WorldWideScience

Sample records for sub-saharan africa information

  1. Information flows in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Paterson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The state of research into media and information flows in sub-Saharan Africa describes a situation marked by rapid growth of a wide range of media and distinctive geo-linguistic mediaspheres. This article focuses on two revolutions in information flow in the region: first, an expansion since the 1990s of traditional media, facilitated by satellite broadcasting and related technologies; secondly, since about 2000, the ongoing embrace of mobile telephony. It describes these developments in Lusophone, Francophone and Anglophone mediaspheres. Building on the author’s own previous research, and that of others, the article highlights the shift from asymmetrical, elite dominated communications concerning the major public affairs of the day toward increasingly symmetrical and participatory electronic communications. L’état de la recherche portant sur les flux d’information en Afrique sub-saharienne implique un contexte marqué par la croissance rapide d’un vaste panel de médias et d’espaces médiatiques géolinguistiques spécifiques. Le présent article porte sur deux révolutions liées au flux de l’information dans la région : en premier lieu l’expansion des médias traditionnels depuis les années 90, facilitée par la diffusion satellitaire et les technologies qu’elle implique ; en second lieu, l’intérêt actuel pour la téléphonie mobile qui se développe depuis les années 2000. L’article analyse ces évolutions au sein des espaces médiatiques lusophones, francophones et anglophones. Dans la continuité de notre précédente recherche, et celle développée par d’autres à ce sujet, cet article souligne le déplacement de communications asymétriques et dominées par l’élite, sur les affaires publiques majeures, vers des communications électroniques de plus en plus symétriques et participatives. O estado da pesquisa sobre o fluxo da informação na África subsaariana remete a um contexto marcado pelo r

  2. Information and Networks in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project seeks to provide capacity-building support to develop and implement the Information and Networks in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa (INASSA) research program. INASSA is focused on producing credible, high-quality evidence on the influence of digital initiatives in the areas of governance, science, learning, ...

  3. Sub-Saharan Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sub-Saharan Africa. Inbound tourism movement has emerged as an important factor in the preva- lence of the disease, after education. Defects of quality of data would not be far fetched, given the lack of logistics and financial resources of most governments for the exercise, possible political manipulations and ideological ...

  4. SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Meade and l'iot, 1993). Such findings which were carried out at different settings of develop' ing countries including Sub-Saharan Africa, appear conflicting and need to be reconciled through a sub-regional survey. Touching on the preventive mechanisms, especially the use of condoms, the educated are more likely to ...

  5. Sub-Saharan Africa Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1986-01-01

    .... This report contains articles from Sub-Saharan Africa, Angola, Ethiopia, Ghana, Mozambique, Namibia, Sierra Leone, Togo, Zambia, and South Africa, the articles deal mainly with Politics, Sociology...

  6. Sub-Saharan Africa Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1985-01-01

    .... This report from Sub-Saharan Africa, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Cameroon, Chad, Comoros, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mozambique, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa...

  7. Sub-Saharan Africa Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1985-01-01

    .... This report on Sub-Saharan Africa, Angola, Botswana, Burkina, Cameroon, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Namibia, Senegal, South Africa, and Swaziland, contains...

  8. Sub-Saharan Africa Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1987-01-01

    Partial Contents: Sub Saharan Africa, Military Exercise, Radio Commentary, Stock Exchange, Prime Minister, Economic, Domestic Service, Armed Forces, Health, Organizations, Death, International Service, Foreign Policy...

  9. Information and Networks in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Information and Networks in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa (INASSA) program focuses on producing and sharing credible, high-quality evidence on the influence of digital initiatives in governance, science, learning, and entrepreneurship. The program disseminates and shares knowledge to enhance policy dialogues ...

  10. Sub-Saharan Africa Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1985-01-01

    This is Sub Saharan Africa Report. It contains the issues with different topics on Inter African Affairs, Angola, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Chad, Congo, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Kenya, madagascar, Mozambique...

  11. The States of Sub Saharan Africa on the way to the Global Information Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin A. Pantserev

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper devotes to the problem of overcoming of the digital divide in the Sub Saharan African States. On the example of Kenya the author speaks about the comparative success of the development of the information technologies in Africa and in turn underlines the most significant obstacles on the way of African states to the global information society and suggests the means how to overcome them.

  12. Extending freight flow modelling to sub-Saharan Africa to inform infrastructure investments - trade data issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Havenga

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the first attempt by researchers at Stellenbosch University to model freight flows between and for 17 countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. The model will be informed by and linked to the South African surface Freight Demand Model (FDM given these dimensions. By analysing and collating available datasets and developing a freight flow model, a better understanding of freight movements between countries can be obtained and then used for long-term planning efforts. A simple methodology is envisaged that will entail a high-level corridor classification that links a major district in the country with a similar district in another country. Existing trade data will be used to corroborate new base-year economic demand and supply volumetric data that will be generated from social accounting matrices for each country. The trade data will also provide initial flow dynamics between countries that will be refined according to the new volumes. The model can then generate commodity-level corridor flows between SSA countries, and between SSA countries and the rest of the world, as well as intra-country rural and metropolitan flows, using a gravity-based modelling approach. This article outlines efforts to harmonise trade data between the 17 countries identified, as well as between these countries and the rest of the world as a first step towards developing a freight demand model for sub-Saharan Africa.

  13. Improving research management: institutionalization of management informations systems in national agricultural research organisations in Sub Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webber, H.

    2006-01-01

    Agricultural research management in the public sector in Sub Saharan Africa suffers from a lack of relevant, timely and accurate information on which to base decision-making. Developments in Management information systems over the past several years have been dramatic and can offer research managers

  14. Modelling social vulnerability in sub-Saharan West Africa using a geographical information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanrewaju Lawal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, disasters and risk management have gained significant attention, especially with increasing awareness of the risks and increasing impact of natural and other hazards especially in the developing world. Vulnerability, the potential for loss of life or property from disaster, has biophysical or social dimensions. Social vulnerability relates to societal attributes which has negative impacts on disaster outcomes. This study sought to develop a spatially explicit index of social vulnerability, thus addressing the dearth of research in this area in sub-Saharan Africa. Nineteen variables were identified covering various aspects. Descriptive analysis of these variables revealed high heterogeneity across the South West region of Nigeria for both the state and the local government areas (LGAs. Feature identification using correlation analysis identified six important variables. Factor analysis identified two dimensions, namely accessibility and socioeconomic conditions, from this subset. A social vulnerability index (SoVI showed that Ondo and Ekiti have more vulnerable LGAs than other states in the region. About 50% of the LGAs in Osun and Ogun have a relatively low social vulnerability. Distribution of the SoVI shows that there are great differences within states as well as across regions. Scores of population density, disability and poverty have a high margin of error in relation to mean state scores. The study showed that with a geographical information system there are opportunities to model social vulnerability and monitor its evolution and dynamics across the continent.

  15. medication in sub-Saharan Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-09-04

    Sep 4, 2007 ... In this review article, the issues related to provision of psychotropic drugs in services in sub-Saharan Africa are explored. Problems encountered in procurement of drugs, their safe prescription and practical supply systems are discussed, with possible solutions suggested. The evidence-base for the ...

  16. Sub-Saharan Africa Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1985-01-01

    .... This report from Sub-Sahara Africa, Angola, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Kenya, Malawi, Namibia, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda...

  17. The Complexity of Environmental Protection in Sub-Saharan Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    economic development in sub-Saharan Africa. However, there is an implicit determination of the people to protect the human health of the sub-Saharan population and the environment from the adverse effects of pollution and degraded ...

  18. Sub-Saharan Africa Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1987-01-01

    Partial Contents: Subsaharan Africa, Resolution, Settlement, Leaderships, Election Fraud, Political, Propaganda War, Guerilla War, Commonwealth President, Warns Officers, National Youth Corps, Diversity, Unemployment...

  19. Military Assistance in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    on the wildlife habitats, reduces the animal population through poaching, and reduces another source of income, tourism . 3 Hearing before the...their livestock, and defecate. The roads between Mombassa, Kenya and Goma, Zaire are often litde more than trails of rubble, remnants of what once was...authority of four different unified commands. In sub-Saharan Africa the U.S. Central Command (CENTCOM) is responsible for Djibouti, Kenya , Ethiopia and

  20. Energy Security and Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Meierding

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Published by Palgrave MacmillanOver the last decade the topic of energy security has reappeared on global policy agendas. Most analyses of international energy geopolitics examine the interests and behaviour of powerful energy-importing countries like the US and China. This chapter begins by examining foreign powers’ expanded exploitation of oil and uranium resources in Sub-Saharan Africa. It goes on to examine how energy importers’ efforts to enhance their energy security through Africa are impacting energy security within Africa. It assesses Sub-Saharan states’ attempts to increase consumption of local oil and uranium reserves. Observing the constraints on these efforts, it then outlines some alternative strategies that have been employed to enhance African energy security. It concludes that, while local community-based development projects have improved the well-being of many households, they are not a sufficient guarantor of energy security. Inadequate petroleum access, in particular, remains a development challenge. Foreign powers’ efforts to increase their oil security are undermining the energy security of Sub-Saharan African citizens.

  1. The Nexus of Information Technology and Democracy: Theorizing e-Democracy and Citizen Participation in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nchise, Abinwi C.

    2012-01-01

    The exponential growth of the Internet and mobile phone usage in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) within the last decade has created many different platforms for citizens' political participation. This appears to be changing the political landscape of most countries within the region as governments are increasingly held responsible for their actions.…

  2. Sub-Saharan Africa Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-20

    advantage if he is identified at this point. Meanwhile, it has emerged that while Lt Gen Ian Gleeson , acting chief of the SADF, referred in a statement...American Secretary of State Mr George Shultz had praised the unpre- cedented reforms taking place in South Africa, Earlier this month he spoke of the

  3. Sub-Saharan Africa Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-14

    society" in Africa has been effectively des- troyed —the activity of labor unions and other independent groups, for example. The West African Ghana...of South African industry," Dr Chris Garn - ers, president and chief executive officer of the CSIR, said in a statement released at a Press confer

  4. Sub-Saharan Africa Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-30

    Suaves, and Tipo -Raro: 135.00 MT; Havana, Cometa, Tam-Tam, Kwekwero, Orrera, and Ceumar: 120.00 MT; and Almirante (pipe tobacco): 660.00 MT per pouch...in television ownership among blacks since it was introduced had levelled off during 1986 and stabilized at 53 percent black adults having access to...television in their homes or hostels. Market Research Africa results were based on 1,000 black adults in main metropolitan areas, excluding Cape

  5. The level of Internet access and ICT training for health information professionals in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajuwon, Grace Ada; Rhine, Lenny

    2008-09-01

    Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are important tools for development. Despite its significant growth on a global scale, Internet access is limited in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Few studies have explored Internet access, use of electronic resources and ICT training among health information professionals in Africa. The study assessed Internet access, use of electronic resources and ICT training among health information professionals in SSA. A 26-item self-administered questionnaire in English and French was used for data collection. The questionnaire was completed by health information professionals from five Listservs and delegates at the 10th biannual Congress of the Association of Health Information and Libraries in Africa (AHILA). A total of 121 respondents participated in the study and, of those, 68% lived in their countries' capital. The majority (85.1%) had Internet access at work and 40.8% used cybercafes as alternative access points. Slightly less than two-thirds (61.2%) first learned to use ICT through self-teaching, whilst 70.2% had not received any formal training in the previous year. Eighty-eight per cent of respondents required further ICT training. In SSA, freely available digital information resources are underutilized by health information professionals. ICT training is recommended to optimize use of digital resources. To harness these resources, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations must play a key role.

  6. Leptospirosis in Sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Sophia G; Visser, Benjamin J; Nagel, Ingeborg M; Goris, Marga G A; Hartskeerl, Rudy A; Grobusch, Martin P

    2014-11-01

    Leptospirosis is an emerging zoonotic infection worldwide, possibly due to climate change and demographic shifts. It is regarded as endemic in Sub-Saharan Africa; however, for most countries scarce epidemiological data, if any, exist. The primary objectives were to describe the prevalence of leptospirosis in countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, and to develop options for prevention and control in the future. A systematic review was conducted to determine the prevalence of leptospirosis in Sub-Saharan Africa; the PRISMA guidelines were followed. Medline/PubMed, Embase, The Cochrane Library, Web of Science, BIOSIS Previews, the African Index Medicus, AJOL, and Google Scholar were searched. Information about the prevalence and incidence of leptospirosis in humans is available, but remains scarce for many countries. Data are unavailable or outdated for many countries, particularly those in Central Africa. Most data are available from animals, probably due to the economic losses caused by leptospirosis in livestock. In humans, leptospirosis is an important cause of febrile illness in Sub-Saharan Africa. It concerns numerous serogroups, harboured by many different animal carriers. A wide variety of data was identified. Prevalence rates vary throughout the continent and more research, especially in humans, is needed to reliably gauge the extent of the problem. Preventive measures need to be reconsidered to control outbreaks in the future.

  7. Sub-Saharan Africa Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-29

    DAILY TIMES, 24 Nov 86) 32 Babangida Warns Officers Against Misconduct (DAILY TIMES, 29 Nov 86) 33 Babangida on Rationale Behind National Youth ...Corps (DAILY TIMES, 6 Dec 86) 34 Development Minister Inaugurates National Youths Committee (Chuks Nwosu; DAILY STAR, 26 Nov 86) 35... Unemployment (DAILY TIMES, 20 Nov 86) 39 Information Minister on Overseas Centers Closure (DAILY TIMES, 14 Nov 86) 40 Petroleum Minister Hints at

  8. Youth in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Robert W

    2007-09-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is going through rapid social, political, and economic transformations that have a profound impact on youth. The present review explores trends and outcomes as they relate to education, family formation and sexual and reproductive health and the interrelationships among these areas. It is based on both published and unpublished reports. Over the past 20 years, school enrollment has increased for much of the subcontinent; although the gender gap has narrowed, females remain educationally disadvantaged. Likewise, marriage is occurring later today than a generation ago, posing new challenges of out-of-wedlock births, clandestine abortions, and an increased likelihood of engaging in premarital sex. So, too, although there has been a slowing of the population growth in much of the region, in many countries of sub-Saharan Africa, the population is doubling every 30 years. Although acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is the predominant cause of death among youth, maternal mortality remains a major risk of death for youth--in some countries 600 times greater than that of peers in the industrialized world.

  9. Priorities for Boosting Employment in Sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    2015-01-01

    Should policy-makers, including foreign donors, focus employment strategies in sub-Saharan Africa on strengthening access to formal wage employment or on raising productivity in the informal sector? We examine the evidence in Mozambique and show that crude distinctions between formality and infor......Should policy-makers, including foreign donors, focus employment strategies in sub-Saharan Africa on strengthening access to formal wage employment or on raising productivity in the informal sector? We examine the evidence in Mozambique and show that crude distinctions between formality...... and informality are not illuminating. The observed welfare advantage of formal sector workers essentially derives from differences in endowments and local conditions. Non-agricultural informal work can yield higher returns than formal work. The implication is that the informal sector must not be marginalized...

  10. Use of Electronic Health Records in sub-Saharan Africa: Progress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The Electronic Health Record (EHR) is a key component of medical informatics that is increasingly being utilized in industrialized nations to improve healthcare. There is limited information on the use of EHR in sub-Saharan Africa. This paper reviews availability of EHRs in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: ...

  11. Informing Reactive Vaccination Strategies for Meningococcal Meningitis in sub-Saharan Africa using Dust and Climate Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez García-Pando, C.; Thomson, M. C.; Stanton, M. C.; Diggle, P. J.; Miller, R. L.; Perlwitz, J. P.; Ceccato, P.

    2014-12-01

    Epidemics of meningococcal meningitis occur in sub-Saharan Africa during the dry season, a period when the region is affected by the Harmattan, a dry and dusty northeasterly trade wind blowing from the Sahara into the Gulf of Guinea. Although the mechanisms remain unclear, the location and seasonality of meningitis epidemics suggest that environmental factors, such as low absolute or relative humidity, high temperatures, and dusty atmospheric conditions play an important role. Using a 20-year time series of meningitis incidence in Niger we examined the potential of statistical models to predict seasonal incidence based on data that would be operationally available, such as climate and dust, population and previous incidence. We used surface dust concentration estimates from a model given the paucity of direct in situ measurements especially at district level. The soil dust aerosol component of the model was thoroughly evaluated with existing satellite and in situ data over the region of interest showing daily aerosol optical depth correlations around 0.6 (p < 0.05). Our results show that wind and dust information along with incidence in the early dry season predict a significant part of the year-to-year variability of the seasonal incidence at both national and district levels. Such a model could provide an early-season alert when wind, dust, and other conditions are conducive to an epidemic. We additionally discuss how this research has focused at "getting science into practice" by engaging with practitioner communities to inform operational decision-making for reactive vaccination.

  12. Democratic consolidation in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Pérez González

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The contributions made by theory on democratic consolidation in Eastern Europe are also pertinent to analysis of processes of democratization and democratic consolidation in other areas, such as sub-Saharan Africa. The parameters of analysis highlight the importance of a strong state (organized, with legitimated institutions and a structured society (whether multiethnic or not as necessary conditions for democratization. On the assumption that the colonizing powers basically used two models –the French assimilationist model and the British indirect government model– the study of how these conditions were fulfilled in various sub-Saharan states leads to two conclusions: the first, the possibility of a process of democratization in those states where European (French colonization produced a total assimilation of the colonized society, including above all the colonizer’s political values; and the second, the possibility of processes of democratization in states produced by British colonization where the indigenous structures and those of the metropolis were superimposed, a phenomenon which allowed the application of democratic values by legitimated local institutions.

  13. Land-related conflicts in Sub-Saharan Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sub-Saharan Africa has a history of land dispossession and contestation which have resulted in various types of inequalities and a skewed distribution of land resources. Land in Sub-Saharan Africa has been subject to conflict, conquest, expropriation and exploitation thus resulting in the many discrepancies that exist today ...

  14. Empowering Youth for Sub-Saharan Africa's Development | Betchoo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At this critical time of development in sub-Saharan Africa where the continent's growth actually makes it a region of great potential, it would be vital to integrate the youth in the development of the youngest continent in the world. Long-time considered as the continent of all worries and social threats, sub-Saharan Africa has ...

  15. Greenhouse gas emissions in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, R.L.; Perlack, R.D.; Prasad, A.M.G.; Ranney, J.W.; Waddle, D.B.

    1990-11-01

    Current and future carbon emissions from land-use change and energy consumption were analyzed for Sub-Saharan Africa. The energy sector analysis was based on UN energy data tapes while the land-use analysis was based on a spatially-explicit land-use model developed specifically for this project. The impacts of different energy and land-use strategies on future carbon emissions were considered. (A review of anthropogenic emissions of methane, nitrous oxides, and chlorofluorocarbons in Sub-Saharan Africa indicated that they were probably minor in both a global and a regional context. The study therefore was focused on emissions of carbon dioxide.) The land-use model predicts carbon emissions from land use change and the amount of carbon stored in vegetation (carbon inventory) on a yearly basis between 1985 and 2001. Emissions and inventory are modeled at 9000 regularly-spaced point locations in Sub-Saharan Africa using location-specific information on vegetation type, soils, climate and deforestation. Vegetation, soils, and climate information were derived from continental-scale maps while relative deforestation rates(% of forest land lost each year) were developed from country-specific forest and deforestation statistics (FAO Tropical Forest Resources Assessment for Africa, 1980). The carbon emissions under different land use strategies in Sub-Saharan Africa were analyzed by modifying deforestation rates and altering the amount of carbon stored under different land uses. The considered strategies were: preservation of existing forests, implementation of agroforestry, and establishment of industrial tree plantations. 82 refs., 16 figs., 25 tabs.

  16. [Diabetes mellitus in sub-saharan Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidibe el-H

    1998-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is becoming more common in African cities, where it may affect up to 7% of the hospital population. It particularly affects poor male patients and 73 to 80% of those affected have non insulin-dependent diabetes. The frequency of non-obese, poorly cetogenic patients is high in Sub-Saharan Africa. This may be due to malnutrition, with a deficit either in protein or in calories. Such malnutrition is a major public health problem affecting children in Sudanese and Sahelian areas and may interact with environmental and genetic factors. In equatorial environments, the toxic effects of alcohol abuse on the pancreas are simply another environmental factor, reducing the endocrine function of the pancreas. These observations are important because: 1) diabetes mellitus has a severe social impact in this area and 2) nutrition has a general effect on the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus.

  17. Energy Justice in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Kathleen B.

    Sub-Saharan Africa has the lowest rates of electrification and some of the worst education statistics worldwide. In the absence of strong infrastructure for a reliable grid system and quality universal primary schooling, the poor suffer significantly. Though substantial research has been done on both issues separately, the relationship between the two has yet to be explored. This thesis uses social justice theories to introduce the connections between energy poverty and an individual's education capabilities through a case study in Zambia. Case study research was carried out in the urban low-resource settlements of Lusaka, Zambia over a period of two months with Lifeline Energy, using methods of participant observation. Drawing on trends discovered in survey responses, interviews and feedback from a distribution of renewable technologies, this study demonstrates that a lack of modern forms of energy detracts from education. By synthesizing the data with Martha Nussbaum's capabilities approach and Sendhil Mullainathan and Eldar Shafir's scarcity theory, the research reveals that energy poverty hinders an individual's ability to study and gain a quality education and diminishes their available cognitive capacity to learn by tunneling attention to the resource deficit. Furthermore, it supports the claim that energy poverty is not gender neutral. The research concludes that the scarcity caused by energy poverty can be lessened by the investment in and use of small-scale renewable technologies which alleviates some of the daily stress and grind of poverty. This thesis lays the groundwork to recognize energy poverty as an injustice. Keywords: Energy Poverty, Education, Gender, Sub-Saharan Africa, Scarcity, Capabilities Approach..

  18. Sub-Saharan Africa thirty years hence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, J

    1986-11-01

    By the year 2015, Sub-Saharan Africa's population will probably rise from a 1985 level of about 460 million to about 1.1 billion. Today Africa's population is growing at a rate of roughly 3% a year, with exceptionally high growth rates in some countries. The leaders of Africa, and those who wish to help Africa, confront difficult and urgent problems of drought, political and military conflict, accumulated debt, lower commodity prices, and other factors of immediate and important concern. Africa has given education a high priority and should be as well known for its success in increasing school enrollment as it is for its relative failures in other areas. A projected population of 1.1 billion people and a fertility rate down to 30/1000 by the year 2015 suggests that the number of children old enough to enter primary school will be of the order of 30 million a year at this time. The working-age population will grow from 235 million now to perhaps 600 million in 30 years. The urban population has been growing at about 6% a year--twice the pace of population increase. All of these situations will have an effect on environment, water, and health. Coping with Africa's burgeoning population in terms of children in school, the demand on health systems, the need for jobs, achieving an adequate diet, the provision of basic urban services, and all the rest, is an extraordinary challenge. While the government's role is critical, success at the sectoral level almost always means cost recovery, administration decentralized to the community or to the private sector, and program implementation that does not burden the budget.

  19. Information and Communication Technologies in Tertiary Education in sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bon, A.

    2010-01-01

    All universities need to connect to the global knowledge backbone in order to enhance research, innovation, teaching and learning. Yet most African countries lack reliable access to this backbone as a result of the nascent state of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in their

  20. United States Offshoring of Information Technology: An Empirical Investigation of Factors Inhibiting Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoregie, Harry O.

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, the global information technology offshoring (ITO) and business process outsourcing (BPO) services have grown significantly, especially in Asia. The increased demand for offshore services in Asia has presented a difficult problem for U.S. organizations because countries such as India are now experiencing saturation of labor…

  1. Can sub-Saharan Africa feed itself?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ittersum, Martin K; van Bussel, Lenny G J; Wolf, Joost; Grassini, Patricio; van Wart, Justin; Guilpart, Nicolas; Claessens, Lieven; de Groot, Hugo; Wiebe, Keith; Mason-D'Croz, Daniel; Yang, Haishun; Boogaard, Hendrik; van Oort, Pepijn A J; van Loon, Marloes P; Saito, Kazuki; Adimo, Ochieng; Adjei-Nsiah, Samuel; Agali, Alhassane; Bala, Abdullahi; Chikowo, Regis; Kaizzi, Kayuki; Kouressy, Mamoutou; Makoi, Joachim H J R; Ouattara, Korodjouma; Tesfaye, Kindie; Cassman, Kenneth G

    2016-12-27

    Although global food demand is expected to increase 60% by 2050 compared with 2005/2007, the rise will be much greater in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Indeed, SSA is the region at greatest food security risk because by 2050 its population will increase 2.5-fold and demand for cereals approximately triple, whereas current levels of cereal consumption already depend on substantial imports. At issue is whether SSA can meet this vast increase in cereal demand without greater reliance on cereal imports or major expansion of agricultural area and associated biodiversity loss and greenhouse gas emissions. Recent studies indicate that the global increase in food demand by 2050 can be met through closing the gap between current farm yield and yield potential on existing cropland. Here, however, we estimate it will not be feasible to meet future SSA cereal demand on existing production area by yield gap closure alone. Our agronomically robust yield gap analysis for 10 countries in SSA using location-specific data and a spatial upscaling approach reveals that, in addition to yield gap closure, other more complex and uncertain components of intensification are also needed, i.e., increasing cropping intensity (the number of crops grown per 12 mo on the same field) and sustainable expansion of irrigated production area. If intensification is not successful and massive cropland land expansion is to be avoided, SSA will depend much more on imports of cereals than it does today.

  2. Paediatric challenges in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Hilliard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs project is coming to an end in 2015 and is being replaced by ambitious and aspirational Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs. Although the MDGs have been nearly achieved, this is not true in Sub-Saharan Africa where there is still unnecessarily high infant and childhood mortality and where there are many challenges to providing modern child health care. To achieve the SDGs in the next fifteen years, in low-income countries, national ministries of health and community health leaders will need to set reasonable goals and quality improvement projects. Attention needs to paid to economical, evidence-based effective health care; to education of children and youth and of health professional; health promotion and prevention of illness; a balance between expensive health care in large urban hospitals and community health projects; and most importantly to the social determinants of health. But the SDGs are achievable with coordinated and sustained national commitments and increased financial commitments from Western countries.

  3. Diet, malnutrition in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdula, M

    1988-12-01

    This study analyzes the association of protein energy malnutrition and mortality in preschool (non-emergency) children in Sub-Saharan Africa. 2 functional consequences of malnutrition are discussed: retarded physical growth (anthropometry) and mortality. The anthropometric measures used to assess malnutrition are weight-for-age, weight for height, and mid-upper arm circumference. The major factors associated with malnutrition and mortality include dietary intake, severity and frequency of infections, social, demographic, economic and cultural factors (area of residence, seasonality, socioeconomic status, mother's age and educational level, family support and cohesiveness, birth order of index child and birth interval between children and number of children under 5 in the family, maternal nutritional status and health and adequacy of breast milk volume and composition for young infants. Understanding these factors will identify children-at-risk for malnutrition and target them for intervention programs. The article focuses on the association of malnutrition with mortality in relation to: 1) breastfeeding and weaning practice; 2) vitamin A and 3) infection. Reviews of African and Asian studies on the subject demonstrated that higher mortality rates were associated with malnutrition, however, the causal associations remain unclear. Since malnourished children are at higher risk for illness, short-term interventions should include growth monitoring, nutrition education, prevention and treatment of infections, food supplementation, hospital rehabilitation, home gardens and improved agricultural practices; while long-term interventions should include improvement in the economic and environmental conditions. (author's modified).

  4. Emigration dynamics in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adepoju, A

    1995-01-01

    The introduction to this description of emigration dynamics in sub-Saharan Africa notes that the region is characterized by intensive migration caused by such factors as population growth, negative economic growth, ethnic conflict, and human rights abuses. The second section of the report discusses the fragmentary and incomplete nature of data on international migration in the region, especially data on conventional migration. Section 3 looks at demographic factors such as high population growth, illiteracy levels, HIV seroprevalence, and urbanization which lead to high unemployment and emigration. The fourth section considers the effects of the rapid expansion of education which is outstripping the absorptive capacity of the economies of many countries. Unemployment is a serious problem which is projected to become worse as increases in employment opportunities continue to lag behind increases in output. Sections five, six, and seven of the report describe relevant economic factors such as per capita income, income distribution, the economic resource base, and economic development; poverty; and the effects of economic adjustment programs, especially on employment opportunities and wages in the public and private sectors. The next section is devoted to sociocultural factors influencing migration both on the micro- and the macro-levels, including the influence of ethnicity and ethnic conflicts as well as the domination of leadership positions by members of minority groups. The political factors discussed in section 9 include women's status, repressive regimes, political instability which leads to underdevelopment, and the policies of the Organization of African Unity which broadened the definition of refugees and set inviolable borders of member states identical to those inherited upon independence. Section 10 outlines ecological factors contributing to migration, including the decline in acreage of arable land, soil deterioration, poor land management, and the

  5. What Explains Economic Underdevelopment in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    climate causes undue harm to the human body. Such tropical diseases as malaria only compound the problem. Infant mortality is high due in part to...is unlimited 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 2 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) This thesis examines the causes of slow economic growth in Sub-Saharan...LEFT BLANK v ABSTRACT This thesis examines the causes of slow economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa. In particular, it attempts to identify the

  6. Gender Inequality in Education in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Ombati; Ombati Mokua

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the issue of gender inequality in education in sub-Saharan Africa. It argues that in sub-Saharan African countries, the provision of education for boys and girls is uneven, and biased through gender, location, class and region- resulting to high illiteracy rates for girls and women. The paper concludes that political instability and violence, poverty and economical challenges, negative cultural values, female genital mutilation, early marriage, and sexual harassment are so...

  7. Paediatric burn injuries in Sub Saharan Africa--an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertyn, R; Bickler, S W; Rode, H

    2006-08-01

    Paediatric burn injuries in Sub Saharan Africa are common and often lead to devastating consequences. Unfortunately relevant and accurate data regarding these injuries is sketchy and incomplete. This paper reviews the available information on the epidemiology of paediatric burns in Africa, associated health problems and contributing environmental factors responsible for these burns. The current status of burn care, the lack of infrastructure, and traditional methods of treatment, further contribute to the unsatisfactory status of overall burn management, prevention, and rehabilitation of burn survivors. A strategy for improving burn care in Africa has been formulated. The management of childhood burns will only be successful if educational, social, fiscal and infrastructure standards are improved. Traditional beliefs and methods cannot be discarded as they play an important role in the management of these children. It is furthermore essential that local and central government organisations support these initiatives. Clearly, the children of Africa deserve better burn care.

  8. [Thyroid diseases in sub-Saharan Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidibé, El Hassane

    2007-01-01

    Thyroid gland diseases vary according to the environment. In sub-Saharan Africa, they are also influenced by population isolation and the absence of food self-sufficiency, both factors affecting the onset and persistence of iodine-deficiency goiters. More cosmopolitan diseases are now added to these thyroid disorders. Women are mainly affected (94.2%), most often with euthyroid goiters (54.7%), followed by Graves disease (13.1%), hypothyroidism (8.8%), thyroiditis (6.6%), toxic multinodular goiters (6.6 %) and unclassified goiters (10%) [Gabon]. The paucity of laboratories specializing in endocrinology and of nuclear medicine facilities, the delay in diagnosis that results in compressive or recurrent goiters, and endemic goiters are all typical in Africa. In children and adolescents, death rates increase with congenital or acquired thyroiditis as with delayed physical or mental development. In this environment, thyroiditis can also be pregnancy-related. Very recent surveys show a prevalence of endemic goiters of 28.6% in the community of Sekota, Ethiopia, 64-70% in Sahel-Sudan (population aged 10-20 years), 20-29% in KwaZulu-Natal (school children), 14.3-30.2% in Namibia (school children), 0.21% (congenital hypothyroidism or cretinism) in Plateau State, Nigeria, 55.2% at Zitenga, Burkina Faso (210 persons 0-45 years), and 10% in Hararé and Wedza, Zimbabwe (newborn TSH >10.1 microIU/mL). The prevalence of goiters is 43.6% in children emigrating from Ethiopia to Israel. Millet from semi-arid zones contains apigenin at a concentration of 150 mg/kg and luteolin at 350 mg/kg, both of which can interfere with thyroid function. The harmful effects of cassava (also known as manioc) are better known: milling cassava reduces its goitrogenic potential. In addition to iodine deficiency, selenium deficiency, and the effect of the thiocyanates in cassava, ion concentrations in soil and drinking water appear to play a role. The proportion of thyroid surgery indicated for

  9. Men's Attitudes Towards Contraception in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bietsch, Kristin E

    2015-09-01

    This paper examines male attitudes towards family planning in Sub-Saharan Africa. Studying attitudes is ideal as they can be calculated for all men, at any point in their lives, regardless of marital status, sexual activity, or fertility desires. We find that positive attitudes towards family planning have increased across Sub-Saharan Africa in the last two decades. We analyze both the association of positive attitudes with a variety of demographic characteristics (age, marital status, education, and religion) and the relationships with multiple forms of discussion about family planning (radio, television, friends, and partners). We find higher approval at older ages and higher levels of education, and lower levels of approval among Muslims compared to Christians. Interactions between characteristics and discussion of family planning. demonstrate that hearing or talking about contraception has different associations for different groups. This paper offers a new way to explore fertility and reproductive health in Sub-Saharan Africa.

  10. science granting councils initiative in sub-saharan africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Dorine Odongo

    Briefly describe your organization, its vision and mission, its interest in STI issues, and its interest in forging long-term relationships with Science Granting Councils in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).1 Which regions (Eastern, Southern, Central or West Africa) and countries has your organization worked in? 1 The Initiative is keen ...

  11. Factors affecting contraceptive use in Sub-Saharan Africa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council Staff

    1993-01-01

    ...-SAHARAN AFRICA Working Group on Factors Affecting Contraceptive Use Panel on the Population Dynamics of Sub-Saharan Africa Committee on Population Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1993 Copyrightoriginal retained, the be not from cannot book, paper original howeve...

  12. Impact of human schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiola Fatimah Adenowo

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease of poverty ranks second among the most widespread parasitic disease in various nations in sub-Saharan Africa. Neglected tropical diseases are causes of about 534,000 deaths annually in sub-Saharan Africa and an estimated 57 million disability-adjusted life-years are lost annually due to the neglected tropical diseases. The neglected tropical diseases exert great health, social and financial burden on economies of households and governments. Schistosomiasis has profound negative effects on child development, outcome of pregnancy, and agricultural productivity, thus a key reason why the "bottom 500 million" inhabitants of sub-Saharan Africa continue to live in poverty. In 2008, 17.5 million people were treated globally for schistosomiasis, 11.7 million of those treated were from sub-Saharan Africa. This enervating disease has been successfully eradicated in Japan, as well as in Tunisia. Morocco and some Caribbean Island countries have made significant progress on control and management of this disease. Brazil, China and Egypt are taking steps towards elimination of the disease, while most sub-Saharan countries are still groaning under the burden of the disease. Various factors are responsible for the continuous and persistent transmission of schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa. These include climatic changes and global warming, proximity to water bodies, irrigation and dam construction as well as socio-economic factors such as occupational activities and poverty. The morbidity and mortality caused by this disease cannot be overemphasized. This review is an exposition of human schistosomiasis as it affects the inhabitants of various communities in sub-Sahara African countries. It is hoped this will bring a re-awakening towards efforts to combat this impoverishing disease in terms of vaccines development, alternative drug design, as well as new point-of-care diagnostics.

  13. Impact of human schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenowo, Abiola Fatimah; Oyinloye, Babatunji Emmanuel; Ogunyinka, Bolajoko Idiat; Kappo, Abidemi Paul

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease of poverty ranks second among the most widespread parasitic disease in various nations in sub-Saharan Africa. Neglected tropical diseases are causes of about 534,000 deaths annually in sub-Saharan Africa and an estimated 57 million disability-adjusted life-years are lost annually due to the neglected tropical diseases. The neglected tropical diseases exert great health, social and financial burden on economies of households and governments. Schistosomiasis has profound negative effects on child development, outcome of pregnancy, and agricultural productivity, thus a key reason why the "bottom 500 million" inhabitants of sub-Saharan Africa continue to live in poverty. In 2008, 17.5 million people were treated globally for schistosomiasis, 11.7 million of those treated were from sub-Saharan Africa. This enervating disease has been successfully eradicated in Japan, as well as in Tunisia. Morocco and some Caribbean Island countries have made significant progress on control and management of this disease. Brazil, China and Egypt are taking steps towards elimination of the disease, while most sub-Saharan countries are still groaning under the burden of the disease. Various factors are responsible for the continuous and persistent transmission of schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa. These include climatic changes and global warming, proximity to water bodies, irrigation and dam construction as well as socio-economic factors such as occupational activities and poverty. The morbidity and mortality caused by this disease cannot be overemphasized. This review is an exposition of human schistosomiasis as it affects the inhabitants of various communities in sub-Sahara African countries. It is hoped this will bring a re-awakening towards efforts to combat this impoverishing disease in terms of vaccines development, alternative drug design, as well as new point-of-care diagnostics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights

  14. Impact of human schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiola Fatimah Adenowo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease of poverty ranks second among the most widespread parasitic disease in various nations in sub-Saharan Africa. Neglected tropical diseases are causes of about 534,000 deaths annually in sub-Saharan Africa and an estimated 57 million disability-adjusted life-years are lost annually due to the neglected tropical diseases. The neglected tropical diseases exert great health, social and financial burden on economies of households and governments. Schistosomiasis has profound negative effects on child development, outcome of pregnancy, and agricultural productivity, thus a key reason why the “bottom 500 million” inhabitants of sub-Saharan Africa continue to live in poverty. In 2008, 17.5 million people were treated globally for schistosomiasis, 11.7 million of those treated were from sub-Saharan Africa. This enervating disease has been successfully eradicated in Japan, as well as in Tunisia. Morocco and some Caribbean Island countries have made significant progress on control and management of this disease. Brazil, China and Egypt are taking steps towards elimination of the disease, while most sub-Saharan countries are still groaning under the burden of the disease. Various factors are responsible for the continuous and persistent transmission of schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa. These include climatic changes and global warming, proximity to water bodies, irrigation and dam construction as well as socio-economic factors such as occupational activities and poverty. The morbidity and mortality caused by this disease cannot be overemphasized. This review is an exposition of human schistosomiasis as it affects the inhabitants of various communities in sub-Sahara African countries. It is hoped this will bring a re-awakening towards efforts to combat this impoverishing disease in terms of vaccines development, alternative drug design, as well as new point-of-care diagnostics.

  15. Democratic Governance in Sub-Saharan Africa | Eberlei | Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty years into sub-Saharan Africa's democratic renewal, an understanding of democratic governance has become established among political actors in the region. Democratic governance is characterised by: legitimation of governmental power through elections, legitimation of governmental politics through ...

  16. Boosting food security in sub-Saharan Africa through cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is further argues that this can only be achievable if certain factors that can help to strengthen the expansion of cassava production as a food security crop in Nigeria in particular and Sub-Saharan Africa in general are put into adequate consideration. Some of these are proper implementation of cassava initiative ...

  17. Men's Attitudes Towards Contraception in Sub-Saharan Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Methods. Data for this paper are from the Demographic and. Health Surveys conducted in Sub-Saharan Africa. DHS has conducted surveys of men, independent of marital status, in the region since 1991. Inclusions of questions regarding attitudes towards and communication about family planning vary across surveys.

  18. Abortion and Contraceptive Use in Sub-Saharan Africa: How ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Based on available evidence, this review article posits that contemporary use of abortion in sub-Saharan Africa often substitutes for and sometimes surpasses modern contraceptive practice. Some studies and some data sets indicate that this occurs not only among adolescents but also within older age groups. In several ...

  19. Capabilities, innovation and entrepreneurship in sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroesen, J.O.; Romijn, H

    2015-01-01

    This paper takes a capability approach to analyze the role of entrepreneurship in the socio-economic development of present-day Sub Saharan Africa. The paper zooms in on the nature of the capabilities that are built through the development of entrepreneurship; the key challenges to the development

  20. Neonatal hypothermia in sub-Saharan Africa: A review | Onalo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pertinent books and monographs were accessed. Data in formats inaccessible to the reviewer were excluded. Result and Conclusion: Neonatal hypothermia is a major condition of public health importance in countries of sub- Saharan Africa. Awareness of the burden of the disease is still low in some communities.

  1. Soyabean response to rhizobium inoculation across sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerwaarden, van Joost; Baijukya, Frederick; Kyei-Boahen, Stephen; Adjei-nsiah, Samuel; Ebanyat, Peter; Kamai, Nkeki; Wolde-Meskel, Endalkachew; Kanampiu, Fred; Vanlauwe, Bernard; Giller, Ken

    2017-01-01

    Improving bacterial nitrogen fixation in grain legumes is central to sustainable intensification of agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa. In the case of soyabean, two main approaches have been pursued: first, promiscuous varieties were developed to form effective symbiosis with locally abundant

  2. Is urbanization in Sub-Saharan Africa different ?

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, J. Vernon; Roberts, Mark; Storeygard, Adam

    2013-01-01

    In the past dozen years, a literature has developed arguing that urbanization has unfolded differently in post-independence Sub-Saharan Africa than in the rest of the developing world, with implications for African economic growth overall. While African countries are more urbanized than other countries at comparable levels of income, it is well-recognized that total and sector gross domest...

  3. Climate change impacts in Sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serdeczny, Olivia; Adams, Sophie; Baarsch, Florent; Coumou, Dim; Robinson, Alexander; Hare, William; Schaeffer, Michiel; Perrette, Mahé; Reinhardt, Julia

    2017-01-01

    The repercussions of climate change will be felt in various ways throughout both natural and human systems in Sub-Saharan Africa. Climate change projections for this region point to a warming trend, particularly in the inland subtropics; frequent occurrence of extreme heat events; increasing

  4. Therapeutic misconception and clinical trials in sub-saharan Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To identify possible existence of therapeutic misconception and its effects on clinical trials in sub-Saharan Africa. Data source: Original research findings and reviews published in the English literature and author's professional experience with clinical trials in some East, Central and West African countries.

  5. Sub-Saharan Africa | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Over the years, sub-Saharan Africa has experienced a prolonged development crisis, fuelled by complex ethnic, social, and political realities. The region suffers from weak governments, corruption, and mismanagement of resources. Its overburdened water systems are under increasing stress from fast-growing urban areas, ...

  6. Managing Endometriosis in sub-Saharan Africa: Emerging Concepts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Endometriosis is a gynaecological disorder that is characterized by the growth of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity1. In developed countries, it occurs in up to 20% of women of reproductive age and is a common cause of pelvic pain and infertility1,2. In sub-Saharan Africa, epidemiological data on the prevalence ...

  7. Community responses to malaria: interventions in sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pell, C.L.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents data from two multi-site programmes of research that have examined the social responses to malaria interventions in sub -Saharan Africa. The first dealt specifically with the attitudes and behaviours linked to a single intervention aimed at reducing malaria morbidity and

  8. 17. Alade Adetayo Oludare kinship Structures in sub Saharan Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    REGINALDS

    states, the conception of kinship needs to be broadened to transcend simple familial or ancestral relations. Key Words. Sub-Saharan Africa, kinship relations, ancestors, social justice, .... fundamentally rooted in kinship” (Finch 2008, 721). ... the ancestors laid the foundation for the order in the community is so important that it.

  9. Plantation Forestry in Sub Saharan Africa: Silvicultural, Ecological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the potentials of meeting the wood demand and achieving SFM in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) through the establishment of forest plantations. The paper reviews forest plantation ownership and distribution patterns in SSA and the factors –silvicultural, ecological, and economic that affect supply and ...

  10. Human papillomavirus prevalence among men in sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Tina Bech; Munk, Christian; Christensen, Jane

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarise the available data on the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) among men in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: PubMed and Embase were searched up to 10 March 2014. Random effects meta-analyses were used to calculate a poole...

  11. Economic Geography and Economic Development in Sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosker, Maarten; Garretsen, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africas (SSA) physical geography is often blamed for its poor economic performance. A countrys geographical location does, however, not only determine its agricultural conditions or disease environment. It also pins down a countrys relative position vis--vis other countries, affecting

  12. Making the Most of Commodities Program (sub-Saharan Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    On the other hand, they pose a significant threat to governance, macroeconomic management, industrial development, the environment and the sociopolitical fabric. Sub-Saharan Africa needs to develop a strategic response to the boom in commodities prices, which has already been more long-lived and less volatile than ...

  13. Vaccines to Combat Livestock Diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Infectious diseases are especially problematic in sub-Saharan Africa, where livestock production accounts for up to 25% of national income. ... La pleuropneumonie contagieuse des bovins est une maladie d'origine bactérienne qui a de graves conséquences sur l'économie et le commerce en Afrique subsaharienne.

  14. Leptospirosis in Sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Sophia G.; Visser, Benjamin J.; Nagel, Ingeborg M.; Goris, Marga G. A.; Hartskeerl, Rudy A.; Grobusch, Martin P.

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an emerging zoonotic infection worldwide, possibly due to climate change and demographic shifts. It is regarded as endemic in Sub-Saharan Africa; however, for most countries scarce epidemiological data, if any, exist. The primary objectives were to describe the prevalence of

  15. Men's Attitudes Towards Contraception in Sub-Saharan Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Studying attitudes is ideal as they can be calculated for all men, at any point in their lives, regardless of marital status, sexual activity, or fertility desires. ... When studying men's sexual lives in Sub-. Saharan Africa (and elsewhere), benefit ...... we see in most cases a reversal of the main effect. For those who hear about family ...

  16. Science Granting Councils Initiative in Sub-Saharan Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This initiative seeks to strengthen the capacities of science granting councils in East Africa and other selected sub-Saharan African countries. The goal is to contribute to economic and social development in the region through research and evidence-based policies. About the science granting councils initiative The Science ...

  17. Implementing focussed antenatal care in sub-Saharan Africa: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A SWOT Analysis framework was used to assess the situational analysis of antenatal care programmes in sub-Saharan Africa while the Walt and Gilson policy analysis triangle was used to analyse the feasibility of introducing the new WHO ANC model into the sub-region. The content of the WHO model may need to be ...

  18. Bibliography on Islam in contemporary Sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrijver, P.

    2006-01-01

    This book has been nominated for the Conover-Porter Award 2008 - This bibliography on Islam in contemporary Sub-Saharan Africa has been prepared as part of the African Studies Centre/Centre d'Etude d'Afrique Noire project entitled "Islam, the Disengagement of the State, and Globalization in

  19. model hpv vaccine recommendations for sub-saharan africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MEMBERS OF THE SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA CERVICAL CANCER WORKING GROUP. (Manucript N° ... of genital wart cases.[22]. Decreasing the incidence of. HPV-related cancers, in particular cervical cancer morbidity and mortality, by means such as vaccination ... lesions which are amenable to treatment and hence.

  20. Evolution of Corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa - from Nkruma To Mutharika The 2nd: Case Study Of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavhungu Abel Mafukata

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Since Sub-Saharan Africa's first independence in Ghana, the region has experienced massive and costly political and bureaucratic corruption within public service and administration. The causes of the corruption, its nature and form are wide and intertwined. In Sub-Saharan Africa, efforts to curb corruption have failed to discard it. The paper focused on the period from Nkruma in Ghana to Mutharika the 2nd in Malawi. This paper reviewed existing literature on political and bureaucratic corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa while on the other hand the paper employed key informant interviews to gather the required data to investigate, analyse and profile the genesis and evolution of corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa. The key informant interviews were employed to solicit public views and opinion from nineteen key informant participants (n=19 selected from 11 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. The paper found that corruption is legendary; has entrenched itself to becoming some sort of culture in the region, and has become the most difficult socio-economic challenge to resolve in the region despite the various anti-corruption efforts employed by stakeholders to curb it. It emerged through the study that law-enforcement efforts against corruption need some reinforcement in order to be effective and eficient in uprooting corruption in the region. If Sub-Saharan Africa fails to address its corruption challenge, its development prospects would seriously curtailed.

  1. Sub-Saharan Africa - Managing Land in a Changing Climate : An Operational Perspective for Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    Livelihoods, food security, and development processes in Sub-Saharan Africa are highly dependent on land management practices to generate natural ecosystem goods and services. Out of a total population of about 717 million people, almost 60 percent depend for their livelihood on agriculture, hunting, fishing, or forestry. However, unsustainable land management already is leading to large-s...

  2. Defining children's rights and responsibilities in Sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, Ruth; Skovdal, Morten

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explores the spatialities of children’s rights through a focus on how children’s paid and unpaid work in sub-Saharan Africa intersects with wider debates about child labor, child domestic work, and young caregiving. Several tensions surround the universalist and individualistic nature...... of the rights discourse in the context of sub-Saharan Africa, and policymakers, practitioners, children, and community members have emphasized children’s responsibilities to their families and communities, as well as their rights. The limitations of ILO definitions of child labor and child domestic work...... by policymakers and practitioners in East Africa, ranging from a child labor/child protection/abolitionist approach to a “young carer”/child-centered rights perspective. These differing perspectives influence the level and nature of support and resources that children involved in care work may be able to access...

  3. Angola - an Oil Dependant Country in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baumgartner Boris

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Sub-Saharan Africa belongs to the most underdeveloped regions in the world economy. This region consists of forty nine countries but it’s world GDP share is only a small percentage. There are some very resource rich countries in this region. One of them is Angola. This former Portuguese colony has one of the largest inventories of oil among all African countries. Angola recorded one of the highest growth of GDP between 2004-2008 from all countries in the world economy and nowadays is the third biggest economy in Sub-Saharan Africa after Nigeria and South Africa. The essential problem of Angola is the one-way oriented economy on oil and general on natural resources. Angola will be forced to change their one-way oriented economy to be more diversified and competitive in the future.

  4. Cultural significance of termites in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Huis, Arnold

    2017-01-26

    The number of termite species in the world is more than 2500, and Africa with more than 1000 species has the richest intercontinental diversity. The family Termitidae contains builders of great mounds up to 5 m high. Colonies are composed of casts: a queen, a king, soldiers and workers. Some species of termite cultivate specialised fungi to digest cellulose. Termites constitute 10% of all animal biomass in the tropics. The purpose of the study was to make an overview of how termites are utilized, perceived and experienced in daily life across sub-Saharan Africa. Ethno-entomological information on termites (Isoptera) in sub-Saharan Africa was collected by: (1) interviews with more than 300 people from about 120 ethnic groups from 27 countries in the region; (2) library studies in Africa, London, Paris and Leiden. Vernacular names relate to mounds, insects as food, the swarming, and the behaviour of termites. Swarming reproductive, soldiers and queens are collected as food. There are many different ways to harvest them. Termites can also be used as feed for poultry or as bait to catch birds and fish. The mushrooms that grow each year from the fungus gardens on the termite mounds are eaten. The soldiers, the fungus gardens and the soil of termite mounds are used for multiple medicinal purposes. Mounds and soil of termites have numerous functions: for geochemical prospecting, making bricks, plastering houses, making pots, and for storage. Termite soil is often used as fertilizer. The act of eating soil (geophagy) among women, especially those that are pregnant, is practised all over Africa. The mounds can serve as burying places and are often associated with the spiritual world, especially containing the spirits of ancestors. Termites also play a role as oracle, in superstitious beliefs, in art and literature. The following characteristics make termites so appealing: the dominance in the landscape, the social organization, the destructive power, and the provision of

  5. Population growth and food supply in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerman, J; Cochrane, S H

    1982-09-01

    It is argued in this article that sub-Saharan Africa, given its present institutions and endowments of capital and technology, is already dangerously close to overpopulation. The rapid growth of its population projected for the next decades will greatly increase human misery and depress economic development. Specifically, rapid population growth will have disastrous effects on the region's ability to increase exports and provide people with food. There must be a search for new ways in which these effects could be mitigated. In sub-Saharan Africa fertility either continues to be very high or is increasing, in part due to some decline in traditional practices that reduce fertility, such as prolonged breastfeeding. This situation and the expectation of declining mortality imply that African population growth may increase further. Currently, population in sub-Saharan Africa is about half that of India and a third of China. There are 2 main reasons why reduced fertility in the next few decades is unlikely in sub-Saharan Africa as a whole: Africa has low literacy, high infant and child mortality, and low urbanization; and average African fertility rates may even increase for the next 20 years or so. The question that arises is what are the implications of continuing and rapid population growth for the African food supply. The region's cereal production is largely restricted to 4 grains, i.e., millet, sorghum, maize, and rice. The volume of grain production is less, by weight, than 60% of the production of roots and tubers. There are 2 main differences between the output of these crops in sub-Saharan Africa and the rest of the world: yields/hectare are lower in Africa than in elsewhere; and yields have generally been decreasing or largely constant in Africa. The low productivity has several causes. Today, population pressure has brought diminishing returns to traditional agriculture in much of the Sahel and the savanna, in parts of East Africa, Southern Africa, and parts

  6. Russian Interests in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    There were deep contradictions at the heart of Soviet policy towards southern Africa. Despite its uncompro- mising denunciation of apartheid , Moscow...with apartheid .15 Out of Africa. The years immediately following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 saw a dramatic reduction in Russia’s

  7. Sub Saharan Africa Food Value Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Ivan Harry

    2016-01-01

    Study of food value chains in East Africa as a preliminary study. The paper wishes to underline a few under-researched assumptions about esepcially protein deficiencies, allergies etc. to establish what enablers and constraints exist when trying to supply food from e.g. Europe to e.g. East Africa....

  8. Determinants of antiretroviral therapy coverage in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumitaka Furuoka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Among 35 million people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV in 2013, only 37% had access to antiretroviral therapy (ART. Despite global concerted efforts to provide the universal access to the ART treatment, the ART coverage varies among countries and regions. At present, there is a lack of systematic empirical analyses on factors that determine the ART coverage. Therefore, the current study aimed to identify the determinants of the ART coverage in 41 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. It employed statistical analyses for this purpose. Four elements, namely, the HIV prevalence, the level of national income, the level of medical expenditure and the number of nurses, were hypothesised to determine the ART coverage. The findings revealed that among the four proposed determinants only the HIV prevalence had a statistically significant impact on the ART coverage. In other words, the HIV prevalence was the sole determinant of the ART coverage in Sub-Saharan Africa.

  9. SME Adoption of Enterprise Systems in Sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adisa, Femi; Isabalija, Stephen R.

    of any information system. SMEs constitute a majority of all organizations in most Sub Saharan economies, thus their importance to the socioeconomic development and empowerment of the region cannot be overemphasized. However, the absence of literature and focused research into factors that influence...

  10. Consequences of Chinese aid in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Sauls, Phillip R.; Heaton, Neal D.

    2016-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited China's position of non-interference in foreign governments' affairs, while currently good for Chinese business, may threaten to increase international terrorism, deepen regime corruption, and erode U.S. political relevance in sub-Saharan Africa. China has empowered private enterprises, which can monopolize African market sectors, marginalize African businesses, and exacerbate local social conditions. Using non-violent uprising and vio...

  11. Caesarean section and subsequent fertility in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, S M; Marshall, T; Filippi, V

    2006-03-01

    To determine the impact of caesarean section on fertility among women in sub-Saharan Africa. Analysis of standardised cross-sectional surveys (Demographic and Health Surveys). Twenty-two countries in sub-Saharan Africa, 1993-2003. A total of 35 398 women of childbearing age (15-49 years). Time to subsequent pregnancy was compared by mode of delivery using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Natural fertility rates subsequent to delivery by caesarean section compared with natural fertility rates subsequent to vaginal delivery. The natural fertility rate subsequent to delivery by caesarean section was 17% lower than the natural fertility rate subsequent to vaginal delivery (hazard ratio = 0.83, 95% CI 0.73-0.96, P Caesarean section was also associated with prior fertility and desire for further children: among multiparous women, an interval > or =3 versus caesarean section at the index birth (OR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.7, P= 0.005); among all women, the odds of desiring further children were lower among women who had previously delivered by caesarean section (OR = 0.67, 95% CI 0.54-0.84, P Caesarean section did not appear to increase the risk of a subsequent pregnancy ending in miscarriage, abortion or stillbirth. Among women in sub-Saharan Africa, caesarean section is associated with lower subsequent natural fertility. Although this reflects findings from developed countries, the roles of pathological and psychological factors may be quite different because a much higher proportion of caesarean sections in sub-Saharan Africa are emergency procedures for maternal indication.

  12. Understanding Hydrological Processes in an Ungauged Catchment in sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mul, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Ungauged catchments can be found in many parts of the world, but particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Information collected in a gauged catchment and its regionalisation to ungauged areas is crucial for water resources assessment. Especially farmers in semi-arid are in need of such information. Inter

  13. Understanding Hydrological Processes in an Ungauged Catchment in sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mul, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Ungauged catchments can be found in many parts of the world, but particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Information collected in a gauged catchment and its regionalisation to ungauged areas is crucial for water resources assessment. Especially farmers in semi-arid areas are in need of such information.

  14. Maternal obesity and Caesarean delivery in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresswell, Jenny A; Campbell, Oona M R; De Silva, Mary J; Slaymaker, Emma; Filippi, Veronique

    2016-07-01

    To quantify maternal obesity as a risk factor for Caesarean delivery in sub-Saharan Africa. Multivariable logistic regression analysis using 31 nationally representative cross-sectional data sets from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). Maternal obesity was a risk factor for Caesarean delivery in sub-Saharan Africa; a clear dose-response relationship (where the magnitude of the association increased with increasing BMI) was observable. Compared to women of optimal weight, overweight women (BMI 25-29 kg/m(2) ) were significantly more likely to deliver by Caesarean (OR: 1.54; 95% CI: 1.33, 1.78), as were obese women (30-34.9 kg/m(2) (OR: 2.39; 95%CI: 1.96-2.90); 35-39.9 kg/m(2) (OR: 2.47 95%CI: 1.78-3.43)) and morbidly obese women (BMI ≥40 kg/m(2) OR: 3.85; 95% CI: 2.46-6.00). BMI is projected to rise substantially in sub-Saharan Africa over the next few decades and demand for Caesarean sections already exceeds available capacity. Overweight women should be advised to lose weight prior to pregnancy. Furthermore, culturally appropriate prevention strategies to discourage further population-level rises in BMI need to be designed and implemented. © 2016 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Vaccination for typhoid fever in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slayton, Rachel B; Date, Kashmira A; Mintz, Eric D

    2013-04-01

    Emerging data on the epidemiologic, clinical and microbiologic aspects of typhoid fever in sub-Saharan Africa call for new strategies and new resources to bring the regional epidemic under control. Areas with endemic disease at rates approaching those in south Asia have been identified; large, prolonged and severe outbreaks are occurring more frequently; and resistance to antimicrobial agents, including fluoroquinolones is increasing. Surveillance for typhoid fever is hampered by the lack of laboratory resources for rapid diagnosis, culture confirmation and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Nonetheless, in 2010, typhoid fever was estimated to cause 725 incident cases and 7 deaths per 100,000 person years in sub-Saharan Africa. Efforts for prevention and outbreak control are challenged by limited access to safe drinking water and sanitation and by a lack of resources to initiate typhoid immunization. A comprehensive approach to typhoid fever prevention including laboratory and epidemiologic capacity building, investments in water, sanitation and hygiene and reconsideration of the role of currently available vaccines could significantly reduce the disease burden. Targeted vaccination using currently available typhoid vaccines should be considered as a short- to intermediate-term risk reduction strategy for high-risk groups across sub-Saharan Africa.

  16. Soil degradation in Sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.; Keulen, van H.

    2005-01-01

    Soil degradation in Sub-Sahara Africa has been much debated in the past decades. Although there are many different views, at the extremes there are those who are of the opinion that the problem is very serious and the main cause for the poverty and food crises and those that are convinced that it is

  17. Do ecosystem service maps and models meet stakeholders’ needs? A preliminary survey across sub-Saharan Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Willcock, S

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available by the researcher community. We surveyed stakeholders within sub-Saharan Africa, determining their ES data requirements using a targeted sampling strategy. Of those respondents utilising ES information (>90%; n=60), 27% report having sufficient data...

  18. Antimicrobial drug resistance among clinically relevant bacterial isolates in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leopold, Stije J.; van Leth, Frank; Tarekegn, Hayalnesh; Schultsz, Constance

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) amongst bacterial pathogens in sub-Saharan Africa (sSA), despite calls for continent-wide surveillance to inform empirical treatment guidelines. We searched PubMed and additional databases for susceptibility data of key pathogens

  19. mHealth in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. Betjeman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phone penetration rates have reached 63% in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA and are projected to pass 70% by 2013. In SSA, millions of people who never used traditional landlines now use mobile phones on a regular basis. Mobile health, or mHealth, is the utilization of short messaging service (SMS, wireless data transmission, voice calling, and smartphone applications to transmit health-related information or direct care. This systematic review analyzes and summarizes key articles from the current body of peer-reviewed literature on PubMed on the topic of mHealth in SSA. Studies included in the review demonstrate that mHealth can improve and reduce the cost of patient monitoring, medication adherence, and healthcare worker communication, especially in rural areas. mHealth has also shown initial promise in emergency and disaster response, helping standardize, store, analyze, and share patient information. Challenges for mHealth implementation in SSA include operating costs, knowledge, infrastructure, and policy among many others. Further studies of the effectiveness of mHealth interventions are being hindered by similar factors as well as a lack of standardization in study design. Overall, the current evidence is not strong enough to warrant large-scale implementation of existing mHealth interventions in SSA, but rapid progress of both infrastructure and mHealth-related research in the region could justify scale-up of the most promising programs in the near future.

  20. Rooting for food security in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilpart, Nicolas; Grassini, Patricio; van Wart, Justin; Yang, Haishun; van Ittersum, Martin K.; van Bussel, Lenny G. J.; Wolf, Joost; Claessens, Lieven; Leenaars, Johan G. B.; Cassman, Kenneth G.

    2017-11-01

    There is a persistent narrative about the potential of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) to be a ‘grain breadbasket’ because of large gaps between current low yields and yield potential with good management, and vast land resources with adequate rainfall. However, rigorous evaluation of the extent to which soils can support high, stable yields has been limited by lack of data on rootable soil depth of sufficient quality and spatial resolution. Here we use location-specific climate data, a robust spatial upscaling approach, and crop simulation to assess sensitivity of rainfed maize yields to root-zone water holding capacity. We find that SSA could produce a modest maize surplus but only if rootable soil depths are comparable to that of other major breadbaskets, such as the US Corn Belt and South American Pampas, which is unlikely based on currently available information. Otherwise, producing surplus grain for export will depend on expansion of crop area with the challenge of directing this expansion to regions where soil depth and rainfall are supportive of high and consistent yields, and where negative impacts on biodiversity are minimal.

  1. Power sector reform and distributed generation in sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turkson, J.K.; Wohlgemuth, N.

    2001-01-01

    As part of the current liberalisation process sweeping sub-Saharan Africa, power sectors across the region are being scrutinised and restructured. A critical aspect of the reform is improving access to electricity by large segments of the population. Many in the continent are, therefore,looking a......As part of the current liberalisation process sweeping sub-Saharan Africa, power sectors across the region are being scrutinised and restructured. A critical aspect of the reform is improving access to electricity by large segments of the population. Many in the continent are, therefore......,looking at the issue of distributed generation as opposed to grid extension and the role of renewable energy in this process. The purpose of this paper is to inform this discussion by two means. First, after examining the concept of distributed - or decentralised - generation in a region where urban population is...... of the world might be transferable to the countries of sub-Saharan Africa is assessed. The paper concludes by investigating the prospects for distributed generation in power sector reform in sub-Saharan Africa, arguing that though lessons from other parts of the world will be helpful, they cannot be all...

  2. The Ethics of Introducing GMOs into sub-Saharan Africa: Considerations from the sub-Saharan African Theory of Ubuntu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komparic, Ana

    2015-11-01

    A growing number of countries in sub-Saharan Africa are considering legalizing the growth of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Furthermore, several projects are underway to develop transgenic crops tailored to the region. Given the contentious nature of GMOs and prevalent anti-GMO sentiments in Africa, a robust ethical analysis examining the concerns arising from the development, adoption, and regulation of GMOs in sub-Saharan Africa is warranted. To date, ethical analyses of GMOs in the global context have drawn predominantly on Western philosophy, dealing with Africa primarily on a material level. Yet, a growing number of scholars are articulating and engaging with ethical theories that draw upon sub-Saharan African value systems. One such theory, Ubuntu, is a well-studied sub-Saharan African communitarian morality. I propose that a robust ethical analysis of Africa's agricultural future necessitates engaging with African moral theory. I articulate how Ubuntu may lead to a novel and constructive understanding of the ethical considerations for introducing GMOs into sub-Saharan Africa. However, rather than reaching a definitive prescription, which would require significant engagement with local communities, I consider some of Ubuntu's broader implications for conceptualizing risk and engaging with local communities when evaluating GMOs. I conclude by reflecting on the implications of using local moral theory in bioethics by considering how one might negotiate between universalism and particularism in the global context. Rather than advocating for a form of ethical relativism, I suggest that local moral theories shed light on salient ethical considerations that are otherwise overlooked. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. HIV and tuberculosis in prisons in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telisinghe, Lilanganee; Charalambous, Salome; Topp, Stephanie M; Herce, Michael E; Hoffmann, Christopher J; Barron, Peter; Schouten, Erik J; Jahn, Andreas; Zachariah, Rony; Harries, Anthony D; Beyrer, Chris; Amon, Joseph J

    2016-09-17

    Given the dual epidemics of HIV and tuberculosis in sub-Saharan Africa and evidence suggesting a disproportionate burden of these diseases among detainees in the region, we aimed to investigate the epidemiology of HIV and tuberculosis in prison populations, describe services available and challenges to service delivery, and identify priority areas for programmatically relevant research in sub-Saharan African prisons. To this end, we reviewed literature on HIV and tuberculosis in sub-Saharan African prisons published between 2011 and 2015, and identified data from only 24 of the 49 countries in the region. Where data were available, they were frequently of poor quality and rarely nationally representative. Prevalence of HIV infection ranged from 2·3% to 34·9%, and of tuberculosis from 0·4 to 16·3%; detainees nearly always had a higher prevalence of both diseases than did the non-incarcerated population in the same country. We identified barriers to prevention, treatment, and care services in published work and through five case studies of prison health policies and services in Zambia, South Africa, Malawi, Nigeria, and Benin. These barriers included severe financial and human-resource limitations and fragmented referral systems that prevent continuity of care when detainees cycle into and out of prison, or move between prisons. These challenges are set against the backdrop of weak health and criminal-justice systems, high rates of pre-trial detention, and overcrowding. A few examples of promising practices exist, including routine voluntary testing for HIV and screening for tuberculosis upon entry to South African and the largest Zambian prisons, reforms to pre-trial detention in South Africa, integration of mental health services into a health package in selected Malawian prisons, and task sharing to include detainees in care provision through peer-educator programmes in Rwanda, Zimbabwe, Zambia, and South Africa. However, substantial additional investments are

  4. Maternity health care: The experiences of Sub-Saharan African women in Sub-Saharan Africa and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohale, Hlengiwe; Sweet, Linda; Graham, Kristen

    2017-08-01

    Increasing global migration is resulting in a culturally diverse population in the receiving countries. In Australia, it is estimated that at least four thousand Sub-Saharan African women give birth each year. To respond appropriately to the needs of these women, it is important to understand their experiences of maternity care. The study aimed to examine the maternity experiences of Sub-Saharan African women who had given birth in both Sub-Saharan Africa and in Australia. Using a qualitative approach, 14 semi-structured interviews with Sub-Saharan African women now living in Australia were conducted. Data was analysed using Braun and Clark's approach to thematic analysis. Four themes were identified; access to services including health education; birth environment and support; pain management; and perceptions of care. The participants experienced issues with access to maternity care whether they were located in Sub-Saharan Africa or Australia. The study draws on an existing conceptual framework on access to care to discuss the findings on how these women experienced maternity care. The study provides an understanding of Sub-Saharan African women's experiences of maternity care across countries. The findings indicate that these women have maternity health needs shaped by their sociocultural norms and beliefs related to pregnancy and childbirth. It is therefore arguable that enhancing maternity care can be achieved by improving women's health literacy through health education, having an affordable health care system, providing respectful and high quality midwifery care, using effective communication, and showing cultural sensitivity including family support for labouring women. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. CDM in sub-Saharan Africa and the prospects of the Nairobi Framework Initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Byigero, Alfred D.; Clancy, Joy S.; Skutsch, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    To what extent can capacity-building activities under the Nairobi Framework (NF) Initiative overcome barriers to the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) in sub-Saharan Africa and, in particular, the East African region? The level of CDM penetration into sub-Saharan Africa is compared with CDM market trends globally. The relatively low CDM penetration in sub-Saharan Africa and the East African Community (SSA/EAC) countries is a result of endogenous barriers, particularly the inadequate general i...

  6. Current Status of Norovirus Infections in Children in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Munalula Munjita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Noroviruses are a leading cause of acute sporadic gastroenteritis worldwide. In Sub-Saharan Africa, information regarding norovirus infections in children is scarce. A systematic review of studies performed between 1993 and June 2015 was conducted to establish the genotypic distribution and prevalence of norovirus infections in children (≤17 in Sub-Saharan Africa. Analysis of data from 19 studies involving 8,399 samples from children with symptomatic and nonsymptomatic gastroenteritis revealed prevalence of 12.6% (range 4.6% to 32.4%. The prevalence of norovirus infections was higher in symptomatic children (14.2% than asymptomatic children (9.2%. Genogroup II (GII was the most prevalent genogroup accounting for 76.4% of all the reported norovirus infections. The rest of the infections were GI (21.7% and GI/GII (1.9%. The most common genotypes were GII.4 (65.2%, GI.7 (33.3%, and GI.3 (21.3%. These statistics were calculated from studies carried out in 12 out of 48 Sub-Saharan African countries. Therefore, more studies involving several countries are required to determine fully the epidemiology of noroviruses and their contribution to childhood diarrhoea in Sub-Saharan Africa.

  7. Breast Cancer in Sub-Saharan Africa: Challenges and Opportunities to Reduce Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Lydia E; Shulman, Lawrence N

    2016-06-01

    : The objective of this review is to describe existing data on breast cancer incidence and mortality in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), in particular in sub-Saharan Africa; identify the limitations of these data; and review what is known about breast cancer control strategies in sub-Saharan African countries and other LMICs. Available estimates demonstrate that breast cancer incidence and mortality are rising in LMICs, including in Africa, although high-quality data from LMICs (and particularly from sub-Saharan Africa) are largely lacking. Case fatality rates from breast cancer appear to be substantially higher in LMICs than in high-income countries. Significant challenges exist to developing breast cancer control programs in LMICs, perhaps particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, and the most effective strategies for treatment and early detection in the context of limited resources are uncertain. High-quality research on breast cancer incidence and mortality and implementation research to guide effective breast cancer control strategies in LMICs are urgently needed. Enhanced investment in breast cancer research and treatment in LMICs should be a global public health priority. The numbers of new cases of breast cancer, and breast cancer deaths per year, in low- and middle-income countries are rising. Engagement by the international breast cancer community is critical to reduce global disparities in breast cancer outcomes. Cancer specialists and institutions in high-income countries can serve as key partners in training initiatives, clinical care, protocol and program development, and research. This article provides an overview of what is known about breast cancer incidence, mortality, and effective strategies for breast cancer control in sub-Saharan Africa and identifies key gaps in the literature. This information can help guide priorities for engagement by the global cancer community. ©AlphaMed Press.

  8. Indigenous Knowledge and Public Education in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munyaradzi Mawere

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The discourse on indigenous knowledge has incited a debate of epic proportions across the world over the years. In Africa, especially in the sub-Saharan region, while the so-called indigenous communities have always found value in their own local forms of knowledge, the colonial administration and its associates viewed indigenous knowledge as unscientific, illogical, anti-development, and/or ungodly. The status and importance of indigenous knowledge has changed in the wake of the landmark 1997 Global Knowledge Conference in Toronto, which emphasised the urgent need to learn, preserve, and exchange indigenous knowledge. Yet, even with this burgeoning interest and surging call, little has been done, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, to guarantee the maximum exploitation of indigenous knowledge for the common good. In view of this realisation, this paper discusses how indigenous knowledge can and should both act as a tool for promoting the teaching/learning process in Africa’s public education and address the inexorably enigmatic amalgam of complex problems and cataclysms haunting the world.

  9. A Machine Learning Approach to Mapping Agricultural Fields Across Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debats, S. R.; Fuchs, T. J.; Thompson, D. R.; Estes, L. D.; Evans, T. P.; Caylor, K. K.

    2013-12-01

    Food production in sub-Saharan Africa is dominated by smallholder agriculture. Rainfed farming practices and the prevailing dryland conditions render crop yields vulnerable to increasing climatic variability. As a result, smallholder farmers are among the poorest and most food insecure groups among the region's population. Quantifying the distribution of smallholder agriculture across sub-Saharan Africa would greatly assist efforts to boost food security. Existing agricultural land cover data sets are limited to estimating the percentage of cropland within a coarse grid cell. The goal of this research is to develop a statistical machine learning algorithm to map individual agricultural fields, mirroring the accuracy of hand-digitization. For the algorithm, a random forest pixel-wise classifier learns by example from training data to distinguish between fields and non-fields. The algorithm then applies this training to classify previously unseen data. These classifications can then be smoothed into coherent regions corresponding to agricultural fields. Our training data set consists of hand-digitized boundaries of agricultural fields in South Africa, commissioned by its government in 2008. Working with 1 km x 1 km scenes across South Africa, the hand-digitized field boundaries are matched with satellite images extracted from Google Maps. To highlight different information contained within the images, several image processing filters are applied. The inclusion of Landsat images for additional training information is also explored. After training and testing the algorithm in South Africa, we aim to expand our mapping efforts across sub-Saharan Africa. Through Princeton's Mapping Africa project, crowdsourcing will produce additional training data sets of hand-digitized field boundaries in new areas of interest. This algorithm and the resulting data sets will provide previously unavailable information at an unprecedented level of detail on the largest and most

  10. Factors associated to infant mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Viguera Ester

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Half of the 10 million children who die annually in the world are from Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. The reasons are known, but lack of will and resources avoid the development of sustainable policies. Associated factors to the high infant mortality rate (IMR in SSA have been investigated in this research. An ecological multi-group study was designed comparing rates within SSA. The dependent variable is the IMR and health services, economic and development indicators are the independent variables. Information and data sources were WHO, World Bank, UNICEF and UNDP (1997-2007. IMR mean value is 92.2 (per 1000 live births and a relationship with several of the factors could be observed. In the bi-variate analysis direct relationship was observed with maternal mortality rate and an inverse relationship was observed with prenatal care coverage, births assisted by skilled health personnel, gross national income per capita, per capita government expenditure on health, social security expenditure, adult literacy rate, net primary school enrolment rate, population with access to safe drinking water (in urban and rural areas and with population with access to basic sanitation in rural areas. In the multi-variate analysis IMR had an inverse relationship with children under 5 years with diarrhoea who receive oral re-hydration, with social security expenditure as percentage of general government expenditure on health and with per capita government expenditure on health. The situation in SSA would change if their inhabitants received education and information to demand more equitable polices and better investments from their governments.

  11. The Perplex of Deforestation in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.W Yalew

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Deforestation has been a complex phenomenon to study in sub-Saharan Africa. The average annual deforestation rate in the region is by far higher than the world average. What causes and drives deforestation in the region are debated to date. The present paper is motivated by this debate. It attempts to test whether the maintained hypotheses on the causes of deforestation can give answer to the problem in sub-Saharan Africa. It used average cross-national data of forty eight countries in the region. The data are retrieved from international sources. The Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients between two deforestation indicators and five often-cited causes of deforestation were computed. The role of public forest ownership, share of forest and agricultural products in total exports, and the year of forest laws enacted are also discussed. However, it finds no clear, strong, and systematic pattern to argue that population density, rural population, rural poverty, industrial logging for exports, economic growth, late enactment of forest laws, and public ownership of forests are underlying causes of deforestation in the region. The trends of forestland in Rwanda and Zimbabwe vividly present the finding. Therefore, future studies related to the topic in the region shall focus on sub-national panel data.

  12. Mining and Risk of Tuberculosis in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sanjay; McKee, Martin; Lurie, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the relationship between mining and tuberculosis (TB) among countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods. We used multivariate regression to estimate the contribution of mining activity to TB incidence, prevalence, and mortality, as well as rates of TB among people living with HIV, with control for economic, health system, and population confounders. Results. Mining production was associated with higher population TB incidence rates (adjusted b = 0.093; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.067, 0.120; with an increase of mining production of 1 SD corresponding to about 33% higher TB incidence or 760 000 more incident cases), after adjustment for economic and population controls. Similar results were observed for TB prevalence and mortality, as well as with alternative measures of mining activity. Independent of HIV, there were significant associations between mining production and TB incidence in countries with high HIV prevalence (≥ 4% antenatal HIV prevalence; HIV-adjusted B = 0.066; 95% CI = 0.050, 0.082) and between log gold mining production and TB incidence in all studied countries (HIV-adjusted B = 0.053; 95% CI = 0.032, 0.073). Conclusions. Mining is a significant determinant of countrywide variation in TB among sub-Saharan African nations. Comprehensive TB control strategies should explicitly address the role of mining activity and environments in the epidemic. PMID:20516372

  13. Is globalisation good for Sub-Saharan Africa? Threats and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Njau Ntuli, Anthony

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews the effects globalisation has on the economic prosperity of sub-Saharan Africa, on a global information economy context, and in particular, the threats that globalisation has brought about as well as, the opportunities that are likely to emerge because of it. The fundamental shift in the nature of the global economy backed up by viable strategies, acting within the realities of globalisation and information economy open-up new windows for latecomers, and enables them conver...

  14. Understanding Hydrological Processes in an Ungauged Catchment in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Mul, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Ungauged catchments can be found in many parts of the world, but particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Information collected in a gauged catchment and its regionalisation to ungauged areas is crucial for water resources assessment. Especially farmers in semi-arid areas are in need of such information. Inter and intra-seasonal rainfall variability is large in these areas, and farmers depend more and more on additional surface and groundwater resources for their crop production. As a result, unde...

  15. Cancer of childhood in sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, Cristina; Bray, Freddie; Ferlay, Jacques; Liu, Biying; Maxwell Parkin, D

    2017-01-01

    Measurement of incidence rates of childhood cancer in Africa is difficult. The study ‘Cancer of Childhood in sub Saharan Africa’ brings together results from 16 population-based registries which, as members of the African Cancer Registry Network (AFCRN), have been evaluated as achieving adequate coverage of their target population. The cancers are classified according to the third revision of the International Classification of Childhood Cancer (ICCC-3) and recorded rates in Africa are compared with those in childhood populations in the UK, France, and the USA. It is clear that, in many centres, lack of adequate diagnostic and treatment facilities leads to under-diagnosis (and enumeration) of leukaemias and brain cancers. However, for several childhood cancers, incidence rates in Africa are higher than those in high-income countries. This applies to infection-related cancers such as Kaposi sarcoma, Burkitt lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma and hepatocellular carcinoma, and also to two common embryonal cancers - retinoblastoma and nephroblastoma. These (and other) observations are unlikely to be artefact, and are of considerable interest when considering possible aetiological factors, including ethnic differences in risk (and hence genetic/familial antecedents). The data reported are the most extensive so far available on the incidence of cancer in sub Saharan Africa, and clearly indicate the need for more resources to be devoted to cancer registration, especially in the childhood age range, as part of an overall programme to improve the availability of diagnosis and treatment of this group of cancers, many of which have—potentially—an excellent prognosis. PMID:28900468

  16. Long-term effects of HIV treatment in sub-Saharan Africa: from access to quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boender, T.S.

    2016-01-01

    As HIV treatment programs in sub-Saharan Africa mature, there are rising concerns about the long-term sustainability and quality of these programs. Increasing levels of HIV drug resistance have been measured in sub-Saharan Africa, and could jeopardize long-term treatment success. This thesis

  17. Scarification in sub-Saharan Africa: social skin, remedy and medical import.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garve, Roland; Garve, Miriam; Türp, Jens C; Fobil, Julius N; Meyer, Christian G

    2017-06-01

    Various forms of body modification may be observed in sub-Saharan Africa. Hypotheses and theories of scarification and tribal marking in sub-Saharan Africa are described, plus the procedure of scarification, examples from several African countries, assumed effects in prevention and treatment of diseases, and the medical risks resulting from unsterile manipulation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Prevention, suppression, and resistance : Antiretroviral treatment for children with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerma, R.S.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis describes the virological and clinical outcomes of children with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa who start antiretroviral treatment (ART). We show that pretreatment HIV drug resistance among children is a serious problem in sub-Saharan Africa and that its prevalence is increasing. Children who

  19. Sustainable agricultural intensification in Sub-Saharan Africa : design of an assessment tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verzandvoort, S.J.E.; Beek, C.L.; Conijn, J.G.; Froebrich, J.; Jansen, H.C.; Noij, I.G.A.M.; Roest, C.W.J.; Vreke, J.; Mansfeld, van M.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The demand for agricultural products (food, feed, fibre, and biomass for other purposes) produced in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) will increase for the coming decades. In addition, the global climate change will largely impact on the agricultural sector in Sub-Saharan Africa. Major challenges for the

  20. The impact of asthma and COPD in sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert, Frederik; van der Molen, Thys; Jones, Rupert; Chavannes, Niels

    Background: Many countries in sub-Saharan Africa have the highest risk of developing chronic diseases and are the least able to cope with them. Aims: To assess the current knowledge of the prevalence and impact of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in sub-Saharan Africa.

  1. Land-related conflicts in Sub-Saharan Africa | Bob | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sub-Saharan Africa has a history of land dispossession and contestation which have resulted in various types of inequalities and a skewed distribution of land resources. Land in Sub-Saharan Africa has been subject to conflict, conquest, expropriation and exploitation thus resulting in the many discrepancies that exist today ...

  2. Epilepsy treatment in sub-Saharan Africa: closing the gap | Chin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    According to World Health Organization (WHO), the prevalence of epilepsy is highest in low- and lower middle-income countries, which include over eighty percent of the countries of sub-Saharan Africa, where the majority of people with epilepsy are not receiving appropriate care. In sub-Saharan Africa, shortages of trained ...

  3. Sub-Saharan Africa: population pressures on development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goliber, T J

    1985-02-01

    The population of sub-Saharan Africa, estimated at 434 million in 1984, is expected to reach 1.4 billion by 2025. The birth rate, currently 48/1000 population, continues to increase, and the death rate, 17/1000, is declining. Rapid population growth has curtailed government efforts to provide adequate nutrition, preserve the land base essential for future development, meet the demand for jobs, education, and health services, and address overcrowding in urban areas. Low education, rural residence, and low incomes are key contributors to the area's high fertility. Other factors include women's restricted roles, early age at marriage, a need for children as a source of security and support in old age, and limited knowledge of and access to modern methods of contraception. Average desired family size, which is higher than actual family size in most countries, is 6-9 children. Although government leaders have expressed ambivalence toward development of population policies and family planning programs as a result of the identification of such programs with Western aid donors, the policy climat is gradually changing. By mid-1984, at least 13 of the 42 countries in the region had indicated that they consider current fertility rates too high and support government and/or private family planning programs to reduce fertility. In addition, 26 countries in the region provide some government family planning services, usually integrated with maternal and child health programs. However, 10 countries in the region do not support family planning services for any reason. Unfortunately, sub-Saharan Africa has not yet produced a family planning program with a measurable effect on fertility that could serve as a model for other countries in the region. Social and economic change is central to any hope of fertility reduction in sub-Saharan Africa. Lower infant and child mortality rates, rising incomes, higher education, greater economic and social opportunities for women, and increased

  4. Invasive Infections with Nontyphoidal Salmonella in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Barbara E; Fields, Patricia I

    2016-06-01

    Invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infections in Africa cause an enormous burden of illness. These infections are often devastating, with mortality estimated at 20%, even with appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Two major groups-young children and HIV-infected adults-suffer the great majority of these infections. In children, younger age itself, as well as malaria, malnutrition, and HIV infection, are prominent risk factors. In adults, HIV infection is by far the most important risk factor. The most common serotypes in invasive infections are Salmonella enterica serotypes Typhimurium and Enteritidis. In recent years, a specific strain of Salmonella Typhimurium, multilocus sequence type 313, has caused epidemics of invasive disease. Little is known about risk factors for exposure to NTS, making the design of rational interventions to decrease exposure difficult. Antimicrobial therapy is critically important for treatment of invasive NTS infections. Thus, the emergence and spread of resistance to agents commonly used for treatment of invasive NTS infection, now including third-generation cephalosporins, is an ominous development. Already, many invasive NTS infections are essentially untreatable in many health care facilities in sub-Saharan Africa. Several candidate vaccines are in early development and, if safe and effective, could be promising. Interventions to prevent exposure to NTS (e.g., improved sanitation), to prevent the occurrence of disease if exposure does occur (e.g., vaccination, malaria control), and to prevent severe disease and death in those who become ill (e.g., preserving antimicrobial effectiveness) are all important in reducing the toll of invasive NTS disease in sub-Saharan Africa.

  5. State-of-the-Art: Research Theoretical Framework of Information Systems Implementation Research in the Health Sector in Sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetteh, Godwin Kofi

    2014-01-01

    This study is about the state-of-the-art of reference theories and theoretical framework of information systems implementation research in the health industry in the Sub-Saharan countries from a process perspective. A process – variance framework, Poole et al, (2000), Markus & Robey, (1988......, CINAHL, Science Direct and Emerald, we identified 41 published research articles that met our inclusion criteria. The articles were mapped unto the process-variance framework. A significant finding in this critical review is that, the state-of-the-art of a large proportion of the studies was underpinned...

  6. An Examination of the Influence of Globalisation on Science Education in Anglophone Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koosimile, Anthony T.; Suping, Shanah M.

    2015-09-01

    This paper takes the view that the emergence of some trends and practices in science education mirrors the influence of the process of globalisation in Anglophone Sub-Saharan Africa. Through a literature review, an attempt is made to link science education and globalisation by answering the question: 'What influence does globalisation have on science education in countries in Anglophone Sub-Saharan Africa?' The findings of the study show some significant convergence of what is valued in science education in Sub-Saharan Africa in areas such as pedagogy; English language as a medium of instruction; assessment of learning; mobility of students in the region; and in the frameworks for collaborative engagements among stakeholders in Sub-Saharan Africa. The paper concludes with a reflective end-piece calling for more case studies to help scrutinise further the influence of globalisation on science education in Sub-Saharan Africa.

  7. Factoring quality laboratory diagnosis into the malaria control agenda for sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidoo, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Recent progress in malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa has been achieved primarily through provision of insecticide-treated nets, indoor residual spraying, and antimalarial drugs. Although these interventions are important, proper case identification and accurate measurement of their impact depend on quality diagnostic testing. Current availability of diagnostic testing for malaria in sub-Saharan Africa is inadequate to support disease management, prevention programs, and surveillance needs. Challenges faced include a dearth of skilled workforce, inadequate health systems infrastructure, and lack of political will. A coordinated approach to providing pre-service clinical and laboratory training together with systems that support a scale-up of laboratory services could provide means not only for effective malaria case management but also, management of non-malaria febrile illnesses, disease surveillance, and accurate control program evaluation. A synthesis of the challenges faced in ensuring quality malaria testing and how to include this information in the malaria control and elimination agenda are presented.

  8. Trichinella infections in animals and humans in sub-Saharan Africa: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukaratirwa, Samson; La Grange, Louis; Pfukenyi, Davies M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this review is to provide information on Trichinella infection in humans, livestock and wildlife in sub-Saharan Africa mainly focusing on geographical distribution of species/genotypes, biology, host range, life cycles and to identify research gaps. Trichinella britovi, Trichinella nelsoni and Trichinella zimbabwensis and one genotype (Trichinella T8) are known to occur in sub-Saharan Africa. Distinct geographic ranges with overlapping of some taxa in some areas have been observed. Genetic variants of T. nelsoni has been reported to occur among parasites originating from Eastern and Southern Africa and sequence heterogeneity also occurs among T. zimbabwensis isolates originating from different regions of Zimbabwe and South Africa. Field observations so far indicate that sylvatic Trichinella infections in the region are common in carnivores (mammals and reptiles) and to a lesser extent in omnivores. Cannibalism, scavenging and predation appear to be the most important routes of transmission and maintenance of the sylvatic cycles of the Trichinella taxa. To date, human trichinellosis has been documented in only four sub-Saharan countries (8.7%, 4/46). Bushpigs and warthogs have been the source of human infection with T. britovi and T. nelsoni being the aetiological agents. An increase in bushmeat trade and the creation of Transfrontier Conservation Areas (TFCAs) may have increased the risk of human trichinellosis in the region. With the creation of TFCAs in the region, sampling of wildlife hosts from protected areas of most sub-Sahara African countries is required to fully map the distribution of Trichinella species/genotypes in this region. More structured field surveys are still needed to determine the sylvatic host distribution of the different Trichinella taxa. Biological data of the Trichinella taxa in both wild and domestic animals of sub-Saharan Africa is very limited and further research is required. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  9. Geographic information analysis and web-based geoportals to explore malnutrition in Sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review of approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Sabrina; Phalkey, Revati; Aranda-Jan, Clara B; Profe, Jörn; Sauerborn, Rainer; Höfle, Bernhard

    2014-11-20

    Childhood malnutrition is a serious challenge in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and a major underlying cause of death. It is the result of a dynamic and complex interaction between political, social, economic, environmental and other factors. As spatially oriented research has been established in health sciences in recent years, developments in Geographic Information Science (GIScience) provide beneficial tools to get an improved understanding of malnutrition. In order to assess the current state of knowledge regarding the use of geoinformation analyses for exploring malnutrition in SSA, a systematic literature review of peer-reviewed literature is conducted using Scopus, ISI Web of Science and PubMed. As a supplement to the review, we carry on to investigate the establishment of web-based geoportals for providing freely accessible malnutrition geodata to a broad community. Based on these findings, we identify current limitations and discuss how new developments in GIScience might help to overcome impending barriers. 563 articles are identified from the searches, from which a total of nine articles and eight geoportals meet inclusion criteria. The review suggests that the spatial dimension of malnutrition is analyzed most often at the regional and national level using geostatistical analysis methods. Therefore, heterogeneous geographic information at different spatial scales and from multiple sources is combined by applying geoinformation analysis methods such as spatial interpolation, aggregation and downscaling techniques. Geocoded malnutrition data from the Demographic and Health Survey Program are the most common information source to quantify the prevalence of malnutrition on a local scale and are frequently combined with regional data on climate, population, agriculture and/or infrastructure. Only aggregated geoinformation about malnutrition prevalence is freely accessible, mostly displayed via web map visualizations or downloadable map images. The lack of detailed

  10. Reproductive health and family planning needs among HIV-infected women in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnquist, Clea C; Rahangdale, Lisa; Maldonado, Yvonne

    2013-03-01

    Review key topics and recent literature regarding reproductive health and family planning needs for HIV-infected women in Sub-Saharan Africa. Electronic searches performed in PubMed, JSTOR, and Web of Science; identified articles reviewed for inclusion. Most HIV-infected women in Sub-Saharan Africa bear children, and access to antiretroviral therapy may increase childbearing desires and/or fertility, resulting in greater need for contraception. Most contraceptive options can be safely and effectively used by HIV-infected women. Unmet need for contraception is high in this population, with 66- 92% of women reporting not wanting another child (now or ever), but only 20-43% using contraception. During pregnancy and delivery, HIV-infected women need access to prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services, a skilled birth attendant, and quality post-partum care to prevent HIV infection in the infant and maximize maternal health. Providers may lack resources as well as appropriate training and support to provide such services to women with HIV. Innovations in biomedical and behavioral interventions may improve reproductive healthcare for HIV-infected women, but in Sub-Saharan Africa, models of integrating HIV and PMTCT services with family planning and reproductive health services will be important to improve reproductive outcomes. HIV-infected women in Sub-Saharan Africa have myriad needs related to reproductive health, including access to high-quality family planning information and options, high-quality pregnancy care, and trained providers. Integrated services that help prevent unintended pregnancy and optimize maternal and infant health before, during and after pregnancy will both maximize limited resources as well as provide improved reproductive outcomes.

  11. 78 FR 24744 - Postponement Notice of Open Special Meeting of the Sub-Saharan Africa Advisory Committee of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Postponement Notice of Open Special Meeting of the Sub-Saharan Africa Advisory Committee of the Export-Import... for trade with Sub-Saharan Africa. Postponement: The Sub-Saharan Africa Advisory Committee of the...

  12. Implications of Severe Economic Decline & Demographic Pressures on Youth Literacy in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpala, Comfort O.

    2009-01-01

    Although literacy rates have improved somehow in recent years, there are still large numbers of people that are illiterates in developing countries. This paper examines the impact of severe economic decline and demographic pressures on youth literacy rate in Sub-Saharan Africa. In this study, a cross-sectional data of 39 Sub-Saharan African…

  13. Transfusion Medicine in Sub-Saharan Africa: Conference Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzik, Walter Sunny; Kyeyune, Dorothy; Otekat, Grace; Natukunda, Bernard; Hume, Heather; Kasirye, Phillip G; Ddungu, Henry; Kajja, Isaac; Dhabangi, Aggrey; Mugyenyi, Godfrey R; Seguin, Claire; Barnes, Linda; Delaney, Meghan

    2015-07-01

    In November 2014, a 3-day conference devoted to transfusion medicine in sub-Saharan Africa was held in Kampala, Uganda. Faculty from academic institutions in Uganda provided a broad overview of issues pertinent to transfusion medicine in Africa. The conference consisted of lectures, demonstrations, and discussions followed by 5 small group workshops held at the Uganda Blood Transfusion Service Laboratories, the Ugandan Cancer Institute, and the Mulago National Referral Hospital. Highlighted topics included the challenges posed by increasing clinical demands for blood, the need for better patient identification at the time of transfusion, inadequate application of the antiglobulin reagent during pretransfusion testing, concern regarding proper recognition and evaluation of transfusion reactions, the expanded role for nurse leadership as a means to improve patient outcomes, and the need for an epidemiologic map of blood usage in Africa. Specialty areas of focus included the potential for broader application of transcranial Doppler and hydroxyurea therapy in sickle cell disease, African-specific guidelines for transfusion support of cancer patients, the challenges of transfusion support in trauma, and the importance of African-centered clinical research in pediatric and obstetric transfusion medicine. The course concluded by summarizing the benefits derived from an organized quality program that extended from the donor to the recipient. As an educational tool, the slide-audio presentation of the lectures will be made freely available at the International Society of Blood Transfusion Academy Web site: http://www.isbtweb.org/academy/. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Factors associated with maternal mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa: an ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández Valentín

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal health is one of the major worldwide health challenges. Currently, the unacceptably high levels of maternal mortality are a common subject in global health and development discussions. Although some countries have made remarkable progress, half of the maternal deaths in the world still take place in Sub-Saharan Africa where little or no progress has been made. There is no single simple, straightforward intervention that will significantly decrease maternal mortality alone; however, there is a consensus on the importance of a strong health system, skilled delivery attendants, and women's rights for maternal health. Our objective was to describe and determine different factors associated with the maternal mortality ratio in Sub-Saharan countries. Methods An ecological multi-group study compared variables between many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa using data collected between 1997 and 2006. The dependent variable was the maternal mortality ratio, and Health care system-related, educational and economic indicators were the independent variables. Information sources included the WHO, World Bank, UNICEF and UNDP. Results Maternal mortality ratio values in Sub-Saharan Africa were demonstrated to be high and vary enormously among countries. A relationship between the maternal mortality ratio and some educational, sanitary and economic factors was observed. There was an inverse and significant correlation of the maternal mortality ratio with prenatal care coverage, births assisted by skilled health personnel, access to an improved water source, adult literacy rate, primary female enrolment rate, education index, the Gross National Income per capita and the per-capita government expenditure on health. Conclusions Education and an effective and efficient health system, especially during pregnancy and delivery, are strongly related to maternal death. Also, macro-economic factors are related and could be influencing the others.

  15. Health trends in Sub-Saharan Africa: conflicting evidence from infant mortality rates and adult heights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akachi, Yoko; Canning, David

    2010-07-01

    We investigate trends in cohort infant mortality rates and adult heights in 39 developing countries since 1961. In most regions of the world improved nutrition, and reduced childhood exposure to disease, have lead to improvements in both infant mortality and adult stature. In Sub-Saharan Africa, however, despite declining infant mortality rates, adult heights have not increased. We argue that in Sub-Saharan Africa the decline in infant mortality may have been due to interventions that prevent infant deaths rather than improved nutrition and childhood morbidity. Despite declining infant mortality, Sub-Saharan Africa may not be experiencing increases in health human capital. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Sub-Saharan Africa: beyond the health worker migration crisis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, John; Zurn, Pascal; Stilwell, Barbara; Awases, Magda; Braichet, Jean-Marc

    2007-05-01

    Migration of skilled health workers from sub-Saharan African countries has significantly increased in this century, with most countries becoming sources of migrants. Despite the growing problem of health worker migration for the effective functioning of health care systems there is a remarkable paucity and incompleteness of data. Hence, it is difficult to determine the real extent of migration from, and within, Africa, and thus develop effective forecasting or remedial policies. This global overview and the most comprehensive data indicate that the key destinations remain the USA and the UK, and that major sources are South Africa and Nigeria, but in both contexts there is now greater diversity. Migrants move primarily for economic reasons, and increasingly choose health careers because they offer migration prospects. Migration has been at considerable economic cost, it has depleted workforces, diminished the effectiveness of health care delivery and reduced the morale of the remaining workforce. Countries have sought to implement national policies to manage migration, mitigate its harmful impacts and strengthen African health care systems. Recipient countries have been reluctant to establish effective ethical codes of recruitment practice, or other forms of compensation or technology transfer, hence migration is likely to increase further in the future, diminishing the possibility of achieving the United Nations millennium development goals and exacerbating existing inequalities in access to adequate health care.

  17. Antibacterial resistance in sub-Saharan Africa: an underestimated emergency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariuki, Samuel; Dougan, Gordon

    2014-09-01

    Antibacterial resistance-associated infections are known to increase morbidity, mortality, and cost of treatment, and to potentially put others in the community at higher risk of infections. In high-income countries, where the burden of infectious diseases is relatively modest, resistance to first-line antibacterial agents is usually overcome by use of second- and third-line agents. However, in developing countries where the burden of infectious diseases is high, patients with antibacterial-resistant infections may be unable to obtain or afford effective second-line treatments. In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the situation is aggravated by poor hygiene, unreliable water supplies, civil conflicts, and increasing numbers of immunocompromised people, such as those with HIV, which facilitate both the evolution of resistant pathogens and their rapid spread in the community. Because of limited capacity for disease detection and surveillance, the burden of illnesses due to treatable bacterial infections, their specific etiologies, and the awareness of antibacterial resistance are less well established in most of SSA, and therefore the ability to mitigate their consequences is significantly limited. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  18. Labor productivity and employment gaps in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Ellen B

    2017-02-01

    Drawing on a new set of nationally representative, internationally comparable household surveys, this paper provides an overview of key features of structural transformation - labor allocation and labor productivity - in four African economies. New, micro-based measures of sector labor allocation and cross-sector productivity differentials describe the incentives households face when allocating their labor. These measures are similar to national accounts-based measures that are typically used to characterize structural change. However, because agricultural workers supply far fewer hours of labor per year than do workers in other sectors in all of the countries analyzed, productivity gaps shrink by half, on average, when expressed on a per-hour basis. Underlying the productivity gaps that are prominently reflected in national accounts data are large employment gaps, which call into question the productivity gains that laborers can achieve through structural transformation. Furthermore, agriculture's continued relevance to structural change in Sub-Saharan Africa is highlighted by the strong linkages observed between rural non-farm activities and primary agricultural production.

  19. Risk perception and communication in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodoo, Alexander; Hugman, Bruce

    2012-11-01

    In this narrative review, a brief summary of theoretical approaches to risk perception is followed by an analysis of some of the special factors influencing risk perception and risk communication in sub-Saharan Africa. Examples of recent and emergent local medicines and vaccine controversies in several countries are given along with evidence and analysis of how they were managed. These demonstrate, among other things, the extent to which ethnic, religious and cultural issues influence popular perception, and the power of rumour and anecdote in shaping public opinion and official responses to events. Where safety monitoring systems exist, they are in their infancy, with limited capacity for data collection, credible scientific review, effective public communication and robust crisis management. Although increasing democratic freedoms, including less restricted media, and evolving health systems are addressing the challenges and give hope for further progress, there are still deep and intractable issues that inhibit transparent and effective risk communication and stand in the way of African populations comprehending medicines and their risks in safer and more balanced ways. Some proposals for future change and action are offered, including the pursuit of a deeper understanding of local and national values, assumptions and beliefs that drive risk perception; tailoring public health planning and communications to specifically-targeted regions and populations; strengthening of safety surveillance and data-collection systems; giving higher priority to medicines safety issues in healthcare training and public education.

  20. Problem Gambling among Young People in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrick Ssewanyana

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Gambling is a cross-cultural and global activity which typically involves the wagering of money or an item of monetary value on an outcome that is governed by chance. Although gambling is positioned as a legitimate recreational and leisure activity within sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, there is widespread recognition among healthcare professionals and policy-makers that gambling has the capacity to become dysfunctional in a minority. Emerging knowledge suggests that problem gambling is rapidly evolving in to a public health concern in SSA, especially among youth. This article focuses on problem gambling among young people in SSA with an emphasis on three key themes: (1 gambling behavior and patterns in SSA; (2 public health and socioeconomic implications of gambling in SSA; and (3 public health policies and interventions for addressing this issue. We believe that collaborative efforts between government, prevention specialists, legislators, researchers, treatment providers, and other stake holders can influence the uptake of research findings necessary to implement social policies and design effective public health intervention options to combat problem gambling and its associated implications among young people in SSA.

  1. Causes of corruption: Evidence from sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Ato Forson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the causes of corruption in 22 countries in sub-Saharan Africa from 1996 to 2013. The sources of corruption are grouped into three main thematic areas – historical roots, contemporary causes and institutional causes to make way for subjective and objective measures. The subjective measures allow for assessment of the effectiveness of anticorruption policies. Using pooled OLS, fixed-effect and instrumental-variable approaches, and focusing on the perceived level of corruption as the dependent variable, we find that ethnic diversity, resource abundance and educational attainment are markedly less associated with corruption. In contrast, wage levels of bureaucrats and anticorruption measures based on government effectiveness and regulatory quality breed substantial corruption. Press freedom is found to be variedly associated with corruption. On the basis of these findings, we recommend that the fight against corruption on the continent needs to be reinvented through qualitative and assertive institutional reforms. Anticorruption policy decisions should focus on existing educational systems as a conduit for intensifying awareness of the devastating effect of corruption on sustainable national development.

  2. The national determinants of deforestation in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudel, Thomas K

    2013-01-01

    For decades, the dynamics of tropical deforestation in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) have defied easy explanation. The rates of deforestation have been lower than elsewhere in the tropics, and the driving forces evident in other places, government new land settlement schemes and industrialized agriculture, have largely been absent in SSA. The context and causes for African deforestation become clearer through an analysis of new, national-level data on forest cover change for SSA countries for the 2000-2005 period. The recent dynamic in SSA varies from dry to wet biomes. Deforestation occurred at faster rates in nations with predominantly dry forests. The wetter Congo basin countries had lower rates of deforestation, in part because tax receipts from oil and mineral industries in this region spurred rural to urban migration, declines in agriculture and increased imports of cereals from abroad. In this respect, the Congo basin countries may be experiencing an oil and mineral fuelled forest transition. Small farmers play a more important role in African deforestation than they do in southeast Asia and Latin America, in part because small-scale agriculture remains one of the few livelihoods open to rural peoples.

  3. External Financial Aid to Blood Transfusion Services in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Need for Reflection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ala, Fereydoun; Allain, Jean-Pierre; Bates, Imelda; Boukef, Kamel; Boulton, Frank; Brandful, James; Dax, Elizabeth M.; El Ekiaby, Magdy; Farrugia, Albert; Gorlin, Jed; Hassall, Oliver; Lee, Helen; Loua, André; Maitland, Kathryn; Mbanya, Dora; Mukhtar, Zainab; Murphy, William; Opare-Sem, Ohene; Owusu-Ofori, Shirley; Reesink, Henk; Roberts, David; Torres, Oscar; Totoe, Grace; Ullum, Henrik; Wendel, Silvano

    2012-01-01

    Jean-Pierre Allain and colleagues argue that, while unintended, the foreign aid provided for blood transfusion services in sub-Saharan Africa has resulted in serious negative outcomes, which requires reflection and rethinking

  4. Child labour, education, participation and economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa : an empirical study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mukherjee, Jaydeep

    2008-01-01

    .... This calls for serious introspection. The present study examines the interaction between child labour, education participation and per capita economic growth for Sub-Saharan Africa in a holistic framework using two-stage least squares (2SLS...

  5. Challenging the Myths of Urban Dynamics in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Evidence from Nigeria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Potts, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    .... Such errors are exacerbated by a lack of reasonable estimates of the size and growth of towns in Nigeria, sub-Saharan Africa's most populous country with the region's most complex urban system...

  6. Do Fresh Produce Exporters in Sub-Saharan Africa Benefit from GlobalGAP Certification?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henson, Spencer; Masakure, Oliver; Cranfield, John

    2011-01-01

    Summary This paper presents analysis of a survey of fresh produce export firms in 10 countries of sub-Saharan Africa, focusing on the determinants of GlobalGAP certification and the returns in terms...

  7. Mortality and Morbidity Transitions in Sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence from Adult Height

    OpenAIRE

    Akachi, Yoko; CANNING, David

    2008-01-01

    In most developing countries, rising levels of nutrition and improvements in public health have led to declines in infant mortality and rising adult height. In Sub-Saharan Africa, however, we see a different pattern. Sub-Saharan Africa has seen large reductions in infant mortality over the last fifty years, but without any increase in protein or energy intake, and against a background of stagnant, or even declining, adult height. Adult height is a sensitive indicator of the nutrition and morb...

  8. Association of HIV and ART with cardiometabolic traits in sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dillon, David G; Gurdasani, Deepti; Riha, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has the highest burden of HIV in the world and a rising prevalence of cardiometabolic disease; however, the interrelationship between HIV, antiretroviral therapy (ART) and cardiometabolic traits is not well described in SSA populations.......Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has the highest burden of HIV in the world and a rising prevalence of cardiometabolic disease; however, the interrelationship between HIV, antiretroviral therapy (ART) and cardiometabolic traits is not well described in SSA populations....

  9. External financial aid to blood transfusion services in sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ala, Fereydoun; Allain, Jean-Pierre; Bates, Imelda

    2012-01-01

    Jean-Pierre Allain and colleagues argue that, while unintended, the foreign aid provided for blood transfusion services in sub-Saharan Africa has resulted in serious negative outcomes, which requires reflection and rethinking.......Jean-Pierre Allain and colleagues argue that, while unintended, the foreign aid provided for blood transfusion services in sub-Saharan Africa has resulted in serious negative outcomes, which requires reflection and rethinking....

  10. End of life care in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review of the qualitative literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pool Robert

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background End of life (EoL care in sub-Saharan Africa still lacks the sound evidence-base needed for the development of effective, appropriate service provision. It is essential to make evidence from all types of research available alongside clinical and health service data, to ensure that EoL care is ethical and culturally appropriate. This article aims to synthesize qualitative research on EoL care in sub-Saharan Africa to inform policy, practice and further research. It seeks to identify areas of existing research; describe findings specifically relevant to the African context; and, identify areas lacking evidence. Methods Relevant literature was identified through eight electronic databases: AMED, British Nursing Index & Archive, CINAHL, EMBASE, IBSS, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and the Social Sciences Citation Index; and hand searches. Inclusion criteria were: published qualitative or mixed-method studies in sub-Saharan Africa, about EoL care. Study quality was assessed using a standard grading scale. Relevant data including findings and practice recommendations were extracted and compared in tabular format. Results Of the 407 articles initially identified, 51 were included in the qualitative synthesis. Nineteen came from South Africa and the majority (38 focused on HIV/AIDS. Nine dealt with multiple or unspecified conditions and four were about cancer. Study respondents included health professionals, informal carers, patients, community members and bereaved relatives. Informal carers were typically women, the elderly and children, providing total care in the home, and lacking support from professionals or the extended family. Twenty studies focused on home-based care, describing how programmes function in practice and what is needed to make them effective. Patients and carers were reported to prefer institutional care but this needs to be understood in context. Studies focusing on culture discussed good and bad death, culture

  11. Underreaction to AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, J C; Orubuloye, I O; Caldwell, P

    1992-06-01

    In those parts of Sub-Saharan Africa most affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic both public and private reaction to the seriousness of the epidemic have been less than might have been anticipated. This limited reaction weakens national, community and family responses to the epidemic and also reduces the pressure on international donors to provide adequate support. The paper first examines the reasons for underreaction by governments. These reasons include an assessment that successes will not be easily achieved, a reluctance to give leadership in areas of private sensitivity, an awareness of the fragility of the data base, a persistent feeling that it is a disease of foreign origin with a foreign overreaction to the situation in Africa, and the nature of the disease itself with a long latency period, obscure symptoms and an urban bias. Nevertheless, the paper argues that the more fundamental underreaction, shaping the reactions of governments, is that from the community itself. This arises partly from the demonstration that it is a sexually transmitted disease in societies where the discussion of sexual relations between the generations and the sexes has always been difficult and where new religions have in some societies reinforced older attitudes towards the shame of being discovered to have had illicit relationships. However, the main reasons lie in continuing aspects of the cultures which emphasize the multiple antecedents of misfortune and plural explanations of death, an element of predestination in when death takes place, a concept of good fortune--sometimes arising from or demonstrated by sexual activity--which renders misadventure unlikely, and a courage when facing death which is partly attributable to belief about survival beyond this event.

  12. Traditional herbal medicine use among hypertensive patients in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liwa, Anthony C; Smart, Luke R; Frumkin, Amara; Epstein, Helen-Ann B; Fitzgerald, Daniel W; Peck, Robert N

    2014-06-01

    Hypertension is increasingly common in sub-Saharan Africa, and rates of hypertension control are low. Use of traditional herbal medicines (THM) is common among adults in sub-Saharan Africa and may affect hypertension therapy. We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, and Web of Knowledge in June 2013 to find studies about THM use among hypertensive patients living in sub-Saharan Africa. Two independent reviewers evaluated titles and abstracts. Qualifying references were reviewed in full text. Data were extracted using a standardized questionnaire. Four hundred and eighty-one references were retrieved, and four articles from two countries met criteria for inclusion. The prevalence of THM use was 25-65% (average 38.6%). THM was the most common type of complementary and alternative medicines used by patients (86.7-96.6%). Among THM users, 47.5% concomitantly used both allopathic medicine and THM. Increased age (phistory of hypertension (OR 1.78) were positively associated with THM use, while belief that hypertension is preventable was negatively associated with THM use (OR 0.57). More than one-third of adults with hypertension in sub-Saharan Africa use THM. Half of these patients use THM concurrently with allopathic medicine. Healthcare workers in sub-Saharan Africa must discuss THM use with their hypertensive patients. More research is urgently needed to define the impact of THM use on hypertension control and outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa.

  13. An outlook on the Sub-Saharan Africa carbon balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bombelli

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This study gives an outlook on the carbon balance of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA by presenting a summary of currently available results from the project CarboAfrica (namely net ecosystem productivity and emissions from fires, deforestation and forest degradation, by field and model estimates supplemented by bibliographic data and compared with a new synthesis of the data from national communications to UNFCCC. According to these preliminary estimates the biogenic carbon balance of SSA varies from 0.16 Pg C y−1 to a much higher sink of 1.00 Pg C y−1 (depending on the source data. Models estimates would give an unrealistic sink of 3.23 Pg C y−1, confirming their current inadequacy when applied to Africa. The carbon uptake by forests and savannas (0.34 and 1.89 Pg C y−1, respectively, are the main contributors to the resulting sink. Fires (0.72 Pg C y−1 and deforestation (0.25 Pg C y−1 are the main contributors to the SSA carbon emissions, while the agricultural sector and forest degradation contributes only with 0.12 and 0.08 Pg C y−1, respectively. Savannas play a major role in shaping the SSA carbon balance, due to their large extension, their fire regime, and their strong interannual NEP variability, but they are also a major uncertainty in the overall budget. Even if fossil fuel emissions from SSA are relative low, they can be crucial in defining the sign of the overall SSA carbon balance by reducing the natural sink potential, especially in the future. This paper shows that Africa plays a key role in the global carbon cycle system and probably could have a potential for carbon sequestration higher than expected, even if still highly uncertain. Further investigations are needed, particularly to better address the role of savannas and tropical forests and to improve biogeochemical models. The CarboAfrica network of carbon measurements could provide future

  14. Medicinal plants: An invaluable, dwindling resource in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, Mack; Aremu, Adeyemi O; Van Staden, Johannes

    2015-11-04

    The use of plant species for different therapeutic/medicinal purposes is well-entrenched in sub-Saharan Africa. To provide a critical and updated review of the enormous medicinal plant heritage in sub-Saharan Africa with regards to the abundance, importance, conservation status and potential means to help sustain their availability for future generations. A comprehensive literature search involving different online databases, books and theses were conducted in order to obtain, collate and synthesize available information on various fundamental aspects pertaining to African medicinal plants. African biodiversity hotspots are endowed with a high level of endemic species with a significant portion possessing medicinal value. Apart from the extensive ethnobotanical uses of medicinal plants found in Africa, scientific validation of their biological potential such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic properties have been recognized. Together with the demand arising from their biological efficacies, other anthropogenic factors are exerting conservation strains of the wild population of these medicinal plants. Even though researchers have acknowledged the importance and value of conserving these medicinal plants, several challenges have hampered these efforts on the Continent as a whole. The rich flora occurring in sub-Saharan Africa suggests enormous potential for discovery of new chemical entity with therapeutic value. However, concerted efforts focused on documenting the conservation status of African medicinal plants are pertinent. Application of different biotechnological techniques is needed to sustain these valuable botanical entities, especially to meet increasing pharmaceutical demand. Most importantly, increased public enlightenment and awareness may help eradicate the prejudice against cultivation of medicinal plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Developing and Deploying OERs in sub-Saharan Africa: Building on the Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday A. Reju

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Open educational resources (OERs have the potential to reduce costs, improve quality, and increase access to educational opportunities. OER development and deployment is one path that could contribute to achieving education for all. This article builds on existing information and communication technology (ICT implementation plans in Africa and on the experiences of organizations and initiatives such as the African Virtual University (AVU, OER Africa, the South African Institute of Distance Education (SAIDE, and the Teacher Education in Sub-Saharan Africa (TESSA Project, to present one view of the benefits, challenges, and steps that could be taken to realize the potential of OERs in sub-Saharan Africa. Thus, the article focuses on the factors necessary for creating and sustaining a vision for OER development and deployment; developing and distributing resources with an open license; improving technology infrastructure and reducing the cost of Internet access; establishing communities of educational collaborators; sustaining involvement in the OER initiative; producing resources in interoperable and open formats; establishing and maintaining the quality of OERs; providing local context to address national and regional needs and conditions; informing the public about OERs; and taking the initiative to build on the knowledge, skills, and experiences of others. In order to assist educators and decision makers, links to a variety of resources are provided.

  16. Rapid urban malaria appraisal (RUMA in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akogbeto Martin

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rapid urban malaria appraisal (RUMA methodology aims to provide a cost-effective tool to conduct rapid assessments of the malaria situation in urban sub-Saharan Africa and to improve the understanding of urban malaria epidemiology. Methods This work was done in Yopougon municipality (Abidjan, Cotonou, Dar es Salaam and Ouagadougou. The study design consists of six components: 1 a literature review, 2 the collection of available health statistics, 3 a risk mapping, 4 school parasitaemia surveys, 5 health facility-based surveys and 6 a brief description of the health care system. These formed the basis of a multi-country evaluation of RUMA's feasibility, consistency and usefulness. Results A substantial amount of literature (including unpublished theses and statistics was found at each site, providing a good overview of the malaria situation. School and health facility-based surveys provided an overview of local endemicity and the overall malaria burden in different city areas. This helped to identify important problems for in-depth assessment, especially the extent to which malaria is over-diagnosed in health facilities. Mapping health facilities and breeding sites allowed the visualization of the complex interplay between population characteristics, health services and malaria risk. However, the latter task was very time-consuming and required special expertise. RUMA is inexpensive, costing around 8,500–13,000 USD for a six to ten-week period. Conclusion RUMA was successfully implemented in four urban areas with different endemicity and proved to be a cost-effective first approach to study the features of urban malaria and provide an evidence basis for planning control measures.

  17. The Dynamics Of Food Security In Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degye Goshu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the dynamics of food supply per capita and undernourishment in Sub-Saharan Africa SSA for a panel of 42 countries. The dataset was constructed from the FAO and the World Bank global databases for four rounds in five-year intervals. Ordinal measures of national food supply status were generated from daily calorie supply per capita of SSA countries. Regional and inter-temporal dynamics of food supply status very low low medium transition rates and the associated forces underpinning this dynamic process were analyzed and stylized by parametric and non-parametric measures. Economic and socio-demographic factors and regional heterogeneities determining the dynamics of food supply situation in SSA were identified by random-effects ordered probit model. The empirical findings indicate that the food supply level of SSA countries was enhanced by agricultural production and industrial value added as a proxy for structural transformation. However it was adversely affected by military expenditure inflation level of consumer prices proportion of rural population age dependency ratio and regional heterogeneities. The likelihood of SSA countries to face incidence of very low low and medium calorie per capita supply was 23 percent 61 percent and 16 percent respectively. To improve the level of food supply per capita and thereby to reduce food poverty situation SSA countries and other stakeholders need to focus on policies designed to enhance economic growth through agricultural production creation of employment opportunities with structural transformation enhancing health care services improving their demographic structure through family planning and controlling national and regional shocks and instabilities.

  18. Teaching radical prostatectomy in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruenes, Albert; Gueye, Serigne M

    2008-02-01

    In the United States alone, approximately 220,000 new cases of prostate cancer will be detected in 2007, and 27000 men will die of that disease. African American men will suffer disproportionately, having a prostate cancer incidence that is nearly 60% higher than their Caucasian counterparts. In fact, it is widely accepted that African American men have the highest incidence of prostate cancer in the world. This observation has led investigators to study the prostate cancer risk among African men in an effort to identify factors responsible for the high incidence of prostate cancer that plagues the African American population. Findings suggest that the public health burden of prostate cancer to native African men is substantial. Effective management of prostate cancer depends on early detection of the disease and its definitive treatment. Cost-effective management can be elusive. Radical prostatectomy can cure clinically localized disease and may offer long-term cancer control in patients with stage T3 disease. Of the various forms of radical prostatectomy, radical perineal prostatectomy is ideally suited to accomplish these goals in sub-Saharan Africa. A program to teach radical perineal prostatectomy has begun in Dakar, Senegal. It is a system based on graded surgical responsibility. High-quality audiovisual guides familiarize surgeons with the procedure's unique anatomic concerns. They then observe live procedures, assist in live procedures and eventually begin performing the live procedures under direct supervision. Repeated performance of the operation with simultaneous critique is the hallmark of this program, the goal of which is to establish a center of excellence where surgeons throughout the continent can come to learn this technique.

  19. Medical electives in sub-Saharan Africa: a host perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumwenda, Ben; Dowell, Jon; Daniels, Katy; Merrylees, Neil

    2015-06-01

    Electives are part of most Western medical school curricula. It is estimated that each year 3000-4000 undergraduate medical students from the UK alone undertake an elective in a developing country. The impact of these electives has given some cause for concern, but the views of elective hosts are largely missing from the debate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the organisation, outcomes and impacts of medical electives in sub-Saharan Africa from a host perspective. A qualitative analysis of 14 semi-structured interviews with elective hosts at seven elective sites in Malawi, Zambia and Tanzania was carried out. A framework analysis approach was used to analyse 483 minutes of audio-recorded data. Hosts were committed to providing elective experiences but their reasons for doing so varied considerably, in particular between urban or teaching hospitals and rural or mission hospitals. Nurturing a group of professionals who will understand the provision of health care from a global perspective was the main reason reported for hosting an elective, along with generating potential future staff. Hosts argued that the quality of supervision should be judged according to local context. Typical concerns cited in the literature with reference to clinical activities, safety and ethics did not emerge as issues for these hosts. However, in under-resourced clinical contexts, the training of local students sometimes had to take priority. Electives could be improved with greater student preparation and some contribution from sending institutions to support teaching, supervision or patient care. The challenge to both students and their sending institutions is to progress towards giving something proportionate back in return for the learning experiences received. There is clearly room to improve electives from the hosts' perspective, but individually host institutions lack the opportunity or ability to achieve change. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Mapping Agricultural Fields in Sub-Saharan Africa with a Computer Vision Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debats, S. R.; Luo, D.; Estes, L. D.; Fuchs, T.; Caylor, K. K.

    2014-12-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is an important focus for food security research, because it is experiencing unprecedented population growth, agricultural activities are largely dominated by smallholder production, and the region is already home to 25% of the world's undernourished. One of the greatest challenges to monitoring and improving food security in this region is obtaining an accurate accounting of the spatial distribution of agriculture. Households are the primary units of agricultural production in smallholder communities and typically rely on small fields of less than 2 hectares. Field sizes are directly related to household crop productivity, management choices, and adoption of new technologies. As population and agriculture expand, it becomes increasingly important to understand both the distribution of field sizes as well as how agricultural communities are spatially embedded in the landscape. In addition, household surveys, a common tool for tracking agricultural productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa, would greatly benefit from spatially explicit accounting of fields. Current gridded land cover data sets do not provide information on individual agricultural fields or the distribution of field sizes. Therefore, we employ cutting edge approaches from the field of computer vision to map fields across Sub-Saharan Africa, including semantic segmentation, discriminative classifiers, and automatic feature selection. Our approach aims to not only improve the binary classification accuracy of cropland, but also to isolate distinct fields, thereby capturing crucial information on size and geometry. Our research focuses on the development of descriptive features across scales to increase the accuracy and geographic range of our computer vision algorithm. Relevant data sets include high-resolution remote sensing imagery and Landsat (30-m) multi-spectral imagery. Training data for field boundaries is derived from hand-digitized data sets as well as crowdsourcing.

  1. Prevalence of child mental health problems in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, Melissa A; Sodha, Anisha; Fazel, Mina; Ramchandani, Paul G

    2012-03-01

    To assess the prevalence of child mental health problems in community settings in sub-Saharan Africa. A systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsychInfo, supplemented by tracking of references from identified articles and personal communications with local researchers. Only community-based studies in sub-Saharan Africa that assessed the general psychopathology of children aged 0 to 16 years were included. For each eligible study, the following information was extracted: year of publication, country, population sampled, area type (rural or urban), sampling method and sample size (percentage boys), age range, assessment instrument, informant, diagnostic criteria, and prevalence rates of general psychopathology. Pooled prevalence rate of psychopathology in children, identified by questionnaire and, specifically, by clinical diagnostic instruments. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria, 10 of which were included in the meta-analysis. The 10 studies provided data for 9713 children from 6 countries, with substantial variation in assessment methods. Overall, 14.3% (95% CI, 13.6%-15.0%) of children were identified as having psychopathology. Studies using screening questionnaires reported higher prevalence rates (19.8%; 95% CI, 18.8%-20.7%) than did studies using clinical diagnostic instruments (9.5%; 8.4%-10.5%). Evidence suggests that considerable levels of mental health problems exist among children and adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa. One in 7 children and adolescents have significant difficulties, with 1 in 10 (9.5%) having a specific psychiatric disorder. There are clear sociodemographic correlates of psychopathology that may place children in areas of greatest deprivation at greatest risk.

  2. Development and poverty in sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Tony; Pikkarainen, Ville; Rönkkö, Risto

    2017-01-01

    This paper puts sub-Saharan Africa’s economic development into perspective. While much did not go as hoped for at independence, much of the region has been on a more promising development trajectory since the mid-1990s, as we illustrate using growth, poverty, and human development indicators. We...

  3. Workable Social Health Insurance Systems in Sub-Saharan Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the major barriers to access to healthcare in most sub-Saharan African countries is financial constraints. The need therefore arises for African states to put in place workable social health insurance schemes, as is the practice in most developed countries. This article assesses the peculiar characteristics of ...

  4. Kinship Structures and Social Justice in Sub-Saharan Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A major obstacle to the development of sustainable democratic systems of government in contemporary sub-Saharan African states is the difficulty in articulating an adequate conception of social justice to serve as a guiding principle in these polities. This difficulty is a consequence of the ethnically heterogeneous character ...

  5. Managing Endometriosis in sub-Saharan Africa: Emerging Concepts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    endometriosis and improve service delivery that will ultimately result in an improved quality of life for women with endometriosis. The first ever Sub Saharan African scientific conference on endometriosis in. Kampala Uganda in 2006 highlighted the need to develop integrative and multidisciplinary endometriosis programs in ...

  6. New Findings on Child Marriage in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroni, Suzanne; Steinhaus, Mara; Fenn, Natacha Stevanovic; Stoebenau, Kirsten; Gregowski, Amy

    Despite increasing global attention and commitments by countries to end the harmful practice of child marriage, each year some 15 million girls marry before the age of 18. The preponderance of the evidence produced historically on child marriage comes from South Asia, where the vast majority of child brides live. Far less attention has been paid to child marriage in sub-Saharan Africa, where prevalence rates remain high. The International Center for Research on Women (ICRW) recently conducted research in Kenya, Senegal, Uganda, and Zambia to contribute to greater understanding of the drivers of child marriage in each of these contexts. Synthesizing findings from 4 diverse countries provides a useful opportunity to identify similarities and differences, as well as understandings that may be applicable to and helpful for preventing child marriage across these and other settings. Across the 4 countries, ICRW's research echoes the existing literature base in affirming that child marriage is rooted in inequitable gender norms that prioritize women's roles as wives, mothers, and household caretakers, resulting in inadequate investments by families in girls' education. These discriminatory norms interact closely with poverty and a lack of employment opportunities for girls and young women to perpetuate marriage as a seemingly viable alternative for girls. We found in the African study sites that sexual relations, unplanned pregnancy, and school dropout often precede child marriage, which differs from much of the existing evidence on child marriage from South Asia. Further, unlike in South Asia, where family members typically determine the spouse a girl will marry, most girls in the Africa study settings have greater autonomy in partner choice selection. In Senegal, increasing educational attainment and labor migration, particularly by young women, has contributed to reduced rates of child marriage for girls. Our findings suggest that improving gender equitable norms and

  7. The need for integration of drought monitoring tools for proactive food security management in sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, T.; Haile, M.; Senay, G.; Wardlow, B.D.; Knutson, C.L.

    2008-01-01

    Reducing the impact of drought and famine remains a challenge in sub-Saharan Africa despite ongoing drought relief assistance in recent decades. This is because drought and famine are primarily addressed through a crisis management approach when a disaster occurs, rather than stressing preparedness and risk management. Moreover, drought planning and food security efforts have been hampered by a lack of integrated drought monitoring tools, inadequate early warning systems (EWS), and insufficient information flow within and between levels of government in many sub-Saharan countries. The integration of existing drought monitoring tools for sub-Saharan Africa is essential for improving food security systems to reduce the impacts of drought and famine on society in this region. A proactive approach emphasizing integration requires the collective use of multiple tools, which can be used to detect trends in food availability and provide early indicators at local, national, and regional scales on the likely occurrence of food crises. In addition, improving the ability to monitor and disseminate critical drought-related information using available modern technologies (e.g., satellites, computers, and modern communication techniques) may help trigger timely and appropriate preventive responses and, ultimately, contribute to food security and sustainable development in sub-Saharan Africa. ?? 2008 United Nations.

  8. Effect of media use on mothers' vaccination of their children in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minsoo; Lin, Leesa; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2015-05-21

    While several studies have examined the crucial role that parents' vaccination behaviors play in reducing disease spread and severity among children, few have evaluated the connection between parents' media use and their decision on whether or not to vaccinate their child, specifically in relation to the BCG (Bacillus Calmetter Guerin), DPT (Diptheria, Pertussis, Tetanus) polio, and measles vaccines. Media channels are a critical source of health information for parents, which is especially true in Sub-Saharan Africa, as there is often a dearth of local healthcare providers. The aim of this paper is to investigate the role that media use plays in a mothers' choice to vaccinate their infant children in sub-Saharan Africa, specifically focusing on whether media use is associated with socioeconomic status (SES) and a mothers' vaccination of their children. Cross-sectional data from the Demographic Health Surveys of 13 sub-Saharan countries (2004-2010) were pooled. A multivariate Poisson regression of 151,209 women was used to calculate adjusted relative ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the associations among SES, media use, and immunization. Education and wealth were found to be strongly and positively associated with vaccine-uptake behaviors. The effects of media use (radio and television) were found to be associated with the relationships between SES and vaccine uptake. However, it did not reduce the impact of SES on vaccination. These findings indicate that mass media may be an important tool for future efforts to reduce the health discrepancies between children from high- and low-socioeconomic backgrounds. Going forward, immunization strategies should include communication plans that will address and mitigate potential immunization disparities among parents of different SES backgrounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Urban growth and water access in sub-Saharan Africa: Progress, challenges, and emerging research directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, S; Adams, E A; Neville, G; Wada, Y; de Sherbinin, A; Mullin Bernhardt, E; Adamo, S B

    2017-12-31

    For the next decade, the global water crisis remains the risk of highest concern, and ranks ahead of climate change, extreme weather events, food crises and social instability. Across the globe, nearly one in ten people is without access to an improved drinking water source. Least Developed Countries (LDCs) especially in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are the most affected, having disproportionately more of the global population without access to clean water than other major regions. Population growth, changing lifestyles, increasing pollution and accelerating urbanization will continue to widen the gap between the demand for water and available supply especially in urban areas, and disproportionately affect informal settlements, where the majority of SSA's urban population resides. Distribution and allocation of water will be affected by climate-induced water stresses, poor institutions, ineffective governance, and weak political will to address scarcity and mediate uncertainties in future supply. While attempts have been made by many scientists to examine different dimensions of water scarcity and urban population dynamics, there are few comprehensive reviews, especially focused on the particular situation in Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper contributes to interdisciplinary understanding of urban water supply by distilling and integrating relevant empirical knowledge on urban dynamics and water issues in SSA, focusing on progress made and associated challenges. It then points out future research directions including the need to understand how alternatives to centralized water policies may help deliver sustainable water supply to cities and informal settlements in the region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A review of parasite studies of commercially important marine fishes in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Cecile C

    2015-01-01

    Scattered records of parasitic species infecting commercially important marine fishes in sub-Saharan Africa are known from just a few countries where concerted efforts have been made by local parasitologists (e.g. Senegal, Nigeria, South Africa). Most of these consist of taxonomic records or general surveys of parasite faunas associated with marine hosts, which may or may not have been of commercial value. Little to no multi-disciplinary research is conducted in most parts of sub-Saharan Africa and hence parasitological data are not commonly used to advise fisheries management procedures. This review summarizes current knowledge on all parasitological research associated with commercially important marine fish species in sub-Saharan Africa.

  11. The road half traveled: agricultural market reform in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kherallah Mylène

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the extensive evidence on agricultural market reforms in Sub-Saharan Africa and summarises the impact reforms have had on market performance, agricultural production, use of modern inputs, and poverty. It offers eight recommendations for completing the reform process and developing a new agenda for agricultural markets in Sub-Saharan Africa. The reform experience in Sub-Saharan Africa has varied widely across countries and crop subsectors. The available evidence shows clear progress in some areas and mixed results in others. Most reforms were only partially implemented and policy reversal was common. Once implemented, however, reforms have increased competition and reduced marketing margins, benefiting both producers and consumers. Reforms have also boosted export crop production. On the other hand, food crop production has stagnated and yields have not improved. Further expansion of private trade is constrained by lack of access to credit, uncertainty about the government’s commitment to reform, and high transaction costs.

  12. Increasing sustainable cataract services in sub-Saharan Africa: an experimental initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasipriya M Karumanchi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To begin to meet the need for cataract surgery in sub-Saharan Africa, the cataract surgical rate (CSR should be at least 2,000 to 3,000; i.e. there should be 2,000-3,000 cataract operations per million population, per year. The current levels are below 1,000 (and often much lower. Sub-Saharan Africa poses a unique set of challenges: low population density; inadequate transportation systems that inhibit access; big differences in wealth; and a shortage of eye care resources (which are usually concentrated in larger cities. Additional issues relate to productivity, the supply chain and the quality of outcomes, all of which contribute to the low cataract surgical rates. It is in this context that the Hilton Foundation sought to enhance cataract surgical services in sub-Saharan Africa, through the Hilton Cataract Initiative.

  13. Private Enterprise-Led Economic Development in Sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John Ernest

    Private Enterprise-Led Development in Sub-Saharan Africa provides a novel theoretical and conceptual model to guide research into Africa's economic development. It endorses the view that private enterprise-led growth will help reduce poverty since it strengthens individuals' capacity to care...

  14. Overseas Training and National Development Objectives in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moock, Joyce Lewinger

    1984-01-01

    Focuses on the impact of overseas training on national development objectives in Sub-Saharan Africa. Reviews the current economic crisis in Africa and the need for high-level, skilled workers. Examines the advantages and disadvantages of foreign study as a means of developing competent indigenous professionals. Notes pertinent research issues. (SB)

  15. Geographic distribution and ecological niche of plague in sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neerinckx, Simon B; Peterson, Andrew T; Gulinck, Hubert

    2008-01-01

    predict a broad potential distributional area of plague occurrences across sub-Saharan Africa. General tests of model's transferability suggest that our model can anticipate the potential distribution of plague occurrences in Madagascar and northern Africa. However, generality and predictive ability tests...

  16. The European Union and sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluth, Michael Friederich

    2013-01-01

    of the main EU powers. While Europe's initial African focus was on stabilising a continent marred by state failure, civil wars and genocides, changes in the global security context, especially the shift towards multipolarity manifest in China's growing engagement, has prompted a complementary focus...... on deterring other powers from making military inroads into the subcontinent. Hence Europe's sub-Saharan security focus is shifting from stabilisation towards deterrence. This helps explain recent military procurements which, in spite of the extremely challenging fiscal position of most EU member states...

  17. Neurocysticercosis in sub-Saharan Africa: a review of prevalence, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Andrea Sylvia

    2012-09-01

    Neurocysticercosis has been recognized as a major cause of secondary epilepsy worldwide. So far, most of the knowledge about the disease comes from Latin America and the Indian subcontinent. Unfortunately, in sub-Saharan Africa the condition was neglected for a long time, mainly owing to the lack of appropriate diagnostic tools. This review therefore focuses on the prevalence of neurocysticercosis in sub-Saharan Africa, the clinical picture with emphasis on epilepsy, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of neurocysticercosis and its related epilepsy/epileptic seizures in African resource-poor settings.

  18. Abortion and contraceptive use in sub-Saharan Africa: how women plan their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauro, Don

    2011-03-01

    Based on available evidence, this review article posits that contemporary use of abortion in sub-Saharan Africa often substitutes for and sometimes surpasses modern contraceptive practice. Some studies and some data sets indicate that this occurs not only among adolescents but also within older age groups. In several sub-Saharan cities, particularly where contraceptive use is low and access to clinical abortion is high (though largely illegal), abortion appears to be the method of choice for limiting or spacing births. Even in rural areas, women may regularly resort to abortion, often using extremely unsafe procedures, instead of contraception. Available data seem to indicate that relatively high levels of abortion correlate with low access to modern contraception, low status of women, strong sanctions against out-of-wedlock pregnancy, traditional tolerance of abortion, and availability of modern abortion practices. Abortion has been and will likely continue to be used to plan families within much of sub-Saharan Africa.

  19. Factors Influencing Contraceptive Use in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Sarah R; Nwaozuru, Ucheoma; Iwelunmor, Juliet

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature regarding factors influencing contraceptive use in sub-Saharan Africa between 2005 and 2015. A total of 58 studies from twelve Sub-Saharan African countries were reviewed. Keywords were grouped using the PEN-3 cultural model. Negative factors prohibiting or reducing contraceptive use were women's misconceptions of contraceptive side-effects, male partner disapproval, and social/cultural norms surrounding fertility. Positive factors included education, employment, and communication with male partner. Increasing modern contraceptive use in Sub-Saharan Africa is a multi-faceted problem that will require community and systems wide interventions that aim to counteract negative perceptions and misinformation.

  20. Small pumps and poor farmers in Sub Saharan Africa: An assessment of current extent of use and the poverty outreach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Namara, R.E.; Gebregziabher, G.; Giordano, M.; Fraiture, de C.M.S.

    2013-01-01

    The expansion of irrigation in Sub-Saharan Africa has been slow. In Asia, the rapid expansion of smallholder irrigation systems was attributed in part to the availability and affordability of motorized pumps. This paper appraises the current extent of pump-based irrigation in Sub-Saharan Africa;

  1. Population Health Science: A Core Element of Health Science Education in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiatt, Robert A; Engmann, Natalie J; Ahmed, Mushtaq; Amarsi, Yasmin; Macharia, William M; Macfarlane, Sarah B; Ngugi, Anthony K; Rabbani, Fauziah; Walraven, Gijs; Armstrong, Robert W

    2017-04-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa suffers an inordinate burden of disease and does not have the numbers of suitably trained health care workers to address this challenge. New concepts in health sciences education are needed to offer alternatives to current training approaches.A perspective of integrated training in population health for undergraduate medical and nursing education is advanced, rather than continuing to take separate approaches for clinical and public health education. Population health science educates students in the social and environmental origins of disease, thus complementing disease-specific training and providing opportunities for learners to take the perspective of the community as a critical part of their education.Many of the recent initiatives in health science education in sub-Saharan Africa are reviewed, and two case studies of innovative change in undergraduate medical education are presented that begin to incorporate such population health thinking. The focus is on East Africa, one of the most rapidly growing economies in sub-Saharan Africa where opportunities for change in health science education are opening. The authors conclude that a focus on population health is a timely and effective way for enhancing training of health care professionals to reduce the burden of disease in sub-Saharan Africa.

  2. Public health and research funding for childhood neurodevelopmental disorders in Sub-Saharan Africa: a time to balance priorities

    OpenAIRE

    Muideen O. Bakare; Kerim M. Munir; Mashudat A. Bello-Mojeed

    2014-01-01

    Sub-Saharan African (SSA) population consists of about 45% children, while in Europe and North America children population is 10- 15%. Lately, attention has been directed at mitigating childhood infectious and communicable diseases to reduce under-five mortality. As the under-five mortality index in Sub-Saharan Africa has relatively improved over the last two decades, more Sub-Saharan African children are surviving beyond the age of five and, apparently, a sizeable percentage of this populati...

  3. Sub-Saharan Africa at the global education market: role of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramil Ravilevich Asmyatullin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to the development of the higher education in Sub-Saharan countries, particularly to the topic of internationalization of education. Most African countries have underdeveloped education systems. The quality and availability of higher education is a formidable obstacle for economic and social development. There is a growing demand for higher education in the SSA, but national education systems can’t cope fully with it. Hence many students go abroad, mostly in other African countries. The article focuses on the position of South Africa in the global and regional education market. As it’s a regional leader in this field South Africa attracts more than a half of international students within the Sub-Saharan Africa. The main reasons why African students choose South Africa are geographic proximity, familiar culture, lack of wanted higher education programs in their countries. However, there are as well disadvantages like xenophobia and race discrimination. South Africa has become a leader in Africa in the field of higher education, but it plays still small part at a global scale.

  4. Calibration and evaluation of a semi-distributed watershed model of Sub-Saharan Africa using GRACE data

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, H.; Longuevergne, L.; C. Ringler; B. Scanlon

    2012-01-01

    Irrigation development is rapidly expanding in mostly rainfed Sub-Saharan Africa. This expansion underscores the need for a more comprehensive understanding of water resources beyond surface water. Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites provide valuable information on spatio-temporal variability of water storage. The objective of this study was to calibrate and evaluate a semi-distributed regional-scale hydrological model, or a large-scale application of the Soil and Water...

  5. Gender inequality, health expenditure and maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa: A secondary data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Chirowa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This article provided an analysis of gender inequality, health expenditure and its relationship to maternal mortality.Objective: The objective of this article was to explore gender inequality and its relationship with health expenditure and maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. A unique analysis was used to correlate the Gender Inequality Index (GII, Health Expenditure and Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR. The GII captured inequalities across three dimensions – Reproductive health, Women empowerment and Labour force participation between men and women. The GII is a composite index introduced by the UNDP in 2010 and corrects for the disadavanatges of the other gender indices. Although the GII incorporates MMR in its calculation, it should not be taken as a substitute for, but rather as complementary to, the MMR.Method: An exploratory and descriptive design to a secondary documentary review using quantitative data and qualitative information was used. The article referred to sub-Saharan Africa, but seven countries were purposively selected for an in-depth analysis based on the availability of data. The countries selected were Angola, Botswana, Malawi, Mozambique,South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe.Results: Countries with high gender inequality captured by the gender inequality index were associated with high maternal mortality ratios as compared with countries with lower gender inequality, whilst countries that spend less on health were associated with higher maternal deaths than countries that spend more.Conclusion: A potential relationship exists between gender inequality, health expenditure, and maternal mortality. Gender inequalities are systematic and occur at the macro, societal and household levels.

  6. Gender inequality, health expenditure and maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa: A secondary data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Stephen; Van der Putten, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background This article provided an analysis of gender inequality, health expenditure and its relationship to maternal mortality. Objective The objective of this article was to explore gender inequality and its relationship with health expenditure and maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). A unique analysis was used to correlate the Gender Inequality Index (GII), Health Expenditure and Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR). The GII captured inequalities across three dimensions – Reproductive health, Women empowerment and Labour force participation between men and women. The GII is a composite index introduced by the UNDP in 2010 and corrects for the disadavanatges of the other gender indices. Although the GII incorporates MMR in its calculation, it should not be taken as a substitute for, but rather as complementary to, the MMR. Method An exploratory and descriptive design to a secondary documentary review using quantitative data and qualitative information was used. The article referred to sub-Saharan Africa, but seven countries were purposively selected for an in-depth analysis based on the availability of data. The countries selected were Angola, Botswana, Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Results Countries with high gender inequality captured by the gender inequality index were associated with high maternal mortality ratios as compared with countries with lower gender inequality, whilst countries that spend less on health were associated with higher maternal deaths than countries that spend more. Conclusion A potential relationship exists between gender inequality, health expenditure, and maternal mortality. Gender inequalities are systematic and occur at the macro, societal and household levels.

  7. mHealth for Clinical Decision-Making in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adepoju, Ibukun-Oluwa Omolade; Albersen, Bregje Joanna Antonia; De Brouwere, Vincent; van Roosmalen, Jos; Zweekhorst, Marjolein

    2017-03-23

    In a bid to deliver quality health services in resource-poor settings, mobile health (mHealth) is increasingly being adopted. The role of mHealth in facilitating evidence-based clinical decision-making through data collection, decision algorithms, and evidence-based guidelines, for example, is established in resource-rich settings. However, the extent to which mobile clinical decision support systems (mCDSS) have been adopted specifically in resource-poor settings such as Africa and the lessons learned about their use in such settings are yet to be established. The aim of this study was to synthesize evidence on the use of mHealth for point-of-care decision support and improved quality of care by health care workers in Africa. A scoping review of 4 peer-reviewed and 1 grey literature databases was conducted. No date limits were applied, but only articles in English language were selected. Using pre-established criteria, 2 reviewers screened articles and extracted data. Articles were analyzed using Microsoft Excel and MAXQDA. We retained 22 articles representing 11 different studies in 7 sub-Saharan African countries. Interventions were mainly in the domain of maternal health and ranged from simple text messaging (short message service, SMS) to complex multicomponent interventions. Although health workers are generally supportive of mCDSS and perceive them as useful, concerns about increased workload and altered workflow hinder sustainability. Facilitators and barriers to use of mCDSS include technical and infrastructural support, ownership, health system challenges, and training. The use of mCDSS in sub-Saharan Africa is an indication of progress in mHealth, although their effect on quality of service delivery is yet to be fully explored. Lessons learned are useful for informing future research, policy, and practice for technologically supported health care delivery, especially in resource-poor settings.

  8. Entrepreneurship as a Source of Economic, Political, and Social Improvement in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    economic , political, and social impacts of entrepreneurship , and the development of entrepreneurship in Sub-Saharan Africa was studied through the lens of...9 II. ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD... Entrepreneurship ..............................................................16 B. ENTREPRENEURSHIP , ECONOMIC GROWTH, AND DEVELOPMENT STAGES

  9. Lightening the load : women's labour and appropriate rural technology in Sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bryceson, D.F.; MacCall, M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper questions the assumptions of the rural technology debate, reassessing if and how technological interventions and initiatives are potentially valuable to rural women in sub-Saharan Africa. This entails examining what kinds of technologies are being promoted, and for whom they are being

  10. Moving methodologies : learning about integrated soil fertility management in sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Defoer, T.

    2000-01-01

    Soil fertility management in sub-Saharan Africa is complex, diverse and dynamic. Farmers' investments are determined by a wide variety of factors, including bio-physical characteristics of the environment, access to resources and the institutional, and socio-economic context of farming and

  11. Research on sub-Saharan Africa's unrecorded international trade : some methodological and conceptual problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, S.D.K.; MacGaffey, Janet

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes some of the methodological and conceptual problems in researching aspects of sub-Saharan Africa's international 'underground' trade, meaning commercial transactions which are conducted across international frontiers but which are unrecorded in official data. The authors focus in

  12. Gender difference in support for democracy in Sub-Saharan Africa: Do social institutions matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konte, M.

    2014-01-01

    Little investigation has been made to explain why women are less likely than are men to support democracy in Sub-Saharan Africa. This gender difference in politics has been found in numerous studies and may hinder the much needed legitimation of democracy in this region. This paper addresses the

  13. Financing Higher Education in Sub-Saharan Africa: Some Reflections and Implications for Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oketch, Moses

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss how best to finance higher education in low-income countries of sub-Saharan Africa, drawing on benefits and drawbacks of the prevalent models of higher education finance, and lessons to be learned from countries which have seen greater expansion of their higher education systems in recent decades. Two main…

  14. Climate change impacts in Sub-Saharan Africa : from physical changes to their social repercussions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serdeczny, Olivia; Adams, Sophie; Baarsch, Florent; Coumou, Dim; Robinson, Alexander; Hare, William; Schaeffer, Michiel; Perrette, Mahé; Reinhardt, Julia

    2017-01-01

    The repercussions of climate change will be felt in various ways throughout both natural and human systems in Sub-Saharan Africa. Climate change projections for this region point to a warming trend, particularly in the inland subtropics; frequent occurrence of extreme heat events; increasing

  15. Youth employment in sub-Saharan Africa: Taking stock of the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-01-13

    Jan 13, 2016 ... This scoping paper is one of a series jointly commissioned by Canada's International Development Research Centre and the MasterCard Foundation. Read the full paper, Youth employment in sub-Saharan Africa: Taking stock of the evidence and knowledge gaps (PDF, 825 KB); For a visual representation ...

  16. Is inflation a growth killer? Evidence from sub-Saharan Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the impact of in ation on economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa in order to provide an empirical evidence whether in ation hinders or boost economic activities in the region. The paper found that in ation exhibits a reducing-growth effect in both short-term and long-term periods using Panel ...

  17. The Female Face of Migration in Sub-Saharan Africa | Masanja ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the female face of migration in sub-Saharan Africa.In the last two decades, there has been an increasing amount of research onfeminization of migration, which has begun to fill the gap created by the earlierfocus on male labour migration. Women in earlier migration research were seen ascompanions ...

  18. The environmental, socioeconomic, and health impacts of woodfuel value chains in Sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sola, Phosiso; Cerutti, Paolo Omar; Zhou, Wen; Gautier, Denis; Iiyama, Miyuki; Schure, Jolien; Chenevoy, Audrey; Yila, Jummai; Dufe, Vanessa; Nasi, Robert; Petrokofsky, Gillian; Shepherd, Gill

    2017-01-01

    Background: In Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the production and use of woodfuel remains an important socio-economic activity with more than 70% of the population relying on woodfuel as their primary household energy source. Despite their socio-economic significance, woodfuel value chains are often

  19. Democratization in sub-Saharan Africa (1989-1992) : an overview of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijtenhuijs, Rob; Rijnierse, Elly

    1993-01-01

    This report gives an overview of the literature on recent democratization processes in sub-Saharan Africa (1989-1992). The authors first deal with the basic features of African politics that can serve as a framework within which present-day democratization developments can be comprehended. Then they

  20. Hypertension in Sub-Saharan Africa: Cross-Sectional Surveys in Four Rural and Urban Communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, M.E.; Wit, F.W.N.M.; Roos, M.T.L.; Brewster, L.M.; Akande, T.M.; de Beer, I.H.; Mfinanga, S.G.; Kahwa, A.M.; Gatongi, P.; van Rooy, G.; Janssens, W.; Lammers, J.; Kramer, B.N.; Bonfrer, I.; Gaeb, E.; van der Gaag, J; Rinke de Wit, T.; Lange, J.M.A.; Schultz, C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of adult mortality in low-income countries but data on the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension are scarce, especially in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This study aims to assess the prevalence of hypertension and

  1. Hypertension in Sub-Saharan Africa: Cross-sectional surveys in four rural and urban communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. Hendriks (Marleen); F.W.N.M. Wit (Ferdinand); M.T.L. Roos; L.M. Brewster (Lizzy); T.M. Akande (Tanimola); I.H. de Beer (Ingrid); S.G. Mfinanga (Sayoki); A.M. Kahwa (Amos); P. Gatongi (Peter); G. van Rooy (Gert); W. Janssens (Wendy); J. Lammers (Judith); B. Kramer (Berber); I.E.J. Bonfrer (Igna); E. Gaeb (Esegiel); J. van der Gaag (Jacques); T.F. Rinke de Wit (Tobias); J.M.A. Lange (Joep); C. Schultsz (Constance)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of adult mortality in low-income countries but data on the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension are scarce, especially in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This study aims to assess the prevalence of

  2. Trends in Health Facility Births in sub-Saharan Africa: An Analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has the highest maternal and under-5 mortality rates as well as low facility births, with a high percentage of births occurring in the absence of skilled personnel. We examine trends in health facility births in SSA by geographic areas (urban-rural) and regions; and also the correlation between health ...

  3. Fisheries in the drylands of Sub-Saharan Africa “Fish come with the Rains”

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolding, Jeppe; Zwieten, van P.A.M.; Marttin, Felix; Poulain, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Dryland areas cover more than half of sub-Saharan Africa and are home to nearly 50 percent of
    its populations, who depend on agriculture (including livestock, crops and fisheries) as their main
    livelihood strategy. Sporadic and irregular rainfall patterns are the most important

  4. Integrated Program on Malaria in sub-Saharan Africa (IPMA) : Call ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Integrated Program on Malaria in sub-Saharan Africa (IPMA) will offer a shared and synergistic approach to existing malaria control programs. It will do so by supporting research aimed at understanding the complex societal and environmental dynamics affecting malaria in the region, and testing interventions that ...

  5. The Tourism–Development Nexus in sub-Saharan Africa: Progress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the global landscape of tourism scholarship, the region of sub-Saharan Africa is an undeveloped research focus. This article offers an overview of recent research trends, and argues that cues for an African tourism agenda should be taken from the developmental imperatives that confront the continent. The nexus of ...

  6. Withholding breast milk for HIV exposed infants in sub-Saharan Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... African HIV exposed infants. It is hoped that when Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) becomes universally accessible and available to HIV infected women in sub-Saharan Africa, breast milk HIV transmission will be a rare event and the health benefits of breastfeeding for the infant and mother will be maximized.

  7. developing countries: case study of china and sub-saharan africa (ssa)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: CASE STUDY OF CHINA AND. SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA (SSA). Andzio-Bika Herve Lezin Wilfrid and Kamitewoko Edwige. Abstract. This paper analyzed the influence of agriculture in GDP of China and three SSA countries. Data used for the study was drawn from the Food and Agriculture ...

  8. Mobile phones and safety in developing countries : Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    James, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the relationship between safety and mobile phones with particular reference to Sub-Saharan Africa; and looks at a range of geographical contexts: non-violent, conflict and post-conflict situations. The main part of the paper reports on recent findings of extensive

  9. Sub-Saharan Africa betwixt and between : rural livelihood practices and policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bryceson, Deborah Fahy

    1999-01-01

    Drawing on research findings emanating from the De-Agrarianisation and Rural Employment (DARE) Research Programme, coordinated by the African Studies Centre, Leiden, this paper compares changing economic and social patterns in a wide variety of rural settlements in sub-Saharan Africa. Recently

  10. North-South Rivalry and Offshore Balancing in Sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluth, Michael Friederich; Pilegaard, Jess

    Sub-Saharan Africa constitutes a distinct security region and hosts a high proportion of fragile and failed states presiding over territories with abundant resources – but no indigenous great powers! Following offensive neorealist logic, the absence of local great powers explains the continued...

  11. Students' and junior doctors' preparedness for the reality of practice in sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frambach, J.M.; Manuel, B.A.; Fumo, A.M.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Driessen, E.W.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence tailored to sub-Saharan Africa on outcomes of innovations in medical education is needed to encourage and advance their implementation in this region. AIM: To investigate preparedness for practice of students and graduates from an innovative and a conventional medical curriculum

  12. Meningitis in HIV-positive patients in sub-Saharan Africa: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltman, Jennifer A; Bristow, Claire C; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2014-01-01

    Meningitis is one of the leading causes of death among patients living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. There is no widespread tracking of the incidence rates of causative agents among patients living with HIV, yet the aetiologies of meningitis are different than those of the general population. We reviewed the scientific literature published in PubMed to determine the incidence rates of meningitis among hospitalized people living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa and report our findings from seven studies across sub-Saharan Africa. We found high rates of cryptococcal meningitis (19-68%). Tuberculous meningitis was lower (1-36%), although some centres included possible cases as "other" meningitis; therefore, this may not be a true representation of the total cases. Pyogenic meningitis ranged from 6 to 30% and "other" meningitis ranged from 7 to 28% of all reported cases of meningitis. Mortality rates ranged from 25 to 68%. This review describes the most common aetiologies and provides practical diagnostic, treatment and prevention considerations as they apply to the individual living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Diagnosis is often limited, and wider availability of accurate and low-cost laboratory diagnostics is desperately needed for prompt diagnosis and initiation of appropriate treatment. Wider acceptance and adoption of available preventative modalities can decrease the incidence of potentially fatal central nervous system infections in African patients living with HIV.

  13. Pension Systems in Sub-Saharan Africa : Brief Review of Design Parameters and Key Performance Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Guven, Melis U.; Abels, Miglena

    2016-01-01

    The paper summarizes key design characteristics and performance indicators of national and civil service pension schemes in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). It is intended to serve as a resource in pension reform efforts in the region. The note delivers an up-to date assessment of the main design parameters, key performance metrics, and main challenges facing pension systems in SSA. The informati...

  14. End of life care in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review of the qualitative literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gysels, M.H.; Pell, C.; Straus, L.; Pool, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background End of life (EoL) care in sub-Saharan Africa still lacks the sound evidence-base needed for the development of effective, appropriate service provision. It is essential to make evidence from all types of research available alongside clinical and health service data, to ensure that EoL

  15. HIV/AIDS and mental health research in sub-Saharan Africa: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A significant amount of research has been performed in high-income countries but less is known about HIV and mental health in sub-Saharan Africa. ... The reported prevalence levels of mental illness among people living with HIV or AIDS (PLHIV) was high, with all but one study noting a prevalence of 19% or higher.

  16. Strong association between in-migration and HIV prevalence in urban sub-saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.A.C.M. Voeten (Hélène); D.C.J. Vissers (Debby); S. Gregson (Simon); B. Zaba (Basia); R.G. White (Richard); S.J. de Vlas (Sake); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Enormous variation exists in HIV prevalence between countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The contribution of migration to the spread of HIV has long been recognized, but its effect at the population level has never been assessed. In this ecological analysis, we explore how much

  17. Identifying Effective Education Interventions in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Meta-Analysis of Impact Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Katharine M.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, I identify educational interventions with an impact on student learning in Sub-Saharan Africa. After a systematic literature search, I conducted a meta-analysis synthesizing 56 articles containing 66 separate experiments and quasi-experiments and 83 treatment arms. I evaluated 12 types of education interventions such as the…

  18. Effect of health development assistance on health status in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negeri KG

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Keneni Gutema Negeri,1 Damen Halemariam,21School of Public and Environmental Health, Health Service Management Unit, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, 2College of Medicine and Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Introduction: Data on the effect of health aid on the health status in developing countries are inconclusive. Moreover, studies on this issue in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the effect of health development aid in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: Using panel data analytic method, as well as infant mortality rate as a proxy for health status, this study examines the effect of health aid on infant mortality rate in sub-Saharan Africa. The panel was constructed from data on 43 countries for the period 1990–2010. Fixed effect, random effect, and first difference generalized method of moments estimator were used for estimation. Results: Health development aid has a statistically significant positive effect. A 1% increase of health development assistance per capita saves the lives of two infants per 1,000 live births (P=0.000 in the region. Conclusion: Contrary to health aid pessimists’ view, this study observes the fact that health development assistance has strong favorable effect in improving health status in sub-Saharan Africa. Keywords: health aid, infant mortality, developing countries, panel data

  19. Integrated Program on Malaria in sub-Saharan Africa (IPMA) : Call ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    There have been many attempts to control malaria in sub-Saharan Africa through health sector interventions (case diagnosis, management and prevention), vector control (larvicide, insecticide and environmentally based mosquito control), reduction of human-vector contact (bednets) and public education. These initiatives ...

  20. Library Automation in Sub Saharan Africa: Case Study of the University of Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutula, Stephen Mudogo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to present experiences and the lessons learned from the University of Botswana (UB) library automation project. The implications of the project for similar libraries planning automation in sub Saharan Africa and beyond are adduced. Design/methodology/approach: The article is a case study of library automation at the…

  1. Pediatric HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa: emerging issues and way ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sub-Saharan Africa has the largest burden of pediatric HIV in the world. Global target has been set for eradication of pediatric HIV by 2015 but there are still so many complex issues facing HIV infected and affected children in the sub-continent. Objective: To review the current and emerging challenges facing ...

  2. Social class and HIV/AIDS prevalence in Sub-Saharan Africa | Buor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of the paper is to test hypotheses on social class variables as determinants of the prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa, and to structure a schematic model for the relationship on the impact of social class on HIV/AIDS prevalence. World Bank data, 2002 World Development Indicators, are used ...

  3. Understanding culture and HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa | Sovran ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Early in the study of HIV/AIDS, culture was invoked to explain differences in the disease patterns between sub-Saharan Africa and Western countries. Unfortunately, in an attempt to explain the statistics, many of the presumed risk factors were impugned in the absence of evidence. Many cultural practices were stripped of ...

  4. Grandmother Coresidence, Maternal Orphans, and School Enrollment in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Erin M.; Short, Susan E.

    2009-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa has brought renewed attention to the role of grandmothers as caregivers of children. Using 2004 Lesotho Demographic and Health Survey data, the authors examine the relationship between coresidence with a grandmother and child schooling in Lesotho, a country with one of the highest rates of HIV infection.…

  5. Rainwater harvesting and management in rainfed agricultural systems in Sub-Saharan Africa - A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biazin, B.; Sterk, G.; Temesgen, M.; Abdulkedir, A.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural water scarcity in the predominantly rainfed agricultural system of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is more related to the variability of rainfall and excessive non-productive losses, than the total annual precipitation in the growing season. Less than 15% of the terrestrial precipitation

  6. Integrated soil fertility management in sub-Saharan Africa: unravelling local adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanlauwe, B.; Descheemaeker, K.K.E.; Giller, K.E.; Huising, J.; Merckx, R.; Nziguheba, G.; Wendt, J.; Zingore, S.

    2014-01-01

    Intensification of smallholder agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa is necessary to address rural poverty and natural resource degradation. Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM) is a means to enhance crop productivity while maximizing the agronomic efficiency (AE) of applied inputs, and can thus

  7. (FDI) in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Particular Focus on Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Analysis of Chinese FDI in Sub-Saharan Africa. EJBE Vol. 4 No. 2/2014. Page 192. Table 3. 5: Textile & Garment Manufacturers. The field work was conducted with textile & garment manufacturers specially producing shoe and textiles. No. Company. Name. Title. Company Name Address. 1. Awassa Textile. Share Company.

  8. Challenges in malaria control in Sub-Saharan Africa: the vaccine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    including two sites in Tanzania. There is a hope that malaria vaccines could be developed and deployed in malaria endemic communities. This article highlights the challenges of developing and deploying malaria vaccines. Key words: malaria, control, vaccine, development, challenges, Sub-Saharan Africa. Introduction .

  9. A systematic review of research on autism spectrum disorders in sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abubakar, Amina; Ssewanyana, Derrick; Newton, Charles R.

    2016-01-01

    The burden of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is not well known. We carried out a systematic review of the literature to identify published work from SSA. We have systematically searched four databases, namely, Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and Child Development &

  10. Taking the woman's perspective: Gender risks of regulatory reforms in Sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milagrosa, A.; Frickenstein, J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite acknowledgment of the significant role of women in economic growth, gender-biased development policies still persist worldwide. In this context, the paper reviews recent policy reforms in Sub-Saharan Africa that perpetuate gender inequality and female poverty for the already impoverished

  11. Gender disparity in the acquisition of literacy in sub-Saharan Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. While there are differences in the way nations define literacy and the degree of accuracy in measuring it, it is generally agreed worldwide that the large number of illiterate people is worrisome. The problem is more acute in developing countries, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, Latin America and the.

  12. Epilepsy treatment in sub-Saharan Africa: closing the gap | Chin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In sub-Saharan Africa, shortages of trained health workers, limited diagnostic equipment, inadequate anti-epileptic drug supplies, cultural beliefs, and social stigma contribute to the large treatment gap for epilepsy. The number of people with epilepsy, particularly children, will continue to rise as a result of projected ...

  13. An Examination of the Influence of Globalisation on Science Education in Anglophone Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koosimile, Anthony T.; Suping, Shanah M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper takes the view that the emergence of some trends and practices in science education mirrors the influence of the process of globalisation in Anglophone Sub-Saharan Africa. Through a literature review, an attempt is made to link science education and globalisation by answering the question: "What influence does globalisation have on…

  14. FIFA 11 for Health Programme: Implementation in Five Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Colin W.; Junge, Astrid; Amaning, Jacob; Kaijage, Rogasian R.; Kaputa, John; Magwende, George; Pambo, Prince; Dvorak, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effectiveness of the FIFA 11 for Health programme in increasing children's knowledge about communicable and non-communicable diseases in five countries of Sub-Saharan Africa. Method: A prospective five-cohort study was implemented in schools in Ghana (17), Malawi (12), Namibia (11), Tanzania (18) and Zambia (11). The…

  15. Novel Paramyxoviruses in Bats from Sub-Saharan Africa, 2007–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortlock, Marinda; Kuzmin, Ivan V.; Weyer, Jacqueline; Gilbert, Amy T.; Agwanda, Bernard; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Nel, Louis H.; Kearney, Teresa; Malekani, Jean M.

    2015-01-01

    As part of a larger survey for detection of pathogens among wildlife in sub-Saharan Africa conducted during 2007–2012, multiple diverse paramyxovirus sequences were detected in renal tissues of bats. Phylogenetic analysis supports the presence of at least 2 major viral lineages and suggests that paramyxoviruses are strongly associated with several bat genera. PMID:26402433

  16. Language of Instruction: Unlocking Effectiveness of Education and Sustainable Development in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Natasha

    2012-01-01

    The choice of the language of instruction in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is a fundamental educational issue with ramifications for educational access and effectiveness and ultimately national development. Indigenous SSA languages have suffered devaluation in colonial and post-colonial SSA education, and this devaluation alienates the majority of SSA…

  17. De-agrarianization and rural employment generation in sub-Saharan Africa : process and prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bryceson, D.F.

    1993-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is steadily becoming less rural in character. For decades development thinking has prescribed industrialization as the virtuous path leading away from economic dependence on agriculture. The present paper rejects the view that rural or even national industrialization has taken

  18. Climate change and lake water resources in Sub-Saharan Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This review assesses the impact of climate change on lake water resources in Sub-Saharan Africa(SSA). Two significant global water features with immense contribution to agriculture and socio-economic development of the region were analysed. Lake Victoria is the world second largest freshwater lake and Lake Chad the ...

  19. The Potential of Qualitative Research for Applied Developmental Science in Sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin

    2017-01-01

    The present chapter addresses how qualitative research can fruitfully contribute to applied developmental science in Sub-Saharan Africa. It starts out by arguing that most research in developmental psychology has been fundamentally flawed by its neglect of the role of culture for our understanding...... of healthy child development and biased by a Western notion thereof. It suggests that research in the field needs to be able to provide insights into how children’s experiences are constructed within the bounds of geographical, societal and ideological dispositions and constraints, family structures...... procedures to be studied. Qualitative methodologies, particularly ethnographically informed discourse analysis, provide such empirical procedures and allow for a culture-sensitive developmental science. Examples from a recent study on mother-infant interactions among Cameroonian farming Nso families serve...

  20. Hotspots of climate change impacts in sub-Saharan Africa and implications for adaptation and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Christoph; Waha, Katharina; Bondeau, Alberte; Heinke, Jens

    2014-08-01

    Development efforts for poverty reduction and food security in sub-Saharan Africa will have to consider future climate change impacts. Large uncertainties in climate change impact assessments do not necessarily complicate, but can inform development strategies. The design of development strategies will need to consider the likelihood, strength, and interaction of climate change impacts across biosphere properties. We here explore the spread of climate change impact projections and develop a composite impact measure to identify hotspots of climate change impacts, addressing likelihood and strength of impacts. Overlapping impacts in different biosphere properties (e.g. flooding, yields) will not only claim additional capacity to respond, but will also narrow the options to respond and develop. Regions with severest projected climate change impacts often coincide with regions of high population density and poverty rates. Science and policy need to propose ways of preparing these areas for development under climate change impacts. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Doctors and vampires in sub-Saharan Africa: ethical challenges in clinical trial research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grietens, Koen Peeters; Ribera, Joan Muela; Erhart, Annette; Hoibak, Sarah; Ravinetto, Raffaella M; Gryseels, Charlotte; Dierickx, Susan; O'Neill, Sarah; Muela, Susanna Hausmann; D'Alessandro, Umberto

    2014-08-01

    Collecting blood samples from individuals recruited into clinical research projects in sub-Saharan Africa can be challenging. Strikingly, one of the reasons for participant reticence is the occurrence of local rumors surrounding "blood stealing" or "blood selling." Such fears can potentially have dire effects on the success of research projects--for example, high dropout rates that would invalidate the trial's results--and have ethical implications related to cultural sensitivity and informed consent. Though commonly considered as a manifestation of the local population's ignorance, these rumors represent a social diagnosis and a logical attempt to make sense of sickness and health. Born from historical antecedents, they reflect implicit contemporary structural inequalities and the social distance between communities and public health institutions. We aim at illustrating the underlying logic governing patients' fear and argue that the management of these beliefs should become an intrinsic component of clinical research. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  2. A brief history of medical education in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monekosso, G L

    2014-08-01

    Developments in medical education in Sub-Saharan Africa over the past 100 years have been characterized by the continent's unique history. During the first half of the 20th century, the Europeans effectively installed medical education in their African colonies. The years 1950 to 1960 were distinguished by successful movements for independence, with new governments giving priority to medical education. By 1980, there were 51 medical schools in Sub-Saharan Africa. The period from 1975 to 1990 was problematic both politically and economically for Sub-Saharan Africa, and medical schools did not escape the general difficulties. War, corruption, mounting national debts, and political instability were characteristics of this period. In many countries, maintaining medical school assets--faculty members, buildings, laboratories, libraries--became difficult, and emigration became the goal of many health professionals. In contrast, the past 20 years have seen rapid growth in the number of medical schools in Sub-Saharan Africa. Economic growth and political stability in most Sub-Saharan African countries augur well for investment in health systems strengthening and in medical education. There are, nonetheless, major problem areas, including inadequate funding, challenges of sustainability, and the continuing brain drain. The 20th century was a time of colonialism and the struggle for independence during which medical education did not advance as quickly or broadly as it did in other regions of the world. The 21st century promises a different history, one of rapid growth in medical education, leading to better care and better health for the people of Africa.

  3. Acute myocardial infarction in sub-Saharan Africa: the need for data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian T Hertz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trends in the prevalence of acute myocardial infarction in sub-Saharan Africa have not been well described, despite growing recognition of the increasing burden of cardiovascular disease in low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this systematic review was to describe the prevalence of acute myocardial infarction in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Global Health Archive, CINAHL, and Web of Science, and conducted reference and citation analyses. Inclusion criteria were: observational studies, studies that reported incidence or prevalence of acute myocardial infarction, studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa, and studies that defined acute myocardial infarction by EKG changes or elevation of cardiac biomarkers. Studies conducted prior to 1992 were excluded. Two independent reviewers analyzed titles and abstracts, full-texts, and references and citations. These reviewers also performed quality assessment and data extraction. Quality assessment was conducted with a validated scale for observational studies. FINDINGS: Of 2292 records retrieved, seven studies met all inclusion criteria. These studies included a total of 92,378 participants from highly heterogeneous study populations in five different countries. Methodological quality assessment demonstrated scores ranging from 3 to 7 points (on an 8-point scale. Prevalence of acute myocardial infarction ranged from 0.1 to 10.4% among the included studies. INTERPRETATION: There is insufficient population-based data describing the prevalence of acute myocardial infarction in sub-Saharan Africa. Well-designed registries and surveillance studies that capture the broad and diverse population with acute myocardial infarction in sub-Saharan Africa using common diagnostic criteria are critical in order to guide prevention and treatment strategies. REGISTRATION: Registered in International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO Database #CRD42012003161.

  4. Modeling Local vs. Global Dimensions of Food Security in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, T. P.; Caylor, K. K.; Estes, L. D.; McCord, P. F.; Attari, S.; Sheffield, J.

    2015-12-01

    Food security remains a daunting challenge in Sub-Saharan Africa despite dramatic efforts to foster innovation in the agricultural sector. Food security is complicated by a diversity of factors whose relative influence varies across scales, such as the nature of transportation infrastructure, the variety of agricultural practices, and the relative importance of food production versus food access. Efforts to model food security often focus on local-level dynamics (agricultural decision-making) or regional/coarse scale dynamics (e.g. GCM output + generalized equilibrium models of food trade) - both scales are of paramount importance to food security. Yet models of food security rarely span this scale divide. We present work linking agent-based models of agricultural decision-making to regional and global dynamics of environmental change, food movement and virtual water trade in sub-Saharan Africa. Specifically we investigate the heterogeneity of environmental factors and agricultural decisions within the context of droughts of different duration and spatial extent. Drivers of meteorological drought manifest in agricultural drought through the complexity inherent in agricultural management. But efforts to model food security are often challenged by a lack of local-level empirical data to characterize the relationship between meteorological drought and agricultural drought. Our agent-based model is built using detailed information on household farm assets and individual farmer decisions, combined with crop yield estimated developed using the DSSAT cropping system model run with bias-corrected meteorological data. We then address food access through a analysis of food trade data given the increasing relevance of food movement to mitigate local and regional drought. We discuss the analytical challenges and opportunities in linking these cross-scale dynamics in food security modeling.

  5. Electoral System Reform Attempts in Sub-Saharan Africa: South Africa, Lesotho, Kenya, and Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Jørgen

    This paper provides a test of the generalizability of the barriers’ approach (Rahat and Hazan, 2011) to the study of electoral system reform attempts. It does so by examining a set of recent attempts of electoral system change in four Sub-Saharan countries (South Africa, Lesotho, Kenya......, and Zimbabwe), some of which were successful, while other were abortive. The conclusion reached is that the barriers’ approach is useful as a helpful framework for evaluating such reform attempts, even though it is also less convincing in some cases. Two of the barriers (actors’ vested interest...

  6. Malaria and urbanization in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klinkenberg Eveline

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There are already 40 cities in Africa with over 1 million inhabitants and the United Nations Environmental Programme estimates that by 2025 over 800 million people will live in urban areas. Recognizing that malaria control can improve the health of the vulnerable and remove a major obstacle to their economic development, the Malaria Knowledge Programme of the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine and the Systemwide Initiative on Malaria and Agriculture convened a multi-sectoral technical consultation on urban malaria in Pretoria, South Africa from 2nd to 4th December, 2004. The aim of the meeting was to identify strategies for the assessment and control of urban malaria. This commentary reflects the discussions held during the meeting and aims to inform researchers and policy makers of the potential for containing and reversing the emerging problem of urban malaria.

  7. Malaria and urbanization in sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donnelly, Martin J; McCall, P J; Lengeler, Christian

    2005-01-01

    There are already 40 cities in Africa with over 1 million inhabitants and the United Nations Environmental Programme estimates that by 2025 over 800 million people will live in urban areas. Recognizing that malaria control can improve the health of the vulnerable and remove a major obstacle...... to their economic development, the Malaria Knowledge Programme of the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine and the Systemwide Initiative on Malaria and Agriculture convened a multi-sectoral technical consultation on urban malaria in Pretoria, South Africa from 2nd to 4th December, 2004. The aim of the meeting...... was to identify strategies for the assessment and control of urban malaria. This commentary reflects the discussions held during the meeting and aims to inform researchers and policy makers of the potential for containing and reversing the emerging problem of urban malaria....

  8. Smallholder groundwater irrigation in sub-Saharan Africa: an interdisciplinary framework applied to the Usangu plains, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villholth, Karen G.; Ganeshamoorthy, Jegan; Rundblad, Christian M.

    2013-01-01

    A simple but comprehensive framework for analysing the potential for and constraints to groundwater development for irrigated agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa is proposed. The framework, based on food value chain principles, is applied to the sub-Saharan context and a specific catchment in Tanza...

  9. Intracontinental spread of human invasive Salmonella Typhimurium pathovariants in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoro, Chinyere K; Kingsley, Robert A; Connor, Thomas R; Harris, Simon R; Parry, Christopher M; Al-Mashhadani, Manar N; Kariuki, Samuel; Msefula, Chisomo L; Gordon, Melita A; de Pinna, Elizabeth; Wain, John; Heyderman, Robert S; Obaro, Stephen; Alonso, Pedro L; Mandomando, Inacio; MacLennan, Calman A; Tapia, Milagritos D; Levine, Myron M; Tennant, Sharon M; Parkhill, Julian; Dougan, Gordon

    2012-11-01

    A highly invasive form of non-typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease has recently been documented in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The most common Salmonella enterica serovar causing this disease is Typhimurium (Salmonella Typhimurium). We applied whole-genome sequence-based phylogenetic methods to define the population structure of sub-Saharan African invasive Salmonella Typhimurium isolates and compared these to global Salmonella Typhimurium populations. Notably, the vast majority of sub-Saharan invasive Salmonella Typhimurium isolates fell within two closely related, highly clustered phylogenetic lineages that we estimate emerged independently ∼52 and ∼35 years ago in close temporal association with the current HIV pandemic. Clonal replacement of isolates from lineage I by those from lineage II was potentially influenced by the use of chloramphenicol for the treatment of iNTS disease. Our analysis suggests that iNTS disease is in part an epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa caused by highly related Salmonella Typhimurium lineages that may have occupied new niches associated with a compromised human population and antibiotic treatment.

  10. Intra-continental spread of human invasive Salmonella Typhimurium pathovariants in sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoro, Chinyere K.; Kingsley, Robert A.; Connor, Thomas R.; Harris, Simon R.; Parry, Christopher M.; Al-Mashhadani, Manar N; Kariuki, Samuel; Msefula, Chisomo L.; Gordon, Melita A.; de Pinna, Elizabeth; Wain, John; Heyderman, Robert S.; Obaro, Stephen; Alonso, Pedro L.; Mandomando, Inacio; MacLennan, Calman A.; Tapia, Milagritos D.; Levine, Myron M.; Tennant, Sharon M; Parkhill, Julian; Dougan, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    A highly invasive form of non-typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease has been recently documented in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The most common Salmonella enterica serovar causing this disease is Typhimurium. We applied whole-genome sequence-based phylogenetic methods to define the population structure of sub-Saharan African invasive Salmonella Typhimurium and compared these to global Salmonella Typhimurium isolates. Notably, the vast majority of sub-Saharan invasive Salmonella Typhimurium fell within two closely-related, highly-clustered phylogenetic lineages that we estimate emerged independently ~52 and ~35 years ago, in close temporal association with the current HIV pandemic. Clonal replacement of isolates of lineage I by lineage II was potentially influenced by the use of chloramphenicol for the treatment of iNTS disease. Our analysis suggests that iNTS disease is in part an epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa caused by highly related Salmonella Typhimurium lineages that may have occupied new niches associated with a compromised human population and antibiotic treatment. PMID:23023330

  11. MIGRATION OF WOMEN FROM SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA TO EUROPE: THE ROLE OF HIGHLY SKILLED WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Spadavecchia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This contribution aims to analyze Sub-Saharan women’s migration with a special focus on highly skilled women in order to create a framework to better understand the different factors shaping migration patterns, such as the push and pull factors, the increase of flows and the complexity associated with them. In recent years the number of female Sub-Saharan migrants has grown at a rate much higher than the global average. In fact, in 2010 alone the number of female African migrants was 47.2% (World Bank, 2012, showing an increase of 5.2% since the 1960’s when women constituted 42% of the total migration from Sub-Saharan Africa. The feminization of migration flows from Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA in recent years has also witnessed a diversification of the flows. One specific segment on the rise is labor migration, specifically, highly skilled migration, especially for tertiary students and physicians and nurses. The study explores social geography and the geography of migration. The author considers two dimensions of analysis: women’s migration patterns from SSA (with a special focus on the impacts of the flows and highly skilled migration from SSA.

  12. Epidemiology and treatment of relative anemia in children with sickle cell disease in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello-Manga, Halima; DeBaun, Michael R; Kassim, Adetola A

    2016-11-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is the most common inherited hemoglobinopathy in the world, with the majority of cases in sub-Saharan Africa. Concomitant nutritional deficiencies, infections or exposure to environmental toxins exacerbate chronic anemia in children with SCD. The resulting relative anemia is associated with increased risk of strokes, poor cognitive function and impaired growth. It may also attenuate optimal response to hydroxyurea therapy, the only effective and practical treatment option for SCD in sub-Saharan Africa. This review will focus on the epidemiology, clinical sequelae, and treatment of relative anemia in children with SCD living in low and middle-income countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Areas covered: The causes and treatment of relative anemia in children with SCD in sub-Saharan Africa. The MEDLINE database was searched using medical subject headings (MeSH) and keywords for articles regarding relative anemia in children with SCD in sub-Saharan Africa. Expert commentary: Anemia due to nutritional deficiencies and infectious diseases such as helminthiasis and malaria are prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa. Their co-existence in children with SCD increases morbidity and mortality. Therefore, preventing, diagnosing and treating the underlying cause of this relative anemia will improve SCD-related outcomes in children in sub-Saharan Africa.

  13. Health worker migration and universal health care in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Isidore Sieleunou

    2011-01-01

    There is a more and more emerging consensus claiming universal access to health care in order to achieve the desired Millennium Development Goals related to health in Africa. Unfortunately, the debate of the universal coverage has focussed so far mainly on financial affordability, while it is also a human resource matter. Many countries in sub-Saharan Africa are experiencing severe shortages of skilled health care workers. There are several causes, the importance of which varies by country, b...

  14. A Systematic Review of Research on Autism Spectrum Disorders in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Abubakar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The burden of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA is not well known. We carried out a systematic review of the literature to identify published work from SSA. We have systematically searched four databases, namely, Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and Child Development & Adolescent Studies, through EBSCO and identified studies from across SSA. Based on predefined inclusion criteria, 47 studies were included in this review. Most of the identified studies (74% were conducted in only 2 African countries, that is, South Africa and Nigeria. Additionally, most of these studies (83% were carried out in the last decade. These studies had four major themes: development of measurement tools of ASD in Africa, examining the prevalence of ASD, identifying risk factors and risk markers, and examining psychosocial issues. We identified only a single population level study aimed at documenting the prevalence of ASD and could not identify a single case-control study aimed at examining a comprehensive set of potential risk factors. All intervention studies were based on very small sample sizes. Put together, our findings suggest that current evidence base is too scanty to provide the required information to plan adequately for effective intervention strategies for children with ASD in Africa.

  15. Curriculum Development Around Parenting Strategies to Prevent and Respond to Child Sexual Abuse in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Program Collaboration Between Families Matter! and Global Dialogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kim S; Winskell, Kate; Pruitt, Kaitlyn L; Saul, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Despite widespread recognition of child sexual abuse as a serious problem in sub-Saharan Africa, few far-reaching programmatic interventions addressing child sexual abuse in this setting are currently available, and those interventions that do exist tend to focus on response rather than prevention. The Families Matter! Program is an evidence-based intervention for parents and caregivers of 9- to 12-year-olds in sub-Saharan African countries which promotes positive parenting practices and effective parent-child communication about sex-related issues. This article describes the enhancement of a new Families Matter! Program session on child sexual abuse, drawing on authentic narratives contributed by young people to the Global Dialogues from Africa youth scriptwriting competitions. Experiences are shared with a view to informing the development of interventions addressing child sexual abuse in sub-Saharan Africa.

  16. Access barriers to obstetric care at health facilities in sub-Saharan Africa-a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyei-Nimakoh, Minerva; Carolan-Olah, Mary; McCann, Terence V

    2017-06-06

    Since 2000, the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals, which included a goal to improve maternal health by the end of 2015, has facilitated significant reductions in maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, despite more focused efforts made especially by low- and middle-income countries, targets were largely unmet in sub-Saharan Africa, where women are plagued by many challenges in seeking obstetric care. The aim of this review was to synthesise literature on barriers to obstetric care at health institutions in sub-Saharan Africa. This review was guided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist. PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and Scopus databases were electronically searched to identify studies on barriers to health facility-based obstetric care in sub-Saharan Africa, in English, and dated between 2000 and 2015. Combinations of search terms 'obstetric care', 'access', 'barriers', 'developing countries' and 'sub-Saharan Africa' were used to locate articles. Quantitative, qualitative and mixed-methods studies were considered. A narrative synthesis approach was employed to synthesise the evidence and explore relationships between included studies. One hundred and sixty articles met the inclusion criteria. Currently, obstetric care access is hindered by several demand- and supply-side barriers. The principal demand-side barriers identified were limited household resources/income, non-availability of means of transportation, indirect transport costs, a lack of information on health care services/providers, issues related to stigma and women's self-esteem/assertiveness, a lack of birth preparation, cultural beliefs/practices and ignorance about required obstetric health services. On the supply-side, the most significant barriers were cost of services, physical distance between health facilities and service users' residence, long waiting times at health

  17. Seeking wider access to HIV testing for adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam-Agudu, Nadia A; Folayan, Morenike O; Ezeanolue, Echezona E

    2016-06-01

    More than 80% of the HIV-infected adolescents live in sub-Saharan Africa. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related mortality has increased among adolescents 10-19 y old. The impact is highest in sub-Saharan Africa, where >80% of HIV-infected adolescents live. The World Health Organization has cited inadequate access to HIV testing and counseling (HTC) as a contributing factor to AIDS-related adolescent deaths, most of which occur in sub-Saharan Africa. This review focuses on studies conducted in high adolescent HIV-burden countries targeted by the "All In to End Adolescent AIDS" initiative, and describes barriers to adolescent HTC uptake and coverage. Fear of stigma and family reaction, fear of the impact of a positive diagnosis, perceived risk with respect to sexual exposure, poor attitudes of healthcare providers, and parental consent requirements are identified as major impediments. Most-at-risk adolescents for HIV infection and missed opportunities for testing include, those perinatally infected, those with early sexual debut, high mobility and multiple/older partners, and pregnant and nonpregnant females. Regional analyses show relatively low adolescent testing rates and more restrictive consent requirements for HTC in West and Central Africa as compared to East and southern Africa. Actionable recommendations for widening adolescent access to HTC and therefore timely care include minimizing legal consent barriers, healthcare provider training, parental education and involvement, and expanding testing beyond healthcare facilities.

  18. Effects of South Africa’s Economic Growth on Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Sik Kim

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Major countries, such as the United States, Japan, and China have already recognized the potential of Africa’s markets. Korea has also taken notice of Africa's diverse export markets recently. However, Africa is comprised of 53 different countries and, as a result, entry into the region poses a formidable strategic challenge. Korean authorities and export groups have suggested a "3 plus 2 Country Strategy" in order to make inroads into the African region. This paper contributes to discussions of this strategy by comparing the effects of economic growth in South Africa and Nigeria on Sub-Saharan Africa. In addition, because economic power in Africa is concentrated in a small number of countries, whose market characteristics are different from those of integrated unions, the determinants of economic growth in Africa as a whole and unions may be different. This paper investigates whether or not this is, in fact, the case. The empirical results can be summarized as follows: First, the effects of South Africa's economic growth on Sub-Saharan Africa and the SADC (a representative union of South Africa are much larger than the effects of Nigeria's growth on Sub-Saharan Africa and the ECOWAS (a representative union of Nigeria. These empirical results imply that the preferred country to pursue economic cooperation with is South Africa. Second, we confirm that determinants of economic growth are different for Africa and the unions. The main determinant of growth in African countries may be the population ratio, but in the SADC, growth appears to be determined by ratio trade volumes of GDP. Finally, we also find that the ratio investments of GDP have a positive influence on the economic growth of both Africa and SADC.

  19. Corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa: A practical-theological response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petria M. Theron

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available On the 2012 Corruption Perceptions Index of Transparency International, 89.6%of Sub-Saharan African countries received scores below 50, where a score of zero signifies that the country is highly corrupt and a score of 100 declares a country free of corruption. From these results, it seems as if Sub-Saharan African countries are quite vulnerable to corruption. In this article, the question whether certain traits in the Sub-Saharan African culture such as communalism, gift giving and a shame culture could in some situations influence people’s perception of, and their possible openness towards, certain forms of corruption was investigated. The research showed that cultural traits do influence people’s behaviour and that there are certain traits in the Sub-Saharan African culture that might sanction corruption. In response to these findings, some preliminary suggestions were proposed as to how Christians living in Africa could evaluate their cultural practices in the light of God’s Word and from a reformed theological paradigm. Instead of succumbing to the pressure posed by their culture to participate in immoral or corrupt activities, they could contribute to a moral regeneration on the African continent.

  20. Seismic hazard assessment of Sub-Saharan Africa using geodetic strain rate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggi, Valerio; Pagani, Marco; Weatherill, Graeme; Garcia, Julio; Durrheim, Raymond J.; Mavonga Tuluka, Georges

    2016-04-01

    The East African Rift System (EARS) is the major active tectonic feature of the Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) region. Although the seismicity level of such a divergent plate boundary can be described as moderate, several earthquakes have been reported in historical times causing a non-negligible level of damage, albeit mostly due to the high vulnerability of the local buildings and structures. Formulation and enforcement of national seismic codes is therefore an essential future risk mitigation strategy. Nonetheless, a reliable risk assessment cannot be done without the calibration of an updated seismic hazard model for the region. Unfortunately, the major issue in assessing seismic hazard in Sub-Saharan Africa is the lack of basic information needed to construct source and ground motion models. The historical earthquake record is largely incomplete, while instrumental catalogue is complete down to sufficient magnitude only for a relatively short time span. In addition, mapping of seimogenically active faults is still an on-going program. Recent studies have identified major seismogenic lineaments, but there is substantial lack of kinematic information for intermediate-to-small scale tectonic features, information that is essential for the proper calibration of earthquake recurrence models. To compensate this lack of information, we experiment the use of a strain rate model recently developed by Stamps et al. (2015) in the framework of a earthquake hazard and risk project along the EARS supported by USAID and jointly carried out by GEM and AfricaArray. We use the inferred geodetic strain rates to derive estimates of total scalar moment release, subsequently used to constrain earthquake recurrence relationships for both area (as distributed seismicity) and fault source models. The rates obtained indirectly from strain rates and more classically derived from the available seismic catalogues are then compared and combined into a unique mixed earthquake recurrence model

  1. Into Africa: Molecular phylogenetics and historical biogeography of sub-Saharan African woodferns (Dryopteris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessa, Emily B; Juslén, Aino; Väre, Henry; Chambers, Sally M

    2017-03-01

    Our goal was to infer the phylogenetic relationships and historical biogeography of the genus Dryopteris with a focus on taxa in sub-Saharan Africa and neighboring islands. In general, little is known about the relationships between African fern species and their congeners in other geographic regions, and our aim was to determine whether the sub-Saharan African species of Dryopteris are monophyletic and evolved within Africa or arrived there via repeated dispersals into Africa from other regions. We obtained sequence data for five chloroplast markers from 214 species of Dryopteris and 18 outgroups. We performed phylogenetic and molecular dating analyses using a Bayesian relaxed clock method in BEAST with fossil and secondary calibration points and estimated ancestral ranges for the genus globally by comparing multiple models in BioGeoBEARS. We found that 22 of 27 accessions of sub-Saharan African Dryopteris belong to a large clade of 31 accessions that also includes taxa from Indian and Atlantic Ocean islands. Additional accessions of taxa from our regions of interest have Asian, Hawaiian, European, or North American species as their closest relatives. The majority of sub-Saharan African Dryopteris species are descended from a shared common ancestor that dispersed to Africa from Asia approximately 10 Ma. There have been subsequent dispersal events from the African mainland to islands in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, including Madagascar. Several additional species are estimated to have descended from ancestors that reached Africa via separate events over the last roughly 20 million years. © 2017 Sessa et al. Published by the Botanical Society of America.This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY-NC).

  2. Extending the Developmental Milestones Checklist for use in a different context in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Elizabeth L; Abubakar, Amina A; Abbeddou, Souheila; Jimenez, Elizabeth Y; Somé, Jérôme W; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco

    2014-04-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa bears a disproportionate amount of global diseases related to neurodevelopmental delays in infancy, including malnutrition, malaria and HIV. Evaluating interventions to prevent such delays requires developmental assessment tools appropriate for Sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to develop and evaluate such a tool. The Developmental Milestones Checklist (DMC) was developed in Kenya to provide motor, language and personal-social scores for children aged from 3 to 24 months. We developed an extended version (DMC-II) in Burkina Faso, West Africa, and then evaluated the reliability and sensitivity of the scores to age and nutritional and environmental measures. The internal, interinterviewer and test-retest reliability of the DMC-II scores were >0.7. In 214 children aged 11.6-25.4 months, each score correlated with age (rs > 0.7). In 1123 children aged 16.8-19.9 months, the scores were sensitive to stunting, wasting and underweight (effect sizes 0.31-0.87 SD). The scores also showed expected correlations with measures of play materials in the home and activities with caregivers (rs = 0.13-0.41). The DMC-II is easily used by trained fieldworkers with no previous experience in developmental assessment. It is a practical, reliable and sensitive tool for evaluating motor, language and personal-social development in different contexts in Sub-Saharan Africa. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Constraints to Agricultural Mechanization in Sub-Saharan Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adeyinka Odunsi

    Email : 1fekkumi@gmail.com ... factors responsible for the present abysmally low level of agricultural mechanization in the Sub-‐Saharan Africa .... Apart from Egypt,. Tunisia, Morocco and South Africa, the level of mechanization is very low in all other parts of the continent which puts the future food security in much danger ...

  4. China-Africa Health Development Initiatives: Benefits and Implications for Shaping Innovative and Evidence-informed National Health Policies and Programs in Sub-saharan African Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambo, Ernest; Ugwu, Chidiebere E.; Guan, Yayi; Wei, Ding; Xiao-Ning; Xiao-Nong, Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Background and Introduction: This review paper examines the growing implications of China’s engagement in shaping innovative national initiatives against infectious diseases and poverty control and elimination in African countries. It seeks to understand the factors and enhancers that can promote mutual and innovative health development initiatives, and those that are necessary in generating reliable and quality data for evidence-based contextual policy, priorities and programs. Methods: We examined the China-Africa health cooperation in supporting global health agenda on infectious diseases such as malaria, schistosomiasis, Ebola, TB, HIV/AIDS, neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) prevention, control and elimination spanning a period of 10 years. We reviewed referenced publications, global support data, and extensive sources related to and other emerging epidemics and infectious diseases of poverty, programs and interventions, health systems development issues, challenges, opportunities and investments. Published literature in PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Books and web-based peer-reviewed journal articles, government annual reports were assessed from the first Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) in November 2006 to December 2015 Third Ministerial conferences. Results: Our findings highlight current shared public health challenges and emphasize the need to nurture, develop and establish effective, functional and sustainable health systems capacity to detect and respond to all public health threats and epidemic burdens, evidence-based programs and quality care outcomes. China’s significant health diplomacy emphasizes the importance of health financing in establishing health development commitment and investment in improving the gains and opportunities, importantly efficiency and value health priorities and planning. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Strengthening China-Africa health development agenda towards collective commitment and investment

  5. The Vulnerability of Rice Value Chains in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanen Terdoo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Rice is one of the most important food crops in sub-Saharan Africa. Climate change, variability, and economic globalization threatens to disrupt rice value chains across the subcontinent, undermining their important role in economic development, food security, and poverty reduction. This paper maps existing research on the vulnerability of rice value chains, synthesizes the evidence and the risks posed by climate change and economic globalization, and discusses agriculture and rural development policies and their relevance for the vulnerability of rice value chains in sub-Saharan Africa. Important avenues for future research are identified. These include the impacts of multiple, simultaneous pressures on rice value chains, the effects of climate change and variability on parts of the value chain other than production, and the forms and extent to which different development policies hinder or enhance the resilience of rice value chains in the face of climatic and other pressures.

  6. A Concept for a Flexible Rehabilitation Tool for sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2012-01-01

    This concept paper explores a technological building block approach to the development of a flexible rehabilitation tool that may address some of the needs in sub-Saharan Africa. We briefly outline some of the health challenges that lead us to suggest a concept for physical rehabilitation solutions...... to address many diverse patient groups (e.g. disabled children, cardiac, and stroke patients), to be used in both urban and rural areas, to be easily used in community based rehabilitation (e.g. by community rehabilitation workers), to motivate the users, and to be robust to failure (e.g. power failure......) in remote areas. The concept leads to the implementation of modular interactive tiles for rehabilitation, and suggestions for future use in sub-Saharan Africa....

  7. Financial Reforms and Determinants of FDI: Evidence from Landlocked Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husam Rjoub

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The recognition of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI as a source of funding to foster economic development in both developed and developing countries has been in ascendancy. The prime purpose of this study is to empirically investigate the determinants of FDI for the “landlocked countries” in Sub-Saharan Africa over the period 1995–2013. By employing panel data analysis, the result of the study revealed that domestic investment, trade (openness, human capital, political constraint, natural resource endowment and the market size (with the GDP growth as proxy as having positive impact on determining FDI flow into the sample countries with only the countries’ tax policies seen otherwise. Our study not only contributes to existing literature on FDI determinants by investigating landlocked countries of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA for the first time but also includes natural resources that the landlocked countries are endowed with, tax policies and political constraints in such countries for the stipulated period.

  8. Remittances and the Dutch Disease in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Dynamic Panel Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Owusu-Sekyere

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of remittance inflows on real exchange rates in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA using annual data from 1980 to 2008 for 34 countries, the method of moments estimator developed by Arellano and Bover (1995 and the feasible generalized least squares estimator developed by Parks (1967 and Kmenta (1986. We find that when cross-sectional dependence and individual effects are controlled for, remittances to sub-Saharan Africa as a whole increase the underlying real exchange rates of recipient countries. However, this real exchange rate appreciation is mitigated by monetary policy interventions and the direction of fiscal expenditures towards tradable goods. Thus, the real exchange rate appreciation does not lead to the loss of export competitiveness or a worsening of the trade deficit in the countries in the panel.

  9. Epidemiology of Glaucoma in Sub-Saharan Africa: Prevalence, Incidence and Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Kyari, Fatima; Abdull, Mohammed M.; Bastawrous, Andrew; Gilbert, Clare E.; Faal, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to review the epidemiology of different types of glaucoma relevant to Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and to discuss the evidence regarding the risk factors for onset and progression of glaucoma, including risk factors for glaucoma blindness. Methods: Electronic databases (PubMed, MedLine, African Journals Online- AJOL) were searched using the full text, Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms, author(s) and title to identify publications since 1982 in the foll...

  10. Gender difference in support for democracy in sub-Saharan Africa: Do social institutions matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Konte, M.

    2014-01-01

    Little investigation has been made to explain why women are less likely than are men to support democracy in Sub-Saharan Africa. This gender difference in politics has been found in numerous studies and may hinder the much needed legitimation of democracy in this region. This paper addresses the question of whether this observed gender gap is due to the omission of social institutions related to gender inequality, something that affects women's daily life and deprives them of autonomy at home...

  11. Improving the United States’ Efforts in Countering Violent Extremist Organizations in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-04

    resources used to promote security and strengthen security reforms in Sub-Saharan Africa, there is little evidence to suggest that sustainable successes...the President highlights is that the U.S. will shift away from fighting terrorism through costly, large scale wars and pursue a more sustainable ...2013, and an attack against a restaurant frequented by Westerners in Djibouti in 2014, they are not as deadly as the two groups listed in the previous

  12. Improving the United States Efforts in Countering Violent Extremist Organizations in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-06

    resources used to promote security and strengthen security reforms in Sub-Saharan Africa, there is little evidence to suggest that sustainable successes...the President highlights is that the U.S. will shift away from fighting terrorism through costly, large scale wars and pursue a more sustainable ...2013, and an attack against a restaurant frequented by Westerners in Djibouti in 2014, they are not as deadly as the two groups listed in the previous

  13. Global carbon markets: Are there opportunities for Sub-Saharan Africa?

    OpenAIRE

    Bryan, Elizabeth; Akpalu, Wisdom; Yesuf, Mahmud; Ringler, Claudia

    2008-01-01

    "Global climate change poses great risks to poor people whose livelihoods depend directly on the use of natural resources. Mitigation of the adverse effects of climate change is a high priority on the international agenda. Carbon trading, under the Kyoto Protocol as well as outside the protocol, is growing rapidly from a small base and is expected to increase dramatically under present trends. However, developing countries, in particular Sub-Saharan Africa, remain marginalized in global carbo...

  14. HIV/AIDS drugs for Sub-Saharan Africa: how do brand and generic supply compare?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen V Chien

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Significant quantities of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs to treat HIV/AIDS have been procured for Sub-Saharan Africa for the first time in their 20-year history. This presents a novel opportunity to empirically study the roles of brand and generic suppliers in providing access to ARVs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An observational study of brand and generic supply based on a dataset of 2,162 orders of AIDS drugs for Sub-Saharan Africa reported to the Global Price Reporting Mechanism at the World Health Organization from January 2004-March 2006 was performed. Generic companies supplied 63% of the drugs studied, at prices that were on average about a third of the prices charged by brand companies. 96% of the procurement was of first line drugs, which were provided mostly by generic firms, while the remaining 4%, of second line drugs, was sourced primarily from brand companies. 85% of the generic drugs in the sample were manufactured in India, where the majority of the drugs procured were ineligible for patent protection. The remaining 15% was manufactured in South Africa, mostly under voluntary licenses provided by brand companies to a single generic company. In Sub-Saharan African countries, four first line drugs in the dataset were widely patented, however no general deterrent to generic purchasing based on a patent was detected. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Generic and brand companies have played distinct roles in increasing the availability of ARVs in Sub-Saharan Africa. Generic companies provided most of the drugs studied, at prices below those charged by brand companies, and until now, almost exclusively supplied several fixed-dose combination drugs. Brand companies have supplied almost all second line drugs, signed voluntary licenses with generic companies, and are not strictly enforcing patents in certain countries. Further investigation into how price reductions in second line drugs can be achieved and the cheapest drugs can

  15. Moving methodologies : learning about integrated soil fertility management in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Defoer, T.

    2000-01-01

    Soil fertility management in sub-Saharan Africa is complex, diverse and dynamic. Farmers' investments are determined by a wide variety of factors, including bio-physical characteristics of the environment, access to resources and the institutional, and socio-economic context of farming and livelihood making. Within this context, defining soil fertility problems in general terms is not meaningful and proposing a limited number of standard interventions, aimed at the 'average' farmer i...

  16. Corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa: Towards a more holistic approach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa: Towards a more holistic approach. Munyae M. Mulinge, Gwen N. Lesetedi. Abstract. (Af. J. Political Science: 2001 7(1): 51-78). Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajps.v7i1.27324 · AJOL African ...

  17. The core competencies for mental, neurological, and substance use disorder care in sub-Saharan Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, PY; Musisi, S; Frehywot, S; Patel, V

    2015-01-01

    The 2010 Global Burden of Disease Study points to a changing landscape in which non-communicable diseases, such as mental, neurological, and substance use (MNS) disorders, account for an increasing proportion of premature mortality and disability globally. Despite evidence of the need for care, a remarkable deficit of providers for MNS disorder service delivery persists in sub-Saharan Africa. This critical workforce can be developed from a range of non-specialist and specialist health workers...

  18. Gender inequality, health expenditure and maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa: A secondary data analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Frank Chirowa; Stephen Atwood; Marc Van Der Putten

    2013-01-01

    Background: This article provided an analysis of gender inequality, health expenditure and its relationship to maternal mortality.Objective: The objective of this article was to explore gender inequality and its relationship with health expenditure and maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). A unique analysis was used to correlate the Gender Inequality Index (GII), Health Expenditure and Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR). The GII captured inequalities across three dimensions – Reproducti...

  19. Climate change impacts on agricultural vegetation in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Waha, Katharina

    2013-01-01

    Agriculture is one of the most important human activities providing food and more agricultural goods for seven billion people around the world and is of special importance in sub-Saharan Africa. The majority of people depends on the agricultural sector for their livelihoods and will suffer from negative climate change impacts on agriculture until the middle and end of the 21st century, even more if weak governments, economic crises or violent conflicts endanger the countries’ food security. T...

  20. Health and wealth in Uzbekistan and sub-Saharan Africa in comparative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann, Sophie; Garenne, Michel

    2010-12-01

    The study investigates the magnitude of differences in child and adult mortality by wealth in Uzbekistan, a former soviet country of Central Asia, and compares it with similar indicators from sub-Saharan Africa. Data were derived from Demographic and Health Surveys. An "Absolute Wealth Index" was built from data on goods owned by households and quality of housing, and scaled from 0 to 12. Wealth was distributed evenly in Uzbekistan, with a symmetric distribution around a mean of 5.5 modern goods. In sub-Saharan Africa, on the contrary, the wealth distribution had a lower mean (2.5) and was highly skewed towards the left, revealing a high proportion of very poor people. Adult and child mortality levels were lower in Uzbekistan. Despite these major differences, the relationships between mortality indicators and the wealth index were similar in the two cases. The magnitude of mortality differentials by wealth was of the same order in both cases, with gradients ranging from 2.5 to 1 for child mortality and 1.5 to 1 for adult mortality (poorest versus richest). However, mortality levels remained lower in Uzbekistan than in sub-Saharan Africa at the same level of wealth for both children and adults. A similar relationship was found between nutritional status and wealth index in both cases. On the contrary, there were no differences by wealth in use of health services and level of education in Uzbekistan, whereas wealth gradients were steep for the same variables in sub-Saharan Africa. The study suggests that mortality differentials were primarily due to nutritional status, and not to access and use of health services or to education. The discussion focuses on health and social policies during the colonial and post-colonial period that have produced these patterns. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of ART on the Fertility of HIV-Positive Women in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Yeatman, S.; Eaton, JW; Beckles, Z.; Benton, L.; Gregson, S.; Zaba, B

    2016-01-01

    Objective Understanding the fertility of HIV-positive women is critical to estimating HIV epidemic trends from surveillance data and planning resource needs and coverage of prevention-of-mother-to-child transmission services in sub-Saharan Africa. In light of the considerable scale-up in antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage over the last decade, we conducted a systematic review of the impact of ART on the fertility outcomes of HIV-positive women. Methods We searched Medline, Embase, Popline,...

  2. Transfers, Trade Taxes, and Endogenous Capital Flows: With Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Subhayu Bandyopadhyay; Jonathan Munemo

    2006-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is highly dependent on imported capital goods that are used in the import competing industrialized sector. The exporting sector focuses on primary products where land and labor are predominantly used. We build a two-good general equilibrium model, where the import competing sector uses imported capital input. Transfers induce changes in commodity terms of trade, which in turn affects capital inflows and the price of imported capital. The welfare effect of transfers is...

  3. The political economy of urban food security in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Maxwell, Daniel G.

    1998-01-01

    Sub-Saharan African cities in the late 1990s face a daunting set of problems including rapid growth, increasing poverty, deteriorating infrastructure, and inadequate capacity for service provision. However, even as a renewed debate is shaping up around issues of urban development, there is little attention given to the question of urban food security and nutrition. Whereas in the 1970s and 1980s, urban food problems in Africa commanded political attention, the nature of urban food insecurity ...

  4. Stock Exchange Development and Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yu Yvette; Boadu, Frederick O.

    2012-01-01

    Several countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) embraced the structural adjustment programs (SAPs) suggested by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in the 1980s. SAPs entail three main transitions: (1) from state control to market-led development; (2) from authoritarianism to rule of law, and (3) from central control to constitutionalism (Cass, 1991). The transitions are interrelated and form the main pillars of a market economy to promote growth in SSA. As a part of SAPs, ...

  5. Health service delivery models for the provision of antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeffrey V; Safreed-Harmon, Kelly; Nicholson, Joey

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In response to the lack of evidence-based guidance for how to continue scaling up antiretroviral therapy (ART) in ways that make optimal use of limited resources, to assess comparative studies of ART service delivery models implemented in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: A systematic...... of service delivery models, making it difficult to draw conclusions about some models. The strongest evidence was related to the feasibility of decentralisation and task-shifting, both of which appear to be effective strategies....

  6. Colonial Legacy, Communist Nostalgia and Failure of Democracy in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    local African people. The discovery of resources such as gold, diamonds and rubber encouraged the influx of Europeans to Sub-Saharan Africa...different system of colonial rule to govern its colonies. The British colonies included British Somaliland, Botswana , Cameroon, Gambia, Ghana, Kenya, Lesotho...firms, agro-industries, mines , and factories were nationalized with the owners who were mostly foreign being compensated.53 In reality the

  7. Child Sexual Abuse in Sub-Saharan Africa: a Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Lalor, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    Objective. This article reviews the English-language literature on child sexual abuse in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The focus is on the sexual abuse of children in the home/community, as opposed to the commercial sexual exploitation of children. Method. English language, peer-reviewed papers cited in the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) are examined. Reports from international and local NGOs and UN agencies are also examined. Results. Few published studies on the sexual abuse of children ...

  8. Transfusion research priorities for blood services in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Bates, Imelda; Hassall, Oliver; Mapako, Tonderai

    2017-01-01

    Evidence to support many blood transfusion policies and practices in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is weak or lacking. SSA cannot extrapolate from wealthy countries’ research findings because its environment, users and structures are very different and SSA has critical blood shortages. SSA needs to generate its own evidence but research funds are very scarce and need to be carefully targeted to match need. This study aimed to define this need by determining research priorities for blood services i...

  9. Science Granting Councils in Sub-Saharan Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    khaled fourati

    2015-07-22

    , boards, commissions, and foundations are central to funding and catalyzing research and innovation across Africa. A recent scoping study supported by IDRC in 17 SSA countries underscored the increasingly important role ...

  10. Sub-Saharan Africa Electricity Supply Inadequacy: Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 29, No 2 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  11. Transmission of HIV in sexual networks in sub-Saharan Africa and Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Vijver, David A. M. C.; Prosperi, Mattia C. F.; Ramasco, José J.

    2013-09-01

    We are reviewing the literature regarding sexual networks and HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa and Europe. On Likoma Island in Malawi, a sexual network was reconstructed using a sociometric survey in which individuals named their sexual partners. The sexual network identified one giant component including half of all sexually active individuals. More than 25% of respondents were linked through independent chains of sexual relations. HIV was more common in the sparser regions of the network due to over-representation of groups with higher HIV prevalence. A study from KwaZulu-Natal in South-Africa collected egocentric data about sexual partners and found that new infections in women in a particular area was associated with the number of life-time partners in men. Data about sexual networks and HIV transmission are not reported in Europe. It is, however, found that the annual number of sexual partners follows a scale-free network. Phylogenetic studies that determine genetic relatedness between HIV isolates obtained from infected individuals, found that patients in the early stages of infections explain a high number of new infections. In conclusion, the limited information that is available suggest that sexual networks play a role in spread of HIV. Obtaining more information about sexual networks can be of benefit for modeling studies on HIV transmission and prevention.

  12. 78 FR 56702 - Notice of Open Special Meeting of the Sub-Saharan Africa Advisory Committee (SAAC) of the Export...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... on Strategy Recommendations for Increasing Export-Import Bank Transactions in Sub-Saharan Africa... set aside for oral questions or comments. Members of the public may also file written statement(s...

  13. Neurocognitive impairment in HIV-1-infected adults in Sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Habib, Abdulrazaq G; Yakasai, Ahmad M; Owolabi, Lukman F; Ibrahim, Aliyu; Habib, Zaharaddeen G; Gudaji, Mustafa; Karaye, Kamilu M; Ibrahim, Daiyabu A; Nashabaru, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    ...) in Sub-Saharan Africa. Estimates were derived from a random effects meta-analysis of prospective studies reporting HIV status, utilization of ART, and the presence of NCI determined using the International HIV Dementia Scale...

  14. Vibrio Pathogens: A Public Health Concern in Rural Water Resources in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osunla, Charles A; Okoh, Anthony I

    2017-10-07

    Members of the Vibrio genus are autochthonous inhabitants of aquatic environments and play vital roles in sustaining the aquatic milieu. The genus comprises about 100 species, which are mostly of marine or freshwater origin, and their classification is frequently updated due to the continuous discovery of novel species. The main route of transmission of Vibrio pathogens to man is through drinking of contaminated water and consumption inadequately cooked aquatic food products. In sub-Saharan Africa and much of the developing world, some rural dwellers use freshwater resources such as rivers for domestic activities, bathing, and cultural and religious purposes. This review describes the impact of inadequately treated sewage effluents on the receiving freshwater resources and the associated risk to the rural dwellers that depends on the water. Vibrio infections remain a threat to public health. In the last decade, Vibrio disease outbreaks have created alertness on the personal, economic, and public health uncertainties associated with the impact of contaminated water in the aquatic environment of sub-Saharan Africa. In this review, we carried out an overview of Vibrio pathogens in rural water resources in Sub-Saharan Africa and the implication of Vibrio pathogens on public health. Continuous monitoring of Vibrio pathogens among environmental freshwater and treated effluents is expected to help reduce the risk associated with the early detection of sources of infection, and also aid our understanding of the natural ecology and evolution of Vibrio pathogens.

  15. Vibrio Pathogens: A Public Health Concern in Rural Water Resources in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles A. Osunla

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Members of the Vibrio genus are autochthonous inhabitants of aquatic environments and play vital roles in sustaining the aquatic milieu. The genus comprises about 100 species, which are mostly of marine or freshwater origin, and their classification is frequently updated due to the continuous discovery of novel species. The main route of transmission of Vibrio pathogens to man is through drinking of contaminated water and consumption inadequately cooked aquatic food products. In sub-Saharan Africa and much of the developing world, some rural dwellers use freshwater resources such as rivers for domestic activities, bathing, and cultural and religious purposes. This review describes the impact of inadequately treated sewage effluents on the receiving freshwater resources and the associated risk to the rural dwellers that depends on the water. Vibrio infections remain a threat to public health. In the last decade, Vibrio disease outbreaks have created alertness on the personal, economic, and public health uncertainties associated with the impact of contaminated water in the aquatic environment of sub-Saharan Africa. In this review, we carried out an overview of Vibrio pathogens in rural water resources in Sub-Saharan Africa and the implication of Vibrio pathogens on public health. Continuous monitoring of Vibrio pathogens among environmental freshwater and treated effluents is expected to help reduce the risk associated with the early detection of sources of infection, and also aid our understanding of the natural ecology and evolution of Vibrio pathogens.

  16. The potential for political leadership in HIV/AIDS communication campaigns in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karan, Abraar; Hartford, Emily; Coates, Thomas J

    2017-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic has become a point of important political concern for governments especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. Clinical and public health interventions to curb the epidemic can be greatly enhanced with the strategic support of political leaders. We analyzed the role of national political leadership in large-scale HIV/AIDS communications campaigns in 14 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. We primarily reviewed grey and white literature published from 2005-2014. We further triangulated data from in-person and phone interviews with key public health figures. A number of themes emerged supporting political leaders' efforts toward HIV/AIDS program improvement, including direct involvement of public officials in campaign spearheading, the acknowledgment of personal relationship to the HIV epidemic, and public testing and disclosure of HIV status. Areas for future improvement were also identified, including the need for more directed messaging, increased transparency both nationally and internationally and the reduction of stigmatizing messaging from leaders. The political system has a large role to play within the healthcare system, particularly for HIV/AIDS. This partnership between politics and the health must continue to strengthen and be leveraged to effect major change in behaviors and attitudes across Sub-Saharan Africa.

  17. AgMIP: New Results from Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia Regional Integrated Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, C.

    2014-12-01

    AgMIP conducted the first set of comprehensive regional integrated assessments of climate change impacts on smallholder farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia led by researchers from the regions themselves. The project developed new methods integrating climate, crop, livestock and economic models to conduct climate change impact assessments that characterize impacts on smallholder groups. AgMIP projections of climate change impacts on agriculture are more realistic than previous assessments because they take agricultural development into account. Using the best available data and models, the assessments directly evaluated yield, income, and poverty outcomes including the effects of adaptation packages and development pathways. Results show that even with agricultural development, climate change generally will exert negative pressure on yields of smallholder farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Without adaptation, climate change leads to increased poverty in some locations in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia compared to a future in which climate change does not occur. Adaptation can significantly improve smallholder farmer responses to climate change. AgMIP expert teams identified improved varieties, sowing practices, fertilizer application, and irrigation applications as prioritized adaptation strategies. These targeted adaptation packages were able to overcome a portion of detrimental impacts but could not compensate completely in many locations. Even in cases where average impact is near zero, vulnerability (i.e., those at risk of loss) can be substantial even when mean impacts are positive.

  18. Antiretroviral therapy improves cognitive impairment in HIV+ individuals in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacktor, N; Nakasujja, N; Skolasky, R; Robertson, K; Wong, M; Musisi, S; Ronald, A; Katabira, E

    2006-07-25

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) can improve cognitive performance in some patients with HIV-associated cognitive impairment in the United States. The effect of HAART on HIV dementia in sub-Saharan Africa is largely unknown. To evaluate neuropsychological test and functional performance in HIV+ individuals after 3 and 6 months of HAART in Uganda. Twenty-three HIV+ individuals receiving HAART also received a detailed clinical history, neuropsychological testing, and a functional assessment. Follow-up evaluations were performed at 3 and 6 months after baseline. Longitudinal changes in the HIV dementia stage, the mean Z score for each neuropsychological test, and the Karnofsky Functional Performance Scale were evaluated at 3 and 6 months. The mean (SD) CD4 cell count improved from 71 (15) at baseline to 161 (30) at 3 months (p = 0.005) and 222 (46) at 6 months (p dementia stage and in tests of verbal memory, psychomotor speed, and executive functioning after 3 and 6 months of HAART (p < 0.001 at 6 months for each neuropsychological test). There was also improvement in the Karnofsky Functional Performance Scale at both 3 and 6 months after the initiation of HAART (p < 0.001). Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) can be associated with improvement in neurocognitive and functional performance in HIV+ individuals in sub-Saharan Africa. These results suggest that HAART, if available in areas with limited resources in sub-Saharan Africa, should be provided for patients with HIV-associated cognitive impairment.

  19. Systems approach to animal health services delivery in sub-Saharan Africa: the case of privatisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlangwa, J E; Kisauzi, D N

    1994-09-01

    The theory of privatisation is first reviewed with respect to animal health care in sub-Saharan Africa. Then, using the systems approach advocated in an accompanying paper, the authors argue that the nature of animal production systems obtaining in any economy is of central importance in determining the type and mixture of animal health services delivery systems present. These are influenced, in turn, by the demand placed on the production system by consumers, the levels of consumer income and the policies enacted by governments. The authors compare the situation in sub-Saharan Africa with that in developed countries, especially the United States of America. Theory would predict that privatisation of veterinary services in sub-Saharan Africa will be evolutionary rather than revolutionary, even with deliberate policies to encourage privatisation. In regard to personnel, private services would be much easier to develop on the basis of auxiliaries and technicians, rather than self-employed veterinarians and their associates. Hasty or wholesale privatisation, involving the creation of a cadre of self-employed veterinarians will, in the face of market failure, result in a reduction in the services available to low input/low output production systems. The general level of animal health care provided to certain types of producers will thus be lower than currently available. These theoretical predictions are borne out in practice.

  20. Emerging Early Actions to Bend the Curve in Sub-Saharan Africa's Nutrition Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggblade, Steven; Duodu, Kwaku G; Kabasa, John D; Minnaar, Amanda; Ojijo, Nelson K O; Taylor, John R N

    2016-06-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is the last region to undergo a nutrition transition and can still avoid its adverse health outcomes. The article explores emerging responses to "bend the curve" in sub-Saharan Africa's nutrition transition to steer public health outcomes onto a healthier trajectory. Early responses in 3 countries at different stages of food system transformation are examined: South Africa-advanced, Ghana-intermediate, and Uganda-early. By comparing these with international experience, actions are proposed to influence nutrition and public health trajectories as Africa's food systems undergo rapid structural change. Arising from rapid urbanization and diet change, major public health problems associated with overweight are taking place, particularly in South Africa and among adult women. However, public health responses are generally tepid in sub-Saharan Africa. Only in South Africa have policy makers instituted extensive actions to combat overweight and associated noncommunicable diseases through regulation, education, and public health programs. Elsewhere, in countries in the early and middle stages of transition, public health systems continue to focus their limited resources primarily on undernutrition. Related pressures on the supply side of Africa's food systems are emerging that also need to be addressed. Three types of intervention appear most feasible: maternal and child health programs to simultaneously address short-term undernutrition problems while at the same time helping to reduce future tendencies toward overweigh; regulatory and fiscal actions to limit access to unhealthy foods; and modernization of Africa's agrifood food system through job skills training, marketing reforms, and food industry entrepreneurship. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Prevalence of hepatitis D virus infection in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander J Stockdale, MRes; Mas Chaponda, PhD; Apostolos Beloukas, PhD; Richard Odame Phillips, PhD; Philippa C Matthews, PhD; Athanasios Papadimitropoulos, MSc; Simon King, PhD; Laura Bonnett, PhD; Prof Anna Maria Geretti, PhD

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Hepatitis D virus (also known as hepatitis delta virus) can establish a persistent infection in people with chronic hepatitis B, leading to accelerated progression of liver disease. In sub-Saharan Africa, where HBsAg prevalence is higher than 8%, hepatitis D virus might represent an important additive cause of chronic liver disease. We aimed to establish the prevalence of hepatitis D virus among HBsAg-positive populations in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods We systematically rev...

  2. Health Human Capital in Sub-Saharan Africa: Conflicting Evidence from Infant Mortality Rates and Adult Heights

    OpenAIRE

    Akachi, Yoko; Canning, David

    2010-01-01

    We investigate trends in cohort infant mortality rates and adult heights in 39 developing countries since 1960. In most regions of the world improved nutrition, and reduced childhood exposure to disease, have lead to improvements in both infant mortality and adult stature. In Sub-Saharan Africa, however, despite declining infant mortality rates, adult heights have not increased. We argue that in Sub-Saharan Africa the decline in infant mortality may have been due to interventions that prevent...

  3. Transfusion research priorities for blood services in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Imelda; Hassall, Oliver; Mapako, Tonderai

    2017-06-01

    Evidence to support many blood transfusion policies and practices in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is weak or lacking. SSA cannot extrapolate from wealthy countries' research findings because its environment, users and structures are very different and SSA has critical blood shortages. SSA needs to generate its own evidence but research funds are very scarce and need to be carefully targeted to match need. This study aimed to define this need by determining research priorities for blood services in SSA. Thirty-five stakeholders representing diverse blood services' interests and expertise participated in a workshop. An adapted 'consensus development method' was used to identify, agree and justify research priorities under five themes through small group and plenary discussion, and cumulative voting. Research priorities covered traditional research areas, such as clinical use of blood and infection screening, but also highlighted many new, under-researched topics, mostly concerning blood service 'systems', such as economics, blood components and regulation. Lack of electronic information management systems was an important hindrance to the blood services' ability to generate robust research data. This study has identified and prioritised novel research that will help blood services in SSA to address their own needs including their most urgent problem: the lack of access to adequate blood supplies. To catalyse this research blood services in SSA need to enhance their capacity to conduct, commission and manage research and to strengthen their collaborations within and beyond Africa. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Explaining adherence success in sub-Saharan Africa: an ethnographic study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma C Ware

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals living with HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa generally take more than 90% of prescribed doses of antiretroviral therapy (ART. This number exceeds the levels of adherence observed in North America and dispels early scale-up concerns that adherence would be inadequate in settings of extreme poverty. This paper offers an explanation and theoretical model of ART adherence success based on the results of an ethnographic study in three sub-Saharan African countries.Determinants of ART adherence for HIV-infected persons in sub-Saharan Africa were examined with ethnographic research methods. 414 in-person interviews were carried out with 252 persons taking ART, their treatment partners, and health care professionals at HIV treatment sites in Jos, Nigeria; Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; and Mbarara, Uganda. 136 field observations of clinic activities were also conducted. Data were examined using category construction and interpretive approaches to analysis. Findings indicate that individuals taking ART routinely overcome economic obstacles to ART adherence through a number of deliberate strategies aimed at prioritizing adherence: borrowing and "begging" transport funds, making "impossible choices" to allocate resources in favor of treatment, and "doing without." Prioritization of adherence is accomplished through resources and help made available by treatment partners, other family members and friends, and health care providers. Helpers expect adherence and make their expectations known, creating a responsibility on the part of patients to adhere. Patients adhere to promote good will on the part of helpers, thereby ensuring help will be available when future needs arise.Adherence success in sub-Saharan Africa can be explained as a means of fulfilling social responsibilities and thus preserving social capital in essential relationships.

  5. Spanish in Sub-Saharan Africa: Whither Nigeria? | Uchechukwu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Even the Spanish government's Action Plans for Africa (2001-2012), efforts at the diplomatic level to foster bilateral relationships through cultural exchange, and introduction of Spanish as a foreign and international language into the African continent did not have any resonancein Nigeria. Investigations however, confirm a ...

  6. Vaccines to combat livestock diseases in sub-Saharan Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Slaughtering infected animals is not feasible in Africa due to a lack of veterinary services, including disease testing and little or no compensation for destroyed animals. This has put the global spotlight on vaccines, which have proven to be the single, most cost-effective method of disease control. But while vaccines are ...

  7. Vaccines to Combat Livestock Diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    An easy-to-use vaccine that is inexpensive, safe, and easily stored and transported would reduce losses by small-scale livestock keepers in rural Africa, particularly women whose livelihoods rely heavily on small animals. This project is applying modern biotechnology to engineer a thermostable, single dose vaccine that ...

  8. Constraints to Agricultural Mechanization in Sub-Saharan Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, unlike other developing countries in Asia, the level of agricultural mechanization in Sub-‐Sahara Africa is still very low and is faced with a number of constraints. It is important for the attention of governments and other institutions to be drawn to these for immediate intervention to be taken. The objective of this ...

  9. Ethnicity and development in sub-Saharan Africa | Noyoo | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... with ethnicity before tackling problems of political misrule, poverty and human misery. Development efforts in the region must be preceded by the political will on the part of national governments to bring forth tangible solutions to the question of ethnicity. Journal of Social Development in Africa Vol 15 No 2 2000, pp. 55-68.

  10. Regional economic integration in sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, P.J.J.; Meilink, H.A.

    1998-01-01

    The issue of regional integration has acquired a new relevance and urgency in Africa due to wide-reaching national and global changes. African leaders' commitment to regional economic integration was clearly expressed during the June 1991 OAU summit meeting in Abuja, Nigeria. On that occasion, they

  11. Microwork and Virtual Production Networks in Sub-Saharan Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    As use of the Internet and mobile technologies in the developing world continues to grow at a high rate, there is potential to provide real income opportunities to ... More specifically, the research team will: -examine how virtual production networks in Africa and Asia are structured; -assess their positive and negative effects ...

  12. Cultural significance of termites in sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, van Arnold

    2017-01-01

    Background: The number of termite species in the world is more than 2500, and Africa with more than 1000 species has the richest intercontinental diversity. The family Termitidae contains builders of great mounds up to 5 m high. Colonies are composed of casts: a queen, a king, soldiers and workers.

  13. Doctoral Awards to Strengthen Sub-Saharan Africa Leadership in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Africa remains the region most affected by the AIDS epidemic and HIV/AIDS prevention remains a global health priority. This project supports the emergence of African HIV scientists to lead high-quality, multidisciplinary HIV prevention and vaccine research to fight the biomedical, social, and behavioral factors that underpin ...

  14. Lasting impacts in sub-Saharan Africa | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A key part of Canada's foreign policy efforts, IDRC supports research in developing countries to promote growth and development. Here are a few examples that show how IDRC-supported research in Africa has improved lives. Download the PDF (1.1MB). Battling malaria with treated bednets. Among the best news of this ...

  15. Premarital fertility and HIV/AIDS in sub- Saharan Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    relatively low HIV prevalence (Liberia, Madagascar, Gabon, Congo), or high levels of HIV prevalence despite low .... as in Madagascar. In modern Africa, one can therefore expect a statistical relationship between prevalence of premarital fertility and prevalence of STD's, and in ..... Islands) or because of poor economic.

  16. Consequences of Chinese Aid in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    General David M. Rodriguez, USA , U.S. Africa Commander). 6 Strange et al., “Tracking Underreported Financial Flows China’s Development Finance and the...agricultural prices. This is even more important in countries whose national currency is extraordinarily inflated , such as Zimbabwe and Zambia, and would...from foreign markets, as well as inflated pricing for natural resources and reduced foreign currency leverage. Deborah Brautigam notes that China

  17. Namoratunga: the first archeoastronomical evidence in sub-saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, B M; Robbins, L H

    1978-05-19

    Namoratunga, a megalithic site in northwestern Kenya, has an alignment of 19 basalt pillars that are nonrandomly oriented toward certain stars and constellations. The same stars and constellations are used by modern eastern Cushitic peoples to calculate an accurate calendar. The fact that Namoratunga dates to about 300 B.C. suggests that a prehistoric calendar based on detailed astronomical knowledge was in use in eastern Africa.

  18. Cultural significance of termites in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    van Huis, Arnold

    2017-01-01

    Background: The number of termite species in the world is more than 2500, and Africa with more than 1000 species has the richest intercontinental diversity. The family Termitidae contains builders of great mounds up to 5 m high. Colonies are composed of casts: a queen, a king, soldiers and workers. Some species of termite cultivate specialised fungi to digest cellulose. Termites constitute 10% of all animal biomass in the tropics. The purpose of the study was to make an overview of how termit...

  19. Commodities and Linkages: Industrialisation in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplinsky, Raphael; Morris, Adam; Kaplan, David

    2011-01-01

    In a complementary Discussion Paper (MMCP DP 12 2011) we set out the reasons why we believe that there is extensive scope for linkage development into and out of SSA’s commodities sectors. In this Discussion Paper, we present the findings of our detailed empirical enquiry into the determinants of the breadth and depth of linkages in eight SSA countries (Angola, Botswana, Gabon, Ghana, Nigeria, South Africa Tanzania, and Zambia) and six sectors (copper, diamonds, gold, oil and gas, mining serv...

  20. Diabetes in Sub Saharan Africa 1999-2011: Epidemiology and public health implications. a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriksen Ole

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes prevalence is increasing globally, and Sub-Saharan Africa is no exception. With diverse health challenges, health authorities in Sub-Saharan Africa and international donors need robust data on the epidemiology and impact of diabetes in order to plan and prioritise their health programmes. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date review of the epidemiological trends and public health implications of diabetes in Sub-Saharan Africa. Methods We conducted a systematic literature review of papers published on diabetes in Sub-Saharan Africa 1999-March 2011, providing data on diabetes prevalence, outcomes (chronic complications, infections, and mortality, access to diagnosis and care and economic impact. Results Type 2 diabetes accounts for well over 90% of diabetes in Sub-Saharan Africa, and population prevalence proportions ranged from 1% in rural Uganda to 12% in urban Kenya. Reported type 1 diabetes prevalence was low and ranged from 4 per 100,000 in Mozambique to 12 per 100,000 in Zambia. Gestational diabetes prevalence varied from 0% in Tanzania to 9% in Ethiopia. Proportions of patients with diabetic complications ranged from 7-63% for retinopathy, 27-66% for neuropathy, and 10-83% for microalbuminuria. Diabetes is likely to increase the risk of several important infections in the region, including tuberculosis, pneumonia and sepsis. Meanwhile, antiviral treatment for HIV increases the risk of obesity and insulin resistance. Five-year mortality proportions of patients with diabetes varied from 4-57%. Screening studies identified high proportions (> 40% with previously undiagnosed diabetes, and low levels of adequate glucose control among previously diagnosed diabetics. Barriers to accessing diagnosis and treatment included a lack of diagnostic tools and glucose monitoring equipment and high cost of diabetes treatment. The total annual cost of diabetes in the region was estimated at US$67.03 billion

  1. Non-physician Clinicians in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Evolving Role of Physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nir Eyal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Responding to critical shortages of physicians, most sub-Saharan countries have scaled up training of nonphysician clinicians (NPCs, resulting in a gradual but decisive shift to NPCs as the cornerstone of healthcare delivery. This development should unfold in parallel with strategic rethinking about the role of physicians and with innovations in physician education and in-service training. In important ways, a growing number of NPCs only renders physicians more necessary – for example, as specialized healthcare providers and as leaders, managers, mentors, and public health administrators. Physicians in sub-Saharan Africa ought to be trained in all of these capacities. This evolution in the role of physicians may also help address known challenges to the successful integration of NPCs in the health system.

  2. The burden of co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and malaria in pregnant women in sub-saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Parise, Monica E.; Verhoeff, Francine H.; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Newman, Robert D.; van Eijk, Anne M.; Rogerson, Stephen J.; Steketee, Richard W.

    2004-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and malaria are among the leading causes of morbidity during pregnancy. We reviewed available information collected since the first report 15 years ago that HIV impaired the ability of pregnant women to control malaria parasitemia. Results

  3. Use of malaria RDTs in various health contexts across sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Boyce

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization recommends parasitological confirmation of malaria prior to treatment. Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs represent one diagnostic method that is used in a variety of contexts to overcome limitations of other diagnostic techniques. Malaria RDTs increase the availability and feasibility of accurate diagnosis and may result in improved quality of care. Though RDTs are used in a variety of contexts, no studies have compared how well or effectively RDTs are used across these contexts. This review assesses the diagnostic use of RDTs in four different contexts: health facilities, the community, drug shops and schools. Methods A comprehensive search of the Pubmed database was conducted to evaluate RDT execution, test accuracy, or adherence to test results in sub-Saharan Africa. Original RDT and Plasmodium falciparum focused studies conducted in formal health care facilities, drug shops, schools, or by CHWs between the year 2000 and December 2016 were included. Studies were excluded if they were conducted exclusively in a research laboratory setting, where staff from the study team conducted RDTs, or in settings outside of sub-Saharan Africa. Results The literature search identified 757 reports. A total of 52 studies were included in the analysis. Overall, RDTs were performed safely and effectively by community health workers provided they receive proper training. Analogous information was largely absent for formal health care workers. Tests were generally accurate across contexts, except for in drug shops where lower specificities were observed. Adherence to RDT results was higher among drug shop vendors and community health workers, while adherence was more variable among formal health care workers, most notably with negative test results. Conclusions Malaria RDTs are generally used well, though compliance with test results is variable – especially in the formal health care sector. If low adherence

  4. Science-based health innovation in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daar Abdallah S

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent years emerging markets such as India, China, and Brazil have developed appropriate business models and lower-cost technological innovations to address health challenges locally and internationally. But it is not well understood what capabilities African countries, with their high disease burden, have in science-based health innovation. This gap in knowledge is addressed by this series in BMC International Health and Human Rights. The series presents the results of extensive on-the-ground research in the form of four country case studies of health and biotechnology innovation, six studies of institutions within Africa involved in health product development, and one study of health venture funds in Africa. To the best of our knowledge it is the first extensive collection of empirical work on African science-based health innovation. The four country cases are Ghana, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. The six case studies of institutions are A to Z Textiles (Tanzania, Acorn Technologies (South Africa, Bioventures venture capital fund (South Africa, the Malagasy Institute of Applied Research (IMRA; Madagascar, the Kenyan Medical Research Institute (KEMRI; Kenya, and Niprisan’s development by Nigeria’s National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development and Xechem (Nigeria. All of the examples highlight pioneering attempts to build technological capacity, create economic opportunities, and retain talent on a continent significantly affected by brain drain. They point to the practical challenges for innovators on the ground, and suggest potentially helpful policies, funding streams, and other support systems. For African nations, health innovation represents an opportunity to increase domestic capacity to solve health challenges; for international funders, it is an opportunity to move beyond foreign aid and dependency. The shared goal is creating self-sustaining innovation that has both health and development impacts. While

  5. Globalization or Americanization: Implication for Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Jaja, Jones Michael

    2010-01-01

    In conclusion, let us restate that globalization is an aspiration, a race which has only just started. As we Africans line up at the starting blocks we must insist on and ensure a multicultural world which sustains our identity. We in Africa, should not think that globalization is a train heading towards a set destination that may – or may not – stop at the station to pick us up. Rather let’s think of globalization as a delicious cocktail into which every country and continent can add a...

  6. Science-based health innovation in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bader, Sara; Masum, Hassan; Simiyu, Ken; Daar, Abdallah S; Singer, Peter A

    2010-12-13

    In recent years emerging markets such as India, China, and Brazil have developed appropriate business models and lower-cost technological innovations to address health challenges locally and internationally. But it is not well understood what capabilities African countries, with their high disease burden, have in science-based health innovation.This gap in knowledge is addressed by this series in BMC International Health and Human Rights. The series presents the results of extensive on-the-ground research in the form of four country case studies of health and biotechnology innovation, six studies of institutions within Africa involved in health product development, and one study of health venture funds in Africa. To the best of our knowledge it is the first extensive collection of empirical work on African science-based health innovation.The four country cases are Ghana, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. The six case studies of institutions are A to Z Textiles (Tanzania), Acorn Technologies (South Africa), Bioventures venture capital fund (South Africa), the Malagasy Institute of Applied Research (IMRA; Madagascar), the Kenyan Medical Research Institute (KEMRI; Kenya), and Niprisan's development by Nigeria's National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development and Xechem (Nigeria).All of the examples highlight pioneering attempts to build technological capacity, create economic opportunities, and retain talent on a continent significantly affected by brain drain. They point to the practical challenges for innovators on the ground, and suggest potentially helpful policies, funding streams, and other support systems.For African nations, health innovation represents an opportunity to increase domestic capacity to solve health challenges; for international funders, it is an opportunity to move beyond foreign aid and dependency. The shared goal is creating self-sustaining innovation that has both health and development impacts. While this is a long-term strategy

  7. Managing the soils of sub-saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, R

    1987-05-29

    Many constraints to intensive food-crop production in tropical Africa are related to tropical soils. Improved technologies are available for different ecological regions. Important technological innovations include manual land clearing, mulch farming, conservation tillage and tiedridges, agroforestry, cover crops, mixed- and relay-cropping, and early sowing for improved and sustained productivity. Irrigation, animal traction or draft animals, and the use of chemical fertilizers are also important. Much of the agrarian stagnation in Africa is caused by neglect and misuse of the most basic of all resources, the soil. In fact, the root cause of the perpetual famine can be traced to the misuse of soil and water resources and issues related to their misuse. Substantial increases in food production are possible if the proven technologies can be effectively transferred and implemented. Priorities lie in both short-term development projects and in initiating long-term research to understand soil and water resources and how to manage them. The agrarian research must address the issue of improving the welfare of resource-poor farmers.

  8. The contribution of international health volunteers to the health workforce in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogaert Isa

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this paper, we aim to quantify the contribution of international health volunteers to the health workforce in sub-Saharan Africa and to explore the perceptions of health service managers regarding these volunteers. Methods Rapid survey among organizations sending international health volunteers and group discussions with experienced medical officers from sub-Saharan African countries. Results We contacted 13 volunteer organizations having more than 10 full-time equivalent international health volunteers in sub-Saharan Africa and estimated that they employed together 2072 full-time equivalent international health volunteers in 2005. The numbers sent by secular non-governmental organizations (NGOs is growing, while the number sent by development NGOs, including faith-based organizations, is mostly decreasing. The cost is estimated at between US$36 000 and US$50 000 per expatriate volunteer per year. There are trends towards more employment of international health volunteers from low-income countries and of national medical staff. Country experts express more negative views about international health volunteers than positive ones. They see them as increasingly paradoxical in view of the existence of urban unemployed doctors and nurses in most countries. Creating conditions for employment and training of national staff is strongly favoured as an alternative. Only in exceptional circumstances is sending international health volunteers viewed as a defendable temporary measure. Conclusion We estimate that not more than 5000 full-time equivalent international health volunteers were working in sub-Saharan Africa in 2005, of which not more than 1500 were doctors. A distinction should be made between (1 secular medical humanitarian NGOs, (2development NGOs, and (3 volunteer organizations, as Voluntary Service Overseas (VSO and United Nations volunteers (UNV. They have different views, undergo different trends and are differently

  9. Families and educational systems in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miquel Reynés Ramón

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies and analysis of African educational systems’ performance do not pay much attention to the role of families; to the value they give to school and to how this may affect their decisions. By contrast, there are numerous researches focused on the most subjective elements of the relation between families and school: the attitudes, meanings and representations families, separately or as members of a social class or ethnic group, have of school. In this paper we will give five examples, drawn on sociological and anthropological studies, of different schooling practices and family representations of school. These are examples situated in different contexts and geographical areas that will allow us to appreciate the level of heterogeneity of family-school relationships in Africa and that may contribute to make us think otherwise the evolution of these educational systems.

  10. Non-physician cataract surgeons in Sub-Saharan Africa: situation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewallen, Susan; Etya'ale, Daniel; Kello, Amir Bedri; Courtright, Paul

    2012-11-01

    Non-physician cataract surgeons (NPCS) provide cataract surgical services in some Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries. However, their training, placement, legal framework and supervision have not been documented. We sought to do so to inform decision-making regarding future training. Standard questionnaires were sent to national eye coordinators and other ophthalmologic leaders in Africa to collect information. Face-to-face interviews were conducted at training programmes in Ethiopia, Tanzania and Kenya, and email interviews were conducted with directors at training programmes in the Gambia and Malawi. Responses were provided for 31/39 (79%) countries to which questionnaires were sent. These countries represent about 90% of the population of SSA. Overall, 17 countries have one or more NPCS; two-thirds of the total 245 NPCS are found in only three countries. Thirty-six percent of NPCS work alone, but a formal functioning supervision system was reported to be present in only one country. The training centres are similar and face similar challenges. There is considerable variation across SSA in the use and acceptance of NPCS. The placement and support of NPCS after training generally does not follow expectations, and training centres have little role in this. Overall, there was no consensus on whether the cadre, as it is currently viewed, is necessary, desirable or will contribute to addressing cataract surgical needs in SSA. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Ritual uses of palms in traditional medicine in sub-Saharan Africa: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Palms (Arecaceae) are prominent elements in African traditional medicines. It is, however, a challenge to find detailed information on the ritual use of palms, which are an inextricable part of African medicinal and spiritual systems. This work reviews ritual uses of palms within African ethnomedicine. We studied over 200 publications on uses of African palms and found information about ritual uses in 26 of them. At least 12 palm species in sub-Saharan Africa are involved in various ritual practices: Borassus aethiopum, Cocos nucifera, Dypsis canaliculata, D. fibrosa, D. pinnatifrons, Elaeis guineensis, Hyphaene coriacea, H. petersiana, Phoenix reclinata, Raphia farinifera, R. hookeri, and R. vinifera. In some rituals, palms play a central role as sacred objects, for example the seeds accompany oracles and palm leaves are used in offerings. In other cases, palms are added as a support to other powerful ingredients, for example palm oil used as a medium to blend and make coherent the healing mixture. A better understanding of the cultural context of medicinal use of palms is needed in order to obtain a more accurate and complete insight into palm-based traditional medicines. PMID:25056559

  12. Model-based impact and cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer prevention in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jane J; Campos, Nicole G; O'Shea, Meredith; Diaz, Mireia; Mutyaba, Innocent

    2013-12-29

    Using population and epidemiologic data for 48 countries in sub-Saharan Africa, we used a model-based approach to estimate cervical cancer cases and deaths averted, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (I$ (international dollar) per DALY averted) for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of pre-adolescent girls. Additional epidemiologic data from Uganda and South Africa informed estimates of cancer risk reduction and cost-effectiveness ratios associated with pre-adolescent female vaccination followed by screening of women over age 30. Assuming 70% vaccination coverage, over 670,000 cervical cancer cases would be prevented among women in five consecutive birth cohorts vaccinated as young adolescents; over 90% of cases averted were projected to occur in countries eligible for GAVI Alliance support. There were large variations in health benefits across countries attributable to differential cancer rates, population size, and population age structure. More than half of DALYs averted in sub-Saharan Africa were in Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, and Mozambique. When the cost per vaccinated girl was I$5 ($0.55 per dose), HPV vaccination was cost-saving in 38 sub-Saharan African countries, and cost I$300 per DALY averted or less in the remaining countries. At this vaccine price, pre-adolescent HPV vaccination followed by screening three times per lifetime in adulthood cost I$300 per year of life saved (YLS) in Uganda (per capita GDP I$1,140) and I$1,000 per YLS in South Africa (per capita GDP I$9,480). In nearly all countries assessed, HPV vaccination of pre-adolescent girls could be very cost-effective if the cost per vaccinated girl is less than I$25-I$50, reflecting a vaccine price being offered to the GAVI Alliance. In-country decision makers will need to consider many other factors, such as affordability, acceptability, feasibility, and competing health priorities, when

  13. Students' and junior doctors' preparedness for the reality of practice in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frambach, Janneke M; Manuel, Beatriz A F; Fumo, Afonso M T; Van Der Vleuten, Cees P M; Driessen, Erik W

    2015-01-01

    Evidence tailored to sub-Saharan Africa on outcomes of innovations in medical education is needed to encourage and advance their implementation in this region. To investigate preparedness for practice of students and graduates from an innovative and a conventional medical curriculum in a sub-Saharan African context. Using mixed methods we compared junior doctors and fifth-year students from two Mozambican medical schools: one with an innovative problem- and community-based curriculum and one with a conventional lecture- and discipline-based curriculum. A questionnaire on professional competencies was administered, semi-structured interviews were conducted, and work diaries were collected. The findings were integrated in a conceptual model. Six areas of tension between global health care ideals and local health care practice emerged from the data that challenged doctors' motivation and preparedness for practice. Four elements of the innovative curriculum equipped students and graduates with skills, attitudes and competencies to better cope with these tensions. Students and graduates from the innovative curriculum rated significantly higher levels on various competencies and expressed more satisfaction with the curriculum and its usefulness for their work. An innovative problem- and community-based curriculum can improve sub-Saharan African doctors' motivation and preparedness to tackle the challenges of health care practice in this region.

  14. mHealth in Sub-Saharan Africa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Betjeman, Thomas J; Soghoian, Samara E; Foran, Mark P

    2013-01-01

    .... Mobile health, or mHealth, is the utilization of short messaging service (SMS), wireless data transmission, voice calling, and smartphone applications to transmit health-related information or direct care...

  15. Calibration and evaluation of a semi-distributed watershed model of Sub-Saharan Africa using GRACE data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, H.; Longuevergne, L.; Ringler, C.; Scanlon, B. R.

    2012-09-01

    Irrigation development is rapidly expanding in mostly rainfed Sub-Saharan Africa. This expansion underscores the need for a more comprehensive understanding of water resources beyond surface water. Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites provide valuable information on spatio-temporal variability in water storage. The objective of this study was to calibrate and evaluate a semi-distributed regional-scale hydrologic model based on the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) code for basins in Sub-Saharan Africa using seven-year (July 2002-April 2009) 10-day GRACE data and multi-site river discharge data. The analysis was conducted in a multi-criteria framework. In spite of the uncertainty arising from the tradeoff in optimising model parameters with respect to two non-commensurable criteria defined for two fluxes, SWAT was found to perform well in simulating total water storage variability in most areas of Sub-Saharan Africa, which have semi-arid and sub-humid climates, and that among various water storages represented in SWAT, water storage variations in soil, vadose zone and groundwater are dominant. The study also showed that the simulated total water storage variations tend to have less agreement with GRACE data in arid and equatorial humid regions, and model-based partitioning of total water storage variations into different water storage compartments may be highly uncertain. Thus, future work will be needed for model enhancement in these areas with inferior model fit and for uncertainty reduction in component-wise estimation of water storage variations.

  16. Experiences in sub-Saharan Africa with GM crop risk communication: outcome of a workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racovita, Monica; Obonyo, Dennis Ndolo; Abdallah, Roshan; Anguzu, Robert; Bamwenda, Gratian; Kiggundu, Andrew; Maganga, Harrison; Muchiri, Nancy; Nzeduru, Chinyere; Otadoh, Jane; Rumjaun, Anwar; Suleiman, Iro; Sunil, Manjusha; Tepfer, Mark; Timpo, Samuel; van der Walt, Wynand; Kaboré-Zoungrana, Chantal; Nfor, Lilian; Craig, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    In tackling agricultural challenges, policy-makers in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) have increasingly considered genetically modified (GM) crops as a potential tool to increase productivity and to improve product quality. Yet, as elsewhere in the world, the adoption of GM crops in SSA has been marked by controversy, encompassing not only the potential risks to animal and human health, and to the environment, but also other concerns such as ethical issues, public participation in decision-making, socio-economic factors and intellectual property rights. With these non-scientific factors complicating an already controversial situation, disseminating credible information to the public as well as facilitating stakeholder input into decision-making is essential. In SSA, there are various and innovative risk communication approaches and strategies being developed, yet a comprehensive analysis of such data is missing. This gap is addressed by giving an overview of current strategies, identifying similarities and differences between various country and institutional approaches and promoting a way forward, building on a recent workshop with risk communicators working in SSA.

  17. Are Expert Patients an Untapped Resource for ART Provision in Sub-Saharan Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Decroo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of antiretroviral treatment, HIV/AIDS can be framed as a chronic lifelong condition, requiring lifelong adherence to medication. Reinforcement of self-management through information, acquisition of problem solving skills, motivation, and peer support is expected to allow PLWHA to become involved as expert patients in the care management and to decrease the dependency on scarce skilled medical staff. We developed a conceptual framework to analyse how PLWHA can become expert patients and performed a literature review on involvement of PLWHA as expert patients in ART provision in Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper revealed two published examples: one on trained PLWHA in Kenya and another on self-formed peer groups in Mozambique. Both programs fit the concept of the expert patient and describe how community-embedded ART programs can be effective and improve the accessibility and affordability of ART. Using their day-to-day experience of living with HIV, expert patients are able to provide better fitting solutions to practical and psychosocial barriers to adherence. There is a need for careful design of models in which expert patients are involved in essential care functions, capacitated, and empowered to manage their condition and support fellow peers, as an untapped resource to control HIV/AIDS.

  18. Sustainability of Water Safety Plans Developed in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Rondi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries, the drinking water supply is still an open issue. In sub-Saharan Africa, only 68% of the population has access to improved sources of drinking water. Moreover, some regions are affected by geogenic contaminants (e.g., fluoride and arsenic and the lack of access to sanitation facilities and hygiene practices causes high microbiological contamination of drinking water in the supply chain. The Water Safety Plan (WSP approach introduced by the World Health Organisation (WHO in 2004 is now under development in several developing countries in order to face up to these issues. The WSP approach was elaborated within two cooperation projects implemented in rural areas of Burkina Faso and Senegal by two Italian NGOs (Non-Governmental Organisations. In order to evaluate its sustainability, a questionnaire based on five different sustainability elements and a cost and time consumption evaluation were carried out and applied in both the case studies. Results demonstrated that the questionnaire can provide a useful and interesting overview regarding the sustainability of the WSP; however, further surveys in the field are recommended for gathering more information. Time and costs related to the WSP elaboration, implementation, and management were demonstrated not to be negligible and above all strongly dependent on water quality and the water supply system complexity.

  19. The political economy of health policy in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Cynthia T; Kalu, Kelechi

    2008-03-01

    This paper discusses the health status of Sub-Saharan Africa focusing on infectious and parasitic diseases, HIV/AIDS, maternal and child health, famine, and political instability. Its contention is that Africa is stuck in the second stage of the demographic transition (high birth rate, low death rate) and the first stage of the epidemiological transition (deaths related to pestilence, famine, and war). Africa's lack of sustainable development is attributed to ineffective governmental policy and leadership. The prognosis is that the health and well-being of Africa's most vulnerable population, women and children, will improve when government shifts its attention from external funding and affairs to internal and concentrates on retaining Africa's 'talented tenth'; that the 'brain drain' and political instability has robbed Africa of its most talented young people, medical and science professionals, who are needed to provide primary care and development to a region with a high mortality rate, a low life expectancy, and a low per capita income.

  20. Workable Social Health Insurance Systems in Sub-Saharan Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and lessons from the case studies to guide the planning and management of .... A review of recent literature reveals that more countries globally are embracing .... Primary data were from key informant interviews with stakeholders in Nigeria's National. Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS). These included Mr. Ajodi, M. Nuhu,.

  1. Spanish in Sub-Saharan Africa: Whither Nigeria? | Uchechukwu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs.

  2. Tobacco use and mass media utilization in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas N O Achia

    Full Text Available Media utilization has been identified as an important determinant of tobacco use. We examined the association between self-reported tobacco use and frequency of mass media utilization by women and men in nine low-to middle-income sub-Saharan African countries.Data for the study came from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Liberia, Lesotho, Malawi, Swaziland, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe over the period 2006-2011. Each survey population was a cross-sectional sample of women aged 15-49 years and men aged 15-59 years, with information on tobacco use and media access being obtained by face-to-face interviews. An index of media utilization was constructed based on responses to questions on the frequency of reading newspapers, frequency of watching television and frequency of listening to the radio. Demographic and socioeconomic variables were considered as potentially confounding covariates. Logistic regression models with country and cluster specific random effects were estimated for the pooled data.The risk of cigarette smoking increased with greater utilization to mass media. The use of smokeless tobacco and tobacco use in general declined with greater utilization to mass media. The risk of tobacco use was 5% lower in women with high media utilization compared to those with low media utilization [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR = 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI:0.82-1.00]. Men with a high media utilization were 21% less likely to use tobacco compared to those with low media utilization [AOR = 0.79, 95%CI = 0.73-0.85]. In the male sample, tobacco use also declined with the increased frequency of reading newspapers (or magazines, listening to radio and watching television.Mass media campaigns, conducted in the context of comprehensive tobacco control programmes, can reduce the prevalence of tobacco smoking in sub-Saharan Africa. The reach, intensity, duration and type of messages are important aspects of the campaigns but

  3. Tobacco use and mass media utilization in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achia, Thomas N O

    2015-01-01

    Media utilization has been identified as an important determinant of tobacco use. We examined the association between self-reported tobacco use and frequency of mass media utilization by women and men in nine low-to middle-income sub-Saharan African countries. Data for the study came from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Liberia, Lesotho, Malawi, Swaziland, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe over the period 2006-2011. Each survey population was a cross-sectional sample of women aged 15-49 years and men aged 15-59 years, with information on tobacco use and media access being obtained by face-to-face interviews. An index of media utilization was constructed based on responses to questions on the frequency of reading newspapers, frequency of watching television and frequency of listening to the radio. Demographic and socioeconomic variables were considered as potentially confounding covariates. Logistic regression models with country and cluster specific random effects were estimated for the pooled data. The risk of cigarette smoking increased with greater utilization to mass media. The use of smokeless tobacco and tobacco use in general declined with greater utilization to mass media. The risk of tobacco use was 5% lower in women with high media utilization compared to those with low media utilization [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI):0.82-1.00]. Men with a high media utilization were 21% less likely to use tobacco compared to those with low media utilization [AOR = 0.79, 95%CI = 0.73-0.85]. In the male sample, tobacco use also declined with the increased frequency of reading newspapers (or magazines), listening to radio and watching television. Mass media campaigns, conducted in the context of comprehensive tobacco control programmes, can reduce the prevalence of tobacco smoking in sub-Saharan Africa. The reach, intensity, duration and type of messages are important aspects of the campaigns but need to also

  4. Medical education departments: a study of four medical schools in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiguli-Malwadde, Elsie; Talib, Zohray M; Wohltjen, Hannah; Connors, Susan C; Gandari, Jonathan; Banda, Sekelani S; Maggio, Lauren A; van Schalkwyk, Susan C

    2015-07-01

    Many African countries are investing in medical education to address significant health care workforce shortages and ultimately improve health care. Increasingly, training institutions are establishing medical education departments as part of this investment. This article describes the status of four such departments at sub-Saharan African medical schools supported by the Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI). This article will provide information about the role of these institutional structures in fostering the development of medical education within the African context and highlight factors that enable or constrain their establishment and sustainability. In-depth interviews were conducted with the heads or directors of the four medical education departments using a structured interview protocol developed by the study group. An inductive approach to analysis of the interview transcripts was adopted as the texts were subjected to thematic content analysis. Medical education departments, also known as units or centers, were established for a range of reasons including: to support curriculum review, to provide faculty development in Health Professions Education, and to improve scholarship in learning and teaching. The reporting structures of these departments differ in terms of composition and staff numbers. Though the functions of departments do vary, all focus on improving the quality of health professions education. External and internal funding, where available, as well as educational innovations were key enablers for these departments. Challenges included establishing and maintaining the legitimacy of the department, staffing the departments with qualified individuals, and navigating dependence on external funding. All departments seek to expand the scope of their services by offering higher degrees in HPE, providing assistance to other universities in this domain, and developing and maintaining a medical education research agenda. The establishment of

  5. Neglected tropical diseases in sub-saharan Africa: review of their prevalence, distribution, and disease burden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Hotez

    Full Text Available The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs are the most common conditions affecting the poorest 500 million people living in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, and together produce a burden of disease that may be equivalent to up to one-half of SSA's malaria disease burden and more than double that caused by tuberculosis. Approximately 85% of the NTD disease burden results from helminth infections. Hookworm infection occurs in almost half of SSA's poorest people, including 40-50 million school-aged children and 7 million pregnant women in whom it is a leading cause of anemia. Schistosomiasis is the second most prevalent NTD after hookworm (192 million cases, accounting for 93% of the world's number of cases and possibly associated with increased horizontal transmission of HIV/AIDS. Lymphatic filariasis (46-51 million cases and onchocerciasis (37 million cases are also widespread in SSA, each disease representing a significant cause of disability and reduction in the region's agricultural productivity. There is a dearth of information on Africa's non-helminth NTDs. The protozoan infections, human African trypanosomiasis and visceral leishmaniasis, affect almost 100,000 people, primarily in areas of conflict in SSA where they cause high mortality, and where trachoma is the most prevalent bacterial NTD (30 million cases. However, there are little or no data on some very important protozoan infections, e.g., amebiasis and toxoplasmosis; bacterial infections, e.g., typhoid fever and non-typhoidal salmonellosis, the tick-borne bacterial zoonoses, and non-tuberculosis mycobaterial infections; and arboviral infections. Thus, the overall burden of Africa's NTDs may be severely underestimated. A full assessment is an important step for disease control priorities, particularly in Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of Congo, where the greatest number of NTDs may occur.

  6. Biofuels development in Sub-Saharan Africa. Are the policies conducive?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jumbe, Charles B.L. [University of Malawi, Centre for Agricultural Research and Development, Bunda College, P.O. Box 219, Lilongwe (Malawi); Msiska, Frederick B.M. [Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security, P.O. Box 30134, Lilongwe 3 (Malawi); Madjera, Michael [Evangelical Church in Middle Germany, P.O. Box 1424, 39004 Magdeburg (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    This paper analyses national, regional and international biofuels policies and strategies to assess whether these policies promote or undermine the development of biofuels sector in Africa. Despite having a huge comparative advantage in land, labour and good climatic conditions favourable for the growing of energy crops, few countries in Sub-Saharan Africa have included biofuels strategies in their energy or national development policies. Further results show that while developed countries commit huge financial resources for research, technology development and the provision of tax-incentives to both producers and consumers, there is little government support for promoting biofuels in Africa. Although the consequences of biofuels on food supply remain uncertain, the mandatory blending of biofuels with fossil fuels by industrialized countries will create demand for land in Africa for the growing of energy crops for biofuels. This paper urgently calls upon national governments in Sub-Saharan Africa to develop appropriate strategies and regulatory frameworks to harness the potential economic opportunities from biofuels sector development, while protecting the environment and rural communities from the adverse effects of land alienation from the mainstream agriculture towards the growing of energy crops for biofuels at the expense of traditional food crops. (author)

  7. Biofuels development in Sub-Saharan Africa: Are the policies conducive?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jumbe, Charles B.L., E-mail: charlesjumbe@bunda.unima.m [University of Malawi, Centre for Agricultural Research and Development, Bunda College, P.O. Box 219, Lilongwe (Malawi); Msiska, Frederick B.M., E-mail: frederickmsiska@yahoo.co [Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security, P.O. Box 30134, Lilongwe 3 (Malawi); Madjera, Michael, E-mail: michael.madjera@onlinehome.d [Evangelical Church in Middle Germany, P.O. Box 1424, 39004 Magdeburg (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    This paper analyses national, regional and international biofuels policies and strategies to assess whether these policies promote or undermine the development of biofuels sector in Africa. Despite having a huge comparative advantage in land, labour and good climatic conditions favourable for the growing of energy crops, few countries in Sub-Saharan Africa have included biofuels strategies in their energy or national development policies. Further results show that while developed countries commit huge financial resources for research, technology development and the provision of tax-incentives to both producers and consumers, there is little government support for promoting biofuels in Africa. Although the consequences of biofuels on food supply remain uncertain, the mandatory blending of biofuels with fossil fuels by industrialized countries will create demand for land in Africa for the growing of energy crops for biofuels. This paper urgently calls upon national governments in Sub-Saharan Africa to develop appropriate strategies and regulatory frameworks to harness the potential economic opportunities from biofuels sector development, while protecting the environment and rural communities from the adverse effects of land alienation from the mainstream agriculture towards the growing of energy crops for biofuels at the expense of traditional food crops.

  8. What would it take to prevent stunted growth in children in sub-Saharan Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lartey, Anna

    2015-11-01

    There is increasing agreement among the nutrition community about the use of length/height-for-age as the indicator to monitor the long-term impact of chronic nutritional deficiencies. Stunting, an indicator of linear growth failure, has both long- and short-term consequences affecting growth and development and adult work potential. The number of stunted children in sub-Saharan Africa is expected to increase by 2025 if the current trends remain. Stunting among African children peaks during the complementary feeding period, which coincides with the period when children are no longer on exclusive breastfeeding and infections are frequent. Addressing stunting has become the focus of global efforts. The World Health Assembly in 2012 set a 40 % reduction in the number of stunted children by 2025. To effectively address the issues of stunting in sub-Saharan Africa is it appropriate to examine the issue of what it takes. The WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study (MGRS) conducted in several regions of the world, including Africa has lessons on what it would take to prevent in African children. The children in the MGRS had good socioeconomic background characteristics reflected by years of maternal education and availability of basic amenities, such as potable water and sanitary conditions. The prescription of exclusive breastfeeding, high-quality diversified diets and attention to care were critical factors contributing to healthy growth for the African children. Preventing stunting in sub-Saharan Africa is possible. It requires governments to put in place policies that would create the conducive environment needed. The complex and multiple causes of stunting offer the opportunity to address stunting in a multisectoral and within a food systems approach. The global resolve to make food systems deliver on healthy diet requires all stakeholders to work together to achieve the global goal of reducing stunting. This review highlights the key elements contributing to adequate

  9. Approaches and impact of non-academic research capacity strengthening training models in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugabo, Lambert; Rouleau, Dominique; Odhiambo, Jackline; Nisingizwe, Marie Paul; Amoroso, Cheryl; Barebwanuwe, Peter; Warugaba, Christine; Habumugisha, Lameck; Hedt-Gauthier, Bethany L

    2015-06-09

    Research is essential to identify and prioritize health needs and to develop appropriate strategies to improve health outcomes. In the last decade, non-academic research capacity strengthening trainings in sub-Saharan Africa, coupled with developing research infrastructure and the provision of individual mentorship support, has been used to build health worker skills. The objectives of this review are to describe different training approaches to research capacity strengthening in sub-Saharan Africa outside academic programs, assess methods used to evaluate research capacity strengthening activities, and learn about the challenges facing research capacity strengthening and the strategies/innovations required to overcome them. The PubMed database was searched using nine search terms and articles were included if 1) they explicitly described research capacity strengthening training activities, including information on program duration, target audience, immediate program outputs and outcomes; 2) all or part of the training program took place in sub-Saharan African countries; 3) the training activities were not a formal academic program; 4) papers were published between 2000 and 2013; and 5) both abstract and full paper were available in English. The search resulted in 495 articles, of which 450 were retained; 14 papers met all inclusion criteria and were included and analysed. In total, 4136 people were trained, of which 2939 were from Africa. Of the 14 included papers, six fell in the category of short-term evaluation period and eight in the long-term evaluation period. Conduct of evaluations and use of evaluation frameworks varied between short and long term models and some trainings were not evaluated. Evaluation methods included tests, surveys, interviews, and systems approach matrix. Research capacity strengthening activities in sub-Saharan Africa outside of academic settings provide important contributions to developing in-country capacity to participate in and

  10. Neuromeningeal cryptococcosis in sub-Saharan Africa: Killer disease with sparse data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komi Assogba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The extent of neuromeningeal cryptococcosis (NMC has increased since the advent of HIV/AIDS. It has non-specific clinical signs but marked by high mortality. Objective: To analyze the characteristics of the NMC in sub-Saharan Africa. Materials and Methods: We have conducted a literature reviewed on the NMC in sub-Saharan Africa from the publications available on the basis of national and international data with keywords such as "Cryptococcus, Epidemiology, Symptoms, Outcomes and Mortality" and their equivalent in French in July 2011. All publications from 1990 to 2010 with 202 references were analyzed. The following results are the means of different studied variables. Results: We selected in final 43 publications dealing with the NMC which 24 involved 17 countries in Africa. The average age was 36 years old. The average prevalence was 3.41% and the average incidence was 10.48% (range 6.90% to 12%. The most common signs were fever (75%, headaches (62.50% and impaired consciousness. Meningeal signs were present in 49% of cases. The mean CD4 count was 44.8cells/mm 3 . The India ink and latex agglutination tests were the most sensitive. The average time before the consultation and the hospital stay was almost identical to 27.71 days. The average death rate was 45.90%. Fluconazole has been the most commonly used molecule. Conclusion: The epidemiological indicators of NMC varied more depending on the region of sub-Saharan Africa. Early and effective taking care of patients to reduce diagnostic delay and heavy mortality remains the challenges.

  11. Prices of second-line antiretroviral treatment for middle-income countries inside versus outside sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryony Simmons

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Antiretrovirals are available at low prices in sub-Saharan Africa, but these prices may not be consistently available for middle-income countries in other regions with large HIV epidemics. Over 30% of HIV infected people live in countries outside sub-Saharan Africa. Several key antiretrovirals are still on patent, with generic production restricted. We assessed price variations for key antiretroviral drugs inside versus outside sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: HIV drug prices used in national programmes (2010–2014 were extracted from the WHO Global Price Reporting Mechanism database for all reporting middle-income countries as classified by the World Bank. Treatment costs (branded and generic were compared for countries inside sub-Saharan Africa versus those outside. Five key second-line antiretrovirals were analysed: abacavir, atazanavir, darunavir, lopinavir/ritonavir, raltegravir. Results: Prices of branded antiretrovirals were significantly higher outside sub-Saharan Africa (p<0.001, adjusted for year of purchase (see Table 1. For example, the median (interquartile range price of darunavir from Janssen was $732 (IQR $732-806 per person-year in sub-Saharan Africa versus $4689 (IQR $4075-5717 in non-African middle-income countries, an increase of 541%. However, when supplied by generic companies, most antiretrovirals were similarly priced between countries in sub-Saharan Africa and other regions. Conclusions: Pharmaceutical companies are selling antiretrovirals to non-African middle-income countries at prices 74–541% higher than African countries with similar gross national incomes. However, generic companies are selling most of these drugs at similar prices across regions. Mechanisms to ensure fair pricing for patented antiretrovirals across both African and non-African middle-income countries need to be improved, to ensure sustainable treatment access.

  12. How can the operating environment for nutrition research be improved in sub-Saharan Africa? The views of African researchers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Van Royen

    Full Text Available Optimal nutrition is critical for human development and economic growth. Sub-Saharan Africa is facing high levels of food insecurity and only few sub-Saharan African countries are on track to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger by 2015. Effective research capacity is crucial for addressing emerging challenges and designing appropriate mitigation strategies in sub-Saharan Africa. A clear understanding of the operating environment for nutrition research in sub-Saharan Africa is a much needed prerequisite. We collected data on the barriers and requirements for conducting nutrition research in sub-Saharan Africa through semi-structured interviews with 144 participants involved in nutrition research in 35 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. A total of 133 interviews were retained for coding. The main barriers identified for effective nutrition research were the lack of funding due to poor recognition by policymakers of the importance of nutrition research and under-utilisation of research findings for developing policy, as well as an absence of research priority setting from within Africa. Current research topics were perceived to be mainly determined by funding bodies from outside Africa. Nutrition researchers argued for more commitment from policymakers at national level. The low capacity for nutrition research was mainly seen as a consequence of insufficient numbers of nutrition researchers, limited skills and a poor research infrastructure. In conclusion, African nutrition researchers argued how research priorities need to be identified by African stakeholders, accompanied by consensus building to enable creating a problem-driven national research agenda. In addition, it was considered necessary to promote interactions among researchers, and between researchers and policymakers. Multidisciplinary research and international and cross-African collaboration were seen as crucial to build capacity in sub-Saharan nutrition research.

  13. Human Heredity and Health (H3) in Africa Kidney Disease Research Network: A Focus on Methods in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Osafo, Charlotte; Raji, Yemi Raheem; Burke, David; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Tiffin, Nicki; Moxey-Mims, Marva M.; Rasooly, Rebekah S.; Kimmel, Paul L; Ojo, Akinlolu; Adu, Dwomoa; Parekh, Rulan S.

    2015-01-01

    CKD affects an estimated 14% of adults in sub-Saharan Africa, but very little research has been done on the cause, progression, and prevention of CKD there. As part of the Human Heredity and Health in Africa (H3Africa) Consortium, the H3Africa Kidney Disease Research Network was established to study prevalent forms of kidney disease in sub-Saharan Africa and increase the capacity for genetics and genomics research. The study is performing comprehensive phenotypic characterization and analyzin...

  14. Is age-related macular degeneration a problem in Ibadan, Sub-Saharan Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluleye TS

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Tunji Sunday OluleyeRetina and Vitreous Unit, Department of Ophthalmology, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria, West AfricaBackground: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is considered uncommon in black populations including those of Sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this review was to determine the pattern of presentation of AMD in our hospital located in Ibadan, the largest city in Sub-Saharan Africa.Methods: A retrospective review of all cases with AMD presenting to the Eye and Retinal Clinic of the University College Hospital, Ibadan, West Africa was undertaken between October 2007 and September 2010.Results: In the 3 years reviewed, 768 retinal cases were seen in the hospital, 101 (14% of which were diagnosed with AMD. The peak age was 60–79 years. The male to female ratio was approximately 2:3. More males presented with the advanced form of dry AMD than females (odds ratio = 2.33. However, more females had advanced wet AMD than males (odds ratio = 1.85. Wet AMD was seen in 40 cases (40%.Conclusion: The review determined that, as AMD is not uncommon and wet AMD is relatively more common in our hospital than has been reported previously, this is probably true of Ibadan in general.Keywords: age-related maculopathy, choroidal neovascular membrane, retinal, vitreoretinal, drusen

  15. Heat Pump Drying of Fruits and Vegetables: Principles and Potentials for Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folasayo Fayose

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat pump technology has been used for heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning in domestic and industrial sectors in most developed countries of the world including South Africa. However, heat pump drying (HPD of fruits and vegetables has been largely unexploited in South Africa and by extension to the sub-Saharan African region. Although studies on heat pump drying started in South Africa several years ago, not much progress has been recorded to date. Many potential users view heat pump drying technology as fragile, slow, and high capital intensive when compared with conventional dryer. This paper tried to divulge the principles and potentials of heat pump drying technology and the conditions for its optimum use. Also, various methods of quantifying performances during heat pump drying as well as the quality of the dried products are highlighted. Necessary factors for maximizing the capacity and efficiency of a heat pump dryer were identified. Finally, the erroneous view that heat pump drying is not feasible economically in sub-Saharan Africa was clarified.

  16. Heat Pump Drying of Fruits and Vegetables: Principles and Potentials for Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayose, Folasayo; Huan, Zhongjie

    2016-01-01

    Heat pump technology has been used for heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning in domestic and industrial sectors in most developed countries of the world including South Africa. However, heat pump drying (HPD) of fruits and vegetables has been largely unexploited in South Africa and by extension to the sub-Saharan African region. Although studies on heat pump drying started in South Africa several years ago, not much progress has been recorded to date. Many potential users view heat pump drying technology as fragile, slow, and high capital intensive when compared with conventional dryer. This paper tried to divulge the principles and potentials of heat pump drying technology and the conditions for its optimum use. Also, various methods of quantifying performances during heat pump drying as well as the quality of the dried products are highlighted. Necessary factors for maximizing the capacity and efficiency of a heat pump dryer were identified. Finally, the erroneous view that heat pump drying is not feasible economically in sub-Saharan Africa was clarified.

  17. Autopsy causes of death in HIV-positive individuals in sub-Saharan Africa and correlation with clinical diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Janneke A; Lukande, Robert L; Lucas, Sebastian; Nelson, Ann M; Van Marck, Eric; Colebunders, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Despite the persistently high HIV-related mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, limited information on the causes of death is available. Pathological autopsies are the gold standard to establish causes of death. In this review we describe the autopsy series performed among HIV-infected individuals in sub-Saharan Africa over the last two decades. We identified nine complete and 11 partial or minimally invasive autopsy series. Complete autopsies were performed in 593 HIV-positive adults and 177 HIV-positive children. Postmortem diagnoses were mainly infectious diseases. Tuberculosis was the most frequent, present in 21-54% of HIV-positive adults and was considered the cause of death in 32-45%. Overall, pulmonary infections accounted for approximately 66% of pathology and central nervous system infections for approximately 20%. A high discordance between clinical and postmortem diagnoses was observed. This review emphasizes the need for reliable information on causes of death in order to improve HIV patient care, guide further research, and inform health policy.

  18. Effect of variable transmission rate on the dynamics of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Sarah L

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cause of the high HIV prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa is incompletely understood, with heterosexual penile-vaginal transmission proposed as the main mechanism. Heterosexual HIV transmission has been estimated to have a very low probability; but effects of cofactors that vary in space and time may substantially alter this pattern. Methods To test the effect of individual variation in the HIV infectiousness generated by co-infection, we developed and analyzed a mathematical sexual network model that simulates the behavioral components of a population from Malawi, as well as the dynamics of HIV and the co-infection effect caused by other infectious diseases, including herpes simplex virus type-2, gonorrhea, syphilis and malaria. Results The analysis shows that without the amplification effect caused by co-infection, no epidemic is generated, and HIV prevalence decreases to extinction. But the model indicates that an epidemic can be generated by the amplification effect on HIV transmission caused by co-infection. Conclusion The simulated sexual network demonstrated that a single value for HIV infectivity fails to describe the dynamics of the epidemic. Regardless of the low probability of heterosexual transmission per sexual contact, the inclusion of individual variation generated by transient but repeated increases in HIV viral load associated with co-infections may provide a biological basis for the accelerated spread of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Moreover, our work raises the possibility that the natural history of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa cannot be fully understood if individual variation in infectiousness is neglected.

  19. Impact of ART on the fertility of HIV-positive women in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeatman, Sara; Eaton, Jeffrey W; Beckles, Zosia; Benton, Lorna; Gregson, Simon; Zaba, Basia

    2016-09-01

    Understanding the fertility of HIV-positive women is critical to estimating HIV epidemic trends from surveillance data and to planning resource needs and coverage of prevention of mother-to-child transmission services in sub-Saharan Africa. In the light of the considerable scale-up in antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage over the last decade, we conducted a systematic review of the impact of ART on the fertility outcomes of HIV-positive women. We searched Medline, Embase, Popline, PubMed and African Index Medicus. Studies were included if they were conducted in sub-Saharan Africa and provided estimates of fertility outcomes (live births or pregnancies) among women on ART relative to a comparison group. Of 2070 unique references, 18 published papers met all eligibility criteria. Comparisons fell into four categories: fertility of HIV-positive women relative to HIV-negative women; fertility of HIV-positive women on ART compared to those not yet on ART; fertility differences by duration on ART; and temporal trends in fertility among HIV-positive women. Evidence indicates that fertility increases after approximately the first year on ART and that while the fertility deficit of HIV-positive women is shrinking, their fertility remains below that of HIV-negative women. These findings, however, were based on limited data mostly during the period 2005-2010 when ART scaled up. Existing data are insufficient to characterise how ART has affected the fertility of HIV-positive women in sub-Saharan Africa. Improving evidence about fertility among women on ART is an urgent priority for planning HIV resource needs and understanding HIV epidemic trends. Alternative data sources such as antenatal clinic data, general population cohorts and population-based surveys can be harnessed to understand the issue. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Pregnancy and childbirth after repair of obstetric fistula in sub-Saharan Africa: Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delamou, Alexandre; Utz, Bettina; Delvaux, Therese; Beavogui, Abdoul Habib; Shahabuddin, Asm; Koivogui, Akoi; Levêque, Alain; Zhang, Wei-Hong; De Brouwere, Vincent

    2016-11-01

    To synthesise the evidence on pregnancy and childbirth after repair of obstetric fistula in sub-Saharan Africa and to identify the existing knowledge gaps. A scoping review of studies reporting on pregnancy and childbirth in women who underwent repair for obstetric fistula in sub-Saharan Africa was conducted. We searched relevant articles published between 1 January 1970 and 31 March 2016, without methodological or language restrictions, in electronic databases, general Internet sources and grey literature. A total of 16 studies were included in the narrative synthesis. The findings indicate that many women in sub-Saharan Africa still desire to become pregnant after the repair of their obstetric fistula. The overall proportion of pregnancies after repair estimated in 11 studies was 17.4% (ranging from 2.5% to 40%). Among the 459 deliveries for which the mode of delivery was reported, 208 women (45.3%) delivered by elective caesarean section (CS), 176 women (38.4%) by emergency CS and 75 women (16.3%) by vaginal delivery. Recurrence of fistula was a common maternal complication in included studies while abortions/miscarriage, stillbirths and neonatal deaths were frequent foetal consequences. Vaginal delivery and emergency C-section were associated with increased risk of stillbirth, recurrence of the fistula or even maternal death. Women who get pregnant after repair of obstetric fistula carry a high risk for pregnancy complications. However, the current evidence does not provide precise estimates of the incidence of pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes post-repair. Therefore, studies clearly assessing these outcomes with the appropriate study designs are needed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Mobile Phone Innovation and Inclusive Human Development: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Asongu, Simplice; Boateng, Agyenim; Akamavi, Raphael

    2016-01-01

    A recent World Bank report reveals that poverty has been decreasing in all regions of the world with the exception of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) as more than 45% of countries in the sub-region are off-track from achieving the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) extreme poverty target. This paper investigates the effects of mobile phone technology, knowledge creation and diffusion on inclusive human development in 49 SSA countries for the period 2000-2012 using Tobit model. The study finds that mo...

  2. Political determinants of progress in the MDGs in Sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atti, Emma; Gulis, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) lagged furthest behind in achieving targets for the millennium development goals (MDG). We investigate the hypothesis that its slow progress is influenced by political factors. Longitudinal data on three health MDG indicators: under-five mortality, maternal mortality...... and development assistance respectively. Cumulative progress in each group was derived and main effects tested using ANOVA. Correlation analysis was conducted between political variables - POLITY 2, fragile state index (FSI), voter turnout rates, civil liberty scores (CLS) and the health variables. Our results...

  3. Human population growth offsets climate-driven increase in woody vegetation in sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Martin Stefan; Rasmussen, Kjeld; Peñuelas, Josep

    2017-01-01

    The rapidly growing human population in sub-Saharan Africa generates increasing demand for agricultural land and forest products, which presumably leads to deforestation. Conversely, a greening of African drylands has been reported, but this has been difficult to associate with changes in woody...... cover were associated with high population growth. The spatially distinct pattern of these opposing trends reflects, first, the natural response of vegetation to precipitation and atmospheric CO2, and second, deforestation in humid areas, minor in size but important for ecosystem services...

  4. The strategic importance of identifying knowledge-based and intangible assets for generating value, competitiveness and innovation in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoline Ondari-Okemwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the strategic importance of identifying intangible assets for creating value and enhancing competitiveness and innovation in science and technology in a knowledge economy with particular reference to the sub- Saharan Africa region. It has always been difficult to gather the prerequisite information to manage such assets and create value from them. The paper discusses the nature of intangible assets, the characteristics of a knowledge economy and the role of knowledge workers in a knowledge economy. The paper also discusses the importance of identifying intangible assets in relation to capturing the value of such assets, the transfer of intangible assets to other owners and the challenges of managing organizational intangible assets. Objectives of the article include: underscoring the strategic importance of identifying intangible assets in sub-Saharan Africa; examining the performance of intangible assets in a knowledge economy; how intangible assets may generate competitiveness, economic growth and innovation; and assess how knowledge workers are becoming a dominant factor in the knowledge economy. An extensive literature review was employed to collect data for this article. It is concluded in the article that organizations and governments in sub-Saharan Africa should look at knowledge-based assets as strategic resources, even though the traditional accounting systems may still be having problems in determining the exact book value of such assets. It is recommended that organizations and government departments in sub-Saharan Africa should implement a system of the reporting of the value of intangible organizational assets just like the reporting of the value of tangible assets; and that organizations in sub-Saharan Africa should use knowledge to produce “smart products and services” which command premium prices.

  5. Cost drivers for voluntary medical male circumcision using primary source data from sub-Saharan Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Bollinger

    Full Text Available As voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC programs scale up, there is a pressing need for information about the important cost drivers, and potential efficiency gains. We examine those cost drivers here, and estimate the potential efficiency gains through an econometric model.We examined the main cost drivers (i.e., personnel and consumables associated with providing VMMC in sub-Saharan Africa along a number of dimensions, including facility type and service provider. Primary source facility level data from Kenya, Namibia, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia were utilized throughout. We estimated the efficiency gains by econometrically estimating a cost function in order to calculate the impact of scale and other relevant factors. Personnel and consumables were estimated at 36% and 28%, respectively, of total costs across countries. Economies of scale (EOS is estimated to be eight at the median volume of VMMCs performed, and EOS falls from 23 at the 25th percentile volume of VMMCs performed to 5.1 at the 75th percentile.The analysis suggests that there is significant room for efficiency improvement as indicated by declining EOS as VMMC volume increases. The scale of the fall in EOS as VMMC volume increases suggests that we are still at the ascension phase of the scale-up of VMMC, where continuing to add new sites results in additional start-up costs as well. A key aspect of improving efficiency is task sharing VMMC procedures, due to the large percentage of overall costs associated with personnel costs. In addition, efficiency improvements in consumables are likely to occur over time as prices and distribution costs decrease.

  6. Cost drivers for voluntary medical male circumcision using primary source data from sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollinger, Lori; Adesina, Adebiyi; Forsythe, Steven; Godbole, Ramona; Reuben, Elan; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    As voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) programs scale up, there is a pressing need for information about the important cost drivers, and potential efficiency gains. We examine those cost drivers here, and estimate the potential efficiency gains through an econometric model. We examined the main cost drivers (i.e., personnel and consumables) associated with providing VMMC in sub-Saharan Africa along a number of dimensions, including facility type and service provider. Primary source facility level data from Kenya, Namibia, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia were utilized throughout. We estimated the efficiency gains by econometrically estimating a cost function in order to calculate the impact of scale and other relevant factors. Personnel and consumables were estimated at 36% and 28%, respectively, of total costs across countries. Economies of scale (EOS) is estimated to be eight at the median volume of VMMCs performed, and EOS falls from 23 at the 25th percentile volume of VMMCs performed to 5.1 at the 75th percentile. The analysis suggests that there is significant room for efficiency improvement as indicated by declining EOS as VMMC volume increases. The scale of the fall in EOS as VMMC volume increases suggests that we are still at the ascension phase of the scale-up of VMMC, where continuing to add new sites results in additional start-up costs as well. A key aspect of improving efficiency is task sharing VMMC procedures, due to the large percentage of overall costs associated with personnel costs. In addition, efficiency improvements in consumables are likely to occur over time as prices and distribution costs decrease.

  7. Enhancing global control of alcohol to reduce unsafe sex and HIV in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rees Helen V

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sub-Saharan Africa carries a massive dual burden of HIV and alcohol disease, and these pandemics are inextricably linked. Physiological and behavioural research indicates that alcohol independently affects decision-making concerning sex, and skills for negotiating condoms and their correct use. More than 20 studies in Africa have reported higher occurrence of HIV among people with problem drinking; a finding strongly consistent across studies and similar among women and men. Conflation of HIV and alcohol disease in these setting is not surprising given patterns of heavy-episodic drinking and that drinking contexts are often coterminous with opportunities for sexual encounters. HIV and alcohol also share common ground with sexual violence. Both perpetrators and victims of sexual violence have a high likelihood of having drunk alcohol prior to the incident, as with most forms of violence and injury in sub-Saharan Africa. Reducing alcohol harms necessitates multi-level interventions and should be considered a key component of structural interventions to alleviate the burden of HIV and sexual violence. Brief interventions for people with problem drinking (an important component of primary health care, must incorporate specific discussion of links between alcohol and unsafe sex, and consequences thereof. Interventions to reduce alcohol harm among HIV-infected persons are also an important element in positive-prevention initiatives. Most importantly, implementation of known effective interventions could alleviate a large portion of the alcohol-attributable burden of disease, including its effects on unsafe sex, unintended pregnancy and HIV transmission.

  8. Modern Biotechnology—Potential Contribution and Challenges for Sustainable Food Production in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Jane Morris

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern biotechnology, including the application of transgenic techniques to produce Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs, can play a significant role in increasing agricultural production in a sustainable way, but its products need to be tailored for the developing world. In sub-Saharan Africa, the capacity to develop GMOs and ensure they meet stringent regulatory requirements is somewhat limited. Most African governments contribute little to science and technology either financially or through strong policies. This leaves the determination of research and development priorities in the hands of international funding agencies. Whereas funding from the United States is generally supportive of GM technology, the opposite is true of funding from European sources. African countries are thus pulled in two different directions. One alternative to this dilemma might be for countries in the sub-Saharan Africa region to develop stronger South-South collaborations, but these need to be supported with adequate funding. African governments as well as external funding agencies are urged to consider the important role that biotechnology, including GM technology, can play in contributing to sustainable development in Africa, and to provide adequate support to the development of capacity to research, develop and commercialize GMOs in the region.

  9. Motor Neuron Diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Need for More Population-Based Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Quansah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor neuron diseases (MNDs are devastating neurological diseases that are characterised by gradual degeneration and death of motor neurons. Major types of MNDs include amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA. These diseases are incurable, with limited disease-modifying treatment options. In order to improve MND-based biomedical research, drug development, and clinical care, population-based studies will be important. These studies, especially among less-studied populations, might identify novel factors controlling disease susceptibility and resistance. To evaluate progress in MND research in Africa, we examined the published literature on MNDs in Sub-Saharan Africa to identify disease prevalence, genetic factors, and other risk factors. Our findings indicate that the amount of research evidence on MNDs in Sub-Saharan Africa is scanty; molecular and genetics-based studies are particularly lacking. While only a few genetic studies were identified, these studies strongly suggest that there appear to be population-specific causes of MNDs among Africans. MND genetic underpinnings vary among different African populations and also between African and non-African populations. Further studies, especially molecular, genetic and genomic studies, will be required to advance our understanding of MND biology among African populations. Insights from these studies would help to improve the timeliness and accuracy of clinical diagnosis and treatment.

  10. Neurology training in sub-Saharan Africa: A survey of people in training from 19 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateen, Farrah J; Clark, Sarah J; Borzello, Mia; Kabore, Jean; Seidi, Osheik

    2016-06-01

    To provide a comprehensive understanding of neurology training from the sub-Saharan African perspective. A 40-question survey was distributed to attendees of the 7th annual sub-Saharan African neurology teaching course in Khartoum, Sudan (2015). Themes included the student body, faculty, curriculum, assessment and examinations, technology, and work hours and compensation. Of 19 responding countries, 10 had no formal neurology training programs; Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Republic of the Congo, and Mozambique had an adult neurology program; Ethiopia, Madagascar, Nigeria, Senegal, and South Africa had adult and pediatric neurology programs (training duration range = 3-6 years). There was a median of 2.5 full-time neurologists on the teaching faculty at the respondents' training institutions (neurologists on-faculty:in-country ratio = 0.48), with the lowest ratios in Sudan and Nigeria. Neurology was perceived to be a competitive specialty for entrance in 57% of countries, with 78% of respondents reporting a requisite entrance examination. Ninety-five percent had access to a personal smartphone, 62% used the Internet more than occasionally, and 60% had access to online neurology journals. The average number of weekly work hours was 51 (range = 40-75), and average monthly salary among those earning income was 1,191 USD (range = 285-3,560). Twenty percent of respondents reported paying for training. The most common barriers to neurology postgraduate education were few training programs and lack of training in neurodiagnostic tests. Among 17 reporting countries, there is an estimated average of 0.6 neurologists per million people. Neurology training programs in sub-Saharan Africa are relatively limited in number and have several unmet needs including a small cadre of faculty and an opportunity to standardize curricula and financing of programs. Ann Neurol 2016;79:871-881. © 2016 American Neurological Association.

  11. Experiences of leadership in health care in sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Leadership is widely regarded as central to effective health-care systems, and resources are increasingly devoted to the cultivation of strong health-care leadership. Nevertheless, the literature regarding leadership capacity building has been developed primarily in the context of high-income settings. Less research has been done on leadership in low-income settings, including sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in health care, with attention to historical, political and sociocultural context. We sought to characterize the experiences of individuals in key health-care leadership roles in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods We conducted a qualitative study using in-person interviews with individuals (n = 17) in health-care leadership roles in four countries in sub-Saharan Africa: the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, the Republic of Ghana, the Republic of Liberia and the Republic of Rwanda. Individuals were identified by their country’s minister of health as key leaders in the health sector and were nominated to serve as delegates to a global health leadership conference in June 2010, at Yale University in the United States. Interviews were audio recorded and professionally transcribed. Data analysis was performed by a five-person multidisciplinary team using the constant comparative method, facilitated by ATLAS.ti 5.0 software. Results Five key themes emerged as important to participants in their leadership roles: having an aspirational, value-based vision for improving the future health of the country, being self-aware and having the ability to identify and use complementary skills of others, tending to relationships, using data in decision making, and sustaining a commitment to learning. Conclusions Current models of leadership capacity building address the need for core technical and management competencies. While these competencies are important, skills relevant to managing relationships are also critical in the sub-Saharan African context

  12. Experiences of leadership in health care in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curry Leslie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leadership is widely regarded as central to effective health-care systems, and resources are increasingly devoted to the cultivation of strong health-care leadership. Nevertheless, the literature regarding leadership capacity building has been developed primarily in the context of high-income settings. Less research has been done on leadership in low-income settings, including sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in health care, with attention to historical, political and sociocultural context. We sought to characterize the experiences of individuals in key health-care leadership roles in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods We conducted a qualitative study using in-person interviews with individuals (n = 17 in health-care leadership roles in four countries in sub-Saharan Africa: the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, the Republic of Ghana, the Republic of Liberia and the Republic of Rwanda. Individuals were identified by their country’s minister of health as key leaders in the health sector and were nominated to serve as delegates to a global health leadership conference in June 2010, at Yale University in the United States. Interviews were audio recorded and professionally transcribed. Data analysis was performed by a five-person multidisciplinary team using the constant comparative method, facilitated by ATLAS.ti 5.0 software. Results Five key themes emerged as important to participants in their leadership roles: having an aspirational, value-based vision for improving the future health of the country, being self-aware and having the ability to identify and use complementary skills of others, tending to relationships, using data in decision making, and sustaining a commitment to learning. Conclusions Current models of leadership capacity building address the need for core technical and management competencies. While these competencies are important, skills relevant to managing relationships are also critical in the sub-Saharan

  13. To What Extent is Drinking Water Tested in Sub-Saharan Africa? A Comparative Analysis of Regulated Water Quality Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peletz, Rachel; Kumpel, Emily; Bonham, Mateyo; Rahman, Zarah; Khush, Ranjiv

    2016-03-02

    Water quality information is important for guiding water safety management and preventing water-related diseases. To assess the current status of regulated water quality monitoring in sub-Saharan Africa, we evaluated testing programs for fecal contamination in 72 institutions (water suppliers and public health agencies) across 10 countries. Data were collected through written surveys, in-person interviews, and analysis of microbial water quality testing levels. Though most institutions did not achieve the testing levels specified by applicable standards or World Health Organization (WHO) Guidelines, 85% of institutions had conducted some microbial water testing in the previous year. Institutions were more likely to meet testing targets if they were suppliers (as compared to surveillance agencies), served larger populations, operated in urban settings, and had higher water quality budgets (all p water providers and rural public health offices will require greater attention and additional resources to achieve regulatory compliance for water quality monitoring in sub-Saharan Africa. The cost-effectiveness of water quality monitoring should be improved by the application of risk-based water management approaches. Efforts to strengthen monitoring capacity should pay greater attention to program sustainability and institutional commitment to water safety.

  14. To What Extent is Drinking Water Tested in Sub-Saharan Africa? A Comparative Analysis of Regulated Water Quality Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peletz, Rachel; Kumpel, Emily; Bonham, Mateyo; Rahman, Zarah; Khush, Ranjiv

    2016-01-01

    Water quality information is important for guiding water safety management and preventing water-related diseases. To assess the current status of regulated water quality monitoring in sub-Saharan Africa, we evaluated testing programs for fecal contamination in 72 institutions (water suppliers and public health agencies) across 10 countries. Data were collected through written surveys, in-person interviews, and analysis of microbial water quality testing levels. Though most institutions did not achieve the testing levels specified by applicable standards or World Health Organization (WHO) Guidelines, 85% of institutions had conducted some microbial water testing in the previous year. Institutions were more likely to meet testing targets if they were suppliers (as compared to surveillance agencies), served larger populations, operated in urban settings, and had higher water quality budgets (all p water providers and rural public health offices will require greater attention and additional resources to achieve regulatory compliance for water quality monitoring in sub-Saharan Africa. The cost-effectiveness of water quality monitoring should be improved by the application of risk-based water management approaches. Efforts to strengthen monitoring capacity should pay greater attention to program sustainability and institutional commitment to water safety. PMID:26950135

  15. Capacity for diagnosis and treatment of heart failure in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Selma; Duber, Herbert C; Achan, Jane; Ikilezi, Gloria; Mokdad, Ali H; Stergachis, Andy; Wollum, Alexandra; Bukhman, Gene; Roth, Gregory A

    2017-12-01

    Heart failure is a major cause of disease burden in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). There is an urgent need for better strategies for heart failure management in this region. However, there is little information on the capacity to diagnose and treat heart failure in SSA. We aim to provide a better understanding of the capacity to diagnose and treat heart failure in Kenya and Uganda to inform policy planning and interventions. We analysed data from a nationally representative survey of health facilities in Kenya and Uganda (197 health facilities in Uganda and 143 in Kenya). We report on the availability of cardiac diagnostic technologies and select medications for heart failure (β-blockers, ACE inhibitors and furosemide). Facility-level data were analysed by country and platform type (hospital vs ambulatory facilities). Functional and staffed radiography, ultrasound and ECG were available in less than half of hospitals in Kenya and Uganda combined. Of the hospitals surveyed, 49% of Kenyan and 77% of Ugandan hospitals reported availability of the heart failure medication package. ACE inhibitors were only available in 51% of Kenyan and 79% of Ugandan hospitals. Almost one-third of the hospitals in each country had a stock-out of at least one of the medication classes in the prior quarter. Few facilities in Kenya and Uganda were prepared to diagnose and manage heart failure. Medication shortages and stock-outs were common. Our findings call for increased investment in cardiac care to reduce the growing burden of heart failure. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Ten striking facts about agricultural input use in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheahan, Megan; Barrett, Christopher B

    2017-02-01

    Conventional wisdom holds that Sub-Saharan African farmers use few modern inputs despite the fact that most poverty-reducing agricultural growth in the region is expected to come largely from expanded use of inputs that embody improved technologies, particularly improved seed, fertilizers and other agro-chemicals, machinery, and irrigation. Yet following several years of high food prices, concerted policy efforts to intensify fertilizer and hybrid seed use, and increased public and private investment in agriculture, how low is modern input use in Africa really? This article revisits Africa's agricultural input landscape, exploiting the unique, recently collected, nationally representative, agriculturally intensive, and cross-country comparable Living Standard Measurement Study-Integrated Surveys on Agriculture (LSMS-ISA) covering six countries in the region (Ethiopia, Malawi, Niger, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Uganda). Using data from over 22,000 households and 62,000 agricultural plots, we offer ten potentially surprising facts about modern input use in Africa today.

  17. A Pooled Mean Group Estimation of Capital Inflow and Growth in sub Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chimere Okechukwu Iheonu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically analysed the impact of capital inflow on growth in sub Saharan Africa employing the Pooled Mean Group estimator from the years 1985 to 2015. The study utilised Foreign Direct Investment (FDI, Official Development Assistance and Foreign Aid (ODA and Remittance (REM as indicators of capital inflow. Short run result indicates that the various forms of capital inflow do not have significant impact on growth but while FDI and REM were negatively related to growth, AID was positively related to growth. However, in the long run, FDI and AID have a positive and significant impact on growth while REM has a negative and significant impact on growth in sub Saharan Africa. The study concludes that planning and legislative lags are inferential from the insignificance of capital inflows on growth in the short run, while growth falls in the long run as a result of increase in labour’s income earned in diaspora. The study recommends that in the short run, economic policies should be tailored towards the development of technological based services while in the long run, government should create schemes for citizens in diaspora to participate in, to endear sector-specific economic activities as well as targeting FDI and AID as policy options to spur growth. Finally, specific capital inflow policy options should be employed as not all forms of capital inflow precipitates growth.

  18. Challenges and perspectives of compliance with pediatric antiretroviral therapy in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahourou, D L; Leroy, V

    2017-12-01

    More than 3 million children aged less than 15years are infected with HIV worldwide, mainly in Sub-Saharan Africa. The survival of HIV-infected children depends on their access to antiretroviral therapy whose success mainly depends on a good life-long compliance with antiretroviral therapy. Given its complexity and specificity, assessment and monitoring of pediatric compliance with antiretroviral therapy is a major challenge. There is no consensus on a gold standard for monitoring compliance with antiretroviral therapy. Compliance is also influenced by many factors related to the child, the caregiver, the healthcare staff, the healthcare system, and antiretroviral drugs. This review aimed to assess scientific knowledge on pediatric compliance with antiretroviral therapy in Sub-Saharan Africa, and to identify areas for future interventions to improve compliance. Good compliance is essential to achieve the "90% coverage of children on antiretroviral therapy" gold standard of the World Health Organization, and to eliminate HIV infection by 2030. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  19. Origin, extend and health impacts of air pollution in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Susanne E.; Mezuman, Keren; Longo, Karla; da Silva, Arlindo

    2017-04-01

    Southern Africa produces about a third of the Earth's biomass burning aerosol particles, yet the fate of these particles, their origin, chemical composition and their influence on regional and global climate is poorly understood. These research questions motivated the NASA field campaign ORACLES (ObseRvations of Aerosols above CLouds and their intEractionS). ORACLES is a five year investigation with three Intensive Observation Periods (IOP) designed to study key processes that determine the climate impacts of African biomass burning aerosols. The first IOP has been carried out in 2016. The main focus of the field campaign are aerosol-cloud interactions, however in our first study related to this area we will investigate the aerosol plume itself, its origin, extend and its resulting health impacts. Here we will discuss results using the global mesoscale model NASA GEOS-5 in conjunction with the NASA GISS-E2 climate model to investigate climate and health impacts that are directly related to the anthropogenic fire activities in Sub-Saharan Africa. Focus will be on the SH winter seasons biomass burning events, its contribution to Sub-Saharan air pollution in relationship to other air-pollution sources and its resulting premature mortality.

  20. Private sector provision of oral rehydration therapy for child diarrhea in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Neeraj; Wagner, Zachary

    2014-05-01

    Although diarrheal mortality is cheaply preventable with oral rehydration therapy (ORT), over 700,000 children die of diarrhea annually and many health providers fail to treat diarrheal cases with ORT. Provision of ORT may differ between for-profit and public providers. This study used Demographic and Health Survey data from 19,059 children across 29 countries in sub-Saharan Africa from 2003 to 2011 to measure differences in child diarrhea treatment between private for-profit and public health providers. Differences in treatment provision were estimated using probit regression models controlling for key confounders. For-profit providers were 15% points less likely to provide ORT (95% confidence interval [CI] 13-17) than public providers and 12% points more likely to provide other treatments (95% CI 10-15). These disparities in ORT provision were more pronounced for poorer children in rural areas. As private healthcare in sub-Saharan Africa continues to expand, interventions to increase private sector provision of ORT should be explored.

  1. Nutritional aspects of HIV-associated wasting in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koethe, John R; Heimburger, Douglas C

    2010-04-01

    The twin global epidemics of HIV infection and food scarcity disproportionately affect sub-Saharan Africa, and a significant proportion of patients who require antiretroviral therapy (ART) are malnourished because of a combination of HIV-associated wasting and inadequate nutrient intake. Protein-calorie malnutrition, the most common form of adult malnutrition in the region, is associated with significant morbidity and compounds the immunosuppressive effects of HIV. A low body mass index (BMI), a sign of advanced malnutrition, is an independent predictor of early mortality (association between early weight gain when receiving ART and improved treatment outcomes. The cause of the observed increase in mortality is uncertain, but it is likely due in part to malnutrition-induced immune system dysfunction, a higher burden of opportunistic infections, and metabolic derangements. In this article, we describe the epidemiology of HIV infection and malnutrition in sub-Saharan Africa, potential causes of increased mortality after ART initiation among patients with a low BMI, recent studies on post-ART weight gain and treatment outcome, and trials of macronutrient supplementation from the region. We close by highlighting priority areas for future research.

  2. Malthusian factors as proximal drivers of human population crisis at Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio eLima

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest and concern for understanding the interaction among human population growth and the sustainability of natural resources. In fact, many agrarian societies experienced an increasing frequency of wars, famines and epidemics during the periods of resource depletion. People from Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA have suffered the demographic consequences of famines, civil wars and political instabilities during the last fifty years.. Almost half of the countries of Sub-Saharan Africa have undergone some form of demographic crisis over the past fifty years. Our analysis indicate that despite that environmental conditions were positively correlated with crop production across SSA, Malthusian factors correlated inversely with cultivation intensity, which in turn translated into a higher magnitude of depopulation suffered during the past fifty years. In this paper, we provide empirical evidence that population collapses in SSA during the last fifty years have been multifactorial, although more closely associated with Malthusian factors as proximal drivers. Other proximal drivers such as economic indicators, political stability and environmental determinants did not explain as much variance as Malthusian forces, suggesting that explanations of collapse magnitude in SSA are embedded in a complex multi-causal chain, in which demographic factors may play a modulating role yet to be explored in more depth.

  3. Determining conservation priority areas for Palearctic passerine migrant birds in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno A. Walther

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Migratory bird species breeding in the Palearctic and overwintering in sub-Saharan Africa face multiple conservation challenges. As a result, many of these species have declined in recent decades, some dramatically. We therefore used the best available database for the distribution of 68 passerine migrants in sub-Saharan Africa to determine priority regions for their conservation. After modeling each species' distribution using BIOMOD software, we entered the resulting species distributions at a 1° à - 1° grid resolution into MARXAN software. We then used several different selection procedures that varied the boundary length modifier, species penalty factor, and the inclusion of grid cells with high human footprint and with protected areas. While results differed between selection procedures, four main regions were regularly selected: (1 one centered on southern Mali; (2 one including Eritrea, central Sudan, and northern Ethiopia; (3 one encompassing southwestern Kenya and much of Tanzania and Uganda; and (4 one including much of Zimbabwe and southwestern Zambia. We recommend that these four regions become priority regions for research and conservation efforts for the bird species considered in this study.

  4. A geospatial assessment of mini/small hydropower potential in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkovelos, Alexandros; Mentis, Dimitrios; Hussain Siyal, Shahid; Arderne, Christopher; Beck, Hylke; de Roo, Ad; Howells, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa has been the epicenter of ongoing global dialogues around energy poverty and justifiably so. More than half of the world's unserved population lives there. At the same time, a big part of the continent is privileged with plentiful renewable energy resources. Hydropower is one of them and to a large extent it remains untapped. This study focuses on the technical assessment of small-scale hydropower (0.01-10 MW) in Sub-Saharan Africa. The underlying methodology was based on open source geospatial datasets, whose combination allowed a consistent evaluation of 712,615 km of river network spanning over 44 countries. Environmental, topological and social constraints were included in the form of geospatial restrictions to help preserve the natural wealth and promote sustainable development. The results revealed that small-scale hydropower could cover 8.5-12.5% of the estimated electricity demand in 2030, thus making it a viable option to support electrification efforts in the region.

  5. The core competencies for mental, neurological, and substance use disorder care in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Y. Collins

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The 2010 Global Burden of Disease Study points to a changing landscape in which non-communicable diseases, such as mental, neurological, and substance use (MNS disorders, account for an increasing proportion of premature mortality and disability globally. Despite evidence of the need for care, a remarkable deficit of providers for MNS disorder service delivery persists in sub-Saharan Africa. This critical workforce can be developed from a range of non-specialist and specialist health workers who have access to evidence-based interventions, whose roles, and the associated tasks, are articulated and clearly delineated, and who are equipped to master and maintain the competencies associated with providing MNS disorder care. In 2012, the Neuroscience Forum of the Institute of Medicine convened a meeting of key stakeholders in Kampala, Uganda, to discuss a set of candidate core competencies for the delivery of mental health and neurological care, focusing specifically on depression, psychosis, epilepsy, and alcohol use disorders. This article discusses the candidate core competencies for non-specialist health workers and the complexities of implementing core competencies in low- and middle-income country settings. Sub-Saharan Africa, however, has the potential to implement novel training initiatives through university networks and through structured processes that engage ministries of health. Finally, we outline challenges associated with implementing competencies in order to sustain a workforce capable of delivering quality services for people with MNS disorders.

  6. The core competencies for mental, neurological, and substance use disorder care in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Pamela Y; Musisi, Seggane; Frehywot, Seble; Patel, Vikram

    2015-01-01

    The 2010 Global Burden of Disease Study points to a changing landscape in which non-communicable diseases, such as mental, neurological, and substance use (MNS) disorders, account for an increasing proportion of premature mortality and disability globally. Despite evidence of the need for care, a remarkable deficit of providers for MNS disorder service delivery persists in sub-Saharan Africa. This critical workforce can be developed from a range of non-specialist and specialist health workers who have access to evidence-based interventions, whose roles, and the associated tasks, are articulated and clearly delineated, and who are equipped to master and maintain the competencies associated with providing MNS disorder care. In 2012, the Neuroscience Forum of the Institute of Medicine convened a meeting of key stakeholders in Kampala, Uganda, to discuss a set of candidate core competencies for the delivery of mental health and neurological care, focusing specifically on depression, psychosis, epilepsy, and alcohol use disorders. This article discusses the candidate core competencies for non-specialist health workers and the complexities of implementing core competencies in low- and middle-income country settings. Sub-Saharan Africa, however, has the potential to implement novel training initiatives through university networks and through structured processes that engage ministries of health. Finally, we outline challenges associated with implementing competencies in order to sustain a workforce capable of delivering quality services for people with MNS disorders.

  7. Depression, alcohol use and adherence to antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakimuli-Mpungu, Etheldreda; Bass, Judith K; Alexandre, Pierre; Mills, Edward J; Musisi, Seggane; Ram, Malathi; Katabira, Elly; Nachega, Jean B

    2012-11-01

    This study evaluated estimates of depression symptoms, major depression, alcohol use or disorders and their association with ART adherence in sub-Saharan Africa. Studies published between January 1, 2006 and July 31, 2011 that documented rates of these mental health problems were identified through electronic databases. A pooled analysis of 23 studies reporting rates of depression symptoms and six studies reporting rates of major depression indicated a pooled estimate of 31.2% (95% CI 25.5-38.2%, Tau(2) = 0.23) and 18% (95% CI 12.3-25.8%, Tau(2) = 0.19) respectively. Few studies reported rates of alcohol use or disorders, and so we did not pool their estimates. Likelihood of achieving good adherence was 55% lower among those with depression symptoms compared to those without (pooled OR = 0.45 (95% CI 0.31-0.66, Tau(2) = 0.20, P value = 0.000). Interventions to improve mental health of HIV-positive individuals and to support adherence are desperately needed in sub-Saharan Africa.

  8. [Prevalence and characteristics of acute coronary syndromes in a sub-Saharan Africa population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Guetta, R; Yao, H; Ekou, A; N'Cho-Mottoh, M P; Angoran, I; Tano, M; Konin, C; Coulibaly, I; Anzouan-Kacou, J B; Seka, R; Adoh, A M

    2016-04-01

    To assess prevalence, characteristics and management of acute coronary syndromes in sub-Saharan Africa population. Prospective survey from January, 2010 to December, 2013, carried out among patients aged 18 years old, admitted to intensive care unit of Abidjan Heart Institute for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Four hundred and twenty-five (425) patients were enrolled in this study. Prevalence of ACS was 13.5%. Mean age was 55.4±11 years. Clinical presentation was predominantly ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in 71.5% of subjects, non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) accounted for 28.5%. Two hundred and eighty patients (65.9%) were transferred by unsafe transportation. Among the 89 patients admitted within 12hours of the onset of symptoms, primary percutaneous coronary intervention was performed in 20 patients (22.5%), or 6.6% of STEMI as a whole. Twenty-five patients (8.2%) received fibrinolytic therapy with alteplase. In-hospital death rate was 10%. The prevalence of acute coronary syndromes is increasing in sub-Saharan Africa. Excessive delays of admission and limited technical facilities are the major difficulties of their management in our regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. The paediatric surgeon and his working conditions in Francophone sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Gnassingbé

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study described the current conditions of work of paediatric surgeons in Francophone sub-Saharan Africa (FSSA and set the debate at the level of the humanist thinking in medicine. Patients and Methods: This was a multicentre study from 1 st May to 30 th October 2008. The African Society of paediatric surgeons′ directory was used to identify paediatric surgeons in the Francophone′s countries in Sub Saharan Africa. The parameters studied were number of surgeons per country, means of training, working conditions, remunerations, needs for continuous training and the research. Results: A total of 41 paediatric surgeons (68.33% responded. The average number of paediatric surgeons per country was 5. The means of training included government scholarships among 7 paediatric surgeons (17.07%, scholarship from a non-governmental organisations in 14 (34.15% and self-sponsorships in 20 (48.78%. The average salary was 450 Euros (€ (range: 120-1 400 Euros. Most of the paediatric surgeons (68.29% had internet services for continuous update courses and research. Thirty six paediatric surgeons (87.80% had no subscription to specialised scientific journals. Conclusion: The paediatric surgeon in FSSA faces many problems related to his working and living conditions that may have a negative impact on their competences.

  10. Water reform in Sub-Saharan Africa: what is the difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Koppen, Barbara

    Since the early 1990s African governments took an active part in the global movement of water reform towards Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM). The first step consisted primarily of assimilating the generic principles of IWRM. At this generic level, water reform in Sub-Saharan Africa seems quite similar to water reform elsewhere in the developed and developing world. However, in taking the second step of operationalizing generic principles into concrete actions on the ground, at least three salient differences between Sub-Saharan Africa and elsewhere emerged: (a) Africa’s relative abundance of water resources but its scarcity of economic means to harness available water resources; (b) the importance of agriculture and agricultural water development for economic growth and poverty eradication; and (c) the need for systems of water rights and financial resource mobilization that are separated and suit the African reality in which large water users are relatively few, while the bulk of water users are scattered smallholders. This paper discusses the early operationalization with regard to these three unique features and identifies lessons learnt.

  11. Task shifting in HIV/AIDS: opportunities, challenges and proposed actions for sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariah, R; Ford, N; Philips, M; Lynch, S; Massaquoi, M; Janssens, V; Harries, A D

    2009-06-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is facing a crisis in human health resources due to a critical shortage of health workers. The shortage is compounded by a high burden of infectious diseases; emigration of trained professionals; difficult working conditions and low motivation. In particular, the burden of HIV/AIDS has led to the concept of task shifting being increasingly promoted as a way of rapidly expanding human resource capacity. This refers to the delegation of medical and health service responsibilities from higher to lower cadres of health staff, in some cases non-professionals. This paper, drawing on Médecins Sans Frontières' experience of scaling-up antiretroviral treatment in three sub-Saharan African countries (Malawi, South Africa and Lesotho) and supplemented by a review of the literature, highlights the main opportunities and challenges posed by task shifting and proposes specific actions to tackle the challenges. The opportunities include: increasing access to life-saving treatment; improving the workforce skills mix and health-system efficiency; enhancing the role of the community; cost advantages and reducing attrition and international 'brain drain'. The challenges include: maintaining quality and safety; addressing professional and institutional resistance; sustaining motivation and performance and preventing deaths of health workers from HIV/AIDS. Task shifting should not undermine the primary objective of improving patient benefits and public health outcomes.

  12. Productivity effects of higher education human capital in selected countries of Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koye Gerry Bokana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyse the productivity effects of higher education enrolment (HEE, higher education output (HEO and the associated productivity gap (GP on selected countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA over the period between 1981 and 2014. It was hypothesized in the study that HEE and HEO had statistically significant positive impact on productivity in the selected sub-Saharan Africa countries over the stated period. Fixed effect Least Square Dummy Variable (LSDV and a robust version of System Generalized Methods of Moment (SYSGMM were adopted as model estimating techniques. Results from the LSDV model indicated that HEE had no statistically significant positive impact on productivity growth in the twenty-one SSA countries. This non-significance was corrected in the dynamic model, but with negative effects on the growth rate of total factor productivity (TFP. The study further compared the worldwide technological frontier with those of the SSA countries under investigation and discovered that countries like Gabon, Mauritius and Swaziland ranked high, while Burundi needs to improve on its productivity determinants. The major conclusion of this study is therefore that higher education human capital should be supported with strong policy implementation, as this can have a positive impact on productivity growth.

  13. Climate change and health in sub-Saharan Africa: a case-based perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramin, Brodie Morgan; McMichael, Anthony J

    2009-03-01

    Over the coming decades, sub-Saharan Africa will face profound stresses and challenges from global climate change. Many of these will manifest as adverse health outcomes. This article uses a series of five hypothetical cases to review the climate impacts on the health and well-being of individuals and populations in sub-Saharan Africa. This approach fosters insights into the human dimensions of the risks to health, their interaction with local human ecology, and awareness of the diverse health ramifications of external environmental changes. Each case illustrates the health impact resulting from a specific environmental or social consequence of climate change, including impacts on agriculture and food security, droughts, floods, malaria, and population displacement. Whereas the article focuses on discrete manifestations of climate change, individuals will, in practice, face multiple stresses from climate change (i.e., floods and malaria) concomitant with other non-climate stressors (i.e., HIV/AIDS, globalization, etc.). These multiple sources of vulnerability must be considered when designing climate change and socioeconomic development interventions.

  14. How Much Will It Cost To Monitor Microbial Drinking Water Quality in Sub-Saharan Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaire, Caroline; Peletz, Rachel; Kumpel, Emily; Kisiangani, Joyce; Bain, Robert; Khush, Ranjiv

    2017-06-06

    Microbial water quality monitoring is crucial for managing water resources and protecting public health. However, institutional testing activities in sub-Saharan Africa are currently limited. Because the economics of water quality testing are poorly understood, the extent to which cost may be a barrier to monitoring in different settings is unclear. This study used cost data from 18 African monitoring institutions (piped water suppliers and health surveillance agencies in six countries) and estimates of water supply type coverage from 15 countries to assess the annual financial requirements for microbial water testing at both national and regional levels, using World Health Organization recommendations for sampling frequency. We found that a microbial water quality test costs 21.0 ± 11.3 USD, on average, including consumables, equipment, labor, and logistics, which is higher than previously calculated. Our annual cost estimates for microbial monitoring of piped supplies and improved point sources ranged between 8 000 USD for Equatorial Guinea and 1.9 million USD for Ethiopia, depending primarily on the population served but also on the distribution of piped water system sizes. A comparison with current national water and sanitation budgets showed that the cost of implementing prescribed testing levels represents a relatively modest proportion of existing budgets (water sources in sub-Saharan Africa would cost 16.0 million USD per year, which is minimal in comparison to the projected annual capital costs of achieving Sustainable Development Goal 6.1 of safe water for all (14.8 billion USD).

  15. Pedagogical Renewal for Quality Universal Primary Education: Overview of Trends in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembélé, Martial; Lefoka, Pulane

    2007-11-01

    This article assumes that pedagogical renewal and teacher development are two sides of the same coin, and that the achievement of a universal primary education that is equitable and of acceptable quality in Sub-Saharan Africa will depend to a large extent on both. The need for pedagogical renewal stems from the evidence that (i) teaching is arguably the strongest school-level determinant of student achievement; (ii) teaching effect on student learning is reportedly higher in Sub-Saharan Africa than it is in high-income countries; (iii) learning achievement is considerably lower in the sub-continent's schools; and (iv) the kind of teaching that takes place in these schools confines students to a passive role and only fosters lower order skills. An overview of experiences with pedagogical renewal highlights the challenges involved in adopting open-ended instructional practices on the sub-continent. It further points to bilingual education as one of the most promising strategies. Regardless of the route taken for renewing pedagogy, the professional development of teacher educators/trainers must be considered a critical enabling condition.

  16. Returns to food and agricultural R&D investments in Sub-Saharan Africa, 1975–2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pardey, Philip G.; Andrade, Robert S.; Hurley, Terrance M.; Rao, Xudong; Liebenberg, Frikkie G.

    2016-01-01

    Research-enabled growth in agricultural productivity is pivotal to sub-Saharan Africa's overall economic growth prospects. Yet, investments in research and development (R&D) targeted to many national food and agricultural economies throughout Africa are fragile and faltering. To gain insight

  17. Estimating the resources needed and savings anticipated from roll-out of adult male circumcision in sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Auvert (Bertran); E. Marseille (Elliot); E.L. Korenromp (Eline); J. Lloyd-Smith (James); R. Sitta (Remi); D. Taljaard (Dirk); C. Pretorius (Carel); B. Williams (Brian); J.G. Kahn (James)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Trials in Africa indicate that medical adult male circumcision (MAMC) reduces the risk of HIV by 60%. MAMC may avert 2 to 8 million HIV infections over 20 years in sub-Saharan Africa and cost less than treating those who would have been infected. This paper estimates the

  18. Prevalence of gastrointestinal pathogens in Sub-Saharan Africa: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M. Fletcher

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A significant proportion of vulnerable people in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA remain at risk for contracting diarrhoeal diseases due to the presence of many risk factors facilitating their transmission. A systematic review of published articles from the SSA region was done to determine the prevalence and types of diarrhoeal pathogens in circulation, based on a search of databases, including EBSCO host, PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, Google scholar and Web of Science was done between September 2009 and December 2010. Data were summarized from 27 studies, with pooled data analysed and reported. Pathogens were isolated from between 26.8-65.6% of cases, with an overall isolation rate of 55.7% (95% CI, 48.2-62.9%. Isolation rates were highest amongst adult cases followed by children, and the odds of isolating a pathogen was greater in diarrhoeal cases (Odds Ratio 4.93 (95% CI, 1.99 to 12.23, than in asymptomatic controls. Overall isolation ranged from 8% to 99%; and heterogeneity testing suggests differences between age groups (Q=5.806; df=2, P=0. 055. Mixed E. coli spp., (29.95%, Cryptosporidium (21.52%, Cyclospora (18%, Entamoeba, (13.8%, Shigella spp. (10.49%, Salmonella spp. (8.36%, and Campylobacter spp. (8.33%, were most commonly reported, and rotavirus was the most common virus isolated. This is the first review to look at the range of enteric pathogens circulating in SSA, and has confirmed high rates of isolation of pathogens from diarrhoeal cases. Public health practitioners can use this information to understanding the challenges related to diarrhoeal illness and set priorities for their prevention and control.

  19. Antimicrobial drug resistance among clinically relevant bacterial isolates in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Stije J; van Leth, Frank; Tarekegn, Hayalnesh; Schultsz, Constance

    2014-09-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) amongst bacterial pathogens in sub-Saharan Africa (sSA), despite calls for continent-wide surveillance to inform empirical treatment guidelines. We searched PubMed and additional databases for susceptibility data of key pathogens for surveillance, published between 1990 and 2013. Extracted data were standardized to a prevalence of resistance in populations of isolates and reported by clinical syndrome, microorganism, relevant antimicrobial drugs and region. We identified 2005 publications, of which 190 were analysed. Studies predominantly originated from east sSA (61%), were hospital based (60%), were from an urban setting (73%) and reported on isolates from patients with a febrile illness (42%). Quality procedures for susceptibility testing were described in resistance to chloramphenicol in Enterobacteriaceae, isolated from patients with a febrile illness, ranged between 31.0% and 94.2%, whilst MP of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins ranged between 0.0% and 46.5%. MP of resistance to nalidixic acid in Salmonella enterica Typhi ranged between 15.4% and 43.2%. The limited number of studies providing prevalence data on AMR in Gram-positive pathogens or in pathogens isolated from patients with a respiratory tract infection, meningitis, urinary tract infection or hospital-acquired infection suggested high prevalence of resistance to chloramphenicol, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline and low prevalence to third-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones. Our results indicate high prevalence of AMR in clinical bacterial isolates to antimicrobial drugs commonly used in sSA. Enhanced approaches for AMR surveillance are needed to support empirical therapy in sSA. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Millennium Global Village-Net: bringing together Millennium Villages throughout sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Andrew S; Negin, Joel; Olayo, Bernard; Bukachi, Frederick; Johnson, Edward; Sachs, Sonia Ehrlich

    2009-12-01

    The Millennium Villages Project (MVP), based at The Earth Institute at Columbia University, is a bottom-up, community led approach to show how villages in developing countries can get out of the poverty trap that afflicts more than a billion people worldwide. With well-targeted, practical inputs can help the community invest in a path leading to self-sustaining development. There are 80 Millennium Villages clustered in 10 countries throughout sub-Saharan Africa. MVP is an important development process for empowering communities to invest in a package of integrated interventions aiming to increase food production, improve access to safe water, health care, education and infrastructure. The process benefits from synergies of the integrated approach and relies on community leadership as empowered by proven technological inputs. MVP is committed to a science-based approach to assess and monitor the progress of the communities towards clear objectives; the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and to do so with mechanisms that are scalable and sustainable. This approach offers much more than simply collecting and analyzing data since the mechanism used for recording progress would provide a bridge over the divide which separates the haves and the have-nots (by facilitating the sharing of solutions from one community to another bidirectionally). By so doing, it allows people to enhance their own futures in a sustainable manner. Solutions found in one community are transferable to similar communities in other MVP villages. To achieve this goal, the MVP requires an information and communication system which can provide both necessary infrastructure for monitoring and evaluation, and tools for communicating among the villages, cities and countries. This system is called the Millennium Global Village-Net (MGV-Net). It takes advantage of the latest in open source software (OpenMRS), databases (MySQL), interface terminology, a centralized concept dictionary, and uses appropriate

  1. Climate Change, Nutrition and Food Security in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.

    2010-01-01

    Food security and nutrition in sub-Saharan Africa have long been affected by variations in the weather. Vulnerability to these hazards, along with economic shocks and an adverse political environment, is often uneven in a community. Some individuals and households are more susceptible to emergencies or crises than others, and thus determining who is most vulnerable are and how they are responding to a shock or crises is essential to understand the impact on food security. Daily, quantitative and global observations derived from satellite remote sensing instruments can contribute to understanding how food production has declined due to drought, flood or other weather-related hazard, but it can say nothing about the likelihood that the people living in that area are suffering food insecurity as a result. As Amartya Sen argued, a famine can occur even when there is an absolute surplus of food in a region. Thus organizations like the US Agency for International Development's Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) work to integrate biophysical and socio-economic indicators together with on-the ground assessments to estimate the food security consequences of a variety of events. Climate change is likely to restructure local, regional and global agricultural systems and commodity markets. Although remote sensing information has been used to identify seasonal production declines for the past two decades, new ways of using the data will need to be developed in order to understand, document and respond to the impact of climate change on food security as it is manifested in shorter term shocks. In this article, the contribution of remote sensing is explained, along with the other factors that affect food security

  2. Financing renewable energy in developing countries. Drivers and barriers for private finance in sub-Saharan Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-02-15

    The focus of this report is to identify and portray current barriers to the scaling up of private investment and finance for electricity generation from renewable energy sources in the sub-Saharan region. Best practice in tackling these barriers is identified, partly from a literature review but especially from the results of a survey conducted among 36 financial institutions that are UNEP Finance Initiative members and two non-member banks (all survey respondents have experience in the field of energy infrastructure finance). Promising avenues in the areas of local policy reform, incentive mechanisms and international de-risking instruments are highlighted. In particular, this report addresses the following questions: (a) Why are sub-Saharan Africa and developing countries elsewhere failing to expand electricity generation from renewable sources? What are the barriers to such expansion? What is keeping the risk-return profile of renewable energy investments in sub-Saharan Africa unattractive and projects commercially unviable?; (b) What have been the experiences of private sector lenders and investors in the area of renewable energy projects in developing countries? What barriers and drivers have they encountered, and how can these experiences be of use in sub-Saharan Africa?; (c) What can be learned from the modest but encouraging successes of a few sub-Saharan African countries? Can these results be replicated? What was done in these countries to improve the risk-return profile of renewable energy and unlock private finance?.

  3. The significance of citation impact indicators of research performance in the developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Japhet Bakuwa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that Sub-Saharan Africa needs to produce more journals indexed by ISI Web of Science (WoS. Researchers from the region should also publish in other ISI indexed, reputable and high impact journals such as Nature and Science. Inevitably, this will make Sub-Saharan African researchers visible and globally competitive. The Sub- Saharan African region has only about 40 journals out of over 12 000 journals that have been indexed by the ISI Web of Science (WoS. Arguably, ranking of universities across the globe and qualification for Nobel Prizes are determined by metrics-based evaluation of research performance. Sub-Saharan Africa is poorly represented on the world university rankings. The region has also produced only six Nobel Prize award winners from 1901 to 2010. In the same period, USA, UK and Germany produced 326, 116 and 102 recipients respectively. While there are some limitations on the use of citation indicators to evaluate research output, this researcher argues that citation impact indicators of research performance provide policymakers, researchers and funding agencies with an objective measure for assessing research performance and therefore are of great significance in the developing countries of Sub-Saharan Africa.

  4. A Citation Analysis of Sub-Saharan African Library and Information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In bibliometrics, the numbers of research articles and citations constitute the main measurement indicators of research output and impact respectively. This study evaluates the library and information science/studies (LIS) journals published in sub-Saharan African countries in order to assess their performance. Drawing its ...

  5. Physical function, grip strength and frailty in people living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Charlotte; Dabis, François; de Rekeneire, Nathalie

    2017-05-01

    To present the current knowledge on physical function, grip strength and frailty in HIV-infected patients living in sub-Saharan Africa, where the phenomenon is largely underestimated. A systematic search was conducted on MEDLINE, Scopus and African Index Medicus. We reviewed articles on sub-Saharan African people living with HIV (PLHIV) >18 years old, published until November 2016. Of 537 articles, 12 were conducted in six African countries and included in this review. Five articles reported information on functional limitation and one on disability. Two of these five articles reported functional limitation (low gait speed) in PLHIV. Disability was observed in 27% and 3% of PLHIV living in rural and urban places, respectively. Two of three studies reporting grip strength reported lower grip strength (nearly 4 kg) in PLHIV in comparison with uninfected patients. One study reported that PLHIV were more likely to be frail than HIV-uninfected individuals (19.4% vs. 13.3%), whereas another reported no statistical difference. Decline in physical function, grip strength and frailty are now part of the burden of PLHIV living in SSA countries, but current data are insufficient to characterise the real public health dimension of these impairments. Further studies are needed to depict this major public health challenge. As this is likely to contribute to a significant burden on the African healthcare systems and human resources in the near future, a holistic care approach should be developed to inform guidelines. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Currently important animal disease management issues in sub-Saharan Africa : policy and trade issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.R. Thomson

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The present international approach to management of transboundary animal diseases (TADs is based on the assumption that most can be eradicated ; consequently, that is the usual objective adopted by international organizations concerned with animal health. However, for sub-Saharan Africa and southern Africa more particularly, eradication of most TADs is impossible for the foreseeable future for a variety of technical, financial and logistical reasons. Compounding this, the present basis for access to international markets for products derived from animals requires that the area of origin (country or zone is free from trade-influencing TADs. The ongoing development of transfrontier conservation areas (TFCAs, extending across huge areas of southern Africa, therefore presents a development conundrum because it makes creation of geographic areas free from TADs more difficult and brings development based on wildlife conservation on the one hand and that based on livestock production on the other into sharp conflict. Sub-Saharan Africa is consequently confronted by a complex problem that contributes significantly to retarded rural development which, in turn, impedes poverty alleviation. In southern Africa specifically, foot-and-mouth disease (FMD presents the greatest problem in relation to access to international markets for animal products. However, it is argued that this problem could be overcome by a combination between (1 implementation of a commodity-based approach to trade in products derived from animals and (2 amendment of the international standards for FMD specifically (i.e. the FMD chapter in the Terrestrial Animal Health Code of the World Organisation for Animal Health [OIE] so that occurrence of SAT serotype viruses in free-living African buffalo need not necessarily mean exclusion of areas where buffalo occur from international markets for animal products. This would overcome a presently intractable constraint to market access for

  7. The changing landscape of public health in sub-Saharan Africa: Control and prevention of communicable diseases needs rethinking

    OpenAIRE

    Mboera, Leonard E. G.; Mfinanga, Sayoki G; Karimuribo, Esron D; Rumisha, Susan F.; Calvin Sindato

    2014-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, communicable diseases (CDs) are the leading public health problems and major causes of morbidity and mortality. CDs result in significant individual suffering, disrupting daily life, threatening livelihoods and causing one-third of the years lost to illness or death worldwide. This paper aims to analyse the current strategies in the control and prevention of CDs in sub-Saharan Africa and proposes an ecohealth approach in relation to current changing epidemiological prof...

  8. Attributing Climate Conditions for Stable Malaria Transmission to Human Activity in sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldrake, L.; Mitchell, D.; Allen, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    Temperature and precipitation limit areas of stable malaria transmission, but the effects of climate change on the disease remain controversial. Previously, studies have not separated the influence of anthropogenic climate change and natural variability, despite being an essential step in the attribution of climate change impacts. Ensembles of 2900 simulations of regional climate in sub-Saharan Africa for the year 2013, one representing realistic conditions and the other how climate might have been in the absence of human influence, were used to force a P.falciparium climate suitability model developed by the Mapping Malaria Risk in Africa project. Strongest signals were detected in areas of unstable transmission, indicating their heightened sensitivity to climatic factors. Evidently, impacts of human-induced climate change were unevenly distributed: the probability of conditions being suitable for stable malaria transmission were substantially reduced (increased) in the Sahel (Greater Horn of Africa (GHOA), particularly in the Ethiopian and Kenyan highlands). The length of the transmission season was correspondingly shortened in the Sahel and extended in the GHOA, by 1 to 2 months, including in Kericho (Kenya), where the role of climate change in driving recent malaria occurrence is hotly contested. Human-induced warming was primarily responsible for positive anomalies in the GHOA, while reduced rainfall caused negative anomalies in the Sahel. The latter was associated with anthropogenic impacts on the West African Monsoon, but uncertainty in the RCM's ability to reproduce precipitation trends in the region weakens confidence in the result. That said, outputs correspond well with broad-scale changes in observed endemicity, implying a potentially important contribution of anthropogenic climate change to the malaria burden during the past century. Results support the health-framing of climate risk and help indicate hotspots of climate vulnerability, providing

  9. Molecular genetics research in sub-Saharan Africa: how can the international community help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekele, Endashaw; Bodmer, Walter F; Bradman, Neil; Craig, Ian W; Makani, Julie; Povey, Sue; Rotimi, Charles

    2014-12-01

    Opportunities provided by rapidly increasing access to educational resources, clinical and epidemiological data, DNA collections, cheaper technology and financial investment, suggest that researchers in sub-Saharan Africa outside South Africa (SSAOSA) could now join the genomics revolution on equal terms with those in the West. Current evidence, however, suggests that, in some cases, various factors may be compromising this development. One interpretation is that urgent practical problems, which may compromise motivation, aspiration and ambition, are blocking opportunity. Those wishing to help should support the SSAOSA scientists both at the level of extending collaboration networks and in stimulating academic leadership at national and institutional levels to ensure adequate resources are allocated. Members of organisations representing the international community of human geneticists, such as HUGO, have a significant responsibility in supporting such activities.

  10. Patterns of international collaboration in cardiovascular research in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettarh, Remare

    The rising prevalence of cardiovascular disease in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) constitutes a significant health and socio-economic challenge for the countries in the region. This study examines the patterns and scientific impact of international collaboration in cardiovascular research (CVR) in SSA. Bibliographic data from 2005 to 2014 were obtained from the Web of Science for cardiovascular-related publications with at least one author affiliated to an SSA country. The number of publications involving multiple SSA countries over this period accounted for less than 10% of the total number of multi-country publications that included at least one SSA country. Collaboration patterns reflected dominance by countries in Europe and North America, with South Africa accounting for the bulk of scientific collaboration in CVR within SSA. The findings indicate that pro-active strategies are needed to strengthen collaboration in CVR across SSA for the region to derive health and socio-economic benefits from locally conducted research.

  11. A contribution to study the immigration from Sub Saharan Africa to Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta M. Maffia

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Even though in Argentina we have immigrants from Sub Saharan Africa arriving at the end of the Nineteenth Century and beginning of the Twentieth Century such as those from South Africa and Cape Verde, this new immigration from Senegal, Nigeria, Cameroon, Ghana, among other countries, during the last decade of the Twentieth Century and first decade of the Twenty-first Century appears in a different historical and political context. This new migration is facing legal regimes and increasingly restrictive administrative by-laws, framed in the growing economic globalization.This work is part of the first results of a research on this migration from an anthropological perspective. This study, which began in 2009, takes into account contributions made by history, political sciences, demography, among other disciplines, making use of articles written by African and Non-African social scientists. We are convinced that in this exchange of views our limitations may be overcome.

  12. The impact of a faculty development programme for health professions educators in sub-Saharan Africa: an archival study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, José M; Bezuidenhout, Juanita; Burch, Vanessa C; Mthembu, Sindi; Rowe, Michael; Tan, Christina; Van Wyk, Jacqueline; Van Heerden, Ben

    2015-03-03

    In 2008 the sub-Saharan FAIMER Regional Institute launched a faculty development programme aimed at enhancing the academic and research capacity of health professions educators working in sub-Saharan Africa. This two-year programme, a combination of residential and distance learning activities, focuses on developing the leadership, project management and programme evaluation skills of participants as well as teaching the key principles of health professions education-curriculum design, teaching and learning and assessment. Participants also gain first-hand research experience by designing and conducting an education innovation project in their home institutions. This study was conducted to determine the perceptions of participants regarding the personal and professional impact of the SAFRI programme. A retrospective document review, which included data about fellows who completed the programme between 2008 and 2011, was performed. Data included fellows' descriptions of their expectations, reflections on achievements and information shared on an online discussion forum. Data were analysed using Kirkpatrick's evaluation framework. Participants (n=61) came from 10 African countries and included a wide range of health professions educators. Five key themes about the impact of the SAFRI programme were identified: (1) belonging to a community of practice, (2) personal development, (3) professional development, (4) capacity development, and (5) tools/strategies for project management and/or advancement. The SAFRI programme has a positive developmental impact on both participants and their respective institutions.

  13. Cost-Effectiveness of Two Government District Hospitals in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Caris E; Law, Rebekah; Dare, Anna; Day, Nigel; Reshamwalla, Sophie; Murowa, Michael; George, Peter M; Kamara, Thaim B; Mkandawire, Nyengo C; Leather, Andrew J M; Lavy, Christopher B D

    2017-09-01

    District hospitals in sub-Saharan Africa are in need of investment if countries are going to progress towards universal health coverage, and meet the sustainable development goals and the Lancet Commission on Global Surgery time-bound targets for 2030. Previous studies have suggested that government hospitals are likely to be highly cost-effective and therefore worthy of investment. A retrospective analysis of the inpatient logbooks for two government district hospitals in two sub-Saharan African hospitals was performed. Data were extracted and DALYs were calculated based on the diagnosis and procedures undertaken. Estimated costs were obtained based on the patient receiving ideal treatment for their condition rather than actual treatment received. Total cost per DALY averted was 26 (range 17-66) for Thyolo District Hospital in Malawi and 363 (range 187-881) for Bo District Hospital in Sierra Leone. This is the first published paper to support the hypothesis that government district hospitals are very cost-effective. The results are within the same range of the US$32.78-223 per DALY averted published for non-governmental hospitals.

  14. Nutritional status and economic development in sub-Saharan Africa, 1950-1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Alexander

    2010-03-01

    How did nutritional status develop in sub-Saharan Africa during the second half of the 20th century, and what role did economic development play in nutrition and health? Aggregating data from more than 200,000 women in 28 sub-Saharan African countries, we use mean height as an indicator of net nutritional status and find that the nutritional status of 1960 birth cohorts was relatively high. This situation, however, was not sustained. In almost all countries examined, mean heights were stagnating or decreasing after the 1970 cohorts. Using regression analysis we model human growth from birth to maturity, and find that economic growth had a significant and robust influence on final adult height at two distinct periods of the life cycle: (1) in the first years of life and (2) at puberty. We conclude that the economic difficulties of the late 1970s and 1980s contributed to the decline or stagnation in heights. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Women's growing desire to limit births in sub-Saharan Africa: meeting the challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lith, Lynn M; Yahner, Melanie; Bakamjian, Lynn

    2013-03-01

    Demographic and Health Survey data from 18 countries were analyzed to better understand the characteristics of women wishing to limit childbearing. Demand for limiting (14% of all women) is less than that that for spacing (25%) but is still substantial. The mean "demand crossover age" (the average age at which demand to limit births begins to exceed demand to space) is generally around age 33, but in some countries it is as low as 23 or 24. Young women often intend to limit their births, contrary to the assumption that only older women do. Large numbers of women have exceeded their desired fertility but do not use family planning, citing fear of side effects and health concerns as barriers. When analysis is restricted to married women, demand for limiting nearly equals that for spacing. Many women who want no more children and who use contraception, especially poor women and those with less education, use less effective temporary contraceptive methods. A sizable number of women in sub-Saharan Africa-nearly 8 million-have demand for limiting future births. Limiting births has a greater impact on fertility rates than spacing births and is a major factor driving the fertility transition. Family planning programs must prepare to meet this demand by addressing supply- and demand-side barriers to use. Meeting the growing needs of sub-Saharan African women who want to limit births is essential, as they are a unique audience that has long been overlooked and underserved.

  16. Marriage, widowhood, divorce and HIV risks among women in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenkorang, Eric Y

    2014-03-01

    Studies on associations between marriage and HIV infection among women in sub-Saharan Africa are generally inconclusive. Not enough is known about HIV risks among divorced and widowed women. This study examined the relationship between marital status and HIV infection among women in seven sub-Saharan African countries. Retrospective data from the Demographic and Health Surveys were combined with HIV biomarker data from the AIDS Indicator Survey (AIS) for analysis. Random-effects complementary log-log models were applied to examine the relationship between marital status and HIV risks controlling for theoretically relevant covariates. Compared to never-married women, widowed women were significantly more likely to be HIV positive. Similarly, married women were more likely to be infected with HIV, compared to never-married women in Lesotho and Zimbabwe. In Tanzania and Zimbabwe, divorced women had higher risks of HIV infection, compared to never-married women. Findings suggest that specific HIV programs be directed at vulnerable women, in particular those widowed. Similar programs are needed for both poorer and wealthier women.

  17. Diagnosing the causes of decadal-scale precipitation variability in northeastern sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, P.

    2010-12-01

    The northeastern part of sub-Saharan Africa receives maximum rainfall during summer (June-September), as precipitation tracks the migration of the inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) throughout tropical eastern Africa. Importantly, Ethiopia, Sudan, Eritrea, and northern Uganda experienced substantial precipitation declines during the past 50-60 years. These declines have not been spatially uniform. In the southern portion of this region, the decline has been steady and is ongoing with ~15-20% less summer rainfall in recent years than in the 1950s and 1960s. In the northwest, rainfall is much more variable inter-annually and a partial recovery has occurred after declines of ~30% from 1950-1985. In the northeast, declines from 1950-1985 were less extreme and have since completely recovered. What is the reasoning behind the rainfall declines in these regions, and why have they reversed in the north but continued in the south? I use a variety of observational, reanalysis, and modeled climate data to address these questions. The ongoing intensification of drought in the south is mainly attributable to declining moisture transports from the tropical Indian Ocean as a result of increasing subsidence over the eastern Horn of Africa. The increasing subsidence appears to be associated with warming of the tropical warm pool and increasing convection above the warm pool. In northern Sudan and Ethiopia, the drought from 1950-1985 and subsequent recovery appear to be associated with decadal-scale variability in the position and intensity of the ITCZ. This variability may be due to variations in the contrasting temperatures of the northern and southern hemisphere. I will refer to modeled and reconstructed past climate data to address whether increasing global temperatures have impacted these large-scale climate processes impacting summer rainfall in northeastern sub-Saharan Africa.

  18. Analysis of the paralysis of government leadership in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Dibie

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the nature of the paralysis of public governance, leadership, conflict and economic development in selected countries in sub-Saharan Africa. It argues that ineffective political leadership and conflict will serve as a lever to poor economic growth and social development. Servant leadership and democratic representation are the continuous process of development that could be accomplished through the participation of the citizens in their own development. The dynamics of development and participation at both national and grassroots levels must involve the exposure of government change agents to peace, participatory learning and action models. The article uses data derived from primary and secondary sources to analyse the problem of political conflict, peace, leadership and economic growth. The conceptual framework is based on the structural conflict theory, negative and positive peace theories, frustration-aggression theory, physiological theories, human needs theory and economic theories. The findings show that there is a negative correlation between authoritarian political leadership and economic growth in Africa. In addition, there is a positive relationship between authoritarian political leadership and conflict in several countries in Africa. The article recommends internal and external mediation and peace education mechanisms to prevent conflict from escalating or degenerating into avoidable crises. Thus, government, private sector and nongovernmental organisations should collaborate to restore justice and equality by liberating citizens from cultural, and ethnic elements that subjugate them. The nations in sub-Saharan Africa need to establish capacity-building initiatives that could help to nurture changes in behaviour, attitudes, peace and humanist paradigm, as well as offer not only the basis for self-reliance, participatory sustainable development, but also a means to peaceful shared governance and inclusive

  19. Training for Rural Radiology and Imaging in Sub-Saharan Africa: Addressing the Mismatch Between Services and Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G Kawooya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this review are to outline the needs, challenges, and training interventions for rural radiology (RR training in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. Rural radiology may be defined as imaging requirements of the rural communities. In SSA, over 80% of the population is rural. The literature was reviewed to determine the need for imaging in rural Africa, the challenges, and training interventions. Up to 50% of the patients in the rural health facilities in Uganda may require imaging, largely ultrasound and plain radiography. In Uganda, imaging is performed, on an average, in 50% of the deserving patients in the urban areas, compared to 10-13 % in the rural areas. Imaging has been shown to increase the utilization of facility-based rural health services and to impact management decisions. The challenges in the rural areas are different from those in the urban areas. These are related to disease spectrum, human resource, and socio-economic, socio-cultural, infrastructural, and academic disparities. Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, for which information on training intervention was available, included: Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, Zambia, Ghana, Malawi, and Sudan. Favorable national policies had been instrumental in implementing these interventions. The interventions had been made by public, private-for-profit (PFP, private-not-for profit (PNFP, local, and international academic institutions, personal initiatives, and professional societies. Ultrasound and plain radiography were the main focus. Despite these efforts, there were still gross disparities in the RR services for SSA. In conclusion, there have been training interventions targeted toward RR in Africa. However, gross disparities in RR provision persist, requiring an effective policy, plus a more organized, focused, and sustainable approach, by the stakeholders.

  20. Estimates of gender differences in firm’s access to credit in Sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Rand, John

    2014-01-01

    relatively more constrained than male owned firms. Using formal financial access data we find no gender effect. Finally, using direct information on credit constraints, male owned small firms appear disadvantaged. Furthermore we show a strong size gradient in the gender gap for the two measures for which we......Based on firm level data from 16 Sub-Saharan African countries we show how three different measures of credit constraints lead to three different estimates of gender differences in manufacturing firms’ credit situation. Using a perception based credit constraint measure female owned firms appear...... find significant gender differences....

  1. Scleral buckling for retinal detachment in Ibadan, Sub-Saharan Africa: anatomical and visual outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluleye TS

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available TS Oluleye, OA Ibrahim, BA OlusanyaRetina and Vitreous Unit, Department of Ophthalmology, University College Hospital, Ibadan, NigeriaBackground: Scleral buckle surgery is not a commonly performed surgical procedure in Sub-Saharan Africa due to a paucity of trained vitreo retinal surgeons. The aim of the study was to review sclera buckle procedures with a view to evaluating the anatomical and visual outcomes.Methods: Case records of patients that had scleral buckle surgery at the Retina Unit of the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria, between 2007 and 2010 were reviewed. Information retrieved included patients' demographics, duration of symptoms, and presenting vision. Other information included site of retinal break, extent of retinal detachment, involvement of the fellow eye, and macular involvement. Postoperative retina reattachment and postoperative visual acuity were also recorded. Proportions and percentages were used to analyze data.Results: Forty five eyes of 42 patients were studied with a male to female ratio of 1.6:1. The mean age was 47.7 years (±17.6 years. The median duration before presentation was 3 months (range: 5 days – 156 months. Subtotal retinal detachment was found in 35 eyes (77.8% while total retinal detachment occurred in ten eyes (22.2%. Thirty four eyes (75.6% had "macular off" detachments. At 6 weeks, there was an improvement in visual acuity in 23 eyes (51.1%, while visual acuity remained the same in nine eyes (20% and was worse in 13 eyes (28.9%. Anatomical attachment was seen in 43 eyes (95.6% on the operation table, in 40 eyes (90.9% at first day postoperatively and in 32 eyes (86.5% at 6 weeks after surgery.Conclusion: Outcome of sclera buckle surgery for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment may be improved in developing countries of Sub Sahara Africa if adequate awareness is created to educate the populace on early presentation.Keywords: retinal detachment, scleral buckle surgery, anatomical and visual

  2. Spatio-temporal Characteristics of Actual Evapotranspiration Trends in sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, M. T.; Funk, C. C.; Michaelsen, J.

    2010-12-01

    Actual evapotranspiration (AET) is an important moisture flux linking the Earth’s surface to the atmospheric hydrologic cycle. Global warming is expected to intensify this cycle, leading to moisture deficits over the sub-tropics, which will influence climate at higher latitudes. The spatio-temporal characterization of tropical AET is critical to understanding regional and global climate. To date, many studies on the temporal characteristics of AET across sub-Saharan Africa have employed vegetation-based indices derived from satellite imagery. Although these studies implicitly reflect trends in AET, they quantify the magnitude of change. In this study, we used the latest developments in remote sensing and land-surface modeling to characterize the magnitude and timing of AET in sub-Saharan Africa. We considered several models were evaluated from 1981-2000 using monthly discharge and precipitation from ten sub-basins representative of hydrology in sub-Saharan Africa. Discharge data was provided by the Global Runoff Data Centre, while precipitation data was comprised of ECMWF, NCAR, NOAA/GDAS, and CMAP reanalysis fields synthesized in the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS). The AET models included the Community Land Model, Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, Noah, and two hybrids that we developed driven by a dynamic vegetation component defined in Fisher et al. 2008. The dynamic canopy components in our hybrid models were driven by the LTDR AVHRR daily corrected reflectance data over the evaluation period. The evaluation revealed that VIC was superior to the other models in capturing the magnitude and variability of runoff in the sub-basins. A trend analysis was then performed on VIC AET from 1979-2009 using standard parametric and non-parametric techniques. Linear and median trend analysis was performed on seasonal and annual AET totals to measure the magnitude of change. The analysis revealed several alarming patterns, including large and

  3. Traumatic grief in young people in Sub-Saharan Africa: a scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taggart H

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Holly Taggart,1 Sheila Greatrex-White,2 1Mental Health Commission, CentreForum, Westminster, UK; 2School of Health Sciences, Queen's Medical Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK Aim: To identify relevant and pertinent themes and interventions within the literature relating to childhood traumatic grief, in order to provide a sound background of evidence for further research and service development. Background: Childhood traumatic grief is caused when a significant person in a child's life dies under circumstances that they perceive to be traumatic. This can leave a child unable to return to the same level of physical and emotional functioning that he or she had prior to the death occurring. In Sub-Saharan Africa, there is an increased risk for childhood traumatic grief due to a high prevalence of orphanhood, environmental stressors, stigma, and abuse. This can have detrimental effects upon mental health. Methods: The review followed the York methodology: identifying the purpose and agreeing on the strategy beforehand; identifying relevant sources/studies; selecting the studies; charting the data; and collating, summarizing, and reporting results. Results and discussion: Interventions identified to prevent and/or manage traumatic grief included narrative exposure therapy, psychotherapy, mentoring, peer-group support, psychosocial support, a grief and loss therapy session, and memory boxes. Mental health remains neglected within service and policy development as well as in global health spending. The average amount expended on mental health services per person per year in low-income countries is less than $0.25. Only 36% of people in low income countries are covered by a mental health policy, compared with 92% in high income countries. Limitations: The sixth stage of the York methodology was omitted. Only papers written in English were included in the review. Conclusion: Childhood traumatic grief in young people is an important issue

  4. Market Barriers to Clean Cooking Fuels in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review of Literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlag, Nicolai; Zuzarte, Fiona

    2008-04-15

    In the developing nations of sub-Saharan Africa, providing households with modern energy services is a critical step towards development. A large majority of households in the region rely on traditional biomass fuels for cooking, which represent a significant proportion of energy used in the domestic setting. The disadvantages of these fuels are many: they are inefficient energy carriers and their heat is difficult to control; they produce dangerous emissions; and their current rate of extraction is not sustainable for forests. Transition to clean cooking fuels such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) or ethanol would resolve many of these issues as they do not produce dangerous particulate emissions, and are commercially viable, offering a number of socio-economic advantages over traditional options. Despite the benefits of fuel switching, clean cooking fuels are rarely used in households in sub-Saharan Africa. Their failure to attain widespread use can be attributed to a number of market barriers. One of the major issues is cost: clean cooking fuels are prohibitively expensive for many households, and the high price of compatible stoves further discourages their use. Besides the expense, many consumers are hesitant to adopt the new technology, reflecting the lack of public awareness of the relevant issues. At the same time, Africa's underdeveloped infrastructure prevents these fuels from being made available in many local marketplaces. To date, this combination of factors has largely stifled the transition to clean cooking fuels. National governments can adopt a number of strategies to address these issues. The creation of clean cooking-fuel initiatives at the national level would be an important first step, after which governments can begin to address the issues more effectively. The introduction of relevant financial instruments would help to tackle the economic barriers to clean cooking fuels, and public outreach and education could overcome socio

  5. Research Ethics Capacity Building in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review of NIH Fogarty-Funded Programs 2000–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndebele, Paul; Wassenaar, Douglas; Benatar, Solomon; Fleischer, Theodore; Kruger, Mariana; Adebamowo, Clement; Kass, Nancy; Hyder, Adnan A.; Meslin, Eric M.

    2014-01-01

    The last fifteen years have witnessed a significant increase in investment in research ethics capacity development throughout the world. We examine nine research ethics training programs that are focused on Sub-Saharan Africa and supported by the US National Institutes of Health. We collected data from grants awards’ documents and annual reports supplemented by questionnaires completed by the training program directors. Together, these programs provided long-term training in research ethics to 275 African professionals, strengthened research ethics committees in 19 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, and created research ethics curricula at many institutions and bioethics centers within Africa. Trainees’ leadership resulted in new national systems and policies on research ethics, human tissue storage and export, and methods of monitoring compliance with research ethics guidelines. Training programs adapted to challenges that arose due to varied trainees’ background knowledge in ethics, duration of time available for training, spoken and written English language skills, administrative obstacles, and the need to sustain post-training research ethics activities. Our report showcases the development of awareness of research ethics and building/strengthening of basic research ethics infrastructure in Sub-Saharan Africa. Nevertheless, the increasing amount and complexity of health research being conducted in Sub-Saharan Africa suggests the need for continued investment in research ethics capacity development in this region. This paper is part of a collection of papers analyzing the Fogarty International Center’s International Research Ethics Education and Curriculum Development program. PMID:24782070

  6. The epidemiology of chronic kidney disease in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanifer, John W; Jing, Bocheng; Tolan, Scott; Helmke, Nicole; Mukerjee, Romita; Naicker, Saraladevi; Patel, Uptal

    2014-03-01

    Amid rapid urbanisation, the HIV epidemic, and increasing rates of non-communicable diseases, people in sub-Saharan Africa are especially vulnerable to kidney disease. Little is known about the epidemiology of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in sub-Saharan Africa, so we did a systematic review and meta-analysis examining the epidemiology of the disease. We searched Medline, Embase, and WHO Global Health Library databases for all articles published through March 29, 2012, and searched the reference lists of retrieved articles. We independently reviewed each study for quality. We used the inverse-variance random-effects method for meta-analyses of the medium-quality and high-quality data and explored heterogeneity by comparing CKD burdens across countries, settings (urban or rural), comorbid disorders (hypertension, diabetes, HIV), CKD definitions, and time. Overall, we included 90 studies from 96 sites in the review. Study quality was low, with only 18 (20%) medium-quality studies and three (3%) high-quality studies. We noted moderate heterogeneity between the medium-quality and high-quality studies (n=21; I(2)=47·11%, p<0·0009). Measurement of urine protein was the most common method of determining the presence of kidney disease (62 [69%] studies), but the Cockcroft-Gault formula (22 [24%] studies) and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula (17 [19%] studies) were also used. Most of the studies were done in urban settings (83 [93%] studies) and after the year 2000 (57 [63%] studies), and we detected no significant difference in the prevalence of CKD between urban (12·4%, 95% CI 11-14) and rural (16·5%, 13·8-19·6) settings (p=0·474). The overall prevalence of CKD from the 21 medium-quality and high-quality studies was 13·9% (95% CI 12·2-15·7). In sub-Saharan Africa, CKD is a substantial health burden with risk factors that include communicable and non-communicable diseases. However, poor data quality limits inferences and draws attention to the need

  7. Chronic disease management in Sub-Saharan Africa: whose business is it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Alexander; Ekoe, Tetanye; Perone, Nicolas; Slama, Slim; Loutan, Louis

    2009-08-01

    Public health specialists and clinicians alike agree that Humanity faces a global pandemic of chronic diseases in the 21(st) century. In this article we discuss the implications of this pandemic on another global issue, the health workforce. Because both issues are particularly acute in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), we will focus on this region and use Cameroon as a case in point. We first gauge the epidemic of chronic conditions in SSA. We then discuss the implications of chronic conditions for the reshaping of health systems and the health workforce. We conclude by making a strong case for the building up and strengthening the health workforce, insisting on the crucial role of nurses, their training, and involvement in chronic disease management.

  8. Chronic Disease Management in Sub-Saharan Africa: Whose Business Is It?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slim Slama

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Public health specialists and clinicians alike agree that Humanity faces a global pandemic of chronic diseases in the 21st century. In this article we discuss the implications of this pandemic on another global issue, the health workforce. Because both issues are particularly acute in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, we will focus on this region and use Cameroon as a case in point. We first gauge the epidemic of chronic conditions in SSA. We then discuss the implications of chronic conditions for the reshaping of health systems and the health workforce. We conclude by making a strong case for the building up and strengthening the health workforce, insisting on the crucial role of nurses, their training, and involvement in chronic disease management.

  9. The impact of debt relief on under five mortality rate in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oryema, John Bosco; Gyimah-Brempong, Kwabena; Picone, Gabriel

    2017-06-01

    This paper examines the impact of the Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative on under five mortality rate (U5MR) in Sub-Saharan Africa. The HIPC Initiative involves debt forgiveness and the redirection of funds that were meant to service external debt towards the provision of social services and poverty reduction in eligible countries. The Initiative is akin to a natural experiment since some countries benefited while some did not, and the timing of debt forgiveness varied across countries. We exploit these variations to identify the impact of HIPC Initiative on child mortality using a dynamic panel data estimator. We find that participation in HIPC Initiative is associated with statistically significant decreases in U5MR. On the other hand, the impact of actual debt cancelled is statistically insignificant.

  10. Determining Effective Spraying Periods to Control Malaria via Indoor Residual Spraying in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Smith?

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Indoor residual spraying—spraying insecticide inside houses to kill mosquitoes—is an important method for controlling malaria vectors in sub-Saharan Africa. We propose a mathematical model for both regular and non-fixed spraying, using impulsive differential equations. First, we determine the stability properties of the nonimpulsive system. Next, we derive minimal effective spraying intervals and the degree of spraying effectiveness required to control mosquitoes when spraying occurs at regular intervals. If spraying is not fixed, then we determine the “next best” spraying times. We also consider the effects of climate change on the prevalence of mosquitoes. We show that both regular and nonfixed spraying will result in a significant reduction in the overall number of mosquitoes, as well as the number of malaria cases in humans. We thus recommend that the use of indoor spraying be re-examined for widespread application in malaria-endemic areas.

  11. Rural electrification in Sub Saharan Africa in a context of fluctuating oil-prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Bindner, Henrik W.; Katic, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Solar PV is one among other low carbon technologies for rural electrification in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA). Solar PV systems have for almost 30 years been disseminated in SSA, resulting in more than half a million installations concentrated in a few countries. While PV systems have technically...... matured and markets have gradually developed, PV for rural electrification has often been perceived with scepticism from potential users, donors, government officials and researchers, and solar PV has in many camps been labelled as donor driven, expensive and fragile technology mainly serving the richest...... electrification schemes governed and financed by electric utilities and rural electrification agencies. Based on a literature review and the experience with a full scale hybrid wind/PV diesel system at RISØ DTU, this paper provides cost estimates for hybrid PV-diesel systems and policy recommendations to change...

  12. Identification of advantageous electricity generation options in sub-Saharan Africa integrating existing resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Sándor; Moner-Girona, Magda; Kougias, Ioannis; Bailis, Rob; Bódis, Katalin

    2016-10-01

    Pioneering approaches are needed to accelerate universal access to electricity while simultaneously transitioning to reliable, sustainable and affordable energy systems. In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the challenges lie in attracting the private sector to complement public investments. Here, we present an integrated ‘low-hanging-fruit’ approach aimed at boosting private investment and speeding up the deployment of renewable energy systems in SSA. We analyse the potential of existing energy infrastructure, where a significant upfront investment has already been made, to be exploited for electricity generation. We develop a comprehensive methodology to identify and select suitable locations in SSA and estimate their potential for exploitation. These locations have been further analysed in terms of power capacity potential, electricity output, investments needed and population to be benefited. This strategy to attract additional finance can easily be reproduced, engaging private investors while simultaneously helping to achieve the United Nations (UN) Sustainable Development Goals on energy.

  13. Improving maternal healthcare utilisation in sub-Saharan Africa through micro-finance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abekah-Nkrumah, Gordon; Abor, Patience Aseweh; Abor, Joshua; Adjasi, Charles K D

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to examine links between women's access to micro-finance and how they use maternal healthcare services in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The authors use theoretical and empirical literature to propose a framework to sustain and improve women's access to maternal healthcare services through micro-financing. It is found that improved access to micro-finance by women, combined with education may enhance maternal health service uptake. The paper does not consider empirical data in the analysis. The authors advocate empirically testing the framework proposed in other SSA countries. It is important to empower women by facilitating their access to education and micro-finance. This has implications for improving maternal healthcare utilization in SSA. The paper moves beyond poor access to maternal health services in SSA and proposes a framework for providing sustainable solutions.

  14. Policy and regulatory framework conditions for small hydro power in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koelling, Fritz [Sustainable Energy and Environment, Karlsruhe (Germany); Gaul, Mirco; Schroeder, Miriam [SiNERGi Consultancy for Renewable Energies, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The vast potential of mini and micro hydro power (MHP) in Sub-Saharan African countries is one promising option to cover increasing energy demand and to enable electricity access for remote rural communities. Based on the analysis of 6 African countries (Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa), this study sheds light on some of the main barriers on the level of political and regulatory framework conditions which include gap between the national-level policies and regulations and local MHP project implementation, lack of financing and limited capacities for project planning, building and operation. The paper also identifies some promising practices employed in several SSA countries of how to overcome these barriers and concludes with recommendations of how to create positive feed-backs between ambitious policies and regulations and MHP financing and capacity development needs in order to scale up MHP deployment and MHP sector development. (orig.)

  15. A multi-dimensional assessment of urban vulnerability to climate change in Sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herslund, Lise Byskov; Jalyer, Fatameh; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    for strategic coordination and action. To better adapt to urban flooding andthereby reduce vulnerability and build resilience, we suggest working across dimensions and scales, integrating climate change issues in city-level plans and strategies and enabling local actions to initiate a ‘learning......In this paper, we develop and apply a multi-dimensional vulnerability assessment framework for understanding the impacts of climate change-induced hazards in Sub- Saharan African cities. The research was carried out within the European/African FP7 project CLimate change and Urban Vulnerability...... in Africa, which investigated climate change-induced risks, assessed vulnerability and proposed policy initiatives in five African cities. Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) was used as a main case with a particular focus on urban flooding. The multi-dimensional assessment covered the physical, institutional...

  16. Cherubism in Sub-Saharan Africa: A First Case-Report in a Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloni, Michel Ntetani; Kambere, Renault Sitwaminya; Molua, Antoine; Dilu, Joseph Nzinga; Tshibassu, Pierre Manianga; Kazadi-Lukusa, Aimé; Ngiyulu, René Makuala; Kalengayi, Raphael Mbona; Ehungu, Jean Lambert Gini

    2015-01-01

    Cherubism is rare disease and has been rarely reported in African pediatric population. We report here the case of a 10-year-old child who was referred to our hospital for bilateral jaws swelling. Physical examination revealed bilateral swelling symmetry of the face. Histopathological examination of the biopsy specimen showed loose fibrous stroma, proliferating fibrous connective with tissue interspersed with multinucleated giant cells, small thin walled blood vessels and scattered sparse mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate. Our patient presented cherubism. Cherubism is rarely described in children living in sub-Saharan Africa. Genetic and molecular investigations plays an important role in diagnosis but were not available in poor resources settings in developing countries such as the Democratic Republic of Congo. PMID:25918610

  17. Cherubism in sub-Saharan Africa: a first case-report in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Ntetani Aloni

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cherubism is rare disease and has been rarely reported in African pediatric population. We report here the case of a 10-year-old child who was referred to our hospital for bilateral jaws swelling. Physical examination revealed bilateral swelling symmetry of the face. Histopathological examination of the biopsy specimen showed loose fibrous stroma, proliferating fibrous connective with tissue interspersed with multinucleated giant cells, small thin walled blood vessels and scattered sparse mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate. Our patient presented cherubism. Cherubism is rarely described in children living in sub-Saharan Africa. Genetic and molecular investigations plays an important role in diagnosis but were not available in poor resources settings in developing countries such as the Democratic Republic of Congo.

  18. Induced abortion in sub-Saharan Africa: what we do and do not know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coeytaux, F M

    1988-01-01

    The first step in addressing the growing public health problem of abortion in sub-Saharan Africa is to gain a better understanding of the problem and its complexities. Abortion behavior is inextricably connected with issues of women's roles and opportunities, and until the various dimensions of abortion behavior and its socioeconomic context are understood, governments will have difficulty addressing the problem effectively. In addition, abortion needs to be studied within the broader framework of reproductive health. In a continent where fertility is highly valued and infertility prevalent, the interaction between abortion, practice of contraception, and fears of infertility must be fully understood if we are to have any hope of reducing the numbers of unwanted pregnancies and the morbidity and mortality caused by induced abortion.

  19. Blood donors' perceptions, motivators and deterrents in Sub-Saharan Africa - a scoping review of evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asamoah-Akuoko, Lucy; Hassall, Oliver W; Bates, Imelda

    2017-01-01

    save lives. The main deterrent to blood donation was fear due to lack of knowledge and discouraging spiritual, religious and cultural perceptions of blood donation. The main motivators for blood donation were altruism, donating blood for family and incentives. The findings support the need for targeted......Achieving an adequate blood supply in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) through donor mobilization and retention is crucial. Factors that motivate or deter blood donors vary according to beliefs and social norms. Understanding the factors that influence blood donation behaviour in SSA is vital to developing...... effective strategies to address blood donor motivation and retention. This review of 35 studies from 16 SSA countries collates available evidence concerning the perceptions, motivators and deterrents that influence blood donors in SSA. The review revealed a common understanding that blood and blood donation...

  20. Challenges in malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa: the vaccine perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusingu, John P A; Von Seidlein, Lorenz

    2008-01-01

    Malaria is a life-threatening disease of public health importance, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. It is estimated that about 500 million cases of malaria occur annually and among these 1 million die annually. Children below five years and pregnant women are the most vulnerable groups. Several...... malaria control measures have been applied such as environmental improvements, use of insecticide impregnated nets, residual indoor spraying, early case detection and treatment with effective antimalarial drugs. However, the adaptation of vector and parasite has so far limited the effect...... with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) after resistant parasites had rendered CQ ineffective. Currently the first line treatment of malaria consists of combination therapy which includes an artemisinin derivative. The current approach appears robust but history has taught us to be alert and to expect resistance...

  1. Brucellosis in Sub-Saharan Africa: Current challenges for management, diagnosis and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrotoy, M; Bertu, W J; Matope, G; Cadmus, S; Conde-Álvarez, R; Gusi, A M; Welburn, S; Ocholi, R; Blasco, J M; Moriyón, I

    2017-01-01

    Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonosis caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella and affecting domestic and wild mammals. In this paper, the bacteriological and serological evidence of brucellosis in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and its epidemiological characteristics are discussed. The tools available for the diagnosis and treatment of human brucellosis and for the diagnosis and control of animal brucellosis and their applicability in the context of SSA are presented and gaps identified. These gaps concern mostly the need for simpler and more affordable antimicrobial treatments against human brucellosis, the development of a B. melitensis vaccine that could circumvent the drawbacks of the currently available Rev 1 vaccine, and the investigation of serological diagnostic tests for camel brucellosis and wildlife. Strategies for the implementation of animal vaccination are also discussed. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The health and wellbeing of young people in sub-Saharan Africa: an under-researched area?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabiru, Caroline W; Izugbara, Chimaraoke O; Beguy, Donatien

    2013-02-13

    A third of sub-Saharan Africa's (SSA) population comprises persons aged 10-24 years. These youth are growing up in a context marked by pervasive poverty, limited educational opportunities, high HIV/AIDS prevalence, widespread conflict, and weak social controls. Published research on the broad issues that affect youth health and wellbeing in SSA is limited and centers heavily on sexual and reproductive health. In this commentary, we provide a broad overview of sub-Saharan African youth, highlight research gaps with respect to youth health and wellbeing, and describe potential avenues to develop the region's research capacity on youth health and wellbeing.

  3. Earthquake Hazard and Risk in Sub-Saharan Africa: current status of the Global Earthquake model (GEM) initiative in the region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayele, Atalay; Midzi, Vunganai; Ateba, Bekoa; Mulabisana, Thifhelimbilu; Marimira, Kwangwari; Hlatywayo, Dumisani J.; Akpan, Ofonime; Amponsah, Paulina; Georges, Tuluka M.; Durrheim, Ray

    2013-04-01

    Large magnitude earthquakes have been observed in Sub-Saharan Africa in the recent past, such as the Machaze event of 2006 (Mw, 7.0) in Mozambique and the 2009 Karonga earthquake (Mw 6.2) in Malawi. The December 13, 1910 earthquake (Ms = 7.3) in the Rukwa rift (Tanzania) is the largest of all instrumentally recorded events known to have occurred in East Africa. The overall earthquake hazard in the region is on the lower side compared to other earthquake prone areas in the globe. However, the risk level is high enough for it to receive attention of the African governments and the donor community. The latest earthquake hazard map for the sub-Saharan Africa was done in 1999 and updating is long overdue as several development activities in the construction industry is booming allover sub-Saharan Africa. To this effect, regional seismologists are working together under the GEM (Global Earthquake Model) framework to improve incomplete, inhomogeneous and uncertain catalogues. The working group is also contributing to the UNESCO-IGCP (SIDA) 601 project and assessing all possible sources of data for the catalogue as well as for the seismotectonic characteristics that will help to develop a reasonable hazard model in the region. In the current progress, it is noted that the region is more seismically active than we thought. This demands the coordinated effort of the regional experts to systematically compile all available information for a better output so as to mitigate earthquake risk in the sub-Saharan Africa.

  4. Assessing the Impact of Privatization Policy on Telecommunications Sector Effectiveness and Economic Activity in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwa, Oneurine B.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, privatization has been a growing phenomenon in Sub-Saharan Africa. It is viewed as an instrument used by the public sector to reduce the role of the state in the economies while enhancing the scope of private ownership and participation of goods and services (Akram et al, 2011). Researchers have noted that the telecommunication…

  5. Biomedical infertility care in sub-Saharan Africa: a social science review of current practices, experiences and view points

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, T.; Shaw, M.

    2010-01-01

    Some sort of infertility treatments, including the use of advanced reproductive technologies (ARTs), is nowadays pro- vided at several places in sub-Saharan Africa. Yet, to date only a few studies have actually looked into the way these treatments are offered, used and experienced. In this review

  6. Knowledge Production and Distribution by Institutions of Higher Education in Sub-Saharan Africa: Opportunities and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondari-Okemwa, E.

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on available opportunities and challenges which institutions of higher education in sub-Saharan Africa face in producing and distributing knowledge. Institutions of higher education are also expected to produce knowledge workers for the knowledge economy. Knowledge production falls into Mode 1, in which problems are set and…

  7. Gestational diabetes mellitus in sub-Saharan Africa: systematic review and meta-regression on prevalence and risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwanri, A.W.; Kinabo, J.L.; Ramaiya, K.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We systematically reviewed publications on prevalence and risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the 47 countries of sub-Saharan Africa. Methods We conducted a systematic search in PUBMED and reviewed articles published until June 2014 and searched the references of

  8. Enhancing sustainable development in sub-Saharan Africa : new integrated sustainability mechanisms for securing substantial benefits of renewable energy projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikejemba, Eugene Chidiebere Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Without doubt the renewable energy (RE) sector in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is currently booming exponentially. More often than not, these projects are designed as just “projects” thus leading to their failure in the shortest possible time. This can be easily seen from numerous already failed

  9. Food trade and urbanization in Sub-Saharan Africa : from the Early Stone Age to the Structural Adjustment Era

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, T.

    1995-01-01

    This paper analyses a selection of the literature that has been published on the relationship between the development of food trade and urbanization in sub-Saharan Africa. The evolution of food marketing systems and the urbanization process are described in three phases: the precolonial period, the

  10. Learning Management System Success: Increasing Learning Management System Usage in Higher Education in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtebe, Joel S.

    2015-01-01

    Learning Management Systems (LMS) have been widely adopted by higher education institutions globally for over a decade. Institutions in sub-Saharan Africa now spend a significant proportion of their limited resources on installing and maintaining these systems. This expenditure continues to increase, raising questions as to whether LMS in these…

  11. African marketing boards under structural adjustment : the experience of Sub-Saharan Africa during the 1980s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, van der H.L.; Haaren, van W.T.M.

    1990-01-01

    Sum.: The economic policy of structural adjustment, which was initiated in most African countries during the 1980s, posed a serious threat to agricultural marketing boards in sub-Saharan Africa. Two elements of structural adjustment were particularly ominous: 'privatization' threatened the continued

  12. Aetiologies of non-malaria febrile episodes in children under 5 years in sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiemde, Francois; Spijker, René; Mens, Petra F.; Tinto, Halidou; Boele, Michael; Schallig, Henk D. F. H.

    2016-01-01

    ObjectivesTo provide an overview of the most frequent aetiologies found in febrile episodes of children under 5 years from sub-Saharan Africa. MethodsMEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for publications in English and French on non-malaria fever episodes in African children under 5 years of age, which

  13. Mapping evidence on the distribution of human papillomavirus-related cancers in sub-Saharan Africa: scoping review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekoane, Bridget K M; Mashamba-Thompson, Tivani P; Ginindza, Themba G

    2017-11-17

    Despite the introduction of HPV vaccines, the incidence of HPV-related cancers (cervical, penile, anal, vulvar, vagina, head, and neck) in sub-Saharan Africa has been rising. The increasing incidence of these HPV-related cancers has been attributed to changes in lifestyle-related risk factors, most notably sexual behavior. The main objective of this study is to map evidence on the distribution of HIV-related cancers in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We will conduct a scoping review to explore, describe, and map literature on the distribution of HPV-related cancers in sub-Saharan Africa. The primary search will include peer-reviewed and review articles. The list of references from included studies will also be searched. The search will be performed using EBSCOhost platform by searching the following databases within the platform: Academic search complete, health source: nursing/academic edition, CINAHL with full text, PubMed, Science Direct, Google scholar and World Health Organization (WHO) library databases, and gray literature. The researcher will search the articles using keywords, from the included studies; abstract and full articles will be screened by two independent reviewers. The screening will be guided by the inclusion and exclusion criteria. A thematic content analysis will be used to present the narrative account of the reviews, using NVivo version 10. We anticipate finding relevant literature on the distribution of HPV-related cancers in sub-Saharan Africa. The study findings will help reveal research gaps to guide future research. PROSPERO CRD42017062403.

  14. Comparison of biotyping methods as alternative identification tools to molecular typing of pathogenic Cryptococcus species in sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyazika, T.K.; Robertson, V.J.; Nherera, B.; Mapondera, P.T.; Meis, J.F.; Hagen, F.

    2016-01-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis is the leading fungal infection and AIDS defining opportunistic illness in patients with late stage HIV infection, particularly in South-East Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Given the high mortality, clinical differences and the extensive ecological niche of Cryptococcus

  15. Maize lethal necrosis (MLN), an emerging threat to maize-based food security in sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    In sub-Saharan Africa, maize is a staple food and key determinant of food security for smallholder farming communities. Pest and disease outbreaks are key constraints to maize productivity. In September 2011, a serious disease outbreak, later diagnosed as maize lethal necrosis (MLN), was reported on...

  16. Failures & generic recommendations towards the sustainable management of renewable energy projects in Sub-Saharan Africa (Part 2 of 2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikejemba, Eugene C.X.; Schuur, Peter C.; Van Hillegersberg, Jos; Mpuan, Peter B.

    2017-01-01

    Renewable energy (RE) generation is expected to become the main source of energy in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) over the next century. However, more often than not, the sustainability aspect of these projects is a characteristic that is not clearly defined in terms of projects implemented in SSA. The

  17. The economics of HIV vaccines - Projecting the impact of HIV vaccination of infants in sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, JM; Postma, MJ

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: (i) To project vaccine parameters, economic consequences and market size associated with HIV-1 vaccination of infants in sub-Saharan Africa through the Expanded Program on Immunisation (EPI); and (ii) to assess threshold values for price and effectiveness. Study design and methods:

  18. Seasonality and Access to Education: The Case of Primary Education in Sub-Saharan Africa. Research Monograph No. 31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Sierd

    2010-01-01

    This paper draws together research on seasonality, child labour and education in the context of primary education in sub-Saharan Africa. It describes how income poverty and demand for labour can fluctuate within and between years, affecting participation and progression through school systems. It highlights how analysis of the private and public…

  19. Measuring and Analysing Educational Inequality : The Distribution of Grade Enrolment Rates in Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frankema, Ewout; Bolt, Jutta

    2006-01-01

    Cross-country research on educational inequality presents contrasting views on the extent of educational inequality in Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa. The differences in opinion also concern the relation between educational inequality and income inequality. This paper argues that part of the

  20. The impact of antiretroviral treatment on the age composition of the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.C. Hontelez (Jan); S.J. de Vlas (Sake); R.M.P.M. Baltussen (Rob); M.-L. Newell (Marie-Louise); R. Bakker (Roel); F. Tanser (Frank); M.N. Lurie (Mark N.); T. Bärnighausen (Till)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Antiretroviral treatment (ART) coverage is rapidly expanding in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Based on the effect of ART on survival of HIV-infected people and HIV transmission, the age composition of the HIV epidemic in the region is expected to change in the coming decades.

  1. The impact of antiretroviral treatment on the age composition of the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hontelez, J.A.C.; Vlas, S.J. de; Baltussen, R.; Newell, M.L.; Bakker, R.; Tanser, F.; Lurie, M.; Barnighausen, T.

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Antiretroviral treatment (ART) coverage is rapidly expanding in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Based on the effect of ART on survival of HIV-infected people and HIV transmission, the age composition of the HIV epidemic in the region is expected to change in the coming decades. We quantify

  2. The role of the agricultural sector in mitigating the impact of HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegers, E.S.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the impacts of HIV/AIDS on agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa and the actual and potential role of the agricultural sector in the fight against this disease. It is argued that the agricultural sector has all important role to play in reducing the spread and impacts of HIV/AIDS,

  3. Adverse Drug Reaction reports for cardiometabolic drugs from sub-Saharan Africa : a study in VigiBase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berhe, Derbew Fikadu; Juhlin, Kristina; Star, Kristina; Beyene, Kidanemariam G. M.; Dheda, Mukesh; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.; Taxis, Katja; Mol, Peter G. M.

    OBJECTIVE: Identifying key features of cardiometabolic ADR reports in sub Saharan Africa (SSA) compared with reports from the rest of the world (RoW). METHODS: Reports on suspected ADRs of cardiometabolic drugs (ATC: A10[antidiabetic], B01[antithrombotics] and C[cardiovascular]) were extracted from

  4. The Situation of Students in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Case Study of St Augustine University of Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Bernadette; Haller, Max

    2012-01-01

    It is widely recognised that higher education is crucial for socio-economic growth in developing countries. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is lagging behind in this regard in spite of a strong expansion of universities in the last decades. However, this growth may have led to a deterioration of the quality of higher education. There is no dearth of…

  5. No Longer Overlooked and Undervalued?: The Evolving Dynamics of Endogenous Educational Research in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclure, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Multilateral donors like the World Bank and bilateral agencies such as the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the British Department for International Development exert a great deal of influence in international educational development--particularly in sub-Saharan Africa--both in the programs they fund and the types of…

  6. HIV/AIDS, gender and rural livelihoods in sub-Saharan Africa : An overview and annotated bibliography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, T.R.

    2005-01-01

    This second publication in the AWLAE series on HIV/AIDS and agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa discusses the gender dimension of HIV/AIDS impact at household and community level. It does so in using the threefold typology of gender specific constraints, gender intensified constraints and gender

  7. Management of Chronic Diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa: Cross-Fertilisation between HIV/AIDS and Diabetes Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Olmen, J.; Schellevis, F.G.; van Damme, W.; Kegels, G.; Rasschaert, F.

    2012-01-01

    There is growing attention for chronic diseases in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and for bridges between the management of HIV/AIDS and other (noncommunicable) chronic diseases. This becomes more urgent with increasing numbers of people living with both HIV/AIDS and other chronic conditions. This paper

  8. Management of chronic diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa: cross-fertilisation between HIV/AIDS and diabetes care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olmen, J. van; Schellevis, F.; Damme, W. van; Kegels, G.; Rasschaert, F.

    2012-01-01

    There is growing attention for chronic diseases in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and for bridges between the management of HIV/AIDS and other (noncommunicable) chronic diseases. This becomes more urgent with increasing numbers of people living with both HIV/AIDS and other chronic conditions. This paper

  9. How innovative and conventional curricula prepare medical students for practice in Sub-Saharan Africa: A comparative study from Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frambach, J.M.; Manuel, B.A.; Fumo, A.M.; Groosjohan, B.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Driessen, E.W.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Medical education in Sub-Saharan Africa is in need of reform to promote the number and quality of physicians trained. Curriculum change and innovation in this region, however, face a challenging context that may affect curriculum outcomes. Research on outcomes of curriculum innovation in

  10. Multi-spatial livelihoods in sub-Saharan Africa : rural farming by urban households - the case of Nakuru town, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foeken, D.W.J.; Owuor, S.O.; Bruijn, de M.E.; Dijk, R.A.; Foeken, D.W.J.

    2001-01-01

    Multispatial livelihoods refer to households with a livelihood foothold in both urban and rural areas. Although it is well-known that multispatial households are common in sub-Saharan Africa, the phenomenon has seldom been looked at from the urban household perspective. A review of the literature

  11. Determinants of adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-positive adults in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heestermans, Tessa; Browne, Joyce L; Aitken, Susan C; Vervoort, Sigrid C; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Objective The rapid scale up of antiretroviral treatment (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has resulted in an increased focus on patient adherence. Non-adherence can lead to drug-resistant HIV caused by failure to achieve maximal viral suppression. Optimal treatment requires the identification of

  12. HIV incidence in sub-Saharan Africa: a review of available data with implications for surveillance and prevention planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braunstein, Sarah L.; van de Wijgert, Janneke H. H. M.; Nash, Denis

    2009-01-01

    HIV incidence estimation is increasingly being incorporated into HIV/AIDS surveillance activities in both resource-rich and developing countries. We conducted a systematic review to assess the availability of HIV incidence data from sub-Saharan Africa. We examined peer-reviewed articles, conference

  13. The Application of Educational Design Research in the Context of Curriculum Materials Development in Sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenney, Susan; Reeves, T.C.

    2013-01-01

    Progress toward the UN Millennium Development Goal to “Achieve Universal Primary Education” by 2015 is severely limited, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper describes the application of educational design research (EDR) to this goal, specifically in the context of improving the capacity of

  14. International migration and national development in sub-Saharan Africa : viewpoints and policy initiatives in the countries of origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adepoju, Aderanti; Naerssen, Ton van; Zoomers, Annelies

    2008-01-01

    This book aims at achieving a better understanding of the implications of international migration for national development from the perspective of the sending countries, with an emphasis on sub-Saharan Africa. More specifically, the volume explores (1) current perceptions of the links between

  15. United States aid policy and induced abortion in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendavid, Eran; Avila, Patrick; Miller, Grant

    2011-12-01

    To determine whether the Mexico City Policy, a United States government policy that prohibits funding to nongovernmental organizations performing or promoting abortion, was associated with the induced abortion rate in sub-Saharan Africa. Women in 20 African countries who had induced abortions between 1994 and 2008 were identified in Demographic and Health Surveys. A country's exposure to the Mexico City Policy was considered high (or low) if its per capita assistance from the United States for family planning and reproductive health was above (or below) the median among study countries before the policy's reinstatement in 2001. Using logistic regression and a difference-in-difference design, the authors estimated the differential change in the odds of having an induced abortion among women in high exposure countries relative to low exposure countries when the policy was reinstated. The study included 261,116 women aged 15 to 44 years. A comparison of 1994-2000 with 2001-2008 revealed an adjusted odds ratio for induced abortion of 2.55 for high-exposure countries versus low-exposure countries under the policy (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.76-3.71). There was a relative decline in the use of modern contraceptives in the high-exposure countries over the same time period. The induced abortion rate in sub-Saharan Africa rose in high-exposure countries relative to low-exposure countries when the Mexico City Policy was reintroduced. Reduced financial support for family planning may have led women to substitute abortion for contraception. Regardless of one's views about abortion, the findings may have important implications for public policies governing abortion.

  16. A meta-analysis of antimicrobial susceptibility profiles for pneumococcal pneumonia in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iroh Tam, Pui-Ying; Sadoh, Ayebo E; Obaro, Stephen K

    2018-02-01

    Pneumonia causes an enormous burden of childhood disease globally, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Pneumococcus is the most common bacterial aetiology of pneumonia; however, antimicrobials are limited and may not adequately address the local epidemiology of the region. To undertake a review and meta-analysis of pneumonia studies in sub-Saharan Africa to evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in childhood pneumonia. Articles published in PubMed and Google between 2006 and 2016 which evaluated antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of pneumococcal pneumonia in children in sub-Saharan Africa were identified. The source of specimens, pathogens and antimicrobial susceptibility data were extracted. Pooled analysis of susceptible isolates was conducted using random effects models. Children from 15 studies and 1634 isolates were included in the meta-analysis. In cases of childhood pneumonia, the mean overall proportion of penicillin susceptibility from invasive specimens of Streptococcus pneumoniae was 85.7% (95% CI 80.1-91.3), and of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was 21.0% (95% CI 5.1-36.9). Compared with all S. pneumoniae specimens, penicillin susceptibility was 68.6% (95% CI 59.6-77.5) and that of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was 26.3% (95% CI 14.1-38.6). A high level of heterogeneity was detected, reflecting the paucity of data available. The establishment of national and regional diagnostic platforms to monitor antimicrobial susceptibility profiles for pneumonia as well as other invasive diseases will provide data with which to assess the relevance and adaptation of antimicrobial prescribing recommendations.

  17. Costs and health consequences of chlamydia management strategies among pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romoren, M; Hussein, F; Steen, T W; Velauthapillai, M; Sundby, J; Hjortdahl, P; Kristiansen, I S

    2007-12-01

    Chlamydia is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide and a major cause of morbidity-particularly among women and neonates. We compared costs and health consequences of using point-of-care (POC) tests with current syndromic management among antenatal care attendees in sub-Saharan Africa. We also compared erythromycin with azithromycin treatment and universal with age-based chlamydia management. A decision analytical model was developed to compare diagnostic and treatment strategies, using Botswana as a case. Model input was based upon (1) a study of pregnant women in Botswana, (2) literature reviews and (3) expert opinion. We expressed the study outcome in terms of costs (US$), cases cured, magnitude of overtreatment and successful partner treatment. Azithromycin was less costly and more effective than erythromycin. Compared with syndromic management, testing all attendees on their first visit with a 75% sensitive POC test increased the number of cases cured from 1500 to 3500 in a population of 100,000 women, at a cost of US$38 per additional case cured. This cost was lower in high-prevalence populations or if testing was restricted to teenagers. The specific POC tests provided the advantage of substantial reductions in overtreatment with antibiotics and improved partner management. Using POC tests to diagnose chlamydia during antenatal care in sub-Saharan Africa entails greater health benefits than syndromic management does-and at acceptable costs-especially when restricted to younger women. Changes in diagnostic strategy and treatment regimens may improve people's health and even reduce healthcare budgets.

  18. Pilot Survey of Breast Cancer Management in Sub-Saharan Africa

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    Verna D.N.K. Vanderpuye

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To understand the current state of breast cancer management in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: We conducted an anonymous online survey of breast cancer management among African Organization for Research and Treatment in Cancer (AORTIC members by using a 42-question structured questionnaire in both English and French in 2013. Results: Twenty members from 19 facilities in 14 countries responded to the survey. Twelve members (60% belonged to a multidisciplinary breast cancer team. Radiotherapy equipment was available in seven facilities (36%, but equipment had down time at least once a week in four facilities. Available chemotherapy drugs included methotrexate, cyclophosphamide, fluorouracil, anthracyclines, and vincristine, whereas trastuzumab, taxanes, vinorelbine, and gemcitabine were available in few facilities. Core-needle biopsy was available in 16 facilities (84%; mammogram, in 17 facilities (89%; computed tomography scan, in 15 facilities (79%; magnetic resonance imaging, in 11 facilities (58%; and bone scans, in nine facilities (47%. It took an average of 1 to 3 weeks to report histopathology. Immunohistochemistry was available locally in eight facilities (42%, outside hospitals but within the country in seven facilities (37%, and outside the country in four facilities (21%. Thirteen facilities (68% performed axillary node dissections as part of a breast protocol. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was the most common therapy for locally advanced breast cancer in 13 facilities (68%. In three facilities (16%, receptor status did not influence the prescription of hormone treatment. Conclusion: This pilot survey suggests that AORTIC members in sub-Saharan Africa continue to make gains in the provision of access to multidisciplinary breast cancer care, but the lack of adequate pathology and radiotherapy services is a barrier. Focused attention on in-country and regional training needs and improvement of health systems deliverables is urgently

  19. HIV/AIDS and mental health research in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, Erica; Myer, Landon; Struthers, Helen; Joska, John A

    2011-06-01

    The relationship between mental illness and HIV/AIDS is complex and bidirectional. A significant amount of research has been performed in high-income countries but less is known about HIV and mental health in sub-Saharan Africa. The objectives of the review were to search the literature for quantitative studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa on mental health and HIV and to critically evaluate and collate the studies in order to identify research needs and priorities. The databases Ovid, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) were searched for variations of search terms related to HIV/AIDS and mental health and studies limited to the populations of African countries. In addition, we hand-searched indexes of key journals and the databases of academic theses. We included 104 papers or research publications. The majority of these were published after 2005. The major topics covered were: mental-health-related HIV-risk behaviour, HIV in psychiatric populations, and mental illness in HIV-positive populations. The reported prevalence levels of mental illness among people living with HIV or AIDS (PLHIV) was high, with all but one study noting a prevalence of 19% or higher. Neurocognitive changes in adults with HIV were also prevalent, with reported deficits of up to 99% in symptomatic PLHIV and 33% in non-symptomatic PLHIV. Research on HIV in relation to mental health is increasing; however, there is a need for good-quality prospective studies to investigate the bidirectional effects of mental illness and HIV on each other.

  20. Clinical outcomes of HIV-exposed, HIV-uninfected children in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    le Roux, Stanzi M; Abrams, Elaine J; Nguyen, Kelly; Myer, Landon

    2016-07-01

    HIV-exposed but HIV-uninfected (HEU) children are widely considered at increased risk of mortality and morbidity. Recent advances in prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) strategies, incorporating life-long universal maternal antiretroviral therapy (ART, "Option B+") with extended breastfeeding, may improve HEU child health substantially. We critically reviewed reports of mortality/morbidity among HEU and HIV-unexposed (HU) children in sub-Saharan Africa. We searched Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Academic Search Premier, Global Health & Psychosocial Instruments databases, conference abstracts, and reference lists for longitudinal studies from sub-Saharan Africa reporting mortality and clinical morbidity among HIV-uninfected children aged ≤10 years, by maternal HIV status. Studies were appraised by Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and ACROBAT-NRSI. Due to substantial heterogeneity of study designs, populations and results (I(2) = 75%), data were not synthesised. We included 37 reports (28 studies, 11 164 HEU children); methodological and reporting quality were variable. Most reports came from settings without universal access to maternal ART (n = 35). Results were conflicting, with some studies indicating increased risk of mortality, hospitalisation and/or under-nutrition among HEU children, while others found no evidence of increased risk. In subanalyses, improved maternal health, ART use and breastfeeding were strongly protective for all outcomes. Only 39% (11/28) of studies adjusted for major confounders. Reports from settings using universal maternal ART with breastfeeding (n = 2) found no differences in growth or development but did not report mortality or infectious morbidity. The existing literature provides little insight into HEU child health under recently adopted PMTCT strategies. There is a need for robust comparative data on HEU and HIV-unexposed child health outcomes under Option B+; optimising breastfeeding practices and increasing

  1. Languages, communication potential and generalized trust in Sub-Saharan Africa: evidence based on the Afrobarometer Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzasi, Katalin

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study is to investigate whether speaking other than home languages in Sub-Saharan Africa promotes generalized trust. Based on various psychological and economic theories, a simple model is provided to illustrate how languages might shape trust through various channels. Relying on data from the Afrobarometer Project, which provides information on home and additional languages, the Index of Communication Potential (ICP) is introduced to capture the linguistic situation in the 20 sample countries. The ICP, which can be computed at any desired level of aggregation, refers to the probability that an individual can communicate with a randomly selected person in the society based on common languages. The estimated two-level hierarchical models show that, however, individual level communication potential does not seem to impact trust formation, but living in an area with higher average communication potential increases the chance of exhibiting higher trust toward unknown people. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Inequities in the Global Health Workforce: The Greatest Impediment to Health in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chipayeni Mtonga

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Health systems played a key role in the dramatic rise in global life expectancy that occurred during the 20th century, and have continued to contribute enormously to the improvement of the health of most of the world’s population. The health workforce is the backbone of each health system, the lubricant that facilitates the smooth implementation of health action for sustainable socio-economic development. It has been proved beyond reasonable doubt that the density of the health workforce is directly correlated with positive health outcomes. In other words, health workers save lives and improve health. About 59 million people make up the health workforce of paid full-time health workers world-wide. However, enormous gaps remain between the potential of health systems and their actual performance, and there are far too many inequities in the distribution of health workers between countries and within countries. The Americas (mainly USA and Canada are home to 14% of the world’s population, bear only 10% of the world’s disease burden, have 37% of the global health workforce and spend about 50% of the world’s financial resources for health. Conversely, sub-Saharan Africa, with about 11% of the world’s population bears over 24% of the global disease burden, is home to only 3% of the global health workforce, and spends less than 1% of the world’s financial resources on health. In most developing countries, the health workforce is concentrated in the major towns and cities, while rural areas can only boast of about 23% and 38% of the country’s doctors and nurses respectively. The imbalances exist not only in the total numbers and geographical distribution of health workers, but also in the skills mix of available health workers. WHO estimates that 57 countries world wide have a critical shortage of health workers, equivalent to a global deficit of about 2

  3. Smallholder Irrigation and Crop Diversification under Climate Change in sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence and Potential for Simultaneous Food Security, Adaptation, and Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, R.; Burney, J. A.; Postel, S.

    2011-12-01

    The poorest populations in sub-Saharan Africa live in rural areas and depend on smallholder agricultural production for their livelihoods. Over 90% of all farmed area in Sub-Saharan Africa is rainfed, with crop production centering on 3-5 months of rainfall. Rapid population growth is reducing land per capita ratios, and low yields for staple crops make food security an increasingly challenging goal. Malnutrition, most noticeable among children, peaks during the dry season. Recent data on aggregate economic growth and investment in Africa hide these patterns of seasonal hunger and income disparity. Perhaps most perversely, smallholder farmers in the dry tropical regions of sub-Saharan Africa are (and will continue to be) some of the earliest and hardest hit by climate change. Our research focuses on the role distributed, small-scale irrigation can play in food security and climate change adaptation in sub-Saharan Africa. As Asia's agricultural success has demonstrated, irrigation, when combined with the availability of inputs (fertilizer) and improved crop varieties, can enable year-round production, growth in rural incomes, and a dramatic reduction in hunger. The situation in Africa is markedly different: agroecological conditions are far more heterogeneous than in Asia and evaporation rates are relatively high; most smallholders lack access to fertilizers; and market integration is constrained by infrastructure, information, and private sector incentives. Yet from a resource perspective, national- and regional-level estimates suggest that Internal Renewable Water Resources (IRWR) are nowhere near fully exploited in Sub-Saharan Africa -- even in the Sudano-Sahel, which is considered to be one of the driest regions of the continent. Irrigation can thus be implemented on a much larger scale sustainably. We will present (a) results from controlled, experimental field studies of solar-powered drip irrigation systems in the rural Sudano-Sahel region of West Africa. We

  4. OPEN FLEXIBLE LIFELONG LEARNING AS A CATALYST FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Kayode OLAKULEHIN

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Educational provision in developing sub-Saharan Africa states has been severely hindered by the hydra-headed problems of access, cost and quality. Amidst these challenges is the pledge of regional and national education policymakers and development planners to ensure that there is maximum access equitable and qualitative education for all (EFA in Africa. There is also a burning need for improved literacy levels and functional education, in order to overcome the development deficits that are currently facing the region. The pledge of education for all resonates the agreement which representatives of several nations of the world signed at the Jomtien summit on Education for All and the subsequent evaluation meetings. Following this pledge, several developing, sub-Sahara African nations have evolved initiatives for instituting sustainable Open Flexible Learning (ODL systems in order to meet up with the seemingly intractable EFA objectives. This paper examined the potential impact of these OFL initiatives on the achievement of the EFA objectives which is seen as the basis of development planning, administration and implementation in Africa. It identified the various challenges confronting effective implementation of ODL on the continent, amidst the need to expand access to educational opportunities. An attempt was made to situate the OFL system at the centre of the strategies for achieving these EFA objectives in the region and finally, a proposal for sustainable policy initiatives for implementing OFL systems for the attainment of education for all in Africa is made.

  5. Drought vulnerability assessment of maize in Sub-Saharan Africa: Insights from physical and social perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, Bahareh; Abbaspour, Karim C.; Wehrli, Bernhard; Yang, Hong

    2018-03-01

    Drought as a slow-onset phenomenon inflicts important losses to agriculture where the degree of vulnerability depends not only on physical variables such as precipitation and temperature, but also on societal preparedness. While the scopes of physical and social vulnerability are very different in nature, studies distinguishing these two aspects have been lacking. In this study we address the physical and social aspects of drought vulnerability of maize (CDVIphy and CDVIsoc) in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). To quantify vulnerability, we applied a probabilistic framework combining a Drought Exposure Index (DEI) with a physical or social Crop Failure Index, CFIphy or CFIsoc, respectively. DEI was derived from the exceedance probability of precipitation. Maize yields, simulated using the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model, were used to build CFIphy, whereas the residual of simulated and FAO recorded yields were used to construct CFIsoc. The results showed that southern and partially central Africa are more vulnerable to physical drought as compared to other regions. Central and western Africa, however, are socially highly vulnerable. Comparison of CDVIphy and CDVIsoc revealed that societal factors cause more vulnerability than physical variables in almost all SSA countries except Nigeria and South Africa. We conclude that quantification of both drought vulnerabilities help a better characterization of droughts and identify regions where more investments in drought preparedness are required.

  6. Health service delivery models for the provision of antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Jeffrey V; Safreed-Harmon, Kelly; Nicholson, Joey; Jaffar, Shabbar

    2014-10-01

    In response to the lack of evidence-based guidance for how to continue scaling up antiretroviral therapy (ART) in ways that make optimal use of limited resources, to assess comparative studies of ART service delivery models implemented in sub-Saharan Africa. A systematic literature search and analysis of studies that compared two or more methods of ART service delivery using either CD4 count or viral load as a primary outcome. Most studies identified in this review were small and non-randomised, with low statistical power. Four of the 30 articles identified by this review conclude that nurse management of ART compares favourably to physician management. Seven provide evidence of the viability of managing ART at lower levels within the health system, and one indicates that vertical and integrated ART programmes can achieve similar outcomes. Five articles show that community/home-based ART management can be as effective as facility-based ART management. Five of seven articles investigating community support link it to better clinical outcomes. The results of four studies suggest that directly observed therapy may not be an important component of ART programmes. Given that the scale-up of antiretroviral therapy represents the most sweeping change in healthcare delivery in sub-Saharan Africa in recent years, it is surprising to not find more evidence from comparative studies to inform implementation strategies. The studies reported on a wide range of service delivery models, making it difficult to draw conclusions about some models. The strongest evidence was related to the feasibility of decentralisation and task-shifting, both of which appear to be effective strategies. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The role of decentralized systems in providing universal electricity access in Sub-Saharan Africa – A model-based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dagnachew, Anteneh G.; Lucas, Paul L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/272607444; Hof, Andries F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/240412397; Gernaat, David E.H.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/372664636; de Boer, Harmen Sytze; van Vuuren, Detlef P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/11522016X

    2017-01-01

    Poverty and lack of access to electricity are highly correlated. In Sub-Saharan Africa, one of the poorest regions in the world, two in every three people have no access to electricity. This paper describes a purpose designed model to explore and project the development in the Sub-Saharan African

  8. Silence sexual and reproductive health discussions and we fuel the rise of HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcicki, Janet M

    2017-10-17

    In the mid 1990s, the HIV epidemic was initially impacting South Africa. Fear, stigma and denial surrounding sexual practices undermined treatment access and prevention initiatives. Significant strides have been made in reducing the HIV epidemic in South Africa and other areas in sub-Saharan Africa through effective programming and funding of prevention programs. Reinstatement of the Mexico City Policy threatens to negatively impact gains made in the HIV/AIDS community. Recognition that communication is essential to effective reproductive health and HIV/AIDS programming needs to be recognized by politicians enacting the Mexico City Policy and the possibility of viewing a rise in HIV/AIDS incidence in sub-Saharan Africa.

  9. Religious and cultural traits in HIV/AIDS epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayati, Ali-Akbar; Bakayev, Valerii; Bahadori, Moslem; Tabatabaei, Seyed-Javad; Alaei, Arash; Farahbood, Amir; Masjedi, Mohammad-Reza

    2007-10-01

    The pandemic of HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa and the rise of epidemics in Asia to the previously unforeseen level are likely to have global social, economic, and political impacts. In this emergency, it is vital to reappraise the weight of powerful religious and cultural factors in spreading the disease. The role of Islam in shaping values, norms, and public policies in North African states is to be appreciated for the lowest HIV prevalence in their populations. Yet, the place of religion in prevention of the disease diffusion is not fully understood nor worldwide acknowledged by the primary decision makers. Another topic, which has received little attention to date, despite the abundance of literature concerning the unfortunate Africa's anti-AIDS campaign, is an issue of colonial past. To better comprehend the share of both traits in diverse spread of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, we studied the correlation between Muslim and Christian proportions in the state's population and HIV rate. By this method, Muslim percentage came out as a potential predictor of HIV prevalence in a given state. In another approach, most subcontinental countries were clustered by colocalization and similarity in their leading religion, colonial past, and HIV seroprevalence starting from barely noticeable (0.6 - 1.2%, for Mauritania, Senegal, Somalia, and Niger) and low levels (1.9 - 4.8%, for Mali, Eritrea, Djibouti, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Burkina-Faso, and Chad) for Muslim populated past possessions of France and Italy, in the northern part of the subcontinent. Former territories of France, Belgium, Portugal, and the UK formed two other groups of the countries nearing the equator with Catholic prevailing (Democratic Republic of Congo, Republic of Congo, Rwanda, Gabon, and Burundi) or mixed populations comprising Christian, Muslim, and indigenous believers (Benin, Ghana, Uganda, Togo, Angola, Nigeria, Liberia, Kenya, Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, and Sierra-Leone), which covered the HIV

  10. Diversity and biogeography of frogs in the genus Amnirana (Anura: Ranidae) across sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongsma, Gregory F M; Barej, Michael F; Barratt, Christopher D; Burger, Marius; Conradie, Werner; Ernst, Raffael; Greenbaum, Eli; Hirschfeld, Mareike; Leaché, Adam D; Penner, Johannes; Portik, Daniel M; Zassi-Boulou, Ange-Ghislain; Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Blackburn, David C

    2017-12-12

    Frogs in the genus Amnirana (family Ranidae) are widely distributed across sub-Saharan Africa and present a model system for exploring the relationship between diversification and geography across the continent. Using multiple loci from the mitochondrial (16S) and nuclear genomes (DISP2, FICD, KIAA2013, REV3L), we generated a strongly supported species-level phylogeny that provides insights into the continental biogeography of African species of Amnirana, which form a monophyletic group within the genus. Species delimitation analyses suggest that there may be as many as seven additional species of Amnirana in Africa. The biogeographic history of Amnirana is marked by several dispersal and vicariance events, including dispersal from the Lower Guinean Forest into the Congo Basin. In addition, phylogeographic patterns within two widespread species, A. albolabris and A. galamensis, reveal undescribed cryptic diversity. Populations assigned to A. albolabris in western Africa are more closely related to A. fonensis and require recognition as a distinct species. Our analyses reveal that the Lower and Upper Guinean Forest regions served as important centers of interspecific and intraspecific diversifications for Amnirana. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Medical laboratories in sub-Saharan Africa that meet international quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Lee F; Amukele, Timothy

    2014-06-01

    A recent survey of laboratories in Kampala, Uganda, demonstrated that only 0.3% of laboratories (3/954) met international quality standards. To benchmark laboratory quality throughout the rest of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), we compiled a list of SSA laboratories meeting international quality standards. Accrediting bodies were queried via online registries or direct communication in May 2013. There were 380 laboratories accredited to international standards in SSA. Ninety-one percent were in South Africa. Thirty-seven of 49 countries had no laboratories accredited to international quality standards. Accredited laboratory density (per million people) in South Africa, Namibia, and Botswana were similar to those in many European countries. Single variable linear regression showed a correlation between accredited laboratory density and health expenditures per person (adjusted R(2) = 0.81, P laboratory. For those that do, there is a strong correlation between country-specific accredited laboratory density and per-capita health expenditures. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  12. Public health and research funding for childhood neurodevelopmental disorders in Sub-Saharan Africa: a time to balance priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakare, Muideen O; Munir, Kerim M; Bello-Mojeed, Mashudat A

    2014-01-01

    Sub-Saharan African (SSA) population consists of about 45% children, while in Europe and North America children population is 10-15%. Lately, attention has been directed at mitigating childhood infectious and communicable diseases to reduce under-five mortality. As the under-five mortality index in Sub-Saharan Africa has relatively improved over the last two decades, more Sub-Saharan African children are surviving beyond the age of five and, apparently, a sizeable percentage of this population would be living with one or more childhood neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD). The distribution of child mental health service resources across the world is unequal. This manifests in the treatment gap of major childhood onset mental health problems in SSA, with the gap being more pronounced for childhood NDD. It is important to balance the public health focus and research funding priorities in Sub-Saharan Africa. We urgently need to define the burden of childhood NDD in the region for healthcare planning and policy formulation.

  13. Public health and research funding for childhood neurodevelopmental disorders in Sub-Saharan Africa: a time to balance priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muideen O. Bakare

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sub-Saharan African (SSA population consists of about 45% children, while in Europe and North America children population is 10- 15%. Lately, attention has been directed at mitigating childhood infectious and communicable diseases to reduce under-five mortality. As the under-five mortality index in Sub-Saharan Africa has relatively improved over the last two decades, more Sub-Saharan African children are surviving beyond the age of five and, apparently, a sizeable percentage of this population would be living with one or more childhood neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD. The distribution of child mental health service resources across the world is unequal. This manifests in the treatment gap of major childhood onset mental health problems in SSA, with the gap being more pronounced for childhood NDD. It is important to balance the public health focus and research funding priorities in Sub-Saharan Africa. We urgently need to define the burden of childhood NDD in the region for healthcare planning and policy formulation.

  14. HIV-associated cognitive impairment in sub-Saharan Africa--the potential effect of clade diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacktor, Ned; Nakasujja, Noeline; Robertson, Kevin; Clifford, David B

    2007-08-01

    In the US, HIV dementia occurs in 10-15% of HIV-positive individuals with advanced infection. The prevalence of HIV dementia in sub-Saharan countries, where the vast majority of individuals with HIV reside, is largely unknown. This Review will summarize our current understanding of HIV-associated cognitive impairment in resource-limited settings, focusing specifically on the countries of sub-Saharan Africa. We will describe the frequency of HIV dementia and HIV-associated cognitive impairment from several case series in the sub-Saharan region. We will then summarize recent studies from Uganda and Ethiopia that included detailed neuropsychological assessments. The potential influence of clade diversity on HIV-associated cognitive impairment will be discussed. Differences between the results of the studies in Uganda and in Ethiopia raise the possibility that HIV subtypes might have different biological properties with respect to their capacity to cause HIV-associated cognitive impairment. Further studies are needed to determine the true prevalence of HIV dementia in sub-Saharan Africa and to establish whether specific clade subtypes might influence the presentation of neurological complications.

  15. People in sub-Saharan Africa rate their health and health care among the lowest in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Angus S; Tortora, Robert

    2015-03-01

    The health of people in sub-Saharan Africa is a major global concern. However, data are weak, and little is known about how people in the region perceive their health or their health care. We used data from the Gallup World Poll in 2012 to document sub-Saharan Africans' perceived health status, their satisfaction with health care, their contact with medical professionals, and the priority they attach to health care. In comparison to other regions of the world, sub-Saharan Africa has the lowest ratings for well-being and the lowest satisfaction with health care. It also has the second-lowest perception of personal health, after only the former Soviet Union and its Eastern European satellites. HIV prevalence is positively correlated with perceived improvements in health care in countries with high prevalence. This is consistent with an improvement in at least some health care services as a result of the largely aid-funded rollout of antiretroviral treatment. Even so, sub-Saharan Africans do not prioritize health care as a matter of policy, although donors are increasingly shifting their aid efforts in the region toward health. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  16. Agricultural input credit in Sub-Saharan Africa: Telling myth from facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjognon, Serge G; Liverpool-Tasie, Lenis Saweda O; Reardon, Thomas A

    2017-02-01

    Recent evidence shows that many Sub-Saharan African farmers use modern inputs, but there is limited information on how these inputs are financed. We use recent nationally representative data from four countries to explore input financing and the role of credit therein. A number of our results contradict "conventional wisdom" found in the literature. Our results consistently show that traditional credit use, formal or informal, is extremely low (across credit type, country, crop and farm size categories). Instead, farmers primarily finance modern input purchases with cash from nonfarm activities and crop sales. Tied output-labor arrangements (which have received little empirical treatment in the literature) appear to be the only form of credit relatively widely used for farming.

  17. Participant views and experiences of participating in HIV research in sub-Saharan Africa: a qualitative systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalubega, Sylivia; Evans, Catrin

    2015-06-12

    Human immunodeficiency virus clinical trials are increasingly being conducted in sub-Saharan Africa. There is a tension between the pressure to increase levels of research participation and the need to ensure informed consent and protection of participants' rights. Researchers need to be aware of the particular ethical issues that underpin Human immunodeficiency virus research conduct in low income settings. This necessitates hearing from those who have participated in research and who have direct experience of the research process. This review aimed to synthesize and present the best available evidence in relation to Human immunodeficiency virus research participation in sub-Saharan Africa, based on the views and experiences of research participants. The review included studies whose participants were current or former adult Human immunodeficiency virus research participants from sub-Saharan African countries. Views, experiences, attitudes, understandings, perceptions and perspectives of Human immunodeficiency virus research participants in sub-Saharan Africa. Types of studies: This review considered studies that focused on qualitative data, including, but not limited to, designs such as phenomenology, ethnography, grounded theory, action research and feminist research. A three-step search strategy was utilized. Seven databases (CINAHL, Ovid MEDLINE (R) 1946, ASSIA, PsychInfo, Web of Science, EMBASE, and African Index Medicus) were searched with no limitation to years of publication, followed by hand searching of reference lists. Only studies published in the English language were considered. Methodological quality was assessed using the Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument developed by the Joanna Briggs Institute. Qualitative findings were extracted using the Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument. Qualitative research findings were pooled using a pragmatic meta-aggregative approach and the Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative

  18. A Review of Mixed Farming Systems in the Semi-Arid Zone of Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Mortimore, M

    1991-01-01

    Metadata only record Research in the past has tended to concentrate on specialized systems of crop or livestock production. Recent drought experience in Africa has however re-emphasized the complementary economic roles of livestock and crops in contributing to household viability, especially during crop failures. The objectives of this study were to: (1) regionalize the semiarid zone of sub-Saharan Africa into environmentally homogeneous units to which particular mixed farming systems may ...

  19. Child malnutrition in sub-Saharan Africa: A meta-analysis of demographic and health surveys (2006-2016.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blessing J Akombi

    Full Text Available Sub-Saharan Africa has one of the highest levels of child malnutrition globally. Therefore, a critical look at the distribution of malnutrition within its sub-regions is required to identify the worst affected areas. This study provides a meta-analysis of the prevalence of malnutrition indicators (stunting, wasting and underweight within four sub-regions of sub-Saharan Africa.Cross-sectional data from the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys (2006-2016 of 32 countries in sub-Saharan Africa were used. The countries were grouped into four sub-regions (East Africa, West Africa, Southern Africa and Central Africa, and a meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the prevalence of each malnutrition indicator within each of the sub-regions. Significant heterogeneity was detected among the various surveys (I2 >50%, hence a random effect model was used, and sensitivity analysis was performed, to examine the effects of outliers. Stunting was defined as HAZ<-2; wasting as WHZ<-2 and underweight as WAZ<-2.Stunting was highest in Burundi (57.7% and Malawi (47.1% in East Africa; Niger (43.9%, Mali (38.3%, Sierra Leone (37.9% and Nigeria (36.8% in West Africa; Democratic Republic of Congo (42.7% and Chad (39.9% in Central Africa. Wasting was highest in Niger (18.0%, Burkina Faso (15.50% and Mali (12.7% in West Africa; Comoros (11.1% and Ethiopia (8.70% in East Africa; Namibia (6.2% in Southern Africa; Chad (13.0% and Sao Tome & Principle (10.5% in Central Africa. Underweight was highest in Burundi (28.8% and Ethiopia (25.2% in East Africa; Niger (36.4%, Nigeria (28.7%, Burkina Faso (25.7%, Mali (25.0% in West Africa; and Chad (28.8% in Central Africa.The prevalence of malnutrition was highest within countries in East Africa and West Africa compared to the WHO Millennium development goals target for 2015. Appropriate nutrition interventions need to be prioritised in East Africa and West Africa if sub-Saharan Africa is to meet the WHO global nutrition target

  20. The challenge of AIDS-related malignancies in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie J Sasco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With the lengthening of life expectancy among HIV-positive subjects related to the use of highly active antiretroviral treatments, an increased risk of cancer has been described in industrialized countries. The question is to determine what occurs now and will happen in the future in the low income countries and particularly in sub-Saharan Africa where more than two-thirds of all HIV-positive people live in the world. The objective of our paper is to review the link between HIV and cancer in sub-Saharan Africa, putting it in perspective with what is already known in Western countries. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Studies for this review were identified from several bibliographical databases including Pubmed, Scopus, Cochrane, Pascal, Web of Science and using keywords "HIV, neoplasia, epidemiology and Africa" and related MesH terms. A clear association was found between HIV infection and AIDS-classifying cancers. In case-referent studies, odds ratios (OR were ranging from 21.9 (95% Confidence Interval (CI 12.5-38.6 to 47.1 (31.9-69.8 for Kaposi sarcoma and from 5.0 (2.7-9.5 to 12.6 (2.2-54.4 for non Hodgkin lymphoma. The association was less strong for invasive cervical cancer with ORs ranging from 1.1 (0.7-1.2 to 1.6 (1.1-2.3, whereas ORs for squamous intraepithelial lesions were higher, from 4.4 (2.3-8.4 to 17.0 (2.2-134.1. For non AIDS-classifying cancers, squamous cell conjunctival carcinoma of the eye was associated with HIV in many case-referent studies with ORs from 2.6 (1.4-4.9 to 13.0 (4.5-39.4. A record-linkage study conducted in Uganda showed an association between Hodgkin lymphoma and HIV infection with a standardized incidence ratio of 5.7 (1.2-17 although OR in case-referent studies ranged from 1.4 (0.7-2.8 to 1.6 (1.0-2.7. Other cancer sites found positively associated with HIV include lung, liver, anus, penis, vulva, kidney, thyroid and uterus and a decreased risk of female breast cancer. These results so far based on a