WorldWideScience

Sample records for sub-sahara african countries

  1. Growth Effects of Health Inputs and Outcomes in Sub-Sahara African Countries (1995-2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Apanisile Muyiwa Tolulope; Akinlo Taiwo

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the contribution of health inputs and outcomes to growth process in the Sub-Saharan Africa. Panel data of 30 countries from the sub-region from 1995 to 2011was used in a dynamic Generalized Method of Moment (GMM) modeling framework. The study used secondary school enrolment and government expenditure on health as health inputs while child mortality rate was used as a proxy for health outcomes. Results showed that education has statistically significant positive effect on ec...

  2. Socio-demographic and reproductive determinants of cervical neoplasia in seven sub-Sahara African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muwonge, Richard; Ngo Mbus, Louise; Ngoma, Twalib; Gombe Mbalawa, Charles; Dolo, Amadou; da Ganda Manuel, Miraldina; Nouhou, Hassan; Nacoulma, Marius; Mwaiselage, Julius; Koulibaly, Moussa; Bayo, Siné; Nsonde Malanda, Judith; De Vuyst, Hugo; Herrero, Rolando; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Keita, Namory

    2016-12-01

    Since most human papilloma virus (HPV) infections regress without any intervention, HPV is a necessary but may not be a solely sufficient cause of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer. Hence, the influence of cofactors on progression from cervical HPV infection to high-grade CIN and invasive cervical cancer has been a subject of intensive research. We assessed the effect of socio-demographic and sexual reproductive factors on the prevalence of invasive cervical cancer and CIN diagnosed in cross-sectional cervical cancer screening projects carried out in seven sites of different sub-Saharan countries. Between January 2000 and August 2007, healthy women aged 25-59 who participated in the screening projects were interviewed for socio-demographic, reproductive, and behavioral characteristics, investigated for disease confirmation with colposcopy, and had biopsies directed from colposcopically abnormal areas by trained local physicians. Odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from logistic regression analyses were used to assess the effect of women characteristics on CIN 1, CIN 2-3, CIN 3, and invasive cancer outcome measures. Among 47,361 women screened and investigated for disease confirmation, CIN 1 was diagnosed in 1,069 (2.3%), CIN 2 in 517 (1.1%), CIN 3 in 175 (0.5%), and invasive cancer in 485 (1.0%). The site-specific prevalence of CIN 2-3 lesions ranged from 0.3 to 5.1% and from 0.2 to 1.9% for invasive cancers. Risk factors for CIN 2-3 were being widowed or separated versus currently married (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.7 a); and having had at least four pregnancies versus zero or one pregnancy (OR at least 1.4-fold, 95% CI 1.1-1.8). Risk factors for invasive cancer were being widowed or separated versus currently married (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.3-3.1); and having had at least three pregnancies versus zero or one pregnancy (OR at least 3.0-fold, 95% CI 2.1-4.2). Additionally, cervical cancer risk increased with increasing age, age

  3. Tuberculosis in African refugees from the Eastern Sub-Sahara region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesher, Lior; Riesenberg, Klaris; Saidel-Odes, Lisa; Schlaeffer, Francisc; Smolyakov, Rorzalia

    2012-02-01

    The southern region of Israel has recently experienced an influx of African refugees from the Eastern Sub-Sahara desert area. These influxes have led to a significant increase in incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in that region. To review the data of African refugees diagnosed with TB between January 2008 and August 2010 at a tertiary care regional hospital. Twenty-five TB cases were diagnosed, 22 of which presented with pulmonary TB, 3 with extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB), and 7 with combined pulmonary and EPTB. Only one case had concomitant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and multidrug-resistant TB. Fifteen patients underwent extensive radiological investigations including chest, abdominal and spine computed tomography, 1 was reviewed by magnetic resonance imaging, and 9 underwent tissue biopsy. Eighteen patients were admitted as suspected TB and 4 as suspected pneumonia or pulmonary infiltrates that could have been defined as suspected TB. All 24 HIV-negative cases were sensitive to first-line drugs for TB, except for one case that was resistant to streptomycin and one to rifampicin. All patients responded well to first-line therapy. The average duration of hospitalization was 8.7 days (range 1-36). Following diagnosis 23 patients were transferred to a quarantine facility. We identified overutilization of medical resources and invasive procedures. For African refugees from the eastern Sub-Sahara who were HIV-negative and suspected of having TB, a sputum acid-fast smear and culture should have been the primary investigative tools before initiating treatment with four drugs (first-line), and further investigations should have been postponed and reserved for non-responders or for patients for whom the culture was negative. Physicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for EPTB in this population.

  4. Integrated Health Care Systems and Indigenous Medicine: Reflections from the Sub-Sahara African Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Maina Ahlberg

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous or traditional medicine has, since the 1970s, been widely regarded as a resource likely to contribute to strengthening the health care systems in low income countries. This paper examines the state of traditional medicine using evidence from three case studies in Central Kenya. While the cases are too few to represent the broad diversity of cultures and related healing systems in the Sub-Sahara African Region, the way they seem to refute the main assumptions in the integration discourse is important, also because studies from other countries in the region report perspectives, similar to the case studies in Kenya. It is often argued that people continue to use traditional medicine because it is affordable, available, and culturally familiar. Its integration into the health care system would therefore promote cultural familiarity. The case studies however point to the loss of essential cultural elements central to traditional medicine in this particular area while users travel long distances to reach the healers. In addition, there are significant paradigm differences that may present obstacles to integration of the two systems. More problematic however is that integration is, as in many development interventions, a top-down policy that is rarely based on contextual realities and conditions. Instead, integration is often defined and dominated by biomedical professionals and health planners who may be unfamiliar or even hostile to some aspects of traditional medicine. Furthermore, integration efforts have tended to embrace selected components mostly herbal medicine. This has led to isolating herbal medicine from spiritualism, which may in turn affect the holistic perspective of traditional medicine. While familiarity and relevance may explain the continued use of traditional medicine, its services may not be as readily available, accessible, or even affordable as is often asserted. Globalization set in motion through colonization and

  5. Understanding growth options and challenges in African economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of theories relating to economic growth processes in developing countries and relates these theories to the economic growth process in Sub-Sahara African countries......This paper provides an overview of theories relating to economic growth processes in developing countries and relates these theories to the economic growth process in Sub-Sahara African countries...

  6. Building Fit-for-Purpose Spatial Frameworks for Sustainable Land Governaqnce in Sub-Sahara Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2013-01-01

    countries this countrywide spatial framework has been developed over centuries. In contrast, most developing countries have a cadastral coverage of less than 30 per cent of the country. This means that over 70 per cent of the land in many developing countries, such as the sub-Sahara region, is generally......, economic, legal, and social issues related to building such fit-for purpose spatial frameworks as a means of paving the way towards sustainable and land governance in Sub-Sahara Africa...

  7. JPRS Report Africa (Sub-Sahara)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-16

    f s Ruanda Discusses Food Subsidy Reforms 50 Details on Food Aid 50 c - INTER-AFRICAN AFDB REORGANIZATION, GOALS SPARK CONTROVERSY Bank...guarantee the people’s inalienable rights to independent development. Both parties stressed the role of the OAU [^Organization of African Unity] as...an important instrument in the African people’s struggle to consolidate their poli- tical independence and in their common struggle against

  8. JPRS Report, Africa, (Sub-Sahara).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-31

    offi- cers, and troops of the glorious FAPLA, at a ceremony presided over by Ernesto Watunga, member of the MPLA-Labor Party Central Committee...the role that it has played in the system for training military cadres in the country. In his remarks on this occasion, Ernesto Watunga underscored...75,250-square meter area and currently has 61 employees) it needs 120. The work in progress on the rehabilitation project, directed by Antonio Domingos

  9. The clinical epidemiology of spontaneous ICH in a sub-Sahara African country in the CT scan era: a neurosurgical in-hospital cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos Olufemi Adeleye

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background There is paucity of data-driven scientific reports from sub-Saharan Africa on the burden of spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (sICH. We have maintained a prospective consecutive in-hospital data base of cases of sICH referred for neurosurgical intervention over a 5-year period. Methods This is a cross-sectional descriptive study of the clinical epidemiology and brain-CT characterization of sICH from the data base in this region in the current era. Results There were 63 subjects, 38 (60.3% males, aged 28 to 85 years, mean 55.7 (SD, 12.7, the modal age distribution being the sixth decade. Uncontrolled hypertension was the main predisposition in the study: present, premorbid, in 79% but uncontrolled in 88% of these known cases, and exhibited malignant derangements of blood pressure in more than half. The clinical ictus to in-hospital presentation was delayed, median 72 hours; was in severe clinical state in 70%; 57% was comatose, and was complicated with fever in 57% and respiratory morbidity also in 55.6%. The main clinical symptomatology was hemiparesis, headache, vomiting and aphasia. The sICH was supratentorial on brain CT in 85.7%, ganglionic in 50.8% and thalamic in 58.3% of the latter. The bleed had CT evidence of mass effect and intraventricular extension in more than half. Twenty three patients (36.5% underwent operative interventionsConclusions In this patient population, sICH is mainly ganglionic and thalamic in location with significant rate of associated IVH. In-hospital clinical presentation is delayed and in critical state, and, the bleeding is uncontrolled hypertension related in >95%.

  10. DETERMINANTS OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY GROWTH IN SUB-SAHARA AFRICA: 1961-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olajide Abraham Ajao

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined changes in agricultural productivity in Sub-Sahara Africa countries in the context of diverse institutional arrangements using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA. From a time series which consists of information on agricultural production and means of production were obtained from FAO AGROSTAT and rainfall data from Steve O’Connell data base. The information was for a 43-year period (1961-2003; DEA method was used to measure Malmquist index of total factor productivity. A decomposition of TFP measures revealed that the observed increase in the TFP in the sub–Sahara Africa agriculture is due to technological change rather than efficiency change which is the main constrained of achieving higher level of TFP during the reference period. The study further examined the effect of land quality, malaria, education and selected governance indicators such as, control of corruption and government effectiveness on productivity growth. All the variables included in the model are significant with the exception of government effectiveness

  11. Energy consumption and economic development in Sub-Sahara Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kebede, Ellene [Department of Agricultural and Environmental Science, 210 Campbell, Hall, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL 36088 (United States); Kagochi, John [School of Business Administration, University of Houston-Victoria, 3007, N. Ben Wilson, Victoria, 77901 (United States); Jolly, Curtis M. [Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology, 212 Comer, Hall Auburn University, AL 36849 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Sub-Saharan African countries' economic development is dependent on energy consumption. This paper assesses total energy demand, which is composed of traditional energy (wood fuel) and commercial energy (electricity and petroleum), in the Central, East, South, and West regions of Sub-Saharan Africa. Cross-sectional time series data for 20 countries in 25 years are analyzed, and the results of the study show that wood fuel accounts for 70% of energy consumption, followed by petroleum, with most industrial activities utilizing some form of wood fuel. Regression results suggest that energy demand is inversely related to the price of petroleum and industrial development, but positively related to GDP, population growth rate, and agricultural expansion, and that price elasticity is less than one. The model results also show that there are regional differences in energy demand. In addition, the interaction of population growth rates by regions generates mixed results, and there are regional differences in the use of commercial energy consumption, and GDP growth. The findings of this study suggest that countries must diversify their energy sources and introduce energy-efficient devices and equipment at all levels of the economy to improve GDP growth rate and GDP per capita. (author)

  12. Implications Of Fuelwood Demandon Sustainable Forest Conservation Of The Sub-Sahara Africa

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    Sogbon Odunwole

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Forests contribute immensely to economic and social development through formal trade in timber environmental services non- timber forest products safety net spiritual and aesthetic value. Wood is a key source of energy that has been used for millennia for cooking boiling water lighting and heating. Today about 2.5billion people depend on biomass energy for cooking and heating with 87 of this energy being provided by wood. In sub-Saharan African more than 90 of the population relies on wood fire that is firewood and charcoal as their primary source of domestic energy. Over 80 of urban householders and small industries use charcoal and firewood as their source of energy. Despite their numerous importance Africas forest continue to decline rapidly due to increase in agricultural practices into forest lands population growth and urbanization increased poverty high dependence on natural resources for subsistence and income through forest. The study centred on the implications of fuel wood demand on forest conservation in sub-Sahara Africa - a regional focus on Akure metropolitan area Ondo State. The specific objectives of the paper were to identify firewood consumption pattern in Akure metropolitan area and factors responsible for increased fuelwood demand in the study area. The paper adopted direct observation oral interview and 0.05 of the study area as sample size for the study. The study observed lack of adequate alternative poor implementation and enforcement of government regulation on forestry poverty and poor awareness on the menace of forest depletion among others. The paper posited provision of alternative fuel with subsidy regular awareness campaign proper monitoring implementation and enforcement of forest regulations with a view to achieving sustainable conservation.

  13. Quality in primary health care services in sub-Sahara Africa: right or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Primary Health Care (PHC) system has been the foundation for the operation of the health system in most of Sub-Sahara Africa following the Alma Ata Declaration in 1978. Quality of care is an important determinant of health services utilization, and is a health outcome of public health importance. It is known that the ...

  14. State Collapse and Regional Contagion in Sub-Sahara Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IntStudiesLap01

    elites, while denigrating the countryside and ignoring the rural population. Most. African states transferred the wealth of the rural areas to the urban centers through monopsonistic systems where state marketing boards set producer prices.10. Whatever tenuous links there were between the center and periphery were further.

  15. Factors influencing women's health in developing African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Janet Ehlers

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available In Sub-Sahara Africa, women perform 80 of the agricultural labour.

    Opsomming
    In Sub-Sahara Afrika verrig vrouens 80 van die landbou arbeid. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  16. African Journals Online: Browse by Country

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Browse by Country. Home > African Journals Online: Browse by Country. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is ...

  17. Adverse drug reaction reports for cardiometabolic drugs from sub Sahara Africa: A study in VigiBase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berhe, Derbew F.; Juhlin, Kristina; Star, Kristina; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.; Michael, Kidane; Taxis, Katja; Mol, Peter G. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many pharmacovigilance centers have been established in Sub Sahara Africa (SSA) in recent years. Their focus has been on ADRs to drugs for communicable diseases. Little is known about ADRs caused by drugs for cardiometabolic diseases, although its burden is increasing rapidly in SSA.

  18. Barriers to utilisation of cervical cancer screening in Sub Sahara Africa: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, J N W; Ojo, A A

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the commonest cause of cancer-related death in Sub Sahara Africa (SSA). Both primary and secondary preventive services are available but utilisation remain low. This systematic review aims to summarise reported barriers preventing women from utilising cervical cancer screening services in SSA. Electronic searches on MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, BIOSIS preview, Global Health, PubMed, Cochrane library, CINAHL, ISI Web of Knowledge and Google scholar and quality assessment of the included studies were performed. A meta-analysis was applied to identify major themes. Eight studies exploring reasons women did not utilise cervical cancer screening were included. Women in SSA reported similar barriers despite cultural and language diversity in the region. Women reported fear of screening procedure and negative outcome, low level of awareness of services, embarrassment and possible violation of privacy, lack of spousal support, societal stigmatisation, cost of accessing services and health service factors like proximity to facility, facility navigation, waiting time and health care personnel attitude. Strategies for improving uptake and utilisation of cervical screening in SSA should focus on improving cervical health education, addressing cultural beliefs and practices and improving spousal support and empowering women, as well as addressing physical access problem, costs and improving staff attitude. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Intraurban Analysis of Domestic Solid Waste Disposal Methods in a Sub-Sahara African City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwole Samuel Ojewale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the influence of socioeconomic attributes of residents on domestic solid waste disposal methods in Lagos metropolis, Nigeria. Primary data for the study were obtained through questionnaire administered on residents in Eti-Osa, Ikeja, and Mushin Local Government Areas (LGAs representing the low, medium, and high densities, respectively, into which the sixteen LGAs in Lagos metropolis were stratified. One out of every four wards in each LGA was selected for survey. From a total of 15,275 residential buildings in the ten wards, one out of every forty buildings (2.5% was selected using systematic random sampling where a household head was sampled. Information obtained includes the residential characteristics and the disposal methods. Enquiries into the socioeconomic attributes of the residents showed that 59.9% were high income earners and 76.6% had attained tertiary school education. This study concluded that six disposal methods were common in the study area. Furthermore, through multinomial logistic regression, the influence of socioeconomic characteristics of residents (density, income, age of respondents, educational status, and length of stay on domestic solid waste disposal methods varied significantly in Lagos metropolis. The study established that most of the solid waste disposal methods utilized by residents in Lagos metropolis were not environment-friendly.

  20. Emigration dynamics of eastern African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oucho, J O

    1995-01-01

    This examination of emigration dynamics focuses on 13 countries extending from Eritrea to Zimbabwe and Mozambique on the eastern African mainland and on 5 Indian Ocean island nations. The first part of the study looks at the temporal, spatial, and structural perspectives of emigration dynamics. Part 2 considers international migration in the region according to Appleyard's typology (permanent settlers, labor migration, refugees, and illegal migrants) with the additional category of return migration. Measurement issues in emigration dynamics are discussed in part 3, and the demographic/economic setting is the topic of part 4. The demographic factors emphasized include spatial distribution, population density, population structure, population dynamics, demographic transition, and the relationship between internal and international migration. Other major topics of this section of the study are the economic base, the human resource base, population and natural resources, the sociocultural context (emigration, chain migration, return migration, and migration linkages and networks), political factors (including human rights, minority rights and security, regional integration and economic cooperation, and the impact of structural adjustment programs), and a prediction of future emigration dynamics. It is concluded that refugee flows remain a major factor in eastern African countries but the development of human resources in the northern portion of the region indicates development of potential labor migration from this area. Data constraints have limited measurement of emigration in this region and may contribute to the seeming indifference of most eastern African countries to emigration policies. Emigration in this region has been triggered by deteriorating economic and political conditions and is expected to increase.

  1. Virtual Universities for African and Arab Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram LAASER

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Internet development in Africa is constrained by poor telephone infrastructure, low international bandwidth and high dials up tariffs levied on internet users. This means in Africa we find actually app. 1% of worldwide internet users whereas population share of world population may be around 13%. Nearly half of the internet users are concentrated in South Africa. Another one percent of world users is located in the Middle East. Therefore it is understandable that Africa and the Arab world are latecomers in developing net based educational systems. However today donor organizations put strong emphasis on creating Virtual Campuses for African States (EC, Word Bank and Mediterranean countries or plan to incorporate selected African States to other institutional arrangements (Commonwealth of Nations, UNESCO. In what follows we will discuss five of these projects differing in scope, structure and funding namely the Virtual African University, the Avicenna Project, the Virtual Arab University, the Syrian Open University and the proposal for a Virtual University for the Small States. From the analysis of the respective projects some tentative conclusions will be derived.

  2. Implementation of Information Communication Technology in the Teaching/Learning Process for Sustainable Development of Adults in West Africa Sub Sahara Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwobi, Anthonia; Ngozi, Ugwuoke; Rufina, Nwachukwu; Ogbonnaya, Kingsley A.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the implementation of information technology in the teaching/learning process for sustainable development of adults in West Africa Sub Sahara Region (WASSR). Three research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. The population for the study was 3071 participants and instructors drawn from 10 education centres that were…

  3. The internet: Emergent technologies in two West African countries

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Jim

    1998-01-01

    Being connected for most Africans means something completely different from most of us in more (technologically) "developed" countries. Compared to those who have virtually unlimited and relatively cheap access to e-mail and the World Wide Web (WWW), most Africans have limited access to e-mail only. Outside of South Africa, which hosts 70 full Internet Service Providers (ISPs); Egypt, which hosts 25; and Morocco, which hosts 15, most African countries have well under 10 ISPs, the average bein...

  4. Improvisation in West African Musics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, David

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is music of the sub-Sahara. Vocal, instrumental, and dance drumming from the Sudan Desert, the North Coast, East Horn, Central and West Africa, and contrapuntal yodeling of Pygmies is described. For African musicians, the ability to improvise, and creativity, are gifts from God. Includes selected readings and recordings. (KC)

  5. Implementation of triple helix clusters procedure in the sub-Sahara Africa energy sector. Case study: Academia - CREEC Photovoltaic Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Silva, Izael [Makerere Univ., Kampala (UG). Centre for Research in Energy and Energy Conservation (CREEC)

    2011-07-01

    Penetration of decentralized power supply for households and commercial enterprises is low in Sub-Sahara Africa. Solar Home Systems (SHS), despite their widespread use in other continents have failed to attain much success in Africa. One of the reasons is the high rate of failure of existing implementations. Data shows earlier failure rates of 50%. This is largely attributed to poor quality of products used, inefficient installation, mismanagement and lack of maintenance. To address this problem, the Centre for Research in Energy and Energy Conservation (CREEC) is setting up a Solar PV test laboratory in Uganda. This paper describes the installation process and how to sustain the laboratory after implementation. The lab is intended to provide a forum for training, research and consultancy under CREEC. It is intended as a tool to implement the triple helix and clusters procedure in the PV industry in particular and the energy sector in a more general scope. This paper offers details covering the current situation of the energy sector in Uganda and how the lab supports capacity building in the university to support the upcoming demand. (orig.)

  6. Abortion laws in African Commonwealth countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R J; Dickens, B M

    1981-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the range of current (1981) abortion laws in the African Commonwealth countries, traces the origins of the laws to their colonial predecessors, and discusses legal reform that would positively provide for legal termination of pregnancy. The authors claim that the range of these laws demonstrates an evolution that leads from customary/common law (Lesotho and Swaziland) to basic law (Botswana, The Gambia, Malawi, Mauritius, Nigeria's Northern States and Seychelles) to developed law (Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria's Southern States, Sierra Leone, and Uganda), and, finally, to advanced law (Zambia and Zimbabwe). The authors call for treating abortion as an issue of health and welfare as opposed to one of crime and punishment. Since most of the basic law de jure is treated and administered as developed law de facto, the authors suggest decriminalizing abortion and propose ways in which to reform the law: clarifying existing law; liberalizing existing law to allow abortion based upon certain indications; limiting/removing women's criminal liability for seeking an abortion; allowing hindsight contraception; protecting providers treating women in good faith; publishing recommended fees for services to protect poor women; protecting providers who treat women with incomplete abortion; and punishing providers who fail to provide care to women in need, with the exception of those seeking protection under a conscience clause. The authors also suggest clarifying the means by which health services involving pregnancy termination may be delivered, including: clarification of the qualifications of practitioners who may treat women; specification of the facilities that may treat women, perhaps broken down by gestational duration of the pregnancy; specifying gestational limits during which the procedure can be performed; clarifying approval procedures and consents; and allowing for conscientious objections to performing the procedure.

  7. Is paying for health care culturally acceptable in Sub-Sahara Africa? Money and tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Geest, S

    1992-03-01

    In 1987 UNICEF launched the so-called Bamako Initiative, which has as its main objective to improve the sustainability of primary health care in Africa by making people pay for it. The question is raised whether paying for health care is culturally acceptable in African communities. The author argues that 'money' is not a new phenomenon in Africa and that paying for goods and services does not need to conflict with existing traditions of reciprocity in the field of health care. Money is an artifact which is culturally incorporated in a creative manner to satisfy specific needs. Cultural objections to paying for health care, therefore, are unlikely to exist, but how payment should be realised in an effective and just way is another question.

  8. Diverse alcohol drinking patterns in 20 African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Thomas; Rossow, Ingeborg; Naidoo, Nirmala; Kowal, Paul

    2009-07-01

    ABSTRACT Aims This paper describes drinking patterns in 20 African countries, exploring the extent of abstention, heavy occasional drinking and daily light drinking and how these aspects of drinking are inter-related. Design and participants Data were collected as part of the World Health Survey in 2002-04 and comprise national representative data sets from 20 African countries. A cross-sectional survey of 77 165 adults aged 18 years and older were undertaken by face-to-face interviews in respondent households. Measures Drinking behaviour was assessed in terms of life-time abstention and the following measures over the 7 days immediately preceding interview: high consumption (15 or more drinks); heavy drinking occasions (five or more standard units at at least one session) and daily light drinking (one or two drinks daily). Findings In four countries (Comoros, Mali, Mauritania and Senegal), virtually all respondents were life-time abstainers. The prevalence of current drinkers (previous week) did not exceed one-third in any country. Among current drinkers the prevalence of heavy drinking varied between 7% and 77% and the prevalence of daily light drinkers varied between 0% and 21%. Overall drinking patterns varied significantly between and within the examined African countries. Conclusions African drinking patterns are diverse, and although life-time abstinence dominates in African countries, a single typical pattern of drinking for the African continent, such as the alleged 'all-or-none' pattern, was not observed.

  9. Biogas technology research in selected sub-Saharan African countries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This reviews aims to provide an insight and update of the state of biogas technology research in some selected sub-Saharan African countries in peer reviewed literature. This paper also aims to highlight the sub-Saharan countries' strengths and weaknesses in biogas research and development capacity. An attempt is ...

  10. Situation Analysis of Alcohol Control Policy in Five African Countries ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Alcohol use is a major risk factor for premature deaths and disabilities in low and middle-income countries. This research will evaluate alcohol control policy and legislation in five African countries to provide evidence-based research to policymakers, researchers, and lobby groups working to reduce alcohol use.

  11. The Internet: Emerging Technologies in Two West African Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Jim

    1998-01-01

    Explores issues regarding the Internet, especially its role in education, in two West African countries, Burkina Faso and Ghana. These developing countries share a common border, but their technology reality is very different. Existing differences highlight some of the issues Africa is dealing with concerning the Internet. (Author/AEF)

  12. Looking forward to the East African Countries' Collaboration in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Looking forward to the East African Countries' Collaboration in Nursing and. Midwifery Education, Practice and Legislation ... Assembly (WHA) resolution 62.12 directed countries to strengthen nursing and midwifery professions in .... report of the nursing harmonization study and chart the way forward for the harmonization ...

  13. Is hip arthroplasty viable in a developing African country? | Mulimba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arthroplasty is an established management of various joint disorders in developed countries. Poverty has caused African countries to remain behind in this sphere of management and condemned sufferers to a life of misery and immobility. In this review, the viability of total hip arthroplasty (THR) is examined. The need ...

  14. Measures for diffusion of solar PV in selected African countries

    OpenAIRE

    Nygaard, Ivan; Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Mackenzie, Gordon A.; Pedersen, Mathilde Brix

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates how African governments are considering supporting and promoting the diffusion of solar PV. This issue is explored by examining so-called ‘technology action plans (TAPs)’, which were main outputs of the Technology Needs Assessment project implemented in 10 African countries from 2010 to 2013. The paper provides a review of three distinct but characteristic trajectories for PV market development in Kenya (private-led market for solar home systems), Morocco (utility-led ...

  15. Forest People, Two Countries and One Continent: What Empirical Connections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifegbesan, Ayodeji; Pendlebury, Shirley; Annegarn, Harold

    2009-01-01

    Studies have revealed that sub-Sahara African forest resources are decreasing at an alarming rate. Widely acknowledged too is a growing body of empirical evidence which suggests that understanding people's views are important to forest conservation. But few are the current studies that capture cross-national perspectives. This study explores the…

  16. Inflation persistence in African countries: Does inflation targeting matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Phiri, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates inflation persistence in annual CPI inflation collected between 1994 and 2014 for 46 African countries. We group these countries into panels according to whether they are inflation targeters or not and conduct estimations for pre and post inflation targeting periods. Interestingly enough, we find that inflation persistence was much higher for inflation targeters in periods before adopting their inflation targeting regimes and inflation persistence dropped by 40 percent...

  17. Alcohol Control Policies in 46 African Countries: Opportunities for Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Borges, Carina; Esser, Marissa B; Dias, Sónia; Babor, Thomas; Parry, Charles D H

    2015-07-01

    There is little information on the extent to which African countries are addressing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm, which suggests that evaluations of national alcohol policies are needed in this region. The aim of this article is to examine the strength of a mix of national alcohol control policies in African countries, as well as the relationship between alcohol policy restrictiveness scores and adult alcohol per capita consumption (APC) among drinkers at the national level. We examined national alcohol policies of 46 African countries, as of 2012, in four regulatory categories (price, availability, marketing and drink-driving), and analyzed the restrictiveness of national alcohol policies using an adapted Alcohol Policy Index (API). To assess the validity of the policy restrictiveness scores, we conducted correlational analyses between policy restrictiveness scores and APC among drinkers in 40 countries. Countries attained a mean score of 44.1 of 100 points possible, ranging from 9.1 (Sao Tomé and Principe) to 75.0 (Algeria), with low scores indicating low policy restrictiveness. Policy restrictiveness scores were negatively correlated with and APC among drinkers (rs = -0.353, P = 0.005). There is great variation in the strength of alcohol control policies in countries throughout the African region. Tools for comparing the restrictiveness of alcohol policies across countries are available and are an important instrument to monitor alcohol policy developments. The negative correlation between policy restrictiveness and alcohol consumption among drinkers suggests the need for stronger alcohol policies as well as increased training and capacity building at the country level. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  18. Situation Analysis of Alcohol Control Policy in Five African Countries ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    -families, who bear the financial and psychological costs. The role of the alcohol industry in setting policy. The alcohol industry's close involvement in developing alcohol policies in several African countries has resulted in industry-friendly policies targeting individual problem drinkers, rather than the availability of alcohol.

  19. Clinical nursing and midwifery research: grey literature in African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, C; Dohrn, J; Omoni, G; Malata, A; Klopper, H; Larson, E

    2016-03-01

    This study reviewed grey literature to assess clinical nursing and midwifery research conducted in southern and eastern African countries over the past decade. The shortage of published nursing research from African countries severely limits the ability of practicing nurses and midwives to base clinical decisions on solid evidence. However, little is known regarding unpublished or unindexed clinical research ('grey literature'), a potentially rich source of information. Identifying these sources may reveal resources to assist nurses in providing evidence-based care. This scoping review of grey literature on clinical nursing and midwifery research in southern and eastern African countries helped to identify gaps in research and assess whether these gaps differ from published research. Systematic searches of grey literature were performed. Research was included if it was conducted by nurses in 1 of 25 southern or eastern African countries, between 2004 and 2014 and included patient outcomes. Data were extracted on location, institution, research topic, institutional connections and author information. Chi-square tests were performed to compare differences between indexed and non-indexed literature. We found 262 studies by 287 authors from 17 southern and eastern African countries covering 13 topics. Although all topics were also found in indexed literature and there were statistically significant differences between the number of times, fewer topics were covered in grey literature vs. indexed. Patient satisfaction and experience and traditional health practices were more likely to be published, whereas chronic disease, assault and paediatric-related research were less often published. Generally, there is a paucity of clinical nursing research in this region. This could reflect the shortage of nurses prepared to conduct research in this region. Nurses may find additional resources for evidence in the grey literature. A complete understanding of the state of nursing

  20. Parasites of African Mourning Dove ( Streptopelia decipiens ) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Mourning Dove (Streptopelia decipiens), also called the Mourning Collared Dove is a pigeon that is predominantly distributed in Sub-Sahara Africa. Their interaction with man and other domestic and wild birds portends it as a potential carrier of zoonotic parasites but there is paucity of information on the ...

  1. Trade Liberalization and Trade Tax Revenues in African Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Longoni, E

    2009-01-01

    We empirically investigate the e®ect of trade liberalization on trade tax revenues applying panel-data methods to a large sample of African countries from the period 1970-2000. The goal of this paper is to determine whether controlling for macroeconomic features of African economies and taking into account the existence of political constraints that might either support or weaken the power of the trade reform, a change in trade policy has a positive or negative e®ect on trade tax revenues. We...

  2. African Countries and WTO´s Dispute Settlement Mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alavi, Amin

    2007-01-01

    The WTO Dispute Settlement Mechanism was designed, inter alia, to secure the 'rule of law' within international trade and provide all members with opportunities to exercise their rights under multilateral trade agreements. But, after ten years, no sub-Saharan African country has yet used the option...... to initiate a dispute. This article examines what prevents the WTO Africa Group from using the system and critically reviews the solutions they have proposed to remedy this. It concludes by discussing how this reflects broader problems concerning African participation in WTO, and puts forward some alternative...

  3. Spatial inequality for manufacturing wages in five African countries

    OpenAIRE

    TE VELDE, Dirk Willem; Morrissey, Oliver

    2002-01-01

    This paper uses data on individual earnings in manufacturing industry for five African countries in the early 1990s to test whether firms located in the capital city pay higher earnings than do firms located elsewhere, and whether such benefits accrue to all or only certain types of workers. Earnings equations are estimated that take into account worker characteristics (education and tenure) and relevant firm characteristics (notably size and whether owned by a foreigner). Any location effect...

  4. Tobacco control and tobacco farming in African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Teh-wei; Lee, Anita H

    2015-02-01

    During the past decade, tobacco leaf production has shifted from high-income countries to developing countries, particularly those in Africa. Most African governments promote tobacco farming as a way to alleviate poverty. The economic benefit of tobacco farming has been used by the tobacco industry to block tobacco control policies. The tobacco industry is active in promoting the alleged positive aspects of tobacco farming and in 'protecting' farmers from what they portray as unfair tobacco control regulations that reduce demand. Tobacco farming has many negative consequences for the health and well-being of farmers, as well as for the environment and the long-term well-being of the countries concerned. We provide an overview of tobacco farming issues in Africa. Encompassing multi-dimensional issues of economic development, there is far more to it than tobacco control questions.

  5. HIV stigma and nurse job satisfaction in five African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirwa, Maureen L; Greeff, Minrie; Kohi, Thecla W; Naidoo, Joanne R; Makoae, Lucy N; Dlamini, Priscilla S; Kaszubski, Christopher; Cuca, Yvette P; Uys, Leana R; Holzemer, William L

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the demographic and social factors, including perceived HIV stigma, that influence job satisfaction in nurses from 5 African countries. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of nurses (n = 1,384) caring for patients living with HIV infection in Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland, and Tanzania. Total job satisfaction in this sample was lower than 2 comparable studies in South Africa and the United Kingdom. The Personal Satisfaction subscale was the highest in this sample, as in the other 2. Job satisfaction scores differed significantly among the 5 countries, and these differences were consistent across all subscales. A hierarchical regression showed that mental and physical health, marital status, education level, urban/rural setting, and perceived HIV stigma had significant influence on job satisfaction. Perceived HIV stigma was the strongest predictor of job dissatisfaction. These results provide new areas for intervention strategies that might enhance the work environment for nurses in these countries.

  6. Addressing mitigation options within the South African country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, Gina [Eskom (South Africa)

    1998-10-01

    The South African Country Study Programme is being executed under the auspices of the South African Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAandT). The full study comprises the following four components, each headed by a technical coordinator: the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory; a study of South Africa`s vulnerability to climate change and possible adaptation strategies; potential mitigation actions and; policy development. Ideally, these components should be executed in sequence. However, in view of South Africa`s commitments in terms of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) and the need to draw up a national communication, it was decided to execute the components simultaneously, with an emphasis on coordination between the components. (EG)

  7. Measures for diffusion of solar PV in selected African countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Mackenzie, Gordon A.

    2017-01-01

    that governments’ strategies to promoting solar PV are moving from isolated projects towards frameworks for market development and that there are high expectations to upgrading in the PV value chain through local assembly of panels and local production of other system elements. Commonly identified measures include......This paper investigates how African governments are considering supporting and promoting the diffusion of solar PV. This issue is explored by examining so-called ‘technology action plans (TAPs)’, which were main outputs of the Technology Needs Assessment project implemented in 10 African countries...... from 2010 to 2013. The paper provides a review of three distinct but characteristic trajectories for PV market development in Kenya (private-led market for solar home systems), Morocco (utility-led fee-for service model) and Rwanda (donorled market for institutional systems). The paper finds...

  8. Polyandry and polygyny in an African rodent pest species, Mastomys natalensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kennis, J.; Sluydts, V.; Leirs, H.; Hooft, van W.F.

    2008-01-01

    Males and females use different mating strategies and seldom have these strategies been studied on the field for cryptic rodent species. We studied the breeding strategies of both males and females of the sub-Sahara African rodent pest species, Mastomys natalensis, in the field using capture removal

  9. Polyandry and polygyny in an African rodent pest species, Mastomys natalensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennis, Jan; Sluydts, Vincent; Leirs, Herwig

    2008-01-01

    Males and females use different mating strategies and seldom have these strategies been studied on the field for cryptic rodent species. We studied the breeding strategies of both males and females of the sub-Sahara African rodent pest species, Mastomys natalensis, in the field using capture remo...... as a pest management technique due to the promiscuous mating and high frequency of sexual contacts....

  10. A study on the enhancement of nuclear cooperation with African countries including utilization of radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Oh, K. B; Lee, H. M. and others

    2005-05-15

    In this study, potential countries for nuclear cooperation in African region and possible cooperation areas were investigated between Korea and African countries including radioisotopes and more fields were also analysed in depth in order to suggest the recommendations for future cooperation to be considered as follows; First, current status and perspectives of demand and supply of energy and electricity in the African countries, use and development of nuclear energy and international nuclear cooperation were analyzed. Second, current status of nuclear cooperation between Korea and African countries were investigated as well as analysis of future cooperation potential and countries having potential for nuclear cooperation and possible cooperative activities were suggested considering potential of nuclear market in mid- and long term base and step by step. Third, desirable strategies and directions for the establishment and promotion of nuclear cooperation relations between Korea and African developing countries were suggested in order to develope cooperative relations in efficient and effective manners with African developing countries.

  11. The income-climate trap of health development: a comparative analysis of African and Non-African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kam Ki; Petrie, Dennis; Rao, D S Prasada

    2009-10-01

    This article conducts a comparative analysis of the interrelationship between climate, life expectancy and income between African and non-African countries. To put the analysis in a broader context of development, the paper develops an income-climate trap model that explains the multi-directional interaction between income, climate and life expectancy. It is suggested that the interaction can give rise to either a virtuous cycle of prosperity or a vicious cycle of poverty. Applying the model to a data set of 158 countries, we find that climate is a more important determinant of life expectancy in African countries than in non-African countries. We provide further empirical evidence that while climate is important in determining both life expectancy and income, income can in turn moderate the adverse effects of climate on life expectancy. In the past two decades, the income level of non-African countries has grown significantly while that of African countries has largely been stagnant, implying that the future development of African countries remains highly vulnerable to adverse climatic conditions. These findings have important implications in the context of climate change, as global warming is likely to create worsening climatic conditions that could see many less developed countries sinking deeper into an income-climate trap of underdevelopment in health.

  12. Coal in sub-Saharan-African countries undergoing desertification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, J.N.; Brownfield, M.E.; Bergin, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Coal has been reported in 11 of the 16 sub-Saharan countries discussed in this appraisal: Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Niger, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Sudan, Ethiopia, and Somalia. No coal occurrences have been reported in Gambia, Togo, Burkina, Chad, and Djibouti but coal may be present within these countries because neighboring countries do contain coal-bearing rocks. Most of these countries are undergoing desertification or will in the near future. Wood, directly or in the form of charcoal, constitutes two-thirds of the fuel used in Africa. Destruction of forest and shrub lands for fuel is occurring at an increasing rate because of desertification and increasing energy demands. The decline in biological productivity, coupled with concentration of population in areas where water is available and crops may be grown, leads to increasing shortages of wood for fuel. Part of the present and future energy needs of the sub-Saharan region could be met by use of indigenous coal and peat. Nine sedimentary basins, completely or partially within the sub-Saharan region, have the potential of either coal and/or peat deposits of economic value: 1- Senegal Basin, 2- Taoudeni Basin and Gao Trough, 3- Niger Basin, 4- Chad Basin, 5- Chari Basin, 6- Benue Trough (Depression), 7- Sudan Trough, 8- Plateau and Rift Belt, and 9- Somali Basin. Niger and Nigeria are the only countries in sub-Saharan Africa in which coal is presently being mined as a fuel source for powerplants and domestic use. Peat occurs in the deltas, lower river, and interdunal basin areas of Senegal, Mauritania, and Sudan. Peat can be used as an alternate fuel source and is currently being tested as a soil amendment in the agricultural sector. Coal and peat exploration and development studies are urgently required and should be initiated so the coal and peat utilization potential of each country can be determined. The overall objective of these studies is to establish, within the sub

  13. The rise of medical training in Portuguese speaking African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronteira, Inês; Sidat, Mohsin; Fresta, Mário; Sambo, Maria do Rosário; Belo, Celso; Kahuli, Cezaltina; Rodrigues, Maria Alexandra; Ferrinho, Paulo

    2014-11-03

    Medical training has shown to be strategic for strengthening health systems, especially in those countries identified to have critical shortage of human resources for health. In the past few years, several studies have been conducted to characterize and identify major challenges faced by medical schools worldwide, and particularly in Africa. Nevertheless, none has previously addressed medical training issues in Portuguese Speaking African Countries (PSAC). The aim of this study was to establish baseline knowledge of the PSAC's medical schools in terms of creation and ownership, programmes offered, applicants and registered students, barriers to increased intake of students, teaching workforce and available resources. A quantitative, observational, multicentric, cross-sectional study of all medical schools active in 2012 in the PSAC. An adapted version of the questionnaires developed by Chen et al. (2012) was sent to all medical schools electronically. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. A total of nine medical schools answered the questionnaire (three from Angola, two from Guinea Bissau and four from Mozambique). Since 2006 an effort has been made to increase the number of medical trainees. Besides the medical degree offered by all schools, some offered other undergraduate and postgraduate training programmes. The number of applicants to medical schools largely outnumbers the available vacancies in all countries but insufficient infrastructures and lack of teaching personnel are important constraints to increase vacancies. The teaching personnel are mainly trained abroad, employed part-time by the medical school and do not have a PhD qualification. Governments in the PSAC have significantly invested in training to address medical shortages. However, medical schools are still struggling to give an adequate and effective response. Developing a local postgraduate training capacity for doctors might be an important strategy to help retain medical doctors

  14. Macroeconomic pressures and their implications for business development in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John

    2011-01-01

    The paper discusses the complex relationships between macroeconomic pressures, savings, investments and business development in Sub-Sahara African countries......The paper discusses the complex relationships between macroeconomic pressures, savings, investments and business development in Sub-Sahara African countries...

  15. Language policy and science: Could some African countries learn from some Asian countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock-Utne, Birgit

    2012-08-01

    This article deals with the fact that most children in Africa are taught in a language neither they nor their teachers master, resulting in poor education outcomes. While there are also donor interests and donor competition involved in retaining ex-colonial languages, as well as an African elite that may profit from this system, one of the main reasons why teaching in ex-colonial languages persists lies in the fact that a large proportion of the general public still believes that the best way to learn a foreign language is to have it as a language of instruction. By contrast, research studies conducted in Africa, as well as examples from Asian countries such as Sri Lanka and Malaysia, have shown that children actually learn mathematics and science much better in local and familiar languages. Though the recent World Bank Education Strategy policy paper is entitled Learning for All, it does not specify which language learning should take place in. A claim one often hears in countries of so-called Anglophone Africa is that English is the language of science and technology, and that teaching these subjects through English (instead of teaching English as a subject in its own right as a foreign language) is best. The monolingual island of Zanzibar is in fact about to reintroduce English as the language of instruction in maths and science from grade 5 onwards in primary school. The author of this paper suggests that when it comes to language policy, some African and some Asian countries could learn from each other.

  16. Wastage in the health workforce: some perspectives from African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dovlo Delanyo

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-Saharan Africa faces a human resources crisis in the health sector. Over the past two decades its population has increased substantially, with a significant rise in the disease burden due to HIV/AIDS and recurrent communicable diseases and an increased incidence of noncommunicable diseases. This increased demand for health services is met with a rather low supply of health workers, but this notwithstanding, sub-Saharan African countries also experience significant wastage of their human resources stock. Methods This paper is a desk review to illustrate suggestions that the way human resources for health (HRH are trained and deployed in Africa does not enhance productivity and that countries are unable to realize the full potential expected from the working life of their health workers. The paper suggests data types for use in measuring various forms of "wastage". Results "Direct" wastage – or avoidable increases in loss of staff through factors such as emigration and death – is on the rise, perhaps as a result of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. "Indirect" wastage – which is the result of losses in output and productivity from health professionals' misapplied skills, absenteeism, poor support and lack of supervision – is also common. HIV/AIDS represents a special cause of wastage in Africa. Deaths of health workers, fear of infection, burnout, absenteeism, heavy workloads and stress affect productivity. Conclusion The paper reviews strategies that have been proposed and/or implemented. It suggests areas needing further attention, including: developing and using indicators for monitoring and managing wastage; enhancing motivation and morale of health workers; protecting and valuing the health worker with enhanced occupational safety and welfare systems; and establishing the moral leadership to effectively tackle HIV/AIDS and the brain drain.

  17. Challenges for nationwide vaccine delivery in African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songane, Mario

    2017-10-19

    Vaccines are very effective in providing individual and community (herd) immunity against a range of diseases. In addition to protection against a range of diseases, vaccines also have social and economic benefits. However, for vaccines to be effective, routine immunization programmes must be undertaken regularly to ensure individual and community protection. Nonetheless, in many countries in Africa, vaccination coverage is low because governments struggle to deliver vaccines to the most remote areas, thus contributing to constant outbreaks of various vaccine-preventable diseases. African governments fail to deliver vaccines to a significant percentage of the target population due to many issues in key areas such as policy setting, programme management and financing, supply chain, global vaccine market, research and development of vaccines. This review gives an overview of the causes of these issues and what is currently being done to address them. This review will discuss the role of philanthropic organisations such as the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and global partnerships such as the global alliance for vaccines and immunizations in the development, purchase and delivery of vaccines.

  18. SWOT Analysis of Extension Systems in Southern African Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladimeji Idowu Oladele

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats to extension systems in selected southern African countries of Malawi, Zambia, Swaziland, Mozambique, Lesotho and Botswana. This is predicated on the need for improved performance and reinvigoration of extension system for better services. Some of the strengths are development works to improve rural areas, extensive grassroots coverage, and use of committees for research and extension linkages, involvement of NGOs and private sector, and effective setting of extension administration units. On the other hand opportunities that can be explored are donor will fund well designed programme, expansion in the use of ICT, high involvement of farmers in extension planning, and potential for effective programme implementation. The threats to the extension systems are attempts to privatize extension services, weak feedback to research, and donor fatigue. The paper recommends that extension administrators, and policy makers should pay proper attention to the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats to extension systems with a view of making extension services truly more responsive to local concerns and policy.

  19. Travel health attitudes among Turkish business travellers to African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcuk, Engin Burak; Kayabas, Uner; Binbasioglu, Hulisi; Otlu, Baris; Bayindir, Yasar; Bozdogan, Bulent; Karatas, Mehmet

    The number of international travellers is increasing worldwide. Although health risks related to international travel are important and generally well-understood, the perception of these risks was unclear among Turkish travellers. We aimed to evaluate the attitudes and health risk awareness of Turkish travellers travelling to African countries. A survey was performed of Turkish travellers bound for Africa from Istanbul International Ataturk Airport in July 2013. A total of 124 travellers were enrolled in the study. Among them, 62.9% had information about their destination but only 11.3% had looked for information on health problems related to travel and their destination. Of all travellers, 53.2% had at least one vaccination before travelling. The most commonly administered vaccine was for typhoid. Among the travellers, 69.3% and 80.6% had "no idea" about yellow fever vaccination and malaria prophylaxis, respectively. A positive correlation was found between a higher level of travellers' education and receiving the recommended vaccination for the destination. Our study revealed significant gaps in the vaccination and chemoprophylaxis uptake of Turkish travellers departing to Africa. An awareness and training program should be developed for travellers, as well as public health workers, to address health risks related to travel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. How Changes In International Trade Effect African Growth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo C. Fernández Puente

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The dismal growth performance of Africa in the last decades is one of the main worries of the global economy. In this paper we design an empirical model to explain how the growth rate of the economy is affected by changes in international trade. The main message of the model is that integration enables countries to exchange more varieties of goods and take advantage of some spillovers linked to the export-import process. These predictions are tested using GMM technique in a panel data performed on a sample of 22 countries belonging to the Sub-Sahara region over the period 1970-2002. The estimations suggest that Africa’s growth rates are positively related to a more open attitude and to a greater integration in international markets. However, the empirical analysis also points out the need of a certain degree of “social capacity” to ensure a successful integration. Finally, our results imply that African nations can profit from the economic growth of the OECD countries, as they are the main buyers of the region.

  1. THE MAGNITUDE AND DETERMINANTS OF CAPITAL FLIGHT - THE CASE FOR 6 SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN COUNTRIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HERMES, N; LENSINK, R

    1992-01-01

    Most studies treat capital flight as an exclusively Latin American problem. This paper estimates capital flight for six African countries and shows that the emphasis on Latin American capital flight is not correct. It appears that the burden of capital flight is also important for many African

  2. Evaluation of the Quality of Governance in African Countries Using Aggregate Indicators

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zuzana Novotná; Adriana Laputková

    2016-01-01

    .... The quality of governance is evaluated using factors such as Government Effectiveness, Control of Corruption, Rule of Law, which are monitored in each African country individually for the period between 2004 and 2010...

  3. Coping with out-of-pocket health payments: empirical evidence from 15 African countries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leive, Adam; Xu, Ke

    2008-01-01

    To explore factors associated with household coping behaviours in the face of health expenditures in 15 African countries and provide evidence for policy-makers in designing financial health protection mechanisms...

  4. Assessment of rice self-sufficiency in 2025 in eight African countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, van P.A.J.; Saito, K.; Tanaka, A.; Amovin-Assagaba, E.; Bussel, van L.G.J.; Wart, van J.; Groot, de H.L.E.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Cassman, K.G.; Wopereis, M.C.S.

    2015-01-01

    Most African countries are far from self-sufficient in meeting their rice consumption; in eight countries the production: consumption ratio, ranged from 0.16 to 1.18 in 2012. We show that for the year 2025, with population growth, diet change and yield increase on existing land (intensification),

  5. Looking forward to the East African Countries' Collaboration in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 2014, the East African Community (EAC) partner states began to explore the possibility of harmonizing nursing and midwifery education, practice and legislation. A study to examine harmonization was commissioned and variations in nursing and midwifery education, practice and legislation were discussed among ...

  6. Health Care Expenditure and GDP in African Countries: Evidence from Semiparametric Estimation with Panel Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhike Lv

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A large body of literature studies on the relationship between health care expenditure (HCE and GDP have been analyzed using data intensively from developed countries, but little is known for other regions. This paper considers a semiparametric panel data analysis for the study of the relationship between per capita HCE and per capita GDP for 42 African countries over the period 1995–2009. We found that infant mortality rate per 1,000 live births has a negative effect on per capita HCE, while the proportion of the population aged 65 is statistically insignificant in African countries. Furthermore, we found that the income elasticity is not constant but varies with income level, and health care is a necessity rather than a luxury for African countries.

  7. Public debt and growth in selected West African countries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on an eclectic approach, we examined the public debt – growth nexus in selected SSA countries. Panel regression results indicate that debt/GDP and rates of inflation had negative relationship with the growth in real GDP and its per capita measure for SSA. For the ECOWAS countries, debt/GDP was positively ...

  8. Lessons of Public Service Reform from Five African Countries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa Development/Afrique et développement Vol.XXVII, Nos 3&4 2002: 48-75. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ad.v27i2.22164 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News.

  9. The impact of HIV/AIDS on human development in African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutayeb, Abdesslam

    2009-11-18

    In the present paper, we consider the impact of HIV/AIDS on human development in African countries, showing that, beyond health issues, this disease should and must be seen as a global development concern, affecting all components of human development. Consequently, we stress the necessity of multidisciplinary approaches that model, estimate and predict the real impact of HIV/AIDS on human development of African countries in order to optimise the strategies proposed by national countries, international institutions and their partners. In our search strategy, we relied on secondary information, mainly through National Human Development Reports of some African countries and regular publications released by the United Nations (UN), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Bank. We restricted ourselves to reports dealing explicitly with the impact of HIV/AIDS on human development in African countries. HIV/AIDS is affecting the global human development of African countries through its devastating impact on health and demographic indicators such as life expectancy at birth, healthcare assistance, age and sex distribution, economic indicators like income, work force, and economic growth, education and knowledge acquisition and other indicators like governance, gender inequality and human rights. On the basis of the national reports reviewed, it appears clearly that HIV/AIDS is no longer a crisis only for the healthcare sector, but presents a challenge to all sectors. Consequently, HIV/AIDS is a development question and should be viewed as such. The disease is impeding development by imposing a steady decline in the key indicators of human development and hence reversing the social and economic gains that African countries are striving to attain. Being at the same time a cause and consequence of poverty and underdevelopment, it constitutes a challenge to human security and human development by diminishing the chances of

  10. Disciplining governance in Africa : a comparison of the World Bank’s Country Policy and Institutional Assessment and the African Union’s African Peer Review Mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Kassa (Saba)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThis study examines the promotion of governance in the African Continent. It compares the Country Policy and Institutional Assessment (CPIA) of the World Bank to the African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM) of the African Union. These governance assessments represent differing

  11. Correlates of complete childhood vaccination in East African countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen E Canavan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the benefits of childhood vaccinations, vaccination rates in low-income countries (LICs vary widely. Increasing coverage of vaccines to 90% in the poorest countries over the next 10 years has been estimated to prevent 426 million cases of illness and avert nearly 6.4 million childhood deaths worldwide. Consequently, we sought to provide a comprehensive examination of contemporary vaccination patterns in East Africa and to identify common and country-specific barriers to complete childhood vaccination. METHODS: Using data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS for Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda, we looked at the prevalence of complete vaccination for polio, measles, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG and DTwPHibHep (DTP as recommended by the WHO among children ages 12 to 23 months. We conducted multivariable logistic regression within each country to estimate associations between complete vaccination status and health care access and sociodemographic variables using backwards stepwise regression. RESULTS: Vaccination varied significantly by country. In all countries, the majority of children received at least one dose of a WHO recommended vaccine; however, in Ethiopia, Tanzania, and Uganda less than 50% of children received a complete schedule of recommended vaccines. Being delivered in a public or private institution compared with being delivered at home was associated with increased odds of complete vaccination status. Sociodemographic covariates were not consistently associated with complete vaccination status across countries. CONCLUSIONS: Although no consistent set of predictors accounted for complete vaccination status, we observed differences based on region and the location of delivery. These differences point to the need to examine the historical, political, and economic context of each country in order to maximize vaccination coverage. Vaccination against these childhood diseases is a

  12. Hand replantation: First experience in a sub-Saharan African country (Togo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komla Sena Amouzou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty years after Chen has performed the first forearm replantation, we report our first case of hand replantation in a sub-Saharan African country. The etiology of the amputation was machete due to interpersonal violence. The amputation was trans-carpal, guillotine-type, subtotal non-viable maintained with a small skin bridge. The replantation procedure was successful. At one year follow-up, the functional result according to Chen's criteria was excellent. Through this first experience, we can state that hand replantation can be performed successfully both in survival and function in a non-specialized hospital of a sub-Saharan African country.

  13. The comperriveness of African countries SME to assist them ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The digital revolution offers developing countries unique opportunities to actively participate in the world developmental revolution which has created new wealth and sustains one of the largest and unbroken growths in some economies notably North. America and Europe (Fagerber, 1996; Lall, 2000). The biggest.

  14. Racial Disparities in the Pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes and its Subtypes in the African Diaspora: A New Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Trudy R; Osei, Kwame

    2016-03-01

    The global epidemic of diabetes has extended to the developing countries including Sub-Sahara Africa. In this context, blacks with type 2 diabetes in the African Diaspora continue to manifest 1.5-2 times higher prevalent rates than in their white counterparts. Previous studies have demonstrated that blacks with and without type 2 diabetes have alterations in hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity, beta-cell function, and hepatic insulin clearance as well as hepatic glucose dysregulation when compared to whites. In addition, non-diabetic blacks in the African Diaspora manifest multiple metabolic mediators that predict type 2 diabetes and its subtypes. These pathogenic modifiers include differences in subclinical inflammation, oxidative stress burden, and adipocytokines in blacks in the African Diaspora prior to clinical diagnosis. Consequently, blacks in the African Diaspora manifest subtypes of type 2 diabetes, including ketosis-prone diabetes and J type diabetes. Given the diversity of type 2 diabetes in blacks in the African Diaspora, we hypothesize that blacks manifest multiple early pathogenic defects prior to the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes and its subtypes. These metabolic alterations have strong genetic component, which appears to play pivotal and primary role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and its subtypes in blacks in the African Diaspora. However, environmental factors must also be considered as major contributors to the higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes and its subtypes in blacks in the African Diaspora. These multiple alterations should be targets for early prevention of type 2 diabetes in blacks in the African Diaspora.

  15. Revisiting sub-Saharan African countries' drug problems: health, social, economic costs, and drug control policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affinnih, Yahya H

    2002-02-01

    This article takes an international perspective on the drug problem in sub-Saharan Africa. This analysis borrows ideas from physical and economic geography as a heuristic device to conceptualize the global narcoscapes in which drug trafficking occurs. Both the legitimate and the illegal drug trade operate within the same global capitalist system and draw on the same technological innovations and business processes. Central to the paper's argument is evidence that sub-Saharan African countries are now integrated into the political economy of drug consumption due to the spill-over effect. These countries are now minor markets for "hard drugs" as the result of the activities of organizations and individual traffickers that use Africa as a staging point in their trade with Europe and the United States. As a result, sub-Saharan African countries have drug consumption problems that were essentially absent prior to 1980, along with associated health, social, and economic costs. The emerging drug problem has forced African countries to develop their own drug control policy. The sub-Saharan African countries mentioned below vary to some extent in the level of drug use and misuse problems: Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Reunion, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Congo (Zaire), Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Sao Tome and Principe, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Cote d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo. As part of this effort, African countries are assessing the health, social, and economic costs of drug-use-related problems to pinpoint methods which are both effective and inexpensive, since their budgets for social programs are severely constrained. Many have progressed to the point of adopting anti

  16. Diaspora engagement of African migrant health workers – examples from five destination countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Wojczewski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Migrant health workers fill care gaps in their destination countries, but they also actively engage in improving living conditions for people of their countries of origin through expatriate professional networks. This paper aims to explore the professional links that migrant health workers from sub-Saharan African countries living in five African and European destinations (Botswana, South Africa, Belgium, Austria, and the United Kingdom have to their countries of origin. Design: Qualitative interviews were conducted with migrant doctors, nurses, and midwives from sub-Saharan Africa (N=66. A qualitative content analysis of the material was performed using the software ATLAS.ti. Results: Almost all migrant health workers have professional ties with their countries of origin supporting health, education, and social structures. They work with non-governmental organizations, universities, or hospitals and travel back and forth between their destination country and country of origin. For a few respondents, professional engagement or even maintaining private contacts in their country of origin is difficult due to the political situation at home. Conclusions: The results show that African migrant health workers are actively engaged in improving living conditions not only for their family members but also for the population in general in their countries of origin. Our respondents are mediators and active networkers in a globalized and transnationally connected world. The research suggests that the governments of these countries of origin could strategically use their migrant health workforce for improving education and population health in sub-Saharan Africa. Destination countries should be reminded of their need to comply with the WHO Global Code of Practice for the international recruitment of health professionals.

  17. Diaspora engagement of African migrant health workers - examples from five destination countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojczewski, Silvia; Poppe, Annelien; Hoffmann, Kathryn; Peersman, Wim; Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Pentz, Stephen; Kutalek, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Migrant health workers fill care gaps in their destination countries, but they also actively engage in improving living conditions for people of their countries of origin through expatriate professional networks. This paper aims to explore the professional links that migrant health workers from sub-Saharan African countries living in five African and European destinations (Botswana, South Africa, Belgium, Austria, and the United Kingdom) have to their countries of origin. Qualitative interviews were conducted with migrant doctors, nurses, and midwives from sub-Saharan Africa (N=66). A qualitative content analysis of the material was performed using the software ATLAS.ti. Almost all migrant health workers have professional ties with their countries of origin supporting health, education, and social structures. They work with non-governmental organizations, universities, or hospitals and travel back and forth between their destination country and country of origin. For a few respondents, professional engagement or even maintaining private contacts in their country of origin is difficult due to the political situation at home. The results show that African migrant health workers are actively engaged in improving living conditions not only for their family members but also for the population in general in their countries of origin. Our respondents are mediators and active networkers in a globalized and transnationally connected world. The research suggests that the governments of these countries of origin could strategically use their migrant health workforce for improving education and population health in sub-Saharan Africa. Destination countries should be reminded of their need to comply with the WHO Global Code of Practice for the international recruitment of health professionals.

  18. Foreign direct investment and policy framework: New Granger causality evidence from African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiu Adewale Aregbeshola

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The strategic importance of foreign direct investment in the contemporary economies has been tremendous.While various countries (developed and developing economies have benefitted from the direct and spillovereffects of FDI, which range from improved technology and knowledge diffusion through to individual andcorporate capability enhancement, FDI outflow remains largely channelled to the developed countries, andthe rapidly developing countries in Asia and South America. Evidence suggests that the developmentenhancingeffects of FDI are felt more highly in the developing economies, such as economies in Africa.However, FDI inflow to the developing economies has been very low. Using data generated from the AfricanDevelopment Indicators (ADI between 1980 and 2008 in econometric estimations, this paper finds thatgovernment policies (especially fiscal and monetary policies play significant roles in facilitating FDI inflow tothe African countries studied. The study thereby suggests an improved regulatory framework to make Africamore attractive to inflow of FDI.

  19. Strategic Implications of Emerging Threats to West African Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    West Africa is particularly prone to the extremes of climate change. Furthermore, locust invasions, prevalent diseases like malaria, heavy...countries of Senegal, Nigeria, Guinea and Mali45. In addition to cocaine, the region has also been used for the trafficking of heroin and cannabis ...resolving an immediate crisis, and 24 focusing on structural conflict prevention by addressing the root causes of state fragility in order to

  20. Diet in chronic kidney disease in a Mediterranean African country

    OpenAIRE

    Kammoun, Khawla; Chaker, Hanen; Mahfoudh, Hichem; Makhlouf, Nouha; Jarraya, Faical; Hachicha, Jamil

    2017-01-01

    Background Mediterranean diet is characterized by low to moderate consumption of animal protein and high consumption of fruits, vegetables, bread, beans, nuts, seeds and other cereals. It has been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. However, it is not suitable for chronic kidney disease because of high potassium intake. Discussion Tunisia is an emerging Mediterranean country with limited resources, a high prevalence of chronic hemodialysis treatment and high dialysis expen...

  1. Measuring Government Effectiveness and Its Consequences for Social Welfare in Sub-Saharan African Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Audrey; Levi, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a method for measuring effective government and modeling its consequences for social welfare at the individual level. Our focus is on the experiences of citizens living in African countries where famine remains a serious threat. If a government is effective, it will be able to deliver goods that individuals need to improve their…

  2. Is Africa’s current growth reducing inequality? Evidence from some selected african countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alege P.O.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Is Africa’s current growth reducing inequality? What are the implications of growth on output performances in Africa? Does the effect of Africa’s growth on sectorial output have any implication for inequality in Africa? The study investigates the effect of shocks on a set of macroeconomic variables on inequality (measured by life expectancy and the implication of this on sectors that are perceived to provide economic empowerment in form of employment for people living in the African countries in our sample. Studies already find that growth in many African countries has not been accompanied with significant improvement in employment. Therefore inequality is subject to a counter cyclical trend in production levels when export destination countries experience a recession. The study also provides insight on the effect of growth on sectorial output for three major sectors in the African economy with the intent of analyzing the impact of growth on sectorial development. The method used in this study is Panel Vector Autoregressive (PVAR estimation and the obvious advantage of this method lies in the fact that it allows us to capture both static and dynamic interdependencies and to treat the links across units in an unrestricted fashion. Data is obtained from World Bank (WDI Statistics for the period 1985 to 2012 (28 years for 10 African Countries. Our main findings confirm strong negative relationship between GDP growth and life expectancy and also for GDP and the services and manufacturing sector considering the full sample.

  3. Migration from Developing Countries: The Case of South African Teachers to the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Villiers, Rian

    2007-01-01

    The United Kingdom (particularly England) is the main developed country that recruits teachers from South Africa. This article provides an overview of teacher migration from South Africa to the United Kingdom over the past decade. The research focuses on the following aspects of migration: the recruitment of South African teachers; motivation for…

  4. Stock returns and Friday the 13th effect in five African countries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is concerned with Friday the 13th and daily stock market returns in five African countries. Using the MSCI Global Equity Indices during various periods, the evidence overwhelmingly suggests that there is no Friday the 13th effect. Keywords: Friday the 13th, stock returns, anomalies, Africa ...

  5. Temperament Styles of Children in Three Sub-Saharan African Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakland, Thomas; Callueng, Carmelo

    2015-01-01

    This cross-national research examined temperament style preferences among children in three sub-Saharan African countries (i.e., Nigeria, South Africa, and Zimbabwe) and possible differences between them on four bipolar temperament styles: extroverted-introverted, practical-imaginative, thinking-feeling, and organized-flexible. Children in these…

  6. An ontology for regulating eHealth interoperability in developing African countries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moodley, D

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available eHealth governance and regulation are necessary in low resource African countries to ensure effective and equitable use of health information technology and to realize national eHealth goals such as interoperability, adoption of standards and data...

  7. Association between Contract Teachers and Student Learning in Five Francophone African Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudgar, Amita

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the association between studying with a contract teacher and a student's academic outcomes, using data from five Francophone African countries for two grade levels and two subjects. Based on this analysis, the evidence for or against this form of teacher hiring is inconclusive. The results indicate that these…

  8. Adjustment and long-run economic performance in 18 African countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebregziabher, Fiseha

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the link between IMF-World Bank stabilisation-cum-structural adjustment programs and long-run economic performance in 18 African countries on a country-specific basis for the period 1960-2009. We employ a structural break approach to study the impact on long-run growth...... trajectories of the introduction of adjustment programs. The analysis reveals that only few countries have shown positive and sustained results. The traditional (first-generation) Fund-Bank adjustment package is linked with sustained increase in Gross Domestic Product, export and investment growth rates only...

  9. Towards zero waste in emerging countries - a South African experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matete, Ntlibi; Trois, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the optimisation of Waste Minimisation/Zero Waste strategies into an already established integrated waste management system and to present a Zero Waste model for post-consumer waste for urban communities in South Africa. The research was undertaken towards the fulfilment of the goals of the Polokwane Declaration on Waste Management [DEAT, 2001. Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Government of South Africa. Polokwane Declaration. Drafted by Government, Civil Society and the Business Community. National Waste Summit, Polokwane, 26-28 September 2001], which has set as its target the reduction of waste generation and disposal by 50% and 25%, respectively, by 2012 and the development of a plan for Zero Waste by 2022. Two communities, adjacent to the Mariannhill Landfill site in Durban, were selected as a case study for a comparative analysis of formal and informal settlements. Since the waste generated from these two communities is disposed of at the Mariannhill landfill, the impact of Zero Waste on landfill volumes could be readily assessed. A Zero Waste scheme, based on costs and landfill airspace savings, was proposed for the area. The case study demonstrates that waste minimisation schemes can be introduced into urban areas, in emerging countries, with differing levels of service and that Zero Waste models are appropriate to urban areas in South Africa.

  10. Impact of regulatory requirements on medicine registration in African countries - perceptions and experiences of pharmaceutical companies in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narsai, Kirti; Williams, Abeda; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje Kaija

    2012-07-01

    Access to medicines has long been and remains a challenge in African countries. The impact of medicines registration policies in these countries poses a challenge for pharmaceutical companies wanting to register medicines in these countries. The recent AMRHI (African Medicines Registration Harmonisation Initiative) has increased the focus on the need for harmonisation. Medicines registration regulations differ across African countries. Anecdotal evidence, based on the experience of pharmaceutical companies on progress towards harmonisation is somewhat different, i.e. that country specific requirements were a barrier to the registration of medicines. The objective of this study was therefore to determine the nature and extent of regulatory hurdles experienced by pharmaceutical companies who wish to register and supply medicines to African countries. This cross-sectional descriptive pilot study was conducted across pharmaceutical companies, both local and multinational. These companies were based in South Africa and were also members of Pharmaceutical Industry Association of South Africa (PIASA). The pharmaceutical companies supply both the private and public sectors. An online survey was developed using Survey Monkey. Survey questions focused on the following strands: nature and level of current supply of medicines to African countries by companies, general regulatory requirements, region specific questions and country specific questions across four regional economic communities in Africa, namely; Southern African Development Community (SADC), East African Community (EAC), Economic Community of the West African States (ECOWAS) and Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS). A total of 33 responses were received to the questionnaire of which 26 respondents were from the PIASA Regulatory working group and 7 were from the PIASA Export working group.It was noted that since most of the regulatory authorities in Africa are resource-constrained, harmonisation of

  11. Tobacco prevention policies in west-African countries and their effects on smoking prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Volker; Lan, Yong; Becher, Heiko

    2015-12-08

    The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control was shown to effectively lower smoking prevalence in in high income countries, however knowledge for low and middle income settings is sparse. The objective of this study was to describe WHO MPOWER policy measures in thirteen West-African countries and to investigate their correlation with smoking prevalence. Age-standardized smoking prevalence data and policy measures were collected from various WHO reports. For analysis MPOWER measures from 2008 and 2010, were combined with prevalence data from 2009 and 2011. Multiple linear regression models were set up. In West-Africa mean smoking prevalence was approximately 20% among males and approximately 3% among females. Policy measures were mostly at a middle or low level. Regression analysis showed that tobacco cessation programs, health warnings on cigarettes, and higher price of cigarettes were negatively correlated with smoking prevalence. Significant effects were observed for only one policy measure (tobacco cessation programs) and only within the male population where smoking prevalence is generally higher. Tobacco control policies are enforced at relatively low levels in West-African countries. However, improving tobacco control policy implementation according to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control should assist in the reduction of smoking prevalence in African countries, thereby counteracting pro-smoking initiatives set forth by the tobacco industry.

  12. Testing for purchasing power parity in 21 African countries using several unit root tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choji, Niri Martha; Sek, Siok Kun

    2017-04-01

    Purchasing power parity is used as a basis for international income and expenditure comparison through the exchange rate theory. However, empirical studies show disagreement on the validity of PPP. In this paper, we conduct the testing on the validity of PPP using panel data approach. We apply seven different panel unit root tests to test the validity of the purchasing power parity (PPP) hypothesis based on the quarterly data on real effective exchange rate for 21 African countries from the period 1971: Q1-2012: Q4. All the results of the seven tests rejected the hypothesis of stationarity meaning that absolute PPP does not hold in those African Countries. This result confirmed the claim from previous studies that standard panel unit tests fail to support the PPP hypothesis.

  13. Role of mobile phone technology in health education in Asian and African countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Madhusmita; Grover, Ashoo; Joshi, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to explore the role of mobile phone technologies in delivering health education programs in Asian and African countries. The search engine used was Pubmed during 2008-2011. Randomised controlled trials or controlled studies that improved health outcomes through delivery of health educational interventions using cell phone or text messaging were included in the review. Results showed studies from six Asian and African countries including Philippines, China, Kenya, South Korea, Taiwan and India. Mobile phone technology has shown to improve health outcomes for chronic disease conditions such as diabetes, heart disease and hypertension. Additional conditions include obesity and cardiopulmonary resuscitation guidance. Other studies have shown improvement in self management of breast cancer and post-hospitalisation HIV and pharmaceutical care. Overall results of the present review showed that mobile phone technologies can be a possible solution to improve healthcare outcome.

  14. The value of children in African countries: insights from studies on infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Silke J

    2007-06-01

    A number of studies have explored motives for parenthood in the Western industrialized world. These studies have documented that children are mostly desired for reasons relating to happiness and personal well-being. To date, limited data pertaining to parenthood motives in African countries exist. Insight into the value of children can, however, be derived from studies on infertility, as the negative repercussions of involuntary childlessness reflect the value of children to parents and the community. According to these studies children secure conjugal ties, offer social security, assist with labour, confer social status, secure rights of property and inheritance, provide continuity through re-incarnation and maintaining the family lineage, and satisfy emotional needs. Parenthood therefore appears to have more and, arguably, deeper roots in African communities when compared to industrialized countries.

  15. African Female Physicians and Nurses in the Global Care Chain: Qualitative Explorations from Five Destination Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojczewski, Silvia; Pentz, Stephen; Blacklock, Claire; Hoffmann, Kathryn; Peersman, Wim; Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Kutalek, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Migration of health professionals is an important policy issue for both source and destination countries around the world. The majority of migrant care workers in industrialized countries today are women. However, the dimension of mobility of highly skilled females from countries of the global south has been almost entirely neglected for many years. This paper explores the experiences of high-skilled female African migrant health-workers (MHW) utilising the framework of Global Care Chain (GCC) research. In the frame of the EU-project HURAPRIM (Human Resources for Primary Health Care in Africa), the research team conducted 88 semi-structured interviews with female and male African MHWs in five countries (Botswana, South Africa, Belgium, Austria, UK) from July 2011 until April 2012. For this paper we analysed the 34 interviews with female physicians and nurses using the qualitative framework analysis approach and the software atlas.ti. In terms of the effect of the migration on their career, almost all of the respondents experienced short-term, long-term or permanent inability to work as health-care professionals; few however also reported a positive career development post-migration. Discrimination based on a foreign nationality, race or gender was reported by many of our respondents, physicians and nurses alike, whether they worked in an African or a European country. Our study shows that in addition to the phenomenon of deskilling often reported in GCC research, many female MHW are unable to work according to their qualifications due to the fact that their diplomas are not recognized in the country of destination. Policy strategies are needed regarding integration of migrants in the labour market and working against discrimination based on race and gender.

  16. African Female Physicians and Nurses in the Global Care Chain: Qualitative Explorations from Five Destination Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Wojczewski

    Full Text Available Migration of health professionals is an important policy issue for both source and destination countries around the world. The majority of migrant care workers in industrialized countries today are women. However, the dimension of mobility of highly skilled females from countries of the global south has been almost entirely neglected for many years. This paper explores the experiences of high-skilled female African migrant health-workers (MHW utilising the framework of Global Care Chain (GCC research. In the frame of the EU-project HURAPRIM (Human Resources for Primary Health Care in Africa, the research team conducted 88 semi-structured interviews with female and male African MHWs in five countries (Botswana, South Africa, Belgium, Austria, UK from July 2011 until April 2012. For this paper we analysed the 34 interviews with female physicians and nurses using the qualitative framework analysis approach and the software atlas.ti. In terms of the effect of the migration on their career, almost all of the respondents experienced short-term, long-term or permanent inability to work as health-care professionals; few however also reported a positive career development post-migration. Discrimination based on a foreign nationality, race or gender was reported by many of our respondents, physicians and nurses alike, whether they worked in an African or a European country. Our study shows that in addition to the phenomenon of deskilling often reported in GCC research, many female MHW are unable to work according to their qualifications due to the fact that their diplomas are not recognized in the country of destination. Policy strategies are needed regarding integration of migrants in the labour market and working against discrimination based on race and gender.

  17. Historical Preconditions and Factors for Development of International Relations between UAE and African Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K Voronkov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on analyses of preconditions for development of international relations between UAE and African countries including geographical location of the UAE, naval and ship building skills of the Persian gulf Arabs, participation of both Eastern Africa and Persian Gulf in the Indian ocean trade as well as influence on its development of external factors such as Islamic expansion and colonial policies of Britain and Portugal.

  18. Energy intensity and manufacturing firm characteristics in Sub-Saharan African countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kaulich, Florian; Luken, Ralph; Mhlanga, Alois; Polzerova, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    We draw on a unique dataset for energy use by manufacturing firms in 18 Sub-Saharan African countries to estimate the relationship between energy intensity of production and firms' characteristics. Our results show that lower levels of energy intensity are associated with export activity, foreign ownership, size and capital-labor ratio, while higher levels of energy intensity are associated with a higher share of fuels in total energy consumption. We do not find a statistically significant re...

  19. External Sustainability of Oil-Producing Sub-Saharan African Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Robert C York; Misa Takebe

    2011-01-01

    In the extensive empirical work carried out across the IMF on oil-producing sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries, the notion of "sustainability" is often directed toward fiscal policies, and, in particular, views on the "optimal" non-oil primary fiscal deficit. The bulk of this work does not, however, address external sustainability, which is a concern especially for those SSA oil producers operating under a fixed exchange rate regime. A couple of recent papers have extended the existing metho...

  20. Comparative Analyses of the UAE and the IRI Investment Policy in African Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K Voronkov

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on comparative analyses of the investment policy of the UAE and the IRI in African countries in a context of foreign policy activities. The author examines the main approaches and methods practiced by the OAE and the IRI investment bodies for achieving success in Africa in various spheres of economy. The special attention is given to cluster principle of diversification strategy, which ensured the transformation of the OAE from a weakly developed country fully dependent on the export of oil into a state with a diversified economy.

  1. On the mathematical analysis of Ebola hemorrhagic fever: deathly infection disease in West African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atangana, Abdon; Goufo, Emile Franc Doungmo

    2014-01-01

    For a given West African country, we constructed a model describing the spread of the deathly disease called Ebola hemorrhagic fever. The model was first constructed using the classical derivative and then converted to the generalized version using the beta-derivative. We studied in detail the endemic equilibrium points and provided the Eigen values associated using the Jacobian method. We furthered our investigation by solving the model numerically using an iteration method. The simulations were done in terms of time and beta. The study showed that, for small portion of infected individuals, the whole country could die out in a very short period of time in case there is not good prevention.

  2. Social inequalities, regional disparities and health inequity in North African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutayeb, Abdesslam; Helmert, Uwe

    2011-05-31

    During the last decades, North African countries have substantially improved economic, social and health conditions of their populations in average. In all countries, human development in general and life expectancy, literacy and per capita income in particular have increased. However, improvement was not equally shared between groups of different milieu, regions or level of income. Social inequalities and health inequity have persisted or even worsened. Data are generally scarce and few studies were devoted to this topic in North Africa as a region. In this paper, we carry out a comparative study on the achievements of these countries, not only in terms of human development and its components but also in terms of inequalities' reduction and health equity. This study is based on data available for comparison between North African countries. The main data sources are provided by reports released by the World Health Organisation (WHO), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), the World Bank, surveys such as Demographic Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) and finally recent papers published on equity in different countries of the region. There is no doubt that education, health and human development in general have improved in North Africa during the last decades. Improvement was, however, uneven and unequally enjoyed by different socioeconomic groups. Indeed, each country included in this study shows large urban-rural disparities, discrepancies between advantaged and disadvantaged regions and cities; and unacceptable differences between rich and poor. Health inequity is particularly seen through access to health services and infant mortality. During the last decades, North African decision makers have endeavoured to improve social and economic conditions of their populations. Globally, health, education and living standard in general have substantially improved in average. However, North

  3. Disparities in cardiovascular research output and citations from 52 African countries: a time-trend, bibliometric analysis (1999-2008)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bloomfield, Gerald S; Baldridge, Abigail; Agarwal, Anubha; Huffman, Mark D; Colantonio, Lisandro D; Bahiru, Ehete; Ajay, Vamadevan S; Prabhakaran, Poornima; Lewison, Grant; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

    2015-01-01

    .... However, data from the continent are limited. To evaluate the cardiovascular research output and citations from 52 African countries between 1999 and 2008, we created a bibliometric filter to capture cardiovascular research articles published...

  4. Health expenditure and economic growth - a review of the literature and an analysis between the economic community for central African states (CEMAC) and selected African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piabuo, Serge Mandiefe; Tieguhong, Julius Chupezi

    2017-12-01

    African leaders accepted in the year 2001 through the Abuja Declaration to allocate 15% of their government expenditure on health but by 2013 only five (5) African countries achieved this target. In this paper, a comparative analysis on the impact of health expenditure between countries in the CEMAC sub-region and five other African countries that achieved the Abuja declaration is provided. Data for this study was extracted from the World Development Indicators (2016) database, panel ordinary least square (OLS), fully modified ordinary least square (FMOLS) and dynamic ordinary least square (DOLS) were used as econometric technic of analysis. Results showed that health expenditure has a positive and significant effect on economic growth in both samples. A unit change in health expenditure can potentially increase GDP per capita by 0.38 and 0.3 units for the five other African countries that achieve the Abuja target and for CEMAC countries respectively, a significant difference of 0.08 units among the two samples. In addition, a long-run relationship also exist between health expenditure and economic growth for both groups of countries. Thus African Economies are strongly advised to achieve the Abuja target especially when other socio-economic and political factors are efficient.

  5. Gender attitudes and fertility aspirations among young men in five high fertility East African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Rachel C; Winter, Rebecca A; Harlow, Siobán D

    2013-03-01

    The relationship between women's attitudes toward gender equality and their fertility aspirations has been researched extensively, but few studies have explored the same associations among men. Using recent Demographic and Health Survey data from five high fertility East African countries, we examine the association between young men's gender attitudes and their ideal family size. Whereas several DHS gender attitude responses were associated with fertility aspirations in select countries, men's greater tolerance of wife beating was consistently associated with higher fertility aspirations across all countries, independent of education, income, or religion. Our findings highlight the overlapping values of male authority within marriage and aspirations for large families among young adult males in East Africa. Total lifetime fertility in East Africa remains among the highest worldwide: thus, governments in the region seeking to reduce fertility may need to explicitly scrutinize and address the reproduction of prevailing masculine values. © 2013 The Population Council, Inc.

  6. HUMAN SIDE OF E-COMMERCE IN THE SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    DURAK, Görkem

    2017-01-01

    E-commerce is a new way of shopping through using internet since 1990s. This latest from of shopping is based on progress in information technologies. In the 1990s, companies just as Amazon and eBay started to change the shopping behavior of people. In this research, e-commerce index of 44 Sub-Saharan African countries are calculated by using World Development Indicators which are issued by the World Bank Group. The E-commerce index is consisting of access to electricity, co...

  7. The Long-Run Impact of Foreign Aid in 36 African Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina; Møller, Niels Framroze; Tarp, Finn

    2014-01-01

    We comprehensively analyse the long-run effect of foreign aid (ODA) on key macroeconomic variables in 36 sub-Saharan African countries from the mid-1960s to 2007, using a well-specified cointegrated VAR model as statistical benchmark. Results provide broad support for a positive long-run impact...... of ODA flows on the macroeconomy. In contrast, we find little evidence supporting the thesis that aid has been harmful. From a methodological point of view we highlight the importance of transparency in reporting results, especially when the hypothesis being tested differs from theoretical expectations...

  8. Threshold cointegration and causality relationship between energy use and growth in seven African countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esso, Loesse Jacques [CES, Universite Paris 1-Pantheon-Sorbonne (France); Ecole Nationale Superieure de Statistique et d' Economie Appliquee (ENSEA), Cellule d' Analyse de Politiques Economiques du CIRES (CAPEC) (Ivory Coast)

    2010-11-15

    The paper investigates the long-run and the causality relationship between energy consumption and economic growth for seven Sub-Saharan African countries during the period 1970-2007. Using the Gregory and Hansen testing approach to threshold cointegration, we find that energy consumption is cointegrated with economic growth in Cameroon, Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Nigeria and South Africa. Moreover, this test suggests that economic growth has a significant positive long-run impact on energy consumption in these countries before 1988 and this effect becomes negative after 1988 in Ghana and South Africa. Furthermore, causality tests suggest bidirectional causality between energy consumption and real GDP in Cote d'Ivoire and unidirectional causality running from real GDP to energy usage in the case of Congo and Ghana. (author)

  9. Men's multiple sexual partnerships in 15 Sub-Saharan African countries: sociodemographic patterns and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingenheimer, Jeffrey B

    2010-03-01

    Men's multiple sexual partnerships contribute to the spread of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, but the social determinants of these relationships remain poorly understood. Prevailing wisdom suggests that men's institutionalized authority over women and their control of economic resources are key facilitators of multiple partnerships in this region. Men's exposure to or freedom from social control mechanisms embedded in family and village life may also play a role. This article provides insight into these issues by examining sociodemographic correlates of men's multiple sexual partnerships using data from recent Demographic and Health Surveys in 15 sub-Saharan African countries. The prevalence of self-reported multiple partnerships varies widely among countries. Sociodemographic patterns of such partnerships confirm the importance of men's control of economic resources and suggest that men's freedom from social control mechanisms may be more important than their authority over their wives.

  10. A conceptual model of HIV/AIDS stigma from five African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzemer, William L; Uys, Leana; Makoae, Lucy; Stewart, Anita; Phetlhu, René; Dlamini, Priscilla S; Greeff, Minrie; Kohi, Thecla W; Chirwa, Maureen; Cuca, Yvette; Naidoo, Joanne

    2007-06-01

    This paper is a report on the development of a conceptual model delineating contexts and processes of HIV/AIDS stigma as reported by persons living with HIV/AIDS and nurses from African countries. It is part of a larger study to increase understanding of HIV/AIDS stigma. Researchers have defined stigma, explored determinants and outcomes of stigma and attempted to measure its multiple dimensions. This literature is difficult to synthesize, and often does not distinguish adequately between experiences of stigma and its causes and outcomes. Forty-three focus groups were held with persons living with HIV/AIDS and nurses in five African countries in 2004. Focus group recordings were transcribed and coded. The data were organized into a conceptual model of HIV/AIDS stigma. Two components were identified in the data: contextual factors--environment, healthcare system, agents--that influence and affect stigma and the stigma process itself. The stigma process included four dimensions: triggers of stigma, stigmatizing behaviours, types of stigma and the outcomes of stigma. A conceptual model is presented that delineates the dynamic nature of stigma as reported by study participants. The model may be used to identify areas appropriate for the design and testing of stigma reduction interventions that have a goal of reducing the burden of HIV/AIDS stigma.

  11. Former migrant mineworkers with respiratory disease: the South African compensation system, and implications for neighbouring countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, T W; Mabongo, N; Moeti, T; Monare, B; Trapido, A S

    2000-01-01

    In the region of Southern Africa, substantial numbers of people, primarily males, have been employed in the South African mining industry. Migrant workers from neighbouring countries have constituted a large part of the work force. Until recently, there has been little or no attention directed toward the state of health of these individuals, despite the fact that their work involves a high health risk, especially in regard to mine-related lung diseases. In addition, the South African workers' compensation programme has seldom been utilised by the migrant worker who is a victim of occupational disease. However, recent experiences from Botswana show that compensation claims can be successfully made from the neighbouring countries where the migrant workers originate. Efforts are being made to address the problem systematically, and the government of Botswana is actively involved. The major occupational lung disorders are described briefly, and differential diagnostic problems with pulmonary TB are discussed. Furthermore, a survey of the compensation system in South Africa is presented, and practical steps for medical examinations involving compensation claims are described.

  12. Corporate social disclosure by public enterprises: Evidence from a less developing African country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humayun Kabir

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR information disclosure practices of a sample of public enterprises operating in a less developing African country (i.e. Swaziland over the years 2008 and 2010. Corporate annual reports and other relevant documents were used to extract CSR disclosure information. The study used content analysis of CSR information appearing in the corporate reports. Content analysis was measured in accordance with number of words. The paper examines five major categories of CSR disclosure such as environmental performance and policies, human resources, community activities, fair business practices, and human rights. Findings show that the trend of increasing amounts of corporate social information disclosure amongst the enterprises from 2008 to 2010 has not increased significantly. Results show that human resources disclosure issues were greatest followed by community involvement and then by environmental related issues. There was no attempt to disclose human rights issues by the enterprises. This study contributes to the literature on CSR reporting practices by public enterprises in the context of less developing African countries.

  13. Strategic siting and regional grid interconnections key to low-carbon futures in African countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Grace C. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy and Resources Group; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). International Energy Studies Group; Deshmukh, Ranjit [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy and Resources Group; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). International Energy Studies Group; Ndhlukula, Kudakwashe [Namibia Univ. of Science and Technology, Windhoek, (Namibia). Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) Centre for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency; Radojicic, Tijana [International Renewable Energy Agency, Masdar City, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Reilly-Moman, Jessica [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy and Resources Group; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). International Energy Studies Group; Phadke, Amol [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). International Energy Studies Group; Kammen, Daniel M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy and Resources Group; Callaway, Duncan S. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy and Resources Group

    2017-03-27

    Recent forecasts suggest that African countries must triple their current electricity generation by 2030. Our multicriteria assessment of wind and solar potential for large regions of Africa shows how economically competitive and low-environmental– impact renewable resources can significantly contribute to meeting this demand. We created the Multicriteria Analysis for Planning Renewable Energy (MapRE) framework to map and characterize solar and wind energy zones in 21 countries in the Southern African Power Pool (SAPP) and the Eastern Africa Power Pool (EAPP) and find that potential is several times greater than demand in many countries. Significant fractions of demand can be quickly served with “no-regrets” options—or zones that are low-cost, low-environmental impact, and highly accessible. Because no-regrets options are spatially heterogeneous, international interconnections are necessary to help achieve low-carbon development for the region as a whole, and interconnections that support the best renewable options may differ from those planned for hydropower expansion. Additionally, interconnections and selecting wind sites to match demand reduce the need for SAPP-wide conventional generation capacity by 9.5% in a high-wind scenario, resulting in a 6–20% cost savings, depending on the avoided conventional technology. Strategic selection of low-impact and accessible zones is more cost effective with interconnections compared with solutions without interconnections. In conclusion, the overall results are robust to multiple load growth scenarios. Together, results show that multicriteria site selection and deliberate planning of interconnections may significantly increase the economic and environmental competitiveness of renewable alternatives relative to conventional generation.

  14. Strategic siting and regional grid interconnections key to low-carbon futures in African countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Ranjit; Ndhlukula, Kudakwashe; Radojicic, Tijana; Reilly-Moman, Jessica; Phadke, Amol; Kammen, Daniel M.; Callaway, Duncan S.

    2017-01-01

    Recent forecasts suggest that African countries must triple their current electricity generation by 2030. Our multicriteria assessment of wind and solar potential for large regions of Africa shows how economically competitive and low-environmental–impact renewable resources can significantly contribute to meeting this demand. We created the Multicriteria Analysis for Planning Renewable Energy (MapRE) framework to map and characterize solar and wind energy zones in 21 countries in the Southern African Power Pool (SAPP) and the Eastern Africa Power Pool (EAPP) and find that potential is several times greater than demand in many countries. Significant fractions of demand can be quickly served with “no-regrets” options—or zones that are low-cost, low-environmental impact, and highly accessible. Because no-regrets options are spatially heterogeneous, international interconnections are necessary to help achieve low-carbon development for the region as a whole, and interconnections that support the best renewable options may differ from those planned for hydropower expansion. Additionally, interconnections and selecting wind sites to match demand reduce the need for SAPP-wide conventional generation capacity by 9.5% in a high-wind scenario, resulting in a 6–20% cost savings, depending on the avoided conventional technology. Strategic selection of low-impact and accessible zones is more cost effective with interconnections compared with solutions without interconnections. Overall results are robust to multiple load growth scenarios. Together, results show that multicriteria site selection and deliberate planning of interconnections may significantly increase the economic and environmental competitiveness of renewable alternatives relative to conventional generation. PMID:28348209

  15. Coping with out-of-pocket health payments: empirical evidence from 15 African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leive, Adam; Xu, Ke

    2008-11-01

    To explore factors associated with household coping behaviours in the face of health expenditures in 15 African countries and provide evidence for policy-makers in designing financial health protection mechanisms. A series of logit regressions were performed to explore factors correlating with a greater likelihood of selling assets, borrowing or both to finance health care. The average partial effects for different levels of spending on inpatient care were derived by computing the partial effects for each observation and taking the average across the sample. Data used in the analysis were from the 2002-2003 World Health Survey, which asked how households had financed out-of-pocket payments over the previous year. Households selling assets or borrowing money were compared to those that financed health care from income or savings. Those that used insurance were excluded. For the analysis, a value of 1 was assigned to selling assets or borrowing money and a value of 0 to other coping mechanisms. Coping through borrowing and selling assets ranged from 23% of households in Zambia to 68% in Burkina Faso. In general, the highest income groups were less likely to borrow and sell assets, but coping mechanisms did not differ strongly among lower income quintiles. Households with higher inpatient expenses were significantly more likely to borrow and deplete assets compared to those financing outpatient care or routine medical expenses, except in Burkina Faso, Namibia and Swaziland. In eight countries, the coefficient on the highest quintile of inpatient spending had a P-value below 0.01. In most African countries, the health financing system is too weak to protect households from health shocks. Borrowing and selling assets to finance health care are common. Formal prepayment schemes could benefit many households, and an overall social protection network could help to mitigate the long-term effects of ill health on household well-being and support poverty reduction.

  16. Strategic siting and regional grid interconnections key to low-carbon futures in African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Grace C; Deshmukh, Ranjit; Ndhlukula, Kudakwashe; Radojicic, Tijana; Reilly-Moman, Jessica; Phadke, Amol; Kammen, Daniel M; Callaway, Duncan S

    2017-04-11

    Recent forecasts suggest that African countries must triple their current electricity generation by 2030. Our multicriteria assessment of wind and solar potential for large regions of Africa shows how economically competitive and low-environmental-impact renewable resources can significantly contribute to meeting this demand. We created the Multicriteria Analysis for Planning Renewable Energy (MapRE) framework to map and characterize solar and wind energy zones in 21 countries in the Southern African Power Pool (SAPP) and the Eastern Africa Power Pool (EAPP) and find that potential is several times greater than demand in many countries. Significant fractions of demand can be quickly served with "no-regrets" options-or zones that are low-cost, low-environmental impact, and highly accessible. Because no-regrets options are spatially heterogeneous, international interconnections are necessary to help achieve low-carbon development for the region as a whole, and interconnections that support the best renewable options may differ from those planned for hydropower expansion. Additionally, interconnections and selecting wind sites to match demand reduce the need for SAPP-wide conventional generation capacity by 9.5% in a high-wind scenario, resulting in a 6-20% cost savings, depending on the avoided conventional technology. Strategic selection of low-impact and accessible zones is more cost effective with interconnections compared with solutions without interconnections. Overall results are robust to multiple load growth scenarios. Together, results show that multicriteria site selection and deliberate planning of interconnections may significantly increase the economic and environmental competitiveness of renewable alternatives relative to conventional generation.

  17. What is the role of Financial Development and Energy Consumption on Economic Growth? New Evidence from North African Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doaa Mohamed Salman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to test the validity of the causality between financial development and economic growth on energy consumption in three of North African countries. The study employs error coreection model and Granger causaility test to analyza a dataset for three North African countries covering a period from 1980 to 2010. The applied model is based on demand function for energy to assess the existing of causal relationship of energy with financial development, and economic growth, in Algeria, Egypt, and Tunisia.  Empirical results provide a positive significant relating financial development and energy consumption in Algeria, and Tunisia. On the other hand, Egypt’s results show a negative significant relationship relating energy consumption and financial development. The paper is valuable to policy makers in North African countries in their pursuit for achieving economic growth as it clarifies the urge for the financial development reforms to stimulate investment and growth. 

  18. National laboratory policies and plans in sub-Saharan African countries: gaps and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Ondoa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The 2008 Maputo Declaration calls for the development of dedicated national laboratory policies and strategic plans supporting the enhancement of laboratory services in response to the long-lasting relegation of medical laboratory systems in sub-Saharan Africa.Objectives: This study describes the extent to which laboratories are addressed in the national health policies and plans created directly following the 2008 momentum for laboratory strengthening.Method: National health policies and plans from 39 sub-Saharan African countries, valid throughout and beyond 31 December 2010 were collected in March 2012 and analysed during 2013.Results: Laboratories were addressed by all countries. Human resources were the most addressed topic (38/39 and finances and budget were the least addressed (< 5/39. Countries lagging behind in national laboratory strategic planning at the end of 2013 (17/39 were more likely to be francophone countries located in West-Central Africa (13/17 and have historically low HIV prevalence. The most common gaps anticipated to compromise the implementation of the policies and plans were the disconnect between policies and plans, under-developed finance sections and monitoring and evaluating frameworks, absence of points of reference to define gaps and shortages, and inappropriate governance structure.Conclusion: The availability of laboratory policy and plan implementation can be improved by strictly applying a more standardised methodology for policy development, using harmonised norms to set targets for improvement and intensifying the establishment of directorates of laboratory services directly under the authority of Ministries of Health. Horizontal programmes such as the Global Health Security Agenda could provide the necessary impulse to take the least advanced countries on board.

  19. National laboratory policies and plans in sub-Saharan African countries: gaps and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Ondoa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The 2008 Maputo Declaration calls for the development of dedicated national laboratory policies and strategic plans supporting the enhancement of laboratory services in response to the long-lasting relegation of medical laboratory systems in sub-Saharan Africa. Objectives: This study describes the extent to which laboratories are addressed in the national health policies and plans created directly following the 2008 momentum for laboratory strengthening. Method: National health policies and plans from 39 sub-Saharan African countries, valid throughout and beyond 31 December 2010 were collected in March 2012 and analysed during 2013. Results: Laboratories were addressed by all countries. Human resources were the most addressed topic (38/39 and finances and budget were the least addressed (< 5/39. Countries lagging behind in national laboratory strategic planning at the end of 2013 (17/39 were more likely to be francophone countries located in West-Central Africa (13/17 and have historically low HIV prevalence. The most common gaps anticipated to compromise the implementation of the policies and plans were the disconnect between policies and plans, under-developed finance sections and monitoring and evaluating frameworks, absence of points of reference to define gaps and shortages, and inappropriate governance structure. Conclusion: The availability of laboratory policy and plan implementation can be improved by strictly applying a more standardised methodology for policy development, using harmonised norms to set targets for improvement and intensifying the establishment of directorates of laboratory services directly under the authority of Ministries of Health. Horizontal programmes such as the Global Health Security Agenda could provide the necessary impulse to take the least advanced countries on board.

  20. Effective coverage and systems effectiveness for malaria case management in sub-Saharan African countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katya Galactionova

    Full Text Available Scale-up of malaria preventive and control interventions over the last decade resulted in substantial declines in mortality and morbidity from the disease in sub-Saharan Africa and many other parts of the world. Sustaining these gains will depend on the health system performance. Treatment provides individual benefits by curing infection and preventing progression to severe disease as well as community-level benefits by reducing the infectious reservoir and averting emergence and spread of drug resistance. However many patients with malaria do not access care, providers do not comply with treatment guidelines, and hence, patients do not necessarily receive the correct regimen. Even when the correct regimen is administered some patients will not adhere and others will be treated with counterfeit or substandard medication leading to treatment failures and spread of drug resistance. We apply systems effectiveness concepts that explicitly consider implications of health system factors such as treatment seeking, provider compliance, adherence, and quality of medication to estimate treatment outcomes for malaria case management. We compile data for these indicators to derive estimates of effective coverage for 43 high-burden Sub-Saharan African countries. Parameters are populated from the Demographic and Health Surveys and other published sources. We assess the relative importance of these factors on the level of effective coverage and consider variation in these health systems indicators across countries. Our findings suggest that effective coverage for malaria case management ranges from 8% to 72% in the region. Different factors account for health system inefficiencies in different countries. Significant losses in effectiveness of treatment are estimated in all countries. The patterns of inter-country variation suggest that these are system failures that are amenable to change. Identifying the reasons for the poor health system performance and

  1. Effective coverage and systems effectiveness for malaria case management in sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galactionova, Katya; Tediosi, Fabrizio; de Savigny, Don; Smith, Thomas; Tanner, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Scale-up of malaria preventive and control interventions over the last decade resulted in substantial declines in mortality and morbidity from the disease in sub-Saharan Africa and many other parts of the world. Sustaining these gains will depend on the health system performance. Treatment provides individual benefits by curing infection and preventing progression to severe disease as well as community-level benefits by reducing the infectious reservoir and averting emergence and spread of drug resistance. However many patients with malaria do not access care, providers do not comply with treatment guidelines, and hence, patients do not necessarily receive the correct regimen. Even when the correct regimen is administered some patients will not adhere and others will be treated with counterfeit or substandard medication leading to treatment failures and spread of drug resistance. We apply systems effectiveness concepts that explicitly consider implications of health system factors such as treatment seeking, provider compliance, adherence, and quality of medication to estimate treatment outcomes for malaria case management. We compile data for these indicators to derive estimates of effective coverage for 43 high-burden Sub-Saharan African countries. Parameters are populated from the Demographic and Health Surveys and other published sources. We assess the relative importance of these factors on the level of effective coverage and consider variation in these health systems indicators across countries. Our findings suggest that effective coverage for malaria case management ranges from 8% to 72% in the region. Different factors account for health system inefficiencies in different countries. Significant losses in effectiveness of treatment are estimated in all countries. The patterns of inter-country variation suggest that these are system failures that are amenable to change. Identifying the reasons for the poor health system performance and intervening to tackle

  2. Children’s rights and human trafficking and responsible parenthood in west african country nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abba Joebarth

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Every child has right to life and if so, it is a responsible parent that could make this workable and realistic to uphold the children’s rights and existence to life. Time is now ripped for the society to look into the Children`s Rights and Human Trafficking and Responsible Parents in Western African country Nigeria.  Children have the natural rights to exist, grow maturely and to develop in whichever hemisphere or environment they find themselves. A good child born to a good and responsible parent ought not and should not encounter or experience in anyway the so called children’s problem through one´s  good mother and father’s care in any family. We are to peruse here the issue concerning the West African Nigerian child’s rights a responsible parent. On why a child’s rights should not be violated or trampled upon; the expected parental duties, neglect of a child’s education and upbringing, child’s trafficking, malnutrition and maltreatment sagas, the harms with street children and various problems which different children encounter are what this article is all about.  We shall base our knowledge here basically on descriptive, analytical and evaluative methods.  The issues of solution, suggestions and remedies and the way forward are looked into for the better society of the present era.

  3. Hope in Africa?: social representations of world history and the future in six African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabecinhas, Rosa; Liu, James H; Licata, Laurent; Klein, Olivier; Mendes, Júlio; Feijó, João; Niyubahwe, Aline

    2011-10-01

    Data on social representations of world history have been collected everywhere in the world except sub-Saharan Africa. Two studies using open-ended data involving university students from six African countries fill this gap. In Study 1, nominations from Cape Verde and Mozambique for the most important events in world history in the past 1000 years were dominated by war and politics, recency effects, and Western-centrism tempered by African sociocentrism on colonization and independence. The first three findings replicated previous research conducted in other parts of the world, but the last pattern contrasted sharply with European data. Study 2 employed a novel method asking participants how they would begin the narration of world history, and then to describe a major transition to the present. Participants most frequently wrote about the evolution of humanity out of Africa, followed by war and then colonization as a beginning, and then replicated previous findings with war, colonization, and technology as major transitions to the present. Finally, when asked about how they foresaw the future, many participants expressed hope for peace and cooperation, especially those facing more risk of collective violence (Burundi and Congo). A colonial/liberation narrative was more predominant in the data from former Portuguese colonies (Angola, Cape Verde, and Guinea-Bissau) than from former Belgian colonies (Burundi and Congo).

  4. Fruits and vegetables consumption and associated factors among in-school adolescents in seven African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2010-12-01

    To present data on fruits and vegetables consumption and associated factors among African in-school adolescents. Data were collected by self-report questionnaire from nationally representative samples (total 17,656) of school children aged 13-15 years in seven African countries. Thirty-six percent (36%) and 23% of 13-15-year-old boys and 32.6 and 22.3% of the 13-15-year-old girls had inadequate fruits and vegetables consumption (less than once per day). In multivariate analysis, inadequate fruits consumption was associated with distal factors such as going without food (OR = 1.50, P = .001), being male (OR = 1.23, P = .012) and higher education (OR = 1.56, P = .001), proximal factors including lack of care giver connectedness (OR = 1.41, P = .000), and smoking (OR = 1.52, P = .004), and inadequate vegetables consumption was associated with lack of care giver supervision (OR = 1.57, P = .000), no close friends (OR = 1.55, P = .000) and having less education (OR = 0.73, P = .002). The results stress the need for intervention programmes aimed at increased consumption of fruits and vegetables, targeting proximal factors such as the family environment, distal factors by aiming at reaching adolescents from lower socio-economic groups and integrating other risk factors such as substance use and mental distress into health promotion among adolescents.

  5. Human african trypanosomiasis diagnosis in first-line health services of endemic countries, a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Mitashi

    Full Text Available While the incidence of Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT is decreasing, the control approach is shifting from active population screening by mobile teams to passive case detection in primary care centers. We conducted a systematic review of the literature between 1970 and 2011 to assess which diagnostic tools are most suitable for use in first-line health facilities in endemic countries. Our search retrieved 16 different screening and confirmation tests for HAT. The thermostable format of the Card Agglutination Test for Trypanosomiasis (CATT test was the most appropriate screening test. Lateral flow antibody detection tests could become alternative screening tests in the near future. Confirmation of HAT diagnosis still depends on visualizing the parasite in direct microscopy. All other currently available confirmation tests are either technically too demanding and/or lack sensitivity and thus rather inappropriate for use at health center level. Novel applications of molecular tests may have potential for use at district hospital level.

  6. Climate change impacts on North African countries and on some Tunisian economic sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Radhouane

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Global temperature is increasing and that the main cause is the accumulation of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere as a result of human activities. The economic costs alone will be very large: as extreme weather events such as droughts and floods become more destructive and frequent; communities, cities, and island nations are damaged or inundated as sea level rises; and agricultural output is disrupted. Impacts on ecosystems and biodiversity are also likely to be devastating. But what about Climate change impacts on water resources and agriculture in North African regions and especially on Tunisia country? North Africa is vulnerable to climate change impacts. Scenarios predict an average rise in annual temperatures, higher than the average expected for the planet. Heat waves would then be more numerous, longer and more intense. North Africa would be particularly affected by droughts that would be more frequent, more intense and longer-lasting. The projections also announce a drop of 4 to 27% in annual rainfall. The water deficit will be worsened by increased evaporation and coastal aquifers will become more salty. The sea level could rise by 23-47 cm. by the end of the 21st century. Many Mediterranean regions would then run a major risk of being submerged and eroded. In North Africa, rising temperatures associated with climate change are expected to decrease the land areas suitable for agriculture, shorten the length of growing seasons and reduce crop yields. In these countries, we estimate that a 1°C rise in temperature in a given year reduces economic growth in that year by about 1.1 points. The decrease in annual precipitation that is predicted for Northern Africa in the 21st century will exacerbate these effects, particularly in semiarid and arid regions that rely on irrigation for crop growth. These effects of climate change are more dramatic for Tunisia country especially for water resources and arable cropland

  7. National laboratory policies and plans in sub-Saharan African countries: gaps and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondoa, Pascale; van der Broek, Ankie; Jansen, Christel; de Bruijn, Hilde; Schultsz, Constance

    2017-01-01

    The 2008 Maputo Declaration calls for the development of dedicated national laboratory policies and strategic plans supporting the enhancement of laboratory services in response to the long-lasting relegation of medical laboratory systems in sub-Saharan Africa. This study describes the extent to which laboratories are addressed in the national health policies and plans created directly following the 2008 momentum for laboratory strengthening. National health policies and plans from 39 sub-Saharan African countries, valid throughout and beyond 31 December 2010 were collected in March 2012 and analysed during 2013. Laboratories were addressed by all countries. Human resources were the most addressed topic (38/39) and finances and budget were the least addressed (strategic planning at the end of 2013 (17/39) were more likely to be francophone countries located in West-Central Africa (13/17) and have historically low HIV prevalence. The most common gaps anticipated to compromise the implementation of the policies and plans were the disconnect between policies and plans, under-developed finance sections and monitoring and evaluating frameworks, absence of points of reference to define gaps and shortages, and inappropriate governance structure. The availability of laboratory policy and plan implementation can be improved by strictly applying a more standardised methodology for policy development, using harmonised norms to set targets for improvement and intensifying the establishment of directorates of laboratory services directly under the authority of Ministries of Health. Horizontal programmes such as the Global Health Security Agenda could provide the necessary impulse to take the least advanced countries on board.

  8. JPRS Report Africa (Sub-Sahara)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-16

    offense in which the penalty provided is not more than five hundred ($500.00) dollars. In all other offenses, the Commission shall have original ...products to be exported. Between 20 and 50 Percent The MEDIA prospecting mission will try to attract Nike, Adidas and other internationally known...pride. The origin of Regiment Westelike Provin- cie can be traced back to the creation of a number of small military units manned by volunteers on

  9. JPRS Report, Africa, (Sub-Sahara).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    nesutt of. the new% deciAions, a clase analysis of the new mea- sures certainty. creates noom fon optlmiAm about the futiune of the Llberian economy...mode of this withdrawal. II . Light Shed on the Disappeared: To throw light on this important issue and once and for all clarify it for Senegalese...about this issue, it was decided that 1. Work on the restaurant with 3,000 seats will begin no later than 10 March 1987; 2. A special committee—to

  10. JPRS Report Africa (Sub-Sahara)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-17

    petroleum ministry. 12830 JPRS-SSA-87-093 17 December 1987 LIBERIA Lebanese Residents Urged To Remain Law Abiding 34000135 Monrovia DAILY...the Lilongwe load growth in the short term. The project is being financed by a grant from the British Government and a loan from Standard Chartered...production next season. While expressing dissatisfaction with the poultry and pig stockfeed standards and availability which he said has deteriorated, Cde

  11. HIV and AIDS stigma violates human rights in five African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohi, Thecla W; Makoae, Lucy; Chirwa, Maureen; Holzemer, William L; Phetlhu, Deliwe René; Uys, Leana; Naidoo, Joanne; Dlamini, Priscilla S; Greeff, Minrie

    2006-07-01

    The situation and human rights of people living with HIV and AIDS were explored through focus groups in five African countries (Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland and Tanzania). A descriptive qualitative research design was used. The 251 informants were people living with HIV and AIDS, and nurse managers and nurse clinicians from urban and rural settings. NVivo software was used to identify specific incidents related to human rights, which were compared with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The findings revealed that the human rights of people living with HIV and AIDS were violated in a variety of ways, including denial of access to adequate or no health care/services, and denial of home care, termination or refusal of employment, and denial of the right to earn an income, produce food or obtain loans. The informants living with HIV and AIDS were also abused verbally and physically. Country governments and health professionals need to address these issues to ensure the human rights of all people.

  12. Women's empowerment and choice of contraceptive methods in selected African countries.

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    Do, Mai; Kurimoto, Nami

    2012-03-01

    It is generally believed that women's lack of decision-making power may restrict their use of modern contraceptives. However, few studies have examined the different dimensions of women's empowerment and contraceptive use in African countries. Data came from the latest round of Demographic and Health Surveys conducted between 2006 and 2008 in Namibia, Zambia, Ghana and Uganda. Responses from married or cohabiting women aged 15-49 were analyzed for six dimensions of empowerment and the current use of female-only methods or couple methods. Bivariate and multivariate multinomial regressions were used to identify associations between the empowerment dimensions and method use. Positive associations were found between the overall empowerment score and method use in all countries (relative risk ratios, 1.1-1.3). In multivariate analysis, household economic decision making was associated with the use of either female-only or couple methods (1.1 for all), as was agreement on fertility preferences (1.3-1.6) and the ability to negotiate sexual activity (1.1-1.2). In Namibia, women's negative attitudes toward domestic violence were correlated with the use of couple methods (1.1). Intervention programs aimed at increasing contraceptive use may need to involve different approaches, including promoting couples' discussion of fertility preferences and family planning, improving women's self-efficacy in negotiating sexual activity and increasing their economic independence.

  13. Urban and rural differences in HIV/AIDS stigma in five African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Joanne R; Uys, Leana R; Greeff, Minrie; Holzemer, William L; Makoae, Lucy; Dlamini, Priscilla; Phetlhu, René D; Chirwa, Maureen; Kohi, Thecla

    2007-04-01

    Stigma and discrimination have been widely researched, especially within the context of health. In the context of HIV/AIDS, studies have shown that stigma variously impacts on prevention, on accessing treatment, and on care programmes. Decreasing stigma is therefore an important goal in HIV/AIDS programmes. This paper explores whether urban and rural differences existed in reported incidents of HIV stigma from five African countries. A descriptive, qualitative research design was used to explore the experience of HIV stigma of people living with HIV (PLHIV) and nurses. Focus group discussions were held with respondents to capture an emic and etic view of stigma and discrimination. The frequency of reported incidents shows that although comparable numbers of nurses and PLHIV were sampled, the PLHIV from both the urban and rural settings in all five countries conveyed more incidents of received stigma than did the nurses. The results suggest that treatment programmes and support structures need to be designed appropriately for the different settings.

  14. Prevalence of foodborne pathogens in food from selected African countries - A meta-analysis.

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    Paudyal, Narayan; Anihouvi, Victor; Hounhouigan, Joseph; Matsheka, Maitshwarelo Ignatius; Sekwati-Monang, Bonno; Amoa-Awua, Wisdom; Atter, Amy; Ackah, Nina Bernice; Mbugua, Samuel; Asagbra, Agnes; Abdelgadir, Warda; Nakavuma, Jesca; Jakobsen, Mogens; Fang, Weihuan

    2017-05-16

    Food safety information in the African region is insufficient and fragmented due to lack of surveillance, documentation and reporting, thereby resulting in inefficient utilization of resources, duplication of activities, and lack of synergy among the countries of the region. This paper reviews the prevalence of foodborne pathogens in seven African countries (Benin, Botswana, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Sudan and Uganda) from papers in regional or international journals published between January 2000 and December 2015. One hundred and sixteen publications that dealt with food microbiology were reviewed for general analysis, while 66 papers on contamination of pathogenic bacteria were used for meta-analysis of prevalence. The food items were split into two categories: raw foods and ready-to-eat (RTE) foods (including street food and beverages) for meta-analysis. Majority of the reviewed studies (67.2%, 78/116) dealt with food of animal origin: 38.8% for meat and eggs, 17.2% for dairy products and 11.2% for aquatic products. Only 8.6% examined foods of plant origin (fruits and vegetables). The remaining 24.1% was the composite RTE food and beverages. Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes were the most frequently reported organisms in those studies. Although the data were highly heterogeneous, a striking feature is high prevalence of the major pathogens in RTE foods, almost as high as in raw foods. E. coli averaged at 37.6% in raw foods and 31.6% in RTE foods. The corresponding prevalence for Salmonella was 19.9% vs 21.7%; S. aureus, 27.8% vs 25.1% and L. monocytogenes, 19.5% vs 6.7%. The average prevalence of foodborne pathogens in these countries was 34.2% (29.0-39.3%). Differences in food types as well as non-uniform protocols for sampling and identification might have contributed to high heterogeneity (I 2 >97%) although some high prevalence data could be factual with extensive varieties of raw and RTE foods

  15. An overview of cardiovascular risk factor burden in sub-Saharan African countries: a socio-cultural perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belue, Rhonda; Okoror, Titilayo A.; Iwelunmor, Juliet; Taylor, Kelly D.; Degboe, Arnold N.; Agyemang, Charles; Ogedegbe, Gbenga

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries are currently experiencing one of the most rapid epidemiological transitions characterized by increasing urbanization and changing lifestyle factors. This has resulted in an increase in the incidence of non-communicable diseases, especially

  16. Cholera Incidence and Mortality in Sub-Saharan African Sites during Multi-country Surveillance.

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    Delphine Sauvageot

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cholera burden in Africa remains unknown, often because of weak national surveillance systems. We analyzed data from the African Cholera Surveillance Network (www.africhol.org.During June 2011-December 2013, we conducted enhanced surveillance in seven zones and four outbreak sites in Togo, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC, Guinea, Uganda, Mozambique and Cote d'Ivoire. All health facilities treating cholera cases were included. Cholera incidences were calculated using culture-confirmed cholera cases and culture-confirmed cholera cases corrected for lack of culture testing usually due to overwhelmed health systems and imperfect test sensitivity. Of 13,377 reported suspected cases, 34% occurred in Conakry, Guinea, 47% in Goma, DRC, and 19% in the remaining sites. From 0-40% of suspected cases were aged under five years and from 0.3-86% had rice water stools. Within surveillance zones, 0-37% of suspected cases had confirmed cholera compared to 27-38% during outbreaks. Annual confirmed incidence per 10,000 population was <0.5 in surveillance zones, except Goma where it was 4.6. Goma and Conakry had corrected incidences of 20.2 and 5.8 respectively, while the other zones a median of 0.3. During outbreaks, corrected incidence varied from 2.6 to 13.0. Case fatality ratios ranged from 0-10% (median, 1% by country.Across different African epidemiological contexts, substantial variation occurred in cholera incidence, age distribution, clinical presentation, culture confirmation, and testing frequency. These results can help guide preventive activities, including vaccine use.

  17. The prevalence and burden of symptoms amongst cancer patients attending palliative care in two African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Richard; Selman, Lucy; Agupio, Godfrey; Dinat, Natalya; Downing, Julia; Gwyther, Liz; Mashao, Thandi; Mmoledi, Keletso; Sebuyira, Lydia Mpanga; Ikin, Barbara; Higginson, Irene J

    2011-01-01

    The majority of cancer presentations in Africa are advanced and incurable, with incidence of malignancies projected to increase significantly. Despite the African cancer burden, almost nothing is known about the symptomatology of malignant progressive disease. This study aimed to determine the symptom prevalence and burden amongst advanced cancer patients in two African countries. The Memorial Symptom Assessment Schedule Short Form (MSAS-SF) was used to measure the 7-d period prevalence and associated burden of multidimensional symptoms amongst adult patients attending palliative care in South Africa and Uganda. Further demographic and clinical variables were collected. Of the 112 patients recruited, 22 (19.6%) had an underlying HIV diagnosis. The most common cancer primaries were breast (N=24), cervix (N=21) and lung (N=14). The mean number of symptoms was 18 (SD=6.6). The five most prevalent symptoms were pain (87.5%), lack of energy (77.7%), feeling sad (75.9%), feeling drowsy (72.3%) and worrying (69.6%). The five symptoms ranked as most severe were as follows: pain n=26 (23.2%), sexual problems n=24 (21.4%), weight loss n=21 (18.8%), 'I don't look like myself'n=21 (18.8%) and lack of energy n=20 (17.9%). Pain and psychological problems were four of the five most common symptoms, found in more than 3 out of 4 patients. Our sample's reported mean number of symptoms was far higher than reported in other global studies. These data can inform the delivery of appropriate clinical care. The prevalence of multidimensional symptoms underlines the importance of holistic approaches to patient assessment and management, taking account of multiple and potentially interacting symptoms and locally appropriate intervention. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Tobacco--its role in the economy and the health of African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    In Africa the issue of smoking and health is complicated by the fact that in many countries tobacco is grown commercially and is relied upon to bring in foreign exchange through export, of revenue for the government if sold on the home market. Consequently, in some nations the ministries of health and of agriculture are working at cross purposes. This contradiction is recognized in the report issued recently of a World Health Organization (WHO) seminar on smoking and health organized for English-speaking Member States of the WHO African Region, and held in Zambia. In opening the seminar, the prime minister of Zambia, Mr. N. Mundia, stated that governments had an obligation to educate people on the risks involved in the use of tobacco but that this could pose a moral dilemma where tobacco production made an apparently significant contribution to the economy. Additionally, he warned that developing countries are considered valuable markets by tobacco companies and stressed that if the promotion of tobacco products by such companies represented a threat "to the health of our people, we cannot let it happen." This point was endorsed by Mr. W.C. Mwambazi, the National WHO Program Coordinator who stated that smoking was on the increase in many developing countries as a result of unscrupulous marketing practices by cigarette manufacturers and that smoking was a major threat to the realization of health for all by the year 2000. Aspects of smoking and health that have special relevance for Africa are emphasized in the report. The few studies carried out in Africa tend to confirm findings from the developed world that smoking increases the risk of cancer and coronary heart disease. Not only is tobacco smoked in Africa, but it is chewed and taken as snuff, and these uses also entail a risk to health. Case studies included in the report show that transnational tobacco companies take full advantage of the present lack of legislation in most African countries on the promotion

  19. Water footprint as an indicator of agricultural productivity in African countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chico Zamanillo, Daniel; Zhang, Guoping; Mathews, Ruth

    2017-04-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is one of the regions with the largest scope for improved agricultural development that would contribute to global food security while respecting environmental boundaries. More importantly, undernourishment is a challenge for many African countries and needs to be addressed to achieve the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. This study was conducted to support the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affair's Inclusive Green Growth aim of increasing water use efficiency by 25% in Dutch financed projects. A water footprint profile was developed for 7 Sub-Saharan countries; Benin, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Mozambique and Rwanda. The profiles provide an overview of water use from the perspective of the goods produced within the country, the consumption of goods, in particular agricultural crops, whether these goods are produced domestically or imported from other countries and the level of blue water scarcity experienced in the country. Across all countries, key food crops such as maize, and sorghum have low water productivity relative to the global water footprint benchmark. Export crops such as tea in Kenya or cocoa in Ghana show a good performance over global production. Furthermore, the water footprint of crops over the period 2006-2013 was compared to data from the period 1996-2005. Changes in yield and the resulting changes in the water footprint were assessed for both food and export crops. Yields in food crops improved in some countries, and in some years, but not consistently across all countries and years. The greatest gains in water productivity were in key export crops. The results provide insights into whether improvements have been made in water productivity in recent years and through comparison with the global water footprint benchmark, remaining opportunities for further gains in water productivity were identified. Going forward, policies that will enhance further improvement in water productivity and support greater food and

  20. The changing epidemiology of human African trypanosomiasis among patients from nonendemic countries--1902-2012.

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    Ami Neuberger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although human African trypanosomiasis (HAT is uncommon among patients from non-endemic countries (NEC, there has been an increase in the number of cases reported in recent years. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed. The number of incoming tourists to HAT endemic countries was obtained from the United Nations World Tourism Organization. All HAT cases diagnosed in patients from NEC were included. Immigrants and refugees were excluded. We compared patients during and after the colonial period, and analyzed the relationship between the number of incoming travellers and the number of HAT cases. RESULTS: Between 1902 and 2012, HAT was reported in 244 patients. Most HAT cases were reported before 1920, and after the year 2000. In the colonial era the average age of patients was lower (32.5±7.8 vs. 43.0±16.1 years, P<0.001, the proportion of females was lower (10.0% vs. 23.9%, P<0.01], most cases were diagnosed in expatriates, missionaries and soldiers (74.3%, and Gambian trypanosomiasis accounted for 86/110, (78% of cases. In the post-colonial era most patients 91/125 (72.8% were short-term tourists to game parks in Eastern and South-Eastern Africa (mainly in Tanzania; Rhodesian trypanosomiasis accounted for 94/123 (76.4% of cases. Between 1995 and 2010 there has been a constant linear increase in the number of incoming tourists to Tanzania, and HAT cases occurred in small outbreaks rather than following a similar linear pattern. CONCLUSIONS: In recent decades HAT patients from NEC are older, and more likely to be tourists who acquired the disease while visiting game-parks in Eastern and South-Eastern Africa. While Rhodesian trypanosomiasis is relatively uncommon among Africans, it now accounts for most cases reported among patients from NEC. Returning febrile travellers without an alternative diagnosis should be evaluated for HAT. Cases among travellers may serve as sentinels for Rhodesian trypanosomiasis "hot

  1. Genetic diversity of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis East African–Indian family in three tropical Asian countries

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    Yih-Yuan Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Beijing lineage of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB is the most predominant MTB strain in Asian countries and is spreading worldwide, however, the East African–Indian (EAI lineage is also particularly prevalent in many tropical Asian countries. The evolutionary relationships among MTB EAI isolates from Taiwan and those of tropical Asian countries remain unknown. Methods: The EAI strains collected from patients in Taiwan were analyzed using spacer oligonucleotide typing and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit–variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR typing, and compared with published profiles from Cambodia and Singapore to investigate potential epidemiological linkages. Results: Among the three countries, the EAI lineage was most prevalent in Cambodia (60%; Singapore, 25.62%; and Taiwan, 21.85%, having also the highest rates of multidrug resistance and lowest rates of clustering of MTB isolates. We describe a convenient method using seven selected MIRU-VNTR loci for first-line typing to discriminate Beijing and EAI lineages. A potential epidemiological linkage in these tropical Asian countries is also discussed based on a minimum-spanning tree constructed using 24 MIRU-VNTR loci of MTB EAI strains. Conclusion: This study identified evolutionary relationships among MTB EAI isolates from Taiwan and those of two other tropical Asian countries, Cambodia and Singapore. Keywords: East African–Indian family, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, tropical Asian countries

  2. Ebola impact on African health systems entails a quest for more international and local resilience: the case of African Portuguese speaking countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapão, Luís Velez; Silva, Andreia; Pereira, Natália; Vasconcelos, Paula; Conceição, Cláudia

    2015-01-01

    Ebola epidemics have shown to have significant impacts on many aspects of healthcare systems. African countries have been facing many difficulties while addressing Ebola epidemics, moreover due to both lack of resources and fragmented involvement of national and international entities. The participation of multiple organizations has created serious problems of coordination of aid and the operation of that aid on the ground. This paper aims at addressing the impact of Ebola epidemics on African health systems, with a special focus on the definition of impact mitigation guidelines and the role of resilience. The example of Portuguese speaking countries is presented. A combination of literature review and case study methods are used. A literature review on Ebola outbreak impact on health systems will provide information to define a set of guidelines for healthcare services response to Ebola. The role of cooperation in providing additional resilience is described. Finally a case study focusing on the Portuguese collaboration and intervention in African Portuguese Speaking Countries (PALOP) is presented, as an example how the international community can provide additional resilience. The existing knowledge is very helpful to guide both the preparation and the coordination of Ebola preparedness interventions. Additional resilience can be provided by international cooperation. In addition to international concrete support in times of crisis, to have a regional strategy of creating (multi-national) teams to rapidly implement an intervention while establishing better regional capacity to have sufficient resources to support the "resilience" required of the health system.

  3. Inequalities in maternal health care utilization in sub-Saharan African countries: a multiyear and multi-country analysis.

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    Nazmul Alam

    Full Text Available To assess social inequalities in the use of antenatal care (ANC, facility based delivery (FBD, and modern contraception (MC in two contrasting groups of countries in sub-Saharan Africa divided based on their progress towards maternal mortality reduction. Six countries were included in this study. Three countries (Ethiopia, Madagascar, and Uganda had 4.5% average annual reduction rate while another three (Cameroon, Zambia, and Zimbabwe had >550 MMR in 2010 with only <1.5% average annual reduction rate. All of these countries had at least three rounds of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS before 2012. We measured rate ratios and differences, as well as relative and absolute concentration indices in order to examine within-country geographical and wealth-based inequalities in the utilization of ANC, FBD, and MC. In the countries which have made sufficient progress (i.e. Ethiopia, Madagascar, and Uganda, ANC use increased by 8.7, 9.3 and 5.7 percent, respectively, while the utilization of FBD increased by 4.7, 0.7 and 20.2 percent, respectively, over the last decade. By contrast, utilization of these services either plateaued or decreased in countries which did not make progress towards reducing maternal mortality, with the exception of Cameroon. Utilization of MC increased in all six countries but remained very low, with a high of 40.5% in Zimbabwe and low of 16.1% in Cameroon as of 2011. In general, relative measures of inequalities were found to have declined overtime in countries making progress towards reducing maternal mortality. In countries with insufficient progress towards maternal mortality reduction, these indicators remained stagnant or increased. Absolute measures for geographical and wealth-based inequalities remained high invariably in all six countries. The increasing trend in the utilization of maternal care services was found to concur with a steady decline in maternal mortality. Relative inequality declined overtime in countries

  4. An adjusted bed net coverage indicator with estimations for 23 African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderelst, Dieter; Speybroeck, Niko

    2013-12-20

    Many studies have assessed the level of bed net coverage in populations at risk of malaria infection. These revealed large variations in bed net use across countries, regions and social strata. Such studies are often aimed at identifying populations with low access to bed nets that should be prioritized in future interventions. However, often spatial differences in malaria endemicity are not taken into account. By ignoring variability in malaria endemicity, these studies prioritize populations with little access to bed nets, even if these happen to live in low endemicity areas. Conversely, populations living in regions with high malaria endemicity will receive a lower priority once a seizable proportion is protected by bed nets. Adequately assigning priorities requires accounting for both the current level of bed net coverage and the local malaria endemicity. Indeed, as shown here for 23 African countries, there is no correlation between the level of bed net coverage and the level of malaria endemicity in a region. Therefore, the need for future interventions can not be assessed based on current bed net coverage alone. This paper proposes the Adjusted Bed net Coverage (ABC) statistic as a measure taking into account both local malaria endemicity and the level of bed net coverage. The measure allows setting priorities for future interventions taking into account both local malaria endemicity and bed net coverage. A mathematical formulation of the ABC as a weighted difference of bed net coverage and malaria endemicity is presented. The formulation is parameterized based on a model of malaria epidemiology (Smith et al. Trends Parasitol 25:511-516, 2009). By parameterizing the ABC based on this model, the ABC as used in this paper is proxy for the steady-state malaria burden given the current level of bed net coverage. Data on the bed net coverage in under five year olds and malaria endemicity in 23 Sub-Saharan countries is used to show that the ABC prioritizes

  5. Improving access to malaria medicine through private-sector subsidies in seven African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tougher, Sarah; Mann, Andrea G; Ye, Yazoume; Kourgueni, Idrissa A; Thomson, Rebecca; Amuasi, John H; Ren, Ruilin; Willey, Barbara A; Ansong, Daniel; Bruxvoort, Katia; Diap, Graciela; Festo, Charles; Johanes, Boniface; Kalolella, Admirabilis; Mallam, Oumarou; Mberu, Blessing; Ndiaye, Salif; Nguah, Samual Blay; Seydou, Moctar; Taylor, Mark; Wamukoya, Marilyn; Arnold, Fred; Hanson, Kara; Goodman, Catherine

    2014-09-01

    Improving access to quality-assured artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) is an important component of malaria control in low- and middle-income countries. In 2010 the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria launched the Affordable Medicines Facility--malaria (AMFm) program in seven African countries. The goal of the program was to decrease malaria morbidity and delay drug resistance by increasing the use of ACTs, primarily through subsidies intended to reduce costs. We collected data on price and retail markups on antimalarial medicines from 19,625 private for-profit retail outlets before and 6-15 months after the program's implementation. We found that in six of the AMFm pilot programs, prices for quality-assured ACTs decreased by US$1.28-$4.34, and absolute retail markups on these therapies decreased by US$0.31-$1.03. Prices and markups on other classes of antimalarials also changed during the evaluation period, but not to the same extent. In all but two of the pilot programs, we found evidence that prices could fall further without suppliers' losing money. Thus, concerns may be warranted that wholesalers and retailers are capturing subsidies instead of passing them on to consumers. These findings demonstrate that supranational subsidies can dramatically reduce retail prices of health commodities and that recommended retail prices communicated to a wide audience may be an effective mechanism for controlling the market power of private-sector antimalarial retailers and wholesalers. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  6. Measuring HIV stigma for PLHAs and nurses over time in five African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzemer, William L; Makoae, Lucy N; Greeff, Minrie; Dlamini, Priscilla S; Kohi, Thecla W; Chirwa, Maureen L; Naidoo, Joanne R; Durrheim, Kevin; Cuca, Yvette; Uys, Yvette R

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this article is to document the levels of HIV stigma reported by persons living with HIV infections and nurses in Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland and Tanzania over a 1-year period. HIV stigma has been shown to negatively affect the quality of life for people living with HIV infection, their adherence to medication, and their access to care. Few studies have documented HIV stigma by association as experienced by nurses or other health care workers who care for people living with HIV infection. This study used standardised scales to measure the level of HIV stigma over time. A repeated measures cohort design was used to follow persons living with HIV infection and nurses involved in their care from five countries over a 1-year period in a three-wave longitudinal design. The average age of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHAs) (N=948) was 36.15 years (SD=8.69), and 67.1% (N=617) were female. The average age of nurses (N=887) was 38.44 years (SD=9.63), and 88.6% (N=784) were females. Eighty-four per cent of all PLHAs reported one or more HIV-stigma events at baseline. This declined, but was still significant 1 year later, when 64.9% reported experiencing at least one HIV-stigma event. At baseline, 80.3% of the nurses reported experiencing one or more HIV-stigma events and this increased to 83.7% 1 year later. The study documented high levels of HIV stigma as reported by both PLHAs and nurses in all five of these African countries. These results have implications for stigma reduction interventions, particularly focused at health care providers who experience HIV stigma by association.

  7. Natural disasters in African countries: what can we learn about them?

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    M T Lukamba

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Problems posed by disasters have become increasingly important for all African governments. Every year a variety of disas ters occurs in Sub-Saharan Africa and these are becoming more prevalent. This article presents an analysis of statistical surveys for natural disasters in different regions of Africa over a 30-year period from 1974 to 2003. It shows that disaster frequency is increasing on the continent. The investigation of the data demonstrates that the East Africa region is under the greatest threat from natural disasters. In 2008, climatological disasters, notably droughts, claimed many victims in the eastern part of Africa, with more than one third of the population affected in Djibouti, Eritrea, and Somalia. The region has experienced the highest recorded number of disaster events for the past 30 years, followed by the West Africa region. The Southern Africa region is placed third as far as the frequency of disaster events in sub-Saharan Africa is concerned. The least disaster prone region is central Africa. The observations made in this analysis relate to the economic losses in different regions from the impact of natural disasters. In some instances, recovery from economic loss could not be recouped because of stunted growth and other internal problems in these countries. In addition, this article suggests some strategies to mitigate the problem of natural hazards in sub-Saharan Africa. Keywords: Flood; drought; volcanic eruptions; political governance; climate change; specialised capabilities

  8. Community influences on young people's sexual behavior in 3 African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Rob

    2009-01-01

    I examined the role of community-level factors in the reporting of risky sexual behaviors among young people aged 15 to 24 years in 3 African countries with varying HIV prevalence rates. I analyzed demographic and health survey data from Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Zambia during the period 2001 through 2003 to identify individual, household, and community factors associated with reports of risky sexual behaviors. The mechanisms through which the community environment shaped sexual behaviors varied among young men and young women. Community demographic profiles were not associated with reports of risky sexual behavior among young women but were influential in shaping the behavior of young men. Prevailing economic conditions and the behaviors and attitudes of adults in the community were strong influences on young people's sexual behaviors. These results provide strong support for a focus on community-level influences as an intervention point for behavioral change. Such interventions, however, should recognize specific cultural settings and the different pathways through which the community can shape the sexual behaviors of young men and women.

  9. Barriers to blood donation in African communities in Australia: the role of home and host country culture and experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonsky, Michael Jay; Renzaho, André M N; Brijnath, Bianca

    2011-08-01

    An influx of African migrants and refugees can strain a host country's blood services, because often migrants have unique blood needs that cannot be sourced from local donors. To increase blood donation by the new migrants, host country blood services need to understand how blood and blood donations are viewed by immigrant communities, because recruitment models that are not culturally adapted may have limited success. Nine focus groups representing a cross-section of Australian-based African communities were conducted in multiple languages, facilitated by bilingual workers. The qualitative protocol was guided by the literature on blood donation by African migrants and communities in Africa. Thematic analysis identified the relevance of issues previously included in the literature and whether other issues facilitated or prohibited blood donation. Home country cultural issues were not generally raised as barriers to donation, and respondents were positively disposed toward donation. Home country experiences shaped respondents' views in Australia. Participants focused on assisting "individuals in need," rather than giving to a blood service that many viewed with suspicion because of issues in their home country. There was a lack of knowledge about the donation process in Australia. More importantly, respondents perceived that their blood would not be wanted, based on a perception of host country mistrust and discrimination. Developing an intervention that encourages migrants to donate blood needs to be culturally focused. It appears that addressing perceptions based on home country experiences is essential. Overcoming a general perception of discrimination is beyond any blood service, but there can be an attempt to ensure that blood donation is seen as an inclusive process-blood from everyone, for everyone. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.

  10. NEWS for Africa: adaptation and reliability of a built environment questionnaire for physical activity in seven African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyeyemi, Adewale L; Kasoma, Sandra S; Onywera, Vincent O; Assah, Felix; Adedoyin, Rufus A; Conway, Terry L; Moss, Sarah J; Ocansey, Reginald; Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L; Akinroye, Kingsley K; Prista, Antonio; Larouche, Richard; Gavand, Kavita A; Cain, Kelli L; Lambert, Estelle V; Aryeetey, Richmond; Bartels, Clare; Tremblay, Mark S; Sallis, James F

    2016-03-08

    Built environment and policy interventions are effective strategies for controlling the growing worldwide deaths from physical inactivity-related non-communicable diseases. To improve built environment research and develop African specific evidence, it is important to first tailor built environment measures to African contexts and assess their psychometric properties across African countries. This study reports on the adaptation and test-retest reliability of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale in seven sub-Saharan African countries (NEWS-Africa). The original NEWS comprising 8 subscales measuring reported physical and social attributes of neighborhood environments was systematically adapted for Africa through extensive input from physical activity and public health researchers, built environment professionals, and residents in seven African countries: Cameroon, Ghana, Kenya, Mozambique, Nigeria, South Africa and Uganda. Cognitive testing of NEWS-Africa was conducted among diverse residents (N = 109, 50 youth [12 - 17 years] and 59 adults [22 - 67 years], 69 % from low socioeconomic status [SES] neighborhoods). NEWS-Africa was translated into local languages and evaluated for 2-week test-retest reliability in adult participants (N = 301; female = 50.2 %; age = 32.3 ± 12.9 years) purposively recruited from neighborhoods varying in walkability (high and low walkable) and SES (high and low income) and from villages in six of seven participating countries. The original 67 NEWS items was expanded to 89 scores (76 individual NEWS items and 13 computed scales). Several modifications were made to individual items, and some new items were added to capture important attributes in the African environment. A new scale on personal safety was created, and the aesthetics scale was enlarged to reflect African specific characteristics. Over 95 % of all NEWS-Africa scores (items plus computed scales) demonstrated evidence of "excellent" (ICCs

  11. Mainstreaming biodiversity and wildlife management into climate change policy frameworks in selected east and southern African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga L. Kupika

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Rio+20 outcomes document, the Future We Want, enshrines green economy as one of the platforms to attain sustainable development and calls for measures that seek to address climate change and biodiversity management. This paper audits climate change policies from selected east and southern African countries to determine the extent to which climate change legislation mainstreams biodiversity and wildlife management. A scan of international, continental, regional and national climate change policies was conducted to assess whether they include biodiversity and/or wildlife management issues. The key finding is that many climate change policy–related documents, particularly the National Adaptation Programme of Actions (NAPAs, address threats to biodiversity and wildlife resources. However, international policies like the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and Kyoto Protocol do not address the matter under deliberation. Regional climate change policies such as the East African Community, Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa and African Union address biodiversity and/or wildlife issues whilst the Southern African Development Community region does not have a stand-alone policy for climate change. Progressive countries like Rwanda, Uganda, Tanzania and Zambia have recently put in place detailed NAPAs which are mainstream responsive strategies intended to address climate change adaptation in the wildlife sector.Keywords: mainstreaming, biodiversity, wildlife, climate change policy, east and southern Africa

  12. Mainstreaming biodiversity and wildlife management into climate change policy frameworks in selected east and southern African countries

    OpenAIRE

    Olga L. Kupika; Godwell Nhamo

    2016-01-01

    The Rio+20 outcomes document, the Future We Want, enshrines green economy as one of the platforms to attain sustainable development and calls for measures that seek to address climate change and biodiversity management. This paper audits climate change policies from selected east and southern African countries to determine the extent to which climate change legislation mainstreams biodiversity and wildlife management. A scan of international, continental, regional and national climate change ...

  13. Improving skills and institutional capacity to strengthen adolescent immunisation programmes and health systems in African countries through HPV vaccine introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Dochez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Several African countries have recently introduced or are currently introducing the HPV vaccine, either nationwide or through demonstration projects, while some countries are planning for introduction. A collaborative project was developed to strengthen country adolescent immunisation programmes and health systems in the African Region, addressing unique public health considerations of HPV vaccination: adolescents as the primary target group, delivery platforms (e.g. school-based and facility based, socio-behavioural issues, and the opportunity to deliver other health interventions alongside HPV vaccination.Following a successful “taking-stock” meeting, a training programme was drafted to assist countries to strengthen the integration of adolescent health interventions using HPV vaccination as an entry point. Two workshops were conducted in the Eastern and Southern African Regions. All countries reported on progress made during a final joint symposium.Of the 20 countries invited to participate in either of the workshops and/or final symposium, 17 countries participated: Angola, Botswana, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Seychelles, South Africa, South Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Countries that are currently implementing HPV vaccination programmes, either nationally or through demonstration projects, reported varying degrees of integration with other adolescent health interventions. The most commonly reported adolescent health interventions alongside HPV vaccination include health education (including sexually transmitted infections, deworming and delivering of other vaccines like tetanus toxoid (TT or tetanus diphtheria (Td.The project has successfully (a established an African-based network that will advocate for incorporating the HPV vaccine into national immunisation programmes; (b created a platform for experience exchange and thereby contributed to novel ideas of

  14. Evaluation of a health setting-based stigma intervention in five African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uys, Leana; Chirwa, Maureen; Kohi, Thecla; Greeff, Minrie; Naidoo, Joanne; Makoae, Lucia; Dlamini, Priscilla; Durrheim, Kevin; Cuca, Yvette; Holzemer, William L

    2009-12-01

    The study aim is to explore the results of an HIV stigma intervention in five African health care settings. A case study approach was used. The intervention consisted of bringing together a team of approximately 10 nurses and 10 people living with HIV or AIDS (PLHA) in each setting and facilitating a process in which they planned and implemented a stigma reduction intervention, involving both information giving and empowerment. Nurses (n = 134) completed a demographic questionnaire, the HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument-Nurses (HASI-N), a self-efficacy scale, and a self-esteem scale, both before and after the intervention, and the team completed a similar set of instruments before and after the intervention, with the PLHA completing the HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument for PLHA (HASI-P). The intervention as implemented in all five countries was inclusive, action-oriented, and well received. It led to understanding and mutual support between nurses and PLHA and created some momentum in all the settings for continued activity. PLHA involved in the intervention teams reported less stigma and increased self-esteem. Nurses in the intervention teams and those in the settings reported no reduction in stigma or increases in self- esteem and self-efficacy, but their HIV testing behavior increased significantly. This pilot study indicates that the stigma experience of PLHA can be decreased, but that the stigma experiences of nurses are less easy to change. Further evaluation research with control groups and larger samples and measuring change over longer periods of time is indicated.

  15. Case studies on the use of biotechnologies and on biosafety provisions in four African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Robert; Fava, Fabio; Mattei, Niccolo; Robert, Vincent; Seal, Susan; Verdier, Valerie

    2011-12-20

    production and the economy of this depressed areas. However, the problems bound to environmental protection must not be forgotten; priority should be given to monitor the risks of introduction of foreign species. Red biotechnologies potentially bring a vast domain of powerful tools and processes to achieve better human health, most notably improved diagnostics by molecular techniques, better targeting of pathogens and a better knowledge of their sensitivities to drugs to permit better treatment. Biosafety regulatory frameworks had been initiated in several countries, starting with primary biosafety law. However, disparate attitudes to the purpose of biosafety regulation (e.g., fostering informed decision-making versus 'giving the green-light for a flood of GMOs') currently prevent a needed consensus for sub-regional harmonisation. To date, most R&D funding has come from North America with some commercial interests from Asia, but African biotechnology workers expressed strong desire for (re-)engagement with interested parties from the European Union. Although in some of the visited countries there are very well qualified personnel in molecular biology and biosafety/regulation, the main message received is that human resources and capacity building in-house are still needed. This could be achieved through home-based courses and capacity-building including funds for post-degree research to motivate and retain trained staff. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Socioeconomic inequalities in informal payments for health care: An assessment of the 'Robin Hood' hypothesis in 33 African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankeu, Hyacinthe Tchewonpi; Ventelou, Bruno

    2016-02-01

    In almost all African countries, informal payments are frequently made when accessing health care. Some literature suggests that the informal payment system could lead to quasi-redistribution among patients, with physicians playing a 'Robin Hood' role, subsidizing the poor at the expense of the rich. We empirically tested this assumption with data from the rounds 3 and 5 of the Afrobarometer surveys conducted in 18 and 33 African countries respectively, from 2005 to 2006 for round 3 and from 2011 to 2013 for round 5. In these surveys, nationally representative samples of people aged 18 years or more were randomly selected in each country, with sizes varying between 1048 and 2400 for round 3 and between 1190 and 2407 for round 5. We used the 'normalized' concentration index, the poor/rich gap and the odds ratio to assess the level of inequality in the payment of bribes to access care at the local public health facility and implemented two decomposition techniques to identify the contributors to the observed inequalities. We obtained that: i) the socioeconomic gradient in informal payments is in favor of the rich in almost all countries, indicating a rather regressive system; ii) this is mainly due to the socioeconomic disadvantage itself, to poor/rich differences in supply side factors like lack of medicines, absence of doctors and long waiting times, as well as regional disparities. Although essentially empirical, the paper highlights the need for African health systems to undergo substantial country-specific reforms in order to better protect the worse-off from financial risk when they seek care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. E-health: Determinants, opportunities, challenges and the way forward for countries in the WHO African Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gatwiri Doris

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The implementation of the 58th World Health Assembly resolution on e-health will pose a major challenge for the Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO African Region due to lack of information and communications technology (ICT and mass Internet connectivity, compounded by a paucity of ICT-related knowledge and skills. The key objectives of this article are to: (i explore the key determinants of personal computers (PCs, telephone mainline and cellular and Internet penetration/connectivity in the African Region; and (ii to propose actions needed to create an enabling environment for e-health services growth and utilization in the Region. Methods The effects of school enrolment, per capita income and governance variables on the number of PCs, telephone mainlines, cellular phone subscribers and Internet users were estimated using a double-log regression model and cross-sectional data on various Member States in the African Region. The analysis was based on 45 of the 46 countries that comprise the Region. The data were obtained from the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP, the World Bank and the International Telecommunications Union (ITU sources. Results There were a number of main findings: (i the adult literacy and total number of Internet users had a statistically significant (at 5% level in a t-distribution test positive effect on the number of PCs in a country; (ii the combined school enrolment rate and per capita income had a statistically significant direct effect on the number of telephone mainlines and cellular telephone subscribers; (iii the regulatory quality had statistically significant negative effect on the number of telephone mainlines; (iv similarly, the combined school enrolment ratio and the number of telephone mainlines had a statistically significant positive relationship with Internet usage; and (v there were major inequalities in ICT connectivity between upper-middle, lower-middle and

  18. Conventional energy supply and impacts in African cities; L'approvisionnement en energie traditionnelle et impacts dans les villes africaines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dianka, M. [GAA/RPTES, Dakar (Senegal)

    2002-03-01

    Before discussing supplies of conventional energy in sub-Sahara, one must consider certain information and important facts. In each country, the supplies in conventional energy are moving within a holistic frame with inter sectoral links between energy and the other problems encountered by national economies: forestry, agriculture, livestock production, demography, urbanization, poverty. In this light, the author indicated it might be wise to take into account a few major facts that underlay the Urban Demand in Domestic Combustibles before devising sustainable solutions. It was explained that in most of the African countries located South of the Sahara, there was a trend toward greater urbanization and the movement of refugees. In large part, these trends are the result of poverty, conflicts, or the degradation of the environment. Therefore, it follows that energy consumption is concentrated in cities. In countries such as Burkina Faso or Zambia, a large proportion of urban dwellers still rely on biomass to meet their culinary needs, as well as heating and other tasks. Urbanization occurred in an anarchic manner, and the forests that used to encircle cities are fast disappearing, leaving in their wake pollution. In addition, the supply sources of biomass are farther than ever. Nowadays, the supply of wood energy for Dakar, the capital of Senegal, extends over an area covering 500 kilometres, rather than the 100 kilometres it required thirty years ago. Wood energy in cities is considered to be the major cause of deforestation. Health problems such as asthma are caused by the smoke emanating from the fires used to cook meals. A few solutions are beginning to emerge, linked to the presence of youth and women in the cities, as well as sufficient manpower to implement the solutions. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Essential Surgery at the District Hospital: A Retrospective Descriptive Analysis in Three African Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kruk, Margaret E; Andreas Wladis; Naboth Mbembati; S Khady Ndao-Brumblay; Hsia, Renee Y.; Moses Galukande; Sam Luboga; Alphonsus Matovu; Helder de Miranda; Doruk Ozgediz; Ana Romàn Quiñones; Rockers, Peter C.; Johan von Schreeb; Fernando Vaz; Debas, Haile T

    2010-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Infectious diseases remain the major killers in developing countries, but traumatic injuries, complications of childbirth, and other conditions that need surgery are important contributors to the overall burden of disease in these countries. Unfortunately, the provision of surgical services in low- and middle-income countries is often insufficient. There are many fewer operations per a head of population in developing countries than in developed countries, essentia...

  20. Defining the diagnostic divide: an analysis of registered radiological equipment resources in a low-income African country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoya, Patrick Sitati; Muhogora, Wilbroad Edward; Pitcher, Richard Denys

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic radiology is recognised as a key component of modern healthcare. However there is marked inequality in global access to imaging. Rural populations of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have the greatest need. Carefully coordinated healthcare planning is required to meet the ever increasing global demand for imaging and to ensure equitable access to services. However, meaningful planning requires robust data. Currently, there are no comprehensive published data on radiological equipment resources in low-income countries. The aim of this study was to conduct the first detailed analysis of registered diagnostic radiology equipment resources in a low-income African country and compare findings with recently published South African data. The study was conducted in Tanzania in September 2014, in collaboration with the Tanzanian Atomic Energy Commission (TAEC), which maintains a comprehensive database of the country's registered diagnostic imaging equipment. All TAEC equipment data were quantified as units per million people by imaging modality, geographical zone and healthcare sector. There are 5.7 general radiography units per million people in the public sector with a relatively homogeneous geographical distribution. When compared with the South African public sector, Tanzanian resources are 3-, 21- and 6-times lower in general radiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. The homogeneous Tanzanian distribution of basic public-sector radiological services reflects central government's commitment to equitable distribution of essential resources. However, the 5.7 general radiography units per million people is lower than the 20 units per million people recommended by the World Health Organization.

  1. A Comparative Analysis of Institutional Capacities for Implementing Disability Policies in East African Countries: Functions of National Councils for Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Yokoyama

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available During the “African Decade of Persons with Disabilities (2000-2009”, East African countries witnessed significant achievements, especially in the development of law, collection of statistics and in funding. However, many persons with disability are still marginalised from opportunities in education, healthcare and employment.Purpose: With the pre-supposition that the lack of institutional capacities for implementing disability policies is the one major stumbling-block which hinders widespread delivery of social services to persons with disabilities in low-income countries, this study makes a comparative analysis of institutional capacities in the disability sectors of Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania.Method: The research methods adopted were a literature survey and a field survey. The framework for analysis consists of: 1 capacities and functions of disability units in central governments, 2 relationships between central and local governments in the disability sector, and 3 relationships between governments and organisations of persons with disability (DPOs. Special attention is paid to the status, roles and functions of national councils for disability (NCDs, the independent statutory bodies recently established in each of the three countries, with clear authority and duties for the implementation of disability policies. The NCDs enable multi-sectoral stakeholders to be involved in the implementation of disability policies; therefore, positive relationships between the governments and DPOs are essential for the smooth functioning of the NCDs.Results: While the result of the field survey in Tanzania reveals several effective approaches for the smooth operation of the NCD, further study is needed to verify whether these approaches would be applicable to other East African countries such as Kenya and Uganda.doi 10.5463/DCID.v23i2.106

  2. Emergence in Western African Countries of MDR-TB, Focus on Côte d’Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euloge Ekaza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is responsible for a high mortality rate (2.5% worldwide, mainly in developing countries with a high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. The emergence of multiresistant strains of TB poses an extreme risk for TB outbreaks and highlights the need for global TB control strategies. Among Western African countries, Côte d’Ivoire (CI represents a specific example of a country with great potential to prevent TB. Specifically, CI has a promising healthcare system for monitoring diseases, including vaccination programs. However, military and political conflict in CI favors the spread of infectious diseases, TB being among the most devastating. Compilation of the studies identifying common causes of TB would be extremely beneficial for the development of treatment and prevention strategies. Therefore, the purpose of this comprehensive review is to evaluate the epidemiology of TB in CI, describe the factors involved in pathogenesis, and suggest simple and applicable prevention strategies.

  3. Training needs assessment in research ethics evaluation among research ethics committee members in three African countries: Cameroon, Mali and Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateudjieu, Jérôme; Williams, John; Hirtle, Marie; Baume, Cédric; Ikingura, Joyce; Niaré, Alassane; Sprumont, Dominique

    2010-08-01

    As actors with the key responsibility for the protection of human research participants, Research Ethics Committees (RECs) need to be competent and well-resourced in order to fulfil their roles. Despite recent programs designed to strengthen RECs in Africa, much more needs to be accomplished before these committees can function optimally. To assess training needs for biomedical research ethics evaluation among targeted countries. Members of RECs operating in three targeted African countries were surveyed between August and November 2007. Before implementing the survey, ethical approvals were obtained from RECs in Switzerland, Cameroon, Mali and Tanzania. Data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire in English and in French. A total of 74 respondents participated in the study. The participation rate was 68%. Seventy one percent of respondents reported having received some training in research ethics evaluation. This training was given by national institutions (31%) and international institutions (69%). Researchers and REC members were ranked as the top target audiences to be trained. Of 32 topics, the top five training priorities were: basic ethical principles, coverage of applicable laws and regulations, how to conduct ethics review, evaluating informed consent processes and the role of the REC. Although the majority of REC members in the targeted African countries had received training in ethics, they expressed a need for additional training. The results of this survey have been used to design a training program in research ethics evaluation that meets this need.

  4. Making sense of condoms: social representations in young people’s HIV-related narratives from six African countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winskell, Kate; Obyerodhyambo, Oby; Stephenson, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Condoms are an essential component of comprehensive efforts to control the HIV epidemic, both for those who know their status and for those who do not. Although young people account for almost half of all new HIV infections, reported condom use among them remains low in many sub-Saharan African countries. In order to inform education and communication efforts to increase condom use, we examined social representations of condoms among young people aged 10–24 in six African countries/regions with diverse HIV prevalence rates: Swaziland, Namibia, Kenya, South-East Nigeria, Burkina Faso, and Senegal. We used a unique data source, namely 11,354 creative ideas contributed from these countries to a continent-wide scriptwriting contest, held from 1st February to 15th April 2005, on the theme of HIV/AIDS. We stratified each country sample by the sex, age (10–14, 15–19, 20–24), and urban/rural location of the author and randomly selected up to 10 narratives for each of the 12 resulting strata, netting a total sample of 586 texts for the six countries. We analyzed the narratives qualitatively using thematic data analysis and narrative-based methodologies. Differences were observed across settings in the prominence accorded to condoms, the assessment of their effectiveness, and certain barriers to and facilitators of their use. Moralization emerged as a key impediment to positive representations of condoms, while humour was an appealing means to normalize them. The social representations in the narratives identify communication needs in and across settings and provide youth-focused ideas and perspectives to inform future intervention efforts. PMID:21388731

  5. Impact evaluation of intervention models on schistosomiasis control into elimination in People’s Republic of China and African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Tambo, Jia Tei-Wu, Xiao Ning, Wei Hu, Zhou Xiao-Nong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Evidence-based and innovative approaches aiming to reduce or eliminate the local and global burden of schistosomiasis are urgently needed. Local elimination has proved difficult and requires vigorous political and financial commitment for prolonged long-term benefits. Yet, available literature provides limited evidence on the impact and effectiveness of different local and national schistosomiasis programs and community interventions models. Integrated schistosomiasis control interventions models in P.R. China have provided hopes that elimination can be achievable goal both endemic areas in China and African countries, where most vulnerable children population lives. Methods: The paper overviewed to what extent and impact of various implemented models and programs, and provides an understanding of the robustness of schistosomiasis control towards elimination interventions in endemic communities in P.R. China and African countries. Results: It provides vital evidence to galvanize governments and global stakeholders in upholding cost-effective interventions models and research innovations in guiding sustainable decision-making policies and priorities towards achieving global schistosomiasis elimination in China and Africa. Conclusion: Successful Chinese lessons learnt and experiences from varied schistosomiasis models integration and policies practice holds immense promise when transfer and apply within an integrated trans-disciplinary and intersectorial sectors schistosomiasis approaches in ending schistosomiasis endemicity and epidemics episodes in both P.R. China and African countries. Furthermore ensuring community engagement and participation, health education and resilience towards community projects ownership are essential in sustained national schistosomiasis elimination programmes and eventual eradication benefits. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2017; 7(2: 104-118

  6. African Scientific Network: A model to enhance scientific research in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Abebe

    2002-03-01

    Africa has over 350 higher education institutions with a variety of experiences and priorities. The primary objectives of these institutions are to produce white-collar workers, teachers, and the work force for mining, textiles, and agricultural industries. The state of higher education and scientific research in Africa have been discussed in several conferences. The proposals that are generated by these conferences advocate structural changes in higher education, North-South institutional linkages, mobilization of the African Diaspora and funding. We propose a model African Scientific Network that would facilitate and enhance international scientific partnerships between African scientists and their counterparts elsewhere. A recent article by James Lamout (Financial Times, August 2, 2001) indicates that emigration from South Africa alone costs $8.9 billion in lost human resources. The article also stated that every year 23,000 graduates leave Africa for opportunities overseas, mainly in Europe, leaving only 20,000 scientists and engineers serving over 600 million people. The International Organization for Migration states that the brain drain of highly skilled professionals from Africa is making economic growth and poverty alleviation impossible across the continent. In our model we will focus on a possible networking mechanism where the African Diaspora will play a major role in addressing the financial and human resources needs of higher education in Africa

  7. Transfusion safety in francophone African countries: an analysis of strategies for the medical selection of blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagny, Claude Tayou; Kouao, Maxime Diané; Touré, Hamane; Gargouri, Jalel; Fazul, Ahamada Said; Ouattara, Siaka; Anani, Ludovic; Othmani, Habiba; Feteke, Lochina; Dahourou, Honorine; Mbensa, Guy Olivier; Molé, Simplice; Nébié, Yacouba; Mbangue, Madeleine; Toukam, Michel; Boulahi, Mahommed Ould; Andriambelo, Lalatiana Valisoa; Rakoto, Olivat; Baby, Mounirou; Yahaya, Rakia; Bokilo, Amelia; Senyana, Florent; Mbanya, Dora; Shiboski, Caroline; Murphy, Edward L; Lefrère, Jean Jacques

    2012-01-01

    The goal of selecting a healthy blood donor is to safeguard donors and reduce the risks of infections and immunologic complications for recipients. To evaluate the blood donor selection process, a survey was conducted in 28 blood transfusion centers located in 15 francophone African countries. Data collected included availability of blood products, risk factors for infection identified among blood donor candidates, the processing of the information collected before blood collection, the review process for the medical history of blood donor candidates, and deferral criteria for donor candidates. During the year 2009, participating transfusion centers identified 366,924 blood donor candidates. A mean of 13% (range, 0%-36%) of the donor candidates were excluded based solely on their medical status. The main risk factors for blood-borne infections were having multiple sex partners, sexual intercourse with occasional partners, and religious scarification. Most transfusion centers collected this information verbally instead of having a written questionnaire. The topics least addressed were the possible complications relating to the donation, religious scarifications, and history of sickle cell anemia and hemorrhage. Only three centers recorded the temperature of the blood donors. The deferral criteria least reported were sickle cell anemia, piercing, scarification, and tattoo. The medical selection process was not performed systemically and thoroughly enough, given the regional epidemiologic risks. It is essential to identify the risk factors specific to francophone African countries and modify the current medical history questionnaires to develop a more effective and relevant selection process. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.

  8. Seed systems and intellectual property rights: an inventory from five sub Saharan African Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahop, M.T.; Jonge, de B.; Munyi, P.

    2013-01-01

    Many developing countries are in the process of developing or updating their national Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) systems in order to adhere to international agreements. With respect to the agricultural sector in developing countries, the importance of implementing a Plant Variety Protection

  9. Using Growth Mixture Modeling for Clustering Asian and North African Countries on the Road Injury Death Trend (1990-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, Maryam; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan; Zayeri, Farid

    2017-09-01

    The physical injuries and financial implications as a result of road accidents have serious economic, cultural, and social effects. We conducted this study to determine any changes in the trend of road-accident-related deaths in Asian and North African countries from 1990 to 2010. The current study was carried out using data from the Global Burden of Disease database. First, the process was assessed using the growth curve divided into six regions. Moreover, the classification was done based on the death rate using growth mixed modeling. The road injury death trend for men had more variations than women. Classification of these countries based on mortality using the latent growth mixture model resulted in more homogeneous classes according to trend in road fatalities. Disregarding gender and sex, there were four optimal classes. The first three classes had a decreasing trend with the third class having the greatest decreasing trend. South Korea and Taiwan were in this group. Afghanistan, Indonesia, Thailand, Iran, the UAE, Saudi Arabia, and Oman lay in group 4 and had an increasing trend in road injury deaths. Successful interventions that developed countries have used to avoid casualties of road injuries could be used in developing countries. These include passing laws making the use of seatbelts and child seats compulsory and determining appropriate speed limits.

  10. Using Growth Mixture Modeling for Clustering Asian and North African Countries on the Road Injury Death Trend (1990–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Salari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The physical injuries and financial implications as a result of road accidents have serious economic, cultural, and social effects. We conducted this study to determine any changes in the trend of road-accident-related deaths in Asian and North African countries from 1990 to 2010. Methods: The current study was carried out using data from the Global Burden of Disease database. First, the process was assessed using the growth curve divided into six regions. Moreover, the classification was done based on the death rate using growth mixed modeling. Results: The road injury death trend for men had more variations than women. Classification of these countries based on mortality using the latent growth mixture model resulted in more homogeneous classes according to trend in road fatalities. Disregarding gender and sex, there were four optimal classes. The first three classes had a decreasing trend with the third class having the greatest decreasing trend. South Korea and Taiwan were in this group. Afghanistan, Indonesia, Thailand, Iran, the UAE, Saudi Arabia, and Oman lay in group 4 and had an increasing trend in road injury deaths. Conclusions: Successful interventions that developed countries have used to avoid casualties of road injuries could be used in developing countries. These include passing laws making the use of seatbelts and child seats compulsory and determining appropriate speed limits.

  11. The growth of space science in African countries for Earth observation in the 21st century

    OpenAIRE

    Luncedo Ngcofe; Keith Gottschalk

    2013-01-01

    Earth observation is no longer just a way to satisfy our curiosity, but has become crucial in ensuring the survival of humankind (South Africa's Minister of Science and Technology, Mosibudi Mangena, 2007). The vulnerability of Africa to the impact of climate change, which results in natural disasters and environmental degradation, accelerates hardship and poverty for millions of Africans. However, Africa still lacks the necessary scientific and technical capacity to assess fully and to mo...

  12. Incidence of postpartum anal incontinence among Indians and black Africans in a resource-constrained country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Thinagrin D; Moodley, Jagidesa; Esterhuizen, Tonya E

    2012-08-01

    To estimate the prevalence of postpartum anal incontinence (AI) in a low-resource setting and to highlight any interracial variation in the incidence. A prospective observational cohort study was conducted amongst the Indian and black African populations of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. A group of 1331 women who delivered at term completed a questionnaire on the symptoms of AI in both the prenatal and postpartum periods. The prevalence, incidence and persistence of AI were compared by race, age, parity, and mode of delivery. The prenatal prevalence of incontinence of flatus was 26.3%, with a 6-week postpartum incidence of 61.1% and a 6-month persistence of 6.4%. Interracial variation in the incidence of AI was evident. Prenatal incontinence of flatus was more frequent among Indians than black Africans (34.1% versus 24.5%; P=0.002). By contrast, the 6-week postpartum incidence of incontinence of flatus was higher among black Africans than Indians (63.2% versus 53.1%; P=0.018). The incidence of AI was significantly lower among women who underwent cesarean delivery; parity and age did not show significant associations. Postpartum AI in a low-resource setting is problematic, with interracial variation in incidence. The mode of delivery possibly influences subsequent development of AI. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Socioeconomic development as a determinant of the levels of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in the inhabitants of Western and Central African countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luzardo, Octavio P., E-mail: operez@dcc.ulpgc.es [Toxicology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Boada, Luis D. [Toxicology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Carranza, Cristina [Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Unit, Hospital Universitario Insular de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Medical Sciences and Surgery Department, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Valerón, Pilar F.; Zumbado, Manuel; Camacho, María [Toxicology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Arellano, José Luis Pérez [Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Unit, Hospital Universitario Insular de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Medical Sciences and Surgery Department, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)

    2014-11-01

    Several studies of environmental samples indicate that the levels of many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are increasing in Africa, but few studies have been conducted in humans. Simultaneously, many African countries are experiencing a rapid economic growth and implementing information and communication technologies (ICT). These changes have generated high amounts of electronic waste (e-waste) that have not been adequately managed. We tested the hypothesis that the current levels of two main classes of POPs in Western and Central African countries are affected by the degree of socioeconomic development. We measured the levels of 36 POPs in the serum of recent immigrants (N = 575) who came from 19 Sub-Saharan countries to the Canary Islands (Spain). We performed statistical analyses on their anthropometric and socioeconomic data. High median levels of POPs were found in the overall sample, with differences among the countries. Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels increased with age. People from low-income countries had significantly higher OCP levels and much lower PCB levels than those from high-income countries. We found a significant association between the implementation of ICT and PCB contamination. Immigrants from the countries with a high volume of imports of second-hand electronic equipment had higher PCB levels. The economic development of Africa and the e-waste generation have directly affected the levels of POPs. The POP legacies of these African populations most likely are due to the inappropriate management of the POPs' residues. - Highlights: • Higher levels of organochlorine pesticides in Africans from low-income countries • Higher levels of PCBs in Africans from high-income countries • Levels of PCBs are significantly higher in people from West Africa. • Significant association between implementation of ICT and PCB contamination • High volume of second-hand electronic equipment is associated

  14. Comparing HIV-related symbolic stigma in six African countries: social representations in young people’s narratives

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    Winskell, Kate; Hill, Elizabeth; Obyerodhyambo, Oby

    2011-01-01

    HIV-related symbolic stigma arises from moralistic value judgements attached to people living with HIV and has negative consequences from both public health and human rights perspectives. Relatively little is known about cross-national variation in symbolic stigma. With the purpose of informing stigma reduction efforts within and across settings, we compared social representations of HIV in six African countries with estimated adult HIV prevalence rates ranging from 1 to 33%. Our study used a unique data source, namely a stratified random sample (n=586, ~5%) from 11,354 creative ideas contributed from six countries to a continent-wide HIV-related scriptwriting contest held between February and April2005. The narratives were written by equal numbers of males and females aged 10–24 in urban and rural areas of Swaziland, Namibia, Kenya, South-East Nigeria, Burkina Faso and Senegal. We combined three analytical approaches: descriptive statistics on certain quantifiable characteristics of the narratives, thematic data analysis, and a narrative-based approach. The association of HIV with outsiders (“othering”)and preoccupation with the circumstances of infection are more common in lower prevalence countries but vary substantially in tone depending on the sociocultural context. The highest proportion both of moralising narratives and of narratives with pessimistic outcomes come from South-East Nigeria and, to a lesser extent, from Kenya, countries with prevalence levels of 3.9 and 6.1% respectively, in which evangelical Christian movements, including Pentecostalism, have sizeable followings. The data provide a rare cross-cultural overview of symbolic stigma, identify country-specific needs, and point to strategies for future programming. Social representations from the highest prevalence countries, Swaziland and Namibia, and from lower prevalence Burkina Faso offer potential models for the framing of HIV in ways that serve to increase social proximity and counteract

  15. Ethics committees for biomedical research in some African emerging countries: which establishment for which independence? A comparison with the USA and Canada.

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    Rwabihama, Jean-Paul; Girre, Catherine; Duguet, Anne-Marie

    2010-04-01

    The conduct of medical research led by Northern countries in developing countries raises ethical questions. The assessment of research protocols has to be twofold, with a first reading in the country of origin and a second one in the country where the research takes place. This reading should benefit from an independent local ethical review of protocols. Consequently, ethics committees for medical research are evolving in Africa. To investigate the process of establishing ethics committees and their independence. Descriptive study of 25 African countries and two North American countries. Data were recorded by questionnaire and interviews. Two visits of ethics committee meetings were conducted on the ground: over a period of 3 months in Kigali (Rwanda) and 2 months in Washington DC (USA). 22 countries participated in this study, 20 from Africa and two from North America. The response rate was 80%. 75% of local African committees developed into national ethics committees. During the last 5 years, these national committees have grown on a structural level. The circumstances of creation and the general context of underdevelopment remain the major challenges in Africa. Their independence could not be ensured without continuous training and efficient funding mechanisms. Institutional ethics committees are well established in USA and in Canada, whereas ethics committees in North America are weakened by the institutional affiliation of their members. The process of establishing ethics committees could affect their functioning and compromise their independence in some African countries and in North America.

  16. The prevalence of underweight, overweight, obesity and associated risk factors among school-going adolescents in seven African countries.

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    Manyanga, Taru; El-Sayed, Hesham; Doku, David Teye; Randall, Jason R

    2014-08-28

    The burden caused by the coexistence of obesity and underweight in Low and Middle Income Countries is a challenge to public health. While prevalence of underweight among youth has been well documented in these countries, overweight, obesity and their associated risk factors are not well understood unlike in high income countries. Cross-sectional data from the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) conducted in seven African countries were used for this study. The survey used a clustered design to obtain a representative sample (n = 23496) from randomly selected schools. 53.6% of the sample was male, and participants ranged in age from 11-17 years old. Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated using age and sex adjusted self-reported heights and weights. Classification of weight status was based on the 2007 World Health Organization growth charts (BMI-for-age and sex). Multivariable Logistic Regression reporting Odds Ratios was used to assess potential risk factors on BMI, adjusting for age, sex, and country. Statistical analyses were performed with Stata with an alpha of 0.05 and reporting 95% confidence intervals. Unadjusted rates of being underweight varied from 12.6% (Egypt) to 31.9% (Djibouti), while being overweight ranged from 8.7% (Ghana) to 31.4% (Egypt). Obesity rates ranged from 0.6% (Benin) to 9.3% (Egypt). Females had a higher overweight prevalence for every age group in five of the countries, exceptions being Egypt and Malawi. Overall, being overweight was more prevalent among younger (≤12) adolescents and decreased with age. Males had a higher prevalence of being underweight than females for every country. There was a tendency for the prevalence of being underweight to increase starting in the early teens and decrease between ages 15 and 16. Most of the potential risk factors captured by the GSHS were not significantly associated with weight status. The prevalence of both overweight and underweight was relatively high, demonstrating the

  17. State of inequality in malaria intervention coverage in sub-Saharan African countries.

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    Galactionova, Katya; Smith, Thomas A; de Savigny, Don; Penny, Melissa A

    2017-10-18

    Scale-up of malaria interventions over the last decade have yielded a significant reduction in malaria transmission and disease burden in sub-Saharan Africa. We estimated economic gradients in the distribution of these efforts and of their impacts within and across endemic countries. Using Demographic and Health Surveys we computed equity metrics to characterize the distribution of malaria interventions in 30 endemic countries proxying economic position with an asset-wealth index. Gradients were summarized in a concentration index, tabulated against level of coverage, and compared among interventions, across countries, and against respective trends over the period 2005-2015. There remain broad differences in coverage of malaria interventions and their distribution by wealth within and across countries. In most, economic gradients are lacking or favor the poorest for vector control; malaria services delivered through the formal healthcare sector are much less equitable. Scale-up of interventions in many countries improved access across the wealth continuum; in some, these efforts consistently prioritized the poorest. Expansions in control programs generally narrowed coverage gaps between economic strata; gradients persist in countries where growth was slower in the poorest quintile or where baseline inequality was large. Despite progress, malaria is consistently concentrated in the poorest, with the degree of inequality in burden far surpassing that expected given gradients in the distribution of interventions. Economic gradients in the distribution of interventions persist over time, limiting progress toward equity in malaria control. We found that, in countries with large baseline inequality in the distribution of interventions, even a small bias in expansion favoring the least poor yielded large gradients in intervention coverage while pro-poor growth failed to close the gap between the poorest and least poor. We demonstrated that dimensions of disadvantage

  18. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Rice Resistance Genes Against Magnaporthe oryzae Isolates from Four African Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mgonja, Emmanuel M; Balimponya, Elias G; Kang, Houxiang; Bellizzi, Maria; Park, Chan Ho; Li, Ya; Mabagala, Robert; Sneller, Clay; Correll, Jim; Opiyo, Stephen; Talbot, Nicholas J; Mitchell, Thomas; Wang, Guo-Liang

    2016-11-01

    Rice blast disease is emerging as a major constraint to rice production in Africa. Although a traditional gene-tagging strategy using biparental crosses can effectively identify resistance (R) genes or quantitative trait loci (QTL) against Magnaporthe oryzae, the mapping procedure required is time consuming and requires many populations to investigate the genetics of resistance. In this report, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to rapidly map rice genes conferring resistance against eight M. oryzae isolates from four African countries. We inoculated 162 rice cultivars, which were part of the rice diversity panel 1 (RDP1) and were previously genotyped with the 44,000 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip, with the eight isolates. The GWAS identified 31 genomic regions associated with blast resistance (RABR) in the rice genome. In addition, we used polymerase chain reaction analysis to confirm the association between the Pish gene and a major RABR on chromosome 1 that was associated with resistance to four M. oryzae isolates. Our study has demonstrated the power of GWAS for the rapid identification of rice blast R or QTL genes that are effective against African populations of M. oryzae. The identified SNP markers associated with RABR can be used in breeding for resistance against rice blast in Africa.

  19. The Impact of Internal Migration on under-Five Mortality in 27 Sub-Saharan African Countries.

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    Abukari I Issaka

    Full Text Available The literature on the impact of internal migration on under-five mortality in sub-Saharan Africa has been limited. This study examined the impact of internal migration on under-five mortality rate in 27 sub-Saharan African countries.The analysis used cross-sectional data from the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys of 27 sub-Saharan African countries. Information on the number of live births and the number of under-five deaths in the five years preceding the surveys in these countries was examined. Using variables from which migration data were generated, four migration statuses were computed, and the impact of each migration status on under-five mortality was analysed by using multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models.Of the 96333 live births, 7036 deaths were reported. In the unadjusted model, we found that, compared to urban non-migrant mothers, hazard of under-five mortality was 20% [HR: 1.20; 95% confidence interval (CI: (1.06–1.35], 40% [HR: 1.40; 95% CI: (1.29–1.53], and 43% [HR: 1.43; 95% CI: (1.30–1.58] higher among urban-rural migrant, rural non-migrant, and rural-urban migrant mothers respectively. The likelihood of children dying did not change considerably when country and demographic variables were adjusted for. However, after controlling for health care service utilization factors, the results remained consistently significant for rurality. That is, mortality rates remained significantly higher among children of rural non-migrant [(HR: 1.20; 95% CI: (1.08–1.33, P-value (p < 0.001] and rural-urban migrant [HR: 1.29; 95% CI: (1.15–1.45, p < 0.001] mothers than those of urban non-migrant mothers.Although under-five child mortality rate declined by 52% between 1990 and 2015 (from 179 to 86 per1000 live births in sub-Saharan Africa, the continent still has the highest rate in the world. This finding highlights the need to consider providing education and health care services in rural areas, when

  20. Addressing research capacity for health equity and the social determinants of health in three African countries: the INTREC programme.

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    Hofman, Karen; Blomstedt, Yulia; Addei, Sheila; Kalage, Rose; Maredza, Mandy; Sankoh, Osman; Bangha, Martin; Kahn, Kathleen; Becher, Heiko; Haafkens, Joke; Kinsman, John

    2013-04-03

    The importance of tackling economic, social and health-related inequities is increasingly accepted as a core concern for the post-Millennium Development Goal framework. However, there is a global dearth of high-quality, policy-relevant and actionable data on inequities within populations, which means that development solutions seldom focus on the people who need them most. INTREC (INDEPTH Training and Research Centres of Excellence) was established with this concern in mind. It aims to provide training for researchers from the INDEPTH network on associations between health inequities, the social determinants of health (SDH), and health outcomes, and on presenting their findings in a usable form to policy makers. As part of a baseline situation analysis for INTREC, this paper assesses the current status of SDH training in three of the African INTREC countries - Ghana, Tanzania, and South Africa - as well as the gaps, barriers, and opportunities for training. SDH-related courses from the three countries were identified through personal knowledge of the researchers, supplemented by snowballing and online searches. Interviews were also conducted with, among others, academics engaged in SDH and public health training in order to provide context and complementary material. Information regarding access to the Internet, as a possible INTREC teaching medium, was gathered in each country through online searches. SDH-relevant training is available, but 1) the number of places available for students is limited; 2) the training tends to be public-health-oriented rather than inclusive of the broader, multi-sectoral issues associated with SDH; and 3) insufficient funding places limitations on both students and on the training institutions themselves, thereby affecting participation and quality. We also identified rapidly expanding Internet connectivity in all three countries, which opens up opportunities for e-learning on SDH, though the current quality of the Internet services

  1. Establishing sustainable GHG inventory systems in African countries for Agriculture and Land Use, Land-use Change and Forestry (LULUCF)

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    Wirth, T. C.; Troxler, T.

    2015-12-01

    As signatories to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), developing countries are required to produce greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories every two years. For many developing countries, including many of those in Africa, this is a significant challenge as it requires establishing a robust and sustainable GHG inventory system. In order to help support these efforts, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has worked in collaboration with the UNFCCC to assist African countries in establishing sustainable GHG inventory systems and generating high-quality inventories on a regular basis. The sectors we have focused on for these GHG inventory capacity building efforts in Africa are Agriculture and Land Use, Land-use Change and Forestry (LULUCF) as these tend to represent a significant portion of their GHG emissions profile and the data requirements and methodologies are often more complex than for other sectors. To support these efforts, the U.S. EPA has provided technical assistance in understanding the methods in the IPCC Guidelines, assembling activity data and emission factors, including developing land-use maps for representing a country's land base, and implementing the calculations. EPA has also supported development of various tools such as a Template Workbook that helps the country build the institutional arrangement and strong documentation that are necessary for generating GHG inventories on a regular basis, as well as performing other procedures as identified by IPCC Good Practice Guidance such as quality assurance/quality control, key category analysis and archiving. Another tool used in these projects and helps country's implement the methods from the IPCC Guidelines for the Agriculture and LULUCF sectors is the Agriculture and Land Use (ALU) tool. This tool helps countries assemble the activity data and emission factors, including supporting the import of GIS maps, and applying the equations from the IPPC Guidelines to

  2. The growth of space science in African countries for Earth observation in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luncedo Ngcofe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Earth observation is no longer just a way to satisfy our curiosity, but has become crucial in ensuring the survival of humankind (South Africa's Minister of Science and Technology, Mosibudi Mangena, 2007. The vulnerability of Africa to the impact of climate change, which results in natural disasters and environmental degradation, accelerates hardship and poverty for millions of Africans. However, Africa still lacks the necessary scientific and technical capacity to assess fully and to monitor the possible future impacts of climate change. One of the instruments available to address the challenges of environmental monitoring (including climate change and to provide early warnings of natural and human-made disasters for Africa's development is Earth observation satellites. Earth observation satellites record Earth's information from space and provide accurate, continuous, simultaneous measurements of our planet.

  3. Business owners' action planning and its relationship to business success in three African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frese, Michael; Krauss, Stefanie I; Keith, Nina; Escher, Susanne; Grabarkiewicz, Rafal; Luneng, Siv Tonje; Heers, Constanze; Unger, Jens; Friedrich, Christian

    2007-11-01

    A model of business success was developed with motivational resources (locus of control, self-efficacy, achievement motivation, and self-reported personal initiative) and cognitive resources (cognitive ability and human capital) as independent variables, business owners' elaborate and proactive planning as a mediator, and business size and growth as dependent variables. Three studies with a total of 408 African micro and small-scale business owners were conducted in South Africa, Zimbabwe, and Namibia. Structural equation analyses partially supported the hypotheses on the importance of psychological planning by the business owners. Elaborate and proactive planning was substantially related to business size and to an external evaluation of business success and was a (partial) mediator for the relationship between cognitive resources and business success. The model carries important implications for selection, training, and coaching of business owners. (c) 2007 APA

  4. Human resources for health through conflict and recovery: lessons from African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavignani, Enrico

    2011-10-01

    A protracted conflict affects human resources for health (HRH) in multiple ways. In most cases, the inflicted damage constitutes the main obstacle to health sector recovery. Interventions aimed at healing derelict human resources are however fraught with difficulties of a political, technical, financial and administrative order. The experience accumulated in past recovery processes has made some important players aware of the cost incurred by neglecting human resource development. Several transitions from conflict to peace have been documented, even if largely in unpublished reports. This paper presents condensed descriptions of some African HRH-related recovery processes, which provide useful lessons. The technical work demanded to resuscitate a derelict health workforce is fairly well understood. In most situations, the highest hurdles lie outside of the health domain, and are of a political and administrative nature. Success stories are rare. But useful lessons are taught by failure as well as by success. © 2011 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2011.

  5. Palliative care and support for persons with HIV/AIDS in 7 African countries: implementation experience and future priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Carla S; Memiah, Peter; Henley, Yvonne B; Kaiza-Kangalawe, Angela; Shumbusho, Anna Joyce; Obiefune, Michael; Enejoh, Victor; Stanis-Ezeobi, Winifred; Eze, Charity; Odion, Ehekhaye; Akpenna, Donald; Effiong, Amana; Miriti, Kenneth; Aduda, Samson; Oko, John; Melaku, Gebremedhin D; Baribwira, Cyprien; Umutesi, Hassina; Shimabale, Mope; Mugisa, Emmanuel; Amoroso, Anthony

    2012-06-01

    To combat morbidity and mortality from the worldwide epidemic of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the United States Congress implemented a President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) in 30 resource-limited countries to integrate combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) for both prevention and cure. Over 35% of eligible persons have been successfully treated. Initial legislation cited palliative care as an essential aspect of this plan but overall health strengthening became critical to sustainability of programming and funding priorities shifted to assure staffing for care delivery sites; laboratory and pharmaceutical infrastructure; data collection and reporting; and financial management as individual countries are being encouraged to assume control of in-country funding. Given infrastructure requisites, individual care delivery beyond ART management alone has received minimal funding yet care remains necessary for durable viral suppression and overall quality of life for individuals. Technical assistance staff of one implementing partner representing seven African countries met to clarify domains of palliative care compared with the substituted term "care and support" to understand potential gaps in on-going HIV care. They prioritized care needs as: 1) mental health (depression and other mood disorders); 2) communication skills (age-appropriate disclosure of HIV status); 3) support of care-providers (stress management for sustainability of a skilled HIV workforce); 4) Tied Priorities: symptom management in opportunistic infections; end-of-life care; spiritual history-taking; and 5) Tied Priorities: attention to grief-related needs of patients, their families and staff; and management of HIV co-morbidities. This process can inform health policy as funding transitions to new priorities.

  6. PEPFAR Funding and Reduction in HIV Infection Rates in 12 Focus Sub-Saharan African Countries: A Quantitative Analysis

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    Roger J. Chin, MA, MPA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: HIV and AIDS continue to have a calamitous effect on individuals living on the continent of Africa. U.S. President George W. Bush implemented the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR with the objective of committing approximately $15 billion from 2004 through 2008 to assist with the reduction of the HIV pandemic worldwide. The majority of the PEPFAR policy and funding focused on 12 countries in sub-Saharan Africa: Botswana, Cote d’Ivoire, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia. The policy question this research paper seeks to analyze is whether the PEPFAR funding (as a % of Gross Domestic Product (GDP allocated to the 12 countries in Africa had any effect on the decrease of HIV infection rates of males and females between the ages of 15 and 49. Methods: A fixed-effects panel regression analysis was conducted to determine if this association exists. This study examined the 12 African countries that received PEPFAR funding over the years 2002 to 2010; even though PEPFAR was only active from 2004 through 2008, this research included two years prior and two years after this timeframe in order to better estimate the effect of PEPFAR funding on HIV reduction. Results: The results illustrate that on average, ceteris paribus, for every 1 percentage point increase in PEPFAR funding per GDP a country received, the country’s HIV infection rate decreased by 0.355 percentage points. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: While the empirical findings in this study suggested that the correlation between PEPFAR funding and HIV reduction is statistically significant, the practical significance is perhaps less obvious. Arguably, the reduction rate should be higher given the extent of funding targeted to this project. The conclusion of this research provides suggestions on future research and the policy implications of PEPFAR.

  7. An overview of cardiovascular risk factor burden in sub-Saharan African countries: a socio-cultural perspective

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    Degboe Arnold N

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-Saharan African (SSA countries are currently experiencing one of the most rapid epidemiological transitions characterized by increasing urbanization and changing lifestyle factors. This has resulted in an increase in the incidence of non-communicable diseases, especially cardiovascular disease (CVD. This double burden of communicable and chronic non-communicable diseases has long-term public health impact as it undermines healthcare systems. Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the socio-cultural context of CVD risk prevention and treatment in sub-Saharan Africa. We discuss risk factors specific to the SSA context, including poverty, urbanization, developing healthcare systems, traditional healing, lifestyle and socio-cultural factors. Methodology We conducted a search on African Journals On-Line, Medline, PubMed, and PsycINFO databases using combinations of the key country/geographic terms, disease and risk factor specific terms such as "diabetes and Congo" and "hypertension and Nigeria". Research articles on clinical trials were excluded from this overview. Contrarily, articles that reported prevalence and incidence data on CVD risk and/or articles that report on CVD risk-related beliefs and behaviors were included. Both qualitative and quantitative articles were included. Results The epidemic of CVD in SSA is driven by multiple factors working collectively. Lifestyle factors such as diet, exercise and smoking contribute to the increasing rates of CVD in SSA. Some lifestyle factors are considered gendered in that some are salient for women and others for men. For instance, obesity is a predominant risk factor for women compared to men, but smoking still remains mostly a risk factor for men. Additionally, structural and system level issues such as lack of infrastructure for healthcare, urbanization, poverty and lack of government programs also drive this epidemic and hampers proper prevention, surveillance and

  8. Zār Spirit Possession in Iran and African Countries: Group Distress, Culture-Bound Syndrome or Cultural Concept of Distress?

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    Fahimeh Mianji

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Zār is the term used to describe a form of spirit possession common in northern African, eastern African, and some Middle-Eastern societies. Although these regions share some cultural similarities arising from their history of slavery, in these places, zār varies in prevalence, clinical characteristics, and social context. Based on a selective review of the literature, this paper looks at the place of zār spirit possession in both DSM-IV and DSM-V; it also examines how zār is manifested in Iran and in African countries including Sudan, Ethiopia, and Egypt; and it aims to provide practical information to mental health clinicians so that they can better understand how this cultural concept is practiced by Iranians and Middle Eastern and African immigrants living near the Persian Gulf coast.

  9. Introduction and Rollout of a New Group A Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PsA-TT) in African Meningitis Belt Countries, 2010–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djingarey, Mamoudou H.; Diomandé, Fabien V. K.; Barry, Rodrigue; Kandolo, Denis; Shirehwa, Florence; Lingani, Clement; Novak, Ryan T.; Tevi-Benissan, Carol; Perea, William; Preziosi, Marie-Pierre; LaForce, F. Marc

    2015-01-01

    Background. A group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) was developed specifically for the African “meningitis belt” and was prequalified by the World Health Organization (WHO) in June 2010. The vaccine was first used widely in Burkina Faso, Mali, and Niger in December 2010 with great success. The remaining 23 meningitis belt countries wished to use this new vaccine. Methods. With the help of African countries, WHO developed a prioritization scheme and used or adapted existing immunization guidelines to mount PsA-TT vaccination campaigns. Vaccine requirements were harmonized with the Serum Institute of India, Ltd. Results. Burkina Faso was the first country to fully immunize its 1- to 29-year-old population in December 2010. Over the next 4 years, vaccine coverage was extended to 217 million Africans living in 15 meningitis belt countries. Conclusions. The new group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine was well received, with country coverage rates ranging from 85% to 95%. The rollout proceeded smoothly because countries at highest risk were immunized first while attention was paid to geographic contiguity to maximize herd protection. Community participation was exemplary. PMID:26553672

  10. Community-level intimate partner violence and the circumstances of first sex among young women from five African countries

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    Speizer Ilene S

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gender-based violence is an important risk factor for adverse reproductive health (RH. Community-level violence may inhibit young women's ability to engage in safer sexual behaviors due to a lack of control over sexual encounters. Few studies examine violence as a contextual risk factor. Methods Using nationally representative data from five African countries, the association between community-level physical or sexual intimate partner violence (IPV and the circumstances of first sex (premarital or marital among young women (ages 20-29 was examined. Results In Mali, and Kenya bivariate analyses showed that young women who had premarital first sex were from communities where a significantly higher percentage of women reported IPV experience compared to young women who had marital first sex. Multivariate analyses confirmed the findings for these two countries; young women from communities with higher IPV were significantly more likely to have had premarital first sex compared to first sex in union. In Liberia, community-level IPV was associated with a lower risk of premarital sex as compared to first sex in union at a marginal significance level. There was no significant relationship between community-level IPV and the circumstances of first sex in the Democratic Republic of Congo or Zimbabwe. Conclusion These findings indicate that context matters for RH. Individualized efforts to improve RH may be limited in their effectiveness if they do not acknowledge the context of young women's lives. Programs should target prevention of violence to improve RH outcomes of youth.

  11. Community-level intimate partner violence and the circumstances of first sex among young women from five African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Anu Manchikanti; Speizer, Ilene S

    2010-06-19

    Gender-based violence is an important risk factor for adverse reproductive health (RH). Community-level violence may inhibit young women's ability to engage in safer sexual behaviors due to a lack of control over sexual encounters. Few studies examine violence as a contextual risk factor. Using nationally representative data from five African countries, the association between community-level physical or sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) and the circumstances of first sex (premarital or marital) among young women (ages 20-29) was examined. In Mali, and Kenya bivariate analyses showed that young women who had premarital first sex were from communities where a significantly higher percentage of women reported IPV experience compared to young women who had marital first sex. Multivariate analyses confirmed the findings for these two countries; young women from communities with higher IPV were significantly more likely to have had premarital first sex compared to first sex in union. In Liberia, community-level IPV was associated with a lower risk of premarital sex as compared to first sex in union at a marginal significance level. There was no significant relationship between community-level IPV and the circumstances of first sex in the Democratic Republic of Congo or Zimbabwe. These findings indicate that context matters for RH. Individualized efforts to improve RH may be limited in their effectiveness if they do not acknowledge the context of young women's lives. Programs should target prevention of violence to improve RH outcomes of youth.

  12. Effects of global financial crisis on funding for health development in nineteen countries of the WHO African Region.

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    Kirigia, Joses M; Nganda, Benjamin M; Mwikisa, Chris N; Cardoso, Bernardino

    2011-04-13

    There is ample evidence in Asia and Latin America showing that past economic crises resulted in cuts in expenditures on health, lower utilization of health services, and deterioration of child and maternal nutrition and health outcomes. Evidence on the impact of past economic crises on health sector in Africa is lacking. The objectives of this article are to present the findings of a quick survey conducted among countries of the WHO African Region to monitor the effects of global financial crisis on funding for health development; and to discuss the way forward. This is a descriptive study. A questionnaire was prepared and sent by email to all the 46 Member States in the WHO African Region through the WHO Country Office for facilitation and follow up. The questionnaires were completed by directors of policy and planning in ministries of health. The data were entered and analyzed in Excel spreadsheet. The main limitations of this study were that authors did not ask whether other relevant sectors were consulted in the process of completing the survey questionnaire; and that the overall response rate was low. The main findings were as follows: the response rate was 41.3% (19/46 countries); 36.8% (7/19) indicated they had been notified by the Ministry of Finance that the budget for health would be cut; 15.8% (3/19) had been notified by partners of their intention to cut health funding; 61.1% (11/18) indicated that the prices of medicines had increased recently; 83.3% (15/18) indicated that the prices of basic food stuffs had increased recently; 38.8% (7/18) indicated that their local currency had been devalued against the US dollar; 47.1% (8/17) affirmed that the levels of unemployment had increased since the onset of global financial crisis; and 64.7% (11/17) indicated that the ministry of health had taken some measures already, either in reaction to the global financing crisis, or in anticipation. A rapid assessment, like the one reported in this article, of the

  13. Effects of global financial crisis on funding for health development in nineteen countries of the WHO African Region

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    Mwikisa Chris N

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is ample evidence in Asia and Latin America showing that past economic crises resulted in cuts in expenditures on health, lower utilization of health services, and deterioration of child and maternal nutrition and health outcomes. Evidence on the impact of past economic crises on health sector in Africa is lacking. The objectives of this article are to present the findings of a quick survey conducted among countries of the WHO African Region to monitor the effects of global financial crisis on funding for health development; and to discuss the way forward. Methods This is a descriptive study. A questionnaire was prepared and sent by email to all the 46 Member States in the WHO African Region through the WHO Country Office for facilitation and follow up. The questionnaires were completed by directors of policy and planning in ministries of health. The data were entered and analyzed in Excel spreadsheet. The main limitations of this study were that authors did not ask whether other relevant sectors were consulted in the process of completing the survey questionnaire; and that the overall response rate was low. Results The main findings were as follows: the response rate was 41.3% (19/46 countries; 36.8% (7/19 indicated they had been notified by the Ministry of Finance that the budget for health would be cut; 15.8% (3/19 had been notified by partners of their intention to cut health funding; 61.1% (11/18 indicated that the prices of medicines had increased recently; 83.3% (15/18 indicated that the prices of basic food stuffs had increased recently; 38.8% (7/18 indicated that their local currency had been devalued against the US dollar; 47.1% (8/17 affirmed that the levels of unemployment had increased since the onset of global financial crisis; and 64.7% (11/17 indicated that the ministry of health had taken some measures already, either in reaction to the global financing crisis, or in anticipation. Conclusion A rapid

  14. Higher Education Institutions and International Students' Hindrances: A Case of Students from the African Portuguese-Speaking Countries at Two European Portuguese Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrósio, Susana; Marques, João Filipe; Santos, Lucília; Doutor, Catarina

    2017-01-01

    We present a study to comprehend if the support given by higher education institution (HEI) to international students coming from the Portuguese-Speaking African Countries meets their academic and social hindrances. Our starting point was a set of semi-structured interviews focused on the perspectives of these students, their Professors and Course…

  15. Institutional perceptions, adaptive capacity and climate change response in a post-conflict country: a case study from Central African Republic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, H.C.P.; Smit, B.; Somorin, O.A.; Sonwa, D.J.; Ngana, F.

    2013-01-01

    The Central African Republic (CAR) faces increased vulnerability to climate change because it is a low-income country with low adaptive capacity; a situation that is exacerbated by recent civil conflict. This research analysed the perceptions of decision-makers within, and the response of diverse

  16. Cholera Incidence and Mortality in Sub-Saharan African Sites during Multi-country Surveillance.

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    Sauvageot, Delphine; Njanpop-Lafourcade, Berthe-Marie; Akilimali, Laurent; Anne, Jean-Claude; Bidjada, Pawou; Bompangue, Didier; Bwire, Godfrey; Coulibaly, Daouda; Dengo-Baloi, Liliana; Dosso, Mireille; Orach, Christopher Garimoi; Inguane, Dorteia; Kagirita, Atek; Kacou-N'Douba, Adele; Keita, Sakoba; Kere Banla, Abiba; Kouame, Yao Jean-Pierre; Landoh, Dadja Essoya; Langa, Jose Paulo; Makumbi, Issa; Miwanda, Berthe; Malimbo, Muggaga; Mutombo, Guy; Mutombo, Annie; NGuetta, Emilienne Niamke; Saliou, Mamadou; Sarr, Veronique; Senga, Raphael Kakongo; Sory, Fode; Sema, Cynthia; Tante, Ouyi Valentin; Gessner, Bradford D; Mengel, Martin A

    2016-05-01

    Cholera burden in Africa remains unknown, often because of weak national surveillance systems. We analyzed data from the African Cholera Surveillance Network (www.africhol.org). During June 2011-December 2013, we conducted enhanced surveillance in seven zones and four outbreak sites in Togo, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Guinea, Uganda, Mozambique and Cote d'Ivoire. All health facilities treating cholera cases were included. Cholera incidences were calculated using culture-confirmed cholera cases and culture-confirmed cholera cases corrected for lack of culture testing usually due to overwhelmed health systems and imperfect test sensitivity. Of 13,377 reported suspected cases, 34% occurred in Conakry, Guinea, 47% in Goma, DRC, and 19% in the remaining sites. From 0-40% of suspected cases were aged under five years and from 0.3-86% had rice water stools. Within surveillance zones, 0-37% of suspected cases had confirmed cholera compared to 27-38% during outbreaks. Annual confirmed incidence per 10,000 population was cholera incidence, age distribution, clinical presentation, culture confirmation, and testing frequency. These results can help guide preventive activities, including vaccine use.

  17. Alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk among women in three sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Frank; Ogundiran, Temidayo; Hou, Ningqi; Ndom, Paul; Gakwaya, Antony; Jombwe, Johashaphat; Morhason-Bello, Imran; Adebamowo, Clement; Ademola, Adeyinka; Ojengbede, Oladosu; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Huo, Dezheng

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol drinking is linked to the development of breast cancer. However, there is little knowledge about the impact of alcohol consumption on breast cancer risk among African women. We conducted a case-control study among 2,138 women with invasive breast cancer and 2,589 controls in Nigeria, Cameroon, and Uganda from 1998 to 2013. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on alcohol consumption, defined as consuming alcoholic beverages at least once a week for six months or more. Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Among healthy controls, the overall alcohol consumption prevalence was 10.4%, and the prevalence in Nigeria, Cameroon, and Uganda were 5.0%, 34.6%, and 50.0%, respectively. Cases were more likely to have consumed alcohol (aOR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.33-1.97). Both past (aOR = 1.54; 95% CI: 1.19-2.00) and current drinking (aOR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.30-2.23) were associated with breast cancer risk. A dose-response relationship was observed for duration of alcohol drinking (P-trend breast cancer risk, suggesting that this modifiable risk factor should be addressed in breast cancer prevention programs in Africa.

  18. Equity in HIV testing: evidence from a cross-sectional study in ten Southern African countries

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    Mitchell Steven

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV testing with counseling is an integral component of most national HIV and AIDS prevention strategies in southern Africa. Equity in testing implies that people at higher risk for HIV such as women; those who do not use condoms consistently; those with multiple partners; those who have suffered gender based violence; and those who are unable to implement prevention choices (the choice-disabled are tested and can have access to treatment. Methods We conducted a household survey of 24,069 people in nationally stratified random samples of communities in Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. We asked about testing for HIV in the last 12 months, intention to test, and about HIV risk behaviour, socioeconomic indicators, access to information, and attitudes related to stigma. Results Across the ten countries, seven out of every ten people said they planned to have an HIV test but the actual proportion tested in the last 12 months varied from 24% in Mozambique to 64% in Botswana. Generally, people at higher risk of HIV were not more likely to have been tested in the last year than those at lower risk, although women were more likely than men to have been tested in six of the ten countries. In Swaziland, those who experienced partner violence were more likely to test, but in Botswana those who were choice-disabled for condom use were less likely to be tested. The two most consistent factors associated with HIV testing across the countries were having heard about HIV/AIDS from a clinic or health centre, and having talked to someone about HIV and AIDS. Conclusions HIV testing programmes need to encourage people at higher risk of HIV to get tested, particularly those who do not interact regularly with the health system. Service providers need to recognise that some people are not able to implement HIV preventive actions and may not feel empowered to get themselves

  19. HIV-related discrimination among grade six students in nine Southern African countries.

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    Maughan-Brown, Brendan; Spaull, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    HIV-related stigmatisation and discrimination by young children towards their peers have important consequences at the individual level and for our response to the epidemic, yet research on this area is limited. We used nationally representative data to examine discrimination of HIV-positive children by grade six students (n = 39,664) across nine countries in Southern Africa: Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Descriptive statistics are used to compare discrimination by country, gender, geographic location and socioeconomic status. Multivariate logistic regression is employed to assess potential determinants of discrimination. The levels and determinants of discrimination varied significantly between the nine countries. While one in ten students in Botswana, Malawi, South Africa and Swaziland would "avoid or shun" an HIV positive friend, the proportions in Lesotho, Mozambique, Zambia and Zimbabwe were twice as high (approximately 20%). A large proportion of students believed that HIV positive children should not be allowed to continue to attend school, particularly in Zambia (33%), Lesotho (37%) and Zimbabwe (42%). The corresponding figures for Malawi and Swaziland were significantly lower at 13% and 12% respectively. Small differences were found by gender. Children from rural areas and poorer schools were much more likely to discriminate than those from urban areas and wealthier schools. Importantly, we identified factors consistently associated with discrimination across the region: students with greater exposure to HIV information, better general HIV knowledge and fewer misconceptions about transmission of HIV via casual contact were less likely to report discrimination. Our study points toward the need for early interventions (grade six or before) to reduce stigma and discrimination among children, especially in schools situated in rural areas and poorer communities. In particular, interventions

  20. Perceived Barriers for Accessing Health Services among Individuals with Disability in Four African Countries.

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    Arne H Eide

    Full Text Available There is an increasing awareness among researchers and others that marginalized and vulnerable groups face problems in accessing health care. Access problems in particular in low-income countries may jeopardize the targets set by the United Nations through the Millennium Development Goals. Thus, identifying barriers for individuals with disability in accessing health services is a research priority. The current study aimed at identifying the magnitude of specific barriers, and to estimate the impact of disability on barriers for accessing health care in general. A population based household survey was carried out in Sudan, Namibia, Malawi, and South Africa, including a total of 9307 individuals. The sampling strategy was a two-stage cluster sampling within selected geographical areas in each country. A listing procedure to identify households with disabled members using the Washington Group six screening question was followed by administering household questionnaires in households with and without disabled members, and questionnaires for individuals with and without disability. The study shows that lack of transport, availability of services, inadequate drugs or equipment, and costs, are the four major barriers for access. The study also showed substantial variation in perceived barriers, reflecting largely socio-economic differences between the participating countries. Urbanity, socio-economic status, and severity of activity limitations are important predictors for barriers, while there is no gender difference. It is suggested that education reduces barriers to health services only to the extent that it reduces poverty. Persons with disability face additional and particular barriers to health services. Addressing these barriers requires an approach to health that stresses equity over equality.

  1. Perceived Barriers for Accessing Health Services among Individuals with Disability in Four African Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, Arne H; Mannan, Hasheem; Khogali, Mustafa; van Rooy, Gert; Swartz, Leslie; Munthali, Alister; Hem, Karl-Gerhard; MacLachlan, Malcolm; Dyrstad, Karin

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness among researchers and others that marginalized and vulnerable groups face problems in accessing health care. Access problems in particular in low-income countries may jeopardize the targets set by the United Nations through the Millennium Development Goals. Thus, identifying barriers for individuals with disability in accessing health services is a research priority. The current study aimed at identifying the magnitude of specific barriers, and to estimate the impact of disability on barriers for accessing health care in general. A population based household survey was carried out in Sudan, Namibia, Malawi, and South Africa, including a total of 9307 individuals. The sampling strategy was a two-stage cluster sampling within selected geographical areas in each country. A listing procedure to identify households with disabled members using the Washington Group six screening question was followed by administering household questionnaires in households with and without disabled members, and questionnaires for individuals with and without disability. The study shows that lack of transport, availability of services, inadequate drugs or equipment, and costs, are the four major barriers for access. The study also showed substantial variation in perceived barriers, reflecting largely socio-economic differences between the participating countries. Urbanity, socio-economic status, and severity of activity limitations are important predictors for barriers, while there is no gender difference. It is suggested that education reduces barriers to health services only to the extent that it reduces poverty. Persons with disability face additional and particular barriers to health services. Addressing these barriers requires an approach to health that stresses equity over equality.

  2. Tobacco use and its determinants in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy in West African countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaquet, Antoine; Ekouevi, Didier-Koumavi; Aboubakrine, Maiga; Bashi, Jules; Messou, Eugène; Maiga, Moussa; Traore, Hamar-Alassane; Zannou, Marcel; Guehi, Calixte; Ba-Gomis, Franck-Olivier; Minga, Albert; Allou, Gérard; Eholie, Serge-Paul; Dabis, Francois; Bissagnene, Emmanuel; Sasco, Annie-Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Tobacco smoking is common in HIV-infected patients from industrialized countries. In West Africa, few data exist concerning tobacco consumption. METHODS A cross-sectional survey was conducted within the International epidemiological Database to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) network in West Africa. Health workers administered to patients receiving antiretroviral treatment a questionnaire assessing tobacco and cannabis consumption. Regular smokers were defined as present smokers who smoked >1 cigarette per day for ≥1 year. RESULTS Overall, 2920 patients were enrolled in three countries. The prevalence of ever smokers and present smokers were 46.2% (95% CI 42.8–49.5) and 15.6% (95% CI 13.2–18.0) in men and 3.7% (95% CI 2.9–4.5) and 0.6% (95% CI 0.3–0.9) in women, respectively. Regular smoking was associated being from Côte d’Ivoire or Mali compared to Benin (OR 4.6; 95% CI 2.9–7.3 and 7.7; 95% CI 4.4–13.6), a severely impaired immunological status at HAART initiation (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.1–2.2) and a history of tuberculosis (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.1–3.0). CONCLUSION Marked differences of smoking prevalence exist between these West African countries. This survey approach also provides evidences concerning the association between cigarette smoking and tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients, a major public health issue in this part of the world. PMID:19861019

  3. Alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk among women in three sub-Saharan African countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Qian

    Full Text Available Alcohol drinking is linked to the development of breast cancer. However, there is little knowledge about the impact of alcohol consumption on breast cancer risk among African women.We conducted a case-control study among 2,138 women with invasive breast cancer and 2,589 controls in Nigeria, Cameroon, and Uganda from 1998 to 2013. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on alcohol consumption, defined as consuming alcoholic beverages at least once a week for six months or more. Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratio (aOR and 95% confidence interval (CI.Among healthy controls, the overall alcohol consumption prevalence was 10.4%, and the prevalence in Nigeria, Cameroon, and Uganda were 5.0%, 34.6%, and 50.0%, respectively. Cases were more likely to have consumed alcohol (aOR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.33-1.97. Both past (aOR = 1.54; 95% CI: 1.19-2.00 and current drinking (aOR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.30-2.23 were associated with breast cancer risk. A dose-response relationship was observed for duration of alcohol drinking (P-trend <0.001, with 10-year increase of drinking associated with a 54% increased risk (95% CI: 1.29-1.84.We found a positive relationship between alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk, suggesting that this modifiable risk factor should be addressed in breast cancer prevention programs in Africa.

  4. Suicidal ideation among MSM in three West African countries: Associations with stigma and social capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlman, Shauna; Grosso, Ashley; Ketende, Sosthenes; Pitche, Vincent; Kouanda, Seni; Ceesay, Nuha; Ouedraogo, Henri G; Ky-Zerbo, Odette; Lougue, Marcel; Diouf, Daouda; Anato, Simplice; Tchalla, Jules; Baral, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Suicidal ideation is understudied among men who have sex with men (MSM) across Sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to explore social capital and sexual behavior stigma associated with suicidal ideation among MSM in the West African nations of The Gambia, Burkina Faso and Togo. Participants were recruited using respondent-driven sampling and snowball sampling across multiple cities (n = 1555) from July 2011 to August 2013. During a single study visit, participants completed a survey. Logistic regression models were used to assess bivariate and multivariable associations with suicidal ideation. The prevalence of lifetime suicidal ideation was 13% overall and ranged 6%-17% across study sites. After adjusting for potential confounders, MSM who reported stigma as a result of having sex with men were more likely to report suicidal ideation. Physical and sexual violence was strongly associated with suicidal ideation, including being physically harmed (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.94, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.91, 4.52), tortured (aOR = 3.86, 95% CI = 2.17, 6.86) and raped (aOR = 3.07, 95% CI = 2.05, 4.60). In contrast, increasing social participation with the broader community was associated with decreased report of suicidal ideation (aOR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.85, 0.99). Sexual behavior stigma should be addressed to improve mental health among MSM in Western Sub-Saharan Africa. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Soil contamination from lead battery manufacturing and recycling in seven African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottesfeld, Perry; Were, Faridah Hussein; Adogame, Leslie; Gharbi, Semia; San, Dalila; Nota, Manti Michael; Kuepouo, Gilbert

    2018-02-01

    Lead battery recycling is a growing hazardous industry throughout Africa. We investigated potential soil contamination inside and outside formal sector recycling plants in seven countries. We collected 118 soil samples at 15 recycling plants and one battery manufacturing site and analyzed them for total lead. Lead levels in soils ranged from battery industry in Africa continues to expand, it is expected that the number and size of lead battery recycling plants will grow to meet the forecasted demand. There is an immediate need to address ongoing exposures in surrounding communities, emissions from this industry and to regulate site closure financing procedures to ensure that we do not leave behind a legacy of lead contamination that will impact millions in communities throughout Africa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Efficiency of international cooperation schemata in African countries: A comparative analysis using a data envelopment analysis approach

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    Victor Martin-Perez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Efficiency measurement by means of data envelopment analysis (DEA in the non-profit sector has focused on the so-called Stage I of non-profit organisations, namely, fundraising efforts (which are the most influential determinants of raising funds in order to increase the amount of contributions. However, for the so-called Stage II of non-profit organisations, namely, spending the achieved resources to program services delivery, DEA studies are very scarce. In attempting to address this research gap and to the best of our knowledge, this investigation is the first study that applies DEA to the assessment of international cooperation schemata. Consequently, we offer a significant contribution to the literature by overcoming the limitations of other techniques used to assess the efficiency and providing new insight into the efficiency of targeted different international cooperation schemata (ICS in international cooperation development projects. Aim: The purpose of this study is to evaluate and compare the efficiency of the ICS of developmental projects funded by the Spanish Agency for International Cooperation for Development. Setting: Our setting is composed of different international cooperation projects funded with different schemata by the Spanish Agency for International Cooperation for Development between 2002 and 2006 in two African countries that are top priority targets of Spanish international aid: Morocco, and Mozambique. Methods: Using a sample of 48 international cooperation projects carried out in two African countries considered priorities in the Spanish Cooperation Master Plan, we analyse project efficiency using DEA. Results: The findings suggest that some schemata are more efficient than others when applied to international cooperation projects (ICS. Specifically, we find that permanent open-call subsidies are more efficient than non-governmental development organisation subsidies. Conclusion: Measures for evaluating

  7. Women's empowerment and male involvement in antenatal care: analyses of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) in selected African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Larissa; Na, Muzi; Cherewick, Megan; Hindin, Michelle; Mullany, Britta; Ahmed, Saifuddin

    2014-08-30

    Increasing women's status and male involvement are important strategies in reducing preventable maternal morbidity and mortality. While efforts to both empower women and engage men in maternal health care-seeking can work synergistically, in practice they may result in opposing processes and outcomes. This study examines whether a woman's empowerment status, in sum and across economic, socio-familial, and legal dimensions, is associated with male partner accompaniment to antenatal care (ANC). Women's empowerment was measured based on the sum of nine empowerment items in the 2010-2011 Demographic and Health Surveys in eight sub-Saharan African countries: Burkina Faso (n = 2,490), Burundi (n = 1,042), Malawi (n = 1,353), Mozambique (n = 414), Rwanda (n = 1,211), Senegal (n = 505), Uganda (n = 428) and Zimbabwe (n = 459). In cross-sectional analyses, bivariate and multivariable logistic regressions models were used to examine the odds of male partner accompaniment to ANC between women with above-average versus below-average composite and dimensional empowerment scores. In the majority of countries, male accompaniment to ANC was not uncommon. However, findings were mixed. Positive associations in women's composite empowerment and male involvement were observed in Burkina Faso (OR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.50) and Uganda (OR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.00-2.35), and in the economic empowerment dimension in Burkina Faso (OR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.05-1.47). In Malawi, significant negative associations were observed in the odds of male accompaniment to ANC and women's composite (OR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.62-0.97) and economic empowerment scores (OR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.59-0.94). No significant differences were observed in Burundi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Senegal, or Zimbabwe. Women's empowerment can be positively or negatively associated with male antenatal accompaniment. Male involvement efforts may benefit from empowerment initiatives that promote women's participation in social and economic spheres

  8. Physical health policies and metabolic screening in mental health care systems of sub-Saharan African countries: a systematic review.

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    Mugisha, James; De Hert, Marc; Stubbs, Brendon; Basangwa, David; Vancampfort, Davy

    2017-01-01

    There is a need for interventions to address the escalating mental health burden in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Addressing physical health needs should have a central role in reducing the burden and facilitating recovery in people with severe mental illness (SMI). We systematically investigated (1) physical health policies in the current mental health plans, and (2) the routine metabolic screening rates for people with SMI in SSA. The Mental Health Atlas and MiNDbank of the World Health Organization were screened for physical health policies in mental health plans. Next, we systematically searched PubMed from inception until February 1st, 2017 for relevant studies on metabolic screening rates in people with SMI in SSA. The current systematic review shows that in 22 screened plans only 6 made reference to a physical health component or policy. Only the South-African mental health plan reported about routine screening and treatment of physical illness for people with SMI. In 2 South-African studies (n = 431) routine screening was unacceptably low with less than 1% adequately screened for all modifiable metabolic syndrome risk factors. Our review data clearly show that a physical health policy is yet to be embraced in mental health care systems of most SSA countries. There is a clear need for integrated mental and medical services in SSA. All psychiatric services, including poorly developed community-based primary health care settings should standardly assess the body mass index and waist circumference at initiation of psycho-pharmacotherapy, and afterwards at regular intervals. Optimal monitoring should include assessments of fasting glucose, lipids, cholesterol, and blood pressure. Mental health care providers in SSA countries need to be informed that their roles extend beyond taking care of the mental health of their patients and assume responsibility for the physical health of their patients as well. Policy makers should be made aware that investment in continued

  9. Training needs for research in health inequities among health and demographic researchers from eight African and Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haafkens, Joke; Blomstedt, Yulia; Eriksson, Malin; Becher, Heiko; Ramroth, Heribert; Kinsman, John

    2014-12-10

    To support equity focussed public health policy in low and middle income countries, more evidence and analysis of the social determinants of health inequalities is needed. This requires specific know how among researchers. The INDEPTH Training and Research Centres of Excellence (INTREC) collaboration will develop and provide training on the social determinants of health approach for health researchers from the International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and Their Health in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (INDEPTH) in Africa and Asia. To identify learning needs among the potential target group, this qualitative study explored what INDEPTH researchers from Ghana, Tanzania, South Africa, Kenya, Indonesia, India, Vietnam, and Bangladesh feel that they want to learn to be able to conduct research on the causes of health inequalities in their country. Using an inductive method, online concept-mapping, participants were asked to generate statements in response to the question what background knowledge they would need to conduct research on the causes of health inequalities in their country, to sort those statements into thematic groups, and to rate them in terms of how important it would be for the INTREC program to offer instruction on each of the statements. Statistical techniques were used to structure statements into a thematic cluster map and average importance ratings of statements/clusters were calculated. Of the 150 invited researchers, 82 participated in the study: 54 from Africa; 28 from Asia. Participants generated 59 statements and sorted them into 6 broader thematic clusters: "assessing health inequalities"; "research design and methods"; "research and policy"; "demography and health inequalities"; "social determinants of health" and "interventions". African participants assigned the highest importance to further training on methods for assessing health inequalities. Asian participants assigned the highest importance to training on

  10. Antenatal syphilis screening using point-of-care testing in Sub-Saharan African countries: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

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    Andreas Kuznik

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Untreated syphilis in pregnancy is associated with adverse clinical outcomes for the infant. Most syphilis infections occur in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, where coverage of antenatal screening for syphilis is inadequate. Recently introduced point-of-care syphilis tests have high accuracy and demonstrate potential to increase coverage of antenatal screening. However, country-specific cost-effectiveness data for these tests are limited. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and budget impact of antenatal syphilis screening for 43 countries in SSA and estimate the impact of universal screening on stillbirths, neonatal deaths, congenital syphilis, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs averted.The decision analytic model reflected the perspective of the national health care system and was based on the sensitivity (86% and specificity (99% reported for the immunochromatographic strip (ICS test. Clinical outcomes of infants born to syphilis-infected mothers on the end points of stillbirth, neonatal death, and congenital syphilis were obtained from published sources. Treatment was assumed to consist of three injections of benzathine penicillin. Country-specific inputs included the antenatal prevalence of syphilis, annual number of live births, proportion of women with at least one antenatal care visit, per capita gross national income, and estimated hourly nurse wages. In all 43 sub-Saharan African countries analyzed, syphilis screening is highly cost-effective, with an average cost/DALY averted of US$11 (range: US$2-US$48. Screening remains highly cost-effective even if the average prevalence falls from the current rate of 3.1% (range: 0.6%-14.0% to 0.038% (range: 0.002%-0.113%. Universal antenatal screening of pregnant women in clinics may reduce the annual number of stillbirths by up to 64,000, neonatal deaths by up to 25,000, and annual incidence of congenital syphilis by up to 32,000, and avert up to 2.6 million

  11. Antenatal syphilis screening using point-of-care testing in Sub-Saharan African countries: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznik, Andreas; Lamorde, Mohammed; Nyabigambo, Agnes; Manabe, Yukari C

    2013-11-01

    Untreated syphilis in pregnancy is associated with adverse clinical outcomes for the infant. Most syphilis infections occur in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where coverage of antenatal screening for syphilis is inadequate. Recently introduced point-of-care syphilis tests have high accuracy and demonstrate potential to increase coverage of antenatal screening. However, country-specific cost-effectiveness data for these tests are limited. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and budget impact of antenatal syphilis screening for 43 countries in SSA and estimate the impact of universal screening on stillbirths, neonatal deaths, congenital syphilis, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted. The decision analytic model reflected the perspective of the national health care system and was based on the sensitivity (86%) and specificity (99%) reported for the immunochromatographic strip (ICS) test. Clinical outcomes of infants born to syphilis-infected mothers on the end points of stillbirth, neonatal death, and congenital syphilis were obtained from published sources. Treatment was assumed to consist of three injections of benzathine penicillin. Country-specific inputs included the antenatal prevalence of syphilis, annual number of live births, proportion of women with at least one antenatal care visit, per capita gross national income, and estimated hourly nurse wages. In all 43 sub-Saharan African countries analyzed, syphilis screening is highly cost-effective, with an average cost/DALY averted of US$11 (range: US$2-US$48). Screening remains highly cost-effective even if the average prevalence falls from the current rate of 3.1% (range: 0.6%-14.0%) to 0.038% (range: 0.002%-0.113%). Universal antenatal screening of pregnant women in clinics may reduce the annual number of stillbirths by up to 64,000, neonatal deaths by up to 25,000, and annual incidence of congenital syphilis by up to 32,000, and avert up to 2.6 million DALYs at an

  12. Blood Safety Status in WHO African Region Countries: Lessons Learnt from Mauritius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoo, Janaki; Musango, Laurent; Nikiema, Jean Baptiste; Lapnet-Moustapha, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    In 2001, the WHO Office for Africa adopted a strategy for blood safety defining four targets. This paper describes the progress made by Mauritius in the implementation of this strategy. The blood safety indicators were collected and compared with the norms recommended by WHO. The country has formulated its blood policy and developed a strategic plan for its implementation since 2004. The total number of blood donations increased from 31,228 in 2002 to 43,742 in 2016, giving an annual blood collection rate evolving from 26.3 per 1000 inhabitants in 2002 to 34.2 per 1000 inhabitants in 2016. The percentage of voluntary donations rose from 60% to 82.5%. Since 2002, all the blood units collected have been tested for the mandatory infectious markers. The Blood Transfusion Service has been certified ISO2008-9001 and nucleic acid testing has been introduced. The preparation of blood components increased from 60% to 98.2%. The most transfused blood components were red cell concentrates, platelet concentrates, and fresh frozen plasma. In addition to transfusion activities, there were other departments performing antenatal serology, tissue typing, special investigations, and reagent preparation. Despite the progress made, some challenges remain, namely, legal framework and haemovigilance system. A regulatory system for blood needs to be established. PMID:29181226

  13. Blood Safety Status in WHO African Region Countries: Lessons Learnt from Mauritius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Loua

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2001, the WHO Office for Africa adopted a strategy for blood safety defining four targets. This paper describes the progress made by Mauritius in the implementation of this strategy. The blood safety indicators were collected and compared with the norms recommended by WHO. The country has formulated its blood policy and developed a strategic plan for its implementation since 2004. The total number of blood donations increased from 31,228 in 2002 to 43,742 in 2016, giving an annual blood collection rate evolving from 26.3 per 1000 inhabitants in 2002 to 34.2 per 1000 inhabitants in 2016. The percentage of voluntary donations rose from 60% to 82.5%. Since 2002, all the blood units collected have been tested for the mandatory infectious markers. The Blood Transfusion Service has been certified ISO2008-9001 and nucleic acid testing has been introduced. The preparation of blood components increased from 60% to 98.2%. The most transfused blood components were red cell concentrates, platelet concentrates, and fresh frozen plasma. In addition to transfusion activities, there were other departments performing antenatal serology, tissue typing, special investigations, and reagent preparation. Despite the progress made, some challenges remain, namely, legal framework and haemovigilance system. A regulatory system for blood needs to be established.

  14. Utility and effectiveness of orbito-ocular B-scan ultrasonography in an African developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, Boniface I; Onu, Augustine C; Imo, Augustine O; Mgbor, Samuel O

    2013-11-01

    Diagnostic orbito-ocular ultrasonography is a safe, affordable, and cost-effective procedure that is especially suited for resource-poor developing countries. Periodic evaluation of its utility and effectiveness is important in the light of phenomenal advances in medical imaging. To assess the utility and effectiveness of B-scan orbito-ocular ultrasonography in a Nigerian ophthalmic patient population. The Hansa Clinic's database was retrospectively reviewed, between January 2006 and December 2010, to obtain patients' relevant demographic and clinical data. Results . The subjects comprised 119 males and 81 females. The leading sonographic diagnoses were ocular (90.4%): retinal detachment-23.3%, cataract-14.0%, and vitreous haemorrhage-10.5%; orbital (8.3%): 'mass lesion'-4.8% and myopathies-0.8%. The agreement between clinical and sonographic diagnoses was complete in 35.5% eyes. At Hansa Clinics, intraocular lesions are the main findings of diagnostic orbito-ocular sonography. There is poor agreement between clinical and sonographic diagnoses. Improved correlation of patients' clinic-pathologic data is suggested.

  15. Improving data quality across 3 sub-Saharan African countries using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR): results from the African Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimbel, Sarah; Mwanza, Moses; Nisingizwe, Marie Paul; Michel, Cathy; Hirschhorn, Lisa

    2017-12-21

    High-quality data are critical to inform, monitor and manage health programs. Over the seven-year African Health Initiative of the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation, three of the five Population Health Implementation and Training (PHIT) partnership projects in Mozambique, Rwanda, and Zambia introduced strategies to improve the quality and evaluation of routinely-collected data at the primary health care level, and stimulate its use in evidence-based decision-making. Using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) as a guide, this paper: 1) describes and categorizes data quality assessment and improvement activities of the projects, and 2) identifies core intervention components and implementation strategy adaptations introduced to improve data quality in each setting. The CFIR was adapted through a qualitative theme reduction process involving discussions with key informants from each project, who identified two domains and ten constructs most relevant to the study aim of describing and comparing each country's data quality assessment approach and implementation process. Data were collected on each project's data quality improvement strategies, activities implemented, and results via a semi-structured questionnaire with closed and open-ended items administered to health management information systems leads in each country, with complementary data abstraction from project reports. Across the three projects, intervention components that aligned with user priorities and government systems were perceived to be relatively advantageous, and more readily adapted and adopted. Activities that both assessed and improved data quality (including data quality assessments, mentorship and supportive supervision, establishment and/or strengthening of electronic medical record systems), received higher ranking scores from respondents. Our findings suggest that, at a minimum, successful data quality improvement efforts should include routine audits linked to

  16. Women's views on consent, counseling and confidentiality in PMTCT: a mixed-methods study in four African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardon Anita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ambitious UN goals to reduce the mother-to-child transmission of HIV have not been met in much of Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper focuses on the quality of information provision and counseling and disclosure patterns in Burkina Faso, Kenya, Malawi and Uganda to identify how services can be improved to enable better PMTCT outcomes. Methods Our mixed-methods study draws on data obtained through: (1 the MATCH (Multi-country African Testing and Counseling for HIV study's main survey, conducted in 2008-09 among clients (N = 408 and providers at health facilities offering HIV Testing and Counseling (HTC services; 2 semi-structured interviews with a sub-set of 63 HIV-positive women on their experiences of stigma, disclosure, post-test counseling and access to follow-up psycho-social support; (3 in-depth interviews with key informants and PMTCT healthcare workers; and (4 document study of national PMTCT policies and guidelines. We quantitatively examined differences in the quality of counseling by country and by HIV status using Fisher's exact tests. Results The majority of pregnant women attending antenatal care (80-90% report that they were explained the meaning of the tests, explained how HIV can be transmitted, given advice on prevention, encouraged to refer their partners for testing, and given time to ask questions. Our qualitative findings reveal that some women found testing regimes to be coercive, while disclosure remains highly problematic. 79% of HIV-positive pregnant women reported that they generally keep their status secret; only 37% had disclosed to their husband. Conclusion To achieve better PMTCT outcomes, the strategy of testing women in antenatal care (perceived as an exclusively female domain when they are already pregnant needs to be rethought. When scaling up HIV testing programs, it is particularly important that issues of partner disclosure are taken seriously.

  17. Testing the relationships between energy consumption, CO2 emissions, and economic growth in 24 African countries: a panel ARDL approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asongu, Simplice; El Montasser, Ghassen; Toumi, Hassen

    2016-04-01

    This study complements existing literature by examining the nexus between energy consumption (EC), CO2 emissions (CE), and economic growth (GDP; gross domestic product) in 24 African countries using a panel autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach. The following findings are established. First, there is a long-run relationship between EC, CE, and GDP. Second, a long-term effect from CE to GDP and EC is apparent, with reciprocal paths. Third, the error correction mechanisms are consistently stable. However, in cases of disequilibrium, only EC can be significantly adjusted to its long-run relationship. Fourth, there is a long-run causality running from GDP and CE to EC. Fifth, we find causality running from either CE or both CE and EC to GDP, and inverse causal paths are observable. Causality from EC to GDP is not strong, which supports the conservative hypothesis. Sixth, the causal direction from EC to GDP remains unobservable in the short term. By contrast, the opposite path is observable. There are also no short-run causalities from GDP, or EC, or EC, and GDP to EC. Policy implications are discussed.

  18. Validation of a French adaptation of the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire among torture survivors from sub-Saharan African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capucine de Fouchier

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: To date no validated instrument in the French language exists to screen for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD in survivors of torture and organized violence. Objective: The aim of this study is to adapt and validate the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ to this population. Method: The adapted version was administered to 52 French-speaking torture survivors, originally from sub-Saharan African countries, receiving psychological treatment in specialized treatment centers. A structured clinical interview for DSM was also conducted in order to assess if they met criteria for PTSD. Results: Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the HTQ Part 4 was adequate (0.95. Criterion validity was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis that generated good classification accuracy for PTSD (0.83. At the original cut-off score of 2.5, the HTQ demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity (0.87 and 0.73, respectively. Conclusion: Results support the reliability and validity of the French version of the HTQ.

  19. The South African Personality Inventory (SAPI): a culture-informed instrument for the country's main ethnocultural groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetvadjiev, Velichko H; Meiring, Deon; van de Vijver, Fons J R; Nel, J Alewyn; Hill, Carin

    2015-09-01

    We present the development and the underlying structure of a personality inventory for the main ethnocultural groups of South Africa, using an emic-etic approach. The South African Personality Inventory (SAPI) was developed based on an extensive qualitative study of the implicit personality conceptions in the country's 11 official languages (Nel et al., 2012). Items were generated and selected (to a final set of 146) with a continuous focus on cultural adequacy and translatability. Students and community adults (671 Blacks, 198 Coloreds, 104 Indians, and 391 Whites) completed the inventory. A 6-dimensional structure (comprising a positive and a negative Social-Relational factor, Neuroticism, Extraversion, Conscientiousness, and Openness) was equivalent across groups and replicated in an independent sample of 139 Black and 270 White students. The SAPI correlated highly overall with impression-management aspects, but lower with lying aspects of social desirability. The SAPI social-relational factors were distinguishable from the Big Five in a joint factor analysis; the multiple correlations with the Big Five were .64 (positive) and .51 (negative social-relational). Implications and suggestions for emic-etic instrument and model development are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the central roles of two African countries in the evolution and worldwide spread of Zika virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shu; Shi, Junming; Wang, Jun; Tang, Shuang; Wang, Hualin; Hu, Zhihong; Deng, Fei

    2016-04-01

    Recent outbreaks of Zika virus (ZIKV) infections in Oceania's islands and the Americas were characterized by high numbers of cases and the spread of the virus to new areas. To better understand the origin of ZIKV, its epidemic history was reviewed. Although the available records and information are limited, two major genetic lineages of ZIKV were identified in previous studies. However, in this study, three lineages were identified based on a phylogenetic analysis of all virus sequences from GenBank, including those of the envelope protein (E) and non-structural protein 5 (NS5) coding regions. The spatial and temporal distributions of the three identified ZIKV lineages and the recombination events and mechanisms underlying their divergence and evolution were further elaborated. The potential migration pathway of ZIKV was also characterized. Our findings revealed the central roles of two African countries, Senegal and Cote d'Ivoire, in ZIKV evolution and genotypic divergence. Furthermore, our results suggested that the outbreaks in Asia and the Pacific islands originated from Africa. The results provide insights into the geographic origins of ZIKV outbreaks and the spread of the virus, and also contribute to a better understanding of ZIKV evolution, which is important for the prevention and control of ZIKV infections.

  1. The determinants and outcomes of good provider communication: a cross-sectional study in seven African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Elysia; Leslie, Hannah H; Kruk, Margaret E

    2017-07-02

    To determine the extent of provider communication, predictors of good communication and the association between provider communication and patient outcomes, such as patient satisfaction, in seven sub-Saharan African countries. Cross-sectional, multicountry study. Data from recent Service Provision Assessment (SPA) surveys from seven countries in sub-Saharan Africa. SPA surveys include assessment of facility inputs and processes as well as interviews with caretakers of sick children. These data included 3898 facilities and 4627 providers. 16 352 caregivers visiting the facility for their sick children. We developed an index of four recommended provider communication items for a sick child assessment based on WHO guidelines. We assessed potential predictors of provider communication and considered whether better provider communication was associated with intent to return to the facility for care. The average score of the composite indicator of provider communication was low, at 35% (SD 26.9). Fifty-four per cent of caregivers reported that they were told the child's diagnosis, and only 10% reported that they were counselled on feeding for the child. Caregivers' educational attainment and provider preservice education and training in integrated management of childhood illness were associated with better communication. Private facilities and facilities with better infrastructure received higher communication scores. Caretakers reporting better communication were significantly more likely to state intent to return to the facility (relative risk: 1.19, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.22). There are major deficiencies in communication during sick child visits. These are associated with lower provider education as well as less well-equipped facilities. Poor communication, in turn, is linked to lower satisfaction and intention to return to facility among caregivers of sick children. Countries should test strategies for enhancing quality of communication in their efforts to improve

  2. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other African academics. In partnership with ... Featured Country: Uganda, Featured Journal: African Crop Science Journal. Most recent issues on AJOL: Vol 34, No 3 (2017).

  3. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other African academics. In partnership ... Featured Country: Ghana, Featured Journal: Ghana Journal of Science. Most recent issues on AJOL: Vol 34, No 3 (2017). African ...

  4. How students perceive medical competences: a cross-cultural study between the Medical Course in Portugal and African Portuguese Speaking Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Mamudo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A global effort has been made in the last years to establish a set of core competences that define the essential professional competence of a physician. Regardless of the environment, culture or medical education conditions, a set of core competences is required for medical practice worldwide. Evaluation of educational program is always needed to assure the best training for medical students and ultimately best care for patients. The aim of this study was to determine in what extent medical students in Portugal and Portuguese speaking African countries, felt they have acquired the core competences to start their clinical practice. For this reason, it was created a measurement tool to evaluate self-perceived competences, in different domains, across Portuguese and Portuguese-speaking African medical schools. Methods The information was collected through a questionnaire that defines the knowledge, attitudes and skills that future doctors should acquire. The Cronbach's Alpha and Principal Components Analysis (PCA were used to evaluate the reliability of the questionnaire. In order to remove possible confounding effect, individual scores were standardized by country. Results The order of the domain's scores was similar between countries. After standardization, Personal Attitudes and Professional Behavior showed median scores above the country global median and Knowledge alone showed median score below the country global median. In Portugal, Clinical Skills showed score below the global median. In Angola, Clinical Skills and General Skills showed a similar result. There were only significant differences between countries in Personal Attitudes (p Conclusions The reliability of the instrument in Portuguese and Portuguese-speaking African medical schools was confirmed. Students have perceived their level of competence in personal attitudes in a high level and in opposite, knowledge and clinical skills with some weaknesses.

  5. Improving health information systems for decision making across five sub-Saharan African countries: Implementation strategies from the African Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutale, Wilbroad; Chintu, Namwinga; Amoroso, Cheryl; Awoonor-Williams, Koku; Phillips, James; Baynes, Colin; Michel, Cathy; Taylor, Angela; Sherr, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Weak health information systems (HIS) are a critical challenge to reaching the health-related Millennium Development Goals because health systems performance cannot be adequately assessed or monitored where HIS data are incomplete, inaccurate, or untimely. The Population Health Implementation and Training (PHIT) Partnerships were established in five sub-Saharan African countries (Ghana, Mozambique, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Zambia) to catalyze advances in strengthening district health systems. Interventions were tailored to the setting in which activities were planned. All five PHIT Partnerships share a common feature in their goal of enhancing HIS and linking data with improved decision-making, specific strategies varied. Mozambique, Ghana, and Tanzania all focus on improving the quality and use of the existing Ministry of Health HIS, while the Zambia and Rwanda partnerships have introduced new information and communication technology systems or tools. All partnerships have adopted a flexible, iterative approach in designing and refining the development of new tools and approaches for HIS enhancement (such as routine data quality audits and automated troubleshooting), as well as improving decision making through timely feedback on health system performance (such as through summary data dashboards or routine data review meetings). The most striking differences between partnership approaches can be found in the level of emphasis of data collection (patient versus health facility), and consequently the level of decision making enhancement (community, facility, district, or provincial leadership). Design differences across PHIT Partnerships reflect differing theories of change, particularly regarding what information is needed, who will use the information to affect change, and how this change is expected to manifest. The iterative process of data use to monitor and assess the health system has been heavily communication dependent, with challenges due to poor feedback

  6. 1048-IJBCS-Article-Benoy Feet

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR GATSING

    a research on cassava food systems in several sub-Sahara African countries and farmers' perceptions of practices and constraints in cassava chips production in rural Cameroon, respectively. Cassava varieties are often grouped into bitter or sweet and/or high or low (toxic/non toxic) cyanogenic varieties. Although such.

  7. fee - , fnof . Food Prices and Economic Well-Being in Sub-Saharan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Over the years, Sub-Saharan Africa has been one of the regions worst hit with the deleterious effects of food insecurity owing to the soaring prices of food items. Therefore, this paper examines the effects of rising food prices on economic well-being in 31 Sub-Sahara African countries from 2001-2012 using panel ...

  8. Studies on Traditional Cheese (Woagashie) Production in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cheese production has been in existence for more than 4000 years as a way of preserving milk and also serve as a source of protein supply and food or meat substitute. In Ghana as in other Sub-Sahara African countries, traditional cheese termed 'Woagashie', is gradually gaining popularity. A study was thus carried out to ...

  9. Shocks, civil war and economic development in Sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nillesen, E.E.M.

    2010-01-01

    Foreign aid, low institutional quality and civil wars are associated with slow economic development in many Sub-Sahara African countries. I aim to identify causal relations and mechanisms that explain significant correlations. I use both macro- and micro-economic data and show that results are not

  10. pattern of psychiatric inpatient admission in ibadan: implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pattern of psychiatric admission that may be found in. Nigeria. Such findings may improve the preparedness of mental health facilities by guiding service organisation and planning in most sub-Sahara African countries like Nigeria where mental health services are poorly developed and professionals are scarce5.

  11. “By patience, labour and prayer . The voice of the unseen God in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The translation of the Bible into Setswana by Robert Moffat in 1857 was the first in an African language in sub-Sahara Africa and also the first Bible to be printed here — at the mission station at Kuruman, 150 years ago. This Bible translation had an enormous influence, reaching the Batswana people in different countries in ...

  12. Association between coverage of maternal and child health interventions, and under-5 mortality: a repeated cross-sectional analysis of 35 sub-Saharan African countries

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel J. Corsi; S. V. Subramanian

    2014-01-01

    Background: Infant and child mortality rates are among the most important indicators of child health, nutrition, implementation of key survival interventions, and the overall social and economic development of a population. In this paper, we investigate the role of coverage of maternal and child health (MNCH) interventions in contributing to declines in child mortality in sub-Saharan Africa.Design: Data are from 81 Demographic and Health Surveys from 35 sub-Saharan African countries. Using ec...

  13. Determinants of successful vitamin A supplementation coverage among children aged 6-59 months in thirteen sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janmohamed, Amynah; Klemm, Rolf Dw; Doledec, David

    2017-08-01

    Vitamin A supplementation (VAS) for children aged 6-59 months occurs regularly in most sub-Saharan African countries. The present study aimed to explore child, household and delivery platform factors associated with VAS coverage and identify barriers to compliance in thirteen African countries. We pooled data (n ~60 000) from forty-four household coverage surveys and used bivariate and multivariable regression analyses to assess the effects of supplementation strategy, rural v. urban residence, child sex, child age, caregiver education and campaign awareness on child VAS status. Setting/Subjects Primary caregivers of children aged 6-59 months in thirteen countries. Door-to-door distribution resulted in higher VAS coverage than fixed-site plus outreach approaches (91 v. 63 %) and was a significant predictor of supplementation in the adjusted model (OR=19·0; 95 % CI 17·2, 21·1; P<0·001). Having been informed about the campaign was the main predictor of VAS in the door-to-door (OR=6·8; 95 % CI 5·8, 7·9; P<0·001) and fixed-site plus outreach (OR=72·5; 95 % CI 66·6, 78·8; P<0·001) groups. Door-to-door provision of VAS may achieve higher coverage than fixed-site models in the African context. However, the phase-out of door-to-door polio immunization campaigns in most sub-Saharan African countries threatens the main distribution vehicle for VAS. Our findings suggest well-informed communities are key to attaining higher coverage using fixed-site delivery alternatives.

  14. Determinants of Early Introduction of Solid, Semi-Solid or Soft Foods among Infants Aged 3–5 Months in Four Anglophone West African Countries

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    Abukari I. Issaka

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to explore and identify factors associated with the practice of early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods among infants aged 3–5 months in four Anglophone West African countries. Data sources for the analyses were the latest Demographic and Health Survey datasets of the 4 countries, namely Ghana (GDHS, 2008, Liberia (LDHS, 2007, Nigeria (NDHS, 2013 and Sierra Leone (SLDHS, 2008. Multiple logistic regression methods were used to analyze the factors associated with early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods among infants aged 3–5 months, using individual-, household- and community-level determinants. The sample consisted of 2447 infants aged 3–5 months from four Anglophone West African countries: 166 in Ghana, 263 in Liberia, 1658 in Nigeria and 360 in Sierra Leone. Multivariable analyses revealed the individual factors associated with early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods in these countries. These included increased infant’s age, diarrhea, acute respiratory infection and newborns perceived to be small by their mothers. Other predictors of early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods were: mothers with no schooling, young mothers and fathers who worked in an agricultural industry. Public health interventions to improve exclusive breastfeeding practices by discouraging early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods are needed in all 4 countries, targeting especially mothers at risk of introducing solid foods to their infants early.

  15. Unmet reproductive health needs among women in some West African countries: a systematic review of outcome measures and determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayanore, Martin Amogre; Pavlova, Milena; Groot, Wim

    2016-01-16

    Identifying relevant measures of women's reproductive health needs is critical to improve women's chances of service utilization. The study aims to systematically review and analyze the adequacy of outcome measures and determinants applied in previous studies for assessing women reproductive health needs across West Africa. Evidence on outcomes and determinants of unmet reproductive health needs among women of childbearing age in diverse multicultural, religious, and ethnic settings in West African countries was systematically reviewed. The review included recent English language publications (from January 2009 - March 2014). Clinical studies particularly on obstetric care services and reproductive services in relation to HIV/AIDS were excluded. We acknowledge the possibility to have excluded non-English publications and yet-to-be-published articles related to the study aim and objectives. Outcomes and determinants were assessed and defined at three main levels; contraceptive use, obstetric care, and antenatal care utilization. Results show increasing unmet need for women's reproductive health needs. Socio-cultural norms and practices resulting in discontinuation of service use, economic constraints, travel distance to access services and low education levels of women were found to be key predictors of service utilization for contraception, antenatal and obstetric care services. Outcome measures were mainly assessed based on service utilization, satisfaction, cost, and quality of services available as core measures across the three levels assessed in this review. Evidence from this review indicates that currently applied measures of women's reproductive health needs might be inadequate in attaining best maternal outcomes since they appear rather broad. More support and research for developing and advancing context-related measures may help to improve women's maternal health.

  16. Clustering asian and north african countries according to trend of colon and rectum cancer mortality rates: an application of growth mixture models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayeri, Farid; Sheidaei, Ali; Mansouri, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death with half a million deaths per year. Incidence and mortality rates have demonstrated notable changes in Asian and African countries during the last few decades. In this study, we first aimed to determine the trend of colorectal cancer mortality rate in each Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) region, and then re-classify them to find more homogenous classes. Our study population consisted of 52 countries of Asia and North Africa in six IHME pre-defined regions for both genders and age-standardized groups from 1990 to 2010.We first applied simple growth models for pre-defined IHME regions to estimate the intercepts and slopes of mortality rate trends. Then, we clustered the 52 described countries using the latent growth mixture modeling approach for classifying them based on their colorectal mortality rates over time. Statistical analysis revealed that males and people in high income Asia pacific and East Asia countries were at greater risk of death from colon and rectum cancer. In addition, South Asia region had the lowest rates of mortality due to this cancer. Simple growth modeling showed that majority of IHME regions had decreasing trend in mortality rate of colorectal cancer. However, re-classification these countries based on their mortality trend using the latent growth mixture model resulted in more homogeneous classes according to colorectal mortality trend. In general, our statistical analyses showed that most Asian and North African countries had upward trend in their colorectal cancer mortality. We therefore urge the health policy makers in these countries to evaluate the causes of growing mortality and study the interventional programs of successful countries in managing the consequences of this cancer.

  17. Update on the Risk of Introduction of African Swine Fever by Wild Boar into Disease-Free European Union Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, J; Rodríguez, A; Iglesias, I; Muñoz, M J; Jurado, C; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M; de la Torre, A

    2017-10-01

    Despite efforts to prevent the appearance and spread of African swine fever (ASF) in the European Union, several Member States are now affected (Lithuania, Poland, Latvia and Estonia). Disease appearance in 2014 was associated with multiple entrances linked to wild boar movement from endemic areas (EFSA Journal, 8, 2015, 1556), but the risk of new introductions remains high (Gallardo et al., Porcine Health Management, 1, and 21) as ASF continues to be active in endemic countries (Russian Federation, Belarus and Ukraine). Since 2014, the number of ASF notifications has increased substantially, particularly in wild boar (WB), in parallel with slow but constant geographical advance of the disease. This situation suggests a real risk of further disease spread into other Member States, posing a great threat to pig production in the EU. Following the principles of the risk-based veterinary surveillance, this article applies a methodology developed by De la Torre et al. (Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 62, and 272) to assess the relative risk of new introductions of ASF by natural movements of WB according to the current epidemiological situation. This update incorporates the most recent available data and an improved version of the most important risk estimator: an optimized cartographic tool of WB distribution to analyse wild boar suitable habitat. The highest relative risk values were estimated for Slovakia (5) and Romania (5), followed by Finland (4), Czech Republic (3) and Germany (3). Relative risk for Romania and Finland is associated mainly with disease entrance from endemic areas such as the Russian Federation and Ukraine, where the disease is currently spreading; relative risk for Germany and Czech Republic is associated mainly with the potential progress of the disease through the EU, and relative risk for Slovakia is associated with both pathways. WB habitat is the most important risk estimator, whereas WB density is the least significant, suggesting

  18. Self-reported drunkenness among adolescents in four sub-Saharan African countries: associations with adverse childhood experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crichton Joanna

    2010-06-01

    adverse events experienced and the proportion reporting drunkenness. Conclusions We find an association between experience of adverse childhood events and drunkenness among adolescents in four sub-Saharan African countries. The complex impacts of adverse childhood experiences on young people's development and behavior may have an important bearing on the effectiveness of interventions geared at reducing alcohol dependence among the youth.

  19. Transforming health professions' education through in-country collaboration: examining the consortia among African medical schools catalyzed by the Medical Education Partnership Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talib, Zohray M; Kiguli-Malwadde, Elsie; Wohltjen, Hannah; Derbew, Miliard; Mulla, Yakub; Olaleye, David; Sewankambo, Nelson

    2015-01-14

    African medical schools have historically turned to northern partners for technical assistance and resources to strengthen their education and research programmes. In 2010, this paradigm shifted when the United States Government brought forward unprecedented resources to support African medical schools. The grant, entitled the Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) triggered a number of south-south collaborations between medical schools in Africa. This paper examines the goals of these partnerships and their impact on medical education and health workforce planning. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the Principal Investigators of the first four MEPI programmes that formed an in-country consortium. These interviews were recorded, transcribed and coded to identify common themes. All of the consortia have prioritized efforts to increase the quality of medical education, support new schools in-country and strengthen relations with government. These in-country partnerships have enabled schools to pool and mobilize limited resources creatively and generate locally-relevant curricula based on best-practices. The established schools are helping new schools by training faculty and using grant funds to purchase learning materials for their students. The consortia have strengthened the dialogue between academia and policy-makers enabling evidence-based health workforce planning. All of the partnerships are expected to last well beyond the MEPI grant as a result of local ownership and institutionalization of collaborative activities. The consortia described in this paper demonstrate a paradigm shift in the relationship between medical schools in four African countries. While schools in Africa have historically worked in silos, competing for limited resources, MEPI funding that was leveraged to form in-country partnerships has created a culture of collaboration, overriding the history of competition. The positive impact on the quality and efficiency of

  20. Regulation of genomic and biobanking research in Africa: a content analysis of ethics guidelines, policies and procedures from 22 African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Jantina; Munung, Syntia Nchangwi; Matimba, Alice; McCurdy, Sheryl; Ouwe Missi Oukem-Boyer, Odile; Staunton, Ciara; Yakubu, Aminu; Tindana, Paulina

    2017-02-02

    The introduction of genomics and biobanking methodologies to the African research context has also introduced novel ways of doing science, based on values of sharing and reuse of data and samples. This shift raises ethical challenges that need to be considered when research is reviewed by ethics committees, relating for instance to broad consent, the feedback of individual genetic findings, and regulation of secondary sample access and use. Yet existing ethics guidelines and regulations in Africa do not successfully regulate research based on sharing, causing confusion about what is allowed, where and when. In order to understand better the ethics regulatory landscape around genomic research and biobanking, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of existing ethics guidelines, policies and other similar sources. We sourced 30 ethics regulatory documents from 22 African countries. We used software that assists with qualitative data analysis to conduct a thematic analysis of these documents. Surprisingly considering how contentious broad consent is in Africa, we found that most countries allow the use of this consent model, with its use banned in only three of the countries we investigated. In a likely response to fears about exploitation, the export of samples outside of the continent is strictly regulated, sometimes in conjunction with regulations around international collaboration. We also found that whilst an essential and critical component of ensuring ethical best practice in genomics research relates to the governance framework that accompanies sample and data sharing, this was most sparingly covered in the guidelines. There is a need for ethics guidelines in African countries to be adapted to the changing science policy landscape, which increasingly supports principles of openness, storage, sharing and secondary use. Current guidelines are not pertinent to the ethical challenges that such a new orientation raises, and therefore fail to provide accurate guidance

  1. Need of surveillance response systems to combat Ebola outbreaks and other emerging infectious diseases in African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambo, Ernest; Ugwu, Emmanuel Chidiebere; Ngogang, Jeane Yonkeu

    2014-01-01

    quickly adopted by allied ministries and organisations in African countries in epidemic and pandemic responses; (ii) harnessing all stakeholders commitment and advocacy in sustained funding, collaboration, communication and networking including community participation to enhance a coordinated responses, as well as tracking and prompt case management to combat challenges; (iii) more research and development in new drug discovery and vaccines; and (iv) understanding the involvement of global health to promote the establishment of public health surveillance response systems with functions of early warning, as well as monitoring and evaluation in upholding research-action programmes and innovative interventions.

  2. Equality in Maternal and Newborn Health: Modelling Geographic Disparities in Utilisation of Care in Five East African Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrine W Ruktanonchai

    Full Text Available Geographic accessibility to health facilities represents a fundamental barrier to utilisation of maternal and newborn health (MNH services, driving historically hidden spatial pockets of localized inequalities. Here, we examine utilisation of MNH care as an emergent property of accessibility, highlighting high-resolution spatial heterogeneity and sub-national inequalities in receiving care before, during, and after delivery throughout five East African countries.We calculated a geographic inaccessibility score to the nearest health facility at 300 x 300 m using a dataset of 9,314 facilities throughout Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. Using Demographic and Health Surveys data, we utilised hierarchical mixed effects logistic regression to examine the odds of: 1 skilled birth attendance, 2 receiving 4+ antenatal care visits at time of delivery, and 3 receiving a postnatal health check-up within 48 hours of delivery. We applied model results onto the accessibility surface to visualise the probabilities of obtaining MNH care at both high-resolution and sub-national levels after adjusting for live births in 2015.Across all outcomes, decreasing wealth and education levels were associated with lower odds of obtaining MNH care. Increasing geographic inaccessibility scores were associated with the strongest effect in lowering odds of obtaining care observed across outcomes, with the widest disparities observed among skilled birth attendance. Specifically, for each increase in the inaccessibility score to the nearest health facility, the odds of having skilled birth attendance at delivery was reduced by over 75% (0.24; CI: 0.19-0.3, while the odds of receiving antenatal care decreased by nearly 25% (0.74; CI: 0.61-0.89 and 40% for obtaining postnatal care (0.58; CI: 0.45-0.75.Overall, these results suggest decreasing accessibility to the nearest health facility significantly deterred utilisation of all maternal health care services. These

  3. Medical ethics in sub-Sahara Africa: closing the gaps.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    be familiar with the ethical and legal expectations that arise out of the ... The questionnaire comprised of detailed questions regarding day-to-day aspects of Medical ... Ethics is the application of values and moral rules to ... tion to help their patients and the society. ... Descriptive analysis was carried out using SPSS version.

  4. Challenges of Managing Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Sub-Sahara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A further immediate challenge is the provision of expertise in locoregional therapy with transarterial chemoembolization, percutaneous ethanol injection, or radiofrequency ablation for downstaging inoperable tumours to meet the requirements for either resection or transplantation. The introduction of molecular targeted ...

  5. Medical ethics in sub-Sahara Africa: closing the gaps.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    suggestion of euthanasia and 125(40.7%) agreed they will refer the patient to another doctor, if a patient re- fused a particular treatment for religious reasons while. 31(10%) of respondents were uncertain on how to deal with patients who refuse treatment. Comparison of the responses of physicians and non-physicians on ...

  6. Medical ethics in sub-Sahara Africa: closing the gaps.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Ophthalmology, Federal Medical Center, Birnin Kebbi, Nigeria. 2. ... is a need for periodic education on clinical ethics in our hospitals. .... Dental technicians. 14. 4.6 .... mental ill health or a minor. In health care practice, respecting people's autonomy ... divulge the highly private and sensitive information that.

  7. The prevalence of underweight, overweight, obesity and associated risk factors among school-going adolescents in seven African countries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manyanga, Taru; El-Sayed, Hesham; Doku, David Teye; Randall, Jason R

    2014-01-01

    .... While prevalence of underweight among youth has been well documented in these countries, overweight, obesity and their associated risk factors are not well understood unlike in high income countries...

  8. Livestock Ownership Among Rural Households and Child Morbidity and Mortality: An Analysis of Demographic Health Survey Data from 30 Sub-Saharan African Countries (2005-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Maneet; Graham, Jay P; Eisenberg, Joseph N S

    2017-03-01

    AbstractChildren living in homes with livestock may have both an increased risk of enteric infections and improved access to food, and therefore improved nutritional status. Few studies, however, have characterized these relationships in tandem. This study investigated the association between child health and household ownership of livestock. A cross-sectional study was performed using data from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 30 sub-Saharan African countries with 215,971 rural children under 5 years of age from 2005 to 2015. Logistic regression was performed for each country to estimate the relationship between a log2 increase in the number of livestock owned by the household and three child-health outcomes: 2-week prevalence of diarrhea, stunting, and all-cause mortality. Results for each country were combined using meta-analyses. Most countries (22 of 30) displayed an odds ratio (OR) less than 1 for child stunting associated with livestock (pooled OR = 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.95, 0.99). The results for diarrhea were more even with 14 countries displaying ORs greater than 1 and 10 displaying ORs less than 1. Most countries (22 of 30) displayed an OR greater than 1 for child mortality (pooled OR = 1.04; 95% CI = 1.02, 1.06). All meta-analyses displayed significant heterogeneity by country. Our analysis is consistent with the theory that livestock may have a dual role as protective against stunting, an indicator of chronic malnutrition, and a risk factor for all-cause mortality in children, which may be linked to acute infections. The heterogeneity by country, however, indicates more data are needed on specific household livestock management practices.

  9. Energy-water-food nexus under financial constraint environment: good, the bad, and the ugly sustainability reforms in sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Khalid; Shamsuddin, Sadaf; Ahmad, Mehboob

    2017-05-01

    Environmental sustainability agenda are generally compromised by energy, water, and food production resources, while in the recent waves of global financial crisis, it mediates to increase the intensity of air pollutants, which largely affected the less developing countries due to their ease of environmental regulation policies and lack of optimal utilization of economic resources. Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries are no exception that majorly hit by the recent global financial crisis, which affected the country's natural environment through the channel of unsustainable energy-water-food production. The study employed panel random effect model that addresses the country-specific time-invariant shocks to examine the non-linear relationship between water-energy-food resources and air pollutants in a panel of 19 selected SSA countries, for a period of 2000-2014. The results confirmed the carbon-fossil-methane environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) that turned into inverted U-shaped relationships in a panel of selected SSA countries. Food resources largely affected greenhouse gas (GHG), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions while water resource decreases carbon dioxide (CO2), fossil fuel, and CH4 emissions in a region. Energy efficiency improves air quality indicators while industry value added increases CO2 emissions, fossil fuel energy, and GHG emissions. Global financial crisis increases the risk of climate change across countries. The study concludes that although SSA countries strive hard to take some "good" initiatives to reduce environmental degradation in a form of improved water and energy sources, however, due to lack of optimal utilization of food resources and global financial constraints, it leads to "the bad" and "the ugly" sustainability reforms in a region.

  10. Do unsafe tetanus toxoid injections play a significant role in the transmission of HIV/AIDS? Evidence from seven African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Walque, D

    2008-04-01

    Although sexual transmission is generally considered to be the main factor driving the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Africa, recent studies have claimed that iatrogenic transmission should be considered as an important source of HIV infection. In particular, receipt of tetanus toxoid injections during pregnancy has been reported to be associated with HIV infection in Kenya. The objective of this paper is to assess the robustness of this association among women in nationally representative HIV surveys in seven African countries. The association between prophylactic tetanus toxoid injections during pregnancy and HIV infection was analysed, using individual-level data from women who gave birth in the past five years. These data are from the nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys, which included HIV testing in seven African countries: Burkina Faso 2003 (N = 2424), Cameroon 2004 (N = 2600), Ethiopia 2005 (N = 2886), Ghana 2003 (N = 2560), Kenya 2003 (N = 1617), Lesotho 2004 (N = 1278) and Senegal 2005 (N = 2126). Once the odds ratios (OR) were adjusted for five-year age groups and for ethnic, urban and regional indicators, the association between prophylactic tetanus toxoid injections during pregnancy and HIV infection was never statistically significant in any of the seven countries. Only in Cameroon was there an association between previous tetanus toxoid injection and HIV positivity but it became weaker (OR 1.53, 95% CI 0.91 to 2.57) once urban location and ethnic group were adjusted for. Although the risk of HIV infection through unsafe injections and healthcare should not be ignored and should be reduced, it does not seem that there is, at present and in the seven countries studied, strong evidence supporting the claim that unsafe tetanus toxoid injections are a major factor driving the HIV epidemic.

  11. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Research Review; The competitive advantage of nations: is Porter's Diamond Framework a new theory that explains the international competitiveness of countries? Southern African Business Review; The Rise of Independent African Churches, 1890-1930: An Ethical-genesis of Nigerian Nationalism African ...

  12. Optimising design and cost-effective implementation of future pan-African dietary studies: a review of existing economic integration and nutritional indicators for scenario-based profiling and clustering of countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aglago, Elom K; Landais, Edwige; Zotor, Francis; Nicolas, Genevieve; Gunter, Marc J; Amuna, Paul; Slimani, Nadia

    2018-02-01

    Most of the African countries are undergoing a complex nutrition and epidemiologic transition associated with a rapid increase in the prevalence of diverse non-communicable diseases. Despite this alarming situation, the still limited and fragmented resources available in Africa impede the implementation of effective action plans to tackle the current and projected diet-disease burden. In order to address these common needs and challenges, the African Union is increasingly supporting continental approaches and strategies as reflected in the launching of the Agenda 2063 and the African regional nutrition strategy 2015-2025, among others. To assure the successful implementation of pan-African nutritional and health initiatives, cost-effective approaches considering similarities/disparities in economy, regional integration, development and nutritional aspects between countries are needed. In the absence of pre-existing models, we reviewed regional economic integration and nutritional indicators (n 13) available in international organisations databases or governmental agencies websites, for fifty-two African countries. These indicators were used to map the countries according to common languages (e.g. Arabic, English, French, Portuguese), development status (e.g. human development index), malnutrition status (e.g. obesity) and diet (e.g. staples predominantly based on either cereals or tubers). The review of the indicators showed that there exist similarities between African countries that can be exploited to benefit the continent with cross-national experiences in order to avoid duplication of efforts in the implementation of future pan-African health studies. In addition, including present and future nutrition surveillance programmes in Africa into national statistical systems might be cost-effective and sustainable in the longer term.

  13. The impact of sociodemographic and health-service factors on breast-feeding in sub-Saharan African countries with high diarrhoea mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbo, Felix A; Eastwood, John; Page, Andrew; Efe-Aluta, Oniovo; Anago-Amanze, Chukwudi; Kadiri, Eshioramhe A; Ifegwu, Ifegwu K; Woolfenden, Sue; Agho, Kingsley E

    2017-12-01

    The current study aimed to examine the impact of sociodemographic and health-service factors on breast-feeding in sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries with high diarrhoea mortality. The study used the most recent and pooled Demographic and Health Survey data sets collected in nine SSA countries with high diarrhoea mortality. Multivariate logistic regression models that adjusted for cluster and sampling weights were used to investigate the association between sociodemographic and health-service factors and breast-feeding in SSA countries. Sub-Saharan Africa with high diarrhoea mortality. Children (n 50 975) under 24 months old (Burkina Faso (2010, N 5710); Demographic Republic of Congo (2013, N 6797); Ethiopia (2013, N 4193); Kenya (2014, N 7024); Mali (2013, N 3802); Niger (2013, N 4930); Nigeria (2013, N 11 712); Tanzania (2015, N 3894); and Uganda (2010, N 2913)). Overall prevalence of exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) and early initiation of breast-feeding (EIBF) was 35 and 44 %, respectively. Uganda, Ethiopia and Tanzania had higher EBF prevalence compared with Nigeria and Niger. Prevalence of EIBF was highest in Mali and lowest in Kenya. Higher educational attainment and frequent health-service visits of mothers (i.e. antenatal care, postnatal care and delivery at a health facility) were associated with EBF and EIBF. Breast-feeding practices in SSA countries with high diarrhoea mortality varied across geographical regions. To improve breast-feeding behaviours among mothers in SSA countries with high diarrhoea mortality, breast-feeding initiatives and policies should be context-specific, measurable and culturally appropriate, and should focus on all women, particularly mothers from low socio-economic groups with limited health-service access.

  14. Laboratory capacity building for the International Health Regulations (IHR[2005] in resource-poor countries: the experience of the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukanga David

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Laboratory is one of the core capacities that countries must develop for the implementation of the International Health Regulations (IHR[2005] since laboratory services play a major role in all the key processes of detection, assessment, response, notification, and monitoring of events. While developed countries easily adapt their well-organized routine laboratory services, resource-limited countries need considerable capacity building as many gaps still exist. In this paper, we discuss some of the efforts made by the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET in supporting laboratory capacity development in the Africa region. The efforts range from promoting graduate level training programs to building advanced technical, managerial and leadership skills to in-service short course training for peripheral laboratory staff. A number of specific projects focus on external quality assurance, basic laboratory information systems, strengthening laboratory management towards accreditation, equipment calibration, harmonization of training materials, networking and provision of pre-packaged laboratory kits to support outbreak investigation. Available evidence indicates a positive effect of these efforts on laboratory capacity in the region. However, many opportunities exist, especially to support the roll-out of these projects as well as attending to some additional critical areas such as biosafety and biosecuity. We conclude that AFENET’s approach of strengthening national and sub-national systems provide a model that could be adopted in resource-limited settings such as sub-Saharan Africa.

  15. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reviewed, African-published scholarly journals. ... Featured Country: Nigeria, Featured Journal: West African Journal of Industrial and Academic Research. Most recent issues on AJOL: Vol 6, No 1 (2015). Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics.

  16. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Featured Country: Nigeria, Featured Journal: African Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism ... Southern African Business Review; The Basis of Distinction Between Qualitative and Quantitative Research in Social Science: Reflection on Ontological, Epistemological and Methodological Perspectives Ethiopian Journal of ...

  17. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reviewed, African-published scholarly journals. Historically ... Featured Country: South Africa, Featured Journal: African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation ... International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences.

  18. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reviewed, African-published scholarly journals. Historically, scholarly information has flowed from North to South and from West to East. ... Featured Country: South Africa, Featured Journal: Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies ...

  19. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other African academics. In partnership with ... Featured Country: Ethiopia, Featured Journal: Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review ... Vol 34, No 3 (2017).

  20. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other African academics. ... Featured Country: Cameroon, Featured Journal: Cameroon Journal of Agricultural Science. Most recent issues on AJOL: Vol 34, No 3 (2017).

  1. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other African academics ... Featured Country: Uganda, Featured Journal: Journal of Science and Sustainable Development. Most recent issues on AJOL: Vol 34, No 3 (2017).

  2. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other African academics. ... Featured Country: Nigeria, Featured Journal: Journal of the Nigerian Infection Control Association ... Journal of Consumer Sciences. Vol 89, No 7 ...

  3. Socioeconomic differential in self-assessment of health and happiness in 5 African countries: Finding from World Value Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesanya A, Oluwafunmilade; Rojas, Bomar Mendez; Darboe, Amadou; Beogo, Idrissa

    2017-01-01

    Factors that contribute to wealth related inequalities in self-rated health (SRH) and happiness remains unclear most especially in sub-Saharan countries (SSA). This study aims to explore and compare socioeconomic differentials in SRH and happiness in five SSA countries. Using the 2010/2014 World Values Survey (WVS), we obtained a sample of 9,869 participants of age 16 and above from five SSA countries (Nigeria, Ghana, South Africa, Rwanda and Zimbabwe). Socioeconomic inequalities were quantified using the concentration index. The contribution of each predictor to concentration index's magnitude was obtained by means of regression based decomposition analysis. Poor SRH ranges from approximately 9% in Nigeria to 20% in Zimbabwe, whereas unhappiness was lower in Rwanda (9.5%) and higher in South Africa (23.3%). Concentration index was negative for both outcomes in all countries, which implies that poor SRH and unhappiness are excessively concentrated among the poorest socioeconomic strata. Although magnitudes differ across countries, however, the major contributor to wealth-related inequality in poor SRH is satisfaction with financial situation whereas for unhappiness the major contributors are level of income and satisfaction with financial situation. This study underscores an association between wealth related inequalities and poor SRH and unhappiness in the context of SSA. Improving equity in health, as suggested by the commission of social determinants of health may be useful in fighting against the unfair distribution of resources. Thus, knowledge about the self-rating of health and happiness can serve as proxy estimates for understanding the distribution of health care access and economic resources needed for well-being in resident countries.

  4. Amniotic band syndrome (ABS): can something be done during pregnancy in African poor countries? Three cases and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, D B; Nguessan, K L P; Aissi, G; Boni, S

    2014-01-01

    Amniotic band syndrome (ABS) is a fetal congenital malformation, affecting mainly the limbs, but also the craniofacial area and internal organs. Two mains pathogenic mechanisms are proposed in its genesis. Firstly the early amnion rupture (exogenous theory) leading to fibrous bands, which wrap up the fetal body; secondly, the endogenous theory privileges vascular origin, mesoblastic strings not being a causal agent. The authors believe that the second theory explain the occurrence of ABS. The outcome of the disease during pregnancy depends on the gravity of the malformations. Interruption of the pregnancy is usually proposed when diagnosis of severe craniofacial and visceral abnormalities is confirmed. Whereas minor limb defects can be repaired with postnatal surgery. In case of an isolated amniotic band with a constricted limb, in utero lysis of the band can be considered to avoid a natural amputation. In an African country, such treatment is not possible as far as the antenatal diagnosis.

  5. 'Side effects' are 'central effects' that challenge retention on antiretroviral therapy in HIV treatment programmes in six sub-Saharan African countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renju, Jenny; Moshabela, Mosa; McLean, Estelle

    2017-01-01

    PLHIV who were lost to follow-up and 53 healthcare workers (HCWs) in Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Malawi, Zimbabwe and South Africa. PLHIV were purposely selected to include a range of HIV treatment histories. Deductive and inductive analysis was guided by aspects of practice theory; retention in HIV care......Objectives: To explore the bodily and relational experience of taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) and the subsequent effect on retention in HIV care in six sub-Saharan African countries. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with 130 people living with HIV (PLHIV) who had initiated ART, 38...... following ART initiation was the practice of interest. Results: PLHIV who were engaged in HIV care took ART every day, attended clinic appointments and ate as well as possible. For PLHIV, biomedical markers acted as reassurance for their positive treatment progression. However, many described ART side...

  6. Training needs for research in health inequities among health and demographic researchers from eight African and Asian countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haafkens, J.; Blomstedt, Y.; Eriksson, M.; Becher, H.; Ramroth, H.; Kinsman, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Health equity is a global policy priority. To support this policy in low and middle income countries, more evidence and analysis of the social determinants of health inequalities is needed. This requires specific know how among researchers. The INDEPTH Training and Research Centres of

  7. Skilled Birth Attendants: who is who? A descriptive study of definitions and roles from nine Sub Saharan African countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adetoro Adegoke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Availability of a Skilled Birth Attendant (SBA during childbirth is a key indicator for MDG5 and a strategy for reducing maternal and neonatal mortality in Africa. There is limited information on how SBAs and their functions are defined. The aim of this study was to map the cadres of health providers considered SBAs in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA; to describe which signal functions of Essential Obstetric Care (EmOC they perform and assess whether they are legislated to perform these functions. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Key personnel in the Ministries of Health, teaching institutions, referral, regional and district hospitals completed structured questionnaires in nine SSA countries in 2009-2011. A total of 21 different cadres of health care providers (HCP were reported to be SBA. Type and number of EmOC signal functions reported to be provided, varied substantially between cadres and countries. Parenteral antibiotics, uterotonic drugs and anticonvulsants were provided by most SBAs. Removal of retained products of conception and assisted vaginal delivery were the least provided signal functions. Except for the cadres of obstetricians, medical doctors and registered nurse-midwives, there was lack of clarity regarding signal functions reported to be performed and whether they were legislated to perform these. This was particularly for manual removal of placenta, removal of retained products and assisted vaginal delivery. In some countries, cadres not considered SBA performed deliveries and provided EmOC signal functions. In other settings, cadres reported to be SBA were able to but not legislated to perform key EmOC signal functions. CONCLUSIONS: Comparison of cadres of HCPs reported to be SBA across countries is difficult because of lack of standardization in names, training, and functions performed. There is a need for countries to develop clear guidelines defining who is a SBA and which EmOC signal functions each cadre of HCP is expected to

  8. Correlates of male circumcision in Eastern and Southern African countries: establishing a baseline prior to VMMC Scale-up.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khai Hoan Tram

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the importance of male circumcision (MC prevalence to HIV prevention efforts in Eastern and Southern Africa, there has been no systematic analysis on the correlates of male circumcision. This analysis identifies correlates of MC in 12 countries in the region with available data. METHODS: Data from the male questionnaire of DHS surveys collected between 2006-2011 in Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe were analyzed. The dependent variable was self-reported male circumcision status. Independent variables included age, education, wealth quintile, place of residence, ethnicity, religion and region. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted separately for each country. RESULTS: MC prevalence ranged from 8.2 percent in Swaziland to 92.2 percent in Ethiopia. Bivariate analyses showed a consistent positive association between age (being older and male circumcision. Education, wealth quintile, and place of residence were either not significantly related or differed in the direction of the relationship by country. Multivariate logistic regression showed three variables consistently associated with MC status: age (being older, religion (being Muslim and ethnicity. DISCUSSION: These data were collected prior to the scale-up of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC programs in 11 of the 12 countries. As the VMMC scale-up intensifies in countries across Eastern and Southern Africa, the correlates of VMMC are likely to change, with (younger age and education emerging as key correlates of VMMC performed in medical settings. The centuries-long tradition among Muslims to circumcise should continue to favor MC among this group. Non-circumcising ethnicities may become more open to MC if promoted as a health practice for decreasing HIV risk.

  9. Factors Associated with Early Introduction of Formula and/or Solid, Semi-Solid or Soft Foods in Seven Francophone West African Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abukari I. Issaka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with early introduction of formula and/or solid, semi-solid or soft foods to infants aged three to five months in seven Francophone West African countries. The sources of data for the analyses were the most recent Demographic and Health Survey datasets of the seven countries, namely Benin (BDHS, 2012, Burkina Faso (BFDHS, 2010, Cote d’Ivoire (CIDHS, 2011–2012, Guinea (GDHS, 2012, Mali (MDHS, 2012–2013, Niger (NDHS, 2012 and Senegal (SDHS, 2010. The study used multiple logistic regression methods to analyse the factors associated with early introduction of complementary feeding using individual-, household- and community-level determinants. The sample was composed of 4158 infants aged between three and five months with: 671 from Benin, 811 from Burkina Faso, 362 from Cote d’Ivoire, 398 from Guinea, 519 from Mali, 767 from Niger and 630 from Senegal. Multiple analyses indicated that in three of the seven countries (Benin, Guinea and Senegal, infants who suffered illnesses, such as diarrhoea and acute respiratory infection, were significantly more likely to be introduced to formula and/or solid, semi-solid or soft foods between the age of three and five months. Other significant factors included infants who: were born in second to fourth position (Benin, whose mothers did not attend any antenatal clinics (Burkina Faso and Niger, were male (Cote d’Ivoire and Senegal, lived in an urban areas (Senegal, or were delivered by traditional birth attendants (Guinea, Niger and Senegal. Programmes to discourage early introduction of formula and/or solid, semi-solid or soft foods in these countries should target the most vulnerable segments of the population in order to improve exclusive breastfeeding practices and reduce infant mortality.

  10. Why sub-Saharan African health workers migrate to European countries that do not actively recruit: a qualitative study post-migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelien Poppe

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many studies have investigated the migration intentions of sub-Saharan African medical students and health professionals within the context of a legacy of active international recruitment by receiving countries. However, many health workers migrate outside of this recruitment paradigm. This paper aims to explore the reasons for migration of health workers from sub-Saharan Africa to Belgium and Austria; European countries without a history of active recruitment in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: Data were collected using semistructured interviews. Twenty-seven health workers were interviewed about their migration experiences. Included participants were born in sub-Saharan Africa, had trained as health workers in sub-Saharan Africa, and were currently living in Belgium or Austria, though not necessarily currently working as a health professional. Results: Both Austria and Belgium were shown not to be target countries for the health workers, who instead moved there by circumstance, rather than choice. Three principal reasons for migration were reported: 1 educational purposes; 2 political instability or insecurity in their country of origin; and 3 family reunification. In addition, two respondents mentioned medical reasons and, although less explicit, economic factors were also involved in several of the respondents’ decision to migrate. Conclusion: These results highlight the importance of the broader economic, social, and political context within which migration decisions are made. Training opportunities proved to be an important factor for migration. A further development and upgrade of primary care might help to counter the common desire to specialize and improve domestic training opportunities.

  11. European Union supports project to strengthen fisheries and biodiversity management in African, Caribbean, and Pacific (ACP) countries

    OpenAIRE

    Vakily, J.M.; Froese, R.; Palomares, M.L.D.; Pauly, D

    1997-01-01

    Proper resource management implies a better understanding of ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. Scientists from developing countries often have limited information on their aquatic resources because of many difficulties in accessing and exchanging information on a national and international level. The project described not only aims to strengthen the scientific capacity of fisheries scientists in ACP institutions but it is also expected to create an awareness among fisheries res...

  12. Multicentric study in five African countries of antibiotic susceptibility for three main pathogens: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerouali, Khalid; Ramdani-Bouguessa, Nadjia; Boye, Cheikh; Hammami, Adnane

    2016-08-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a growing clinical and epidemiological problem. We report on the antibiotic susceptibility of three pathogens isolated from patients in Algeria, Egypt, Morocco, Senegal, and Tunisia during 2010-2011. In total, 218 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 428 Staphylococcus aureus, and 414 Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were collected. S. pneumoniae resistance was noted against penicillin (30.2%), erythromycin (27.4%), cefpodoxime (19.1%), amoxicillin (12.0%), cefotaxime (7.4%), and levofloxacin (3.2%). All the strains were teicoplanin susceptible. Staphylococcus aureus methicillin resistance differed between countries, from 5.0% in Senegal to 62.7% in Egypt. Levofloxacin resistance was low in all countries, and the highest rate (in Egypt) was still only 13.6% for intermediate and resistant strains combined. Most strains were susceptible to fosfomycin (99.3%) and pristinamycin (94.2%). P. aeruginosa resistance was found against levofloxacin (30.4%), ciprofloxacin (29.9%), tobramycin (19.7%), ceftazidime (19.2%), and imipenem (17.9%), but not colistin. Antibiotic susceptibility varied widely between countries, with resistance typically most prevalent in Egypt.

  13. HIV/AIDS National Strategic Plans of Sub-Saharan African countries: an analysis for gender equality and sex-disaggregated HIV targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Jennifer; Sharp, Alana; Cooper, Bergen; Roose-Snyder, Beirne; Blumenthal, Susan

    2017-12-01

    National Strategic Plans (NSPs) for HIV/AIDS are country planning documents that set priorities for programmes and services, including a set of targets to quantify progress toward national and international goals. The inclusion of sex-disaggregated targets and targets to combat gender inequality is important given the high disease burden among young women and adolescent girls in Sub-Saharan Africa, yet no comprehensive gender-focused analysis of NSP targets has been performed. This analysis quantitatively evaluates national HIV targets, included in NSPs from eighteen Sub-Saharan African countries, for sex-disaggregation. Additionally, NSP targets aimed at reducing gender-based inequality in health outcomes are compiled and inductively coded to report common themes. On average, in the eighteen countries included in this analysis, 31% of NSP targets include sex-disaggregation (range 0-92%). Three countries disaggregated a majority (>50%) of their targets by sex. Sex-disaggregation in data reporting was more common for targets related to the early phases of the HIV care continuum: 83% of countries included any sex-disaggregated targets for HIV prevention, 56% for testing and linkage to care, 22% for improving antiretroviral treatment coverage, and 11% for retention in treatment. The most common target to reduce gender inequality was to prevent gender-based violence (present in 50% of countries). Other commonly incorporated target areas related to improving women's access to family planning, human and legal rights, and decision-making power. The inclusion of sex-disaggregated targets in national planning is vital to ensure that programmes make progress for all population groups. Improving the availability and quality of indicators to measure gender inequality, as well as evaluating programme outcomes by sex, is critical to tracking this progress. This analysis reveals an urgent need to set specific and separate targets for men and women in order to achieve an equitable

  14. Measuring human rights violations in a conflict-affected country: results from a nationwide cluster survey in Central African Republic

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    Roberts Les

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measuring human rights violations is particularly challenging during or after armed conflict. A recent nationwide survey in the Central African Republic produced estimates of rates of grave violations against children and adults affected by armed conflict, using an approach known as the "Neighborhood Method". Methods In June and July, 2009, a random household survey was conducted based on population estimates from the 2003 national census. Clusters were assigned systematically proportional to population size. Respondents in randomly selected households were interviewed regarding incidents of killing, intentional injury, recruitment into armed groups, abduction, sexual abuse and rape between January 1, 2008 and the date of interview, occurring in their homes' and those of their three closest neighbors. Results Sixty of the selected 69 clusters were surveyed. In total, 599 women were interviewed about events in 2,370 households representing 13,669 persons. Estimates of annual rates of each violation occurring per 1000 people in each of two strata are provided for children between the ages of five and 17, adults 18 years of age and older and the entire population five years and older, along with a combined and weighted national rate. The national rates for children age five to 17 were estimated to be 0.98/1000/year (95% CI: 0.18 - 1.78 for recruitment, 2.56/1000/year (95% CI: 1.50 - 3.62 for abduction, 1.13/1000/year (95% CI: 0.33 - 1.93 for intentional injury, 10.72/1000 girls/year (95% CI: 7.40 - 14.04 for rape, and 4.80/1000 girls/year (95% CI: 2.61 - 6.00 for sexual abuse. No reports of any violation against a person under the age of five were recorded and there were no reports of rape or sexual abuse of males. No children were reported to have been killed during the recall period. Rape and abduction were the most frequently reported events. Conclusions The population-based figures greatly augment existing information on

  15. Ideal Body Size as a Mediator for the Gender-Specific Association between Socioeconomic Status and Body Mass Index: Evidence from an Upper-Middle-Income Country in the African Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yepes, Maryam; Maurer, Jürgen; Stringhini, Silvia; Viswanathan, Barathi; Gedeon, Jude; Bovet, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Background: While obesity continues to rise globally, the associations between body size, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES) seem to vary in different populations, and little is known on the contribution of perceived ideal body size in the social disparity of obesity in African countries. Purpose: We examined the gender and socioeconomic…

  16. Prioritizing the PMTCT implementation research agenda in 3 African countries: INtegrating and Scaling up PMTCT through Implementation REsearch (INSPIRE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Nigel; Chanza, Harriet; Chimbwandira, Frank; Eliya, Michael; Nyasulu, Ishmael; Thom, Ellen; Zawaira, Felicitas; Odoh, Deborah; Okello, David; Oyelade, Taiwo; Banda, Sarah; Chakanyuka Musanhu, Christine; Mandlhate, Custodia; Mushavi, Angela; Isseu, Toure; Newman, Morkor; Sanni, Saliyou; Baller, April; Seto, Joyce; Shaffer, Nathan

    2014-11-01

    Countries with high HIV prevalence face the challenge of achieving high coverage of antiretroviral drug regimens interventions including for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). In 2011, the World Health Organization and the Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development, Canada, launched a joint implementation research (IR) initiative to increase access to effective PMTCT interventions. Here, we describe the process used for prioritizing PMTCT IR questions in Malawi, Nigeria, and Zimbabwe. Policy makers, district health workers, academics, implementing partners, and persons living with HIV were invited to 2-day workshops in each country. Between 42 and 70 representatives attended each workshop. Using the Child Health Nutrition Research Initiative process, stakeholder groups systematically identified programmatic barriers and formulated IR questions that addressed these challenges. IR questions were scored by individual participants according to 6 criteria: (1) answerable by research, (2) likely to reduce pediatric HIV infections, (3) addresses main barriers to scaling-up, (4) innovation and originality, (5) improves equity among underserved populations, and (6) likely value to policy makers. Highest scoring IR questions included health system approaches for integrating and decentralization services, ways of improving retention-in-care, bridging gaps between health facilities and communities, and increasing male partner involvement. The prioritized questions reflect the diversity of health care settings, competing health challenges and local and national context. The differing perspectives of policy makers, researchers, and implementers illustrate the value of inclusive research partnerships. The participatory Child Health Nutrition Research Initiative approach effectively set national PMTCT IR priorities, promoted country ownership, and strategically allocated research resources.

  17. Strategies to improve male involvement in PMTCT Option B+ in four African countries: a qualitative rapid appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besada, Donela; Rohde, Sarah; Goga, Ameena; Raphaely, Nika; Daviaud, Emmanuelle; Ramokolo, Vundli; Magasana, Vuyolwethu; Noveve, Nobuntu; Doherty, Tanya

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends that antiretroviral therapy be started as soon as possible, irrespective of stage of HIV infection. This 'test and treat' approach highlights the need to ensure that men are involved in prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT). This article presents findings from a rapid appraisal of strategies to increase male partner involvement in PMTCT services in Uganda, Democratic Republic of Congo, Malawi, and Côte d'Ivoire in the context of scale-up of Option B+ protocol. Data were collected through qualitative rapid appraisal using focus groups and individual interviews during field visits to the four countries. Interviews were conducted in the capital city with Ministry of Health staff and implementing partners (IPs) and at district level with district management teams, facility-based health workers and community health cadres in each country. Common strategies were adopted across the countries to effect social change and engender greater participation of men in maternal, child and women's health, and PMTCT services. Community-based strategies included engagement of community leaders through dialogue and social mobilization, involving community health workers and the creation and strengthening of male peer cadres. Facility-based strategies included provision of incentives such as shorter waiting time, facilitating access for men by altering clinic hours, and creation of family support groups. The approaches implemented at both community and facility levels were tailored to the local context, taking into account cultural norms and geographic regional variations. Although intentions behind such strategies aim to have positive impacts on families, unintended negative consequences do occur, and these need to be addressed and strategies adapted.A consistent definition of 'male involvement' in PMTCT services and a framework of indicators would be helpful to capture the impact of strategies on cultural and behavioral shifts

  18. Women's Education and Health Inequalities in Under-Five Mortality in Selected Sub-Saharan African Countries, 1990-2015.

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    Aristide Romaric Bado

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyse trends in the relationship between mother's educational level and mortality of children under the year of five in Sub-Saharan Africa, from 1990 to 2015.Data used in this study came from different waves of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS of Sub-Saharan countries. Logistic regression and Buis's decomposition method were used to explore the effect of mother's educational level on the mortality of children under five years.Although the results of our study in the selected countries show that under-five mortality rates of children born to mothers without formal education are higher than the mortality rates of children of educated mothers, it appears that differences in mortality were reduced over the past two decades. In selected countries for our study, we noticed a significant decline in mortality among children of non-educated mothers compared to the decrease in mortality rates among children of educated mothers during the period of 1990-2010. The results show that the decline in mortality of children under five years was much higher among the children born to mothers who have never received formal education-112 points drop in Malawi, over 80 in Zambia and Zimbabwe, 65 points in Burkina Faso, 56 in Congo, 43 in Namibia, 27 in Guinea, Cameroon, and 22 to 15 in Niger. However, we noted a variation in results among the countries selected for the study-in Burkina Faso (OR = 0.7, in Cameroon (OR = 0.8, in Guinea (OR = 0.8 and Niger (OR = 0.8. It is normally observed that children of mothers with 0-6 years of education are about 20% more likely to survive until their fifth year compared to children of mothers who have not been to school. Conversely, the results did not reveal significant differences between the under-five deaths of children born to non-educated mothers and children of low-level educated mothers in Congo, Malawi and Namibia.The decline in under-five mortality rates, during last two decades, can be

  19. Ectomycorrhizal symbiosis of tropical African trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bâ, Amadou M; Duponnois, Robin; Moyersoen, Bernard; Diédhiou, Abdala G

    2012-01-01

    The diversity, ecology and function of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi and ectomycorrhizas (ECMs) on tropical African tree species are reviewed here. While ECMs are the most frequent mycorrhizal type in temperate and boreal forests, they concern an economically and ecologically important minority of plants in African tropical forests. In these African tropical forests, ECMs are found mainly on caesalpionioid legumes, Sarcolaenaceae, Dipterocarpaceae, Asterpeiaceae, Phyllantaceae, Sapotaceae, Papilionoideae, Gnetaceae and Proteaceae, and distributed in open, gallery and rainforests of the Guineo-Congolian basin, Zambezian Miombo woodlands of East and South-Central Africa and Sudanian savannah woodlands of the sub-sahara. Overall, EM status was confirmed in 93 (26%) among 354 tree species belonging to EM genera. In addition, 195 fungal taxa were identified using morphological descriptions and sequencing of the ML5/ML6 fragment of sporocarps and ECMs from West Africa. Analyses of the belowground EM fungal communities mostly based on fungal internal transcribed spacer sequences of ECMs from Continental Africa, Madagascar and the Seychelles also revealed more than 350 putative species of EM fungi belonging mainly to 18 phylogenetic lineages. As in temperate forests, the /russula-lactarius and /tomentella-thelephora lineages dominated EM fungal flora in tropical Africa. A low level of host preference and dominance of multi-host fungal taxa on different African adult tree species and their seedlings were revealed, suggesting a potential for the formation of common ectomycorrhizal networks. Moreover, the EM inoculum potential in terms of types and density of propagules (spores, sclerotia, EM root fragments and fragments of mycelia strands) in the soil allowed opportunistic root colonisation as well as long-term survival in the soil during the dry season. These are important characteristics when choosing an EM fungus for field application. In this respect, Thelephoroid fungal sp

  20. Association between coverage of maternal and child health interventions, and under-5 mortality: a repeated cross-sectional analysis of 35 sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, Daniel J; Subramanian, S V

    2014-01-01

    Infant and child mortality rates are among the most important indicators of child health, nutrition, implementation of key survival interventions, and the overall social and economic development of a population. In this paper, we investigate the role of coverage of maternal and child health (MNCH) interventions in contributing to declines in child mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Data are from 81 Demographic and Health Surveys from 35 sub-Saharan African countries. Using ecological time-series and child-level regression models, we estimated the effect of MNCH interventions (summarized by the percent composite coverage index, or CCI) on child mortality with in the first 5 years of life net of temporal trends and covariates at the household, maternal, and child levels. At the ecologic level, a unit increase in standardized CCI was associated with a reduction in under-5 child mortality rate (U5MR) of 29.0 per 1,000 (95% CI: -43.2, -14.7) after adjustment for survey period effects and country-level per capita gross domestic product (pcGDP). At the child level, a unit increase in standardized CCI was associated with an odds ratio of 0.86 for child mortality (95% CI: 0.82-0.90) after adjustment for survey period effect, country-level pcGDP, and a set of household-, maternal-, and child-level covariates. MNCH interventions are important in reducing U5MR, while the effects of economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa remain weak and inconsistent. Improved coverage of proven life-saving interventions will likely contribute to further reductions in U5MR in sub-Saharan Africa.

  1. Manganese Countries

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    Maria Sousa Galito

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cheickna Bounajim Cissé wrote an article in Mars 2013 in the Journal Les Afriques N. º 237, suggesting a new acronym, MANGANESE, for the nine African countries: Morocco, Angola, Namibia, Ghana, Algeria, Nigeria, Egypt, South Africa and Ethiopia. According to Cissé, this group of African nations will be the fastest growing states in the region over the next few years. The purpose of this article is to test the pertinence of the acronym, discuss the credibility and reliability of the future prospects of these countries by comparing selected socioeconomic and sociopolitical indicators based on the latest global rankings and trends. Likewise, the potential of Cissé's claim will be assessed, especially in relationship to drug trafficking and terrorism that may put their recent sustainability in danger now and in the future.

  2. Capacity development in food composition database management and nutritional research and education in Central and Eastern European, Middle Eastern and North African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurinović, M; Witthöft, C M; Tepšić, J; Ranić, M; Hulshof, P J M; Hollman, P C; Porubska, J; Gohar, A; Debeljak-Martačić, J; Petrović-Oggiano, G; Novaković, R; Glibetić, M; Oshaug, A

    2010-11-01

    Capacity development (CD) in food and nutrition is much more than formal training and includes human resource development, and organisational, institutional and legal framework development with the aim of enhancing nutrition-relevant knowledge and skills to support infrastructural development. The goal of the European Food Information Resource (EuroFIR) Network of Excellence has been to develop and integrate food composition data throughout Europe. EuroFIR joined forces in CD with the United Nations (UN) University and UN System Standing Committee on Nutrition, the Network for Capacity Development in Nutrition in Central and Eastern Europe, the Central and Eastern European Countries Food Data Systems network and with the Middle East and North African Capacity Building Initiative. The aim of this paper is to discuss an inventory of the status of food composition databases (FCDBs) and the training needs of compilers in non-EuroFIR countries in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), and to present the CD achieved through EuroFIR and other network collaborations. Two online questionnaires were created addressing the FCDB status and specific training needs in countries of the targeted regions. Data were collected during 2006-2008 and then analysed. Subsequently, CD activities were organised. Contacts were established in 19 CEE and 7 MENA countries, of which several had national food composition tables, but no electronic versions. Education, training, workshops, networking and the sharing of experiences were uniformly requested. Subsequently, CD activities in EuroFIR were organised focussing on food composition courses, exchange visits, workshops and individual training for PhD students, junior scientists and other staff categories, as well as conferences linked to food composition research and food information. To facilitate CD activities, EuroFIR has signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the Czech Republic, Hungary

  3. A long way to go - Estimates of combined water, sanitation and hygiene coverage for 25 sub-Saharan African countries.

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    Rachel Roche

    Full Text Available Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH are essential for a healthy and dignified life. International targets to reduce inadequate WASH coverage were set under the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, 1990-2015 and now the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs, 2016-2030. The MDGs called for halving the proportion of the population without access to adequate water and sanitation, whereas the SDGs call for universal access, require the progressive reduction of inequalities, and include hygiene in addition to water and sanitation. Estimating access to complete WASH coverage provides a baseline for monitoring during the SDG period. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA has among the lowest rates of WASH coverage globally.The most recent available Demographic Household Survey (DHS or Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS data for 25 countries in SSA were analysed to estimate national and regional coverage for combined water and sanitation (a combined MDG indicator for 'improved' access and combined water with collection time within 30 minutes plus sanitation and hygiene (a combined SDG indicator for 'basic' access. Coverage rates were estimated separately for urban and rural populations and for wealth quintiles. Frequency ratios and percentage point differences for urban and rural coverage were calculated to give both relative and absolute measures of urban-rural inequality. Wealth inequalities were assessed by visual examination of coverage across wealth quintiles in urban and rural populations and by calculating concentration indices as standard measures of relative wealth related inequality that give an indication of how unevenly a health indicator is distributed across the wealth distribution.Combined MDG coverage in SSA was 20%, and combined basic SDG coverage was 4%; an estimated 921 million people lacked basic SDG coverage. Relative measures of inequality were higher for combined basic SDG coverage than combined MDG coverage, but absolute inequality was lower

  4. Perceived HIV stigma and life satisfaction among persons living with HIV infection in five African countries: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeff, Minrie; Uys, Leana R; Wantland, Dean; Makoae, Lucy; Chirwa, Maureen; Dlamini, Priscilla; Kohi, Thecla W; Mullan, Joseph; Naidoo, Joanne Rachel; Cuca, Yvette; Holzemer, William L

    2010-04-01

    Descriptive literature exists on the effects of HIV-related stigma on the lives of people living with HIV infection but few empirical studies have measured perceived HIV stigma nor explored its potential relationship to quality of life (QoL) over time in people living with HIV infection. A cohort study of a purposive convenient sample of 1457 HIV-positive persons was followed for one year in a longitudinal design that examined the effects of stigma and the life satisfaction dimension of the HIV/AIDS Targeted Quality of Life Instrument (HAT-QOL) over time, as well as the influence of other demographic and assessed social variables. Data were collected three times about six months apart from December 2005 to March 2007. The average age in this sample was 36.8 years (SD=8.78, n=1454) and 72.7% (n=1056) were female. The initial sample of participants was balanced among the five countries: Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland, and Tanzania. An attrition analysis demonstrated few demographic differences between those who remained in the study 12 months later compared with those at baseline. However, those who completed the study and who answered the QoL questions had significantly higher life satisfaction scores at baseline than those who left the study. There was a general increase in the report of life satisfaction QoL in all countries over the one-year period. However, as stigma scores increased over time there was a significant decrease in life satisfaction with differing rates of change by country. Certain factors had a positive influence on life satisfaction QoL: positive HIV media reports, taking antiretrovirals, reduced symptom intensity, and disclosure to a friend. This cohort study is the first to document empirically in a longitudinal sample, that perceived HIV stigma has a significantly negative and constant impact upon life satisfaction QoL for people with HIV infection. In the absence of any intervention to address and reduce stigmatization, individuals

  5. Translating research into policy: lessons learned from eclampsia treatment and malaria control in three southern African countries

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    Matinhure Sheillah

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the process of knowledge translation in low- and middle-income countries. We studied policymaking processes in Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe to understand the factors affecting the use of research evidence in national policy development, with a particular focus on the findings from randomized control trials (RCTs. We examined two cases: the use of magnesium sulphate (MgSO4 in the treatment of eclampsia in pregnancy (a clinical case; and the use of insecticide treated bed nets and indoor residual household spraying for malaria vector control (a public health case. Methods We used a qualitative case-study methodology to explore the policy making process. We carried out key informants interviews with a range of research and policy stakeholders in each country, reviewed documents and developed timelines of key events. Using an iterative approach, we undertook a thematic analysis of the data. Findings Prior experience of particular interventions, local champions, stakeholders and international networks, and the involvement of researchers in policy development were important in knowledge translation for both case studies. Key differences across the two case studies included the nature of the evidence, with clear evidence of efficacy for MgSO4 and ongoing debate regarding the efficacy of bed nets compared with spraying; local researcher involvement in international evidence production, which was stronger for MgSO4 than for malaria vector control; and a long-standing culture of evidence-based health care within obstetrics. Other differences were the importance of bureaucratic processes for clinical regulatory approval of MgSO4, and regional networks and political interests for malaria control. In contrast to treatment policies for eclampsia, a diverse group of stakeholders with varied interests, differing in their use and interpretation of evidence, was involved in malaria policy decisions in the three

  6. A long way to go - Estimates of combined water, sanitation and hygiene coverage for 25 sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Rachel; Bain, Robert; Cumming, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) are essential for a healthy and dignified life. International targets to reduce inadequate WASH coverage were set under the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, 1990-2015) and now the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs, 2016-2030). The MDGs called for halving the proportion of the population without access to adequate water and sanitation, whereas the SDGs call for universal access, require the progressive reduction of inequalities, and include hygiene in addition to water and sanitation. Estimating access to complete WASH coverage provides a baseline for monitoring during the SDG period. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has among the lowest rates of WASH coverage globally. The most recent available Demographic Household Survey (DHS) or Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) data for 25 countries in SSA were analysed to estimate national and regional coverage for combined water and sanitation (a combined MDG indicator for 'improved' access) and combined water with collection time within 30 minutes plus sanitation and hygiene (a combined SDG indicator for 'basic' access). Coverage rates were estimated separately for urban and rural populations and for wealth quintiles. Frequency ratios and percentage point differences for urban and rural coverage were calculated to give both relative and absolute measures of urban-rural inequality. Wealth inequalities were assessed by visual examination of coverage across wealth quintiles in urban and rural populations and by calculating concentration indices as standard measures of relative wealth related inequality that give an indication of how unevenly a health indicator is distributed across the wealth distribution. Combined MDG coverage in SSA was 20%, and combined basic SDG coverage was 4%; an estimated 921 million people lacked basic SDG coverage. Relative measures of inequality were higher for combined basic SDG coverage than combined MDG coverage, but absolute inequality was lower. Rural

  7. Strategies to improve male involvement in PMTCT Option B+ in four African countries: a qualitative rapid appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donela Besada

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The World Health Organization recommends that antiretroviral therapy be started as soon as possible, irrespective of stage of HIV infection. This ‘test and treat’ approach highlights the need to ensure that men are involved in prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT. This article presents findings from a rapid appraisal of strategies to increase male partner involvement in PMTCT services in Uganda, Democratic Republic of Congo, Malawi, and Côte d'Ivoire in the context of scale-up of Option B+ protocol. Design: Data were collected through qualitative rapid appraisal using focus groups and individual interviews during field visits to the four countries. Interviews were conducted in the capital city with Ministry of Health staff and implementing partners (IPs and at district level with district management teams, facility-based health workers and community health cadres in each country. Results: Common strategies were adopted across the countries to effect social change and engender greater participation of men in maternal, child and women's health, and PMTCT services. Community-based strategies included engagement of community leaders through dialogue and social mobilization, involving community health workers and the creation and strengthening of male peer cadres. Facility-based strategies included provision of incentives such as shorter waiting time, facilitating access for men by altering clinic hours, and creation of family support groups. Conclusions: The approaches implemented at both community and facility levels were tailored to the local context, taking into account cultural norms and geographic regional variations. Although intentions behind such strategies aim to have positive impacts on families, unintended negative consequences do occur, and these need to be addressed and strategies adapted.A consistent definition of ‘male involvement’ in PMTCT services and a framework of indicators would be helpful

  8. Patterns of HIV-1 drug resistance after first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) failure in 6 sub-Saharan African countries: implications for second-line ART strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamers, Raph L; Sigaloff, Kim C E; Wensing, Annemarie M; Wallis, Carole L; Kityo, Cissy; Siwale, Margaret; Mandaliya, Kishor; Ive, Prudence; Botes, Mariette E; Wellington, Maureen; Osibogun, Akin; Stevens, Wendy S; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F; Schuurman, Rob

    2012-06-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) drug resistance may limit the benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART). This cohort study examined patterns of drug-resistance mutations (DRMs) in individuals with virological failure on first-line ART at 13 clinical sites in 6 African countries and predicted their impact on second-line drug susceptibility. A total of 2588 antiretroviral-naive individuals initiated ART consisting of different nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) backbones (zidovudine, stavudine, tenofovir, or abacavir, plus lamivudine or emtricitabine) with either efavirenz or nevirapine. Population sequencing after 12 months of ART was retrospectively performed if HIV RNA was >1000 copies/mL. The 2010 International Antiviral Society-USA list was used to score major DRMs. The Stanford algorithm was used to predict drug susceptibility. HIV-1 sequences were generated for 142 participants who virologically failed ART, of whom 70% carried ≥1 DRM and 49% had dual-class resistance, with an average of 2.4 DRMs per sequence (range, 1-8). The most common DRMs were M184V (53.5%), K103N (28.9%), Y181C (15.5%), and G190A (14.1%). Thymidine analogue mutations were present in 8.5%. K65R was frequently selected by stavudine (15.0%) or tenofovir (27.7%). Among participants with ≥1 DRM, HIV-1 susceptibility was reduced in 93% for efavirenz/nevirapine, in 81% for lamivudine/emtricitabine, in 59% for etravirine/rilpivirine, in 27% for tenofovir, in 18% for stavudine, and in 10% for zidovudine. Early failure detection limited the accumulation of resistance. After stavudine failure in African populations, zidovudine rather than tenofovir may be preferred in second-line ART. Strategies to prevent HIV-1 resistance are a global priority.

  9. Clinical and neuroimaging profile of HIV-1 encephalopathy in infancy and childhood in a sub-Saharan African country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G Mariam, Ayle; Assefa, Getachew

    2012-10-01

    Neurological dysfunction in AIDS is common, occurring in as many as eighty percent of children. Thus, it is important to recognize the central nervous system imaging appearance of HIV, in particular those of HIV encephalopathy, as this is an AIDS defining illness and with distinct neuro-imaging features essential for early diagnosis and timely therapeutic intervention To identify the clinical features in HIV-1 infection of the central nervous system and their associated neuroradiological correlates. Retrospective review of the records of all children with HIV-1 encephalopathy identified among children with neurological and developmental problems and who were on follow up at a child development and neurology clinic in an African city. A total of 22 children (10 male and 12 female) with HIV-1 encephalopathy were identified among 2382 children with various forms of neurological and developmental problems and who were on follow up at a child development and neurology clinic for a little bit over eight years period. All the children acquired the infection vertically. The age range of these children was between 10 months to 14 years. The median age was 5.6 years. The mean duration of symptom was 3.2 years. Global delay or regression in development along with signs of pyramidal tract involvement and seizures were the commonest clinical signs observed in these children. Neuro-behavioral problems were commonly observed among preschool and school aged children. In older children and preadolescents focal seizures with or with out neurologic deficit and neuroradiological findings were common. Nonhemorrhagic stroke was rare and occurred in one child and another child had cortical blindness. Three children had no neurological deficit. Rapid progression of the disease carried grave prognosis. Opportunistic infections and tumors of the central nervous system were also uncommon among these children. Brain volume loss with dilatation of the lateral ventricle, bilateral symmetrical

  10. Fertility desires, family planning use and pregnancy experience: longitudinal examination of urban areas in three African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speizer, Ilene S; Lance, Peter

    2015-11-11

    Many women have inconsistent fertility desires and contraceptive use behaviors. This increases their risk of unintended pregnancies. Inconsistencies may reflect barriers to family planning (FP) use but may also reflect ambivalence toward future childbearing. Using urban data from Kenya, Nigeria, and Senegal, this study examines the role of fertility desires and FP use behaviors on pregnancy experience over a 2-year follow-up period. Data come from baseline and 2-year follow-up among urban women interviewed in Kenya, Nigeria, and Senegal. At baseline (2010/2011), women were asked about their future fertility desires (want child soon, want to delay >2 years, does not want) and current FP use. At midterm (2012/2013), women were asked if they were currently pregnant or had a birth in the 2-year period. We examine the association between baseline fertility desires and FP use with pregnancy experience and desirability of an experienced pregnancy. In the 2-year follow-up period, 27-39% of women in union experienced a pregnancy or birth. In Kenya and Nigeria, 30-35% of women using a modern FP method experienced a pregnancy/birth; the percentage with a pregnancy/birth was slightly higher among women not using at baseline (41% in both countries). In Senegal, the distinction between pregnancy experience between users and non-users was greater (16% vs. 31%, respectively). In all countries, pregnancy was less common among users of long-acting and permanent methods; only a small percentage of women use these methods. Women not wanting any(more) children were the least likely to experience a pregnancy in the 2-year follow-up period. No differences were observed between those who wanted to delay and those who wanted soon. Multivariate findings demonstrate distinctions in pregnancy experience by fertility desires among modern FP users. Non-users have similar pregnancy experience by fertility desires. Fertility desires are not stable; providers need to consider the fluidity of

  11. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In partnership with hundreds of journals from all over the continent, AJOL works to change this, so that African-origin research output is available to Africans and to the rest of the world. ... Featured Country: Nigeria, Featured Journal: Annals of African Medicine ... International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology.

  12. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals OnLine (AJOL) is the world's largest and pre-eminent collection of peer-reviewed, African-published scholarly journals. Historically, scholarly information has flowed ... international competitiveness of countries? Southern African Business Review; Conflicts in Africa: Meaning, Causes, Impact and Solution

  13. South African Music Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAMUS: South African Music Studies is the official organ for the South African Society for Research in Music (SASRIM). It gives priority to the publication of research on South African music, but continues to represent the wider field of research interests in the country and in the rest of Africa. The journal invites work from any ...

  14. Estimating the hypothetical dual health impact and cost-effectiveness of the Woman’s Condom in selected sub-Saharan African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mvundura M

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mercy Mvundura, Neeti Nundy, Maggie Kilbourne-Brook, Patricia S Coffey Technology Solutions Global Program, PATH, Seattle, WA, USA Background: Female condoms are the only currently available woman-initiated option that offers dual protection from pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. The Woman’s Condom is a new female condom designed to provide dual protection and to be highly pleasurable and acceptable. Objective: We sought to estimate the potential dual health impact and cost-effectiveness of a Woman’s Condom distribution program in 13 sub-Saharan African countries with HIV prevalence rates >4% among adults aged 15–49 years. We used two separate, publicly available models for this analysis, the Impact 2 model developed by Marie Stopes International and the Population Services International disability-adjusted life years (DALY calculator program. We estimated the potential numbers of pregnancies and DALYs averted when the Woman’s Condom is used as a family planning method and the HIV infections and DALYs averted when it is used as an HIV prevention method. Results: Programming 100,000 Woman’s Condoms in each of 13 countries in sub-Saharan Africa during a 1-year period could potentially prevent 194 pregnancies and an average of 21 HIV infections in each country. When using the World Health Organization CHOosing Interventions that are Cost-Effective (WHO-CHOICE criteria as a threshold to infer the potential cost-effectiveness of the Woman’s Condom, we found that the Woman’s Condom would be considered cost-effective. Conclusion: This was a first and successful attempt to estimate the impact of dual protection of female condoms. The health impact is greater for the use of the Woman’s Condom as an HIV prevention method than for contraception. Dual use of the Woman’s Condom increases the overall health impact. The Woman’s Condom was found to be very cost-effective in all 13 countries in our sample. Keywords

  15. Particularities of bacterial ecology of acute otitis media in an African subtropical country (Cote d'Ivoire).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanon-Anoh, M J; Kacou-Ndouba, A; Yoda, M; Ette-Akre, E; Sanogo, D; Kouassi, B

    2006-05-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) is the commonest infectious disease of childhood. Its treatment is based on a probabilistic antibiotic therapy. To determine the prevalence of different bacteria responsible for AOM in children in Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire). This is a prospective study, between November 2002 and August 2003. To identify bacterial isolates, 60 children under 15 years old with AOM were enrolled. In 52 cases, the sample was recovered by aspiration of a spontaneous otorrhea and in eight cases, it was taken by paracentesis. Nasopharyngeal swabs were cultured. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed on isolates. 75% of children were under 24 months of age. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was recovered in 31.8% of cases followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae (21%), Proteus (7.4%) and Staphylococcus (6.2%). The rate of penicillin-nonsusceptible S. pneumoniae (NSSP) was 11.8%. Resistance to erythromycin was 6%. For Pseudomonas, resistances to antibiotics were 35.5% to ceftazidim and 16% to pefloxacin, respectively, but all the strains were sensible to colistin, iminepem and ciprofloxacin. These data can modify therapeutic approaches for treatment of AOM in our country. This study should encourage surveillance of AOM microbiology.

  16. A drought monitoring and forecasting system for sub-Sahara African water resources and food security: the development and implementation of a drought monitoring and seasonal hydrological forecast system for sub-Saharan Africa contributes to building capacity through technology and knowledge transfer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sheffield, Justin; Wood, Eric F; Chaney, Nathaniel; Guan, Kaiyu; Sadri, Sara; Yuan, Xing; Olang, Luke; Amani, Abou; Ali, Abdou; Demuth, Siegfried; Ogallo, Laban

    2014-01-01

    ... to climate and alter the storage of water on the land. In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), droughts account for less than 20% of natural disasters but account for over 80% of the affected population (UN/ISDR 2009). Much of the continent is dependent on rain-fed agriculture, which makes it particularly susceptible to climate variability....

  17. Risk factors for domestic physical violence: national cross-sectional household surveys in eight southern African countries

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    Mitchell Steve

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The baseline to assess impact of a mass education-entertainment programme offered an opportunity to identify risk factors for domestic physical violence. Methods In 2002, cross-sectional household surveys in a stratified urban/rural last-stage random sample of enumeration areas, based on latest national census in Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Working door to door, interviewers contacted all adults aged 16–60 years present on the day of the visit, without sub-sampling. 20,639 adults were interviewed. The questionnaire in 29 languages measured domestic physical violence by the question "In the last year, have you and your partner had violent arguments where your partner beat, kicked or slapped you?" There was no measure of severity or frequency of physical violence. Results 14% of men (weighted based on 1,294/8,113 and 18% of women (weighted based on 2,032/11,063 reported being a victim of partner physical violence in the last year. There was no convincing association with age, income, education, household size and remunerated occupation. Having multiple partners was strongly associated with partner physical violence. Other associations included the income gap within households, negative attitudes about sexuality (for example, men have the right to sex with their girlfriends if they buy them gifts and negative attitudes about sexual violence (for example, forcing your partner to have sex is not rape. Particularly among men, experience of partner physical violence was associated with potentially dangerous attitudes to HIV infection. Conclusion Having multiple partners was the most consistent risk factor for domestic physical violence across all countries. This could be relevant to domestic violence prevention strategies.

  18. Prevalence and determinants of extrapulmonary involvement in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in a Sub-Saharan African country: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yone, Eric Walter Pefura; Kengne, André Pascal; Moifo, Boniface; Kuaban, Christopher

    2013-02-01

    Determinants of extrapulmonary involvement during pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) have not been extensively investigated. We assessed the prevalence and determinants of extrapulmonary involvement during PTB in a Sub-Saharan African country with a high prevalence of both TB and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The medical records of patients aged ≥ 15 y, admitted for a first episode of TB to the Pneumology Service of Yaoundé Jamot Hospital, Cameroon, between 2009 and 2010 were considered. Determinants of extrapulmonary involvement were investigated through logistic regression. A total of 984 patients (58.9% male), with a median age (25(th)-75(th) percentiles) of 32 (25-41) y were admitted for a first episode of TB, including 629 (63.9%) with isolated PTB, 127 (12.9%) with isolated extrapulmonary TB (EPTB), and 228 (23.2%) with both PTB and EPTB (PTB/EPTB). Therefore, the prevalence of EPTB among those with PTB was 26.6% (228/857). The main determinants of EPTB among patients with PTB were male sex (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.71, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.71-4.03), HIV infection (OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.36-3.55), absence of fibrotic lung lesions (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.23-3.14), smear-negative PTB (OR 7.20, 95% CI 4.13-12.56), anaemia (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.03-2.50), and leukopenia (OR 2.59, 95% CI 1.12-5.98). About a quarter of patients with PTB in this setting also have extrapulmonary involvement. EPTB is less contagious, less frequent than PTB, and less well addressed by programs in developing countries, while its identification is important for optimizing care. The presence of determinants of EPTB among patients with PTB should motivate active investigation of extrapulmonary involvement in order to improve management.

  19. Cross-sectional observational assessment of quality of newborn care immediately after birth in health facilities across six sub-Saharan African countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graft-Johnson, Joseph; Vesel, Linda; Rosen, Heather E; Rawlins, Barbara; Abwao, Stella; Mazia, Goldy; Bozsa, Robert; Mwebesa, Winifrede; Khadka, Neena; Kamunya, Rosemary; Getachew, Ashebir; Tibaijuka, Gaudiosa; Rakotovao, Jean Pierre; Tekleberhan, Alemnesh

    2017-01-01

    Objective To present information on the quality of newborn care services and health facility readiness to provide newborn care in 6 African countries, and to advocate for the improvement of providers' essential newborn care knowledge and skills. Design Cross-sectional observational health facility assessment. Setting Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique, Rwanda and Tanzania. Participants Health workers in 643 facilities. 1016 health workers were interviewed, and 2377 babies were observed in the facilities surveyed. Main outcome measures Indicators of quality of newborn care included (1) provision of immediate essential newborn care: thermal care, hygienic cord care, and early and exclusive initiation of breast feeding; (2) actual and simulated resuscitation of asphyxiated newborn infants; and (3) knowledge of health workers on essential newborn care, including resuscitation. Results Sterile or clean cord cutting instruments, suction devices, and tables or firm surfaces for resuscitation were commonly available. 80% of newborns were immediately dried after birth and received clean cord care in most of the studied facilities. In all countries assessed, major deficiencies exist for essential newborn care supplies and equipment, as well as for health worker knowledge and performance of key routine newborn care practices, particularly for immediate skin-to-skin contact and breastfeeding initiation. Of newborns who did not cry at birth, 89% either recovered on their own or through active steps taken by the provider through resuscitation with initial stimulation and/or ventilation. 11% of newborns died. Assessment of simulated resuscitation using a NeoNatalie anatomic model showed that less than a third of providers were able to demonstrate ventilation skills correctly. Conclusions The findings shared in this paper call attention to the critical need to improve health facility readiness to provide quality newborn care services and to ensure that service providers have

  20. Cross-sectional observational assessment of quality of newborn care immediately after birth in health facilities across six sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graft-Johnson, Joseph; Vesel, Linda; Rosen, Heather E; Rawlins, Barbara; Abwao, Stella; Mazia, Goldy; Bozsa, Robert; Mwebesa, Winifrede; Khadka, Neena; Kamunya, Rosemary; Getachew, Ashebir; Tibaijuka, Gaudiosa; Rakotovao, Jean Pierre; Tekleberhan, Alemnesh

    2017-03-27

    To present information on the quality of newborn care services and health facility readiness to provide newborn care in 6 African countries, and to advocate for the improvement of providers' essential newborn care knowledge and skills. Cross-sectional observational health facility assessment. Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique, Rwanda and Tanzania. Health workers in 643 facilities. 1016 health workers were interviewed, and 2377 babies were observed in the facilities surveyed. Indicators of quality of newborn care included (1) provision of immediate essential newborn care: thermal care, hygienic cord care, and early and exclusive initiation of breast feeding; (2) actual and simulated resuscitation of asphyxiated newborn infants; and (3) knowledge of health workers on essential newborn care, including resuscitation. Sterile or clean cord cutting instruments, suction devices, and tables or firm surfaces for resuscitation were commonly available. 80% of newborns were immediately dried after birth and received clean cord care in most of the studied facilities. In all countries assessed, major deficiencies exist for essential newborn care supplies and equipment, as well as for health worker knowledge and performance of key routine newborn care practices, particularly for immediate skin-to-skin contact and breastfeeding initiation. Of newborns who did not cry at birth, 89% either recovered on their own or through active steps taken by the provider through resuscitation with initial stimulation and/or ventilation. 11% of newborns died. Assessment of simulated resuscitation using a NeoNatalie anatomic model showed that less than a third of providers were able to demonstrate ventilation skills correctly. The findings shared in this paper call attention to the critical need to improve health facility readiness to provide quality newborn care services and to ensure that service providers have the necessary equipment, supplies, knowledge and skills that are critical to

  1. Molecular Characterization of Invasive Meningococcal Isolates from Countries in the African Meningitis Belt before Introduction of a Serogroup A Conjugate Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caugant, Dominique A.; Kristiansen, Paul A.; Wang, Xin; Mayer, Leonard W.; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir; Ouédraogo, Rasmata; Kandolo, Denis; Bougoudogo, Flabou; Sow, Samba; Bonte, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Background The serogroup A conjugate meningococcal vaccine, MenAfriVac, was introduced in mass vaccination campaigns in December 2010 in Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger. In the coming years, vaccination will be extended to other African countries at risk of epidemics. To document the molecular characteristics of disease-causing meningococcal strains circulating in the meningitis belt of Africa before vaccine introduction, the World Health Organization Collaborating Centers on Meningococci in Europe and United States established a common strain collection of 773 isolates from cases of invasive meningococcal disease collected between 2004 and 2010 from 13 sub-Saharan countries. Methodology All isolates were characterized by multilocus sequence typing, and 487 (62%) were also analyzed for genetic variation in the surface antigens PorA and FetA. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested for part of the collection. Principal Findings Only 19 sequence types (STs) belonging to 6 clonal complexes were revealed. ST-5 clonal complex dominated with 578 (74.8%) isolates. All ST-5 complex isolates were remarkably homogeneous in their PorA (P1.20,9) and FetA (F3-1) and characterized the serogroup A strains which have been responsible for most epidemics during this time period. Sixty-eight (8.8%) of the 773 isolates belonged to the ST-11 clonal complex which was mainly represented by serogroup W135, while an additional 38 (4.9%) W135 isolates belonged to the ST-175 complex. Forty-eight (6.2%) serogroup X isolates from West Africa belonged to the ST-181 complex, while serogroup X cases in Kenya and Uganda were caused by an unrelated clone, ST-5403. Serogroup X, ST-181, emerged in Burkina Faso before vaccine introduction. Conclusions In the seven years preceding introduction of a new serogroup A conjugate vaccine, serogroup A of the ST-5 clonal complex was identified as the predominant disease-causing strain. PMID:23029368

  2. Population genetic structure of Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium from across six sub-Saharan African countries: implications for epidemiology, evolution and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, Charlotte M; Gouvras, Anouk N; Lamberton, Poppy H L; Deol, Arminder; Shrivastava, Jaya; Mutombo, Polydor N; Mbuh, Judith V; Norton, Alice J; Webster, Bonnie L; Stothard, J Russell; Garba, Amadou; Lamine, Mariama S; Kariuki, Curtis; Lange, Charles N; Mkoji, Gerald M; Kabatereine, Narcis B; Gabrielli, Albis F; Rudge, James W; Fenwick, Alan; Sacko, Moussa; Dembelé, Robert; Lwambo, Nicholas J S; Tchuem Tchuenté, Louis-Albert; Rollinson, David; Webster, Joanne P

    2013-11-01

    We conducted the first meta-analysis of ten Schistosoma haematobium (one published and nine unpublished) and eight Schistosoma mansoni (two published and six unpublished) microsatellite datasets collected from individual schistosome-infected school-children across six sub-Saharan Africa countries. High levels of genetic diversity were documented in both S. haematobium and S. mansoni. In S. haematobium populations, allelic richness did not differ significantly between the ten schools, despite widely varying prevalences and intensities of infection, but higher levels of heterozygote deficiency were seen in East than in West Africa. In contrast, S. mansoni populations were more diverse in East than West African schools, but heterozygosity levels did not vary significantly with geography. Genetic structure in both S. haematobium and S. mansoni populations was documented, at both a regional and continental scale. Such structuring might be expected to slow the spread to new areas of anti-schistosomal drug resistance should it develop. There was, however, limited evidence of genetic structure at the individual host level, which might be predicted to promote the development or establishment of drug resistance, particularly if it were a recessive trait. Our results are discussed in terms of their potential implications for the epidemiology and evolution of schistosomes as well as their subsequent control across sub-Saharan Africa. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Monitoring Results in Routine Immunization: Development of Routine Immunization Dashboard in Selected African Countries in the Context of the Polio Eradication Endgame Strategic Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poy, Alain; van den Ent, Maya M V X; Sosler, Stephen; Hinman, Alan R; Brown, Sidney; Sodha, Samir; Ehlman, Daniel C; Wallace, Aaron S; Mihigo, Richard

    2017-07-01

    To monitor immunization-system strengthening in the Polio Eradication Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 (PEESP), the Global Polio Eradication Initiative identified 1 indicator: 10% annual improvement in third dose of diphtheria- tetanus-pertussis-containing vaccine (DTP3) coverage in polio high-risk districts of 10 polio focus countries. A multiagency team, including staff from the African Region, developed a comprehensive list of outcome and process indicators measuring various aspects of the performance of an immunization system. The development and implementation of the dashboard to assess immunization system performance allowed national program managers to monitor the key immunization indicators and stratify by high-risk and non-high-risk districts. Although only a single outcome indicator goal (at least 10% annual increase in DTP3 coverage achieved in 80% of high-risk districts) initially existed in the endgame strategy, we successfully added additional outcome indicators (eg, decreasing the number of DTP3-unvaccinated children) as well as program process indicators focusing on cold chain, stock availability, and vaccination sessions to better describe progress on the pathway to raising immunization coverage. When measuring progress toward improving immunization systems, it is helpful to use a comprehensive approach that allows for measuring multiple dimensions of the system.

  4. Reported physical and sexual abuse in childhood and adult HIV risk behaviour in three African countries: findings from Project Accept (HPTN-043).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Linda; Komárek, Arnošt; Desmond, Chris; Celentano, David; Morin, Steve; Sweat, Michael; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Chingono, Alfred; Gray, Glenda; Mbwambo, Jessie; Coates, Tom

    2014-02-01

    Childhood sexual and physical abuse have been linked to adolescent and adult risky sexual behaviors, including early sexual debut, an increased number of sexual partners, unprotected sex, alcohol and drug use during sex and sexual violence. This paper explores these relationships among both men and women who report histories of childhood abuse from representative samples of communities in three countries in southern and eastern Africa (South Africa, Zimbabwe and Tanzania). Data were collected as part of a 3-year randomized community trial to rapidly increase knowledge of HIV status and to promote community responses through mobilisation, mobile testing, provision of same-day HIV test results and post-test support for HIV. The results indicate that reported childhood sexual and physical abuse is high in all three settings, also among men, and shows strong relationships with a range of sexual risk behaviors, including age at first sex (OR -0.6 (CI: -0.9, -0.4, p abused in childhood comprise between 6 and 29 % of young adult men and women living in these African settings and constitute a population at high risk of HIV infection.

  5. Health facility characteristics and their relationship to coverage of PMTCT of HIV services across four African countries: the PEARL study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier K Ekouevi

    Full Text Available Health facility characteristics associated with effective prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT coverage in sub-Saharan are poorly understood.We conducted surveys in health facilities with active PMTCT services in Cameroon, Cote d'Ivoire, South Africa, and Zambia. Data was compiled via direct observation and exit interviews. We constructed composite scores to describe provision of PMTCT services across seven topical areas: antenatal quality, PMTCT quality, supplies available, patient satisfaction, patient understanding of medication, and infrastructure quality. Pearson correlations and Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE to account for clustering of facilities within countries were used to evaluate the relationship between the composite scores, total time of visit and select individual variables with PMTCT coverage among women delivering. Between July 2008 and May 2009, we collected data from 32 facilities; 78% were managed by the government health system. An opt-out approach for HIV testing was used in 100% of facilities in Zambia, 63% in Cameroon, and none in Côte d'Ivoire or South Africa. Using Pearson correlations, PMTCT coverage (median of 55%, (IQR: 33-68 was correlated with PMTCT quality score (rho = 0.51; p = 0.003; infrastructure quality score (rho = 0.43; p = 0.017; time spent at clinic (rho = 0.47; p = 0.013; patient understanding of medications score (rho = 0.51; p = 0.006; and patient satisfaction quality score (rho = 0.38; p = 0.031. PMTCT coverage was marginally correlated with the antenatal quality score (rho = 0.304; p = 0.091. Using GEE adjustment for clustering, the, antenatal quality score became more strongly associated with PMTCT coverage (p<0.001 and the PMTCT quality score and patient understanding of medications remained marginally significant.We observed a positive relationship between an antenatal quality score and PMTCT coverage but did not identify

  6. HIV treatment and care services for adolescents: a situational analysis of 218 facilities in 23 sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Daniella; Armstrong, Alice; Andrade, Catarina; Penazzato, Martina; Hatane, Luann; Taing, Lina; Runciman, Toby; Ferguson, Jane

    2017-05-16

    In 2013, an estimated 2.1 million adolescents (age 10-19 years) were living with HIV globally. The extent to which health facilities provide appropriate treatment and care was unknown. To support understanding of service availability in 2014, Paediatric-Adolescent Treatment Africa (PATA), a non-governmental organisation (NGO) supporting a network of health facilities across sub-Saharan Africa, undertook a facility-level situational analysis of adolescent HIV treatment and care services in 23 countries. Two hundred and eighteen facilities, responsible for an estimated 80,072 HIV-infected adolescents in care, were surveyed. Sixty per cent of the sample were from PATA's network, with the remaining gathered via local NGO partners and snowball sampling. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and coding to describe central tendencies and identify themes. Respondents represented three subregions: West and Central Africa (n = 59; 27%), East Africa (n = 77, 35%) and southern Africa (n = 82, 38%). Half (50%) of the facilities were in urban areas, 17% peri-urban and 33% rural settings. Insufficient data disaggregation and outcomes monitoring were critical issues. A quarter of facilities did not have a working definition of adolescence. Facilities reported non-adherence as their key challenge in adolescent service provision, but had insufficient protocols for determining and managing poor adherence and loss to follow-up. Adherence counselling focused on implications of non-adherence rather than its drivers. Facilities recommended peer support as an effective adherence and retention intervention, yet not all offered these services. Almost two-thirds reported attending to adolescents with adults and/or children, and half had no transitioning protocols. Of those with transitioning protocols, 21% moved pregnant adolescents into adult services earlier than their peers. There was limited sexual and reproductive health integration, with 63% of facilities offering

  7. Urban–rural and geographic differences in overweight and obesity in four sub-Saharan African adult populations: a multi-country cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IkeOluwapo O. Ajayi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity are on the rise in developing countries including sub-Saharan Africa. We undertook a four-country survey to show the collective burden of these health conditions as they occur currently in sub-Saharan Africa and to determine the differences between urban and rural populations and other socio-economic factors. Methods Participants were nurses in two hospitals in Nigeria (200, school teachers in South Africa (489 and Tanzania (229, and village residents in one peri-urban (297 and one rural location in Uganda (200 who completed a standardised questionnaire. Their height and weight were measured and body mass index calculated. Factor analysis procedure (Principal component was used to generate a wealth index. Univariate and multivariate analyses with binary logistic regression models were conducted to examine the associations between potential correlates and the prevalence of overweight and obesity with 95 % confidence intervals. Results The prevalence of overweight and obese (combined was 46 %, 48 %, 68 %, 75 % and 85 % in rural Uganda, peri-urban Uganda, Nigeria, Tanzania and South Africa (SA, respectively. Rural Uganda, Peri- urban Uganda, Nigeria, Tanzania and SA had obesity prevalence of 10 %, 14 %, 31 %, 40 % and 54 %, respectively (p  =25 kg/m2 in Nigeria [Age > =45 - AOR = 9.11; 95 % CI: 1.72, 48.16] and SA [AOR = 6.22; 95 % CI: 2.75, 14.07], while marital status was predictor of BMI > =25 kg/m2 only in peri-urban Uganda. [Married - AOR = 4.49; 95 % CI: 1.74, 11.57]. Those in Nigeria [AOR = 2.56; 95 % CI: 1.45, 4.53], SA [AOR = 4.97; 95 % CI: 3.18, 7.78], and Tanzania [AOR = 2.68; 95 % CI: 1.60, 4.49] were more likely to have BMI > =25 kg/m2 compared with the rural and peri-urban sites. Conclusion The high prevalence of overweight and obesity in these sub-Saharan African countries and the differentials in prevalence and risk factors further

  8. From policy to practice: exploring the implementation of antiretroviral therapy access and retention policies between 2013 and 2016 in six sub-Saharan African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Ambia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the implementation of 2013 World Health Organization (WHO consolidated guidelines on the use of antiretroviral drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection at the facility level provides important lessons for the roll-out of future HIV policies. Methods A national policy review was conducted in six sub-Saharan African countries to map the inclusion of the 2013 WHO HIV treatment recommendations. Twenty indicators of policy adoption were selected to measure ART access (n = 12 and retention (n = 8. Two sequential cross-sectional surveys were conducted in facilities between 2013/2015 (round 1 and 2015/2016 (round 2 from ten health and demographic surveillance sites in Kenya, Malawi, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda and Zimbabwe. Using standardised questionnaires, facility managers were interviewed. Descriptive analyses were used to assess the change in the proportion of facilities that implemented these policy indicators between rounds. Results Although, expansion of ART access was explicitly stated in all countries’ policies, most lacked policies that enhanced retention. Overall, 145 facilities were included in both rounds. The proportion of facilities that initiated ART at CD4 counts of 500 or less cells/μL increased between round 1 and 2 from 12 to 68%, and facilities initiating patients on 2013 WHO recommended ART regimen increased from 42 to 87%. There were no changes in the proportion of facilities reporting stock-outs of first-line ART in the past year (18 to 11% nor in the provision of three-month supply of ART (43 to 38%. None of the facilities provided community-based ART delivery. Conclusion The increase in ART initiation CD4 threshold in most countries, and substantial improvements made in the provision of WHO recommended first-line ART regimens demonstrates that rapid adoption of WHO recommendations is possible. However, improved logistics and resources and/or changes in policy are required

  9. Prevalence of key breastfeeding indicators in 29 sub-Saharan African countries: a meta-analysis of demographic and health surveys (2010–2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issaka, Abukari Ibrahim; Agho, Kingsley Emwinyore; Renzaho, Andre MN

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To carry out a meta-analysis to assess the prevalence of four key breastfeeding indicators in four subregions of 29 sub-Saharan African countries. Design, settings and participants The 29 countries were categorised into four subregions, and using cross-sectional data from the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys (2010–2015) of these countries prevalence of each of four key breastfeeding indicators was estimated for each of the subregions by carrying out a meta-analysis. Due to the presence of significant heterogeneity among the various surveys (I2>50%), a random-effect analytic model was used, and sensitivity analysis was performed to examine the effects of outliers. Main outcome variables Early initiation of breast feeding, exclusive breast feeding, predominant breast feeding and bottle feeding. Results The overall prevalence of early initiation of breast feeding varied between a lowest of 37.84% (95% CI 24.62 to 51.05) in Central Africa to a highest of 69.31% (95% CI 67.65 to 70.97) in Southern Africa; the overall prevalence of exclusive breast feeding ranged between a lowest of 23.70% (95% CI 5.37 to 42.03) in Central Africa to a highest of 56.57% (95% CI 53.50 to 59.95) in Southern Africa; the overall prevalence of predominant breast feeding ranged between a lowest of 17.63% (95% CI 12.70 to 22.55) in East Africa and a highest of 46.37% (95% CI 37.22 to 55.52) in West Africa; while the prevalence of bottle feeding varied between a lowest of 8.17% (95% CI 5.51 to 10.84) in West Africa and a highest of 30.05% (95% CI 28.42 to 31.69) in Southern Africa. Conclusions West Africa and Central Africa recorded lower overall prevalence of early initiation of breast feeding and exclusive breast feeding than the WHO’s recommended target of 50% by the year 2025. Intervention for improved breastfeeding practices in sub-Saharan Africa should target West and Central Africa, while intervention to minimise bottle feeding should target Southern Africa. PMID

  10. Costs and cost-effectiveness of 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in two East African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiatpongsan, Sorapop; Kim, Jane J

    2014-01-01

    Current prophylactic vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) target two of the most oncogenic types, HPV-16 and -18, which contribute to roughly 70% of cervical cancers worldwide. Second-generation HPV vaccines include a 9-valent vaccine, which targets five additional oncogenic HPV types (i.e., 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58) that contribute to another 15-30% of cervical cancer cases. The objective of this study was to determine a range of vaccine costs for which the 9-valent vaccine would be cost-effective in comparison to the current vaccines in two less developed countries (i.e., Kenya and Uganda). The analysis was performed using a natural history disease simulation model of HPV and cervical cancer. The mathematical model simulates individual women from an early age and tracks health events and resource use as they transition through clinically-relevant health states over their lifetime. Epidemiological data on HPV prevalence and cancer incidence were used to adapt the model to Kenya and Uganda. Health benefit, or effectiveness, from HPV vaccination was measured in terms of life expectancy, and costs were measured in international dollars (I$). The incremental cost of the 9-valent vaccine included the added cost of the vaccine counterbalanced by costs averted from additional cancer cases prevented. All future costs and health benefits were discounted at an annual rate of 3% in the base case analysis. We conducted sensitivity analyses to investigate how infection with multiple HPV types, unidentifiable HPV types in cancer cases, and cross-protection against non-vaccine types could affect the potential cost range of the 9-valent vaccine. In the base case analysis in Kenya, we found that vaccination with the 9-valent vaccine was very cost-effective (i.e., had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio below per-capita GDP), compared to the current vaccines provided the added cost of the 9-valent vaccine did not exceed I$9.7 per vaccinated girl. To be considered very cost

  11. Costs and cost-effectiveness of 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination in two East African countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorapop Kiatpongsan

    Full Text Available Current prophylactic vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV target two of the most oncogenic types, HPV-16 and -18, which contribute to roughly 70% of cervical cancers worldwide. Second-generation HPV vaccines include a 9-valent vaccine, which targets five additional oncogenic HPV types (i.e., 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58 that contribute to another 15-30% of cervical cancer cases. The objective of this study was to determine a range of vaccine costs for which the 9-valent vaccine would be cost-effective in comparison to the current vaccines in two less developed countries (i.e., Kenya and Uganda.The analysis was performed using a natural history disease simulation model of HPV and cervical cancer. The mathematical model simulates individual women from an early age and tracks health events and resource use as they transition through clinically-relevant health states over their lifetime. Epidemiological data on HPV prevalence and cancer incidence were used to adapt the model to Kenya and Uganda. Health benefit, or effectiveness, from HPV vaccination was measured in terms of life expectancy, and costs were measured in international dollars (I$. The incremental cost of the 9-valent vaccine included the added cost of the vaccine counterbalanced by costs averted from additional cancer cases prevented. All future costs and health benefits were discounted at an annual rate of 3% in the base case analysis. We conducted sensitivity analyses to investigate how infection with multiple HPV types, unidentifiable HPV types in cancer cases, and cross-protection against non-vaccine types could affect the potential cost range of the 9-valent vaccine. In the base case analysis in Kenya, we found that vaccination with the 9-valent vaccine was very cost-effective (i.e., had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio below per-capita GDP, compared to the current vaccines provided the added cost of the 9-valent vaccine did not exceed I$9.7 per vaccinated girl. To be

  12. Black versus Black: The Relationship among African, African American, and African Caribbean Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jennifer V.; Cothran, Mary E.

    2003-01-01

    Surveyed people of African descent regarding relationships among African, African-American, and African-Caribbean persons, focusing on contact and friendship, travel to countries of the diaspora, cross-cultural communication, thoughts and stereotypes, and education. Most respondents had contacts with the other groups, but groups had preconceived…

  13. China-Africa Health Development Initiatives: Benefits and Implications for Shaping Innovative and Evidence-informed National Health Policies and Programs in Sub-saharan African Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambo, Ernest; Ugwu, Chidiebere E.; Guan, Yayi; Wei, Ding; Xiao-Ning; Xiao-Nong, Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Background and Introduction: This review paper examines the growing implications of China’s engagement in shaping innovative national initiatives against infectious diseases and poverty control and elimination in African countries. It seeks to understand the factors and enhancers that can promote mutual and innovative health development initiatives, and those that are necessary in generating reliable and quality data for evidence-based contextual policy, priorities and programs. Methods: We examined the China-Africa health cooperation in supporting global health agenda on infectious diseases such as malaria, schistosomiasis, Ebola, TB, HIV/AIDS, neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) prevention, control and elimination spanning a period of 10 years. We reviewed referenced publications, global support data, and extensive sources related to and other emerging epidemics and infectious diseases of poverty, programs and interventions, health systems development issues, challenges, opportunities and investments. Published literature in PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Books and web-based peer-reviewed journal articles, government annual reports were assessed from the first Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) in November 2006 to December 2015 Third Ministerial conferences. Results: Our findings highlight current shared public health challenges and emphasize the need to nurture, develop and establish effective, functional and sustainable health systems capacity to detect and respond to all public health threats and epidemic burdens, evidence-based programs and quality care outcomes. China’s significant health diplomacy emphasizes the importance of health financing in establishing health development commitment and investment in improving the gains and opportunities, importantly efficiency and value health priorities and planning. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Strengthening China-Africa health development agenda towards collective commitment and investment

  14. NOMA: A Preventable "Scourge" of African Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbureke, Kalu U E; Ogbureke, Ezinne I

    2010-10-21

    Noma is a serious orofacial gangrene originating intraorally in the gingival-oral mucosa complex before spreading extraorally to produce a visibly destructive ulcer. Although cases of noma are now rarely reported in the developed countries, it is still prevalent among children in third world countries, notably in sub-Sahara Africa, where poverty, ignorance, malnutrition, and preventable childhood infections are still common. This review summarizes historical, epidemiological, management, and research updates on noma with suggestions for its prevention and ultimate global eradication. The global annual incidence remains high at about 140,000 cases, with a mortality rate exceeding 90% for untreated diseases. Where the patients survive, noma defects result in unsightly facial disfigurement, intense scarring, trismus, oral incompetence, and social alienation. Although the etiology has long been held to be infectious, a definitive causal role between microorganisms cited, and noma has been difficult to establish. The management of noma with active disease requires antibiotics followed by reconstructive surgery. Current research efforts are focused towards a comprehensive understanding of the epidemiology, and further elucidation of the microbiology and pathogenesis of noma.Although a formidable public health challenge, noma can be prevented with a potential for subsequent global eradication. To achieve both desirable goals, detection of early disease is crucial because these early lesions respond to conventional antibiotic treatments when instituted side by side with nutritional rehabilitation, and obviates the necessity for extensive surgical reconstruction often indicated in late stage disease. The eradication of noma in the developed world in the mid 20(th) century bears out the notion of a similar outcome following effective preventive strategies in Africa. A fundamental and necessary step towards attaining this goal is for the international community to adopt a

  15. Frequency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in malaria patients from six African countries enrolled in two randomized anti-malarial clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duparc Stephan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is common in populations living in malaria endemic areas. G6PD genotype and phenotype were determined for malaria patients enrolled in the chlorproguanil-dapsone-artesunate (CDA phase III clinical trial programme. Methods Study participants, aged > 1 year, with microscopically confirmed uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria, and haemoglobin ≥ 70 g/L or haematocrit ≥ 25%, were recruited into two clinical trials conducted in six African countries (Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Tanzania, Mali. G6PD genotype of the three most common African forms, G6PD*B, G6PD*A (A376G, and G6PD*A- (G202A, A542T, G680T and T968C, were determined and used for frequency estimation. G6PD phenotype was assessed qualitatively using the NADPH fluorescence test. Exploratory analyses investigated the effect of G6PD status on baseline haemoglobin concentration, temperature, asexual parasitaemia and anti-malarial efficacy after treatment with CDA 2/2.5/4 mg/kg or chlorproguanil-dapsone 2/2.5 mg/kg (both given once daily for three days or six-dose artemether-lumefantrine. Results Of 2264 malaria patients enrolled, 2045 had G6PD genotype available and comprised the primary analysis population (1018 males, 1027 females. G6PD deficiency prevalence was 9.0% (184/2045; 7.2% [N = 147] male hemizygous plus 1.8% [N = 37] female homozygous, 13.3% (273/2045 of patients were heterozygous females, 77.7% (1588/2045 were G6PD normal. All deficient G6PD*A- genotypes were A376G/G202A. G6PD phenotype was available for 64.5% (1319/2045 of patients: 10.2% (134/1319 were G6PD deficient, 9.6% (127/1319 intermediate, and 80.2% (1058/1319 normal. Phenotype test specificity in detecting hemizygous males was 70.7% (70/99 and 48.0% (12/25 for homozygous females. Logistic regression found no significant effect of G6PD genotype on adjusted mean baseline haemoglobin (p = 0.154, adjusted mean baseline temperature (p = 0

  16. Frequency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in malaria patients from six African countries enrolled in two randomized anti-malarial clinical trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is common in populations living in malaria endemic areas. G6PD genotype and phenotype were determined for malaria patients enrolled in the chlorproguanil-dapsone-artesunate (CDA) phase III clinical trial programme. Methods Study participants, aged > 1 year, with microscopically confirmed uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria, and haemoglobin ≥ 70 g/L or haematocrit ≥ 25%, were recruited into two clinical trials conducted in six African countries (Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Tanzania, Mali). G6PD genotype of the three most common African forms, G6PD*B, G6PD*A (A376G), and G6PD*A- (G202A, A542T, G680T and T968C), were determined and used for frequency estimation. G6PD phenotype was assessed qualitatively using the NADPH fluorescence test. Exploratory analyses investigated the effect of G6PD status on baseline haemoglobin concentration, temperature, asexual parasitaemia and anti-malarial efficacy after treatment with CDA 2/2.5/4 mg/kg or chlorproguanil-dapsone 2/2.5 mg/kg (both given once daily for three days) or six-dose artemether-lumefantrine. Results Of 2264 malaria patients enrolled, 2045 had G6PD genotype available and comprised the primary analysis population (1018 males, 1027 females). G6PD deficiency prevalence was 9.0% (184/2045; 7.2% [N = 147] male hemizygous plus 1.8% [N = 37] female homozygous), 13.3% (273/2045) of patients were heterozygous females, 77.7% (1588/2045) were G6PD normal. All deficient G6PD*A- genotypes were A376G/G202A. G6PD phenotype was available for 64.5% (1319/2045) of patients: 10.2% (134/1319) were G6PD deficient, 9.6% (127/1319) intermediate, and 80.2% (1058/1319) normal. Phenotype test specificity in detecting hemizygous males was 70.7% (70/99) and 48.0% (12/25) for homozygous females. Logistic regression found no significant effect of G6PD genotype on adjusted mean baseline haemoglobin (p = 0.154), adjusted mean baseline temperature (p = 0.9617), or

  17. Assessment of African Swine Fever Diagnostic Techniques as a Response to the Epidemic Outbreaks in Eastern European Union Countries: How To Improve Surveillance and Control Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, R.; Soler, A.; Pelayo, V.; Fernández-Pinero, J.; Markowska-Daniel, I.; Pridotkas, G.; Nurmoja, I.; Granta, R.; Simón, A.; Pérez, C.; Martín, E.; Fernández-Pacheco, P.; Arias, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study represents a complete comparative analysis of the most widely used African swine fever (ASF) diagnostic techniques in the European Union (EU) using field and experimental samples from animals infected with genotype II ASF virus (ASFV) isolates circulating in Europe. To detect ASFV, three different PCRs were evaluated in parallel using 785 field and experimental samples. The results showed almost perfect agreement between the Universal ProbeLibrary (UPL-PCR) and the real-time (κ = 0.94 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.91 to 0.97]) and conventional (κ = 0.88 [95% CI, 0.83 to 0.92]) World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)-prescribed PCRs. The UPL-PCR had greater diagnostic sensitivity for detecting survivors and allows earlier detection of the disease. Compared to the commercial antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), good-to-moderate agreement (κ = 0.67 [95% CI, 0.58 to 0.76]) was obtained, with a sensitivity of 77.2% in the commercial test. For ASF antibody detection, five serological methods were tested, including three commercial ELISAs, the OIE-ELISA, and the confirmatory immunoperoxidase test (IPT). Greater sensitivity was obtained with the IPT than with the ELISAs, since the IPT was able to detect ASF antibodies at an earlier point in the serological response, when few antibodies are present. The analysis of the exudate tissues from dead wild boars showed that IPT might be a useful serological tool for determining whether or not animals had been exposed to virus infection, regardless of whether antibodies were present. In conclusion, the UPL-PCR in combination with the IPT was the most trustworthy method for detecting ASF during the epidemic outbreaks affecting EU countries in 2014. The use of the most appropriate diagnostic tools is critical when implementing effective control programs. PMID:26041901

  18. Association between caregivers' knowledge and care seeking behaviour for children with symptoms of pneumonia in six sub-Saharan African Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordam, Aaltje Camielle; Sharkey, Alyssa B; Hinssen, Paddy; Dinant, GeertJan; Cals, Jochen W L

    2017-02-02

    Pneumonia is the main cause of child mortality world-wide and most of these deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Treatment with effective antibiotics is crucial to prevent these deaths; nevertheless only 2 out of 5 children with symptoms of pneumonia are taken to an appropriate care provider in SSA. While various factors associated with care seeking have been identified, the relationship between caregivers' knowledge of pneumonia symptoms and actual care seeking for their child with symptoms of pneumonia is not well researched. Based on data from Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, we assessed the association between caregivers' knowledge of symptoms related to pneumonia - namely fast or difficulty breathing - and care seeking behaviour for these symptoms. We analysed data of 4,163 children with symptoms of pneumonia and their caregivers. A Chi-square tests and multivariable logistic regression was performed to assess the association between care seeking and knowledge of at least one symptom (i.e., fast or difficulty breathing). Across all 6 countries only around 30% of caregivers were aware of at least one of the two symptoms of pneumonia (i.e., fast or difficulty breathing). Our study shows that in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Nigeria there was a positive association between knowledge and care seeking (P ≤ 0.01), even after adjusting for key variables (including wealth, residence, education). We found no association between caregivers' knowledge of pneumonia symptoms and actual care seeking for their child with symptoms of pneumonia in Central African Republic, Chad, Malawi, and Sierra Leone. These findings reveal an urgent need to increase community awareness of pneumonia symptoms, while simultaneously designing context specific strategies to address the fundamental challenges associated with timely care seeking.

  19. Symptom Clusters in People Living with HIV Attending Five Palliative Care Facilities in Two Sub-Saharan African Countries: A Hierarchical Cluster Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moens, Katrien; Siegert, Richard J; Taylor, Steve; Namisango, Eve; Harding, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Symptom research across conditions has historically focused on single symptoms, and the burden of multiple symptoms and their interactions has been relatively neglected especially in people living with HIV. Symptom cluster studies are required to set priorities in treatment planning, and to lessen the total symptom burden. This study aimed to identify and compare symptom clusters among people living with HIV attending five palliative care facilities in two sub-Saharan African countries. Data from cross-sectional self-report of seven-day symptom prevalence on the 32-item Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale-Short Form were used. A hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted using Ward's method applying squared Euclidean Distance as the similarity measure to determine the clusters. Contingency tables, X2 tests and ANOVA were used to compare the clusters by patient specific characteristics and distress scores. Among the sample (N=217) the mean age was 36.5 (SD 9.0), 73.2% were female, and 49.1% were on antiretroviral therapy (ART). The cluster analysis produced five symptom clusters identified as: 1) dermatological; 2) generalised anxiety and elimination; 3) social and image; 4) persistently present; and 5) a gastrointestinal-related symptom cluster. The patients in the first three symptom clusters reported the highest physical and psychological distress scores. Patient characteristics varied significantly across the five clusters by functional status (worst functional physical status in cluster one, pART (highest proportions for clusters two and three, p=0.012); global distress (F=26.8, p<0.001), physical distress (F=36.3, p<0.001) and psychological distress subscale (F=21.8, p<0.001) (all subscales worst for cluster one, best for cluster four). The greatest burden is associated with cluster one, and should be prioritised in clinical management. Further symptom cluster research in people living with HIV with longitudinally collected symptom data to test cluster

  20. Treatment outcomes in a safety observational study of dihydroartemisinin/piperaquine (Eurartesim(®)) in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria at public health facilities in four African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjei, Alexander; Narh-Bana, Solomon; Amu, Alberta; Kukula, Vida; Nagai, Richard Afedi; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Oduro, Abraham; Macete, Eusebio; Abdulla, Salim; Halidou, Tinto; Sie, Ali; Osei, Isaac; Sevene, Esperance; Asante, Kwaku-Poku; Mulokozi, Abdunoor; Compaore, Guillaume; Valea, Innocent; Adjuik, Martin; Baiden, Rita; Ogutu, Bernhards; Binka, Fred; Gyapong, Margaret

    2016-01-27

    Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PQ) is one of five WHO recommended artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. However, little was known on its post-registration safety and effectiveness in sub-Saharan Africa. DHA-PQ provides a long post-treatment prophylactic effect against re-infection; however, new infections have been reported within a few weeks of treatment, especially in children. This paper reports the clinical outcomes following administration of DHQ-PQ in real-life conditions in public health facilities in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Mozambique, and Tanzania for the treatment of confirmed uncomplicated malaria. An observational, non-comparative, longitudinal study was conducted on 10,591 patients with confirmed uncomplicated malaria visiting public health facilities within seven health and demographic surveillance system sites in four African countries (Ghana, Tanzania, Burkina Faso, Mozambique) between September 2013 and April 2014. Patients were treated with DHA-PQ based on body weight and followed up for 28 days to assess the clinical outcome. A nested cohort of 1002 was intensely followed up. Clinical outcome was assessed using the proportion of patients who reported signs and symptoms of malaria after completing 3 days of treatment. A total of 11,097 patients were screened with 11,017 enrolled, 94 were lost to follow-up, 332 withdrew and 10,591 (96.1%) patients aged 6 months-85 years met protocol requirements for analysis. Females were 52.8 and 48.5% were Malaria was diagnosed by microscopy and rapid diagnostic test in 69.8% and 29.9%, respectively. At day 28, the unadjusted risk of recurrent symptomatic parasitaemia was 0.5% (51/10,591). Most of the recurrent symptomatic malaria patients (76%) were children malaria and provides an excellent alternative first-line ACT in sub-Saharan Africa.

  1. HIV prevalence and behavioral and psychosocial factors among transgender women and cisgender men who have sex with men in 8 African countries: A cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, Tonia; Ackerman, Benjamin; Diouf, Daouda; Ceesay, Nuha; Mothopeng, Tampose; Odette, Ky-Zerbo; Kouanda, Seni; Ouedraogo, Henri Gautier; Simplice, Anato; Kouame, Abo; Mnisi, Zandile; Trapence, Gift; van der Merwe, L Leigh Ann; Jumbe, Vicente; Baral, Stefan

    2017-11-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa bears more than two-thirds of the worldwide burden of HIV; however, data among transgender women from the region are sparse. Transgender women across the world face significant vulnerability to HIV. This analysis aimed to assess HIV prevalence as well as psychosocial and behavioral drivers of HIV infection among transgender women compared with cisgender (non-transgender) men who have sex with men (cis-MSM) in 8 sub-Saharan African countries. Respondent-driven sampling targeted cis-MSM for enrollment. Data collection took place at 14 sites across 8 countries: Burkina Faso (January-August 2013), Côte d'Ivoire (March 2015-February 2016), The Gambia (July-December 2011), Lesotho (February-September 2014), Malawi (July 2011-March 2012), Senegal (February-November 2015), Swaziland (August-December 2011), and Togo (January-June 2013). Surveys gathered information on sexual orientation, gender identity, stigma, mental health, sexual behavior, and HIV testing. Rapid tests for HIV were conducted. Data were merged, and mixed effects logistic regression models were used to estimate relationships between gender identity and HIV infection. Among 4,586 participants assigned male sex at birth, 937 (20%) identified as transgender or female, and 3,649 were cis-MSM. The mean age of study participants was approximately 24 years, with no difference between transgender participants and cis-MSM. Compared to cis-MSM participants, transgender women were more likely to experience family exclusion (odds ratio [OR] 1.75, 95% CI 1.42-2.16, p women were more likely to report condomless receptive anal sex in the prior 12 months (OR 2.44, 95% CI 2.05-2.90, p women and 14% (505/3,594) in cis-MSM. When adjusted for age, condomless receptive anal sex, depression, interpersonal stigma, law enforcement stigma, and violence, and the interaction of gender with condomless receptive anal sex, the odds of HIV infection for transgender women were 2.2 times greater than the odds for cis

  2. Urban-rural and geographic differences in overweight and obesity in four sub-Saharan African adult populations: a multi-country cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, IkeOluwapo O; Adebamowo, Clement; Adami, Hans-Olov; Dalal, Shona; Diamond, Megan B; Bajunirwe, Francis; Guwatudde, David; Njelekela, Marina; Nankya-Mutyoba, Joan; Chiwanga, Faraja S; Volmink, Jimmy; Kalyesubula, Robert; Laurence, Carien; Reid, Todd G; Dockery, Douglas; Hemenway, David; Spiegelman, Donna; Holmes, Michelle D

    2016-10-28

    .53], SA [AOR = 4.97; 95 % CI: 3.18, 7.78], and Tanzania [AOR = 2.68; 95 % CI: 1.60, 4.49] were more likely to have BMI > =25 kg/m(2) compared with the rural and peri-urban sites. The high prevalence of overweight and obesity in these sub-Saharan African countries and the differentials in prevalence and risk factors further highlights the need for urgent focused intervention to stem this trend, especially among women, professionals and urban dwellers.

  3. HIV prevalence and behavioral and psychosocial factors among transgender women and cisgender men who have sex with men in 8 African countries: A cross-sectional analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonia Poteat

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sub-Saharan Africa bears more than two-thirds of the worldwide burden of HIV; however, data among transgender women from the region are sparse. Transgender women across the world face significant vulnerability to HIV. This analysis aimed to assess HIV prevalence as well as psychosocial and behavioral drivers of HIV infection among transgender women compared with cisgender (non-transgender men who have sex with men (cis-MSM in 8 sub-Saharan African countries.Respondent-driven sampling targeted cis-MSM for enrollment. Data collection took place at 14 sites across 8 countries: Burkina Faso (January-August 2013, Côte d'Ivoire (March 2015-February 2016, The Gambia (July-December 2011, Lesotho (February-September 2014, Malawi (July 2011-March 2012, Senegal (February-November 2015, Swaziland (August-December 2011, and Togo (January-June 2013. Surveys gathered information on sexual orientation, gender identity, stigma, mental health, sexual behavior, and HIV testing. Rapid tests for HIV were conducted. Data were merged, and mixed effects logistic regression models were used to estimate relationships between gender identity and HIV infection. Among 4,586 participants assigned male sex at birth, 937 (20% identified as transgender or female, and 3,649 were cis-MSM. The mean age of study participants was approximately 24 years, with no difference between transgender participants and cis-MSM. Compared to cis-MSM participants, transgender women were more likely to experience family exclusion (odds ratio [OR] 1.75, 95% CI 1.42-2.16, p < 0.001, rape (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.63-2.36, p < 0.001, and depressive symptoms (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.12-1.52, p < 0.001. Transgender women were more likely to report condomless receptive anal sex in the prior 12 months (OR 2.44, 95% CI 2.05-2.90, p < 0.001 and to be currently living with HIV (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.49-2.19, p < 0.001. Overall HIV prevalence was 25% (235/926 in transgender women and 14% (505/3,594 in cis-MSM. When adjusted

  4. Improving the Quality of Host Country Ethical Oversight of International Research: The Use of a Collaborative 'Pre-Review' Mechanism for a Study of Fexinidazole for Human African Trypanosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Carl H; Ardiot, Chantal; Blesson, Séverine; Bonnin, Yves; Bompart, Francois; Colonna, Pierre; Dhai, Ames; Ecuru, Julius; Edielu, Andrew; Hervé, Christian; Hirsch, François; Kouyaté, Bocar; Mamzer-Bruneel, Marie-France; Maoundé, Dionko; Martinent, Eric; Ntsiba, Honoré; Pelé, Gérard; Quéva, Gilles; Reinmund, Marie-Christine; Sarr, Samba Cor; Sepou, Abdoulaye; Tarral, Antoine; Tetimian, Djetodjide; Valverde, Olaf; Van Nieuwenhove, Simon; Strub-Wourgaft, Nathalie

    2015-12-01

    Developing countries face numerous barriers to conducting effective and efficient ethics reviews of international collaborative research. In addition to potentially overlooking important scientific and ethical considerations, inadequate or insufficiently trained ethics committees may insist on unwarranted changes to protocols that can impair a study's scientific or ethical validity. Moreover, poorly functioning review systems can impose substantial delays on the commencement of research, which needlessly undermine the development of new interventions for urgent medical needs. In response to these concerns, the Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative (DNDi), an independent nonprofit organization founded by a coalition of public sector and international organizations, developed a mechanism to facilitate more effective and efficient host country ethics review for a study of the use of fexinidazole for the treatment of late stage African Trypanosomiasis (HAT). The project involved the implementation of a novel 'pre-review' process of ethical oversight, conducted by an ad hoc committee of ethics committee representatives from African and European countries, in collaboration with internationally recognized scientific experts. This article examines the process and outcomes of this collaborative process. © 2014 The Authors. Developing World Bioethics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In partnership with hundreds of journals from all over the continent, AJOL works to change this, so that African-origin research output is available to Africans and to the rest of the world. ... Featured Country: Nigeria, Featured Journal: Journal of Educational Foundations ... Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR).

  6. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In partnership with hundreds of journals from all over the continent, AJOL works to change this, so that African-origin research output is available to Africans and to the rest of the world. AJOL is a Non-Profit Organisation ... Featured Country: Nigeria, Featured Journal: Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology ...

  7. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In partnership with hundreds of journals from all over the continent, AJOL works to change this, so that African-origin research output is available to Africans and to the ... Featured Country: Nigeria, Featured Journal: Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences ... International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology.

  8. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Historically, scholarly information has flowed from North to South and from West to East. It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other African academics. In partnership with hundreds of journals from all over the ... Featured Country: Ghana, Featured Journal: Ghana Journal of Linguistics ...

  9. African Journals Online: Vanuatu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Vanuatu. Home > African Journals Online: Vanuatu. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ...

  10. African Journals Online: Armenia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Armenia. Home > African Journals Online: Armenia. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ...

  11. African Journals Online: Kazakhstan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Kazakhstan. Home > African Journals Online: Kazakhstan. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ...

  12. Annals of African Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Annals of African Medicine is published by the Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria and the Annals of African Medicine Society. The Journal is intended to serve as a medium for the publication of research findings in the broad field of Medicine in Africa and other developing countries, and ...

  13. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other African ... AJOL is a Non-Profit Organisation based in South Africa. ... Featured Country: Nigeria, Featured Journal: Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine ... The Basis of Distinction Between Qualitative and Quantitative Research in Social ...

  14. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In partnership with hundreds of journals from all over the continent, AJOL works to change this, so that African-origin research output is available to Africans and to the rest of the world. AJOL is a Non-Profit Organisation based in South Africa. ... Featured Country: Ethiopia, Featured Journal: Ethiopian Pharmaceutical Journal ...

  15. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In partnership with hundreds of journals from all over the continent, AJOL works to change this, so that African-origin research output is available to Africans and to the rest of the world. AJOL is a Non-Profit Organisation based in ... Featured Country: Nigeria, Featured Journal: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Allied Sciences ...

  16. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In partnership with hundreds of journals from all over the continent, AJOL works to change this, so that African-origin research output is available to Africans and to the rest of the world. ... More about AJOL and the challenges we work to address ... Featured Country: Nigeria, Featured Journal: Animal Research International ...

  17. African Journals Online: Tuvalu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Tuvalu. Home > African Journals Online: Tuvalu. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access. Afghanistan ...

  18. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Historically, scholarly information has flowed from North to South and from West to East. It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other African academics. In partnership with hundreds of journals from all over ... Featured Country: South Africa, Featured Journal: Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics ...

  19. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Historically, scholarly information has flowed from North to South and from West to East. It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other African academics. In partnership with hundreds of journals from all ... Featured Country: South Africa, Featured Journal: Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus ...

  20. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuing Medical Education; Educational leadership and management: theory, policy and practice. South African Journal of Education; The competitive advantage of nations: is Porter's Diamond Framework a new theory that explains the international competitiveness of countries? Southern African Business Review; The ...

  1. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Featured Country: South Africa, Featured Journal: Journal for Juridical Science ... The Roles of Information Communication Technologies in Education: Review Article with Emphasis to the Computer and Internet Ethiopian ... South African Journal of Education; Methods of Conflict Resolution in African Traditional Society

  2. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In partnership with hundreds of journals from all over the continent, AJOL works to change this, so that African-origin research output is available to Africans and to ... Featured Country: Ghana, Featured Journal: International Journal of Pedagogy, Policy and ICT in Education ... Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research.

  3. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... The competitive advantage of nations: is Porter's Diamond Framework a new theory that explains the international competitiveness of countries? Southern African Business Review; Conflicts in Africa: Meaning, Causes, Impact and Solution African Research Review; The abnormal chest X-ray – when to refer to a specialist

  4. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reviewed, African-published scholarly journals. Historically, scholarly ... Featured Country: Nigeria, Featured Journal: Journal of Modeling, Design and Management of Engineering Systems ... Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics. Vol 5, No 2 ...

  5. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reviewed, African-published scholarly journals. ... Featured Country: Nigeria, Featured Journal: Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment. Most recent issues on AJOL: Vol 6, No 1 (2015). Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics.

  6. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reviewed, African-published scholarly journals. Historically, scholarly ... Featured Country: Nigeria, Featured Journal: International Journal of Development and Management Review ... Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics. Vol 5, No 2 (2017).

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reviewed, African-published scholarly journals. Historically ... Featured Country: Tanzania, Featured Journal: University of Dar es Salaam Library Journal. Most recent issues on AJOL: Vol 6, No 1 (2015). Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics.

  8. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reviewed, African-published scholarly journals. Historically, scholarly information has flowed from North to South and from West to East. It has also been ... Featured Country: Nigeria, Featured Journal: Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics ...

  9. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reviewed, African-published scholarly journals. ... Featured Country: Kenya, Featured Journal: Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology. Most recent issues on AJOL: Vol 6, No 1 (2015). Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics.

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reviewed, African-published scholarly journals. ... Featured Country: Nigeria, Featured Journal: International Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research ... Vol 8, No 2 (2017): Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa. Journal ...

  11. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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  12. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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  13. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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  14. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reviewed, African-published scholarly journals. ... Featured Country: Ghana, Featured Journal: International Journal of Pedagogy, Policy and ICT in Education ... Vol 8, No 2 (2017): Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa.

  15. Chronic kidney disease burden among African migrants in three European countries and in urban and rural Ghana: the RODAM cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adjei, David N.; Stronks, Karien; Adu, Dwomoa; Beune, Erik; Meeks, Karlijn; Smeeth, Liam; Addo, Juliet; Owuso-Dabo, Ellis; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Mockenhaupt, Frank P.; Schulze, Matthias B.; Danquah, Ina; Spranger, Joachim; Bahendeka, Silver; de-Graft Aikins, Ama; Agyemang, Charles

    2018-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major burden among sub-Saharan African (SSA) populations. However, differences in CKD prevalence between rural and urban settings in Africa, and upon migration to Europe are unknown. We therefore assessed the differences in CKD prevalence among homogenous SSA

  16. Patterns of HIV-1 Drug Resistance After First-Line Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Failure in 6 Sub-Saharan African Countries: Implications for Second-Line ART Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamers, Raph L.; Sigaloff, Kim C. E.; Wensing, Annemarie M.; Wallis, Carole L.; Kityo, Cissy; Siwale, Margaret; Mandaliya, Kishor; Ive, Prudence; Botes, Mariette E.; Wellington, Maureen; Osibogun, Akin; Stevens, Wendy S.; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.; Schuurman, Rob; Siwale, M.; Njovu, C.; Labib, M.; Menke, J.; Botes, M. E.; Conradie, F.; Ive, P.; Sanne, I.; Wallis, C. L.; Letsoalo, E.; Stevens, W. S.; Hardman, M.; Wellington, M.; Luthy, R.; Mandaliya, K.; Abdallah, S.; Jao, I.; Dolan, M.; Namayanja, G.; Nakatudde, L.; Nankya, I.; Kiconco, M.; Abwola, M.; Mugyenyi, P.; Osibogun, A.; Akanmu, S.; Schuurman, R.; Wensing, A. M.; Straatsma, E.; Wit, F. W.; Dekker, J.; van Vugt, M.; Lange, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) drug resistance may limit the benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART). This cohort study examined patterns of drug-resistance mutations (DRMs) in individuals with virological failure on first-line ART at 13 clinical sites in 6 African

  17. AFRICAN JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC REVIEW

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Kazungu

    Abstract. This article investigates poverty and terrorism as allies in hindering economic growth in African countries. This study uses data for 22 African countries from 1970 to 2013 i.e. 44 years. Data for terrorism, poverty and national income is taken from GTD and WDI. Panel cointegration techniques of dynamic fixed effect, ...

  18. Aflatoxins: A silent threat in developing countries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elias

    2016-08-31

    Aug 31, 2016 ... their developed counterparts and international agencies to offer them financial and technical support, ... In developing countries, cereals which constitute the ..... cost African countries about US$670 million in trade per.

  19. Impact of country of birth on genetic testing of metastatic lung adenocarcinomas in France: African women exhibit a mutational spectrum more similar to Asians than to Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffroy, Raphael; Morère, Jean-François; Bosselut, Nelly; Innominato, Pasquale F; Hamelin, Jocelyne; Trédaniel, Jean; Masse, Sophie; Dussaule-Duchatelle, Véronique; Balaton, André; Validire, Pierre; Guettier, Catherine; Bouchahda, Mohamed; Lemoine, Antoinette

    2017-08-01

    Limited data are available on the prevalence of oncogenic driver mutations in Caucasian populations, and especially in Europeans. To evaluate the targetable mutational spectra in unselected patients with lung adenocarcinoma in routine clinical practice from several French hospitals, using the same molecular platform. Samples from 2,219 consecutive patients with histologically-proven advanced lung adenocarcinoma were centrally analysed at a referenced and certified diagnostic platform in order to test for activating and resistance mutations in EGFR , KRAS , BRAF , ERBB2 and PI3KCA . Demographic and clinical features were retrieved from the medical charts. Multivariate binary logistic regression was used to determine the independent predictive factors for the occurrence of specific mutations, in the whole study population or in selected subgroups. The overall respective incidence of EGFR , KRAS , BRAF , ERBB2 and PI3KCA mutations was 10.5%, 0.9%, 25%, 1.5%, 2.1% and 1.4%, in our study sample including 87.4% white Caucasians, 10.8% Africans and 1.8% Asians; 60.6% men, 30.7% never smoker (median age: 68.3 years). Ethnicity was an independent predictor for EGFR, KRAS and ERBB2 gene abnormalities. In all cases, a significantly higher prevalence of targetable EGFR and ERBB2 , and a lower prevalence of resistance KRAS mutations were observed in African women as compared to African men or Caucasians. In real life conditions of routine genetic testing, we have identified subsets of patients with specific targetable activating somatic mutations according to ethnicity, who could preferentially benefit from anti- EGFR and anti- ERBB2 targeted therapies.

  20. Associations between psychological stress and smoking, drinking, obesity, and high blood pressure in an upper middle-income country in the African region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamik, Tanja; Viswanathan, Bharathi; Gedeon, Jude; Bovet, Pascal

    2017-06-06

    The direction and magnitude of the associations between cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) and psychological stress continue to be debated, and no data are available from surveys in the African region. In this study, we examine the associations between CVRFs and psychological stress in the Seychelles, a rapidly developing small island state in the African region. A survey was conducted in 1,240 adults aged 25-64 years representative of the Seychelles. Participants were asked to rank psychological stress that they had experienced during the past 12 months in four domains: work, social life, financial situation, and environment around home. CVRFs (high blood pressure, tobacco use, alcohol drinking, and obesity) were assessed using standard procedures. Psychological stress was associated with age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Overall, there were only few consistent associations between psychological stress and CVRFs, adjusting for age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Social stress was associated with smoking, drinking, and obesity, and there were marginal associations between stress at work and drinking, and between financial stress, and smoking and drinking. Psychological stress was not associated with high blood pressure. These findings suggest that psychological stress should be considered in cardiovascular disease prevention and control strategies. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. African States And The Right To Freedom From Torture: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The right to freedom from torture is one of the few non-derogable rights but paradoxically also one of the most violated rights in many African countries. This is the case notwithstanding the fact that almost all constitutions in African countries prohibit torture. African countries are also parties to regional human rights ...

  2. Promoting anti-corruption reforms : Evaluating the implementation of a World Bank anti-corruption program in seven African countries (1999-2001)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Haarhuis, Carolien Maria

    2005-01-01

    This study offers an investigation of the implementation of a World Bank anti-corruption program, by applying various relevant social science theories and methods. The aim of the program is to provide countries with tools to build a relevant and participatory anti-corruption program. The study

  3. Promoting anti-corruption reforms. Evaluating the implementation of a World Bank anti-corruption program in seven African countries (1999-2001)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Haarhuis, C.M.

    2005-01-01

    This study offers an investigation of the implementation of a World Bank anti-corruption program, by applying various relevant social science theories and methods. The aim of the program is to provide countries with tools to build a relevant and participatory anti-corruption program. The study

  4. Genetic diversity and genetic structure of Persian walnut (Juglans regia) accessions from 14 European, African, and Asian countries using SSR markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz Ebrahimi; Abdolkarim Zarei; Shaneka Lawson; Keith E. Woeste; M. J. M. Smulders

    2016-01-01

    Persian walnut (Juglans regia L.) is the world's most widely grown nut crop, but large-scale assessments and comparisons of the genetic diversity of the crop are notably lacking. To guide the conservation and utilization of Persian walnut genetic resources, genotypes (n = 189) from 25 different regions in 14 countries on...

  5. Workers and labour market outcomes of informal jobs in formal employment: A job-based informality for nine sub-saharan African countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijdens, K.; Besamusca, J.; van Klaveren, M.

    2014-01-01

    How can an informal job in formal employment be defined, who has an informal job and what are the labour market outcomes? To explore these research objectives, this paper uses data of comparable face-to-face surveys in nine countries: Benin, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Madagascar, Niger, Rwanda, Senegal,

  6. Accuracy of parasitological and immunological tests for the screening of human schistosomiasis in immigrants and refugees from African countries: An approach with Latent Class Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrame, Anna; Guerriero, Massimo; Angheben, Andrea; Gobbi, Federico; Requena-Mendez, Ana; Zammarchi, Lorenzo; Formenti, Fabio; Perandin, Francesca; Buonfrate, Dora; Bisoffi, Zeno

    2017-06-01

    Schistosomiasis is a neglected infection affecting millions of people, mostly living in sub-Saharan Africa. Morbidity and mortality due to chronic infection are relevant, although schistosomiasis is often clinically silent. Different diagnostic tests have been implemented in order to improve screening and diagnosis, that traditionally rely on parasitological tests with low sensitivity. Aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of different tests for the screening of schistosomiasis in African migrants, in a non endemic setting. A retrospective study was conducted on 373 patients screened at the Centre for Tropical Diseases (CTD) in Negrar, Verona, Italy. Biological samples were tested with: stool/urine microscopy, Circulating Cathodic Antigen (CCA) dipstick test, ELISA, Western blot, immune-chromatographic test (ICT). Test accuracy and predictive values of the immunological tests were assessed primarily on the basis of the results of microscopy (primary reference standard): ICT and WB resulted the test with highest sensitivity (94% and 92%, respectively), with a high NPV (98%). CCA showed the highest specificity (93%), but low sensitivity (48%). The analysis was conducted also using a composite reference standard, CRS (patients classified as infected in case of positive microscopy and/or at least 2 concordant positive immunological tests) and Latent Class Analysis (LCA). The latter two models demonstrated excellent agreement (Cohen's kappa: 0.92) for the classification of the results. In fact, they both confirmed ICT as the test with the highest sensitivity (96%) and NPV (97%), moreover PPV was reasonably good (78% and 72% according to CRS and LCA, respectively). ELISA resulted the most specific immunological test (over 99%). The ICT appears to be a suitable screening test, even when used alone. The rapid test ICT was the most sensitive test, with the potential of being used as a single screening test for African migrants.

  7. Accuracy of parasitological and immunological tests for the screening of human schistosomiasis in immigrants and refugees from African countries: An approach with Latent Class Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Beltrame

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a neglected infection affecting millions of people, mostly living in sub-Saharan Africa. Morbidity and mortality due to chronic infection are relevant, although schistosomiasis is often clinically silent. Different diagnostic tests have been implemented in order to improve screening and diagnosis, that traditionally rely on parasitological tests with low sensitivity. Aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of different tests for the screening of schistosomiasis in African migrants, in a non endemic setting.A retrospective study was conducted on 373 patients screened at the Centre for Tropical Diseases (CTD in Negrar, Verona, Italy. Biological samples were tested with: stool/urine microscopy, Circulating Cathodic Antigen (CCA dipstick test, ELISA, Western blot, immune-chromatographic test (ICT. Test accuracy and predictive values of the immunological tests were assessed primarily on the basis of the results of microscopy (primary reference standard: ICT and WB resulted the test with highest sensitivity (94% and 92%, respectively, with a high NPV (98%. CCA showed the highest specificity (93%, but low sensitivity (48%. The analysis was conducted also using a composite reference standard, CRS (patients classified as infected in case of positive microscopy and/or at least 2 concordant positive immunological tests and Latent Class Analysis (LCA. The latter two models demonstrated excellent agreement (Cohen's kappa: 0.92 for the classification of the results. In fact, they both confirmed ICT as the test with the highest sensitivity (96% and NPV (97%, moreover PPV was reasonably good (78% and 72% according to CRS and LCA, respectively. ELISA resulted the most specific immunological test (over 99%. The ICT appears to be a suitable screening test, even when used alone.The rapid test ICT was the most sensitive test, with the potential of being used as a single screening test for African migrants.

  8. Stigma, explanatory models and unmet needs of caregivers of children with developmental disorders in a low-income African country: a cross-sectional facility-based survey

    OpenAIRE

    Tilahun, Dejene; Hanlon, Charlotte; Fekadu, Abebaw; Tekola, Bethlehem; Baheretibeb, Yonas; Hoekstra, Rosa A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding the perspectives of caregivers of children with developmental disorders living in low-income countries is important to inform intervention programmes. The purpose of this study was to examine the stigma experiences, explanatory models, unmet needs, preferred interventions and coping mechanisms of caregivers of children with developmental disorders in Ethiopia. Methods Participants comprised caregivers (n?=?102) of children with developmental disorders attending two ch...

  9. A systematic review of physical activity policy recommendations and interventions for people with mental health problems in Sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; Stubbs, Brendon; De Hert, Marc; du Plessis, Christy; Gbiri, Caleb Ademola Omuwa; Kibet, Jepkemoi; Wanyonyi, Nancy; Mugisha, James

    2017-01-01

    There is a need for interventions to address the escalating mental health burden in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Implementation of physical activity (PA) within the rehabilitation of people with mental health problems (PMHP) could reduce the burden and facilitate recovery. The objective of the current review was to explore (1) the role of PA within mental health policies of SSA countries, and (2) the current research evidence for PA to improve mental health in SSA. We screened the Mental Health Atlas and MiNDbank for mental health policies in SSA countries and searched PubMed for relevant studies on PA in PMHP in SSA. Sixty-nine percent (=33/48) of SSA countries have a dedicated mental health policy. Two of 22 screened mental health policies included broad physical activity recommendations. There is clear evidence for the role of PA in the prevention and rehabilitation of depression in SSA. Despite the existing evidence, PA is largely a neglected rehabilitation modality in the mental health care systems of SSA. Continued education of existing staff, training of specialized professionals and integration of PA for mental health in public health awareness programs are needed to initiate and improve PA programs within the mental health care systems of SSA.

  10. Prevalence and Correlates of Psychiatric Disorders among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Research has established that psychiatric disorders are common among children and adolescents within the juvenile justice system. However, the bulk of these researches had been from the developed countries, with very limited data from sub-Sahara Africa. In a region like sub-Sahara Africa with acute ...

  11. Political instability in a country and health state in another country ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    political alternation, ethnic conflicts, tribalism, wars, coup d'états). These plagues that consume African society have serious impact on the economic growth of these countries, and diversely affect neighbouring countries known for their relative ...

  12. Do anti-malarials in Africa meet quality standards? The market penetration of non quality-assured artemisinin combination therapy in eight African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Paul N; Hanson, Kara; Goodman, Catherine

    2017-05-25

    Quality of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is important for ensuring malaria parasite clearance and protecting the efficacy of artemisinin-based therapies. The extent to which non quality-assured ACT (non-QAACT), or those not granted global regulatory approval, are available and used to treat malaria in endemic countries is poorly documented. This paper uses national and sub-national medicine outlet surveys conducted in eight study countries (Benin, Kinshasa and Kantanga [Democratic Republic of the Congo, DRC], Kenya, Madagascar, Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia) between 2009 and 2015 to describe the non-QAACT market and to document trends in availability and distribution of non-QAACT in the public and private sector. In 2014/15, non-QAACT were most commonly available in Kinshasa (83%), followed by Katanga (53%), Nigeria (48%), Kenya (42%), and Uganda (33%). Non-QAACT accounted for 20% of the market share in the private sector in Kenya, followed by Benin and Uganda (19%), Nigeria (12%) and Zambia (8%); this figure was 27% in Katanga and 40% in Kinshasa. Public sector non-QAACT availability and distribution was much lower, with the exception of Zambia (availability, 85%; market share, 32%). Diverse generics and formulations were available, but non-QAACT were most commonly artemether-lumefantrine (AL) or dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA PPQ), in tablet formulation, imported, and distributed in urban areas at either pharmacies or drug stores. The number of unique manufacturers supplying non-QAACT to each country ranged from 9 in Uganda to 92 in Nigeria. Addressing the availability and distribution of non-QAACT will require effective private sector engagement and evidence-based strategies to address provider and consumer demand for these products. Given the variation in non-QAACT markets observed across the eight study countries, active efforts to limit registration, importation and distribution of non-QAACT must be tailored to the country context

  13. Oral and injectable contraceptive use and HIV acquisition risk among women in four African countries: a secondary analysis of data from a microbicide trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkus, Jennifer E; Brown, Elizabeth R; Hillier, Sharon L; Coletti, Anne; Ramjee, Gita; Mgodi, Nyaradzo; Makanani, Bonus; Reid, Cheri; Martinson, Francis; Soto-Torres, Lydia; Abdool Karim, Salim S; Chirenje, Zvavahera M

    2016-01-01

    To assess the effect of oral and injectable contraceptive use compared to nonhormonal contraceptive use on HIV acquisition among Southern African women enrolled in a microbicide trial. This is a prospective cohort study using data from women enrolled in HIV Prevention Trials Network protocol 035. At each quarterly visit, participants were interviewed about self-reported contraceptive use and sexual behaviors and underwent HIV testing. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess the effect of injectable and oral hormonal contraceptive use on HIV acquisition. The analysis included 2830 participants, of whom 106 became HIV infected (4.07 per 100 person-years). At baseline, 1546 (51%) participants reported using injectable contraceptives and 595 (21%) reported using oral contraceptives. HIV incidence among injectable, oral and nonhormonal contraceptive method users was 4.72, 2.68 and 3.83 per 100 person-years, respectively. Injectable contraceptive use was associated with a nonstatistically significant increased risk of HIV acquisition [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR)=1.17; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.70, 1.96], while oral contraceptive use was associated with a nonstatistically significant decreased risk of HIV acquisition (aHR=0.76; 95% CI 0.37,1.55). In this secondary analysis of randomized trial data, a marginal, but nonstatistically significant, increase in HIV risk among women using injectable hormonal contraceptives was observed. No increased HIV risk was observed among women using oral contraceptives. Our findings support the World Health Organization's recommendation that women at high risk for acquiring HIV, including those using progestogen-only injectable contraception, should be strongly advised to always use condoms and other HIV prevention measures. Among Southern African women participating in an HIV prevention trial, women using injectable hormonal contraceptives had a modest increased risk of HIV acquisition; however, this association was

  14. Surgery for rheumatic mitral valve disease in sub-saharan African countries: why valve repair is still the best surgical option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mvondo, Charles Mve; Pugliese, Marta; Giamberti, Alessandro; Chelo, David; Kuate, Liliane Mfeukeu; Boombhi, Jerome; Dailor, Ellen Marie

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatic valve disease, a consequence of acute rheumatic fever, remains endemic in developing countries in the sub-Saharan region where it is the leading cause of heart failure and cardiovascular death, involving predominantly a young population. The involvement of the mitral valve is pathognomonic and mitral surgery has become the lone therapeutic option for the majority of these patients. However, controversies exist on the choice between valve repair or prosthetic valve replacement. Although the advantages of mitral valve repair over prosthetic valve replacement in degenerative mitral disease are well established, this has not been the case for rheumatic lesions, where the use of prosthetic valves, specifically mechanical devices, even in poorly compliant populations remains very common. These patients deserve more accurate evaluation in the choice of the surgical strategy which strongly impacts the post-operative outcomes. This report discusses the factors supporting mitral repair surgery in rheumatic disease, according to the patients' characteristics and the effectiveness of the current repair techniques compared to prosthetic valve replacement in developing countries.

  15. Chronic kidney disease burden among African migrants in three European countries and in urban and rural Ghana: the RODAM cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjei, David N; Stronks, Karien; Adu, Dwomoa; Beune, Erik; Meeks, Karlijn; Smeeth, Liam; Addo, Juliet; Owuso-Dabo, Ellis; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Mockenhaupt, Frank P; Schulze, Matthias B; Danquah, Ina; Spranger, Joachim; Bahendeka, Silver; de-Graft Aikins, Ama; Agyemang, Charles

    2018-01-12

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major burden among sub-Saharan African (SSA) populations. However, differences in CKD prevalence between rural and urban settings in Africa, and upon migration to Europe are unknown. We therefore assessed the differences in CKD prevalence among homogenous SSA population (Ghanaians) residing in rural and urban Ghana and in three European cities, and whether conventional risk factors of CKD explained the observed differences. Furthermore, we assessed whether the prevalence of CKD varied among individuals with hypertension and diabetes compared with individuals without these conditions. For this analysis, data from Research on Obesity & Diabetes among African Migrants (RODAM), a multi-centre cross-sectional study, were used. The study included a random sample of 5607 adult Ghanaians living in Europe (1465 Amsterdam, 577 Berlin, 1041 London) and Ghana (1445 urban and 1079 rural) aged 25-70 years. CKD status was defined according to severity of kidney disease using the combination of glomerular filtration rate (G1-G5) and albuminuria (A1-A3) levels as defined by the 2012 Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes severity classification. Comparisons among sites were made using logistic regression analysis. CKD prevalence was lower in Ghanaians living in Europe (10.1%) compared with their compatriots living in Ghana (13.3%) even after adjustment for age, sex and conventional risk factors of CKD [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.56-0.88, P = 0.002]. CKD prevalence was markedly lower among Ghanaian migrants with hypertension (adjusted OR = 0.54, 0.44-0.76, P = 0.001) and diabetes (adjusted OR = 0.37, 0.22-0.62, P = 0.001) compared with non-migrant Ghanaians with hypertension and diabetes. No significant differences in CKD prevalence was observed among non-migrant Ghanaians and migrant Ghanaians with no hypertension and diabetes. Among Ghanaian residents in Europe, the odds of CKD were

  16. African Journals Online: Brunei Darussalam

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Brunei Darussalam. Home > African Journals Online: Brunei Darussalam. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is ...

  17. African Journals Online: Cabo Verde

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Cabo Verde. Home > African Journals Online: Cabo Verde. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ...

  18. African Journals Online: New Zealand

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: New Zealand. Home > African Journals Online: New Zealand. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ...

  19. African Diaspora Associations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vammen, Ida Marie; Trans, Lars Ove

    2011-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, an increasing number of African migrants have come to Denmark, where they have formed a large number of migrant associations. This chapter presents selected findings from a comprehensive survey of African diaspora associations in Denmark and focuses specifically on their tr...... on their transnational engagement in development activities in their countries of origin....

  20. The role of partners’ educational attainment in the association between HIV and education amongst women in seven sub-Saharan African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Harling

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Individuals’ educational attainment has long been considered as a risk factor for HIV. However, little attention has been paid to the association between partner educational attainment and HIV infection. Methods: We conducted cross-sectional analysis of young women (aged 15–34 in 14 Demographic and Health Surveys from seven sub-Saharan Africa (SSA countries with generalized HIV epidemics. We measured the degree of similarity in educational attainment (partner homophily in 75,373 partnerships and evaluated the correlation between homophily and female HIV prevalence at the survey cluster level. We then used logistic regression to assess whether own and partner educational attainment was associated with HIV serostatus amongst 38,791 women. Results: Educational attainment was positively correlated within partnerships in both urban and rural areas of every survey (Newman assortativity coefficients between 0.09 and 0.44, but this correlation was not ecologically associated with HIV prevalence. At the individual level, larger absolute differences between own and partner educational attainment were associated with significantly higher HIV prevalence amongst women. This association was heterogeneous across countries, but not between survey waves. In contrast to other women, for those aged 25–34 who had secondary or higher education, a more-educated partner was associated with lower HIV prevalence. Conclusions: HIV prevalence amongst women in SSA is associated not only with one's own education but also with that of one's partner. These findings highlight the importance of understanding how partners place individuals at risk of infection and suggest that HIV prevention efforts may benefit from considering partner characteristics.

  1. New data on African health professionals abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens Michael A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The migration of doctors and nurses from Africa to developed countries has raised fears of an African medical brain drain. But empirical research on the causes and effects of the phenomenon has been hampered by a lack of systematic data on the extent of African health workers' international movements. Methods We use destination-country census data to estimate the number of African-born doctors and professional nurses working abroad in a developed country circa 2000, and compare this to the stocks of these workers in each country of origin. Results Approximately 65,000 African-born physicians and 70,000 African-born professional nurses were working overseas in a developed country in the year 2000. This represents about one fifth of African-born physicians in the world, and about one tenth of African-born professional nurses. The fraction of health professionals abroad varies enormously across African countries, from 1% to over 70% according to the occupation and country. Conclusion These numbers are the first standardized, systematic, occupation-specific measure of skilled professionals working in developed countries and born in a large number of developing countries.

  2. Experiences and Lessons From Implementing Cohort Event Monitoring Programmes for Antimalarials in Four African Countries: Results of a Questionnaire-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suku, Comfort Kunak; Hill, Geraldine; Sabblah, George; Darko, Mimi; Muthuri, George; Abwao, Edward; Pandit, Jayesh; Osakwe, Adeline Ijeoma; Elagbaje, Cassandra; Nyambayo, Priscilla; Khoza, Star; Dodoo, Alexander N; Pal, Shanthi Narayan

    2015-11-01

    Cohort event monitoring (CEM) is an intensive method of post-marketing surveillance for medicines safety. The method is based on prescription event monitoring, which began in the 1970s, and has since been adapted by WHO for monitoring the safety of medicines used in Public Health Programmes. CEM aims to capture all adverse events that occur in a defined group of patients after starting treatment with a specific medicine during the course of routine clinical practice. The aims of this study were to describe the experiences of National Pharmacovigilance Centres (NCs) that have used CEM to monitor artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for uncomplicated malaria in the African setting, to raise awareness of some of the challenges encountered during implementation and to highlight aspects of the method that require further consideration. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to capture the experiences of NCs that have implemented CEM for active post-marketing surveillance of antimalarial medicines in sub-Saharan Africa. Six NCs were identified as having implemented CEM programmes and were invited to participate in the survey; five NCs indicated willingness to participate and were sent the questionnaire to complete. Four NCs responded to the survey-Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria and Zimbabwe-providing information on the implementation of a total of six CEM programmes. Their experiences indicate that CEM has helped to build pharmacovigilance capacity within the participating NCs and at the monitoring sites, and that healthcare providers (HCPs) are generally willing to participate in implementing the CEM method. All of the programmes took longer than expected to complete: contributing factors included a prolonged enrolment period and unexpectedly slow data entry. All of the programmes exceeded their budget by 11.1-63.2 %. Data management was identified as a challenge for all participating NCs. The reported experiences of four NCs that have undertaken CEM studies on ACTs

  3. InterVA-4 as a public health tool for measuring HIV/AIDS mortality: a validation study from five African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Byass

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reliable population-based data on HIV infection and AIDS mortality in sub-Saharan Africa are scanty, even though that is the region where most of the world’s AIDS deaths occur. There is therefore a great need for reliable and valid public health tools for assessing AIDS mortality. Objective: The aim of this article is to validate the InterVA-4 verbal autopsy (VA interpretative model within African populations where HIV sero-status is recorded on a prospective basis, and examine the distribution of cause-specific mortality among HIV-positive and HIV-negative people. Design: Data from six sites of the Alpha Network, including HIV sero-status and VA interviews, were pooled. VA data according to the 2012 WHO format were extracted, and processed using the InterVA-4 model into likely causes of death. The model was blinded to the sero-status data. Cases with known pre-mortem HIV infection status were used to determine the specificity with which InterVA-4 could attribute HIV/AIDS as a cause of death. Cause-specific mortality fractions by HIV infection status were calculated, and a person-time model was built to analyse adjusted cause-specific mortality rate ratios. Results: The InterVA-4 model identified HIV/AIDS-related deaths with a specificity of 90.1% (95% CI 88.7–91.4%. Overall sensitivity could not be calculated, because HIV-positive people die from a range of causes. In a person-time model including 1,739 deaths in 1,161,688 HIV-negative person-years observed and 2,890 deaths in 75,110 HIV-positive person-years observed, the mortality ratio HIV-positive:negative was 29.0 (95% CI 27.1–31.0, after adjustment for age, sex, and study site. Cause-specific HIV-positive:negative mortality ratios for acute respiratory infections, HIV/AIDS-related deaths, meningitis, tuberculosis, and malnutrition were higher than the all-cause ratio; all causes had HIV-positive:negative mortality ratios significantly higher than unity. Conclusions

  4. Child Survival in sub Sahara Africa: the role of CAPGAN and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Over the last decades maternal education and emancipation of women has been shown to be the strongest determinant ... Higher Education Institutions for Child Health have since. CAPGAN's inception in 1994 been the natural ... Australia, Canada, Malaysia, India, Nigeria and Singapore. The theme of the meeting was the ...

  5. Efforts of Proliferation of Small Arms in Sub-Sahara Africa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nganga, Frankonero

    2008-01-01

    .... Belligerents in the conflict areas for example Somali Sudan and parts of northern Uganda use the small arms and light weapons as the primary tools of violence causing deaths and injuring thousands...

  6. Child Survival in sub Sahara Africa: the role of CAPGAN and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    global and in due course the regional sSA economy. In 2008 poor consumers ... Higher Education Institutions for Child Health have since. CAPGAN's inception in ... Australia, Canada, Malaysia, India, Nigeria and Singapore. The theme of the ...

  7. From patronage to neopatrimonialism: Postcolonial governance in Sub-Sahara Africa and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekers, D.T.; van Gool, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Even if ‘good governance’ goals have dominated public policy in postcolonial polities in the last decades, their politics and public administration often continue to be marked by authoritarianism, nepotism and corruption – the very practices good governance policy was to eradicate. In this article,

  8. Women’s perceptions of effects of war on intimate partner violence and gender roles in two post-conflict West African Countries: consequences and unexpected opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this paper is to explore women’s perceptions of the causes of intimate partner violence (IPV) in West Africa, and the ways in which they understand these causes to interact with the experiences of war. Methods The study was conducted in two locations in Sierra Leone and two in Liberia, using focus group discussions (N groups =14) and individual interviews (N = 20). Results Women perceive the causes of IPV to be linked with other difficulties faced by women in these settings, including their financial dependence on men, traditional gender expectations and social changes that took place during and after the wars in those countries. According to respondents, the wars increased the use of violence by some men, as violence became for them a normal way of responding to frustrations and challenges. However, the war also resulted in women becoming economically active, which was said by some to have decreased IPV, as the pressure on men to provide for their families reduced. Economic independence, together with services provided by NGOs, also gave women the option of leaving a violent relationship. Conclusions IPV was found to be a significant problem for women in Sierra Leone and Liberia. The interactions between war experiences and financial and cultural issues are multi-faceted and not uniformly positive or negative. PMID:25104971

  9. Women's perceptions of effects of war on intimate partner violence and gender roles in two post-conflict West African Countries: consequences and unexpected opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Rebecca; Puffer, Eve S; Roesch, Elisabeth; Lehmann, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore women's perceptions of the causes of intimate partner violence (IPV) in West Africa, and the ways in which they understand these causes to interact with the experiences of war. The study was conducted in two locations in Sierra Leone and two in Liberia, using focus group discussions (N groups =14) and individual interviews (N = 20). Women perceive the causes of IPV to be linked with other difficulties faced by women in these settings, including their financial dependence on men, traditional gender expectations and social changes that took place during and after the wars in those countries. According to respondents, the wars increased the use of violence by some men, as violence became for them a normal way of responding to frustrations and challenges. However, the war also resulted in women becoming economically active, which was said by some to have decreased IPV, as the pressure on men to provide for their families reduced. Economic independence, together with services provided by NGOs, also gave women the option of leaving a violent relationship. IPV was found to be a significant problem for women in Sierra Leone and Liberia. The interactions between war experiences and financial and cultural issues are multi-faceted and not uniformly positive or negative.

  10. Cooking fuel and risk of under-five mortality in 23 Sub-Saharan African countries: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owili, Patrick Opiyo; Muga, Miriam Adoyo; Pan, Wen-Chi; Kuo, Hsien-Wen

    2017-06-01

    Relationship between cooking fuel and under-five mortality has not been adequately established in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We therefore investigated the association between cooking fuel and risk of under-five mortality in SSA, and further investigated its interaction with smoking. Using the most recent Demographic Health Survey data of 23 SSA countries (n = 783,691), Cox proportional hazard was employed to determine the association between cooking fuel and risk of under-five deaths. The adjusted hazard ratios were 1.21 (95 % CI, 1.10-1.34) and 1.20 (95 % CI, 1.08-1.32) for charcoal and biomass cooking fuel, respectively, compared to clean fuels. There was no positive interaction between biomass cooking fuel and smoking. Use of charcoal and biomass were associated with the risk of under-five mortality in SSA. Disseminating public health information on health risks of cooking fuel and development of relevant public health policies are likely to have a positive impact on a child's survival.

  11. Individual and community-level tolerance of spouse abuse and the association with the circumstances of first sex among youth from six sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speizer, I S

    2012-01-01

    Youth who engage in early and premarital sex are at risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infections. Most prevention programs ignore the mediating influence of the threat and experience of violence on these outcomes. Using nationally representative data from Lesotho, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda, multivariate analyses examined the association between individual- and community-level tolerance of spouse abuse on the age and circumstances of sexual debut among female youth. The youth sample sizes ranged from a high of 5007 in Malawi to a low of 3050 in Lesotho. In the study countries, there were between 521 and 367 communities included in the analysis. Youth who approved of spouse abuse were more likely to have sexually debuted at each age. In Kenya, youth from communities with high female spouse abuse tolerance were more likely to have initiated sex at each age. In Malawi and Zimbabwe, youth from high tolerance communities were less likely to have sexually debuted at each age or to have had premarital sex; the same effect on premarital sex was found for men's tolerance in Kenya and Tanzania. Programs are needed to reduce violence risk and increase youth negotiating power and delayed sexual debut, with the objective of reducing young people's risk of negative outcomes.

  12. GLOBALIZATION AND THE AFRICAN DILEMMA | Ogunbanjo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GLOBALIZATION AND THE AFRICAN DILEMMA. Bimbo Ogunbanjo. Abstract. This paper states that while globalization had a hopeful ring for the developing countries in general and African countries in particular, it also promised new challenges and new risks. There was the hope that close integration with the world ...

  13. Stigma, explanatory models and unmet needs of caregivers of children with developmental disorders in a low-income African country: a cross-sectional facility-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilahun, Dejene; Hanlon, Charlotte; Fekadu, Abebaw; Tekola, Bethlehem; Baheretibeb, Yonas; Hoekstra, Rosa A

    2016-04-27

    Understanding the perspectives of caregivers of children with developmental disorders living in low-income countries is important to inform intervention programmes. The purpose of this study was to examine the stigma experiences, explanatory models, unmet needs, preferred interventions and coping mechanisms of caregivers of children with developmental disorders in Ethiopia. Participants comprised caregivers (n = 102) of children with developmental disorders attending two child mental health clinics in Addis Ababa. The majority (66.7%; n = 68) had a diagnosis of intellectual disability (ID); 34 children (33.3%) had autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as their primary diagnosis. All caregivers were administered a structured questionnaire via a face-to-face interview, which included an adaptation of the Family Interview Schedule, closed questions about socio-demographic characteristics, explanatory models of illness, type of interventions used or desired and coping strategies, and an open ended question regarding the family's unmet needs. Most caregivers reported experience of stigma: 43.1% worried about being treated differently, 45.1% felt ashamed about their child's condition and 26.7% made an effort to keep their child's condition secret. Stigma did not depend on the type of developmental disorder, the child's age or gender, or on the age or level of education of the caregiver (all p > 0.05). Reported stigma was significantly higher in caregivers who had sought traditional help (p stigma experienced by families caring for a child with a developmental disorder. Designing interventions appropriate for low-income settings that improve awareness about developmental disorders, decrease stigma, improve access to appropriate education and strengthen caregivers' support are needed.

  14. Differences in HIV natural history among African and non-African seroconverters in Europe and seroconverters in sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantazis, Nikos; Morrison, Charles; Amornkul, Pauli N

    2012-01-01

    It is unknown whether HIV treatment guidelines, based on resource-rich country cohorts, are applicable to African populations.......It is unknown whether HIV treatment guidelines, based on resource-rich country cohorts, are applicable to African populations....

  15. Differentiated quality assurance for the African Virtual University's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For the African Virtual University and its consortium of African universities the implementation of quality promoting initiatives are not without challenges and scepticisms. To be discussed in this article is the case of a teacher education qualification in ten different African countries. Seven countries were sampled and visited in ...

  16. African Journal of Biotechnology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Featured Country: Tanzania, Featured Journal: Dar Es Salaam Medical Students' Journal. PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AJOL · Journals · Advanced Search · FAQ's · Register. Username. Password. Remember me. or Register · Find Journals on AJOL. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...

  17. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence; The competitive advantage of nations: is Porter's Diamond Framework a new theory that explains the international competitiveness of countries? Southern African Business Review; Educational leadership and management: theory, policy and ...

  18. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are 131 422 Full Text Articles for download, of which 74 586 are Open Access ... Featured Country: Nigeria, Featured Journal: Moor Journal of Agricultural Research ... OGIRISI: a New Journal of African Studies; The Basis of Distinction Between Qualitative and Quantitative Research in Social Science: Reflection on ...

  19. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuing Medical Education; The competitive advantage of nations: is Porter's Diamond Framework a new theory that explains the international competitiveness of countries? Southern African Business Review; The Roles of Information Communication Technologies in Education: Review Article with Emphasis to the ...

  20. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences; The competitive advantage of nations: is Porter's Diamond Framework a new theory that explains the international competitiveness of countries? Southern African Business Review; Book Review: Insurance in Ethiopia: Historical Development, Present Status and Future ...

  1. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences; The competitive advantage of nations: is Porter's Diamond Framework a new theory that explains the international competitiveness of countries? Southern African Business Review; The Influence of Motivation on Employees' Performance: A Study of Some Selected Firms in Anambra ...

  2. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences; The competitive advantage of nations: is Porter's Diamond Framework a new theory that explains the international competitiveness of countries? Southern African Business Review; Income Tax Assignment under the Ethiopian Constitution: Issues to Worry About Mizan Law ...

  3. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuing Medical Education; The competitive advantage of nations: is Porter's Diamond Framework a new theory that explains the international competitiveness of countries? Southern African Business Review; The Basis of Distinction Between Qualitative and Quantitative Research in Social Science: Reflection on ...

  4. How to understand, evaluate and influence efficient progress in South Africa’s land reform process: A typology from historical lessons from selected sub-Saharan African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhlanhla C. Mbatha

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: With reports of widespread failures in South Africa’s land reform programmes, the levels of policy uncertainty in the political rhetoric that influences land reform have been increasing. Since 1994 policy targets to transfer land to black farmers have not been met. Of the 2005 target to transfer about 25 million ha of commercial farmland to black farmers by 2014, less than 5 million ha. have been transferred for commercial use. Some studies report failure rates in resettlement projects of up to 90%. To account for the failures, revisions of policies and amendments to legislations have been proposed within a political environment that is becoming increasingly intolerant to slow progress in land transfers and to resettlement failures. Aim: Against this environment, this paper presents a typology for understanding and evaluating important elements of the land reform project in order to influence progress in the process. Setting: The study adopts a historical review of land reform processes in post-colonial Kenya and Zimbabwe in order to identify potential challenges and key lessons for South Africa. Methods: Hence, using institutional and historical analytical lenses in exploring different narratives, the paper reviews reported failures and successes in land reform policy cases from the selected countries. From an institutional framework, prevalent social institutions and key lessons from Kenya, Zimbabwe and South Africa, a typology for evaluating important elements of the land reform process in South Africa is developed and discussed. Additionally, a review of global data collected on average sizes of farms in different regions of the world is provided as evidence to support propositions of what would constitute efficient farmland size ranges for small to medium commercial farms in South Africa. Results and conclusion: A proposition is made on how to use the typology to guide policy and research interventions to reduce failures

  5. Integrated community case management of malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea across three African countries: A qualitative study exploring lessons learnt and implications for further scale up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Strachan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies highlight the effectiveness of an integrated approach for the management of malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea at the community level. There has however been little study on lessons learnt from implementation in practice and stakeholder experiences which could inform future programmatic planning and evaluation frameworks. A participatory, qualitative evaluation was conducted in the three varied settings of South Sudan, Uganda and Zambia, which have seen the scale up of integrated community case management (iCCM over the last five years. All key in–country stakeholders were consulted on study design, with a particular focus on scope and methodology. Data collection methods included stakeholder consultations (key informant interviews, focus group discussions, and a review of project and Ministry of Health documentation. Data analysis followed the Framework Approach. Results suggest that iCCM implementation generally followed national pre–agreed guidelines. Overarching key programmatic recommendations included: collaboration with implementing partners in planning stages to positively impact on community acceptance and ownership; adoption of participatory training methods adapted to low literacy populations; development of alternative support supervision methods such as peer support groups; full integration of community level data into the health management information system and emphasizing data analysis, use and feedback at all levels; strengthened supply chains through improved quantification and procurement of commodities in conjunction with the national distribution network; community engagement to establish a support system for community health workers to increase their motivation; enhanced sensitisation and behaviour change communication to raise awareness and usage of appropriate health services; and advocacy at the national level for funding and logistical support for the continuation and integration of iCCM. This

  6. Monitoring fever treatment behaviour and equitable access to effective medicines in the context of initiatives to improve ACT access: baseline results and implications for programming in six African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Littrell Megan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Access to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT remains limited in high malaria-burden countries, and there are concerns that the poorest people are particularly disadvantaged. This paper presents new evidence on household treatment-seeking behaviour in six African countries. These data provide a baseline for monitoring interventions to increase ACT coverage, such as the Affordable Medicines Facility for malaria (AMFm. Methods Nationally representative household surveys were conducted in Benin, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC, Madagascar, Nigeria, Uganda and Zambia between 2008 and 2010. Caregivers responded to questions about management of recent fevers in children under five. Treatment indicators were tabulated across countries, and differences in case management provided by the public versus private sector were examined using chi-square tests. Logistic regression was used to test for association between socioeconomic status and 1 malaria blood testing, and 2 ACT treatment. Results Fever treatment with an ACT is low in Benin (10%, the DRC (5%, Madagascar (3% and Nigeria (5%, but higher in Uganda (21% and Zambia (21%. The wealthiest children are significantly more likely to receive ACT compared to the poorest children in Benin (OR = 2.68, 95% CI = 1.12-6.42; the DRC (OR = 2.18, 95% CI = 1.12-4.24; Madagascar (OR = 5.37, 95% CI = 1.58-18.24; and Nigeria (OR = 6.59, 95% CI = 2.73-15.89. Most caregivers seek treatment outside of the home, and private sector outlets are commonly the sole external source of treatment (except in Zambia. However, children treated in the public sector are significantly more likely to receive ACT treatment than those treated in the private sector (except in Madagascar. Nonetheless, levels of testing and ACT treatment in the public sector are low. Few caregivers name the national first-line drug as most effective for treating malaria in Madagascar (2%, the DRC (2%, Nigeria (4% and Benin (10

  7. Archives: East African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 228 ... Current Issue Atom logo. RSS2 logo. RSS1 logo. 521 African Journals. Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access. Featuring journals from 32 Countries: Algeria (5); Benin (2); Botswana (3); Burkina Faso (3) ...

  8. Mathematical Modeling of the HIV/Kaposi’s Sarcoma Coinfection Dynamics in Areas of High HIV Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lungu

    2013-01-01

    k to below unity should be the goal for disease eradication. Provision of HAART is shown to provide dual benefit of reducing HIV spread and the risk of acquiring another fatal disease for HIV/AIDS patients. By providing treatment to 10% of the HIV population, about 87% of the AIDS population acquire protection against coinfection with HIV and Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS. Most sub-Sahara African countries already have programmes in place to screen HIV. Our recommendation is that these programmes should be expanded to include testing for HHV-8 and KS counseling.

  9. Tendências e tensões de sociabilidade de estudantes dos Palop em duas universidades brasileiras Tendencies and tensions in the sociability of students from African countries where Portuguese is the official language at two Brazilian universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho discute, a partir de uma perspectiva etnográfica, tendências e tensões características da sociabilidade de estudantes africanos - vindos de países de língua oficial portuguesa - na Universidade de Brasília (UnB e na Universidade de São Paulo (USP. Abordamos os modos pelos quais eles experimentam as práticas linguísticas e pedagógicas das universidades, vivenciam as tensões raciais existentes no Brasil, atribuem sentido aos espaços urbanos nos quais são acolhidos; e analisamos seus padrões mais comuns de interação e agregação. Sugerimos que o tempo de participação no fluxo migratório, a nacionalidade de origem dos estudantes e a cidade de acolhida no Brasil são variáveis que condicionam de forma importante a sociabilidade dos estudantes. Residualmente, e de forma ainda incipiente, exploramos algumas dinâmicas de identificação entre os alunos. Alguns se apresentam como sujeitos em diáspora. Outros, contudo, chamam atenção para a necessidade de continuarem a ser reconhecidos como estrangeiros. A maioria demonstra surpresa em se ver percebido como negro ou africano, simplesmente. Os estudantes vêm para o Brasil mediante o Programa Estudante Convênio de Graduação (PEC-G, um acordo diplomático que facilita o deslocamento do aluno ao nosso país a fim de realizar seu curso de nível superior.This article discusses typical tendencies and tensions of the sociability of foreign students from African countries where Portuguese is the official language at 'Universidade de Brasilia' and at 'Universidade de São Paulo'. Our analysis is carried out through an ethnographic approach. We analyze the way students experienced the linguistic and pedagogical practices at the universities, the way they make sense the urban spaces they live as well as the Brazilian typical racial tensions and their most common patterns of integration and aggregation. The time they are involved in the migratory flow, the city they live in

  10. CAPACITY BUILDING FOR WOMEN IN AFRICAN COUNTRIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UDS-CAPTURED

    This work examines capacity building efforts for the women of. Sierra Leone. It focuses on how ... reproductive health care, participation in politics, public life and decision-making, feminization of poverty due to low incomes and .... Sierra Leone, who is involved in training potential women political candidates. Through the.

  11. Globalisation And Developing Countries | Ramakrishna | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper we find that "globalisation" has been defined in different ways by different people. Globalisation is like an LPG Syndrome comprising liberalisation, privatization and globalisation. Main criticism about globalisation comes from the fact that although it generated unprecedented opportunities and wealth, the ...

  12. ACLED Country Report: Central African Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    unarmed civilians in CAR surpasses even that of the Democratic Republic of Congo . A contributing factor to the levels of violence is the weak...apparent effect, a second ceasefire agreement was signed in Brazzaville, Republic of the Congo , on 23rd July 2014 between the Séléka, the Anti-Balaka and...Rights Watch, 2014). This has led to reprisal attacks on the part of the Séléka, and targeting by both groups now frequent- ly focuses on the religion

  13. Program-level and contextual-level determinants of low-median CD4+ cell count in cohorts of persons initiating ART in eight sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Denis; Wu, Yingfeng; Elul, Batya; Hoos, David; El Sadr, Wafaa

    2011-07-31

    In sub-Saharan Africa, many patients initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) at CD4 cell counts much lower than those recommended in national guidelines. We examined program-level and contextual-level factors associated with low median CD4 cell count at ART initiation in populations initiating ART. Multilevel analysis of aggregate and program-level service delivery data. We examined data on 1690 cohorts of patients initiating ART during 2004-2008 in eight sub-Saharan African countries. Cohorts with median CD4 less than 111 cells/μl (the lowest quartile) were classified as having low median CD4 cell count at ART initiation. Cohort information was combined with time-updated program-level data and subnational contextual-level data, and analyzed using multilevel models. The 1690 cohorts had median CD4 cell count of 136 cells/μl and included 121,504 patients initiating ART at 267 clinics. Program-level factors associated with low cohort median CD4 cell count included urban setting [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.1; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-3.3], lower provider-to-patient ratio (AOR 2.2; 95% CI 1.3-4.0), no PMTCT program (AOR 3.6; 95% CI 1.0-12.8), outreach services for ART patients only vs. both pre-ART and ART patients (AOR 2.4; 95% CI 1.5-3.9), fewer vs. more adherence support services (AOR 1.6; 95% CI 1.0-2.5), and smaller cohort size (AOR 2.5; 95% CI 1.4-4.5). Contextual-level factors associated with low cohort median CD4 cell count included initiating ART in areas where a lower proportion of the population heard of AIDS, tested for HIV recently, and a higher proportion believed 'limiting themselves to one HIV-uninfected sexual partner reduces HIV risk'. Determinants of CD4 cell count at ART initiation in populations initiating ART operate at multiple levels. Structural interventions targeting points upstream from ART initiation along the continuum from infection to diagnosis to care engagement are needed.

  14. The African Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas; Mandrup, Bjørn

    2009-01-01

    The African Union (AU) is a young international organisation, founded in 2002, which is still in the process of setting up its various institutions, while constantly having to face up to new challenges, such as civil wars breaking out and military coups being undertaken in its member states...... or individual donor countries, thus to a large extent determines whether initiatives will actually be implemented and whether institutions will actually be established or remain empty shells....

  15. African Journals Online: Turks and Caicos Islands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Turks and Caicos Islands. Home > African Journals Online: Turks and Caicos Islands. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This ...

  16. African Journals Online: Saint Kitts and Nevis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Saint Kitts and Nevis. Home > African Journals Online: Saint Kitts and Nevis. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is ...

  17. African Journals Online: Micronesia, Federated States of

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Micronesia, Federated States of. Home > African Journals Online: Micronesia, Federated States of. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read ...

  18. Challenges to internationalisation in African higher education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paucity of clear, comprehensive and current information about higher education, and internationalisation in African higher education, scratches African countries from contention in both the race within Africa, and the race globally, for quality higher education for the world's mobile students. In addition to a lack of ...

  19. African indigenous and traditional vegetables in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    harvest management, and marketing. ... African Crop Science Journal ... Support Program, now named the Horticulture Innovation Lab, builds international partnerships for fruit and vegetable research to improve livelihoods in developing countries.

  20. African Health Economics and Policy Research Capacity Building ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    African Health Economics and Policy Research Capacity Building and Dissemination. As African countries move toward universal health coverage, it is clear there is a shortage of African experts with applied research skills in health financing such as fiscal space analysis, needs-based resource allocation methods, and ...

  1. East African rarities committee report | Fisher | Scopus: Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East African Rarities Committee (EARC) Special Report Species included for East African countries in Britton (1980) which have since been considered unacceptable. East African Rarities Committee Report 2013–2015. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ...

  2. Contemporary African philosophy, identity and the question of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This essay reviews the import of the issue of identity in contemporary African philosophy vis-a-vis the language policy of most African countries as well as the attitude of many Africans towards their indigenous languages. Given the pivotal importance of language in ensuring cultural identity it argues that there is an antithesis ...

  3. Sit-Tight Syndrome and Tenure Elongation in African Politics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The post-independence politics of African countries has been dominated by the phenomenon of sit-tight African heads of state and government who had acceeded to office by election or coup d'etat. This paper examines this recurring problem in post-independence African politics by examining its general and specific ...

  4. Obesity and overweight in South African primary school children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: South African children show trends of obesity and overweight, similar to values in developed countries about 10 years ago. Intervention strategies to combat an increasingly sedentary lifestyle may need to be developed for the South African context. South African Medical Journal Vol. 96(5) 2006: 439-444 ...

  5. African Zoology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Zoology, a peer-reviewed research journal, publishes original scientific contributions and critical reviews that focus principally on African fauna in terrestrial, freshwater, and marine ecosystems. Research from other regions that advances practical and theoretical aspects of zoology will be considered. Rigorous ...

  6. Mapping human resources for eye health in 21 countries of sub-Saharan Africa: current progress towards VISION 2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Jennifer J; Chinanayi, Farai; Gilbert, Alice; Pillay, Devan; Fox, Samantha; Jaggernath, Jyoti; Naidoo, Kovin; Graham, Ronnie; Patel, Daksha; Blanchet, Karl

    2014-08-15

    Development of human resources for eye health (HReH) is a major focus of the Global Action Plan 2014 to 2019 to reduce the prevalence of avoidable visual impairment by 25% by the year 2019. The eye health workforce is thought to be much smaller in sub-Saharan Africa than in other regions of the world but data to support this for policy-making is scarce. We collected HReH and cataract surgeries data from 21 countries in sub-Sahara to estimate progress towards key suggested population-based VISION 2020 HReH indicators and cataract surgery rates (CSR) in 2011. Routinely collected data on practitioner and surgery numbers in 2011 was requested from national eye care coordinators via electronic questionnaires. Telephone and e-mail discussions were used to determine data collection strategies that fit the national context and to verify reported data quality. Information was collected on six practitioner cadres: ophthalmologists, cataract surgeons, ophthalmic clinical officers, ophthalmic nurses, optometrists and 'mid-level refractionists' and combined with publicly available population data to calculate practitioner to population ratios and CSRs. Associations with development characteristics were conducted using Wilcoxon rank sum tests and Spearman rank correlations. HReH data was not easily available. A minority of countries had achieved the suggested VISION 2020 targets in 2011; five countries for ophthalmologists/cataract surgeons, four for ophthalmic nurses/clinical officers and two for CSR. All countries were below target for optometrists, even when other cadres who perform refractions as a primary duty were considered. The regional (sample) ratio for surgeons (ophthalmologists and cataract surgeons) was 2.9 per million population, 5.5 for ophthalmic clinical officers and nurses, 3.7 for optometrists and other refractionists, and 515 for CSR. A positive correlation between GDP and CSR as well as many practitioner ratios was observed (CSR P = 0

  7. Mapping human resources for eye health in 21 countries of sub-Saharan Africa: current progress towards VISION 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Development of human resources for eye health (HReH) is a major focus of the Global Action Plan 2014 to 2019 to reduce the prevalence of avoidable visual impairment by 25% by the year 2019. The eye health workforce is thought to be much smaller in sub-Saharan Africa than in other regions of the world but data to support this for policy-making is scarce. We collected HReH and cataract surgeries data from 21 countries in sub-Sahara to estimate progress towards key suggested population-based VISION 2020 HReH indicators and cataract surgery rates (CSR) in 2011. Methods Routinely collected data on practitioner and surgery numbers in 2011 was requested from national eye care coordinators via electronic questionnaires. Telephone and e-mail discussions were used to determine data collection strategies that fit the national context and to verify reported data quality. Information was collected on six practitioner cadres: ophthalmologists, cataract surgeons, ophthalmic clinical officers, ophthalmic nurses, optometrists and ‘mid-level refractionists’ and combined with publicly available population data to calculate practitioner to population ratios and CSRs. Associations with development characteristics were conducted using Wilcoxon rank sum tests and Spearman rank correlations. Results HReH data was not easily available. A minority of countries had achieved the suggested VISION 2020 targets in 2011; five countries for ophthalmologists/cataract surgeons, four for ophthalmic nurses/clinical officers and two for CSR. All countries were below target for optometrists, even when other cadres who perform refractions as a primary duty were considered. The regional (sample) ratio for surgeons (ophthalmologists and cataract surgeons) was 2.9 per million population, 5.5 for ophthalmic clinical officers and nurses, 3.7 for optometrists and other refractionists, and 515 for CSR. A positive correlation between GDP and CSR as well as many practitioner ratios was observed

  8. African Journals Online: African Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 56 ... The African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation will take and publish empirical studies and theoretical propositions as well as ..... The Journal of the Musical Arts in Africa, produced in collaboration with the South African College of Music at University of Cape Town, will henceforth ...

  9. On Cultural And Academic Exchanges Between China And African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cooperation between China and African countries has often been portrayed as an economic one. Despite multiple exchanges in the area of culture and knowledge production, not much is written about Chinese culture in Africa or knowledge production interaction between both China and African countries. Just to give an ...

  10. African Social Security Systems: An Ordinal Evaluation | Dixon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this paper is to rank the social security systems in 45 African countries using a comparative evaluation methodology that enables an assess ment to be ma(le of a country's statutory social security intention. The conclusion drawn is that the spread of African social security system design standards are ...

  11. Resolving the African Development Sclerosis: Two Strategies, No ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At independence, African countries adopted various development strategies. Unable to generate the desired development, African countries embraced regional and economic integration as the alternative approach and adopted the Lagos Plan of Action in 1980. Due to its inherent contradictions and. Western opposition it ...

  12. Salmonella Sepsis in African Children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infection with both Salmonella typhiand non-typhi salmonella. (NTS) is common among children in many African countries. Salmonella typhi predominates among older children and adults with the typical localising features of enteric fever. Nontyphoid salmonellae species are more often reported among children under 5 ...

  13. AFRICAN JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC REVIEW

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Kazungu

    6 PhD and Professor at the Department of Economics, Faculty of Business and Finance, Universiti Tunku Abdul. Rahman ... years, African natural resource rich countries faced sharp price decline in oil and commodities. ... kind of ownership grants an investor with management control in the foreign enterprise (Moosa,. 2002) ...

  14. Archives: East African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 228 ... for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers · about Open Access · Journal Quality. Current Issue Atom logo. RSS2 logo. RSS1 logo. 521 African Journals. Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access.

  15. Archives: African Journal of Biotechnology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 594 ... for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers · about Open Access · Journal Quality. Current Issue Atom logo. RSS2 logo. RSS1 logo. 521 African Journals. Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access.

  16. UBUNTU: A NEW AFRICAN EQUITY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pjj

    The TRC "was conceived as part of the bridge-building process designed to help lead the nation away from a deeply divided past to a future founded on the recognition of human .... 34 for instance, was a case concerning the refusal to allow refugees from African countries to take up employment in the security industry.

  17. WEST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    be a form of reversal to childhood.11. Among the American Indians dementia is considered to be a ..... to stigma.15. The Hausa- Fulani communities are found in many countries of the West-. African sub-region and cultural and religious inclinations are similar. It is thus reasonable to speculate that the findings of this study ...

  18. Politics of African Industrial Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay; Buur, Lars; Therkildsen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    in the early stages of capitalist transformation that also experience the pressures of elections due to democratization, this book provides four in-depth African country studies that illustrate the challenges to economic transformation and the politics of implementing industrial policies....

  19. Marketing in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, A H

    1979-10-27

    I fully support the views of Mr. Chetley of War on Want on the marketing of infant foods in developing countries (Oct. 6, p. 747). My experience of eight years medical work in West Africa prompts me to broaden the debate. Advertising and promotional practices used by many European and American pharmaceutical companies are in many instances directed primarily to the non-professional and often poorly educated general public and appear to be geared simply to achieve the maximum volume of sales. Likewise, the cynical disregard of cigarette manufacturers for the dangers of smoking is very apparent in the way in which advertising and promotional campaigns are conducted in developing countries. Fifteen years ago cigarettes were largely imported items but now, certainly in one major West African country, there is a large and flourishing tobacco industry which appears to be run primarily by European interests and which is obviously not there for the health benefit of the people. Is it not a sad reflection on the morality of the society in which we live that, while striving to control unethical and undesirable practices at home, we make little or no effort to regulate those practices abroad when profit is the objective?

  20. THE TRAGEDY CAUSED BY FAKE ANTIMALARIAL DRUGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Ambroise-Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Counterfeit antimalarials (mainly artemisinin derivatives is a crucial health problem in developing countries, particularly in Africa. The illegal production, sale and distribution of fake drugs is a huge market evaluated to several billion of dollars and represents more than 50% of the pharmaceutical market in several African countries. Fake drugs have led to a very great number of deaths from untreated malaria or fatality provoked by toxic ingredients. These fake medicines increase the risk of artemisinin resistance developed by the use of sub therapeutic dosages of antimalarials. Tackling this criminal traffic is the objective of an international  programme created by WHO  and involves the international police and custom organizations like INTERPOL. Several very important and encouraging results have been obtained, but the problem will be completely solved if genuine antimalarials, free-of-charge, are handed-over to populations in sub Sahara African countries.

     

     

  1. Genome-wide patterns of population structure and admixture in West Africans and African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryc, Katarzyna; Auton, Adam; Nelson, Matthew R; Oksenberg, Jorge R; Hauser, Stephen L; Williams, Scott; Froment, Alain; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Wambebe, Charles; Tishkoff, Sarah A; Bustamante, Carlos D

    2010-01-12

    Quantifying patterns of population structure in Africans and African Americans illuminates the history of human populations and is critical for undertaking medical genomic studies on a global scale. To obtain a fine-scale genome-wide perspective of ancestry, we analyze Affymetrix GeneChip 500K genotype data from African Americans (n = 365) and individuals with ancestry from West Africa (n = 203 from 12 populations) and Europe (n = 400 from 42 countries). We find that population structure within the West African sample reflects primarily language and secondarily geographical distance, echoing the Bantu expansion. Among African Americans, analysis of genomic admixture by a principal component-based approach indicates that the median proportion of European ancestry is 18.5% (25th-75th percentiles: 11.6-27.7%), with very large variation among individuals. In the African-American sample as a whole, few autosomal regions showed exceptionally high or low mean African ancestry, but the X chromosome showed elevated levels of African ancestry, consistent with a sex-biased pattern of gene flow with an excess of European male and African female ancestry. We also find that genomic profiles of individual African Americans afford personalized ancestry reconstructions differentiating ancient vs. recent European and African ancestry. Finally, patterns of genetic similarity among inferred African segments of African-American genomes and genomes of contemporary African populations included in this study suggest African ancestry is most similar to non-Bantu Niger-Kordofanian-speaking populations, consistent with historical documents of the African Diaspora and trans-Atlantic slave trade.

  2. Immunizations and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Immunizations Immunizations and African Americans African American adults are less ... 19 to 35 months had comparable rates of immunization. African American women are as likely to have ...

  3. East African Rarities Committee (EARC) Rarities Report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The East African Rarities Committee assesses records of new and very rare birds occurring in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi. This includes up to the fifth record of any species from each of the five countries. Sightings of species for which there are fewer than five records for a country should be submitted to.

  4. Archives: South African Journal of Chemistry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 18 of 18 ... Current Issue Atom logo. RSS2 logo. RSS1 logo. 521 African Journals. Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access. Featuring journals from 32 Countries: Algeria (5); Benin (2); Botswana (3); Burkina Faso (3); Cameroon ...

  5. Refugees Connecting with a New Country through Community Food Gardening

    OpenAIRE

    Neil Harris; Fiona Rowe Minniss; Shawn Somerset

    2014-01-01

    Refugees are a particularly vulnerable population who undergo nutrition transition as a result of forced migration. This paper explores how involvement in a community food garden supports African humanitarian migrant connectedness with their new country. A cross-sectional study of a purposive sample of African refugees participating in a campus-based community food garden was conducted. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with twelve African humanitarian migrants who tended established...

  6. Epidemiology and epigenetics of type 2 diabetes among African migrants in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeks, K.A.C.

    2017-01-01

    The global burden of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is high and rising and affects high income countries as well as low- and middle income countries such as countries in the sub-Saharan African region. Sub-Saharan African migrants in Europe seem disproportionally affected by T2D compared to European host

  7. A SNP test to identify Africanized honeybees via proportion of 'African' ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Nadine C; Harpur, Brock A; Lim, Julianne; Rinderer, Thomas E; Allsopp, Michael H; Zayed, Amro; Oldroyd, Benjamin P

    2015-11-01

    The honeybee, Apis mellifera, is the world's most important pollinator and is ubiquitous in most agricultural ecosystems. Four major evolutionary lineages and at least 24 subspecies are recognized. Commercial populations are mainly derived from subspecies originating in Europe (75-95%). The Africanized honeybee is a New World hybrid of A. m. scutellata from Africa and European subspecies, with the African component making up 50-90% of the genome. Africanized honeybees are considered undesirable for bee-keeping in most countries, due to their extreme defensiveness and poor honey production. The international trade in honeybees is restricted, due in part to bans on the importation of queens (and semen) from countries where Africanized honeybees are extant. Some desirable strains from the United States of America that have been bred for traits such as resistance to the mite Varroa destructor are unfortunately excluded from export to countries such as Australia due to the presence of Africanized honeybees in the USA. This study shows that a panel of 95 single nucleotide polymorphisms, chosen to differentiate between the African, Eastern European and Western European lineages, can detect Africanized honeybees with a high degree of confidence via ancestry assignment. Our panel therefore offers a valuable tool to mitigate the risks of spreading Africanized honeybees across the globe and may enable the resumption of queen and bee semen imports from the Americas. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. African Environment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental Studies and Regional Planning Bulletin African Environment is published in French and English, and for some issues, in Arabic. (only the issue below has been received by AJOL). Vol 10, No 3 (1999). DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Table of ...

  9. Trailing the Growth from Nativism to Africanity in Lusophone African Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sovon Sanyal

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Article explored the development of African poetry, that is from nativism to be Africanity, in Lusophone African poetries. The study used library research by analysing the impact of printing press, public education, and freedom of expression emergences toward literary activities in Portuguese colonies in Africa. In this regard ethnological and historical studies on the colonies had an important role to play for the later development of nationalism among the colonised African peoples. Article’s discussion concerned with describing proper literary activities in Portuguese began in the Lusophone countries of Africa, poetry characterization by the “black” and “white” presentations, added by some example of poetries. It can be concluded the problematic of colour is present in African poems in Portuguese right from its inception, The common purpose of the nineteenth century Lusophone African poets was to discover the regional cultural history and identity, which was denied to them for centuries by the foreign rulers. 

  10. The Making of the Second Diaspora: On the Recent African Immigrant Community in the United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takyi, Baffour K.

    2002-01-01

    Documents the experiences of recent African immigrants using data from the 1990 U.S. Census. Results indicate that emigration from Africa to the United States is a recent phenomenon, the African immigrant community is not very large, and eight main countries provide the bulk of African immigrants. Significant numbers of African immigrants have…

  11. Emerging revenue model structure for mobile industry: the case for traditional and OTT service providers in Sub-Sahara

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mahola, U

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available With the emergence of internet-based service providers, known as Over-the-top (OTT), the business landscape has changed massively, hence the current traditional service provider’s business models are transforming. The question treated in this paper...

  12. DYNAMICS OF AGRICULTURAL EXPORTS IN SUB-SAHARA AFRICA: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF RUBBER AND COCOA FROM NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifeanyi Ndubuto Nwachukwu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available ithin 1961 – 2010. It specifically estimated the determinants of their export performance and determined the degree of export diversification of the agricultural sector. Both export crops were chosen because they remained the most exported agricultural commodities after the number of agricultural exports commodities shrank from the traditional 12–15 commodities of the 1960s. Published national aggregates on specific trade and macroeconomic variables from reputable secondary sources were used. In the course of data analysis, descriptive statistics, diversification index and Error Correction Model (ECM were employed. Prior to estimation, Unit root and Cointegration tests were conducted. The results revealed that export supply of cocoa was found to be influenced by export cost and rainfall in the long run while output, cost of production and export affected it in the short run. Rubber export supply was influenced by cost of export and exchange rate in the long run while world export-output ratio and cost of export affected it in the short run. The study results further revealed that export diversification measure showed that the sector experienced fluctuations with varying Hirschman indices which ranged from 1.3 x 10-7 to 5.1 x 10-7 , depicting decreasing concentration. Invariably, this implies increasing leanness of the export basket. On the basis of the result, it is necessary to explore policy options such as export financing and foreign exchange policies to promote production in the export subsector of agriculture and industrial sector to diversify the national export basket.

  13. An African Scholars Perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    Abstract. The transformation of the Organization of African Unity to African. Union is a historical landmark of African Leaders' intention towards integration, project her continental interest in the international state system and seek for African initiative in solving African problems. This paper seeks to strengthen the operations of ...

  14. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ChemSearch Journal. Vol 48, No 3 (2018). South African Journal of Animal Science. Vol 8, No 1 (2018). African Journal of Chemical Education. Vol 48, No 2 (2018). South African Journal of Animal Science. Vol 48, No 1 (2018). South African Journal of Animal Science. Vol 7, No 1 (2018). South African Journal of Geomatics.

  15. The topology of African exports: Emerging patterns on spanning trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Tanya; Ferreira, Manuel Ennes

    2016-11-01

    This paper is a contribution to interweaving two lines of research that have progressed in separate ways: network analysis of international trade and the literature on African trade and development. Gathering empirical data on African countries has important limitations and so does the space occupied by African countries in the analysis of trade networks. Here, these limitations are dealt with by the definition of two independent bipartite networks: a destination share network and a commodity share network. These networks-together with their corresponding minimal spanning trees-allow to uncover some ordering emerging from African exports in the broader context of international trade. The emerging patterns help to understand important characteristics of African exports and its binding relations to other economic, geographic and organizational concerns as the recent literature on African trade, development and growth has shown.

  16. Obesity and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...

  17. Retraction | Simon | African Zoology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Panthera leo) ina. West African national park”. African Zoology is publishing an Editorial Expression of Concern regarding the following article: “New records of a threatened lion population (Panthera leo) in a West African national park” by ...

  18. Aspects of size and geography of an African cyberspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Nwagwu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, data on web links collected from 15 African countries, three with the highest Internet penetration in each of North, West, Central, East, and South regions were used to study the number and origins of links to Africa. The sample has a ratio of one Internet user per 12 persons. Altogether, all African countries generated a total of 124,047,702 Web pages and 30,546,967 inlinks to the pages, an average of about 0.25 links per page. But the sample constituted which 28% of all the countries in the region generated 98,629,700 pages and 21,272,500 inlinks, an average of about 0.21 inlinks per page. South Africa ranked highest in web pages and web links per population and also received the highest number of inlinks from other African countries and the G8. However, Kenya linked other African countries more than the others did. Population size does not relate to number of web pages, self-inlinks, and inlinks or penetration, but relates positively with number of Internet users. Among others, a major step in boosting use of Internet resources in Africa will be in developing policies that will encourage African countries to use information developed by other African countries.

  19. African Solutions to African Problems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmanuel, Nikolas G.; Schwartz, Brendan

    2017-01-01

    . The emergence of Déby’s Chad depends both on its ability to accomplish sub-imperial tasks encouraged by these actors, while obfuscating undemocratic governance and human rights abuses at home. Nonetheless, Déby’s role in regional security has helped him achieve a certain degree of agency in his relationship......—tenuous position at home and abroad. Chad is the current representation of the hackneyed phrase, “African solutions to African problems”. However, one must not forget that Chad’s meteoric rise has been facilitated by important states in the international system, mainly France but also the United States...... of apparently competing liberal and illiberal interests. This will lead us to a better explanation of Déby’s recent rise at home and abroad....

  20. List of Higher Risk Countries and Territories (IDRC, July 2013 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    Afghanistan. Central African Republic. Congo, Brazzaville. Congo, Democratic Republic of. Chad. Cuba. Eastern Europe, countries of. Equatorial Guinea. Eritrea. Former Soviet Union, countries of. Gabon. Guinea-Bissau. Iran. Iraq. Korea, Democratic People's Republic of. Liberia. Libya. Mali. Niger. Papua New Guinea.

  1. List of Higher Risk Countries and Territories (IDRC, April 2012 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    Afghanistan. Belarus. Burundi. Central African Republic. Congo, Democratic Republic of. Chad. Cuba. Eastern Europe, countries of. Eritrea. Former Soviet Union, countries of. Iran. Iraq. Korea, Democratic People's Republic of. Liberia. Libya. Mali. Myanmar (Burma). Papua New Guinea. Some small island states. Somalia.

  2. List of Higher Risk Countries and Territories (IDRC, September 2012 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    Afghanistan. Belarus. Burundi. Central African Republic. Congo, Democratic Republic of. Chad. Cuba. Eastern Europe, countries of. Eritrea. Former Soviet Union, countries of. Iran. Iraq. Korea, Democratic People's Republic of. Liberia. Libya. Mali. Myanmar (Burma). Papua New Guinea. Some small island states. Somalia.

  3. Landmarks of Poetic Renaissance in the Works of Selected African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study is a survey of critical perspectives on a selection of modern African poets who concerned themselves with the socio-political problems in their various local setups and countries. The commonest thing to all of them is the belief and practice in the poet's activist role in the African polity. This group of writers believes ...

  4. The Nexus between African traditional practices and homophobic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa is the only country in Africa where same-sex marriages are legal, in a continent where homosexuality remains largely detested, misunderstood, unlawful and severely punishable. Moreover, there is a desire by closely knit African communities to preserve traditional African customs relating to marriage, family ...

  5. Analytical Support to African and Caribbean Trade Negotiations ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Analytical Support to African and Caribbean Trade Negotiations - Phase III. International Lawyers and Economists against Poverty (ILEAP) is an initiative that aims to help African and Caribbean countries derive full benefit from integration into the global economy. Its work is premised on the recognition that while significant ...

  6. Solid medical waste management in Africa | Udofia | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solid medical waste management in Africa. ... African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... Increased awareness about inadequate management of solid medical waste (SMW) has led to increased independent surveys in African countries and yet published data remain scanty on the subject in Africa as ...

  7. Mainstreaming African Local Content in the Information Society: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The global transition to the information and knowledge society requires that every country contribute its local content to the burgeoning global information infrastructure. African states and the African continent as a whole have much to offer in form of indigenous knowledge and scholarly research. However, it has been very ...

  8. A checklist of South African theses and dissertations on Shakespeare

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This checklist is in two parts. The first lists South African Shakespearean theses and dissertations, as well as some work on Shakespeare completed abroad by South Africans recently or currently active in the country. A few items in which Shakespeare is an important subordinate focus are included. The second list is ...

  9. African Health Economics and Policy Research Capacity Building ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    As African countries move toward universal health coverage, it is clear there is a shortage of African experts with applied research skills in health financing such as fiscal space analysis, needs-based resource allocation methods, and benefit incidence analysis of the equity impact of health ... Project Leader. Chris Atim ...

  10. African Journals Online: United States Minor Outlying Islands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: United States Minor Outlying Islands. Home > African Journals Online: United States Minor Outlying Islands. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles ...

  11. Parenting African American Children in the Context of Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Angela W.; Smyke, Anna T.; Middleton, Melissa; Black, Corey L.

    2015-01-01

    The legacy of slavery in the United States has impacted generations of African Americans, especially parents who must prepare their children to face the challenges associated with being a person of color in this country. The authors explore aspects of racism, White privilege, racial socialization, and African American parents' fears as they equip…

  12. The emerging South African profile in Africa: Reflections on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1998-10-21

    Oct 21, 1998 ... Yet these developments are of great interest from a South African foreign policy and security point of ... Norway, Canada, Sweden and the Netherlands, and developing countries such as India, Cuba and ... responsibilities, the prioritisation afforded to Africa in South African foreign policy makes Africa the.

  13. Consensual Same-Sex Sexual Relationships in South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although consensual same-sex sexual relationships in female prisons have been a topic of scholarly discourse, it has received little attention in African countries, and South Africa is no exception. Consensual same-sex sexual relationships between females in African prisons have received little attention by researchers ...

  14. Regional Integration: A Political Federation of the East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this paper is to explore the possibility and viability of an East African political federation project. Since the late 1800s under the then British East Africa, the countries of East Africa have been searching for ways to integrate. The search led to the establishment of the East African Community (EAC) in December ...

  15. Malaria prophylaxis - the South African viewpoint | Baker | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A consensus meeting was held under the auspices of the Department of National Health and Population Development in September 1991 in order to establish local, current consensus on malaria prophylaxis for the South African traveller within South Africa and neighbouring African countries. The meeting was attended by ...

  16. South African Corporations and post-Apartheid Expansion in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The defeat of Apartheid in 1994 liberated not only South Africa's internal political processes but also its economic relations with neighbouring countries in the Southern African Development Community (SADC). A key outcome was the surge of South African capital northward after years of dampened large scale investment ...

  17. Asymmetric warfare in African conflicts | Ferreira | Scientia Militaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Irregular wars have erupted in African states since colonial independence from Western European countries in the 1960s. The end of the Cold War in 1989 and the changing nature of international politics did not bring about political stability in African states either. These intrastate wars were by-products of historic disputes ...

  18. What happened to anti-malarial markets after the Affordable Medicines Facility-malaria pilot? Trends in ACT availability, price and market share from five African countries under continuation of the private sector co-payment mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tougher, Sarah; Hanson, Kara; Goodman, Catherine

    2017-04-25

    The private sector supplies anti-malarial treatment for large proportions of patients in sub-Saharan Africa. Following the large-scale piloting of the Affordable Medicines Facility-malaria (AMFm) from 2010 to 2011, a private sector co-payment mechanism (CPM) provided continuation of private sector subsidies for quality-assured artemisinin combination therapies (QAACT). This article analyses for the first time the extent to which improvements in private sector QAACT supply and distribution observed during the AMFm were maintained or intensified during continuation of the CPM through 2015 in Kenya, Madagascar, Nigeria, Tanzania and Uganda using repeat cross-sectional outlet survey data. QAACT market share in all five countries increased during the AMFm period (p market share was maintained or improved post-AMFm in Nigeria, Tanzania and Uganda, but statistically significant declines were observed in Kenya and Madagascar. In 2014/5, QAACT market share was highest in Kenya and Uganda (48.2 and 47.5%, respectively) followed by Tanzania (39.2%), Nigeria (35.0%), and Madagascar (7.0%). Four of the five countries experienced significant decreases in median QAACT price during the AMFm period. Private sector QAACT prices were maintained or further reduced in Tanzania, Nigeria and Uganda, but prices increased significantly in Kenya and Madagascar. SP prices were consistently lower than those of QAACT in the AMFm period, with the exception of Kenya and Tanzania in 2011, where they were equal. In 2014/5 QAACT remained two to three times more expensive than the most popular non-artemisinin therapy in all countries except Tanzania. Results suggest that a private sector co-payment mechanism for QAACT implemented at national scale for 5 years was associated with positive and sustained improvements in QAACT availability, price and market share in Nigeria, Tanzania and Uganda, with more mixed results in Kenya, and few improvements in Madagascar. The subsidy mechanism as implemented

  19. International Terrorism and East African sub-regionalism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    2006-05-23

    regional Tourism. Industry in the Face of War. Alfred Anangwe*. Abstract. This paper discusses both positive and negative implications of fighting interna- tional terrorism and how it impacts on trust between East African countries, ...

  20. Framework for an African policy towards creating cyber security awareness

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dlamini, IZ

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available , Estonia, Korea), identification of African countries that have such policies in place, and identification of the agencies, forums, workgroups, conferences, organisations and other initiatives that are currently dealing with ICT and cyber security policy...

  1. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 3, No 11 (2004)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Putting GM technologies to work: public research pipelines in selected African countries · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Idah Sithole-Niang, Joel Cohen, Patricia Zambrano, 564-571 ...

  2. The South African clinical trial industry: Implications of problems with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-06-14

    , exporting ... This could have detrimental consequences for the South African trial industry, especially with the country's ... It is then submitted to the acting director for checking and verification, and to the cluster manager for.

  3. African Health Sciences Vol 9 Special Issue.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Background: Mental health related risk factors for non-adherence to highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) have not ... Sub-Saharan African countries are home to more than ... which have dramatically decreased the HIV prevalence.

  4. International Terrorism and East African sub-regionalism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. This paper discusses both positive and negative implications of fighting international terrorism and how it impacts on trust between East African countries, peace building in the region and tourism development in East Africa.

  5. NEPAD and African Development: Towards a New Partnership ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    daouda.thiam

    2009-02-26

    Feb 26, 2009 ... To what extent can the African Peer Review Mechanism, which aims at sharing the ... contribute to the development of these countries? 3.Tawfik.pmd ..... the addition of the OMEGA plan, were the main sources of NEPAD's.

  6. Resolving the African Development Sclerosis: Two Strategies, No ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-20

    133-147). Asuk, O. C. - Department of History & Diplomatic Studies, Faculty of. Humanities, University of Port Harcourt. E-mail: ocasuk2000@yahoo.com. Phone No. 08036700447. Abstract. At independence, African countries ...

  7. Developing the African national health research systems barometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirigia, Joses Muthuri; Ota, Martin Okechukwu; Senkubuge, Flavia; Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Mayosi, Bongani M

    2016-07-22

    A functional national health research system (NHRS) is crucial in strengthening a country's health system to promote, restore and maintain the health status of its population. Progress towards the goal of universal health coverage in the post-2015 sustainable development agenda will be difficult for African countries without strengthening of their NHRS to yield the required evidence for decision-making. This study aims to develop a barometer to facilitate monitoring of the development and performance of NHRSs in the African Region of WHO. The African national health research systems barometer algorithm was developed in response to a recommendation of the African Advisory Committee for Health Research and Development of WHO. Survey data collected from all the 47 Member States in the WHO African Region using a questionnaire were entered into an Excel spreadsheet and analysed. The barometer scores for each country were calculated and the performance interpreted according to a set of values ranging from 0% to 100%. The overall NHRS barometer score for the African Region was 42%, which is below the average of 50%. Among the 47 countries, the average NHRS performance was less than 20% in 10 countries, 20-40% in 11 countries, 41-60% in 16 countries, 61-80% in nine countries, and over 80% in one country. The performance of NHRSs in 30 (64%) countries was below 50%. An African NHRS barometer with four functions and 17 sub-functions was developed to identify the gaps in and facilitate monitoring of NHRS development and performance. The NHRS scores for the individual sub-functions can guide policymakers to locate sources of poor performance and to design interventions to address them.

  8. The African School of Fundamental Physics and its Applications 2012 - English subtitles

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Video Productions

    2012-01-01

    Forty-nine students from 15 African countries plus one student from Iran are currently attending the African School of Physics (ASP) 2012. The school, which is in its second year, is a unique opportunity for young African students to receive training in cutting-edge physics research. Listen to their voices…

  9. Using ICTs (Educationally) for Development in an African Context: Possibilities and Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrim, Nazir; Taruvinga, Mandi

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the possibilities and limitations of using ICTs for development in an African context from an education perspective. Although we provide an account of the Pan-African Agenda on integrating ICTs, which covers many countries on the African continent, our focus is specifically on using ICTs for development in a South African…

  10. Local Villages and Global Networks: The Language and Migration Experiences of African Skilled Migrant Academics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    African skilled migrants and their circular and return migration strategies have received relatively little attention in the literature, with the previous focus of much African migration literature being on the net loss of skills to countries with developed economies in the global north. This article considers 13 interviews with African skilled…

  11. Environmental ethics: An African understanding | Ojomo | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental ethics: An African understanding. ... African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... Abstract. Global concerns about the current environmental crisis have culminated into some controversial environmental ethical theories, that is, normative environmental ethics, sentientist ethics, biocentric ethics, ...

  12. Consulting South Africa\\'s diverse population about the country\\'s ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... African population, several different approaches and methods were used to consult about the National Water Resource Strategy. The main principles of consulting the vast diversity of water users across the country included consultation with the various sectors of society both at national and Water Management Area level, ...

  13. Natural resources endowment and economic growth: The West African Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Jalloh

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the nexus between natural resource endowment and economic growth using a sample of West African countries. The study adopted a Barrow-type growth model to analyse the impact of natural resource wealth on economic growth. A dynamic panel estimation technique was employed using relevant data from West African Countries. The results from the panel regressions indicate that natural resource endowments have very minimal impact in terms of promoting economic growth ...

  14. South African Journal of African Languages

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African Journal of African Languages is a peer-reviewed research journal devoted to the advancement of African (Bantu) and Khoe-San languages and literatures. Papers, book reviews and polemic contributions of a scientific nature in any of the core areas of linguistics, both theoretical (e.g. syntax, phonology, ...

  15. The Politics of African Industrial Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay; Therkildsen, Ole; Buur, Lars

    This book engages in the debate on growth versus economic transformation and the importance of industrial policy, presenting a comprehensive framework for explaining the politics of industrial policy. Using comparative research to theorize about the politics of industrial policy in countries...... in the early stages of capitalist transformation that also experience the pressures of elections due to democratization, this book provides four in-depth African country studies that illustrate the challenges to economic transformation and the politics of implementing industrial policies....

  16. The Politics of African Industrial Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay; Therkildsen, Ole; Buur, Lars

    in the early stages of capitalist transformation that also experience the pressures of elections due to democratization, this book provides four in-depth African country studies that illustrate the challenges to economic transformation and the politics of implementing industrial policies.......This book engages in the debate on growth versus economic transformation and the importance of industrial policy, presenting a comprehensive framework for explaining the politics of industrial policy. Using comparative research to theorize about the politics of industrial policy in countries...

  17. African Communalism and Globalization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    info

    Abstract. The certainty of African philosophy during pre-colonial Africa is no longer in doubt. Doubting such a claim is denying the existence of the African race which may be self contradictory. As this work observes, African philosophy which is all encompassing, is inbuilt in African communalism through which indigenous ...

  18. African Journals Online: Estonia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES. African Journals Online: Estonia. Home > African Journals Online: Estonia. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me

  19. African Journals Online: Ireland

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES. African Journals Online: Ireland. Home > African Journals Online: Ireland. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me

  20. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other African academics. In partnership with hundreds of journals from all over the continent, AJOL works to change this, so that African-origin research output is available to Africans and to the rest of the world. AJOL is a Non-Profit Organisation based in ...