflammatory or toxic responses were observed. Following both sub-acute and sub-chronic exposures, pulmonary mechanics were no different than sham-exposed animals. Conclusions Our ZnO NP inhalation studies showed minimal pulmonary inflammation, cytotoxicity or lung histopathologic changes. An elevated concentration of Zn in the lung and BAL fluid indicates dissolution of ZnO NPs in the respiratory system after inhalation. Exposure concentration, exposure mode and time post

  9. Lithium toxicity from an Internet dietary supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauzé, D K; Brooks, D E

    2007-06-01

    The widespread availability of medications and herbal products on the Internet has increased the potential for poisonings. We are reporting a case of mild, acute lithium toxicity occurring after the intentional misuse of a lithium-containing "dietary supplement" (Find Serenity Now) obtained over the Internet. An 18-year-old woman presented to our emergency department (ED) after ingesting 18 tablets of Find Serenity Now; each tablet contained, according to the listing, 120 mg of lithium orotate [3.83 mg of elemental lithium per 100 mg of (organic) lithium orotate compared to 18.8 mg of elemental lithium per 100 mg of (inorganic) lithium carbonate]. The patient complained of nausea and reported one episode of emesis. Her examination revealed normal vital signs. The only finding was a mild tremor without rigidity. Almost 90 minutes after the ingestion, her serum lithium level was 0.31 mEq/L, a urine drug screen was negative, and an electrocardiogram (ECG) showed a normal sinus rhythm. The patient received intravenous fluids and an anti-emetic; one hour later, her repeat serum lithium level was 0.40 mEq/L. After 3 hours of observation, nausea and tremor were resolved, and she was subsequently transferred to a psychiatric hospital for further care. Prior human and animal data have shown similar pharmacokinetics and shared clinical effects of these lithium salts. Over-the-Internet dietary supplements may contain ingredients capable of causing toxicity in overdose. Chronic lithium toxicity from ingestion of this product is also of theoretical concern.

  10. Determination of toxicity of subacute treatment of some plant growth regulators on rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Ismail; Tuluce, Yasin

    2007-12-01

    potential enzyme MPO activity significantly increased in the spleen of rats treated with both doses of NAA and TIBA whereas ADA activity significantly decreased in the spleen of rats treated with 100 ppm dose of NAA and TIBA. The observations presented led us to conclude that the administrations of subacute NAA, 2,4-D, and TIBA promote MDA content, inhibit the antioxidative defense system and activate or inhibit immune potential enzymes in the rat's spleen and lung tissues. These data suggest that PGRs produced substantial organ toxicity in the lung and spleen during the period of a 25-day subacute exposure.

  11. Evaluation of acute and subacute toxicity of hydroethanolic extract of Dolichandra unguis-cati L. leaves in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calil Brondani, Juliana; Reginato, Fernanda Ziegler; da Silva Brum, Evelyne; de Souza Vencato, Marina; Lima Lhamas, Cibele; Viana, Carine; da Rocha, Maria Izabel Ugalde Marques; de Freitas Bauermann, Liliane; Manfron, Melânia Palermo

    2017-04-18

    Dolichandra unguis-cati L. is a native climbing plant of Brazil, popularly known as "unha de gato". It has been traditionally used mainly as an antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor agent, yet little toxicological information is found in the literature. To identify the chemical composition of the hydroethanolic extract obtained from the leaves of Dolichandra uniguis-cati and to evaluate the acute and subacute toxicity in male and female rats, in order to assess the safety profile of this plant. In the acute study, a single dose (2000mg/kg) of the extract was orally administered to male and female rats. In the subacute study, the extract was orally administered to male and female rats at doses 100, 200 and 400mg/kg for 28 days. Behavioral changes, catalase and tbars evaluations, biochemical, hematological and histopathological analysis were determined. The extract' chemical composition was accessed through UHPLC/MS. Chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, vanillinic acid, p-coumaric acid, rosmarinic acid, trans-cinnamic acid, luteolin, apigenin, quercitrin and quercetin were identified in the extract. In the acute treatment, the extract was classified as safe (category 5), according to the OECD guide. In relation to the subacute study, females showed a reduction in AST (100, 200 and 400mg/kg), ALT (200mg/kg) and BUN (100 and 200mg/kg) levels, while male rats 400mg/kg presented an increase in AST levels. The Chol dosage significantly decreased in female rats in a dose-dependent manner, whereas for male rats this parameter showed no statistically significant reductions. No behavioral and histopathological changes were recorded. Our results indicate that the hydroethanolic extract of Dolichandra unguis-cati leaves did not present relevant toxic effects when administered orally to male and female rats. The extract also showed a potential hypocholesterolemic activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Safety assessment of Withania somnifera extract standardized for Withaferin A: Acute and sub-acute toxicity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shruti B; Rao, Nirav J; Hingorani, Lal L

    2016-03-01

    The use of Withania somnifera is increasing due to a number of its chemical constituents found useful for health. The present study was carried out to investigate the potential adverse effects (if any) of a standardized Withania somnifera extract (WSE) in rats following acute and sub chronic administration. The toxicity study was performed in Wistar rats by oral administration. An acute toxicity study was done at the dose of 2000 mg/kg. In the sub-acute study, Wistar rats (10/sex/group) were administered via gavage 0 (control), 500, 1000, 2000 mg/kg body weight/day of WSE for 28 days. Among two additional satellite groups, one group did not receive any drug while the second group received 2000 mg/kg/day for 28 days. At the end of study, the animals sacrificed and their body weight, hematology, serum chemistry, and histopathology evaluation was done. In acute toxicity studies, oral LD50 of WSE in Wistar rats was greater than 2000 mg/kg body weight. Compared to the control group in sub-acute toxicity study, administration of extract did not show any toxicologically significant treatment related changes in clinical observations, ophthalmic examination, body weight gain, feed consumption, clinical pathology evaluation, and organ weight. Hematological and serum chemistry parameters were within the normal limits. Terminal necropsy did not reveal any treatment related gross or histopathological findings. Based on this study, the no-observed-adverse-effect-level of WSE is 2000 mg/kg body weight, the highest level tested. Copyright © 2016 Transdisciplinary University, Bangalore and World Ayurveda Foundation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Subacute toxicity of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in male rats: emotional behavior and pathophysiological examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Naima Rihane Ben; Amara, Salem; Mrad, Imen; Ben-Slama, Imen; Jeljeli, Mustapha; Omri, Karim; El Ghoul, Jaber; El Mir, Lassaad; Rhouma, Khemais Ben; Abdelmelek, Hafedh; Sakly, Mohsen

    2015-06-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) have a wide range of applications in many fields (paint, industry, medicine, additives in food colorants, and nutritional products). Over the past decade research, TiO2 NPs have been focused on the potential toxic effects of these useful materials. In the present study, we investigated the effects of subacute exposure to TiO2 NPs on emotional behavior in adult Wistar rats, the biochemical parameters, and the histology of organs. Animals were injected intraperitoneally (ip) with TiO2 NPs (20 mg/kg body weight) every 2 days for 20 days. The elevated plus-maze test showed that subacute TiO2 NPs treatment increased significantly the anxious index (AI) compared to control group. The toxicological parameters were assessed 24 h and 14 days after the last injection of TiO2 NPs. Subacute exposure to nanoparticles increased the AST/ALT enzyme ratio and LDH activity. However, the blood cell count remained unchanged, except the platelet count increase. Histological examination showed a little inflammation overall. Moreover, our results provide strong evidence that the TiO2 NPs can induce the liver pathological changes of rats. The intraperitoneal injection of TiO2 NPs increased the accumulation of titanium in the liver, lung, and the brain. The results suggest that TiO2 NPs could alter the neurobehavioral performance of adult Wistar rats and promotes alterations in hepatic tissues.

  14. Dietary Strategies for the Treatment of Cadmium and Lead Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qixiao Zhai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb are toxic heavy metals that cause adverse health effects in humans and animals. Chelation therapy, the conventional treatment for heavy metal toxicity, is reported to have a number of safety and efficacy issues. Recent studies have shown that dietary supplements play important roles in protecting against Cd and Pb toxicity. This paper reviews the evidence for protective effects of essential metals, vitamins, edible plants, phytochemicals, probiotics and other dietary supplements against Cd and Pb toxicity and describes the proposed possible mechanisms. Based on these findings, dietary strategies are recommended for people at risk of Cd and Pb exposure. The application of these strategies is advantageous for both the prevention and alleviation of Cd and Pb toxicity, as such supplements can be added easily and affordably to the daily diet and are expected to have very few side effects compared to the chelation therapy.

  15. Dietary Strategies for the Treatment of Cadmium and Lead Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Qixiao; Narbad, Arjan; Chen, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) are toxic heavy metals that cause adverse health effects in humans and animals. Chelation therapy, the conventional treatment for heavy metal toxicity, is reported to have a number of safety and efficacy issues. Recent studies have shown that dietary supplements play important roles in protecting against Cd and Pb toxicity. This paper reviews the evidence for protective effects of essential metals, vitamins, edible plants, phytochemicals, probiotics and other dietary supplements against Cd and Pb toxicity and describes the proposed possible mechanisms. Based on these findings, dietary strategies are recommended for people at risk of Cd and Pb exposure. The application of these strategies is advantageous for both the prevention and alleviation of Cd and Pb toxicity, as such supplements can be added easily and affordably to the daily diet and are expected to have very few side effects compared to the chelation therapy. PMID:25594439

  16. The Study on Acute and Subacute Toxicity and Sarcoma-180 Anti-cancer Effects of Carthami Tinctor-Fructus Herbal-acupuncture(CF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Suk An

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate acute and subacute toxicity and sarcoma-180 anti-cancer effects of herbal acupuncture with Carthami- Tinctorii fructus (CF in mice and rats. Method: Balb/c mice were injected intraperitoneally with Carthami - Tinctorii fructus (CF for LD50 and acute toxicity test. Sprague Dawley rats were injected intraperitoneally with Carthami- Tinctorii fructus (CF for subacute toxicity test. The Carthami- Tinctorii fructus herbal-acupuncture was injected on Chung-wan (CV12 of mice with Sarcoma-180 cancer cell line. Results: 1. LD50 was uncountable as none of the subjects expired during the test. 2. In acute toxicity test, toxic symptoms were not detected, but the body weight of mice was increased in treatment Ⅰ, treatment Ⅱ groups, compared to the normal group.(p<0.05 3. In acute toxicity test of serum biochemical values of mice, glucose was increased in treatment Ⅰ and treatment Ⅱ groups, total cholesterol was increased in treatment I group, GOT was decreased in treatment Ⅱ group, and GPT was decreased in treatment Ⅰ group, compared to the normal group.(p<0.05 4. The clinical signs and the body weight of mice treated with 0.1 cc, 0.2cc Carthami- Tinctorii fructus (CF were not affected during the subacute toxicity test. 5. In subacute toxicity test, treatment groups didn't show significant changes in complete blood count test (CBC of rats, compared to the nonnal group.(p<0.05 6. In subacute toxicity test of serum biochemical values of rats, uric acid was decreased in treatment Ⅰ and treatment Ⅱ groups, compared to the nonnal group, triglyceride was decreased in treatment I group, compared to the normal group, GOT and GPT were decreased in treatment I and treatment Ⅱ groups, and alkaline phosphatase was decreased in treatment Ⅰ and treatment Ⅱ groups, compared to the normal group.(p<0.05 7. Median survival time was increased in all the treatment groups for Sarcoma-180 cancer cell

  17. Antagonistic effects of Spirulina platensis against sub-acute deltamethrin toxicity in mice: Biochemical and histopathological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Daim, Mohamed; El-Bialy, Badr E; Rahman, Haidy G Abdel; Radi, Abeer M; Hefny, Hany A; Hassan, Ahmed M

    2016-02-01

    Spirulina platensis (SP); a microalga with high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, acts as a food supplement in human and as many animal species. Deltamethrin (DLM) is a synthetic pyrethroid with broad spectrum activities against acaricides and insects and widely used for veterinary and agricultural purposes. Exposure to DLM leads to hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic and neurotoxic side effects for human and many species, including birds and fish. The present study was undertaken to examine the potential hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, neuroprotective and antioxidant effects of SP against sub-acute DLM toxicity in male mice. DLM intoxicated animals revealed a significant increase in serum hepatic and renal injury biomarkers as well as TNF-α level and AChE activity. Moreover, liver, kidney and brain lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress markers were altered due to DLM toxicity. Spirulina normalized the altered serum levels of AST, ALT, APL, LDH, γ-GT, cholesterol, uric acid, urea, creatinine AChE and TNF-α. Furthermore, it reduced DLM-induced tissue lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide and oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner. Collectively, that Spirulina supplementation could overcome DLM-induced hepatotoxicty, nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity by abolishing oxidative tissue injuries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Acute and Sub-Acute Toxicity of Aqueous Extract of Nauclea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the dose – toxicity profile of the aqueous extract of Nauclea latifolia stem bark. (AQE). Methods: .... filtered and lyophilized and the dried residue was diluted appropriately with water for oral administration to the experimental animals. Acute toxicity test ..... the removal of metabolic wastes from the blood.

  19. Toxicity of dietary lead in young cockerels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J C; Custer, T W

    1982-12-01

    Day-old cockerels received 1850 ppm dietary lead for 4 wks. Blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity was reduced to 1.6% of control activity by the end of the study. Hemoglobin concentration (Hb) in lead-exposed cockerels was significantly less than that of controls at 7, 14, and 28 days, and packed cell volume (PCV) was significantly reduced at 14 days. Blood lead residues reached 832 micrograms/dl in exposed cockerels; kidney residues were about three times liver residues. At the termination of the study mean body weight of lead-exposed birds was 47% of controls.

  20. Huso huso Acute and subacute toxicity study of ethanolic extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acute toxicity profiles of ... body weight changes, haematology, plasma biochemical parameters, relative organ weight (ROW) were evaluated. ... to ascertain its effect on the male reproductive system as well as its effect on chronic administration.

  1. Sub-acute toxicity and biochemical effects of extracts of Anaphe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ataxia syndrome which is characterized by sudden onset of severe muscular tremor and gait ataxia has been shown to be associated with the consumption of the larvae of Anaphe venata in South Western part of Nigeria. In this report, the sub -acute toxicity and biochemical effects of polar and nonpolar extracts of Anaphe ...

  2. Acute and Sub-acute Toxicity Profile of Aqueous Leaf Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Acute toxicity study was performed by administering a single oral dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight of the extract to 5 rats while distilled water was given to another 5 ... Histopathology did not reveal any sign of lesions or pathological changes in the organs that could be attributed to treatment with the plant extract.

  3. Subacute (28-day) toxicity of furfural in Fischer 344 rats: a comparison of the oral and inhalation route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arts, Josje H E; Muijser, Hans; Appel, Marko J; Frieke Kuper, C; Bessems, Jos G M; Woutersen, Ruud A

    2004-09-01

    The subacute oral and inhalation toxicity of furfural vapour was studied in Fischer 344 rats to investigate whether route-to-route extrapolation could be employed to derive the limit value for inhalation exposure from oral toxicity data. Groups of 5 rats per sex were treated by gavage daily for 28 days at dose levels of 6-192 mg/kg bw/day, or exposed by inhalation to concentrations of 20-1280 mg/m3 (6 h/day, 5 days/week) or 160-1280 mg/m3 (3 h/day, 5 days/week) for 28 days. Controls received vehicle (corn oil) or were exposed to clean air. Daily oral treatment with the highest dose of furfural (initially 192 mg/kg bw/day, later reduced to 144 mg/kg bw/day and finally to 120 mg/kg bw/day) resulted in mortality, and in increases in absolute and relative kidney and liver weight in surviving females of this group. Exposure of rats by inhalation for 6 h/day, 5 days/week for 28 days induced mortality at concentrations of 640 mg/m3 and above within 1-8 days. At 640 mg/m3 (3 h/day) and at 320 mg/m3 (3 and 6 h/day) and below, however, exposure was tolerated without serious clinical effects. In contrast, histopathological nasal changes were seen even at the lowest concentration of 20 mg/m3. With increasing exposure concentration, the nasal effects increased in incidence and severity and also expanded from the anterior part to the posterior part, including the olfactory epithelium. It was concluded that the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for oral toxicity was 96 mg/kg bw/day. The NOAEL for systemic inhalation toxicity was comparable, i.e. 92 mg/kg bw/day (corresponding to 320 mg/m3 (6 h/day) or 640 mg/m3 (3 h/day)) assuming 100% absorption. The presence of the histopathological nasal changes at the lowest tested concentration of 20 mg/m3 (corresponding to 6 mg/kg bw/day) proves that for locally acting substances like furfural extrapolation from the oral to the inhalation route is not valid.

  4. Iron and nickel complexes with heterocyclic ligands: stability, synthesis, spectral characterization, antimicrobial activity, acute and subacute toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchoucha, Afaf; Terbouche, Achour; Zaouani, Mohamed; Derridj, Fazia; Djebbar, Safia

    2013-07-01

    The synthesis and characterization by elemental analysis, emission atomic spectroscopy, TG measurements, magnetic measurements, FTIR, (1)H NMR, UV-visible spectra and conductivity of a series of iron (II) and nickel (II) complexes with two heterocyclic ligands (L(1)(SMX): sulfamethoxazole and L(2)(MIZ): metronidazole) used in pharmaceutical field and with a new ligand derived benzoxazole (L(3)(MPBO): 2-(5-methylpyridine-2-yl)benzoxazole), were reported. The formulae obtained for the complexes are: [M(L(1))2 Cl2]·nH2O, [M(L(2))2Cl2(H2O)2]·H2O and [M(L(3))2(OH)2]·nH2O. Stability constants of these complexes have been determined by potentiometric methods in water-ethanol (90:10, v/v) mixture at a 0.2 mol L(-1) ionic strength (NaCl) and at 25.0±0.1 °C. Sirko program was used to determine the protonation constants as well as the binding constants of three species [ML2H2](2+), [ML2] and [ML](2+). The antimicrobial activity of the ligands and complexes was evaluated in vitro against different human bacteria and fungi using agar diffusion method. Iron sulfamethoxazole complex showed a remarkable inhibition of bacteria growth especially on Staphylococcus aureus and P. aeruginosa. The iron metronidazole complex is active against yeasts especially on Candida tropicalis strain. Nickel complexes presented different antibacterial and antifungal behavior's against bacteria and fungal. The acute toxicity study revealed that the iron complexes are not toxic at 2000 mg/kg dose orally administrated. LD50 for nickel complexes was determined using graphical method. No significant differences in the body weights between the control and the treated groups of both rat sexes in subacute toxicity study using for iron complexes. Hematological and clinical blood chemistry analysis revealed no toxicity effects of the iron complexes. Pathologically, neither gross abnormalities nor histopathological changes were observed for these complexes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights

  5. The toxicity of dietary trans fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Riya; Pierce, Grant N

    2015-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death today. Trans fatty acids have been identified as an important cause of cardiovascular disease and the resulting clinical end points such as strokes and heart attacks. Although legislative efforts have limited the trans fats in our diet, significant amounts remain. Understanding the impact trans fats have on our body, therefore, remains a critical focus of study. In addition, paradoxically, recent research has now identified an important cardioprotective role for a sub-category of trans fats, the ruminant trans fats. Learning more about the mechanisms responsible for not only the toxic actions of trans fats but also their potential as beneficial compounds within our diet is essential to modulate cardiovascular disease today. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Haematolohical Profile of Subacute Oral Toxicity of Molybdenum and Ameliorative Efficacy of Copper Salt in Goats

    OpenAIRE

    Kusum; Raina, R.; Verma, P. K.; Pankaj, N. K.; Kant, V.; Kumar, J.; Srivastava, A. K.

    2010-01-01

    Molybdenum toxicity produces a state of secondary hypocuprosis, resulting into alterations in normal hematological profile. In the present study, ammonium molybdate alone and with copper sulfate (II) pentahydrate (ameliorative agent) was administered orally for 30 consecutive days in healthy goats of group 1 and 2, respectively, to access the effect on the hematological profile on different predetermined days of dosing. Administration of ammonium molybdate alone produced significant decline i...

  7. Preclinical Studies Evaluating Subacute Toxicity and Therapeutic Efficacy of LQB-118 in Experimental Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha-Júnior, Edézio Ferreira; Martins, Thiago Martino; Canto-Cavalheiro, Marilene Marcuzzo; Marques, Paulo Roberto; Portari, Elyzabeth Avvad; Coelho, Marsen Garcia Pinto; Netto, Chaquip Daher; Costa, Paulo Roberto Ribeiro; Sabino, Katia Costa de Carvalho; Torres-Santos, Eduardo Caio

    2016-06-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is the most severe form of leishmaniasis and is the second major cause of death by parasites, after malaria. The arsenal of drugs against leishmaniasis is small, and each has a disadvantage in terms of toxicity, efficacy, price, or treatment regimen. Our group has focused on studying new drug candidates as alternatives to current treatments. The pterocarpanquinone LQB-118 was designed and synthesized based on molecular hybridization, and it exhibited antiprotozoal and anti-leukemic cell line activities. Our previous work demonstrated that LQB-118 was an effective treatment for experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis. In this study, we observed that treatment with 10 mg/kg of body weight/day LQB-118 orally inhibited the development of hepatosplenomegaly with a 99% reduction in parasite load. An in vivo toxicological analysis showed no change in the clinical, biochemical, or hematological parameters. Histologically, all of the analyzed organs were normal, with the exception of the liver, where focal points of necrosis with leukocytic infiltration were observed at treatment doses 5 times higher than the therapeutic dose; however, these changes were not accompanied by an increase in transaminases. Our findings indicate that LQB-118 is effective at treating different clinical forms of leishmaniasis and presents no relevant signs of toxicity at therapeutic doses; thus, this framework is demonstrated suitable for developing promising drug candidates for the oral treatment of leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Acute selenium toxicity associated with a dietary supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarquhar, Jennifer K; Broussard, Danielle L; Melstrom, Paul; Hutchinson, Richard; Wolkin, Amy; Martin, Colleen; Burk, Raymond F; Dunn, John R; Green, Alice L; Hammond, Roberta; Schaffner, William; Jones, Timothy F

    2010-02-08

    Selenium is an element necessary for normal cellular function, but it can have toxic effects at high doses. We investigated an outbreak of acute selenium poisoning. A case was defined as the onset of symptoms of selenium toxicity in a person within 2 weeks after ingesting a dietary supplement manufactured by "Company A," purchased after January 1, 2008. We conducted case finding, administered initial and 90-day follow-up questionnaires to affected persons, and obtained laboratory data where available. The source of the outbreak was identified as a liquid dietary supplement that contained 200 times the labeled concentration of selenium. Of 201 cases identified in 10 states, 1 person was hospitalized. The median estimated dose of selenium consumed was 41 749 microg/d (recommended dietary allowance is 55 microg/d). Frequently reported symptoms included diarrhea (78%), fatigue (75%), hair loss (72%), joint pain (70%), nail discoloration or brittleness (61%), and nausea (58%). Symptoms persisting 90 days or longer included fingernail discoloration and loss (52%), fatigue (35%), and hair loss (29%). The mean initial serum selenium concentration of 8 patients was 751 microg/L (reference range, selenium concentration of 7 patients was 166 microg/24 h (reference range, selenium in a liquid dietary supplement resulted in a widespread outbreak. Had the manufacturers been held to standards used in the pharmaceutical industry, it may have been prevented.

  9. [On the subacute toxicity of labetalol (AH5158): a combined alpha-and beta-adrenoceptor blocking agent (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimpo, K; Yokoi, Y; Fujiwara, S; Togashi, H; Tanabe, T

    1980-11-01

    Subacute toxicity and recovery tests of labetalol hydrochloride, alpha- and beta-adrenoceptor blocking agent, were carried out using male and female Wistar strain rats. The drug was orally administered at 50, 150, 450 or 1000 mg/kg/day for 1 month. In all the drug-treated groups, increase in salivation was observed from immediately to 15 minutes after dosing through the treatment period. Eight of the 10 males and 9 of the 10 females in the group treated with 1000 mg/kg/day died of intoxication. Suppression of body weight gain was observed in male rats in the 450 and 1000 mg/kg/day groups and in female rats in the 1000 mg/kg/day group. In the 150 mg/kg/day and higher dose groups, water consumption showed a tendency to increase as compared with that of control group. Increase in urine volume was observed in female rats in the 450 mg/kg/day group. In the serum biochemical examination, slight elevation in potassium levels was noted in the 150 and 450 mg/kg/day groups. In histopathological findings, some abnormalities were found in the groups treated at 150 mg/kg/day and higher. Major abnormalities found in organs were; congestion and hypremia of various organs due to vasodilation, swelling of parenchymatous cells in liver and kidneys, and loose arrangement and change in the thickness of muscle fibers in cardiac and skeletal muscles. None of these abnormal findings was found in any examination in recovery tests.

  10. Haematolohical profile of subacute oral toxicity of molybdenum and ameliorative efficacy of copper salt in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusum; Raina, R; Verma, P K; Pankaj, N K; Kant, V; Kumar, J; Srivastava, A K

    2010-07-01

    Molybdenum toxicity produces a state of secondary hypocuprosis, resulting into alterations in normal hematological profile. In the present study, ammonium molybdate alone and with copper sulfate (II) pentahydrate (ameliorative agent) was administered orally for 30 consecutive days in healthy goats of group 1 and 2, respectively, to access the effect on the hematological profile on different predetermined days of dosing. Administration of ammonium molybdate alone produced significant decline in the mean values of hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), total leukocyte count (TLC), total erythrocyte count (TEC), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), with a significant increase in neutrophil level and mean corpuscular volume (MCV). However, values of erythrocyte sedimentation rate, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and differential leukocyte count were not significantly altered. On comparing observations of ameliorative group with the group 1 goats, it is concluded that the ameliorative copper salt has beneficial effects in alleviating the alterations in the values of Hb, PCV, TLC, TEC, MCV, MCHC, and neutrophils.

  11. Acute and subacute toxicity of copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO(4)5.H(2)O) in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Keehae; Heo, Gang-Joon

    2009-03-01

    Chemicals are used for treatment of aquatic diseases, but there is little data available about copper sulfate in small ornamental fish. The aim of the present study was to determine the TLm(24h) and evaluate the toxicity of copper sulfate in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata). The fish were subjected to an acute toxicity test for 24 hr, and the results showed a TLm(24h) value of 1.17 ppm. Severe hyperplasia and exfoliation of the epithelial cells of gill lamellae and obstruction of the internal cavities of renal tubules with necrotized renal epithelial cells sloughed from the basement membrane were observed. However, no significant changes, except for mild curling of gill lamellae, were found in a subacute toxicity test in which fish were exposed to 1/10 of the TLm(24h) value for 1 week. Therefore, use of less than 0.12 ppm of copper sulfate may be recommended as a therapeutic level.

  12. Anti-diabetic effects of Inonotus obliquus polysaccharides-chromium (III) complex in type 2 diabetic mice and its sub-acute toxicity evaluation in normal mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cong; Chen, Zhongqin; Pan, Yuxiang; Gao, Xudong; Chen, Haixia

    2017-10-01

    Polysaccharides are important bioactive ingredients from Inonotus obliquus. This study aimed to synthesize and characterize a novel I. obliquus polysaccharides-chromium (III) complex (UIOPC) and investigate the anti-diabetic effects in streptozotocin (STZ) induced type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) mice and sub-acute toxicity in normal mice. The molecular weight of UIOPC was about 11.5 × 10 4 Da with the chromium content was 13.01% and the chromium was linked with polysaccharides through coordination bond. After treatment of UIOPC for four weeks, the body weight, fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels, plasma insulin levels of the diabetic mice were significantly reduced when compared with those of the diabetic mice (p < 0.05). The results on serum profiles and antioxidant enzymes activities revealed that UIOPC had a positive effect on hypoglycemic and antioxidant ability. Histopathology results showed that UIOPC could effectively alleviate the STZ-lesioned tissues in diabetic mice. Furthermore, high dose administration of UIOPC had no obviously influence on serum profiles levels and antioxidant ability of the normal mice and the organ tissues maintained organized and integrity in the sub-acute toxicity study. These results suggested that UIOPC might be a good candidate for the functional food or pharmaceuticals in the treatment of T2DM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dietary toxicity and tissue accumulation of methylmercury in American kestrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Richard S.; French, John B.; Rossmann, Ronald; Haebler, Romona J.

    2009-01-01

    American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were fed meat diets containing 0, 3, 6, or 12 ppm (dry weight) methylmercury chloride. Birds fed the 12-ppm diet started to show signs of neurotoxicity after 26 days and all died in 39?49 days. One male kestrel fed the 6-ppm diet died after 75 days of exposure and several others showed signs of neurotoxicity after 45 days. None of the birds fed the 3-ppm diet died or showed signs of toxicity. After 59 days of exposure, mercury concentrations in the liver, kidney, and blood of nonreproducing kestrels increased with increasing dietary concentration. Tissue concentrations of mercury also steadily increased over time in birds fed diets with 6 ppm mercury, which were necropsied at 8, 15, 29, or 59 days of exposure, reaching mean total mercury concentrations of 57, 46, and 45 ppm (wet weight) at 59 days in the liver, kidney, and whole blood, respectively. Two pairs of kestrels at each dietary concentration were allowed to breed. Eggs averaged 8.3 and 18.1 ppm (wet weight) total mercury from birds fed 3- and 6-ppm diets, respectively. Feathers grown during mercury exposure contained high concentrations of mercury: Birds fed 3- and 6-ppm diets contained 275 and 542 ppm total mercury, respectively.

  14. Evaluation of subacute toxicity of methanolic/aqueous preparation of aerial parts of O. sanctum in Wistar rats: Clinical, haematological, biochemical and histopathological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raina, P; Chandrasekaran, C V; Deepak, M; Agarwal, A; Ruchika, K-G

    2015-12-04

    Ocimum sanctum, commonly known as Holy Basil or Tulsi has been used in Ayurveda as a demulcent, stimulant, expectorant; in the treatment of bronchitis, skin infections, malaria, diarrhoea, dysentery, arthritis, gastric and inflammatory disorders. We have previously shown that methanolic/aqueous extract of O. sanctum did not induce genotoxicity and other toxic effects in acute oral toxicity study. In the present report, we have performed sub-acute toxicity of methanolic/aqueous preparation of O. sanctum in Wistar rats to evaluate whether it induced any chronic toxic effects. In subacute toxicity study, animals received O. sanctum extract (OSE) by oral gavage at the doses of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day (n=5/group/sex) for 28 days. At the end of the study, the animals were sacrificed and evaluated for the effect of OSE on clinical, haematological, biochemical and histopathological parameters. The rats treated with OSE did not show any change in body weight, food and water consumption, motor activity, sensory reactivity and foot splay measurements. There were no significant changes in haematological, pathological and biochemical parameters; and histopathology of tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, heart, and testis/ovary) among rats of either sex. OSE at a dose of 1000 mg/kg showed significant increase of Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) (19.8 ± 0.8; 18.7 ± 0.5) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) (41.8 ± 1.1; 39.3 ± 0.7) in male and female rats in comparison to their respective controls (MCH: 17.7 ± 0.3; 17.4 ± 0.3; MCHC: 37.8 ± 0.5; 36.1 ± 0.2). Urine parameters (appearance, blood, nitrate, leucocyte, glucose, ketone, pH, protein and specific gravity) in both the male and female rats were comparable to their respective controls. In addition, no changes were observed in the vital organs of rats at macroscopic and microscopic levels. Our results showed that oral administration of OSE was not toxic to male and female Wistar rats upto the highest

  15. Acute and subacute toxicity of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon 1-methylnaphthalene to the shallow-water coral Porites divaricata: Application of a novel exposure protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renegar, D Abigail; Turner, Nicholas R; Riegl, Bernhard M; Dodge, Richard E; Knap, Anthony H; Schuler, Paul A

    2017-01-01

    Previous research evaluating hydrocarbon toxicity to corals and coral reefs has generally focused on community-level effects, and results often are not comparable between studies because of variability in hydrocarbon exposure characterization and evaluation of coral health and mortality during exposure. Toxicity of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon 1-methylnaphthalene to the coral Porites divaricata was assessed in a constant exposure toxicity test utilizing a novel toxicity testing protocol uniquely applicable to shallow-water corals, which considered multiple assessment metrics and evaluated the potential for post-exposure mortality and/or recovery. Acute and subacute effects (gross morphological changes, photosynthetic efficiency, mortality, and histologic cellular changes) were evaluated during pre-exposure (4 wk), exposure (48 h), and post-exposure recovery (4 wk) periods. Coral condition scores were used to determine a 48-h median effective concentration of 7442 μg/L. Significant physical and histological changes resulted from exposure to 640 μg/L and 5427 μg/L 1-methylnaphthalene, with a 1-d to 3-d delay in photosynthetic efficiency effects (ΔF/Fm). Pigmented granular amoebocyte area was found to be a potentially useful sublethal endpoint for this species. Coral mortality was used to estimate a 48-h median lethal concentration of 12 123 μg/L. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:212-219. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  16. European medicinal and edible plants associated with subacute and chronic toxicity part I: Plants with carcinogenic, teratogenic and endocrine-disrupting effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristanc, Luka; Kreft, Samo

    2016-06-01

    In recent decades, the use of herbal medicines and food products has been widely embraced in many developed countries. These products are generally highly accepted by consumers who often believe that "natural" equals "safe". This is, however, an oversimplification because several botanicals have been found to contain toxic compounds in concentrations harmful to human health. Acutely toxic plants are in most cases already recognised as dangerous as a result of their traditional use, but plants with subacute and chronic toxicity are difficult or even impossible to detect by traditional use or by clinical research studies. In this review, we systematically address major issues including the carcinogenicity, teratogenicity and endocrine-disrupting effects associated with the use of herbal preparations with a strong focus on plant species that either grow natively or are cultivated in Europe. The basic information regarding the molecular mechanisms of the individual subtypes of plant-induced non-acute toxicity is given, which is followed by a discussion of the pathophysiological and clinical characteristics. We describe the genotoxic and carcinogenic effects of alkenylbenzenes, pyrrolizidine alkaloids and bracken fern ptaquiloside, the teratogenicity issues regarding anthraquinone glycosides and specific alkaloids, and discuss the human health concerns regarding the phytoestrogens and licorice consumption in detail. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Determination of acute toxicity and the effects of sub-acute concentrations of CuO nanoparticles on blood parameters in Rutilus rutilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolreza Jahanbakhshi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Copper oxidenanoparticles have different industrial applications so it is inevitable that nanoparticulate products finally find their way into aquatic ecosystems. Nevertheless there is little information available about their effects on some of edible fish. The present study aims to determine the acute toxicity and evaluate the effect of two sub-acute concentrations (50 and 70% 96 h LC50 of CuO-NPs on some hematological and biochemical parameters of R. rutilus. Materials and Methods:225 healthy specimen of R. rutilus (mean weight 5.52±1.2 g; mean length 6.20±0.2 cm were transported to the laboratory. In order to prepare the stock solution, CuO-NPs was dispersed in pure water with ultrasonication (50-60 kHz for 15 min every day before dosing. At first, R. rutilus was exposed to CuO-NPs to determine the lethal concentration (LC50 value. Following acute test, fish were treated with sub-acute concentrations of CuO-NPs (50 and 70% 96 h-LC50 at with one control group (no CuO-NPs for a week to determine the changes in the level of some plasma hematological and biochemical parameters. Results:The 96 h-LC50 values of CuO-NPs was 2.19±0.003 mg/l. R. rutilus exhibited significantly lower RBC count, Hb and Hct values and a significant increase in the WBC numbers, MCH, MCHC and MCV indices (p

  18. Dietary metal toxicity to the marine sea hare, Aplysia californica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Tayler A; Capo, Thomas R; Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K

    2015-01-01

    Metal pollution from anthropogenic inputs is a concern in many marine environments. Metals accumulate in tissue and in excess cause toxicity in marine organisms. This study investigated the accumulation and effects of dietary metals in a macroinvertebrate. The green seaweed, Ulva lactuca and the red seaweed, Agardhiella subulata were each concurrently exposed to two concentrations (100 or 1000 μg/L) of five metals (Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd, and Zn). Additionally, U. lactuca was exposed to 10 μg/L of the metal mixture as well as 10 or 100 μg/L of each metal individually for 48 h. The seaweeds were then used as food for the sea hare, Aplysia californica for two to three weeks depending on the exposure concentration. Body mass of A. californica was measured weekly, and at the end of the exposure duration, metal concentrations were quantified in dissected organs (mouth, esophagus, crop, gizzard, ovotestis, heart, hepatopancreas, gill, and the carcass). Metal distribution and accumulation in the organs of A. californica varied with the metal. A. californica fed the metal-exposed diets had significantly reduced body weight by the end of the exposure periods, as compared to controls; however, differences were observed in the extent of growth reductions, dependent on exposure concentration, duration, and exposure regime (metal mixture versus individual metal-exposed diet). Metal mixture diets decreased A. californica growth more so than comparable individual metal diets, despite more metal accumulating in the individual metal diets. Additionally, Zn- and Cu-contaminated algal diets decreased control-normalized growth of A. californica significantly more than comparable Cd-, Pb-, or Ni-contaminated diets. The seaweed diets in this study contained environmentally relevant tissue metal burdens. Therefore, these results have implications for metals in marine systems. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Toxicity assessment of zinc oxide nanoparticles using sub-acute and sub-chronic murine inhalation models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adamcakova-Dodd, Andrea; Stebounova, Larissa V; Kim, Jong Sung; Vorrink, Sabine U; Ault, Andrew P; O'Shaughnessy, Patrick T; Grassian, Vicki H; Thorne, Peter S

    2014-01-01

    Although ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) are used in many commercial products and the potential for human exposure is increasing, few in vivo studies have addressed their possible toxic effects after inhalation...

  20. Size-Dependent Toxicity Differences of Intratracheally Instilled Manganese Oxide Nanoparticles: Conclusions of a Subacute Animal Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Máté, Zsuzsanna; Horváth, Edina; Kozma, Gábor; Simon, Tímea; Kónya, Zoltán; Paulik, Edit; Papp, András; Szabó, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    Incomplete information on toxicological differences of micro- and nanometer-sized particles raised concerns about the effects of the latter on health and environment. Besides chemical composition, size and surface-to-volume ratio of nanoparticles (NPs) can affect toxicity. To investigate size-dependent toxicity differences, we used particles made of dioxide of the neurotoxic heavy metal manganese (Mn), typically found in inhaled metal fumes, in three size ranges (size A, 9.14 ± 1.98 nm; size B, 42.36 ± 8.06 nm; size C, 118.31 ± 25.37 nm). For modeling the most frequent route of exposure to Mn, NPs were given to rats for 6 weeks by intratracheal instillation. Of each NP size, 3 or 6 mg/kg body weight was given while control animals were vehicle treated. Neurotoxicity was assessed by measuring spontaneous locomotor activity in an open field and by recording spontaneous and evoked electrical activity from the somatosensory cortical area. Mn content of brain, lung, and blood, measured by ICP-MS, were correlated to the observed functional alterations to see the relationship between Mn load and toxic effects. Body weight gain and organ weights were measured as general toxicological indices. The toxicity of size A and size B NPs proved to be stronger compared to size C NPs, seen most clearly in decreased body weight gain and altered spontaneous cortical activity, which were also well correlated to the internal Mn dose. Our results showed strong effect of size on NP toxicity, thus, beyond inappropriateness of toxicity data of micrometer-sized particles in evaluation of NP exposure, differentiation within the nano range may be necessary.

  1. Acute and subacute pulmonary toxicity and mortality in mice after intratracheal instillation of ZnO nanoparticles in three laboratories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; Stoeger, Tobias; van den Brule, Sybille

    2015-01-01

    .5 and 25μg on a range of parameters. However, mice that survived a high dose (50μg; 2.7mg/kg) had an increased pulmonary collagen accumulation (fibrosis) at a similar level as a high bolus dose of crystalline silica. The recovery from these toxicological effects appeared dose-dependent. The results......Inhalation is the main pathway of ZnO exposure in the occupational environment but only few studies have addressed toxic effects after pulmonary exposure to ZnO nanoparticles (NP). Here we present results from three studies of pulmonary exposure and toxicity of ZnO NP in mice. The studies were...... prematurely terminated because interim results unexpectedly showed severe pulmonary toxicity. High bolus doses of ZnO NP (25 up to 100μg; ≥1.4mg/kg) were clearly associated with a dose dependent mortality in the mice. Lower doses (≥6μg; ≥0.3mg/kg) elicited acute toxicity in terms of reduced weight gain...

  2. Dietary exposure to essential and potentially toxic elements for the population of Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcussen, Helle; Jensen, Bodil H; Petersen, Annette; Holm, Peter E

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the dietary intake of essential and toxic elements in fast-developing Southeast Asian countries such as Vietnam is limited. Iron and Zn deficiency in Asia is a well-known problem and is partly due to rice constituting a major part of the diet. Dietary habits are changing and there is a need to build more knowledge so authorities can give dietary recommendations. The aim of this study was to determine the total dietary intake of essential and potentially toxic elements and to assess the nutritional quality and food safety risks of the average Hanoi diet. Twenty-two foods or food groups were identified and 14 samples of each food group were collected from markets and/or supermarkets in the period 2007-2009. Water spinach, water dropwort, watercress, water mimosa and pond fish are typically produced in wastewater-fed systems. Therefore, these samples were collected both at markets and from wastewater-fed production systems. The results showed little or no risk of toxic elements from the Hanoi diet in general. Further, element contributions from wastewater-fed products were low and does not seem to constitute a problem with respect to potentially toxic elements. A comparison of the average Hanoi dietary intake of essential elements to required intakes shows that the Hanoi diet is sufficient in most elements. However, the diet may be insufficient in Ca, Cr, Fe, K and possibly Zn for which dietary diversification of biofortification might provide solutions.

  3. Acute and Subacute Inhalation Toxicity Study in Rats Exposed to Pyrotechnically-Disseminated M18 Red Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-12

    Command USEPA: United States Environmental Protection Agency VMD: Veterinary Medicine Division I. NON-TECHNICAL SYNOPSIS The inhalation toxicity of a...staff will provide the Veterinary Medicine Office a current emergency contact roster. In an emergency, the animal care staff will phone the numbers...uniquely identified by number via cage card and tail marking. (CD® is a registered trademark of Charles River Laboratories International , Inc.; Teklad® and

  4. Acute toxicity studies and characterisation of local dietary salts in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kanwa and Shem are food additives and also local dietary salts which are commonly used in Nigeria for various purposes both in rural and urban communities. Kanwa and Shem were subjected to acute toxicological studies using the modified Lorke method while the elemental, qualitative analysis and pH were determined ...

  5. NMR-based metabonomic study of the sub-acute toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in rats after oral administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Qian; Yan, Guangyan; Deng, Pengchi; Peng, Feng; Lin, Hongjun; Xu, Youzhi; Cao, Zhixing; Zhou, Tian; Xue, Aiqin; Wang, Yanli; Cen, Xiaobo; Zhao, Ying-Lan

    2010-03-01

    As titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are widely used commercially, their potential toxicity on human health has attracted particular attention. In the present study, the oral toxicological effects of TiO2 NPs (dosed at 0.16, 0.4 and 1 g kg - 1, respectively) were investigated using conventional approaches and metabonomic analysis in Wistar rats. Serum chemistry, hematology and histopathology examinations were performed. The urine and serum were investigated by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) using principal components and partial least squares discriminant analysis. The metabolic signature of urinalysis in TiO2 NP-treated rats showed increases in the levels of taurine, citrate, hippurate, histidine, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), citrulline, α-ketoglutarate, phenylacetylglycine (PAG) and acetate; moreover, decreases in the levels of lactate, betaine, methionine, threonine, pyruvate, 3-D-hydroxybutyrate (3-D-HB), choline and leucine were observed. The metabonomics analysis of serum showed increases in TMAO, choline, creatine, phosphocholine and 3-D-HB as well as decreases in glutamine, pyruvate, glutamate, acetoacetate, glutathione and methionine after TiO2 NP treatment. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were elevated and mitochondrial swelling in heart tissue was observed in TiO2 NP-treated rats. These findings indicate that disturbances in energy and amino acid metabolism and the gut microflora environment may be attributable to the slight injury to the liver and heart caused by TiO2 NPs. Moreover, the NMR-based metabolomic approach is a reliable and sensitive method to study the biochemical effects of nanomaterials.

  6. NMR-based metabonomic study of the sub-acute toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in rats after oral administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bu Qian; Lin Hongjun; Xu Youzhi; Cao Zhixing; Zhou Tian; Zhao Yinglan [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Yan Guangyan; Cen Xiaobo [National Chengdu Center for Safety Evaluation of Drugs, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Deng Pengchi [Analytical and Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Peng Feng [Department of Thoracic Oncology of Cancer Center and State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Xue Aiqin [Institute of Bioengineering, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University Road 2, Xiasha, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Wang Yanli, E-mail: alancenxb@sina.com [Tianjin Children' s Hospital, Tianjin 300074 (China)

    2010-03-26

    As titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO{sub 2} NPs) are widely used commercially, their potential toxicity on human health has attracted particular attention. In the present study, the oral toxicological effects of TiO{sub 2} NPs (dosed at 0.16, 0.4 and 1 g kg{sup -1}, respectively) were investigated using conventional approaches and metabonomic analysis in Wistar rats. Serum chemistry, hematology and histopathology examinations were performed. The urine and serum were investigated by {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) using principal components and partial least squares discriminant analysis. The metabolic signature of urinalysis in TiO{sub 2} NP-treated rats showed increases in the levels of taurine, citrate, hippurate, histidine, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), citrulline, {alpha}-ketoglutarate, phenylacetylglycine (PAG) and acetate; moreover, decreases in the levels of lactate, betaine, methionine, threonine, pyruvate, 3-D-hydroxybutyrate (3-D-HB), choline and leucine were observed. The metabonomics analysis of serum showed increases in TMAO, choline, creatine, phosphocholine and 3-D-HB as well as decreases in glutamine, pyruvate, glutamate, acetoacetate, glutathione and methionine after TiO{sub 2} NP treatment. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were elevated and mitochondrial swelling in heart tissue was observed in TiO{sub 2} NP-treated rats. These findings indicate that disturbances in energy and amino acid metabolism and the gut microflora environment may be attributable to the slight injury to the liver and heart caused by TiO{sub 2} NPs. Moreover, the NMR-based metabolomic approach is a reliable and sensitive method to study the biochemical effects of nanomaterials.

  7. Development of a standard acute dietary toxicity test for the silkworm (Bombyx mori L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, X.; Valk, H.; Jiang, H.; Wang, X.; Yuan, S.; Zhang, Y.; Roessink, I.; Gao, X.

    2012-01-01

    Larvae of the silkworm (Bombyx mod L.) may be exposed to pesticide residues on the leaves of their food plant, the mulberry tree (Morus spp.), which can lead to adverse effects on silk production. A new acute dietary toxicity test method was evaluated as the basis for pesticide risk assessment. A

  8. Dietary exposure to essential and potentially toxic elements for the population of Hanoi, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, H.; Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette

    2013-01-01

    and there is a need to build more knowledge so that authorities can give dietary recommendations. The aim of this study was to determine the total dietary intake of essential and potentially toxic elements and to assess the nutritional quality and food safety risks of the average Hanoi diet. 22 foods or food groups...... were identified and 14 samples of each food group were collected from markets and/or supermarkets in the period 2007-2009. Water spinach, water dropwort, watercress, water mimosa and pond fish are typically produced in wastewater-fed systems. Therefore, these samples were collected both at markets...... and from wastewater-fed production systems. The results showed little or no risk of toxic elements from the Hanoi diet in general. Further, element contributions from wastewater-fed products were low and does not seem to constitute a problem with respect to potentially toxic elements. A comparison...

  9. Cytoprotective effects of dietary flavonoids against cadmium-induced toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia; Jiang, Xinwei; Sun, Jianxia; Zhu, Cuijuan; Li, Xiaoling; Tian, Lingmin; Liu, Liu; Bai, Weibin

    2017-06-01

    Cadmium (Cd) damages the liver, kidney, bones, reproductive system, and other organs. Flavonoids, such as anthocyanins and flavonols, which are commonly found in plant foods, have shown protective effects against Cd-induced damage. The cytoprotective effects of flavonoids against Cd-induced diseases are mainly attributable to three mechanisms. First, flavonoids clear reactive oxygen species, thereby reducing lipid peroxide production and improving the activity of antioxidation enzymes. Second, flavonoids chelate Cd, thus reducing the accumulation of Cd and altering the levels of other essential metal ions in vivo. Third, flavonoids reduce DNA damage and inhibit apoptosis. In addition, flavonoids were found to inhibit inflammation and fibrosis and improve glycometabolism and the secretion of reproductive hormones. We introduce the daily dosage and absorption rate of flavonoids and then focus on their bioactive effects against Cd-induced toxicity and reveal the underlying metabolic pathway, which provides a basis for further study of the nutritional prevention of Cd-induced injury. In particular, a better understanding is needed of the structure-activity relationship of flavonoids against Cd toxicity, which has not yet been reported. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  10. The role of intestinal microbiota in development of irinotecan toxicity and in toxicity reduction through dietary fibres in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaoxi B; Farhangfar, Arazm; Valcheva, Rosica; Sawyer, Michael B; Dieleman, Levinus; Schieber, Andreas; Gänzle, Michael G; Baracos, Vickie

    2014-01-01

    CPT-11 is a drug used as chemotherapy for colorectal cancer. CPT-11 causes toxic side-effects in patients. CPT-11 toxicity has been attributed to the activity of intestinal microbiota, however, intestinal microbiota may also have protective effects in CP!-11 chemotherapy. This study aimed to elucidate mechanisms through which microbiota and dietary fibres could modify host health. Rats bearing a Ward colon carcinoma were treated with a two-cycle CPT-11/5-fluorouracil therapy recapitulating clinical therapy of colorectal cancer. Animals were fed with a semi-purified diet or a semi-purified diet was supplemented with non-digestible carbohydrates (isomalto-oligosaccharides, resistant starch, fructo-oligosaccharides, or inulin) in 3 independent experiments. Changes in intestinal microbiota, bacteria translocating to mesenteric lymphnodes, cecal GUD activity, and cecal SCFA production, and the intestinal concentration of CPT-11 and its metabolites were analysed. Non-digestible carbohydrates significantly influenced feed intake, body weight and other indicators of animal health. The identification of translocating bacteria and their quantification in cecal microbiota indicated that overgrowth of the intestine by opportunistic pathogens was not a major contributor to CPT-11 toxicity. Remarkably, fecal GUD activity positively correlated to body weight and feed intake but negatively correlated to cecal SN-38 concentrations and IL1-β. The reduction in CPT-11 toxicity by non-digestible carbohydrates did not correlate to stimulation of specific bacterial taxa. However, cecal butyrate concentrations and feed intake were highly correlated. The protective role of intestinal butyrate production was substantiated by a positive correlation of the host expression of MCT1 (monocarboxylate transporter 1) with body weight as well as a positive correlation of the abundance of bacterial butyryl-CoA gene with cecal butyrate concentrations. These correlations support the interpretation

  11. The role of intestinal microbiota in development of irinotecan toxicity and in toxicity reduction through dietary fibres in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxi B Lin

    Full Text Available CPT-11 is a drug used as chemotherapy for colorectal cancer. CPT-11 causes toxic side-effects in patients. CPT-11 toxicity has been attributed to the activity of intestinal microbiota, however, intestinal microbiota may also have protective effects in CP!-11 chemotherapy. This study aimed to elucidate mechanisms through which microbiota and dietary fibres could modify host health. Rats bearing a Ward colon carcinoma were treated with a two-cycle CPT-11/5-fluorouracil therapy recapitulating clinical therapy of colorectal cancer. Animals were fed with a semi-purified diet or a semi-purified diet was supplemented with non-digestible carbohydrates (isomalto-oligosaccharides, resistant starch, fructo-oligosaccharides, or inulin in 3 independent experiments. Changes in intestinal microbiota, bacteria translocating to mesenteric lymphnodes, cecal GUD activity, and cecal SCFA production, and the intestinal concentration of CPT-11 and its metabolites were analysed. Non-digestible carbohydrates significantly influenced feed intake, body weight and other indicators of animal health. The identification of translocating bacteria and their quantification in cecal microbiota indicated that overgrowth of the intestine by opportunistic pathogens was not a major contributor to CPT-11 toxicity. Remarkably, fecal GUD activity positively correlated to body weight and feed intake but negatively correlated to cecal SN-38 concentrations and IL1-β. The reduction in CPT-11 toxicity by non-digestible carbohydrates did not correlate to stimulation of specific bacterial taxa. However, cecal butyrate concentrations and feed intake were highly correlated. The protective role of intestinal butyrate production was substantiated by a positive correlation of the host expression of MCT1 (monocarboxylate transporter 1 with body weight as well as a positive correlation of the abundance of bacterial butyryl-CoA gene with cecal butyrate concentrations. These correlations support the

  12. Chemopreventive effect of natural dietary compounds on xenobiotic-induced toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Ching Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Contaminants (or pollutants that affect human health have become an important issue, spawning a myriad of studies on how to prevent harmful contaminant-induced effects. Recently, a variety of biological functions of natural dietary compounds derived from consumed foods and plants have been demonstrated in a number of studies. Natural dietary compounds exhibited several beneficial effects for the prevention of disease and the inhibition of chemically-induced carcinogenesis. Contaminant-induced toxicity and carcinogenesis are mostly attributed to the mutagenic activity of reactive metabolites and the disruption of normal biological functions. Therefore, the metabolic regulation of hazardous chemicals is key to reducing contaminant-induced adverse health effects. Moreover, promoting contaminant excretion from the body through Phase I and II metabolizing enzymes is also a useful strategy for reducing contaminant-induced toxicity. This review focuses on summarizing the natural dietary compounds derived from common dietary foods and plants and their possible mechanisms of action in the prevention/suppression of contaminant-induced toxicity.

  13. Potential toxicity of flavonoids and other dietary phenolics: significance for their chemopreventive and anticancer properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galati, Giuseppe; O'Brien, Peter J

    2004-08-01

    Flavonoids, including isoflavones, are natural components in our diet and, with the burgeoning interest in alternative medicine, are increasingly being ingested by the general population. Plant phenolics, which form moieties on flavonoid rings, such as gallic acid, are also widely consumed. Several beneficial properties have been attributed to these dietary compounds, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic effects. Flavonoid preparations are marketed as herbal medicines or dietary supplements for a variety of alleged nontoxic therapeutic effects. However, they have yet to pass controlled clinical trials for efficacy, and their potential for toxicity is an understudied field of research. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding potential dietary flavonoid/phenolic-induced toxicity concerns, including their pro-oxidant activity, mitochondrial toxicity (potential apoptosis-inducing properties), and interactions with drug-metabolizing enzymes. Their chemopreventive activity in animal in vivo experiments may result from their ability to inhibit phase I and induce phase II carcinogen metabolizing enzymes that initiate carcinogenesis. They also inhibit the promotion stage of carcinogenesis by inhibiting oxygen radical-forming enzymes or enzymes that contribute to DNA synthesis or act as ATP mimics and inhibit protein kinases that contribute to proliferative signal transduction. Finally, they may prevent tumor development by inducing tumor cell apoptosis by inhibiting DNA topoisomerase II and p53 downregulation or by causing mitochondrial toxicity, which initiates mitochondrial apoptosis. While most flavonoids/phenolics are considered safe, flavonoid/phenolic therapy or chemopreventive use needs to be assessed as there have been reports of toxic flavonoid-drug interactions, liver failure, contact dermatitis, hemolytic anemia, and estrogenic-related concerns such as male reproductive health and breast cancer associated with dietary

  14. Acute and subacute toxicity tests of onion coat, natural colorant extracted from onion (Allium cepa L.), in (C57BL/6 x C3H)F1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, T; Tanaka, T; Mori, H; Kato, Y; Nakamura, M

    1993-01-01

    The toxicity test of onion coat colorant (OC), a food colorant extracted from onion (Allium cepa L.), was undertaken using (C57BL/6 x C3H)F1 mice of both sexes for the safety assessment of this product. The acute toxicity test was performed by administration of OC suspended in corn oil by gavage at doses of 2500, 5000, 7500, and 10,000 mg/kg body weight to groups of 5 or 6 males and 6 or 7 females, maintained for 14 d. Six of 12 females dosed at 10,000 mg/kg body weight and 3 of 11 females dosed at 7500 mg/kg body weight were dead before the end of the study, indicating that the tolerated dose of OC was between 7500 and 5000 mg/kg body weight. The subacute toxicity test of OC was examined using 123 mice of both sexes (62 males and 61 females) by feeding a diet mixed with OC at concentrations of 5, 2.5, 1.25, 0.6, and 0.3% for 90 d. All mice tolerated these doses of OC well. The body weight gains of male and female mice were not affected by the treatment. Histopathological examinations showed that hyperplastic changes in the esophagus, forestomach, pancreas, cervix, and endometrium of mice were found in treated and control mice. However, their incidences were not related to the dose of OC. Moreover, only a spontaneous ovarian teratoma was found in an OC-treated mouse. These results suggest that OC has no acute and subacute toxic effects in mice.

  15. Metal-metal interactions among dietary toxic and essential trace metals in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsenhans, B.; Schmolke, G.; Kolb, K.; Stokes, J.; Forth, W.

    1987-12-01

    Exposure to toxic and essential metals is thought to be reflected by corresponding metal concentrations in tissues. However, toxic and essential metals may influence each other in regard to their retention in the body. Therefore, a basic diet containing four toxic metals (As 7, Cd 9, Ni 13, and Pb 20 ppm) and adequate amounts of essential metals was fed to rats for 2 weeks. Test groups received the basic diet with increasing concentrations of one of the toxic metals (up to 90 ppm As, 180 ppm Cd, 365 ppm Ni, and 394 ppm Pb). As, Cd, Ni, Pb, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn were determined by atomic emission spectroscopy in liver, kidney, intestine, brain, muscle, bone, skin, hair, and blood. A linear relationship between diet and tissue concentration is observed for As and Ni in the kidney, for Cd in the liver, and for Pb in the bone. In other tissues saturation was observed. While Cd-Fe interactions were common to most of the tissues, other interactions were detected only in specific tissues, e.g., As-Cu in the kidney, Cd-Zn in the liver, and As-Mn, Cd-Mn, or Ni-Cu in the intestine. Increases of renal Pb and intestinal Cd by dietary Ni, and a decrease in bone As by dietary Pb were the most pronounced interactions between the toxic metals. The results demonstrate that potential target organs for the evaluation of metal exposure need to be carefully analyzed for interfering metal-metal interactions.

  16. Dietary calcium supplementation enhances efficacy but also toxicity of EGFR inhibitor therapy for colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinella, Erica S; Bankaitis, Eric D; Threadgill, David W

    2012-02-01

    The inverse correlation between levels of dietary calcium and colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence has been extensively investigated. However, the impact of supplemental calcium on cancer therapy remains unknown. We used four models of CRC, Caco-2 and HCT116 human cancer cell lines and Apc (Min/+) and azoxymethane carcinogen-induced mouse models, to investigate the impact of a western-style diet low in calcium (0.05%) vs. a similar diet but supplemented with calcium (5%) on therapeutic targeting of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). We found that calcium supplementation combined with pharmacologic blockade of EGFR results in an additive effect on tumor growth inhibition in all models. Unexpectedly, the combined use of dietary calcium supplementation and EGFR inhibitors also resulted in elevated toxicity suggesting that careful consideration be given when combining dietary supplements with prescribed cancer therapies.

  17. Testicular toxicity induced by dietary cadmium in cocks and ameliorative effect by selenium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-Long; Gao, Rui; Li, Shu; Wang, Jin-Tao; Tang, Zhao-Xin; Xu, Shi-Wen

    2010-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an ubiquitous environmental pollutant that has been associated with male reproductive toxicity in animal models. However, little is known about the reproductive toxicity of Cd in birds. To investigate the toxicity of Cd on male reproduction in birds and the protective effects of selenium (Se) against subchronic exposure to dietary Cd, 100-day-old cocks received either Se (as 10 mg Na(2)SeO(3) per kg of diet), Cd (as 150 mg CdCl(2) per kg of diet) or Cd + Se in their diets for 60 days. Histological and ultrastructural changes in the testis, the concentrations of Cd and Se, amount of lipid peroxidation (LPO), the activities of the antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and apoptosis and serum testosterone levels were determined. Exposure to Cd significantly lowered SOD and GPx activity, Se content in the testicular tissue, and serum testosterone levels. It increased the amount of LPO, the numbers of apoptotic cells and Cd concentration and caused obvious histopathological changes in the testes. Concurrent treatment with Se reduced the Cd-induced histopathological changes in the testis, oxidative stress, endocrine disorder and apoptosis, suggesting that the toxic effects of cadmium on the testes is ameliorated by Se. Se supplementation also modified the distribution of Cd in the testis.

  18. Modeling chronic dietary cadmium bioaccumulation and toxicity from periphyton to Hyalella azteca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, Lisa A; Borgmann, Uwe; Dixon, D George

    2011-07-01

    A chronic (28-d) Cd saturation bioaccumulation model was developed to quantify the Cd contribution from a natural periphyton diet to Cd in the freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca. Bioaccumulation was then linked to chronic toxic effects. Juvenile H. azteca were exposed to treatments of Cd in water (3.13-100 nmol/L nominal) and food (389-26,300 nmol/g ash-free dry mass). Cadmium bioaccumulation, survival, and growth were recorded. Dietary Cd was estimated to contribute 21 to 31, 59 to 94, and 40 to 55% to bioaccumulated Cd in H. azteca exposed to treatments of Cd primarily in water, food, and food + water, respectively. Survival as a function of Cd lethal body concentration (679 nmol/g; 95% confidence limits, 617-747) was the most robust endpoint. Body concentration integrated all exposure routes. Based on the lethal body concentration, dietary Cd was predicted to contribute markedly (26-90%) to Cd in H. azteca. Cadmium concentration and food nutritional quality (biomass, chlorophyll a, total lipid, fatty acids, total protein) had no effect on H. azteca nutritional quality (total lipid, fatty acids, total protein) but did influence H. azteca dry weight. This research highlighted the importance of including a dietary component when modeling chronic effects of Cd and when refining endpoints for use in ecological risk assessment and water quality guidelines. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  19. Vitamin D toxicity of dietary origin in cats fed a natural complementary kitten food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria J Crossley

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Case series summary This case series describes two young sibling cats and an additional unrelated cat, from two separate households, that developed hypercalcaemia associated with hypervitaminosis D. Excessive vitamin D concentrations were identified in a natural complementary tinned kitten food that was fed to all three cats as part of their diet. In one of the cases, there was clinical evidence of soft tissue mineralisation. The hypercalcaemia and soft tissue mineralisation resolved following withdrawal of the affected food and medical management of the hypercalcaemia. Relevance and novel information This case series demonstrates the importance of obtaining a thorough dietary history in patients presenting with hypercalcaemia and the measurement of vitamin D metabolites when investigating such cases. Complementary foods may have the potential to induce nutritional toxicity even when fed with complete, nutritionally balanced diets.

  20. Quantum chemistry based quantitative structure-activity relationships for modeling the (sub)acute toxicity of substituted mononitrobenzenes in aquatic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zvinavashe, E.; Murk, A.J.; Vervoort, J.; Soffers, A.E.M.F.; Freidig, A.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.

    2006-01-01

    Fifteen experimental literature data sets on the acute toxicity of substituted nitrobenzenes to algae (Scenedesmus obliquus, Chlorella pyrenoidosa, C. vulgaris), daphnids (Daphnia magna, D. carinata), fish (Cyprinus carpio, Poecilia reticulata), protozoa (Tetrahymena pyriformis), bacteria

  1. Evaluation of the acute and sub-acute toxicity of the ethanolic extract of Pericampylus glaucus (Lam. Merr. in BALB/c mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kifayatullah

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: The result indicates that the oral administration of Pericampylus glaucus (Lam. Merr. extract did not produce any significant toxic effect in BALB/c mice. Hence, the extract can be utilized safely for therapeutic use in pharmaceutical formulations.

  2. Ninety-day dietary toxicity study of apple polyphenol extracts in Crl: CD (SD) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Kyoko; Nakashima, Shohei; Sami, Manabu; Kanda, Tomomasa

    2013-06-01

    To examine the safety of Dietary Applephenon® (AP) in feed, Crl: CD (SD) rats of each sex were divided into four groups and given diets containing AP at 0%, 1.25%, 2.5%, or 5.0% for 90 days. All rats survived and toxic changes were not observed throughout the study. Body weight and food efficiency in the 5.0% AP group of both sexes were significantly decreased compared with that in controls. These changes were considered to be caused by the physiological effects of AP (including the inhibitory effects on pancreatic lipase activity). Slight hypertrophy in acinar cells in the parotid and submandibular glands appeared in the 2.5% and 5.0% groups. These were suggested not to be toxicological but physiologic adaptive responses to oral stimuli by the lower pH of AP-containing diets. In conclusion, dietary AP in feed, up to a maximum level of 5.0% for 90 days, given to rats did not induce toxicological effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A novel approach reveals that zinc oxide nanoparticles are bioavailable and toxic after dietary exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, M.-N.; Dybowska, A.D.; Luoma, S.N.; Valsami-Jones, E.

    2011-01-01

    If engineered nanomaterials are released into the environment, some are likely to end up associated with the food of animals due to aggregation and sorption processes. However, few studies have considered dietary exposure of nanomaterials. Here we show that zinc (Zn) from isotopically modified 67ZnO particles is efficiently assimilated by freshwater snails when ingested with food. The 67Zn from nano-sized 67ZnO appears as bioavailable as 67Zn internalized by diatoms. Apparent agglomeration of the zinc oxide (ZnO) particles did not reduce bioavailability, nor preclude toxicity. In the diet, ZnO nanoparticles damage digestion: snails ate less, defecated less and inefficiently processed the ingested food when exposed to high concentrations of ZnO. It was not clear whether the toxicity was due to the high Zn dose achieved with nanoparticles or to the ZnO nanoparticles themselves. Further study of exposure from nanoparticles in food would greatly benefit assessment of ecological and human health risks. ?? 2011 Informa UK, Ltd.

  4. Safety assessment of dietary bamboo charcoal powder: a 90-day subchronic oral toxicity and mutagenicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhenchao, Jia; Yuting, Zhong; Jiuming, Yan; Yedan, Lu; Yang, Song; Jinyao, Chen; Lishi, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Vegetable carbon has been used as food additive in EU (E153) and China for many years; however, no experimental data have been available on its dietary safety. This study was designed to evaluate the subchronic toxicity and genotoxicity of bamboo charcoal powder (BCP). In the study of subchronic oral toxicity, BCP was administered orally at doses of 2.81, 5.62, and 11.24 g/kg BW for 90 days to SD rats. Additional satellite groups from the control group and high dose group were observed for a 28-day recovery period. At the end of the treatment and recovery periods, animals were sacrificed, and their organs were weighed and blood samples were collected. The toxicological endpoints observed included clinical signs, food consumption, body and organ weights, hematological and biochemical parameters, macroscopic and microscopic examinations. The results showed no significant differences between the BCP treated groups and control group. The genotoxicity of BCP was assessed with the Salmonella typhimurium mutagenicity assay (Ames test) and a combination of comet assay and mammalian erythrocyte micronucleus protocol. The results did not reveal any genotoxicity of BCP. Based on our study, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for BCP is 11.24 g/kg BW/day. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Liver toxicity related to herbs and dietary supplements: Online table of case reports. Part 2 of 5 series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amy Christine

    2017-09-01

    No online current list of potentially life-threatening, hepatotoxic herbs and dietary supplements based on PubMed case reports exists in a summarized tabular form. Documented case reports of herbs or dietary supplements (DS; includes herbs) appearing to contribute to liver injury were used to create an online "DS Toxic Table" of potentially hepatotoxic herbs and dietary supplements (PubMed, 1966 to June, 2016, and cross-referencing). The spectrum of DS induced liver injuries (DSILI) included elevated liver enzymes, hepatitis, steatosis, cholestasis, hepatic necrosis, hepatic fibrosis, hepatic cirrhosis, veno-occlusive disease, acute liver failure requiring a liver transplant, and death. Over the past 50 years, approximately 21 herbs (minus germander and usnic acid that are no longer sold) and 12 dietary supplements (minus the nine no longer sold and vitamin A & niacin due to excess intake) posed a possible risk for liver injures in certain individuals. The herbs with the most number of reported publications (but not cases studies) in descending order, were germander, black cohosh, kava extract, and green tea extract. These online DS Toxic Tables will contribute to continued Phase IV post marketing surveillance to detect possible liver toxicity cases and serve to forewarn consumers, clinicians, and corporations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Does water chemistry affect the dietary uptake and toxicity of silver nanoparticles by the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Serrano Oliver, Ana; Croteau, Marie-Noële; Stoiber, Tasha L.; Tejamaya, Mila; Römer, Isabella; Lead, Jamie R.; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2014-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used in many applications and likely released into the aquatic environment. There is increasing evidence that Ag is efficiently delivered to aquatic organisms from AgNPs after aqueous and dietary exposures. Accumulation of AgNPs through the diet can damage digestion and adversely affect growth. It is well recognized that aspects of water quality, such as hardness, affect the bioavailability and toxicity of waterborne Ag. However, the influence of water chemistry on the bioavailability and toxicity of dietborne AgNPs to aquatic invertebrates is largely unknown. Here we characterize for the first time the effects of water hardness and humic acids on the bioaccumulation and toxicity of AgNPs coated with polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) to the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis after dietary exposures. Our results indicate that bioaccumulation and toxicity of Ag from PVP-AgNPs ingested with food are not affected by water hardness and by humic acids, although both could affect interactions with the biological membrane and trigger nanoparticle transformations. Snails efficiently assimilated Ag from the PVP-AgNPs mixed with diatoms (Ag assimilation efficiencies ranged from 82 to 93%). Rate constants of Ag uptake from food were similar across the entire range of water hardness and humic acid concentrations. These results suggest that correcting regulations for water quality could be irrelevant and ineffective where dietary exposure is important.

  7. Chronic toxicity and oncogenicity of N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) in rats and mice by dietary administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malley, L A; Kennedy, G L; Elliott, G S; Slone, T W; Mellert, W; Deckardt, K; Kuttler, K; Hildebrand, B; Banton, M I; Parod, R J; Griffiths, J C

    2001-11-01

    A two-year feeding study in rats and an 18-month feeding study in mice were conducted to evaluate the potential chronic toxicity and oncogenicity of NMP in Crl:CD (SD)BR rats and B6C3F1/CrlBR mice. Groups of 62 male and female rats were administered diets containing 0, 1600, 5000, or 15,000 ppm of NMP for approximately 2 years. Groups of 50 male and female mice were administered diets containing 0, 600, 1200, or 7200 ppm NMP for approximately 18 months. In vivo parameters were evaluated weekly during the first 3 months of the study, and every other week or monthly during the remainder of the study. For rats, an ophthalmoscopic examination was conducted prior to study start and near the end of the study. Periodically, blood samples were collected from rats and mice for determination of leukocyte differential counts, and from mice for red blood cell morphology. After approximately 2 years of dietary administration in rats and 18 months in mice, all surviving animals were sacrificed. Selected tissues were processed for morphological evaluation. Over the course of the two-year study in rats, test substance-related decrements in body weight and weight gain occurred in 15,000 ppm males and females, which correlated with decreased food consumption and food efficiency. A toxicologically significant, test substance-related increase in the incidence of severe chronic progressive nephropathy occurred in 15,000 ppm males. Several morphological changes noted grossly and/or microscopically were secondary to the increased severity of chronic progressive nephropathy. NMP was not oncogenic in male or female rats at dietary concentrations of 15,000 ppm and below. A test substance-related decrease in the percentage of 15,000 ppm males surviving to the end of the two-year study compared to the control group resulted from the higher incidence of severe chronic progressive nephropathy. However, a sufficient population of 15,000 ppm rats were at risk for potential oncogenicity, so the

  8. Comparison of the toxicity profiles of ISIS 1082 and ISIS 2105, phosphorothioate oligonucleotides, following subacute intradermal administration in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, S P; Grillone, L R; Orr, J L; Bruner, R H; Kornbrust, D J

    1997-01-15

    The systemic toxicity of two phosphorothioate oligonucleotides specific for herpes simplex viruses (ISIS 1082) and human papiloma virus (ISIS 2105) were evaluated following repeated intradermal injections of vehicle control, 0.33, 2.17, or 21.7 mg/kg daily to Sprague-Dawley rats (10/sex/group) for 14 days. Animals were sacrificed 1 day after the last dose, except for a portion of the ISIS 1082-treated animals (5/sex/group) which were maintained for an additional 14-day recovery period. The profile of alterations noted for both compounds was very similar. Other than local signs of irritation at the site of injection, there were no clinical signs of toxicity or treatment-related mortality, but there was a slight decrease in body weight gain for the 21.7 mg/kg dose groups. Alterations in hematology parameters included dose-dependent thrombocytopenia and anemia. Alterations in serum chemistry parameters were suggestive of mild alterations in hepatic metabolism, with increases in liver transaminases and bilirubin, along with decreases in albumin and cholesterol. Both spleen and liver weights were significantly elevated in a dose-dependent fashion. Histopathological alterations noted in liver, kidney, lung, injection site skin, and spleen were characterized as perivascular and interstitial infiltrates of macrophages and monocytes. Additional microscopic alterations in the spleen included mild lymphoid hyperplasia (seen in lymph nodes as well), and extramedullary hematopoiesis. Treatment-related cytopenias were likely related to mild, focal hypocellularity in the bone marrow. Alterations in ISIS 1082-treated animals were only partially reversed following the 14-day treatment-free period. In conclusion, repeated intradermal administration of ISIS 1082 and ISIS 2105 produced a similar spectrum of toxicities, with liver, kidney, spleen, and bone marrow being identified as target tissues.

  9. Malnutrition in subacute care

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Jorja Claire

    2017-01-01

    Malnutrition is a significant problem across all healthcare settings because of its high prevalence and association with adverse outcomes for patients and increased healthcare costs. There is a paucity of research considering subacute patients’ nutritional status and how this changes throughout inpatient stay. Additionally, a stronger evidence base for strategies to prevent and treat malnutrition specifically in this setting is required. This thesis aimed to address these research gaps to con...

  10. Subacute toxicity evaluation of KR-33493, FAF1 inhibitor for a new anti-parkinson's disease agent, after oral administration in rats and dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jong-Woo; Yu, Changsun; Lee, Jong-Hwa; Moon, Kyoung-Sik; Kim, Eunhee; Yoo, Sung-Eun; Koo, Tae-Sung

    2016-11-01

    KR33493, a newly developed FAS-associated factor 1 (FAF1) inhibitor for Parkinson's disease, is being evaluated in a Phase I clinical trial. In the present study, the subchronic toxicity of KR33493 in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and beagle dogs was investigated at various oral doses for 28 and 14 days, respectively. During the study, food consumption, body weights, organ weights, gross findings, and mortality were examined; and ophthalmoscopy, electrocardiography, hematology, serum biochemistry, urinalysis, histopathology, and toxicokinetics were performed. In rats, weight gain decreased in both sexes at 500 mg/kg/day, with no significant differences. In dogs, some significant differences compared with the control were found during the trial; however, at the end of recovery periods, these were no longer observed and there was no dose correlation. Some histopathological findings were observed, but these were considered as incidental changes. Since no other significant changes were observed, doses above 500 and 1000 mg/kg KR33493 in rat and dogs, respectively, caused no observed adverse effects. Therefore, based on these results, the Phase 1 clinical trial for KR33493 was approved by the Korean Food & Drug Administration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Toxicity and immune system effects of dietary deltamethrin exposure in tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froese, Jennifer M W; Smits, Judit E G; Forsyth, Douglas J; Wickstrom, Mark L

    2009-01-01

    One theory proposed to explain the global declines in amphibian populations involves contaminant-induced immune alteration and subsequent increased susceptibility to infectious disease. The goal of this study was twofold, to (1) study acute oral toxicity of deltamethrin (cyclopropanecarboxylic acid, 3-(2,2-dibromoethenyl)-2,2-dimethyl cyano(3-phenoxyphenyl)methyl ester) in tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum), and (2) evaluate whether the insecticide deltamethrin produces immunosuppression in these animals. In the acute toxicity study, tiger salamanders receiving single doses of deltamethrin ranging from 1 to 35 mg/kg displayed intention tremors, hypersalivation, ataxia, choreoathetosis (writhing), severe depression (immobility with minimal response to stimuli), and death. For acute effects, based on clinical signs, the median lethal dose (LD(50)) and lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) were estimated to be 5 to 10 mg/kg and 1 mg/kg, respectively. The LOAEL in animals dosed 3 times per week for 4 wk was 400 microg/kg/d. The endpoints for the immunotoxicity study included lymphoid organ mass and histopathology, hematological variables, and functional assays of phagocytosis, oxidative burst, and lymphoblastic transformation. Tiger salamanders in 4 treatment groups (0, 4, 40, or 400 microg/kg/d) were dosed with deltamethrin via the diet 3 times per week for 4 wk. Deltamethrin exposure resulted in increased liver mass, packed cell volume, and total plasma protein concentration, but these effects were not dose dependent. The relative mass of kidney and spleen, plasma albumin and globulin concentrations, and circulating leukocyte numbers were not affected by deltamethrin exposure, nor were phagocytosis, oxidative burst, and lymphoblastic transformation. This study shows that at moderate levels of exposure, deltamethrin may be neurotoxic to tiger salamanders. However, based on the immune assays considered in this study there was no evidence of immunosuppression

  12. Heart Toxicity Related to Herbs and Dietary Supplements: Online Table of Case Reports. Part 4 of 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amy C

    2017-10-05

    The purpose of this review was to create an online research summary table of heart toxicity case reports related to dietary supplements (DS; includes herbs). Documented PubMed case reports of DS appearing to contribute to heart-related problems were used to create a "Toxic Table" that summarized the research (1966 to April, 2016, and cross-referencing). Keywords included "herb," "dietary supplement," and cardiac terms. Case reports were excluded if they were herb combinations (some exceptions), Chinese herb mixtures, teas of mixed herb contents, mushrooms, poisonous plants, self-harm (e.g. suicide), excess dose (except vitamins/minerals), drugs or illegal drugs, drug-herbal interactions, and confounders of drugs or diseases. The spectrum of heart toxicities included hypertension, hypotension, hypokalemia, bradycardia, tachycardia, arrhythmia, ventricular fibrillation, heart attack, cardiac arrest, heart failure, and death. Heart related problems were associated with approximately seven herbs: Four traditional Chinese medicine herbs - Don quai (Angelica sinensis), Jin bu huan (Lycopodium serratum), Thundergod vine or lei gong teng (Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F), and Ting kung teng (Erycibe henryi prain); one an Ayruvedic herb - Aswagandha, (Withania somnifera); and two North American herbs - blue cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides), and Yohimbe (Pausinystalia johimbe). Aconitum and Ephedra species are no longer sold in the United States. The DS included, but are not limited to five DS - bitter orange, caffeine, certain energy drinks, nitric oxide products, and a calming product. Six additional DS are no longer sold. Licorice was the food related to heart problems. The online "Toxic Table" forewarns clinicians, consumers and the DS industry by listing DS with case reports related to heart toxicity. It may also contribute to Phase IV post marketing surveillance to diminish adverse events that Government officials use to regulate DS.

  13. Surge of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lisel V Richter-Joubert; Donovan Jacobs; Tracy Kilborn

    2017-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a poorly understood complication of measles infection, presenting in up to 1 in 2500 infected children, resulting in devastating neurocognitive outcomes and a high mortality rate...

  14. Dialysis anaemia caused by subacute zinc toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, J J; Row, P G

    1977-06-04

    Nine out of ten patients dialysed in a satellite dialysis unit became severely anaemic over a 2-month period. The onset of anaemia coincided with the installation of a new galvanised-iron water softener in the dialysate water-supply system. An activated carbon filter was installed and haemoglobin levels returned towards previous values. Two patients on home dialysis showed similar falls in haemoglobin after the installation of galvanised iron piping in their dialysate water-supply systems; these problems also resolved after carbon filtration of the dialysis water. It is suggested that elution of zinc from galvanised iron can cause anaemia in dialysis patients. Carbon filtration removes of 95-99% of the zinc eluted.

  15. Subacute Oral Toxicity Assessment of Alchornea cordifolia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2010-10-21

    Oct 21, 2010 ... Histopathological assessment of liver sections of treated-rats showed normal architecture at doses < ... to provoke hepatic damage in mice [10]. In view of ..... 6. Olaleye MT, Adegboye OO, Akindahunsi AA. Alchornea cordifolia extract protects Wistar albino rats against acetaminophen-induced liver damage.

  16. Toxicity and oxidative stress of different forms of organic selenium (Se) and dietary protein in mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D.; Heinz, G.; Eisemann, J.; Pendleton, G.

    1994-01-01

    High concentrations of Se have been found in aquatic food chains associated with irrigation drainwater and toxicity to fish and wildlife. Earlier studies have compared toxicities of Se as selenite and as seleno-DL-methionine (DL) in mallards. This study compares DL, seleno-L-methionine (L), selenized yeast (Y) and selenized wheat (W). Day-old mallard ducklings received an untreated diet (controls) containing 75% wheat (22% protein) or the same diet containing 15 or 30 ppm Se in the above forms. After 2 weeks blood and liver samples were collected for biochemical assays and Se analysis. All forms of selenium caused significant increases in plasma and hepatic glutathione peroxidase activities. Se as L was the most toxic, resulting in high mortality (64%) and impaired growth (>50%) and the greatest increase in ratio of oxidized to reduced glutathione with 30 ppm in the diet. Se as Y accumulated the least in liver. In a subsequent experiment with 30% dietary protein Se as L was less toxic.

  17. An unusual case of peripheral neuropathy possibly due to arsenic toxicity secondary to excessive intake of dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Al; McLean, B

    2013-09-01

    A 74-year-old woman presented to the neurology clinic with worsening of her longstanding peripheral neuropathy of unknown cause. There was below knee loss of spinothalamic sensation, reduced joint position of toes, absent below hips vibration sensation and absent ankle jerks. Neurophysiology studies showed further progression of her axonal sensory neuropathy. Urine and blood analysis previously carried out in Australia suggested elevated levels of arsenic. After abstinence from seafood, a random urine sample was collected and this confirmed the elevation in urine arsenic (622.1 nmol/L, reference range arsenic. On questioning the patient admitted to taking fish oils, omega-3 oils and glucosamine sulphate dietary supplements in excess of the recommended dosage. These supplements were identified as possible sources of arsenic and the patient was asked to stop all supplements. One month later the urine arsenic had reduced to 57.5 nmol/L. There was an improvement in patient wellbeing, she no longer required Gabapentin for pain relief and the neurophysiology studies also showed improvement. Clinicians should consider heavy metal toxicity as a cause of peripheral neuropathy of unknown cause. A detailed patient history including all dietary supplements is essential to help elucidate the source of heavy metal toxicity.

  18. Kidney toxicity related to herbs and dietary supplements: Online table of case reports. Part 3 of 5 series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amy Christine

    2017-09-01

    No tabular summary of potentially life-threatening, kidney-toxic dietary supplements (DS; includes herbs) based on PubMed case reports is currently available online and continually updated to forewarn United States consumers, clinicians, and companies manufacturing DS. The purpose of this review was to create an online research summary table of kidney toxicity case reports related to DS. Documented PubMed case reports (1966 to May 2016, and cross-referencing) of DS appearing to contribute to kidney toxicity were listed in "DS Toxic Tables." Keywords included "herb" or "dietary supplement" combined with "kidney" to generate an overview list, and possibly "toxicity" to narrow the selection. Case reports were excluded if they involved herb combinations (some exceptions), Chinese herb mixtures, teas of mixed herb contents, mushrooms, poisonous plants, self-harm, excessive doses (except vitamins/minerals), legal or illegal drugs, drug-herbal interactions, and confounders of drugs or diseases. Since commercial DS often include a combination of ingredients, they were treated separately; so were foods. A few foods with kidney-toxic effects were listed in a fourth table. The spectrum of herbal or DS-induced kidney injuries included kidney stones, nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, necrosis, acute kidney injury (AKI; previously known as acute renal failure [ARF]), chronic kidney disease, kidney transplant, and death. Approximately 7 herbs (minus 4 no longer for sale) and 10 dietary supplements (minus 3 excluded due to excessive doses + germanium that is no longer sold) have been related to kidney injury case reports published in PubMed (+crosslisting) in the last 50 + years (1966 to May 2016). The implicated herbs include Chinese yew (Taxus celbica) extract, impila (Callilepis laureola), morning cypress (Cupressus funebris Endl), St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum), thundergod vine (Tripterygium wilfordii hook F), tribulus (Tribulus terrestris) and wormwood (Artemisia

  19. Selenium Toxicity from a Misformulated Dietary Supplement, Adverse Health Effects, and the Temporal Response in the Nail Biologic Monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy B. Crane

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Use of dietary supplements in the U.S. has increased steadily over the last 25 years. While misformulation is uncommon, the consequences can be serious. A March 2008 voluntary market recall removed supplement products responsible for the most serious selenium toxicity outbreak that has occurred in the U.S. We quantified selenium concentrations in the misformulated supplement products, measured the temporal response in the nail biologic monitor, and associated exposure to self-reported selenosis symptoms. Subjects recruited through state health departments and referrals provided samples of the misformulated supplement products, exposure information, monthly toenail and or fingernail clippings or onycholysitic nail fragments, and listed their newly onset adverse health effects attributed to selenium toxicity. Ninety-seven subjects enrolled and submitted at least one test sample. Peak selenium concentrations (up to 18.3 and 44.1 μg/g for toenails and fingernails, respectively were measured. Multiple samples (52 total of all six recalled supplement lots were analyzed ranging from 22,300 to 32,200 μg selenium per daily dose. Average consumption was 30.9 ± 13.9 doses; 73 subjects provided follow-up data on selenosis symptoms at 2.50 ± 0.14 years. Nail samples accurately reflect exposure in this selenium toxicity outbreak, which resulted in long-term/permanent adverse health effects.

  20. Selenium toxicity from a misformulated dietary supplement, adverse health effects, and the temporal response in the nail biologic monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, John Steven; Crane, Stacy B

    2013-03-28

    Use of dietary supplements in the U.S. has increased steadily over the last 25 years. While misformulation is uncommon, the consequences can be serious. A March 2008 voluntary market recall removed supplement products responsible for the most serious selenium toxicity outbreak that has occurred in the U.S. We quantified selenium concentrations in the misformulated supplement products, measured the temporal response in the nail biologic monitor, and associated exposure to self-reported selenosis symptoms. Subjects recruited through state health departments and referrals provided samples of the misformulated supplement products, exposure information, monthly toenail and or fingernail clippings or onycholysitic nail fragments, and listed their newly onset adverse health effects attributed to selenium toxicity. Ninety-seven subjects enrolled and submitted at least one test sample. Peak selenium concentrations (up to 18.3 and 44.1 μg/g for toenails and fingernails, respectively) were measured. Multiple samples (52 total) of all six recalled supplement lots were analyzed ranging from 22,300 to 32,200 μg selenium per daily dose. Average consumption was 30.9 ± 13.9 doses; 73 subjects provided follow-up data on selenosis symptoms at 2.50 ± 0.14 years. Nail samples accurately reflect exposure in this selenium toxicity outbreak, which resulted in long-term/permanent adverse health effects.

  1. Human health risks derived from dietary exposure to toxic metals in Catalonia, Spain: temporal trend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelló, Gemma; Llobet, Juan M; Gómez-Catalán, Jesús; Castell, Victòria; Centrich, Francesc; Nadal, Martí; Domingo, José L

    2014-12-01

    The present study was aimed at estimating the current (2012) dietary intake of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) by the population of Catalonia, Spain. The temporal trends with respect to previous surveys, performed in 2000, 2005, and 2008, were also determined. For that purpose, metal concentrations were analyzed in a number of widely consumed foodstuffs. A speciation study was also conducted by experimentally determining the levels of inorganic As (InAs) and methylmercury (MeHg) in the same food items. Furthermore, the dietary intake of those metals and species was calculated both deterministically and probabilistically by considering two food consumption surveys: ENCAT and ENIDE, representative of the Catalan and Spanish populations, respectively. An important temporal decrease of the dietary intake was noted for most elements, irrespective of the age-gender population group. Considering data for a male adult, the current dietary intake of As, InAs, Cd, Hg, MeHg, and Pb was estimated in 216, 2.6, 8.7, 10, 7.3, and 8.4 μg/day, respectively, being these values lower than the respective provisional tolerable weekly intakes (PTWIs) or benchmark dose lower confidence limits (BMDLs). Moreover, new calculations by means of ENIDE survey indicated similar results to those previously obtained by ENCAT, with the exception of MeHg, whose intake exceeded the maximum recommended values for some part of the population. Although our data are similar to those frequently found in other European countries, the important intake of MeHg, which is linked to the high consumption of fish and shellfish, deserves further investigation.

  2. Dietary Supplements, Isotretinoin, and Liver Toxicity in Adolescents: A Retrospective Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKlotz, Cynthia Marie Carver; Roby, Keith D; Friedlander, Sheila Fallon

    2017-10-01

    Isotretinoin is the most effective acne therapy available, but has the potential for a number of adverse side effects, including transaminitis. The iPLEDGE isotretinoin program recommends avoiding some herbals and supplements due to potential side effects. However, little is known about the effects of protein supplements on the liver, particularly in patients taking isotretinoin. We designed a retrospective chart review to evaluate the symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of patients on or preparing to take isotretinoin therapy who were concurrently ingesting protein or herbal supplementation and who developed transaminitis. In 100% (8/8) of cases, dietary supplementation was determined to be at least a possible cause of elevated liver transaminases. In 75% (6/8) of cases, dietary supplement appears to be the most likely cause at some point in their evaluation. Most of our patients' elevations in aspartate aminotransferase and/or alanine aminotransferase were likely caused by supplementation with protein, creatine, or herbal extracts, rather than prescribed isotretinoin or tetracycline antibiotics for acne. Hence, dietary supplementation may cause liver function abnormalities. As supplement usage appears common in teenagers, clinicians should consider counseling their patients to avoid these products, particularly when prescribing known hepatotoxic drugs. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Michael H; Meatherall, Bonnie; Nikolic, Ana; Cannon, Kristine; Fonseca, Kevin; Joseph, Jeffrey T; MacDonald, Judy; Pabbaraju, Kanti; Tellier, Raymond; Wong, Sallene; Koch, Marcus W

    2016-03-01

    We present a case of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis that developed in a previously healthy 29-year-old pregnant woman who had returned from a trip to rural India shortly before the onset of symptoms. She was admitted to hospital at 27 weeks' gestation with a history of cognitive decline and difficulty completing simple tasks. She had no clinical signs of infection. The working diagnosis was autoimmune encephalitis, although extensive investigations did not lead to a final classifying diagnosis. The patient became comatose and developed hypertension, and an emergency caesarean section was done at 31 weeks to deliver the child, who seemed healthy. The patient died about 6 weeks after the onset of symptoms. The patient was found to have had subacute sclerosing panencephalitis at autopsy. In this Grand Round, we review the clinical features and treatment of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, and the epidemiological and public health aspects of the case. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of dietary-based toxic reference values to assess the risk of chlorophacinone to non-target raptorial birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, Barnett A.; Lazarus, Rebecca S.; Shultz, S. L.; Horak, Katherine E.; Abbo, Benjamin G.; Volker, Steven F.; Timms, R. M.; O'Brien, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory changes in the use of some second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides in parts of North America may result in expanded use of first-generation anticoagulant rodenticides (FGARs). Recent toxicological studies with captive raptors have demonstrated that these species are considerably more sensitive to the FGAR diphacinone than traditional avian wildlife test species (mallard, bobwhite). We have now examined the toxicity of the FGAR chlorophacinone (CPN) to American kestrels fed rat tissue mechanically-amended with CPN, or rat tissue containing biologically-incorporated CPN, for 7 days. Nominal CPN concentrations in these diets were 0.15, 0.75 and 1.5 µg/g food wet weight, and actual CPN concentration in diets were analytically verified as being close to target values. Food intake was consistent among groups, body weight fluctuated by less than 6%, exposure and adverse effects were generally dose-dependent, and there were no dramatic differences in toxicity between mechanically-amended and biologically-incorporated CPN diets. Using benchmark dose statistical methods, toxic reference values at which clotting times were prolonged in 50% of the kestrels was estimated to be about 80 µg CPN consumed/kg body weight-day for prothrombin time and 40 µg CPN/kg body weight-day for Russell's viper venom time. Based upon carcass CPN residues reported in rodents from field baiting studies, empirical measures of food consumption in kestrels, and dietary-based toxic reference values derived from the 7-day exposure scenario, some free-ranging raptors consuming CPN exposed prey might exhibit coagulopathy and hemorrhage. These sublethal responses associated with exposure to environmentally realistic concentrations of CPN could compromise survival of exposed birds.

  5. Effect of dietary tryptophan and betaine on tolerance of Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus caspicus to copper toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad Fatahi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated effects of dietary tryptophan (TRP and betaine (BET on copper (Cu toxicity tolerance in the Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus caspicus. The Caspian roach fingerlings were fed diets containing 0, 0.25 and 0.5% TRP or 0, 0.5 and 1 % BET and combination of TRP and BET. Specimens were exposed to Cu (0.8 ppm after either 30 or 60 days feeding. Mortality was recorded in each treatment 48 h after the Cu exposure. TRP decreased significantly fish mortality. However, BET had no significant effect on fish mortality. Specimens fed on the diet supplemented with 0.25% TRP had the lowest mortality among the treatments. It is concluded that 0.25% TRP reduces mortality of Caspian roach during Cu exposure.

  6. Dietary Vitamin E Supplementation: A Strategy to Combat Arsenic Induced Toxicity in Teddy Bucks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zubair1, Maqbool Ahmad1, Huma Jamil1 and Farrah Deeba2

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to observe the toxic effects of sodium arsenite on serum biochemical constituents and liver parenchyma along with amelioration with vitamin E in teddy bucks. Adult sixteen bucks were purchased from the market and divided into four groups with specific treatments for 84 days; A (control, B (sodium arsenite 5mg/kg BW, C (Sodium arsenite 5mg/kg BW +Vit E 200mg/kg BW and D (Vit E 200mg/kg BW. The serum biochemical parameters were evaluated fortnightly. Analysis of data revealed that there was significant P<0.05 rise in alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, glucose and total cholesterol in arsenic treated animals. After slaughtering of animals, visceral organs were observed for gross lesions and processed for histopathologically studies. The major histopathological changes were congestions, pyknosis and cytoplasmic vacuolation in liver. Supplementation of vitamin E along with sodium arsenite alleviated the toxic effects on ALT, AST, glucose and total cholesterol level as well as histopathology of liver. It was concluded from the present study that sodium arsenite causes the toxicity in teddy bucks and vitamin E has the ameliorative effects on these toxic effects of arsenic.

  7. Dietary and pharmacological intervention to mitigate the cardiopulmonary effects of air pollution toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Haiyan

    2016-12-01

    Exposure to air pollution contributes importantly to excess morbidity and mortality. And while regulatory actions under the "Clean Air Act" have saved millions of lives by improving air quality, there are still millions of people in the U.S. who live in areas where particulate air pollution (PM) levels exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Ambient Air Quality Standards. Therefore, apart from such localities working to attain such standards the protection of the health of public and in particular those at high risk might benefit from interventional strategies that would ameliorate air pollution's adverse health effects. Because inflammation and oxidative stress appear to mediate the health effects of air pollution, one interventional approach to consider is the use of dietary supplementation or medication with anti-inflammatory or antioxidant properties to block the biological responses that initiate the pathophysiological process that culminates in adverse health effects. This article reviews the capability of dietary supplementation, such as antioxidant vitamins, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and medications as a strategy to mitigate air pollution-induced subclinical cardiopulmonary effects. Antioxidant vitamins C and E protect the lungs against short-term ozone and PM exposure. Polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as fish oil and olive oil appear to offer protection against short-term air pollution-induced adverse cardiovascular responses. Taking dietary supplements or medications with antioxidant or anti-inflammatory properties has the potential to provide at least partial protection against air pollution-induced adverse health effects in those individuals who are known to be most susceptible, namely those with pre-existing respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Air Pollution, edited by Wenjun Ding, Andrew J. Ghio and Weidong Wu. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Epigenetic Contributions to the Relationship between Cancer and Dietary Intake of Nutrients, Bioactive Food Components, and Environmental Toxicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, L Joseph; Mahabir, Somdat; Ellison, Gary L; McGuinn, Laura A; Reid, Britt C

    2011-01-01

    Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene expression that occur without a change in DNA sequence. Cancer is a multistep process derived from combinational crosstalk between genetic alterations and epigenetic influences through various environmental factors. The observation that epigenetic changes are reversible makes them an attractive target for cancer prevention. Until recently, there have been difficulties studying epigenetic mechanisms in interactions between dietary factors and environmental toxicants. The development of the field of cancer epigenetics during the past decade has been advanced rapidly by genome-wide technologies - which initially employed microarrays but increasingly are using high-throughput sequencing - which helped to improve the quality of the analysis, increase the capacity of sample throughput, and reduce the cost of assays. It is particularly true for applications of cancer epigenetics in epidemiologic studies that examine the relationship among diet, epigenetics, and cancer because of the issues of tissue heterogeneity, the often limiting amount of DNA samples, and the significant cost of the analyses. This review offers an overview of the state of the science in nutrition, environmental toxicants, epigenetics, and cancer to stimulate further exploration of this important and developing area of science. Additional epidemiologic research is needed to clarify the relationship between these complex epigenetic mechanisms and cancer.

  9. Dietary l-Arginine Supplementation Protects Weanling Pigs from Deoxynivalenol-Induced Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the positive effects of dietary supplementation with l-arginine (Arg on piglets fed a deoxynivalenol (DON-contaminated diet. A total of eighteen, 28-day-old healthy weanling pigs were randomly assigned into one of three groups: uncontaminated basal diet (control group, 6 mg/kg DON-contaminated diet (DON group and 6 mg/kg DON + 1% l-arginine (DON + ARG group. After 21 days of Arg supplementation, piglets in the DON and DON + ARG groups were challenged by feeding 6 mg/kg DON-contaminated diet for seven days. The results showed that DON resulted in damage to piglets. However, clinical parameters, including jejunal morphology, amino acid concentrations in the serum, jejunum and ileum, were improved by Arg (p < 0.05. Furthermore, the mRNA levels for sodium-glucose transporter-1 (SGLT-1, glucose transporter type-2 (GLUT-2 and y+l-type amino acid transporter-1 (y+LAT-1 were downregulated in the DON group, but the values were increased in the DON + ARG group (p < 0.05. Collectively, these results indicate that dietary supplementation with Arg exerts a protective role in pigs fed DON-contaminated diets.

  10. The dietary biogenic amines tyramine and histamine show synergistic toxicity towards intestinal cells in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rio, Beatriz; Redruello, Begoña; Linares, Daniel M; Ladero, Victor; Fernandez, Maria; Martin, Maria Cruz; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2017-03-01

    Tyramine and histamine are the biogenic amines (BA) most commonly found at high concentrations in food; they may even appear together at toxic concentrations. The present work examines, via real-time cell analysis, whether histamine and tyramine show synergistic toxicity towards intestinal cell cultures. Employing a constant equipotency ratio, their interaction was examined via the combination index (CI) method of Chou & Talalay. Co-treatment with tyramine and histamine was associated with a stronger cytotoxic effect than was treatment with either BA or on its own. Indeed, a synergistic interaction (CIhistamine, at concentrations below the legal limit, increases the cytotoxicity of tyramine at concentrations frequently reached in some foods. The synergistic cytotoxicity of tyramine and histamine should be taken into account when establishing legal limits designed to ensure consumer safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Oral dietary developmental toxicity study with polyvinyl acetate phthalate (PVAP) in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMerlis, C C; Schoneker, D R; Borzelleca, J F

    2014-10-01

    Polyvinyl acetate phthalate (PVAP) was evaluated in a developmental toxicity study with Crl:CD(SD) rats. Female rats were provided continual access to the formulated diets on days 6 through 20 of presumed gestation (DGs 6 through 20) at concentrations of 0%, 0.75%, 1.5% and 3%. All surviving rats were sacrificed and Caesarean-sectioned on DG 21. The following parameters were evaluated: viability, clinical observations, body weights, feed consumption, necropsy observations, Caesarean-sectioning and litter observations, including gravid uterine weights, fetal body weights and sex, and fetal gross external, soft tissue and skeletal alterations. There were no treatment-related adverse effects reported in the developmental toxicity study. The maternal and developmental no-observable-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of PVAP was the highest concentration administered, i.e., 3.0% (equivalent to 2324mgPVAP/kg/day). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Toxic effects of dietary methylmercury on immune function and hematology in American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallacara, Dawn M.; Halbrook, Richard S.; French, John B.

    2011-01-01

    Fifty-nine adult male American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were assigned to one of three diet formulations including 0 (control), 0.6, and 3.9 μg/g (dry wt) methylmercury (MeHg). Kestrels received their diets daily for 13 weeks to assess the effects of dietary MeHg on immunocompetence. Immunotoxic endpoints included assessment of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) using the phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin-swelling assay and primary and secondary antibody-mediated immune responses (IR) via the sheep red blood cell (SRBC) hemagglutination assay. Select hematology and histology parameters were evaluated to corroborate the results of functional assays and to assess immunosuppression of T and B cell-dependent components in spleen tissue. Kestrels in the 0.6 and 3.9 μg/g MeHg groups exhibited suppression of CMI, including lower PHA stimulation indexes (p = 0.019) and a 42 to 45% depletion of T cell-dependent splenic lymphoid tissue (p = 0.006). Kestrels in the 0.6 μg/g group exhibited suppression of the primary IR to SRBCs (p = 0.014). MeHg did not have a noticeable effect on the secondary IR (p = 0.166). Elevation of absolute heterophil counts (p p p = 0.003) was apparent in the 3.9 μg/g group at week 12. Heterophilia, or the excess of heterophils in peripheral blood above normal ranges, was apparent in seven of 17 (41%) kestrels in the 3.9 μg/g group and was indicative of an acute inflammatory response or physiological stress. This study revealed that adult kestrels were more sensitive to immunotoxic effects of MeHg at environmentally relevant dietary concentrations than they were to reproductive effects as previously reported.

  13. High dietary quality of non-toxic cyanobacteria for a benthic grazer and its implications for the control of cyanobacterial biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groendahl, Sophie; Fink, Patrick

    2017-05-18

    Mass occurrences of cyanobacteria frequently cause detrimental effects to the functioning of aquatic ecosystems. Consequently, attempts haven been made to control cyanobacterial blooms through naturally co-occurring herbivores. Control of cyanobacteria through herbivores often appears to be constrained by their low dietary quality, rather than by the possession of toxins, as also non-toxic cyanobacteria are hardly consumed by many herbivores. It was thus hypothesized that the consumption of non-toxic cyanobacteria may be improved when complemented with other high quality prey. We conducted a laboratory experiment in which we fed the herbivorous freshwater gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis single non-toxic cyanobacterial and unialgal diets or a mixed diet to test if diet-mixing may enable these herbivores to control non-toxic cyanobacterial mass abundances. The treatments where L. stagnalis were fed non-toxic cyanobacteria and a mixed diet provided a significantly higher shell and soft-body growth rate than the average of all single algal, but not the non-toxic cyanobacterial diets. However, the increase in growth provided by the non-toxic cyanobacteria diets could not be related to typical determinants of dietary quality such as toxicity, nutrient stoichiometry or essential fatty acid content. These results strongly contradict previous research which describes non-toxic cyanobacteria as a low quality food resource for freshwater herbivores in general. Our findings thus have strong implications to gastropod-cyanobacteria relationships and suggest that freshwater gastropods may be able to control mass occurrences of benthic non-toxic cyanobacteria, frequently observed in eutrophied water bodies worldwide.

  14. Toxicity and oxidative stress of different forms of organic selenium and dietary protein in mallard ducklings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D.J.; Heinz, G.H.; LeCaptain, L.J.; Eisemann, J.D.; Pendleton, G.W.

    1996-01-01

    Concentrations of over 100 ppm (mg/kg) selenium (Se) have been found in aquatic plants and insects associated with irrigation drainwater and toxicity to fish and wildlife. Composition of diet for wild ducklings may vary in selenium-contaminated environments. Earlier studies have compared toxicities and oxidative stress of Se as selenite to those of seleno-DL-methionine (DL) in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). This study compares DL, seleno-L-methionine (L), selenized yeast (Y) and selenized wheat (W). Day-old mallard ducklings received an untreated diet (controls) containing 75% wheat (22% protein) or the same diet containing 15 or 30 ppm Se in the above forms except for 30 ppm Se as W. After 2 weeks blood and liver samples were collected for biochemical assays and Se analysis. All forms of selenium caused significant increases in plasma and hepatic glutathione peroxidase activities. Se as L at 30 ppm in the diet was the most toxic form, resulting in high mortality (64%) and impaired growth (>50%) in survivors and the greatest increase in ratio of oxidized to reduced hepatic glutathione (GSH). Se as both L and DL decreased the concentrations of hepatic GSH and total thiols. Se as Y accumulated the least in liver (approximately 50% of other forms) and had less effect on GSH and total thiols. In a second experiment, in which the basal diet was a commercial duck feed (22 % protein), survival was not affected by 30 ppm Se as DL, L, or Y and oxidative effects on GSH metabolism were less pronounced than with the wheat diet.

  15. Dietary Vitamin E Supplementation: A Strategy to Combat Arsenic Induced Toxicity in Teddy Bucks

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Zubair1, Maqbool Ahmad1, Huma Jamil1 and Farrah Deeba2

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to observe the toxic effects of sodium arsenite on serum biochemical constituents and liver parenchyma along with amelioration with vitamin E in teddy bucks. Adult sixteen bucks were purchased from the market and divided into four groups with specific treatments for 84 days; A (control), B (sodium arsenite 5mg/kg BW), C (Sodium arsenite 5mg/kg BW +Vit E 200mg/kg BW) and D (Vit E 200mg/kg BW). The serum biochemical parameters were evaluated fortnightly. Analysis...

  16. Mealtime interruptions, assistance and nutritional intake in subacute care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Judi; Wilton, Anita; Collins, Jorja

    2016-09-01

    Protected mealtimes is an initiative to support increased nutritional intake for all hospitalised patients, particularly those who are malnourished. The increased focus on maximising independence of patients in the subacute setting may provide a supportive environment for implementing these strategies. The aim of the present study was to gain insight into subacute ward practices at mealtimes under usual conditions (i.e. at baseline) where no protected mealtimes policy was implemented. Participants were patients aged ≥65 years recruited from subacute care facilities at a large healthcare network in Victoria, Australia. Participants were observed at mealtimes and mid meals (i.e. morning tea, afternoon tea and supper) to determine daily energy and protein intake, provision of mealtime assistance and mealtime interruptions. Almost all participants received assistance when it was needed, with positive and negative interruptions experienced by 56.2% and 76.2% of participants, respectively. There was an energy deficit of approximately 2 MJ per day between average intake and estimated requirements. In conclusion, mealtime practices were suboptimal, with particularly high rates of negative interruptions. Protected mealtimes is one strategy that may improve the mealtime environment to support patients' dietary intake. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate its implementation and effects.

  17. Randomized controlled trial of dietary fiber for the prevention of radiation-induced gastrointestinal toxicity during pelvic radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedlake, Linda; Shaw, Clare; McNair, Helen; Lalji, Amyn; Mohammed, Kabir; Klopper, Tanya; Allan, Lindsey; Tait, Diana; Hawkins, Maria; Somaiah, Navita; Lalondrelle, Susan; Taylor, Alexandra; VanAs, Nicholas; Stewart, Alexandra; Essapen, Sharadah; Gage, Heather; Whelan, Kevin; Andreyev, H Jervoise N

    2017-09-01

    Background: Therapeutic radiotherapy is an important treatment of pelvic cancers. Historically, low-fiber diets have been recommended despite a lack of evidence and potentially beneficial mechanisms of fiber.Objective: This randomized controlled trial compared low-, habitual-, and high-fiber diets for the prevention of gastrointestinal toxicity in patients undergoing pelvic radiotherapy.Design: Patients were randomly assigned to low-fiber [≤10 g nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP)/d], habitual-fiber (control), or high-fiber (≥18 g NSP/d) diets and received individualized counseling at the start of radiotherapy to achieve these targets. The primary endpoint was the difference between groups in the change in the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire-Bowel Subset (IBDQ-B) score between the starting and nadir (worst) score during treatment. Other measures included macronutrient intake, stool diaries, and fecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations.Results: Patients were randomly assigned to low-fiber (n = 55), habitual-fiber (n = 55), or high-fiber (n = 56) dietary advice. Fiber intakes were significantly different between groups (P fiber group (mean ± SD: -3.7 ± 12.8) than in the habitual-fiber group (-10.8 ± 13.5; P = 0.011). At 1-y postradiotherapy (n = 126) the difference in IBDQ-B scores between the high-fiber (+0.1 ± 14.5) and the habitual-fiber (-8.4 ± 13.3) groups was significant (P = 0.004). No significant differences were observed in stool frequency or form or in short-chain fatty acid concentrations. Significant reductions in energy, protein, and fat intake occurred in the low- and habitual-fiber groups only.Conclusions: Dietary advice to follow a high-fiber diet during pelvic radiotherapy resulted in reduced gastrointestinal toxicity both acutely and at 1 y compared with habitual-fiber intake. Restrictive, non-evidence-based advice to reduce fiber intake in this setting should be abandoned. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT

  18. The MDT-15 subunit of mediator interacts with dietary restriction to modulate longevity and fluoranthene toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Schleit

    Full Text Available Dietary restriction (DR, the limitation of calorie intake while maintaining proper nutrition, has been found to extend life span and delay the onset of age-associated disease in a wide range of species. Previous studies have suggested that DR can reduce the lethality of environmental toxins. To further examine the role of DR in toxin response, we measured life spans of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans treated with the mutagenic polyaromatic hydrocarbon, fluoranthene (FLA. FLA is a direct byproduct of combustion, and is one of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's sixteen priority environmental toxins. Treatment with 5 µg/ml FLA shortened the life spans of ad libitum fed nematodes, and DR resulted in increased sensitivity to FLA. To determine the role of detoxifying enzymes in the toxicity of FLA, we tested nematodes with mutations in the gene encoding the MDT-15 subunit of mediator, a transcriptional coactivator that regulates genes involved in fatty acid metabolism and detoxification. Mutation of mdt-15 increased the life span of FLA treated animals compared to wild-type animals with no difference observed between DR and ad libitum fed mdt-15 animals. We also examined mutants with altered insulin-IGF-1-like signaling (IIS, which is known to modulate life span and stress resistance in C. elegans independently of DR. Mutation of the genes coding for the insulin-like receptor DAF-2 or the FOXO-family transcription factor DAF16 did not alter the animals' susceptibility to FLA compared to wild type. Taken together, our results suggest that certain compounds have increased toxicity when combined with a DR regimen through increased metabolic activation. This increased metabolic activation appears to be mediated through the MDT-15 transcription factor and is independent of the IIS pathway.

  19. Subacute thyroiditis--61 cases review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, S C; Jap, T S; Ho, L T; Ching, K N

    1989-02-01

    To examine the hospitalized patients with available data suggesting subacute thyroiditis, we have reviewed 80 hospital charts over the last 11 years and the data demonstrated 61 patients (48 females, 13 males, Aged 22-75 years) had evidence of subacute thyroiditis clinically or pathologically. Fifty seven of those patients had the clinical manifestation of severe tenderness over the neck, and others were painless. The thyroid function test were abnormal in 53% (30/57) of cases. All had rapid sedimentation rate (46/46). The thyroid antibodies were positive in 26% (10/39) of cases. Sixteen patients received unnecessary thyroid operation and complicated with hypothyroidism with or without hypoparathyroidism in two cases. In conclusion, all patients with painful or painless goiter should be appreciated carefully with additional study such as aspiration cytology to avoid misdiagnosis and inappropriate management.

  20. Dietary Biotin Supplementation Modifies Hepatic Morphology without Changes in Liver Toxicity Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Riverón-Negrete

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacological concentrations of biotin have pleiotropic effects. Several reports have documented that biotin supplementation decreases hyperglycemia. We have shown that a biotin-supplemented diet increased insulin secretion and the mRNA abundance of proteins regulating insulin transcription and secretion. We also found enlarged pancreatic islets and modified islet morphology. Other studies have shown that pharmacological concentrations of biotin modify tissue structure. Although biotin administration is considered safe, little attention has been given to its effect on tissue structure. In this study, we investigated the effect of biotin supplementation on hepatic morphology and liver toxicity markers. Male BALB/cAnN Hsd mice were fed a control or a biotin-supplemented diet for 8 weeks. Versus the control mice, biotin-supplemented mice had an altered portal triad with dilated sinusoids, increased vascularity, and bile conducts. Furthermore, we observed an increased proportion of nucleomegaly and binucleated hepatocytes. In spite of the liver morphological changes, no differences were observed in the serum liver damage indicators, oxidative stress markers, or antioxidant enzymes. Our data demonstrate for the first time that biotin supplementation affects liver morphology in normal mice, and that these modifications are not paralleled with damage markers.

  1. Dietary Biotin Supplementation Modifies Hepatic Morphology without Changes in Liver Toxicity Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riverón-Negrete, Leticia; Sicilia-Argumedo, Gloria; Álvarez-Delgado, Carolina; Coballase-Urrutia, Elvia; Alcántar-Fernández, Jonathan; Fernandez-Mejia, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacological concentrations of biotin have pleiotropic effects. Several reports have documented that biotin supplementation decreases hyperglycemia. We have shown that a biotin-supplemented diet increased insulin secretion and the mRNA abundance of proteins regulating insulin transcription and secretion. We also found enlarged pancreatic islets and modified islet morphology. Other studies have shown that pharmacological concentrations of biotin modify tissue structure. Although biotin administration is considered safe, little attention has been given to its effect on tissue structure. In this study, we investigated the effect of biotin supplementation on hepatic morphology and liver toxicity markers. Male BALB/cAnN Hsd mice were fed a control or a biotin-supplemented diet for 8 weeks. Versus the control mice, biotin-supplemented mice had an altered portal triad with dilated sinusoids, increased vascularity, and bile conducts. Furthermore, we observed an increased proportion of nucleomegaly and binucleated hepatocytes. In spite of the liver morphological changes, no differences were observed in the serum liver damage indicators, oxidative stress markers, or antioxidant enzymes. Our data demonstrate for the first time that biotin supplementation affects liver morphology in normal mice, and that these modifications are not paralleled with damage markers.

  2. Efficacy of a Brazilian calcium montmorillonite against toxic effects of dietary aflatoxins on broilers reared to market weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, J C; Santurio, J M; Zanette, R A; Rosa, A P; Scher, A; Dal Pozzo, M; Alves, S H; Ferreiro, L

    2014-01-01

    1. The protective effect of a natural Brazilian calcium montmorillonite (CaMont) against aflatoxins was studied in broiler chickens. 2. A total of 1056-d-old Cobb male broilers were housed in experimental pens (22 chickens per pen) for 42 d. Three levels of CaMont (0, 2.5 and 5 g/kg) and two levels of aflatoxins (0 and 3 mg/kg) were assayed. Each treatment had 8 replicate pens of 22 broiler chickens each. 3. Of all the chickens tested in the experiment, the ones treated with aflatoxins were the most adversely affected. CaMont treatment at concentrations of 2.5 and 5 g/kg improved body weight of chickens at 42 d of age by 13.3% and 22.7%, increased daily feed intake by 9.7% and 24.7%, and improved the productive efficiency index of chickens by 53% and 66.5%, respectively. 4. Dietary CaMont positively affected parameters such as weight of liver, heart and gizzard; however, serum potassium concentration decreased by 15.3% compared with that of chickens given only the aflatoxin-contaminated diet. 5. CaMont did not cause adverse effects in chickens that did not receive aflatoxins. 6. CaMont at pH 8.5 partially reduced the toxic effects of aflatoxins in broilers when included at levels of 2.5 and 5 g/kg in the diet.

  3. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: A clinical appraisal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jagtap, Sujit Abajirao; Nair, M D; Kambale, Harsha J

    2013-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare chronic, progressive encephalitis affecting primarily children and young adults, caused by a persistent infection of immune resistant measles virus...

  4. Critical comparison of intravenous injection of TiO2 nanoparticles with waterborne and dietary exposures concludes minimal environmentally-relevant toxicity in juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    OpenAIRE

    Boyle, D; Al-Bairuty, GA; Henry, TB; Handy, RD

    2013-01-01

    A critical comparison of studies that have investigated tissue accumulation and toxicity of TiO2-NPs in fish is necessary to resolve inconsistencies. The present study used identical TiO2-NPs, toxicological endpoints, and fish (juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss) as previous studies that investigated waterborne and dietary toxicity of TiO2-NPs, and conducted a critical comparison of results after intravenous caudal-vein injection of 50 μg of TiO2-NPs and bulk TiO2. Injected TiO2-NPs a...

  5. Effect of dietary honey on intestinal microflora and toxicity of mycotoxins in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hegazy Eman M

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bee honey is a functional food which has a unique composition, antimicrobial properties and bifidogenic effect. In order to assess whether honey can inhibit the toxic effect of mycotoxins, the present study was undertaken. Methods Production of biomass and toxins by Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus ochraceus were followed in media without and with honey. Although aflatoxins and ochratoxin A. were administrated to male Swiss albino mice up to 1 μg and 10 ng/kg body weight/day respectively. The experimental animals were fed diets without our with 10% honey for two months. The changes in colonic probiotic bacteria, determintal colon enzyme glucuronidases, and genotoxicity were followed. Results Addition of 32% in its media increased the biomass of A parasiticus, while the biomass of A. ochraceus decreased and Ochratoxin A. was not produced. When the honey was added at the ratio of 32 and 48% in the medium. No relationship was found between mycelium weight and production of mycotoxins. Oral administration of aflatoxins (mixture of B1, B2, G1 and G2 and Ochratoxin A. induced structural and numerical chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow and germ cells of male mice, whereas, honey treatment reduced the genotoxicity of mycotoxins. Also both toxins induced histopathological changes in liver and kidney. Feeding on diet supplemented with honey improved the histopathological changes in case of aflatoxin group, but not in the case of ochratoxin A. group (except of kidney in two cases. No significant differences were found in the activity of colon β-glucuronidase between group fed diet with or without honey. On the other hand, the colon bifido bacteria and lactobacilli counts were increased markedly in group receiving diet supplemented with honey. Conclusion Substituting sugars with honey in processed food can inhibit the harmful and genotoxic effects of mycotoxins, and improve the gut microflora.

  6. Toxicity and trophic transfer of P25 TiO2 NPs from Dunaliella salina to Artemia salina: Effect of dietary and waterborne exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuvaneshwari, M; Thiagarajan, Vignesh; Nemade, Prateek; Chandrasekaran, N; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2018-01-01

    The recent increase in nanoparticle (P25 TiO2 NPs) usage has led to concerns regarding their potential implications on environment and human health. The food chain is the central pathway for nanoparticle transfer from lower to high trophic level organisms. The current study relies on the investigation of toxicity and trophic transfer potential of TiO2 NPs from marine algae Dunaliella salina to marine crustacean Artemia salina. Toxicity was measured in two different modes of exposure such as waterborne (exposure of TiO2 NPs to Artemia) and dietary exposure (NP-accumulated algal cells are used to feed the Artemia). The toxicity and accumulation of TiO2 NPs in marine algae D. salina were also studied. Artemia was found to be more sensitive to TiO2 NPs (48h LC50 of 4.21mgL-1) as compared to marine algae, D. salina (48h LC50 of 11.35mgL-1). The toxicity, uptake, and accumulation of TiO2 NPs were observed to be more in waterborne exposure as compared to dietary exposure. Waterborne exposure seemed to cause higher ROS production and antioxidant enzyme (SOD and CAT) activity as compared to dietary exposure of TiO2 NPs in Artemia. There were no observed biomagnification (BMF) and trophic transfer from algae to Artemia through dietary exposure. Histopathological studies confirmed the morphological and internal damages in Artemia. This study reiterates the possible effects of the different modes of exposure on trophic transfer potential of TiO2 NPs and eventually the consequences on aquatic environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Critical comparison of intravenous injection of TiO2 nanoparticles with waterborne and dietary exposures concludes minimal environmentally-relevant toxicity in juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, David; Al-Bairuty, Genan A; Henry, Theodore B; Handy, Richard D

    2013-11-01

    A critical comparison of studies that have investigated tissue accumulation and toxicity of TiO2-NPs in fish is necessary to resolve inconsistencies. The present study used identical TiO2-NPs, toxicological endpoints, and fish (juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss) as previous studies that investigated waterborne and dietary toxicity of TiO2-NPs, and conducted a critical comparison of results after intravenous caudal-vein injection of 50 μg of TiO2-NPs and bulk TiO2. Injected TiO2-NPs accumulated only in kidney (94% of measured Ti) and to a lesser extent in spleen; and injected bulk TiO2 was found only in kidney. No toxicity of TiO2 was observed in kidney, spleen, or other tissues. Critical comparison of these data with previous studies indicates that dietary and waterborne exposures to TiO2-NPs do not lead to Ti accumulation in internal tissues, and previous reports of minor toxicity are inconsistent or attributable to respiratory distress resulting from gill occlusion during waterborne exposure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Survey of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yusaku; Hashimoto, Koichi; Iinuma, Kazuie; Ohtsuka, Yoko; Ichiyama, Takashi; Kusuhara, Koichi; Nomura, Keiko; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Aiba, Hideo; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Hosoya, Mitsuaki

    2012-12-01

    Investigators conducted a retrospective epidemiological study of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, a fatal disease caused by measles infection, over the past few years in Japan. Data on 118 cases obtained from a questionnaire sent to attending physicians were analyzed. The annual incidence of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis was approximately 0.03 cases per million from 2001 to 2005. Children infected with measles at a young age (panencephalitis, and those infected before 6 months of age showed earlier onset. Because a positive correlation was found between the prevalence of measles and the onset of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, particularly among children infected at an early age, it is vital to eradicate measles infection by vaccination.

  9. Intravenous injection of unfunctionalized carbon-based nanomaterials confirms the minimal toxicity observed in aqueous and dietary exposures in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, David; Sutton, Paul A; Handy, Richard D; Henry, Theodore B

    2018-01-01

    Numerous ecotoxicology studies of carbon-based nanomaterials (CNMs) have been conducted in fishes; however, different approaches have been used to make CNM dispersions and dose tanks for aqueous exposures, and to prepare food containing CNMs for dietary studies. This diversity of experimental methods has led to conflicting results and difficulties in comparing studies. The objective of the present study was to evaluate intravenous injection of unfunctionalized CNMs in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), as a means of delivering a known internal dose, on tissue biochemistry and histopathological lesions; then, subsequently, to compare the results with our previous work on aqueous and dietary exposures of rainbow trout to CNMs. Rainbow trout were injected in the caudal vein with corn oil dispersions of 200 μg (approximately 1 μg g-1) of either the fullerene C60, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), or amorphous carbon black. After 96 h, injected fish were euthanized and tissue samples collected for biochemistry and histology. Histological examination of the kidney of fish injected intravenously indicated the presence of black material consistent with the injected carbon treatments. However, there were no additional lesions associated with CNM exposure compared to controls. There were also no significant changes in haematology, or ionoregulatory disturbance in blood plasma among the intravenously injected fish. Significant elevation in lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances TBARS) was detected only in kidney and spleen of fish injected with SWCNTs, but not the other carbon treatments. The elevated TBARS following injection contrasted with CNMs delivered via aqueous or dietary routes in our previous studies, suggesting that the latter exposure routes may not lead to absorption and toxicity in the internal tissues. Comparison of the effects of injected CNMs with aqueous and dietary CNMs exposures indicates that these materials are of

  10. MRI in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuncay, R. [Department of Neurology, Istanbul Medical Faculty, University of Istanbul (Turkey); Akman-Demir, G. [Department of Neurology, Istanbul Medical Faculty, University of Istanbul (Turkey); Goekyigit, A. [Department of Neurology, Istanbul Medical Faculty, University of Istanbul (Turkey); Eraksoy, M. [Department of Neurology, Istanbul Medical Faculty, University of Istanbul (Turkey); Barlas, M. [Department of Neurology, Istanbul Medical Faculty, University of Istanbul (Turkey); Tolun, R. [Department of Neurology, Istanbul Medical Faculty, University of Istanbul (Turkey); Guersoy, G. [Department of Neurology, Istanbul Medical Faculty, University of Istanbul (Turkey)

    1996-10-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a progressive, slow virus infection of the brain, caused by the measles virus, attacking children and young adults. We investigated 15 patients with SSPE by MRI, with 5 normal and 10 pathological results. In the early period, lesions were in the grey matter and subcortical white matter. They were asymmetrical and had a predilection for the posterior parts of the hemispheres. Later, high-signal changes in deep white matter and severe cerebral atrophy were observed. Parenchymal lesions significantly correlated with the duration of disease. A significant relationship between MRI findings and clinical stage was observed in the 1st year of the disease. (orig.). With 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Familial subacute sclerosing panencephalitis associated with short latency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vinod; Gupta, Vineet B; Eisenhut, Michael

    2008-03-01

    The familial recurrence of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is rare. The study of such cases and a comparison of intrafamilial with sporadic cases of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis may shed light on important pathogenetic factors. We report on the occurrence of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in two brothers from rural India, who contracted measles infection simultaneously at ages 3 and 11 years. They developed subacute sclerosing panencephalitis 21 and 37 months later, respectively. A diagnosis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis was based on history, electroencephalographic changes, and significantly raised levels of cerebrospinal-fluid anti-measles virus immunoglobulin G. A comparison of intrafamilial with sporadic cases of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis revealed that latency in familial subacute sclerosing panencephalitis involved a median of 6.4 years (range, 1.0-10.9), significantly (P panencephalitis from the Indian subcontinent. We confirmed a more rapid manifestation of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis after measles virus infection in intrafamilial compared with sporadic subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

  12. Pseudotumor cerebri secondary to subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayçiçek, Ali; Işcan, Akin; Ceçe, Hasan

    2009-05-01

    Unusual presentations are not rare in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Five patients initially diagnosed with pseudotumor cerebri were ultimately determined to have pseudotumor cerebri secondary to subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. The present study retrospectively reviewed 56 cases history, neurologic symptoms, and clinical and laboratory data, as well as the outcomes. On admission, five patients (group 1) presenting with pseudotumor cerebri exhibited bilateral papilledema, and in each of them cranial magnetic resonance imaging revealed small lateral ventricles, effacement of the subarachnoid space, and no mass lesion. On admission, 51 patients (group 2) had no pseudotumor cerebri findings. The year of original measles infection, the interval between measles and onset of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, and initial neurologic symptoms were similar, but length of symptoms before diagnosis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis was shorter in group 1, and the clinical stage of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis on admission was more advanced in group 2. Cerebrospinal fluid mean open pressure was 378 +/- 22 H(2)O in group 1 and 146 +/- 28 H(2)O in group 2; cerebrospinal fluid antibody was 2038 +/- 768 U/L in group 1 and was 664 +/- 214 U/L in group 2. Only three of the five patients with pseudotumor cerebri had typical periodic discharges on electroencephalographic examination. These findings suggest that subacute sclerosing panencephalitis can cause pseudotumor cerebri.

  13. Comparison of acute and subacute genitourinary and gastrointestinal adverse events of radiotherapy for prostate cancer using intensity-modulated radiation therapy, three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, permanent implant brachytherapy and high-dose-rate brachytherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morimoto, Masahiro; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Konishi, Koji; Isohashi, Fumiaki; Takahashi, Yutaka; Ogata, Toshiyuki; Koizumi, Masahiko; Teshima, Teruki; Bijl, Henk P; van der Schaaf, Arjen; Langendijk, Johannes A; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    AIMS AND BACKGROUND: To examine acute and subacute urinary and rectal toxicity in patients with localized prostate cancer monotherapeutically treated with the following four radiotherapeutic techniques: intensity-modulated radiation therapy, three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy,

  14. Low-Level Toxic Metal Exposure in Healthy Weaning-Age Infants: Association with Growth, Dietary Intake, and Iron Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Jungil Choi; Ju Young Chang; Jeana Hong; Sue Shin; Jeong Su Park; Sohee Oh

    2017-01-01

    Even low levels of toxic metal exposure (As, Cd, Hg, and Pb) in infancy might be harmful to children?s development. This study investigated toxic metal exposure on healthy weaning-age infants and its relationship with growth, diet, and iron/anemia status. The weight, height, head circumference, whole blood levels of four toxic metals, hemoglobin, and serum ferritin of healthy infants was measured. Among 210 infants with a median age of 11.4 months (interquartile range: 10.5?12.0), the median ...

  15. Toxicity of Pb-contaminated soil to Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) and the use of the blood-dietary Pb slope in risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W. Nelson; Chen, Yu; Henry, Paula; May, Thomas; Mosby, David; Rattner, Barnett A.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Sprague, Daniel; Weber, John

    2014-01-01

    This study relates tissue concentrations and toxic effects of Pb in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) to the dietary exposure of soil-borne Pb associated with mining and smelting. From 0% to 12% contaminated soil, by weight, was added to 5 experimental diets (0.12 to 382 mg Pb/kg, dry wt) and fed to the quail for 6 weeks. Benchmark doses associated with a 50% reduction in delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity were 0.62 mg Pb/kg in the blood, dry wt, and 27 mg Pb/kg in the diet. Benchmark doses associated with a 20% increase in the concentration of erythrocyte protoporphyrin were 2.7 mg Pb/kg in the blood and 152 mg Pb/kg in the diet. The quail showed no other signs of toxicity (histopathological lesions, alterations in plasma–testosterone concentration, and body and organ weights). The relation of the blood Pb concentration to the soil Pb concentration was linear, with a slope of 0.013 mg Pb/kg of blood (dry wt) divided by mg Pb/kg of diet. We suggest that this slope is potentially useful in ecological risk assessments on birds in the same way that the intake slope factor is an important parameter in risk assessments of children exposed to Pb. The slope may also be used in a tissue-residue approach as an additional line of evidence in ecological risk assessment, supplementary to an estimate of hazard based on dietary toxicity reference values.

  16. Toxicity of Pb-contaminated soil to Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) and the use of the blood-dietary Pb slope in risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W Nelson; Chen, Yu; Henry, Paula; May, Thomas; Mosby, David; Rattner, Barnett A; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I; Sprague, Daniel; Weber, John

    2014-01-01

    This study relates tissue concentrations and toxic effects of Pb in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) to the dietary exposure of soil-borne Pb associated with mining and smelting. From 0% to 12% contaminated soil, by weight, was added to 5 experimental diets (0.12 to 382 mg Pb/kg, dry wt) and fed to the quail for 6 weeks. Benchmark doses associated with a 50% reduction in delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity were 0.62 mg Pb/kg in the blood, dry wt, and 27 mg Pb/kg in the diet. Benchmark doses associated with a 20% increase in the concentration of erythrocyte protoporphyrin were 2.7 mg Pb/kg in the blood and 152 mg Pb/kg in the diet. The quail showed no other signs of toxicity (histopathological lesions, alterations in plasma-testosterone concentration, and body and organ weights). The relation of the blood Pb concentration to the soil Pb concentration was linear, with a slope of 0.013 mg Pb/kg of blood (dry wt) divided by mg Pb/kg of diet. We suggest that this slope is potentially useful in ecological risk assessments on birds in the same way that the intake slope factor is an important parameter in risk assessments of children exposed to Pb. The slope may also be used in a tissue-residue approach as an additional line of evidence in ecological risk assessment, supplementary to an estimate of hazard based on dietary toxicity reference values. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  17. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Jose; Issacson, Richard S; Koppel, Barbara S

    2010-10-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a chronic encephalitis occurring after infection with measles virus. The prevalence of the disease varies depending on uptake of measles vaccination, with the virus disproportionally affecting regions with low vaccination rates. The physiopathology of the disease is not fully understood; however, there is evidence that it involves factors that favour humoral over cellular immune response against the virus. As a result, the virus is able to infect the neurons and to survive in a latent form for years. The clinical manifestations occur, on average, 6 years after measles virus infection. The onset of SSPE is insidious, and psychiatric manifestations are prominent. Subsequently, myoclonic seizures usually lead to a final stage of akinetic mutism. The diagnosis is clinical, supported by periodic complexes on electroencephalography, brain imaging suggestive of demyelination, and immunological evidence of measles infection. Management of the disease includes seizure control and avoidance of secondary complications associated with the progressive disability. Trials of treatment with interferon, ribavirin, and isoprinosine using different methodologies have reported beneficial results. However, the disease shows relentless progression; only 5% of individuals with SSPE undergo spontaneous remission, with the remaining 95% dying within 5 years of diagnosis.

  18. Proton pump inhibitor-induced subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandholdt, L H; Laurinaviciene, R; Bygum, Anette

    2014-01-01

    Drug-induced subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE) has been known in the literature since 1985 and is increasingly recognized.......Drug-induced subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE) has been known in the literature since 1985 and is increasingly recognized....

  19. Masticatory function in subacute TMD patients before and after treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira, L.J.; Steenks, M.H.; Wijer, A. de; Speksnijder, C.M.; Bilt, A. van der

    2009-01-01

    Masticatory function can be impaired in temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) patients. We investigated whether treatment of subacute non-specific TMD patients may influence oral function and clinical outcome measures. Fifteen patients with subacute TMD participated in the study. We quantified

  20. Low-Level Toxic Metal Exposure in Healthy Weaning-Age Infants: Association with Growth, Dietary Intake, and Iron Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jungil; Chang, Ju Young; Hong, Jeana; Shin, Sue; Park, Jeong Su; Oh, Sohee

    2017-04-06

    Even low levels of toxic metal exposure (As, Cd, Hg, and Pb) in infancy might be harmful to children's development. This study investigated toxic metal exposure on healthy weaning-age infants and its relationship with growth, diet, and iron/anemia status. The weight, height, head circumference, whole blood levels of four toxic metals, hemoglobin, and serum ferritin of healthy infants was measured. Among 210 infants with a median age of 11.4 months (interquartile range: 10.5-12.0), the median levels of As, Cd, Hg, and Pb were 1.2 μg/L, 0.05 μg/L, 0.8 μg/L, and 0.83 μg/dL, respectively. In adjusted linear regression models, post-birth weight gain (Pb) and current head circumference (As, Pb) were negatively associated with toxic metal levels. In multiple linear regression or logistic regression analysis, the duration of breastfeeding (all four metals), perceived adequacy of rice-based food intake (As), regular fish intake (As, Hg), and iron deficiency with/without anemia (Cd, Pb) were associated with increased toxic metal levels. Although levels of toxic metals may not usually be high in this population, individual exposure risk may need to be assessed after considering the type of feeding or intake of complementary foods and the iron/anemia status while evaluating growth status during late infancy.

  1. SUBACUTE AND MULTIGENERATIONAL TOXICITY EVALUATION OF CASTOR OIL POLYMER INGESTION IN RATS AVALIAÇÃO DA TOXICIDADE SUBAGUDA E MULTIGERACIONAL DA INGESTÃO DE DERIVADO DO POLÍMERO DE MAMONA EM RATOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Chierice

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Castor oil polymer is a biomaterial that can be used to fill bone defects. Biomaterials should present some characteristics such as: biocompatibility, inert, absence of toxin radical and vapour discharge and permit the organism to recognize them as a part of their structure. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in water ingestion, feed intake, weight gain and toxic effects in rats (Rattus norvegicus after ingestion of 0, 10, 25 and 50% of castor oil polymer (COP, Ricinus communis. In groups that received 10 and 25% of COP the weight gain was smaller than the control group. Feed intake in control group was greater than in groups 10 and 50% COP. The intake of castor oil polymer reduced feed intake and water ingest probably because of the palatability of the product. In the second part of this study (multigenerational there were no toxic effects in the offspring, as external birth defects or alterations incompatible with life, in spite of the fact that lower weight were observed in males and females of the second generation.

    KEY WORDS: Biomaterials, bone defects, polymer, Ricinus communis. Os biomateriais são polímeros artificiais desenvolvidos para substituir tecidos orgânicos danificados e preencherem falhas ósseas. Eles devem apresentar características como a biocompatibilidade, serem inertes, não liberarem vapores e radicais tóxicos e permitirem ao organismo reconhecê-los como parte de sua estrutura. Procurou-se determinar a ingestão de água, o consumo de ração, ganho de peso e possível efeito tóxico decorrentes da ingestão de três doses (10%, 25% e 50% do derivado do polímero de mamona (PM, Ricinus communis, adicionado à água de bebida, em ratos (Rattus norvegicus. Nos grupos que receberam 10% e 25% do PM, o ganho de peso foi menor (P?0,05, quando comparado ao grupo-controle. O consumo de ração nos grupos que receberam 10% e 50% de PM foi menor em relação ao grupo-controle. A ingestão do pol

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in patients presenting with (sub)acute cerebellar ataxia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Tanja [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Hamburg (Germany); The Johns Hopkins Hospital School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Division of Neuroradiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Thomalla, Goetz [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Neurology, Hamburg (Germany); Goebell, Einar [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Hamburg (Germany); Piotrowski, Anna [The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Baltimore, MD (United States); Yousem, David Mark [The Johns Hopkins Hospital School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Division of Neuroradiology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-02-17

    Acute or subacute cerebellar inflammation is mainly caused by postinfectious, toxic, neoplastic, vascular, or idiopathic processes and can result in cerebellar ataxia. Previous magnetic resonance (MR) studies in single patients who developed acute or subacute ataxia showed varying imaging features. Eighteen patients presenting with acute and subacute onset of ataxia were included in this study. Cases of chronic-progressive/hereditary and noncerebellar causes (ischemia, multiple sclerosis lesions, metastasis, bleedings) were excluded. MR imaging findings were then matched with the clinical history of the patient. An underlying etiology for ataxic symptoms were found in 14/18 patients (postinfectious/infectious, paraneoplastic, autoimmune, drug-induced). In two of five patients without MR imaging findings and three of eight patients with minimal imaging features (cerebellar atrophy, slight signal alterations, and small areas of restricted diffusion), adverse clinical outcomes were documented. Of the five patients with prominent MR findings (cerebellar swelling, contrast enhancement, or broad signal abnormalities), two were lost to follow-up and two showed long-term sequelae. No correlation was found between the presence of initial MRI findings in subacute or acute ataxia patients and their long-term clinical outcome. MR imaging was more flagrantly positive in cases due to encephalitis. (orig.)

  3. Dietary safety of a dual-enzyme preparation for animal feed: Acute and subchronic oral toxicity and genotoxicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, G P; Gaffney, M A; Curran, C M; Moran, C A

    2017-08-01

    Animal feed is routinely supplemented with exogenous enzymes to improve nutrient utilization, such as proteases to enhance protein hydrolysis in vivo and xylanases to alleviate feed related anti-nutritional factors. The present studies were conducted to evaluate the potential oral toxicity and genotoxicity of a dual-enzyme preparation, Vegpro® concentrate (VPr-C). Acute oral toxicity studies were conducted in adult male and female Sprague-Dawley Crl CD rats and CHS Swiss ICO:OFI (IOPS Caw) mice. Thirteen week preliminary and final subchronic oral toxicity studies were conducted in male and female rats. Genotoxicity was evaluated through a bacterial reverse mutation test (Ames test), an in-vitro mammalian chromosomal aberration test, and a mammalian micronucleus test. The LD50 was >2000 mg/kg of BW in mice and rats. In the 13-week oral toxicity study, the No Observed Adverse Effects Level (NOAEL) was 1000 mg/kg BW per day for females and 300 mg/kg BW per day for males. VPr-C showed no mutagenic activity in Salmonella typhimurium, did not induce significant chromosomal aberrations in cultured human lymphocytes, and did not increase the frequency or proportion of micronucleated immature erythrocytes in mice. There was no evidence of acute or subchronic toxicity or genotoxicity associated with the test article at these test dosages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of dietary Spirulina on reduction of copper toxicity and improvement of growth, blood parameters and phosphatases activities in carp, Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton, 1822).

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, R; Sampath, K; Nagarajan, R; Vellaisamy, P; Manikandan, M Maripandi

    2009-09-01

    The effect of Spirulina supplementation on reduction of copper toxicity based on food utilization, phosphatases activities and selected haematological parameters was studied in a freshwater cultivable fish C. mrigala. Metal concentration in medium, body tissues and fecal matter was also analysed. Sublethal exposure of C. mrigala fed Spirulina-free diet significantly reduced the consumption and growth rates, phosphatases activities and haematological parameters. However, the above parameters enhanced in the copper exposed fish fed with Spirulina supplemented diets. A significant positive correlation was obtained for the relationship between supplementation of dietary Spirulina and copper defecation through feces. Among the doses of Spirulina supplementation, 6% addition has been considered optimum for C. mrigala since this dose produces maximum elimination of copper from the body and feces and better improvement on growth, phosphatases activities and haematological parameters.

  5. Acute toxicity, bioaccumulation and effects of dietary transfer of silver from brine shrimp exposed to PVP/PEI-coated silver nanoparticles to zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacave, José María; Fanjul, Álvaro; Bilbao, Eider; Gutierrez, Nerea; Barrio, Irantzu; Arostegui, Inmaculada; Cajaraville, Miren P; Orbea, Amaia

    2017-09-01

    The extensive use and release to the aquatic environment of silver nanoparticles (NPs) could lead to their incorporation into the food web. Brine shrimp larvae of 24h showed low sensitivity to the exposure to PVP/PEI-coated Ag NPs (5nm), with EC 50 values at 24h of 19.63mgAgL -1 , but they significantly accumulated silver after 24h of exposure to 100μgL -1 of Ag NPs. Thus, to assess bioaccumulation and effects of silver transferred by the diet in zebrafish, brine shrimp larvae were exposed to 100ngL -1 of Ag NPs as an environmentally relevant concentration or to 100μgL -1 as a potentially effective concentration and used to feed zebrafish for 21days. Autometallography revealed a dose- and time-dependent metal accumulation in the intestine and in the liver of zebrafish. Three-day feeding with brine shrimps exposed to 100ngL -1 of Ag NPs was enough to impair fish health as reflected by the significant reduction of lysosomal membrane stability and the presence of vacuolization and necrosis in the liver. However, dietary exposure to 100μgL -1 of Ag NPs for 3days did not significantly alter gene transcription levels, neither in the liver nor in the intestine. After 21days, biological processes such as lipid transport and localization, cellular response to chemical stimulus and response to xenobiotic stimulus were significantly altered in the liver. Overall, these results indicate an effective dietary transfer of silver and point out to liver as the main target organ for Ag NP toxicity in zebrafish after dietary exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Dietary uptake of Cu sorbed to hydrous iron oxide is linked to cellular toxicity and feeding inhibition in a benthic grazer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Daniel J.; Croteau, Marie-Noele; Fuller, Christopher C.; Ringwood, Amy H.

    2016-01-01

    Whereas feeding inhibition caused by exposure to contaminants has been extensively documented, the underlying mechanism(s) are less well understood. For this study, the behavior of several key feeding processes, including ingestion rate and assimilation efficiency, that affect the dietary uptake of Cu were evaluated in the benthic grazer Lymnaea stagnalis following 4–5 h exposures to Cu adsorbed to synthetic hydrous ferric oxide (Cu–HFO). The particles were mixed with a cultured alga to create algal mats with Cu exposures spanning nearly 3 orders of magnitude at variable or constant Fe concentrations, thereby allowing first order and interactive effects of Cu and Fe to be evaluated. Results showed that Cu influx rates and ingestion rates decreased as Cu exposures of the algal mat mixture exceeded 104 nmol/g. Ingestion rate appeared to exert primary control on the Cu influx rate. Lysosomal destabilization rates increased directly with Cu influx rates. At the highest Cu exposure where the incidence of lysosomal membrane damage was greatest (51%), the ingestion rate was suppressed 80%. The findings suggested that feeding inhibition was a stress response emanating from excessive uptake of dietary Cu and cellular toxicity.

  7. Safety of PVAP and PVAP-T including a 90-day dietary toxicity study in rats and genotoxicity tests with polyvinyl acetate phthalate (PVAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMerlis, C C; Schoneker, D R; Borzelleca, J F

    2014-08-01

    The safety of PVAP was evaluated in a 90-day subchronic toxicity study in rats. Sprague Dawley Crl:CD(SD) rats were administered a dietary concentration of 0.75%, 1.5% and 5.0% PVAP for a minimum of 90days. There were no adverse effects reported. The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) in the 90-day sub chronic study was the 5% dietary concentration, which corresponds to a dose of 3120mg/kg/day for males and 3640mg/kg/day for females, the highest level tested. PVAP is co-processed with titanium dioxide to produce polyvinyl acetate phthalate and titanium dioxide (PVAP-T). The chemical composition, physiochemical properties and specifications of PVAP-T are unchanged during manufacturing process based on various analytical studies. Therefore, the toxicological data that support the safety of PVAP can be used to support the use of PVAP-T as a pharmaceutical excipient. An independent expert panel evaluated the safety of PVAP and PVAP-T. Based on the toxicology study results, safety assessment and the estimated exposure assessment for PVAP and PVAP-T, the expert panel concluded that PVAP and PVAP-T could safely be used in drug products up to 829mg per day which was the estimated exposure provided to the expert panel for current applications of PVAP and PVAP-T. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Validation of a chronic dietary cadmium bioaccumulation and toxicity model for Hyalella azteca exposed to field-contaminated periphyton and lake water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, Lisa A; Borgmann, Uwe; Dixon, D George

    2011-11-01

    A model previously developed in the laboratory to predict chronic bioaccumulation and toxicity of cadmium to Hyalella azteca from a diet of periphyton was validated by comparing predictions with measurements of Cd in two exposure scenarios: laboratory-cultured H. azteca exposed for 28 d to field-contaminated water and periphyton, and Cd measured in field-collected H. azteca. In both exposure scenarios, model predictions of bioaccumulation were shown to be robust; however, effects on Cd bioaccumulation from complexation with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and inhibition of Cd bioaccumulation by Ca²⁺ must be incorporated into the model to permit its wider application. The model predicted that 80 to 84% of Cd in H. azteca came from periphyton when H. azteca were chronically exposed to dissolved Cd in lake water at 2.63 to 3.01 nmol/L and periphyton at 1,880 to 2,630 nmol/g ash-free dry mass. Dietary Cd contributed markedly to the model-predicted decrease in 28-d survival to 74% at environmental Cd concentrations in food and water. In reality, survival decreased to 10%. The lower than predicted survival likely was due to the higher nutritional quality of periphyton used to develop the model in the laboratory compared with the field-collected periphyton. Overall, this research demonstrated that Cd in a periphyton diet at environmental concentrations can contribute to chronic toxicity in H. azteca. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  9. Examination of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Uptake and Toxicity from Dietary Exposure: Tracking Movement and Impacts in the Gastrointestinal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph H. Bisesi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies indicate that exposure of fish to pristine single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs by oral gavage, causes no overt toxicity, and no appreciable absorption has been observed. However, in the environment, SWCNTs are likely to be present in dietary sources, which may result in differential impacts on uptake and biological effects. Additionally, the potential of these materials to sorb nutrients (proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids while present in the gastrointestinal (GI tract may lead to nutrient depletion conditions that impact processes such as growth and reproduction. To test this phenomenon, fathead minnows were fed a commercial diet either with or without SWCNTs for 96 h. Tracking and quantification of SWCNTs using near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF imaging during feeding studies showed the presence of food does not facilitate transport of SWCNTs across the intestinal epithelia. Targeting genes shown to be responsive to nutrient depletion (peptide transporters, peptide hormones, and lipases indicated that pept2, a peptide transporter, and cck, a peptide hormone, showed differential mRNA expression by 96 h, a response that may be indicative of nutrient limitation. The results of the current study increase our understanding of the movement of SWCNTs through the GI tract, while the changes in nutrient processing genes highlight a novel mechanism of sublethal toxicity in aquatic organisms.

  10. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis: The Foothold in Undervaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Rebecca L; Kann, Dylan; Rassbach, Caroline E; Schwenk, Hayden T; Ritter, Jana M; Rota, Paul A; Elbers, Jorina

    2016-12-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a fatal complication of measles infection. We present a case of a fully vaccinated 3-year-old boy who was diagnosed with and treated for autoimmune encephalitis before arriving at a diagnosis of SSPE. We discuss the challenges of diagnosing SSPE in developed countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Thirteen week toxicity study of dietary l-tryptophan in rats with a recovery period of 5 weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibui, Yusuke; Matsumoto, Hideki; Masuzawa, Yoko; Ohishi, Takumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Shibata, Katsumi; Sakai, Ryosei

    2018-04-01

    Although l-tryptophan is nutritionally important and widely used in medical applications, toxicity data for its oral administration are limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential toxicity of an experimental diet containing added l-tryptophan at doses of 0 (basal diet), 1.25%, 2.5% and 5.0% when administered to Sprague-Dawley rats for 13 weeks. There were no toxicological changes in clinical signs, ophthalmology, urinalysis, hematology, necropsy, organ weight and histopathology between control rats and those fed additional l-tryptophan. Body weight gain and food consumption significantly decreased throughout the administration period in males in the 2.5% group and in both sexes in the 5.0% group. At the end of the dosing period, decreases in water intake in males in the 5.0% group and in serum glucose in females in the 5.0% group were observed. The changes described above were considered toxicologically significant; however, they were not observed after a 5 week recovery period, suggesting reversibility. Consequently, the no-observed-adverse-effect level of l-tryptophan in the present study was 1.25% for males and 2.5% for females (mean intake of l-tryptophan: 779 mg kg -1 body weight day -1 [males] and 1765 mg kg -1 body weight day -1 [females]). As the basal diet used in this study contained 0.27% of proteinaceous l-tryptophan, the no-observed-adverse-effect level of overall l-tryptophan was 1.52% for males and 2.77% for females (mean intake of overall l-tryptophan: 948 mg kg -1 body weight day -1 (males) and 1956 mg kg -1 body weight day -1 (females)). We conclude that l-tryptophan has a low toxicity profile in terms of human use. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Crocin, a dietary colorant, mitigates cyclophosphamide-induced organ toxicity by modulating antioxidant status and inflammatory cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jnaneshwari, Sadashivaiah; Hemshekhar, Mahadevappa; Santhosh, Martin Sebastin; Sunitha, Kabburahalli; Thushara, Rammohan; Thirunavukkarasu, Chinnasamy; Kemparaju, Kempaiah; Girish, Kesturu Subbaiah

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated the protective efficacy of crocin against hepatotoxicity induced by cyclophosphamide (CP) in Wistar rats. The experimental rats were treated with crocin orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 6 consecutive days after the administration of a single intraperitoneal dose of CP (150 mg/kg). The ameliorative effect of crocin on organ toxicity was studied by evaluating oxidative stress enzymes, inflammatory cytokines and histological sections. A single intraperitoneal CP injection significantly elevated endogenous reactive oxygen species and oxidation of lipids and proteins, which are the hallmarks of oxidative damage in liver and serum. In consequence, the primary defensive reduced glutathione, total thiol and antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase, were significantly reduced. In addition, liver and serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase along with acid and alkaline phosphatase were considerably increased. Oral administration of crocin significantly rejuvenated all the above altered markers to almost normal state. The protective efficacy of crocin was further supported by the histological assessment and restoration of CP-induced inflammatory cytokines and enzyme levels compared with the control drug. The results obtained suggest the protective nature of crocin against CP-induced oxidative damage/inflammation and organ toxicity. © 2013 The Authors. JPP © 2013. Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  13. Protective effects of dietary glycine and glutamic acid toward the toxic effects of oxidized mustard oil in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeb, Alam; Rahman, Saleem Ur

    2017-01-25

    The protective role of glycine and glutamic acid against the toxic effects of oxidized oil was studied for the first time. Mustard seed oil was thermally oxidized and characterized for quality characteristics and polyphenolic composition using reversed phase HPLC-DAD. Significant changes in the quality characteristics occurred with thermal oxidation. Fourteen polyphenolic compounds were identified and quantified in oils. Quercetin-3-glucoside, quercetin-3-feruloylsophoroside, catechin, quercetin-3-rutinoside, quercetin-3,7-diglucoside, sinapic acid and vanillic acid hexoside were the major compounds in the fresh and oxidized oil. Oxidized, un-oxidized mustard oils, glycine and glutamic acid were given to rabbits alone or in combination. The biochemical responses were studied in terms of haematological and biochemical parameters and histopathology. It has been observed that biochemical and haematological parameters were adversely affected by the oxidized oil, while supplementation of both amino acids was beneficial in normalizing these parameters. Both amino acids alone have no significant effects, however, oxidized oil affected the liver by enhancing fat accumulation, causing hepatitis, reactive Kupffer cells and necrosis. The co-administration of oxidized oils with glycine or glutamic acid revealed significant recovery of the liver structure and function. In conclusion, glycine or glutamic acid is beneficial and protective against food toxicity and can be considered as an ameliorative food supplement.

  14. Subacute Toxicity of RDX and TNT in Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-07-19

    observed. Renal microcalculi and bone marrow hemosiderosis are both encountered occasionally in random dog populations. The small group sizes, three per...microcalculi in the renal pelvis was higher in 4 the test animals, in particular, those treated with RDX. The incidence of hemosiderosis of the bone marrow was...microcalculi and of bone marrow hemosiderosis highly precarious. 10 June 1974 WALTER F. LOEB, V.M.D., Ph.D. I •LU BIONETICS Utton A-1 70 LITTON

  15. Subacute Toxicity of RDX and TNT in Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-04-05

    Lil.lililoi * *7.83 1 _ rtPitilr Peur t tli~af. v neuI i f , 1iIcurd (Cervii-aI) MUCsulvIt y b tAMIat LIII - Eye, t ell; _ _ -IIJ3 *37 89 L iv.er -Optjl iL Hkt%46v h5tiItIiioh-5 Abvi~i Iun w I J U I U1ld) = Ut iSu perv v~ltOou

  16. Acute and Subacute Toxic Study of Aqueous Leaf Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kg and observed continuously for the first 4 h, then hourly for the next 24 h, and finally, 6-hourly for 72 h. Control animals received orally normal saline. The rats were observed carefully for mortality, pain as well as respiratory movements.

  17. Calendula officinalis: Central depressive effect and subacute toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Parente, Leila M. L.; Costa, Elson A.; Matos, Lécia G.; Paula, José R.; Cunha, Luiz C.; Júnior, Geraldo V.; Silveira, Nusa A.

    2009-01-01

    Flores da Calendula officinalis L. (calêndula) vêm sendo utilizadas popularmente como cicatrizante, antiinflamatório e sedativo, entre outras atividades. Os principais componentes químicos encontrados nas flores são óleos essenciais, ácido salicílico, carotenóides, flavonóides, taninos e saponinas triterpênicas. Atividades ansiolítica e analgésica foram relatadas em plantas que apresentam flavonóides em sua composição. Nesse trabalho a atividade do extrato etanólico das flores da ...

  18. Acute and Subacute Oral Toxicity of Periodate in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-17

    Transient increases in gastrointestinal pH and degeneration of parietal cells, hemolytic effects including hemoglobinuria and hemosiderin deposits in...and degeneration of parietal cells, hemolytic effects including hemoglobinuria and hemosiderin deposits in the kidneys, and non-specific fatty changes

  19. Acute and sub-acute toxicological assessment of the aqueous seed extract of Persea americana mill (Lauraceae) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozolua, Raymond I; Anaka, Ogochukwu N; Okpo, Stephen O; Idogun, Sylvester E

    2009-07-03

    The aqueous seed extract of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) is used by herbalists in Nigeria for the management of hypertension. As part of our on-going scientific evaluation of the extract, we designed the present study to assess its acute and sub-acute toxicity profiles in rats. Experiments were conducted to determine the oral median lethal dose (LD(50)) and other gross toxicological manifestations on acute basis. In the sub-acute experiments, the animals were administered 2.5 g/kg (p.o) per day of the extract for 28 consecutive days. Animal weight and fluid intake were recorded during the 28 days period. Terminally, kidneys, hearts, blood/sera were obtained for weight, haematological and biochemical markers of toxicity. Results show that the LD(50) could not be determined after a maximum dose of 10 g/kg. Sub-acute treatment with the extract neither affected whole body weight nor organ-to-body weight ratios but significantly increased the fluid intake (P americana is safe on sub-acute basis but extremely high doses may not be advisable.

  20. Blood pressure of omnivorous and semi-vegetarian postmenopausal women and their relationship with dietary and hair concentrations of essential and toxic metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenas, S; Sánchez-Muniz, F J; Bastida, S; Sevillano, M I; Larrea Marín, T; González-Muñoz, M J

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to ascertain the relationships between mineral consumption, hair mineral content, and blood pressure. The study involved 26 postmenopausal women from enclosed religious communities, 14 were semi-vegetarians and 12 were omnivores. Mineral dietary assessment was performed using a 14-d precise weight method and Food tables. Hair mineral levels were measured by means Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES). Multivariable stepwise linear regression analyses were performed to find out the variables that affected most blood pressure. In general terms, the omnivorous diet contained a significantly higher mineral content than the semi-vegetarian one. The mineral intake from both diets implied no health risk to the women studied, as their estimated daily intake (EDI) of toxic elements such as Cd and Pb was lower than their respective provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of these minerals. Hair of the semi-vegetarians contained higher amounts of Al (p < 0.01), Ba (p < 0.01), K (p < 0.001), Na (p < 0.001), Pb (p < 0.001) and Mn (p < 0.01) but lower levels of Ca (p < 0.05) and Zn (p < 0.05) than that of their omnivorous counterparts. The omnivores presented significantly higher systolic (p < 0.01) and diastolic (p < 0.05) pressures than the semi-vegetarians. Levels of hair Co (R² = 0.328; p = 0.032) and hair K (R² = 0.409; p = 0.014)) were explicative for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively. Several dietary mineral and hair contents were higher in semi-vegetarian women suggesting that the hair is an important mineral excretion via contributing to maintain blood pressure at low levels.

  1. A high-selenium lentil dietary intervention in Bangladesh to counteract arsenic toxicity: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, Regina M; Raqib, Rubhana; Akhtar, Evana; Vandenberg, Albert; Smits, Judit E G

    2016-04-27

    Millions of people worldwide are exposed to dangerous levels of arsenic (above the WHO water standard of 10 ppb) in drinking water and food. Lack of nutritious foods exacerbates the adverse health effects of arsenic poisoning. The micronutrient selenium is a known antagonist to arsenic, promoting the excretion of arsenic from the body. Studies are in progress examining the potential of using selenium supplement pills to counteract arsenic toxicity. We are planning a clinical trial to test whether high-selenium lentils, as a whole food solution, can improve the health of arsenic-exposed Bangladeshi villagers. A total of 400 participants (about 80 families) will be divided into two groups via computer-generated block randomization. Eligibility criteria are age (≥14) years) and arsenic concentration in the household tube well (≥100 ppb). In this double-blind study, one group will eat high-selenium lentils grown in western Canada; the other will consume low-selenium lentils grown in Idaho, USA. Each participant will consume 65 g of lentils each day for 6 months. At the onset, midterm, and end of the trial, blood, urine and stool, plus hair (day 1 and at 6 months only) samples will be collected and a health examination conducted including assessment of acute lung inflammation, body mass and height, and blood pressure. The major outcome will be arsenic excretion in urine and feces, as well as arsenic deposition in hair and morbidity outcomes as assessed by a biweekly questionnaire. Secondary outcomes include antioxidant status, lipid profile, lung inflammation status, and blood pressure. Selenium pills as a treatment for arsenic exposure are costly and inconvenient, whereas a whole food approach to lower the toxic burden of arsenic may be a practical remedy for Bangladeshi people while efforts to provide safe drinking water are continuing. If high-selenium lentils prove to be effective in counteracting arsenic toxicity, agronomic partnerships between Canada and

  2. The Peroxisomal Enzyme L-PBE Is Required to Prevent the Dietary Toxicity of Medium-Chain Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ding

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Specific metabolic pathways are activated by different nutrients to adapt the organism to available resources. Although essential, these mechanisms are incompletely defined. Here, we report that medium-chain fatty acids contained in coconut oil, a major source of dietary fat, induce the liver ω-oxidation genes Cyp4a10 and Cyp4a14 to increase the production of dicarboxylic fatty acids. Furthermore, these activate all ω- and β-oxidation pathways through peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR α and PPARγ, an activation loop normally kept under control by dicarboxylic fatty acid degradation by the peroxisomal enzyme L-PBE. Indeed, L-pbe−/− mice fed coconut oil overaccumulate dicarboxylic fatty acids, which activate all fatty acid oxidation pathways and lead to liver inflammation, fibrosis, and death. Thus, the correct homeostasis of dicarboxylic fatty acids is a means to regulate the efficient utilization of ingested medium-chain fatty acids, and its deregulation exemplifies the intricate relationship between impaired metabolism and inflammation.

  3. Rice is a potential dietary source of not only arsenic but also other toxic elements like lead and chromium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjad M. Shraim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Rice is a staple food and a good source of nutrition for half of the earth’s population including Middle Eastern countries. However, rice may accumulate hazardous levels of toxic elements. In KSA, rice is imported from many countries; some of which suffer from arsenic contamination in their groundwater and soil. Despite the large daily consumption of rice in KSA, no investigations on the contamination of rice sold there are published so far. Additionally, reports on the contamination of rice with other toxic elements are rare in the literature. To investigate this issue, a total of 84 rice samples were collected from local markets in Almadinah Almunawarah, KSA (n = 70 and Brisbane, Australia (n = 12 and analyzed for arsenic and other elements by ICP-MS. The mean concentrations (mg kg−1 for the KSA samples with concentrations >LOQ were 0.136 for As (range 0.026–0.464, n = 70; Cd: 0.017 (0.003–0.046, n = 64; Pb: 0.029 (0.003–0.218, n = 40; Ni: 0.064 (0.042–0.086, n = 5; Mg: 157 (51.8–777, n = 70; Mn: 4.28 (0.960–10.9, n = 70; Fe: 7.07 (1.9–55.1, n = 70; Zn: 6.19 (1.15–13.5, n = 70; Cu 1.28 (0.508–2.41, n = 70; Se 0.202 (0.007–0.574, n = 70; Cr: 0.057 (0.010–0.184, n = 19; and Co: 0.012 (0.001–0.116, n = 56. Several samples were found to contain at least one element in excess of the Chinese MCL (0.2 mg kg−1for Cd, Cr, Pb, and iAs each. A large variation in element concentration was observed for samples of different origins. In comparison, the American rice accumulated the highest arsenic concentration (mean 0.257 mg kg−1 followed by the Thai rice (mean 0.200 mg kg−1, the Pakistani rice (mean 0.147 mg kg−1, the Indian rice (mean 0.103 mg kg−1, and finally the Egyptian rice (mean 0.097 mg kg−1. Additionally, 3 individual samples from Surinam, Australia, and France contained arsenic concentrations (mg kg−1 of 0.290, 0.188, and 0.183. The findings of this investigation

  4. Brainstem involvement in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pawan; Singh, Dileep; Singh, Maneesh Kumar; Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Kohli, Neera

    2011-01-01

    The parieto-occipital region of the brain is most frequently and severely affected in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE). The basal ganglia, cerebellum and corpus callosum are less commonly involved. Brainstem involvement is rarely described in SSPE, and usually there is involvement of other regions of the brain. We describe a patient with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis with brain magnetic resonance imaging showing extensive brainstem involvement without significant involvement of other cortical structures. Though rarely described in SSPE, one should be aware of such brainstem and cerebellum involvement, and SSPE should be kept in mind when brainstem signal changes are seen in brain MRI with or without involvement of other regions of brain to avoid erroneous reporting.

  5. Multiple Complications Due to Subacute Suppurative Otitis Media

    OpenAIRE

    Qirjazi, Brikena; Bardhyli, Dolores; Hoxhallari, Xhevair

    2012-01-01

    Subacute otitis media is a well-known pathology of ENT practice which is easily diagnosed and subsequently treated in the outpatient clinic. The rate of complications in acute otitis media is lower than in chronic otitis media. We present here the history of a young patient with subacute otitis media who developed both localized labyrinthitis and facial palsy requiring surgical treatment. We conclude that the treatment of subacute otitis media should be carefully monitored because complicatio...

  6. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis in a Child with Recurrent Febrile Seizures

    OpenAIRE

    Ayşe Kartal; Ayşegül Neşe Çıtak Kurt; Tuğba Hirfanoğlu; Kürşad Aydın; Ayşe Serdaroğlu

    2015-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a devastating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) caused by persistent mutant measles virus infection. The diagnosis of SSPE is based on characteristic clinical and EEG findings and demonstration of elevated antibody titres against measles in cerebrospinal fluid. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis can have atypical clinical features at the onset. Herein, we report an unusual case of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in a child with recu...

  7. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in immunized Thai children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusiwilai, Khanittha; Viravan, Sorawit

    2011-12-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease with high mortality and poor prognosis. This is caused by persistent defective measles virus infection. Clinical presentations are variable including behavioral-cognitive change, myoclonic seizure, visual problem, spasticity or abnormal movement. The authors report a case of 10 year-old boy, previously healthy with complete immunization, presenting with frequent myoclonic jerks, abnormal movements, spasticity and altered mental status. Electroencephalographic (EEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and laboratory findings are typical for SSPE.

  8. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis presenting as mania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggarwal Ashish

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE is a rare, invariably fatal degenerative disease of the central nervous system developing after measles infection. Besides neurological symptoms as initial presenting symptoms, rare reports of its presentation with pure psychiatric symptoms have been reported. We here report a case of 14 year old male who initially presented with manic symptoms and then subsequently diagnosed to be suffering from SSPE. Improtance of ruling our organic conditions is emphasized.

  9. Late Onset Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis: Presenting Psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Altunkaynak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis (SSPE is the late complication of measles and is characterized by seizures, myoclonus, ataxia, behavioral and personality changes, extrapyramidal dysfunctions and vision problems. A 19 year old female patient with SSPE who was followed up at psychiatry clinic with the diagnosis of atypical psychotic disorder was presented. While psychiatric signs and symptoms were dominant, she was diagnosed as SSPE.

  10. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: serial electroencephalographic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulff, C H

    1982-01-01

    A total of 42 EEGs from five patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis were studied. Periodic complexes were noticed in 35 (83%) of these. The interval between the complexes shortened in all patients with progression of the illness. The gradual EEG changes may reflect the increasing number of infected cells as well as an on-going accumulation of immature virus structures. The records without complexes were either from the early onset (one record) or terminal stage (six records). PMID:7086454

  11. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis presenting as mania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Ashish; Khandelwal, Ashish; Jain, Manish; Jiloha, R. C.

    2011-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare, invariably fatal degenerative disease of the central nervous system developing after measles infection. Besides neurological symptoms as initial presenting symptoms, rare reports of its presentation with pure psychiatric symptoms have been reported. We here report a case of 14 year old male who initially presented with manic symptoms and then subsequently diagnosed to be suffering from SSPE. Improtance of ruling our organic conditions is emphasized. PMID:21808475

  12. Multiple Complications Due to Subacute Suppurative Otitis Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xhevair Hoxhallari

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Subacute otitis media is a well-known pathology of ENT practice which is easily diagnosed and subsequently treated in the outpatient clinic. The rate of complications in acute otitis media is lower than in chronic otitis media. We present here the history of a young patient with subacute otitis media who developed both localized labyrinthitis and facial palsy requiring surgical treatment. We conclude that the treatment of subacute otitis media should be carefully monitored because complications may occur. Surgical treatment and pressure release can be efficient for the treatment of a peripheral facial palsy in the course of acute or subacute otitis media.

  13. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in a child with recurrent febrile seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartal, Ayşe; Çıtak Kurt, Ayşegül Neşe; Hirfanoğlu, Tuğba; Aydın, Kürşad; Serdaroğlu, Ayşe

    2015-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a devastating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) caused by persistent mutant measles virus infection. The diagnosis of SSPE is based on characteristic clinical and EEG findings and demonstration of elevated antibody titres against measles in cerebrospinal fluid. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis can have atypical clinical features at the onset. Herein, we report an unusual case of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in a child with recurrent febrile seizures. The disease progressed with an appearance of myoclonic jerks, periodic high amplitude generalized complexes on EEG, and elevated titers of measles antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid leading to the final diagnosis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

  14. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis in a Child with Recurrent Febrile Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Kartal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE is a devastating disease of the central nervous system (CNS caused by persistent mutant measles virus infection. The diagnosis of SSPE is based on characteristic clinical and EEG findings and demonstration of elevated antibody titres against measles in cerebrospinal fluid. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis can have atypical clinical features at the onset. Herein, we report an unusual case of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in a child with recurrent febrile seizures. The disease progressed with an appearance of myoclonic jerks, periodic high amplitude generalized complexes on EEG, and elevated titers of measles antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid leading to the final diagnosis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

  15. Ameliorative Effects of Dietary Selenium Against Cadmium Toxicity Is Related to Changes in Trace Elements in Chicken Kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Runxiang; Wang, Yanan; Wang, Chao; Zhao, Peng; Liu, Huo; Li, Jianhong; Bao, Jun

    2017-04-01

    The ameliorative effects of selenium (Se) against cadmium (Cd)-induced toxicity have been reported extensively. However, few studies have assessed the effects of multiple ions simultaneously on the variations of elements. In this study, the changes in Se, Cd, and 26 other element concentrations were investigated in chicken kidneys. One hundred and twenty-eight 31-week-old laying hens were fed a diet supplemented with either Se, Cd, or both Se and Cd for 90 days. The ion content was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). We found that the Se, Cd, and combined Se and Cd treatments significantly affected the trace elements in the chicken kidneys. The Cd supplement caused ion profile disorders, including reduced concentrations of V, Cr, Mn, Mo, As, Ba, Hg, Ti, and Pb and increased Si, Cu, Li, Cd, and Sb. The Se supplement reduced the contents of Co, Mo, and Pb and increased the contents of Cr, Fe, and Se. Moreover, Se also increased the concentrations of Cr, Mn, Zn, and Se and decreased those of Li and Pb, which in contrast were induced by Cd. Complex interactions between elements were analyzed, and both positive and negative correlations among these elements are presented. The present study indicated that Se can help against the negative effects of Cd and may be related to the homeostasis of the trace elements in chicken kidneys.

  16. Phytoavailability of cadmium (Cd) to Pak choi (Brassica chinensis L.) grown in Chinese soils: a model to evaluate the impact of soil Cd pollution on potential dietary toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Muhammad Tariq; Aziz, Rukhsanda; Yang, Xiaoe; Xiao, Wendan; Stoffella, Peter J; Saghir, Aamir; Azam, Muhammad; Li, Tingqiang

    2014-01-01

    Food chain contamination by soil cadmium (Cd) through vegetable consumption poses a threat to human health. Therefore, an understanding is needed on the relationship between the phytoavailability of Cd in soils and its uptake in edible tissues of vegetables. The purpose of this study was to establish soil Cd thresholds of representative Chinese soils based on dietary toxicity to humans and develop a model to evaluate the phytoavailability of Cd to Pak choi (Brassica chinensis L.) based on soil properties. Mehlich-3 extractable Cd thresholds were more suitable for Stagnic Anthrosols, Calcareous, Ustic Cambosols, Typic Haplustalfs, Udic Ferrisols and Periudic Argosols with values of 0.30, 0.25, 0.18, 0.16, 0.15 and 0.03 mg kg-1, respectively, while total Cd is adequate threshold for Mollisols with a value of 0.86 mg kg-1. A stepwise regression model indicated that Cd phytoavailability to Pak choi was significantly influenced by soil pH, organic matter, total Zinc and Cd concentrations in soil. Therefore, since Cd accumulation in Pak choi varied with soil characteristics, they should be considered while assessing the environmental quality of soils to ensure the hygienically safe food production.

  17. Evaluation of the safety of a genetically modified DAS-444Ø6-6 soybean meal and hulls in a 90-day dietary toxicity study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papineni, Sabitha; Murray, Jennifer A; Ricardo, Ekmay; Dunville, Christina M; Sura, Radha Krishna; Thomas, Johnson

    2017-11-01

    A 90-day sub chronic toxicity study was conducted in rats to evaluate the safety of genetically modified DAS-444Ø6-6 soybeans expressing herbicide tolerant proteins when compared with its conventional comparators (non-transgenic near isoline control soybean and three commercially available non-transgenic line control soybeans). Rats were given diets formulated with either 10% or 20% w/w of soybean meal and 1% or 2% hulls of DAS-444Ø6-6 soybean with an equivalent amount of hulls from an isoline non-transgenic control soybean for at least 90 days. In addition, three separate 20% w/w non-transgenic commercially available soybean varieties were also given to groups of rats to serve as reference controls. Animals were evaluated by cage-side and hand-held detailed clinical observations, ophthalmic examinations, body weights/body weight gains, feed consumption, hematology, prothrombin time, urinalysis, clinical chemistry, selected organ weights, and gross and histopathologic examinations. Under the conditions of this study, the genetically modified DAS-444Ø6-6 diets did not cause any treatment-related effects in rats following 90 days of dietary administration as compared with rats fed diets with soybean of isoline control or commercial reference controls and are considered equivalent to the diets prepared from conventional comparators. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Levels, dietary intake, and health risk of potentially toxic metals in vegetables, fruits, and cereal crops in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawab, Javed; Farooqi, Saad; Xiaoping, Wang; Khan, Sardar; Khan, Asad

    2017-12-08

    Food safety is a major concern worldwide and human beings are frequently exposed to potentially toxic metals (PTMs) through consumption of vegetables, fruits, and cereal crops grown in contaminated areas. The present study investigates the concentrations of PTMs such as chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) in the foodstuffs (fruits, vegetables, and cereals) collected from different markets of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Samples of fruits (banana, tangerine, apple, and guava), vegetables (tomato, onion, potato, pea, and lady finger), and cereals (rice, kidney beans, and chick peas) were acid-extracted and analyzed using ICP-MS. The concentrations of Cr, Zn, Pb, As, and Cd in fruits (54, 50, 50, 45, and 4% samples, respectively), vegetables (53, 43, 63, 80, and 46%), and cereals (37, 62, 25, 70, and 25%) exceeded their respective permissible limits set by FAO/WHO (2001). The results showed that the highest mean concentration was observed for Ni (14.95 mg/kg), Pb (0.57 mg/kg), and Cd (0.27 mg/kg) in vegetables followed by fruits and cereals. However, the highest mean concentration of As (0.44 mg/kg) was observed in cereal crops followed by vegetables and fruits. The individual health risk of PTMs via consumption of fruits, vegetables, and cereals were found within safe limits for adults and children. Nevertheless, the total HRI values (fruits + vegetables + cereals) for Ni, As, and Cd for both adults and children were observed > 1 and may posed potential risk for the community consuming these foodstuffs on a daily basis. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  19. Subacute presentation of propionic acidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Carmen; Macías, Carlos; de la Sierra García-Valdecasas, Maria; Pérez, Manuel; del Portal, Luis Ruiz; Jiménez, Luis Manuel

    2007-12-01

    Propionic acidemia is a hereditary metabolic disease caused by a deficiency of enzyme propionyl-CoA carboxylase, which is involved in the catabolism of ramified amino acids, odd-chain fatty acids, and other metabolites; the deficiency of this enzyme leads to an accumulation of toxic substances in the body. There are various forms of clinical presentation (severe neonatal, chronic intermittent, or slow and gradual). The case presented in this study was of a slow and insidious evolution form that was diagnosed when the child was 9 months old. Intracranial magnetic resonance imaging showed a slight increase in the signal intensity in sequences measured in T2 in addition to a restriction of the diffusion at the level of both putamens, which, together with biochemical and genetic analyses, confirmed the diagnosis of propionic acidemia. After initiating treatment involving a diet that was low in proteins, carnitine, and biotin, and an open-formula diet of ramified amino acids, the patient made progress, showing signs of improved hypotonia and increased weight gain. His vomiting stopped, and ketoacidosis was corrected.

  20. The effects of steroid implant and dietary soybean hulls on estrogenic activity of sera of steers grazing toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy W. Shappell

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Soybean hulls (SBHs have been fed to cattle pasturing on endophyte-infected tall fescue in attempts to increase rate of gain. Literature reports indicated some symptoms associated with fescue toxicosis were ameliorated by the use of steroidal implants containing estradiol (E2 and progesterone (IMP, feeding SBHs, or the combination of the two. While the mechanism for amelioration was unclear, the SBHs were postulated as acting as a diluent of the toxic factors of the fescue. Alternatively, estradiol and phytoestrogens of SBHs might be acting through relaxation of the persistent vasoconstriction found in animals ingesting ergot alkaloids of endophyte-infected fescue. If so, estrogenic activity of serum of steers receiving SBHs, IMP, or a combination of the two should be elevated. Using the cellular proliferation assay of estrogenicity (E-Screen, estradiol equivalents (E2Eqs were determined on both SBHs and the serum of steers from a previously reported study. Range of SBHs was 5.0 to 8.5 ng Eqs g-1 DM (mean 6.5, n=4 different commercial sources of SBHs. At the rate fed, theoretical calculated blood E2Eq could be physiologically relevant (~ 80 pg mL-1, based on 2.3 kg SBHs d-1, 300 kg steer, 5.7% blood volume, and 10% absorption. Serum E2Eqs did increase in steers (P ≤ 0.05 with steroidal implants or fed SBHs by 56 and 151% over control respectively, and treatments were additive (211% increase. Serum prolactin was also greatest for the SBH+IMP group (188 ng mL-1, P < 0.05, concentrations comparable to values reported for steers grazing endophyte-free fescue. Prolactin in the SBH group was higher than IMP or control groups (146 vs 76 and 60 ng mL-1, respectively. Still unknown is if additional E2Eqs from dietary phytoestrogens or exogenous sources of estradiol can further reduce symptoms of fescue toxicosis. The E-Screen assay was an effective tool in monitoring serum for estrogenic effects of dietary supplementation with SBHs or estrogenic

  1. Arsenic (As Contamination in Different Food and Dietary Samples from Several Districts of Bangladesh and Arsenic (As Detection, Mitigation and Toxicity Measurement and impact of Dietary Arsenic Exposure on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M A Awal

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the level of arsenic concentration in vegetables and other food categories in three selected areas of Pabna district and to estimate quantitatively the dietary arsenic exposure in one of the arsenic contaminated areas of Bangladesh.Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in CharRuppur, Char mirkamari and Lakshmikunda village of IshwardiUpzila in Pabna district. Ishwardi (Town consists of 12 wardsand 37 mahallas. Arsenic was detected in the ADM Lab,Department of Pharmacology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh with Hydride Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (HG-AAS; PG-990, PG Instruments Ltd. UK. Arsenic was detected by forming AsH3 at below pH 1.0 after the reaction of As with a solution of sodiumborohydride (NaBH4, sodium hydroxide (NaOH, M=40,000g/mol, and 10% HCl. In this test, standard was maintained asAsV ranging from 0 to 12.5 μg/L.Results: A total of 120 vegetable samples, 15 rice samples and15 fish samples were collected from five different markets ofthree different villages of Pabna district and were tested forarsenic concentration. Findings demonstrated that the mean concentration of As in leafy vegetables (0.52 μg g-1 was significantly higher compared to those found in fruity (0.422μg g-1 and root & tuber vegetables (0.486 μg g-1.Conclusion: Underground Contaminated water was the major source for the As contamination of various products in Pabna.The arsenic levels were found higher among the leafy vegetables samples in comparison to fruit and root & tuber vegetables. Further studies will be conducted to search the genetic risk factors of arsenic toxicity in the population of the mostly affected people.

  2. 35__200 - 204__Musa - Toxicity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ABSTRACT. Sub-acute toxicity profile of Rheumatic Tea Formula (RTF), a polyherbal tea consisting of Salix alba, Eucalyptus globulus and Albizia chevalieri was investigated in wistar rats of both sexes. Wistar rats were orally administered three different doses of ethanol extract of RTF for 28 days after which the effect on ...

  3. Rat Brain Biogenic Amine Levels during Acute and Subacute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rat Brain Biogenic Amine Levels during Acute and Subacute Phosphamidon Treatment with Reference to Behavioral Tolerance. ... African Research Review ... The present study examines if the levels of amine neurotransmitter substances in rat brain regions are altered during acute and sub-acute treatment with an ...

  4. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praticò, A D; Saporito, M; Iacono, O; Castellano-Chiodo, D; Pavone, P

    2011-02-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a progressive neurological disorder of childhood and early adolescence caused by persistent defective measles virus. Clinical manifestations appear many years after the acute measles infection. The incidence of SSPE has substantially declined after the introduction of an effective vaccine. We report a case of a child with SSPE that began with atonia, dysarthria, and intellectual deterioration without the presence of any particular EEG anomalies. We have reported this girl who was affected by this severe affliction in the hope that, because of the rarity of SSPE, it would not go undiagnosed.

  5. Subacute Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus Triggered by Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kolm

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The origin of collagen autoimmune diseases is not fully understood. Some studies postulate a mechanism of molecular mimicry or heterologous immunity following viral infections triggering autoimmunity. Apart from infections, other exogenous factors such as visible light or X-rays have been reported to incite autoimmunity. Case Report: We report a case of histologically and serologically confirmed subacute lupus erythematosus (SCLE following radiotherapy for breast cancer. Discussion: The close temporal and spatial correlation between radiotherapy and onset of SCLE in this patient suggests that an autoimmune reaction may have been triggered locally by functionally altering the immune system and breaking self-tolerance.

  6. Cereals Bond Trounces Subacute Rumen Acidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Akbar Nikkhah

    2015-01-01

    This perspective article provides a feasible ideology based on which modern ruminant enterprises will learn to vigilantly include mixtures of hard and soft cereal grains in optimizing rumen environment. Subacute Rumen Acidosis (SARA), variably defined as a common and economically important metabolic disease, occurs arguably when rumen pH declines below 5.8-6 for a long-lasting period of time of several hours. Prolonged SARA reduces high-producing dairy and bee...

  7. Clinical profile of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Muhammad; Naz, Farrah; Malik, Akbar; Hamid, Haroon

    2008-08-01

    To describe the clinical manifestations of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in children. Case series. This study was conducted in the Department of Neurology at The Children's Hospital and the Institute of Child Health, Lahore, from April 2005 to April 2007. Fifty patients were diagnosed as subacute sclerosing panencephalitis during the study period. Their diagnosis was based on a detailed history, clinical examination, presence of antimeasles antibodies in Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) and typical electroencephalogram (EEG). The findings were described as average, mean and percentages. Fifty patients were included in this study. The average age of the patients was 8 years. Thirty-eight (76%) were males and 12 (24%) were females. The average duration of symptoms before presentation was 66.72 days. History of measles infection was present in 31 patients (62%) and measles vaccination in 43 patients (86%). Motor regression was present in all (100%) patients and cognition decline in 43 patients (86%). Seizures were focal (10%), generalized tonicclonic (16%) and myoclonic (74%). Burst-suppression pattern Electroencephalogram (EEG) and the antimeasles antibody in CSF were positive in 100% of patients. SSPE is an indicator of high incidence of measles infection among the paediatric population even among vaccinated children. Males are more common sufferers. SSPE can present with different types of seizures, cognition decline and motor regression being supported by suggestive EEG and presence of anti-measles antibodies in CSF.

  8. Outcome determinants of subacute low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, Kaija; Malmivaara, Antti; Mutanen, Pertti; Pohjolainen, Timo; Roine, Risto; Hurri, Heikki

    2003-12-01

    Descriptive prognostic study. To identify outcome determinants of subacute low back pain. The factors predicting recovery from prolonged back pain among working adults are largely unknown. One hundred sixty-four employed patients with subacute (duration of pain 4-12 weeks) daily low back pain were recruited from primary health care to a randomized study. Data on potential predictive factors were collected before randomization. In multiple regressions using repeated measures analysis, the treatment received was adjusted when determining the impact of the predictive factors. Dependent outcome variables used were pain, perceived functional disability, generic health-related quality of life, satisfaction with care, days on sick leave, use of health care, and costs of health care consumption measured, at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. Age and intensity of pain at baseline predicted most of the outcomes. The perceived risk of not recovering was a stronger determinant of outcome than gender, education, or self-rated health status (which did not have any predictive value) or body mass index, expectations of treatment effect, satisfaction with work, or the presence of radicular symptoms below the knee (only slight predictive value). The only factors predicting the duration of sick leave were the duration of sick leave at baseline and the type of occupation. Age and intensity of pain are the strongest predictors of outcome. Accumulation of days on sick leave is predicted by the duration of sick leave at entry and the type of work, but not by pain, perceived disability, or satisfaction with work.

  9. Protective role of probiotic lactic acid bacteria against dietary fumonisin B1-induced toxicity and DNA-fragmentation in sprague-dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Ashraf A; Abou-Gabal, Ashgan E; Abdellatef, Amira A; Khalid, Ahmed E

    2015-08-18

    The genus Fusarium, especially F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum, has been found in several agricultural products worldwide, especially in maize. Regardless the occurrence of symptoms, the presence of Fusarium in maize constitutes an imminent risk due to its ability to produce fumonisins, mycotoxins with proven carcinogenic effect on rats, swine, and equines and already classified as possible carcinogens to humans. The toxicity of incremental levels of fumonisin B1 (FB1), that is, 50, 100, and 200 mg FB1/kg diet, and the role of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis DSM 20076 (LL) and Pediococcus acidilactici NNRL B-5627 (PA) supplementation in counteracting the FB1 effects in intoxicated rats were monitored over a period of 4 weeks. Effects on the feed intake and body weight gain were noticed. A significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase in the level of liver and kidney functions markers and DNA fragmentation was also noticed in rat groups T100 and T200. The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) supplementation could bring back the normal serum biochemical parameters in rats fed on fumonisin B1-contaminated diets (T50 and T100) compared to FB1-treated groups. In rats of high-dosage dietary groups supplemented with LAB (T200-LL and T200-PA), the supplementation reduced the serum activity levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and creatinine by 11.3, 11.9, 32, and 20%, respectively. DNA fragmentations were observed in the rat group treated with 200 mg FB1 after 3 weeks, while fragmentation was noticed in treated groups with 100 and 200 mg FB1 after 4 weeks. No DNA fragmentation was apparent in FB1-treated rats co-administered the LL or PA strain. These results suggest that in male rats consuming diets containing FB1, there is a time- and dose-dependent increase in serum enzyme activities and DNA lesions. Moreover, Lb. delbrueckii subsp. lactis (LL) and P. acidilactici (PA) strains have a protective effect

  10. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis presenting as neuromyelitis optica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut, Tushar Premraj; Singh, Maneesh Kumar; Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Naphade, Pravin Umakant

    2012-12-14

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a slowly progressing inflammatory and degenerative disorder of the brain caused by a mutant measles virus. The diagnosis of SSPE is based on characteristic clinical and EEG findings (periodic complexes) and demonstration of elevated antibody titres against measles in cerebrospinal fluid. SSPE can have atypical clinical features at the onset. The authors here report a case of a 3-year-old child who presented with vision loss followed 15 months later by quadriparesis with bladder involvement. These clinical features resembled that of neuromyelitis optica. However, as the disease progressed, appearance of myoclonic jerks, periodic discharges on EEG and positive cerebrospinal fluid serology for measles led to the final diagnosis of SSPE.

  11. Basal ganglia lesions in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelson James Almeida

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The parieto-occipital region of the brain is the most frequently and severely affected in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE. The basal ganglia, cerebellum and corpus callosum are less commonly involved. We describe a patient with SSPE confirmed by neuropathology based on brain magnetic resonance imaging showing extensive basal ganglia involvement and no significant involvement of other cortical structures. Though rarely described in SSPE, clinicians should be aware of this involvement. SSPE should be kept in mind when changes in basal ganglia signal are seen on brain magnetic resonance imaging with or without involvement of other regions of the human brain to avoid erroneous etiological diagnosis of other pathologies causing rapidly progressive dementia.

  12. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis Presenting with Hemidystonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hepsen Mine Serin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a case of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE in an 11-year-old boy who presented with hemidystonia. Electroencephalogram (EEG revealed periodic epileptiform discharges which did not disappear with diazepam induction. His cranial magnetic resonance imaging was normal. SSPE diagnosis was considered and it was confirmed with the identification of measles antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid. SSPE is a progressive disease. Hemidystonia is not an expected presentation of SSPE. We aimed to emphasize that SSPE may present with different clinical findings such as hemidystonia. (The Me­di­cal Bul­le­tin of Ha­se­ki 2014; 52: 137-9

  13. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and chronic viral encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anlar, Banu

    2013-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a chronic infection of the central nervous system associated with the presence of mutant measles virus in the brain. It presents as a progressive, usually fatal disease. The diagnosis is based on clinical criteria and an elevated titer of measles antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Electroencephalography and imaging studies provide supportive laboratory data. A brain biopsy is indicated only when CSF serology is negative or equivocal in a suspected case to assess the presence of inclusion bodies, measles virus antigens, or viral RNA. Among many drugs and methods tried in the treatment, the highest rate of stabilization or improvement was obtained with intraventricular human lymphoblastoid interferon-α and oral inosiplex. Further research for more available and efficient therapeutic regimens is warranted. Measles and SSPE are preventable by maintenance of high rates of immunization in the population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus presenting as poikiloderma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hughes, R

    2012-02-01

    Subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE) is a recognised variant of lupus erythematosus (LE), which accounts for 10-15% of all cases of cutaneous LE, occurring most commonly in young to middle-aged white women. Diagnosis is based on the detection of anti-Ro\\/SS-A antibodies in the skin and serum, characteristic clinical and histological cutaneous involvement, and relatively mild systemic involvement. Several unusual variants of SCLE have been reported including erythrodermic SCLE, SCLE with vitiligo-like lesions, acral SCLE and bullous SCLE. Poikoilodermatous SCLE is a recognised but rare variant of SCLE. There are currently only two case reports, comprising five individual cases, in the literature. We present a case of SCLE in which the main clinical findings were an extensive photodistributed poikilodermatous rash and alopecia.

  15. Subacute transverse myelitis with Lyme profile dissociation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajjan, Mohammed

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Transverse myelitis is a very rare neurologic syndrome with an incidence per year of 1-5 per million population. We are presenting an interesting case of subacute transverse myelitis with its MRI (magnetic resonance imaging and CSF (cerebrospinal fluid findings. Case: A 46-year-old African-American woman presented with decreased sensation in the lower extremities which started three weeks ago when she had a 36-hour episode of sore throat. She reported numbness up to the level just below the breasts. Lyme disease antibodies total IgG (immunoglobulin G and IgM (immunoglobulin M in the blood was positive. Antinuclear antibody profile was within normal limits. MRI of the cervical spine showed swelling in the lower cervical cord with contrast enhancement. Cerebrospinal fluid was clear with negative Borrelia Burgdorferi IgG and IgM. Herpes simplex, mycoplasma, coxiella, anaplasma, cryptococcus and hepatitis B were all negative. No oligoclonal bands were detected. Quick improvement ensued after she was given IV Ceftriaxone for 7 days. The patient was discharged on the 8th day in stable condition. She continued on doxycycline for 21 days. Conclusions: Transverse myelitis should be included in the differential diagnosis of any patient presenting with acute or subacute myelopathy in association with localized contrast enhancement in the spinal cord especially if flu-like prodromal symptoms were reported. Lyme disease serology is indicated in patients with neurological symptoms keeping in mind that dissociation in Lyme antibody titers between the blood and the CSF is possible.

  16. Subacute Thyroiditis Developed in Identical Twins Two Years Apart

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    HAMAGUCHI, Erika; NISHIMURA, Yasuyuki; KANEKO, Shuichi; TAKAMURA, Toshinari

    2005-01-01

    .... Subacute thyroiditis was diagnosed and prednisone was administered. Two years later, her identical twin sister, who lives separately, was referred to our hospital because of neck pain, low-grade fever, and palpitation...

  17. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis of the Brainstem as a Clinical Entity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pavan S. Upadhyayula; Jason Yang; John K. Yue; Joseph D. Ciacci

    2017-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare progressive neurological disorder of early adolescence caused by persistent infection of the measles virus, which remains prevalent worldwide despite an effective vaccine...

  18. Angiosarcoma of the Heart Presenting as Subacute Pericarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Alexandra L; Wilklow, Frank E; Olivier, John J; Joseph, Georges J; Glancy, David Luke

    2017-03-15

    A young woman, who presented with what appeared to be subacute pericarditis, was found to have primary angiosarcoma of the heart, a condition that is nearly always fatal regardless of the therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Toxicity and antinociceptive effects of Hamelia patens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Josabad Alonso-Castro

    Full Text Available Abstract Many medicinal herbs are used in folk medicine without taking into account their toxicity. Hamelia patens Jacq. (Rubiaceae, a Mexican endemic species, is used for the empirical treatment of pain. The aim of this work was to evaluate the toxicity and antinociceptive effects of ethanolic extracts of H. patens leaves. The toxicity of H. patens leaves (500–5000 mg/kg was evaluated in acute (14 days and subacute (28 days assays. In the subacute assay, a blood analysis (both hematology and chemistry was carried out. The antinociceptive effects of H. patens leaves (50–200 mg/kg were evaluated using thermal-induced nociception (hot plate and the chemical-induced nociceptive tests (acid acetic and formalin. In the acute toxicity test, the LD50 estimated for H. patens leaves was 2964 mg/kg i.p. and >5000 mg/kg p.o., whereas in the subacute test HPE did not affect hematological or biochemical parameters. In chemical-induced nociception models, H. patens (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. showed antinociceptive effects with similar activity than 100 mg/kg naproxen. In the hot plate test, HPE at 100 mg/kg (17% and 200 mg/kg (25% showed moderate antinociceptive effects. HPE could be a good source of antinociceptive agents because of its good activity and low toxicity.

  20. Subacute cannabinoid treatment: anticonvulsant activity and withdrawal excitability in mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Karler, R.; Turkanis, S. A.

    1980-01-01

    1 The effects of subacute treatment with cannabidiol, delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 9-THC), phenytoin and phenobarbitone on anticonvulsant activity and on withdrawal excitability in mice were compared in three electrically induced seizure-threshold tests. 2 In the maximal electroshock-threshold test, subacute treatment did not alter the anticonvulsant activity of cannabidiol, phenytoin or phenobarbitone, but tolerance developed to delta 9-THC. 3 In the 60 Hz electroshock-threshold test,...

  1. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: brain stem involvement in a peculiar pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senol, U. [Akdeniz University, Antalya (Turkey). Faculty of Medicine; Haspolat, S. [Akdeniz University, Antalya (Turkey). Dept. of Child Neurology; Cevikol, C. [Akdeniz University, Antalya (Turkey). Dept. of Radiodiagnostics; Saatci, I. [Hacettepe University (Turkey). Medical Faculty

    2000-12-01

    The most common pattern in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, is in the cerebral hemisphere white matter on T2-weighted images with or without atrophy. Brain-stem lesions are rare. We report brain-stem involvement in two children with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. A peculiar pattern, with involvement of the pons with extension to both middle cerebellar peduncles and substantia nigra but sparing the pontine tegmentum, is suggested. (orig.)

  2. Serial diffusion-weighted imaging in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanemura, Hideaki; Aihara, Masao

    2008-06-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis may be associated with clinical features of frontal lobe dysfunction. We previously reported that frontal lobe volume falls significantly as clinical stage progresses, using three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging-based brain volumetry. The hypothesis that frontal volume increases correlate with clinical improvement, however, was not tested in our previous study. Therefore, we reevaluated our patient with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, to determine whether apparent diffusion coefficient maps can characterize the clinical course of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. We studied an 8-year-old boy with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, using serial diffusion-weighted imaging magnetic resonance imaging, and measured the regional apparent diffusion coefficient. The regional apparent diffusion coefficient of the frontal lobe decreased significantly with clinical progression, whereas it increased to within normal range during clinical improvements. The apparent diffusion coefficient of the other regions did not change. These results suggest that the clinical signs of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis are attributable to frontal lobe dysfunction, and that apparent diffusion coefficient measurements may be useful in predicting the clinical course of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

  3. Clinical manifestations and arsenic methylation after a rare subacute arsenic poisoning accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Yi; Zheng, Quanmei; Li, Bing; Li, Xin; Jin, Yaping; Lv, Xiuqiang; Qu, Guang; Sun, Guifan

    2008-06-01

    One hundred and four workers ingested excessive levels of arsenic in an accident caused by leakage of pipeline in a copper-smelting factory. Clinical examinations were performed by physicians in a local hospital. Excreted urinary arsenic species were determined by cold trap hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. In the initial toxic phase, gastrointestinal symptoms were predominant (83 people, 79.8%). Most patients showed leucopenia (72 people, 69.2%), and increased serum alanine aminotransferase (84 people, 80.8%) and aspartate aminotransferase (58 people, 55.8%). Thirty-five patients (33.6%) had elevated red blood cells in urine. After 17 days of admission, many subjects (45 people, 43.3%) developed peripheral neuropathy and 25 of these 45 patients (24.0%) showed a decrease in motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity. In the comparison of urinary arsenic metabolites among subacute arsenic-poisoned, chronic high arsenic-exposed and control subjects, we found that subacute arsenic-poisoned patients had significantly elevated proportions of urinary inorganic arsenic (iAs) and methylarsonic acid (MMA) but reduced proportion of urinary dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) compared with chronic high arsenic-exposed and control subjects. Chronic exposed subjects excreted higher proportions of iAs and MMA but lower proportions of DMA in urine compared with control subjects. These results suggest that gastrointestinal symptoms, leucopenia, and hepatic and urinary injury are predominant in the initial phase of subacute arsenic poisoning. Peripheral neuropathy is the most frequent manifestation after the initial phase. The biomethylation of arsenic decreases in a dose rate-dependent manner.

  4. Investigation of neurotoxic and immunotoxic effects of some plant growth regulators at subacute and subchronic applications on rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, Ismail; Celik, Ismail

    2015-12-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of subacute and subchronic treatment of some plant growth regulators (PGRs), such as abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA3), on neurological and immunological biomarkers in various tissues of rats. The activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butrylcholinesterase (BChE) were selected as biomarkers for neurotoxic biomarkers. Adenosine deaminase (ADA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were measured as indicators for immunotoxic investigation purpose. Wistar albino rats were orally administered with 25 and 50 ppm of PGRs ad libitum for 25-50 days continuously with drinking water. The treatment of PGRs caused different effects on the activities of enzymes. Results showed that the administrations of ABA and GA3 increased AChE and BChE activities in some tissues of rats treated with both the dosages and periods of ABA and GA3. With regard to the immunotoxic effects, ADA activity fluctuated, while MPO activity increased after subacute and subchronic exposure of treated rat tissues to both dosages when compared with the controls. The observations presented led us to conclude that the administrations of PGRs at subacute and subchronic exposure increased AChE, BChE, and MPO activities, while fluctuating the ADA activity in various tissues of rats. This may reflect the potential role of these parameters as useful biomarkers for toxicity of PGRs. © The Author(s) 2013.

  5. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: clinical and demographic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafique, Arshad; Amjad, Nida; Chand, Prem; Zaidi, Syed Sohail Zahoor; Rana, Muhammad Suleman; Ahmed, Khalid; Ibrahim, Shahnaz

    2014-08-01

    To determine the clinical and demographic characteristics of children diagnosed with Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE). Case series. The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from January 2000 to June 2012. A retrospective analysis was done, regarding medical charts of 43 children under the age of 16 years with a discharge diagnosis of SSPE. Demographic and clinical characteristics were recorded. RESULTS were expressed as percentages. Most of the 43 patients were male (72%). The average age at presentation was 8.7 years with average duration of symptoms being 100.6 days. History of measles was present in 17 patients (39.5%). All children had seizures at presentation and 65% had cognitive impairment. Most patients required poly therapy for control of seizures. Sodium valproate was the most commonly used anti-epileptic agent; Isoprinosine was tried in 22 (51%) patients. CSF for antimeasles antibodies was positive in approximately 86% of the 40 (93%) children. EEG showed burst suppression pattern in 36 (83.7%) cases. Forty-two patients (97.6%) were discharged home in a vegetative state. SSPE is progressive neurodegenerative disorder. It can be prevented by timely immunization against measles. Measles antibody in the CSF is diagnostic for SSPE and is helpful in early diagnosis. Most patients experience a gradual but progressive decline in motor and cognitive functions.

  6. Subacute posttraumatic ascending myelopathy: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Wang, G

    2017-07-01

    A literature review. Our aim was to summarise the history, epidemiology, aetiological mechanism, pathological study, clinical and radiological evaluation, treatment and prognosis of subacute posttraumatic ascending myelopathy (SPAM). Medical literature on SPAM were searched in the PubMed, Medline, Ovid and Embase databases. The cases of SPAM reported in literature were analysed, and the history, epidemiology, aetiological mechanism, pathological study, clinical and radiological evaluation, treatment and prognosis of SPAM were summarised. SPAM remains a relatively rare disorder occurring within the first few weeks after spinal cord injury (SCI). The incidence rate ranges from 0.42% to 1% among all SCI. SPAM is likely to occur in young and middle-aged male patients. Risk factors of SPAM include complete injury, low blood pressure, early postoperative mobilisation and nonsurgical treatment. SPAM is well recognised according to typical clinical manifestation and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics. There is no effective therapy for this neurological deterioration. The prognosis of SPAM is poor. There is usually a slight improvement of one or more level(s) below the maximal level of deterioration. The mortality rate is approximately 10%.

  7. Toxicity of cholecalciferol overdosage in white albino mice | Ogamba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is need to determine the effect of this vitamin overdosage in animals and possibly extrapolate the findings to human beings. Aim: To determine subacute and chronic toxicity of cholecalciferol overdosage in white albino mice. Methods: Increasing doses of cholecalciferol were given to three groups of white albino mice ...

  8. Toxicity And Immunomodulatory Activity Of Fractions Of Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated immunomodulatory properties and the sub-acute toxicity profile of two fractions of the aqueous alcoholic extract of the dried calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa in experimental animals. Immunomodulatory activity was evaluated using red blood cell-induced immunostimulation. The fractions were not found to ...

  9. Toxicity And Immunomodulatory Activity Of Fractions Of Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The two fractions caused a significant reduction in production of tissue necrosis factor – alpha and an increase in interleukin 10 (IL-10). Keywords: Hibiscus sabdariffa, plant extract and fractions, sub-acute toxicity, immuno-modulatory activity, cytokine production. African Journal of Trad, Comp and Alternative Medicine Vol.

  10. Dietary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    EGRP's goals in Dietary Assessment are to increase the precision of dietary intake estimates by improving self-report of dietary intake and the analytic procedures for processing reported information.

  11. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis in a Child with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Co-Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Maurya, Pradeep Kumar; Thakkar, Mayur Deepak; Kulshreshtha, Dinkar; Singh, Ajai Kumar; Thacker, Anup Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is a fatal infectious disease of childhood caused by persistence of the measles virus in the brain. The effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection on subacute sclerosing panencephalitis remains elusive and rare. We report a child who developed subacute sclerosing panencephalitis following a short latency period and a rapidly progressive course with HIV co-infection.

  12. Dietary uptake of Wedelia chinensis extract attenuates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuh-Ting Huang

    Full Text Available SCOPE: Traditional medicinal herbs are increasingly used as alternative therapies in patients with inflammatory diseases. Here we evaluated the effect of Wedelia chinensis, a medicinal herb commonly used in Asia, on the prevention of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced acute colitis in mice. General safety and the effect of different extraction methods on the bioactivity of W. chinensis were also explored. METHODS AND RESULTS: C57BL/6 mice were administrated hot water extract of fresh W. chinensis (WCHF orally for one week followed by drinking water containing 2% DSS for nine days. WCHF significantly attenuated the symptoms of colitis including diarrhea, rectal bleeding and loss of body weight; it also reduced the shortening of colon length and histopathological damage caused by colonic inflammation. Among four W. chinensis extracts prepared using different extraction techniques, WCHF showed the highest anti-colitis efficacy. Analyses of specific T-cell regulatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-4, IFN-γ, IL-17, TGF-β, IL-12 revealed that WCHF treatment can suppress the Th1 and Th17, but not Th2, responses in colon tissues and dendritic cells of DSS-induced colitis mice. A 28-day subacute toxicity study showed that daily oral administration of WCHF (100, 500, 1000 mg/kg body weight was not toxic to mice. CONCLUSION: Together, our findings suggest that specific extracts of W. chinensis have nutritional potential for future development into nutraceuticals or dietary supplements for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

  13. Epilepsy in children with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jović, Nebojša J

    2013-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare, progressive, fatal neurodegenerative disease of childhood and early adolescence caused by defective measles virus. The initial symptoms of SSPE usually involve regression in cognitive functioning and behavior or recurrent myoclonic jerks. Seizures revealing SSPE and epilepsy during the clinical course can occur. The aim of the study was to analyze clinical and EEG characteristics of both initially occurred seizures and epilepsy which developed in the course of the disease. Retrospective study was carried out on 19 children (14 boys, 5 girls) with SSPE diagnosed and treated at our Clinic from 1995 to 2010. Seizures revealed SSPE in our patients aged from 6.5 to 11.5 years (mean 8.6 years). SSPE onset ranged from 4.5 to 16.5 years (mean 10.05). Complete vaccination was performed in nine patients. Cognitive and behavioral decline was preceeded by 6-18 months in two children with intractable focal motor seizures with secondary generalization, one child with complex partial seizures and one with atypical absences. During the clinical course of the disease epilepsy developed in 10 (52.6%) cases, including four patients with seizures as the initial SSPE sign. It occurred mainly in the first year, while in three cases seizures appeared between 1 and 5 years of the disease evolution. Myoclonus was present independently from seizures. No significant inter-group differences were found relating to the type of SSPE progression and history of epilepsy. The only child with fulminant SSPE presented with initial seizures. Favorable seizure control was achieved in 60.0% patients. Intractable epilepsy developed in four patients. Atypical SSPE presentation can include mainly focal intractable seizures. Epilepsy developed during clinical course in 52.6% cases. No significant influence was found of the history of epilepsy on the type of SSPE progression.

  14. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: A clinical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagtap, Sujit Abajirao; Nair, M D; Kambale, Harsha J

    2013-10-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare chronic, progressive encephalitis affecting primarily children and young adults, caused by a persistent infection of immune resistant measles virus. The aim of the present study is to describe the clinical profile and natural history of patients with SSPE. We collected data of patients with SSPE during 2004-2010 who fulfilled Dyken's criteria. We analyzed demographical, clinical, electrophysiological, and imaging features. Study included 34 patients, 26 (76.5%) males with age of onset from 3 to 31 years. Twenty one patients were below 15 years of age formed childhood SSPE and 13 above 15 years of age constituted adult onset group. 85.3% had low-socioeconomic status. Eleven received measles vaccination and seven were unvaccinated. 59.9% patients had measles history. Most common presenting symptom was scholastic backwardness (52.5%) followed by seizures (23.5%). Three patients each had cortical blindness, macular degeneration, decreased visual acuity, and optic atrophy. Electroencephalographic (EEG) showed long interval periodic complexes and cerebrospinal fluid anti-measles antibody was positive in all. Magnetic resonance imaging was done in 70.5% with was abnormal in 52.5%. Mean incubation period of SSPE after measles was 9.6 years. The follow-up duration was 1-10 years, (average of 2 years). Only one patient died from available data of follow-up, 9 were stable and 10 deteriorated in the form of progression of staging. SSPE is common in low-socioeconomic status. The profile of adult onset did not differ from childhood onset SSPE, except for a longer interval between measles infection and presence of the ophthalmic symptom as presenting feature in adult onset group.

  15. Epilepsy in children with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Nebojša J.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE is a rare, progressive, fatal neurodegenerative disease of childhood and early adolescence caused by defective measles virus. The initial symptoms of SSPE usually involve regression in cognitive functioning and behavior or recurrent myoclonic jerks. Seizures revealing SSPE and epilepsy during the clinical course can occur. Objective. The aim of the study was to analyze clinical and EEG characteristics of both initially occurred seizures and epilepsy which developed in the course of the disease. Methods. Retrospective study was carried out on 19 children (14 boys, 5 girls with SSPE diagnosed and treated at our Clinic from 1995 to 2010. Seizures revealed SSPE in our patients aged from 6.5 to 11.5 years (mean 8.6 years. Results. SSPE onset ranged from 4.5 to 16.5 years (mean 10.05. Complete vaccination was performed in nine patients. Cognitive and behavioral decline was preceeded by 6-18 months in two children with intractable focal motor seizures with secondary generalization, one child with complex partial seizures and one with atypical absences. During the clinical course of the disease epilepsy developed in 10 (52.6% cases, including four patients with seizures as the initial SSPE sign. It occurred mainly in the first year, while in three cases seizures appeared between 1 and 5 years of the disease evolution. Myoclonus was present independently from seizures. No significant inter-group differences were found relating to the type of SSPE progression and history of epilepsy. The only child with fulminant SSPE presented with initial seizures. Favorable seizure control was achieved in 60.0% patients. Intractable epilepsy developed in four patients. Conclusion. Atypical SSPE presentation can include mainly focal intractable seizures. Epilepsy developed during clinical course in 52.6% cases. No significant influence was found of the history of epilepsy on the type of SSPE progression.

  16. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: A clinical appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujit Abajirao Abajirao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE is a rare chronic, progressive encephalitis affecting primarily children and young adults, caused by a persistent infection of immune resistant measles virus. The aim of the present study is to describe the clinical profile and natural history of patients with SSPE. Methods: We collected data of patients with SSPE during 2004-2010 who fulfilled Dyken′s criteria. We analyzed demographical, clinical, electrophysiological, and imaging features. Results: Study included 34 patients, 26 (76.5% males with age of onset from 3 to 31 years. Twenty one patients were below 15 years of age formed childhood SSPE and 13 above 15 years of age constituted adult onset group. 85.3% had low-socioeconomic status. Eleven received measles vaccination and seven were unvaccinated. 59.9% patients had measles history. Most common presenting symptom was scholastic backwardness (52.5% followed by seizures (23.5%. Three patients each had cortical blindness, macular degeneration, decreased visual acuity, and optic atrophy. Electroencephalographic (EEG showed long interval periodic complexes and cerebrospinal fluid anti-measles antibody was positive in all. Magnetic resonance imaging was done in 70.5% with was abnormal in 52.5%. Mean incubation period of SSPE after measles was 9.6 years. The follow-up duration was 1-10 years, (average of 2 years. Only one patient died from available data of follow-up, 9 were stable and 10 deteriorated in the form of progression of staging. Conclusion: SSPE is common in low-socioeconomic status. The profile of adult onset did not differ from childhood onset SSPE, except for a longer interval between measles infection and presence of the ophthalmic symptom as presenting feature in adult onset group.

  17. Current therapies and future perspectives in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatli, Burak; Ekici, Bariş; Ozmen, Meral

    2012-04-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is a progressive neurological disorder of children and young adults caused by a measles virus that became defective by persisting in the host. According to the results of clinical trials, antiviral and/or immunomodulatory therapy can slow the progression of the disease and improve life expectancy in patients. However, its long-term effects and eventual outcome remain debatable due to conflicting results and its lack of effect on the rapidly progressive form of the disease. Possible future therapies for subacute sclerosing panencephalitis are RNAi and antiapoptotic agents, which are currently in the hypothetical and experimental stages of research.

  18. Resolving MRI abnormalities with progression of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winer, J.B. (Saint Mary' s Hospital, Birmingham (UK)); Pires, M.; Kermode, A.; Ginsberg, L. (National Hospital for Nervous Diseases, Birmingham (UK)); Rossor, M. (Saint Mary' s Hospital, Birmingham (UK) National Hospital for Nervous Diseases, Birmingham (UK))

    1991-04-01

    Serial MRI was performed on a 15 year old girl with Subacute Sclerosing Pan-encephalitis (SSPE). After a period of remission she entered a phase of progressive deterioration. A repeat MRI showed significant resolution of the previous abnormalities. Her pathology and MRI scans are discussed.

  19. Epilepsia partialis continua in children with fulminant subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravljanac, Ruzica; Jovic, Nebojsa; Djuric, Milena; Nikolic, Ljubica

    2011-12-01

    Various inflammatory diseases of central nervous system, including subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, could cause epilepsia partialis continua. Two boys with epilepsia partialis continua with onset in terminal phase of atypical subacute sclerosing panencephalitis have been reported. Children were not vaccinated against measles, and the second case had history of measles at an early age. In both cases, the onset of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis was characterized by altered behavior and cognitive decline with very fast mental and neurological deterioration. One boy was suffering from complex partial seizures and myoclonic jerks synchronous with periodic electroencephalographic pattern. Diagnosis was proved by increased titers of antimeasles antibodies in both serum and cerebrospinal fluid. In terminal phase of the disease, epilepsia partialis continua of localized group of the muscles was diagnosed, with good response to intravenous infusion of midazolam. Surface electroencephalographic recordings during epilepsia partialis continua did not show the epileptic discharges. During the terminal phase of the disease, no other type of seizures and movement disorders were recognized, except epilepsia partialis continua. In spite of the treatment, period from the onset of disease to death lasted less than 3 months, suggesting very fulminant course of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

  20. High-Dose Intravenous Ribavirin Therapy for Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Shigeta, Shiro; Mori, Shuichi; Tomoda, Akemi; Shiraishi, Seiji; Miike, Teruhisa; Suzuki, Hitoshi

    2001-01-01

    Two patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) were treated safely and effectively with high doses of intravenous ribavirin combined with intraventricular alpha interferon. The ribavirin concentrations maintained in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid were higher than those which inhibit SSPE virus replication in vitro and in vivo. PMID:11181386

  1. A close look at EEG in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Nurhak; Cokar, Ozlem; Bolukbasi, Feray; Demirbilek, Veysi; Yapici, Zuhal; Yalcinkaya, Cengiz; Direskeneli, Guher Saruhan; Yentur, Sibel; Onal, Emel; Yilmaz, Gulden; Dervent, Aysin

    2013-08-01

    To define atypical clinical and EEG features of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis that may require an overview of differential diagnosis. A total of 66 EEGs belonging to 53 (17 females and 36 males) consecutive patients with serologically confirmed subacute sclerosing panencephalitis were included in this study. Patient files and EEG data were evaluated retrospectively. EEGs included in the study were sleep-waking EEGs and/or sleep-waking video-EEG records with at least 2 hours duration. Cranial MRIs of the patients taken 2 months before or after the EEG records were included. Age range at the onset of the disease was 15 to 192 months (mean age: 80.02 months). Epilepsy was diagnosed in 21 (43%) patients. Among epileptic seizures excluding myoclonic jerks, generalized tonic-clonic type constituted the majority (58%). Tonic seizures were documented during the video-EEG recordings in four patients. Epileptogenic activities were found in 56 (83%) EEG recordings. They were localized mainly in frontal (58%), posterior temporal, parietal, occipital (26%), and centrotemporal (8%) regions. Multiple foci were detected in 26 recordings (39%). Epileptiform activities in the 39 (59%) EEGs appeared as unilateral or bilateral diffuse paroxysmal discharges. Recognition of uncommon clinical and EEG findings of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, especially in countries where subacute sclerosing panencephalitis has not been eliminated yet, could be helpful in prevention of misdiagnosis and delay in the management of improvable conditions.

  2. Treatment of acute and subacute dorsal perilunate fracture dislocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Kucuk

    2014-04-01

    Outcomes: Results of the perilunate fracture dislocations treated in acute or subacute phase by open reduction and internal fixation via dorsal approach are satisfactory. There is a strong demand for prospective, randomized studies to compare the results of different treatment modalities. [Hand Microsurg 2014; 3(1.000: 1-7

  3. Speech and Language Therapy for Aphasia following Subacute Stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koyuncu, E.; Çam, P.; Altinok, N.; Çalli, D.E.; Yarbay Duman, T.; Özgirgin, N.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the time window, duration and intensity of optimal speech and language therapy applied to aphasic patients with subacute stroke in our hospital. The study consisted of 33 patients being hospitalized for stroke rehabilitation in our hospital with first stroke

  4. Virtual Reality Training for Upper Extremity in Subacute Stroke (VIRTUES)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunner, Iris; Skouen, Jan Sture; Hofstad, Håkon

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effectiveness of upper extremity virtual reality rehabilitation training (VR) to time-matched conventional training (CT) in the subacute phase after stroke. Methods: In this randomized, controlled, single-blind phase III multicenter trial, 120 participants with upper...

  5. A combined dietary chronic toxicity and two-year carcinogenicity study of (2R,4R)-monatin salt in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brathwaite, Witty A; Crincoli, Christine M; Eapen, Alex K; Rihner, Marisa O; Nikiforov, Andrey I; Remick, Amera K

    2016-05-01

    In a combined chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity study, groups of Crl:CD(SD) rats were fed 0 (2 control groups), 5000, 20,000, or 40,000 ppm (2R,4R)-monatin salt (hereafter "R,R-monatin") in the diet for up to one year in the chronic toxicity phase and up to two years in the carcinogenicity phase. There were no adverse effects on survival, incidence of palpable masses, neoplasms, organ weights, or ophthalmic examinations. The only notable effect was statistically significantly lower mean body weights and body weight gains in all treated groups generally throughout the study, which were most likely a result of caloric dilution of the test diets. Effects of long-term R,R-monatin ingestion by rats were predominantly focused on the urinary system (i.e., clinical pathology alterations indicative of electrolyte and pH imbalances, increased incidence of renal calculi, mineralization and bone hyperostosis, and increased severity of chronic progressive nephropathy). The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for R,R-monatin from the chronic toxicity phase was 20,000 ppm (equivalent to an exposure level of 1080 mg/kg bw/day for males and 1425 mg/kg/day for females) and from the carcinogenicity phase was 5000 ppm (equivalent to an exposure level of 238 and 302 mg/kg bw/day for males and females, respectively). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Psychiatric comorbidities in a young man with subacute myelopathy induced by abusive nitrous oxide consumption: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mancke F

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Falk Mancke,1,2,* Gintare Kaklauskaite,1,* Jennifer Kollmer,3 Markus Weiler1 1Department of Neurology, 2Department of General Psychiatry, Center for Psychosocial Medicine, 3Department of Neuroradiology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Nitrous oxide (N2O, a long-standing anesthetic, is known for its recreational use, and its consumption is on the rise. Several case studies have reported neurological and psychiatric complications of N2O use. To date, however, there has not been a study using standardized diagnostic procedures to assess psychiatric comorbidities in a patient consuming N2O. Here, we report about a 35-year-old male with magnetic resonance imaging confirmed subacute myelopathy induced by N2O consumption, who suffered from comorbid cannabinoid and nicotine dependence as well as abuse of amphetamines, cocaine, lysergic acid diethylamide, and ketamine. Additionally, there was evidence of a preceding transient psychotic and depressive episode induced by synthetic cannabinoid abuse. In summary, this case raises awareness of an important mechanism of neural toxicity, with which physicians working in the field of ­substance-related disorders should be familiar. In fact, excluding N2O toxicity in patients with recognized substance-related disorders and new neurological deficits is compulsory, as untreated for months the damage to the nervous system is at risk of becoming irreversible. Keywords: addictive disorders, laughing gas, subacute combined degeneration, substance use disorder, vitamin B12 deficiency

  7. Amiodarone Pulmonary Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Wolkove

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Amiodarone is an antiarrhythmic agent commonly used to treat supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias. This drug is an iodine-containing compound that tends to accumulate in several organs, including the lungs. It has been associated with a variety of adverse events. Of these events, the most serious is amiodarone pulmonary toxicity. Although the incidence of this complication has decreased with the use of lower doses of amiodarone, it can occur with any dose. Because amiodarone is widely used, all clinicians should be vigilant of this possibility. Pulmonary toxicity usually manifests as an acute or subacute pneumonitis, typically with diffuse infiltrates on chest x-ray and high-resolution computed tomography. Other, more localized, forms of pulmonary toxicity may occur, including pleural disease, migratory infiltrates, and single or multiple nodules. With early detection, the prognosis is good. Most patients diagnosed promptly respond well to the withdrawal of amiodarone and the administration of corticosteroids, which are usually given for four to 12 months. It is important that physicians be familiar with amiodarone treatment guidelines and follow published recommendations for the monitoring of pulmonary as well as extrapulmonary adverse effects.

  8. Amiodarone pulmonary toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkove, Norman; Baltzan, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Amiodarone is an antiarrhythmic agent commonly used to treat supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias. This drug is an iodine-containing compound that tends to accumulate in several organs, including the lungs. It has been associated with a variety of adverse events. Of these events, the most serious is amiodarone pulmonary toxicity. Although the incidence of this complication has decreased with the use of lower doses of amiodarone, it can occur with any dose. Because amiodarone is widely used, all clinicians should be vigilant of this possibility. Pulmonary toxicity usually manifests as an acute or subacute pneumonitis, typically with diffuse infiltrates on chest x-ray and high-resolution computed tomography. Other, more localized, forms of pulmonary toxicity may occur, including pleural disease, migratory infiltrates, and single or multiple nodules. With early detection, the prognosis is good. Most patients diagnosed promptly respond well to the withdrawal of amiodarone and the administration of corticosteroids, which are usually given for four to 12 months. It is important that physicians be familiar with amiodarone treatment guidelines and follow published recommendations for the monitoring of pulmonary as well as extrapulmonary adverse effects. PMID:19399307

  9. Evidence of hair loss after subacute exposure to 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, a mustard analog, and beneficial effects of N-acetyl cysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Diptendu; Mukherjee, Shyamali; Smith, Milton G; Das, Salil K

    2004-01-01

    Mustard gas has been used as a vesicant chemical warfare agent. However, a suitable biomarker for monitoring mustard gas exposure is not known. We observed that the hairs of the guinea pigs exposed intratracheally to subacute doses of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), a mustard analog, came out very easily though there was no sign of skin lesions or skin damage. Also the hairs looked rough and dry and lost the shiny glaze. There was no recovery from this hair loss, though the animals never became hairless, following CEES exposure. Hairs were observed in this study both visually and with light microscopy. Treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) prior to CEES exposure could prevent the hair loss completely. Hence, sudden hair loss might be a good biomarker for subacute exposure of mustard gas to subjects at risks when the victims might have no other visible symptom of toxicity. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Drinking water toxicity study of the environmental contaminant--Bromate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongmei, Liu; Zhiwei, Wang; Qi, Zhu; Fuyi, Cui; Yujuan, Shan; Xiaodong, Liu

    2015-12-01

    Bromate is a byproduct of water disinfection that is produced when waters contain bromide treated with ozone. To investigate the level of the toxicity of bromate and find the most sensitive indicators in a short time, a series of toxicological assessments were conducted including the acute toxicity, cumulative toxicity, genetic toxicity and subacute toxicity of bromate (using Potassium Bromate to represent bromate). The LD50 of orally administered Potassium Bromate was 215 mg/kg in Wistar rats and 464 mg/kg in ICR mice. The cumulative toxicity of Potassium Bromate was not obvious. The Ames test, mouse bone marrow cell micronucleus test and mouse sperm abnormality test did not indicate mutagenicity. The results of the subacute study did not exhibit significant differences in most of the parameters, except the white blood cell count, which was significantly decreased in male rats. In addition, Potassium Bromate influenced the albumin, creatinine, total cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose levels in male rats to various extents. A thorough analysis of the above tests clearly demonstrates that bromate has toxicity, not obvious cumulative toxicity and the white blood cell count can be used as an indicator to reflect the toxicity of bromate and investigate bromate's toxic mechanism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Hyperfixation of Tc-99m ECD in subacute cortical infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Seung; Kweon, Sun Uck; Ryu, Jin Sook; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Lee, Hee Kyung [College of Medicine, Ulsan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    It has been known that hyperfixation of Tc-99m ECD (HF) is not shown in subacute cerebral infarction because the brain distribution of Tc-99m ECD reflects not only perfusion but also the metabolic status of brain tissue. However, we observed several cases with HF in the subacute pure cortical infarction. To find out the cause of HF in subacute cortical infarction. We assessed the difference in associated cerebral hemodynamics and clinical findings between the subacute cortical infarctions with and without HF. We reviewed 16 patients (63.8{+-}8.6 yr, M/F: 15/1) with pure cortical infarction not involving adjacent subcortical white matter on MRI. All patients underwent acetazolamide stress brain perfusion SPECT using Tc-99m ECD and MRI at subacute period (7.3{+-}4.4 days from ictus). Uptake of Tc-99m ECD in infarcted cortex was assessed visually comparing the contralateral side. To assess the difference in associate clinical findings between the infarctions with and without HF, rCVR of the cerebral territory including infarcted cortex, extent of Gd-enhancement on MRI. Intervals between SPECT and ictus, and the presence of associated ICA stenosis were evaluated. Infarctions were focal (n=8) or multifocal (n=8) and located in frontoparietal cortices on MRI. Twelve patients were accompanied with ipsilateral ICA stenosis. Resting SPECT showed increased cortical uptake (=HF) in 7 patients and decreased in 9. rCVR of the MCA territory was preserved in all of the 7 patients with HF, compared with 4 of the 9 patients without HF (p=0.03). Gd-enhancement was minimal in all of the 7 patients with HF, compared with of the 0 patients without HF (p=0.03). Presence of ipsilateral ICA stenosis and intervals from ictus were not different (p>0.1) Subacute cerebral cortical infarction with HF was more frequently associated with preserved rCVR and minimal destruction of the blood-brain barrier than that without HF. Our findings suggest that HF may result from luxury perfusion of

  12. Injury to skeletal muscle of mice following acute and sub-acute pregabalin exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Moshiri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Pregabalin (PGB is a new antiepileptic drug that has received FDA approval for patient who suffers from central neuropathic pain, partial seizures, generalized anxiety disorder, fibromyalgia and sleep disorders. This study was undertaken to evaluate the possible adverse effects of PGB on the muscular system of mice. Materials and Methods: To evaluate the effect of PGB on skeletal muscle, the animals were exposed to a single dose of 1, 2 or 5 g /kg or daily doses of 20, 40 or 80 mg/kg for 21 days, intraperitoneally (IP. Twaenty-four hr after the last drug administration, all animals were sacrificed. The level of fast-twitch skeletal muscle troponin I and CK-MM activity were evaluated in blood as an indicator of muscle injury. Skeletal muscle pathological findings were also reported as scores ranging from 1 to 3 based on the observed lesion. Results: In the acute and sub-acute toxicity assay IP injection of PGB significantly increased the activity and levels of CK-MM and fsTnI compared to the control group. Sub-acute exposure to PGB caused damages that include muscle atrophy, infiltration of inflammatory cells and cell degeneration. Conclusion: PGB administration especially in long term care causes muscle atrophy with infiltration of inflammatory cells and cell degeneration. The fsTnI and CK-MM are reliable markers in PGB-related muscle injury. The exact mechanisms behind the muscular damage are unclear and necessitate further investigations.

  13. Liver immunolocation of CYP P450 in an subacute toxicity experiment with Clorpirifos o,o-(3, 5, 6- trichloride -2-pyridyl phosphorotioato in young male tilapia (Oreochromis spp)/Inmunolocalización hepática de CYP P450 en un experimento de toxicidad subaguda por Clorpirifos 0,0-dietil 0-(3, 5, 6-tricloro-2-piridil fosforotioato) en machos juveniles de tilapia (Oreochromis spp)/Inmunolocalização hepática de CYP P450 num teste de toxicidade subaguda por Clorpirifos 0,0-dietil 0-(3, 5, 6-tricloro-2-piridil fosforotioato) em machos juvenis de tilápia (Oreochromis spp.)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jenny G Chaparro; Diego Alfonso Aranzazu Taborda; Laura Urrea; Berardo de J Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    .... The objective of this study is to implement an immunohistochemical technique to immunolocate CYP 1A in the tissue of fish, performing a subacute exposition experiment of Clofopirifos in the liver of young male tilapia...

  14. Use of polychlorinated biphenyl and toxic equivalent concentrations in scat from mink(Neovison vison) fed fish from the upper Hudson River to predict dietary and hepatic concentrations and health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursian, Steven J; Kern, John; Remington, Richard E; Link, Jane E

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate health effects associated with consumption of fish contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from the upper Hudson River, farm-raised mink were fed diets containing fish collected from the river. Endpoints assessed included adult reproductive performance, offspring growth and mortality, and organ mass and pathology of adults and their offspring. Scat samples were collected from adult males at the time of necropsy and from adult females just prior to whelping. Scat samples were analyzed for PCBs, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The present study provides the results of these analyses and compares ∑PCB and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentrations in scat with dietary and hepatic concentrations associated with effects reported previously. Dry weight concentrations of ∑PCBs and ∑TEQs in scat generally increased with dietary concentration and reflected corresponding increases in hepatic concentrations of ∑PCBs and ∑TEQs. Maternal concentrations of ∑PCBs in scat expressed on a dry, wet, and lipid weight basis predicted to result in 50% kit mortality (LC50) were 1.0, 0.30, and 12 μg ∑PCBs/g. Concentrations of ∑PCBs in scat expressed on a dry, wet, and lipid weight basis predicted to result in 50% incidence of a previously reported jaw lesion (EC50) were 1.7, 0.48, and 24 μg ∑PCBs/g in adult females and 2.5, 0.87, and 19 μg ∑PCBs/g in adult males. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:563-575. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  15. Subacute thyroiditis (de Quervain) presenting as a painless cold nodule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartels, P.C.; Boer, R.O.

    1987-09-01

    A 49-yr-old woman presented with a solid, painless, nontender nodule in the left thyroid lobe. Thyroid scintigraphy revealed a solitary cold area in the left lobe and a slightly decreased 24-hr radioactive iodine thyroid uptake (9%). Although there were no specific clinical or biochemical signs suggesting thyroiditis needle aspiration cytology showed the presence of a subacute thyroiditis. Approximately 1 mo later the entire thyroid gland was affected leading to a completely suppressed thyroid radioiodine uptake and elevated serum thyroid hormone concentrations. This case illustrates that in the early phase of the disease, subacute thyroiditis may present as a solitary, painless, cold nodule and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of such lesions.

  16. Measles-vaccinated Israeli boy with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Har-Even, Ronly; Aichenbaum, Sergio; Rabey, Jose M; Livne, Amir; Bistritzer, Tzvy

    2011-06-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is a rare neurologic disorder of childhood and adolescence. We describe a 16-year-old boy who manifested the disease despite proper vaccinations. He was hospitalized because of bedwetting, involuntary limb movements, abnormal speech, and balance disturbances. Immunoglobulin G antibodies against measles were strongly positive, with a high relative cerebrospinal fluid/serum ratio. Polymerase chain reaction for measles produced negative results. Electroencephalography registered slow activity with high voltage discharges every few seconds, and with triphasic complex morphology. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed diffuse white matter changes, mostly around the posterior regions and lateral ventricles. Treatment with valproic acid, levetiracetam, carbamazepine, and intravenous immunoglobulin G was ineffective. Inosiplex and interferon-β-1a were also administrated. The patient became comatose, with generalized myoclonic jerks, and died 1 year later. An autopsy was not performed. This patient illustrates that subacute sclerosing panencephalitis should be suspected among young vaccinated subjects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis in a Child with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Co-Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, Pradeep Kumar; Thakkar, Mayur Deepak; Kulshreshtha, Dinkar; Singh, Ajai Kumar; Thacker, Anup Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is a fatal infectious disease of childhood caused by persistence of the measles virus in the brain. The effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection on subacute sclerosing panencephalitis remains elusive and rare. We report a child who developed subacute sclerosing panencephalitis following a short latency period and a rapidly progressive course with HIV co-infection. © 2016 Marshfield Clinic.

  18. ASIC1a Deficient Mice Show Unaltered Neurodegeneration in the Subacute MPTP Model of Parkinson Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Komnig

    Full Text Available Inflammation contributes to the death of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson disease and can be accompanied by acidification of extracellular pH, which may activate acid-sensing ion channels (ASIC. Accordingly, amiloride, a non-selective inhibitor of ASIC, was protective in an acute 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP mouse model of Parkinson disease. To complement these findings we determined MPTP toxicity in mice deficient for ASIC1a, the most common ASIC isoform in neurons. MPTP was applied i.p. in doses of 30 mg per kg on five consecutive days. We determined the number of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, assayed by stereological counting 14 days after the last MPTP injection, the number of Nissl positive neurons in the substantia nigra, and the concentration of catecholamines in the striatum. There was no difference between ASIC1a-deficient mice and wildtype controls. We are therefore not able to confirm that ASIC1a are involved in MPTP toxicity. The difference might relate to the subacute MPTP model we used, which more closely resembles the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease, or to further targets of amiloride.

  19. ASIC1a Deficient Mice Show Unaltered Neurodegeneration in the Subacute MPTP Model of Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komnig, Daniel; Imgrund, Silke; Reich, Arno; Gründer, Stefan; Falkenburger, Björn H

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation contributes to the death of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson disease and can be accompanied by acidification of extracellular pH, which may activate acid-sensing ion channels (ASIC). Accordingly, amiloride, a non-selective inhibitor of ASIC, was protective in an acute 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of Parkinson disease. To complement these findings we determined MPTP toxicity in mice deficient for ASIC1a, the most common ASIC isoform in neurons. MPTP was applied i.p. in doses of 30 mg per kg on five consecutive days. We determined the number of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, assayed by stereological counting 14 days after the last MPTP injection, the number of Nissl positive neurons in the substantia nigra, and the concentration of catecholamines in the striatum. There was no difference between ASIC1a-deficient mice and wildtype controls. We are therefore not able to confirm that ASIC1a are involved in MPTP toxicity. The difference might relate to the subacute MPTP model we used, which more closely resembles the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease, or to further targets of amiloride.

  20. Paracoccidioidomycosis: acute-subacute clinical form, juvenile type*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Silvio Alencar; Lastória, Joel Carlos; de Camargo, Rosangela Maria Pires; Marques, Mariangela Esther Alencar

    2016-01-01

    The authors report aspects of paracoccidioidomycosis, acute-subacute clinical form, juvenile type, in a 19-year-old female patient. Paracoccidioidomycosis, juvenile type, classically occurs in young patients, both sexes, with lymphoma-like aspects as initial presentation. However, following the natural history of the disease the lymph nodes assume patterns of infectious disease, as an abscess and fistulae. Systemic dissemination of the disease can occur and lethality and morbidity are significant in this clinical presentation. PMID:27438214

  1. Herbal hepatitis: subacute hepatic necrosis secondary to chaparral leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, M; Saibil, F

    1990-04-01

    A 33-year-old woman developed subacute hepatic necrosis after several months of ingestion of Chaparral Leaf, an herbal product. Symptoms first appeared 3 months after she began taking the tablets. The patient unwittingly carried out a clinical challenge by reducing, then increasing, the dose of pills. The public and the medical profession must be wary of all "harmless" nonprescription medications, whether purchased in pharmacies or elsewhere.

  2. Visual deterioration as presentation of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, H M; Wise, G A; Henry, J G

    1980-01-01

    A 7-year-old boy presented with deteriorating vision and macular degenerative changes. A month later he had developed unusual behaviour and increasing forgetfulness. An electroencephalogram showing periodic complexes, and high measles complement-fixation titres in the cerebrospinal fluid and blood, confirmed the diagnosis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Four months after the onset of visual symptoms he started having myoclonic jerks. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:7436466

  3. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Changes on CT scan during acute relapse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modi, G.; Bill, P. (Wentworth Hospital, Durban (South Africa). Dept. of Medicine); Campbell, H. (Wentworth Hospital, Durban (South Africa). Dept. of Radiology)

    1989-11-01

    A 19-year-old female patient presented in an acute state of akinetic mutism. Serological analysis of serum and cerebrospinal fluid demonstrated the presence of antibodies to measles virus. CT scan carried out during this acute phase of relapse demonstrated white matter enhancement affecting the cortical white matter of the frontal lobes and corpus callosum. These features indicate that active demyelination occurs during acute relapse in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) and suggest that immunotherapy should be considered during this acute phase. (orig.).

  4. Antibodies to borna disease virus in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güngör, Serdal; Anlar, Banu; Turan, Nuri; Yilmaz, Hüseyin; Helps, Chris R; Harbour, Dave A

    2005-09-01

    Mechanisms causing persistence and reactivation of measles virus in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) are unknown. Borna disease virus (BDV) frequently causes latent or persistent infection in the nervous system. We investigated a possible association of these viruses in SSPE. Although BDV seropositivity was similar in SSPE and control groups, SSPE patients with high antibodies to BDV had earlier and more rapid disease. The findings suggest that BDV might be involved in the course, but not in the etiopathogenesis, of SSPE.

  5. Subacute osteoporotic compression fracture: Misleading magnetic resonance appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frager, D.; Elkin, C.; Swerdlow, M.; Bloch, S.

    1988-03-01

    Three patients with benign subacute osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures are presented. T/sub 1/ weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images (SE 500/30) showed decreased vertebral signal. Because the results of the MR examination were thought to indicate malignant disease, extensive medical workups, including one biopsy, were pursued in all three patients. Routine (SE 500/30) spin-echo pulse sequences cannot definitively distinguish between benign and malignant vertebral compression fractures.

  6. Subacute bacterial endocarditis (SBE due to Streptococcus gordonii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Battista

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Endocarditis is an inflammatory state of the endothelium that promotes thrombus formation and tissue damage on the surface of heart valves. Recent studies have reported endocarditis mortality rates ranging from 12% to 46% (2008. The Streptococcus gordonii is a normal inhabitant of the human oral cavity. It is a component of the microbial communities responsible of plaque formation, associated with dental caries and also regarded as the main causative agent in the development of subacute bacterial endocarditis (SBE.

  7. Protease production by Streptococcus sanguis associated with subacute bacterial endocarditis.

    OpenAIRE

    Straus, D. C.

    1982-01-01

    A viridans streptococcus (Streptococcus sanguis biotype II) isolated from the blood of a patient with subacute bacterial endocarditis was examined for protease production. In broth culture, extracellular proteolytic enzymes were not produced by this organism until after the early exponential phase of growth, with maximal protease production occurring during the stationary phase. Four distinct proteases were isolated and purified from the supernatant fluids of stationary-phase cultures, employ...

  8. Toxic effects and depuration after the dietary lead(II) exposure on the bioaccumulation and hematological parameters in starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, In-Ki; Kim, Kyeong-Wook; Kim, Jun-Hwan; Kang, Ju-Chan

    2016-07-01

    Platichthys stellatus (mean length 20±2cm, mean weight 160.15±15g) were exposed to the different levels of dietary lead(II) at the concentrations of 0, 30, 60, 120, 240mg/kg for 4 weeks. Depuration was conducted for 2 weeks after exposure. The lead exposure over 60mg Pb/kg induced the significant bioaccumulation in tissues of P. stellatus (5-30μg/g tissue), except for brain and muscle where the exposure to 240mg Pb/kg caused the bioaccumulation (2-4μg/g tissue). The hematological parameters such as red blood cell (RBC) counts, hematocrit (Ht) value and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration were substantially decreased over 60mg Pb/kg, and lasted even after the depuration period. For plasma components, calcium and magnesium levels in plasma were generally decreased over 60mg Pb/kg, and glucose level was also mainly increased over 60mg Pb/kg. Total protein was significantly decreased over 120mg Pb/kg after 4 weeks exposure. Glucose and total protein showed the restoration after the depuration period in groups of fish exposed previously to over 60 and 120mg Pb/kg, respectively. However, other parameters that changed during the exposure over 60mg Pb/kg did not recovered. For enzymatic components in plasma, glutamic oxalate transminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvate transminase (GPT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were significantly increased over 120mg Pb/kg, and there was only restoration observed after the depuration for ALP over 120mg Pb/kg. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. EFFECT OF POSITIONAL RELEASE TECHNIQUE IN SUBJECTS WITH SUBACUTE TRAPEZITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweety Charles Carvalho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trapezius stretching combined with positional release technique (PRT have found effective in trapezitis, studies are limited to find which technique has shown effective over the other due to lack of control group. The purpose of the study is to find the effect of PRT on pain intensity, functional disability and range of motion in subjects with subacute trapezitis. Method: An experimental study design, selected subjects with subacute trapezitis was randomized into Study and Control group. Total 40 subjects, 20 subjects in each group; data was collected who completed the study. Control group received passive trapezius muscle stretching while Study group received positional release technique with passive trapezius muscle stretching for 8 sessions in 2 weeks. Outcome measurements such as Visual Analogue scale, Neck disability index and cervical Range of motion were measured. Results: There is statistically significant difference (p<0.05 showing improvement in means of VAS, NDI and Range of motion before and after intervention within the groups and there is statistically significant difference when the post-intervention means after 2 weeks of treatment were compared between Study and Control group. Conclusion: It is concluded that the Positional Release Technique with trapezius stretching found to be significantly more added effect than trapezius stretching alone in improving pain, functional disability and cervical movements for subjects with subacute trapezitis.

  10. Cerebrospinal fluid nitric oxide levels in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Deniz; Yüksel, Deniz; Senbil, Nesrin; Eminzade, Sude; Kilinç, Kamer; Anlar, Banu; Gürer, Yavuz

    2009-09-01

    Oxidative damage plays a role in neurodegenerative diseases. Levels of cerebrospinal fluid nitrite and nitrate levels (oxidation products that provide an indirect estimation of nitric oxide) were investigated in relation to clinical and laboratory features in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (n = 47) and age-matched control (n = 43) groups. Significantly decreased levels of nitrite (median, 4.91 micromol/L) and nitrate (median, 6.14 micromol/L) were found in the patients. Nitrite and nitrate levels did not correlate with clinical or laboratory findings, except for presence of myoclonus. Cerebrospinal fluid nitrite levels of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis patients without myoclonic jerks were significantly higher than in those with myoclonus (median, 15.63 vs 4.34 micromol/L, respectively). The higher levels of nitrite in these patients can be explained by short disease duration and early stages of disease. Nitrate levels in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis patients with myoclonus (median, 9.26 micromol/L) were higher than in those without myoclonus (median, 4.25 micromol/L). Microbleeding resulting in conversion of nitrite to nitrate and increased production of superoxide can be suggested as possible mechanisms underlying these findings.

  11. Subacute and acute fasciolosis in sheep in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiss, Leticia; de Lourdes Adrien, Maria; Marcolongo-Pereira, Clairton; Assis-Brasil, Nathalia D; Sallis, Eliza S V; Riet-Correa, Franklin; Ruas, Jerônimo L; Schild, Ana Lucia

    2013-02-01

    Eight outbreaks of acute and subacute fasciolosis are reported in sheep in the municipality of Santa Vitória do Palmar, southern Brazil, in areas used for irrigated rice cultivation, which are subject to frequent flooding. Two outbreaks occurred mid-winter during July and August, and six occurred during spring and early summer. Morbidity ranged from 3 to 66.7 %, and mortality ranged from 3 to 50 %. Clinical signs included weight loss, mucosal pallor, apathy, depression, muscle tremors, and drooling; these were followed by death within approximately 24 h. Some sheep were found dead. Gross lesions were characterized by an irregular liver capsule with fibrin deposition and hemorrhages. The liver parenchyma contained hemorrhagic tracts or irregular clear areas alternated with dark hemorrhagic areas. Histologically, hemorrhagic dark red tracts of necrotic liver parenchyma and an inflammatory infiltrate were noted; these lesions coincided with the presence of immature flukes. Langhans-type giant cells, fibrous tissue, and bile duct cell proliferation were observed in subacute cases. Chronic fasciolosis is a well-known disease to farmers in southern Brazil; nevertheless, acute and subacute fasciolosis, which are more difficult to diagnose and treat, may cause important economic losses. Efficient control of fasciolosis requires integration of measures to treat infections in the definitive host, to reduce the population of snails of the genus Lymnaea, and to avoid contact between the parasite and host by appropriate pasture management.

  12. Masticatory function in subacute TMD patients before and after treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, L J; Steenks, M H; de Wijer, A; Speksnijder, C M; van der Bilt, A

    2009-06-01

    Masticatory function can be impaired in temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) patients. We investigated whether treatment of subacute non-specific TMD patients may influence oral function and clinical outcome measures. Fifteen patients with subacute TMD participated in the study. We quantified masticatory performance, maximum voluntary bite force, muscle activity and chewing cycle duration before and after treatment. Masticatory performance and bite force of patients were compared with the results obtained for an age- and gender-matched group of subjects without TMD complaints. Furthermore, we determined possible changes in anamnestic and clinical scores from questionnaires (mandibular function impairment questionnaire; MFIQ), pain scores and clinical outcome measures. Maximum bite force significantly increased, although the values after treatment were still significantly lower than those of the subjects without TMD complaints. The corresponding electromyography values did not show significant change after treatment. The masticatory performance of the patients remained unaltered; patients chewed significantly less efficient than controls. The average duration of chewing cycles significantly decreased after treatment. We observed a significant improvement in MFIQ scores. During the clenching and chewing tasks, the visual analogue scale scores were significantly higher than before these tasks. We may conclude that subacute temporomandibular joint disorders negatively influence chewing behaviour. Bite force, chewing cycle duration and also perceived mandibular function significantly improved after treatment, although the masticatory performance remained unaltered.

  13. MR findings of subacute necrotizing myelopathy: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Dong Gyu; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Moon Hee; Kim, Hyun Jip; Kim, Chong Jai; Chi, Je G. [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-04-15

    Subacute necrotizing myelopathy(SNM) is a rare non-tumorous disease of spinal cord characterized by subacute clinical course of progressive neurological deterioration. We report MR findings of a patient with pathologically proved SNM. 1 case of pathologically proved subacute necrotizing myelopathy. The patients was a 56-year-old man with progressive motor weakness and sensory loss of the lower extremities, and urinary and fecal incontinence for 11 months. Spine MRI revealed diffuse enlargement of the thoracic spinal cord from T2 to T7 level. Signal intensity of the expanded spinal cord was isointense relative to normal cord on T1-weighted image and hyperintense on proton-density and T2-weighted images. On contrast enhanced T1-weighted image, there was diffuse homogeneous enhancement in the expanded cord lesion. MR demonstration of stable persistence of spinal cord lesion or atrophy over months or years with clinical findings of gradual progressive neurologic deterioration may be helpful in the diagnosis of SNM.

  14. Characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from acute, sub-acute and sub-clinical staphylococcosis in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeshkumar J. Tirpude

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus bacteria isolated from different clinical presentations of staphylococcosis in rabbits were examined for the production of various virulence factors using biochemical and immunological tests. In the total of 106 S. aureus isolates; toxic shock syndrome toxin-1, staphylococcal enterotoxin-C, DNase, α-haemolysin, β-haemolysin, δ-haemolysin, protein A and clumping factor were observed with a frequency of 33.2, 16.98, 83.96, 69.81, 36.79, 100, 78.30 and 54.72 percent, respectively. No SE-A, SE-B and SE-D producing isolates were recovered in this study. All the S. aureus isolates from acute staphylococcosis produced TSST-1, SE-C and protein A. While δ–haemolysin and clumping factor were not detected in any acute isolates, these factors were observed at a relatively higher frequency in isolates from sub-acute and sub-clinical staphylococcosis. Coagulase type III was observed more predominantly with a frequency of 45.28%, while coagulase types V and VII were not observed in any isolate. Most of the virulence factors belonged to coagulase type III followed by type VI. TSST-1 and SE-C along with coagulase types III and VI could be correlated with the acute and sub-acute staphylococcal infections in rabbits in this study.

  15. Evaluation of toxicity profile of leaf base extract of Sorghum bicolor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-19

    Jan 19, 2009 ... acute and sub-acute toxicity effects of mature dry leaf base of S. bicolor to ... The test routes were both intraperitoneal and oral. The administration of the extract in both rats and mice was done in phases. The first phase involved the administration of widely differing ..... Ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats.

  16. Subacute haematotoxicity after PRRT with {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-octreotate: prognostic factors, incidence and course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergsma, Hendrik; Konijnenberg, Mark W.; Kam, Boen L.R.; Teunissen, Jaap J.M.; Kooij, Peter P.; Krenning, Eric P.; Kwekkeboom, Dik J. [Erasmus University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Herder, Wouter W. de [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Franssen, Gaston J.H.; Eijck, Casper H.J. van [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Surgery, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-03-15

    In peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT), the bone marrow (BM) is one of the dose-limiting organs. The accepted dose limit for BM is 2 Gy, adopted from {sup 131}I treatment. We investigated the incidence and duration of haematological toxicity and its risk factors in patients treated with PRRT with {sup 177}Lu-DOTA{sup 0}-Tyr{sup 3}-octreotate ({sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE). Also, absorbed BM dose estimates were evaluated and compared with the accepted 2 Gy dose limit. The incidence and duration of grade 3 or 4 haematological toxicity (according to CTCAE v3.0) and risk factors were analysed. Mean BM dose per unit (gigabecquerels) of administered radioactivity was calculated and the correlations between doses to the BM and haematological risk factors were determined. Haematological toxicity (grade 3/4) occurred in 34 (11 %) of 320 patients. In 15 of the 34 patients, this lasted more than 6 months or blood transfusions were required. Risk factors significantly associated with haematological toxicity were: poor renal function, white blood cell (WBC) count <4.0 x 10{sup 9}/l, age over 70 years, extensive tumour mass and high tumour uptake on the OctreoScan. Previous chemotherapy was not associated. The mean BM dose per administered activity in 23 evaluable patients was 67 ± 7 mGy/GBq, resulting in a mean BM dose of 2 Gy in patients who received four cycles of 7.4 GBq {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE. Significant correlations between (cumulative) BM dose and platelet and WBC counts were found in a selected group of patients. The incidence of subacute haematological toxicity after PRRT with {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE is acceptable (11 %). Patients with impaired renal function, low WBC count, extensive tumour mass, high tumour uptake on the OctreoScan and/or advanced age are more likely to develop grade 3/4 haematological toxicity. The BM dose limit of 2 Gy, adopted from {sup 131}I, seems not to be valid for PRRT with {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE. (orig.)

  17. Subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord in a Nigerian child

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-12-19

    Dec 19, 2015 ... Abstract: Background: Vitamin. B12 deficiency has been reported to be associated with a spectrum of neurological disorders among which is subacute combined de- generation of the spinal cord. Method: We report a case of subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord secondary to vitamin B12 ...

  18. Subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord in a Nigerian child

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Vitamin B12 deficiency has been reported to be associated with a spectrum of neurological disorders among which is subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord. Method: We report a case of subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency and discussed the ...

  19. Prognostic factors for disability and sick leave in patients with subacute non-malignant pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin, Gitte H; Pilegaard, Marc S; Vaegter, Henrik B

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aims to identify generic prognostic factors for disability and sick leave in subacute pain patients. SETTING: General practice and other primary care facilities. PARTICIPANTS: Adults (>18 years) with a subacute (≤3-month) non-malignant pain condition. Eligibility...... reporting of all factors examined. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42014008914.......OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aims to identify generic prognostic factors for disability and sick leave in subacute pain patients. SETTING: General practice and other primary care facilities. PARTICIPANTS: Adults (>18 years) with a subacute (≤3-month) non-malignant pain condition. Eligibility...... criteria were cohort studies investigating the prediction of disability or long-term sick leave in adults with a subacute pain condition in a primary care setting. 19 studies were included, referring to a total of 6266 patients suffering from pain in the head, neck, back and shoulders. PRIMARY...

  20. Midazolam or diazepam administration during electroencephalography helps to diagnose subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Kutluhan; Sahin, Derya Aydin

    2010-08-01

    Although diagnostic contribution of intravenous diazepam administration during electroencephalography (EEG) recording in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis has been known, no another drug with less potential side effects has been studied in this procedure. In this study, diazepam is compared with midazolam in 25 subacute sclerosing panencephalitis-diagnosed children and 10 children with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis-suggesting symptoms, normal EEG findings and no certain diagnosis. Neither midazolam nor diazepam affected typical periodic slow-wave complexes. However, in the patients with atypical EEG abnormalities, midazolam, like diazepam, attenuated sharp or sharp-and-slow waves, and therefore made the identification of periodic slow-wave paroxysms easier. In the patients with normal EEGs, both midazolam and diazepam revealed typical periodic complexes on EEG recording in the same 3 patients. Cerebrospinal fluid examination verified the diagnosis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. The findings suggest that midazolam or diazepam administration increases the contribution of EEG recording in atypical cases with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

  1. Dietary Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiber is a substance in plants. Dietary fiber is the kind you eat. It's a type of carbohydrate. You may also see it listed on a food label as soluble ... types have important health benefits. Good sources of dietary fiber include Whole grains Nuts and seeds Fruit and ...

  2. Subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus inducing unilateral sensorimotor neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psarelis, Savvas; Georgiades, Fanourios; Ioannou, Antreas; Xenophontos, Eleni; Georgiou, Georgios; Papanicolaou, Eleni

    2017-05-01

    We describe the case of a 32-year-old male with previous history of subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE) who presented with arthritis followed by a unilateral lower-limb sensorimotor impairment, without biochemical or immunological marker abnormalities. Our patient currently satisfies only three of the systemic lupus international collaborating clinics criteria. Management of such patients is challenging due to lack of examples in the literature, with this case being the first described where a seronegative patient with SCLE demonstrated neurological involvement. A brief review of the available literature is included.

  3. Atypical clinical course subacute sclerosing panencephalitis presenting as acute Encephalitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komur, Mustafa; Arslankoylu, Ali E; Okuyaz, Cetin; Kuyucu, Necdet

    2012-01-01

    We report a 14-year-old boy who presented with loss of consciousness and gait instability. The electroencephalogram (EEG) showed generalized slowing with irregular activity and cerebral magnetic imaging revealed asymmetrical nonspecific signals on basal ganglia. His second electroencephalogram revealed periodical generalized high-voltage slow wave complexes which did not disappear with diazepam induction. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) was considered and the diagnosis was confirmed with the identification of measles antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid. Our findings show that SSPE should be in mind in the differential diagnosis of meningoencephalitis and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and highlight the significance of EEG in the diagnosis of unidentified cases. PMID:23248691

  4. Catatonia as presenting clinical feature of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayal, Prabhoo; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh

    2014-01-01

    Catatonia is not a usual clinical presentation of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE), especially in the initial stages of illness. However, there is only one reported case of SSPE presenting as catatonia among children. In this report, however, there were SSPE-specific changes on EEG and the catatonia failed to respond to lorazepam. We describe a case of SSPE in a child presenting as catatonia that presented with clinical features of catatonia and did not have typical EEG findings when assessed at first contact. He responded to lorazepam and EEG changes emerged during the course of follow-up.

  5. Computed tomographic findings of early subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, H.; Wulff, C.H.

    1982-03-01

    Computed tomography of the brain (CT) was carried out at the early stages of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) in three children. The lateral ventricles were very small and the hemispheric sulci and interhemispheric fissures were not visible in all three patients in contrast to severe atrophy found at a later stage in one patient. The early CT abnormalities were revealed at the same time as the titres of measles antibodies in blood and cerebrospinal fluid were elevated, and the characteristic periodic complexes in the electroencephalogram established the diagnosis of SSPE. The CT changes indicating brain swelling reflect the reactive changes of this slow virus infection.

  6. Oxidant and antioxidant status in children with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caksen, Hüseyin; Ozkan, Mustafa; Cemek, Mustafa; Cemek, Fatma

    2014-11-01

    We analyzed serum alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, retinol, and ascorbic acid levels and malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione concentrations on erythrocyte and cerebrospinal fluid in 30 patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis to evaluate oxidant and antioxidant status. Serum alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, retinol, ascorbic acid levels, and erythrocyte and cerebrospinal fluid reduced glutathione concentrations were decreased; however, erythrocyte and cerebrospinal fluid malondialdehyde levels were increased in the patients. Cerebrospinal fluid malondialdehyde levels were different between clinical stages of the disease (P panencephalitis and that antioxidants were increased as defense mechanisms of the organism against oxidative damage. © The Author(s) 2013.

  7. Dietary exposure of mink (Mustela vison) to fish from the Housatonic River, Berkshire County, Massachusetts, USA: Effects on organ weights and histology and hepatic concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursian, Steven J.; Sharma, Chanda; Aulerich, Richard J.; Yamini, Behzad; Mitchell, Rachel R.; Beckett, Kerrie J.; Orazio, Carl E.; Moore, Dwayne; Svirsky, Susan; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of feeding ranch mink (Mustela vison) diets containing polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated fish (88 gold fish [Carassius auratus] weighing a total of 70.3 kg and 16 carp [Cyprinus carpio] weighing a total of 77.3 kg) collected from the Housatonic River (HR; Berkshire County, MA, USA) in October 1999 on organ weights and histology and hepatic concentrations of total PCBs (ΣPCBs) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalence (TEQ) were evaluated. Diets contained 0.22 to 3.54% HR fish, which provided 0.34 to 3.7 μg ΣPCBs/g feed (3.5-69 pg TEQ/g feed). Female mink were fed the diets eight weeks before breeding through weaning of kits at six weeks of age. Offspring were maintained on their respective diets for an additional 180 d. The dietary concentration of PCBs that caused a decrease in kit survival (3.7 μg ΣPCBs/g feed [69 pg TEQ/g]) resulted in a maternal hepatic concentration of 3.1 μg ΣPCBs/g wet weight (218 pg TEQ/g). Organ weights were not consistently affected. Mandibular and maxillary squamous cell proliferation was apparent in 31-week-old juveniles exposed to as low as 0.96 (xg ΣPCBs/g feed (9.2 pg TEQ/g). Juveniles in this treatment group had a liver concentration of 1.7 μg ΣPCBs/g wet weight (40 pg TEQ/g). Because inclusion of PCB-contaminated fish, which comprised approximately 1% of the diet, resulted in mandibular and maxillary squamous cell proliferation, it is possible that consumption of up to 30-fold that quantity of HR fish, as could be expected for wild mink, would result in more severe lesions characterized by loss of teeth, thus impacting survivability.

  8. Absence of hematological side effects in acute and subacute nasal dosing of erythropoietin with a low content of sialic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagarto, Alicia; Bueno, Viviana; Guerra, Isbel; Valdés, Odalys; Couret, Micaela; López, Raisel; Vega, Yamile

    2011-09-01

    The use of human recombinant erythropoietin (EPO) as a neuroprotective agent is limited due to its hematological side effects. An erythropoietin along with a low content of sialic acid (rhEPOb), similar to that produced in the brain during hypoxia, may be used as a neuroprotective agent without risk of thrombotic events. The objective of this investigation was to assess the toxicological potential of a nasal formulation with rhEPOb in acute, subacute and nasal irritation assays in rats. Healthy Wistar rats (Cenp:Wistar) were used for the assays. In an irritation test, animals received 15 μl of rhEPOb into the right nostril. Rats were sacrificed after 24 h and slides of the nasal mucosa tissues were examined. Control and treated groups showed signs of a minimal irritation consisting of week edema and vascular congestion in all animals. In the acute toxicity test, the dose of 47,143 UI/kg was administered by nasal route. Hematological patterns, body weight, relative organ weight, and organ integrity were not affected by single dosing with rhEPOb. In the subacute toxicity test, Wistar rats of both sexes received 6,600 UI/kg/day for 14 days. The toxicological endpoints examined included animal body weight, food consumption, hematological and biochemical patterns, selected tissue weights, and histopathological examinations. An increase of lymphocytes was observed in males that was considered to reflect an immune response to treatment. Histopathological examination of organs and tissues did not reveal treatment-induced changes. The administration of rhEPOb at daily doses of 6,600 UI/kg during 14 days did not produce hematological side effects. These results suggest that rhEPOb could offer the same neuroprotection as EPO, without hematological side effects. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of melatonin in experimental stroke models in acute, sub-acute, and chronic stages

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    Hsiao-Wen Lin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Hsiao-Wen Lin, E-Jian LeeNeurophysiology Laboratory, Neurosurgical Service, Department of Surgery, National Cheng Kung University Medical Center and Medical School, Tainan, TaiwanAbstract: Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxy-tryptamine, a naturally occurring indole produced mainly by the pineal gland, is a well known antioxidant. Stroke (cerebral ischemia is the second leading cause of death worldwide. To date, however, effective and safe treatment for stroke remains unavailable. Melatonin is both lipid- and water-soluble and readily crosses the blood–brain barrier (BBB. Increasing evidence has shown that, in animal stroke models, administering melatonin significantly reduces infarct volume, edema, and oxidative damage and improves electrophysiological and behavioral performance. Here, we reviewed studies that assess effects of melatonin on cerebral ischemia in acute, sub-acute, and chronic stages. In addition to its potent antioxidant properties, melatonin exerts antiapoptotic, antiexcitotoxic, anti-inflammatory effects and promotes mitochondrial functions in animals with cerebral ischemia. Given that melatonin shows almost no toxicity to humans and possesses multifaceted protective capacity against cerebral ischemia, it is valuable to consider using melatonin in clinical trials on patients suffering from stroke.Keywords: cerebral ischemia, melatonin, stroke, neuroprotection

  10. Subacute cannabinoid treatment: anticonvulsant activity and withdrawal excitability in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karler, R; Turkanis, S A

    1980-03-01

    1 The effects of subacute treatment with cannabidiol, delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 9-THC), phenytoin and phenobarbitone on anticonvulsant activity and on withdrawal excitability in mice were compared in three electrically induced seizure-threshold tests. 2 In the maximal electroshock-threshold test, subacute treatment did not alter the anticonvulsant activity of cannabidiol, phenytoin or phenobarbitone, but tolerance developed to delta 9-THC. 3 In the 60 Hz electroshock-threshold test, the activity of delta 9-THC and cannabidiol did not change, but tolerance developed to phenobarbitone, and there was an increase in sensitivity to phenytoin. 4 In the 6 Hz electroshock-threshold test, there was an increase in sensitivity to both delta 9-THC and cannabidiol, there was tolerance to phenobarbitone, while the activity of phenytoin did not change. 5 Although tolerance developed in some of the seizure-threshold tests to delta 9-THC and phenobarbitone, tolerance to cannabidiol and phenytoin did not develop in any of the tests. 6 Hyperexcitability followed withdrawal from only delta 9-THC (6 Hz and 60 Hz electroshock-threshold tests) and phenobarbitone (maximal electroshock-threshold and 60 Hz electroshock-threshold tests). 7 The delta 9-THC withdrawal hyperexcitability suggests that the use of marihuana may jeopardize the control of seizures in epileptics.

  11. Changes of resting cerebral activities in subacute ischemic stroke patients

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    Ping Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to detect the difference in resting cerebral activities between ischemic stroke patients and healthy participants, define the abnormal site, and provide new evidence for pathological mechanisms, clinical diagnosis, prognosis prediction and efficacy evaluation of ischemic stroke. At present, the majority of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies focus on the motor dysfunction and the acute stage of ischemic stroke. This study recruited 15 right-handed ischemic stroke patients at subacute stage (15 days to 11.5 weeks and 15 age-matched healthy participants. A resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan was performed on each subject to detect cerebral activity. Regional homogeneity analysis was used to investigate the difference in cerebral activities between ischemic stroke patients and healthy participants. The results showed that the ischemic stroke patients had lower regional homogeneity in anterior cingulate and left cerebrum and higher regional homogeneity in cerebellum, left precuneus and left frontal lobe, compared with healthy participants. The experimental findings demonstrate that the areas in which regional homogeneity was different between ischemic stroke patients and healthy participants are in the cerebellum, left precuneus, left triangle inferior frontal gyrus, left inferior temporal gyrus and anterior cingulate. These locations, related to the motor, sensory and emotion areas, are likely potential targets for the neural regeneration of subacute ischemic stroke patients.

  12. Neuronal loss is an early component of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Deniz; Diren, Barış; Ulubay, Hakan; Altunbaşak, Sakir; Anlar, Banu

    2014-09-02

    We performed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies in a group of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) in order to estimate the pathologic process underlying the phenotypic variability. Patients with SSPE who had MRI including DTI and MRS examinations were evaluated according to their clinical status as determined by the SSPE Scoring System and their mental age as determined by tests appropriate for age and developmental level. Comparisons of fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and metabolite ratios of frontal periventricular white matter, parieto-occipital periventricular white matter, and globus pallidus in both hemispheres were made between control and SSPE groups, and between SSPE subgroups. Control (n = 18) and SSPE (n = 39) groups differed in all DTI and MRS parameters except FA, choline (Cho), and Cho/creatine (Cr). SSPE cases had higher ADC and lower N-acetylaspartate (NAA), NAA/Cho, and NAA/Cr in all regions of interest, suggesting cell loss. Disease progression rate and neurologic deficit appeared to be associated with the degree of ADC elevation and NAA reduction: the group with severe global deterioration had the lowest NAA (230.75 ± 197.97 in forceps minor), and rapid progression was associated with acute reduction in NAA. The combination of MRS and diffusion MRI findings suggests neuronal loss can be a primary target in rapidly or subacutely progressing SSPE, and preservation or regeneration of axonal structure may be beneficial in chronic cases. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  13. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis of the Brainstem as a Clinical Entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyayula, Pavan S; Yang, Jason; Yue, John K; Ciacci, Joseph D

    2017-11-07

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare progressive neurological disorder of early adolescence caused by persistent infection of the measles virus, which remains prevalent worldwide despite an effective vaccine. SSPE is a devastating disease with a characteristic clinical course in subcortical white matter; however, atypical presentations of brainstem involvement may be seen in rare cases. This review summarizes reports to date on brainstem involvement in SSPE, including the clinical course of disease, neuroimaging presentations, and guidelines for treatment. A comprehensive literature search was performed for English-language publications with keywords "subacute sclerosing panencephalitis" and "brainstem" using the National Library of Medicine PubMed database (March 1981-September 2017). Eleven articles focusing on SSPE of the brainstem were included. Predominant brainstem involvement remains uncharacteristic of SSPE, which may lead to misdiagnosis and poor outcome. A number of case reports have demonstrated brainstem involvement associated with other intracranial lesions commonly presenting in later SSPE stages (III and IV). However, brainstem lesions can appear in all stages, independent of higher cortical structures. The varied clinical presentations complicate diagnosis from a neuroimaging perspective. SSPE of the brainstem is a rare but important clinical entity. It may present like canonical SSPE or with unique clinical features such as absence seizures and pronounced ataxia. While SSPE generally progresses to the brainstem, it can also begin with a primary focus of infection in the brainstem. Awareness of varied SSPE presentations can aid in early diagnosis as well as guide management and treatment.

  14. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis of the Brainstem as a Clinical Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavan S. Upadhyayula

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE is a rare progressive neurological disorder of early adolescence caused by persistent infection of the measles virus, which remains prevalent worldwide despite an effective vaccine. SSPE is a devastating disease with a characteristic clinical course in subcortical white matter; however, atypical presentations of brainstem involvement may be seen in rare cases. This review summarizes reports to date on brainstem involvement in SSPE, including the clinical course of disease, neuroimaging presentations, and guidelines for treatment. A comprehensive literature search was performed for English-language publications with keywords “subacute sclerosing panencephalitis” and “brainstem” using the National Library of Medicine PubMed database (March 1981–September 2017. Eleven articles focusing on SSPE of the brainstem were included. Predominant brainstem involvement remains uncharacteristic of SSPE, which may lead to misdiagnosis and poor outcome. A number of case reports have demonstrated brainstem involvement associated with other intracranial lesions commonly presenting in later SSPE stages (III and IV. However, brainstem lesions can appear in all stages, independent of higher cortical structures. The varied clinical presentations complicate diagnosis from a neuroimaging perspective. SSPE of the brainstem is a rare but important clinical entity. It may present like canonical SSPE or with unique clinical features such as absence seizures and pronounced ataxia. While SSPE generally progresses to the brainstem, it can also begin with a primary focus of infection in the brainstem. Awareness of varied SSPE presentations can aid in early diagnosis as well as guide management and treatment.

  15. Fever of unknown origin: subacute thyroiditis versus typhoid fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Burke A; Thermidor, Marjorie; Mohan, Sowjanya; Valsamis, Ageliki S; Johnson, Diane H

    2005-01-01

    Fever of unknown origin (FUO) is not infrequently a diagnostic dilemma for clinicians. Common infectious causes include endocarditis and abscesses in adults, and noninfectious causes include neoplasms and certain collagen vascular diseases, for example, polymyalgia rheumatica, various vasculitides, and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (adult Still's disease). Subacute thyroiditis is a rare cause of FUO. Among the infectious causes of FUO, typhoid fever is relatively uncommon. We present a case of FUO in a traveler returning from India whose initial complaints were that of left-sided neck pain and angle of the jaw pain, which initially suggested the diagnosis of subacute thyroiditis. After an extensive FUO workup, when typhoid fever is a likely diagnostic possibility, an empiric trial of anti- Salmonella therapy has diagnostic and therapeutic significance. The presence of relative bradycardia, and response to quinolone therapy, was the basis of the clinical diagnosis of typhoid fever as the explanation for this patients FUO. This case illustrates the diagnostic difficulties in assessing patients with FUO with few diagnostic findings.

  16. Speech and language therapy for aphasia following subacute stroke

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    Engin Koyuncu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the time window, duration and intensity of optimal speech and language therapy applied to aphasic patients with subacute stroke in our hospital. The study consisted of 33 patients being hospitalized for stroke rehabilitation in our hospital with first stroke but without previous history of speech and language therapy. Sixteen sessions of impairment-based speech and language therapy were applied to the patients, 30-60 minutes per day, 2 days a week, for 8 successive weeks. Aphasia assessment in stroke patients was performed with Gülhane Aphasia Test-2 before and after treatment. Compared with before treatment, fluency of speech, listening comprehension, reading comprehension, oral motor evaluation, automatic speech, repetition and naming were improved after treatment. This suggests that 16 seesions of speech and language therapy, 30-60 minutes per day, 2 days a week, for 8 successive weeks, are effective in the treatment of aphasic patients with subacute stroke.

  17. Possible progression of subacute lupus erythematosus--case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brănişteanu, Daciana Elena; Lăbonţu, Andreea; Ciobanu, Delia; Stoleriu, Gabriela; Brănişteanu, D; Oanţă, A

    2014-01-01

    Subacute lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a specific form of lupus erythematosus characterized by prevalently cutaneous manifestations usually with a good prognosis. It is more common in patients aged 15 to 70 years, and there is a female predilection. This form accounts for 10% of all lupus erythematosus cases. We present the case of a 57-year-old male patient diagnosed at age 35 with chronic psoriasiform subacute lupus erythematosus, pathologically confirmed at the Iaşi Dermatology Clinic. At the age of 54 years he had multiple ischemic strokes, followed by deterioration of general status, and at 56 years deep vein thrombosis in the right leg. The patient presented the erythematous-squamous lesions specific to psoriasiform SLE localized both on the upper third of the body and knees and associated with submucosal lesions of the lower lip, oral mucosa and appendages. The patient also presented hypo- and hyperpigmentated atrophic scar-like lesions. Laboratory tests performed during the last two admissions showed the presence of anti-ds DNA and antiphospholipid antibodies, inflammatory syndrome, and nitrogen retention syndrome. Treatment consisted of systemic and local dermatocorticoids and associated medication, emollient lotions and creams with SPF 50+, with slowly favorable progression. The peculiarity of the case lies in the chronic progression without significant systemic involvement for 19 years, and then in 2 years the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome and a shift to systemic lupus erythematosus to occur.

  18. Protease production by Streptococcus sanguis associated with subacute bacterial endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straus, D C

    1982-01-01

    A viridans streptococcus (Streptococcus sanguis biotype II) isolated from the blood of a patient with subacute bacterial endocarditis was examined for protease production. In broth culture, extracellular proteolytic enzymes were not produced by this organism until after the early exponential phase of growth, with maximal protease production occurring during the stationary phase. Four distinct proteases were isolated and purified from the supernatant fluids of stationary-phase cultures, employing a combination of ion-exchange column chromatography, gel filtration column chromatography, and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. All four proteases could be eluted from a diethylaminoethyl cellulose column at a sodium chloride gradient concentration of 0.25 M but were separable by gel filtration chromatography on a Sephadex G-100 column. They varied in molecular weights as determined by gel filtration and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis from approximately 13,000 to 230,000. All four proteases had pH optima of between 8.0 and 9.0, and two of the proteases were active against casein, human serum albumin, and gelatin but were not active against elastin and collagen. The remaining two proteases were able to degrade only casein and gelatin. These results show that S. sanguis is able to excrete maximal levels of potentially destructive enzymes when the organisms are not actively multiplying. This finding may explain some of the damage caused in heart tissue by these organisms during subacute bacterial endocarditis. Images PMID:6759404

  19. Rumen lipopolysaccharide and inflammation during grain adaptation and subacute ruminal acidosis in steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozho, G N; Krause, D O; Plaizier, J C

    2006-11-01

    Three rumen-fistulated Jersey steers were gradually adapted to a wheat-barley concentrate over a 4-wk period. Adaptation steps consisted of four 1-wk periods during which steers were fed diets with forage-to-concentrate (F:C) ratios of 100:0, 79:21, 59:41, and 39:61. The forage consisted of chopped hay (CH), and the concentrate consisted of pelleted concentrate containing 50% ground wheat and 50% ground barley. Steers were fed the all-forage diet ad libitum during wk 1. Feed offered in wk 2 to 4 was kept constant at the ad libitum intake during wk 1. On 2 d that were set 3 d apart during wk 5, subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) was induced in the steers by feeding a diet with an F:C ratio of 24:76 by offering them 0.9 kg of CH at 0900 h followed by 2 meals of 3.0 kg each of wheat-barley pellets (WBP) at 1100 h and 1300 h and 0.9 kg of CH at 1700 h, to depress rumen pH for at least 3 h/d below 5.6. The average concentrate inclusion for the SARA induction diet was 76 +/- 10% DM. During stepwise adaptation, time with pH below 5.6 increased to an average of 121 min/d when the steers were consuming a diet containing 61% DM as WBP. Dietary inclusion of WBP at the rate of 76% DM induced SARA because the steers spent an average of 219 min/d with pH below 5.6. The free ruminal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) concentration increased from 6,310 endotoxin units (EU)/mL with the all-forage diet to 18,197 EU/mL with the 61% concentrate diet. The ruminal LPS concentration increased to 26,915 EU/mL when SARA was induced. Serum haptoglobin increased from 0.53 mg/mL when steers were on the all-forage diet to 1.90 mg/mL with the 61% concentrate diet and were not increased further by inducing SARA. The serum amyloid-A concentration was not affected by increasing dietary concentrate during stepwise adaptation to the concentrate, but increased from 71 to 163 microg/mL when SARA was induced. A gradual increase in dietary concentrate so that the F:C ratio decreased to 39:61 resulted in increased

  20. Active dry Saccharomyces cerevisiae can alleviate the effect of subacute ruminal acidosis in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlZahal, O; Dionissopoulos, L; Laarman, A H; Walker, N; McBride, B W

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of active dry Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ADSC) supplementation on dry matter intake, milk yield, milk components, ruminal pH, and microbial community during a dietary regimen that leads to subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA). Sixteen multiparous, rumen-cannulated lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 dietary treatments that included ADSC (Biomate; AB Vista, Marlborough, UK; 8 × 10(10) cfu/head per day) or control. During wk 1 to 6, all cows received a high-forage (HF) diet (77:23, forage:concentrate). Cows were then abruptly switched during wk 7 to a high-grain (HG) diet (49:51, forage:concentrate) and remained on the HG until the end of wk 10. Feed intake and milk yields were recorded daily. Ruminal pH was recorded continuously using an indwelling system for 1 to 2 d per week during the pre-experimental phase, and wk 6, 7, and 10. Ruminal digesta samples were collected at the end of the experiment and analyzed for relative change in microbial communities using real-time quantitative PCR. Cows were considered to have SARA if the duration below pH 5.6 was ≥300 min/d. Ruminal pH during wk 6 (HF plateau) was not different across treatments (15 ± 46 min/d at pH rumen. Cows supplemented with ADSC had 2.2-fold reduction in Prevotella albensis, which is a gram-negative bacterium predominant during SARA. Prevotella spp. are suggested to be an important source of lipopolysaccharide responsible for inflammation within the rumen. Cows supplemented with ADSC had a 2.3-fold increase in Streptococcus bovis and a 12-fold reduction in Megasphaera elsdenii. The reduction in M. elsdenii may reflect lower concentration of lactic acid within the rumen for ADSC cows. In conclusion, ADSC supplementation to dairy cows was demonstrated to alleviate the condition of SARA caused by abrupt dietary changes from HF to HG, and can potentially improve rumen function, as indicated by greater numbers of cellulolytic

  1. Biochemical and hematological effects of acute and sub-acute administration to ethyl acetate fraction from the stem bark Scutia buxifolia Reissek in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Andreia R H; Moreira, Laís da R; Brum, Evelyne da S; de Freitas, Mayara L; Boligon, Aline A; Athayde, Margareth L; Roman, Silvane S; Mazzanti, Cinthia M; Brandão, Ricardo

    2014-05-14

    Scutia buxifolia is a native tree of Southern Brazil, Uruguay, and Argentina, which is popularly known as "coronilha" and it is used as a cardiotonic, antihypertensive and diuretic substance. The aim of this study was to assess the acute and sub-acute toxicity of the ethyl acetate fraction from the stem bark Scutia buxifolia in male and female mice. The toxicity studies were based on the guidelines of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD-guidelines 423 and 407). In an acute study, a single dose of 2000 mg/kg of Scutia buxifolia was administered orally to male and female mice. Mortality, behavioral changes, and biochemical and hematological parameters were evaluated. In the sub-acute study, Scutia buxifolia was administered orally to male and female mice at doses of 100, 200, and 400mg/kg/day for 28 days. Behavioral changes and biochemical, hematological, and histological analysis were evaluated. The acute administration of Scutia buxifolia did not cause changes in behavior or mortality. Male and female mice presented decreased levels of platelets. Female mice presented decreased levels of leukocytes. On the other hand, in a sub-acute toxicity study, we observed no behavioral changes in male or female mice. Our results demonstrated a reduction in glucose levels in male mice treated to 200 and 400mg/kg of Scutia buxifolia. Aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) activity was increased by Scutia buxifolia at 400mg/kg in male mice. In relation to the hematological parameters, male mice presented a reduction in hemoglobin (HGB) and hematocrit (HCT) when treated to 400mg/kg of plant fraction. Female mice showed no change in these parameters. Histopathological examination of liver tissue showed slight abnormalities that were consistent with the biochemical variations observed. Scutia buxifolia, after acute administration, may be classified as safe (category 5), according to the OECD guide. However, the alterations observed, after sub-acute

  2. Oral toxicity of elephant foot yam (Amorphophallus paeoniifolius tuber in mice

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    Yadu Nandan Dey

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: Amorphophallus paeoniifolius tuber is an important constituent of Ayurvedic system of medicine. The tuber of this plant has high medicinal value and is consumed as a food. It is associated with acridity (itchy sensation in mouth and throat upon oral consumption and presence of high oxalates raphides. Aims: To evaluate the acute and subacute oral toxicity studies of methanolic (APME and aqueous (APAE extracts of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius tuber in Swiss albino mice according to OECD guidelines. Methods: In acute oral toxicity study, the mice were orally administered a single dose of APME or APAE (2000 mg/kg and clinical signs and mortality were observed for 14 days. In subacute (repeated dose oral toxicity study, the mice were administered once daily, orally with APME or APAE (1000 mg/kg up to 28 days. The parameters assessed were behavior, clinical signs, body weight, feed and water consumption, urinary, biochemical, hematological and major organ weights and histology. Results: In acute toxicity study, there was no treatment related mortality and morbidity in any of the group. In subacute toxicity study, there were no significant changes in behavior, body weight, feed and water consumption, urinary, biochemical, hematological and organ weight and histological parameters compared to vehicle treated group. There was no treatment related mortality or morbidity. Conclusions: Administration of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius tuber, individually in acute and 28 days repeated dose in mice, did not exhibit any toxicity or adverse effect at the doses used.

  3. Expression patterns of micro-RNAs 146a, 181a, and 155 in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiş, Uluç; Tüfekçi, Uğur Kemal; Genç, Şermin; Çarman, Kürşat Bora; Bayram, Erhan; Topçu, Yasemin; Kurul, Semra Hız

    2015-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is caused by persistent brain infection of mutated virus, showing inflammation, neurodegeneration, and demyelination. Although many factors are emphasized in the pathogenesis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, the exact mechanism of neurodegeneration remains unknown. Micro-RNAs are small, noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional levels. Micro-RNAs are essential for normal immune system development; besides they are also implicated in the pathogenesis of many chronic inflammatory disorders. The aim of this study is to investigate the expression patterns of micro-RNAs 146a, 181a, and 155 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. We enrolled 39 patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and 41 healthy controls. Quantitative analysis of micro-RNAs 146a, 181a, and 155 were performed using specific stem-loop primers followed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. All of 3 micro-RNAs were upregulated in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis patients. In addition, the level of micro-RNA 155 expression was higher in stage 3 patients. But, micro-RNA 146a and 181a expression levels showed no association or correlation with clinically relevant data. Alteration of peripheral blood mononuclear cell micro-RNAs in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis may shed new light on the pathogenesis of disease and may contribute to the aberrant systemic rise in mRNA levels in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Dietary Fibre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, van der J.W.; Asp, N.G.; Miller Jones, J.; Schaafsma, G.

    2004-01-01

    In this book invited expert scientists of leading research groups all over the world will address the following issues: Definitions, health claims and new challenges, Analytical tools, technological aspects and applications, Health Benefits of dietary fibre, including both authoritative generic

  5. An evaluation of neuropeptide Y status in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuhandan, M; Calik, M; Almaz, V; Taskın, A; Cakmak, A; Selek, S

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the neuropeptide Y values of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. The study comprised 38 patients diagnosed with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis at our clinic, who were being routinely followed-up, together with a control group of 36. Using the Risk and Haddad classification for clinical staging, 16 patients were determined as Stage II and 22 patients as Stage III. Neuropeptide Y values were measured by Enzyme Immunoassay methods. The neuropeptide Y values of the all patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis were found to be significantly high compared to the control group (ppanencephalitis.

  6. Subacute thyroiditis following influenza vaccine: a case report and literature review

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    Munther S. Momani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Subacute thyroiditis following influenza vaccination is a rarely reported condition. Here, we review this condition and report the case of a 40-year-old male who developed subacute thyroiditis following the administration of an influenza vaccine containing the (H1N1 pandemic 2009 strain. Interestingly, the patient had history of pericarditis and his HLA typing showed HLA B35. Physicians should be aware of this complication for influenza vaccine and of the relationship of HLA B35 haplotype with the susceptibility to subacute thyroiditis and other autoimmune disorders.

  7. In vivo assessment of the toxic potential of Dissotis rotundifolia whole plant extract in Sprague–Dawley rats

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    Charles Ansah

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: The results obtained from the sub-acute toxicological assessment of D. rotundifolia extract suggest that the extract is non-toxic at doses up to 1000 mg/kg/day administered for a period of 14 days.

  8. Relative reticulo-rumen pH indicators for subacute ruminal acidosis detection in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villot, C; Meunier, B; Bodin, J; Martin, C; Silberberg, M

    2017-07-27

    Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) is usually characterized by abnormal and intermittent drops in rumen pH. Nevertheless, high individual animal variability in rumen pH and the difference in measurement methods for pH data acquisition decrease the sensitivity and accuracy of pH indicators for detecting SARA in ruminants. The aim of this study was to refine rumen pH indicators in long-term SARA based on individual dairy cow reticulo-rumen pH kinetics. Animal performances and rumen parameters were studied weekly in order to validate SARA syndrome and rumen pH was continuously measured using reticulo-rumen sensors. In total, 11 primiparous dairy cows were consecutively fed two different diets for 12 successive weeks: a control diet as low-starch diet (LSD; 13% starch for 4 weeks in period 1), an acidotic diet as high-starch diet (HSD; 32% starch for 4 weeks in period 2), and again the LSD diet (3 weeks in period 3). There was a 1-week dietary transition between LSD and HSD. Commonly used absolute SARA pH indicators such as daily average, area under the curve (AUC) and time spent below pHrumen, whereas the ruminal concentration of lipopolysaccharide was increased. Commonly used pH SARA indicators were not able to discriminate SARA syndrome due to high animal variability and sensor drift and noise, whereas relative pH indicators developed in this study appeared more relevant for SARA detection as assessed by receiver operating characteristic tests. This work shows that absolute pH kinetics should be corrected for drift, noise and animal variability to produce relative pH indicators that are more robust for SARA detection. These relative pH indicators could be more relevant for identifying affected animals in a herd and also for comparing SARA risk among studies.

  9. Case report: subacute tetraplegia in an immunocompromised patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Daniel; Heidemeier, Anke; Grigoleit, Götz Ulrich; Müllges, Wolfgang

    2017-02-10

    Clinical reasoning in Neurology is based on general associations which help to deduce the site of the lesion. However, even "golden principles" may occasionally be deceptive. Here, we describe the case of subacute flaccid tetraparesis due to motor cortical lesions. To our knowledge, this is the first report to include an impressive illustration of nearly symmetric motor cortical involvement of encephalitis on brain MRI. A 51 year old immunocompromized man developed a high-grade pure motor flaccid tetraparesis over few days. Based on clinical presentation, critical illness polyneuromyopathy was suspected. However, brain MRI revealed symmetrical hyperintensities strictly limited to the subcortical precentral gyrus. An encephalitis, possibly due to CMV infection, turned out to be the most likely cause. While recognition of basic clinical patterns is indispensable in neurological reasoning, awareness of central conditions mimicking peripheral nervous disease may be crucial to detect unsuspected, potentially treatable conditions.

  10. Subacute brachial diplegia associated with West Nile virus myelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Sahar F; Ubogu, Eroboghene E

    2012-06-01

    Brachial diplegia is a clinical term used to describe weakness restricted to the upper extremities. We report a case of brachial diplegia associated with West Nile virus infection. A 48-year-old man developed severe painless bilateral upper extremity weakness within a few weeks of a flu-like illness. Clinical examination revealed marked periscapular, shoulder girdle, and humeral muscle atrophy and bilateral scapular winging, with near symmetrical bilateral hypotonic upper extremity weakness. This was associated with clinical signs of an encephalomyelopathy without cognitive or sensory deficits. Electrophysiological studies demonstrated a subacute disorder of motor neurons, their axons or both, involving the cervical and thoracic myotomes, with ongoing denervation. Serological studies confirmed recent West Nile virus (WNV) infection. Gradual improvement occurred following conservative supportive therapies. Progressive brachial diplegia is a rare neuromuscular presentation of WNV neuroinvasive disease. This case report adds to the clinical spectrum of WNV-induced neurologic sequelae. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Spectrophotometry of cerebrospinal fluid in subacute and chronic subdural haematomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellin, K. G.; Steiner, L.

    1974-01-01

    Spectrophotometric examinations were performed on cerebrospinal and subdural fluids in subacute (five patients) and chronic (20 patients) subdural haematomas, with special reference to the diagnostic aid of CSF spectrophotometry. Spectrophotometric xanthochromia of haemorrhagic origin was found in all CSFs examined, while definite visible xanthochromia was observed in only 28% and the CSF was judged as colourless in 52% of those cases. Characteristic bleeding patterns were found spectrophotometrically in all the 20 CSFs examined within 24 hours after lumbar puncture, haematoma patterns being detected in 90-95% of the cases. In many cases the electrophoretically separated protein fractions of CSF and subdural fluids were spectrophotometrically examined. In conclusion, CSF spectrophotometry is a simple, fast, and extremely sensitive method, which in our opinion should be used routinely in the diagnosis of suspected subdural haematomas, if lumbar puncture is not contraindicated. PMID:4140892

  12. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis in a Toddler: Changing Epidemiological Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roosy Aulakh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE is a devastating “slow virus” brain disease resulting from persistent measles virus infection of neurons. The age at presentation is usually 8 to 11 years with onset usually occurring 2–10 years after measles infection. We report a 2-and-half-year-old boy who presented with progressively increasing myoclonic jerks and subtle cognitive decline. He was diagnosed as a case of SSPE based on clinical features, typical electroencephalographic finding, and elevated cerebrospinal fluid/serum measles antibody titers. He had measles 4 months prior to onset of symptoms. This case along with review of recently published reports suggests progressively decreasing latency period between measles infection and onset of symptoms observed in cases with SSPE. Clinical implication would mean investigating for SSPE even in infants or toddlers with compatible clinical features and recent history of measles infection.

  13. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis resembling Rasmussen's encephalitis on magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakkani, Ravi Kanth; Sureka, Jyoti; Panwar, Sanuj

    2015-09-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare, slowly progressing but invariably fatal disease that is related to a prior measles virus infection and most commonly affects paediatric patients. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the modality of choice for determining such changes in white matter. SSPE typically demonstrates bilateral but asymmetric periventricular and subcortical white matter involvement. We herein report a rare case of unilateral white matter involvement in a 13-year-old boy with SSPE that closely simulated Rasmussen's encephalitis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an atypical presentation on MR imaging in which SSPE was a rare cause of unilateral brain parenchymal involvement in a patient with intractable seizures.

  14. Notes from the Field: Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis Death - Oregon, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liko, Juventila; Guzman-Cottrill, Judith A; Cieslak, Paul R

    2016-01-15

    In 2015, the Oregon Health Authority was notified of the death of a boy with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE), a rare and fatal complication of measles. The patient, aged 14 years, had reportedly been vaccinated against measles in the Philippines at age 8 months. However, the patient contracted measles at age 1 year while still in the Philippines. He had been well until 2012, when his neurodegenerative symptoms began. After the diagnosis of SSPE was made, the patient remained in home hospice care until his death. Investigators from the Oregon Health Authority and the Oregon Health and Science University reviewed the patient's medical records and interviewed the parents. Vaccination against measles can prevent not only acute measles and its complications, but also SSPE.

  15. Cerebral glucose metabolism in the course of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, M.; Herholz, K.; Pawlik, G.; Szelies, B.; Juergens, R.H.; Heiss, W.D.

    1989-01-01

    Regional cerebral glucose metabolism was studied in a 15-year-old boy with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis before and after therapy with human interferon beta, using positron emission tomography of fluorine 18-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose. At first examination, metabolism was symmetrically decreased in the thalamus, cerebellum, and all cortical areas except prerolandic motor cortex, but increased in lentiform nucleus. A computed tomographic scan was normal. Six months later, bilateral focal necrosis centered in the previously hypermetabolic putamen was demonstrated by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The caudate nucleus and the superoposterior part of the putamen were spared, still showing increased metabolism. Corresponding with some clinical improvement, cortical glucose consumption rates had returned to a normal level.

  16. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) the story of a vanishing disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadoth, Natan

    2012-10-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE), is a devastating "slow virus" brain disease which affects young children who had measles some 6-7 years earlier. Although, the pandemic of SSPE during 1960-1980's was almost eradicated due to mass immunization, the disease is still taking the life of young children in countries where measles immunization is incomplete and in world regions where genetic polymorphism to this particular infection is present. The present review was written for the fortunate young generation of pediatricians and pediatric neurologists who probably have not seen a case of SSPE during their career, and for those who work in counties where the disease has not been eradicated. It is also a reminder that with full coverage of measles immunization this devastating disease can be fully eradicated. Copyright © 2012 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis with Atypical Clinical and MRI Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buse Rahime Hasırcı

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE is a progressive inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system and a slow virus infection caused by aberrant measles virüs. Typical neurological manifestations include psychomotor impairment, progressive intellectual deterioration, myoclonic jerks and behavioral changes, with or without pyramidal symptoms. It usually affecting people aged 10 to 14 year. We report the case of an 17-year-old girl presenting with initial symptom of visual loss, seizures, a lack of SSPE specific EEG pattern, late onset and atypical fast progression of disease. The case highlights the importance of atypical clinical findings of SSPE at onset and also firstly disappearing, then appearing MRI findings at sequential images which can complicate the accurate diagnosis. High suspicion is needed because of its rareness.

  18. Atypical magnetic resonance imaging features in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biplab Das

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE is rare chronic, progressive encephalitis that affects primarily children and young adults, caused by a persistent infection with measles virus. No cure for SSPE exists, but the condition can be managed by medication if treatment is started at an early stage. Methods and Results: Heterogeneity of imaging findings in SSPE is not very uncommon. But pial and gyral enhancements are very rarely noticed. Significant asymmetric onset as well as pial-gyral enhancements is not reported. Herein we present a case of 16 years adolescent of SSPE having remarkable asymmetric pial-gyral enhancements, which were misinterpreted as tubercular infection. Conclusion: Early diagnosis and treatment is encouraging in SSPE, although it is not curable with current therapy. Clinico-radiological and electrophysiological correlation is very important in diagnosis of SSPE, more gravely in patients having atypical image findings as in our index case.

  19. Fulminant adult-onset subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faivre, Anthony; Souraud, Jean-Baptiste; McGonigal, Aileen; Alla, Philippe; Grapperon, Jacques; Valance, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    We present the case of a young adult who developed acute encephalopathy with severe status epilepticus and rapid deterioration to vegetative state and death within 6 weeks. Although the clinical picture, MRI and EEG findings were atypical, the hypothesis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) was suggested by markedly increased intrathecal IgG synthesis in the cerebrospinal fluid, and diagnosis was confirmed by the presence of high antimeasles antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid and brain biopsy findings. Acute SSPE is an exceptionally rare and little-known form of SSPE with protean symptomatology, and this case is to our knowledge the first observation of SSPE presenting with status epilepticus in adults. Our case reinforces the need to include, even in developed countries, SSPE as a diagnostic possibility in unexplained acute encephalopathies. PMID:21686559

  20. Mesenchymal stem cell application in children with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuşkonmaz, Bariş; Uçkan, Duygu; Yalnizoğlu, Dilek; Günel, Mintaze; Karli Oğuz, Kader; Konuşkan, Bahadir; Anlar, Banu

    2015-09-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a serious, often fatal disease that responds poorly to current treatment modalities. Recently, the ability of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to produce neurotrophic factors and inflammatory molecules has placed them among potential treatment agents for neurological conditions. We report the results of four patients treated with MSC for SSPE. The patients were followed up clinically, and by periodical laboratory evaluations, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and electroencephalography. One patient deteriorated to stage III of the disease, two patients remained in the same stage, and one died from disease progression and respiratory problems. Neurological findings and electroencephalography scores were consistent with the clinical course of the patient whereas MRI showed new inflammatory lesions in two patients. This is the first report of the application of MSC in SSPE. No benefit is demonstrated. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  1. Atypical magnetic resonance imaging features in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Biplab; Goyal, Manoj Kumar; Modi, Manish; Mehta, Sahil; Chakravarthi, Sudheer; Lal, Vivek; Vyas, Sameer

    2016-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is rare chronic, progressive encephalitis that affects primarily children and young adults, caused by a persistent infection with measles virus. No cure for SSPE exists, but the condition can be managed by medication if treatment is started at an early stage. Heterogeneity of imaging findings in SSPE is not very uncommon. But pial and gyral enhancements are very rarely noticed. Significant asymmetric onset as well as pial-gyral enhancements is not reported. Herein we present a case of 16 years adolescent of SSPE having remarkable asymmetric pial-gyral enhancements, which were misinterpreted as tubercular infection. Early diagnosis and treatment is encouraging in SSPE, although it is not curable with current therapy. Clinico-radiological and electrophysiological correlation is very important in diagnosis of SSPE, more gravely in patients having atypical image findings as in our index case.

  2. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis in a Toddler: Changing Epidemiological Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulakh, Roosy; Tiwari, Abhimanyu

    2013-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a devastating “slow virus” brain disease resulting from persistent measles virus infection of neurons. The age at presentation is usually 8 to 11 years with onset usually occurring 2–10 years after measles infection. We report a 2-and-half-year-old boy who presented with progressively increasing myoclonic jerks and subtle cognitive decline. He was diagnosed as a case of SSPE based on clinical features, typical electroencephalographic finding, and elevated cerebrospinal fluid/serum measles antibody titers. He had measles 4 months prior to onset of symptoms. This case along with review of recently published reports suggests progressively decreasing latency period between measles infection and onset of symptoms observed in cases with SSPE. Clinical implication would mean investigating for SSPE even in infants or toddlers with compatible clinical features and recent history of measles infection. PMID:24416610

  3. Progressive subacute Miller-Fisher syndrome successfully treated with plasmapheresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejma, Maria; Waliszewska-Prosół, Marta; Hofman, Anna; Budrewicz, Sławomir; Podemski, Ryszard; Bilińska, Małgorzata; Koszewicz, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Miller-Fisher Syndrome (MFS) is a rare acute polyneuropathy composed of the clinical triad of ataxia, areflexia and ophthalmoplegia, with a monophasic, self-limited course and spontaneous improvement. The authors present a 65-year-old man with Miller-Fisher syndrome consisting of bilateral ophthalmoplegia, trigeminal and facial nerve palsy, mild ataxia and peripheral neuropathy. The disease had a progressive, subacute course within 3 months. A high titer of anti-GQ1b antibodies was detected. As a result of plasmapheresis, complete recovery was achieved. The presented case was atypical in its clinical course and treatment. It could support the theory of the continuity between MFS, Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis (BBE), and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Copyright © 2015 Polish Neurological Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  4. Subacute bacterial endocarditis presenting as left upper quadrant abdominal pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Ta Kao

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Infective endocarditis is a microbial infection of the endocardial surface of the heart. Its symptoms and signs are varied, and include fever, heart murmur, peripheral embolism, and heart failure. The diagnosis of subacute bacterial endocarditis (SBE is suggested by a history of an indolent process characterized by fever, fatigue, anorexia, and unexplained weight loss. These patients may have had an invasive procedure, such as dental work, or abused intravenous drugs prior to the diagnosis of SBE. Although uncommon, the patients may present with nonspecific symptoms caused by peripheral embolic events. Herein, we report a 25-year-old male diagnosed with SBE, who presented with the unusual symptom of sudden onset of left upper quadrant abdominal pain for 2 days. His clinical history is also discussed.

  5. Subacute liver failure by pseudocirrhotic metastatic breast cancer infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jüngst, Christoph; Krämer, Jens; Schneider, Günther; Lammert, Frank; Zimmer, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Hepatic metastases are common in the clinical course of breast cancer and typically appear as mass lesions. This report describes the case of a 70-year-old woman with a history of breast cancer and no previously known liver disease presenting with the first episode of variceal bleeding and subacute hepatic failure. Imaging studies indicated liver cirrhosis without signs of malignant focal lesions. Comprehensive diagnostic work-up was negative for specific causes of liver disease and provided no evidence for tumor recurrence. Finally transjugular liver biopsy revealed a marked diffuse desmoplastic infiltration by breast cancer cells. Malignant pseudocirrhosis is an unusual pattern of metastatic, tumor spread representing a rare but important differential diagnosis of progressive liver failure. Liver biopsy is the key procedure to establish the diagnosis as imaging studies may mimic cirrhosis.

  6. A rare pathogen for subacute osteomyelitis in adolescent: Serratia marcescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Necmettin; Akgul, Turgut; Arzu, Ufuk; Batıbay, Sefa Giray; Ekinci, Mehmet; Şen, Cengiz; Korkmaz, Murat

    2015-01-01

    There are various pathogens reported for osteomyelitis. Osteomyelitis is bone infection which produces pain and fever, also threatens bone instability. It can lead to nonunion. The purpose of this report was to describe a case with union delay of the tibia due to serratia marcescens osteomyelitis. Serratia marcescens is an unexpected pathogen for subacute osteomyelitis in adolescence. Because of difficulty of diagnosis, treatment can be delayed or the situation can cause complications like nonunion or loss of function. Serratia marcescens is an unexpected pathogen for subacute osteomyelitis in adolescence. Because of difficulty of diagnosis, treatment can be delayed or cause complications like nonunion or loss of function. We present a meningomyelocele female adolescent operated with distal tibia varus osteotomy for correcting ankle valgus deformity. Insufficient healing was determined at osteotomy side on radiographs. The patient's erythrocyte sedimentation rate and CRP level was slightly higher with minimal clinical inflammation. MRI examination showed abscess formation at T2 imaging. Debridement, grafting and circular external fixation was performed. Sulperazon was started for drug therapy. Union was achieved after compression and distraction osteogenesis by circular external fixator. Orthopedic surgeons should be aware of opportunistic infections like serratia and keep in mind as a probable cause of disease. Osteomyelitis is one of our main problems in orthopedics. Serratia does not come to mind as a causative factor when we learn the patient has osteomyelitis. We give treatment for the most expected pathogens like staphylococcus species firstly. This shows us the importance of bone biopsies and wound culture tests. Presented case is diagnosed as serratia osteomyelitis after culture results and given treatment with antibiotics and debridement. Orthopedic surgeons should be aware of opportunistic infections like serratia and keep in mind when diagnosing the

  7. Mammalian Toxicological Evaluations of TNT Wastewaters. Volume III. Acute and Subacute Mammalian Toxicity of Condensate Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-04-01

    produced a mild, compensatory anemia (transitory; not I observed at 24 weeks), hemosiderosis of the spleen accompanied in some cases by congestion...reticulocytosis; testicular atrophy; uterine hyperplasia; hemosiderosis ; neuropathy; head trauma; cardiac arrhythmia; LDH; mutagens.I I 20 ABSTRACT... hemosiderosis of the spleen; testicular atrophy with atrophy and aspermia of the epididymis and moderate focal interstitial cell hyperplasia; hyperplasia of

  8. Acute and subacute toxicity study of ethanolic extract of the stem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-22

    Feb 22, 2010 ... tilis and Salmonella typhii. Ethanolic extract of the stem bark was shown by Tijani et al. .... mainly the brain, heart, lungs, kidneys, liver, intestine, stomach, spleen and testes were removed and weighed. ..... than AST because it is more sensitive to hepatic damage. (Herfindal and Gourley, 2000) and there is a ...

  9. Acute and sub-acute toxicity study of Clerodendrum inerme, Jasminum mesnyi Hance and Callistemon citrinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Bhushan

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The results demonstrated that there is a wide margin of safety for the therapeutic use of each of the four extracts of three plants. The findings also corroborated the traditional use of these extracts.

  10. Acute and Sub-acute Toxicity Profile of Aqueous Leaf Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphate (ALP) and gamma glutaryltransferase. (GGT), total bilirubin, total protein and albumin were determined using Piccolo express automatic chemistry analyzer (Abaxis Inc. Union. City, CA 94587, USA). The serum levels of creatinine, magnesium, calcium, chloride, ...

  11. Antimicrobial evaluation, acute and sub-acute toxicity studies of Allium sativum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir Lawal

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: The extract caused selective changes in some biochemical parameters of organ function; however, since only mild alteration was observed at a dose of 300 mg/kg, the garlic bulb may be considered to be relatively safe and could be explored as an oral remedy at this dose.

  12. Sub-acute toxicity studies on the aqueous extract of Stereospermum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Significant increases in triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL- and HDL- cholesterol levels were also recorded with the dose of 2g/kg. Increases of the organ (liver, kidney, heart and spleen) weights were produced with all doses of Stereospermum kunthianum but histological alterations of these organs were observed with only ...

  13. Subacute toxicity experiment with rats fed a diet containing ergotaminetartrate. 1 General toxicology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speijers GJA; Krajnc-Franken MAM; van Leeuwen FXR; Danse LHJC; Loeber JG; Elvers LH; Hoejenbos-Spithout HHM; Janssen GB

    1992-01-01

    In this study reduced food intake, food efficiency and growth were noticed at dose levels of 100 mg EAT/kg diet and higher. Slight changes in the red blood parameters were seen in the 100 and 500 mg EAT/kg diet dose groups. Urea concentration was increased in the females of the highest dose group.

  14. Pending Laboratory Tests and the Hospital Discharge Summary in Patients Discharged To Sub-Acute Care

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walz, Stacy E; Smith, Maureen; Cox, Elizabeth; Sattin, Justin; Kind, Amy J. H

    2011-01-01

    ...) tests at the time of hospital discharge for general medical patients. However, the prevalence and communication of pending labs within a high-risk population, specifically those patients discharged to sub-acute care (i.e...

  15. BILATERAL SUBRETINAL FLUID AND RETINAL VASCULOPATHY ASSOCIATED WITH SUBACUTE SCLEROSING PANENCEPHALITIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Aniruddha; Singh, Ramandeep; Kumar, Abiraj; Dogra, Mangat R; Gupta, Amod

    2017-01-01

    To report a case of bilateral retinopathy associated with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. History and clinical examination, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography. We report a rare case of unilateral, followed by bilateral retinopathy, subretinal fluid, and vasculopathy in a young boy. History of missed measles vaccination, behavioral and neurologic symptoms, and electroencephalogram suggested a diagnosis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Retinal imaging using optical coherence tomography was performed to document changes in the retinal microstructure through the natural course of the disease. Within 8 weeks, the changes progressed to retinal atrophy in both eyes. The progressive course of retinitis associated with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis can be monitored on optical coherence tomography. Retinitis is subacute sclerosing panencephalitis rapidly progressive from the acute stage to the stage of atrophy, involving full thickness of the retina.

  16. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis presenting as schizophrenia with an alpha coma pattern in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartal, Ayşe; Kurt, Ayşegül Neşe Çitak; Gürkaş, Esra; Aydin, Kurşad; Serdaroğlu, Ayşe

    2014-10-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, a progressive neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system, can present atypically with uncharacteristic electroencephalographic (EEG) features at its onset albeit typically with progressive mental deterioration, behavioral changes, and myoclonic jerks. An atypical presentation of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis can lead to a delay in diagnosis, thus hindering early treatment. Herein, we describe a 14-year-old girl who presented with insomnia, amnesia, auditory and visual hallucinations. The patient's electroencephalography on admission showed an alpha coma pattern. In spite of antipsychiatric treatment (olanzapine 20 mg/d) for 3 months, a progressive deterioration in neurologic function was observed. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis was suspected and diagnosis was confirmed by increased titers of measles antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid. The attention of pediatricians should be drawn to psychiatric symptoms as possible initial presentations of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in order to avoid needless diagnostic and treatment procedures. © The Author(s) 2013.

  17. Unique optical coherence tomography findings in a case of macular retinitis caused by subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Masayuki; Oishi, Akio; Kurimoto, Yasuo

    2012-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is a rare neurodegenerative disease. The ophthalmologic findings, typically necrotizing retinitis, often precede other neurologic signs and symptoms. Ocular findings are helpful for early diagnosis, but the findings of optical coherence tomography (OCT) images in an active phase of retinitis have never been reported. We report unique findings of OCT images in a case of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. A 13-year-old boy was referred to our hospital complaining of visual loss and other neurologic symptoms. The fundus examination showed necrotizing retinitis. The OCT images showed empty spaces involving all layers of retina except the inner limiting membrane and hyperreflective lesion in inner retina. The diagnosis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis was made from the blood and the spinal cerebral fluid test. This is the first report on OCT images of necrotizing retinitis in an active stage of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis case. The unique findings of OCT images as in this case help to diagnose the rare devastating disease.

  18. Improving the welfare of dairy goats: Feeding behaviour identifies goats at risk of subacute rumen acidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Giger-Reverdin, Sylvie; Sauvant, Daniel; Duvaux-Ponter, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Main messages: Feeding behaviour is highly variable between animals. Feeding behaviour modifies rumen pH pattern and occurrence of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA). Avoiding SARA increases animal welfare, milk production and therefore farm profit - ability.

  19. Feasibility of Delivering a Dance Intervention for SubAcute Stroke in a Rehabilitation Hospital Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Marika Demers; Patricia McKinley

    2015-01-01

    Dance can be a promising treatment intervention used in rehabilitation for individuals with disabilities to address physical, cognitive and psychological impairments. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the feasibility of a modified dance intervention as an adjunct therapy designed for people with subacute stroke, in a rehabilitation setting. Using a descriptive qualitative study design, a biweekly 45-min dance intervention was offered to individuals with a subacute stroke followed...

  20. Bilateral optic neuritis--the only ocular finding in a case of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Pinar Altiaylik; Ozkan, Mehpare; Sekeroglu, Hande Taylan; Kadayifcilar, Sibel; Yuksel, Deniz; Aksoy, Ayse

    2014-02-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is a rare disease of central nervous system caused by defective measles virus. Chorioretinitis with macular involvement is the mostly observed ocular finding in the disease. Other reported ocular findings in the disease are cortical blindness, hemianopsia, nystagmus, extraocular muscle paresis and optic atrophy. We present a rare case of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis with isolated bilateral optic neuritis as the only ocular finding without macular involvement.

  1. Nonconvulsive Status Epilepticus on Electroencephalography: An Atypical Presentation of Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis in Two Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhi, Pratibha; Saini, Arushi Gahlot; Sahu, Jitendra Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is a neurodegenerative disease secondary to measles infection that usually has a typical presentation with progressive myoclonia, cognitive decline, and periodic slow-wave complexes on electroencephalography. We report two pediatric cases who presented with periodic myoclonic jerks and cognitive decline. In both cases, the electroencephalogram showed continuous nonconvulsive status epilepticus activity. Both had elevated measles antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid and blood. Pediatricians need to be aware of this atypical presentation of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. PMID:23094174

  2. Nonconvulsive Status Epilepticus on Electroencephalography: An Atypical Presentation of Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis in Two Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratibha Singhi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is a neurodegenerative disease secondary to measles infection that usually has a typical presentation with progressive myoclonia, cognitive decline, and periodic slow-wave complexes on electroencephalography. We report two pediatric cases who presented with periodic myoclonic jerks and cognitive decline. In both cases, the electroencephalogram showed continuous nonconvulsive status epilepticus activity. Both had elevated measles antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid and blood. Pediatricians need to be aware of this atypical presentation of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

  3. MR imaging findings in subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Jun; Lee, Jae Hee; Lee, Sung Yong; Chung, Sung Woo [Our Lady of Mercy Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-09-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency can cause neurologic complications in the spinal cord, brain, and optic and peripheral nerves. Subacute combined degeneration is a rare disease of demyelinating lesions of the spinal cord, affecting mainly the posterior and lateral columns of the thoracic cord. We report the MR imaging findings of a case of subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord in a patient with vitamin B12 deficiency and mega loblastic anemia. (author)

  4. Investigations on rumen and claw health of different wild ruminants related to subacute ruminal acidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Schilcher, B; Baumgartner, K; Liesegang, A

    2010-01-01

    In this study four ruminant species of Nuremberg Zoo were evaluated for subacute ruminal acidosis according to the feeding management. Parameters of microbiological fermentation of the rumen as well as rumen tissue samples were examined. Additionally, investigations on claw health, in terms of laminitis were made. Three of the four species, all grass- and roughage feeders, showed severe characteristics of subacute ruminal acidosis due to a diet high in fermentable carbohydrates and low in fib...

  5. Determining appropriateness for rehabilitation or other subacute care: is there a role for utilisation review?

    OpenAIRE

    Poulos, Christopher J; Eagar, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    Background Rehabilitation and other forms of subacute care play an important role in the Australian health care system, yet there is ambiguity around clinical definitions of subacute care, how it differs from acute care, where it is best done and what resources are required. This leads to inconsistent and often poorly defined patient selection criteria as well as a lack of research into efficient models of care. Methods A literature review on the potential role of utilisation review in defini...

  6. Major histocompatibility complex class I expression on neurons in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and experimental subacute measles encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogate, N.; Yamabe, Toshio; Verma, L.; Dhib-Jalbut, S. [Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    Lack of major histocompatibility class I antigens on neurons has been implicated as a possible mechanism for viral persistence in the brain since these antigens are required for cytotoxic T-lymphocyte recognition of infected cells. In subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE), measles virus (MV) persists in neurons, resulting in a fatal chronic infection. MHC class I mRNA expression was examined in formalin-fixed brain tissue from 6 SSPE patients by in situ hybridization. In addition MHC class I protein expression in MV-infected neurons was examined in experimental Subacute Measles Encephalitis (SME) by double immunohistochemistry. MHC class I mRNA expression was found to be upregulated in SSPE tissues studied, and in 5 out of 6 cases the expression was definitively seen on neurons. The percentage of neurons expressing MHC class I mRNA ranged between 20 to 84% in infected areas. There was no correlation between the degree of infection and expression of MHC class I molecules on neurons. Importantly, the number of neurons co-expressing MHC class I and MV antigens was markedly low, varying between 2 to 8%. Similar results were obtained in SME where 20 to 30% of the neurons expressed MHC class I but < 8% co-expressed MHC class I and MV antigens. Perivascular infiltrating cells in the infected regions in SME expressed IFN{gamma} immunoreactivity. The results suggest that MV may not be directly involved in the induction of MHC class I on neurons and that cytokines such as IFN{gamma} may play an important role. Furthermore, the paucity of neurons co-expressing MHC class I and MV antigens in SSPE and SME suggests that such cells are either rapidly cleared by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), or, alternatively, lack of co-expression of MHC class I on MV infected neurons favors MV persistence in these cells by escaping CTL recognition. 33 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... keeping bones strong. Pregnant women can take the vitamin folic acid to prevent certain birth defects in their babies. To take a supplement as safely as possible Tell your health care provider about any dietary supplements you use Do not take a bigger dose ...

  8. Toxic Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Shakibazadeh, Shahram; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Food is considered the main source of toxic element (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) exposure to humans, and they can cause major public health effects. In this chapter, we discuss the most important sources for toxic element in food and the foodstuffs which are significant contributors...... to human exposure. The occurrence of each element in food classes from different regions is presented. Some of the current toxicological risk assessments on toxic elements, the human health effect of each toxic element, and their contents in the food legislations are presented. An overview of analytical...... techniques and challenges for determination of toxic elements in food is also given....

  9. Multidisciplinary biopsychosocial rehabilitation for subacute low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Teresa J; Van Eerd, Dwayne; Irvin, Emma; Couban, Rachel; Koes, Bart W; Malmivaara, Antti; van Tulder, Maurits W; Kamper, Steven J

    2017-06-28

    Low back pain (LBP) is associated with enormous personal and societal burdens, especially when it reaches the chronic stage of the disorder (pain for a duration of more than three months). Indeed, individuals who reach the chronic stage tend to show a more persistent course, and they account for the majority of social and economic costs. As a result, there is increasing emphasis on the importance of intervening at the early stages of LBP.According to the biopsychosocial model, LBP is a condition best understood with reference to an interaction of physical, psychological, and social influences. This has led to the development of multidisciplinary biopsychosocial rehabilitation (MBR) programs that target factors from the different domains, administered by healthcare professionals from different backgrounds.This review is an update of a Cochrane Review on MBR for subacute LBP, which was published in 2003. It is part of a series of reviews on MBR for musculoskeletal pain published by the Cochrane Back and Neck Group and the Cochrane Musculoskeletal Group. To examine the effectiveness of MBR for subacute LBP (pain for a duration of six to 12 weeks) among adults, with a focus on pain, back-specific disability, and work status. We searched for relevant trials in any language by a computer-aided search of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO and two trials registers. Our search is current to 13 July 2016. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of adults with subacute LBP. We included studies that investigated a MBR program compared to any type of control intervention. We defined MBR as an intervention that included a physical component (e.g. pharmacological, physical therapy) in combination with either a psychological, social, or occupational component (or any combination of these). We also required involvement of healthcare professionals from at least two different clinical backgrounds with appropriate training to deliver the component for which they were

  10. Echocardiographic evaluation of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Çimen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is a slowly progressive, inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease caused by virus infection in the central nervous system. Since there are a limited number of studies in the literature evaluating the cardiovascular functions of patients with SSPE, the present study evaluates the patients with SSPE using tissue Doppler echocardiography and compares them between the control group in order to shed some light on the subject. Methods: The study is a prospective observational study. 49 patients (17 female, 32 male with SSPE were included in the study. Patients were divided into two groups: Stage 2 (n=29 and Stage 3 (n=20. Echocardiographic data were compared with a control group of 26 which is the same average age. All children underwent a detailed echocardiography, which contained an M-mode, pulse Doppler and tissue Doppler imaging. Results: Sinus tachycardia ( >100 beats/min in children was detected in nineteen (38.7% patients. There were not significant differences between parameters of systolic and diastolic function of the heart. Stage 2 group, EF: 69.9±6.4; SF: 39.2±5.58; and MPI (mitral: 0.38±0.03 and MPI (tricuspid: 0.39±0.10. And in the Stage 3 group, EF: 68.5±7.0, SF: 37.8±5.34, MPI (mitral: 0.37±0.09 and MPI (tricuspid: 0.38±0.12. In the control group EF:70.96±5.54; SF:39.96±5.05 and MPI(mitral: 0.35±0.06 MPI (tricuspid:0.36±0.04 and statistically meaningful differences were not found between patients and control groups (p >0.05. Conclusion: Cardiac functions may be preserved and cardiac functions constitute no significant risks of mortality in the advanced stages of patients with Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, which is a group of chronic and bedridden patients.

  11. Dietary assessment methods: dietary records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Rosa M; Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen; López-Sobaler, Ana M

    2015-02-26

    Dietary records or food diaries can be highlighted among dietary assessment methods of the current diet for their interest and validity. It is a prospective, open-ended survey method collecting data about the foods and beverages consumed over a previously specified period of time. Dietary records can be used to estimate current diet of individuals and population groups, as well as to identify groups at risk of inadequacy. It is a dietary assessment method interesting for its use in epidemiological or in clinical studies. High validity and precision has been reported for the method when used following adequate procedures and considering the sufficient number of days. Thus, dietary records are often considered as a reference method in validation studies. Nevertheless, the method is affected by error and has limitations due mainly to the tendency of subjects to report food consumption close to those socially desirable. Additional problems are related to the high burden posed on respondents. The method can also influence food behavior in respondents in order to simplify the registration of food intake and some subjects can experience difficulties in writing down the foods and beverages consumed or in describing the portion sizes. Increasing the number of days observed reduces the quality of completed diet records. It should also be considered the high cost of coding and processing information collected in diet records. One of the main advantages of the method is the registration of the foods and beverages as consumed, thus reducing the problem of food omissions due to memory failure. Weighted food records provide more precise estimates of consumed portions. New Technologies can be helpful to improve and ease collaboration of respondents, as well as precision of the estimates, although it would be desirable to evaluate the advantages and limitations in order to optimize the implementation. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2015. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights

  12. Reliability and validity of the de Morton Mobility Index in individuals with sub-acute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Tobias; Marks, Detlef; Thiel, Christian; Grüneberg, Christian

    2018-02-04

    To establish the validity and reliability of the de Morton Mobility Index (DEMMI) in patients with sub-acute stroke. This cross-sectional study was performed in a neurological rehabilitation hospital. We assessed unidimensionality, construct validity, internal consistency reliability, inter-rater reliability, minimal detectable change and possible floor and ceiling effects of the DEMMI in adult patients with sub-acute stroke. The study included a total sample of 121 patients with sub-acute stroke. We analysed validity (n = 109) and reliability (n = 51) in two sub-samples. Rasch analysis indicated unidimensionality with an overall fit to the model (chi-square = 12.37, p = 0.577). All hypotheses on construct validity were confirmed. Internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.94) and inter-rater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.95; 95% confidence interval: 0.92-0.97) were excellent. The minimal detectable change with 90% confidence was 13 points. No floor or ceiling effects were evident. These results indicate unidimensionality, sufficient internal consistency reliability, inter-rater reliability, and construct validity of the DEMMI in patients with a sub-acute stroke. Advantages of the DEMMI in clinical application are the short administration time, no need for special equipment and interval level data. The de Morton Mobility Index, therefore, may be a useful performance-based bedside test to measure mobility in individuals with a sub-acute stroke across the whole mobility spectrum. Implications for Rehabilitation The de Morton Mobility Index (DEMMI) is an unidimensional measurement instrument of mobility in individuals with sub-acute stroke. The DEMMI has excellent internal consistency and inter-rater reliability, and sufficient construct validity. The minimal detectable change of the DEMMI with 90% confidence in stroke rehabilitation is 13 points. The lack of any floor or ceiling effects on hospital admission indicates

  13. Dietary sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population......-based health outcome evidence was not sufficient to define a safe upper intake level for sodium. Recent studies have extended this conclusion to show that a sodium intake below 2,300 mg/day is associated with increased mortality. In spite of this increasing body of evidence, the AHA, Centers for Disease...... Control (CDC), other public health advisory bodies, and major medical journals have continued to support the current policy of reducing dietary sodium....

  14. Dietary guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsøe, Erling

    2015-01-01

    Dietary guidelines are issued regularly in most developed countries. In almost all cases they are concerned solely with the nutritional aspects of food and eating and are based on an understanding of food exclusively as a source of nutrients. In recent years, however, a growing number of proposals...... in a number of countries have addressed the issue of making dietary guidelines that integrate health and sustainability, but in all cases they have been met with different kinds of resistance. This article reviews the development towards an integrated understanding of health and sustainability in relation...... to food and eating and the emergence of proposals for integrated guidelines. It explores the conflicts and controversies that have arisen in the wake of the various proposals and identifies a number of different types of conflicts. These relate to conflicts of interests between the various actors involved...

  15. Modified Atkins diet induces subacute selective ragged-red-fiber lysis in mitochondrial myopathy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahola, Sofia; Auranen, Mari; Isohanni, Pirjo; Niemisalo, Satu; Urho, Niina; Buzkova, Jana; Velagapudi, Vidya; Lundbom, Nina; Hakkarainen, Antti; Muurinen, Tiina; Piirilä, Päivi; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Suomalainen, Anu

    2016-11-01

    Mitochondrial myopathy (MM) with progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO) is a common manifestation of mitochondrial disease in adulthood, for which there is no curative therapy. In mice with MM, ketogenic diet significantly delayed progression of the disease. We asked in this pilot study what effects high-fat, low-carbohydrate "modified Atkins" diet (mAD) had for PEO/MM patients and control subjects and followed up the effects by clinical, morphological, transcriptomic, and metabolomic analyses. All of our five patients, irrespective of genotype, showed a subacute response after 1.5-2 weeks of diet, with progressive muscle pain and leakage of muscle enzymes, leading to premature discontinuation of the diet. Analysis of muscle ultrastructure revealed selective fiber damage, especially in the ragged-red-fibers (RRFs), a MM hallmark. Two years of follow-up showed improvement of muscle strength, suggesting activation of muscle regeneration. Our results indicate that (i) nutrition can modify mitochondrial disease progression, (ii) dietary counseling should be part of MM care, (iii) short mAD is a tool to induce targeted RRF lysis, and (iv) mAD, a common weight-loss method, may induce muscle damage in a population subgroup. © 2016 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  16. Impact of subacute ruminal acidosis on the diversity of liquid and solid-associated bacteria in the rumen of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Wenjie; Zhu, Weiyun; Mao, Shengyong

    2014-02-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the impact of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) on the diversity of liquid (LAB) and solid-associated bacteria (SAB) following high-grain feeding. Six ruminally cannulated goats were divided into two groups: one group was fed a hay diet (COD), and the other group was fed a high grain diet (SAID). Rumen liquids and rumen solids were sampled after 2 weeks adaption. SARA was diagnosed with a pH below 5.8 for 8 h. SAID decreased ruminal pH (P rumen compared with the COD. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprints analysis revealed a clear separation between both the diet and the fraction of rumen digesta in bacterial communities. Pyrosequencing analysis showed that the proportion of phylum Bacteroidetes in the SAID-LAB and SAID-SAB communities was less than in the COD group, whereas the SAID group had a greater percentage of Firmicutes in both the LAB and SAB libraries. UniFrac analyses and a Venn diagram revealed a large difference between the two diets in the diversity of rumen bacterial communities. Overall, our findings revealed that SARA feeding did alter the community structure of rumen liquids and rumen solids. Thus, manipulation of dietary factors, such as ratio of forage to concentrate may have the potential to alter the microbial composition of rumen liquid and rumen solid.

  17. PD-1 gene polymorphism in children with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskin, Ibrahim Etem; Calık, Mustafa; Abuhandan, Mahmut; Kolsal, Ebru; Celik, Sevim Karakas; Iscan, Akın

    2013-08-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a progressive inflammatory and degenerative disorder of the central nervous system. Several factors influence the risk of chronic brain infection with the mutant measles virus. However, to date, no pathogenic mechanism that may predispose to SSPE has been determined. Studies have indicated that specific polymorphisms in certain host genes are probably involved in impairing the ability of host immune cells to eradicate the measles virus in SSPE patients. Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), a member of the CD28 family, is a negative regulator of the immune system. The purpose of our study was to investigate whether PD-1 gene polymorphisms affect susceptibility to the development of SSPE in Turkish children. In total, 109 subjects (54 SSPE patients and 55 healthy controls) were genotyped for the PD-1.9 C/T (rs2227982) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). The distributions of T alleles in the PD-1.9 polymorphism in SSPE patients and healthy controls were 2.8 and 10.9%, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups; the 95% confidence interval (CI) was 0.06 to 0.85 and the odds ratio (OR) was 0.23 (χ(2) test). Thus, we identified an association between SSPE and the PD-1 rs2227982 gene polymorphism; the frequency of T alleles was higher in controls than in SSPE patients. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Cerebrospinal fluid apolipoprotein E levels in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Deniz; Ichiyama, Takashi; Yilmaz, Deniz; Anlar, Banu

    2012-04-01

    Neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) have been shown in 20% of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) cases. NFTs contain paired helical filaments formed by hyperphosphorylated tau. The intraneuronal tau metabolism and the rate of formation of paired helical filaments can be regulated by interactions between tau and isoforms of Apolipoprotein E (Apo E). Tau binds in vitro to Apo E3, interferes with the hyperphosphorylation of tau and may reduce the formation of NFTs. We investigated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Apo E levels in SSPE (n=37) and age-matched control (n=38) groups. The median level of total Apo E and Apo E4 were lower in the SSPE than the control group (p<0.001 and p=0.002). On the other hand, median Apo E3 level (0.28±0.23 μg/ml) was higher in the SSPE group (p<0.001). Such elevated levels of ApoE3 might play a role in controlling the formation of NFTs in SSPE. Because NFT-associated neurodegeneration is a slow process, comparison of the long-term clinical course of SSPE cases with high and low Apo E3 levels might provide further understanding or the role of these molecules in this disease, and help the planning of neuroprotective treatment. Copyright © 2011 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Granzyme B gene polymorphism associated with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yentur, Sibel P; Aydin, Hatice Nur; Gurses, Candan; Demirbilek, Veysi; Kuru, Umit; Uysal, Serap; Yapici, Zuhal; Baris, Safa; Yilmaz, Gülden; Cokar, Ozlem; Onal, Emel; Gokyigit, Ayşen; Saruhan-Direskeneli, Güher

    2014-10-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a late complication of measles infection. Immune dysfunction related to genetic susceptibility has been considered in disease pathogenesis. A functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of granzyme B gene (GZMB) reported in several pathologies may also be involved in susceptibility to SSPE.  An SNP (rs8192917, G → A, R→Q) was screened in 118 SSPE patients and 221 healthy controls (HC) by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Frequencies were compared between groups. In vitro production of GZMB was measured in controls with different genotypes.  The SNP had a minor allele (G) frequency of 0.22 in patients and 0.31 in controls. GG genotype was significantly less frequent in patients (odds ratio, 0.23). G allele carriers produced relatively higher levels of GZMB, when stimulated in vitro.  These findings implicate possible effect of this genetic polymorphism in susceptibility to SSPE which needs to be confirmed in bigger populations. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Cecocentral scotoma as the initial manifestation of subacute bacterial endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Savitsky Strauss

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Danielle Savitsky Strauss, Samuel Baharestani, Julia Nemiroff, Kiran Amesur, David HowardNew York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, USAIntroduction: We report a case of a 67-year-old male who presented with a cecocentral scotoma caused by a septic embolus from subacute bacterial endocarditis (SBE.Methods: A 67-year-old man presented with sudden, painless decreased vision in the left eye. A dilated fundoscopic exam, Humphrey visual field test, transthoracic echocardiogram, abdominal computed tomography (CT, and blood cultures were all performed.Results: A dilated fundoscopic exam revealed temporal segmental optic disc pallor on the left, and Humphrey visual field testing demonstrated a dense left cecocentral scotoma. When the patient developed fever (103.9°F and palpitations, transthoracic echocardiogram revealed valvular vegetations, and contrast CT of the abdomen revealed an abscess in the dome of the liver likely due to an infectious thrombus. Blood cultures grew viridians group streptococci in three separate peripheral collections.Conclusion: This case illustrates that a sudden cecocentral scotoma may be the initial manifestation of SBE. Keywords: endocarditis, scotoma, streptococcal infections, visual fields

  1. Antimony toxicity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sundar, Shyam; Chakravarty, Jaya

    2010-01-01

    Antimony toxicity occurs either due to occupational exposure or during therapy. Occupational exposure may cause respiratory irritation, pneumoconiosis, antimony spots on the skin and gastrointestinal symptoms...

  2. Acute versus subacute community-acquired meningitis: Analysis of 611 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Tarek; Salazar, Lucrecia; Hasbun, Rodrigo

    2017-09-01

    Community-acquired meningitis can be classified into acute and subacute presentations by the duration of illness of ≤ or >5 days, respectively. There are currently no studies comparing the clinical features, management decisions, etiologies, and outcomes between acute and subacute presentations.It is a retrospective study of adults with community-acquired meningitis hospitalized in Houston, TX between January 2005 and January 2010. An adverse clinical outcome was defined as a Glasgow Outcome Scale score of ≤4.A total of 611 patients were identified, of which 458 (75%) were acute and 153 subacute (25%). The most common etiologies were unknown in 418 (68.4%), viral in 94 (15.4%), bacterial in 47 (7.7%), fungal in 42 patients (6.9%), and other noninfectious etiologies in 6 (1%). Patients with subacute meningitis were more likely to be immunosuppressed or have comorbidities, had fungal etiologies, and had higher rates of hypoglycorrachia and abnormal neurological findings (P 65 years and abnormal neurological findings were predictive of an adverse clinical outcome in both acute and subacute meningitis, whereas fever was also a significant prognostic factor in acute meningitis. (P meningitis differ in regards to clinical presentations, etiologies, laboratory findings, and management decisions, but did not differ in rates of adverse clinical outcomes. Future studies including thoroughly investigated patients with new diagnostic molecular methods may show different results and outcomes.

  3. Subacute stress and chronic stress interact to decrease intestinal barrier function in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauffer, Adriana; Vanuytsel, Tim; Vanormelingen, Christophe; Vanheel, Hanne; Salim Rasoel, Shadea; Tóth, Joran; Tack, Jan; Fornari, Fernando; Farré, Ricard

    2016-01-01

    Psychological stress increases intestinal permeability, potentially leading to low-grade inflammation and symptoms in functional gastrointestinal disorders. We assessed the effect of subacute, chronic and combined stress on intestinal barrier function and mast cell density. Male Wistar rats were allocated to four experimental groups (n = 8/group): 1/sham; 2/subacute stress (isolation and limited movement for 24 h); 3/chronic crowding stress for 14 days and 4/combined subacute and chronic stress. Jejunum and colon were collected to measure: transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER; a measure of epithelial barrier function); gene expression of tight junction molecules; mast cell density. Plasma corticosterone concentration was increased in all three stress conditions versus sham, with highest concentrations in the combined stress condition. TEER in the jejunum was decreased in all stress conditions, but was significantly lower in the combined stress condition than in the other groups. TEER in the jejunum correlated negatively with corticosterone concentration. Increased expression of claudin 1, 5 and 8, occludin and zonula occludens 1 mRNAs was detected after subacute stress in the jejunum. In contrast, colonic TEER was decreased only after combined stress, and the expression of tight junction molecules was unaltered. Increased mast cell density was observed in the chronic and combined stress condition in the colon only. In conclusion, our data show that chronic stress sensitizes the gastrointestinal tract to the effects of subacute stress on intestinal barrier function; different underlying cellular and molecular alterations are indicated in the small intestine versus the colon.

  4. Subacute bacterial endocarditis and subsequent shunt nephritis from ventriculoatrial shunting 14 years after shunt implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burström, Gustav; Andresen, Morten; Bartek, Jiri Jr.

    2014-01-01

    of causing subacute bacterial endocarditis and subsequent shunt nephritis. The patient was successfully treated with antibiotics combined with ventriculoatrial shunt removal and endoscopic third ventriculocisternostomy (VCS). This case illustrates the nowadays rare, but potentially severe complication...... of subacute bacterial endocarditis and shunt nephritis. It also exemplifies the VCS as an alternative to implanting foreign shunt systems for CSF diversion....

  5. Adult fulminant subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: pathological and molecular studies--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souraud, J B; Faivre, A; Waku-Kouomou, D; Gaillard, T; Aouad, N; Meaudre, E; Wild, F T; Fouet, B; Soulard, R

    2009-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is an uncommon progressive neurological disorder caused by a persistent defective measles virus, typically affecting children. We describe a case of fulminant subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in a 25-year-old male. Brain tissue biopsy showed histologic evidence of encephalitis with eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies (Cowdry Type A and B), intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies, perivascular lymphoplasmacytic infiltration and gliosis. Immunohistochemical studies were positive using an anti-measles antibody. Reverse transcriptase-PCR detected measles virus RNA and phylogenetic analysis indicated a C2 genotype. The rare adult-onset form is often atypical and difficult to diagnose and should be included in the differential diagnosis of subacute "unexplained" neurological diseases and uncommon infectious disorders.

  6. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) presenting as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goraya, Jatinder; Marks, Harold; Khurana, Divya; Legido, Agustin; Melvin, Joseph

    2009-07-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) typically presents with progressive mental deterioration, behavioral changes, and myoclonic jerks. Atypical presentations are not unknown and may result in diagnostic delays. A 9-year-old girl presented with poor balance and ataxia following an episode of upper respiratory tract infection. Neurological examination revealed mild hemiparesis and ataxia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed scattered areas of T2 and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery hyperintensities in the white matter consistent with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Despite treatment with intravenous methylprednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulins, and plasmapheresis, progressive neurological worsening occurred. Later during the course of her illness, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis was suspected from the appearance of burst-suppression pattern on electroencephalogram, and the diagnosis confirmed by elevated titers of measles antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid. Physicians taking care of children need to be aware of atypical presentations of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and must have a high index of suspicion to prevent diagnostic delays and avoid unnecessary diagnostic and therapeutic interventions.

  7. Successful treatment of encephalopathy and myoclonus with levetiracetam in a case of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Daniel; Patel, Anup; Abou-Khalil, Bassel W; Pina-Garza, Jesus E

    2009-06-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is a devastating progressive degenerative disease of the nervous system presumably caused by a persistent measles virus. Patients commonly present with myoclonia or encephalopathy. There are currently no known curative therapeutic options or effective symptomatic therapy. We treated a 12-year-old boy with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis who presented with acute encephalopathy and myoclonus. Electroencephalogram showed characteristic generalized periodic discharges. Levetiracetam produced dramatic improvement in both myoclonus and encephalopathy. The improvement was clear within 4 days. The electroencephalogram pattern showed improvement as well. Levetiracetam is a promising symptomatic therapy in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis for both the myoclonus and the encephalopathy. In this patient, it also appeared to improve the electroencephalographic pattern. We suggest that the generalized periodic discharges associated with the myoclonus contributed to the patient's encephalopathy.

  8. Diabetes and Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Diabetes and Dietary Supplements: In Depth Share: On This ... much do we know about dietary supplements for diabetes? Many studies have investigated dietary supplements, including vitamins, ...

  9. Clinical and Radiological Evaluation of Children with Subacute Sclerosan Panencephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet İrdem

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 65 children with Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis (SSPE who admittedto our clinic between September 1998 and December 2002 were retrospectively evaluated interms of clinical and radiological findings.The most common symptoms and findings at admission were myoklonia (31 patients, 47%, behaveral changes (18 patients, 27.7 % and convulsion (8 patients, 12 %. There was atrauma history initiating symptoms in 14 patients (21.5 %. Neurological symptoms presentedsignificantly earlier in patients who had measles before 2 years of age compared to others(p0.05. The clinical stage of the patients at admission was determined based on Risk veHaddad classification. The most frequent stage was IIA (21 patients, 32.2%, IIC (17patients, 26.2% and IIB (16 patients, 24.6%. At the follow-up period, 46 (71% patients wasdepended to bed. The mean time interval between SSPE initiation age and bed dependencywas 4.68 ± 4.05 months (1-17 months.Of the 31 patients who underwent cranial magnetic rezonans imaging (MRI, 15patients (48.38% had pathological findings, the most frequent findings were cortical vesubcortical lesions. Of the 24 patients who underwent cranial tomographi, 22 (91.6% werenormal. Of the remaining two, one had atrophy and the other had increase in contrast. All ofthe patients underwent rutine EEG test. Fifty-four (83.1% of these had periodic complexhigh slow wave activity.The clinical findings and Electro Encephalographi results are important parameters inthe diagnosis of SSPE. Cranial tomographi is not useful in the diagnosis of SSPE. However,cranial MRI findings is pathologic only in the half of the patients.

  10. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid cytokine concentrations in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Omer Faruk; Ichiyama, Takashi; Anlar, Banu

    2010-06-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a neurodegenerative disease due to persistent measles virus infection. Its immunopathogenesis is unknown. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-4 concentrations were measured in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum samples from 30 SSPE patients and 19 control subjects by cytometric bead array. CSF and serum IFN-gamma, IL-12 and IL-18 levels were measured in 18 SSPE patients by ELISA. Serum IL-4 and IL-10 (p<0.001), CSF IL-4 (p<0.001) and IL-6 (p=0.049) concentrations were lower, and serum IL-2 concentrations, higher (p=0.001) in SSPE patients. Serum TNF-alpha and IL-6, CSF TNF-alpha, IL-10, and IL-2 concentrations were not different between SSPE and control groups. Serum IFN-gamma levels were higher in stage I and II than stage III patients (p<0.05), whereas there was no difference between stages in terms of other cytokines. The levels of Th2-type cytokines: IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 were suppressed in our SSPE cases. This finding, along with relatively elevated IFN-gamma and IL-2 levels, may suggest more active effector T cells compared to regulatory T cells (Treg), especially induced Treg, in early disease. High serum IL-2 concentrations might indicate peripheral Th1 activation. Discrepancies between various reports in the literature should be examined in view of the ages, stage and treatments of the patients studied. The interplay of various cytokines or cellular systems which may vary over time and between patients. Studies of treatment measures favoring the preservation of the early inflammatory response may be of interest in SSPE. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Subacute granulomatous (de Quervain) thyroiditis: grayscale and color Doppler sonographic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frates, Mary C; Marqusee, Ellen; Benson, Carol B; Alexander, Erik K

    2013-03-01

    To describe the sonographic characteristics of subacute granulomatous (De Quervain) thyroiditis. We retrospectively identified all patients at our institution during the last 11 years who had thyroid sonography with findings suggestive of subacute granulomatous thyroiditis. We then reviewed clinical data and laboratory results to establish the clinical diagnosis. A final diagnosis of subacute granulomatous thyroiditis was made on the basis of clinical symptoms, suppressed thyrotropin, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and/or reduced or absent radionuclide uptake while hyperthyroid. Our study population consisted of 35 patients. Twenty-seven patients (79.4%) met clinical criteria for subacute thyroiditis. Symptoms included neck pain in 26 of 27 patients with subacute thyroiditis. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate ranged from 22 to 101 mm/h. In 21 cases (77.8%), sonography revealed focal, poorly defined, nonovoid areas of decreased echogenicity. Findings were bilateral in 16 patients and unilateral in 5. In the remaining 6, the gland or an entire lobe was diffusely heterogeneous. Color Doppler interrogation was performed in 20 patients. Flow was decreased to the sonographically abnormal areas in 19 (95%) and slightly increased in 1 patient. In all 9 patients who underwent radionuclide scanning, focal defects or large areas of decreased or absent uptake were found during the time of suppressed thyrotropin. Enlarged lymph nodes were noted in 16 patients (59.3%). The positive predictive value of sonography for diagnosing subacute granulomatous thyroiditis is 79.4%. The most common sonographic appearance is poorly defined regions of decreased echogenicity with decreased vascularity in the affected areas.

  12. Furan: A critical heat induced dietary contaminant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariotti, María S.; Granby, Kit; Rozowski, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    -induced tumor formation, current human exposure levels to this contaminant may indicate a risk to human health and the necessity for its mitigation. This review summarizes and focuses on the main issues of furan toxicity, human dietary exposure to furan and mechanisms of furan formation. Additionally, the role...

  13. Toxicity studies of fullerenes and derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolosnjaj, Jelena; Szwarc, Henri; Moussa, Fathi

    2007-01-01

    Due to their unique properties, fullerenes, a model of carbon-based nanoparticles, have attracted considerable interest in many fields of research including material science and biomedical applications. The potential and the growing use of fullerenes and their mass production have raised several questions about their safety and environmental impact. Available data clearly shows that pristine C60 has no acute or sub-acute toxicity in a large variety of living organisms, from bacteria and fungal to human leukocytes, and also in drosophila, mice, rats and guinea pigs. In contrast to chemically--either covalently or noncovalently--modified fullerenes, some C60 derivatives can be highly toxic. Furthermore, under light exposure, C60 is an efficient singlet oxygen sensitizer. Therefore, if pristine C60 is absolutely nontoxic under dark conditions, this is not the case under UV-Visible irradiation and in the presence of O2 where ffullerene solutions can be highly toxic through 1O2 formation. This chapter offers a general review of the studies on the toxicity of [60]fullerene or C60, the most abundant fullerene, and its derivatives.

  14. Acute Amiodarone Pulmonary Toxicity After Surgical Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teerakanok, Jirapat; Tantrachoti, Pakpoom; Chariyawong, Phumpattra; Nugent, Kenneth

    2016-12-01

    Amiodarone can cause toxicity in several organs, including amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity which is a subacute or chronic complication. Amiodarone-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in postoperative patients is a rare acute complication. The PubMed and Google Scholar databases were searched. Seven retrospective and prospective case series and 10 case reports of amiodarone-induced postoperative ARDS were reviewed. All patients received amiodarone chronically or during the perioperative period. Forty-three out of 285 patients (15%) reported in the retrospective and prospective studies developed amiodarone-induced ARDS. Most of the patients were men in age group 60-80 who had undergone cardiothoracic surgery. All patients had general anesthesia and exposure to high concentrations of oxygen. The onset of symptoms ranged from 2 hours to 2 weeks after surgery. The mortality rate of amiodarone-induced ARDS after surgery was approximately 10%. Ten case reports were evaluated using Naranjo criteria. Two cases had definite amiodarone toxicity, and 8 had probable toxicity based on these criteria. The incidence of amiodarone-induced postoperative ARDS was approximately 15% in these studies. Most operations involved cardiothoracic surgery. Elderly patients on high-dose and long-term amiodarone treatment were at increased risk. This diagnosis is challenging owing to the lack of definite diagnostic criteria; careful clinical evaluation and early drug withdrawal may reduce the severity of this complication. Copyright © 2016 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Subacute combined spinal cord degeneration and pancytopenia secondary to severe vitamin B12 deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Cabrerizo-García

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Decreased vitamin B12 concentration does not usually result in clinical or hematological abnormalities. Subacute combined spinal cord degeneration and pancytopenia are two serious and rarely displayed consequences that appear in severe deficits. CASE REPORT: We present the case of a patient with subacute combined spinal cord degeneration and pancytopenia secondary to severe and sustained vitamin B12 deficiency. Such cases are rare nowadays and have potentially fatal consequences. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin B12 deficiency should be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis in cases of blood disorders or severe neurological symptoms. Early diagnosis and treatment can avoid irreversible consequences.

  16. Rapidly progressive subacute sclerosing panencephalitis presenting with acute loss of vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekici, Bariş; Calişkan, Mine; Tatli, Burak; Aydinli, Nur; Ozmen, Meral

    2011-12-01

    A 10-year-old male presented with vision loss and behavioral changes. He had midpoint pupils with no reaction to light and normal funduscopic examination. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilateral cortical lesions at parieto-occipital lobes. Elevated measles antibody titers in the cerebrospinal fluid confirmed the diagnosis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Despite oral inosiplex and supportive care, patient developed generalized seizures with frequent myoclonic jerks and rapidly progressed into coma. Cortical blindness in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis can be an early indicator for fulminant course.

  17. Induction of oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptosis in mouse liver after sub-acute oral exposure to zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vyom; Singh, Poonam; Pandey, Alok K; Dhawan, Alok

    2012-06-14

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles are finding applications in a wide range of products including cosmetics, food packaging, imaging, etc. This increases the likelihood of human exposure to these nanoparticles through dermal, inhalation and oral routes. Presently, the majority of the studies concerning ZnO nanoparticle toxicity have been conducted using in vitro systems which lack the complex cell-cell, cell-matrix interactions and hormonal effects found in the in vivo scenario. The present in vivo study in mice was aimed at investigating the oral toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles. Our results showed a significant accumulation of nanoparticles in the liver leading to cellular injury after sub-acute oral exposure of ZnO nanoparticles (300 mg/kg) for 14 consecutive days. This was evident by the elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) serum levels and pathological lesions in the liver. ZnO nanoparticles were also found to induce oxidative stress indicated by an increase in lipid peroxidation. The DNA damage in the liver and kidney cells of mice was evaluated by the Fpg-modified Comet assay which revealed a significant (plesions in liver indicating oxidative stress as the cause of DNA damage. The TUNEL assay revealed an induction of apoptosis in the liver of mice exposed to ZnO nanoparticles compared to the control. Our results conclusively demonstrate that sub-acute oral exposure to ZnO nanoparticles in mice leads to an accumulation of nanoparticles in the liver causing oxidative stress mediated DNA damage and apoptosis. These results also suggest the need for a complete risk assessment of any new engineered nanoparticle before its arrival into the consumer market. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of aqueous extract of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) stigma against subacute effect of diazinon on specific biomarkers in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moallem, Seyed Adel; Hariri, Alireza Timcheh; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2014-03-01

    In this study, the effect of aqueous extract of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) stigma was studied against subacute toxicity of diazinon (DZN) on specific biochemical markers in rats. Vitamin E (200 IU/kg) and the aqueous extract of saffron at doses 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg were injected intraperitoneally three times per week alone or with DZN (20 mg/kg/day, orally) for 4 weeks. Red blood cell (RBC) cholinesterase activity was inhibited by DZN and this effect was not affected by vitamin E or saffron plus DZN. The levels of serum tumor necrosis factor-α (inflammation marker), direct 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2α) (oxidative stress marker) and soluble protein-100 β (S100β, neuronal damage marker) were increased significantly by DZN. The saffron extract inhibited the effect of DZN on these biomarkers levels. However, vitamin E was able to only reduce 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2α) and S100β levels. This study showed that the aqueous extract of saffron prevents DZN-induced rise of several specific inflammation, oxidative stress and neuronal damage biomarkers.

  19. Antigenotoxic effect of acute, subacute and chronic treatments with Amazonian camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) juice on mice blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Francisco Carlos; Arruda, Andrelisse; Ledel, Alexandre; Dauth, Cíntia; Romão, Nathalia Faria; Viana, Rafaele Nazário; de Barros Falcão Ferraz, Alexandre; Picada, Jaqueline Nascimento; Pereira, Patrícia

    2012-07-01

    Myrciaria dubia, a plant native to the Amazon region, stands out as a fruit rich in vitamin C and other metabolites with nutritional potential. We evaluated the antioxidant, genotoxic and antigenotoxic potential of M. dubia juice on blood cells of mice after acute, subacute and chronic treatments. Flavonoids and vitamin C present in the fruit of M. dubia were quantified. In vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH assay. Blood samples were collected for analysis after treatment, and the alkaline comet assay was used to analyze the genotoxic and antigenotoxic activity (ex vivo analysis using H(2)O(2)). The amount of vitamin C per 100mL of M. dubia was 52.5mg. DPPH assay showed an antioxidant potential of the fruit. No M. dubia concentration tested exerted any genotoxic effect on mice blood cells. In the ex vivo test, the juice demonstrated antigenotoxic effect, and acute treatment produced the most significant results. After the treatments, there was no evidence of toxicity or death. In conclusion, our data show that M. dubia juice has antigenotoxic and antioxidant activities, though with no genotoxicity for blood cells. Nevertheless, more in-depth studies should be conducted to assess the safety of this fruit for human consumption. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Methiocarb-induced oxidative damage following subacute exposure and the protective effects of vitamin E and taurine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozden, Sibel; Catalgol, Betul; Gezginci-Oktayoglu, Selda; Arda-Pirincci, Pelin; Bolkent, Sehnaz; Alpertunga, Buket

    2009-07-01

    Methiocarb, is used worldwide in agriculture and health programs. Besides its advantages in the agriculture, it causes several toxic effects. In this study, we aimed to investigate subacute effects of methiocarb on lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione (GSH), antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione reductase (GSH-Rd) and histopathological changes in rat tissues. Moreover, we examined the possible protective effects of vitamin E and taurine on methiocarb-induced oxidative damage in rat tissues. Rats were randomly divided into six groups as follows; I-control group; II-methiocarb group; III-vitamin E group; IV-vitamin E+methiocarb group; V-taurine group and VI-taurine+methiocarb group. Methiocarb significantly increased lipid peroxidation in liver and kidney when compared to control groups. Levels of GSH and activities of SOD, CAT and GSH-Px were found to be decreased, while GSH-Rd remained unchanged in rat liver and kidney treated with methiocarb. Pretreatment of vitamin E and taurine resulted in a significant decrease on lipid peroxidation, alleviating effects on GSH and antioxidant enzymes. The degenerative histological changes were less in liver than kidney of rats treated with methiocarb. Pretreatment of vitamin E and taurine showed a protective effect on the histological changes in kidney comparing to the liver of rats treated with methiocarb.

  1. Antimony Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, Shyam; Chakravarty, Jaya

    2010-01-01

    Antimony toxicity occurs either due to occupational exposure or during therapy. Occupational exposure may cause respiratory irritation, pneumoconiosis, antimony spots on the skin and gastrointestinal symptoms. In addition antimony trioxide is possibly carcinogenic to humans. Improvements in working conditions have remarkably decreased the incidence of antimony toxicity in the workplace. As a therapeutic, antimony has been mostly used for the treatment of leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis. The major toxic side-effects of antimonials as a result of therapy are cardiotoxicity (~9% of patients) and pancreatitis, which is seen commonly in HIV and visceral leishmaniasis co-infections. Quality control of each batch of drugs produced and regular monitoring for toxicity is required when antimonials are used therapeutically. PMID:21318007

  2. Relationship of hepatotoxicity and the target tissue dose of decabrominated diphenyl ether in subacutely exposed Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćurčić Marijana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Based on numerous studies in animals, the most prominent toxic effects of decabrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-209 are observed in the liver, thyroid hormone homeostasis, reproductive and nervous systems. BDE-209 exhibits its toxic effects partly through the aryl hydrocarbon (Ah receptor and consequent induction of hepatic microsomal enzymes. The aim of this study was to assess the hepatotoxic effect vs target tissue dose of BDE-209 in the subacutely orally exposed Wistar rats. Methods. Effects were examined on male Wistar rats, weighing 200-240 g, exposed to doses of 1,000, 2,000 or 4,000 mg BDE-209/kg body weight (bw/day by gavage during 28 days. Animals were treated according to the decision of the Ethics Committee of the Military Medical Academy, No 9667-1/2011. Evaluation of the hepatotoxic effect was based on: relative liver weight water and food intake, biochemical parameters of liver function [aspartate amino transferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, gama glutamyl transferase (γ-GT], and oxidative stress parameters in liver homogenates [malondialdehiyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD, -SH] and morphological and pathohistological changes in the liver. For the assessment of internal dose - response relationship, lower confidence limit of Benchmark dose (BMDL of 5% or 10% i.e. BMDL5 or BMDL10, were calculated using PROAST software. Results. After the application of 1,000, 2,000 or 4,000 mg BDE-209/kg bw/day, the concentrations of BDE-209 measured in liver were 0.269, 0.569 and 0.859 mg/kg of liver wet weight, (ww respectively. Internal doses correlated with external (r = 0.972; p < 0.05 according to equation: internal dose (mg BDE-209/kg of liver ww = 0.0002 x external dose (mg/kg bw/day + 0.0622. Hepato-toxicity was demonstrated based on significant increase in AST and γ-GT activities and the degree of histopathological changes. The lowest BMDL5 of 0.07228 mg BDE-209/kg of liver ww

  3. Subacute toxicopathological studies of methotrexate in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Patel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A toxico-pathological study was undertaken to assess the effects of Methotrexate administration in Wistar rats by performing the hematology, serum biochemical analysis and associated histopathological changes in visceral organs. Materials and Methods: Rats in 4 treatment groups with 6 male and 6 female rats each were administered methotrexate (Group II to IV at the dose rate of 0.062, 0.125 and 0.250 mg/kg body weight respectively and distilled water (Group I as vehicle control for 28 days. Hematological parameters viz., total erythrocyte count, haemoglobin, packed cell volume, MCV, MCH and MCHC, total leukocyte count and differential leukocyte count and serum biochemical parameters viz., aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, total protein, albumin, globulin (Calculated were estimated after 28 days. Necropsy examination was performed in all sacrificed animals and gross lesions were recorded. Tissue samples (lung, liver, kidney, intestine, testes and heart were collected in 10% formalin solution for histo-pathological examination. Results: The dose dependent reduction in body weight, feed consumption, RBCs count, packed cell volume, haemoglobin, total leucocyte count, neutrophil count, total protein and albumin was observed in animals of group II, III and IV along with significant increase in lymphocyte count, AST, ALT, AKP, creatinine and BUN in animals of methotrexate treated group IV followed by group III. No significant change in monocyte, eosinophil and basophil counts were observed in any treatment groups. All the rats exposed to methotrexate at three different dose levels revealed dose dependent pathological changes characterized by degeneration, necrosis, congestion, haemorrhage and vascular changes. The main target organs affected were liver, kidney, lungs and testes. Conclusion: It can be concluded from this study that sub-acute exposure to methotrexate

  4. The Epidemiology of Subacute Sclerosan Panencephalitis in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet İrdem

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE is a slowly progressing viral infection ofcentral nervous system and rarely occur after a latent period following measles. Because theincidance of both diseases are in relation, the epidemiological properties of measles are themost important in preventing development of SSPE.A total of 65 children with SSPE who admitted to our clinic between September 1998and December 2002 were retrospectively evaluated.Fifty patients were male and 15 were female. Of these patients, 78.8% were the secondor later children in their family. The mean number of children per family was 5.3 ± 2.63.Sixty percent of the patients were living in urban while 40% were living in a rural area. Themean age was 6.28 ± 2.15 years for total patients; it was 6.15 ± 2.2 years for male and 6.73 ±1.98 years for female. The measles vaccine had been performed in 67.7% of patients andhad not in 20%, while it was unknown in the remaining 12.3% of the patients. The mean ageof the patients at the time of measles infection was 20.32 ± 11.41 months for boys, 27.26 ±25.28 months for female (p<0.05. There was statistically significant difference (p<0.05 inmale group to be infected by measles in early period of life when compared with femalegroup. The mean latent period between measles and SSPE was 4.31 ± 2.02 years for male,4.56 ± 1.74 years for female. The median latent period in patients admitted to our clinicbetween the year 1998 and 2002 was 4.5 years, while it was 3.5 years for patients between theyear 2001 and 2002 (p<0.05. The initial time of SSPE was 6.03 ± 2.17 years for male and6.66 ± 1,97 years for female.Crowded family life and not to perform vaccination timely for measles increase theincidence of measles as well as SSPE. Therefore, the most effective way to prevent SSPE isvaccination for measles regularly and timely.

  5. Feasibility of Delivering a Dance Intervention for SubAcute Stroke in a Rehabilitation Hospital Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Marika; McKinley, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Dance can be a promising treatment intervention used in rehabilitation for individuals with disabilities to address physical, cognitive and psychological impairments. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the feasibility of a modified dance intervention as an adjunct therapy designed for people with subacute stroke, in a rehabilitation setting. Using a descriptive qualitative study design, a biweekly 45-min dance intervention was offered to individuals with a subacute stroke followed in a rehabilitation hospital, over 4 weeks. The dance intervention followed the structure of an usual dance class, but the exercises were modified and progressed to meet each individual’s needs. The dance intervention, delivered in a group format, was feasible in a rehabilitation setting. A 45-min dance class of moderate intensity was of appropriate duration and intensity for individuals with subacute stroke to avoid excessive fatigue and to deliver the appropriate level of challenge. The overall satisfaction of the participants towards the dance class, the availability of space and equipment, and the low level of risks contributed to the feasibility of a dance intervention designed for individuals in the subacute stage of post-stroke recovery. PMID:25785497

  6. Feasibility of Delivering a Dance Intervention for SubAcute Stroke in a Rehabilitation Hospital Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika Demers

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dance can be a promising treatment intervention used in rehabilitation for individuals with disabilities to address physical, cognitive and psychological impairments. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the feasibility of a modified dance intervention as an adjunct therapy designed for people with subacute stroke, in a rehabilitation setting. Using a descriptive qualitative study design, a biweekly 45-min dance intervention was offered to individuals with a subacute stroke followed in a rehabilitation hospital, over 4 weeks. The dance intervention followed the structure of an usual dance class, but the exercises were modified and progressed to meet each individual’s needs. The dance intervention, delivered in a group format, was feasible in a rehabilitation setting. A 45-min dance class of moderate intensity was of appropriate duration and intensity for individuals with subacute stroke to avoid excessive fatigue and to deliver the appropriate level of challenge. The overall satisfaction of the participants towards the dance class, the availability of space and equipment, and the low level of risks contributed to the feasibility of a dance intervention designed for individuals in the subacute stage of post-stroke recovery.

  7. A Rare Cause of Sub-Acute Proximal Intestinal Obstruction Due to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... a case of a 2- year old girl who presented electively for investigations of symptoms of a sub-acute proximal intestinal obstruction. Investigations revealed a partial duodenal obstruction and an exploratory laparatomy surprisingly showed a partially obstructing annular pancreas for which she underwent a bypass procedure.

  8. Injection therapy for subacute and chronic low back pain: an updated Cochrane review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staal, J.B.; Bie, R.A. de; Vet, H.C. de; Hildebrandt, J.; Nelemans, P.

    2009-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). OBJECTIVE: To determine if injection therapy is more effective than placebo or other treatments for patients with subacute or chronic low back pain. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The effectiveness of injection therapy for low

  9. Subacute Thyroiditis Following Influenza Vaccine (Vaxigrip® in A Young Female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeng-Yueh Hsiao

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Subacute thyroiditis (SAT, also called de Quervain thyroiditis or granulomatous thyroiditis, is a self- limiting, possibly viral, and inflammatory thyroid disorder that is usually associated with thyroid pain and systemic symptoms. This report details a case of SAT possibly associated with influenza vaccine (Vaxigrip® in a young female. The diagnosis, therapeutic management and outcome are discussed.

  10. An Atypical Presentation of Subacute Encephalopathy with Seizures in Chronic Alcoholism Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Tae-Kyoung; Jung, Eui Sung; Park, Jong-Moo; Kang, Kyusik; Lee, Woong-Woo; Lee, Jung-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Subacute encephalopathy with seizures in chronic alcoholism syndrome is a rare clinical manifestation in patients with chronic alcohol abuse. We report the case of a patient with chronic alcoholism who presented with partial nonconvulsive status epilepticus associated with a thalamic lesion.

  11. Case Report and Molecular Analysis of Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis in a South African Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardas, Eftyhia; Leary, P. M.; Yeats, Jane; Badrodien, Waseila; Kreis, Stephanie

    1999-01-01

    This is the first case of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis from South Africa in which the molecular characteristics of the causative measles virus were examined. The virus found is classified as genotype D3, which has not previously been found in Africa and was last circulating in the United States before 1992. PMID:9986851

  12. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE): an insight into the diagnostic errors from a tertiary care university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prashanth, L K; Taly, A B; Sinha, S; Ravi, V

    2007-06-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a progressive disease caused by wild-type measles virus leading to premature death. Early diagnosis may help in medical interventions and counseling. The aim of this study was to ascertain diagnostic errors and their possible causes. Retrospective case record analysis of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, evaluated over a 10-year period, was performed. The following data were analyzed: initial symptoms and diagnosis, interval between onset of symptoms to diagnosis, and implications of delayed diagnosis. Among the 307 patients evaluated, initial diagnosis by various health care professionals was other than subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in 242 patients (78.8%). These included seizures, absence seizures, metachromatic leukodystrophy, Schilder's disease, cerebral palsy, hemiparkinsonism, Wilson's disease, vasculitis, spinocerebellar ataxia, motor neuron disease, nutritional amblyopia, tapetoretinal degeneration, catatonic schizophrenia, and malingering, among others. The interval between precise diagnosis and first reported symptom was 6.2 +/- 11.3 months (range, 0.2-96 months; median, 3 months). Forty-four patients (14.3%) who had symptoms for more than 1 year before the precise diagnosis had a protracted course as compared to the rest of the cohort ( P = .0001). Early and accurate diagnosis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis needs a high index of suspicion.

  13. An unusual case of acute encephalitic syndrome: Is it acute measles encephalitis or subacute sclerosing panencephalitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Ravindra K; Malhotra, Hardeep S; Rizvi, Imran; Kumar, Neeraj; Jain, Amita

    2017-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is a late complication of measles infection and develops usually 6 to 15 years after the primary measles infection. Fulminant subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is an infrequently encountered form wherein the disease rapidly progresses to death. A six-year old male child presented with fever, abnormal movements of the left side of body followed by weakness of the left side of the body, and involuntary abnormal movements of right upper and lower limbs. On examination, he was drowsy and was unable to communicate. He had right-sided hemiballismus. He also had left-sided hemiparesis and the left plantar reflex was extensor. Cerebrospinal fluid examination revealed elevated protein and cells. In the serum and cerebrospinal fluid, anti-measles IgG antibodies were found to be positive. No other viral marker was noted in the cerebrospinal fluid. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed extensive damage to the right temporal, parietal, and to a lesser extent, the frontal region as well as subcortical structures of these regions. Electroencephalography revealed generalized slowing of waves. Over a period of the next 3 days, the intensity and frequency of choreiform movements markedly reduced and the patient developed periodic generalized myoclonus, which was predominantly present on the right side. The patient succumbed to his illness and died after one month. Fulminant subacute sclerosing panencephalitis may have unusual clinical manifestations such as hemiballismus. In fulminant subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, neuroimaging may show extensive cortical damage.

  14. Sub-acute insulin therapy does not affect long-term visiospatial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Insulin is a common hypoglycaemic agent used to treat diabetes, but it has also been reported to exert other effects on the body including modulation cognition. Reported findings on insulin effect on learning and memory are scanty and often conflicting. This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of sub-acute insulin ...

  15. SUBACUTE HEMATOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF THE YUCATAN SAILFIN MOLLY (POECILIA VELIFERA) EXPOSED TO CADMIUM CHLORIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study focuses on the subacute hematological responses of the Yucatan sailfin molly, Poecilia velifera, exposed to cadmium chloride. Previous studies in other teleosts and mammals have suggested that exposure to cadmium chloride results in a leucocytic response. Fish were exp...

  16. Effect of sub-acute exposure to bonny light crude oil on plasma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of sub-acute exposure to bonny light crude oil on plasma biochemistry and liver histopathology of albino rat. Christopher Efe Oritseweyinmi Ikanone, Oluseyi Adeboye Akinloye, Regina Ngozi Ugbaja, Samuel Olatunbosun Omotainse, Olusola Lawrence Ajayi, Tolumide Michael Shopein ...

  17. Shortened constraint-induced movement therapy in subacute stroke - no effect of using a restraint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogårdh, Christina; Vestling, Monika; Sjölund, Bengt H

    2009-01-01

    , no statistically significant differences between the groups were found in any measures at any point in time. CONCLUSION: In this study, no effect of using a restraint in patients with subacute stroke was found. Thus, this component in the constraint-induced therapy concept seems to be of minor importance...

  18. Acute and sub-acute toxicological assessment of the aqueous seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were conducted to determine the oral median lethal dose (LD50) and other gross toxicological manifestations on acute basis. In the sub-acute experiments, the animals were administered 2.5 g/kg (p.o) per day of the extract for 28 consecutive days. Animal weight and fluid intake were recorded during the 28 ...

  19. Familial occurrence of subacute thyroiditis associated with human leukocyte antigen-B35

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, AB; Roozendaal, C; Dullaart, RPF

    Subacute thyroiditis (SAT) is a spontaneously remitting inflammatory disorder of the thyroid, associated with human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B35, and may be virally induced in genetically predisposed individuals. A 57-year-old Caucasian man presented with symptoms of hyperthyroidism as well as

  20. Case report A Rare Cause of Sub-Acute Proximal Intestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KIGZ

    A Rare Cause of Sub-Acute Proximal Intestinal Obstruction Due to Annular Pancreas. Weledji EP, Ngowe M, Mokake M. Department of Surgery, Regional Hospital Buea, Cameroon. Correspondence to: E P Weledji, P.O Box 126, Limbe, Cameroon. Email:elroypat@yahoo.co.uk. Summary. Background: Annular pancreas is a ...

  1. Subacute Budd-Chiari syndrome associated with polycythemia vera and factor V Leiden mutation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simsek, S; Verheesen, RV; Haagsma, EB; Lourens, J

    We describe a 48-year-old caucasian woman with a subacute Budd-Chiari syndrome attributed to the presence of polycythaemia vera, heterozygosity for the factor V Leiden mutation and the use of an oral contraceptive pill. Two diagnostic pitfalls were encountered. First, on CT scanning of the abdomen

  2. Sub-Acute Hepatoxicity of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Eucalyptus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sub–acute toxicity study of the aqueous leaf extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis was carried out on albino rats. Doses of 250mg, 500mg, 750mg and 1000mg per kilogram body weight of the extract were administered orally for 21 days. The activities of Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), ...

  3. Dynamics of peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations in the acute and subacute phase of Legionnaires' disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelis P C de Jager

    Full Text Available STUDY OBJECTIVE: Absolute lymphocytopenia is recognised as an important hallmark of the immune response to severe infection and observed in patients with Legionnaires' disease. To explore the immune response, we studied the dynamics of peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations in the acute and subacute phase of LD. METHODS AND RESULTS: EDTA-anticoagulated blood was obtained from eight patients on the day the diagnosis was made through detection of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 antigen in urine. A second blood sample was obtained in the subacute phase. Multiparametric flow cytometry was used to calculate lymphocyte counts and values for B-cells, T-cells, NK cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells. Expression of activation markers was analysed. The values obtained in the subacute phase were compared with an age and gender matched control group. Absolute lymphocyte count (×10⁹/l, median and range significantly increased from 0.8 (0.4-1.6 in the acute phase to 1.4 (0.8-3.4 in the subacute phase. B-cell count showed no significant change, while T-cell count (×10⁶/l, median and range significantly increased in the subacute phase (495 (182-1024 versus 979 (507-2708, p = 0.012 as a result of significant increases in both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell counts (374 (146-629 versus 763 (400-1507, p = 0.012 and 119 (29-328 versus 224 (107-862, p = 0.012. In the subacute phase of LD, significant increases were observed in absolute counts of activated CD4+ T-cells, naïve CD4+ T-cells and memory CD4+ T-cells. In the CD8+ T-cell compartment, activated CD8+ T-cells, naïve CD8+ T-cell and memory CD8+ T-cells were significantly increased (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: The acute phase of LD is characterized by absolute lymphocytopenia, which recovers in the subacute phase with an increase in absolute T-cells and re-emergence of activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. These observations are in line with the suggested role for T-cell activation in the immune response to LD.

  4. [Toxic megacolon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppkes, M; Ganslmayer, M; Strauß, R; Neurath, M F

    2015-10-01

    Toxic megacolon constitutes a feared, life-threatening complication of severe intestinal inflammation and is a challenge for interdisciplinary medical care. Specific aspects of conservative treatment based on current scientific evidence derived from guidelines, qualified reviews, and scientific studies are presented, which provide a rational approach and maximize therapeutic success. This work is based on a selective literature review and the authors' experience of many years in gastroenterology and intensive care. Toxic megacolon requires a rapid interdisciplinary assessment. Depending on the underlying etiology, an individual treatment concept needs to be developed. If an infectious or inflammatory cause is probable, a conservative approach can reduce perioperative morbidity and mortality. A step-wise approach with controlled reevaluations of the response to therapy after 72 h and 7 days avoids uncontrolled delay of surgical options further ensuring patient safety. Despite a decreasing incidence of toxic megacolon, it remains an interdisciplinary therapeutic challenge.

  5. A retrospective research of HIV-negative cryptococcal meningoencephalitis patients with acute/subacute onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, H; Chen, Q; Xie, Z; Wang, D; Li, M; Zhang, X; Man, Y; Lao, J; Chen, N; Zhou, L

    2016-02-01

    Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis (CM) may present as an acute, subacute, or chronic infection. It manifests as a chronic process in over 75 % of cases, but, sometimes, it presents with a more acute onset, mostly in HIV-associated patients. Until now, there has been no study performed on the clinical features of HIV-negative CM patients with acute/subacute onset. We collected 106 HIV-negative patients diagnosed with CM in our hospital during a 15-year period, analyzed their epidemiological and clinical features, as well as the outcomes, and explored the independent prognosis factors and the factors related to the survival time among them. We found that impaired consciousness (23.4 % vs. 3.4 %, p = 0.017) was more common in CM patients with acute/subacute onset, while decreased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) glucose (51.9 % vs. 75.9 %, p = 0.026) was less common. The ratio of CSF glucose/blood glucose [odds ratio (OR) 0.04, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.004-0.262, p = 0.02], impaired consciousness (OR 5.09, 95 % CI 1.477-17.522, p = 0.01), and hospitalization length (OR 0.98, 95 % CI 0.977-0.999, p = 0.04) were indicated to be not only independent prognosis factors in HIV-negative CM patients with acute/subacute onset, but also factors significantly related to the survival time. The results of our study demonstrated that the contact history and potential history risk factors would not affect the onset process of HIV-negative CM patients, and the mortality, hospitalization length, and survival time has not been related to the onset process. However, the ratio of CSF glucose/blood glucose, consciousness level, and hospitalization length of the HIV-negative CM patients with acute/subacute onset should be of greater focus in the clinical work.

  6. Subchronic oral toxicity studies with α-cyclodextrin in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lina, B.A.R.; Bär, A.

    2004-01-01

    The toxicity of α-cyclodextrin (α-CD), a cyclic polymer of six α-1,4-linked glucopyranosyl units with potential applications as a food ingredient, more specifically a water-soluble dietary fiber, was examined in a 4-week range finding study and a 13-week oral toxicity study in rats. In the 4-week

  7. Indium acetate toxicity in male reproductive system in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kuo-Hsin; Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Leung, Chung-Man; Chen, Hsin-Pao; Hsu, Ping-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Indium, a rare earth metal characterized by high plasticity, corrosion resistance, and a low melting point, is widely used in the electronics industry, but has been reported to be an environmental pollutant and a health hazard. We designed a study to investigate the effects of subacute exposure of indium compounds on male reproductive function. Twelve-week old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into test and control groups, and received weekly intraperitoneal injections of indium acetate (1.5 mg/kg body weight) and normal saline, respectively, for 8 weeks. Serum indium levels, cauda epididymal sperm count, motility, morphology, chromatin DNA structure, mitochondrial membrane potential, oxidative stress, and testis DNA content were investigated. The indium acetate-treated group showed significant reproductive toxicity, as well as an increased percentage of sperm morphology abnormality, chromatin integrity damage, and superoxide anion generation. Furthermore, positive correlations among sperm morphology abnormalities, chromatin DNA damage, and superoxide anion generation were also noted. The results of this study demonstrated the toxic effect of subacute low-dose indium exposure during the period of sexual maturation on male reproductive function in adulthood, through an increase in oxidative stress and sperm chromatin DNA damage during spermiogenesis, in a rodent model. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Botulinum toxin for subacute/chronic neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Pierre; Peloso, Paul Michael J; Lowcock, Janet; Nolan, May; Weber, Jeff; Gross, Anita; Roberts, John; Goldsmith, Charles H; Graham, Nadine; Burnie, Stephen J; Haines, Ted

    2011-07-06

    Neck disorders are common, disabling and costly. Botulinum toxin (BoNT) intramuscular injections are often used with the intention of treating neck pain. To systematically evaluate the literature on the treatment effectiveness of BoNT for neck pain, disability, global perceived effect and quality of life in adults with neck pain with or without associated cervicogenic headache, but excluding cervical radiculopathy and whiplash associated disorder. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, AMED, Index to Chiropractic Literature, CINAHL, LILACS, and EMBASE from their origin to 20 September 2010. We included randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials in which BoNT injections were used to treat subacute or chronic neck pain. A minimum of two review authors independently selected articles, abstracted data, and assessed risk of bias, using the Cochrane Back Review Group criteria. In the absence of clinical heterogeneity, we calculated standardized mean differences (SMD) and relative risks, and performed meta-analyses using a random-effects model. The quality of the evidence and the strength of recommendations were assigned an overall grade for each outcome. We included nine trials (503 participants). Only BoNT type A (BoNT-A) was used in these studies.High quality evidence suggests there was little or no difference in pain between BoNT-A and saline injections at four weeks (five trials; 252 participants; SMD pooled -0.07 (95% confidence intervals (CI) -0.36 to 0.21)) and six months for chronic neck pain. Very low quality evidence indicated little or no difference in pain between BoNT-A combined with physiotherapeutic exercise and analgesics and saline injection with physiotherapeutic exercise and analgesics for patients with chronic neck pain at four weeks (two trials; 95 participants; SMD pooled 0.09 (95% CI -0.55 to 0.73)) and six months (one trial; 24 participants; SMD -0.56 (95% CI -1.39 to 0.27)). Very low quality evidence from one trial (32 participants) showed little

  9. Short communication: Noninvasive indicators to identify lactating dairy cows with a greater risk of subacute rumen acidosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gao, X; Oba, M

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate if milk urea nitrogen (MUN) and milk fat content could be used as the noninvasive indicator to identify cows with greater or lower risk of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA...

  10. Proportions of Streptococcus sanguis, an Organism Associated with Subacute Bacterial Endocarditis, in Human Feces and Dental Plaque

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Houte, J.; Jordan, H. V.; Bellack, S.

    1971-01-01

    The relative absence of Streptococcus sanguis in human feces, in contrast to its high concentration on teeth, supports the concept of the mouth as the likely bacterial source in cases of subacute bacterial endocarditis involving this organism. PMID:5154899

  11. EFFECT OF TASK SPECIFIC MIRROR THERAPY WITH FUNCTIONAL ELECTRICAL STIMULATION ON UPPER LIMB FUNCTION FOR SUBACUTE HEMIPLEGIA

    OpenAIRE

    Sumana Nagapattinam; Vinod Babu. K; Sai Kumar. N; Ayyappan. V.R

    2015-01-01

    Background: The principal target of any stroke rehabilitation is the motor impairments. Many studies have been advocated on the effect of Functional electrical stimulation and Task specific mirror therapy. Hence, the purpose of the study is to find the combined effect of task specific Mirror therapy with Functional Electrical Stimulation on upper limb function for subjects with sub-acute hemiplegia. Methods: An experimental study design, 60 subjects with sub-acute Hemiplegia randomised int...

  12. Emerging exposures of developmental toxicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Mary S; Buckley, Jessie P; Engel, Stephanie M; McConnell, Rob S; Barr, Dana B

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this review is to identify emerging developmental toxicants that are understudied in children's health. Exposures may arise from new products designed to improve utility, to reduce toxicity, or to replace undesirable chemicals. Exposures to less-toxic chemicals may also be significant if they are very commonly used, thereby generating widespread exposure. Sources of exposure include the workplace, personal, home, and office products; food, water, and air. We describe eight exposure categories that contain numerous potential developmental toxicants. References are discussed if reported in PubMed during the past decade at least 10 times more frequently than in 1990-2000. Examples included phthalates, phenols, sunscreens, pesticides, halogenated flame retardants, perfluoroalkyl coatings, nanoparticles, e-cigarettes, and dietary polyphenols. Replacements are often close structural homologs of their precursors. We suggest biomonitoring as preferred means of exposure assessment to emerging chemicals. Some existing analytic methods would require minimal modification to measure these exposures, but others require toxicokinetic and analytic investigation. A deliberate strategy for biomonitoring of emerging replacement chemicals is warranted, especially in view of concerns regarding developmental toxicity. To prevent adverse health effects, it is important to characterize such exposures before they become widely disseminated.

  13. Human Toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolliet, Olivier; Fantke, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reviews the human toxicological impacts of chemicals and how to assess these impacts in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA), in order to identify key processes and pollutants. The complete cause-effect pathway – from emissions of toxic substances up to damages on human health...... on characterisation factors means that results should by default be reported and interpreted in log scales when comparing scenarios or substance contribution! We conclude by outlining future trends in human toxicity modelling for LCIA, with promising developments for (a) better estimates of degradation halflives, (b......) the inclusion of ionization of chemicals in human exposure including bioaccumulation, (c) metal speciation, (d) spatialised models to differentiate the variability associated with spatialisation from the uncertainty, and (e) the assessment of chemical exposure via consumer products and occupational settings...

  14. Dietary supplements for aquatic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derave, Wim; Tipton, Kevin D

    2014-08-01

    Many athletes use dietary supplements, with use more prevalent among those competing at the highest level. Supplements are often self-prescribed, and their use is likely to be based on an inadequate understanding of the issues at stake. Supplementation with essential micronutrients may be useful when a diagnosed deficiency cannot be promptly and effectively corrected with food-based dietary solutions. When used in high doses, some supplements may do more harm than good: Iron supplementation, for example, is potentially harmful. There is good evidence from laboratory studies and some evidence from field studies to support health or performance benefits from appropriate use of a few supplements. The available evidence from studies of aquatic sports is small and is often contradictory. Evidence from elite performers is almost entirely absent, but some athletes may benefit from informed use of creatine, caffeine, and buffering agents. Poor quality assurance in some parts of the dietary supplements industry raises concerns about the safety of some products. Some do not contain the active ingredients listed on the label, and some contain toxic substances, including prescription drugs, that can cause health problems. Some supplements contain compounds that will cause an athlete to fail a doping test. Supplement quality assurance programs can reduce, but not entirely eliminate, this risk.

  15. Studying toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkus, A.; LeBlanc, L.; Kim, C.; Van Beneden, R.; Mayer, G.

    2006-01-01

    With funding from the George Mitchell Center for the Environment at the University of Maine, a team of scientists used a simple laboratory-based sediment resuspension design, and two well-established aquatic toxicology models, fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and zebrafish (Danio rerio), to evaluate if resuspension of Penobscot river sediment significantly elevates the toxicity of river water and to provide preliminary information on the types of chemicals likely to desorb during resuspension. The group collected sediments from two sites with known chemical contamination downstream of the Great Works and Veazie dams. The sediments were examined to determine the dynamics of PAH desorption and degradation under different resuspension frequencies. The scientists used clarified water from resuspension experiments for toxicity tests with the water-flea Ceriodaphnia dubia, and other aquatic test organisms to infer toxicity from sediments from northern California rivers. Data from the study will help ascertain whether metals and/or xenoestrogens are present in the desorption water and give insight into possible avenues of sediment remediation.

  16. Patients' and relatives' experience of difficulties following severe traumatic brain injury: the sub-acute stage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Sara; Schönberger, Michael; Poulsen, Ingrid

    2008-01-01

    was low compared to other studies using the EBIQ. Furthermore, the effects of injury severity and general level of functioning had limited impact on the subjective experience of difficulties. Implications of these findings, specifically as they pertain to the sub-acute stage are discussed Udgivelsesdato......The present study aimed to (1) identify the difficulties most frequently reported by individuals with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) at the time of discharge from a sub-acute rehabilitation brain injury unit as well as difficulties reported by their relatives, (2) compare patients......' and relatives' reports of patient difficulties, and (3) explore the role of injury severity, disability and other factors on subjective experience of difficulties. The primary measure was the European Brain Injury Questionnaire (EBIQ) administered to patients and to one of their close relatives at discharge...

  17. Ticlopidine-induced subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus: A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ching Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Many drugs have been reported to induce lupus in a minority of patients. Ticlopidine hydrochloride inhibits platelet aggregation and is widely used for the prevention of thrombosis. There have been only a few reports of ticlopidine-induced lupus. Here, we review 13 previously reported cases and describe the case of a 71-year-old man with ticlopidine-induced subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus. His diagnosis was supported by the appearance of papulosquamous skin lesions on sun-exposed areas and detectable anti-Ro/SS-A antibodies, shortly after drug initiation as well as the gradual resolution of these symptoms after the discontinuation of ticlopidine. Our case highlights that when a patient presents with subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus-like skin lesions, ticlopidine should be considered as a potential causative agent.

  18. Brain CT and MRI findings of a long-term case of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoshiba, Kazunori; Ota, Kohei; Komatsuzaki, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Itsuro; Maruyama, Shoichi

    1987-11-01

    Our study involved a long-term case (ten years) of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. The case began with a 23 year-old experiencing visual deterioration. During the course of his illness, amnesia, autism and abnormal behavior were observed without any myoclonus. On the electroencephalogram, periodic synclonous discharge was shown in the early stage of his illness and subsequently disappeared. The brain CT and the MRI disclosed diffuse lesions in both cortical and subcortical areas of the cerebral hemispheres. The location and spread of lesions were more clearly revealed by the MRI than the brain CT. These findings suggest that the MRI is more useful than the brain CT in the diagnosis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

  19. Lymphocyte subsets at different stages of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: a study with monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrosu, M G; Cianchetti, C; Ennas, M G

    1986-01-01

    Lymphocyte subsets in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and peripheral blood were studied using monoclonal antibodies, in patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, eight of whom were at stage 2 and seven at stage 4. Eighteen subjects affected with non immunological diseases constituted the controls. Regardless of the stage, patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis had lower percentages of OKT3+ (pan-T) cells in both CSF and peripheral blood, with an increase of OKIa+ cells (B cells, macrophages and active T cells) in peripheral blood. A difference was found in the proportion of OKT4+ (helper-inducer) and OKT8+ (suppressor/cytotoxic) cells in relation to the stage, the most striking finding being a significant decrease of OKT8+ with an increase of T4/T8 ratio in peripheral blood at an early stage. PMID:2942644

  20. Measles virus–specific plasma cells are prominent in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis CSF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, G.P.; Ritchie, A.M.; Gilden, D.H.; Burgoon, M.P.; Becker, D.; Bennett, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate the specificity of expanded CD138+ plasma cell clones recovered from the CSF of a patient with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) for measles virus (MV). Methods IgG variable region sequences of single-antibody-secreting CD138+ cells sorted from SSPE CSF were amplified by single-cell PCR and analyzed. Human IgG1 recombinant antibodies (rAbs) were produced from four expanded CD138+ clones and assayed for immunoreactivity against MV proteins. Results Clonal expansion was a prominent feature of the SSPE plasma cell repertoire, and each of the four rAbs assayed was specific for either the MV fusion or the MV nucleocapsid protein. Conclusions Expanded plasma cell clones in the CSF of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis produce disease-relevant antibodies. Recombinant antibodies derived from CSF B cells could provide a tool to identify target antigens in idiopathic inflammatory disorders. PMID:17515543

  1. Adverse Effects of Nutraceuticals and Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronis, Martin J J; Pedersen, Kim B; Watt, James

    2018-01-06

    Over 70% of Americans take some form of dietary supplement every day, and the supplement industry is currently big business, with a gross of over $28 billion. However, unlike either foods or drugs, supplements do not need to be registered or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) prior to production or sales. Under the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994, the FDA is restricted to adverse report monitoring postmarketing. Despite widespread consumption, there is limited evidence of health benefits related to nutraceutical or supplement use in well-nourished adults. In contrast, a small number of these products have the potential to produce significant toxicity. In addition, patients often do not disclose supplement use to their physicians. Therefore, the risk of adverse drug-supplement interactions is significant. An overview of the major supplement and nutraceutical classes is presented here, together with known toxic effects and the potential for drug interactions.

  2. Obturator internus pyomyositis manifested as sciatica in a patient with subacute bacterial endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Wei-Ching; Hsu, Jin-Yi; Chen, Michael Yu-Chih; Liang, Chung-Chao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pyomyositis is a pyogenic infection of the skeletal muscles causing myalgia and fever in patients. Hematogenous seeding engendered by persistent bacteremia and septic embolism is usually the underlying cause of the disease. Trauma, intravenous drug use, and immunodeficiency are the main predisposing factors. Obturator internus pyomyositis with sciatica has not previously been reported. We report a rare case of a patient with subacute bacterial endocarditis presenting with left buttoc...

  3. MRI and MR spectroscopy findings of a case of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis affecting the corpus callosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Mehmet; Sığırcı, Ahmet; Yakıncı, Cengiz

    2015-07-10

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare, slowly progressive, fatal, inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease that is seen mostly in children and young adolescents, and primarily affects the parieto-occipital lobes. The corpus callosum, cerebellum and basal ganglia are less frequently involved. MR spectroscopy (MRS) may illustrate the pathophysiological features of SSPE. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second report of MRS findings of corpus callosum involvement in a stage 3 SSPE case. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  4. Atypical clinical and electroencephalographic pattern in a patient with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Délrio F. Silva

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe an atypical clinical and electroencephalographic (EEG pattern observed during the course of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in a 14 year-old boy. In this patient with a two weeks history of partial complex seizures, the atypical EEG pattern was characterized by an initial left temporal focus which evolved to periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges (PLEDs and, only during the 3rd and 4th weeks the typical bilateral and generalized periodic complexes appeared.

  5. Wild-type Measles Virus in Brain Tissue of Children with Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrero, Paola Roxana; Grippo, Jorge; Viegas, Mariana

    2003-01-01

    We studied eight children who had measles at 6 to 10 months of age during the 1998 Argentine measles outbreak and in whom subacute sclerosing panencephalitis developed 4 years later. We report the genetic characterization of brain tissue–associated measles virus samples from three patients. Phylogenetic relationships clustered these viruses with the wild-type D6 genotype isolated during the 1998 outbreak. The children received measles vaccine; however, vaccinal strains were not found. PMID:14609476

  6. Role of CSF serology in follow-up of subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis patients on treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta E

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE is a progressive inflammatory disease of the central nervous system with poor prognosis and high mortality. No effective treatment has a proven role; oral isoprinosine and intrathecal administration of a-interferon may prolong survival. We report an unusual case of adult onset SSPE patient on treatment with significant clinical improvement, even in the absence of conversion to seronegativity in either CSF or serum, on follow-up serological examination.

  7. Effects of myofascial technique in patients with subacute whiplash associated disorders: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picelli, A; Ledro, G; Turrina, A; Stecco, C; Santilli, V; Smania, N

    2011-12-01

    Whiplash associated disorders commonly affect people after a motor vehicle accident, causing a variety of disabling manifestations. Some manual and physical approaches have been proposed to improve myofascial function after traumatic injuries, in order to effectively reduce pain and functional limitation. To evaluate whether the application of the Fascial Manipulation© technique could be more effective than a conventional approach to improve cervical range of motion in patients with subacute whiplash associated disorders. Pilot randomized clinical trial. Eighteen patients with subacute whiplash associated disorders were randomized into two groups. Group A (N.=9) received three, 30-minute sessions, (every five days during a two week period) of neck Fascial Manipulation©. Group B (N.=9) received ten, 30-minute sessions (five days a week for two consecutive weeks) of neck exercises plus mobilization. Patients were evaluated before, immediately after and two weeks post-treatment. cervical active range of motion (flexion, extension, right lateral-flexion, left lateral-flexion, right rotation, and left rotation). A statistically significant improvement in neck flexion was found after treatment in favour of Group A (60.2±10.8°) compared with Group B (46.3±15.1°). No differences were found between groups for the other primary outcomes at post-treatment or follow-up. The Fascial Manipulation© technique may be a promising method to improve cervical range of motion in patients with subacute whiplash associated disorders. Myofascial techniques may be useful for improving treatment of subacute whiplash associated disorders also reducing their economic burden.

  8. Cerebral Reorganization in Subacute Stroke Survivors after Virtual Reality-Based Training: A Preliminary Study

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang Xiao; Qiang Lin; Wai-Leung Lo; Yu-Rong Mao; Xin-chong Shi; Cates, Ryan S.; Shu-Feng Zhou; Dong-Feng Huang; Le Li

    2017-01-01

    Background Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a promising method for quantifying brain recovery and investigating the intervention-induced changes in corticomotor excitability after stroke. This study aimed to evaluate cortical reorganization subsequent to virtual reality-enhanced treadmill (VRET) training in subacute stroke survivors. Methods Eight participants with ischemic stroke underwent VRET for 5 sections per week and for 3 weeks. fMRI was conducted to quantify the activit...

  9. Neuraminidase production by a Streptococcus sanguis strain associated with subacute bacterial endocarditis.

    OpenAIRE

    Straus, D. C.; Portnoy-Duran, C

    1983-01-01

    The properties of an extracellular neuraminidase produced by a Streptococcus sanguis strain (isolated from a confirmed case of subacute bacterial endocarditis) during growth in a defined medium was examined in this investigation. This enzyme, isolated from concentrated culture supernatants of S. sanguis biotype II, was active against human alpha-1 acid glycoprotein, N-acetylneuramin lactose, bovine submaxillary mucin, and fetuin. Neuraminidase production paralleled bacterial growth in defined...

  10. Subacute Combined Degeneration of the Spinal Cord Due to Cronic Helicobacter pylori Infection. A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Márquez, Juan Camilo; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana-Hospital Universitario San Ignacio; de Valencia, Catalina; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana-Hospital Universitario San Ignacio; Ramírez, Sandra Milena; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana-Hospital Universitario San Ignacio; Uribe Vargas, Mario; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana-Hospital Universitario San Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Subacute combined degeneration is an uncommon condition. The diagnosis is established by correlating the clinical history, laboratory tests and findings on MRI. We report the case of a female patient with neurological symptoms characteristic of myelopathy with C5 sensory level. The cervical MRI shows demyelinated lesions in the posterior spinal cord. Clinically, anemia, chronic gastritis and Helicobacter pylori infection, as well as cyanocobalamin paraclinical deficit were also demonstrated. ...

  11. Toxic shock syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome; Toxic shock-like syndrome; TSLS ... Toxic shock syndrome is caused by a toxin produced by some types of staphylococcus bacteria. A similar problem, called toxic shock- ...

  12. Glutathione, glutathione-related enzymes, and oxidative stress in individuals with subacute occupational exposure to lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrakowski, Michał; Pawlas, Natalia; Hudziec, Edyta; Kozłowska, Agnieszka; Mikołajczyk, Agnieszka; Birkner, Ewa; Kasperczyk, Sławomir

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of subacute exposure to lead on the glutathione-related antioxidant defense and oxidative stress parameters in 36 males occupationally exposed to lead for 40±3.2days. Blood lead level in the examined population increased significantly by 359% due to lead exposure. Simultaneously, erythrocyte glutathione level decreased by 16%, whereas the activity of glutathione-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in erythrocytes and leukocytes decreased by 28% and 10%, respectively. Similarly, the activity of glutathione-S-transferase in erythrocytes decreased by 45%. However, the activity of glutathione reductase in erythrocytes and leukocytes increased by 26% and 6%, respectively, whereas the total oxidant status value in leukocytes increased by 37%. Subacute exposure to lead results in glutathione pool depletion and accumulation of lipid peroxidation products; however, it does not cause DNA damage. Besides, subacute exposure to lead modifies the activity of glutathione-related enzymes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. EBV driven natural killer cell disease of the central nervous system presenting as subacute cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Francesca M; Flavin, Richard; Chen, Daphne; Loftus, Teresa; Looby, Seamus; McCarthy, Allan; de Gascun, Cillian; Jaffe, Elaine S; Nor, Nurul; Javadpour, Mohsen; McCabe, Dominick

    2017-11-01

    Brain biopsy in patients presenting with subacute encephalopathyis never straightforward and only undertaken when a 'treatable condition' is a realistic possibility. This 63 year old right handed, immunocompetent Caucasian woman presented with an 8 month history of rapidly progressive right-sided hearing impairment, a 4 month history of intermittent headaches, tinnitus, 'dizziness', dysphagia, nausea and vomiting, with the subsequent evolution of progressive gait ataxia and a subacute global encephalopathy. The possibility of CJD was raised. Brain biopsy was carried out. Western blot for prion protein was negative. She died 9 days later and autopsy brain examination confirmed widespread subacute infarction due to an EBV positive atypical NK/T-cell infiltrate with positivity for CD3, CD56, granzyme B, perforin and EBER with absence of CD4, CD5 and CD8 expression. Molecular studies for T-cell clonality were attempted but failed due to insufficient DNA quality. Serology was consistent with past EBV infection (EBV VCA and EBNA IgG Positive). There was no evidence of disease outside the CNS. Primary central nervous system NK/T-cell lymphoma is extremely rare. The rare reported cases all present with a discrete intracranial mass, unlike the diffuse infiltrative pattern in this case. Whilst the diffuse interstitial pattern is reminiscent of chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV) seen in other organ systems such as the liver and bone marrow, the clinical presentation and epidemiologic profile are not typical for CAEBV.

  14. The effect of knee joint Mulligan taping on balance and gait in subacute stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Ki-Hoon; Cho, Hwi-Young; Lim, Chae-Gil

    2015-11-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the effects of Mulligan taping on balance and gait in subacute stroke patients. [Subjects] Thirty patients with subacute stroke were randomly divided into two groups: the experimental group (n = 15) and the control group (n = 15). Mulligan taping was applied to the knee joints of participants in the experimental group while placebo taping was applied to knee joints of subjects in the control group. Biodex was used to assess their balance ability and the GAITRite System was used to test gait. All measurements were performed before and after the intervention. [Results] Dynamic standing balance of the experimental group significantly improved after taping. Gait, gait cadence, velocity, step length, and stride length also improved significantly. However, no significant differences in standing balance or gait were observed for the control group. Furthermore, significant differences in dynamic standing balance, cadence, and velocity were found between the two groups after the intervention. [Conclusion] Our results demonstrate that Mulligan taping is effective for improving balance and gait in subacute stroke patients. Thus, this technique is a potential method for actively facilitating rehabilitation programs for hemiplegia patients.

  15. The modified pulse-spray method using Urokinase in subacute and chronic thrombotic arterial occlusion

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    Kim, Youn Kil; Hahn, Seong Tae; Baek, Jee Hee; Kim, Choon Yul; Shinn, Kyung Sub [The Catholic Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the modified pulse-spray method using Urokinase(UK) in subacute and chronic thrombotic arterial occlusion. Modified pulse-spray methods using UK were performed in seven patients with subacute (1 week-1month) to chronic (1month-5years) occlusive symptoms such as limb pain, claudication and impotence. Angiographic examination revealed thrombotic occlusion of the aorta, common iliac arteries, brachial arterio-venous hemodialysis graft and femoro-popliteal bypass graft. The patients underwent thrombolysis using modified pulse-spray and additional constant infusion of UK. In the presence of underlying stenosis or organized clots, balloon angioplasty or stent placement was performed. Complete lysis was obtained in five of seven patients. For initial lysis, the mean dose of UK was 420,000 units, and the mean modified pulse-spray time was 50 minutes. Mean total dose of UK and mean total time for complete lysis were 800,000 units and 161 minutes, respectively. Thrombolysis of the femoro-popliteal bypass graft failed due to severe occlusion of the distal anastomosis. Partial lysis was achieved in one patient with aorto-illac occlusion, but further thrombolysis was stopped due to bleeding at the puncture site. The modified pulse-spray method using UK is effective in treating subacute and chronic arterial thrombotic occlusion. It augments the speed, safety and efficacy of thrombolysis. When underlying stenosis or organized clots remain after thrombolysis, ballon angioplasty or stent placement would be helpful.

  16. Cerebral toxoplasmosis mimicking subacute meningitis in HIV-infected patients; a cohort study from Indonesia.

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    A Rizal Ganiem

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV-associated subacute meningitis is mostly caused by tuberculosis or cryptococcosis, but often no etiology can be established. In the absence of CT or MRI of the brain, toxoplasmosis is generally not considered as part of the differential diagnosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed cerebrospinal fluid real time PCR and serological testing for Toxoplasma gondii in archived samples from a well-characterized cohort of 64 HIV-infected patients presenting with subacute meningitis in a referral hospital in Indonesia. Neuroradiology was only available for 6 patients. At time of presentation, patients mostly had newly diagnosed and advanced HIV infection (median CD4 count 22 cells/mL, with only 17.2% taking ART, and 9.4% PJP-prophylaxis. CSF PCR for T. Gondii was positive in 21 patients (32.8%. Circulating toxoplasma IgG was present in 77.2% of patients tested, including all in whom the PCR of CSF was positive for T. Gondii. Clinically, in the absence of neuroradiology, toxoplasmosis was difficult to distinguish from tuberculosis or cryptococcal meningitis, although CSF abnormalities were less pronounced. Mortality among patients with a positive CSF T. Gondii PCR was 81%, 2.16-fold higher (95% CI 1.04-4.47 compared to those with a negative PCR. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Toxoplasmosis should be considered in HIV-infected patients with clinically suspected subacute meningitis in settings where neuroradiology is not available.

  17. Acetylcysteine in the treatment of subacute sinusitis: A double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahtouee, Mehrzad; Monavarsadegh, Gholamhosein; Ahmadipour, Mohammadjavad; Motieilangroodi, Mazyar; Motamed, Niloofar; Saberifard, Jamshid; Eghbali, Seyyedsajjad; Adibi, Hooman; Maneshi, Hesam; Malekizadeh, Hasan

    2017-01-01

    Sinusitis is a common disease with harmful effects on the health and finances of patients and the economy of the community. It is easily treated in most of its acute stages but is associated with some management difficulties as it goes toward chronicity. Therefore, we tried to improve the treatment of subacute sinusitis by using acetylcysteine, which is a safe mucolytic and antioxidant agent. Thirty-nine adult patients with subacute sinusitis proved by computed tomography (CT) were enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. They received oral amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and normal saline nasal drops for 10 days and oral pseudoephedrine for 7 days. In addition, the patients received acetylcysteine (600 mg orally, once daily) in the intervention group or placebo in the control group for 10 days. A paranasal CT scan was taken at baseline and 30 days after patients finished the treatment and was evaluated quantitatively by Lund-Mackay (LM) score. Symptoms and some aspects of quality of life also were assessed at baseline and 14 days after initiation and 30 days after termination of the treatment via the Sino-Nasal Outcome Test questionnaire. The groups showed no significant difference in LM score after treatment. A positive correlation was observed between the LM and SNOT-20 scores. We concluded that adding oral acetylcysteine to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, pseudoephedrine, and intranasal normal saline has no benefit for the treatment of subacute sinusitis.

  18. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis presenting as acute cerebellar ataxia and brain stem hyperintensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Arushi Gahlot; Sankhyan, Naveen; Padmanabh, Hansashree; Sahu, Jitendra Kumar; Vyas, Sameer; Singhi, Pratibha

    2016-05-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is a devastating neurodegenerative disease with a characteristic clinical course. Atypical presentations may be seen in 10% of the cases. To describe the atypical clinical and radiological features of SSPE in a child form endemic country. A 5-year-old boy presented with acute-onset cerebellar ataxia without associated encephalopathy, focal motor deficits, seizures or cognitive decline. He had varicella-like illness with vesicular, itchy truncal rash erupting one month prior to the onset of these symptoms. He underwent detailed neurological assessment, relevant laboratory and radiological investigations. Neuroimaging revealed peculiar brain stem lesions involving the pons and cerebellum suggestive of demyelination. With a presumptive diagnosis of clinically isolated syndrome of demyelination, he was administered pulse methylprednisolone (30 mg/kg/day for 5 days). Four weeks later he developed myoclonic jerks. Electroencephalogram showed characteristic periodic complexes time-locked with myoclonus. CSF and serum anti-measles antibody titres were elevated (1:625). Our report highlights that subacute sclerosing panencephalitis can present atypically as isolated acute cerebellar ataxia and peculiar involvement of longitudinal and sparing of transverse pontine fibres. The predominant brainstem abnormalities in the clinical setting may mimick acute demyelinating syndrome. Hence, it is important to recognize these features of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in children, especially in the endemic countries. Copyright © 2016 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. An evaluation of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis patients with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuhandan, M; Cece, H; Calik, M; Karakas, E; Dogan, F; Karakas, O

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the contribution of diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging to the diagnosis and staging of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. The study comprised 26 patients diagnosed with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis at our clinic who were undergoing regular follow-up, and a control group of 18 subjects. Clinical staging was determined by Risk and Haddad classification; 12 at Stage II and 14 at Stage III. Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance images were taken of six areas (frontal, parieto-occipital, cerebellar, deep white matter, thalamus and basal ganglia) and by calculating the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values, and a comparison was made between the stages and with the control group. The ADC values of all the areas of the subacute sclerosing panencephalitis patients were found to be significantly higher compared to the control group (p 0.05). The ADC values of all the areas of the Stage III patients were found to be significantly high compared to the Stage II values (p panencephalitis and to reveal differences between the stages.

  20. CT Findings in Acute, Subacute, and Chronic Ischemic Colitis: Suggestions for Diagnosis

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    Francesca Iacobellis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This paper aims at evaluating CT findings of occlusive and nonocclusive ischemic colitis (IC, in correlation with the etiology and the different phases of the disease. Materials and Methods. CT examination and clinical history of 32 patients with proven IC were retrospectively reviewed. The CT findings were analyzed according to the different phases of the disease (acute, subacute, and chronic. Results. Among the 32 CT examinations performed in the acute phase, 62.5% did not present signs of occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA or inferior mesenteric artery (IMA, whereas IMA occlusion was detected in 37.5% of CT examinations. In the acute phase, the presence of pericolic fluid was found in 100% of patients undergoing progressive resorption from acute to subacute phase if an effective reperfusion occurred; the bowel wall thickening was observed in 28.1% patients in acute phase and in 86.4% patients evaluated in subacute phase. The unthickened colonic wall was found in all conditions where ischemia was not followed by effective reperfusion (71.9% of cases, and it was never found in chronic phase, when the colon appeared irregularly thickened. Conclusion. CT allows determining the morphofunctional alterations associated with the IC discriminating the occlusive forms from the nonocclusive forms. CT, furthermore, allows estimating the timing of ischemic damage.

  1. Peak Cardiorespiratory Responses of Patients with Subacute Stroke During Land and Aquatic Treadmill Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Ki; Kim, Bo Ryun; Han, Eun Young

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the cardiorespiratory responses of patients with subacute stroke to exercise stress tests with aquatic and land treadmills. Twenty-one consecutive patients who presented with first-ever subacute stroke in 2013-2015. All subjects underwent symptom-limited incremental exercise testing with aquatic and land treadmills. Land treadmill speed started at 1.5 km/h and increased 0.5 km/h every 1 to 2 minutes until maximal tolerable speed was achieved. Thereafter, the grade was elevated by 2% every 2 minutes. In the aquatic treadmill test, subjects were submerged to the xiphoid in 28°C water. Treadmill speed started at 1.5 km/h and was increased 0.5 km/h every 2 minutes thereafter. Cardiorespiratory responses were recorded with aquatic and land treadmills. Compared to land treadmill exercise, aquatic treadmill exercise achieved significantly better peak VO2 (22.0 vs 20.0; P = 0.02), peak metabolic equivalents (6.3 vs 5.8; P = 0.02), and peak rating of perceived exertion (17.6 vs 18.4, P = 0.01). Heart rate and VO2 correlated significantly during both tests (land treadmill: r = 0.96, P aquatic treadmill: r = 0.99, P Aquatic treadmill exercise elicited significantly better peak cardiorespiratory responses than land treadmill exercise and may be as effective for early intensive aerobic training in subacute stroke patients.

  2. Improving the accuracy of admitted subacute clinical costing: an action research approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkennes, Sharon; Arblaster, Ross; Lim, Kim

    2017-08-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to determine whether action research could be used to improve the breadth and accuracy of clinical costing data in an admitted subacute setting Methods The setting was a 100-bed in-patient rehabilitation centre. Using a pre-post study design all admitted subacute separations during the 2011-12 financial year were eligible for inclusion. An action research framework aimed at improving clinical costing methodology was developed and implemented. Results In all, 1499 separations were included in the study. A medical record audit of a random selection of 80 separations demonstrated that the use of an action research framework was effective in improving the breadth and accuracy of the costing data. This was evidenced by a significant increase in the average number of activities costed, a reduction in the average number of activities incorrectly costed and a reduction in the average number of activities missing from the costing, per episode of care. Conclusions Engaging clinicians and cost centre managers was effective in facilitating the development of robust clinical costing data in an admitted subacute setting. Further investigation into the value of this approach across other care types and healthcare services is warranted. What is known about this topic? Accurate clinical costing data is essential for informing price models used in activity-based funding. In Australia, there is currently a lack of robust admitted subacute cost data to inform the price model for this care type. What does this paper add? The action research framework presented in this study was effective in improving the breadth and accuracy of clinical costing data in an admitted subacute setting. What are the implications for practitioners? To improve clinical costing practices, health services should consider engaging key stakeholders, including clinicians and cost centre managers, in reviewing clinical costing methodology. Robust clinical costing data has

  3. Robot training for hand motor recovery in subacute stroke patients: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orihuela-Espina, Felipe; Roldán, Giovana Femat; Sánchez-Villavicencio, Israel; Palafox, Lorena; Leder, Ronald; Sucar, Luis Enrique; Hernández-Franco, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Evidence of superiority of robot training for the hand over classical therapies in stroke patients remains controversial. During the subacute stage, hand training is likely to be the most useful. To establish whether robot active assisted therapies provides any additional motor recovery for the hand when administered during the subacute stage (occupational therapy, robot based therapies for hand recovery will show significant differences at subacute stages. A randomized clinical trial. A between subjects randomized controlled trial was carried out on subacute stroke patients (n = 17) comparing robot active assisted therapy (RT) with a classical occupational therapy (OT). Both groups received 40 sessions ensuring at least 300 repetitions per session. Treatment duration was (mean ± std) 2.18 ± 1.25 months for the control group and 2.44 ± 0.88 months for the study group. The primary outcome was motor dexterity changes assessed with the Fugl-Meyer (FMA) and the Motricity Index (MI). Both groups (OT: n = 8; RT: n = 9) exhibited significant improvements over time (Non-parametric Cliff's delta-within effect sizes: dwOT-FMA = 0.5, dwOT-MI = 0.5, dwRT-FMA = 1, dwRT-MI = 1). Regarding differences between the therapies; the Fugl-Meyer score indicated a significant advantage for the hand training with the robot (FMA hand: WRS: W = 8, p hand prehension for RT with respect to OT but failed to reach significance (MI prehension: W = 17.5, p = 0.080). No harm occurred. Robotic therapies may be useful during the subacute stages of stroke - both endpoints (FM hand and MI prehension) showed the expected trend with bigger effect size for the robotic intervention. Additional benefit of the robotic therapy over the control therapy was only significant when the difference was measured with FM, demanding further investigation with larger samples. Implications of this study are important for decision making during therapy administration and resource allocation

  4. [Toxic methemoglobinemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, P; Neuhaus, H

    2011-04-01

    A 19 year-old female patient suffered from severe hypoxemia after an ambulant surgery for splayfeet. Local anesthesia had been performed with prilocain and bupivacain. Methemoglobinemia was suspected and treated with ascorbine acid and methylene blue. The patient was then admitted to hospital. The patient was well orientated and awake. She complained of a mild headache and general illness. There was marked central cyanosis. A blood sample was dark-red to brownish. The periphere oxygen saturation was 85%. A cardiac ultrasound and a chest X ray were without pathological findings. Initial arterial blood gas analysis showed a concentration of methemoglobin of 24%. On intensive care clinical and laboratory findings quickly resolved and methemoglobin concentration normalized after one day. The patient had no symptoms anymore and was discharged the next day. In treatment-resistent hypoxemia after local anesthesia toxic methemoglobinaemia should be suspected. Therapy of choice is immediate administration of methylene blue. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Changes in Glutamate/NMDA Receptor Subunit 1 Expression in Rat Brain after Acute and Subacute Exposure to Methamphetamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walailuk Kerdsan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine (METH is a psychostimulant drug of abuse that produces long-term behavioral changes including behavioral sensitization, tolerance, and dependence. METH has been reported to induce neurotoxic effects in several areas of the brain via the dopaminergic system. Changes of dopamine function can induce malfunction of the glutamatergic system. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the effects of METH administration on the expression of glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 1 (NMDAR1 in frontal cortex, striatum, and hippocampal formation after acute and subacute exposure to METH by western blotting. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intraperitoneally with a single dose of 8 mg/kg METH, 4 mg/kg/day METH for 14 days and saline in acute, subacute, and control groups, respectively. A significant increase in NMDAR1 immunoreactive protein was found in frontal cortex in the subacute group (P=.036 but not in the acute group (P=.580. Moreover, a significant increase in NMDAR1 was also observed in striatum in both acute (P=.025 and subacute groups (P=.023. However, no significant differences in NMDAR1 in hippocampal formation were observed in either acute or subacute group. The results suggest that an upregulation of NMDA receptor expression may be a consequence of glutamatergic dysfunction induced by METH.

  6. Developing an ICF core set for sub-acute stages of spinal cord injury in Taiwan: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hung-Chou; Yen, Tze-Hsun; Chang, Kwang-Hwa; Lin, Yen-Nung; Wang, Yen-Ho; Liou, Tsan-Hon

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an ICF core set describing sub-acute spinal cord injury (SCI) specifically for Taiwanese patients. A consensus process using three rounds of Delphi technique was conducted. Twenty multidisciplinary participants from various institutions were recruited. The questionnaire used in this study comprised 118 ICF second-level categories relevant to the sub-acute stage of SCI. A five-point Likert scale was used, and participants were asked to assign weights to the effect of each category on activities of daily life after SCI. The consensus among ratings was assessed using Spearman's rho and semi-interquartile range (SIQR) indices. The core set for post-acute SCI was developed from categories that attained a mean score of ≥3.8 in the third round of the Delphi exercise. The core set for sub-acute SCI contained 58 categories. Of these, 24 comprised the component of body functions (b), 5 comprised body structures (s), 21 comprised activities and participation (d), and 8 comprised environmental factors (e). The preliminary core set for sub-acute SCI offers a comprehensive system of disability assessment and verification after people have sustained an SCI. Further validation is required. Implication for Rehabilitation The preliminary core set for sub-acute SCI offers a comprehensive system for disability assessment related to SCI among Taiwanese patients. This core set reflected problems commonly encountered by patients with SCI. This core set reflects appropriate cultural and geographic perspectives in adjustment to SCI.

  7. Selenium status in adult cats and dogs fed high levels of dietary inorganic and organic selenium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todd, S.E.; Thomas, D.G.; Bosch, G.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    Cats maintain higher blood Se concentrations compared to dogs and, unlike dogs, show no signs of chronic Se toxicity (selenosis) when fed dietary organic Se (selenomethionine) concentrations of 10 µg/g DM. This study investigated the response of cats and dogs to high dietary concentrations of sodium

  8. Bioaccumulation and subacute toxicity of mechanically and chemically dispersed heavy fuel oil in sea urchin (Glyptocidaris crenulari

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    Bailin Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil spills have a disastrous ecological impact on ecosystems but few data are available for the effects of dispersed oil on benthic marine organisms. In order to provide information for assessment, we analysed the hydrocarbon compositions of the mechanically dispersed water accommodated fraction (MDWAF and the chemically dispersed water accommodated fraction (CDWAF of No. 120 fuel oil, their bioaccumulation, and DNA damage related to oil exposure, using the sea urchin as a sentinel organism. The results show that the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in the tissues of sea urchin exposed to the CDWAF is higher than that of those exposed to the MDWAF. The single cell gel electrophoresis assay results also indicated higher DNA damage from exposure to the CDWAF of oil. Thus, dispersants should be applied with caution in oil spill accidents.

  9. Evaluation of safety margins of Chenopodium album seed decoction: 14-day subacute toxicity and microbicidal activity studies

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    Mondal Nirup B

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sperm immobilizing activity and plausible mechanism of action of Chenopodium album seed decoction (CAD have been elucidated in our earlier studies. The present study has been carried out to explore the safety standards of CAD along with microbicidal properties as prerequisite for its use as a topically applicable vaginal contraceptive. Methods The safety standards of CAD were assessed by a Hemolytic index determination using rabbit erythrocytes, to set the doses of the other experiments, b Dermal irritancy test using refined version of Draize scoring system on rabbits, c Possible effect on local tissues and reproductive performance in female rats after fourteen daily single dose application, d PCNA staining- to evaluate the effect of CAD on vaginal tissue proliferation, e TUNEL assay- to examine its ability to induce in situ apoptosis in the vaginal tissue sections of the treated animals, and f Microbicidal activity- to explore the effect of CAD on the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Candida albicans. Results In vitro irritation studies on rabbit erythrocytes revealed the hemolytic index of CAD to be 8.2 mg/ml. The dermal irritation test showed it to be a non-irritant even at higher doses. Intra vaginal application of CAD in rat vagina for 14 consecutive days caused slight reversible inflammation on vaginal epithelial cells at doses as high as 82 mg/ml. However, at this dose level it neither had any adverse effect on vaginal tissue proliferation nor did it cause in situ apoptosis as evident from PCNA staining and TUNEL assay. Fertility and fecundity were restored 4-15 days after withdrawal of CAD application. At dose level 10 times that of its spermicidal MEC (minimum effective concentration, CAD did not block the growth of Lactobacillus, although the size of individual colony was marginally reduced. However, growth of the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans was completely inhibited with 20 mg/ml of CAD. Conclusion The overall result evolved from the study strengthens the candidature of CAD as a safe microbicidal spermicide. It is almost non-irritant to rabbit skin and rat vaginal tissues at doses 10 fold higher than its hemolytic index. The effect of CAD on Lactobacillus culture was not highly encouraging but it prevented the growth of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans at 20 mg/ml of CAD.

  10. Dietary determinants of obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Huaidong, D.U.; Feskens, E. J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity has become a serious public health problem worldwide, and dietary composition can play a role in its prevention and treatment. However, available literature on the impacts of different dietary factors on weight change is inconsistent, or even conflicting. In this review, we briefly summarized the mechanisms and influences of several major dietary determinants of weight change, with a focus on their potential in the prevention of weight gain or regain. We discussed the intake of fat, p...

  11. Relationship between thiamine and subacute ruminal acidosis induced by a high-grain diet in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, X H; Yang, L; Xue, F G; Xin, H R; Jiang, L S; Xiong, B H; Beckers, Y

    2016-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to reveal the effects of grain-induced subacute rumen acidosis (SARA) on thiamine status in blood and rumen fluid in dairy cows. In both experiments, 6 multiparous, rumen-fistulated Holstein dairy cows were used in a 2-treatment, 2-period crossover design. Each experimental period consisted of 21d (total of 42d). Experiment 1 was to investigate the effects of SARA on thiamine status in blood and rumen fluid. Treatments were either control (20% starch, dry matter basis) or SARA-inducing diet (SAID, 33.2% starch, dry matter basis). In experiment 2, the effects of dietary thiamine supplementation on attenuating SARA and ruminal fermentation characteristics in dairy cows were studied. All cows received the same SAID diet during the whole experimental period; treatments were with or without thiamine (180mg of thiamine/kg of dry matter intake). In both experiments, rumen fluid samples were collected at 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12h after morning feeding on d 21 and 42 of the experiments for measurement of pH, thiamine, volatile fatty acid, and lactate contents. Peripheral blood was also collected at 3h after morning feeding on d 21 and 42 to measure thiamine, carbohydrate metabolites, and enzyme activities. In experiment 1, cows fed the SAID diet had lower ruminal and plasma thiamine concentrations and higher lactate than cows fed the control diet. The ruminal thiamine contents were positively related to pH and the concentrations of acetate in the rumen, and negatively correlated with the lactate contents. Experiment 2 demonstrated that ruminal pH and the concentrations of thiamine, acetate, and total volatile fatty acids in the rumen were increased, whereas ruminal lactate contents were reduced by thiamine supplementation. The concentrations of lactate and the activity of lactate dehydrogenase in blood were reduced in the thiamine supplemented group, and the opposite was true for the nonesterified fatty acids and α-ketoneglutarate dehydrogenase

  12. Selenium deficiency and toxicity in the environment

    OpenAIRE

    Fordyce, Fiona

    2005-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is a naturally occurring metalloid element, which is essential to human and other animal health in trace amounts but is harmful in excess. Of all the elements, selenium has one of the narrowest ranges between dietary deficiency (40 gday1) and toxic levels (400gday1) (WHO, 1996), which makes it necessary to carefully control intakes by humans and other animals, hence, the importance of understanding the relationships between environmental exposure and health. Geology exerts...

  13. Grain-based versus alfalfa-based subacute ruminal acidosis induction experiments: Similarities and differences between changes in milk fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, E; Khafipour, E; Vlaeminck, B; De Baets, B; Plaizier, J C; Fievez, V

    2013-07-01

    Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) is one of the most important metabolic disorders, traditionally characterized by low rumen pH, which might be induced by an increase in the dietary proportion of grains as well as by a reduction of structural fiber. Both approaches were used in earlier published experiments in which SARA was induced by replacing part of the ration by a grain mixture or alfalfa hay by alfalfa pellets. The main differences between both experiments were the presence of blood lipopolysaccharide and Escherichia coli and associated effects on the rumen microbial population in the rumen of grain-based induced SARA animals as well as a great amount of quickly fermentable carbohydrates in the grain-based SARA induction experiment. Both induction approaches changed rumen pH although the pH decrease was more substantial in the alfalfa-based SARA induction protocol. The goal of the current analysis was to assess whether both acidosis induction approaches provoked similar shifts in the milk fatty acid (FA) profile. Similar changes of the odd- and branched-chain FA and the C18 biohydrogenation intermediates were observed in the alfalfa-based SARA induction experiment and the grain-based SARA induction experiment, although they were more pronounced in the former. The proportion of trans-10 C18:1 in the last week of the alfalfa-based induction experiment was 6 times higher than the proportion measured during the control week. The main difference between both induction experiments under similar rumen pH changes was the decreasing sum of iso FA during the grain-based SARA induction experiment whereas the sum of iso FA remained stable during the alfalfa-based SARA induction experiment. The cellulolytic bacterial community seemed to be negatively affected by either the presence of E. coli and the associated lipopolysaccharide accumulation in the rumen or by the amount of starch and quickly fermentable carbohydrates in the diet. In general, changes in the milk FA

  14. Multidisciplinary biopsychosocial rehabilitation for subacute low back pain among working age adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, K; Malmivaara, A; van Tulder, M; Roine, R; Jauhiainen, M; Hurri, H; Koes, B

    2003-01-01

    Multidisciplinary biopsychosocial rehabilitation programs are widely applied for chronic low back pain patients. The biopsychosocial approach can also prevent chronicity, by providing rehabilitation for patients who still have pain past the initial acute phase. Nevertheless, multidisciplinary treatment programmes are often laborious and long processes and require good collaboration between the patient, the rehabilitation team and the work place. By using workplace visits and developing close relationships with occupational health care providers, one might expect patients' working ability to improve. The objective of this systematic review was to determine the effectiveness of multidisciplinary rehabilitation for subacute low back pain among working age adults. The reviewed studies for this review were electronically identified from MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycLIT, CENTRAL, Medic, the Science Citation Index, reference checking and consulting experts in the rehabilitation field. The original search was planned and performed for the broader area of musculoskeletal disorders. Trials on subacute low back pain were separated afterwards. The literature search was last updated in November 2002 in EMBASE and MEDLINE. From all references identified in our original search, we selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomised controlled clinical trials (CCTs). Trials had to assess the effectiveness of multidisciplinary rehabilitation for working age patients suffering from subacute low back pain (more than four weeks but less than three months). The rehabilitation program was required to be multidisciplinary, i.e., it had to consist of a physician's consultation plus either a psychological, social or vocational intervention, or a combination of these. Four reviewers blinded to journal and author selected trials that met the specified inclusion criteria. Two experts in the field of rehabilitation evaluated the clinical relevance and applicability of the findings of the

  15. Role of Carbamazepine in the Symptomatic Treatment of Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Ravikumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the clinical presentation and clinical course of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in a 13-year-old previously healthy boy who recently immigrated to the United States from Iraq. He presented with macular retinopathy, followed by progressive myoclonus and encephalopathy. After extensive workup, a diagnosis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis was suspected by the presence of period epileptiform discharges on electroencephalogram and confirmed by elevated measles titers in the cerebrospinal fluid. Combination immunomodulatory therapy with isoprinosine, ribavirin, and intra-Ommaya interferon alpha did not result in clinical improvement. Within days following the administration of carbamazepine, there was remarkable improvement in the myoclonus and he was able to ambulate independently for a period of 4 months at which time he unfortunately progressed to a vegetative state. This case highlights the importance of carbamazepine as a potential first line symptomatic treatment of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and provides a review of the literature on the subject.

  16. Role of carbamazepine in the symptomatic treatment of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, Sandhya; Crawford, John Ross

    2013-01-01

    We describe the clinical presentation and clinical course of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in a 13-year-old previously healthy boy who recently immigrated to the United States from Iraq. He presented with macular retinopathy, followed by progressive myoclonus and encephalopathy. After extensive workup, a diagnosis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis was suspected by the presence of period epileptiform discharges on electroencephalogram and confirmed by elevated measles titers in the cerebrospinal fluid. Combination immunomodulatory therapy with isoprinosine, ribavirin, and intra-Ommaya interferon alpha did not result in clinical improvement. Within days following the administration of carbamazepine, there was remarkable improvement in the myoclonus and he was able to ambulate independently for a period of 4 months at which time he unfortunately progressed to a vegetative state. This case highlights the importance of carbamazepine as a potential first line symptomatic treatment of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and provides a review of the literature on the subject.

  17. Type and Timing of Rehabilitation Following Acute and Subacute Spinal Cord Injury: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Anthony S; Marino, Ralph J; Kalsi-Ryan, Sukhvinder; Middleton, James W; Tetreault, Lindsay A; Dettori, Joseph R; Mihalovich, Kathryn E; Fehlings, Michael G

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature to address the following clinical questions: In adult patients with acute and subacute complete or incomplete traumatic SCI, (1) does the time interval between injury and commencing rehabilitation affect outcome?; (2) what is the comparative effectiveness of different rehabilitation strategies, including different intensities and durations of treatment?; (3) are there patient or injury characteristics that affect the efficacy of rehabilitation?; and (4) what is the cost-effectiveness of various rehabilitation strategies? A systematic search was conducted for literature published through March 31, 2015 that evaluated rehabilitation strategies in adults with acute or subacute traumatic SCI at any level. Studies were critically appraised individually and the overall strength of evidence was evaluated using methods proposed by the GRADE (Grades of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation) working group. The search strategy yielded 384 articles, 19 of which met our inclusion criteria. Based on our results, there was no difference between body weight-supported treadmill training and conventional rehabilitation with respect to improvements in Functional Independence Measure (FIM) Locomotor score, Lower Extremity Motor Scores, the distance walked in 6 minutes or gait velocity over 15.2 m. Functional electrical therapy resulted in slightly better FIM Motor, FIM Self-Care, and Spinal Cord Independence Measure Self-Care subscores compared with conventional occupational therapy. Comparisons using the Toronto Rehabilitation Institute Hand Function Test demonstrated no differences between groups in 7 of 9 domains. There were no clinically important differences in Maximal Lean Test, Maximal Sidewards Reach Test, T-shirt Test, or the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure between unsupported sitting training and standard in-patient rehabilitation. The current evidence base for

  18. Effectiveness of acupuncture combined with rehabilitation for treatment of acute or subacute stroke: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vados, Larissa; Ferreira, Alberto; Zhao, ShouFa; Vercelino, Rafael; Wang, Shu

    2015-06-01

    To determine whether the combination of acupuncture and rehabilitation produces better results in the treatment of acute or subacute stroke sequelae than rehabilitation alone. A systematic review was carried out. A search was conducted in March 2014 using PubMed, Medline, the Cochrane Library, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure database (CNKI) and Wanfang databases. English and Chinese language articles published within 10 years of the search were reviewed for inclusion. Randomised control trials comparing combined treatment with acupuncture and rehabilitation and rehabilitation alone in patients with acute or subacute stroke (onset until 3 months after stroke) were included in this review. Three review authors independently checked the titles and abstracts of trials for inclusion based on selection criteria. Studies measuring changes of motor function, activities of daily living, neurological deficit or spasticity/range of motion during the treatment period and at the end of follow-up were included. 17 trials met the inclusion criteria, of which five were of good quality. 14 trials had results favourable to acupuncture combined with rehabilitation, compared with conventional rehabilitation treatment alone. Acupuncture in combination with rehabilitation may have benefits for the treatment of acute and subacute stroke sequelae in comparison with rehabilitation alone. However, many of the studies were at risk of bias. Future studies should focus on reaching a consensus about the most appropriate modality of acupuncture intervention, and the appropriate length of treatment for both interventions, to maximise the potential synergistic outcomes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Segregation of Spontaneous and Training Induced Recovery from Visual Field Defects in Subacute Stroke Patients

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    Douwe P. Bergsma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Whether rehabilitation after stroke profits from an early start is difficult to establish as the contributions of spontaneous recovery and treatment are difficult to tease apart. Here, we use a novel training design to dissociate these components for visual rehabilitation of subacute stroke patients with visual field defects such as hemianopia. Visual discrimination training was started within 6 weeks after stroke in 17 patients. Spontaneous and training-induced recoveries were distinguished by training one-half of the defect for 8 weeks, while monitoring spontaneous recovery in the other (control half of the defect. Next, trained and control regions were swapped, and training continued for another 8 weeks. The same paradigm was also applied to seven chronic patients for whom spontaneous recovery can be excluded and changes in the control half of the defect point to a spillover effect of training. In both groups, field stability was assessed during a no-intervention period. Defect reduction was significantly greater in the trained part of the defect than in the simultaneously untrained part of the defect irrespective of training onset (p = 0.001. In subacute patients, training contributed about twice as much to their defect reduction as the spontaneous recovery. Goal Attainment Scores were significantly and positively correlated with the total defect reduction (p = 0.01, percentage increase reading speed was significantly and positively correlated with the defect reduction induced by training (epoch 1: p = 0.0044; epoch 2: p = 0.023. Visual training adds significantly to the spontaneous recovery of visual field defects, both during training in the early and the chronic stroke phase. However, field recovery as a result of training in this subacute phase was as large as in the chronic phase. This suggests that patients benefited primarily of early onset training by gaining access to a larger visual field sooner.

  20. How does nutritional state change during a subacute admission? Findings and implications for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, J; Porter, J; Truby, H; Huggins, C E

    2016-05-01

    Nutritional status influences patients' clinical and functional outcomes. The aims were to identify changes in nutritional state during subacute care and associated participant characteristics. A longitudinal study was undertaken with consecutive patients admitted to subacute care wards during a 3-month period. Participants were recruited under a waiver of consent to reflect the usual demographic. Change in classification (malnourished, at risk of malnutrition, well nourished) of the full Mini Nutritional Assessment (full MNA) between admission and discharge was the primary outcome. Weight (kg), mid-arm and calf circumference (cm) change were secondary outcomes. Hand grip strength (kg) and fat-free mass (kg) (assessed using bioelectrical impedance analysis) were measured for a consenting subgroup. Participants (n=248, 36.7% male) had a median age of 80 years and a length of stay of 17 days. On admission, 29.1% were classified as malnourished. By discharge, nutritional classification remained stable for 62.0% of participants (n=132), declined for 10.3% (n=22) and improved for 27.7% (n=59, including 52.5% malnourished on admission). Impaired cognition (odds ratio (OR)=0.169, P=0.002) and higher full MNA score at admission (OR=0.870, P=0.001) reduced odds of improvement in full MNA. There was no change in hand grip strength (n=46), but there was a decline in mean fat-free mass (-1.1 kg, 95% confidence interval: -0.1 to -2.2 kg, P=0.043, n=24). Multidisciplinary care supports the nutritional state of most patients admitted to subacute care. Those with cognitive impairments or at risk of malnutrition were less likely to demonstrate improvement and may benefit from more intensive or tailored nutritional care.

  1. Diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis in a young boy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan-Fook N

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available FNg Guan-Fook, Abd Aziz Hayati, Mohd Noor Raja-Azmi, Ahmad Tajudin Liza-Sharmini, Wan Hitam Wan-Hazabbah, Embong ZunainaDepartment of Ophthalmology, School of Medical Science, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, MalaysiaAbstract: We report a case of diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis in a young boy with no clinical visualization of nematode. The diagnosis was made based on clinical findings and detection of Toxocara immunoglobulin G by Western blot test. An 11-year-old Malay boy presented with progressive blurring of vision in the left eye for a duration of 1 year. It was associated with intermittent floaters. Visual acuity in the left eye was 6/45 and improved to 6/24 with pinhole. There was positive relative afferent pupillary defect, impaired color vision, and presence of red desaturation in the left eye. There were occasional cells in the anterior chamber with no conjunctiva injection. Posterior segment examination revealed mild-to-moderate vitritis and generalized pigmentary changes of the retina with attenuated vessels. The optic disk was slightly hyperemic with mild edema. There was presence of multiple, focal, gray-white subretinal lesions at the inferior part of the retina. Full blood picture results showed eosinophilia with detection of Toxocara immunoglobulin G by Western blot test. Investigations for other infective causes and connective tissue diseases were negative. The diagnosis of diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis secondary to Toxocara was made based on clinical findings and laboratory results. He was treated with oral albendazole 400 mg daily for 5 days and oral prednisolone 1 mg/kg with tapering doses over 6 weeks. At 1 month follow-up, the inflammation had reduced, and multiple, focal, gray-white subretinal lesions were resolved; however there was no improvement of vision.Keywords: diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis, Toxocara IgG, albendazole

  2. Reliability and validity of the Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest) in people with subacute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinsongkram, Butsara; Chaikeeree, Nithinun; Saengsirisuwan, Vitoon; Viriyatharakij, Nitaya; Horak, Fay B; Boonsinsukh, Rumpa

    2014-11-01

    The Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest) is a new clinical balance assessment tool, but it has never been validated in patients with subacute stroke. The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the BESTest in patients with subacute stroke. This was an observational reliability and validity study. Twelve patients participated in the interrater and intrarater reliability study. Convergent validity was investigated in 70 patients using the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke (PASS), Community Balance and Mobility Scale (CB&M), and Mini-BESTest. The receiver operating characteristic curve was used to calculate the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the BESTest, Mini-BESTest, and BBS in classifying participants into low functional ability (LFA) and high functional ability (HFA) groups based on Fugl-Meyer Assessment motor subscale scores. The BESTest showed excellent intrarater reliability and interrater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient=.99) and was highly correlated with the BBS (Spearman r=.96), PASS (r=.96), CB&M (r=.91), and Mini-BESTest (r=.96), indicating excellent convergent validity. No floor or ceiling effects were observed with the BESTest. In contrast, the Mini-BESTest and CB&M had a floor effect in the LFA group, and the BBS and PASS demonstrated responsive ceiling effects in the HFA group. In addition, the BESTest showed high accuracy as the BBS and Mini-BESTest in separating participants into HFA and LFA groups. Whether the results are generalizable to patients with chronic stroke is unknown. The BESTest is reliable, valid, sensitive, and specific in assessing balance in people with subacute stroke across all levels of functional disability. © 2014 American Physical Therapy Association.

  3. Subacute and Chronic Left Ventricular Myocardial Scar: Accuracy of Texture Analysis on Nonenhanced Cine MR Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baessler, Bettina; Mannil, Manoj; Oebel, Sabrina; Maintz, David; Alkadhi, Hatem; Manka, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To test whether texture analysis (TA) allows for the diagnosis of subacute and chronic myocardial infarction (MI) on noncontrast material-enhanced cine cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) images. Materials and Methods In this retrospective, institutional review board-approved study, 120 patients who underwent cardiac MR imaging and showed large transmural (volume of enhancement on late gadolinium enhancement [LGE] images >20%, n = 72) or small (enhanced volume ≤20%, n = 48) subacute or chronic ischemic scars were included. Sixty patients with normal cardiac MR imaging findings served as control subjects. Regions of interest for TA encompassing the left ventricle were drawn by two blinded, independent readers on cine images in end systole by using a freely available software package. Stepwise dimension reduction and texture feature selection based on reproducibility, machine learning, and correlation analyses were performed for selecting features, enabling the diagnosis of MI on nonenhanced cine MR images by using LGE imaging as the standard of reference. Results Five independent texture features allowed for differentiation between ischemic scar and normal myocardium on cine MR images in both subgroups: Teta1, Perc.01, Variance, WavEnHH.s-3, and S(5,5)SumEntrp (in patients with large MI: all P values cine MR images, with an area under the curve of 0.93 and 0.92, respectively. Conclusion This proof-of-concept study indicates that TA of nonenhanced cine MR images allows for the diagnosis of subacute and chronic MI with high accuracy. © RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  4. Mini-intervention for subacute low back pain: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, Kaija; Malmivaara, Antti; Pohjolainen, Timo; Hurri, Heikki; Mutanen, Pertti; Rissanen, Pekka; Pahkajärvi, Helena; Levon, Heikki; Karpoff, Hanna; Roine, Risto

    2003-03-15

    Randomized controlled trial. To investigate the effectiveness and costs of a mini-intervention, provided in addition to the usual care, and the incremental effect of a work site visit for patients with subacute disabling low back pain. There is lack of data on cost-effectiveness of brief interventions for patients with prolonged low back pain. A total of 164 patients with subacute low back pain were randomized to a mini-intervention group (A), a work site visit group (B), or a usual care group (C). Groups A (n = 56) and B (n = 51) underwent one assessment by a physician plus a physiotherapist. Group B received a work site visit in addition. Group C served as controls (n = 57) and was treated in municipal primary health care. All patients received a leaflet on back pain. Pain, disability, specific and generic health-related quality of life, satisfaction with care, days on sick leave, and use and costs of health care consumption were measured at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. During follow-up, fewer subjects had daily pain in Groups A and B than in Group C (Group A Group C, = 0.002; Group B Group C, = 0.030). In Group A, pain was less bothersome (Group A Group C, = 0.032) and interfered less with daily life (Group A Group C, = 0.040) than among controls. Average days on sick leave were 19 in Group A, 28 in Group B, and 41 in Group C (Group A Group C, = 0.019). Treatment satisfaction was better in the intervention groups than among the controls, and costs were lowest in the mini-intervention group. Mini-intervention reduced daily back pain symptoms and sickness absence, improved adaptation to pain and patient satisfaction among patients with subacute low back pain, without increasing health care costs. A work site visit did not increase effectiveness.

  5. Determining appropriateness for rehabilitation or other subacute care: is there a role for utilisation review?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, Christopher J; Eagar, Kathy

    2007-03-13

    Rehabilitation and other forms of subacute care play an important role in the Australian health care system, yet there is ambiguity around clinical definitions of subacute care, how it differs from acute care, where it is best done and what resources are required. This leads to inconsistent and often poorly defined patient selection criteria as well as a lack of research into efficient models of care. A literature review on the potential role of utilisation review in defining levels of care and in facilitating appropriate care, with a focus on the interface between acute care and rehabilitation. In studies using standardised utilisation review tools there is consistent reporting of high levels of 'inappropriate' bed days in acute care settings. These inappropriate bed days include both inappropriate admissions to acute care and inappropriate continuing days of stay. While predominantly an instrument of payers in the United States, concurrent utilisation review programs have also been used outside of the US, where they help in the facilitation of appropriate care. Some utilisation review tools also have specific criteria for determining patient appropriateness for rehabilitation and other subacute care. The high levels of 'inappropriate' care demonstrated repeatedly in international studies using formal programs of utilisation review should not be ignored in Australia. Utilisation review tools, while predominantly developed in the US, may complement other Australian patient flow initiatives to improve efficiency while maintaining patient safety. They could also play a role in the identification of patients who may benefit from transfer from acute care to another type of care and thus be an adjunct to physician assessment. Testing of the available utilisation review tools in the Australian context is now required.

  6. Effect of kinesiology taping on hemiplegic shoulder pain and functional outcomes in subacute stroke patients: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu C; Leong, Chau P; Wang, Lin; Wang, Lin Y; Yang, Yu C; Chuang, Chien Y; Hsin, Yi J

    2016-12-01

    Hemiplegic shoulder pain (HSP) impedes functional motor recovery of the affected limbs and negatively affects quality of life and daily activities. Kinesiology taping (KT) may provide improvement in hemiplegic shoulder pain and upper extremity function after an acute stroke. To assess the impact of KT on HSP, upper extremity functional outcomes, and the prevention of shoulder soft tissue injury in subacute stroke patients with hemiplegic shoulders during rehabilitation. Randomized, double-blind controlled trial. Rehabilitation unit at a single medical center. Forty-four subacute stroke patients with hemiplegia. Forty-four subacute stroke patients with hemiplegia participated in this study and were randomly allocated to the control group (sham KT) or experimental group (therapeutic KT). In the experimental group, a 3-week therapeutic KT with conventional inpatient rehabilitation was applied for 5 days per week. In the control group, the patients received a 3-week sham KT with conventional inpatient rehabilitation for 5 days per week. Shoulder subluxation, spasticity, hemiplegic shoulder pain, the Fugl-Meyer Assessment for Upper Extremity (FMA-UE), modified Barthel Index (MI), Stroke-Specific Quality of Life (SSQOL) scale, and shoulder sonography were measured before and after treatment. Pain-free flexion was significantly increased in hemiplegic shoulders after therapeutic KT. From 16 (70%) to 20 (87%) patients in the control and from 12 (57%) to 12 (57%) in the experimental groups had HSP after intervention, and a significant difference in the occurrence of HSP was found between these groups after treatment (P0.05). Therapeutic KT may limit the development of HSP and improve shoulder flexion in subacute stroke patients with flaccid shoulders during inpatient rehabilitation. For subacute stroke patients with hemiplegia, therapeutic KT may not provide improvements in the upper extremity function, daily activity, and quality of life over sham KT during conventional

  7. Dose of arm activity training during acute and subacute rehabilitation post stroke: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Kathryn S; Brauer, Sandra G

    2015-12-01

    To determine the dose of activity-related arm training undertaken by stroke survivors during acute and subacute rehabilitation. A systematic review of PubMed, CINAHL and EMBASE up to December 2014 was completed. Studies were eligible if they defined the dose (time or repetitions) of activity-related arm training using observational methods for a cohort of adult stroke survivors receiving acute or subacute rehabilitation. All studies were quality appraised using an evidence-based learning critical appraisal checklist. Data was analysed by method of documented dose per session (minutes, repetitions), environment (acute or subacute rehabilitation) and therapy discipline (physiotherapy, occupational therapy). Ten studies were included: two observed stroke survivors during acute rehabilitation and eight during subacute rehabilitation. During acute rehabilitation, one study reported 4.1 minutes per session during physiotherapy and 11.2 minutes during occupational therapy, while another study reported 5.7 minutes per session during physiotherapy only. During inpatient rehabilitation, activity-related arm training was on average undertaken for 4 minutes per session (range 0.9 to 7.9, n = 4 studies) during physiotherapy and 17 minutes per session (range 9.3 to 28.9, n = 3 studies) during occupational therapy. Repetitions per session were reported by two studies only during subacute rehabilitation. One study reported 23 repetitions per session during physiotherapy and occupational therapy, while another reported 32 repetitions per session across both disciplines. The dose of activity-related arm training during acute and subacute rehabilitation after stroke is limited. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Brain temperature measured by {sup 1}H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy in acute and subacute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Shunrou; Nishimoto, Hideaki; Murakami, Toshiyuki; Ogawa, Akira; Ogasawara, Kuniaki [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Morioka, Iwate (Japan); Yoshioka, Yoshichika [Osaka University, Laboratory of Biofunctional Imaging, WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center, Osaka (Japan); Matsuda, Tsuyoshi [MR Applications and Workflow Asia Pacific, GE Healthcare Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Beppu, Takaaki [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Morioka, Iwate (Japan); Iwate Medical University, Department of Hyperbaric Medicine, Iwate (Japan)

    2016-01-15

    Brain temperature (BT) is associated with the balance between cerebral blood flow and metabolism according to the ''heat-removal'' theory. The present study investigated whether BT is abnormally altered in acute and subacute CO-poisoned patients by using {sup 1}H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Eight adult CO-poisoned patients underwent 3-T magnetic resonance imaging in the acute and subacute phases after CO exposure. MRS was performed on deep cerebral white matter in the centrum semiovale, and MRS-based BT was estimated by the chemical shift difference between water and the N-acetyl aspartate signal. We defined the mean BT + 1.96 standard deviations of the BT in 15 healthy controls as the cutoff value for abnormal BT increases (p < 0.05) in CO-poisoned patients. BT of CO-poisoned patients in both the acute and subacute phases was significantly higher than that of the healthy control group. However, BT in the subacute phase was significantly lower than in the acute phase. On the other hand, no significant difference in body temperature was observed between acute and subacute CO-poisoned patients. BT weakly correlated with body temperature, but this correlation was not statistically significant (rho = 0.304, p = 0.2909). The present results suggest that BT in CO-poisoned patients is abnormally high in the acute phase and remains abnormal in the subacute phase. BT alteration in these patients may be associated with brain perfusion and metabolism rather than other factors such as systemic inflammation and body temperature. (orig.)

  9. Combined treatment of subacute and acute synthetic and venous bypass-graft occlusions with percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy and thrombolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hundt, Walter, E-mail: hundt@med.uni-marburg.de [Department of Radiology, Philipps University Marburg (Germany); Kalinowski, Mark; Stamm, Anna C. [Department of Radiology, Philipps University Marburg (Germany); Portig, Irene [Department of Cardiology, Division of Angiology, Philipps University Marburg (Germany); Swaid, Zaher; Dietz, Carsten; Geks, Josef [Department of Surgery, Philipps University Marburg (Germany); Burbelko, Mykhaylo [Department of Radiology, Philipps University Marburg (Germany)

    2013-12-01

    Introduction: Percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy (PMT) is a third choice of treatment for acute arterial occlusions, in addition to thrombolysis and surgical thrombectomy. The aim of this retrospective study was to compare the combined treatment of PMT and local thrombolysis with thrombolysis therapy alone. Materials and methods: Sixty-nine patients with acute (<14 days [n = 35]) or subacute (14–42 days [n = 34]) femoropopliteal bypass occlusions were treated with PMT combined with thrombolysis. Seventy-two patients with acute [n = 40] or subacute [n = 32] femoropopliteal bypass occlusions were treated with thrombolysis alone. The thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) classification was used to assess the bypass occlusion. Local thrombolysis time and dosage, reopening time, time in the intensive care unit, necessary surgical re-interventions, and clinical outcome were compared between the 2 groups. Results: The TIMI scores were significantly higher in the PMT plus thrombolysis group than in the thrombolysis group (acute occlusions 1188 versus 935, p < 0.001; subacute occlusions 935 versus 605, p < 0.001). The total urokinase dosage, the total hours of thrombolysis, time in the intensive care unit, and total hospital stay in the acute PMT plus thrombolysis group were significantly lesser than those in the thrombolysis group. After 24 h of treatment, the ankle-brachial index improved in all groups (p < 0.001): in the acute and subacute PMT plus thrombolysis group to 0.63 ± 0.14 and 0.43 ± 0.08, respectively; and in the acute and subacute thrombolysis group to 0.51 ± 0.11 and 0.41 ± 0.04, respectively. Conclusions: PMT combined with thrombolysis is a safe and very effective therapy for acute and subacute femoropopliteal bypass occlusions compared to treatment with thrombolysis alone.

  10. Phytochemical screening and toxicity studies on the methanol extract of the seeds of moringa oleifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajibade, Temitayo Olabisi; Arowolo, Ruben; Olayemi, Funsho Olakitike

    2013-05-07

    The seeds of Moringa oleifera were collected, air-dried, pulverized, and subjected to cold extraction with methanol. The methanol extract was screened phytochemically for its chemical components and used for acute and sub-acute toxicity studies in rats. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, terpenes, alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, and cardiac glycosides but the absence of anthraquinones. Although signs of acute toxicity were observed at a dose of 4,000 mg kg-1 in the acute toxicity test, and mortality was recorded at 5,000 mg kg-1, no adverse effect was observed at concentrations lower than 3,000 mg kg-1. The median lethal dose of the extract in rat was 3,873 mg kg-1. Sub-acute administration of the seed extract caused significant (p<0.05) increase in the levels of alanine and aspartate transferases (ALT and AST), and significant (p<0.05) decrease in weight of experimental rats, at 1,600 mg kg-1. The study concludes that the extract of seeds of M. oleifera is safe both for medicinal and nutritional uses.

  11. A behavioural intervention increases physical activity in people with subacute spinal cord injury: a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla FJ Nooijen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Questions: For people with subacute spinal cord injury, does rehabilitation that is reinforced with the addition of a behavioural intervention to promote physical activity lead to a more active lifestyle than rehabilitation alone? Design: Randomised, controlled trial with concealed allocation, intention-to-treat analysis, and blinded assessors. Participants: Forty-five adults with subacute spinal cord injury who were undergoing inpatient rehabilitation and were dependent on a manual wheelchair. The spinal cord injuries were characterised as: tetraplegia 33%; motor complete 62%; mean time since injury 150 days (SD 74. Intervention: All participants received regular rehabilitation, including handcycle training. Only the experimental group received a behavioural intervention promoting an active lifestyle after discharge. This intervention involved 13 individual sessions delivered by a coach who was trained in motivational interviewing; it began 2 months before and ended 6 months after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. Outcome measures: The primary outcome was physical activity, which was objectively measured with an accelerometer-based activity monitor 2 months before discharge, at discharge, and 6 and 12 months after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. The accelerometry data were analysed as total wheeled physical activity, sedentary time and motility. Self-reported physical activity was a secondary outcome. Results: The behavioural intervention significantly increased wheeled physical activity (overall between-group difference from generalised estimating equation 21 minutes per day, 95% CI 8 to 35. This difference was evident 6 months after discharge (28 minutes per day, 95% CI 8 to 48 and maintained at 12 months after discharge (25 minutes per day, 95% CI 1 to 50. No significant intervention effect was found for sedentary time or motility. Self-reported physical activity also significantly improved. Conclusion: The behavioural

  12. THE INFLUENCE OF OXYETHYLIZED ALKYLPHENOLS ON HORMONAL EXCHANGE OF WHITE RATS IN THE SUBACUTE EXPERIMENT

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    Marakushin DI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Influence of oxyethylized alkylphenols AF9-6, AF9-10 and AF9-12 has been studied in doses 1/10 and 1/100 DL50 on the hormonal profile of white rats in the conditions of subacute experiment. It has been studied, that xenobiotics cause disturbances from the side of the endocrine system at all level of its structurally-functional organization (hypothalamus – hypophysis – thyroid and parathyroid glands – adrenal glands. Neonols manifest polytropic character of action on an organism, which can be attended with formation of the multiple pathological states in the basis of which membrane pathology lies.

  13. HIV-associated sub-acute sclerosing panencephalitis - an emerging threat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manesh, Abi; Moorthy, Mahesh; Bandopadhyay, Rini; Rupali, Priscilla

    2017-08-01

    Earlier age of measles virus infection predisposes to development of sub-acute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) and this risk is heightened in HIV-infected children. We describe a HIV-infected young adult on antiretroviral therapy, presenting with a non-classical, fulminant form of SSPE to highlight the unpredictable nature of measles presentation. The recent spate of measles outbreaks due to virus introduction in populations with sub-optimal vaccine coverage or waning immunity and co-existing paediatric HIV cohorts is a cause for concern.

  14. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis presenting as rapidly progressive young-onset dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakor, Rahul Tryambak; Santosh, Nandanavana Subbareddy

    2013-07-01

    Onset of dementia before 65 years of age is termed as young-onset dementia (YOD). Very little literature exists regarding the clinical features and diagnoses of dementia in younger individuals. We present a case series of four patients of age 10 to 23 years with severe dementia within 18 months of clinical onset (rapidly progressive dementia). Three patients had generalised periodic complexes typical of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) on electroencephalogram (EEG). All patients had elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) IgG measles antibodies. Our case series highlights that SSPE is an important cause of rapidly progressive YOD in developing countries like India.

  15. A 22-year-old Australian woman with atypical subacute sclerosing panencephalitis diagnosed at postmortem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Victoria A; Lee, Hwei-Yee; Keith-Rokosh, Julia Lee; de Souza, Jean-Louis; Stewart-Wynne, Edward

    2010-09-01

    Measles remains a significant global health problem. Despite the decline in measles prevalence in Australia following the implementation of a national vaccination program, challenges surrounding this disease remain. This report describes a 22-year-old woman who presented with coordination loss, tremor, choreiform movements and marked visual blurring, and her condition rapidly deteriorated to coma and death. Antemortem investigations did not yield a unifying diagnosis. Postmortem examination provided a diagnosis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. This patient had a rare neurological complication of measles infection, and her condition is remarkable for the atypical clinical presentation. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis Presenting with Isolated Positive Psychotic and Catatonic Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Arpit; Ranjan, Rajeev; Sagar, Rajesh

    2017-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare slowly progressing neurological illness. Although patients with SSPE initially present with symptoms such as myoclonic jerks, cognitive decline, and personality/behavioral changes usually, rarely pure psychiatric symptoms (e.g., mania, psychosis, and catatonia) have also been reported during the initial course of the illness. We report an unusual case of an adolescent with SSPE presenting with prominent positive psychotic and catatonic symptoms with the absence of classical symptoms of SSPE in initial course of illness and further discussed the relevant literature.

  17. Radioimmunoimaging of subacute infective endocarditis using a technetium-99m monoclonal granulocyte-specific antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munz, D.L.; Sandrock, D.; Emrich, D. (Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin); Morguet, A.J.; Heim, A.; Sold, G.; Figulla, H.R.; Kreuzer, H. (Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Kardiologie und Pulmonologie)

    1991-12-01

    Immunoscintigraphy with a technetium-99m murine monoclonal IgG{sub 1} antibody directed against non-specific cross-reacting antigen (NCA-95) and carcinoembryonic antigen was performed with 20 patients with suspected subacute infective endocarditis (SIE) and 6 controls with suspected inflammatory/infectious disease elsewhere in the body. Immunoscintigraphy and echocardiography localised SIE in 11 of 15 patients in whom the disease could be confirmed. In 4 patients with validated SIE, the immunoscan was abnormal, and the echocardiogram was normal. In another 4 patients, the result was exactly the opposite. These findings suggest that the combination of immunoscintigraphy and echocardiography improves diagnostic efficacy in patients with suspected SIE. (orig.).

  18. Responsiveness of the Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest) in People With Subacute Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinsongkram, Butsara; Chaikeeree, Nithinun; Saengsirisuwan, Vitoon; Horak, Fay B; Boonsinsukh, Rumpa

    2016-10-01

    The reliability and convergent validity of the Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest) in people with subacute stroke have been established, but its responsiveness to rehabilitation has not been examined. The study objective was to compare the responsiveness of the BESTest with those of other clinical balance tools in people with subacute stroke. This was a prospective cohort study. Forty-nine people with subacute stroke (mean age=57.8 years, SD=11.8) participated in this study. Five balance measures-the BESTest, the Mini-BESTest, the Berg Balance Scale, the Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke Patients, and the Community Balance and Mobility Scale (CB&M)-were used to measure balance performance before and after rehabilitation or before discharge from the hospital, whichever came first. The internal responsiveness of each balance measure was classified with the standardized response mean (SRM); changes in Berg Balance Scale scores of greater than 7 were used as the external standard for determining the external responsiveness. Analysis of the receiver operating characteristic curve was used to determine the accuracy and cutoff scores for identifying participants with balance improvement. Participants received 13.7 days (SD=9.3, range=5-44) of physical therapy rehabilitation. The internal responsiveness of all balance measures, except for the CB&M, was high (SRM=0.9-1.2). The BESTest had a higher SRM than the Mini-BESTest and the CB&M, indicating that the BESTest was more sensitive for detecting balance changes than the Mini-BESTest and the CB&M. In addition, compared with other balance measures, the BESTest had no floor, ceiling, or responsive ceiling effects. The results also indicated that the percentage of participants with no change in scores after rehabilitation was smaller with the BESTest than with the Mini-BESTest and the CB&M. With regard to the external responsiveness, the BESTest had higher accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and posttest accuracy than

  19. Dietary fibre analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleary, Barry V

    2003-02-01

    The 'gold standard' method for the measurement of total dietary fibre is that of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (2000; method 985.29). This procedure has been modified to allow measurement of soluble and insoluble dietary fibre, and buffers employed have been improved. However, the recognition of the fact that non-digestible oligosaccharides and resistant starch also behave physiologically as dietary fibre has necessitated a re-examination of the definition of dietary fibre, and in turn, a re-evaluation of the dietary fibre methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. With this realisation, the American Association of Cereal Chemists appointed a scientific review committee and charged it with the task of reviewing and, if necessary, updating the definition of dietary fibre. It organised various workshops and accepted comments from interested parties worldwide through an interactive website. More recently, the (US) Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Health, National Academy of Sciences, under the oversight of the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes, assembled a panel to develop a proposed definition(s) of dietary fibre. Various elements of these definitions were in agreement, but not all. What was clear from both reviews is that there is an immediate need to re-evaluate the methods that are used for dietary fibre measurement and to make appropriate changes where required, and to find new methods to fill gaps. In this presentation, the 'state of the art' in measurement of total dietary fibre and dietary fibre components will be described and discussed, together with suggestions for future research.

  20. In vivo toxicity studies of fusarium mycotoxins in the last decade: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escrivá, L; Font, G; Manyes, L

    2015-04-01

    This review summarizes the information regarding the in vivo studies of Fusarium mycotoxins in the last decade. The most common studies are classified as subacute toxicity, subchronic toxicity, acute toxicity, toxicokinetic studies and teratogenicity in order of importance. The most used animals in in vivo studies are pigs, rats, chickens and mice. Fumonisin B1, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, nivalenol and T-2 toxin are the most studied fusarotoxins. Studies with combinations of mycotoxins are also frequent, deoxynivalenol generally being one of them. The predominant route of administration is oral, administered mostly in the form of naturally contaminated feed. Other administration routes also used are intraperitoneal, intravenous and subcutaneous. In vivo research on Fusarium mycotoxins has increased since 2010 highlighting the need for such studies in the field of food and feed safety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Oral toxicity study of certain plant extracts containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şeremet, Oana Cristina; Bărbuceanu, Florica; Ionică, Floriana Elvira; Margină, Denisa Marilena; GuŢu, Claudia Maria; Olaru, Octavian Tudorel; Ilie, Mihaela; Gonciar, Veaceslav; Negreş, Simona; ChiriŢă, Cornel

    2016-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are a class of toxic compounds which are found in plants. Poisoning caused by these toxins is associated with acute and chronic liver damage. Tussilago farfara (coltsfoot), Petasites hybridus (common butterbur), Senecio vernalis (eastern groundsel) and Symphytum officinale (comfrey) are traditional phytotherapic species, which beside the therapeutic bioactive compounds contain PAs. The aim of the paper was to assess the safety of some dry extracts obtained from these species. For the determination of acute toxicity, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Guideline No. 423 was used. For the determination of repeated dose oral toxicity, Senecionis vernalis herba and Symphyti radix extracts (250 mg÷kg) were administrated, by gavage, for 28 days, and their effects on animal weight, liver and biliary functions, hepatic tissue and oxidative stress were investigated. After the acute toxicity testing, the dry extracts were placed in the GHS Category V (LD50>5000 mg÷kg, p.o.). For the subacute toxicity testing, no death or any signs of toxicity were observed. Also, no significant differences in biochemical parameters were observed between control and treated groups. The observed histopathological lesions were non-specific and were not consistent with the data reported in the literature for PAs exposure. In conclusion, the administration for 28 days, of the tested extracts, in a dose which correspond to a PAs concentration over the limits imposed in some countries, produced no hepatic and biliary toxic effects. Further studies, extended over a longer period of time, are needed in order to determine the safety of plant extracts containing PAs.

  2. Distributed Structure Searchable Toxicity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Distributed Structure Searchable Toxicity (DSSTox) online resource provides high quality chemical structures and annotations in association with toxicity data....

  3. Narrative Dietary Counseling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard Jakobsen, Nina; Kaufmann, Lisbeth; Hennesser, Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    Using cases and empirical data from a research and development project at a Danish prevention center, this study explores whether and how the use of narrative dietary counseling can strengthen dietitians' relationships and collaboration with clients who are chronically ill. The results of the study...... dietary counseling empowered clients and improved relationship building and collaboration between client and dietitian....

  4. Dietary determinants of obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huaidong, D.U.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity has become a serious public health problem worldwide, and dietary composition can play a role in its prevention and treatment. However, available literature on the impacts of different dietary factors on weight change is inconsistent, or even conflicting. In this review, we briefly

  5. Dietary intake of phytoestrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker MI; SIR

    2004-01-01

    The dietary intake of phytoestrogens supposedly influences a variety of diseases, both in terms of beneficial and adverse effects. This report describes current knowledge on dietary intakes of phytoestrogens in Western countries, and briefly summarizes the evidence for health effects. The

  6. Ramadan major dietary patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadman, Zhaleh; Poorsoltan, Nooshin; Akhoundan, Mahdieh; Larijani, Bagher; Soleymanzadeh, Mozhdeh; Akhgar Zhand, Camelia; Seyed Rohani, Zahra Alsadat; Khoshniat Nikoo, Mohsen

    2014-09-01

    There has been no data on population based dietary patterns during the Ramadan fasting month. The purpose of this study was to detect Ramadan major dietary patterns among those who fast in Tehran. This cross-sectional study included 600 subjects, aged 18-65 with body mass index (BMI) of 18.5-40, who had decided to fast during Ramadan. Anthropometric measurements, usual physical activity level and educational status were collected two weeks before Ramadan. Information on Ramadan dietary intakes was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire and factor analysis was used to identify major dietary patterns. We identified four major dietary patterns: 1) Western-like pattern; high in fast foods, salty snacks, nuts, potato, fish, poultry, chocolates, juices; 2) high cholesterol and high sweet junk food pattern; high in pickles, sweets and condiments, butter and cream, canned fish, visceral meats and eggs; 3) Mediterranean-like pattern; high in vegetables, olive oil, dates, dairy, dried fruits, fruits, red meats, tea and coffee and 4) Ramadan-style pattern; large consumption of Halim, soups, porridges, legumes and whole grains, soft drinks, Zoolbia and Bamieh. Age was positively and inversely associated with Mediterranean-like (P = 0.003; r = 0.17) and Ramadan style (P = 0.1; r = -0.13) dietary pattern, respectively. Pre-Ramadan physical activity level was associated with a Mediterranean-like dietary pattern (P Ramadan-specific dietary pattern has unique characteristics, which has not yet been identified as a model of dietary pattern. Also, among identified dietary patterns, Mediterranean-like was the healthiest.

  7. Effects of subacute ruminal acidosis challenges on fermentation and endotoxins in the rumen and hindgut of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S; Khafipour, E; Krause, D O; Kroeker, A; Rodriguez-Lecompte, J C; Gozho, G N; Plaizier, J C

    2012-01-01

    The effects of a grain-based subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) challenge (GBSC) and an alfalfa-pellet SARA challenge (APSC) on fermentation and endotoxins in the rumen and in the cecum, as well as on endotoxins in peripheral blood, were determined. Six nonlactating Holstein cows with cannulas in the rumen and cecum were used in the study. A 3×3 Latin square arrangement of treatments with 4-wk experimental periods was adopted. During the first 3 wk of each experimental period, all cows received a diet containing 70% forages [dry matter (DM) basis]. In wk 4 of each period, cows received 1 of the following 3 diets: the 70% forage diet fed during wk 1 to 3 (control), a diet in which 34% of the dietary DM was replaced with grain pellets made of 50% ground wheat and 50% ground barely (GBSC), or a diet in which 37% of dietary DM was replaced with pellets of ground alfalfa (APSC). Rumen pH was monitored continuously using indwelling pH probes, and rumen fluid, blood, cecal digesta, and fecal grab samples were collected immediately before feed delivery at 0900 h and at 6 h after feed delivery on d 3 and 5 of wk 4. The time for which rumen pH was below 5.6 was 56.4, 225.2, and 298.8 min/d for the control, APSC, and GBSC treatments, respectively. Compared with the control, SARA challenges resulted in similar reductions in cecal digesta pH, which were 7.07, 6.86, and 6.79 for the control, APSC, and GBSC treatments, respectively. Compared with the control, only GBSC increased starch content in cecal digesta, which averaged 2.8, 2.6, and 7.4% of DM for the control, APSC, and GBSC, respectively. Free lipopolysaccharide endotoxin (LPS) concentration in rumen fluid increased from 10,405 endotoxin units (EU)/mL in the control treatment to 30,715 and 168,391 EU/mL in APSC and GBSC, respectively. Additionally, GBSC increased the LPS concentration from 16,508 to 118,522 EU/g in wet cecal digesta, and from 12,832 to 93,154 EU/g in wet feces. The APSC treatment did not affect LPS

  8. EBV driven natural killer cell disease of the central nervous system presenting as subacute cognitive decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca M. Brett

    2017-11-01

    This 63 year old right handed, immunocompetent Caucasian woman presented with an 8 month history of rapidly progressive right-sided hearing impairment, a 4 month history of intermittent headaches, tinnitus, ‘dizziness’, dysphagia, nausea and vomiting, with the subsequent evolution of progressive gait ataxia and a subacute global encephalopathy. The possibility of CJD was raised. Brain biopsy was carried out. Western blot for prion protein was negative. She died 9 days later and autopsy brain examination confirmed widespread subacute infarction due to an EBV positive atypical NK/T-cell infiltrate with positivity for CD3, CD56, granzyme B, perforin and EBER with absence of CD4, CD5 and CD8 expression. Molecular studies for T-cell clonality were attempted but failed due to insufficient DNA quality. Serology was consistent with past EBV infection (EBV VCA and EBNA IgG Positive. There was no evidence of disease outside the CNS. Primary central nervous system NK/T-cell lymphoma is extremely rare. The rare reported cases all present with a discrete intracranial mass, unlike the diffuse infiltrative pattern in this case. Whilst the diffuse interstitial pattern is reminiscent of chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV seen in other organ systems such as the liver and bone marrow, the clinical presentation and epidemiologic profile are not typical for CAEBV.

  9. Stent-assisted mechanical recanalization for symptomatic subacute or chronic middle cerebral artery occlusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dong; Ma, Ji; Li, Teng-Fei; Zhu, Ming; Han, Xin-Wei; Shui, Shao-Feng

    2015-01-01

    To assess the feasibility and short-term effects of treating patients with subacute or chronic middle cerebral artery (M1) occlusion by stent-assisted mechanical recanalization. Six patients with cerebral arteries occlusion underwent surgery. Six cerebral arteries occlusion in 5 patients were successfully recanalized. On postoperative day 1, four patients’ symptoms were relieved and two patients’ symptoms were exacerbated, of which one was significantly improved after 3 days, the other one’s symptoms were recovered to preoperative levels in 2 weeks. No patients died after surgery. No stroke or transient ischemic attack occurred. The average follow-up of was 4.2 months, no worsening of condition, recurrence or death occurred. The results indicate that for patients with subacute or chronic middle cerebral artery (M1) occlusion, mechanical recanalization was technically feasible under the premise of strict case screening. Mechanical recanalization is able to improve ischemic symptoms and promote dysfunction restoration. But its long-term effect remains to be evaluated by further large samples, long-term follow-up studies. PMID:26885148

  10. Pulmonary involvement in patients with Guillain–Barré syndrome in subacute phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meeka Khanna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the pulmonary function in Guillain–Barre syndrome (GBS patients in subacute phase and find clinical correlates of pulmonary dysfunction. Methods: This was a single-center, prospective, cross-sectional, hospital-based study in GBS patients performed in Department of Neurological Rehabilitation at a tertiary care institute. Clinical examination for pulmonary function was done by measuring chest expansion. The pulmonary function tests were carried out by Spirometry kit Microquark Cosmed, Italy. Fatigue was assessed by Fatigue Severity Scale, disability status by Hughes Disability Scale (HDS, and muscle weakness by Medical Research Council sum scores. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was performed by Stata 11. The significance of P value was adjudged against an alpha of 0.05. Results: Twenty-eight patients were included with 17 (61% men and mean age of 31 years. Median duration of symptoms was 16.5 days. There were 10 (36% demyelinating and 18 (64% axonal variants. Twenty-six (93% patients scored more than 2 on HDS. All study participants reported fatigue. Twenty-two (78.6% patients had chest expansion of <2.5 cm. Spirometry showed restrictive pulmonary dysfunction in 23 (79% patients. Significant correlation was found between abnormal pulmonary function test and chest expansion (P = 0.003. Conclusion: Pulmonary dysfunction in GBS is common even during subacute phase. It needs to be identified and managed appropriately for better clinical outcome.

  11. Functional electrical stimulation assisted cycling of patients with subacute stroke: kinetic and kinematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szecsi, J; Krewer, C; Müller, F; Straube, A

    2008-10-01

    Cycling is a safe and functionally effective exercise for patients with early post-stroke and poor balance. Such exercise is considered even more effective when functional electrical stimulation is added. Our principal aim was to determine the biomechanically quantifiable parameters of cycling that can be improved in patients with subacute hemiparesis by incorporating functional electrical stimulation. These parameters were defined as objective goals that can be achieved in clinical applications. A secondary aim was to determine whether they could be used to identify subjects who would benefit from such therapy. Using a tricycle testbed, we tested 39 subacute (mean 10.9 weeks post-stroke (SD 5.9)), hemiplegic subjects. During isometric measurements we recorded volitional and electrically evoked crank torques, the latter at maximal tolerable intensity. During ergometric measurements, volitional pedaling was alternated with combined pedaling (volitional supported by stimulation), performed at 30-s intervals. Power, smoothness, and symmetry of cycling were evaluated. Twenty-six percent of the subjects significantly improved the smoothness of their cycling with functional electrical stimulation. Only 8% and 10% significantly increased their power and symmetry, respectively. The improvement in smoothness significantly correlated with the capability of the individual to generate electrical torque (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient=0.66 at P=0.001). The smoothness of cycling was the most sensitive parameter improved by functional electrical stimulation. This improvement depended on the amount of torque evoked, and the torque achieved, in turn, correlated with the tolerated intensity of stimulation.

  12. Serum S-100B levels in children with Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Hocanlı

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: S-100B a protein prevalent in the centralnervous system is a peripheral biomarker for blood-brainbarrier disruption and neuronal damage. The objective ofthe study was to investigate the S-100B levels in patientswith subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.Materials and methods: A group of 40 patients withSSPE and 40 healthy controls were recruited. SerumS-100B protein concentrations were measured using acommercially available electrochemiluminescence immunoassay(ECLIA kit, as supplied and according to themanufacturer’s standards.Results: Median S-100B levels were 0.095 ± 0.017 μg/Lin patients with SSPE and 0.097±0.019 μg/L in the controlgroup. This difference was not statistically significant(p>0.05. The patient group was further subdivided intotwo subgroups according to the presence or absence ofbrain atrophy. The S-100B levels were 0.096 ± 0.018 μg/Lin the subgroup with atrophy and 0.094±0.014 μg/L in thesubgroup without atrophy. This difference was also notstatistically significant (p>0.05.Conclusions: Our results suggest that serum S-100B isnot a reliable marker for neuronal damage in SSPE. J ClinExp Invest 2012; 3 (3: 331-334Key words: Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, S-100B level, serum biomarker

  13. Are SCN1A gene mutations responsible for genetic susceptibility to subacute sclerosing panencephalitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Ravindra Kumar

    2012-02-01

    Dravet syndrome, characterized predominantly by myoclonus, has a striking clinical resemblance to subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE). Patients with Dravet syndrome develop significant mental decline with advancing age of affected child like in SSPE. It is well established that SCN1A gene mutations are associated with Dravet syndrome. Even periodic EEG complexes have been described in Dravet syndrome. In addition to Dravet syndrome, several other types of acute and subacute encephalopathic syndromes having clinical and electroencephalographic resemblance to SSPE are associated with SCN1A gene mutations. SSPE is a devastating progressive inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system. It is caused by persistent infection of the brain by an aberrant measles virus. Only a few of a vast number of measles infected pediatric population develop SSPE. There are several reports describing presence of SSPE is close relatives and it has been described previously in sibling and twin pairs. A genetic susceptibility for development of SSPE is likely. In fact, a variety of genetic abnormalities have already been described in patients with SSPE. It can also be argued that because of striking clinical resemblance between Dravet and various epileptic and encephalopathic syndromes associated with SCN1A gene mutations and SSPE, SCN1A gene abnormalities may also be responsible for susceptibility to SSPE in measles infected children. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Subacute bacterial endocarditis presenting as polymyalgia rheumatica or giant cell arteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auzary, C; Le Thi Huong, D; Delarbre, X; Sbai, A; Lhote, F; Papo, T; Wechsler, B; Cacoub, P; Martin-Hunyadi, C; Piette, J-C

    2006-01-01

    To report on several patients with subacute bacterial endocarditis who were initially presumed, incorrectly, to have polymyalgia rheumatica or giant cell arteritis. We report 3 cases of subacute streptococcal endocarditis mimicking giant cell arteritis in 2 cases and polymyalgia rheumatica in one. We reviewed the literature through Medline search of French and English-language articles published between 1966 and 2005 and found 5 similar cases. Shoulder and/or pelvic girdle pain was associated with neck or back pain in all patients. Scalp tenderness, bilateral jaw pain, amaurosis fugax were present in 2 patients. One patient had no fever. Two patients were treated with corticosteroids with initial good clinical response in one. Appropriate antibiotic therapy resulted in the rapid disappearance of rheumatic complaints in 2 patients and achieved a definitive cure of endocarditis in all cases. Rheumatologic symptoms may hinder the correct diagnosis of infective endocarditis in patients who present with a clinical picture suggesting polymyalgia rheumatica or giant cell arteritis. In such cases, blood cultures should be systematically drawn.

  15. Biochemical and histopathological changes of subacute cadmium intoxication in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Rasha M; Awadin, Walaa F

    2017-11-01

    Biochemical and histopathological effects of subacute intoxication of rats with cadmium (Cd) were studied in rats. Twenty adult healthy male albino rats were randomly divided into two duplicate groups (five rats in each cage); (1) control group where rats were provided with standard diet and water ad-libitum, (2) Cd group where rats were subjected to freshly prepared Cd chloride solution (CdCl2) 200 mg/l in drinking water daily for 8 weeks, the whole duration of experiment. Blood samples were obtained after 4 weeks, via retro-orbital bleeding for separation of serum. Five rats were killed, each sacrifice by decapitation for collection of kidneys and heart. Disturbed renal and cardiac functions were achieved after 4 weeks as indicated by the increase of most biochemical parameters measured in the serum, renal, and cardiac tissues. Histopathological examination of kidneys and hearts showed pathological alterations in Cd-intoxicated rats after 4 and 8 weeks with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Masson trichrome stains. It was concluded that subacute exposure of rats to Cd (200 mg/l) in drinking water daily induced glomerular shrinkage, focal renal, and cardiac fibrosis at 4 and 8 weeks.

  16. Serum glucose concentration in subacute intoxication with chlorpyrifos – Organophosphate insecticide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Łukaszewicz-Hussain

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidemiological studies suggest that exposure to organophosphate insecticides enhances the risk of various diseases, including neurological disorders, e.g. Parkinson's or Alzheimer's disease, arteriosclerosis and diabetes mellitus. For this reason the aim of the presented study was to estimate serum concentration of glucose in subchronic intoxication with low doses of chlorpyrifos, an organophosphate insecticide. Materials and Methods: The rats received chlorpyrifos at a daily dose of 0.2, 2 or 5 mg/kg b.w./day for 14 or 28 days. For biochemical determinations of serum glucose in the rats ready-to-use kit was applied. Results: In subacute intoxication with chlorpyrifos the increased serum concentration of glucose was observed after 14 days of intoxication with the highest dose (5 mg/kg b.w. and after 28 days of intoxication with all dose levels used. Conclusions: The results of this study showing the increased concentration of serum glucose in subacute intoxication with low doses of chlorpyrifos, as well as the literature data suggest that exposure to organophosphate insecticides can increase the risk of diabetes mellitus. It may thus be concluded that people occupationally exposed to these compounds should be subjected to diagnostic tests for early detection of diabetes. Med Pr 2013;64(4:527–531

  17. Treating reading comprehension deficits in sub-acute brain injury rehabilitation: Identifying clinical practice and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watter, Kerrin; Copley, Anna; Finch, Emma

    There is limited evidence for cognitive-communication reading comprehension (CCRC) interventions for adults following acquired brain injury (ABI), particularly during sub-acute rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical practice of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) with CCRC deficits during sub-acute ABI rehabilitation and compare it to the best available evidence. An electronic survey was used to gather information from clinicians across Australia regarding clinical practice in the areas of assessment, intervention, treatment hierarchies and service delivery; survey questions were developed from an extensive review of the literature and expert clinician opinion. Survey findings were then compared with the literature in the form of a systematic review. Surveyed clinicians provided multiple interventions for CCRC rehabilitation, including impairment based (94.7%), activity based (94.7%) and reading strategy interventions (100.0%). Five strategies were used by >94% of SLPs (highlighting, identifying main points/wh- questioning, re-reading, summarising, reducing visual load). When compared with the literature, strong similarities were found for strategy-based interventions and individual service delivery, with broad similarities for functional and impairment-based interventions, and impairment based treatment hierarchies. Strong differences in assessment were identified. Strategy use reported in clinical practice (100.0% SLPs) was higher than in the literature. Further investigation into the effectiveness of specific reading strategies for people with ABI is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Trans-collateral angioplasty in vascular access intervention therapy for subacute occluded vessel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Yusuke; Nomura, Tetsuya; Ikeda, Kisho; Kubota, Hiroshi; Miyawaki, Daisuke; Urata, Ryota; Sugimoto, Takeshi; Kato, Taku; Keira, Natsuya; Tatsumi, Tetsuya

    2016-05-07

    We describe the first reported case of successful trans-collateral angioplasty (TCA) in vascular access intervention therapy (VAIVT) for a subacute occluded lesion in the vascular access route. TCA is a technique which has been developed in the field of endovascular therapy for peripheral arterial disease and is usually applied for a long chronic total occluded lesion with no available distal puncture site. Because such lesion characteristics suitable for being applied with TCA are not usually seen in the patients who receive VAIVT, there is little opportunity when TCA is performed in VAIVT. The present patient showed subacute occlusion in the vascular access route with well-developed collateral blood vessels. Because antegrade wiring resulted in subintimal tracking, we failed to antegradely introduce the guidewire to the vascular true lumen. Moreover, no puncture site in the venous side was anatomically available. Therefore, we adopted the strategy of TCA and successfully completed the procedure. Although we rarely encounter the situation in which TCA is necessary for VAIVT, the strategy of TCA is a promising procedure if the condition permits.

  19. Pulmonary Involvement in Patients with Guillain–Barré Syndrome in Subacute Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Meeka; Rawat, Nidhi; Gupta, Anupam; Nagappa, Madhu; Taly, Arun B.; Rukmani, M. R.; Sathyaprabha, T. N.; Haldar, Partha

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the pulmonary function in Guillain–Barre syndrome (GBS) patients in subacute phase and find clinical correlates of pulmonary dysfunction. Methods: This was a single-center, prospective, cross-sectional, hospital-based study in GBS patients performed in Department of Neurological Rehabilitation at a tertiary care institute. Clinical examination for pulmonary function was done by measuring chest expansion. The pulmonary function tests were carried out by Spirometry kit Microquark Cosmed, Italy. Fatigue was assessed by Fatigue Severity Scale, disability status by Hughes Disability Scale (HDS), and muscle weakness by Medical Research Council sum scores. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was performed by Stata 11. The significance of P value was adjudged against an alpha of 0.05. Results: Twenty-eight patients were included with 17 (61%) men and mean age of 31 years. Median duration of symptoms was 16.5 days. There were 10 (36%) demyelinating and 18 (64%) axonal variants. Twenty-six (93%) patients scored more than 2 on HDS. All study participants reported fatigue. Twenty-two (78.6%) patients had chest expansion of <2.5 cm. Spirometry showed restrictive pulmonary dysfunction in 23 (79%) patients. Significant correlation was found between abnormal pulmonary function test and chest expansion (P = 0.003). Conclusion: Pulmonary dysfunction in GBS is common even during subacute phase. It needs to be identified and managed appropriately for better clinical outcome. PMID:28694622

  20. Neurocognitive and Fine Motor Deficits in Asymptomatic Adolescents during the Subacute Period after Concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servatius, Richard J; Spiegler, Kevin M; Handy, Justin D; Pang, Kevin C H; Tsao, Jack W; Mazzola, Catherine A

    2018-02-09

    Adolescents are at high risk for sustaining concussions. There is considerable controversy regarding the sensitivity of neurocognitive tests to detect and track dysfunction in the aftermath of concussion. Two neurocognitive test batteries were compared during the subacute phase of recovery from concussion to determine sensitivity to concussion. Adolescents (ages 11-17 years) with a concussion diagnosis (eight males, seven females, 9-69 days after injury) were recruited through a concussion clinic and compared with community nonconcussed volunteers (11 males, three females). Adolescents completed the online version of the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Test (ImPACT) on a desktop computer and the Defense Automated Neurobehavioral Assessment (DANA) on a handheld device, as well as the Grooved Pegboard Test, which assessed manual dexterity and motor speed. There were no differences in self-reported symptoms on the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale comparing concussed and nonconcussed adolescents. No significant between-groups differences were observed in ImPACT performance. Performance deficits were apparent for the DANA assessment, reflecting lower throughput scores for simple reaction time and response inhibition parameters in those with concussion. Concussed adolescents also had slower Grooved Pegboard Test performance when using the nondominant hand. Both the DANA test battery and the Grooved Pegboard Test appear to have promise as tools to detect persistent cognitive and motor dysfunction in the subacute period after concussion.