WorldWideScience

Sample records for sub-sahara african countries

  1. Infrastructure and Other Considerations to Launch Nuclear Power Programme: The Case of Sub-Sahara African Developing Countries like Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshesha, Atnatiwos Zeleke

    2011-01-01

    Trends in the world's population and energy use during the past decades show dramatic increases; and the demand for electricity, mainly from developing countries, is expected to increase more rapidly than the demand for other forms of energy. Besides, concern of climate change led to the need for production of significant amount of 'safe and clean' energy which in turn favours to nuclear option. Other alternative renewable sources like solar and wind can assist but currently they are short of supplying the required high energy demand either economically or/and in substantial amount. Nuclear option therefore remains a possible (developed) technology to fill this energy gap; and many countries including developing one show interest to make use of this energy source. In this paper the economic situations and energy production of six East Africa Sub-Saharan developing countries, with total population of 240 million were assessed, and 6.8% and 2.9% average GDP and population growth respectively registered in the last four years; however, their energy production in 2008 (est.) was 17.662 billion kWh, which is the least in the world. The contribution of inadequate energy and its poor coverage in hampering development, increase poverty and unstability were also analyzed. To come out of this cyclic challenge; it is recommended that countries based on regional economic cooperation should interconnect their electricity grid like EAPP and cooperate to invest commonly or unilaterally to launch Nuclear Power Programmes in relatively stable countries. Candid support of the international community is crucial, and IAEA should support and encourage such arrangements. It is also noted that the best candidate to start NP programme in these countries would be the worldwide dominant water cooled reactors. However, for countries with low grid capacity and to carry out projects in remote areas which are far-away from national grid systems or to desalinate water, considerations for smaller

  2. Africa, Sub-Sahara: A Selected Functional and Country Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreign Service (Dept. of State), Washington, DC. Foreign Service Inst.

    Sub-Sahara Africa is covered in this bibliography prepared for use in training programs. Consisting of nearly 500 citations which date from 1940 to the present, topics covered include: POPULATION, Traditional Cultures, Religion, Art, Literature, History, Colonialism, Economic Development, Agricultural Modernization, Education and Manpower,…

  3. Integrated Health Care Systems and Indigenous Medicine: Reflections from the Sub-Sahara African Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Maina Ahlberg

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous or traditional medicine has, since the 1970s, been widely regarded as a resource likely to contribute to strengthening the health care systems in low income countries. This paper examines the state of traditional medicine using evidence from three case studies in Central Kenya. While the cases are too few to represent the broad diversity of cultures and related healing systems in the Sub-Sahara African Region, the way they seem to refute the main assumptions in the integration discourse is important, also because studies from other countries in the region report perspectives, similar to the case studies in Kenya. It is often argued that people continue to use traditional medicine because it is affordable, available, and culturally familiar. Its integration into the health care system would therefore promote cultural familiarity. The case studies however point to the loss of essential cultural elements central to traditional medicine in this particular area while users travel long distances to reach the healers. In addition, there are significant paradigm differences that may present obstacles to integration of the two systems. More problematic however is that integration is, as in many development interventions, a top-down policy that is rarely based on contextual realities and conditions. Instead, integration is often defined and dominated by biomedical professionals and health planners who may be unfamiliar or even hostile to some aspects of traditional medicine. Furthermore, integration efforts have tended to embrace selected components mostly herbal medicine. This has led to isolating herbal medicine from spiritualism, which may in turn affect the holistic perspective of traditional medicine. While familiarity and relevance may explain the continued use of traditional medicine, its services may not be as readily available, accessible, or even affordable as is often asserted. Globalization set in motion through colonization and

  4. Understanding growth options and challenges in African economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of theories relating to economic growth processes in developing countries and relates these theories to the economic growth process in Sub-Sahara African countries......This paper provides an overview of theories relating to economic growth processes in developing countries and relates these theories to the economic growth process in Sub-Sahara African countries...

  5. Deforestation in Sub- Sahara Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Diarrassouba, Malick; Boubacar, Inoussa

    2009-01-01

    According to FAO (2005) about 13 million hectares of the word’s forest are lost due to deforestation. Naoto (2006) found Africa to lead the list of countries with the highest rate of deforestation. This worrisome situation is further aggravated by the possible negative impacts of climate change due to an increase in the mean global temperature. Evidence supports that Africa is most likely to suffer the most the devastating impacts of natural calamities such as droughts and floods. This paper ...

  6. Impacts of climate variability and change on crop yield in sub-Sahara Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, S.; Zhang, J.; Yang, J.; Chen, G.; Xu, R.; Zhang, B.; Lou, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Much concern has been raised about the impacts of climate change and climate extremes on Africa's food security. The impact of climate change on Africa's agriculture is likely to be severe compared to other continents due to high rain-fed agricultural dependence, and limited ability to mitigate and adapt to climate change. In recent decades, warming in Africa is more pronounced and faster than the global average and this trend is likely to continue in the future. However, quantitative assessment on impacts of climate extremes and climate change on crop yield has not been well investigated yet. By using an improved agricultural module of the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM-AG2) driven by spatially-explicit information on land use, climate and other environmental changes, we have assessed impacts of historical climate variability and future climate change on food crop yield across the sub-Sahara Africa during1980-2016 and the rest of the 21st century (2017-2099). Our simulated results indicate that African crop yield in the past three decades shows an increasing trend primarily due to cropland expansion. However, crop yield shows substantially spatial and temporal variation due to inter-annual and inter-decadal climate variability and spatial heterogeneity of environmental drivers. Droughts have largely reduced crop yield in the most vulnerable regions of Sub-Sahara Africa. Future projections with DLEM-AG2 show that food crop production in Sub-Sahara Africa would be favored with limiting end-of-century warming to below 1.50 C.

  7. Trends and challenges towards integration of traditional medicine in formal health care system: Historical perspectives and An Appraisal of education curricula in Sub-Sahara Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Innocent

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The population residing Sub Sahara Africa (SSA continues to suffer from communicable health problems such as HIV/AIDS, Malaria, Tuberculosis, various Neglected Tropical as well as Non-Communicable Diseases. The disease burden is aggravated by shortage of medical personnel and medical supplies such as medicine and medical devices. Also, the population in most countries in this region still and has minimal access to essential medicine. For long time, human beings through observation and practical experiences learned to use different plant species that led to the emergence of traditional medicine (TM systems. The ancient Pharaonic Egyptian traditional medicine system is one of the oldest documented form of traditional medicine practice in Africa and the pioneer of world’s medical science. However, the medical practices diffused very fast to other continents being accelerated by advancement of technologies while leaving Africa lagging behind in the integration of the practice in formal health care system. Challenging issues that drags back integration is the development of education curricula for training Traditional medicine experts as the way of disseminating the traditional medical knowledge and practices imbedded in African culture. The few African countries such as Ghana has managed to integrate TM products in the National Essential Medicine List while South Africa, Sierra Leone and Tanzania have traditional medicine products being sold over the counters due to availability of education training programs facilitated by research. This paper analyses the contribution of TM practice and products in modern medicine and gives recommendations that Africa should taken in the integration process in order to safeguard the Sub-Sahara Africa population from disease burdens [J Complement Med Res 2016; 5(3.000: 312-316

  8. Sub-Sahara's second largest oil producer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, C

    1991-05-01

    With the prospects for peace in Angola following the settlement of the civil war, the oil producing potential for the country is briefly reviewed. Topics covered include the problems of economic growth and development because of the civil war and communist ideology, US foreign policy, production sharing, military expenditure and economic planning. (UK).

  9. JPRS Report Africa (Sub-Sahara)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-16

    products to be exported. Between 20 and 50 Percent The MEDIA prospecting mission will try to attract Nike , Adidas and other internationally known...the global capitalist system. The NLC chairman said a true market situation for determining the current value of the Naira did not exist. 66...country while medium size detergents such as Omo and Elephant sell for between »1.80 and »2 a packet. The largest sizes of these brands which

  10. The clinical epidemiology of spontaneous ICH in a sub-Sahara African country in the CT scan era: a neurosurgical in-hospital cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos Olufemi Adeleye

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background There is paucity of data-driven scientific reports from sub-Saharan Africa on the burden of spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (sICH. We have maintained a prospective consecutive in-hospital data base of cases of sICH referred for neurosurgical intervention over a 5-year period. Methods This is a cross-sectional descriptive study of the clinical epidemiology and brain-CT characterization of sICH from the data base in this region in the current era. Results There were 63 subjects, 38 (60.3% males, aged 28 to 85 years, mean 55.7 (SD, 12.7, the modal age distribution being the sixth decade. Uncontrolled hypertension was the main predisposition in the study: present, premorbid, in 79% but uncontrolled in 88% of these known cases, and exhibited malignant derangements of blood pressure in more than half. The clinical ictus to in-hospital presentation was delayed, median 72 hours; was in severe clinical state in 70%; 57% was comatose, and was complicated with fever in 57% and respiratory morbidity also in 55.6%. The main clinical symptomatology was hemiparesis, headache, vomiting and aphasia. The sICH was supratentorial on brain CT in 85.7%, ganglionic in 50.8% and thalamic in 58.3% of the latter. The bleed had CT evidence of mass effect and intraventricular extension in more than half. Twenty three patients (36.5% underwent operative interventionsConclusions In this patient population, sICH is mainly ganglionic and thalamic in location with significant rate of associated IVH. In-hospital clinical presentation is delayed and in critical state, and, the bleeding is uncontrolled hypertension related in >95%.

  11. Trends and challenges toward integration of traditional medicine in formal health-care system: Historical perspectives and appraisal of education curricula in Sub-Sahara Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocent, Ester

    2016-01-01

    The population residing Sub-Sahara Africa (SSA) continues to suffer from communicable health problems such as HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, and various neglected tropical as well as non-communicable diseases. The disease burden is aggravated by shortage of medical personnel and medical supplies such as medical devices and minimal access to essential medicine. For long time, human beings through observation and practical experiences learned to use different plant species that led to the emergence of traditional medicine (TM) systems. The ancient Pharaonic Egyptian TM system is one of the oldest documented forms of TM practice in Africa and the pioneer of world’s medical science. However, the medical practices diffused very fast to other continents being accelerated by advancement of technologies while leaving Africa lagging behind in the integration of the practice in formal health-care system. Challenging issues that drag back integration is the development of education curricula for training TM experts as the way of disseminating the traditional medical knowledge and practices imbedded in African culture. The few African countries such as Ghana managed to integrate TM products in the National Essential Medicine List while South Africa, Sierra Leone, and Tanzania have TM products being sold over the counters due to the availability of education training programs facilitated by research. This paper analyses the contribution of TM practice and products in modern medicine and gives recommendations that Africa should take in the integration process to safeguard the SSA population from disease burdens. PMID:27366358

  12. Trends and challenges toward integration of traditional medicine in formal health-care system: Historical perspectives and appraisal of education curricula in Sub-Sahara Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocent, Ester

    2016-01-01

    The population residing Sub-Sahara Africa (SSA) continues to suffer from communicable health problems such as HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, and various neglected tropical as well as non-communicable diseases. The disease burden is aggravated by shortage of medical personnel and medical supplies such as medical devices and minimal access to essential medicine. For long time, human beings through observation and practical experiences learned to use different plant species that led to the emergence of traditional medicine (TM) systems. The ancient Pharaonic Egyptian TM system is one of the oldest documented forms of TM practice in Africa and the pioneer of world's medical science. However, the medical practices diffused very fast to other continents being accelerated by advancement of technologies while leaving Africa lagging behind in the integration of the practice in formal health-care system. Challenging issues that drag back integration is the development of education curricula for training TM experts as the way of disseminating the traditional medical knowledge and practices imbedded in African culture. The few African countries such as Ghana managed to integrate TM products in the National Essential Medicine List while South Africa, Sierra Leone, and Tanzania have TM products being sold over the counters due to the availability of education training programs facilitated by research. This paper analyses the contribution of TM practice and products in modern medicine and gives recommendations that Africa should take in the integration process to safeguard the SSA population from disease burdens.

  13. STATE COLLAPSE AND REGIONAL CONTAGION IN SUB-SAHARA AFRICA: LESSONS FOR ZIMBABWE

    OpenAIRE

    James J. Hentz

    2012-01-01

    Hollowing out the stateState collapse is one of the most important security threats in Sub-Sahara Africa. The George W. Bush administration's National Security Strategy includes failed and failing states as a national security priority. The U.S. European Command, whose area of responsibility includes much of Sub-Sahara Africa, are "concerned about ungoverned areas descending into chaos with terrorist and warlords…."2 The United Nations is trying to restore order to numerous collapsed states i...

  14. DETERMINANTS OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY GROWTH IN SUB-SAHARA AFRICA: 1961-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olajide Abraham Ajao

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined changes in agricultural productivity in Sub-Sahara Africa countries in the context of diverse institutional arrangements using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA. From a time series which consists of information on agricultural production and means of production were obtained from FAO AGROSTAT and rainfall data from Steve O’Connell data base. The information was for a 43-year period (1961-2003; DEA method was used to measure Malmquist index of total factor productivity. A decomposition of TFP measures revealed that the observed increase in the TFP in the sub–Sahara Africa agriculture is due to technological change rather than efficiency change which is the main constrained of achieving higher level of TFP during the reference period. The study further examined the effect of land quality, malaria, education and selected governance indicators such as, control of corruption and government effectiveness on productivity growth. All the variables included in the model are significant with the exception of government effectiveness

  15. Energy consumption and economic development in Sub-Sahara Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kebede, Ellene; Kagochi, John; Jolly, Curtis M.

    2010-01-01

    Sub-Saharan African countries' economic development is dependent on energy consumption. This paper assesses total energy demand, which is composed of traditional energy (wood fuel) and commercial energy (electricity and petroleum), in the Central, East, South, and West regions of Sub-Saharan Africa. Cross-sectional time series data for 20 countries in 25 years are analyzed, and the results of the study show that wood fuel accounts for 70% of energy consumption, followed by petroleum, with most industrial activities utilizing some form of wood fuel. Regression results suggest that energy demand is inversely related to the price of petroleum and industrial development, but positively related to GDP, population growth rate, and agricultural expansion, and that price elasticity is less than one. The model results also show that there are regional differences in energy demand. In addition, the interaction of population growth rates by regions generates mixed results, and there are regional differences in the use of commercial energy consumption, and GDP growth. The findings of this study suggest that countries must diversify their energy sources and introduce energy-efficient devices and equipment at all levels of the economy to improve GDP growth rate and GDP per capita. (author)

  16. Energy consumption and economic development in Sub-Sahara Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kebede, Ellene [Department of Agricultural and Environmental Science, 210 Campbell, Hall, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL 36088 (United States); Kagochi, John [School of Business Administration, University of Houston-Victoria, 3007, N. Ben Wilson, Victoria, 77901 (United States); Jolly, Curtis M. [Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology, 212 Comer, Hall Auburn University, AL 36849 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Sub-Saharan African countries' economic development is dependent on energy consumption. This paper assesses total energy demand, which is composed of traditional energy (wood fuel) and commercial energy (electricity and petroleum), in the Central, East, South, and West regions of Sub-Saharan Africa. Cross-sectional time series data for 20 countries in 25 years are analyzed, and the results of the study show that wood fuel accounts for 70% of energy consumption, followed by petroleum, with most industrial activities utilizing some form of wood fuel. Regression results suggest that energy demand is inversely related to the price of petroleum and industrial development, but positively related to GDP, population growth rate, and agricultural expansion, and that price elasticity is less than one. The model results also show that there are regional differences in energy demand. In addition, the interaction of population growth rates by regions generates mixed results, and there are regional differences in the use of commercial energy consumption, and GDP growth. The findings of this study suggest that countries must diversify their energy sources and introduce energy-efficient devices and equipment at all levels of the economy to improve GDP growth rate and GDP per capita. (author)

  17. Implications Of Fuelwood Demandon Sustainable Forest Conservation Of The Sub-Sahara Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sogbon Odunwole

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Forests contribute immensely to economic and social development through formal trade in timber environmental services non- timber forest products safety net spiritual and aesthetic value. Wood is a key source of energy that has been used for millennia for cooking boiling water lighting and heating. Today about 2.5billion people depend on biomass energy for cooking and heating with 87 of this energy being provided by wood. In sub-Saharan African more than 90 of the population relies on wood fire that is firewood and charcoal as their primary source of domestic energy. Over 80 of urban householders and small industries use charcoal and firewood as their source of energy. Despite their numerous importance Africas forest continue to decline rapidly due to increase in agricultural practices into forest lands population growth and urbanization increased poverty high dependence on natural resources for subsistence and income through forest. The study centred on the implications of fuel wood demand on forest conservation in sub-Sahara Africa - a regional focus on Akure metropolitan area Ondo State. The specific objectives of the paper were to identify firewood consumption pattern in Akure metropolitan area and factors responsible for increased fuelwood demand in the study area. The paper adopted direct observation oral interview and 0.05 of the study area as sample size for the study. The study observed lack of adequate alternative poor implementation and enforcement of government regulation on forestry poverty and poor awareness on the menace of forest depletion among others. The paper posited provision of alternative fuel with subsidy regular awareness campaign proper monitoring implementation and enforcement of forest regulations with a view to achieving sustainable conservation.

  18. Quality in primary health care services in sub-Sahara Africa: right or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Primary Health Care (PHC) system has been the foundation for the operation of the health system in most of Sub-Sahara Africa following the Alma Ata Declaration in 1978. Quality of care is an important determinant of health services utilization, and is a health outcome of public health importance. It is known that the ...

  19. African Journals Online: Browse by Country

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Browse by Country. Home > African Journals Online: Browse by Country. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is ...

  20. Adverse drug reaction reports for cardiometabolic drugs from sub Sahara Africa: A study in VigiBase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berhe, Derbew F.; Juhlin, Kristina; Star, Kristina; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.; Michael, Kidane; Taxis, Katja; Mol, Peter G. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many pharmacovigilance centers have been established in Sub Sahara Africa (SSA) in recent years. Their focus has been on ADRs to drugs for communicable diseases. Little is known about ADRs caused by drugs for cardiometabolic diseases, although its burden is increasing rapidly in SSA.

  1. Partaking in the global movement for occupational mental health: what challenges and ways forward for sub-Sahara Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atilola Olayinka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is an ongoing global movement for the entrenchment of occupational mental health as an integral part of occupational health and safety schemes. Aside from being a fundamental human right issue, this move has been demonstrated to be of cost-benefit in terms of workplace productivity and general economic growth. Despite being among the regions most prone to the human and economic repercussions of work-related mental health problems by reason of her socio-economic circumstance; sub-Sahara Africa is yet to fully plug into this movement. With a view to make recommendations on the ways forward for sub-Sahara Africa, this paper examines the current state of and the barriers to effective occupational mental health policy and practice in the region.

  2. Country Presentation. Central African Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulin Poussoumandji-Ouinga, P.

    2010-01-01

    No incident related to the illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials has been yet reported in the country. However, rumors relating to the orphaned sources exist due to buried radioactive waste and former radiotherapy activities. Illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and radioactive materials is a new threat for the law enforcement agents.This is contributed by absence of dedicated equipment for radiation detection either at the border or within the country, lack of awareness of agents in charge of enforcement control, porosity of the border, absence of a protocol for exchanging information between Customs, intelligence and Police Service

  3. Implementation of Information Communication Technology in the Teaching/Learning Process for Sustainable Development of Adults in West Africa Sub Sahara Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwobi, Anthonia; Ngozi, Ugwuoke; Rufina, Nwachukwu; Ogbonnaya, Kingsley A.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the implementation of information technology in the teaching/learning process for sustainable development of adults in West Africa Sub Sahara Region (WASSR). Three research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. The population for the study was 3071 participants and instructors drawn from 10 education centres that were…

  4. Price elasticity of petroleum products in selected African countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, S.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, a fundamental understanding of the economic impact which is directly related to the price elasticity of petroleum products in six selected African countries is obtained by using the Jorgorson-Lian model for shares. Each kind of fuel price has a different impact on the share of oil products for the different countries. The price increase of one kind of fuel may increase or decrease the share of another fuel in the total oil products. In the oil importing African countries, the price of one product is relatively inelastic, whereas in the oil producing African countries, the price is elastic. (Author)

  5. Impact of partial fuel switch on household air pollutants in sub-Sahara Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumwesige, Vianney; Okello, Gabriel; Semple, Sean; Smith, Jo

    2017-01-01

    Over 700 million people in Sub-Saharan Africa depend on solid biomass fuel and use simple cookstoves in poorly ventilated kitchens, which results in high indoor concentrations of household air pollutants. Switching from biomass to biogas as a cooking fuel can reduce airborne emissions of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and carbon monoxide (CO), but households often only partially convert to biogas, continuing to use solid biomass fuels for part of their daily cooking needs. There is little evidence of the benefits of partial switching to biogas. This study monitored real-time PM 2.5 and CO concentrations in 35 households in Cameroon and Uganda where biogas and firewood (or charcoal) were used. The 24 h mean PM 2.5 concentrations in households that used: (1) firewood and charcoal; (2) both firewood (mean 54% cooking time) and biogas (mean 46% cooking time); and (3) only biogas, were 449 μg m −3 , 173 μg m −3 and 18 μg m −3 respectively. The corresponding 24 h mean CO concentrations were 14.2 ppm, 2.7 ppm and 0.5 ppm. Concentrations of both PM 2.5 and CO were high and exceeded the World Health Organisation guidelines when firewood and charcoal were used. Partially switching to biogas reduced CO exposure to below the World Health Organisation guidelines, but PM 2.5 concentrations were only below the 24 h recommended limits when households fully converted to biogas fuel. These results indicate that partial switching from solid fuels to biogas is not sufficient and continues to produce concentrations of household air pollution that are likely to harm the health of those exposed. Programmes introducing biogas should aim to ensure that household energy needs can be fully achieved using biogas with no requirement to continue using solid fuels. - Highlights: • Air pollution exceeds WHO limits in African households using solid biomass fuels. • A partial switch to biogas reduced CO concentrations to below the WHO limit. • Particulates only fall to

  6. Building Fit-for-Purpose Spatial Frameworks for Sustainable Land Governaqnce in Sub-Sahara Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Arguably sound land governance is the key to achieve sustainable development and to support the global agenda set by adoption of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The operational component of land governance is the country specific land administration systems dealing with the four...... then be incrementally improved over time when relevant and justified by serving the needs of citizen, business and society in general. Such a fit-for-purpose approach is fundamental for building adequate land administration systems in developing regions in support of sustainable land governance. In most developed...... key functions of land tenure, land value, land, and land development. Land administration systems, whether highly advanced or very basic, require a spatial framework to operate. Spatial frameworks identify the spatial units such as land parcels, as a basis for dealing with land administration...

  7. Food irradiation: an emerging opportunity for African countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adu-Gyamfi, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text. The paper reviews the use of food irradiation technology and its potential in food processing and international trade for economic development of African countries. Provision of infrastructure along with technical expertise, private sector anticipation, effective collaborative ventures and networking with other countries and international agencies are considered crucial for Africa to harness the potential of food irradiation. (author)

  8. Situation Analysis of Alcohol Control Policy in Five African Countries ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Alcohol use is a major risk factor for premature deaths and disabilities in low and middle-income countries. This research will evaluate alcohol control policy and legislation in five African countries to provide evidence-based research to policymakers, researchers, and lobby groups working to reduce alcohol use.

  9. Biogas technology research in selected sub-Saharan African countries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This reviews aims to provide an insight and update of the state of biogas technology research in some selected sub-Saharan African countries in peer reviewed literature. This paper also aims to highlight the sub-Saharan countries' strengths and weaknesses in biogas research and development capacity. An attempt is ...

  10. What drives energy consumption in developing countries? The experience of selected African countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keho, Yaya

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the drivers of energy consumption in Sub-Saharan African countries. It applies the bounds testing approach to cointegration to time series data at individual country levels over the period from 1970 to 2011. The study finds that energy consumption is cointegrated with real GDP per capita, industrial output, imports, foreign direct investment, credit to private sector, urbanization and population. Furthermore, the sign and magnitude of long-run estimates vary significantly for a single country and across countries depending on the energy consumption variable used. Overall, the findings confirm the leading role of economic growth, industrial output, population and urbanization. Economic growth, industrial output and population have positive effects on energy consumption in the majority of countries. Given the urgent need to address climate change, African countries should adopt policies to improve energy efficiency and accelerate transition toward renewable energy. The African Renewable Energy Initiative launched at the 21st session of the United Nations Conference of the Parties (COP21) is an opportunity for African countries to provide and maintain widespread access to reliable and affordable environmentally cleaner energy to meet the requirements of rapid economic growth and improved living standards. - Highlights: •Key drivers of energy use in 12 African countries are examined. •Economic growth, industrial GDP, population and urbanization play a leading role in explaining energy use. •Urbanization has a positive effect on energy use in six countries and a negative effect in four countries. •The results obtained have useful policy implications.

  11. Alcohol Control Policies in 46 African Countries: Opportunities for Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Borges, Carina; Esser, Marissa B; Dias, Sónia; Babor, Thomas; Parry, Charles D H

    2015-07-01

    There is little information on the extent to which African countries are addressing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm, which suggests that evaluations of national alcohol policies are needed in this region. The aim of this article is to examine the strength of a mix of national alcohol control policies in African countries, as well as the relationship between alcohol policy restrictiveness scores and adult alcohol per capita consumption (APC) among drinkers at the national level. We examined national alcohol policies of 46 African countries, as of 2012, in four regulatory categories (price, availability, marketing and drink-driving), and analyzed the restrictiveness of national alcohol policies using an adapted Alcohol Policy Index (API). To assess the validity of the policy restrictiveness scores, we conducted correlational analyses between policy restrictiveness scores and APC among drinkers in 40 countries. Countries attained a mean score of 44.1 of 100 points possible, ranging from 9.1 (Sao Tomé and Principe) to 75.0 (Algeria), with low scores indicating low policy restrictiveness. Policy restrictiveness scores were negatively correlated with and APC among drinkers (rs = -0.353, P = 0.005). There is great variation in the strength of alcohol control policies in countries throughout the African region. Tools for comparing the restrictiveness of alcohol policies across countries are available and are an important instrument to monitor alcohol policy developments. The negative correlation between policy restrictiveness and alcohol consumption among drinkers suggests the need for stronger alcohol policies as well as increased training and capacity building at the country level. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  12. Inflation persistence in African countries: Does inflation targeting matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Phiri, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates inflation persistence in annual CPI inflation collected between 1994 and 2014 for 46 African countries. We group these countries into panels according to whether they are inflation targeters or not and conduct estimations for pre and post inflation targeting periods. Interestingly enough, we find that inflation persistence was much higher for inflation targeters in periods before adopting their inflation targeting regimes and inflation persistence dropped by 40 percent...

  13. Extension systems in Southern African countries: A review | Oladele ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reviews extension systems in selected southern African countries with a view of identifying the features of the systems and how they have been able to reach their target audience. Some of the features are use of committees for research and extension linkages, involvement of NGOs and private sector, the use ...

  14. Energy consumption and economic growth revisited in African countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggoh, Jude C., E-mail: comlanvi-jude.eggoh@univ-orleans.fr [Laboratoire d' Economie d' Orleans (LEO), Universite d' Orleans, Rue de Blois, BP: 6739, 45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Bangake, Chrysost [Laboratoire d' Economie d' Orleans (LEO), Universite d' Orleans, Rue de Blois, BP: 6739, 45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Universite d' Artois and Laboratoire EQUIPPE, Lille 1, FSES, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Rault, Christophe [Laboratoire d' Economie d' Orleans (LEO), Universite d' Orleans, Rue de Blois, BP: 6739, 45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Toulouse Business School (France)

    2011-11-15

    The aim of this paper is to provide new empirical evidence on the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth for 21 African countries over the period from 1970 to 2006, using recently developed panel cointegration and causality tests. The countries are divided into two groups: net energy importers and net energy exporters. It is found that there exists a long-run equilibrium relationship between energy consumption, real GDP, prices, labor and capital for each group of countries as well as for the whole set of countries. This result is robust to possible cross-country dependence and still holds when allowing for multiple endogenous structural breaks, which can differ among countries. Furthermore, we find that decreasing energy consumption decreases growth and vice versa, and that increasing energy consumption increases growth, and vice versa, and that this applies for both energy exporters and importers. Finally, there is a marked difference in the cointegration relationship when country groups are considered. - Highlights: > We assess the energy consumption and economic growth nexus in 21 African countries. > There exists a long-run relationship between energy consumption and economic growth. > This result is robust to cross-country dependence and for structural breaks. > Our findings finally support the feedback hypothesis of bidirectional causality.

  15. Clinical nursing and midwifery research: grey literature in African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, C; Dohrn, J; Omoni, G; Malata, A; Klopper, H; Larson, E

    2016-03-01

    This study reviewed grey literature to assess clinical nursing and midwifery research conducted in southern and eastern African countries over the past decade. The shortage of published nursing research from African countries severely limits the ability of practicing nurses and midwives to base clinical decisions on solid evidence. However, little is known regarding unpublished or unindexed clinical research ('grey literature'), a potentially rich source of information. Identifying these sources may reveal resources to assist nurses in providing evidence-based care. This scoping review of grey literature on clinical nursing and midwifery research in southern and eastern African countries helped to identify gaps in research and assess whether these gaps differ from published research. Systematic searches of grey literature were performed. Research was included if it was conducted by nurses in 1 of 25 southern or eastern African countries, between 2004 and 2014 and included patient outcomes. Data were extracted on location, institution, research topic, institutional connections and author information. Chi-square tests were performed to compare differences between indexed and non-indexed literature. We found 262 studies by 287 authors from 17 southern and eastern African countries covering 13 topics. Although all topics were also found in indexed literature and there were statistically significant differences between the number of times, fewer topics were covered in grey literature vs. indexed. Patient satisfaction and experience and traditional health practices were more likely to be published, whereas chronic disease, assault and paediatric-related research were less often published. Generally, there is a paucity of clinical nursing research in this region. This could reflect the shortage of nurses prepared to conduct research in this region. Nurses may find additional resources for evidence in the grey literature. A complete understanding of the state of nursing

  16. Country watch: Central African Republic (CAR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubel, J; Sobela, F; Voga, P

    1997-01-01

    This article describes the activities of the Community Peer AIDS Education Project, initiated in 1995 in the Central African Republic (CAR). The CAR project was created by the National AIDS Committee (NAC) and the US Peace Corps. A 4-day workshop was held at the onset for project staff and consultants. Staff developed a simple monitoring and evaluation (M&E) system that emphasizes "learning." M&E schemes measure project outputs, expenditures, and other measures of program implementation in order to help staff gradually improve implementation. M&E helps staff document activities, share information, and learn from the implementation process. Project activities are documented by maintaining community logbooks, taking photos of significant aspects of the educational activities, and leading informal discussion groups. The CAR project engaged in sharing and learning activities by holding meetings with peer leaders, team meetings, meetings with project managers, and meetings with the NAC. Once a month, peer field coordinators conducted a structured exercise with peer leaders. One aim was to gain their feedback on the successes and constraints of activities. Another was to make suggestions on how to improve activities. These structured exercises are recorded as lessons learned in a project book. Team meetings are held periodically. During meetings, staff review project books and photos and discuss successes and problems encountered. Project manager meetings provide time to share lessons learned and to suggest project strengthening options. NAC meetings between the project manager and field coordinators allow for a bottom-up learning process. CAR project staff were receptive to M&E efforts.

  17. [Expanding the lebensraum of Africans: how the "country of European uncles" also became the country of African nephews].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lututala, M B

    1997-01-01

    The author analyzes migration from Africa to the developed countries of the north, focusing on the underlying logic and methods of such migration. He suggests that Africans see migration to the northern countries as a survival strategy and as an attempt to integrate themselves into the world economic system. The methods employed by African migrants to circumvent the increasing efforts to limit their numbers are described, with a focus on their use of regulations designed to aid the reunification of families. The author suggests that rich countries may have a moral obligation to allow migration from Africa, since its causes lie in the history of colonialism and the present and past exploitation of the developing countries by those of the north.

  18. African Countries and WTO´s Dispute Settlement Mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alavi, Amin

    2007-01-01

    The WTO Dispute Settlement Mechanism was designed, inter alia, to secure the 'rule of law' within international trade and provide all members with opportunities to exercise their rights under multilateral trade agreements. But, after ten years, no sub-Saharan African country has yet used the option...... to initiate a dispute. This article examines what prevents the WTO Africa Group from using the system and critically reviews the solutions they have proposed to remedy this. It concludes by discussing how this reflects broader problems concerning African participation in WTO, and puts forward some alternative...

  19. HIV Stigma and Nurse Job Satisfaction in Five African Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Greeff, Minrie; Chirwa, Maureen L; Kohi, Thecla W; Naidoo, Joanne R; Makoae, Lucy N; Dlamini, Priscilla S; Kaszubski, Christopher; Cuca, Yvette P; Uys, Leana R; Holzermer, William L

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the demographic and social factors, including perceived HIV stigma, that influence job satisfaction in nurses from 5 African countries. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of nurses (n = 1,384) caring for patients living with HIV infection in Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland, and Tanzania. Total job satisfaction in this sample was lower than 2 comparable studies in South Africa and the United Kingdom. The Personal Satisfaction subscale was the highest in this sa...

  20. ICT, Financial Inclusion, and Growth; Evidence from African Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kangni R Kpodar; Mihasonirina Andrianaivo

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of information and communication technologies (ICT), especially mobile phone rollout, on economic growth in a sample of African countries from 1988 to 2007. Further, we investigate whether financial inclusion is one of the channels through which mobile phone development influences economic growth. In estimating the impact of ICT on economic growth, we use a wide range of ICT indicators, including mobile and fixed telephone penetration rates and the cost of local ...

  1. The problems of informational terrorism in African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voznyuk Eugenia Vasylivna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The features of informational terrorism in African countries, especially in SADC countries, are analyzed as well as the ways to combat information terrorism in this region. The major issues related to information terrorism are highlighted, which include data exfiltration, social engineering, insider threats, database breaches as well as poor identity and access management. The essence of Computer Security (Cyber Security is revealed and its main tasks are characterized: accessibility, integrity, including authenticity and confidentiality. The main threats for cyberspace are distinguished.

  2. HIV stigma and nurse job satisfaction in five African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirwa, Maureen L; Greeff, Minrie; Kohi, Thecla W; Naidoo, Joanne R; Makoae, Lucy N; Dlamini, Priscilla S; Kaszubski, Christopher; Cuca, Yvette P; Uys, Leana R; Holzemer, William L

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the demographic and social factors, including perceived HIV stigma, that influence job satisfaction in nurses from 5 African countries. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of nurses (n = 1,384) caring for patients living with HIV infection in Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland, and Tanzania. Total job satisfaction in this sample was lower than 2 comparable studies in South Africa and the United Kingdom. The Personal Satisfaction subscale was the highest in this sample, as in the other 2. Job satisfaction scores differed significantly among the 5 countries, and these differences were consistent across all subscales. A hierarchical regression showed that mental and physical health, marital status, education level, urban/rural setting, and perceived HIV stigma had significant influence on job satisfaction. Perceived HIV stigma was the strongest predictor of job dissatisfaction. These results provide new areas for intervention strategies that might enhance the work environment for nurses in these countries.

  3. Addressing mitigation options within the South African country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, Gina [Eskom (South Africa)

    1998-10-01

    The South African Country Study Programme is being executed under the auspices of the South African Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAandT). The full study comprises the following four components, each headed by a technical coordinator: the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory; a study of South Africa`s vulnerability to climate change and possible adaptation strategies; potential mitigation actions and; policy development. Ideally, these components should be executed in sequence. However, in view of South Africa`s commitments in terms of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) and the need to draw up a national communication, it was decided to execute the components simultaneously, with an emphasis on coordination between the components. (EG)

  4. Measures for diffusion of solar PV in selected African countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Mackenzie, Gordon A.

    2017-01-01

    that governments’ strategies to promoting solar PV are moving from isolated projects towards frameworks for market development and that there are high expectations to upgrading in the PV value chain through local assembly of panels and local production of other system elements. Commonly identified measures include......This paper investigates how African governments are considering supporting and promoting the diffusion of solar PV. This issue is explored by examining so-called ‘technology action plans (TAPs)’, which were main outputs of the Technology Needs Assessment project implemented in 10 African countries...... from 2010 to 2013. The paper provides a review of three distinct but characteristic trajectories for PV market development in Kenya (private-led market for solar home systems), Morocco (utility-led fee-for service model) and Rwanda (donorled market for institutional systems). The paper finds...

  5. Addressing mitigation options within the South African country study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, Gina

    1998-01-01

    The South African Country Study Programme is being executed under the auspices of the South African Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEA and T). The full study comprises the following four components, each headed by a technical coordinator: the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory; a study of South Africa's vulnerability to climate change and possible adaptation strategies; potential mitigation actions and; policy development. Ideally, these components should be executed in sequence. However, in view of South Africa's commitments in terms of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) and the need to draw up a national communication, it was decided to execute the components simultaneously, with an emphasis on coordination between the components. (EG)

  6. Measures for diffusion of solar PV in selected African countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Mackenzie, Gordon; Pedersen, Mathilde Brix

    2017-08-01

    This paper investigates how African governments are considering supporting and promoting the diffusion of solar PV. This issue is explored by examining so-called 'technology action plans (TAPs)', which were main outputs of the Technology Needs Assessment project implemented in 10 African countries from 2010 to 2013. The paper provides a review of three distinct but characteristic trajectories for PV market development in Kenya (private-led market for solar home systems), Morocco (utility-led fee-for service model) and Rwanda (donor-led market for institutional systems). The paper finds that governments' strategies to promoting solar PV are moving from isolated projects towards frameworks for market development and that there are high expectations to upgrading in the PV value chain through local assembly of panels and local production of other system elements. Commonly identified measures include support to: local production; financing schemes; tax exemptions; establishment and reinforcement of standards; technical training; and research and development.

  7. Insurance market development: An empirical study of African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athenia Bongani Sibindi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The insurance industry plays a very crucial role in an economy by fostering intermediation and by its mechanism of risk bearing. As such it could be argued that the insurance industry fosters economic growth. In this article we analyse the global insurance market development trends, particularly focusing on Africa. Our sample comprise of the 10 African countries namely—South Africa, Angola, Nigeria, Kenya, Mauritius, Namibia, Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco and Egypt. We employ three insurance market development metrics namely; premium volumes, insurance density and insurance penetrations ratios to establish trends in the level of development of global insurance markets. Our results document that the African countries (excluding South Africa have the least developed insurance markets. For most of the countries in our sample, the non-life insurance industry dominates the life-insurance industry. As such, it is imperative that their respective governments put in place measures that will grow their economies inorder to stimulate the development of insurance markets in Africa.

  8. A study on the enhancement of nuclear cooperation with African countries including utilization of radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Oh, K. B; Lee, H. M. and others

    2005-05-15

    In this study, potential countries for nuclear cooperation in African region and possible cooperation areas were investigated between Korea and African countries including radioisotopes and more fields were also analysed in depth in order to suggest the recommendations for future cooperation to be considered as follows; First, current status and perspectives of demand and supply of energy and electricity in the African countries, use and development of nuclear energy and international nuclear cooperation were analyzed. Second, current status of nuclear cooperation between Korea and African countries were investigated as well as analysis of future cooperation potential and countries having potential for nuclear cooperation and possible cooperative activities were suggested considering potential of nuclear market in mid- and long term base and step by step. Third, desirable strategies and directions for the establishment and promotion of nuclear cooperation relations between Korea and African developing countries were suggested in order to develope cooperative relations in efficient and effective manners with African developing countries.

  9. A study on the enhancement of nuclear cooperation with African countries including utilization of radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Oh, K. B; Lee, H. M. and others

    2005-05-01

    In this study, potential countries for nuclear cooperation in African region and possible cooperation areas were investigated between Korea and African countries including radioisotopes and more fields were also analysed in depth in order to suggest the recommendations for future cooperation to be considered as follows; First, current status and perspectives of demand and supply of energy and electricity in the African countries, use and development of nuclear energy and international nuclear cooperation were analyzed. Second, current status of nuclear cooperation between Korea and African countries were investigated as well as analysis of future cooperation potential and countries having potential for nuclear cooperation and possible cooperative activities were suggested considering potential of nuclear market in mid- and long term base and step by step. Third, desirable strategies and directions for the establishment and promotion of nuclear cooperation relations between Korea and African developing countries were suggested in order to develope cooperative relations in efficient and effective manners with African developing countries

  10. Macroeconomic pressures and their implications for business development in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John

    2011-01-01

    The paper discusses the complex relationships between macroeconomic pressures, savings, investments and business development in Sub-Sahara African countries......The paper discusses the complex relationships between macroeconomic pressures, savings, investments and business development in Sub-Sahara African countries...

  11. Coal in sub-Saharan-African countries undergoing desertification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, J.N.; Brownfield, M.E.; Bergin, M.J. (United States Geological Survey, Denver, CO (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Coal has been reported in 11 of the 16 sub-Saharan countries discussed in this appraisal: Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Niger, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Sudan, Ethiopia, and Somalia. No coal occurrences have been reported in Gambia, Togo, Burkina, Chad, and Djibouti but coal may be present within these countries because neighbouring countries do contain coal-bearing rocks. Most of these countries are undergoing desertification. Destruction of forest and shrub lands for fuel is occurring at an increasing rate because of desertification and increasing energy demands. Part of the present and future energy needs of the sub-Saharan region could be met by use of indigenous coal and peat. Nine sedimentary basins have the potential of either coal and/or peat deposits of economic value: 1- Senegal Basin, 2- Taoudeni Basin and Gao Trough, 3- Niger Basin, 4- Chad Basin. 5- Chari Basin, 6- Benue Trough (Depression), 7- Sudan Trough, 8- Plateau and Rift Belt, and 9- Somali Basin. Niger and Nigeria are the only countries in sub-Saharan Africa in which coal is presently being mined as a fuel source for powerplants and domestic use. Peat occurs in the deltas, lower river, and interdunal basin areas of Senegal, Mauritania, and Sudan. The overall objective of these studies is to establish, within the sub-Saharan region, energy independent countries using indigeneous coal and peat resources. These resources have the potential to replace wood and wood charcoal as domestic fuel in the urban centres, as well as producing electrical and industrial energy, thus reducing expensive oil imports and decreasing the rate of deforestation. 31 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Health and demographic surveillance systems: a step towards full civil registration and vital statistics system in sub-Sahara Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Yazoume

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the developed world, information on vital events is routinely collected nationally to inform population and health policies. However, in many low-and middle-income countries, especially those in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, there is a lack of effective and comprehensive national civil registration and vital statistics system. In the past decades, the number of Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems (HDSSs has increased throughout SSA. An HDSS monitors births, deaths, causes of death, migration, and other health and socio-economic indicators within a defined population over time. Currently, the International Network for the Continuous Demographic Evaluation of Populations and Their Health (INDEPTH brings together 38 member research centers which run 44 HDSS sites from 20 countries in Africa, Asia and Oceana. Thirty two of these HDSS sites are in SSA. Discussion This paper argues that, in the absence of an adequate national CRVS, HDSSs should be more effectively utilised to generate relevant public health data, and also to create local capacity for longitudinal data collection and management systems in SSA. If HDSSs get strategically located to cover different geographical regions in a country, data from these sites could be used to provide a more complete national picture of the health of the population. They provide useful data that can be extrapolated for national estimates if their regional coverage is well planned. HDSSs are however resource-intensive. Efforts are being put towards getting them linked to local or national policy contexts and to reduce their dependence on external funding. Increasing their number in SSA to cover a critical proportion of the population, especially urban populations, must be carefully planned. Strategic planning is needed at national levels to geographically locate HDSS sites and to support these through national funding mechanisms. Summary The paper does not suggest that HDSSs should be

  13. Health and demographic surveillance systems: a step towards full civil registration and vital statistics system in sub-Sahara Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yazoume; Wamukoya, Marilyn; Ezeh, Alex; Emina, Jacques B O; Sankoh, Osman

    2012-09-05

    In the developed world, information on vital events is routinely collected nationally to inform population and health policies. However, in many low-and middle-income countries, especially those in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), there is a lack of effective and comprehensive national civil registration and vital statistics system. In the past decades, the number of Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems (HDSSs) has increased throughout SSA. An HDSS monitors births, deaths, causes of death, migration, and other health and socio-economic indicators within a defined population over time. Currently, the International Network for the Continuous Demographic Evaluation of Populations and Their Health (INDEPTH) brings together 38 member research centers which run 44 HDSS sites from 20 countries in Africa, Asia and Oceana. Thirty two of these HDSS sites are in SSA. This paper argues that, in the absence of an adequate national CRVS, HDSSs should be more effectively utilised to generate relevant public health data, and also to create local capacity for longitudinal data collection and management systems in SSA. If HDSSs get strategically located to cover different geographical regions in a country, data from these sites could be used to provide a more complete national picture of the health of the population. They provide useful data that can be extrapolated for national estimates if their regional coverage is well planned. HDSSs are however resource-intensive. Efforts are being put towards getting them linked to local or national policy contexts and to reduce their dependence on external funding. Increasing their number in SSA to cover a critical proportion of the population, especially urban populations, must be carefully planned. Strategic planning is needed at national levels to geographically locate HDSS sites and to support these through national funding mechanisms. The paper does not suggest that HDSSs should be seen as a replacement for civil registration systems

  14. Coal in sub-Saharan-African countries undergoing desertification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, J.N.; Brownfield, M.E.; Bergin, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Coal has been reported in 11 of the 16 sub-Saharan countries discussed in this appraisal: Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Niger, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Sudan, Ethiopia, and Somalia. No coal occurrences have been reported in Gambia, Togo, Burkina, Chad, and Djibouti but coal may be present within these countries because neighboring countries do contain coal-bearing rocks. Most of these countries are undergoing desertification or will in the near future. Wood, directly or in the form of charcoal, constitutes two-thirds of the fuel used in Africa. Destruction of forest and shrub lands for fuel is occurring at an increasing rate because of desertification and increasing energy demands. The decline in biological productivity, coupled with concentration of population in areas where water is available and crops may be grown, leads to increasing shortages of wood for fuel. Part of the present and future energy needs of the sub-Saharan region could be met by use of indigenous coal and peat. Nine sedimentary basins, completely or partially within the sub-Saharan region, have the potential of either coal and/or peat deposits of economic value: 1- Senegal Basin, 2- Taoudeni Basin and Gao Trough, 3- Niger Basin, 4- Chad Basin, 5- Chari Basin, 6- Benue Trough (Depression), 7- Sudan Trough, 8- Plateau and Rift Belt, and 9- Somali Basin. Niger and Nigeria are the only countries in sub-Saharan Africa in which coal is presently being mined as a fuel source for powerplants and domestic use. Peat occurs in the deltas, lower river, and interdunal basin areas of Senegal, Mauritania, and Sudan. Peat can be used as an alternate fuel source and is currently being tested as a soil amendment in the agricultural sector. Coal and peat exploration and development studies are urgently required and should be initiated so the coal and peat utilization potential of each country can be determined. The overall objective of these studies is to establish, within the sub

  15. Comparative analysis of family poultry production in twelve African countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodger, W.J.; Bennett, T.B.; Dwinger, R.H.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to conduct a survey on family poultry to obtain information on disease prevalence, feeding practices, and the management of poultry housing in twelve African countries. The survey data were collected during both the wet and dry seasons and summarised (average and standard deviation) by country, village/region, season, and survey question. The disease data results show that three (greenish/bloody diarrhoea, swollen head, and coughing) of top four reported symptoms are part of Newcastle disease's presenting signs. Chick mortality was also higher in the wet season, when there is a higher incidence of Newcastle disease. This was also supported by the individual country data in that those countries with high chick mortality data also had low hatchability in the wet season with Egypt being the only exception. The types of housing used for shelter for family poultry was quite variable and presented a challenge to determine the level of cleaning/sanitation to assist in controlling Newcastle disease. On the one hand, a large percentage of households reported never cleaning the poultry house (e.g., Cameroon, Morocco, Mauritius, and Sudan). On the other hand, 34% of the responses to housing type were either trees or other forms of housing that would be difficult to clean i.e., old car, fence, surrounding wall, etc. Obviously, these results should be closely examined when instituting control programs for Newcastle disease. The large variety of available scavenged feed without any data on intake raises the question of how to balance the ration for the flock. Family poultry scientists need to determine a method to estimate intake which could assist in determining what supplementary feed is necessary if any. This challenge may be one of the most important aspects to family poultry management because of the importance of nutrition to poultry production with the added difficulty of providing balanced nutrition in an extensive system. (author)

  16. IAEA to Help West African Countries Diagnose Ebola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Full text: The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) will provide specialized diagnostic equipment to help Sierra Leone in its efforts to combat an ongoing Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak, IAEA Director General Yukiya Amano announced today. Later, the support is planned to be extended to Liberia and Guinea. The support is in line with a UN Security Council appeal and responds to a request from Sierra Leone. The IAEA assistance will supplement the country's ability to diagnose EVD quickly using a diagnostic technology known as Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). The assistance, expected to be delivered in the coming weeks, initiates broader IAEA support to African Member States to strengthen their technological abilities to detect diseases transmitted from animals to humans - zoonotic diseases. The IAEA and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations have been at the forefront of developing RT-PCR, a nuclear-derived technology which allows EVD to be detected within a few hours, while other methods require growing on a cell culture for several days before a diagnosis is determined. Early diagnosis of EVD, if combined with appropriate medical care, increases the victims' chance of survival and helps curtail the spread of the disease by making it possible to isolate and treat the patients earlier. Health authorities in Sierra Leone and other affected countries are already applying RT-PCR, but their diagnostic capability is limited; there is a shortage of the diagnostic kits and other materials needed for the process and backup equipment is needed to avoid diagnostic downtime in case of equipment failure. The IAEA will support the most affected countries' sustained ability to detect the disease in cooperation with the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Mission for Ebola Emergency Response. The IAEA, as part of its ongoing work, has helped 32 African countries and several other Member States develop skills

  17. Cannabis and Amphetamine Use and Associated Factors among School-Going Adolescents in Nine African Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of cannabis and amphetamine use and associated factors among adolescents in nine African countries. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 25,372 adolescents (mean age 14.3 years, SD = 1.6) from nine African countries that participated in the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) in…

  18. Cardiovascular disease, diabetes and established risk factors among populations of sub-Saharan African descent in Europe: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Graft Aikins Ama

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most European countries are ethnically and culturally diverse. Globally, cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of death. The major risk factors for CVD have been well established. This picture holds true for all regions of the world and in different ethnic groups. However, the prevalence of CVD and related risk factors vary among ethnic groups. Methods This article provides a review of current understanding of the epidemiology of vascular disease, principally coronary heart disease (CHD, stroke and related risk factors among populations of Sub-Sahara African descent (henceforth, African descent in comparison with the European populations in Europe. Results Compared with European populations, populations of African descent have an increased risk of stroke, whereas CHD is less common. They also have higher rates of hypertension and diabetes than European populations. Obesity is highly prevalent, but smoking rate is lower among African descent women. Older people of African descent have more favourable lipid profile and dietary habits than their European counterparts. Alcohol consumption is less common among populations of African descent. The rate of physical activity differs between European countries. Dutch African-Suriname men and women are less physically active than the White-Dutch whereas British African women are more physically active than women in the general population. Literature on psychosocial stress shows inconsistent results. Conclusion Hypertension and diabetes are highly prevalent among African populations, which may explain their high rate of stroke in Europe. The relatively low rate of CHD may be explained by the low rates of other risk factors including a more favourable lipid profile and the low prevalence of smoking. The risk factors are changing, and on the whole, getting worse especially among African women. Cohort studies and clinical trials are therefore needed among these groups to

  19. Wastage in the health workforce: some perspectives from African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dovlo Delanyo

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-Saharan Africa faces a human resources crisis in the health sector. Over the past two decades its population has increased substantially, with a significant rise in the disease burden due to HIV/AIDS and recurrent communicable diseases and an increased incidence of noncommunicable diseases. This increased demand for health services is met with a rather low supply of health workers, but this notwithstanding, sub-Saharan African countries also experience significant wastage of their human resources stock. Methods This paper is a desk review to illustrate suggestions that the way human resources for health (HRH are trained and deployed in Africa does not enhance productivity and that countries are unable to realize the full potential expected from the working life of their health workers. The paper suggests data types for use in measuring various forms of "wastage". Results "Direct" wastage – or avoidable increases in loss of staff through factors such as emigration and death – is on the rise, perhaps as a result of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. "Indirect" wastage – which is the result of losses in output and productivity from health professionals' misapplied skills, absenteeism, poor support and lack of supervision – is also common. HIV/AIDS represents a special cause of wastage in Africa. Deaths of health workers, fear of infection, burnout, absenteeism, heavy workloads and stress affect productivity. Conclusion The paper reviews strategies that have been proposed and/or implemented. It suggests areas needing further attention, including: developing and using indicators for monitoring and managing wastage; enhancing motivation and morale of health workers; protecting and valuing the health worker with enhanced occupational safety and welfare systems; and establishing the moral leadership to effectively tackle HIV/AIDS and the brain drain.

  20. Wastage in the health workforce: some perspectives from African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovlo, Delanyo

    2005-08-10

    Sub-Saharan Africa faces a human resources crisis in the health sector. Over the past two decades its population has increased substantially, with a significant rise in the disease burden due to HIV/AIDS and recurrent communicable diseases and an increased incidence of noncommunicable diseases. This increased demand for health services is met with a rather low supply of health workers, but this notwithstanding, sub-Saharan African countries also experience significant wastage of their human resources stock. This paper is a desk review to illustrate suggestions that the way human resources for health (HRH) are trained and deployed in Africa does not enhance productivity and that countries are unable to realize the full potential expected from the working life of their health workers. The paper suggests data types for use in measuring various forms of "wastage". "Direct" wastage--or avoidable increases in loss of staff through factors such as emigration and death--is on the rise, perhaps as a result of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. "Indirect" wastage--which is the result of losses in output and productivity from health professionals' misapplied skills, absenteeism, poor support and lack of supervision--is also common. HIV/AIDS represents a special cause of wastage in Africa. Deaths of health workers, fear of infection, burnout, absenteeism, heavy workloads and stress affect productivity. The paper reviews strategies that have been proposed and/or implemented. It suggests areas needing further attention, including: developing and using indicators for monitoring and managing wastage; enhancing motivation and morale of health workers; protecting and valuing the health worker with enhanced occupational safety and welfare systems; and establishing the moral leadership to effectively tackle HIV/AIDS and the brain drain.

  1. Challenges for nationwide vaccine delivery in African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songane, Mario

    2017-10-19

    Vaccines are very effective in providing individual and community (herd) immunity against a range of diseases. In addition to protection against a range of diseases, vaccines also have social and economic benefits. However, for vaccines to be effective, routine immunization programmes must be undertaken regularly to ensure individual and community protection. Nonetheless, in many countries in Africa, vaccination coverage is low because governments struggle to deliver vaccines to the most remote areas, thus contributing to constant outbreaks of various vaccine-preventable diseases. African governments fail to deliver vaccines to a significant percentage of the target population due to many issues in key areas such as policy setting, programme management and financing, supply chain, global vaccine market, research and development of vaccines. This review gives an overview of the causes of these issues and what is currently being done to address them. This review will discuss the role of philanthropic organisations such as the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and global partnerships such as the global alliance for vaccines and immunizations in the development, purchase and delivery of vaccines.

  2. Travel health attitudes among Turkish business travellers to African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcuk, Engin Burak; Kayabas, Uner; Binbasioglu, Hulisi; Otlu, Baris; Bayindir, Yasar; Bozdogan, Bulent; Karatas, Mehmet

    The number of international travellers is increasing worldwide. Although health risks related to international travel are important and generally well-understood, the perception of these risks was unclear among Turkish travellers. We aimed to evaluate the attitudes and health risk awareness of Turkish travellers travelling to African countries. A survey was performed of Turkish travellers bound for Africa from Istanbul International Ataturk Airport in July 2013. A total of 124 travellers were enrolled in the study. Among them, 62.9% had information about their destination but only 11.3% had looked for information on health problems related to travel and their destination. Of all travellers, 53.2% had at least one vaccination before travelling. The most commonly administered vaccine was for typhoid. Among the travellers, 69.3% and 80.6% had "no idea" about yellow fever vaccination and malaria prophylaxis, respectively. A positive correlation was found between a higher level of travellers' education and receiving the recommended vaccination for the destination. Our study revealed significant gaps in the vaccination and chemoprophylaxis uptake of Turkish travellers departing to Africa. An awareness and training program should be developed for travellers, as well as public health workers, to address health risks related to travel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Medicines registration in Portuguese-speaking African countries, focusing in the following countries: Angola, Cap Verde and Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Alina Maria Moreira de

    2015-01-01

    This work aims to present the regulation perspective on the medicines registration in PALOPs – Países Africanos de Língua Oficial Portuguesa (Portuguese‐speaking African countries), their regulatory requirements, constraints and opportunities, focusing on the following countries: Angola, Cape Verde and Mozambique. This thesis has as purpose to deepen and systematize knowledge with regard to the registration procedure of medicines in the selected countries. Regulatory pers...

  4. THE VALURISATION OF CULTURAL PROPERTY IN AFRICAN COUNTRIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanga, S.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: The question that needs to be answered is how the the valorisation of cultural patrimony in Africa is being analysed and understood. In order to respond to this question, it is necessary to ask oneself what exactly is meant by 'African Cultural Patrimony'. How are we going to keep parameters from running into many directions when talking about patrimony? What public cultural politics are we to follow in order to valorize more effectively the concept of patrimony? The areas that need economic analysis are therefore very large ones, as are subsequent propositions which would allow us to arrive at a value for financing the conservation of such patrimony. The valorization of cultural patrimony needs to be put at the disposition of as large a public as possible. In order to do this work, it is necessary to distinguish between: - Historical monuments: comprised of private properties, public castles, historical buildings, and archaeological sites - Museums: By this we mean not only museum buildings and collections, and not only the research work performed by curators. We also mean museums as a country's mark of identity, showcasing the country's collections so that tourists will come, and allowing people worldwide to access the collections on their computers. Faced with these facts, it is obvious that not only does the State need to play an important role in these tasks, but in addition, territorial entities need to define and set standards for the conservation of cultural patrimony in such a way that financing is made available for the continuation of patrimony. Since creating ''cultural patrimony'' is above all a social construct, its valorization and its importance asks public and private actors to join together, because the fundamental thought is that patrimony creates outside interests. In other words, cultural patrimony stimulates other economic activities, and therefore it is necessary to recuperate part of these external gains in order to respond to the

  5. THE MAGNITUDE AND DETERMINANTS OF CAPITAL FLIGHT - THE CASE FOR 6 SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN COUNTRIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HERMES, N; LENSINK, R

    1992-01-01

    Most studies treat capital flight as an exclusively Latin American problem. This paper estimates capital flight for six African countries and shows that the emphasis on Latin American capital flight is not correct. It appears that the burden of capital flight is also important for many African

  6. Position paper: researching and developing open architectures for national health information systems in developing African countries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moodley, D

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Most African countries have limited health information systems infrastructure. Some health information system components are implemented but often on an adhoc, piecemeal basis, by foreign software developers and designed to solve specific problems...

  7. Formation of UAE State and Factors for Development of International Relations between UAE and African Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K Voronkov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on analyses of formation of UAE state and features formation of international relations between UAE and African countries including low level of political and economic ties between UAE and African countries and dominant role of economic and humanitarian assistance in their relations provided both through international organizations and on bilateral basis by Abu Dhabi Fund for Development. Islam and traditional values of Arab culture are considered defining factors for formation of such structure of international relations.

  8. Racial Disparities in the Pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes and its Subtypes in the African Diaspora: A New Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Trudy R; Osei, Kwame

    2016-03-01

    The global epidemic of diabetes has extended to the developing countries including Sub-Sahara Africa. In this context, blacks with type 2 diabetes in the African Diaspora continue to manifest 1.5-2 times higher prevalent rates than in their white counterparts. Previous studies have demonstrated that blacks with and without type 2 diabetes have alterations in hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity, beta-cell function, and hepatic insulin clearance as well as hepatic glucose dysregulation when compared to whites. In addition, non-diabetic blacks in the African Diaspora manifest multiple metabolic mediators that predict type 2 diabetes and its subtypes. These pathogenic modifiers include differences in subclinical inflammation, oxidative stress burden, and adipocytokines in blacks in the African Diaspora prior to clinical diagnosis. Consequently, blacks in the African Diaspora manifest subtypes of type 2 diabetes, including ketosis-prone diabetes and J type diabetes. Given the diversity of type 2 diabetes in blacks in the African Diaspora, we hypothesize that blacks manifest multiple early pathogenic defects prior to the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes and its subtypes. These metabolic alterations have strong genetic component, which appears to play pivotal and primary role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and its subtypes in blacks in the African Diaspora. However, environmental factors must also be considered as major contributors to the higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes and its subtypes in blacks in the African Diaspora. These multiple alterations should be targets for early prevention of type 2 diabetes in blacks in the African Diaspora.

  9. what is the optimal level of tariffs for african countries?

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Series focuses on economic policy-making topics and provide a forum for ... question become highly important for structuring trade policies for maximum gains from ... The study therefore suggests a country by country approach to tariff ... many countries of Africa, the issue is no longer whether or not to liberalize trade, or.

  10. Looking forward to the East African Countries' Collaboration in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of harmonizing nursing and midwifery education, practice and legislation. A study to ... opportunity for University Deans in the East African region to dialogue and examine possible areas .... essentials for a productive collaboration including; ... and 4 students graduated in mental health programs. ... such as e-learning.

  11. Disciplining governance in Africa : a comparison of the World Bank’s Country Policy and Institutional Assessment and the African Union’s African Peer Review Mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Kassa (Saba)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThis study examines the promotion of governance in the African Continent. It compares the Country Policy and Institutional Assessment (CPIA) of the World Bank to the African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM) of the African Union. These governance assessments represent differing

  12. Clinical nursing and midwifery research in African countries: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Carolyn; Larson, Elaine

    2015-05-01

    Globally, the nursing shortage has been deemed a crisis, but African countries have been hit hardest. Therefore, it is of utmost importance nurses use the best available evidence and that nursing research is targeted to address gaps in the evidence. To achieve this, an understanding of what is currently available and identification of gaps in clinical nursing research is critical. We performed a scoping review of existing literature to assess clinical nursing research conducted in all African countries over the past decade, identify gaps in clinical nursing and midwifery research, determine whether they match with health priorities for countries, and define priorities for regional clinical nursing research agendas to improve health outcomes. This is a scoping review of published clinical nursing research conducted in African countries. Systematic searches of literature published between January 01, 2004 and September 15, 2014 were performed in PubMed, Medline, CINHAL, and Embase. Research was included if it was conducted by nurses, included data obtained in African countries or regions within the African continent, published in a peer-reviewed journal with an abstract, and included patient outcomes. Abstracts were independently reviewed for inclusion by two authors. The following data were extracted: countries of publication and study, study type and design, journal, language, and topics of research. Gaps in the literature were identified. Initially, 1091 papers were identified with a final sample of 73 articles meeting inclusion criteria. Studies used 12 designs, were published in 35 journals published in five countries (including two African countries); 29% of the research was published in a single journal (Curatonis). Research was mostly qualitative (57%) and included twenty countries in Africa (38%). There were 12 major topics of study, most often midwifery/maternal/child health (43%), patient experiences (38%), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV

  13. Fertility in Sub-Saharan African Countries with Consideration to Health and Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Jeon, Yongil; Rhyu, Sang-Young; Shields, Michael P.

    2008-01-01

    Fertility has begun to fall in Sub-Saharan Africa but it remains high on average and particularly for a few countries. This paper examines African fertility using a panel data set of 47 Sub-Saharan countries between 1962 and 2003. Fixed and random country effect estimates are made in models where the explanatory variables are suggested by the theory of the demographic transition as modified by Caldwell. Special attention is paid to the economic status of women, urbanization, the poverty level...

  14. Public Debts and Private Assets: Explaining Capital Flight from Sub-Saharan African Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Léonce Ndikumana; James K. Boyce

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the determinants of capital flight from 30 sub-Saharan African countries, including 24 countries classified as severely indebted low-income countries, for the period 1970-1996. The econometric analysis reveals that external borrowing is positively and significantly related to capital flight, suggesting that to a large extent capital flight is debt-fueled. We estimate that for every dollar of external borrowing in the region, roughly 80 cents flowed back as capital flight in the...

  15. The impact of HIV/AIDS on human development in African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutayeb, Abdesslam

    2009-11-18

    In the present paper, we consider the impact of HIV/AIDS on human development in African countries, showing that, beyond health issues, this disease should and must be seen as a global development concern, affecting all components of human development. Consequently, we stress the necessity of multidisciplinary approaches that model, estimate and predict the real impact of HIV/AIDS on human development of African countries in order to optimise the strategies proposed by national countries, international institutions and their partners. In our search strategy, we relied on secondary information, mainly through National Human Development Reports of some African countries and regular publications released by the United Nations (UN), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Bank. We restricted ourselves to reports dealing explicitly with the impact of HIV/AIDS on human development in African countries. HIV/AIDS is affecting the global human development of African countries through its devastating impact on health and demographic indicators such as life expectancy at birth, healthcare assistance, age and sex distribution, economic indicators like income, work force, and economic growth, education and knowledge acquisition and other indicators like governance, gender inequality and human rights. On the basis of the national reports reviewed, it appears clearly that HIV/AIDS is no longer a crisis only for the healthcare sector, but presents a challenge to all sectors. Consequently, HIV/AIDS is a development question and should be viewed as such. The disease is impeding development by imposing a steady decline in the key indicators of human development and hence reversing the social and economic gains that African countries are striving to attain. Being at the same time a cause and consequence of poverty and underdevelopment, it constitutes a challenge to human security and human development by diminishing the chances of

  16. Allergic disorders in African countries: linking immunology to accurate phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ree, R.; Yazdanbakhsh, M.

    2007-01-01

    Identification and characterization of risk and protective factors for allergy is important for developing strategies for prevention or treatment. The prevalence of allergy is clearly higher in affluent countries than in developing countries like, e.g. Africa. Especially in urban areas of developing

  17. Correlates of complete childhood vaccination in East African countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen E Canavan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the benefits of childhood vaccinations, vaccination rates in low-income countries (LICs vary widely. Increasing coverage of vaccines to 90% in the poorest countries over the next 10 years has been estimated to prevent 426 million cases of illness and avert nearly 6.4 million childhood deaths worldwide. Consequently, we sought to provide a comprehensive examination of contemporary vaccination patterns in East Africa and to identify common and country-specific barriers to complete childhood vaccination. METHODS: Using data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS for Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda, we looked at the prevalence of complete vaccination for polio, measles, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG and DTwPHibHep (DTP as recommended by the WHO among children ages 12 to 23 months. We conducted multivariable logistic regression within each country to estimate associations between complete vaccination status and health care access and sociodemographic variables using backwards stepwise regression. RESULTS: Vaccination varied significantly by country. In all countries, the majority of children received at least one dose of a WHO recommended vaccine; however, in Ethiopia, Tanzania, and Uganda less than 50% of children received a complete schedule of recommended vaccines. Being delivered in a public or private institution compared with being delivered at home was associated with increased odds of complete vaccination status. Sociodemographic covariates were not consistently associated with complete vaccination status across countries. CONCLUSIONS: Although no consistent set of predictors accounted for complete vaccination status, we observed differences based on region and the location of delivery. These differences point to the need to examine the historical, political, and economic context of each country in order to maximize vaccination coverage. Vaccination against these childhood diseases is a

  18. How dietary intake has been assessed in African countries? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-Real, Catarina; Pimenta-Martins, Ana; Gomes, Ana Maria; Pinto, Elisabete; Maina, Ndegwa Henry

    2018-04-13

    Dietary patterns are often considered as one of the main causes of non-communicable diseases worldwide. It is of utmost importance to study dietary habits in developing countries since this work is scarce. To summarize the most recent research conducted in this field in African countries, namely the most used methodologies and tools. A systematic review was conducted on MEDLINE®/PubMed, aiming to identify scientific publications focused on studies of dietary intake of different African populations, in a ten-year period. Papers not written in English/Portuguese/Spanish, studies developed among African people but not developed in African countries, studies aiming to assess a particular nutrient/specific food/food toxin and studies that assessed dietary intake among children were excluded. Out of 99 included studies, the 24-hour recall and the food-frequency questionnaire were the most used dietary intake assessment tools, used to assess diet at an individual level. It was also observed that often country-unspecific food composition databases are used, and the methodologies employed are poorly validated and standardized. There is an emergent need to improve the existing food databases by updating food data and to develop suitable country-specific databases for those that do not have their own food composition table.

  19. Cameroon is a central African country with an estimated population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (53.37 %) of the dental surgeons were females aged 41-50 years, worked in private practice ... graduated a total of 48 students in 2014 and are projected to graduate 490 dentists by ... Forty percent of them were employed by the government and only 20% of the dental ... index of 0.357 out of the 191 member countries of.

  20. Foreign direct investment and policy framework: New Granger causality evidence from African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiu Adewale Aregbeshola

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The strategic importance of foreign direct investment in the contemporary economies has been tremendous.While various countries (developed and developing economies have benefitted from the direct and spillovereffects of FDI, which range from improved technology and knowledge diffusion through to individual andcorporate capability enhancement, FDI outflow remains largely channelled to the developed countries, andthe rapidly developing countries in Asia and South America. Evidence suggests that the developmentenhancingeffects of FDI are felt more highly in the developing economies, such as economies in Africa.However, FDI inflow to the developing economies has been very low. Using data generated from the AfricanDevelopment Indicators (ADI between 1980 and 2008 in econometric estimations, this paper finds thatgovernment policies (especially fiscal and monetary policies play significant roles in facilitating FDI inflow tothe African countries studied. The study thereby suggests an improved regulatory framework to make Africamore attractive to inflow of FDI.

  1. Diaspora engagement of African migrant health workers – examples from five destination countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojczewski, Silvia; Poppe, Annelien; Hoffmann, Kathryn; Peersman, Wim; Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Pentz, Stephen; Kutalek, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Background Migrant health workers fill care gaps in their destination countries, but they also actively engage in improving living conditions for people of their countries of origin through expatriate professional networks. This paper aims to explore the professional links that migrant health workers from sub-Saharan African countries living in five African and European destinations (Botswana, South Africa, Belgium, Austria, and the United Kingdom) have to their countries of origin. Design Qualitative interviews were conducted with migrant doctors, nurses, and midwives from sub-Saharan Africa (N=66). A qualitative content analysis of the material was performed using the software ATLAS.ti. Results Almost all migrant health workers have professional ties with their countries of origin supporting health, education, and social structures. They work with non-governmental organizations, universities, or hospitals and travel back and forth between their destination country and country of origin. For a few respondents, professional engagement or even maintaining private contacts in their country of origin is difficult due to the political situation at home. Conclusions The results show that African migrant health workers are actively engaged in improving living conditions not only for their family members but also for the population in general in their countries of origin. Our respondents are mediators and active networkers in a globalized and transnationally connected world. The research suggests that the governments of these countries of origin could strategically use their migrant health workforce for improving education and population health in sub-Saharan Africa. Destination countries should be reminded of their need to comply with the WHO Global Code of Practice for the international recruitment of health professionals. PMID:26652910

  2. Diaspora engagement of African migrant health workers - examples from five destination countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojczewski, Silvia; Poppe, Annelien; Hoffmann, Kathryn; Peersman, Wim; Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Pentz, Stephen; Kutalek, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Migrant health workers fill care gaps in their destination countries, but they also actively engage in improving living conditions for people of their countries of origin through expatriate professional networks. This paper aims to explore the professional links that migrant health workers from sub-Saharan African countries living in five African and European destinations (Botswana, South Africa, Belgium, Austria, and the United Kingdom) have to their countries of origin. Qualitative interviews were conducted with migrant doctors, nurses, and midwives from sub-Saharan Africa (N=66). A qualitative content analysis of the material was performed using the software ATLAS.ti. Almost all migrant health workers have professional ties with their countries of origin supporting health, education, and social structures. They work with non-governmental organizations, universities, or hospitals and travel back and forth between their destination country and country of origin. For a few respondents, professional engagement or even maintaining private contacts in their country of origin is difficult due to the political situation at home. The results show that African migrant health workers are actively engaged in improving living conditions not only for their family members but also for the population in general in their countries of origin. Our respondents are mediators and active networkers in a globalized and transnationally connected world. The research suggests that the governments of these countries of origin could strategically use their migrant health workforce for improving education and population health in sub-Saharan Africa. Destination countries should be reminded of their need to comply with the WHO Global Code of Practice for the international recruitment of health professionals.

  3. The Importance of Decommissioning Planning for African Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisenweaver, D.W.

    2011-01-01

    Many countries in Africa have facilities that will require eventual decommissioning. If the entire life cycle of a nuclear facility is considered, decommissioning is just the last activity. The IAEA has published a number of documents that can be used during the decommissioning process, from initial planning to final release of the site. These documents are discussed briefly in this paper and further discussion is provided that will explain why planning for decommissioning should start now.

  4. Diet in chronic kidney disease in a Mediterranean African country

    OpenAIRE

    Kammoun, Khawla; Chaker, Hanen; Mahfoudh, Hichem; Makhlouf, Nouha; Jarraya, Faical; Hachicha, Jamil

    2017-01-01

    Background Mediterranean diet is characterized by low to moderate consumption of animal protein and high consumption of fruits, vegetables, bread, beans, nuts, seeds and other cereals. It has been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. However, it is not suitable for chronic kidney disease because of high potassium intake. Discussion Tunisia is an emerging Mediterranean country with limited resources, a high prevalence of chronic hemodialysis treatment and high dialysis expen...

  5. An ontology for regulating eHealth interoperability in developing African countries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moodley, D

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available eHealth governance and regulation are necessary in low resource African countries to ensure effective and equitable use of health information technology and to realize national eHealth goals such as interoperability, adoption of standards and data...

  6. Is Africa’s current growth reducing inequality? Evidence from some selected african countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alege P.O.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Is Africa’s current growth reducing inequality? What are the implications of growth on output performances in Africa? Does the effect of Africa’s growth on sectorial output have any implication for inequality in Africa? The study investigates the effect of shocks on a set of macroeconomic variables on inequality (measured by life expectancy and the implication of this on sectors that are perceived to provide economic empowerment in form of employment for people living in the African countries in our sample. Studies already find that growth in many African countries has not been accompanied with significant improvement in employment. Therefore inequality is subject to a counter cyclical trend in production levels when export destination countries experience a recession. The study also provides insight on the effect of growth on sectorial output for three major sectors in the African economy with the intent of analyzing the impact of growth on sectorial development. The method used in this study is Panel Vector Autoregressive (PVAR estimation and the obvious advantage of this method lies in the fact that it allows us to capture both static and dynamic interdependencies and to treat the links across units in an unrestricted fashion. Data is obtained from World Bank (WDI Statistics for the period 1985 to 2012 (28 years for 10 African Countries. Our main findings confirm strong negative relationship between GDP growth and life expectancy and also for GDP and the services and manufacturing sector considering the full sample.

  7. Association between Contract Teachers and Student Learning in Five Francophone African Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudgar, Amita

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the association between studying with a contract teacher and a student's academic outcomes, using data from five Francophone African countries for two grade levels and two subjects. Based on this analysis, the evidence for or against this form of teacher hiring is inconclusive. The results indicate that these…

  8. The Long-Run Impact of Foreign Aid in 36 African Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina; Møller, Niels Framroze; Tarp, Finn

    2014-01-01

    We comprehensively analyse the long-run effect of foreign aid (ODA) on key macroeconomic variables in 36 sub-Saharan African countries from the mid-1960s to 2007, using a well-specified cointegrated VAR model as statistical benchmark. Results provide broad support for a positive long-run impact...

  9. Capacity Building for Women in African Countries: A Case Study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Capacity Building for Women in African Countries: A Case Study of Sierra Leone. ... In the case of women this has further inured from histories of discrimination most of which stems from socio-cultural factors and forces. Ongoing ... The paper is informed by conceptual analysis of existing literature and official documentation.

  10. Temperament Styles of Children in Three Sub-Saharan African Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakland, Thomas; Callueng, Carmelo

    2015-01-01

    This cross-national research examined temperament style preferences among children in three sub-Saharan African countries (i.e., Nigeria, South Africa, and Zimbabwe) and possible differences between them on four bipolar temperament styles: extroverted-introverted, practical-imaginative, thinking-feeling, and organized-flexible. Children in these…

  11. The CCAA program aims to improve the capacity of African countries ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    CCAA

    of African countries to adapt to climate change in ways ... training. • Communications and networking ... in Cities of Portuguese-speaking Small Island Developing States – ... This includes training in topics core to addressing climate ... Program (ACCFP) to deepen Africa's capacity in policy, teaching .... and rural livelihoods.

  12. Status of national health research systems in ten countries of the WHO African Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirigia Joses M

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization (WHO Regional Committee for Africa, in 1998, passed a resolution (AFR/RC48/R4 which urged its Member States in the Region to develop national research policies and strategies and to build national health research capacities, particularly through resource allocation, training of senior officials, strengthening of research institutions and establishment of coordination mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to take stock of some aspects of national resources for health research in the countries of the Region; identify current constraints facing national health research systems; and propose the way forward. Methods A questionnaire was prepared and sent by pouch to all the 46 Member States in the WHO African Region through the WHO Country Representatives for facilitation and follow up. The health research focal person in each of the countries Ministry of Health (in consultation with other relevant health research bodies in the country bore the responsibility for completing the questionnaire. The data were entered and analysed in Excel spreadsheet. Results The key findings were as follows: the response rate was 21.7% (10/46; three countries had a health research policy; one country reported that it had a law relating to health research; two countries had a strategic health research plan; three countries reported that they had a functional national health research system (NHRS; two countries confirmed the existence of a functional national health research management forum (NHRMF; six countries had a functional ethical review committee (ERC; five countries had a scientific review committee (SRC; five countries reported the existence of health institutions with institutional review committees (IRC; two countries had a health research programme; and three countries had a national health research institute (NHRI and a faculty of health sciences in the national university that conducted health research

  13. Pathology services in developing countries-the West African experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyi, Oyedele A

    2011-02-01

    Histopathology, like other branches of medicine in West Africa, has suffered largely from economic, political, social, and infrastructural problems, becoming a shadow of the top quality that had been obtained in the past. To address the prevailing problems, one needs to attempt defining them. The existing structure of training and practice are discussed, highlighting the author's perception of the problems and suggesting practical ways to address these while identifying potential roles for North American pathology organizations. The author's past and ongoing association with pathology practice in Nigeria forms the basis for this review. Pathology practice is largely restricted to academic medical centers. The largest of academic centers each accession around 4000 or fewer surgical specimens per year to train 9 to 12 residents. Histopathology largely uses hematoxylin-eosin routine stains, sometimes with histochemistry but rarely immunohistochemistry. Pathologists depend largely on their skills in morphology (with its limitations) to classify and subclassify tumors on routine stains, including soft tissue and hematolymphoid malignancies. Immunofluorescence, intraoperative frozen section diagnosis, electronic laboratory system, and gross and microscopic imaging facilities are generally not available for clinical use. The existing facilities and infrastructure can be augmented with provision of material and professional assistance from other pathology associations in more developed countries and should, among other things, focus on supplementing residency education. Virtual residency programs, short-visit observerships, development of simple but practical laboratory information systems, and closer ties with pathologists in these countries are some of the suggested steps in achieving this goal.

  14. Diet in chronic kidney disease in a Mediterranean African country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammoun, Khawla; Chaker, Hanen; Mahfoudh, Hichem; Makhlouf, Nouha; Jarraya, Faical; Hachicha, Jamil

    2017-01-23

    Mediterranean diet is characterized by low to moderate consumption of animal protein and high consumption of fruits, vegetables, bread, beans, nuts, seeds and other cereals. It has been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. However, it is not suitable for chronic kidney disease because of high potassium intake. Tunisia is an emerging Mediterranean country with limited resources, a high prevalence of chronic hemodialysis treatment and high dialysis expenditures. In order to limit dialysis cost, primary and secondary prevention of chronic renal disease are of paramount importance. In addition to drugs, secondary prevention includes diet measures (e.g. salt diet, protein diet). The aims of diet practice in chronic kidney disease are to slow chronic renal failure progression and to prevent its complications like hyperphosphatemia and hyperkaliemiae. A few decades ago, a Tunisian diet was exclusively Mediterranean, and protein consumption was not excessive. However, today, protein consumption is more comparable to western countries. Salt consumption is also excessive. Some Tunisian diets still include food with high potassium intake, which are not suitable for patients with chronic kidney disease. Therefore, the role of the dietician is extremely important to help calculate and create a dietary regimen tailored to each of our patients. Advice about diets should be adapted to both the patient and population habits to improve adherence rate. As such, the purpose of this article is to provide our own experience regarding medical nutrition therapy in patients with chronic kidney disease in Tunisia, with some changes in food habits. Prevention is far better than treatment. In this perspective, dietary measures must be at the core of our intervention.

  15. Towards zero waste in emerging countries - a South African experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matete, Ntlibi; Trois, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the optimisation of Waste Minimisation/Zero Waste strategies into an already established integrated waste management system and to present a Zero Waste model for post-consumer waste for urban communities in South Africa. The research was undertaken towards the fulfilment of the goals of the Polokwane Declaration on Waste Management [DEAT, 2001. Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Government of South Africa. Polokwane Declaration. Drafted by Government, Civil Society and the Business Community. National Waste Summit, Polokwane, 26-28 September 2001], which has set as its target the reduction of waste generation and disposal by 50% and 25%, respectively, by 2012 and the development of a plan for Zero Waste by 2022. Two communities, adjacent to the Mariannhill Landfill site in Durban, were selected as a case study for a comparative analysis of formal and informal settlements. Since the waste generated from these two communities is disposed of at the Mariannhill landfill, the impact of Zero Waste on landfill volumes could be readily assessed. A Zero Waste scheme, based on costs and landfill airspace savings, was proposed for the area. The case study demonstrates that waste minimisation schemes can be introduced into urban areas, in emerging countries, with differing levels of service and that Zero Waste models are appropriate to urban areas in South Africa.

  16. Towards Zero Waste in emerging countries - A South African experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matete, Ntlibi; Trois, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the optimisation of Waste Minimisation/Zero Waste strategies into an already established integrated waste management system and to present a Zero Waste model for post-consumer waste for urban communities in South Africa. The research was undertaken towards the fulfilment of the goals of the Polokwane Declaration on Waste Management , which has set as its target the reduction of waste generation and disposal by 50% and 25%, respectively, by 2012 and the development of a plan for Zero Waste by 2022. Two communities, adjacent to the Mariannhill Landfill site in Durban, were selected as a case study for a comparative analysis of formal and informal settlements. Since the waste generated from these two communities is disposed of at the Mariannhill landfill, the impact of Zero Waste on landfill volumes could be readily assessed. A Zero Waste scheme, based on costs and landfill airspace savings, was proposed for the area. The case study demonstrates that waste minimisation schemes can be introduced into urban areas, in emerging countries, with differing levels of service and that Zero Waste models are appropriate to urban areas in South Africa

  17. Hunger influenced life expectancy in war-torn Sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchendu, Florence N

    2018-04-27

    Malnutrition is a global public health problem especially in developing countries experiencing war/conflicts. War might be one of the socio-political factors influencing malnutrition in Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries. This study aims at determining the influence of war on corruption, population (POP), number of population malnourished (NPU), food security and life expectancy (LE) in war-torn SSA countries (WTSSA) by comparing their malnutrition indicators. Fourteen countries in WTSSA were stratified into zones according to war incidences. Countries' secondary data on population (POP), NPU, Food Security Index (FSI), corruption perceptions index (CPI), Global Hunger Index (GHI) and LE were obtained from global published data. T test, multivariate and Pearson correlation analyses were performed to determine the relationship between CPI, POP, GHI, FSI, NPU, male LE (MLE) and female LE (FLE) in WTSSA at p Malnutrition indicators were similarly affected in WTSSA. Hunger influenced life expectancy. Policies promoting good governance, equity, peaceful co-existence, respect for human right and adequate food supply will aid malnutrition eradication and prevent war occurrences in Sub-Saharan African countries.

  18. Financial development and economic growth: literature survey and empirical evidence from sub-Saharan African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songul Kakilli Acaravci

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we review the literature on the finance-growth nexus and investigate the causality between financial development and economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa for the period 1975-2005. Using panel co-integration and panel GMM estimation for causality, the results of the panel co-integration analysis provide evidence of no long-run relationship between financial development and economic growth. The empirical findings in the paper show a bi-directional causal relationship between the growth of real GDP per capita and the domestic credit provided by the banking sector for the panels of 24 Sub-Saharan African countries. The findings imply that African countries can accelerate their economic growth by improving their financial systems and vice versa.

  19. Role of mobile phone technology in health education in Asian and African countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Madhusmita; Grover, Ashoo; Joshi, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to explore the role of mobile phone technologies in delivering health education programs in Asian and African countries. The search engine used was Pubmed during 2008-2011. Randomised controlled trials or controlled studies that improved health outcomes through delivery of health educational interventions using cell phone or text messaging were included in the review. Results showed studies from six Asian and African countries including Philippines, China, Kenya, South Korea, Taiwan and India. Mobile phone technology has shown to improve health outcomes for chronic disease conditions such as diabetes, heart disease and hypertension. Additional conditions include obesity and cardiopulmonary resuscitation guidance. Other studies have shown improvement in self management of breast cancer and post-hospitalisation HIV and pharmaceutical care. Overall results of the present review showed that mobile phone technologies can be a possible solution to improve healthcare outcome.

  20. Testing for purchasing power parity in 21 African countries using several unit root tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choji, Niri Martha; Sek, Siok Kun

    2017-04-01

    Purchasing power parity is used as a basis for international income and expenditure comparison through the exchange rate theory. However, empirical studies show disagreement on the validity of PPP. In this paper, we conduct the testing on the validity of PPP using panel data approach. We apply seven different panel unit root tests to test the validity of the purchasing power parity (PPP) hypothesis based on the quarterly data on real effective exchange rate for 21 African countries from the period 1971: Q1-2012: Q4. All the results of the seven tests rejected the hypothesis of stationarity meaning that absolute PPP does not hold in those African Countries. This result confirmed the claim from previous studies that standard panel unit tests fail to support the PPP hypothesis.

  1. Historical Preconditions and Factors for Development of International Relations between UAE and African Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K Voronkov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on analyses of preconditions for development of international relations between UAE and African countries including geographical location of the UAE, naval and ship building skills of the Persian gulf Arabs, participation of both Eastern Africa and Persian Gulf in the Indian ocean trade as well as influence on its development of external factors such as Islamic expansion and colonial policies of Britain and Portugal.

  2. Schizophrenia trials conducted in African countries: a drop of evidence in the ocean of morbidity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purgato Marianna

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To quantify schizophrenia trialling activity in African countries and to describe the main features of these trials. Methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Register, which contains 16,000 citations to 13,000 studies relating only to people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like illness, to identify schizophrenia trials conducted in Africa without time limitation. Results A total of 38 trials met the inclusion criteria and were included in our analysis. Of the 54 countries of Africa, only 8 produced at least one trial: South Africa produced the majority of trials (20 out of 38 trials, 53%, followed by Nigeria (7 out of 38 trials, 18% and Egypt (4 out of 38 trials, 11%. The majority of studies investigated the efficacy of pharmacological interventions, were short in duration, and employed a double-blind design. The quality of reporting was generally poor. We found six trials comparing antipsychotics from the WHO Essential List of Medicine versus new generation antipsychotics. In terms of efficacy and acceptability, these studies failed to show any advantage of newer antipsychotics over first-generation agents. Conclusions We observed an impressive mismatch between the number of individuals with schizophrenia living in African countries, estimated to be around 10 million, and the overall number of patients included in African trials, which is less than 2,000. These few trials were of low quality and appeared not to reflect the real needs of the population. We argue that the concept of pragmatism should be introduced into the design of randomized trials in African countries. Pragmatic trials should investigate whether treatments, given in real-world circumstances, really have clinically meaningful effects.

  3. Choice of exchange rate regimes for African countries: Fixed or Flexible Exchange rate regimes?

    OpenAIRE

    Simwaka, Kisu

    2010-01-01

    The choice of an appropriate exchange rate regime has been a subject of ongoing debate in international economics. The majority of African countries are small open economies and thus where the choice of the exchange rate regime is an important policy issue. Aside from factors such as interest rates and inflation, the exchange rate is one of the most important determinants of a country’s relative level of economic health. For this reason, exchange rates are among the most watched analyzed and ...

  4. African Female Physicians and Nurses in the Global Care Chain: Qualitative Explorations from Five Destination Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Wojczewski

    Full Text Available Migration of health professionals is an important policy issue for both source and destination countries around the world. The majority of migrant care workers in industrialized countries today are women. However, the dimension of mobility of highly skilled females from countries of the global south has been almost entirely neglected for many years. This paper explores the experiences of high-skilled female African migrant health-workers (MHW utilising the framework of Global Care Chain (GCC research. In the frame of the EU-project HURAPRIM (Human Resources for Primary Health Care in Africa, the research team conducted 88 semi-structured interviews with female and male African MHWs in five countries (Botswana, South Africa, Belgium, Austria, UK from July 2011 until April 2012. For this paper we analysed the 34 interviews with female physicians and nurses using the qualitative framework analysis approach and the software atlas.ti. In terms of the effect of the migration on their career, almost all of the respondents experienced short-term, long-term or permanent inability to work as health-care professionals; few however also reported a positive career development post-migration. Discrimination based on a foreign nationality, race or gender was reported by many of our respondents, physicians and nurses alike, whether they worked in an African or a European country. Our study shows that in addition to the phenomenon of deskilling often reported in GCC research, many female MHW are unable to work according to their qualifications due to the fact that their diplomas are not recognized in the country of destination. Policy strategies are needed regarding integration of migrants in the labour market and working against discrimination based on race and gender.

  5. On the mathematical analysis of Ebola hemorrhagic fever: deathly infection disease in West African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atangana, Abdon; Goufo, Emile Franc Doungmo

    2014-01-01

    For a given West African country, we constructed a model describing the spread of the deathly disease called Ebola hemorrhagic fever. The model was first constructed using the classical derivative and then converted to the generalized version using the beta-derivative. We studied in detail the endemic equilibrium points and provided the Eigen values associated using the Jacobian method. We furthered our investigation by solving the model numerically using an iteration method. The simulations were done in terms of time and beta. The study showed that, for small portion of infected individuals, the whole country could die out in a very short period of time in case there is not good prevention.

  6. Income-environment relationship in Sub-Saharan African countries: Further evidence with trade openness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbo, Eléazar

    2017-07-01

    This paper examines the dynamic relationship between energy consumption, income growth, carbon emissions and trade openness in fourteen Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries. The autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach to cointegration and the Toda-Yamamoto causality test were used to investigate the long-run and short-run properties, respectively. The long-run estimations give evidence against the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis in SSA countries. In contrast, the results highlight the significant and monotonically contribution of income growth and energy consumption in explaining carbon emissions in the long-run and short-run in several countries. Furthermore, the results show that trade openness enhances economic growth and is not linked to causing carbon emissions in these countries. Hence, a trade incentive policy may be implemented without harmful effect on the quality of the environment.

  7. Cost Effective Ways of Implementing Nuclear Power Programme in African Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aderojua, Abraham; Choi, Kwang Sik

    2011-01-01

    1.1 Energy Poverty Energy Poverty is a term for a lack of access to electricity, heat or other forms of power. This more than often refers to the situation of peoples in the developing world. According to the records of the International Energy Agency (IEA), a detailed country-by-country database estimated that in 2009 the number of people without access to electricity was 1.4 billion or 20% of the world's population. Some 85% of those people live in rural areas. According to, current forecasts suggest the world will see an increase in global energy consumption of over 50% by 2030 with 70% of this growth in demand expected to come from developing countries. There is therefore the need to seek for a way of meeting this need within the time frame and doing so at an affordable price or rather with the most efficient allocation of resources. Nuclear energy can play a role in providing increased access to affordable energy in many parts of the world. There are growing concerns all over the world about energy security. This is partially due to the instability in the price of fossil fuel and to the political instability of most of the oil rich regions of the world. There arises therefore a need for means of meeting the increasingly growing energy demands of the nations while cutting down on the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. 1.2 The African Situation Presently, the only country on the African continent that has operational nuclear power plants is South Africa. South Africa has two nuclear power plants. Koeberg- 1 and Koeberg-2. Koeberg-1 started operation in 1984 and Koeberg-2 in 1985. Both are 900 MW(e) PWRs. The remaining nations across Africa are dependent largely on either hydro power plants, thermal or gas or a combination of both. However, there has been an increase in interest in nuclear electricity in a number of African countries. The list includes countries like Algeria, Egypt, Nigeria, Namibia, e.tc. These are countries whose economies are

  8. HIV/AIDS-related social anxieties in adolescents in three African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venier, J L; Ross, M W; Akande, A

    1998-02-01

    This study examines the social anxieties associated with HIV prevention in adolescents in three African countries (Nigeria, Kenya, and Zimbabwe). The subjects used in this study were black Africans in form 2 or grade 10 in public high schools (Nigeria, n = 387; Kenya, n = 274; Zimbabwe n = 313). Subjects responded to the 33 item AIDS Social Assertiveness Scale (ASAS). Data indicated similar factor structures for each of the three countries and included five factors. The combined sample factor intercorrelations were modestly but significantly correlated. The mean scores for each factor were compared, and ANOVA of the factors by country, by gender, and by interaction between country and gender were performed. The factor structures were very similar between countries, each including five factors that had similar themes: condom interactions, refusal of risk, confiding in significant others, contact with people with HIV/AIDS, and general assertiveness. These factor structures were also very similar to one found in previous studies of Australian adolescents on the ASAS. The Kenyan means for four of the five factors were significantly lower than those for Nigeria, and were also significantly lower than the Zimbabwean means for two of the five factors, suggesting that Kenyan students are less anxious about social situations related to HIV/AIDS than others. Significant variance was found for several factors due to gender, country, and the interaction between gender and country. These results have important implications for designing education programs. The similarities of anxieties regarding HIV/AIDS social situations suggest that these clusters of social barriers to reduction of HIV infection risk might form the basis of educational interventions, and that dimensions of HIV social anxieties are similar across countries.

  9. Access to What? Creating a Composite Measure of Educational Quantity and Educational Quality for 11 African Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaull, Nicholas; Taylor, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to create a composite statistic of educational quantity and educational quality by combining household data (Demographic and Health Survey) on grade completion and survey data (Southern and Eastern African Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality) on cognitive outcomes for 11 African countries: Kenya, Lesotho,…

  10. The Audio-Visual Services in Fifteen African Countries. Comparative Study on the Administration of Audio-Visual Services in Advanced and Developing Countries. Part Four. First Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongbloed, Harry J. L.

    As the fourth part of a comparative study on the administration of audiovisual services in advanced and developing countries, this UNESCO-funded study reports on the African countries of Cameroun, Republic of Central Africa, Dahomey, Gabon, Ghana, Kenya, Libya, Mali, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Swaziland, Tunisia, Upper Volta and Zambia. Information…

  11. Health expenditure and economic growth - a review of the literature and an analysis between the economic community for central African states (CEMAC) and selected African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piabuo, Serge Mandiefe; Tieguhong, Julius Chupezi

    2017-12-01

    African leaders accepted in the year 2001 through the Abuja Declaration to allocate 15% of their government expenditure on health but by 2013 only five (5) African countries achieved this target. In this paper, a comparative analysis on the impact of health expenditure between countries in the CEMAC sub-region and five other African countries that achieved the Abuja declaration is provided. Data for this study was extracted from the World Development Indicators (2016) database, panel ordinary least square (OLS), fully modified ordinary least square (FMOLS) and dynamic ordinary least square (DOLS) were used as econometric technic of analysis. Results showed that health expenditure has a positive and significant effect on economic growth in both samples. A unit change in health expenditure can potentially increase GDP per capita by 0.38 and 0.3 units for the five other African countries that achieve the Abuja target and for CEMAC countries respectively, a significant difference of 0.08 units among the two samples. In addition, a long-run relationship also exist between health expenditure and economic growth for both groups of countries. Thus African Economies are strongly advised to achieve the Abuja target especially when other socio-economic and political factors are efficient.

  12. Correlation between national income, HIV/AIDS and political status and mortalities in African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andoh, S Y; Umezaki, M; Nakamura, K; Kizuki, M; Takano, T

    2006-07-01

    To investigate associations between mortalities in African countries and problems that emerged in Africa in the 1990s (reduction of national income, HIV/AIDS and political instability) by adjusting for the influences of development, sanitation and education. We compiled country-level indicators of mortalities, national net income (the reduction of national income by the debt), infection rate of HIV/AIDS, political instability, demography, education, sanitation and infrastructure, from 1990 to 2000 of all African countries (n=53). To extract major factors from indicators of the latter four categories, we carried out principal component analysis. We used multiple regression analysis to examine the associations between mortality indicators and national net income per capita, infection rate of HIV/AIDS, and political instability by adjusting the influence of other possible mortality determinants. Mean of infant mortality per 1000 live births (IMR); maternal mortality per 100,000 live birth (MMR); adult female mortality per 1000 population (AMRF); adult male mortality per 1000 population (AMRM); and life expectancy at birth (LE) in 2000 were 83, 733, 381, 435, and 51, respectively. Three factors were identified as major influences on development: education, sanitation and infrastructure. National net income per capita showed independent negative associations with MMR and AMRF, and a positive association with LE. Infection rate of HIV/AIDS was independently positively associated with AMRM and AMRF, and negatively associated with LE in 2000. Political instability score was independently positively associated with MMR. National net income per capita, HIV/AIDS and political status were predictors of mortality indicators in African countries. This study provided evidence for supporting health policies that take economic and political stability into account.

  13. Mapping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Genetic Diversity Profiles in Tanzania and Other African Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erasto V Mbugi

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess and characterize Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC genotypic diversity in Tanzania, as well as in neighbouring East and other several African countries. We used spoligotyping to identify a total of 293 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates (one isolate per patient collected in the Bunda, Dar es Salaam, Ngorongoro and Serengeti areas in Tanzania. The results were compared with results in the SITVIT2 international database of the Pasteur Institute of Guadeloupe. Genotyping and phylogeographical analyses highlighted the predominance of the CAS, T, EAI, and LAM MTBC lineages in Tanzania. The three most frequent Spoligotype International Types (SITs were: SIT21/CAS1-Kili (n = 76; 25.94%, SIT59/LAM11-ZWE (n = 22; 7.51%, and SIT126/EAI5 tentatively reclassified as EAI3-TZA (n = 18; 6.14%. Furthermore, three SITs were newly created in this study (SIT4056/EAI5 n = 2, SIT4057/T1 n = 1, and SIT4058/EAI5 n = 1. We noted that the East-African-Indian (EAI lineage was more predominant in Bunda, the Manu lineage was more common among strains isolated in Ngorongoro, and the Central-Asian (CAS lineage was more predominant in Dar es Salaam (p-value<0.0001. No statistically significant differences were noted when comparing HIV status of patients vs. major lineages (p-value = 0.103. However, when grouping lineages as Principal Genetic Groups (PGG, we noticed that PGG2/3 group (Haarlem, LAM, S, T, and X was more associated with HIV-positive patients as compared to PGG1 group (Beijing, CAS, EAI, and Manu (p-value = 0.03. This study provided mapping of MTBC genetic diversity in Tanzania (containing information on isolates from different cities and neighbouring East African and other several African countries highlighting differences as regards to MTBC genotypic distribution between Tanzania and other African countries. This work also allowed underlining of spoligotyping patterns tentatively grouped within the newly designated EAI3

  14. Mapping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Genetic Diversity Profiles in Tanzania and Other African Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbugi, Erasto V; Katale, Bugwesa Z; Streicher, Elizabeth M; Keyyu, Julius D; Kendall, Sharon L; Dockrell, Hazel M; Michel, Anita L; Rweyemamu, Mark M; Warren, Robin M; Matee, Mecky I; van Helden, Paul D; Couvin, David; Rastogi, Nalin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and characterize Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) genotypic diversity in Tanzania, as well as in neighbouring East and other several African countries. We used spoligotyping to identify a total of 293 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates (one isolate per patient) collected in the Bunda, Dar es Salaam, Ngorongoro and Serengeti areas in Tanzania. The results were compared with results in the SITVIT2 international database of the Pasteur Institute of Guadeloupe. Genotyping and phylogeographical analyses highlighted the predominance of the CAS, T, EAI, and LAM MTBC lineages in Tanzania. The three most frequent Spoligotype International Types (SITs) were: SIT21/CAS1-Kili (n = 76; 25.94%), SIT59/LAM11-ZWE (n = 22; 7.51%), and SIT126/EAI5 tentatively reclassified as EAI3-TZA (n = 18; 6.14%). Furthermore, three SITs were newly created in this study (SIT4056/EAI5 n = 2, SIT4057/T1 n = 1, and SIT4058/EAI5 n = 1). We noted that the East-African-Indian (EAI) lineage was more predominant in Bunda, the Manu lineage was more common among strains isolated in Ngorongoro, and the Central-Asian (CAS) lineage was more predominant in Dar es Salaam (p-value<0.0001). No statistically significant differences were noted when comparing HIV status of patients vs. major lineages (p-value = 0.103). However, when grouping lineages as Principal Genetic Groups (PGG), we noticed that PGG2/3 group (Haarlem, LAM, S, T, and X) was more associated with HIV-positive patients as compared to PGG1 group (Beijing, CAS, EAI, and Manu) (p-value = 0.03). This study provided mapping of MTBC genetic diversity in Tanzania (containing information on isolates from different cities) and neighbouring East African and other several African countries highlighting differences as regards to MTBC genotypic distribution between Tanzania and other African countries. This work also allowed underlining of spoligotyping patterns tentatively grouped within the newly designated EAI3-TZA

  15. Mapping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Genetic Diversity Profiles in Tanzania and Other African Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbugi, Erasto V.; Katale, Bugwesa Z.; Streicher, Elizabeth M.; Keyyu, Julius D.; Kendall, Sharon L.; Dockrell, Hazel M.; Michel, Anita L.; Rweyemamu, Mark M.; Warren, Robin M.; Matee, Mecky I.; van Helden, Paul D.; Couvin, David; Rastogi, Nalin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and characterize Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) genotypic diversity in Tanzania, as well as in neighbouring East and other several African countries. We used spoligotyping to identify a total of 293 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates (one isolate per patient) collected in the Bunda, Dar es Salaam, Ngorongoro and Serengeti areas in Tanzania. The results were compared with results in the SITVIT2 international database of the Pasteur Institute of Guadeloupe. Genotyping and phylogeographical analyses highlighted the predominance of the CAS, T, EAI, and LAM MTBC lineages in Tanzania. The three most frequent Spoligotype International Types (SITs) were: SIT21/CAS1-Kili (n = 76; 25.94%), SIT59/LAM11-ZWE (n = 22; 7.51%), and SIT126/EAI5 tentatively reclassified as EAI3-TZA (n = 18; 6.14%). Furthermore, three SITs were newly created in this study (SIT4056/EAI5 n = 2, SIT4057/T1 n = 1, and SIT4058/EAI5 n = 1). We noted that the East-African-Indian (EAI) lineage was more predominant in Bunda, the Manu lineage was more common among strains isolated in Ngorongoro, and the Central-Asian (CAS) lineage was more predominant in Dar es Salaam (p-value<0.0001). No statistically significant differences were noted when comparing HIV status of patients vs. major lineages (p-value = 0.103). However, when grouping lineages as Principal Genetic Groups (PGG), we noticed that PGG2/3 group (Haarlem, LAM, S, T, and X) was more associated with HIV-positive patients as compared to PGG1 group (Beijing, CAS, EAI, and Manu) (p-value = 0.03). This study provided mapping of MTBC genetic diversity in Tanzania (containing information on isolates from different cities) and neighbouring East African and other several African countries highlighting differences as regards to MTBC genotypic distribution between Tanzania and other African countries. This work also allowed underlining of spoligotyping patterns tentatively grouped within the newly designated EAI3-TZA

  16. Electricity consumption and economic growth: a time series experience for 17 African countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolde-Rufael, Yemane

    2006-01-01

    While the availability of electricity by itself is not a panacea for the economic and social problems facing Africa, the supply of electricity is nevertheless believed to be a necessary requirement for Africa's economic and social development. This paper tests the long-run and causal relationship between electricity consumption per capita and real gross domestic product (GDP) per capita for 17 African countries for the period 1971-2001 using a newly developed cointegration test proposed by Pesaran et al. (2001) and using a modified version of the Granger causality test due to Toda and Yamamoto (1995). The advantage of using these two approaches is that they both avoid the pre-testing bias associated with conventional unit root and cointegration tests. The empirical evidence shows that there was a long-run relationship between electricity consumption per capita and real GDP per capita for only 9 countries and Granger causality for only 12 countries. For 6 countries there was a positive uni-directional causality running from real GDP per capita to electricity consumption per capita; an opposite causality for 3 countries and bi-directional causality for the remaining 3 countries. The result should, however, be interpreted with care as electricity consumption accounts for less than 4% of total energy consumption in Africa and only grid-supplied electricity is taken into account

  17. HUMAN SIDE OF E-COMMERCE IN THE SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    DURAK, Görkem

    2017-01-01

    E-commerce is a new way of shopping through using internet since 1990s. This latest from of shopping is based on progress in information technologies. In the 1990s, companies just as Amazon and eBay started to change the shopping behavior of people. In this research, e-commerce index of 44 Sub-Saharan African countries are calculated by using World Development Indicators which are issued by the World Bank Group. The E-commerce index is consisting of access to electricity, co...

  18. Surgical Residency Training in Developing Countries: West African College of Surgeons as a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajao, Oluwole Gbolagunte; Alao, Adekola

    2016-01-01

    In 1904, William Halsted introduced the present model of surgical residency program which has been adopted worldwide. In some developing countries, where surgical residency training programs are new, some colleges have introduced innovations to the Halsted's original concept of surgical residency training. These include 1) primary examination, 2) rural surgical posting, and 3) submission of dissertation for final certification. Our information was gathered from the publications on West African College of Surgeons' (WACS) curriculum of the medical schools, faculty papers of medical schools, and findings from committees of medical schools. Verbal information was also gathered via interviews from members of the WACS. Additionally, our personal experience as members and examiners of the college are included herein. We then noted the differences between surgical residency training programs in the developed countries and that of developing countries. The innovations introduced into the residency training programs in the developing countries are mainly due to the emphasis placed on paper qualifications and degrees instead of performance. We conclude that the innovations introduced into surgical residency training programs in developing countries are the result of the misconception of what surgical residency training programs entail. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Corporate social disclosure by public enterprises: Evidence from a less developing African country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humayun Kabir

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR information disclosure practices of a sample of public enterprises operating in a less developing African country (i.e. Swaziland over the years 2008 and 2010. Corporate annual reports and other relevant documents were used to extract CSR disclosure information. The study used content analysis of CSR information appearing in the corporate reports. Content analysis was measured in accordance with number of words. The paper examines five major categories of CSR disclosure such as environmental performance and policies, human resources, community activities, fair business practices, and human rights. Findings show that the trend of increasing amounts of corporate social information disclosure amongst the enterprises from 2008 to 2010 has not increased significantly. Results show that human resources disclosure issues were greatest followed by community involvement and then by environmental related issues. There was no attempt to disclose human rights issues by the enterprises. This study contributes to the literature on CSR reporting practices by public enterprises in the context of less developing African countries.

  20. A survey of pharmacists' perception of foundation level competencies in African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udoh, Arit; Bruno, Andreia; Bates, Ian

    2018-04-02

    Evidence from published literature in pharmacy practice research demonstrate that the use of competency frameworks alongside standards of practice facilitate improvement in professional performance and aid expertise development. The aim of this study was to evaluate pharmacists' perception of relevance to practice of the competencies and behaviours contained in the FIP Global Competency Framework (GbCF v1). The overall objective of the study was to assess the validity of the GbCF v1 framework in selected countries in Africa. A cross-sectional survey of pharmacists practicing in 14 countries in Africa was conducted between November 2012 and December 2014. A combination of purposive and snowball sampling method was used. Data was analysed using SPSS v22. A total of 469 pharmacists completed the survey questionnaire. The majority (91%) of the respondents were from four countries: Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria and South Africa. The study results showed broad agreement on relevance to practice for 90% of the behaviours contained in the GbCF v1 framework. Observed disagreement was associated with area of pharmacy practice and the corresponding patient facing involvement (p ≤ 0.05). In general, the competencies within the 'pharmaceutical care' and 'pharmaceutical public health' clusters received higher weighting on relevance compared to the research-related competencies which had the lowest. Specific inter-country variability on weighting of relevance was observed in five behaviours in the framework although, this was due to disparity in 'degree of relevance' that was related to sample composition in the respective countries. The competencies contained in the GbCF v1 are relevant to pharmacy practice in the study population; however, there are some emergent differences between the African countries surveyed. Overall, the findings provide preliminary evidence that was previously lacking on the relevance of the GbCF v1 competencies to pharmacy practice in the countries

  1. Strategic siting and regional grid interconnections key to low-carbon futures in African countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Grace C. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy and Resources Group; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). International Energy Studies Group; Deshmukh, Ranjit [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy and Resources Group; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). International Energy Studies Group; Ndhlukula, Kudakwashe [Namibia Univ. of Science and Technology, Windhoek, (Namibia). Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) Centre for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency; Radojicic, Tijana [International Renewable Energy Agency, Masdar City, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Reilly-Moman, Jessica [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy and Resources Group; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). International Energy Studies Group; Phadke, Amol [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). International Energy Studies Group; Kammen, Daniel M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy and Resources Group; Callaway, Duncan S. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy and Resources Group

    2017-03-27

    Recent forecasts suggest that African countries must triple their current electricity generation by 2030. Our multicriteria assessment of wind and solar potential for large regions of Africa shows how economically competitive and low-environmental– impact renewable resources can significantly contribute to meeting this demand. We created the Multicriteria Analysis for Planning Renewable Energy (MapRE) framework to map and characterize solar and wind energy zones in 21 countries in the Southern African Power Pool (SAPP) and the Eastern Africa Power Pool (EAPP) and find that potential is several times greater than demand in many countries. Significant fractions of demand can be quickly served with “no-regrets” options—or zones that are low-cost, low-environmental impact, and highly accessible. Because no-regrets options are spatially heterogeneous, international interconnections are necessary to help achieve low-carbon development for the region as a whole, and interconnections that support the best renewable options may differ from those planned for hydropower expansion. Additionally, interconnections and selecting wind sites to match demand reduce the need for SAPP-wide conventional generation capacity by 9.5% in a high-wind scenario, resulting in a 6–20% cost savings, depending on the avoided conventional technology. Strategic selection of low-impact and accessible zones is more cost effective with interconnections compared with solutions without interconnections. In conclusion, the overall results are robust to multiple load growth scenarios. Together, results show that multicriteria site selection and deliberate planning of interconnections may significantly increase the economic and environmental competitiveness of renewable alternatives relative to conventional generation.

  2. Strategic siting and regional grid interconnections key to low-carbon futures in African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Grace C; Deshmukh, Ranjit; Ndhlukula, Kudakwashe; Radojicic, Tijana; Reilly-Moman, Jessica; Phadke, Amol; Kammen, Daniel M; Callaway, Duncan S

    2017-04-11

    Recent forecasts suggest that African countries must triple their current electricity generation by 2030. Our multicriteria assessment of wind and solar potential for large regions of Africa shows how economically competitive and low-environmental-impact renewable resources can significantly contribute to meeting this demand. We created the Multicriteria Analysis for Planning Renewable Energy (MapRE) framework to map and characterize solar and wind energy zones in 21 countries in the Southern African Power Pool (SAPP) and the Eastern Africa Power Pool (EAPP) and find that potential is several times greater than demand in many countries. Significant fractions of demand can be quickly served with "no-regrets" options-or zones that are low-cost, low-environmental impact, and highly accessible. Because no-regrets options are spatially heterogeneous, international interconnections are necessary to help achieve low-carbon development for the region as a whole, and interconnections that support the best renewable options may differ from those planned for hydropower expansion. Additionally, interconnections and selecting wind sites to match demand reduce the need for SAPP-wide conventional generation capacity by 9.5% in a high-wind scenario, resulting in a 6-20% cost savings, depending on the avoided conventional technology. Strategic selection of low-impact and accessible zones is more cost effective with interconnections compared with solutions without interconnections. Overall results are robust to multiple load growth scenarios. Together, results show that multicriteria site selection and deliberate planning of interconnections may significantly increase the economic and environmental competitiveness of renewable alternatives relative to conventional generation.

  3. JPRS Report, Africa, (Sub-Sahara).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-31

    businessmen from various private concerns were disposed to cooperate with the RPA in the areas of urban transport, tourism and cadre training, among...television would very shortly be broadcasting the recent Dresden Festival in which Rossy participated. The secretary-general of foreign affairs, Mr...Education (MIE). France will participate in a project to draw up a book of maps and in establishing a music conservatory. Support for FIM France has

  4. JPRS Report Africa (Sub-Sahara).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    sub-prefect of Say, Mr Abara Zika , and officials of the university and heard a report on the various problems facing the institution. Impressed with...market* mside black Africa. But the score of rolling mills, in the FTA coontrie» a»in* bad shape and als» need costfyiescae operation». They lack

  5. JPRS Report, Africa, (Sub-Sahara).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-09

    Goburdhun "have achieved epidemic proportions in the last 4-5 years by the widespread distribution of cannabis and opium" and by "the arrival of heroin in...products such as tobacco and coffee . With imports having increased at a slower rate than exports, a surplus on the trade balance which is upwards of 350

  6. JPRS Report, Africa, (Sub-Sahara).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    the founding of FAPLA, we talked to Lieutenant Colonel Macedo de Morais Domingos Violencia , who briefed us on the activities carried out since last...August to this present date, [Begin Violencia recording] In this military region our enemy, UNITA, does not fail to use, as part of its criminal...not the local electorate ; and provincial officials will ’fall under the direct control of the Commis- sion for Administration." Correctly, in the

  7. Effective coverage and systems effectiveness for malaria case management in sub-Saharan African countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katya Galactionova

    Full Text Available Scale-up of malaria preventive and control interventions over the last decade resulted in substantial declines in mortality and morbidity from the disease in sub-Saharan Africa and many other parts of the world. Sustaining these gains will depend on the health system performance. Treatment provides individual benefits by curing infection and preventing progression to severe disease as well as community-level benefits by reducing the infectious reservoir and averting emergence and spread of drug resistance. However many patients with malaria do not access care, providers do not comply with treatment guidelines, and hence, patients do not necessarily receive the correct regimen. Even when the correct regimen is administered some patients will not adhere and others will be treated with counterfeit or substandard medication leading to treatment failures and spread of drug resistance. We apply systems effectiveness concepts that explicitly consider implications of health system factors such as treatment seeking, provider compliance, adherence, and quality of medication to estimate treatment outcomes for malaria case management. We compile data for these indicators to derive estimates of effective coverage for 43 high-burden Sub-Saharan African countries. Parameters are populated from the Demographic and Health Surveys and other published sources. We assess the relative importance of these factors on the level of effective coverage and consider variation in these health systems indicators across countries. Our findings suggest that effective coverage for malaria case management ranges from 8% to 72% in the region. Different factors account for health system inefficiencies in different countries. Significant losses in effectiveness of treatment are estimated in all countries. The patterns of inter-country variation suggest that these are system failures that are amenable to change. Identifying the reasons for the poor health system performance and

  8. Hope in Africa?: social representations of world history and the future in six African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabecinhas, Rosa; Liu, James H; Licata, Laurent; Klein, Olivier; Mendes, Júlio; Feijó, João; Niyubahwe, Aline

    2011-10-01

    Data on social representations of world history have been collected everywhere in the world except sub-Saharan Africa. Two studies using open-ended data involving university students from six African countries fill this gap. In Study 1, nominations from Cape Verde and Mozambique for the most important events in world history in the past 1000 years were dominated by war and politics, recency effects, and Western-centrism tempered by African sociocentrism on colonization and independence. The first three findings replicated previous research conducted in other parts of the world, but the last pattern contrasted sharply with European data. Study 2 employed a novel method asking participants how they would begin the narration of world history, and then to describe a major transition to the present. Participants most frequently wrote about the evolution of humanity out of Africa, followed by war and then colonization as a beginning, and then replicated previous findings with war, colonization, and technology as major transitions to the present. Finally, when asked about how they foresaw the future, many participants expressed hope for peace and cooperation, especially those facing more risk of collective violence (Burundi and Congo). A colonial/liberation narrative was more predominant in the data from former Portuguese colonies (Angola, Cape Verde, and Guinea-Bissau) than from former Belgian colonies (Burundi and Congo).

  9. Dog rabies data reported to multinational organizations from Southern and Eastern African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyene, Tariku Jibat; Mourits, Monique C M; Hogeveen, Henk

    2017-06-08

    Rabies is one of the viral diseases with the highest case fatality rate in humans. The main transmission route to humans is through bites, especially of infected dogs. Decisions on the allocation of resources to control and reduce the socio-economic impacts of rabies require reliable data. Several national, regional and international organizations have been gathering rabies data for more than a decade. The objective of this paper was to examine the consistencies in the number of dog rabies cases reported to different multinational organizations by Southern and Eastern African countries and to explore the presence of any time trend among the reported rabies data. Data was systematically extracted from the databases of the Southern and Eastern African Rabies Group-SEARG and the World Organization for Animal Health/World animal health information-OIE/WAHID. Despite differences in entities by which data have been reported to the two organisations, reported numbers were significantly correlated (Spearman's rho = 0.52, P rabies outbreaks. Inconsistencies in the reported numbers were observed between the databases, possibly due to the fact that human and animal health authorities report separately to the organisations involved in addition to the use of indefinite definitions of report categories set by report receiving organizations.

  10. Prevalence of foodborne pathogens in food from selected African countries – a meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paudyal, Narayan; Anihouvi, Victor; Hounhouigan, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    for general analysis, while 66 papers on contamination of pathogenic bacteria were used for meta-analysis of prevalence. The food items were split into two categories: raw foods and ready-to-eat (RTE) foods (including street food and beverages) for meta-analysis. Majority of the reviewed studies (67.2%, 78....../116) dealt with food of animal origin: 38.8% for meat and eggs, 17.2% for dairy products and 11.2% for aquatic products. Only 8.6% examined foods of plant origin (fruits and vegetables). The remaining 24.1% was the composite RTE food and beverages. Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, Salmonella......Food safety information in the African region is insufficient and fragmented due to lack of surveillance, documentation and reporting, thereby resulting in inefficient utilization of resources, duplication of activities, and lack of synergy among the countries of the region. This paper reviews...

  11. Clinical nursing and midwifery research in Middle Eastern and North African Countries: A Scoping Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malak Alashal Alhusaini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The professions of nursing and midwifery currently face many challenges, such as an increasing number of patients with communicable and non-communicable diseases, which strains resources and requires nurses and midwives to develop their knowledge and skills to a higher level. This is also true in the Middle East, including the Mediterranean East and North African regions, which means it is vitally important that nurses and midwives have access to and use current research to inform their practice, with research targeting the most relevant issues, including complex humanitarian emergency situations that increase health issues and challenge health infrastructure. For this to be achieved, a scoping review of the indexed clinical nursing and midwifery literature in the Middle East was performed to identify gaps in clinical nursing and midwifery research and areas requiring focus. A search of PubMed, CINAHL/EBSCO, EMBASE, the Jordanian Database for Nursing Research resulted in 210/1398 articles which met the inclusion criteria: (1 original research, (2 conducted in Middle Eastern countries as defined by the World Health Organization, (3 had at least one nurse or midwife author (but not limited to nurses in Middle Eastern countries, (4 published in an indexed, peer-reviewed journal between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2015, (5 included patient outcomes in the results, (6 written in English or Arabic and (7 included an abstract. Studies were found from 10 of the 22 countries; the majority (n = 199; 94.76% was conducted in three countries: Jordan, Iran and Lebanon. Most studies (n = 158, 75.24% used quantitative designs, primarily cross-sectional, descriptive studies (n = 106 and the most frequently researched topics were related to maternal child health and women′s health (n = 95, 48.5%. Strategies are needed to encourage collaboration between nursing and midwifery faculty members including clinicians to assure that clinical research is

  12. Mean reversion in the current account of forty-eight african countries: Evidence from the Panel SURADF test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hsiao-Ping; Chang, Tsangyao; Chang, Hsu-Ling; Su, Chi-Wei; Yuan, Young

    2007-10-01

    Here, the Panel seemingly unrelated regressions augmented Dickey-Fuller test (SURADF) test, first introduced and advanced by Breuer et al. [Misleading inferences from panel unit-root tests with an illustration from purchasing power parity, Rev. Int. Econ. 9(3) (2001) 482-493], is used to investigate the mean-reverting behavior of the current account of 48 African countries during the 1980-2004 periods. The empirical results from numerous panel-based unit root tests, conducted earlier, indicated that the current account of each of these countries is stationary; however, when Breuer et al.'s (2001) Panel SURADF test is conducted, it is found that a unit root exists in the current account of 11 of the countries studied. These results have one extremely important policy implication for the 48 African countries studied: the current account deficit of most is sustainable, and thus signifying that those nations should have no incentive to default on their international debt.

  13. Empirical Evidence of Target Leverage, Adjustment Costs and Adjustment Speed of Non-Financial Firms in Selected African Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Oyebola Fatima Etudaiye-Muhtar; Oyebola Fatima Etudaiye-Muhtar; Rubi Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    The issue of target leverage for corporate firms in developing countries has received little attention in extant literature, especially countries in Africa. Given the imperfection that exists in African financial markets that may limit firms access to external capital, this study investigates dynamic adjustment towards a target debt ratio. In addition, the study used a dynamic panel data estimation technique to determine adjustment costs and speed of adjustment in non-financial firms in selec...

  14. An overview of cardiovascular risk factor burden in sub-Saharan African countries: a socio-cultural perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belue, Rhonda; Okoror, Titilayo A.; Iwelunmor, Juliet; Taylor, Kelly D.; Degboe, Arnold N.; Agyemang, Charles; Ogedegbe, Gbenga

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries are currently experiencing one of the most rapid epidemiological transitions characterized by increasing urbanization and changing lifestyle factors. This has resulted in an increase in the incidence of non-communicable diseases, especially

  15. Learning-by-Exporting Versus Self-Selection: New Evidence for 19 Sub-Saharan African Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foster-McGregor, N.; Isaksson, A.; Kaulich, F.

    2015-01-01

    We examine learning-by-exporting effects of manufacturing and services firms in 19 sub-Saharan African countries. Comparing several outlier-robust estimators, our results provide evidence for positive effects in the manufacturing sector when using the MM estimator, but not in the services sector.

  16. The Finance Growth Link: Comparative Analysis of Two Eastern African Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanta Ashenafi Beyene

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the finance growth link of two low-income Sub-Saharan African economies – Ethiopia and Kenya – which have different financial systems but are located in the same region. Unlike previous studies, we account for the role of non-bank financial intermediaries and formally model the effect of structural breaks caused by policy and market-induced economic events. We used the Vector Autoregressive model (VAR, conducted impulse response analysis and examined variance decomposition. We find that neither the level of financial intermediary development nor the level of stock market development explains economic growth in Kenya. For Ethiopia, which has no stock market, intermediary development is found to be driven by economic growth. Three important inferences can be made from these findings. First, the often reported positive link between finance and growth might be caused by the aggregation of countries at different stages of economic growth and financial development. Second, country-specific economic situations and episodes are important in studying the relationship between financial development and economic growth. Third, there is the possibility that the econometric model employed to test the finance growth link plays a role in the empirical result, as we note that prior studies did not introduce control variables.

  17. Do Transport Infrastructures Promote the Foreign Direct Investments Attractiveness? Empirical Investigation from Four North African Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Saidi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The relationship among foreign direct investments and economic growth is a very controversial issue that has given rise to an abundant literature. Numerous research studies examine the bidirectional causal relationship and investigate the major determinants of these investments. In the same order of ideas, this article gives an empirical study from four North African countries to evaluate the role of transport infrastructures to improve the territorial attractiveness for the foreign direct investment. The present paper starts by a theoretical study explaining the role of transport as a major determinant of FDI. In a second section, we represent the empirical study. By using an econometric model with panel data, we found that traditional determinants of FDI have the most significant influence on the international investors’ decision. However, the same findings verify a positive impact of transport and consider it as a new important factor with strategic issues that cannot be avoided. The empirical validation from the four countries leads to verify that it is necessary to adopt development strategies that take into account the transport infrastructures and logistics function

  18. Children's exposure to community and war violence and mental health in four African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Holly; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2015-12-01

    In this article we review the mental health consequences of children's exposure to community and war violence (ETV) in four African countries: South Africa, Sierra Leone, Gambia and Rwanda. A focus on Africa is particularly pressing because of children's high levels of community and war ETV in countries therein. Regions of Africa present important macro-contexts for understanding children's various types of violence exposure amidst war and economic disadvantage. Findings of the review across 20 quantitative studies from 2004 to 2015 indicate consistent associations between exposure to war and community violence and children's symptoms of Post-traumatic Stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and aggression. School climate and family support mitigate these ETV influences upon children: however, more research is needed on the buffering effects of such resources. The effects of war violence are mediated by perceived discrimination in communities post-conflict. We integrate findings across studies to synthesize knowledge on children's ETV in Africa around a model of its correlates, mediators, and moderators in relation to mental health. Emerging research points to avenues for prevention and future inquiry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Women's empowerment and choice of contraceptive methods in selected African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Mai; Kurimoto, Nami

    2012-03-01

    It is generally believed that women's lack of decision-making power may restrict their use of modern contraceptives. However, few studies have examined the different dimensions of women's empowerment and contraceptive use in African countries. Data came from the latest round of Demographic and Health Surveys conducted between 2006 and 2008 in Namibia, Zambia, Ghana and Uganda. Responses from married or cohabiting women aged 15-49 were analyzed for six dimensions of empowerment and the current use of female-only methods or couple methods. Bivariate and multivariate multinomial regressions were used to identify associations between the empowerment dimensions and method use. Positive associations were found between the overall empowerment score and method use in all countries (relative risk ratios, 1.1-1.3). In multivariate analysis, household economic decision making was associated with the use of either female-only or couple methods (1.1 for all), as was agreement on fertility preferences (1.3-1.6) and the ability to negotiate sexual activity (1.1-1.2). In Namibia, women's negative attitudes toward domestic violence were correlated with the use of couple methods (1.1). Intervention programs aimed at increasing contraceptive use may need to involve different approaches, including promoting couples' discussion of fertility preferences and family planning, improving women's self-efficacy in negotiating sexual activity and increasing their economic independence.

  20. Prevalence of foodborne pathogens in food from selected African countries - A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudyal, Narayan; Anihouvi, Victor; Hounhouigan, Joseph; Matsheka, Maitshwarelo Ignatius; Sekwati-Monang, Bonno; Amoa-Awua, Wisdom; Atter, Amy; Ackah, Nina Bernice; Mbugua, Samuel; Asagbra, Agnes; Abdelgadir, Warda; Nakavuma, Jesca; Jakobsen, Mogens; Fang, Weihuan

    2017-05-16

    Food safety information in the African region is insufficient and fragmented due to lack of surveillance, documentation and reporting, thereby resulting in inefficient utilization of resources, duplication of activities, and lack of synergy among the countries of the region. This paper reviews the prevalence of foodborne pathogens in seven African countries (Benin, Botswana, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Sudan and Uganda) from papers in regional or international journals published between January 2000 and December 2015. One hundred and sixteen publications that dealt with food microbiology were reviewed for general analysis, while 66 papers on contamination of pathogenic bacteria were used for meta-analysis of prevalence. The food items were split into two categories: raw foods and ready-to-eat (RTE) foods (including street food and beverages) for meta-analysis. Majority of the reviewed studies (67.2%, 78/116) dealt with food of animal origin: 38.8% for meat and eggs, 17.2% for dairy products and 11.2% for aquatic products. Only 8.6% examined foods of plant origin (fruits and vegetables). The remaining 24.1% was the composite RTE food and beverages. Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes were the most frequently reported organisms in those studies. Although the data were highly heterogeneous, a striking feature is high prevalence of the major pathogens in RTE foods, almost as high as in raw foods. E. coli averaged at 37.6% in raw foods and 31.6% in RTE foods. The corresponding prevalence for Salmonella was 19.9% vs 21.7%; S. aureus, 27.8% vs 25.1% and L. monocytogenes, 19.5% vs 6.7%. The average prevalence of foodborne pathogens in these countries was 34.2% (29.0-39.3%). Differences in food types as well as non-uniform protocols for sampling and identification might have contributed to high heterogeneity (I 2 >97%) although some high prevalence data could be factual with extensive varieties of raw and RTE foods

  1. Socioeconomic Differences in Dietary Patterns in an East African Country: Evidence from the Republic of Seychelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayén, Ana-Lucia; Bovet, Pascal; Marti-Soler, Helena; Viswanathan, Bharathi; Gedeon, Jude; Paccaud, Fred; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Stringhini, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    In high income countries, low socioeconomic status (SES) is related to unhealthier dietary patterns, while evidence on the social patterning of diet in low and middle income countries is scarce. In this study, we assess dietary patterns in the general population of a middle income country in the African region, the Republic of Seychelles, and examine their distribution according to educational level and income. Data was drawn from two independent national surveys conducted in the Seychelles among adults aged 25-64 years in 2004 (n = 1236) and 2013 (n = 1240). Dietary patterns were assessed by principal component analysis (PCA). Educational level and income were used as SES indicators. Data from both surveys were combined as no interaction was found between SES and year. Three dietary patterns were identified: "snacks and drinks", "fruit and vegetables" and "fish and rice". No significant associations were found between SES and the "snacks and drinks" pattern. Low vs. high SES individuals had lower adherence to the "fruit and vegetables" pattern [prevalence ratio (95% CI) 0.71 (0.60-0.83)] but a higher adherence to the traditional "fish and rice" pattern [1.58 (1.32-1.88)]. Income modified the association between education and the "fish and rice" pattern (p = 0.02), whereby low income individuals had a higher adherence to this pattern in both educational groups. Low SES individuals have a lower consumption of fruit and vegetables, but a higher consumption of traditional foods like fish and rice. The Seychelles may be at a degenerative diseases stage of the nutrition transition.

  2. Progress in Harmonizing Tiered HIV Laboratory Systems: Challenges and Opportunities in 8 African Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jason; Umaru, Farouk; Edgil, Dianna; Kuritsky, Joel

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In 2014, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS released its 90-90-90 targets, which make laboratory diagnostics a cornerstone for measuring efforts toward the epidemic control of HIV. A data-driven laboratory harmonization and standardization approach is one way to create efficiencies and ensure optimal laboratory procurements. Following the 2008 “Maputo Declaration on Strengthening of Laboratory Systems”—a call for government leadership in harmonizing tiered laboratory networks and standardizing testing services—several national ministries of health requested that the United States Government and in-country partners help implement the recommendations by facilitating laboratory harmonization and standardization workshops, with a primary focus on improving HIV laboratory service delivery. Between 2007 and 2015, harmonization and standardization workshops were held in 8 African countries. This article reviews progress in the harmonization of laboratory systems in these 8 countries. We examined agreed-upon instrument lists established at the workshops and compared them against instrument data from laboratory quantification exercises over time. We used this measure as an indicator of adherence to national procurement policies. We found high levels of diversity across laboratories’ diagnostic instruments, equipment, and services. This diversity contributes to different levels of compliance with expected service delivery standards. We believe the following challenges to be the most important to address: (1) lack of adherence to procurement policies, (2) absence or limited influence of a coordinating body to fully implement harmonization proposals, and (3) misalignment of laboratory policies with minimum packages of care and with national HIV care and treatment guidelines. Overall, the effort to implement the recommendations from the Maputo Declaration has had mixed success and is a work in progress. Program managers should continue efforts to

  3. Progress in Harmonizing Tiered HIV Laboratory Systems: Challenges and Opportunities in 8 African Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jason; Umaru, Farouk; Edgil, Dianna; Kuritsky, Joel

    2016-09-28

    In 2014, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS released its 90-90-90 targets, which make laboratory diagnostics a cornerstone for measuring efforts toward the epidemic control of HIV. A data-driven laboratory harmonization and standardization approach is one way to create efficiencies and ensure optimal laboratory procurements. Following the 2008 "Maputo Declaration on Strengthening of Laboratory Systems"-a call for government leadership in harmonizing tiered laboratory networks and standardizing testing services-several national ministries of health requested that the United States Government and in-country partners help implement the recommendations by facilitating laboratory harmonization and standardization workshops, with a primary focus on improving HIV laboratory service delivery. Between 2007 and 2015, harmonization and standardization workshops were held in 8 African countries. This article reviews progress in the harmonization of laboratory systems in these 8 countries. We examined agreed-upon instrument lists established at the workshops and compared them against instrument data from laboratory quantification exercises over time. We used this measure as an indicator of adherence to national procurement policies. We found high levels of diversity across laboratories' diagnostic instruments, equipment, and services. This diversity contributes to different levels of compliance with expected service delivery standards. We believe the following challenges to be the most important to address: (1) lack of adherence to procurement policies, (2) absence or limited influence of a coordinating body to fully implement harmonization proposals, and (3) misalignment of laboratory policies with minimum packages of care and with national HIV care and treatment guidelines. Overall, the effort to implement the recommendations from the Maputo Declaration has had mixed success and is a work in progress. Program managers should continue efforts to advance the

  4. Energy consumption, economic growth and CO2 emissions in Middle East and North African countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arouri, Mohamed El Hedi; Ben Youssef, Adel; M'henni, Hatem; Rault, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    This article extends the recent findings of , , and by implementing recent bootstrap panel unit root tests and cointegration techniques to investigate the relationship between carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption, and real GDP for 12 Middle East and North African Countries (MENA) over the period 1981–2005. Our results show that in the long-run energy consumption has a positive significant impact on CO 2 emissions. More interestingly, we show that real GDP exhibits a quadratic relationship with CO 2 emissions for the region as a whole. However, although the estimated long-run coefficients of income and its square satisfy the EKC hypothesis in most studied countries, the turning points are very low in some cases and very high in other cases, hence providing poor evidence in support of the EKC hypothesis. CO 2 emission reductions per capita have been achieved in the MENA region, even while the region exhibited economic growth over the period 1981–2005. The econometric relationships derived in this paper suggest that future reductions in CO 2 emissions per capita might be achieved at the same time as GDP per capita in the MENA region continues to grow. - Highlights: ► We study the links between CO 2 emissions, energy consumption and GDP in MENA region. ► Energy consumption has a positive correlation with CO 2 emissions. ► GDP exhibits a quadratic relationship with CO 2 emissions for the region as a whole. ► However, the turning points are low in some cases and high in other cases. ► Thus, not all countries need to sacrifice economic growth to decrease CO 2 emissions.

  5. Incidence of pregnancy following antiretroviral therapy initiation and associated factors in eight West African countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos-Soto, Juan; Balestre, Eric; Minga, Albert; Ajayi, Samuel; Sawadogo, Adrien; Zannou, Marcel D.; Leroy, Valériane; Ekouevi, Didier K.; Dabis, François; Becquet, Renaud

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This study aimed at estimating the incidence of pregnancy after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in eight West African countries over a 10-year period. Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted within the international database of the IeDEA West Africa Collaboration. All HIV-infected women aged Pregnancy after ART initiation was the main outcome and was based on clinical reporting. Poisson regression analysis accounting for country heterogeneity was computed to estimate first pregnancy incidence post-ART and to identify its associated factors. Pregnancy incidence rate ratios were adjusted on country, baseline CD4 count and clinical stage, haemoglobin, age, first ART regimen and calendar year. Results Overall 29,425 HIV-infected women aged 33 years in median [Inter Quartile Range: 28–38] contributed for 84,870 women-years of follow-up to this analysis. The crude incidence of first pregnancy (2,304 events) was 2.9 per 100 women-years [95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.7–3.0], the highest rate being reported among women aged 25–29 years: 4.7 per 100 women-years; 95% CI: 4.3–5.1. The overall Kaplan-Meier probability of pregnancy occurrence by the fourth year on ART was 10.9% (95% CI: 10.4–11.4) and as high as 28.4% (95% CI: 26.3–30.6) among women aged 20–29 years at ART initiation. Conclusion The rate of pregnancy occurrence after ART initiation among HIV-infected women living in the West Africa region was high. Family planning services tailored to procreation needs should be provided to all HIV-infected women initiating ART and health consequences carefully monitored in this part of the world. PMID:25216079

  6. Cholera Incidence and Mortality in Sub-Saharan African Sites during Multi-country Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvageot, Delphine; Njanpop-Lafourcade, Berthe-Marie; Akilimali, Laurent; Anne, Jean-Claude; Bidjada, Pawou; Bompangue, Didier; Bwire, Godfrey; Coulibaly, Daouda; Dengo-Baloi, Liliana; Dosso, Mireille; Orach, Christopher Garimoi; Inguane, Dorteia; Kagirita, Atek; Kacou-N’Douba, Adele; Keita, Sakoba; Kere Banla, Abiba; Kouame, Yao Jean-Pierre; Landoh, Dadja Essoya; Langa, Jose Paulo; Makumbi, Issa; Miwanda, Berthe; Malimbo, Muggaga; Mutombo, Guy; Mutombo, Annie; NGuetta, Emilienne Niamke; Saliou, Mamadou; Sarr, Veronique; Senga, Raphael Kakongo; Sory, Fode; Sema, Cynthia; Tante, Ouyi Valentin; Gessner, Bradford D.; Mengel, Martin A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cholera burden in Africa remains unknown, often because of weak national surveillance systems. We analyzed data from the African Cholera Surveillance Network (www.africhol.org). Methods/ Principal findings During June 2011–December 2013, we conducted enhanced surveillance in seven zones and four outbreak sites in Togo, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Guinea, Uganda, Mozambique and Cote d’Ivoire. All health facilities treating cholera cases were included. Cholera incidences were calculated using culture-confirmed cholera cases and culture-confirmed cholera cases corrected for lack of culture testing usually due to overwhelmed health systems and imperfect test sensitivity. Of 13,377 reported suspected cases, 34% occurred in Conakry, Guinea, 47% in Goma, DRC, and 19% in the remaining sites. From 0–40% of suspected cases were aged under five years and from 0.3–86% had rice water stools. Within surveillance zones, 0–37% of suspected cases had confirmed cholera compared to 27–38% during outbreaks. Annual confirmed incidence per 10,000 population was Conakry had corrected incidences of 20.2 and 5.8 respectively, while the other zones a median of 0.3. During outbreaks, corrected incidence varied from 2.6 to 13.0. Case fatality ratios ranged from 0–10% (median, 1%) by country. Conclusions/Significance Across different African epidemiological contexts, substantial variation occurred in cholera incidence, age distribution, clinical presentation, culture confirmation, and testing frequency. These results can help guide preventive activities, including vaccine use. PMID:27186885

  7. Metabolic syndrome according to different definitions in a rapidly developing country of the African region

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    Paccaud Fred

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims We examined, in a country of the African region, i the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS according to three definitions (ATP, WHO and IDF; ii the distribution of the MetS criteria; iii the level of agreement between these three definitions and iv we also examined these issues upon exclusion of people with diabetes. Methods We conducted an examination survey on a sample representative of the general population aged 25–64 years in the Seychelles (Indian Ocean, African region, attended by 1255 participants (participation rate of 80.3%. Results The prevalence of MetS increased markedly with age. According to the ATP, WHO and IDF definitions, the prevalence of MetS was, respectively, 24.0%, 25.0%, 25.1% in men and 32.2%, 24.6%, 35.4% in women. Approximately 80% of participants with diabetes also had MetS and the prevalence of MetS was approximately 7% lower upon exclusion of diabetic individuals. High blood pressure and adiposity were the criteria found most frequently among MetS holders irrespective of the MetS definitions. Among people with MetS based on any of the three definitions, 78% met both ATP and IDF criteria, 67% both WHO and IDF criteria, 54% both WHO and ATP criteria and only 37% met all three definitions. Conclusion We identified a high prevalence of MetS in this population in epidemiological transition. The prevalence of MetS decreased by approximately 32% upon exclusion of persons with diabetes. Because of limited agreement between the MetS definitions, the fairly similar proportions of MetS based on any of the three MetS definitions classified, to a substantial extent, different subjects as having MetS.

  8. Cholera Incidence and Mortality in Sub-Saharan African Sites during Multi-country Surveillance.

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    Delphine Sauvageot

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cholera burden in Africa remains unknown, often because of weak national surveillance systems. We analyzed data from the African Cholera Surveillance Network (www.africhol.org.During June 2011-December 2013, we conducted enhanced surveillance in seven zones and four outbreak sites in Togo, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC, Guinea, Uganda, Mozambique and Cote d'Ivoire. All health facilities treating cholera cases were included. Cholera incidences were calculated using culture-confirmed cholera cases and culture-confirmed cholera cases corrected for lack of culture testing usually due to overwhelmed health systems and imperfect test sensitivity. Of 13,377 reported suspected cases, 34% occurred in Conakry, Guinea, 47% in Goma, DRC, and 19% in the remaining sites. From 0-40% of suspected cases were aged under five years and from 0.3-86% had rice water stools. Within surveillance zones, 0-37% of suspected cases had confirmed cholera compared to 27-38% during outbreaks. Annual confirmed incidence per 10,000 population was <0.5 in surveillance zones, except Goma where it was 4.6. Goma and Conakry had corrected incidences of 20.2 and 5.8 respectively, while the other zones a median of 0.3. During outbreaks, corrected incidence varied from 2.6 to 13.0. Case fatality ratios ranged from 0-10% (median, 1% by country.Across different African epidemiological contexts, substantial variation occurred in cholera incidence, age distribution, clinical presentation, culture confirmation, and testing frequency. These results can help guide preventive activities, including vaccine use.

  9. Cancer and HIV infection in referral hospitals from four West African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaquet, Antoine; Odutola, Michael; Ekouevi, Didier K; Tanon, Aristophane; Oga, Emmanuel; Akakpo, Jocelyn; Charurat, Manhattan; Zannou, Marcel D; Eholie, Serge P; Sasco, Annie J; Bissagnene, Emmanuel; Adebamowo, Clement; Dabis, Francois

    2015-12-01

    The consequences of the HIV epidemic on cancer epidemiology are sparsely documented in Africa. We aimed to estimate the association between HIV infection and selected types of cancers among patients hospitalized for cancer in four West African countries. A case-referent study was conducted in referral hospitals of Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Nigeria and Togo. Each participating clinical ward included all adult patients seeking care with a confirmed diagnosis of cancer. All patients were systematically screened for HIV infection. HIV prevalence of AIDS-defining and some non-AIDS defining cancers (Hodgkin lymphoma, leukemia, liver, lung, skin, pharynx, larynx, oral cavity and anogenital cancers) were compared to a referent group of cancers reported in the literature as not associated with HIV. Odds ratios adjusted on age, gender and lifetime number of sexual partners (aOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. Among the 1644 cancer patients enrolled, 184 (11.2%) were identified as HIV-infected. The HIV prevalence in the referent group (n=792) was 4.4% [CI 3.0-5.8]. HIV infection was associated with Kaposi sarcoma (aOR 34.6 [CI: 17.3-69.0]), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (aOR 3.6 [CI 1.9-6.8]), cervical cancer (aOR 4.3 [CI 2.2-8.3]), anogenital cancer (aOR 17.7 [CI 6.9-45.2]) and squamous cell skin carcinoma (aOR 5.2 [CI 2.0-14.4]). A strong association is now reported between HIV infection and Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers including cervical cancer and anogenital cancer. As these cancers are amenable to prevention strategies, screening of HPV-related cancers among HIV-infected persons is of paramount importance in this African context. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Associations of government health expenditures, the supply of health care professionals, and country literacy with prenatal care use in ten West African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Yhenneko J; Laditka, Sarah B; Laditka, James N; Brunner Huber, Larissa R; Racine, Elizabeth F

    2017-03-01

    Social and health care context may influence prenatal care use. We studied associations of government health expenditures, supply of health care professionals, and country literacy rates with prenatal care use in ten West African countries, controlling for individual factors. We used data from Demographic and Health Surveys (n = 58,512) and random effect logistic regression models to estimate the likelihood of having any prenatal care and adequate prenatal care. Each percentage increase in the literacy rate was associated with 4% higher odds of having adequate prenatal care (p = .029). Higher literacy rates among women may help to promote adequate prenatal care.

  11. Cigarette smoking and cigarette marketing exposure among students in selected African countries: Findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Luhua; Palipudi, Krishna M; Ramanandraibe, Nivo; Asma, Samira

    2016-10-01

    To investigate cigarette smoking prevalence and exposure to various forms of cigarette marketing among students in 10 African countries. We used data collected during 2009-2011 from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), a school-based cross-sectional survey of students aged 13-15years, to measure the prevalence of cigarette smoking and exposure to cigarette marketing; comparisons to estimates from 2005 to 2006 were conducted for five countries where data were available. Current cigarette smoking ranged from 3.4% to 13.6% among students aged 13-15 in the 10 countries studied, although use of tobacco products other than cigarettes was more prevalent in all countries except in Cote D'Ivoire. Cigarette smoking was higher among boys than girls in seven out of the 10 countries. Among the five countries with two rounds of surveys, a significant decrease in cigarette smoking prevalence was observed in Mauritania and Niger; these two countries also experienced a decline in three measures of cigarette marketing exposure. It is also possible that smoking prevalence might have risen faster among girls than boys. Cigarette smoking among youth was noticeable in 10 African countries evaluated, with the prevalence over 10% in Cote D'Ivoire, Mauritania, and South Africa. Cigarette marketing exposure varied by the types of marketing; traditional venues such as TV, outdoor billboards, newspapers, and magazines were still prominent. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Tobacco--its role in the economy and the health of African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    In Africa the issue of smoking and health is complicated by the fact that in many countries tobacco is grown commercially and is relied upon to bring in foreign exchange through export, of revenue for the government if sold on the home market. Consequently, in some nations the ministries of health and of agriculture are working at cross purposes. This contradiction is recognized in the report issued recently of a World Health Organization (WHO) seminar on smoking and health organized for English-speaking Member States of the WHO African Region, and held in Zambia. In opening the seminar, the prime minister of Zambia, Mr. N. Mundia, stated that governments had an obligation to educate people on the risks involved in the use of tobacco but that this could pose a moral dilemma where tobacco production made an apparently significant contribution to the economy. Additionally, he warned that developing countries are considered valuable markets by tobacco companies and stressed that if the promotion of tobacco products by such companies represented a threat "to the health of our people, we cannot let it happen." This point was endorsed by Mr. W.C. Mwambazi, the National WHO Program Coordinator who stated that smoking was on the increase in many developing countries as a result of unscrupulous marketing practices by cigarette manufacturers and that smoking was a major threat to the realization of health for all by the year 2000. Aspects of smoking and health that have special relevance for Africa are emphasized in the report. The few studies carried out in Africa tend to confirm findings from the developed world that smoking increases the risk of cancer and coronary heart disease. Not only is tobacco smoked in Africa, but it is chewed and taken as snuff, and these uses also entail a risk to health. Case studies included in the report show that transnational tobacco companies take full advantage of the present lack of legislation in most African countries on the promotion

  13. Carbon emissions-income relationships with structural breaks: the case of the Middle Eastern and North African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Montasser, Ghassen; Ajmi, Ahdi Noomen; Nguyen, Duc Khuong

    2018-01-01

    This article revisits the carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions-GDP causal relationships in the Middle Eastern and North African (MENA) countries by employing the Rossi (Economet Theor 21:962-990, 2005) instability-robust causality test. We show evidence of significant causality relationships for all considered countries within the instability context, whereas the standard Granger causality test fails to detect causal links in any direction, except for Egypt, Iran, and Morocco. An important policy implication resulting from this robust analysis is that the income is not affected by the cuts in the CO 2 emissions for only two MENA countries, the UAE and Syria.

  14. Water footprint as an indicator of agricultural productivity in African countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chico Zamanillo, Daniel; Zhang, Guoping; Mathews, Ruth

    2017-04-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is one of the regions with the largest scope for improved agricultural development that would contribute to global food security while respecting environmental boundaries. More importantly, undernourishment is a challenge for many African countries and needs to be addressed to achieve the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. This study was conducted to support the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affair's Inclusive Green Growth aim of increasing water use efficiency by 25% in Dutch financed projects. A water footprint profile was developed for 7 Sub-Saharan countries; Benin, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Mozambique and Rwanda. The profiles provide an overview of water use from the perspective of the goods produced within the country, the consumption of goods, in particular agricultural crops, whether these goods are produced domestically or imported from other countries and the level of blue water scarcity experienced in the country. Across all countries, key food crops such as maize, and sorghum have low water productivity relative to the global water footprint benchmark. Export crops such as tea in Kenya or cocoa in Ghana show a good performance over global production. Furthermore, the water footprint of crops over the period 2006-2013 was compared to data from the period 1996-2005. Changes in yield and the resulting changes in the water footprint were assessed for both food and export crops. Yields in food crops improved in some countries, and in some years, but not consistently across all countries and years. The greatest gains in water productivity were in key export crops. The results provide insights into whether improvements have been made in water productivity in recent years and through comparison with the global water footprint benchmark, remaining opportunities for further gains in water productivity were identified. Going forward, policies that will enhance further improvement in water productivity and support greater food and

  15. Genetic diversity of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis East African–Indian family in three tropical Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yih-Yuan Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Beijing lineage of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB is the most predominant MTB strain in Asian countries and is spreading worldwide, however, the East African–Indian (EAI lineage is also particularly prevalent in many tropical Asian countries. The evolutionary relationships among MTB EAI isolates from Taiwan and those of tropical Asian countries remain unknown. Methods: The EAI strains collected from patients in Taiwan were analyzed using spacer oligonucleotide typing and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit–variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR typing, and compared with published profiles from Cambodia and Singapore to investigate potential epidemiological linkages. Results: Among the three countries, the EAI lineage was most prevalent in Cambodia (60%; Singapore, 25.62%; and Taiwan, 21.85%, having also the highest rates of multidrug resistance and lowest rates of clustering of MTB isolates. We describe a convenient method using seven selected MIRU-VNTR loci for first-line typing to discriminate Beijing and EAI lineages. A potential epidemiological linkage in these tropical Asian countries is also discussed based on a minimum-spanning tree constructed using 24 MIRU-VNTR loci of MTB EAI strains. Conclusion: This study identified evolutionary relationships among MTB EAI isolates from Taiwan and those of two other tropical Asian countries, Cambodia and Singapore. Keywords: East African–Indian family, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, tropical Asian countries

  16. Improving access to malaria medicine through private-sector subsidies in seven African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tougher, Sarah; Mann, Andrea G; Ye, Yazoume; Kourgueni, Idrissa A; Thomson, Rebecca; Amuasi, John H; Ren, Ruilin; Willey, Barbara A; Ansong, Daniel; Bruxvoort, Katia; Diap, Graciela; Festo, Charles; Johanes, Boniface; Kalolella, Admirabilis; Mallam, Oumarou; Mberu, Blessing; Ndiaye, Salif; Nguah, Samual Blay; Seydou, Moctar; Taylor, Mark; Wamukoya, Marilyn; Arnold, Fred; Hanson, Kara; Goodman, Catherine

    2014-09-01

    Improving access to quality-assured artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) is an important component of malaria control in low- and middle-income countries. In 2010 the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria launched the Affordable Medicines Facility--malaria (AMFm) program in seven African countries. The goal of the program was to decrease malaria morbidity and delay drug resistance by increasing the use of ACTs, primarily through subsidies intended to reduce costs. We collected data on price and retail markups on antimalarial medicines from 19,625 private for-profit retail outlets before and 6-15 months after the program's implementation. We found that in six of the AMFm pilot programs, prices for quality-assured ACTs decreased by US$1.28-$4.34, and absolute retail markups on these therapies decreased by US$0.31-$1.03. Prices and markups on other classes of antimalarials also changed during the evaluation period, but not to the same extent. In all but two of the pilot programs, we found evidence that prices could fall further without suppliers' losing money. Thus, concerns may be warranted that wholesalers and retailers are capturing subsidies instead of passing them on to consumers. These findings demonstrate that supranational subsidies can dramatically reduce retail prices of health commodities and that recommended retail prices communicated to a wide audience may be an effective mechanism for controlling the market power of private-sector antimalarial retailers and wholesalers. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  17. Transversal analysis of public policies on user fees exemptions in six West African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridde, Valéry; Queuille, Ludovic; Kafando, Yamba; Robert, Emilie

    2012-11-20

    While more and more West African countries are implementing public user fees exemption policies, there is still little knowledge available on this topic. The long time required for scientific production, combined with the needs of decision-makers, led to the creation in 2010 of a project to support implementers in aggregating knowledge on their experiences. This article presents a transversal analysis of user fees exemption policies implemented in Benin, Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger, Togo and Senegal. This was a multiple case study with several embedded levels of analysis. The cases were public user fees exemption policies selected by the participants because of their instructive value. The data used in the countries were taken from documentary analysis, interviews and questionnaires. The transversal analysis was based on a framework for studying five implementation components and five actors' attitudes usually encountered in these policies. The analysis of the implementation components revealed: a majority of State financing; maintenance of centrally organized financing; a multiplicity of reimbursement methods; reimbursement delays and/or stock shortages; almost no implementation guides; a lack of support measures; communication plans that were rarely carried out, funded or renewed; health workers who were given general information but not details; poorly informed populations; almost no evaluation systems; ineffective and poorly funded coordination systems; low levels of community involvement; and incomplete referral-evacuation systems. With regard to actors' attitudes, the analysis revealed: objectives that were appreciated by everyone; dissatisfaction with the implementation; specific tensions between healthcare providers and patients; overall satisfaction among patients, but still some problems; the perception that while the financial barrier has been removed, other barriers persist; occasionally a reorganization of practices, service rationing due to lack of

  18. Challenge in environmentally sustainable development in some southern African developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiburre, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the challenges in attaining environmentally sustainable development in some southern African developing countries, with main focus on environmentally degrading activities carried out by the poor rural communities as the only way of scaling down poverty. The typical examples include, among others, charcoal burning, firewood gathering and hunting. These activities are practiced by poor rural communities for commercial purposes, with the main market being the urban areas; whose population increase and the inability to afford electricity for domestic purposes have made the demand for charcoal and firewood to increase. While recognising the right for the basic needs for everyone, efforts have been made to reduce the pressure exerted by rural communities on to natural resources, and alternative income generating activities have been adopted. However, successes in these fields are still not observable. The paper also discusses the need for integrated approaches that might reduce the demand on natural forest resources-based energy, which consist of subsidized electricity, fast growing tree plantation, and energy efficiency, among others. (author)

  19. Dynamic relationship between CO2 emissions, energy consumption and economic growth in three North African countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kais, Saidi; Ben Mbarek, Mounir

    2017-10-01

    This paper investigated the causal relationship between energy consumption (EC), carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and economic growth for three selected North African countries. It uses a panel co-integration analysis to determine this econometric relationship using data during 1980-2012. Recently developed tests for panel unit root and co-integration tests are applied. In order to test the Granger causality, a panel Vector Error Correction Model is used. The conservation hypothesis is found; the short run panel results show that there is a unidirectional relationship from economic growth to EC. In addition, there is a unidirectional causality running from economic growth to CO2 emissions. A unidirectional relationship from EC to CO2 emissions is detected. Findings shown that there is a big interdependence between EC and economic growth in the long run, which indicates the level of economic activity and EC mutually influence each other in that a high level of economic growth leads to a high level of EC and vice versa. Similarly, a unidirectional causal relationship from EC to CO2 emissions is detected. This study opens up new insights for policy-makers to design comprehensive economic, energy and environmental policy to keep the economic green and a sustainable environment, implying that these three variables could play an important role in the adjustment process as the system changes from the long run equilibrium.

  20. Natural disasters in African countries: what can we learn about them?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M T Lukamba

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Problems posed by disasters have become increasingly important for all African governments. Every year a variety of disas ters occurs in Sub-Saharan Africa and these are becoming more prevalent. This article presents an analysis of statistical surveys for natural disasters in different regions of Africa over a 30-year period from 1974 to 2003. It shows that disaster frequency is increasing on the continent. The investigation of the data demonstrates that the East Africa region is under the greatest threat from natural disasters. In 2008, climatological disasters, notably droughts, claimed many victims in the eastern part of Africa, with more than one third of the population affected in Djibouti, Eritrea, and Somalia. The region has experienced the highest recorded number of disaster events for the past 30 years, followed by the West Africa region. The Southern Africa region is placed third as far as the frequency of disaster events in sub-Saharan Africa is concerned. The least disaster prone region is central Africa. The observations made in this analysis relate to the economic losses in different regions from the impact of natural disasters. In some instances, recovery from economic loss could not be recouped because of stunted growth and other internal problems in these countries. In addition, this article suggests some strategies to mitigate the problem of natural hazards in sub-Saharan Africa. Keywords: Flood; drought; volcanic eruptions; political governance; climate change; specialised capabilities

  1. Removing user fees in the health sector: a review of policy processes in six sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meessen, Bruno; Hercot, David; Noirhomme, Mathieu; Ridde, Valéry; Tibouti, Abdelmajid; Tashobya, Christine Kirunga; Gilson, Lucy

    2011-11-01

    In recent years, governments of several low-income countries have taken decisive action by removing fully or partially user fees in the health sector. In this study, we review recent reforms in six sub-Saharan African countries: Burkina Faso, Burundi, Ghana, Liberia, Senegal and Uganda. The review describes the processes and strategies through which user fee removal reforms have been implemented and tries to assess them by referring to a good practice hypotheses framework. The analysis shows that African leaders are willing to take strong action to remove financial barriers met by vulnerable groups, especially pregnant women and children. However, due to a lack of consultation and the often unexpected timing of the decision taken by the political authorities, there was insufficient preparation for user fee removal in several countries. This lack of preparation resulted in poor design of the reform and weaknesses in the processes of policy formulation and implementation. Our assessment is that there is now a window of opportunity in many African countries for policy action to address barriers to accessing health care. Mobilizing sufficient financial resources and obtaining long-term commitment are obviously crucial requirements, but design details, the formulation process and implementation plan also need careful thought. We contend that national policy-makers and international agencies could better collaborate in this respect.

  2. Conventional energy supply and impacts in African cities; L'approvisionnement en energie traditionnelle et impacts dans les villes africaines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dianka, M. [GAA/RPTES, Dakar (Senegal)

    2002-03-01

    Before discussing supplies of conventional energy in sub-Sahara, one must consider certain information and important facts. In each country, the supplies in conventional energy are moving within a holistic frame with inter sectoral links between energy and the other problems encountered by national economies: forestry, agriculture, livestock production, demography, urbanization, poverty. In this light, the author indicated it might be wise to take into account a few major facts that underlay the Urban Demand in Domestic Combustibles before devising sustainable solutions. It was explained that in most of the African countries located South of the Sahara, there was a trend toward greater urbanization and the movement of refugees. In large part, these trends are the result of poverty, conflicts, or the degradation of the environment. Therefore, it follows that energy consumption is concentrated in cities. In countries such as Burkina Faso or Zambia, a large proportion of urban dwellers still rely on biomass to meet their culinary needs, as well as heating and other tasks. Urbanization occurred in an anarchic manner, and the forests that used to encircle cities are fast disappearing, leaving in their wake pollution. In addition, the supply sources of biomass are farther than ever. Nowadays, the supply of wood energy for Dakar, the capital of Senegal, extends over an area covering 500 kilometres, rather than the 100 kilometres it required thirty years ago. Wood energy in cities is considered to be the major cause of deforestation. Health problems such as asthma are caused by the smoke emanating from the fires used to cook meals. A few solutions are beginning to emerge, linked to the presence of youth and women in the cities, as well as sufficient manpower to implement the solutions. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  3. NEWS for Africa: adaptation and reliability of a built environment questionnaire for physical activity in seven African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyeyemi, Adewale L; Kasoma, Sandra S; Onywera, Vincent O; Assah, Felix; Adedoyin, Rufus A; Conway, Terry L; Moss, Sarah J; Ocansey, Reginald; Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L; Akinroye, Kingsley K; Prista, Antonio; Larouche, Richard; Gavand, Kavita A; Cain, Kelli L; Lambert, Estelle V; Aryeetey, Richmond; Bartels, Clare; Tremblay, Mark S; Sallis, James F

    2016-03-08

    Built environment and policy interventions are effective strategies for controlling the growing worldwide deaths from physical inactivity-related non-communicable diseases. To improve built environment research and develop African specific evidence, it is important to first tailor built environment measures to African contexts and assess their psychometric properties across African countries. This study reports on the adaptation and test-retest reliability of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale in seven sub-Saharan African countries (NEWS-Africa). The original NEWS comprising 8 subscales measuring reported physical and social attributes of neighborhood environments was systematically adapted for Africa through extensive input from physical activity and public health researchers, built environment professionals, and residents in seven African countries: Cameroon, Ghana, Kenya, Mozambique, Nigeria, South Africa and Uganda. Cognitive testing of NEWS-Africa was conducted among diverse residents (N = 109, 50 youth [12 - 17 years] and 59 adults [22 - 67 years], 69 % from low socioeconomic status [SES] neighborhoods). NEWS-Africa was translated into local languages and evaluated for 2-week test-retest reliability in adult participants (N = 301; female = 50.2 %; age = 32.3 ± 12.9 years) purposively recruited from neighborhoods varying in walkability (high and low walkable) and SES (high and low income) and from villages in six of seven participating countries. The original 67 NEWS items was expanded to 89 scores (76 individual NEWS items and 13 computed scales). Several modifications were made to individual items, and some new items were added to capture important attributes in the African environment. A new scale on personal safety was created, and the aesthetics scale was enlarged to reflect African specific characteristics. Over 95 % of all NEWS-Africa scores (items plus computed scales) demonstrated evidence of "excellent" (ICCs

  4. Stock Market Integration in Africa: The Case of the Johannesburg Stock Exchange and Selected African Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Gail Ncube; Kapingura Forget Mingiri

    2015-01-01

    African stock markets are deemed to be small, segmented and illiquid. Given this back ground, the study utilises monthly data for the period 2000-2008, employing the Johansen and Julius cointegration method to determine the long-run relationship between the five selected African stock markets. Granger causality tests were also conducted to establish if there are any causal links between the stock markets in Africa. The analysis in the study indicates that African stock markets are improving i...

  5. Inequalities in maternal health care utilization in sub-Saharan African countries: a multiyear and multi-country analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazmul Alam

    Full Text Available To assess social inequalities in the use of antenatal care (ANC, facility based delivery (FBD, and modern contraception (MC in two contrasting groups of countries in sub-Saharan Africa divided based on their progress towards maternal mortality reduction. Six countries were included in this study. Three countries (Ethiopia, Madagascar, and Uganda had 4.5% average annual reduction rate while another three (Cameroon, Zambia, and Zimbabwe had >550 MMR in 2010 with only <1.5% average annual reduction rate. All of these countries had at least three rounds of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS before 2012. We measured rate ratios and differences, as well as relative and absolute concentration indices in order to examine within-country geographical and wealth-based inequalities in the utilization of ANC, FBD, and MC. In the countries which have made sufficient progress (i.e. Ethiopia, Madagascar, and Uganda, ANC use increased by 8.7, 9.3 and 5.7 percent, respectively, while the utilization of FBD increased by 4.7, 0.7 and 20.2 percent, respectively, over the last decade. By contrast, utilization of these services either plateaued or decreased in countries which did not make progress towards reducing maternal mortality, with the exception of Cameroon. Utilization of MC increased in all six countries but remained very low, with a high of 40.5% in Zimbabwe and low of 16.1% in Cameroon as of 2011. In general, relative measures of inequalities were found to have declined overtime in countries making progress towards reducing maternal mortality. In countries with insufficient progress towards maternal mortality reduction, these indicators remained stagnant or increased. Absolute measures for geographical and wealth-based inequalities remained high invariably in all six countries. The increasing trend in the utilization of maternal care services was found to concur with a steady decline in maternal mortality. Relative inequality declined overtime in countries

  6. Mainstreaming biodiversity and wildlife management into climate change policy frameworks in selected east and southern African countries

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    Olga L. Kupika

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Rio+20 outcomes document, the Future We Want, enshrines green economy as one of the platforms to attain sustainable development and calls for measures that seek to address climate change and biodiversity management. This paper audits climate change policies from selected east and southern African countries to determine the extent to which climate change legislation mainstreams biodiversity and wildlife management. A scan of international, continental, regional and national climate change policies was conducted to assess whether they include biodiversity and/or wildlife management issues. The key finding is that many climate change policy–related documents, particularly the National Adaptation Programme of Actions (NAPAs, address threats to biodiversity and wildlife resources. However, international policies like the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and Kyoto Protocol do not address the matter under deliberation. Regional climate change policies such as the East African Community, Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa and African Union address biodiversity and/or wildlife issues whilst the Southern African Development Community region does not have a stand-alone policy for climate change. Progressive countries like Rwanda, Uganda, Tanzania and Zambia have recently put in place detailed NAPAs which are mainstream responsive strategies intended to address climate change adaptation in the wildlife sector. Keywords: mainstreaming, biodiversity, wildlife, climate change policy, east and southern Africa

  7. Forensic data and microvariant sequence characterization of 27 Y-STR loci analyzed in four Eastern African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovacci, Giuseppe; D'Atanasio, Eugenia; Marini, Ornella; Coppa, Alfredo; Sellitto, Daniele; Trombetta, Beniamino; Berti, Andrea; Cruciani, Fulvio

    2017-03-01

    By using the recently introduced 6-dye Yfiler ® Plus multiplex, we analyzed 462 males belonging to 20 ethnic groups from four eastern African countries (Eritrea, Ethiopia, Djibouti and Kenya). Through a Y-STR sequence analysis, combined with 62 SNP-based haplogroup information, we were able to classify observed microvariant alleles at four Y-STR loci as either monophyletic (DYF387S1 and DYS458) or recurrent (DYS449 and DYS627). We found evidence of non-allelic gene conversion among paralogous STRs of the two-copy locus DYF387S1. Twenty-two diallelic and triallelic patterns observed at 13 different loci were found to be significantly over-represented (peastern African ethnic groups, and suggests caution in the use of country-based haplotype frequency distributions for forensic inferences in this region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of large-scale deployment of concentrated solar power on North African countries: Socio-economic aspects (Conference Paper)

    OpenAIRE

    Komendantova, N.; Patt, A.

    2010-01-01

    To prevent catastrophic results of climate change, the stabilization of atmospheric concentrations of CO2 below 450 or even 350 parts per million is necessary. The large-scale electricity generation from renewable energy sources is one of possible options to satisfy the world's growing energy demand and to reduce green house gas emissions from electricity generation. Several studies show technical viability of large-scale deployment of concentrated solar power in North African countries and i...

  9. Improving skills and institutional capacity to strengthen adolescent immunisation programmes and health systems in African countries through HPV vaccine introduction

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    Carine Dochez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Several African countries have recently introduced or are currently introducing the HPV vaccine, either nationwide or through demonstration projects, while some countries are planning for introduction. A collaborative project was developed to strengthen country adolescent immunisation programmes and health systems in the African Region, addressing unique public health considerations of HPV vaccination: adolescents as the primary target group, delivery platforms (e.g. school-based and facility based, socio-behavioural issues, and the opportunity to deliver other health interventions alongside HPV vaccination.Following a successful “taking-stock” meeting, a training programme was drafted to assist countries to strengthen the integration of adolescent health interventions using HPV vaccination as an entry point. Two workshops were conducted in the Eastern and Southern African Regions. All countries reported on progress made during a final joint symposium.Of the 20 countries invited to participate in either of the workshops and/or final symposium, 17 countries participated: Angola, Botswana, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Seychelles, South Africa, South Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Countries that are currently implementing HPV vaccination programmes, either nationally or through demonstration projects, reported varying degrees of integration with other adolescent health interventions. The most commonly reported adolescent health interventions alongside HPV vaccination include health education (including sexually transmitted infections, deworming and delivering of other vaccines like tetanus toxoid (TT or tetanus diphtheria (Td.The project has successfully (a established an African-based network that will advocate for incorporating the HPV vaccine into national immunisation programmes; (b created a platform for experience exchange and thereby contributed to novel ideas of

  10. Family planning in conflict: results of cross-sectional baseline surveys in three African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Therese; Austin, Judy; Anfinson, Katherine; Amsalu, Ribka; Casey, Sara E; Fadulalmula, Shihab Ibrahim; Langston, Anne; Lee-Jones, Louise; Meyers, Janet; Mubiru, Frederick Kintu; Schlecht, Jennifer; Sharer, Melissa; Yetter, Mary

    2011-07-13

    Despite the serious consequences of conflict for reproductive health, populations affected by conflict and its aftermath face tremendous barriers to accessing reproductive health services, due to insecurity, inadequate numbers of trained personnel and lack of supplies. Family planning is often particularly neglected. In six conflict-affected areas in Sudan, northern Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo, household surveys of married or in-union women of reproductive age were conducted to determine baseline measures of family planning knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding contraception. Health facility assessments were carried out to assess baseline measures of family planning services availability. Data were double-entered into CSPro 3.2 and exported to SAS 9.2, which was used to calculate descriptive statistics. The studies' purposes were to guide program activities and to serve as a baseline against which program accomplishments could be measured. Knowledge of modern contraceptive methods was low relative to other sub-Saharan African countries, and use of modern methods was under 4% in four sites; in two sites with prior family planning services it was 12% and 16.2%. From 30% to 40% of women reported they did not want a child within two years, however, and an additional 12% to 35% wanted no additional children, suggesting a clear need for family planning services. The health facilities assessment showed that at most only one-third of the facilities mandated to provide family planning had the necessary staff, equipment and supplies to do so adequately; in some areas, none of the facilities were prepared to offer such services. Family planning services are desired by women living in crisis situations when offered in a manner appropriate to their needs, yet services are rarely adequate to meet these needs. Refugee and internally displaced women must be included in national and donors' plans to improve family planning in Africa.

  11. Dairy products and colorectal cancer in middle eastern and north African countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kinany, K; Deoula, M; Hatime, Z; Bennani, B; El Rhazi, K

    2018-03-01

    This systematic review was conducted to explain the association between dairy products and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in Middle Eastern and North African countries (MENA). The database consulted were PubMed, Clinical Trials, and Cochrane to extract the relevant studies published till the 31stof December 2016, using inclusion and exclusion criteria according to Prisma Protocol. The characteristics of these studies comprised the consumption of all types of dairy products in relation to CRC risk. Seven studies were included in this review. For dairy products overall, no significant association was found. Regarding modern dairy products, included studies found controversial results with OR = 9.88 (95% CI: 3.80-24.65) and OR a  = 0.14 (95% CI: 0.02-0.71). A positive association was reported between traditional dairy products and CRC risk, to OR = 18.66 (95% CI: 3.06-113.86) to OR = 24 (95% CI: 1.74-330.82) to ORa = 1.42 (95% CI: 0.62-3.25), p trend  = 0.03. Calcium was inversely associated with the CRC risk with OR a  = 0.08 (95% CI: 0.04-0.17). This is the first systematic review which illustrated the association between dairy consumption and CRC risk in MENA region. The results were inconsistent and not always homogeneous. Further specified studies may be warranted to address the questions about the association between CRC and dairy products in a specific context of MENA region.

  12. Family planning in conflict: results of cross-sectional baseline surveys in three African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee-Jones Louise

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the serious consequences of conflict for reproductive health, populations affected by conflict and its aftermath face tremendous barriers to accessing reproductive health services, due to insecurity, inadequate numbers of trained personnel and lack of supplies. Family planning is often particularly neglected. Methods In six conflict-affected areas in Sudan, northern Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo, household surveys of married or in-union women of reproductive age were conducted to determine baseline measures of family planning knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding contraception. Health facility assessments were carried out to assess baseline measures of family planning services availability. Data were double-entered into CSPro 3.2 and exported to SAS 9.2, which was used to calculate descriptive statistics. The studies' purposes were to guide program activities and to serve as a baseline against which program accomplishments could be measured. Results Knowledge of modern contraceptive methods was low relative to other sub-Saharan African countries, and use of modern methods was under 4% in four sites; in two sites with prior family planning services it was 12% and 16.2%. From 30% to 40% of women reported they did not want a child within two years, however, and an additional 12% to 35% wanted no additional children, suggesting a clear need for family planning services. The health facilities assessment showed that at most only one-third of the facilities mandated to provide family planning had the necessary staff, equipment and supplies to do so adequately; in some areas, none of the facilities were prepared to offer such services. Conclusions Family planning services are desired by women living in crisis situations when offered in a manner appropriate to their needs, yet services are rarely adequate to meet these needs. Refugee and internally displaced women must be included in national and donors

  13. Transversal analysis of public policies on user fees exemptions in six West African countries

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    Ridde Valéry

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While more and more West African countries are implementing public user fees exemption policies, there is still little knowledge available on this topic. The long time required for scientific production, combined with the needs of decision-makers, led to the creation in 2010 of a project to support implementers in aggregating knowledge on their experiences. This article presents a transversal analysis of user fees exemption policies implemented in Benin, Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger, Togo and Senegal. Methods This was a multiple case study with several embedded levels of analysis. The cases were public user fees exemption policies selected by the participants because of their instructive value. The data used in the countries were taken from documentary analysis, interviews and questionnaires. The transversal analysis was based on a framework for studying five implementation components and five actors’ attitudes usually encountered in these policies. Results The analysis of the implementation components revealed: a majority of State financing; maintenance of centrally organized financing; a multiplicity of reimbursement methods; reimbursement delays and/or stock shortages; almost no implementation guides; a lack of support measures; communication plans that were rarely carried out, funded or renewed; health workers who were given general information but not details; poorly informed populations; almost no evaluation systems; ineffective and poorly funded coordination systems; low levels of community involvement; and incomplete referral-evacuation systems. With regard to actors’ attitudes, the analysis revealed: objectives that were appreciated by everyone; dissatisfaction with the implementation; specific tensions between healthcare providers and patients; overall satisfaction among patients, but still some problems; the perception that while the financial barrier has been removed, other barriers persist; occasionally a

  14. Case studies on the use of biotechnologies and on biosafety provisions in four African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Robert; Fava, Fabio; Mattei, Niccolo; Robert, Vincent; Seal, Susan; Verdier, Valerie

    2011-12-20

    production and the economy of this depressed areas. However, the problems bound to environmental protection must not be forgotten; priority should be given to monitor the risks of introduction of foreign species. Red biotechnologies potentially bring a vast domain of powerful tools and processes to achieve better human health, most notably improved diagnostics by molecular techniques, better targeting of pathogens and a better knowledge of their sensitivities to drugs to permit better treatment. Biosafety regulatory frameworks had been initiated in several countries, starting with primary biosafety law. However, disparate attitudes to the purpose of biosafety regulation (e.g., fostering informed decision-making versus 'giving the green-light for a flood of GMOs') currently prevent a needed consensus for sub-regional harmonisation. To date, most R&D funding has come from North America with some commercial interests from Asia, but African biotechnology workers expressed strong desire for (re-)engagement with interested parties from the European Union. Although in some of the visited countries there are very well qualified personnel in molecular biology and biosafety/regulation, the main message received is that human resources and capacity building in-house are still needed. This could be achieved through home-based courses and capacity-building including funds for post-degree research to motivate and retain trained staff. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Socioeconomic inequalities in informal payments for health care: An assessment of the 'Robin Hood' hypothesis in 33 African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankeu, Hyacinthe Tchewonpi; Ventelou, Bruno

    2016-02-01

    In almost all African countries, informal payments are frequently made when accessing health care. Some literature suggests that the informal payment system could lead to quasi-redistribution among patients, with physicians playing a 'Robin Hood' role, subsidizing the poor at the expense of the rich. We empirically tested this assumption with data from the rounds 3 and 5 of the Afrobarometer surveys conducted in 18 and 33 African countries respectively, from 2005 to 2006 for round 3 and from 2011 to 2013 for round 5. In these surveys, nationally representative samples of people aged 18 years or more were randomly selected in each country, with sizes varying between 1048 and 2400 for round 3 and between 1190 and 2407 for round 5. We used the 'normalized' concentration index, the poor/rich gap and the odds ratio to assess the level of inequality in the payment of bribes to access care at the local public health facility and implemented two decomposition techniques to identify the contributors to the observed inequalities. We obtained that: i) the socioeconomic gradient in informal payments is in favor of the rich in almost all countries, indicating a rather regressive system; ii) this is mainly due to the socioeconomic disadvantage itself, to poor/rich differences in supply side factors like lack of medicines, absence of doctors and long waiting times, as well as regional disparities. Although essentially empirical, the paper highlights the need for African health systems to undergo substantial country-specific reforms in order to better protect the worse-off from financial risk when they seek care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. E-health: Determinants, opportunities, challenges and the way forward for countries in the WHO African Region

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    Gatwiri Doris

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The implementation of the 58th World Health Assembly resolution on e-health will pose a major challenge for the Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO African Region due to lack of information and communications technology (ICT and mass Internet connectivity, compounded by a paucity of ICT-related knowledge and skills. The key objectives of this article are to: (i explore the key determinants of personal computers (PCs, telephone mainline and cellular and Internet penetration/connectivity in the African Region; and (ii to propose actions needed to create an enabling environment for e-health services growth and utilization in the Region. Methods The effects of school enrolment, per capita income and governance variables on the number of PCs, telephone mainlines, cellular phone subscribers and Internet users were estimated using a double-log regression model and cross-sectional data on various Member States in the African Region. The analysis was based on 45 of the 46 countries that comprise the Region. The data were obtained from the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP, the World Bank and the International Telecommunications Union (ITU sources. Results There were a number of main findings: (i the adult literacy and total number of Internet users had a statistically significant (at 5% level in a t-distribution test positive effect on the number of PCs in a country; (ii the combined school enrolment rate and per capita income had a statistically significant direct effect on the number of telephone mainlines and cellular telephone subscribers; (iii the regulatory quality had statistically significant negative effect on the number of telephone mainlines; (iv similarly, the combined school enrolment ratio and the number of telephone mainlines had a statistically significant positive relationship with Internet usage; and (v there were major inequalities in ICT connectivity between upper-middle, lower-middle and

  17. Sex Differences in HIV Prevalence, Behavioral Risks and Prevention Needs Among Anglophone and Francophone Sub-Saharan African Migrants Living in Rabat, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Lisa; Oumzil, Hicham; El Rhilani, Houssine; Latifi, Amina; Bennani, Aziza; Alami, Kamal

    2016-04-01

    Morocco has experienced a dramatic increase of migration from sub-Sahara Africa during the past decade. Recently included among the most vulnerable populations cited in the Morocco National Strategic Plans on HIV/TB for 2012-2016, sub-Saharan Africa migrants living in an irregular administrative situation participated in a survey to provide baseline data about their socio-demographic, sexual and HIV testing behaviors and HIV and syphilis prevalence. Two surveys using respondent driven sampling were conducted in 2013 among males and females, ≥18 years, originating from sub-Saharan African countries and living and/or working in an irregular administrative situation in Rabat and residing at least 3 months in Morocco. Analysis was conducted to evaluate differences between the two samples and between females and males within each sample using the successive sampling estimator in RDS Analyst. Roughly 3 % of francophone and anglophone migrants were infected with HIV, whereas a statistically significantly higher percentage of francophone (2.8 %), compared to anglophone (0.3 %), migrants were infected with syphilis. Females were found to have HIV infection rates three times higher and past year sexually transmitted infection signs and symptoms more than two times higher than their male counterparts. Female migrants also had statistically significantly higher percentages of ever testing for HIV and HIV testing and receiving results in the past year compared to males. We found distinct and important differences between migrants depending on whether they come from francophone versus anglophone countries and whether they were male or female. Future research should continue to explore these differences, while policies and programs should note these differences to best allocate resources in providing social and health services to these populations.

  18. Understanding the Adolescent Gap in HIV Testing Among Clients of Antenatal Care Services in West and Central African Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helleringer, Stephane

    2017-09-01

    New HIV infections among children have declined significantly more slowly in West and central African countries (WCA) than in eastern and southern African countries between 2009 and 2015. Since adolescent fertility is particularly high in WCA countries, frequent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV may in part be due to low coverage of HIV testing among adolescents during antenatal care (ANC). We investigated this adolescent gap in HIV testing using survey data from the demographic and health surveys and multiple indicators cluster surveys collected in 21 WCA countries since 2009. We found significant adolescent gaps in HIV testing in 12 out of 21 WCA countries, with the largest gap observed in Nigeria. In countries with a significant adolescent gap in HIV testing, we used Fairlie decompositions to assess what proportion of these gaps were explained by age-related differences in the distribution of (a) marital status, (b) socioeconomic status (SES), (c) MTCT-related knowledge, and (d) patterns of ANC utilization. Differences in SES and MTCT-related knowledge were the most consistent determinants of adolescent gaps in HIV testing during ANC. Differences in ANC utilization (e.g., fewer and possibly delayed ANC visits) also contributed to the adolescent gap in 8 out of 12 countries. Interventions that improve knowledge of MTCT risks, and/or promote the sustained use of ANC services, could help engage HIV-infected adolescents who become pregnant in PMTCT services. Targeting these interventions at the most disadvantaged households will be crucial in further reducing HIV infections among children.

  19. Linking forests, deforestation, and nutritional outcomes: an observational study in nine African countries

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    Thomas Pienkowski, MSc

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Agricultural expansion is a leading driver of deforestation, yet malnutrition remains a significant cause of morbidity. Understanding trade-offs and synergies between forest protection and agricultural expansion, and how they vary between groups across time, could help guide socially equitable sustainable development. Forests have important roles in supporting dietary diversity and micronutrient intake, but limited empirical evidence links forests and broad nutritional outcomes. Our research explores the associations between key indicators of malnutrition and forest cover and deforestation, the mediating role of socioeconomic factors, and underlying temporal trends. Methods: In this observational study, we explored associations between nutritional outcomes (underweightness, stunting, wasting, and overweightness in children younger than 5 years and forest cover and loss gradients (in 10 km buffers around communities in 61 032 African households. These households were surveyed by the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS Program from nine countries (Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Lesotho, and Liberia between 2003 and 2014. DHS data were combined with spatially explicit data on forest cover and loss, climate, infrastructure, economy, and demography in a series of generalised linear mixed-effects models. Findings: In urban areas, children in communities surrounded by 1 SD higher forest cover had 10·8% (95% CI 3·0–18·0; p=0·0073 lower incidence of underweightness and 11·7% (1·9–20·6; p=0·0212 lower incidence of wasting than did children in areas with the mean amount of forest cover. In rural areas, the relationship was reversed, with 6·0% (1·6–10·6; p=0·0074 higher incidence of underweightness among children in areas of 1 SD higher forest cover than among children in areas with the mean amount of forest cover. These relationships became marginally non

  20. Expenditures on health research in sub-Saharan African countries: results of a questionnaire-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Derege; Zielinski, Chris; Mbondji, Peter Ebongue; Sanou, Issa; Kouvividila, Wenceslas; Lusamba-Dikassa, Paul-Samson

    2014-05-01

    To estimate the sources of funds for health research (revenue) and the uses of these funds (expenditure). A structured questionnaire was used to solicit financial information from health research institutions. Forty-two sub-Saharan African countries. Key informants in 847 health research institutions in the 42 sub-Saharan African countries. Expenditure on health research by institutions, funders and subject areas. An estimated total of US$ 302 million was spent on health research by institutions that responded to the survey in the World Health Organization (WHO) African Region for the biennium 2005-2006. The most notable funders for health research activities were external funding, ministries of health, other government ministries, own funds and non-profit institutions. Most types of health research performers spent significant portions of their resources on in-house research, with medical schools spending 82% and government agencies 62%. Hospitals spent 38% of their resources on management, and other institutions (universities, firms, etc.) spent 87% of their resources on capital investment. Research on human immunodeficiency virus/tuberculosis and malaria accounted for 30% of funds, followed by research on other communicable diseases and maternal, perinatal and nutritional conditions (23%). Research on major health problems of the Region, such as communicable diseases, accounts for most of the research expenditures. However, the total expenditure is very low compared with other WHO regions. © The Royal Society of Medicine.

  1. A Comparative Analysis of Institutional Capacities for Implementing Disability Policies in East African Countries: Functions of National Councils for Disability

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    Akiko Yokoyama

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available During the “African Decade of Persons with Disabilities (2000-2009”, East African countries witnessed significant achievements, especially in the development of law, collection of statistics and in funding. However, many persons with disability are still marginalised from opportunities in education, healthcare and employment.Purpose: With the pre-supposition that the lack of institutional capacities for implementing disability policies is the one major stumbling-block which hinders widespread delivery of social services to persons with disabilities in low-income countries, this study makes a comparative analysis of institutional capacities in the disability sectors of Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania.Method: The research methods adopted were a literature survey and a field survey. The framework for analysis consists of: 1 capacities and functions of disability units in central governments, 2 relationships between central and local governments in the disability sector, and 3 relationships between governments and organisations of persons with disability (DPOs. Special attention is paid to the status, roles and functions of national councils for disability (NCDs, the independent statutory bodies recently established in each of the three countries, with clear authority and duties for the implementation of disability policies. The NCDs enable multi-sectoral stakeholders to be involved in the implementation of disability policies; therefore, positive relationships between the governments and DPOs are essential for the smooth functioning of the NCDs.Results: While the result of the field survey in Tanzania reveals several effective approaches for the smooth operation of the NCD, further study is needed to verify whether these approaches would be applicable to other East African countries such as Kenya and Uganda.doi 10.5463/DCID.v23i2.106

  2. GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF MENA AND AFRICAN COUNTRIES: IMPACTS OF THE VARIATIONS IN LAND AND NATURAL RESOURCE OWNERSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ece H. Guleryuz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the primary determinants of the contemporary economic growth performance in MENA and African countries using a panel data estimation and random effects model during the period 1996-2014 for 24 countries. It is hypothesized that the variation in natural resources rents, initial human capital stock, and initial inequality in land ownership have significant impacts on contemporary economic growth rates in different countries. Furthermore, various political economy factors are controlled for in order to measure the effect of institutional quality. The estimation results show that the natural resources rents, initial inequality in land ownership, initial income, and government effectiveness influence GDP per capita growth rates with a statistical significance.

  3. Ethnopharmacological reports on anti-Buruli ulcer medicinal plants in three West African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsouh Fokou, Patrick Valere; Nyarko, Alexander Kwadwo; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Tchokouaha Yamthe, Lauve Rachel; Addo, Phyllis; Asante, Isaac K; Boyom, Fabrice Fekam

    2015-08-22

    Buruli ulcer (BU) is the third most common mycobacterial infection in the world, after tuberculosis and leprosy and has recently been recognized as an important emerging disease. This disease is common in West Africa where more than 99% of the burden is felt and where most affected people live in remote areas with traditional medicine as primary or only option. Reports indicate that the ethnopharmacological control approach of the disease in such settings has shown promise. However, no or very few compilations of traditional knowledge in using medicinal plants to treat BU have been attempted so far. This review aimed to record medicinal plants used traditionally against BU in three countries in West Africa: Ivory Coast, Ghana and Benin and for which ethnopharmacological knowledge supported by pharmacological investigations has been reported. The information recorded in this review will support further pharmacological research to develop appropriate drugs for a better BU control. A systematic review of the literature on ethnobotanical use and anti-BU activity of plants reported for BU treatment was performed. The approach consisted to search several resources, including Technical Reports, Books, Theses, Conference proceedings, web-based scientific databases such as publications on PubMed, Science direct, Springer, ACS, Scielo, PROTA, Google and Google scholar reporting ethnobotanical surveys and screening of natural products against Mycobacterium ulcerans. This study was limited to papers and documents published either in English or French reporting ethnopharmacological knowledge in BU treatment or pharmacological potency in vitro. This review covered the available literature up to December 2014. The majority of reports originated from the three most affected West African countries (Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana and Benin). Though, 98 plant species belonging to 48 families have been identified as having anti-BU use, many have received no or little attention. Most of the

  4. Analysis of market potential of the Luxury goods industry in the West African countries

    OpenAIRE

    Fofana, Nathy Nabila

    2014-01-01

    For decades, the African continent has been perceived in a negative way and it has not been easy to change this international perception of the continent. During the past few years a deep change has taken place in the continent and in the eyes of the world. Africa is now open for business and Africa is also able to compete effectively in the international luxury market. The luxury market is constantly rising but it is not fully present on the African continent yet. The objective of this thesi...

  5. An assessment of South African prepaid electricity experiment, lessons learned, and their policy implications for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewari, D.D.; Shah, Tushaar

    2003-01-01

    This study reviews the economics, logistics, and technology underlying the South African experiment of prepaid electricity. Although this experiment has resulted into benefiting large masses of small and dispersed consumers, it has also generated a set of new problems that could not be visualized at the inception of the experiment. The success of this program can be largely attributed to a number of factors, including a good marketing campaign, innovative tariff schedules, better planning and management, and so on. Lessons learned from this experiment are useful for policy-making purposes in other developing countries of Africa and Asia

  6. The Impacts of U.S. Cotton Programs on the West and Central African Countries Cotton Export Earnings

    OpenAIRE

    Fadiga, Mohamadou L.; Mohanty, Samarendu; Pan, Suwen

    2005-01-01

    This study uses a stochastic simulation approach based on a partial equilibrium structural econometric model of the world fiber market to examine the effects of a removal of U.S. cotton programs on the world market. The effects on world cotton prices and African export earnings were analyzed. The results suggest that on average an elimination of U.S. cotton programs would lead to a marginal increase in the world cotton prices thus resulting in minimal gain for cotton exporting countries in Af...

  7. Women's views on consent, counseling and confidentiality in PMTCT : a mixed-methods study in four African countries

    OpenAIRE

    Hardon, A.; Vernooij, E.; Bongololo-Mbera, G.; Cherutich, P.; Desclaux, Alice; Kyaddondo, D.; Ky-Zerbo, O.; Neuman, M.; Wanyenze, R.; Obermeyer, C.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Ambitious UN goals to reduce the mother-to-child transmission of HIV have not been met in much of Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper focuses on the quality of information provision and counseling and disclosure patterns in Burkina Faso, Kenya, Malawi and Uganda to identify how services can be improved to enable better PMTCT outcomes. Methods Our mixed-methods study draws on data obtained through: (1) the MATCH (Multi-country African Testing and Counseling for HIV) study's main...

  8. Determinants of Human Capital Formation and Economic Growth of African Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oketch, Moses O.

    2006-01-01

    Rapid economic growth and improving living standards have benefited almost all regions of the world since the industrial revolution. Africa stands out as one regional exception. While several factors such as civil wars and rampant corruption have been associated with poor economic performance of the African region in the international community,…

  9. African Scientific Network: A model to enhance scientific research in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Abebe

    2002-03-01

    Africa has over 350 higher education institutions with a variety of experiences and priorities. The primary objectives of these institutions are to produce white-collar workers, teachers, and the work force for mining, textiles, and agricultural industries. The state of higher education and scientific research in Africa have been discussed in several conferences. The proposals that are generated by these conferences advocate structural changes in higher education, North-South institutional linkages, mobilization of the African Diaspora and funding. We propose a model African Scientific Network that would facilitate and enhance international scientific partnerships between African scientists and their counterparts elsewhere. A recent article by James Lamout (Financial Times, August 2, 2001) indicates that emigration from South Africa alone costs $8.9 billion in lost human resources. The article also stated that every year 23,000 graduates leave Africa for opportunities overseas, mainly in Europe, leaving only 20,000 scientists and engineers serving over 600 million people. The International Organization for Migration states that the brain drain of highly skilled professionals from Africa is making economic growth and poverty alleviation impossible across the continent. In our model we will focus on a possible networking mechanism where the African Diaspora will play a major role in addressing the financial and human resources needs of higher education in Africa

  10. Differentiation and Articulation in Tertiary Education Systems : A Study of Twelve African Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ng'ethe, Njuguna; Subotzky, George; Afeti, George

    2008-01-01

    This study strives to sketch an initial map of the extent and nature of institutional and program differentiation within African systems of tertiary education. In doing so, it also seeks to chart the patterns of articulation that have emerged or been consciously put in place between the different institutional types (such as public universities, private universities, polytechnics, training...

  11. Imported malaria among African immigrants: is there still a relationship between developed countries and their ex-colonies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz José

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to compare cases of imported malaria originating from the Spanish ex-colony of Equatorial Guinea (EG with those originating from the rest of Africa (RA. Methods All the African cases detected in Barcelona between 1989 and 2007 were investigated in a retrospective analysis. Clinical-epidemiological variables such as sex, age, visiting friends and relatives (VFR, species, hospital admission and chemo-prophylaxis were compared. Data were analysed by logistic regression, calculating the Odds Ratio (OR and 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI. Results Of the 489 African patients, 279 (57,1% had been born in EG and 210 (42,9% in the rest of Africa. The cumulative incidence of imported malaria among those from EG was 179.6 per thousand inhabitants, while in those from the RA it was 33.7 per thousand (p visiting friends and relatives (VFR category, and more individuals younger than 15 years or older than 37 years, and more women. They also visited a traveller's health centre more often, had fewer hospital admissions and were less likely to reside in the inner city. Conclusion Cases of imported malaria originating in Africa, are more likely to come from the Spanish ex-colony of EG, and VFR are more likely to be affected. It is recommended that developed countries promote prevention programmes, such as CP advice directed at African immigrants, and develop programmes of cooperation against malaria in their ex-colonies.

  12. The impact of family planning on primary school enrolment in sub-national areas within 25 African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longwe, Abiba; Smits, Jeroen

    2013-06-01

    We study how the availability and use of family planning services in African countries influences the family planning situation of households and through this the educational participation of young children. A district panel dataset is used for 441 urban and rural areas within 233 districts of 25 countries. Path analysis shows that a decrease in the number of births is associated with an increase in educational participation in the area. The number of births is negatively associated with acceptance, knowledge and actual use of contraceptives in the area. As reversed causality and selection bias seem unlikely, the identified relationship probably is at least partially causal. Hence, investments in family planning services in poor areas are not only important because they allow women to plan their births better, but also because they may lead to higher primary enrolment rates and thus contribute to the region's future economic growth.

  13. A Bayesian analysis of the impact of post-crash care on road mortality in Sub-Saharan African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonmongo Lacina Soro

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Sub-Saharan Africa is undergoing a disproportionate road tragedy compared to its motorization rate and road network density. Most of the road traffic deaths occur in the pre-hospital phase. Yet, more than half of the African countries do not possess formal pre-hospital care system. This study assesses the potential impact of post-crash care on road mortality in 23 Sub-Saharan African countries. A panel Bayesian normal linear regression with normally distributed non-informative priors is used to fit the data set covering the time period 2001–2010. The post-crash care system is proxied by the estimated share of seriously injured transported by ambulance, and three binary variables indicating the existence of emergency access telephone services and emergency training for doctors and nurses. The findings suggest a negative correlation between the road mortality rate and the estimated share of seriously injured transported by ambulance, the emergency access telephone services and the emergency training for doctors. A positive relation is unexpectedly observed for the emergency training for nurses. Other regressors such as the Gross Domestic Product per capita and populations in the age range 15–64 years are related to higher fatality rates while the length of the road network and life expectancy are linked to decreasing fatality rates.

  14. An overview of cardiovascular risk factor burden in sub-Saharan African countries: a socio-cultural perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BeLue, Rhonda; Okoror, Titilayo A; Iwelunmor, Juliet; Taylor, Kelly D; Degboe, Arnold N; Agyemang, Charles; Ogedegbe, Gbenga

    2009-09-22

    Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries are currently experiencing one of the most rapid epidemiological transitions characterized by increasing urbanization and changing lifestyle factors. This has resulted in an increase in the incidence of non-communicable diseases, especially cardiovascular disease (CVD). This double burden of communicable and chronic non-communicable diseases has long-term public health impact as it undermines healthcare systems. The purpose of this paper is to explore the socio-cultural context of CVD risk prevention and treatment in sub-Saharan Africa. We discuss risk factors specific to the SSA context, including poverty, urbanization, developing healthcare systems, traditional healing, lifestyle and socio-cultural factors. We conducted a search on African Journals On-Line, Medline, PubMed, and PsycINFO databases using combinations of the key country/geographic terms, disease and risk factor specific terms such as "diabetes and Congo" and "hypertension and Nigeria". Research articles on clinical trials were excluded from this overview. Contrarily, articles that reported prevalence and incidence data on CVD risk and/or articles that report on CVD risk-related beliefs and behaviors were included. Both qualitative and quantitative articles were included. The epidemic of CVD in SSA is driven by multiple factors working collectively. Lifestyle factors such as diet, exercise and smoking contribute to the increasing rates of CVD in SSA. Some lifestyle factors are considered gendered in that some are salient for women and others for men. For instance, obesity is a predominant risk factor for women compared to men, but smoking still remains mostly a risk factor for men. Additionally, structural and system level issues such as lack of infrastructure for healthcare, urbanization, poverty and lack of government programs also drive this epidemic and hampers proper prevention, surveillance and treatment efforts. Using an African-centered cultural framework

  15. Exploration for uranium in a tropical country: a case history in the Central African Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, P.

    1983-01-01

    A total-count aerial radiometric survey carried out in the Central African Republic, in a wet tropical environment, led to the discovery of several anomalies, which were found to be bound to laterites overlying in Archean, quarzite-micaschist metamorphic series. Ground verification included several techniques: regional photogeology, radiometry and stream sediment geochemistry. Each anomalous spot was studied in detail by radiometric and geochemical grids, local topographic study and trenching through the lateritic profile. (author)

  16. Socioeconomic development as a determinant of the levels of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in the inhabitants of Western and Central African countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzardo, Octavio P.; Boada, Luis D.; Carranza, Cristina; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Valerón, Pilar F.; Zumbado, Manuel; Camacho, María; Arellano, José Luis Pérez

    2014-01-01

    Several studies of environmental samples indicate that the levels of many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are increasing in Africa, but few studies have been conducted in humans. Simultaneously, many African countries are experiencing a rapid economic growth and implementing information and communication technologies (ICT). These changes have generated high amounts of electronic waste (e-waste) that have not been adequately managed. We tested the hypothesis that the current levels of two main classes of POPs in Western and Central African countries are affected by the degree of socioeconomic development. We measured the levels of 36 POPs in the serum of recent immigrants (N = 575) who came from 19 Sub-Saharan countries to the Canary Islands (Spain). We performed statistical analyses on their anthropometric and socioeconomic data. High median levels of POPs were found in the overall sample, with differences among the countries. Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels increased with age. People from low-income countries had significantly higher OCP levels and much lower PCB levels than those from high-income countries. We found a significant association between the implementation of ICT and PCB contamination. Immigrants from the countries with a high volume of imports of second-hand electronic equipment had higher PCB levels. The economic development of Africa and the e-waste generation have directly affected the levels of POPs. The POP legacies of these African populations most likely are due to the inappropriate management of the POPs' residues. - Highlights: • Higher levels of organochlorine pesticides in Africans from low-income countries • Higher levels of PCBs in Africans from high-income countries • Levels of PCBs are significantly higher in people from West Africa. • Significant association between implementation of ICT and PCB contamination • High volume of second-hand electronic equipment is associated

  17. Socioeconomic development as a determinant of the levels of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in the inhabitants of Western and Central African countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luzardo, Octavio P., E-mail: operez@dcc.ulpgc.es [Toxicology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Boada, Luis D. [Toxicology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Carranza, Cristina [Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Unit, Hospital Universitario Insular de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Medical Sciences and Surgery Department, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Valerón, Pilar F.; Zumbado, Manuel; Camacho, María [Toxicology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Arellano, José Luis Pérez [Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Unit, Hospital Universitario Insular de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Medical Sciences and Surgery Department, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)

    2014-11-01

    Several studies of environmental samples indicate that the levels of many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are increasing in Africa, but few studies have been conducted in humans. Simultaneously, many African countries are experiencing a rapid economic growth and implementing information and communication technologies (ICT). These changes have generated high amounts of electronic waste (e-waste) that have not been adequately managed. We tested the hypothesis that the current levels of two main classes of POPs in Western and Central African countries are affected by the degree of socioeconomic development. We measured the levels of 36 POPs in the serum of recent immigrants (N = 575) who came from 19 Sub-Saharan countries to the Canary Islands (Spain). We performed statistical analyses on their anthropometric and socioeconomic data. High median levels of POPs were found in the overall sample, with differences among the countries. Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels increased with age. People from low-income countries had significantly higher OCP levels and much lower PCB levels than those from high-income countries. We found a significant association between the implementation of ICT and PCB contamination. Immigrants from the countries with a high volume of imports of second-hand electronic equipment had higher PCB levels. The economic development of Africa and the e-waste generation have directly affected the levels of POPs. The POP legacies of these African populations most likely are due to the inappropriate management of the POPs' residues. - Highlights: • Higher levels of organochlorine pesticides in Africans from low-income countries • Higher levels of PCBs in Africans from high-income countries • Levels of PCBs are significantly higher in people from West Africa. • Significant association between implementation of ICT and PCB contamination • High volume of second-hand electronic equipment is associated

  18. Socioeconomic inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence in sub-Saharan African countries: evidence from the Demographic Health Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Extant studies universally document a positive gradient between socioeconomic status (SES) and health. A notable exception is the apparent concentration of HIV/AIDS among wealthier individuals. This paper uses data from the Demographic Health Surveys and AIDS Indicator Surveys to examine socioeconomic inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence in 24 sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries, the region that accounts for two-thirds of the global HIV/AIDS burden. Methods The relative and generalized concentration indices (RC and GC) were used to quantify wealth-based socioeconomic inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence for the total adult population (aged 15-49), for men and women, and in urban and rural areas in each country. Further, we decomposed the RC and GC indices to identify the determinants of socioeconomic inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence in each country. Results Our findings demonstrated that HIV/AIDS was concentrated among higher SES individuals in the majority of SSA countries. Swaziland and Senegal were the only countries in the region where HIV/AIDS was concentrated among individuals living in poorer households. Stratified analyses by gender showed HIV/AIDS was generally concentrated among wealthier men and women. In some countries, including Kenya, Lesotho Uganda, and Zambia, HIV/AIDS was concentrated among the poor in urban areas but among wealthier adults in rural areas. Decomposition analyses indicated that, besides wealth itself (median = 49%, interquartile range [IQR] = 90%), urban residence (median = 54%, IQR = 81%) was the most important factor contributing to the concentration of HIV/AIDS among wealthier participants in SSA countries. Conclusions Further work is needed to understand the mechanisms explaining the concentration of HIV/AIDS among wealthier individuals and urban residents in SSA. Higher prevalence of HIV/AIDS could be indicative of better care and survival among wealthier individuals and urban adults, or reflect

  19. Study of the influencing factors of the blood levels of toxic elements in Africans from 16 countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Luzardo, Octavio P.; Boada, Luis D.; Carranza, Cristina; Pérez Arellano, José Luis; González-Antuña, Ana; Almeida-González, Maira; Barry-Rodríguez, Carlos; Zumbado, Manuel; Camacho, María

    2017-01-01

    Africa's economy is growing faster than any other continent and it has been estimated that the middle class in Africa now exceeds 350 million people. This has meant a parallel increase in the importation of consumer goods and in the implementation of communication and information technologies (ICT), but also in the generation of large quantities of e-waste. However, inadequate infrastructure development remains a major constraint to the continent's economic growth and these highly toxic residues are not always adequately managed. Few studies have been conducted to date assessing the possible association between socioeconomic development factors, including e-waste generation, and blood levels of inorganic elements in African population. To disclose the role of geographical, anthropogenic, and socioeconomic development determinants on the blood levels of Ag, Al, As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, and V —all of them frequently found in e-waste—, an immigrant population-based study was made including a total of 245 subjects from 16 countries recently arrived to the Canary Islands (Spain). Women presented higher levels of blood elements than men, and Northern Africans (Moroccans) were the most contaminated. People from low-income countries exhibited significantly lower blood levels of inorganic elements than those from middle-income countries. We found a significant association between the use of motor vehicles and the implementation of information and communication technologies (ICT) and the level of contamination. Immigrants from the countries with a high volume of imports of second-hand electronic equipment, telephone and internet use had higher levels of inorganic elements. In general terms, the higher level of economic development the higher the blood levels of inorganic pollutants, suggesting that the economic development of Africa, in parallel to e-waste generation and the existence of informal recycling sites, have directly affected the level of

  20. Global potential for carbon sequestration. Geographical distribution, country risk and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez, Pablo C.; McCallum, Ian; Obersteiner, Michael; Yamagata, Yoshiki

    2007-01-01

    We have provided a framework for identifying least-cost sites for afforestation and reforestation and deriving carbon sequestration cost curves at a global level in a scenario of limited information. Special attention is given to country risk in developing countries and the sensitivity to spatial datasets. Our model results suggest that within 20 years and considering a carbon price of USD 50/tC, tree-planting activities could offset 1 year of global carbon emissions in the energy sector. However, if we account for country risk considerations-associated with political, economic and financial risks - carbon sequestration is reduced by approximately 60%. With respect to the geography of supply, illustrated by grid-scale maps, we find that most least-cost sites are located in regions of developing countries such as the Sub-Sahara, Southeast Brazil and Southeast Asia. (author)

  1. Medical Education in Decentralized Settings: How Medical Students Contribute to Health Care in 10 Sub-Saharan African Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talib, Zohray; van Schalkwyk, Susan; Couper, Ian; Pattanaik, Swaha; Turay, Khadija; Sagay, Atiene S; Baingana, Rhona; Baird, Sarah; Gaede, Bernhard; Iputo, Jehu; Kibore, Minnie; Manongi, Rachel; Matsika, Antony; Mogodi, Mpho; Ramucesse, Jeremais; Ross, Heather; Simuyeba, Moses; Haile-Mariam, Damen

    2017-12-01

    African medical schools are expanding, straining resources at tertiary health facilities. Decentralizing clinical training can alleviate this tension. This study assessed the impact of decentralized training and contribution of undergraduate medical students at health facilities. Participants were from 11 Medical Education Partnership Initiative-funded medical schools in 10 African countries. Each school identified two clinical training sites-one rural and the other either peri-urban or urban. Qualitative and quantitative data collection tools were used to gather information about the sites, student activities, and staff perspectives between March 2015 and February 2016. Interviews with site staff were analyzed using a collaborative directed approach to content analysis, and frequencies were generated to describe site characteristics and student experiences. The clinical sites varied in level of care but were similar in scope of clinical services and types of clinical and nonclinical student activities. Staff indicated that students have a positive effect on job satisfaction and workload. Respondents reported that students improved the work environment, institutional reputation, and introduced evidence-based approaches. Students also contributed to perceived improvements in quality of care, patient experience, and community outreach. Staff highlighted the need for resources to support students. Students were seen as valuable resources for health facilities. They strengthened health care quality by supporting overburdened staff and by bringing rigor and accountability into the work environment. As medical schools expand, especially in low-resource settings, mobilizing new and existing resources for decentralized clinical training could transform health facilities into vibrant service and learning environments.

  2. The prevalence of underweight, overweight, obesity and associated risk factors among school-going adolescents in seven African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyanga, Taru; El-Sayed, Hesham; Doku, David Teye; Randall, Jason R

    2014-08-28

    The burden caused by the coexistence of obesity and underweight in Low and Middle Income Countries is a challenge to public health. While prevalence of underweight among youth has been well documented in these countries, overweight, obesity and their associated risk factors are not well understood unlike in high income countries. Cross-sectional data from the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) conducted in seven African countries were used for this study. The survey used a clustered design to obtain a representative sample (n = 23496) from randomly selected schools. 53.6% of the sample was male, and participants ranged in age from 11-17 years old. Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated using age and sex adjusted self-reported heights and weights. Classification of weight status was based on the 2007 World Health Organization growth charts (BMI-for-age and sex). Multivariable Logistic Regression reporting Odds Ratios was used to assess potential risk factors on BMI, adjusting for age, sex, and country. Statistical analyses were performed with Stata with an alpha of 0.05 and reporting 95% confidence intervals. Unadjusted rates of being underweight varied from 12.6% (Egypt) to 31.9% (Djibouti), while being overweight ranged from 8.7% (Ghana) to 31.4% (Egypt). Obesity rates ranged from 0.6% (Benin) to 9.3% (Egypt). Females had a higher overweight prevalence for every age group in five of the countries, exceptions being Egypt and Malawi. Overall, being overweight was more prevalent among younger (≤12) adolescents and decreased with age. Males had a higher prevalence of being underweight than females for every country. There was a tendency for the prevalence of being underweight to increase starting in the early teens and decrease between ages 15 and 16. Most of the potential risk factors captured by the GSHS were not significantly associated with weight status. The prevalence of both overweight and underweight was relatively high, demonstrating the

  3. The Ebola contagion and forecasting virus: evidence from four African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadhem, Selmi; Nejib, Hachicha D

    2015-12-01

    This paper is focused on examining the number of deaths' increases participation in the propagating the Ebola virus during the period ranging from March to October 2014. An application of the MGARCH-DCC model regressions on four countries has led to discover that the finding that human contact play a significant role in transmitting the Ebola virus. Our findings also reveal that Guinea has already suffered from a spread-like virus originating from Sierra Lione and Liberia. Noteworthy also, other countries are now liable to such a risk; for instance, Nigeria is a country vulnerable to the propagation of this virus. Consequently, we undertake to conduct our forecasts for EGARCH model estimates implements; which has estimated a decrease in the Ebola virus incurred number of deadly Ebola virus over the two months following the November and December.

  4. Business owners' action planning and its relationship to business success in three African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frese, Michael; Krauss, Stefanie I; Keith, Nina; Escher, Susanne; Grabarkiewicz, Rafal; Luneng, Siv Tonje; Heers, Constanze; Unger, Jens; Friedrich, Christian

    2007-11-01

    A model of business success was developed with motivational resources (locus of control, self-efficacy, achievement motivation, and self-reported personal initiative) and cognitive resources (cognitive ability and human capital) as independent variables, business owners' elaborate and proactive planning as a mediator, and business size and growth as dependent variables. Three studies with a total of 408 African micro and small-scale business owners were conducted in South Africa, Zimbabwe, and Namibia. Structural equation analyses partially supported the hypotheses on the importance of psychological planning by the business owners. Elaborate and proactive planning was substantially related to business size and to an external evaluation of business success and was a (partial) mediator for the relationship between cognitive resources and business success. The model carries important implications for selection, training, and coaching of business owners. (c) 2007 APA

  5. State of inequality in malaria intervention coverage in sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galactionova, Katya; Smith, Thomas A; de Savigny, Don; Penny, Melissa A

    2017-10-18

    Scale-up of malaria interventions over the last decade have yielded a significant reduction in malaria transmission and disease burden in sub-Saharan Africa. We estimated economic gradients in the distribution of these efforts and of their impacts within and across endemic countries. Using Demographic and Health Surveys we computed equity metrics to characterize the distribution of malaria interventions in 30 endemic countries proxying economic position with an asset-wealth index. Gradients were summarized in a concentration index, tabulated against level of coverage, and compared among interventions, across countries, and against respective trends over the period 2005-2015. There remain broad differences in coverage of malaria interventions and their distribution by wealth within and across countries. In most, economic gradients are lacking or favor the poorest for vector control; malaria services delivered through the formal healthcare sector are much less equitable. Scale-up of interventions in many countries improved access across the wealth continuum; in some, these efforts consistently prioritized the poorest. Expansions in control programs generally narrowed coverage gaps between economic strata; gradients persist in countries where growth was slower in the poorest quintile or where baseline inequality was large. Despite progress, malaria is consistently concentrated in the poorest, with the degree of inequality in burden far surpassing that expected given gradients in the distribution of interventions. Economic gradients in the distribution of interventions persist over time, limiting progress toward equity in malaria control. We found that, in countries with large baseline inequality in the distribution of interventions, even a small bias in expansion favoring the least poor yielded large gradients in intervention coverage while pro-poor growth failed to close the gap between the poorest and least poor. We demonstrated that dimensions of disadvantage

  6. Factors associated with declining under-five mortality rates from 2000 to 2013: an ecological analysis of 46 African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipp, Aaron M; Blevins, Meridith; Haley, Connie A; Mwinga, Kasonde; Habimana, Phanuel; Shepherd, Bryan E; Aliyu, Muktar H; Ketsela, Tigest; Vermund, Sten H

    2016-01-08

    Inadequate overall progress has been made towards the 4th Millennium Development Goal of reducing under-five mortality rates by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. Progress has been variable across African countries. We examined health, economic and social factors potentially associated with reductions in under-five mortality (U5M) from 2000 to 2013. Ecological analysis using publicly available data from the 46 nations within the WHO African Region. We assessed the annual rate of change (ARC) of 70 different factors and their association with the annual rate of reduction (ARR) of U5M rates using robust linear regression models. Most factors improved over the study period for most countries, with the largest increases seen for economic or technological development and external financing factors. The median (IQR) U5M ARR was 3.6% (2.8 to 5.1%). Only 4 of 70 factors demonstrated a strong and significant association with U5M ARRs, adjusting for potential confounders. Higher ARRs were associated with more rapidly increasing coverage of seeking treatment for acute respiratory infection (β=0.22 (ie, a 1% increase in the ARC was associated with a 0.22% increase in ARR); 90% CI 0.09 to 0.35; p=0.01), increasing health expenditure relative to gross domestic product (β=0.26; 95% CI 0.11 to 0.41; p=0.02), increasing fertility rate (β=0.54; 95% CI 0.07 to 1.02; p=0.07) and decreasing maternal mortality ratio (β=-0.47; 95% CI -0.69 to -0.24; p<0.01). The majority of factors showed no association or raised validity concerns due to missing data from a large number of countries. Improvements in sociodemographic, maternal health and governance and financing factors were more likely associated with U5M ARR. These underscore the essential role of contextual factors facilitating child health interventions and services. Surveillance of these factors could help monitor which countries need additional support in reducing U5M. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission

  7. Role of income in intergenerational co-residence: Evidence from selected African and Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Nusrate; Hossain, Belayet; Emran, Masum

    2018-06-01

    The study investigates the macroeconomic determinants of co-residing arrangement between generations in selected developing countries with a focus on examining the effect of changing income level of the working generation. A reduced form model is specified for co-residence between the older generation and altruistic working generation. The fixed- and random-effects models are applied in two waves of data for 22 countries. Estimated results indicate that the income of the altruistic working generation has a negative effect on co-residence, suggesting that if the income of the working generation increases, co-residence decreases. This decrease is greater for older men compared with their female counterparts. Life expectancy, literacy and culture also have significant influences on co-residence. Co-residence is expected to fall in developing countries with economic growth over time. Consequently, a higher proportion of older citizens will be vulnerable in the future. Hence, governments of developing countries will face increasing pressure from their older people to provide appropriate planning and strategy to face this challenge. © 2018 AJA Inc.

  8. Adjustment and long-run economic performance in 18 African countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebregziabher, Fiseha

    2015-01-01

    trajectories of the introduction of adjustment programs. The analysis reveals that only few countries have shown positive and sustained results. The traditional (first-generation) Fund-Bank adjustment package is linked with sustained increase in Gross Domestic Product, export and investment growth rates only...

  9. An overview of cardiovascular risk factor burden in sub-Saharan African countries: a socio-cultural perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degboe Arnold N

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-Saharan African (SSA countries are currently experiencing one of the most rapid epidemiological transitions characterized by increasing urbanization and changing lifestyle factors. This has resulted in an increase in the incidence of non-communicable diseases, especially cardiovascular disease (CVD. This double burden of communicable and chronic non-communicable diseases has long-term public health impact as it undermines healthcare systems. Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the socio-cultural context of CVD risk prevention and treatment in sub-Saharan Africa. We discuss risk factors specific to the SSA context, including poverty, urbanization, developing healthcare systems, traditional healing, lifestyle and socio-cultural factors. Methodology We conducted a search on African Journals On-Line, Medline, PubMed, and PsycINFO databases using combinations of the key country/geographic terms, disease and risk factor specific terms such as "diabetes and Congo" and "hypertension and Nigeria". Research articles on clinical trials were excluded from this overview. Contrarily, articles that reported prevalence and incidence data on CVD risk and/or articles that report on CVD risk-related beliefs and behaviors were included. Both qualitative and quantitative articles were included. Results The epidemic of CVD in SSA is driven by multiple factors working collectively. Lifestyle factors such as diet, exercise and smoking contribute to the increasing rates of CVD in SSA. Some lifestyle factors are considered gendered in that some are salient for women and others for men. For instance, obesity is a predominant risk factor for women compared to men, but smoking still remains mostly a risk factor for men. Additionally, structural and system level issues such as lack of infrastructure for healthcare, urbanization, poverty and lack of government programs also drive this epidemic and hampers proper prevention, surveillance and

  10. A PILOT EXTERNAL QUALITY ASSURANCE STUDY OF TRANSFUSION SCREENING FOR HIV, HCV AND HBSAG IN TWELVE AFRICAN COUNTRIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Evan M; Shah, Avani; Kaidarova, Zhanna; Laperche, Syria; Lefrere, Jean-Jacques; van Hasselt, James; Zacharias, Peter; Murphy, Edward L

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Serologic screening for the major transfusion transmissible viruses (TTV) is critical to blood safety and has been widely implemented. However, actual performance as measured by proficiency testing has not been well studied in Sub-Saharan Africa. Therefore, we conducted an external quality assessment of laboratories engaged in transfusion screening in the region. Materials and Methods Blinded test panels, each comprising 25 serum samples that were pedigreed for HIV, HBsAg, HCV and negative status, were sent to participating laboratories. The panels were tested using the laboratories’ routine donor screening methods and conditions. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated and multivariable analysis was used to compare performance against mode of testing, country and infrastructure. Results A total of 12 African countries and 44 laboratories participated in the study. The mean (range) sensitivities for HIV, HBsAg and HCV were 91.9% (14.3-100), 86.7% (42.9-100) and 90.1% (50-100), respectively. Mean specificities for HIV, HBsAg and HCV were 97.7%, 97% and 99.5% respectively. After adjusting for country and infrastructure, rapid tests had significantly lower sensitivity than enzyme immunoassays (EIA) for both HBsAg (p<0.0001) and HCV (p<0.05). Sensitivity also varied by country and selected infrastructure variables. Conclusion While specificity was high, sensitivity was more variable and deficient in a substantial number of testing laboratories. These findings underscore the importance of proficiency testing and quality control, particularly in Africa where TTV prevalence is high. PMID:25052195

  11. Palliative care and support for persons with HIV/AIDS in 7 African countries: implementation experience and future priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Carla S; Memiah, Peter; Henley, Yvonne B; Kaiza-Kangalawe, Angela; Shumbusho, Anna Joyce; Obiefune, Michael; Enejoh, Victor; Stanis-Ezeobi, Winifred; Eze, Charity; Odion, Ehekhaye; Akpenna, Donald; Effiong, Amana; Miriti, Kenneth; Aduda, Samson; Oko, John; Melaku, Gebremedhin D; Baribwira, Cyprien; Umutesi, Hassina; Shimabale, Mope; Mugisa, Emmanuel; Amoroso, Anthony

    2012-06-01

    To combat morbidity and mortality from the worldwide epidemic of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the United States Congress implemented a President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) in 30 resource-limited countries to integrate combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) for both prevention and cure. Over 35% of eligible persons have been successfully treated. Initial legislation cited palliative care as an essential aspect of this plan but overall health strengthening became critical to sustainability of programming and funding priorities shifted to assure staffing for care delivery sites; laboratory and pharmaceutical infrastructure; data collection and reporting; and financial management as individual countries are being encouraged to assume control of in-country funding. Given infrastructure requisites, individual care delivery beyond ART management alone has received minimal funding yet care remains necessary for durable viral suppression and overall quality of life for individuals. Technical assistance staff of one implementing partner representing seven African countries met to clarify domains of palliative care compared with the substituted term "care and support" to understand potential gaps in on-going HIV care. They prioritized care needs as: 1) mental health (depression and other mood disorders); 2) communication skills (age-appropriate disclosure of HIV status); 3) support of care-providers (stress management for sustainability of a skilled HIV workforce); 4) Tied Priorities: symptom management in opportunistic infections; end-of-life care; spiritual history-taking; and 5) Tied Priorities: attention to grief-related needs of patients, their families and staff; and management of HIV co-morbidities. This process can inform health policy as funding transitions to new priorities.

  12. Timing of maternal death: Levels, trends, and ecological correlates using sibling data from 34 sub-Saharan African countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Merdad

    Full Text Available Millennium Development Goal 5 has not been universally achieved, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Understanding whether maternal deaths occur during pregnancy, childbirth, or puerperium is important to effectively plan maternal health programs and allocate resources. Our main research objectives are to (1 describe the proportions and rates of mortality for the antepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum periods; (2 document how these trends vary by sub-region; and (3 investigate ecological correlations between these rates and maternal care interventions. We used data from the Demographic and Health Survey program, which comprises 84 surveys from 34 sub-Saharan African countries conducted between 1990 and 2014. We calculated age-standardized maternal mortality rates and time-specific maternal mortality rates and proportions, and we assessed correlations with maternal care coverage. We found high levels of maternal mortality in all three periods. Time-specific maternal mortality rates varied by country and region, with some showing an orderly decline in all three periods and others exhibiting alarming increases in antepartum and postpartum mortality. Ecological analysis showed that antenatal care coverage was significantly associated with low antepartum mortality, whereas the presence of a skilled attendant at childbirth was significantly associated with low postpartum mortality. In sub-Saharan Africa, maternal deaths occur at high rates in all three risk periods, and vary substantially by country and region. The provision of maternal care is a predictor of time-specific maternal mortality. These results confirm the need for country-specific interventions during the continuum of care to achieve the global commitment to eliminating preventable maternal mortality.

  13. Socioeconomic status and the prevalence of fever in children under age five: evidence from four sub-Saharan African countries

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    Novignon Jacob

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The burden of fevers remains enormous in sub-Saharan Africa. While several efforts at reducing the burden of fevers have been made at the macro level, the relationship between socioeconomic status and fever prevalence has been inconclusive at the household and individual levels. The purpose of this study was to examine how individual and household socioeconomic status influences the prevalence of fever among children under age five in four sub-Saharan African countries. Methods The study used data from the 2008 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS from Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya and Sierra Leone with a total of 38,990 children below age five. A multi-level random effects logistic model was fitted to examine the socioeconomic factors that influence the prevalence of fever in the two weeks preceding the survey. Data from the four countries were also combined to estimate this relationship, after country-specific analysis. Results The results show that children from wealthier households reported lower prevalence of fever in Ghana, Nigeria and Kenya. Result from the combined dataset shows that children from wealthier households were less likely to report fever. In general, vaccination against fever-related diseases and the use of improved toilet facility reduces fever prevalence. The use of bed nets by children and mothers did not show consistent relationship across the countries. Conclusion Poverty does not only influence prevalence of fever at the macro level as shown in other studies but also the individual and household levels. Policies directed towards preventing childhood fevers should take a close account of issues of poverty alleviation. There is also the need to ensure that prevention and treatment mechanisms directed towards fever related diseases (such as malaria, pneumonia, measles, diarrhoea, polio, tuberculosis etc. are accessible and effectively used.

  14. PEPFAR Funding and Reduction in HIV Infection Rates in 12 Focus Sub-Saharan African Countries: A Quantitative Analysis

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    Roger J. Chin, MA, MPA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: HIV and AIDS continue to have a calamitous effect on individuals living on the continent of Africa. U.S. President George W. Bush implemented the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR with the objective of committing approximately $15 billion from 2004 through 2008 to assist with the reduction of the HIV pandemic worldwide. The majority of the PEPFAR policy and funding focused on 12 countries in sub-Saharan Africa: Botswana, Cote d’Ivoire, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia. The policy question this research paper seeks to analyze is whether the PEPFAR funding (as a % of Gross Domestic Product (GDP allocated to the 12 countries in Africa had any effect on the decrease of HIV infection rates of males and females between the ages of 15 and 49. Methods: A fixed-effects panel regression analysis was conducted to determine if this association exists. This study examined the 12 African countries that received PEPFAR funding over the years 2002 to 2010; even though PEPFAR was only active from 2004 through 2008, this research included two years prior and two years after this timeframe in order to better estimate the effect of PEPFAR funding on HIV reduction. Results: The results illustrate that on average, ceteris paribus, for every 1 percentage point increase in PEPFAR funding per GDP a country received, the country’s HIV infection rate decreased by 0.355 percentage points. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: While the empirical findings in this study suggested that the correlation between PEPFAR funding and HIV reduction is statistically significant, the practical significance is perhaps less obvious. Arguably, the reduction rate should be higher given the extent of funding targeted to this project. The conclusion of this research provides suggestions on future research and the policy implications of PEPFAR.

  15. Zār Spirit Possession in Iran and African Countries: Group Distress, Culture-Bound Syndrome or Cultural Concept of Distress?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Mianji

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Zār is the term used to describe a form of spirit possession common in northern African, eastern African, and some Middle-Eastern societies. Although these regions share some cultural similarities arising from their history of slavery, in these places, zār varies in prevalence, clinical characteristics, and social context. Based on a selective review of the literature, this paper looks at the place of zār spirit possession in both DSM-IV and DSM-V; it also examines how zār is manifested in Iran and in African countries including Sudan, Ethiopia, and Egypt; and it aims to provide practical information to mental health clinicians so that they can better understand how this cultural concept is practiced by Iranians and Middle Eastern and African immigrants living near the Persian Gulf coast.

  16. To what extent are African Countries Vulnerable to climate change? Lessons from a new indicator of Physical Vulnerability to Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick GUILLAUMONT; Catherine SIMONET

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the vulnerability of African countries to climate change, for which they are not responsible. It is based on an index of structural or physical vulnerability to climate change at the country level, denominated below by the acronym PVCCI. This index has been created recently by the authors, and has been made available on the FERDI website. The design of this index draws both on the environmental literature, and some principles used by the United Nations to measure structura...

  17. Physiotherapy for people with mental health problems in Sub-Saharan African countries: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Vancampfort, Davy; Stubbs, Brendon; Probst, Michel; Mugisha, James

    2018-01-01

    Background There is a need for psychosocial interventions to address the escalating mental health burden in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Physiotherapists could have a central role in reducing the burden and facilitating recovery within the multidisciplinary care of people with mental health problems. The aim of this systematic review was to explore the role of physiotherapists within the current mental health policies of SSA countries and to explore the current research evidence for physiotherap...

  18. Institutional perceptions, adaptive capacity and climate change response in a post-conflict country: a case study from Central African Republic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, H.C.P.; Smit, B.; Somorin, O.A.; Sonwa, D.J.; Ngana, F.

    2013-01-01

    The Central African Republic (CAR) faces increased vulnerability to climate change because it is a low-income country with low adaptive capacity; a situation that is exacerbated by recent civil conflict. This research analysed the perceptions of decision-makers within, and the response of diverse

  19. Cholera Incidence and Mortality in Sub-Saharan African Sites during Multi-country Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvageot, Delphine; Njanpop-Lafourcade, Berthe-Marie; Akilimali, Laurent; Anne, Jean-Claude; Bidjada, Pawou; Bompangue, Didier; Bwire, Godfrey; Coulibaly, Daouda; Dengo-Baloi, Liliana; Dosso, Mireille; Orach, Christopher Garimoi; Inguane, Dorteia; Kagirita, Atek; Kacou-N'Douba, Adele; Keita, Sakoba; Kere Banla, Abiba; Kouame, Yao Jean-Pierre; Landoh, Dadja Essoya; Langa, Jose Paulo; Makumbi, Issa; Miwanda, Berthe; Malimbo, Muggaga; Mutombo, Guy; Mutombo, Annie; NGuetta, Emilienne Niamke; Saliou, Mamadou; Sarr, Veronique; Senga, Raphael Kakongo; Sory, Fode; Sema, Cynthia; Tante, Ouyi Valentin; Gessner, Bradford D; Mengel, Martin A

    2016-05-01

    Cholera burden in Africa remains unknown, often because of weak national surveillance systems. We analyzed data from the African Cholera Surveillance Network (www.africhol.org). During June 2011-December 2013, we conducted enhanced surveillance in seven zones and four outbreak sites in Togo, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Guinea, Uganda, Mozambique and Cote d'Ivoire. All health facilities treating cholera cases were included. Cholera incidences were calculated using culture-confirmed cholera cases and culture-confirmed cholera cases corrected for lack of culture testing usually due to overwhelmed health systems and imperfect test sensitivity. Of 13,377 reported suspected cases, 34% occurred in Conakry, Guinea, 47% in Goma, DRC, and 19% in the remaining sites. From 0-40% of suspected cases were aged under five years and from 0.3-86% had rice water stools. Within surveillance zones, 0-37% of suspected cases had confirmed cholera compared to 27-38% during outbreaks. Annual confirmed incidence per 10,000 population was cholera incidence, age distribution, clinical presentation, culture confirmation, and testing frequency. These results can help guide preventive activities, including vaccine use.

  20. Introduction and Rollout of a New Group A Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PsA-TT) in African Meningitis Belt Countries, 2010–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djingarey, Mamoudou H.; Diomandé, Fabien V. K.; Barry, Rodrigue; Kandolo, Denis; Shirehwa, Florence; Lingani, Clement; Novak, Ryan T.; Tevi-Benissan, Carol; Perea, William; Preziosi, Marie-Pierre; LaForce, F. Marc

    2015-01-01

    Background. A group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) was developed specifically for the African “meningitis belt” and was prequalified by the World Health Organization (WHO) in June 2010. The vaccine was first used widely in Burkina Faso, Mali, and Niger in December 2010 with great success. The remaining 23 meningitis belt countries wished to use this new vaccine. Methods. With the help of African countries, WHO developed a prioritization scheme and used or adapted existing immunization guidelines to mount PsA-TT vaccination campaigns. Vaccine requirements were harmonized with the Serum Institute of India, Ltd. Results. Burkina Faso was the first country to fully immunize its 1- to 29-year-old population in December 2010. Over the next 4 years, vaccine coverage was extended to 217 million Africans living in 15 meningitis belt countries. Conclusions. The new group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine was well received, with country coverage rates ranging from 85% to 95%. The rollout proceeded smoothly because countries at highest risk were immunized first while attention was paid to geographic contiguity to maximize herd protection. Community participation was exemplary. PMID:26553672

  1. Community-level intimate partner violence and the circumstances of first sex among young women from five African countries

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    Speizer Ilene S

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gender-based violence is an important risk factor for adverse reproductive health (RH. Community-level violence may inhibit young women's ability to engage in safer sexual behaviors due to a lack of control over sexual encounters. Few studies examine violence as a contextual risk factor. Methods Using nationally representative data from five African countries, the association between community-level physical or sexual intimate partner violence (IPV and the circumstances of first sex (premarital or marital among young women (ages 20-29 was examined. Results In Mali, and Kenya bivariate analyses showed that young women who had premarital first sex were from communities where a significantly higher percentage of women reported IPV experience compared to young women who had marital first sex. Multivariate analyses confirmed the findings for these two countries; young women from communities with higher IPV were significantly more likely to have had premarital first sex compared to first sex in union. In Liberia, community-level IPV was associated with a lower risk of premarital sex as compared to first sex in union at a marginal significance level. There was no significant relationship between community-level IPV and the circumstances of first sex in the Democratic Republic of Congo or Zimbabwe. Conclusion These findings indicate that context matters for RH. Individualized efforts to improve RH may be limited in their effectiveness if they do not acknowledge the context of young women's lives. Programs should target prevention of violence to improve RH outcomes of youth.

  2. Effects of global financial crisis on funding for health development in nineteen countries of the WHO African Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirigia, Joses M; Nganda, Benjamin M; Mwikisa, Chris N; Cardoso, Bernardino

    2011-04-13

    There is ample evidence in Asia and Latin America showing that past economic crises resulted in cuts in expenditures on health, lower utilization of health services, and deterioration of child and maternal nutrition and health outcomes. Evidence on the impact of past economic crises on health sector in Africa is lacking. The objectives of this article are to present the findings of a quick survey conducted among countries of the WHO African Region to monitor the effects of global financial crisis on funding for health development; and to discuss the way forward. This is a descriptive study. A questionnaire was prepared and sent by email to all the 46 Member States in the WHO African Region through the WHO Country Office for facilitation and follow up. The questionnaires were completed by directors of policy and planning in ministries of health. The data were entered and analyzed in Excel spreadsheet. The main limitations of this study were that authors did not ask whether other relevant sectors were consulted in the process of completing the survey questionnaire; and that the overall response rate was low. The main findings were as follows: the response rate was 41.3% (19/46 countries); 36.8% (7/19) indicated they had been notified by the Ministry of Finance that the budget for health would be cut; 15.8% (3/19) had been notified by partners of their intention to cut health funding; 61.1% (11/18) indicated that the prices of medicines had increased recently; 83.3% (15/18) indicated that the prices of basic food stuffs had increased recently; 38.8% (7/18) indicated that their local currency had been devalued against the US dollar; 47.1% (8/17) affirmed that the levels of unemployment had increased since the onset of global financial crisis; and 64.7% (11/17) indicated that the ministry of health had taken some measures already, either in reaction to the global financing crisis, or in anticipation. A rapid assessment, like the one reported in this article, of the

  3. Suicidal ideation among MSM in three West African countries: Associations with stigma and social capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlman, Shauna; Grosso, Ashley; Ketende, Sosthenes; Pitche, Vincent; Kouanda, Seni; Ceesay, Nuha; Ouedraogo, Henri G; Ky-Zerbo, Odette; Lougue, Marcel; Diouf, Daouda; Anato, Simplice; Tchalla, Jules; Baral, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Suicidal ideation is understudied among men who have sex with men (MSM) across Sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to explore social capital and sexual behavior stigma associated with suicidal ideation among MSM in the West African nations of The Gambia, Burkina Faso and Togo. Participants were recruited using respondent-driven sampling and snowball sampling across multiple cities (n = 1555) from July 2011 to August 2013. During a single study visit, participants completed a survey. Logistic regression models were used to assess bivariate and multivariable associations with suicidal ideation. The prevalence of lifetime suicidal ideation was 13% overall and ranged 6%-17% across study sites. After adjusting for potential confounders, MSM who reported stigma as a result of having sex with men were more likely to report suicidal ideation. Physical and sexual violence was strongly associated with suicidal ideation, including being physically harmed (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.94, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.91, 4.52), tortured (aOR = 3.86, 95% CI = 2.17, 6.86) and raped (aOR = 3.07, 95% CI = 2.05, 4.60). In contrast, increasing social participation with the broader community was associated with decreased report of suicidal ideation (aOR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.85, 0.99). Sexual behavior stigma should be addressed to improve mental health among MSM in Western Sub-Saharan Africa. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk among women in three sub-Saharan African countries.

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    Frank Qian

    Full Text Available Alcohol drinking is linked to the development of breast cancer. However, there is little knowledge about the impact of alcohol consumption on breast cancer risk among African women.We conducted a case-control study among 2,138 women with invasive breast cancer and 2,589 controls in Nigeria, Cameroon, and Uganda from 1998 to 2013. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on alcohol consumption, defined as consuming alcoholic beverages at least once a week for six months or more. Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratio (aOR and 95% confidence interval (CI.Among healthy controls, the overall alcohol consumption prevalence was 10.4%, and the prevalence in Nigeria, Cameroon, and Uganda were 5.0%, 34.6%, and 50.0%, respectively. Cases were more likely to have consumed alcohol (aOR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.33-1.97. Both past (aOR = 1.54; 95% CI: 1.19-2.00 and current drinking (aOR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.30-2.23 were associated with breast cancer risk. A dose-response relationship was observed for duration of alcohol drinking (P-trend <0.001, with 10-year increase of drinking associated with a 54% increased risk (95% CI: 1.29-1.84.We found a positive relationship between alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk, suggesting that this modifiable risk factor should be addressed in breast cancer prevention programs in Africa.

  5. Tobacco use and its determinants in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy in West African countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaquet, Antoine; Ekouevi, Didier-Koumavi; Aboubakrine, Maiga; Bashi, Jules; Messou, Eugène; Maiga, Moussa; Traore, Hamar-Alassane; Zannou, Marcel; Guehi, Calixte; Ba-Gomis, Franck-Olivier; Minga, Albert; Allou, Gérard; Eholie, Serge-Paul; Dabis, Francois; Bissagnene, Emmanuel; Sasco, Annie-Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Tobacco smoking is common in HIV-infected patients from industrialized countries. In West Africa, few data exist concerning tobacco consumption. METHODS A cross-sectional survey was conducted within the International epidemiological Database to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) network in West Africa. Health workers administered to patients receiving antiretroviral treatment a questionnaire assessing tobacco and cannabis consumption. Regular smokers were defined as present smokers who smoked >1 cigarette per day for ≥1 year. RESULTS Overall, 2920 patients were enrolled in three countries. The prevalence of ever smokers and present smokers were 46.2% (95% CI 42.8–49.5) and 15.6% (95% CI 13.2–18.0) in men and 3.7% (95% CI 2.9–4.5) and 0.6% (95% CI 0.3–0.9) in women, respectively. Regular smoking was associated being from Côte d’Ivoire or Mali compared to Benin (OR 4.6; 95% CI 2.9–7.3 and 7.7; 95% CI 4.4–13.6), a severely impaired immunological status at HAART initiation (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.1–2.2) and a history of tuberculosis (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.1–3.0). CONCLUSION Marked differences of smoking prevalence exist between these West African countries. This survey approach also provides evidences concerning the association between cigarette smoking and tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients, a major public health issue in this part of the world. PMID:19861019

  6. “By patience, labour and prayer . The voice of the unseen God in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The translation of the Bible into Setswana by Robert Moffat in 1857 was the first in an African language in sub-Sahara Africa and also the first Bible to be printed here — at the mission station at Kuruman, 150 years ago. This Bible translation had an enormous influence, reaching the Batswana people in different countries in ...

  7. Shocks, civil war and economic development in Sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nillesen, E.E.M.

    2010-01-01

    Foreign aid, low institutional quality and civil wars are associated with slow economic development in many Sub-Sahara African countries. I aim to identify causal relations and mechanisms that explain significant correlations. I use both macro- and micro-economic data and show that results are not

  8. Malaria and intestinal parasites in pregnant and non-pregnant women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In sub-Sahara African countries, both malaria and intestinal helminth infections are endemic and co-infection commonly occurs. It is estimated that over a third of the world's population, mainly in the tropics and sub-tropics are infected with parasitic helminths and Plasmodium species thus often leading to co-infections.

  9. Soil contamination from lead battery manufacturing and recycling in seven African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottesfeld, Perry; Were, Faridah Hussein; Adogame, Leslie; Gharbi, Semia; San, Dalila; Nota, Manti Michael; Kuepouo, Gilbert

    2018-02-01

    Lead battery recycling is a growing hazardous industry throughout Africa. We investigated potential soil contamination inside and outside formal sector recycling plants in seven countries. We collected 118 soil samples at 15 recycling plants and one battery manufacturing site and analyzed them for total lead. Lead levels in soils ranged from battery industry in Africa continues to expand, it is expected that the number and size of lead battery recycling plants will grow to meet the forecasted demand. There is an immediate need to address ongoing exposures in surrounding communities, emissions from this industry and to regulate site closure financing procedures to ensure that we do not leave behind a legacy of lead contamination that will impact millions in communities throughout Africa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Fundamental Flaws in the Architecture of the European Central Bank: The Possible End of the Euro Zone and its Effects to East African Community (EAC Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nothando Moyo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available European countries embarked on a European integration programme that saw the formation of the Euro, which has emerged as a major currency (Blair, 1999 that was introduced in 1998. With the Euro, came the establishment of the European Central Bank. Thus this study seeks to investigate the flaws in the formation of the European Central Bank that surfaced during the major economic crisis in Europe. The crisis revealing the gaps in the formation and structure of the European central bank have created major challenges for the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU. Through an extant review of literature the study will examine the East African Community Countries, investigating the ties they have to the euro zone to analyse how the crisis has affected them. Furthermore, the study will analyse what would happen to the growth patterns of the East African Countries and the various prospects they may have should the Eurozone come to an end.

  11. Energy as a tool for sustainable development for African, Caribbean and Pacific countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farinelli, U.; Bengaly, S.; Bertarelli, L.

    1999-01-01

    Energy plays a critical role in sustainable human development. It impacts on poverty, population, health, the environment, investment in industrial and agricultural development, foreign exchange and even security; it also has a strong gender implication. Policies aimed at providing energy services in a sustainable manner open doors to the achievement of a wide array of other development goals. However, the manner in which the world currently produces and consumes energy is unsustainable. A key challenge is to incorporate strategies to limit the potential negative impact of human activity on the global climate. Recognising these issues, national governments, bilateral co-operation agencies, and international development institutions have made efforts to promote the provision of energy services in ways which contribute to sustainable development. However, a number of barriers continue to limit the adoption of existing options. Building on the 1997 UNDP publication, Energy after Rio: Prospects and Challenges, the present report analyses the energy situation of two particular country groupings of global interest, Sub-Saharan Africa and ACP Small Island Developing States. It goes on to identify the actions required by different role-players to increase the adoption of sustainable energy options in these two groups. This publication is the result of a joint EC/UNDP initiative which aims to intensify the global dialogue on sustainable energy issues and to provide a basis for future concrete cooperation activities. It is the intention of the report to support developing countries in implementing more effectively the objectives of Agenda 21, and to contribute to the follow up to the Rio Earth Summit and the work of the Commission on Sustainable Development in preparation for its 9th Session in 2001. Coming at a critical time in the work of the European Commission, with the ongoing negotiation of a new framework development agreement to replace Lome IV, the report is an

  12. Improving data quality across 3 sub-Saharan African countries using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR): results from the African Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimbel, Sarah; Mwanza, Moses; Nisingizwe, Marie Paul; Michel, Cathy; Hirschhorn, Lisa

    2017-12-21

    High-quality data are critical to inform, monitor and manage health programs. Over the seven-year African Health Initiative of the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation, three of the five Population Health Implementation and Training (PHIT) partnership projects in Mozambique, Rwanda, and Zambia introduced strategies to improve the quality and evaluation of routinely-collected data at the primary health care level, and stimulate its use in evidence-based decision-making. Using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) as a guide, this paper: 1) describes and categorizes data quality assessment and improvement activities of the projects, and 2) identifies core intervention components and implementation strategy adaptations introduced to improve data quality in each setting. The CFIR was adapted through a qualitative theme reduction process involving discussions with key informants from each project, who identified two domains and ten constructs most relevant to the study aim of describing and comparing each country's data quality assessment approach and implementation process. Data were collected on each project's data quality improvement strategies, activities implemented, and results via a semi-structured questionnaire with closed and open-ended items administered to health management information systems leads in each country, with complementary data abstraction from project reports. Across the three projects, intervention components that aligned with user priorities and government systems were perceived to be relatively advantageous, and more readily adapted and adopted. Activities that both assessed and improved data quality (including data quality assessments, mentorship and supportive supervision, establishment and/or strengthening of electronic medical record systems), received higher ranking scores from respondents. Our findings suggest that, at a minimum, successful data quality improvement efforts should include routine audits linked to

  13. Women's empowerment and male involvement in antenatal care: analyses of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) in selected African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Larissa; Na, Muzi; Cherewick, Megan; Hindin, Michelle; Mullany, Britta; Ahmed, Saifuddin

    2014-08-30

    Increasing women's status and male involvement are important strategies in reducing preventable maternal morbidity and mortality. While efforts to both empower women and engage men in maternal health care-seeking can work synergistically, in practice they may result in opposing processes and outcomes. This study examines whether a woman's empowerment status, in sum and across economic, socio-familial, and legal dimensions, is associated with male partner accompaniment to antenatal care (ANC). Women's empowerment was measured based on the sum of nine empowerment items in the 2010-2011 Demographic and Health Surveys in eight sub-Saharan African countries: Burkina Faso (n = 2,490), Burundi (n = 1,042), Malawi (n = 1,353), Mozambique (n = 414), Rwanda (n = 1,211), Senegal (n = 505), Uganda (n = 428) and Zimbabwe (n = 459). In cross-sectional analyses, bivariate and multivariable logistic regressions models were used to examine the odds of male partner accompaniment to ANC between women with above-average versus below-average composite and dimensional empowerment scores. In the majority of countries, male accompaniment to ANC was not uncommon. However, findings were mixed. Positive associations in women's composite empowerment and male involvement were observed in Burkina Faso (OR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.50) and Uganda (OR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.00-2.35), and in the economic empowerment dimension in Burkina Faso (OR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.05-1.47). In Malawi, significant negative associations were observed in the odds of male accompaniment to ANC and women's composite (OR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.62-0.97) and economic empowerment scores (OR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.59-0.94). No significant differences were observed in Burundi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Senegal, or Zimbabwe. Women's empowerment can be positively or negatively associated with male antenatal accompaniment. Male involvement efforts may benefit from empowerment initiatives that promote women's participation in social and economic spheres

  14. Efficiency of international cooperation schemata in African countries: A comparative analysis using a data envelopment analysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Martin-Perez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Efficiency measurement by means of data envelopment analysis (DEA in the non-profit sector has focused on the so-called Stage I of non-profit organisations, namely, fundraising efforts (which are the most influential determinants of raising funds in order to increase the amount of contributions. However, for the so-called Stage II of non-profit organisations, namely, spending the achieved resources to program services delivery, DEA studies are very scarce. In attempting to address this research gap and to the best of our knowledge, this investigation is the first study that applies DEA to the assessment of international cooperation schemata. Consequently, we offer a significant contribution to the literature by overcoming the limitations of other techniques used to assess the efficiency and providing new insight into the efficiency of targeted different international cooperation schemata (ICS in international cooperation development projects. Aim: The purpose of this study is to evaluate and compare the efficiency of the ICS of developmental projects funded by the Spanish Agency for International Cooperation for Development. Setting: Our setting is composed of different international cooperation projects funded with different schemata by the Spanish Agency for International Cooperation for Development between 2002 and 2006 in two African countries that are top priority targets of Spanish international aid: Morocco, and Mozambique. Methods: Using a sample of 48 international cooperation projects carried out in two African countries considered priorities in the Spanish Cooperation Master Plan, we analyse project efficiency using DEA. Results: The findings suggest that some schemata are more efficient than others when applied to international cooperation projects (ICS. Specifically, we find that permanent open-call subsidies are more efficient than non-governmental development organisation subsidies. Conclusion: Measures for evaluating

  15. Preparing for Ebola Virus Disease in West African countries not yet affected: perspectives from Ghanaian health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyarko, Yaw; Goldfrank, Lewis; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Soghoian, Sari; de-Graft Aikins, Ama

    2015-02-26

    The current Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) epidemic has ravaged the social fabric of three West African countries and affected people worldwide. We report key themes from an agenda-setting, multi-disciplinary roundtable convened to examine experiences and implications for health systems in Ghana, a nation without cases but where risk for spread is high and the economic, social and political impact of the impending threat is already felt. Participants' personal stories and the broader debates to define fundamental issues and opportunities for preparedness focused on three inter-related themes. First, the dangers of the fear response itself were highlighted as a threat to the integrity and continuity of quality care. Second, healthcare workers' fears were compounded by a demonstrable lack of societal and personal protections for infection prevention and control in communities and healthcare facilities, as evidenced by an ongoing cholera epidemic affecting over 20,000 patients in the capital Accra alone since June 2014. Third, a lack of coherent messaging and direction from leadership seems to have limited coordination and reinforced a level of mistrust in the government's ability and commitment to mobilize an adequate response. Initial recommendations include urgent investment in the needed supplies and infrastructure for basic, routine infection control in communities and healthcare facilities, provision of assurances with securities for frontline healthcare workers, establishment of a multi-sector, "all-hazards" outbreak surveillance system, and engaging directly with key community groups to co-produce contextually relevant educational messages that will help decrease stigma, fear, and the demoralizing perception that the disease defies remedy or control. The EVD epidemic provides an unprecedented opportunity for West African countries not yet affected by EVD cases to make progress on tackling long-standing health systems weaknesses. This roundtable discussion

  16. Physiotherapy for people with mental health problems in Sub-Saharan African countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; Stubbs, Brendon; Probst, Michel; Mugisha, James

    2018-01-01

    There is a need for psychosocial interventions to address the escalating mental health burden in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Physiotherapists could have a central role in reducing the burden and facilitating recovery within the multidisciplinary care of people with mental health problems. The aim of this systematic review was to explore the role of physiotherapists within the current mental health policies of SSA countries and to explore the current research evidence for physiotherapy to improve functional outcomes in people with mental health problems in SSA. The Mental Health Atlas and MiNDbank of the World Health Organization were screened for the role of physiotherapy in mental health plans. Next, we systematically searched PubMed from inception until August 1st, 2017 for relevant studies on physiotherapy interventions in people with mental health problems in SSA. The following search strategy was used: "physiotherapy" OR "physical therapy" OR "rehabilitation" AND "mental" OR "depression" OR "psychosis" OR "schizophrenia" OR "bipolar" AND the name of the country. The current systematic review shows that in 22 screened plans only 2 made reference to the importance of considering physiotherapy within the multidisciplinary treatment. The current evidence (N studies = 3; n participants = 94) shows that aerobic exercise might reduce depression and improve psychological quality of life, self-esteem, body image and emotional stress in people with HIV having mental health problems. In people with depression moderate to high but not light intensity aerobic exercise results in significantly less depressive symptoms ( N  = 1, n  = 30). Finally, there is evidence for reduction in post-traumatic stress symptoms (avoidance and arousal), anxiety and depression following body awareness related exercises (N = 1, n  = 26). Our review demonstrated that physiotherapy is still largely neglected in the mental health care systems of SSA. This is probably due to

  17. The impacts of oil price fluctuations on the economy of sub-Saharan African countries, importers of oil products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacko, I.

    1997-01-01

    This work comprises three parts. The first part aims at presenting the energy situation of sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries grouped in five regions. Because of the demographic pressure and of the petroleum shocks, the commercial energy consumption is growing up rapidly and the energy prices are high for the end-users (because the energy is imported and paid in dollars, and the fiscality share is increased by governments in the case of prices drop in the international market). The important problem of wood fuel is considered, together with the energy-economic growth relations and the determining factors of the energy demand in SSA. Some econometric relations are tested. The second part analyzes the mechanisms generated by petroleum shocks and counter-shocks, and stresses first on the transfers induced by these fluctuations. Then, it presents some macro-economical models which try to integrate the effects of a petroleum shock and makes some calculations based on a decomposition of imports and exports global and partial coefficients. Some important conclusions are inferred from this study: 1 - the second petroleum shock strikes more seriously the oil importing SSA countries because they do not benefit from a favorable international context, like during the first shock (also because the second shock is accompanied by a dollar shock); 2 - the absence of symmetry in oil shocks-counter-shocks; 3 - the crisis of SSA countries is not only of petroleum origin but is also linked with the drop of the export incomes (which itself is partially explained by the impact of petroleum shocks on the industrialized economies), with their bad insertion in the world economy, and with unsuitable domestic economies. The third part proposes some solutions to attenuate the energy and economical difficulties of these countries. It is necessary to implement an energy planning mainly based on the mastery of the demand and on a better management of local resources. The policies of

  18. Antenatal syphilis screening using point-of-care testing in Sub-Saharan African countries: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Kuznik

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Untreated syphilis in pregnancy is associated with adverse clinical outcomes for the infant. Most syphilis infections occur in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, where coverage of antenatal screening for syphilis is inadequate. Recently introduced point-of-care syphilis tests have high accuracy and demonstrate potential to increase coverage of antenatal screening. However, country-specific cost-effectiveness data for these tests are limited. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and budget impact of antenatal syphilis screening for 43 countries in SSA and estimate the impact of universal screening on stillbirths, neonatal deaths, congenital syphilis, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs averted.The decision analytic model reflected the perspective of the national health care system and was based on the sensitivity (86% and specificity (99% reported for the immunochromatographic strip (ICS test. Clinical outcomes of infants born to syphilis-infected mothers on the end points of stillbirth, neonatal death, and congenital syphilis were obtained from published sources. Treatment was assumed to consist of three injections of benzathine penicillin. Country-specific inputs included the antenatal prevalence of syphilis, annual number of live births, proportion of women with at least one antenatal care visit, per capita gross national income, and estimated hourly nurse wages. In all 43 sub-Saharan African countries analyzed, syphilis screening is highly cost-effective, with an average cost/DALY averted of US$11 (range: US$2-US$48. Screening remains highly cost-effective even if the average prevalence falls from the current rate of 3.1% (range: 0.6%-14.0% to 0.038% (range: 0.002%-0.113%. Universal antenatal screening of pregnant women in clinics may reduce the annual number of stillbirths by up to 64,000, neonatal deaths by up to 25,000, and annual incidence of congenital syphilis by up to 32,000, and avert up to 2.6 million

  19. Genospecies and virulence factors of Aeromonas species in different sources in a North African country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalifa Sifaw Ghenghesh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aeromonads of medical importance have been reported from numerous clinical, food, and water sources, but identification of genospecies and virulence factors of Aeromonas species from countries in North Africa and the Middle East are few. Methods: In total 99 Aeromonas species isolates from different sources (diarrheal children [n=23], non-diarrheal children [n=16], untreated drinking water from wells [n=32], and chicken carcasses [n=28] in Tripoli, Libya, were included in the present investigation. Genus identification was confirmed by biochemical analysis, and genospecies were determined using a combination of 16S rDNA variable region and gyrB sequence analysis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used to detect genes encoding toxins from 52 of the isolates. Results: We identified 44 isolates (44% as A. hydrophila (3 [3.0%] subspecies anaerogenes, 23 [23%] subspecies dhakensis, and 18 [18%] subspecies ranae; 27 isolates (27% as A. veronii; 23 isolates (23% as A. caviae; and 5 isolates (5.0% as other genospecies. The genes encoding aerolysin (aer, cytolytic enterotoxin (act, and A. hydrophila isolate SSU enterotoxin (ast were detected in 45 (87%, 4 (7.7%, and 9 (17% of the 52 isolates tested, respectively. The gene encoding an extracellular lipase (alt was not detected. Conclusion: The majority of aeromonads from Libya fall within three genospecies (i.e. A. hydrophila, A. veronii, and A. caviae, and genes coding for toxin production are common among them.

  20. Deforestation and child diet diversity: A geospatial analysis of 15 Sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galway, Lindsay P; Acharya, Yubraj; Jones, Andrew D

    2018-05-01

    Deforestation worldwide could have important consequences for diet quality and human nutrition given the numerous ecosystem services that are provided by forests and biodiverse landscapes. Yet, empirical research assessing the links between deforestation and diets is lacking. In this study, we examined the association between deforestation and diet diversity among children using geolocated Demographic and Health Survey data for 33,777 children across 15 countries of sub-Saharan Africa coupled with remotely-sensed data on forest cover loss. Deforestation was negatively associated with diet diversity (regression coefficient (95% CI): - 0.47 (- 0.76, - 0.18)), as well as recent consumption of legumes and nuts, flesh foods, and fruits and vegetables among children aged 6 months to 24 months. Regionally, these trends were statistically significant only in the West Africa region. This hypothesis-generating research adds to the growing body of evidence that forests and forest-based ecosystems are associated with diet quality and nutrition and provides support for future studies that examine mechanisms linking forest loss and human nutrition. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Lessons learned from early implementation of option B+: the Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation experience in 11 African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Mary Pat; Mattingly, Meghan; Giphart, Anja; van de Ven, Roland; Chouraya, Caspian; Walakira, Moses; Boon, Alexandre; Mikusova, Silvia; Simonds, R J

    2014-12-01

    "Option B+" is a World Health Organization-recommended approach to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission whereby all HIV-positive pregnant and lactating women initiate lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART). This review of early Option B+ implementation experience is intended to inform Ministries of Health and others involved in implementing Option B+. This implementation science study analyzed data from 11 African countries supported by the Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation (EGPAF) to describe early experience implementing Option B+. Data are from 4 sources: (1) national guidelines for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission and Option B+ implementation plans, (2) aggregated service delivery data between January 2013 and March 2014 from EGPAF-supported sites, (3) field visits to Option B+ implementation sites, and (4) relevant EGPAF research, quality improvement, and evaluation studies. Rapid adoption of Option B+ led to large increases in percentage of HIV-positive pregnant women accessing ART in antenatal care. By the end of 2013, most programs reached at least 50% of HIV-positive women in antenatal care with ART, even in countries using a phased approach to implementation. Scaling up Option B+ through integrating ART in maternal and child health settings has required expansion of the workforce, and task shifting to allow nurse-led ART initiation has created staffing pressure on lower-level cadres for counseling and community follow-up. Complex data collection needs may be impairing data quality. Early experiences with Option B+ implementation demonstrate promise. Continued program evaluation is needed, as is specific attention to counseling and support around initiation of lifetime ART in the context of pregnancy and lactation.

  2. A review of visceral leishmaniasis during the conflict in South Sudan and the consequences for East African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Salem, Waleed; Herricks, Jennifer R; Hotez, Peter J

    2016-08-22

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), caused predominantly by Leishmania donovani and transmitted by both Phlebotomus orientalis and Phlebotomus martini, is highly endemic in East Africa where approximately 30 thousands VL cases are reported annually. The largest numbers of cases are found in Sudan - where Phlebotomus orientalis proliferate in Acacia forests especially on Sudan's eastern border with Ethiopia, followed by South Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya and Uganda. Long-standing civil war and unrest is a dominant determinant of VL in East African countries. Here we attempt to identify the correlation between VL epidemics and civil unrest. In this review, literature published between 1955 and 2016 have been gathered from MSF, UNICEF, OCHA, UNHCR, PubMed and Google Scholar to analyse the correlation between conflict and human suffering from VL, which is especially apparent in South Sudan. Waves of forced migration as a consequence of civil wars between 1983 and 2005 have resulted in massive and lethal epidemics in southern Sudan. Following a comprehensive peace agreement, but especially with increased allocation of resources for disease treatment and prevention in 2011, cases of VL declined reaching the lowest levels after South Sudan declared independence. However, in the latest epidemic that began in 2014 after the onset of a civil war in South Sudan, more than 1.5 million displaced refugees have migrated internally to states highly endemic for VL, while 800,000 have fled to neighboring countries. We find a strong relationship between civil unrest and VL epidemics which tend to occur among immunologically naïve migrants entering VL-endemic areas and when Leishmania-infected individuals migrate to new areas and establish additional foci of disease. Further complicating factors in East Africa's VL epidemics include severe lack of access to diagnosis and treatment, HIV/AIDS co-infection, food insecurity and malnutrition. Moreover, cases of post-kala-azar dermal

  3. Women's views on consent, counseling and confidentiality in PMTCT: a mixed-methods study in four African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardon, Anita; Vernooij, Eva; Bongololo-Mbera, Grace; Cherutich, Peter; Desclaux, Alice; Kyaddondo, David; Ky-Zerbo, Odette; Neuman, Melissa; Wanyenze, Rhoda; Obermeyer, Carla

    2012-01-11

    Ambitious UN goals to reduce the mother-to-child transmission of HIV have not been met in much of Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper focuses on the quality of information provision and counseling and disclosure patterns in Burkina Faso, Kenya, Malawi and Uganda to identify how services can be improved to enable better PMTCT outcomes. Our mixed-methods study draws on data obtained through: (1) the MATCH (Multi-country African Testing and Counseling for HIV) study's main survey, conducted in 2008-09 among clients (N = 408) and providers at health facilities offering HIV Testing and Counseling (HTC) services; 2) semi-structured interviews with a sub-set of 63 HIV-positive women on their experiences of stigma, disclosure, post-test counseling and access to follow-up psycho-social support; (3) in-depth interviews with key informants and PMTCT healthcare workers; and (4) document study of national PMTCT policies and guidelines. We quantitatively examined differences in the quality of counseling by country and by HIV status using Fisher's exact tests. The majority of pregnant women attending antenatal care (80-90%) report that they were explained the meaning of the tests, explained how HIV can be transmitted, given advice on prevention, encouraged to refer their partners for testing, and given time to ask questions. Our qualitative findings reveal that some women found testing regimes to be coercive, while disclosure remains highly problematic. 79% of HIV-positive pregnant women reported that they generally keep their status secret; only 37% had disclosed to their husband. To achieve better PMTCT outcomes, the strategy of testing women in antenatal care (perceived as an exclusively female domain) when they are already pregnant needs to be rethought. When scaling up HIV testing programs, it is particularly important that issues of partner disclosure are taken seriously.

  4. Women's views on consent, counseling and confidentiality in PMTCT: a mixed-methods study in four African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardon Anita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ambitious UN goals to reduce the mother-to-child transmission of HIV have not been met in much of Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper focuses on the quality of information provision and counseling and disclosure patterns in Burkina Faso, Kenya, Malawi and Uganda to identify how services can be improved to enable better PMTCT outcomes. Methods Our mixed-methods study draws on data obtained through: (1 the MATCH (Multi-country African Testing and Counseling for HIV study's main survey, conducted in 2008-09 among clients (N = 408 and providers at health facilities offering HIV Testing and Counseling (HTC services; 2 semi-structured interviews with a sub-set of 63 HIV-positive women on their experiences of stigma, disclosure, post-test counseling and access to follow-up psycho-social support; (3 in-depth interviews with key informants and PMTCT healthcare workers; and (4 document study of national PMTCT policies and guidelines. We quantitatively examined differences in the quality of counseling by country and by HIV status using Fisher's exact tests. Results The majority of pregnant women attending antenatal care (80-90% report that they were explained the meaning of the tests, explained how HIV can be transmitted, given advice on prevention, encouraged to refer their partners for testing, and given time to ask questions. Our qualitative findings reveal that some women found testing regimes to be coercive, while disclosure remains highly problematic. 79% of HIV-positive pregnant women reported that they generally keep their status secret; only 37% had disclosed to their husband. Conclusion To achieve better PMTCT outcomes, the strategy of testing women in antenatal care (perceived as an exclusively female domain when they are already pregnant needs to be rethought. When scaling up HIV testing programs, it is particularly important that issues of partner disclosure are taken seriously.

  5. The South African Personality Inventory (SAPI): a culture-informed instrument for the country's main ethnocultural groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetvadjiev, Velichko H; Meiring, Deon; van de Vijver, Fons J R; Nel, J Alewyn; Hill, Carin

    2015-09-01

    We present the development and the underlying structure of a personality inventory for the main ethnocultural groups of South Africa, using an emic-etic approach. The South African Personality Inventory (SAPI) was developed based on an extensive qualitative study of the implicit personality conceptions in the country's 11 official languages (Nel et al., 2012). Items were generated and selected (to a final set of 146) with a continuous focus on cultural adequacy and translatability. Students and community adults (671 Blacks, 198 Coloreds, 104 Indians, and 391 Whites) completed the inventory. A 6-dimensional structure (comprising a positive and a negative Social-Relational factor, Neuroticism, Extraversion, Conscientiousness, and Openness) was equivalent across groups and replicated in an independent sample of 139 Black and 270 White students. The SAPI correlated highly overall with impression-management aspects, but lower with lying aspects of social desirability. The SAPI social-relational factors were distinguishable from the Big Five in a joint factor analysis; the multiple correlations with the Big Five were .64 (positive) and .51 (negative social-relational). Implications and suggestions for emic-etic instrument and model development are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Validation of a French adaptation of the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire among torture survivors from sub-Saharan African countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fouchier, Capucine; Blanchet, Alain; Hopkins, William; Bui, Eric; Ait-Aoudia, Malik; Jehel, Louis

    2012-01-01

    Background To date no validated instrument in the French language exists to screen for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in survivors of torture and organized violence. Objective The aim of this study is to adapt and validate the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ) to this population. Method The adapted version was administered to 52 French-speaking torture survivors, originally from sub-Saharan African countries, receiving psychological treatment in specialized treatment centers. A structured clinical interview for DSM was also conducted in order to assess if they met criteria for PTSD. Results Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the HTQ Part 4 was adequate (0.95). Criterion validity was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis that generated good classification accuracy for PTSD (0.83). At the original cut-off score of 2.5, the HTQ demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity (0.87 and 0.73, respectively). Conclusion Results support the reliability and validity of the French version of the HTQ. PMID:23233870

  7. Testing the relationships between energy consumption, CO2 emissions, and economic growth in 24 African countries: a panel ARDL approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asongu, Simplice; El Montasser, Ghassen; Toumi, Hassen

    2016-04-01

    This study complements existing literature by examining the nexus between energy consumption (EC), CO2 emissions (CE), and economic growth (GDP; gross domestic product) in 24 African countries using a panel autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach. The following findings are established. First, there is a long-run relationship between EC, CE, and GDP. Second, a long-term effect from CE to GDP and EC is apparent, with reciprocal paths. Third, the error correction mechanisms are consistently stable. However, in cases of disequilibrium, only EC can be significantly adjusted to its long-run relationship. Fourth, there is a long-run causality running from GDP and CE to EC. Fifth, we find causality running from either CE or both CE and EC to GDP, and inverse causal paths are observable. Causality from EC to GDP is not strong, which supports the conservative hypothesis. Sixth, the causal direction from EC to GDP remains unobservable in the short term. By contrast, the opposite path is observable. There are also no short-run causalities from GDP, or EC, or EC, and GDP to EC. Policy implications are discussed.

  8. Validation of a French adaptation of the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire among torture survivors from sub-Saharan African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capucine de Fouchier

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: To date no validated instrument in the French language exists to screen for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD in survivors of torture and organized violence. Objective: The aim of this study is to adapt and validate the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ to this population. Method: The adapted version was administered to 52 French-speaking torture survivors, originally from sub-Saharan African countries, receiving psychological treatment in specialized treatment centers. A structured clinical interview for DSM was also conducted in order to assess if they met criteria for PTSD. Results: Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the HTQ Part 4 was adequate (0.95. Criterion validity was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis that generated good classification accuracy for PTSD (0.83. At the original cut-off score of 2.5, the HTQ demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity (0.87 and 0.73, respectively. Conclusion: Results support the reliability and validity of the French version of the HTQ.

  9. Assessing public and private sector contributions in reproductive health financing and utilization for six sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ha; Snider, Jeremy; Ravishankar, Nirmala; Magvanjav, Oyunbileg

    2011-05-01

    The present study provides evidence to support enhanced attention to reproductive health and comprehensive measures to increase access to quality reproductive health services. We compare and contrast the financing and utilization of reproductive health services in six sub-Saharan African countries using data from National Health Accounts and Demographic and Health Surveys. Spending on reproductive health in 2006 ranged from US$4 per woman of reproductive age in Ethiopia to US$17 in Uganda. These are below the necessary level for assuring adequate services given that an internationally recommended spending level for family planning alone was US$16 for 2006. Moreover, reproductive health spending shows signs of decline in tandem with insufficient improvement in service utilization. Public providers played a predominant role in antenatal and delivery care for institutional births, but home deliveries with unqualified attendants dominated. The private sector was a major supplier of condoms, oral pills and IUDs. Private clinics, pharmacies and drug vendors were important sources of STI treatment. The findings highlight the need to commit greatly increased funding for reproductive health services as well as more policy attention to the contribution of public, private and informal providers and the role of collaboration among them to expand access to services for under-served populations. Copyright © 2011 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Socioeconomic development as a determinant of the levels of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in the inhabitants of Western and Central African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzardo, Octavio P; Boada, Luis D; Carranza, Cristina; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Valerón, Pilar F; Zumbado, Manuel; Camacho, María; Arellano, José Luis Pérez

    2014-11-01

    Several studies of environmental samples indicate that the levels of many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are increasing in Africa, but few studies have been conducted in humans. Simultaneously, many African countries are experiencing a rapid economic growth and implementing information and communication technologies (ICT). These changes have generated high amounts of electronic waste (e-waste) that have not been adequately managed. We tested the hypothesis that the current levels of two main classes of POPs in Western and Central African countries are affected by the degree of socioeconomic development. We measured the levels of 36 POPs in the serum of recent immigrants (N=575) who came from 19 Sub-Saharan countries to the Canary Islands (Spain). We performed statistical analyses on their anthropometric and socioeconomic data. High median levels of POPs were found in the overall sample, with differences among the countries. Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels increased with age. People from low-income countries had significantly higher OCP levels and much lower PCB levels than those from high-income countries. We found a significant association between the implementation of ICT and PCB contamination. Immigrants from the countries with a high volume of imports of second-hand electronic equipment had higher PCB levels. The economic development of Africa and the e-waste generation have directly affected the levels of POPs. The POP legacies of these African populations most likely are due to the inappropriate management of the POPs' residues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparisons of intensity-duration patterns of physical activity in the US, Jamaica and 3 African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, Lara R; Bovet, Pascal; Forrester, Terrence E; Lambert, Estelle V; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A; Shoham, David; Kroff, Jacolene; Cao, Guichan; Cooper, Richard S; Brage, Soren; Ekelund, Ulf; Luke, Amy

    2014-08-27

    This difference in how populations living in low-, middle or upper-income countries accumulate daily PA, i.e. patterns and intensity, is an important part in addressing the global PA movement. We sought to characterize objective PA in 2,500 participants spanning the epidemiologic transition. The Modeling the Epidemiologic Transition Study (METS) is a longitudinal study, in 5 countries. METS seeks to define the association between physical activity (PA), obesity and CVD risk in populations of African origin: Ghana (GH), South Africa (SA), Seychelles (SEY), Jamaica (JA) and the US (suburban Chicago). Baseline measurements of objective PA, SES, anthropometrics and body composition, were completed on 2,500 men and women, aged 25-45 years. Moderate and vigorous PA (MVPA, min/d) on week and weekend days was explored ecologically, by adiposity status and manual labor. Among the men, obesity prevalence reflected the level of economic transition and was lowest in GH (1.7%) and SA (4.8%) and highest in the US (41%). SA (55%) and US (65%) women had the highest levels of obesity, compared to only 16% in GH. More men and women in developing countries engaged in manual labor and this was reflected by an almost doubling of measured MPVA among the men in GH (45 min/d) and SA (47 min/d) compared to only 28 min/d in the US. Women in GH (25 min/d), SA (21 min/d), JA (20 min/d) and SEY (20 min/d) accumulated significantly more MPVA than women in the US (14 min/d), yet this difference was not reflected by differences in BMI between SA, JA, SEY and US. Moderate PA constituted the bulk of the PA, with no study populations except SA men accumulating > 5 min/d of vigorous PA. Among the women, no sites accumulated >2 min/d of vigorous PA. Overweight/obese men were 22% less likely to engage in manual occupations. While there is some association for PA with obesity, this relationship is inconsistent across the epidemiologic transition and suggests that PA policy recommendations should be

  12. African Journals Online: Central African Republic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Central African Republic. Home > African Journals Online: Central African Republic. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This ...

  13. Effects of capital inflows on emerging market economies : How FDI from Chinese investors impacts on growth of Sub-Saharan African countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Mattila, Tuulia

    2017-01-01

    Even though the implications of foreign direct investment (FDI) have been studied greatly, only a small part have focused on Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). With young and relatively talented workforce, SSA will provide enormous opportunities for multinationals entering the region. The purpose of this research is to examine whether FDI from China has a significant impact on economic development in Sub-Saharan African countries. In addition, it identifies the difference between the motivations o...

  14. How students perceive medical competences: a cross-cultural study between the medical course in Portugal and African Portuguese speaking countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Joselina; Severo, Milton; Fresta, Mário; Ismail, Mamudo; Ferreira, Maria Amélia; Barros, Henrique

    2011-05-25

    A global effort has been made in the last years to establish a set of core competences that define the essential professional competence of a physician. Regardless of the environment, culture or medical education conditions, a set of core competences is required for medical practice worldwide. Evaluation of educational program is always needed to assure the best training for medical students and ultimately best care for patients. The aim of this study was to determine in what extent medical students in Portugal and Portuguese speaking African countries, felt they have acquired the core competences to start their clinical practice. For this reason, it was created a measurement tool to evaluate self-perceived competences, in different domains, across Portuguese and Portuguese-speaking African medical schools. The information was collected through a questionnaire that defines the knowledge, attitudes and skills that future doctors should acquire. The Cronbach's Alpha and Principal Components Analysis (PCA) were used to evaluate the reliability of the questionnaire. In order to remove possible confounding effect, individual scores were standardized by country. The order of the domain's scores was similar between countries. After standardization, Personal Attitudes and Professional Behavior showed median scores above the country global median and Knowledge alone showed median score below the country global median. In Portugal, Clinical Skills showed score below the global median. In Angola, Clinical Skills and General Skills showed a similar result. There were only significant differences between countries in Personal Attitudes (p speaking African medical schools was confirmed. Students have perceived their level of competence in personal attitudes in a high level and in opposite, knowledge and clinical skills with some weaknesses.

  15. Does a wife's education influence spousal agreement on approval of family planning?: Random-effects Modeling using data from two West African Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mian; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Rogers, Laurencia

    2014-05-01

    Spousal approval of family planning is critical for contraceptive use. Both contraceptive use rates and women's education are low in many West-African countries and this study examines the role of wives' education in spousal agreement on approval of family planning in two sub-Saharan West African countries. We used couples' data from Demographic Health Surveys in Senegal and in Niger, conducted in 2005 and 2006, respectively. Multiple logistic regression results using multilevel modeling show that the odds of spousal agreement on approval of family planning were slightly over three times [OR: 3.16; 95% CI: 1.32 to 7.57] in Senegal and were about three times [OR: 3.07; 95% CI: 1.64 to 5.76] in Niger higher for women with more than primary education. Findings suggest that improvement in women's education could lead to spousal agreement on approval of family planning, which may lead to use of family planning in sub-Saharan African countries.

  16. Determinants of Early Introduction of Solid, Semi-Solid or Soft Foods among Infants Aged 3–5 Months in Four Anglophone West African Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abukari I. Issaka

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to explore and identify factors associated with the practice of early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods among infants aged 3–5 months in four Anglophone West African countries. Data sources for the analyses were the latest Demographic and Health Survey datasets of the 4 countries, namely Ghana (GDHS, 2008, Liberia (LDHS, 2007, Nigeria (NDHS, 2013 and Sierra Leone (SLDHS, 2008. Multiple logistic regression methods were used to analyze the factors associated with early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods among infants aged 3–5 months, using individual-, household- and community-level determinants. The sample consisted of 2447 infants aged 3–5 months from four Anglophone West African countries: 166 in Ghana, 263 in Liberia, 1658 in Nigeria and 360 in Sierra Leone. Multivariable analyses revealed the individual factors associated with early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods in these countries. These included increased infant’s age, diarrhea, acute respiratory infection and newborns perceived to be small by their mothers. Other predictors of early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods were: mothers with no schooling, young mothers and fathers who worked in an agricultural industry. Public health interventions to improve exclusive breastfeeding practices by discouraging early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods are needed in all 4 countries, targeting especially mothers at risk of introducing solid foods to their infants early.

  17. Update on the Risk of Introduction of African Swine Fever by Wild Boar into Disease-Free European Union Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, J; Rodríguez, A; Iglesias, I; Muñoz, M J; Jurado, C; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M; de la Torre, A

    2017-10-01

    Despite efforts to prevent the appearance and spread of African swine fever (ASF) in the European Union, several Member States are now affected (Lithuania, Poland, Latvia and Estonia). Disease appearance in 2014 was associated with multiple entrances linked to wild boar movement from endemic areas (EFSA Journal, 8, 2015, 1556), but the risk of new introductions remains high (Gallardo et al., Porcine Health Management, 1, and 21) as ASF continues to be active in endemic countries (Russian Federation, Belarus and Ukraine). Since 2014, the number of ASF notifications has increased substantially, particularly in wild boar (WB), in parallel with slow but constant geographical advance of the disease. This situation suggests a real risk of further disease spread into other Member States, posing a great threat to pig production in the EU. Following the principles of the risk-based veterinary surveillance, this article applies a methodology developed by De la Torre et al. (Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 62, and 272) to assess the relative risk of new introductions of ASF by natural movements of WB according to the current epidemiological situation. This update incorporates the most recent available data and an improved version of the most important risk estimator: an optimized cartographic tool of WB distribution to analyse wild boar suitable habitat. The highest relative risk values were estimated for Slovakia (5) and Romania (5), followed by Finland (4), Czech Republic (3) and Germany (3). Relative risk for Romania and Finland is associated mainly with disease entrance from endemic areas such as the Russian Federation and Ukraine, where the disease is currently spreading; relative risk for Germany and Czech Republic is associated mainly with the potential progress of the disease through the EU, and relative risk for Slovakia is associated with both pathways. WB habitat is the most important risk estimator, whereas WB density is the least significant, suggesting

  18. Self-reported drunkenness among adolescents in four sub-Saharan African countries: associations with adverse childhood experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crichton Joanna

    2010-06-01

    adverse events experienced and the proportion reporting drunkenness. Conclusions We find an association between experience of adverse childhood events and drunkenness among adolescents in four sub-Saharan African countries. The complex impacts of adverse childhood experiences on young people's development and behavior may have an important bearing on the effectiveness of interventions geared at reducing alcohol dependence among the youth.

  19. Associations between mode of HIV testing and consent, confidentiality, and referral: a comparative analysis in four African countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Makhlouf Obermeyer

    Full Text Available Recommendations about scaling up HIV testing and counseling highlight the need to provide key services and to protect clients' rights, but it is unclear to what extent different modes of testing differ in this respect. This paper examines whether practices regarding consent, confidentiality, and referral vary depending on whether testing is provided through voluntary counseling and testing (VCT or provider-initiated testing.The MATCH (Multi-Country African Testing and Counseling for HIV study was carried out in Burkina Faso, Kenya, Malawi, and Uganda. Surveys were conducted at selected facilities. We defined eight outcome measures related to pre- and post-test counseling, consent, confidentiality, satisfactory interactions with providers, and (for HIV-positive respondents referral for care. These were compared across three types of facilities: integrated facilities, where testing is provided along with medical care; stand-alone VCT facilities; and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT facilities, where testing is part of PMTCT services. Tests of bivariate associations and modified Poisson regression were used to assess significance and estimate the unadjusted and adjusted associations between modes of testing and outcome measures. In total, 2,116 respondents tested in 2007 or later reported on their testing experience. High percentages of clients across countries and modes of testing reported receiving recommended services and being satisfied. In the unadjusted analyses, integrated testers were less likely to meet with a counselor before testing (83% compared with 95% of VCT testers; p<0.001, but those who had a pre-test meeting were more likely to have completed consent procedures (89% compared with 83% among VCT testers; p<0.001 and pre-test counseling (78% compared with 73% among VCT testers; p = 0.015. Both integrated and PMTCT testers were more likely to receive complete post-test counseling than were VCT testers (59% among

  20. Associations between mode of HIV testing and consent, confidentiality, and referral: a comparative analysis in four African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf; Neuman, Melissa; Desclaux, Alice; Wanyenze, Rhoda; Ky-Zerbo, Odette; Cherutich, Peter; Namakhoma, Ireen; Hardon, Anita

    2012-01-01

    Recommendations about scaling up HIV testing and counseling highlight the need to provide key services and to protect clients' rights, but it is unclear to what extent different modes of testing differ in this respect. This paper examines whether practices regarding consent, confidentiality, and referral vary depending on whether testing is provided through voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) or provider-initiated testing. The MATCH (Multi-Country African Testing and Counseling for HIV) study was carried out in Burkina Faso, Kenya, Malawi, and Uganda. Surveys were conducted at selected facilities. We defined eight outcome measures related to pre- and post-test counseling, consent, confidentiality, satisfactory interactions with providers, and (for HIV-positive respondents) referral for care. These were compared across three types of facilities: integrated facilities, where testing is provided along with medical care; stand-alone VCT facilities; and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) facilities, where testing is part of PMTCT services. Tests of bivariate associations and modified Poisson regression were used to assess significance and estimate the unadjusted and adjusted associations between modes of testing and outcome measures. In total, 2,116 respondents tested in 2007 or later reported on their testing experience. High percentages of clients across countries and modes of testing reported receiving recommended services and being satisfied. In the unadjusted analyses, integrated testers were less likely to meet with a counselor before testing (83% compared with 95% of VCT testers; p<0.001), but those who had a pre-test meeting were more likely to have completed consent procedures (89% compared with 83% among VCT testers; p<0.001) and pre-test counseling (78% compared with 73% among VCT testers; p = 0.015). Both integrated and PMTCT testers were more likely to receive complete post-test counseling than were VCT testers (59% among both PMTCT

  1. Medical ethics in sub-Sahara Africa: closing the gaps.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Ophthalmology, Federal Medical Center, Birnin Kebbi, Nigeria. 2. ... There were significant differences (p<0.05) between the perception of ... consideration of risks versus benefits from particular ..... Health care workers in Africa similar to Asia commu- .... ethics emphasize on the so called “western” perspective.

  2. Regulation of genomic and biobanking research in Africa: a content analysis of ethics guidelines, policies and procedures from 22 African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Jantina; Munung, Syntia Nchangwi; Matimba, Alice; McCurdy, Sheryl; Ouwe Missi Oukem-Boyer, Odile; Staunton, Ciara; Yakubu, Aminu; Tindana, Paulina

    2017-02-02

    The introduction of genomics and biobanking methodologies to the African research context has also introduced novel ways of doing science, based on values of sharing and reuse of data and samples. This shift raises ethical challenges that need to be considered when research is reviewed by ethics committees, relating for instance to broad consent, the feedback of individual genetic findings, and regulation of secondary sample access and use. Yet existing ethics guidelines and regulations in Africa do not successfully regulate research based on sharing, causing confusion about what is allowed, where and when. In order to understand better the ethics regulatory landscape around genomic research and biobanking, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of existing ethics guidelines, policies and other similar sources. We sourced 30 ethics regulatory documents from 22 African countries. We used software that assists with qualitative data analysis to conduct a thematic analysis of these documents. Surprisingly considering how contentious broad consent is in Africa, we found that most countries allow the use of this consent model, with its use banned in only three of the countries we investigated. In a likely response to fears about exploitation, the export of samples outside of the continent is strictly regulated, sometimes in conjunction with regulations around international collaboration. We also found that whilst an essential and critical component of ensuring ethical best practice in genomics research relates to the governance framework that accompanies sample and data sharing, this was most sparingly covered in the guidelines. There is a need for ethics guidelines in African countries to be adapted to the changing science policy landscape, which increasingly supports principles of openness, storage, sharing and secondary use. Current guidelines are not pertinent to the ethical challenges that such a new orientation raises, and therefore fail to provide accurate guidance

  3. Equality in Maternal and Newborn Health: Modelling Geographic Disparities in Utilisation of Care in Five East African Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrine W Ruktanonchai

    Full Text Available Geographic accessibility to health facilities represents a fundamental barrier to utilisation of maternal and newborn health (MNH services, driving historically hidden spatial pockets of localized inequalities. Here, we examine utilisation of MNH care as an emergent property of accessibility, highlighting high-resolution spatial heterogeneity and sub-national inequalities in receiving care before, during, and after delivery throughout five East African countries.We calculated a geographic inaccessibility score to the nearest health facility at 300 x 300 m using a dataset of 9,314 facilities throughout Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. Using Demographic and Health Surveys data, we utilised hierarchical mixed effects logistic regression to examine the odds of: 1 skilled birth attendance, 2 receiving 4+ antenatal care visits at time of delivery, and 3 receiving a postnatal health check-up within 48 hours of delivery. We applied model results onto the accessibility surface to visualise the probabilities of obtaining MNH care at both high-resolution and sub-national levels after adjusting for live births in 2015.Across all outcomes, decreasing wealth and education levels were associated with lower odds of obtaining MNH care. Increasing geographic inaccessibility scores were associated with the strongest effect in lowering odds of obtaining care observed across outcomes, with the widest disparities observed among skilled birth attendance. Specifically, for each increase in the inaccessibility score to the nearest health facility, the odds of having skilled birth attendance at delivery was reduced by over 75% (0.24; CI: 0.19-0.3, while the odds of receiving antenatal care decreased by nearly 25% (0.74; CI: 0.61-0.89 and 40% for obtaining postnatal care (0.58; CI: 0.45-0.75.Overall, these results suggest decreasing accessibility to the nearest health facility significantly deterred utilisation of all maternal health care services. These

  4. Equality in Maternal and Newborn Health: Modelling Geographic Disparities in Utilisation of Care in Five East African Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruktanonchai, Corrine W; Ruktanonchai, Nick W; Nove, Andrea; Lopes, Sofia; Pezzulo, Carla; Bosco, Claudio; Alegana, Victor A; Burgert, Clara R; Ayiko, Rogers; Charles, Andrew Sek; Lambert, Nkurunziza; Msechu, Esther; Kathini, Esther; Matthews, Zoë; Tatem, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Geographic accessibility to health facilities represents a fundamental barrier to utilisation of maternal and newborn health (MNH) services, driving historically hidden spatial pockets of localized inequalities. Here, we examine utilisation of MNH care as an emergent property of accessibility, highlighting high-resolution spatial heterogeneity and sub-national inequalities in receiving care before, during, and after delivery throughout five East African countries. We calculated a geographic inaccessibility score to the nearest health facility at 300 x 300 m using a dataset of 9,314 facilities throughout Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. Using Demographic and Health Surveys data, we utilised hierarchical mixed effects logistic regression to examine the odds of: 1) skilled birth attendance, 2) receiving 4+ antenatal care visits at time of delivery, and 3) receiving a postnatal health check-up within 48 hours of delivery. We applied model results onto the accessibility surface to visualise the probabilities of obtaining MNH care at both high-resolution and sub-national levels after adjusting for live births in 2015. Across all outcomes, decreasing wealth and education levels were associated with lower odds of obtaining MNH care. Increasing geographic inaccessibility scores were associated with the strongest effect in lowering odds of obtaining care observed across outcomes, with the widest disparities observed among skilled birth attendance. Specifically, for each increase in the inaccessibility score to the nearest health facility, the odds of having skilled birth attendance at delivery was reduced by over 75% (0.24; CI: 0.19-0.3), while the odds of receiving antenatal care decreased by nearly 25% (0.74; CI: 0.61-0.89) and 40% for obtaining postnatal care (0.58; CI: 0.45-0.75). Overall, these results suggest decreasing accessibility to the nearest health facility significantly deterred utilisation of all maternal health care services. These results

  5. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other African academics. In partnership with hundreds of journals from all over the continent, AJOL works to change this, so that African-origin research output is available to Africans and ... Featured Country: South Africa, Featured Journal: Ergonomics SA ...

  6. Livestock Ownership Among Rural Households and Child Morbidity and Mortality: An Analysis of Demographic Health Survey Data from 30 Sub-Saharan African Countries (2005-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Maneet; Graham, Jay P; Eisenberg, Joseph N S

    2017-03-01

    AbstractChildren living in homes with livestock may have both an increased risk of enteric infections and improved access to food, and therefore improved nutritional status. Few studies, however, have characterized these relationships in tandem. This study investigated the association between child health and household ownership of livestock. A cross-sectional study was performed using data from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 30 sub-Saharan African countries with 215,971 rural children under 5 years of age from 2005 to 2015. Logistic regression was performed for each country to estimate the relationship between a log 2 increase in the number of livestock owned by the household and three child-health outcomes: 2-week prevalence of diarrhea, stunting, and all-cause mortality. Results for each country were combined using meta-analyses. Most countries (22 of 30) displayed an odds ratio (OR) less than 1 for child stunting associated with livestock (pooled OR = 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.95, 0.99). The results for diarrhea were more even with 14 countries displaying ORs greater than 1 and 10 displaying ORs less than 1. Most countries (22 of 30) displayed an OR greater than 1 for child mortality (pooled OR = 1.04; 95% CI = 1.02, 1.06). All meta-analyses displayed significant heterogeneity by country. Our analysis is consistent with the theory that livestock may have a dual role as protective against stunting, an indicator of chronic malnutrition, and a risk factor for all-cause mortality in children, which may be linked to acute infections. The heterogeneity by country, however, indicates more data are needed on specific household livestock management practices.

  7. Energy-water-food nexus under financial constraint environment: good, the bad, and the ugly sustainability reforms in sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Khalid; Shamsuddin, Sadaf; Ahmad, Mehboob

    2017-05-01

    Environmental sustainability agenda are generally compromised by energy, water, and food production resources, while in the recent waves of global financial crisis, it mediates to increase the intensity of air pollutants, which largely affected the less developing countries due to their ease of environmental regulation policies and lack of optimal utilization of economic resources. Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries are no exception that majorly hit by the recent global financial crisis, which affected the country's natural environment through the channel of unsustainable energy-water-food production. The study employed panel random effect model that addresses the country-specific time-invariant shocks to examine the non-linear relationship between water-energy-food resources and air pollutants in a panel of 19 selected SSA countries, for a period of 2000-2014. The results confirmed the carbon-fossil-methane environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) that turned into inverted U-shaped relationships in a panel of selected SSA countries. Food resources largely affected greenhouse gas (GHG), methane (CH 4 ), and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions while water resource decreases carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), fossil fuel, and CH 4 emissions in a region. Energy efficiency improves air quality indicators while industry value added increases CO 2 emissions, fossil fuel energy, and GHG emissions. Global financial crisis increases the risk of climate change across countries. The study concludes that although SSA countries strive hard to take some "good" initiatives to reduce environmental degradation in a form of improved water and energy sources, however, due to lack of optimal utilization of food resources and global financial constraints, it leads to "the bad" and "the ugly" sustainability reforms in a region.

  8. The Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage and participation by developing countries: A South African perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, David B.

    2014-01-01

    This article contends that it is essential that new entrant countries into the nuclear energy industry have comprehensive nuclear legislation; it is less clear, however, whether new entrant countries find it essential to join any of the various international nuclear liability conventions, as some countries have been slow or resistant to the idea. This article will take a closer look at the potential influencing factors driving membership or non-membership in the CSC by a developing country. First, however, is a discussion of the basic principles of international nuclear third party liability, the CSC itself, developing countries' current participation in the various international nuclear liability conventions and the advantages and disadvantages of the CSC. The author's views regarding participation by a developing country in the CSC will also be presented. (author)

  9. Why sub-Saharan African health workers migrate to European countries that do not actively recruit: a qualitative study post-migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, Annelien; Jirovsky, Elena; Blacklock, Claire; Laxmikanth, Pallavi; Moosa, Shabir; De Maeseneer, Jan; Kutalek, Ruth; Peersman, Wim

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have investigated the migration intentions of sub-Saharan African medical students and health professionals within the context of a legacy of active international recruitment by receiving countries. However, many health workers migrate outside of this recruitment paradigm. This paper aims to explore the reasons for migration of health workers from sub-Saharan Africa to Belgium and Austria; European countries without a history of active recruitment in sub-Saharan Africa. Data were collected using semistructured interviews. Twenty-seven health workers were interviewed about their migration experiences. Included participants were born in sub-Saharan Africa, had trained as health workers in sub-Saharan Africa, and were currently living in Belgium or Austria, though not necessarily currently working as a health professional. Both Austria and Belgium were shown not to be target countries for the health workers, who instead moved there by circumstance, rather than choice. Three principal reasons for migration were reported: 1) educational purposes; 2) political instability or insecurity in their country of origin; and 3) family reunification. In addition, two respondents mentioned medical reasons and, although less explicit, economic factors were also involved in several of the respondents' decision to migrate. These results highlight the importance of the broader economic, social, and political context within which migration decisions are made. Training opportunities proved to be an important factor for migration. A further development and upgrade of primary care might help to counter the common desire to specialize and improve domestic training opportunities.

  10. Ideal Body Size as a Mediator for the Gender-Specific Association Between Socioeconomic Status and Body Mass Index: Evidence From an Upper-Middle-Income Country in the African Region.

    OpenAIRE

    Yepes Maryam; Maurer Jürgen; Stringhini Silvia; Viswanathan Barathi; Gedeon Jude; Bovet Pascal

    2016-01-01

    While obesity continues to rise globally the associations between body size gender and socioeconomic status (SES) seem to vary in different populations and little is known on the contribution of perceived ideal body size in the social disparity of obesity in African countries. We examined the gender and socioeconomic patterns of body mass index (BMI) and perceived ideal body size in the Seychelles a middle income small island state in the African region. We also assessed the potential role of...

  11. Decomposition analysis of CO2 emission intensity between oil-producing and non-oil-producing sub-Saharan African countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebohon, Obas John; Ikeme, Anthony Jekwu

    2006-01-01

    The need to decompose CO 2 emission intensity is predicated upon the need for effective climate change mitigation and adaptation policies. Such analysis enables key variables that instigate CO 2 emission intensity to be identified while at the same time providing opportunities to verify the mitigation and adaptation capacities of countries. However, most CO 2 decomposition analysis has been conducted for the developed economies and little attention has been paid to sub-Saharan Africa. The need for such an analysis for SSA is overwhelming for several reasons. Firstly, the region is amongst the most vulnerable to climate change. Secondly, there are disparities in the amount and composition of energy consumption and the levels of economic growth and development in the region. Thus, a decomposition analysis of CO 2 emission intensity for SSA affords the opportunity to identify key influencing variables and to see how they compare among countries in the region. Also, attempts have been made to distinguish between oil and non-oil-producing SSA countries. To this effect a comparative static analysis of CO 2 emission intensity for oil-producing and non oil-producing SSA countries for the periods 1971-1998 has been undertaken, using the refined Laspeyres decomposition model. Our analysis confirms the findings for other regions that CO 2 emission intensity is attributable to energy consumption intensity, CO 2 emission coefficient of energy types and economic structure. Particularly, CO 2 emission coefficient of energy use was found to exercise the most influence on CO 2 emission intensity for both oil and non-oil-producing sub-Saharan African countries in the first sub-interval period of our investigation from 1971-1981. In the second subinterval of 1981-1991, energy intensity and structural effect were the two major influencing factors on emission intensity for the two groups of countries. However, energy intensity effect had the most pronounced impact on CO 2 emission

  12. A Systematic Review of Tobacco Smoking Prevalence and Description of Tobacco Control Strategies in Sub-Saharan African Countries; 2007 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brathwaite, Rachel; Addo, Juliet; Smeeth, Liam; Lock, Karen

    2015-01-01

    To systematically review current smoking prevalence among adults in sub-Saharan Africa from 2007 to May 2014 and to describe the context of tobacco control strategies in these countries. Five databases, Medline, Embase, Africa-wide Information, Cinahl Plus, and Global Health were searched using a systematic search strategy. There were no language restrictions. 26 included studies measured current smoking prevalence in nationally representative adult populations in sub-Saharan African countries. Study details were independently extracted using a standard datasheet. Data on tobacco control policies, taxation and trends in prices were obtained from the Implementation Database of the WHO FCTC website. Studies represented 13 countries. Current smoking prevalence varied widely ranging from 1.8% in Zambia to 25.8% in Sierra Leone. The prevalence of smoking was consistently lower in women compared to men with the widest gender difference observed in Malawi (men 25.9%, women 2.9%). Rwanda had the highest prevalence of women smokers (12.6%) and Ghana had the lowest (0.2%). Rural, urban patterns were inconsistent. Most countries have implemented demand-reduction measures including bans on advertising, and taxation rates but to different extents. Smoking prevalence varied widely across sub-Saharan Africa, even between similar country regions, but was always higher in men. High smoking rates were observed among countries in the eastern and southern regions of Africa, mainly among men in Ethiopia, Malawi, Rwanda, and Zambia and women in Rwanda and rural Zambia. Effective action to reduce smoking across sub-Saharan Africa, particularly targeting population groups at increased risk remains a pressing public health priority.

  13. A Systematic Review of Tobacco Smoking Prevalence and Description of Tobacco Control Strategies in Sub-Saharan African Countries; 2007 to 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Brathwaite

    Full Text Available To systematically review current smoking prevalence among adults in sub-Saharan Africa from 2007 to May 2014 and to describe the context of tobacco control strategies in these countries.Five databases, Medline, Embase, Africa-wide Information, Cinahl Plus, and Global Health were searched using a systematic search strategy. There were no language restrictions.26 included studies measured current smoking prevalence in nationally representative adult populations in sub-Saharan African countries.Study details were independently extracted using a standard datasheet. Data on tobacco control policies, taxation and trends in prices were obtained from the Implementation Database of the WHO FCTC website.Studies represented 13 countries. Current smoking prevalence varied widely ranging from 1.8% in Zambia to 25.8% in Sierra Leone. The prevalence of smoking was consistently lower in women compared to men with the widest gender difference observed in Malawi (men 25.9%, women 2.9%. Rwanda had the highest prevalence of women smokers (12.6% and Ghana had the lowest (0.2%. Rural, urban patterns were inconsistent. Most countries have implemented demand-reduction measures including bans on advertising, and taxation rates but to different extents.Smoking prevalence varied widely across sub-Saharan Africa, even between similar country regions, but was always higher in men. High smoking rates were observed among countries in the eastern and southern regions of Africa, mainly among men in Ethiopia, Malawi, Rwanda, and Zambia and women in Rwanda and rural Zambia. Effective action to reduce smoking across sub-Saharan Africa, particularly targeting population groups at increased risk remains a pressing public health priority.

  14. HIV/AIDS National Strategic Plans of Sub-Saharan African countries: an analysis for gender equality and sex-disaggregated HIV targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Jennifer; Sharp, Alana; Cooper, Bergen; Roose-Snyder, Beirne; Blumenthal, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract National Strategic Plans (NSPs) for HIV/AIDS are country planning documents that set priorities for programmes and services, including a set of targets to quantify progress toward national and international goals. The inclusion of sex-disaggregated targets and targets to combat gender inequality is important given the high disease burden among young women and adolescent girls in Sub-Saharan Africa, yet no comprehensive gender-focused analysis of NSP targets has been performed. This analysis quantitatively evaluates national HIV targets, included in NSPs from eighteen Sub-Saharan African countries, for sex-disaggregation. Additionally, NSP targets aimed at reducing gender-based inequality in health outcomes are compiled and inductively coded to report common themes. On average, in the eighteen countries included in this analysis, 31% of NSP targets include sex-disaggregation (range 0–92%). Three countries disaggregated a majority (>50%) of their targets by sex. Sex-disaggregation in data reporting was more common for targets related to the early phases of the HIV care continuum: 83% of countries included any sex-disaggregated targets for HIV prevention, 56% for testing and linkage to care, 22% for improving antiretroviral treatment coverage, and 11% for retention in treatment. The most common target to reduce gender inequality was to prevent gender-based violence (present in 50% of countries). Other commonly incorporated target areas related to improving women’s access to family planning, human and legal rights, and decision-making power. The inclusion of sex-disaggregated targets in national planning is vital to ensure that programmes make progress for all population groups. Improving the availability and quality of indicators to measure gender inequality, as well as evaluating programme outcomes by sex, is critical to tracking this progress. This analysis reveals an urgent need to set specific and separate targets for men and women in order to achieve

  15. Optimising design and cost-effective implementation of future pan-African dietary studies: a review of existing economic integration and nutritional indicators for scenario-based profiling and clustering of countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aglago, Elom K; Landais, Edwige; Zotor, Francis; Nicolas, Genevieve; Gunter, Marc J; Amuna, Paul; Slimani, Nadia

    2018-02-01

    Most of the African countries are undergoing a complex nutrition and epidemiologic transition associated with a rapid increase in the prevalence of diverse non-communicable diseases. Despite this alarming situation, the still limited and fragmented resources available in Africa impede the implementation of effective action plans to tackle the current and projected diet-disease burden. In order to address these common needs and challenges, the African Union is increasingly supporting continental approaches and strategies as reflected in the launching of the Agenda 2063 and the African regional nutrition strategy 2015-2025, among others. To assure the successful implementation of pan-African nutritional and health initiatives, cost-effective approaches considering similarities/disparities in economy, regional integration, development and nutritional aspects between countries are needed. In the absence of pre-existing models, we reviewed regional economic integration and nutritional indicators (n 13) available in international organisations databases or governmental agencies websites, for fifty-two African countries. These indicators were used to map the countries according to common languages (e.g. Arabic, English, French, Portuguese), development status (e.g. human development index), malnutrition status (e.g. obesity) and diet (e.g. staples predominantly based on either cereals or tubers). The review of the indicators showed that there exist similarities between African countries that can be exploited to benefit the continent with cross-national experiences in order to avoid duplication of efforts in the implementation of future pan-African health studies. In addition, including present and future nutrition surveillance programmes in Africa into national statistical systems might be cost-effective and sustainable in the longer term.

  16. PEPFAR Funding Associated With An Increase In Employment Among Males in Ten Sub-Saharan African Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Zachary; Barofsky, Jeremy; Sood, Neeraj

    2015-06-01

    The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has provided billions of US tax dollars to expand HIV treatment, care, and prevention programs in sub-Saharan Africa. This investment has generated significant health gains, but much less is known about PEPFAR's population-level economic effects. We used a difference-in-differences approach to compare employment trends between ten countries that received a large amount of PEPFAR funding (focus countries) and eleven countries that received little or no funding (control countries). We found that PEPFAR was associated with a 13 percent differential increase in employment among males in focus countries, compared to control countries. However, we observed no change in employment among females. In addition, we found that increasing PEPFAR per capita funding by $100 was associated with a 9.1-percentage-point increase in employment among males. This rise in employment generates economic benefits equal to half of PEPFAR's cost. These findings suggest that PEPFAR's economic impact should be taken into account when making aid allocation decisions. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  17. Secondhand smoke exposure and susceptibility to initiating cigarette smoking among never-smoking students in selected African countries: Findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung A; Palipudi, Krishna M; English, Lorna M; Ramanandraibe, Nivo; Asma, Samira

    2016-10-01

    Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) causes premature death and illness in non-smokers. We examined SHS exposure at home and in public places, as well as susceptibility to initiate cigarette smoking among never cigarette smokers. We used 2006-2011 Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data from 29 African countries (56,967 students). GYTS is a nationally representative, self-administered school-based survey, conducted among students aged 13-15years. Prevalence ratio, estimates and 95% confidence intervals were computed for SHS exposure in the homes and public places separately. The two-sample t-test was used to assess the difference in susceptibility to smoking by SHS exposure among never-smoking students (α=0.05). Among never-smoking students, exposure to SHS at home ranged from 12.7% (Cape Verde) to 44.0% (Senegal). The prevalence ratio (PR) comparing susceptibility to smoking initiation among never smokers exposed to SHS at home to those who were not exposed at home ranged from 1.2 to 2.6. Exposure to SHS in public places ranged from 23.9% (Cape Verde) to 80.4% (Mali). Of the countries being studied, 8 countries showed a significant difference in susceptibility to smoking initiation among never smokers exposed to SHS in public places compared to those not exposed in public places. (PR ranged from 0.5-3.5). In many African countries in the study, a substantial proportion of students who never smoked are exposed to SHS at home and in public places. Majority of never smokers who were exposed to SHS at home and in public places had a higher prevalence of susceptibility to initiate smoking than those that were not exposed to SHS at home and in public places. Adoption and enforcement of smoke-free policies in public places and smoke-free rules at home could substantially contribute to reducing SHS exposure in many of these countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Why is patient safety so hard in low-income countries? A qualitative study of healthcare workers' views in two African hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aveling, Emma-Louise; Kayonga, Yvette; Nega, Ansha; Dixon-Woods, Mary

    2015-02-25

    The views of practitioners at the sharp end of health care provision are now recognised as a valuable source of intelligence that can inform efforts to improve patient safety in high-income countries. Yet despite growing policy emphasis on patient safety in low-income countries, little research examines the views of practitioners in these settings. We aimed to give voice to how healthcare workers in two East African hospitals identify and explain the major obstacles to ensuring the safety of patients in their care. We conducted in-depth, face to face interviews with healthcare workers in two East African hospitals. Our sample included a total of 57 hospital staff, including nurses, physicians, technicians, clinical services staff, administrative staff and hospital managers. Hospital staff in low-income settings offered broadly encompassing and aspirational definitions of patient safety. They identified obstacles to patient safety across three major themes: material context, staffing issues and inter-professional working relationships. Participants distinguished between the proximal influences on patient safety that posed an immediate threat to patient care, and the distal influences that generated the contexts for such hazards. These included contexts of severe material deprivation, but also the impact of relational factors such as teamwork and professional hierarchies. Structures of authority, governance and control that were not optimally aligned with achieving patient safety were widely reported. As in high-income countries, the accounts of healthcare workers in low-income countries provide sophisticated and valuable insights into the challenges of patient safety. Though the impact of resource constraints and weak governance structures are particularly marked in low-income countries, the congruence between accounts of health workers in diverse settings suggest that the origins and solutions to patient safety problems are likely to be similar everywhere and are

  19. Laboratory capacity building for the International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]) in resource-poor countries: the experience of the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masanza, Monica Musenero; Nqobile, Ndlovu; Mukanga, David; Gitta, Sheba Nakacubo

    2010-12-03

    Laboratory is one of the core capacities that countries must develop for the implementation of the International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]) since laboratory services play a major role in all the key processes of detection, assessment, response, notification, and monitoring of events. While developed countries easily adapt their well-organized routine laboratory services, resource-limited countries need considerable capacity building as many gaps still exist. In this paper, we discuss some of the efforts made by the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET) in supporting laboratory capacity development in the Africa region. The efforts range from promoting graduate level training programs to building advanced technical, managerial and leadership skills to in-service short course training for peripheral laboratory staff. A number of specific projects focus on external quality assurance, basic laboratory information systems, strengthening laboratory management towards accreditation, equipment calibration, harmonization of training materials, networking and provision of pre-packaged laboratory kits to support outbreak investigation. Available evidence indicates a positive effect of these efforts on laboratory capacity in the region. However, many opportunities exist, especially to support the roll-out of these projects as well as attending to some additional critical areas such as biosafety and biosecuity. We conclude that AFENET's approach of strengthening national and sub-national systems provide a model that could be adopted in resource-limited settings such as sub-Saharan Africa.

  20. The impact of energy consumption and CO2 emission on the economic growth and financial development in the Sub Saharan African countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-mulali, Usama; Binti Che Sab, Che Normee

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of energy consumption and CO 2 emission on GDP (gross domestic product) growth and the financial development in thirty Sub Saharan African Countries. The panel model was used in this study from the period 1980 to 2008. The results showed that energy consumption had played an important role to increase both economic growth and the financial development in the investigated economies but with the consequence of high po llution. This study recommended that these countries should increase energy productivity by increasing energy efficiency, implementation of energy savings projects, energy conservation, and energy infrastructure outsourcing to achieve its financial development and GDP growth and to increase their investment on energy projects to achieve the full energy potential. -- Highlights: ► The impact of energy consumption, CO 2 emission on GDP and the financial development in the SSA countries was investigated. ► The panel model was implied in this study from the period 1980 to 2008. ► The results show energy consumption increased economic growth and the financial development but with higher pollution.

  1. Amniotic band syndrome (ABS): can something be done during pregnancy in African poor countries? Three cases and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, D B; Nguessan, K L P; Aissi, G; Boni, S

    2014-01-01

    Amniotic band syndrome (ABS) is a fetal congenital malformation, affecting mainly the limbs, but also the craniofacial area and internal organs. Two mains pathogenic mechanisms are proposed in its genesis. Firstly the early amnion rupture (exogenous theory) leading to fibrous bands, which wrap up the fetal body; secondly, the endogenous theory privileges vascular origin, mesoblastic strings not being a causal agent. The authors believe that the second theory explain the occurrence of ABS. The outcome of the disease during pregnancy depends on the gravity of the malformations. Interruption of the pregnancy is usually proposed when diagnosis of severe craniofacial and visceral abnormalities is confirmed. Whereas minor limb defects can be repaired with postnatal surgery. In case of an isolated amniotic band with a constricted limb, in utero lysis of the band can be considered to avoid a natural amputation. In an African country, such treatment is not possible as far as the antenatal diagnosis.

  2. Socioeconomic differential in self-assessment of health and happiness in 5 African countries: Finding from World Value Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesanya A, Oluwafunmilade; Rojas, Bomar Mendez; Darboe, Amadou; Beogo, Idrissa

    2017-01-01

    Factors that contribute to wealth related inequalities in self-rated health (SRH) and happiness remains unclear most especially in sub-Saharan countries (SSA). This study aims to explore and compare socioeconomic differentials in SRH and happiness in five SSA countries. Using the 2010/2014 World Values Survey (WVS), we obtained a sample of 9,869 participants of age 16 and above from five SSA countries (Nigeria, Ghana, South Africa, Rwanda and Zimbabwe). Socioeconomic inequalities were quantified using the concentration index. The contribution of each predictor to concentration index's magnitude was obtained by means of regression based decomposition analysis. Poor SRH ranges from approximately 9% in Nigeria to 20% in Zimbabwe, whereas unhappiness was lower in Rwanda (9.5%) and higher in South Africa (23.3%). Concentration index was negative for both outcomes in all countries, which implies that poor SRH and unhappiness are excessively concentrated among the poorest socioeconomic strata. Although magnitudes differ across countries, however, the major contributor to wealth-related inequality in poor SRH is satisfaction with financial situation whereas for unhappiness the major contributors are level of income and satisfaction with financial situation. This study underscores an association between wealth related inequalities and poor SRH and unhappiness in the context of SSA. Improving equity in health, as suggested by the commission of social determinants of health may be useful in fighting against the unfair distribution of resources. Thus, knowledge about the self-rating of health and happiness can serve as proxy estimates for understanding the distribution of health care access and economic resources needed for well-being in resident countries.

  3. Socioeconomic differential in self-assessment of health and happiness in 5 African countries: Finding from World Value Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwafunmilade Adesanya A

    Full Text Available Factors that contribute to wealth related inequalities in self-rated health (SRH and happiness remains unclear most especially in sub-Saharan countries (SSA. This study aims to explore and compare socioeconomic differentials in SRH and happiness in five SSA countries.Using the 2010/2014 World Values Survey (WVS, we obtained a sample of 9,869 participants of age 16 and above from five SSA countries (Nigeria, Ghana, South Africa, Rwanda and Zimbabwe. Socioeconomic inequalities were quantified using the concentration index. The contribution of each predictor to concentration index's magnitude was obtained by means of regression based decomposition analysis.Poor SRH ranges from approximately 9% in Nigeria to 20% in Zimbabwe, whereas unhappiness was lower in Rwanda (9.5% and higher in South Africa (23.3%. Concentration index was negative for both outcomes in all countries, which implies that poor SRH and unhappiness are excessively concentrated among the poorest socioeconomic strata. Although magnitudes differ across countries, however, the major contributor to wealth-related inequality in poor SRH is satisfaction with financial situation whereas for unhappiness the major contributors are level of income and satisfaction with financial situation.This study underscores an association between wealth related inequalities and poor SRH and unhappiness in the context of SSA. Improving equity in health, as suggested by the commission of social determinants of health may be useful in fighting against the unfair distribution of resources. Thus, knowledge about the self-rating of health and happiness can serve as proxy estimates for understanding the distribution of health care access and economic resources needed for well-being in resident countries.

  4. Evaluating a LARC Expansion Program in 14 Sub-Saharan African Countries: A Service Delivery Model for Meeting FP2020 Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Thoai D; Nuccio, Olivia; Pereira, Shreya K; Footman, Katharine; Reiss, Kate

    2017-09-01

    Objectives In many sub-Saharan African countries, the use of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) is low while unmet need for family planning (FP) remains high. We evaluated the effectiveness of a LARC access expansion initiative in reaching young, less educated, poor, and rural women. Methods Starting in 2008, Marie Stopes International (MSI) has implemented a cross-country expansion intervention to increase access to LARCs through static clinics, mobile outreach units, and social franchising of private sector providers. We analyzed routine service statistics for 2008-2014 and 2014 client exit interview data. Indicators of effectiveness were the number of LARCs provided and the percentages of LARC clients who had not used a modern contraceptive in the last 3 months ("adopters"); switched from a short-term contraceptive to a LARC ("switchers"); were aged <25; lived in extreme poverty; had not completed primary school; lived in rural areas; and reported satisfaction with their overall experience at the facility/site. Results Our annual LARC service distribution increased 1037 % (from 149,881 to over 1.7 million) over 2008-2014. Of 3816 LARC clients interviewed, 46 % were adopters and 46 % switchers; 37 % were aged 15-24, 42 % had not completed primary education, and 56 % lived in a rural location. Satisfaction with services received was rated 4.46 out of 5. Conclusions The effectiveness of the LARC expansion in these 14 sub-Saharan African FP programs demonstrates vast untapped potential for wider use of LARC methods, and suggests that this service delivery model is a plausible way to support FP 2020 goals of reaching those with an unmet need for FP.

  5. Investing in Community-Based Education to Improve the Quality, Quantity, and Retention of Physicians in Three African Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talib, Zohray Moolani; Baingana, Rhona Kezabu; Sagay, Atiene Solomon; Van Schalkwyk, Susan Camille; Mehtsun, Sinit; Kiguli-Malwadde, Elsie

    2014-01-01

    Context The Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) is a $US 130 million program funded by the United States government supporting 13 African medical schools to increase the quantity, quality, and retention of physicians in underserved areas. This paper examines how community-based education (CBE) is evolving at MEPI schools to achieve these goals. Methods We utilized data from the first two years of site visits and surveys to characterize CBE efforts across the MEPI network and provide detailed descriptions of three models of CBE among the MEPI programs. Results There is widespread investment in CBE, with considerable diversity in the goals and characteristics of training activities among MEPI schools. Three examples described here show how schools are strengthening and evaluating different models of CBE to achieve MEPI goals. In Nigeria, students are being sent for clinical rotations to community hospitals to offload the tertiary hospital. In Uganda, the consistency and quality of teaching in CBE is being strengthened by adopting a competency-based curriculum and developing criteria for community sites. At Stellenbosch University in South Africa, students are now offered an elective year-long comprehensive rural immersion experience. Despite the diversity in CBE models, all schools are investing in e-learning and faculty development. Extensive evaluations are planned to examine the impact of CBE strategies on the health workforce and health services. Discussion The MEPI program is stimulating an evolution in CBE among African medical schools to improve the quality, quantity, and retention of physicians. Identifying the strategies within CBE that are reproducible, scalable and optimize outcomes will be instructive for health professions training programs across the continent. PMID:24200732

  6. Training needs for research in health inequities among health and demographic researchers from eight African and Asian countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haafkens, J.; Blomstedt, Y.; Eriksson, M.; Becher, H.; Ramroth, H.; Kinsman, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Health equity is a global policy priority. To support this policy in low and middle income countries, more evidence and analysis of the social determinants of health inequalities is needed. This requires specific know how among researchers. The INDEPTH Training and Research Centres of

  7. Correlates of male circumcision in Eastern and Southern African countries: establishing a baseline prior to VMMC Scale-up.

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    Khai Hoan Tram

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the importance of male circumcision (MC prevalence to HIV prevention efforts in Eastern and Southern Africa, there has been no systematic analysis on the correlates of male circumcision. This analysis identifies correlates of MC in 12 countries in the region with available data. METHODS: Data from the male questionnaire of DHS surveys collected between 2006-2011 in Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe were analyzed. The dependent variable was self-reported male circumcision status. Independent variables included age, education, wealth quintile, place of residence, ethnicity, religion and region. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted separately for each country. RESULTS: MC prevalence ranged from 8.2 percent in Swaziland to 92.2 percent in Ethiopia. Bivariate analyses showed a consistent positive association between age (being older and male circumcision. Education, wealth quintile, and place of residence were either not significantly related or differed in the direction of the relationship by country. Multivariate logistic regression showed three variables consistently associated with MC status: age (being older, religion (being Muslim and ethnicity. DISCUSSION: These data were collected prior to the scale-up of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC programs in 11 of the 12 countries. As the VMMC scale-up intensifies in countries across Eastern and Southern Africa, the correlates of VMMC are likely to change, with (younger age and education emerging as key correlates of VMMC performed in medical settings. The centuries-long tradition among Muslims to circumcise should continue to favor MC among this group. Non-circumcising ethnicities may become more open to MC if promoted as a health practice for decreasing HIV risk.

  8. Prevalence and time trends in overweight and obesity among urban women: an analysis of demographic and health surveys data from 24 African countries, 1991–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimbuene, Zacharie T; Mberu, Blessing; Muthuri, Stella; Ezeh, Alex C

    2017-01-01

    Objective To examine the prevalence and trends in overweight and obesity among non-pregnant urban women in Africa over the past two and a half decades. Design Cross-sectional surveys conducted between 1991 and 2014. Settings Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), repeated cross-sectional data collected in 24 African countries. Participants Adult non-pregnant women aged 15–49 years. The earlier DHS collected anthropometric data on only those women who had children aged 0–5 years. The main analyses were limited to this subgroup. The participants were classified as overweight (25.0–29.9 kg/m2) and obese (≥30.0 kg/m2). Results The prevalence of overweight and obesity among women increased in all the 24 countries. Trends were statistically significant in 17 of the 24 countries in the case of obesity and 13 of the 24 for overweight. In Ghana, overweight almost doubled (p=0.001) while obesity tripled (p=0.001) between 1993 and 2014. Egypt has the highest levels of overweight and obesity at 44% (95% CI 42%, 46.5%) and 39% (95% CI 36.6%, 41.8%), respectively, in 2014 and the trend showed significant increase (p=0.005) from 1995 levels. Also, obesity doubled in Kenya, Benin, Niger, Rwanda, Ivory Coast and Uganda, while tripled in Zambia, Burkina Faso, Mali, Malawi and Tanzania. Ethiopia and Madagascar had the lowest prevalence of both obesity and overweight, with overweight ranging from 7% to 12% and obesity from 1% to 4%. Conclusions Overweight and obesity are increasing among women of reproductive age in urban Africa, with obesity among this age group having more than doubled or tripled in 12 of the 24 countries. There is an urgent need for deliberate policies and interventions to encourage active lifestyles and healthy eating behaviour to curb this trend in urban Africa. PMID:29079606

  9. Antiretroviral therapy enrollment characteristics and outcomes among HIV-infected adolescents and young adults compared with older adults--seven African countries, 2004-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auld, Andrew F; Agolory, Simon G; Shiraishi, Ray W; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Kwesigabo, Gideon; Mulenga, Modest; Hachizovu, Sebastian; Asadu, Emeka; Tuho, Moise Zanga; Ettiegne-Traore, Virginie; Mbofana, Francisco; Okello, Velephi; Azih, Charles; Denison, Julie A; Tsui, Sharon; Koole, Olivier; Kamiru, Harrison; Nuwagaba-Biribonwoha, Harriet; Alfredo, Charity; Jobarteh, Kebba; Odafe, Solomon; Onotu, Dennis; Ekra, Kunomboa A; Kouakou, Joseph S; Ehrenkranz, Peter; Bicego, George; Torpey, Kwasi; Mukadi, Ya Diul; van Praag, Eric; Menten, Joris; Mastro, Timothy; Dukes Hamilton, Carol; Swaminathan, Mahesh; Dokubo, E Kainne; Baughman, Andrew L; Spira, Thomas; Colebunders, Robert; Bangsberg, David; Marlink, Richard; Zee, Aaron; Kaplan, Jonathan; Ellerbrock, Tedd V

    2014-11-28

    Although scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) since 2005 has contributed to declines of about 30% in the global annual number of human immunodeficiency (HIV)-related deaths and declines in global HIV incidence, estimated annual HIV-related deaths among adolescents have increased by about 50% and estimated adolescent HIV incidence has been relatively stable. In 2012, an estimated 2,500 (40%) of all 6,300 daily new HIV infections occurred among persons aged 15-24 years. Difficulty enrolling adolescents and young adults in ART and high rates of loss to follow-up (LTFU) after ART initiation might be contributing to mortality and HIV incidence in this age group, but data are limited. To evaluate age-related ART retention challenges, data from retrospective cohort studies conducted in seven African countries among 16,421 patients, aged ≥15 years at enrollment, who initiated ART during 2004-2012 were analyzed. ART enrollment and outcome data were compared among three groups defined by age at enrollment: adolescents and young adults (aged 15-24 years), middle-aged adults (aged 25-49 years), and older adults (aged ≥50 years). Enrollees aged 15-24 years were predominantly female (81%-92%), commonly pregnant (3%-32% of females), unmarried (54%-73%), and, in four countries with employment data, unemployed (53%-86%). In comparison, older adults were more likely to be male (padults, adolescents and young adults had higher LTFU rates in all seven countries, reaching statistical significance in three countries in crude and multivariable analyses. Evidence-based interventions to reduce LTFU for adolescent and young adult ART enrollees could help reduce mortality and HIV incidence in this age group.

  10. Factors Associated with Early Introduction of Formula and/or Solid, Semi-Solid or Soft Foods in Seven Francophone West African Countries

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    Abukari I. Issaka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with early introduction of formula and/or solid, semi-solid or soft foods to infants aged three to five months in seven Francophone West African countries. The sources of data for the analyses were the most recent Demographic and Health Survey datasets of the seven countries, namely Benin (BDHS, 2012, Burkina Faso (BFDHS, 2010, Cote d’Ivoire (CIDHS, 2011–2012, Guinea (GDHS, 2012, Mali (MDHS, 2012–2013, Niger (NDHS, 2012 and Senegal (SDHS, 2010. The study used multiple logistic regression methods to analyse the factors associated with early introduction of complementary feeding using individual-, household- and community-level determinants. The sample was composed of 4158 infants aged between three and five months with: 671 from Benin, 811 from Burkina Faso, 362 from Cote d’Ivoire, 398 from Guinea, 519 from Mali, 767 from Niger and 630 from Senegal. Multiple analyses indicated that in three of the seven countries (Benin, Guinea and Senegal, infants who suffered illnesses, such as diarrhoea and acute respiratory infection, were significantly more likely to be introduced to formula and/or solid, semi-solid or soft foods between the age of three and five months. Other significant factors included infants who: were born in second to fourth position (Benin, whose mothers did not attend any antenatal clinics (Burkina Faso and Niger, were male (Cote d’Ivoire and Senegal, lived in an urban areas (Senegal, or were delivered by traditional birth attendants (Guinea, Niger and Senegal. Programmes to discourage early introduction of formula and/or solid, semi-solid or soft foods in these countries should target the most vulnerable segments of the population in order to improve exclusive breastfeeding practices and reduce infant mortality.

  11. Measuring human rights violations in a conflict-affected country: results from a nationwide cluster survey in Central African Republic

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    Roberts Les

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measuring human rights violations is particularly challenging during or after armed conflict. A recent nationwide survey in the Central African Republic produced estimates of rates of grave violations against children and adults affected by armed conflict, using an approach known as the "Neighborhood Method". Methods In June and July, 2009, a random household survey was conducted based on population estimates from the 2003 national census. Clusters were assigned systematically proportional to population size. Respondents in randomly selected households were interviewed regarding incidents of killing, intentional injury, recruitment into armed groups, abduction, sexual abuse and rape between January 1, 2008 and the date of interview, occurring in their homes' and those of their three closest neighbors. Results Sixty of the selected 69 clusters were surveyed. In total, 599 women were interviewed about events in 2,370 households representing 13,669 persons. Estimates of annual rates of each violation occurring per 1000 people in each of two strata are provided for children between the ages of five and 17, adults 18 years of age and older and the entire population five years and older, along with a combined and weighted national rate. The national rates for children age five to 17 were estimated to be 0.98/1000/year (95% CI: 0.18 - 1.78 for recruitment, 2.56/1000/year (95% CI: 1.50 - 3.62 for abduction, 1.13/1000/year (95% CI: 0.33 - 1.93 for intentional injury, 10.72/1000 girls/year (95% CI: 7.40 - 14.04 for rape, and 4.80/1000 girls/year (95% CI: 2.61 - 6.00 for sexual abuse. No reports of any violation against a person under the age of five were recorded and there were no reports of rape or sexual abuse of males. No children were reported to have been killed during the recall period. Rape and abduction were the most frequently reported events. Conclusions The population-based figures greatly augment existing information on

  12. Ideal Body Size as a Mediator for the Gender-Specific Association between Socioeconomic Status and Body Mass Index: Evidence from an Upper-Middle-Income Country in the African Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yepes, Maryam; Maurer, Jürgen; Stringhini, Silvia; Viswanathan, Barathi; Gedeon, Jude; Bovet, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Background: While obesity continues to rise globally, the associations between body size, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES) seem to vary in different populations, and little is known on the contribution of perceived ideal body size in the social disparity of obesity in African countries. Purpose: We examined the gender and socioeconomic…

  13. Cooking and season as risk factors for acute lower respiratory infections in African children: a cross-sectional multi-country analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchner, Hannes; Rehfuess, Eva A

    2015-01-01

    Acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) are a leading cause of death among African children under five. A significant proportion of these are attributable to household air pollution from solid fuel use. We assessed the relationship between cooking practices and ALRI in pooled datasets of Demographic and Health Surveys conducted between 2000 and 2011 in countries of sub-Saharan Africa. The impacts of main cooking fuel, cooking location and stove ventilation were examined in 18 (n = 56,437), 9 (n = 23,139) and 6 countries (n = 14,561) respectively. We used a causal diagram and multivariable logistic mixed models to assess the influence of covariates at individual, regional and national levels. Main cooking fuel had a statistically significant impact on ALRI risk (pCooking location also emerged as a season-dependent statistically significant (p = 0.0070) determinant of ALRI, in particular cooking indoors without a separate kitchen during the rainy season (OR 1.80; CI: 1.30, 2.50). Due to infrequent use in Africa we could, however, not demonstrate an effect of stove ventilation. We found differential and season-dependent risks for different types of solid fuels and kerosene as well as cooking location on child ALRI. Future household air pollution studies should consider potential effect modification of cooking fuel by season.

  14. Costs of implementing integrated community case management (iCCM) in six African countries: implications for sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daviaud, Emmanuelle; Besada, Donnela; Leon, Natalie; Rohde, Sarah; Sanders, David; Oliphant, Nicholas; Doherty, Tanya

    2017-06-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa still reports the highest rates of under-five mortality. Low cost, high impact interventions exist, however poor access remains a challenge. Integrated community case management (iCCM) was introduced to improve access to essential services for children 2-59 months through diagnosis, treatment and referral services by community health workers for malaria, pneumonia and diarrhea. This paper presents the results of an economic analysis of iCCM implementation in regions supported by UNICEF in six countries and assesses country-level scale-up implications. The paper focuses on costs to provider (health system and donors) to inform planning and budgeting, and does not cover cost-effectiveness. The analysis combines annualised set-up costs and 1 year implementation costs to calculate incremental economic and financial costs per treatment from a provider perspective. Affordability is assessed by calculating the per capita financial cost of the program as a percentage of the public health expenditure per capita. Time and financial implications of a 30% increase in utilization were modeled. Country scale-up is modeled for all children under 5 in rural areas. Utilization of iCCM services varied from 0.05 treatment/y/under-five in Ethiopia to over 1 in Niger. There were between 10 and 603 treatments/community health worker (CHW)/y. Consultation cost represented between 93% and 22% of economic costs per treatment influenced by the level of utilization. Weighted economic cost per treatment ranged from US$ 13 (2015 USD) in Ghana to US$ 2 in Malawi. CHWs spent from 1 to 9 hours a week on iCCM. A 30% increase in utilization would add up to 2 hours a week, but reduce cost per treatment (by 20% in countries with low utilization). Country scale up would amount to under US$ 0.8 per capita total population (US$ 0.06-US$0.74), between 0.5% and 2% of public health expenditure per capita but 8% in Niger. iCCM addresses unmet needs and impacts on under 5 mortality. An

  15. HIV/AIDS National Strategic Plans of Sub-Saharan African countries: an analysis for gender equality and sex-disaggregated HIV targets.

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    Sherwood, Jennifer; Sharp, Alana; Cooper, Bergen; Roose-Snyder, Beirne; Blumenthal, Susan

    2017-12-01

    National Strategic Plans (NSPs) for HIV/AIDS are country planning documents that set priorities for programmes and services, including a set of targets to quantify progress toward national and international goals. The inclusion of sex-disaggregated targets and targets to combat gender inequality is important given the high disease burden among young women and adolescent girls in Sub-Saharan Africa, yet no comprehensive gender-focused analysis of NSP targets has been performed. This analysis quantitatively evaluates national HIV targets, included in NSPs from eighteen Sub-Saharan African countries, for sex-disaggregation. Additionally, NSP targets aimed at reducing gender-based inequality in health outcomes are compiled and inductively coded to report common themes. On average, in the eighteen countries included in this analysis, 31% of NSP targets include sex-disaggregation (range 0-92%). Three countries disaggregated a majority (>50%) of their targets by sex. Sex-disaggregation in data reporting was more common for targets related to the early phases of the HIV care continuum: 83% of countries included any sex-disaggregated targets for HIV prevention, 56% for testing and linkage to care, 22% for improving antiretroviral treatment coverage, and 11% for retention in treatment. The most common target to reduce gender inequality was to prevent gender-based violence (present in 50% of countries). Other commonly incorporated target areas related to improving women's access to family planning, human and legal rights, and decision-making power. The inclusion of sex-disaggregated targets in national planning is vital to ensure that programmes make progress for all population groups. Improving the availability and quality of indicators to measure gender inequality, as well as evaluating programme outcomes by sex, is critical to tracking this progress. This analysis reveals an urgent need to set specific and separate targets for men and women in order to achieve an equitable

  16. Comparison of all-cause and malaria-specific mortality from two West African countries with different malaria transmission patterns

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    Kouyaté Bocar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a leading cause of death in children below five years of age in sub-Saharan Africa. All-cause and malaria-specific mortality rates for children under-five years old in a mesoendemic malaria area (The Gambia were compared with those from a hyper/holoendemic area (Burkina Faso. Methods Information on observed person-years (PY, deaths and cause of death was extracted from online search, using key words: "Africa, The Gambia, Burkina Faso, malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, mortality, child survival, morbidity". Missing person-years were estimated and all-cause and malaria-specific mortality were calculated as rates per 1,000 PY. Studies were classified as longitudinal/clinical studies or surveys/censuses. Linear regression was used to investigate mortality trends. Results Overall, 39 and 18 longitudinal/clinical studies plus 10 and 15 surveys and censuses were identified for The Gambia and Burkina Faso respectively (1960–2004. Model-based estimates for under-five all-cause mortality rates show a decline from 1960 to 2000 in both countries (Burkina Faso: from 71.8 to 39.0, but more markedly in The Gambia (from 104.5 to 28.4. The weighted-average malaria-specific mortality rate per 1000 person-years for Burkina Faso (15.4, 95% CI: 13.0–18.3 was higher than that in The Gambia (9.5, 95% CI: 9.1–10.1. Malaria mortality rates did not decline over time in either country. Conclusion Child mortality in both countries declined significantly in the period 1960 to 2004, possibly due to socio-economic development, improved health services and specific intervention projects. However, there was little decline in malaria mortality suggesting that there had been no major impact of malaria control programmes during this period. The difference in malaria mortality rates across countries points to significant differences in national disease control policies and/or disease transmission patterns.

  17. Women's Education and Health Inequalities in Under-Five Mortality in Selected Sub-Saharan African Countries, 1990–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bado, Aristide Romaric; Sathiya Susuman, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to analyse trends in the relationship between mother’s educational level and mortality of children under the year of five in Sub-Saharan Africa, from 1990 to 2015. Data and Methods Data used in this study came from different waves of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of Sub-Saharan countries. Logistic regression and Buis’s decomposition method were used to explore the effect of mother’s educational level on the mortality of children under five years. Results Although the results of our study in the selected countries show that under-five mortality rates of children born to mothers without formal education are higher than the mortality rates of children of educated mothers, it appears that differences in mortality were reduced over the past two decades. In selected countries for our study, we noticed a significant decline in mortality among children of non-educated mothers compared to the decrease in mortality rates among children of educated mothers during the period of 1990–2010. The results show that the decline in mortality of children under five years was much higher among the children born to mothers who have never received formal education—112 points drop in Malawi, over 80 in Zambia and Zimbabwe, 65 points in Burkina Faso, 56 in Congo, 43 in Namibia, 27 in Guinea, Cameroon, and 22 to 15 in Niger. However, we noted a variation in results among the countries selected for the study—in Burkina Faso (OR = 0.7), in Cameroon (OR = 0.8), in Guinea (OR = 0.8) and Niger (OR = 0.8). It is normally observed that children of mothers with 0–6 years of education are about 20% more likely to survive until their fifth year compared to children of mothers who have not been to school. Conversely, the results did not reveal significant differences between the under-five deaths of children born to non-educated mothers and children of low-level educated mothers in Congo, Malawi and Namibia. Conclusion The decline in under

  18. Association between coverage of maternal and child health interventions, and under-5 mortality: a repeated cross-sectional analysis of 35 sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, Daniel J; Subramanian, S V

    2014-01-01

    Infant and child mortality rates are among the most important indicators of child health, nutrition, implementation of key survival interventions, and the overall social and economic development of a population. In this paper, we investigate the role of coverage of maternal and child health (MNCH) interventions in contributing to declines in child mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Data are from 81 Demographic and Health Surveys from 35 sub-Saharan African countries. Using ecological time-series and child-level regression models, we estimated the effect of MNCH interventions (summarized by the percent composite coverage index, or CCI) on child mortality with in the first 5 years of life net of temporal trends and covariates at the household, maternal, and child levels. At the ecologic level, a unit increase in standardized CCI was associated with a reduction in under-5 child mortality rate (U5MR) of 29.0 per 1,000 (95% CI: -43.2, -14.7) after adjustment for survey period effects and country-level per capita gross domestic product (pcGDP). At the child level, a unit increase in standardized CCI was associated with an odds ratio of 0.86 for child mortality (95% CI: 0.82-0.90) after adjustment for survey period effect, country-level pcGDP, and a set of household-, maternal-, and child-level covariates. MNCH interventions are important in reducing U5MR, while the effects of economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa remain weak and inconsistent. Improved coverage of proven life-saving interventions will likely contribute to further reductions in U5MR in sub-Saharan Africa.

  19. Association between coverage of maternal and child health interventions, and under-5 mortality: a repeated cross-sectional analysis of 35 sub-Saharan African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Corsi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infant and child mortality rates are among the most important indicators of child health, nutrition, implementation of key survival interventions, and the overall social and economic development of a population. In this paper, we investigate the role of coverage of maternal and child health (MNCH interventions in contributing to declines in child mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Design: Data are from 81 Demographic and Health Surveys from 35 sub-Saharan African countries. Using ecological time-series and child-level regression models, we estimated the effect of MNCH interventions (summarized by the percent composite coverage index, or CCI on child mortality with in the first 5 years of life net of temporal trends and covariates at the household, maternal, and child levels. Results: At the ecologic level, a unit increase in standardized CCI was associated with a reduction in under-5 child mortality rate (U5MR of 29.0 per 1,000 (95% CI: −43.2, −14.7 after adjustment for survey period effects and country-level per capita gross domestic product (pcGDP. At the child level, a unit increase in standardized CCI was associated with an odds ratio of 0.86 for child mortality (95% CI: 0.82–0.90 after adjustment for survey period effect, country-level pcGDP, and a set of household-, maternal-, and child-level covariates. Conclusions: MNCH interventions are important in reducing U5MR, while the effects of economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa remain weak and inconsistent. Improved coverage of proven life-saving interventions will likely contribute to further reductions in U5MR in sub-Saharan Africa.

  20. China-Africa Health Development Initiatives: Benefits and Implications for Shaping Innovative and Evidence-informed National Health Policies and Programs in Sub-saharan African Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambo, Ernest; Ugwu, Chidiebere E; Guan, Yayi; Wei, Ding; Xiao-Ning; Xiao-Nong, Zhou

    2016-01-01

    This review paper examines the growing implications of China's engagement in shaping innovative national initiatives against infectious diseases and poverty control and elimination in African countries. It seeks to understand the factors and enhancers that can promote mutual and innovative health development initiatives, and those that are necessary in generating reliable and quality data for evidence-based contextual policy, priorities and programs. We examined the China-Africa health cooperation in supporting global health agenda on infectious diseases such as malaria, schistosomiasis, Ebola, TB, HIV/AIDS, neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) prevention, control and elimination spanning a period of 10 years. We reviewed referenced publications, global support data, and extensive sources related to and other emerging epidemics and infectious diseases of poverty, programs and interventions, health systems development issues, challenges, opportunities and investments. Published literature in PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Books and web-based peer-reviewed journal articles, government annual reports were assessed from the first Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) in November 2006 to December 2015 Third Ministerial conferences. Our findings highlight current shared public health challenges and emphasize the need to nurture, develop and establish effective, functional and sustainable health systems capacity to detect and respond to all public health threats and epidemic burdens, evidence-based programs and quality care outcomes. China's significant health diplomacy emphasizes the importance of health financing in establishing health development commitment and investment in improving the gains and opportunities, importantly efficiency and value health priorities and planning. Strengthening China-Africa health development agenda towards collective commitment and investment in quality care delivery, effective programs coverage and efficiency, preparedness and

  1. Patterns of HIV-1 drug resistance after first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) failure in 6 sub-Saharan African countries: implications for second-line ART strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamers, Raph L; Sigaloff, Kim C E; Wensing, Annemarie M; Wallis, Carole L; Kityo, Cissy; Siwale, Margaret; Mandaliya, Kishor; Ive, Prudence; Botes, Mariette E; Wellington, Maureen; Osibogun, Akin; Stevens, Wendy S; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F; Schuurman, Rob

    2012-06-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) drug resistance may limit the benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART). This cohort study examined patterns of drug-resistance mutations (DRMs) in individuals with virological failure on first-line ART at 13 clinical sites in 6 African countries and predicted their impact on second-line drug susceptibility. A total of 2588 antiretroviral-naive individuals initiated ART consisting of different nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) backbones (zidovudine, stavudine, tenofovir, or abacavir, plus lamivudine or emtricitabine) with either efavirenz or nevirapine. Population sequencing after 12 months of ART was retrospectively performed if HIV RNA was >1000 copies/mL. The 2010 International Antiviral Society-USA list was used to score major DRMs. The Stanford algorithm was used to predict drug susceptibility. HIV-1 sequences were generated for 142 participants who virologically failed ART, of whom 70% carried ≥1 DRM and 49% had dual-class resistance, with an average of 2.4 DRMs per sequence (range, 1-8). The most common DRMs were M184V (53.5%), K103N (28.9%), Y181C (15.5%), and G190A (14.1%). Thymidine analogue mutations were present in 8.5%. K65R was frequently selected by stavudine (15.0%) or tenofovir (27.7%). Among participants with ≥1 DRM, HIV-1 susceptibility was reduced in 93% for efavirenz/nevirapine, in 81% for lamivudine/emtricitabine, in 59% for etravirine/rilpivirine, in 27% for tenofovir, in 18% for stavudine, and in 10% for zidovudine. Early failure detection limited the accumulation of resistance. After stavudine failure in African populations, zidovudine rather than tenofovir may be preferred in second-line ART. Strategies to prevent HIV-1 resistance are a global priority.

  2. Black versus Black: The Relationship among African, African American, and African Caribbean Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jennifer V.; Cothran, Mary E.

    2003-01-01

    Surveyed people of African descent regarding relationships among African, African-American, and African-Caribbean persons, focusing on contact and friendship, travel to countries of the diaspora, cross-cultural communication, thoughts and stereotypes, and education. Most respondents had contacts with the other groups, but groups had preconceived…

  3. Capacity development in food composition database management and nutritional research and education in Central and Eastern European, Middle Eastern and North African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurinović, M; Witthöft, C M; Tepšić, J; Ranić, M; Hulshof, P J M; Hollman, P C; Porubska, J; Gohar, A; Debeljak-Martačić, J; Petrović-Oggiano, G; Novaković, R; Glibetić, M; Oshaug, A

    2010-11-01

    Capacity development (CD) in food and nutrition is much more than formal training and includes human resource development, and organisational, institutional and legal framework development with the aim of enhancing nutrition-relevant knowledge and skills to support infrastructural development. The goal of the European Food Information Resource (EuroFIR) Network of Excellence has been to develop and integrate food composition data throughout Europe. EuroFIR joined forces in CD with the United Nations (UN) University and UN System Standing Committee on Nutrition, the Network for Capacity Development in Nutrition in Central and Eastern Europe, the Central and Eastern European Countries Food Data Systems network and with the Middle East and North African Capacity Building Initiative. The aim of this paper is to discuss an inventory of the status of food composition databases (FCDBs) and the training needs of compilers in non-EuroFIR countries in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), and to present the CD achieved through EuroFIR and other network collaborations. Two online questionnaires were created addressing the FCDB status and specific training needs in countries of the targeted regions. Data were collected during 2006-2008 and then analysed. Subsequently, CD activities were organised. Contacts were established in 19 CEE and 7 MENA countries, of which several had national food composition tables, but no electronic versions. Education, training, workshops, networking and the sharing of experiences were uniformly requested. Subsequently, CD activities in EuroFIR were organised focussing on food composition courses, exchange visits, workshops and individual training for PhD students, junior scientists and other staff categories, as well as conferences linked to food composition research and food information. To facilitate CD activities, EuroFIR has signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the Czech Republic, Hungary

  4. A long way to go - Estimates of combined water, sanitation and hygiene coverage for 25 sub-Saharan African countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Roche

    Full Text Available Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH are essential for a healthy and dignified life. International targets to reduce inadequate WASH coverage were set under the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, 1990-2015 and now the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs, 2016-2030. The MDGs called for halving the proportion of the population without access to adequate water and sanitation, whereas the SDGs call for universal access, require the progressive reduction of inequalities, and include hygiene in addition to water and sanitation. Estimating access to complete WASH coverage provides a baseline for monitoring during the SDG period. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA has among the lowest rates of WASH coverage globally.The most recent available Demographic Household Survey (DHS or Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS data for 25 countries in SSA were analysed to estimate national and regional coverage for combined water and sanitation (a combined MDG indicator for 'improved' access and combined water with collection time within 30 minutes plus sanitation and hygiene (a combined SDG indicator for 'basic' access. Coverage rates were estimated separately for urban and rural populations and for wealth quintiles. Frequency ratios and percentage point differences for urban and rural coverage were calculated to give both relative and absolute measures of urban-rural inequality. Wealth inequalities were assessed by visual examination of coverage across wealth quintiles in urban and rural populations and by calculating concentration indices as standard measures of relative wealth related inequality that give an indication of how unevenly a health indicator is distributed across the wealth distribution.Combined MDG coverage in SSA was 20%, and combined basic SDG coverage was 4%; an estimated 921 million people lacked basic SDG coverage. Relative measures of inequality were higher for combined basic SDG coverage than combined MDG coverage, but absolute inequality was lower

  5. A long way to go - Estimates of combined water, sanitation and hygiene coverage for 25 sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Rachel; Bain, Robert; Cumming, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) are essential for a healthy and dignified life. International targets to reduce inadequate WASH coverage were set under the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, 1990-2015) and now the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs, 2016-2030). The MDGs called for halving the proportion of the population without access to adequate water and sanitation, whereas the SDGs call for universal access, require the progressive reduction of inequalities, and include hygiene in addition to water and sanitation. Estimating access to complete WASH coverage provides a baseline for monitoring during the SDG period. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has among the lowest rates of WASH coverage globally. The most recent available Demographic Household Survey (DHS) or Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) data for 25 countries in SSA were analysed to estimate national and regional coverage for combined water and sanitation (a combined MDG indicator for 'improved' access) and combined water with collection time within 30 minutes plus sanitation and hygiene (a combined SDG indicator for 'basic' access). Coverage rates were estimated separately for urban and rural populations and for wealth quintiles. Frequency ratios and percentage point differences for urban and rural coverage were calculated to give both relative and absolute measures of urban-rural inequality. Wealth inequalities were assessed by visual examination of coverage across wealth quintiles in urban and rural populations and by calculating concentration indices as standard measures of relative wealth related inequality that give an indication of how unevenly a health indicator is distributed across the wealth distribution. Combined MDG coverage in SSA was 20%, and combined basic SDG coverage was 4%; an estimated 921 million people lacked basic SDG coverage. Relative measures of inequality were higher for combined basic SDG coverage than combined MDG coverage, but absolute inequality was lower. Rural

  6. Translating research into policy: lessons learned from eclampsia treatment and malaria control in three southern African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matinhure Sheillah

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the process of knowledge translation in low- and middle-income countries. We studied policymaking processes in Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe to understand the factors affecting the use of research evidence in national policy development, with a particular focus on the findings from randomized control trials (RCTs. We examined two cases: the use of magnesium sulphate (MgSO4 in the treatment of eclampsia in pregnancy (a clinical case; and the use of insecticide treated bed nets and indoor residual household spraying for malaria vector control (a public health case. Methods We used a qualitative case-study methodology to explore the policy making process. We carried out key informants interviews with a range of research and policy stakeholders in each country, reviewed documents and developed timelines of key events. Using an iterative approach, we undertook a thematic analysis of the data. Findings Prior experience of particular interventions, local champions, stakeholders and international networks, and the involvement of researchers in policy development were important in knowledge translation for both case studies. Key differences across the two case studies included the nature of the evidence, with clear evidence of efficacy for MgSO4 and ongoing debate regarding the efficacy of bed nets compared with spraying; local researcher involvement in international evidence production, which was stronger for MgSO4 than for malaria vector control; and a long-standing culture of evidence-based health care within obstetrics. Other differences were the importance of bureaucratic processes for clinical regulatory approval of MgSO4, and regional networks and political interests for malaria control. In contrast to treatment policies for eclampsia, a diverse group of stakeholders with varied interests, differing in their use and interpretation of evidence, was involved in malaria policy decisions in the three

  7. Economic evaluation of Community Level Interventions for Pre-eclampsia (CLIP) in South Asian and African countries: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khowaja, Asif R; Mitton, Craig; Bryan, Stirling; Magee, Laura A; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; von Dadelszen, Peter

    2015-05-26

    Globally, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, particularly pre-eclampsia and eclampsia, are the leading cause of maternal and neonatal mortality, and impose substantial burdens on the families of pregnant women, their communities, and healthcare systems. The Community Level Interventions for Pre-eclampsia (CLIP) Trial evaluates a package of care applied at both community and primary health centres to reduce maternal and perinatal disabilities and deaths resulting from the failure to identify and manage pre-eclampsia at the community level. Economic evaluation of health interventions can play a pivotal role in priority setting and inform policy decisions for scale-up. At present, there is a paucity of published literature on the methodology of economic evaluation of large, multi-country, community-based interventions in the area of maternal and perinatal health. This study protocol describes the application of methodology for economic evaluation of the CLIP in South Asia and Africa. A mixed-design approach i.e. cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) and qualitative thematic analysis will be used alongside the trial to prospectively evaluate the economic impact of CLIP from a societal perspective. Data on health resource utilization, costs, and pregnancy outcomes will be collected through structured questionnaires embedded into the pregnancy surveillance, cross-sectional survey and budgetary reviews. Qualitative data will be collected through focus groups (FGs) with pregnant women, household male-decision makers, care providers, and district level health decision makers. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio will be calculated for healthcare system and societal perspectives, taking into account the country-specific model inputs (costs and outcome) from the CLIP Trial. Emerging themes from FGs will inform the design of the model, and help to interpret findings of the CEA. The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommends cost-effective interventions as a key

  8. Translating research into policy: lessons learned from eclampsia treatment and malaria control in three southern African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelk, Godfrey; Daniels, Karen; Cliff, Julie; Lewin, Simon; Sevene, Esperança; Fernandes, Benedita; Mariano, Alda; Matinhure, Sheillah; Oxman, Andrew D; Lavis, John N; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby

    2009-12-30

    Little is known about the process of knowledge translation in low- and middle-income countries. We studied policymaking processes in Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe to understand the factors affecting the use of research evidence in national policy development, with a particular focus on the findings from randomized control trials (RCTs). We examined two cases: the use of magnesium sulphate (MgSO(4)) in the treatment of eclampsia in pregnancy (a clinical case); and the use of insecticide treated bed nets and indoor residual household spraying for malaria vector control (a public health case). We used a qualitative case-study methodology to explore the policy making process. We carried out key informants interviews with a range of research and policy stakeholders in each country, reviewed documents and developed timelines of key events. Using an iterative approach, we undertook a thematic analysis of the data. Prior experience of particular interventions, local champions, stakeholders and international networks, and the involvement of researchers in policy development were important in knowledge translation for both case studies. Key differences across the two case studies included the nature of the evidence, with clear evidence of efficacy for MgSO(4 )and ongoing debate regarding the efficacy of bed nets compared with spraying; local researcher involvement in international evidence production, which was stronger for MgSO(4 )than for malaria vector control; and a long-standing culture of evidence-based health care within obstetrics. Other differences were the importance of bureaucratic processes for clinical regulatory approval of MgSO(4), and regional networks and political interests for malaria control. In contrast to treatment policies for eclampsia, a diverse group of stakeholders with varied interests, differing in their use and interpretation of evidence, was involved in malaria policy decisions in the three countries. Translating research knowledge into

  9. Clinical and neuroimaging profile of HIV-1 encephalopathy in infancy and childhood in a sub-Saharan African country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G Mariam, Ayle; Assefa, Getachew

    2012-10-01

    Neurological dysfunction in AIDS is common, occurring in as many as eighty percent of children. Thus, it is important to recognize the central nervous system imaging appearance of HIV, in particular those of HIV encephalopathy, as this is an AIDS defining illness and with distinct neuro-imaging features essential for early diagnosis and timely therapeutic intervention To identify the clinical features in HIV-1 infection of the central nervous system and their associated neuroradiological correlates. Retrospective review of the records of all children with HIV-1 encephalopathy identified among children with neurological and developmental problems and who were on follow up at a child development and neurology clinic in an African city. A total of 22 children (10 male and 12 female) with HIV-1 encephalopathy were identified among 2382 children with various forms of neurological and developmental problems and who were on follow up at a child development and neurology clinic for a little bit over eight years period. All the children acquired the infection vertically. The age range of these children was between 10 months to 14 years. The median age was 5.6 years. The mean duration of symptom was 3.2 years. Global delay or regression in development along with signs of pyramidal tract involvement and seizures were the commonest clinical signs observed in these children. Neuro-behavioral problems were commonly observed among preschool and school aged children. In older children and preadolescents focal seizures with or with out neurologic deficit and neuroradiological findings were common. Nonhemorrhagic stroke was rare and occurred in one child and another child had cortical blindness. Three children had no neurological deficit. Rapid progression of the disease carried grave prognosis. Opportunistic infections and tumors of the central nervous system were also uncommon among these children. Brain volume loss with dilatation of the lateral ventricle, bilateral symmetrical

  10. Early Diagnosis of HIV Infection in Infants - One Caribbean and Six Sub-Saharan African Countries, 2011-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, Karidia; Kim, Andrea A; Lecher, Shirley; Ellenberger, Dennis; Beard, R Suzanne; Dale, Helen; Hurlston, Mackenzie; Rivadeneira, Molly; Fonjungo, Peter N; Broyles, Laura N; Zhang, Guoqing; Sleeman, Katrina; Nguyen, Shon; Jadczak, Steve; Abiola, Nadine; Ewetola, Raimi; Muwonga, Jérémie; Fwamba, Franck; Mwangi, Christina; Naluguza, Mary; Kiyaga, Charles; Ssewanyana, Isaac; Varough, Deyde; Wysler, Domercant; Lowrance, David; Louis, Frantz Jean; Desinor, Olbeg; Buteau, Josiane; Kesner, Francois; Rouzier, Vanessa; Segaren, Nat; Lewis, Tessa; Sarr, Abdoulaye; Chipungu, Geoffrey; Gupta, Sundeep; Singer, Daniel; Mwenda, Reuben; Kapoteza, Hilary; Chipeta, Zawadi; Knight, Nancy; Carmona, Sergio; MacLeod, William; Sherman, Gayle; Pillay, Yogan; Ndongmo, Clement B; Mugisa, Bridget; Mwila, Annie; McAuley, James; Chipimo, Peter J; Kaonga, Wezi; Nsofwa, Dailess; Nsama, Davy; Mwamba, Fales Zulu; Moyo, Crispin; Phiri, Clement; Borget, Marie-Yolande; Ya-Kouadio, Leonard; Kouame, Abo; Adje-Toure, Christiane A; Nkengasong, John

    2016-11-25

    Pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remains an important public health issue in resource-limited settings. In 2015, 1.4 million children aged 50% decline. The most common challenges for access to testing for early infant diagnosis included difficulties in specimen transport, long turnaround time between specimen collection and receipt of results, and limitations in supply chain management. Further reductions in HIV mortality in children can be achieved through continued expansion and improvement of services for early infant diagnosis in PEPFAR-supported countries, including initiatives targeted to reach HIV-exposed infants, ensure access to programs for early infant diagnosis of HIV, and facilitate prompt linkage to treatment for children diagnosed with HIV infection.

  11. GEOTHERM programme supports geothermal energy world-wide. Geothermal energy, a chance for East African countries; GEOTHERM: BGR foerdert weltweit Nutzung geothermischer Energie. Geothermie - eine Chance fuer ostafrikanische Laender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraml, M.; Kessels, K.; Kalberkamp, U.; Ochmann, N.; Stadtler, C. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany)

    2007-02-15

    The high geothermal potential of East Africa, especially of the Eastern Rift, is known for a long time. Since these pioneer studies, geothermal plants have been constructed at three sites in East Africa. Nevertheless, up to now geothermal has been a success story only in Kenya. The steam power plant Olkaria I in Kenya is running reliability since 25 years. Today, the country produces more than 12% of its electricity from geothermal. Now, Eritrea, Djibouti, Uganda, Tanzania and Ethiopia which are also situated along the East African Rift, are planning similar projects. The countries need to develop new energy sources because oil prices have reached a critical level. In the past, hydro power was regarded to be a reliable source of energy, but increased droughts changed the situation. Thus, the african states are searching for alternatives to be able to stabilise their energy supply and to cover the growing energy demand. There is much hope that the success of the Kenyan geothermal power plants will be repeated in the neighbouring countries. The East African countries have joined their forces to give impetus to the use of the regional geothermal resources. On behalf of the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources supports the countries in realising their plans as part of the GEOTHERM Programme. Together with further donors (Iceland, France, USA, Global Environment Facility) the path will be paved for geothermal power plants in the above mentioned six East African countries. The following main steps are necessary: - Awareness raising of political decision makers about the advantages of including geothermal into the national power plans - Improvement of knowledge about potentials geothermal sites - Development of a regional equipment pool including the necessary geophysical equipment, laboratories, etc. - Training in geothermal exploration and plant maintenance, to minimise risks of site

  12. Estimating the hypothetical dual health impact and cost-effectiveness of the Woman’s Condom in selected sub-Saharan African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mvundura M

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mercy Mvundura, Neeti Nundy, Maggie Kilbourne-Brook, Patricia S Coffey Technology Solutions Global Program, PATH, Seattle, WA, USA Background: Female condoms are the only currently available woman-initiated option that offers dual protection from pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. The Woman’s Condom is a new female condom designed to provide dual protection and to be highly pleasurable and acceptable. Objective: We sought to estimate the potential dual health impact and cost-effectiveness of a Woman’s Condom distribution program in 13 sub-Saharan African countries with HIV prevalence rates >4% among adults aged 15–49 years. We used two separate, publicly available models for this analysis, the Impact 2 model developed by Marie Stopes International and the Population Services International disability-adjusted life years (DALY calculator program. We estimated the potential numbers of pregnancies and DALYs averted when the Woman’s Condom is used as a family planning method and the HIV infections and DALYs averted when it is used as an HIV prevention method. Results: Programming 100,000 Woman’s Condoms in each of 13 countries in sub-Saharan Africa during a 1-year period could potentially prevent 194 pregnancies and an average of 21 HIV infections in each country. When using the World Health Organization CHOosing Interventions that are Cost-Effective (WHO-CHOICE criteria as a threshold to infer the potential cost-effectiveness of the Woman’s Condom, we found that the Woman’s Condom would be considered cost-effective. Conclusion: This was a first and successful attempt to estimate the impact of dual protection of female condoms. The health impact is greater for the use of the Woman’s Condom as an HIV prevention method than for contraception. Dual use of the Woman’s Condom increases the overall health impact. The Woman’s Condom was found to be very cost-effective in all 13 countries in our sample. Keywords

  13. HIV prevalence and behavioral and psychosocial factors among transgender women and cisgender men who have sex with men in 8 African countries: A cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, Tonia; Ackerman, Benjamin; Diouf, Daouda; Ceesay, Nuha; Mothopeng, Tampose; Odette, Ky-Zerbo; Kouanda, Seni; Ouedraogo, Henri Gautier; Simplice, Anato; Kouame, Abo; Mnisi, Zandile; Trapence, Gift; van der Merwe, L Leigh Ann; Jumbe, Vicente; Baral, Stefan

    2017-11-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa bears more than two-thirds of the worldwide burden of HIV; however, data among transgender women from the region are sparse. Transgender women across the world face significant vulnerability to HIV. This analysis aimed to assess HIV prevalence as well as psychosocial and behavioral drivers of HIV infection among transgender women compared with cisgender (non-transgender) men who have sex with men (cis-MSM) in 8 sub-Saharan African countries. Respondent-driven sampling targeted cis-MSM for enrollment. Data collection took place at 14 sites across 8 countries: Burkina Faso (January-August 2013), Côte d'Ivoire (March 2015-February 2016), The Gambia (July-December 2011), Lesotho (February-September 2014), Malawi (July 2011-March 2012), Senegal (February-November 2015), Swaziland (August-December 2011), and Togo (January-June 2013). Surveys gathered information on sexual orientation, gender identity, stigma, mental health, sexual behavior, and HIV testing. Rapid tests for HIV were conducted. Data were merged, and mixed effects logistic regression models were used to estimate relationships between gender identity and HIV infection. Among 4,586 participants assigned male sex at birth, 937 (20%) identified as transgender or female, and 3,649 were cis-MSM. The mean age of study participants was approximately 24 years, with no difference between transgender participants and cis-MSM. Compared to cis-MSM participants, transgender women were more likely to experience family exclusion (odds ratio [OR] 1.75, 95% CI 1.42-2.16, p gender with condomless receptive anal sex, the odds of HIV infection for transgender women were 2.2 times greater than the odds for cis-MSM (95% CI 1.65-2.87, p gender diversity within HIV research and programs.

  14. The private sector role in HIV/AIDS in the context of an expanded global response: expenditure trends in five sub-Saharan African countries.

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    Sulzbach, Sara; De, Susna; Wang, Wenjuan

    2011-07-01

    Global financing for the HIV response has reached unprecedented levels in recent years. Over US$10 billion were mobilized in 2007, an effort credited with saving the lives of millions of people living with HIV (PLHIV). A relatively unexamined aspect of the global HIV response is the role of the private sector in financing HIV/AIDS services. As the nature of the response evolves from emergency relief to long-term sustainability, understanding current and potential contributions from the private sector is critical. This paper examines trends in private sector financing, management and resource consumption related to HIV/AIDS in five sub-Saharan African countries, with a particular emphasis on the effects of recently scaled-up donor funding on private sector contributions. We analysed National Health Accounts HIV/AIDS subaccount data for Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, Tanzania and Zambia between 2002 and 2006. HIV subaccounts provide comparable data on the flow of HIV/AIDS funding from source to use. Findings indicate that private sector contributions decreased in all countries except Tanzania. With regards to managing HIV/AIDS funds, non-governmental organizations are increasingly controlling the largest share of resources relative to other stakeholders, whereas private for-profit entities are managing fewer HIV/AIDS resources since the donor influx. The majority of HIV/AIDS funds were spent in the public sector, although a considerable amount was spent at private facilities, largely fuelled by out-of-pocket (OOP) payments. On the whole, OOP spending by PLHIV decreased over the 4-year period, with the exception of Malawi, demonstrating that PLHIV have increased access to free or subsidized HIV/AIDS services. Our findings suggest that the influx of donor funding has led to decreased private contributions for HIV/AIDS. The reduction in private sector investment and engagement raises concerns about the sustainability of HIV/AIDS programmes over the long term, particularly in

  15. Measuring coverage in MNCH: population HIV-free survival among children under two years of age in four African countries.

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    Jeffrey S A Stringer

    Full Text Available Population-based evaluations of programs for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT are scarce. We measured PMTCT service coverage, regimen use, and HIV-free survival among children ≤24 mo of age in Cameroon, Côte D'Ivoire, South Africa, and Zambia.We randomly sampled households in 26 communities and offered participation if a child had been born to a woman living there during the prior 24 mo. We tested consenting mothers with rapid HIV antibody tests and tested the children of seropositive mothers with HIV DNA PCR or rapid antibody tests. Our primary outcome was 24-mo HIV-free survival, estimated with survival analysis. In an individual-level analysis, we evaluated the effectiveness of various PMTCT regimens. In a community-level analysis, we evaluated the relationship between HIV-free survival and community PMTCT coverage (the proportion of HIV-exposed infants in each community that received any PMTCT intervention during gestation or breastfeeding. We also compared our community coverage results to those of a contemporaneous study conducted in the facilities serving each sampled community. Of 7,985 surveyed children under 2 y of age, 1,014 (12.7% were HIV-exposed. Of these, 110 (10.9% were HIV-infected, 851 (83.9% were HIV-uninfected, and 53 (5.2% were dead. HIV-free survival at 24 mo of age among all HIV-exposed children was 79.7% (95% CI: 76.4, 82.6 overall, with the following country-level estimates: Cameroon (72.6%; 95% CI: 62.3, 80.5, South Africa (77.7%; 95% CI: 72.5, 82.1, Zambia (83.1%; 95% CI: 78.4, 86.8, and Côte D'Ivoire (84.4%; 95% CI: 70.0, 92.2. In adjusted analyses, the risk of death or HIV infection was non-significantly lower in children whose mothers received a more complex regimen of either two or three antiretroviral drugs compared to those receiving no prophylaxis (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.34, 1.06. Risk of death was not different for children whose mothers received a more complex regimen

  16. An empirical investigation of attitudes towards wife-beating among men and women in seven sub-Saharan African countries.

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    Rani, Manju; Bonu, Sekhar; Diop-Sidibe, Nafissatou

    2004-12-01

    This study used data from the demographic and health surveys (DHS) conducted between 1999 and 2001 in Benin, Ethiopia, Malawi, Mali, Rwanda, Uganda and Zimbabwe, to examine the magnitude and correlates of conditional acceptance of wife-beating among both men and women. Multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to investigate the independent association between different socio-demographic characteristics and acceptance of wife-beating. The acceptance of wife-beating for transgressing certain gender roles was widespread in all the countries. Men were consistently less likely to justify wife-beating than women. Household wealth and education emerged as strongest and most consistent negative predictors of acceptance of wife-beating among both men and women. Older men and women were less likely to justify wife-beating. Men and women in the polygamous union were more likely to accept wife-beating, though the association was not always significant. With the exception of Uganda, women working for pay were more likely to justify wife-beating than non-working women were. The results indicate that dominant social and cultural norms create images of "ideal" women among both men and women that include definition and widespread acceptance of gender roles as well as sanction use of force to enforce these gender roles. The State and its different institutions may fail to mitigate wife-beating, as sensitivity to objectively address wife-beating may be tellingly lacking. Though education, economic growth, etc, can reduce acceptance of wife-beating, the process may be too slow and too late to make a substantial difference in the near future. Proactive measures may be required to change attitudes towards wife-beating among both men and women.

  17. Health insurance systems in five Sub-Saharan African countries: medicine benefits and data for decision making.

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    Carapinha, João L; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Desta, Abayneh Tamer; Wagner, Anita K

    2011-03-01

    Medicine benefits through health insurance programs have the potential to improve access to and promote more effective use of affordable, high quality medicines. Information is lacking about medicine benefits provided by health insurance programs in Sub-Saharan Africa. We describe the structure of medicine benefits and data routinely available for decision-making in 33 health insurance programs in Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Tanzania and Uganda. Most programs surveyed were private, for profit schemes covering voluntary enrollees, mostly in urban areas. Almost all provide both inpatient and outpatient medicine benefits, with members sharing the cost of medicines in all programs. Some programs use strategies that are common in high-income countries to manage the medicine benefits, such as formularies, generics policies, reimbursement limits, or price negotiation. Basic data to monitor performance in delivering medicine benefits are available in most programs, but key data elements and the resources needed to generate useful management information from the available data are typically missing. Many questions remain unanswered about the design, implementation, and effects of specific medicines policies in the emerging and expanding health insurance programs in Sub-Saharan Africa. These include questions about the most effective medicines policy choices, given different corporate and organizational structures and resources; impacts of specific benefit designs on quality and affordability of care and health outcomes; and ways to facilitate use of routine data for monitoring. Technical capacity building, strong government commitment, and international donor support will be needed to realize the benefits of medicines coverage in emerging and expanding health insurance programs in Sub-Saharan Africa. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Risk factors for domestic physical violence: national cross-sectional household surveys in eight southern African countries

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    Mitchell Steve

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The baseline to assess impact of a mass education-entertainment programme offered an opportunity to identify risk factors for domestic physical violence. Methods In 2002, cross-sectional household surveys in a stratified urban/rural last-stage random sample of enumeration areas, based on latest national census in Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Working door to door, interviewers contacted all adults aged 16–60 years present on the day of the visit, without sub-sampling. 20,639 adults were interviewed. The questionnaire in 29 languages measured domestic physical violence by the question "In the last year, have you and your partner had violent arguments where your partner beat, kicked or slapped you?" There was no measure of severity or frequency of physical violence. Results 14% of men (weighted based on 1,294/8,113 and 18% of women (weighted based on 2,032/11,063 reported being a victim of partner physical violence in the last year. There was no convincing association with age, income, education, household size and remunerated occupation. Having multiple partners was strongly associated with partner physical violence. Other associations included the income gap within households, negative attitudes about sexuality (for example, men have the right to sex with their girlfriends if they buy them gifts and negative attitudes about sexual violence (for example, forcing your partner to have sex is not rape. Particularly among men, experience of partner physical violence was associated with potentially dangerous attitudes to HIV infection. Conclusion Having multiple partners was the most consistent risk factor for domestic physical violence across all countries. This could be relevant to domestic violence prevention strategies.

  19. Orphan/vulnerable child caregiving moderates the association between women's autonomy and their BMI in three African countries.

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    Kanamori, Mariano; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Madhavan, Sangeetha; Feldman, Robert; He, Xin; Lee, Sunmin

    2014-01-01

    Enhancement of women's autonomy is a key factor for improving women's health and nutrition. With nearly 12 million orphan and vulnerable children (OVC) in Africa due to HIV/AIDS, the study of OVC primary caregivers' nutrition is fundamental. We investigated the association between married women's autonomy and their nutritional status; explored whether this relationship was modified by OVC primary caregiving; and analyzed whether decision-making autonomy mediated the association between household wealth and body mass index (BMI). This cross-sectional study used the data from Demographic Health Surveys collected during 2006-2007 from 20- to 49-year-old women in Namibia (n = 2633), Swaziland (n = 1395), and Zambia (n = 2920). Analyses included logistic regression, Sobel, and Goodman tests. Our results indicated that women's educational attainment increased the odds for being overweight (Swaziland and Zambia) and decreased the odds for being underweight (Namibia). In Zambia, having at least primary education increased the odds for being overweight only among child primary caregivers regardless of the OVC status of the child, and having autonomy for buying everyday household items increased the odds for being overweight only among OVC primary caregivers. Decision-making autonomy mediated the association between household wealth and OVC primary caregivers' BMI in Zambia (Z = 2.13, p value = 0.03). We concluded that depending on each country's contextual characteristics, having education can decrease the odds for being an underweight woman or increase the odds for being an overweight woman. Further studies should explore why in Namibia education has an effect on women's overweight status only among women who are caring for a child.

  20. Symptom Clusters in People Living with HIV Attending Five Palliative Care Facilities in Two Sub-Saharan African Countries: A Hierarchical Cluster Analysis.

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    Moens, Katrien; Siegert, Richard J; Taylor, Steve; Namisango, Eve; Harding, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Symptom research across conditions has historically focused on single symptoms, and the burden of multiple symptoms and their interactions has been relatively neglected especially in people living with HIV. Symptom cluster studies are required to set priorities in treatment planning, and to lessen the total symptom burden. This study aimed to identify and compare symptom clusters among people living with HIV attending five palliative care facilities in two sub-Saharan African countries. Data from cross-sectional self-report of seven-day symptom prevalence on the 32-item Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale-Short Form were used. A hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted using Ward's method applying squared Euclidean Distance as the similarity measure to determine the clusters. Contingency tables, X2 tests and ANOVA were used to compare the clusters by patient specific characteristics and distress scores. Among the sample (N=217) the mean age was 36.5 (SD 9.0), 73.2% were female, and 49.1% were on antiretroviral therapy (ART). The cluster analysis produced five symptom clusters identified as: 1) dermatological; 2) generalised anxiety and elimination; 3) social and image; 4) persistently present; and 5) a gastrointestinal-related symptom cluster. The patients in the first three symptom clusters reported the highest physical and psychological distress scores. Patient characteristics varied significantly across the five clusters by functional status (worst functional physical status in cluster one, ppeople living with HIV with longitudinally collected symptom data to test cluster stability and identify common symptom trajectories is recommended.

  1. Monitoring Results in Routine Immunization: Development of Routine Immunization Dashboard in Selected African Countries in the Context of the Polio Eradication Endgame Strategic Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poy, Alain; van den Ent, Maya M V X; Sosler, Stephen; Hinman, Alan R; Brown, Sidney; Sodha, Samir; Ehlman, Daniel C; Wallace, Aaron S; Mihigo, Richard

    2017-07-01

    To monitor immunization-system strengthening in the Polio Eradication Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 (PEESP), the Global Polio Eradication Initiative identified 1 indicator: 10% annual improvement in third dose of diphtheria- tetanus-pertussis-containing vaccine (DTP3) coverage in polio high-risk districts of 10 polio focus countries. A multiagency team, including staff from the African Region, developed a comprehensive list of outcome and process indicators measuring various aspects of the performance of an immunization system. The development and implementation of the dashboard to assess immunization system performance allowed national program managers to monitor the key immunization indicators and stratify by high-risk and non-high-risk districts. Although only a single outcome indicator goal (at least 10% annual increase in DTP3 coverage achieved in 80% of high-risk districts) initially existed in the endgame strategy, we successfully added additional outcome indicators (eg, decreasing the number of DTP3-unvaccinated children) as well as program process indicators focusing on cold chain, stock availability, and vaccination sessions to better describe progress on the pathway to raising immunization coverage. When measuring progress toward improving immunization systems, it is helpful to use a comprehensive approach that allows for measuring multiple dimensions of the system. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  2. Cardiovascular disease and ABO blood-groups in Africans. Are blood-group A individuals at higher risk of ischemic disease?: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Djibril Marie; Sow, Mamadou Saidou; Diack, Aminata; Dia, Khadidiatou; Mboup, Mouhamed Cherif; Fall, Pape Diadie; Fall, Moussa Daouda

    2017-12-01

    , there was no statistical difference between blood group A and non-A in myocardial infarction (MI) incidence ( p  = 0.09, 95% CI = 0.99-2.83) but a statistically significant difference between blood group A and non-A in stroke and coronary artery disease (CAD) incidence (p blood group A (95% CI = 2.26-4.57, p  group, while there was no statistically significant difference in women ( p  = 0.35). However, an overall effect was detected to be statistically significant regardless of gender ( p  blood group A and ID in sub-Sahara Africans.In African countries, where most of health facilities are understaffed, more rigorous studies with a larger population are needed to give a high level of evidence to confirm this association in order to establish the need to be more aggressive in risk factor control in these individuals.

  3. HIV treatment and care services for adolescents: a situational analysis of 218 facilities in 23 sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Daniella; Armstrong, Alice; Andrade, Catarina; Penazzato, Martina; Hatane, Luann; Taing, Lina; Runciman, Toby; Ferguson, Jane

    2017-05-16

    In 2013, an estimated 2.1 million adolescents (age 10-19 years) were living with HIV globally. The extent to which health facilities provide appropriate treatment and care was unknown. To support understanding of service availability in 2014, Paediatric-Adolescent Treatment Africa (PATA), a non-governmental organisation (NGO) supporting a network of health facilities across sub-Saharan Africa, undertook a facility-level situational analysis of adolescent HIV treatment and care services in 23 countries. Two hundred and eighteen facilities, responsible for an estimated 80,072 HIV-infected adolescents in care, were surveyed. Sixty per cent of the sample were from PATA's network, with the remaining gathered via local NGO partners and snowball sampling. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and coding to describe central tendencies and identify themes. Respondents represented three subregions: West and Central Africa ( n  = 59; 27%), East Africa ( n  = 77, 35%) and southern Africa ( n  = 82, 38%). Half (50%) of the facilities were in urban areas, 17% peri-urban and 33% rural settings. Insufficient data disaggregation and outcomes monitoring were critical issues. A quarter of facilities did not have a working definition of adolescence. Facilities reported non-adherence as their key challenge in adolescent service provision, but had insufficient protocols for determining and managing poor adherence and loss to follow-up. Adherence counselling focused on implications of non-adherence rather than its drivers. Facilities recommended peer support as an effective adherence and retention intervention, yet not all offered these services. Almost two-thirds reported attending to adolescents with adults and/or children, and half had no transitioning protocols. Of those with transitioning protocols, 21% moved pregnant adolescents into adult services earlier than their peers. There was limited sexual and reproductive health integration, with 63% of facilities

  4. Health facility characteristics and their relationship to coverage of PMTCT of HIV services across four African countries: the PEARL study.

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    Didier K Ekouevi

    Full Text Available Health facility characteristics associated with effective prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT coverage in sub-Saharan are poorly understood.We conducted surveys in health facilities with active PMTCT services in Cameroon, Cote d'Ivoire, South Africa, and Zambia. Data was compiled via direct observation and exit interviews. We constructed composite scores to describe provision of PMTCT services across seven topical areas: antenatal quality, PMTCT quality, supplies available, patient satisfaction, patient understanding of medication, and infrastructure quality. Pearson correlations and Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE to account for clustering of facilities within countries were used to evaluate the relationship between the composite scores, total time of visit and select individual variables with PMTCT coverage among women delivering. Between July 2008 and May 2009, we collected data from 32 facilities; 78% were managed by the government health system. An opt-out approach for HIV testing was used in 100% of facilities in Zambia, 63% in Cameroon, and none in Côte d'Ivoire or South Africa. Using Pearson correlations, PMTCT coverage (median of 55%, (IQR: 33-68 was correlated with PMTCT quality score (rho = 0.51; p = 0.003; infrastructure quality score (rho = 0.43; p = 0.017; time spent at clinic (rho = 0.47; p = 0.013; patient understanding of medications score (rho = 0.51; p = 0.006; and patient satisfaction quality score (rho = 0.38; p = 0.031. PMTCT coverage was marginally correlated with the antenatal quality score (rho = 0.304; p = 0.091. Using GEE adjustment for clustering, the, antenatal quality score became more strongly associated with PMTCT coverage (p<0.001 and the PMTCT quality score and patient understanding of medications remained marginally significant.We observed a positive relationship between an antenatal quality score and PMTCT coverage but did not identify

  5. Urban–rural and geographic differences in overweight and obesity in four sub-Saharan African adult populations: a multi-country cross-sectional study

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    IkeOluwapo O. Ajayi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity are on the rise in developing countries including sub-Saharan Africa. We undertook a four-country survey to show the collective burden of these health conditions as they occur currently in sub-Saharan Africa and to determine the differences between urban and rural populations and other socio-economic factors. Methods Participants were nurses in two hospitals in Nigeria (200, school teachers in South Africa (489 and Tanzania (229, and village residents in one peri-urban (297 and one rural location in Uganda (200 who completed a standardised questionnaire. Their height and weight were measured and body mass index calculated. Factor analysis procedure (Principal component was used to generate a wealth index. Univariate and multivariate analyses with binary logistic regression models were conducted to examine the associations between potential correlates and the prevalence of overweight and obesity with 95 % confidence intervals. Results The prevalence of overweight and obese (combined was 46 %, 48 %, 68 %, 75 % and 85 % in rural Uganda, peri-urban Uganda, Nigeria, Tanzania and South Africa (SA, respectively. Rural Uganda, Peri- urban Uganda, Nigeria, Tanzania and SA had obesity prevalence of 10 %, 14 %, 31 %, 40 % and 54 %, respectively (p  =25 kg/m2 in Nigeria [Age > =45 - AOR = 9.11; 95 % CI: 1.72, 48.16] and SA [AOR = 6.22; 95 % CI: 2.75, 14.07], while marital status was predictor of BMI > =25 kg/m2 only in peri-urban Uganda. [Married - AOR = 4.49; 95 % CI: 1.74, 11.57]. Those in Nigeria [AOR = 2.56; 95 % CI: 1.45, 4.53], SA [AOR = 4.97; 95 % CI: 3.18, 7.78], and Tanzania [AOR = 2.68; 95 % CI: 1.60, 4.49] were more likely to have BMI > =25 kg/m2 compared with the rural and peri-urban sites. Conclusion The high prevalence of overweight and obesity in these sub-Saharan African countries and the differentials in prevalence and risk factors further

  6. China-Africa Health Development Initiatives: Benefits and Implications for Shaping Innovative and Evidence-informed National Health Policies and Programs in Sub-saharan African Countries

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    Tambo, Ernest; Ugwu, Chidiebere E.; Guan, Yayi; Wei, Ding; Xiao-Ning; Xiao-Nong, Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Background and Introduction: This review paper examines the growing implications of China’s engagement in shaping innovative national initiatives against infectious diseases and poverty control and elimination in African countries. It seeks to understand the factors and enhancers that can promote mutual and innovative health development initiatives, and those that are necessary in generating reliable and quality data for evidence-based contextual policy, priorities and programs. Methods: We examined the China-Africa health cooperation in supporting global health agenda on infectious diseases such as malaria, schistosomiasis, Ebola, TB, HIV/AIDS, neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) prevention, control and elimination spanning a period of 10 years. We reviewed referenced publications, global support data, and extensive sources related to and other emerging epidemics and infectious diseases of poverty, programs and interventions, health systems development issues, challenges, opportunities and investments. Published literature in PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Books and web-based peer-reviewed journal articles, government annual reports were assessed from the first Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) in November 2006 to December 2015 Third Ministerial conferences. Results: Our findings highlight current shared public health challenges and emphasize the need to nurture, develop and establish effective, functional and sustainable health systems capacity to detect and respond to all public health threats and epidemic burdens, evidence-based programs and quality care outcomes. China’s significant health diplomacy emphasizes the importance of health financing in establishing health development commitment and investment in improving the gains and opportunities, importantly efficiency and value health priorities and planning. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Strengthening China-Africa health development agenda towards collective commitment and investment

  7. Costs and cost-effectiveness of 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in two East African countries.

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    Kiatpongsan, Sorapop; Kim, Jane J

    2014-01-01

    Current prophylactic vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) target two of the most oncogenic types, HPV-16 and -18, which contribute to roughly 70% of cervical cancers worldwide. Second-generation HPV vaccines include a 9-valent vaccine, which targets five additional oncogenic HPV types (i.e., 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58) that contribute to another 15-30% of cervical cancer cases. The objective of this study was to determine a range of vaccine costs for which the 9-valent vaccine would be cost-effective in comparison to the current vaccines in two less developed countries (i.e., Kenya and Uganda). The analysis was performed using a natural history disease simulation model of HPV and cervical cancer. The mathematical model simulates individual women from an early age and tracks health events and resource use as they transition through clinically-relevant health states over their lifetime. Epidemiological data on HPV prevalence and cancer incidence were used to adapt the model to Kenya and Uganda. Health benefit, or effectiveness, from HPV vaccination was measured in terms of life expectancy, and costs were measured in international dollars (I$). The incremental cost of the 9-valent vaccine included the added cost of the vaccine counterbalanced by costs averted from additional cancer cases prevented. All future costs and health benefits were discounted at an annual rate of 3% in the base case analysis. We conducted sensitivity analyses to investigate how infection with multiple HPV types, unidentifiable HPV types in cancer cases, and cross-protection against non-vaccine types could affect the potential cost range of the 9-valent vaccine. In the base case analysis in Kenya, we found that vaccination with the 9-valent vaccine was very cost-effective (i.e., had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio below per-capita GDP), compared to the current vaccines provided the added cost of the 9-valent vaccine did not exceed I$9.7 per vaccinated girl. To be considered very cost

  8. Establishing sustainable performance-based incentive schemes: views of rural health workers from qualitative research in three sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yé, M; Aninanya, G A; Sié, A; Kakoko, D C V; Chatio, S; Kagoné, M; Prytherch, H; Loukanova, S; Williams, J E; Sauerborn, R

    2014-01-01

    Performance-based incentives (PBIs) are currently receiving attention as a strategy for improving the quality of care that health providers deliver. Experiences from several African countries have shown that PBIs can trigger improvements, particularly in the area of maternal and neonatal health. The involvement of health workers in deciding how their performance should be measured is recommended. Only limited information is available about how such schemes can be made sustainable. This study explored the types of PBIs that rural health workers suggested, their ideas regarding the management and sustainability of such schemes, and their views on which indicators best lend themselves to the monitoring of performance. In this article the authors reported the findings from a cross-country survey conducted in Burkina Faso, Ghana and Tanzania. The study was exploratory with qualitative methodology. In-depth interviews were conducted with 29 maternal and neonatal healthcare providers, four district health managers and two policy makers (total 35 respondents) from one district in each of the three countries. The respondents were purposively selected from six peripheral health facilities. Care was taken to include providers who had a management role. By also including respondents from district and policy level a comparison of perspectives from different levels of the health system was facilitated. The data that was collected was coded and analysed with support of NVivo v8 software. The most frequently suggested PBIs amongst the respondents in Burkina Faso were training with per-diems, bonuses and recognition of work done. The respondents in Tanzania favoured training with per-diems, as well as payment of overtime, and timely promotion. The respondents in Ghana also called for training, including paid study leave, payment of overtime and recognition schemes for health workers or facilities. Respondents in the three countries supported the mobilisation of local resources to

  9. Assessment of African Swine Fever Diagnostic Techniques as a Response to the Epidemic Outbreaks in Eastern European Union Countries: How To Improve Surveillance and Control Programs.

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    Gallardo, C; Nieto, R; Soler, A; Pelayo, V; Fernández-Pinero, J; Markowska-Daniel, I; Pridotkas, G; Nurmoja, I; Granta, R; Simón, A; Pérez, C; Martín, E; Fernández-Pacheco, P; Arias, M

    2015-08-01

    This study represents a complete comparative analysis of the most widely used African swine fever (ASF) diagnostic techniques in the European Union (EU) using field and experimental samples from animals infected with genotype II ASF virus (ASFV) isolates circulating in Europe. To detect ASFV, three different PCRs were evaluated in parallel using 785 field and experimental samples. The results showed almost perfect agreement between the Universal ProbeLibrary (UPL-PCR) and the real-time (κ = 0.94 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.91 to 0.97]) and conventional (κ = 0.88 [95% CI, 0.83 to 0.92]) World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)-prescribed PCRs. The UPL-PCR had greater diagnostic sensitivity for detecting survivors and allows earlier detection of the disease. Compared to the commercial antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), good-to-moderate agreement (κ = 0.67 [95% CI, 0.58 to 0.76]) was obtained, with a sensitivity of 77.2% in the commercial test. For ASF antibody detection, five serological methods were tested, including three commercial ELISAs, the OIE-ELISA, and the confirmatory immunoperoxidase test (IPT). Greater sensitivity was obtained with the IPT than with the ELISAs, since the IPT was able to detect ASF antibodies at an earlier point in the serological response, when few antibodies are present. The analysis of the exudate tissues from dead wild boars showed that IPT might be a useful serological tool for determining whether or not animals had been exposed to virus infection, regardless of whether antibodies were present. In conclusion, the UPL-PCR in combination with the IPT was the most trustworthy method for detecting ASF during the epidemic outbreaks affecting EU countries in 2014. The use of the most appropriate diagnostic tools is critical when implementing effective control programs. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Assessment of African Swine Fever Diagnostic Techniques as a Response to the Epidemic Outbreaks in Eastern European Union Countries: How To Improve Surveillance and Control Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, R.; Soler, A.; Pelayo, V.; Fernández-Pinero, J.; Markowska-Daniel, I.; Pridotkas, G.; Nurmoja, I.; Granta, R.; Simón, A.; Pérez, C.; Martín, E.; Fernández-Pacheco, P.; Arias, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study represents a complete comparative analysis of the most widely used African swine fever (ASF) diagnostic techniques in the European Union (EU) using field and experimental samples from animals infected with genotype II ASF virus (ASFV) isolates circulating in Europe. To detect ASFV, three different PCRs were evaluated in parallel using 785 field and experimental samples. The results showed almost perfect agreement between the Universal ProbeLibrary (UPL-PCR) and the real-time (κ = 0.94 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.91 to 0.97]) and conventional (κ = 0.88 [95% CI, 0.83 to 0.92]) World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)-prescribed PCRs. The UPL-PCR had greater diagnostic sensitivity for detecting survivors and allows earlier detection of the disease. Compared to the commercial antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), good-to-moderate agreement (κ = 0.67 [95% CI, 0.58 to 0.76]) was obtained, with a sensitivity of 77.2% in the commercial test. For ASF antibody detection, five serological methods were tested, including three commercial ELISAs, the OIE-ELISA, and the confirmatory immunoperoxidase test (IPT). Greater sensitivity was obtained with the IPT than with the ELISAs, since the IPT was able to detect ASF antibodies at an earlier point in the serological response, when few antibodies are present. The analysis of the exudate tissues from dead wild boars showed that IPT might be a useful serological tool for determining whether or not animals had been exposed to virus infection, regardless of whether antibodies were present. In conclusion, the UPL-PCR in combination with the IPT was the most trustworthy method for detecting ASF during the epidemic outbreaks affecting EU countries in 2014. The use of the most appropriate diagnostic tools is critical when implementing effective control programs. PMID:26041901

  11. Does marital status matter in an HIV hyperendemic country? Findings from the 2012 South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Behaviour Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shisana, Olive; Risher, Kathryn; Celentano, David D; Zungu, Nompumelelo; Rehle, Thomas; Ngcaweni, Busani; Evans, Meredith G B

    2016-01-01

    South Africa has experienced declining marriage rates and the increasing practice of cohabitation without marriage. This study aims to improve the understanding of the relationship between marital status and HIV in South Africa, an HIV hyperendemic country, through an analysis of findings from the 2012 South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Behaviour Survey. The nationally representative population-based cross-sectional survey collected data on HIV and socio-demographic and behavioural determinants in South Africa. This analysis considered respondents aged 16 years and older who consented to participate in the survey and provided dried blood spot specimens for HIV testing (N = 17,356). After controlling for age, race, having multiple sexual partners, condom use at last sex, urban/rural dwelling and level of household income, those who were married living with their spouse had significantly reduced odds of being HIV-positive compared to all other marital spouses groups. HIV incidence was 0.27% among respondents who were married living with their spouses; the highest HIV incidence was found in the cohabiting group (2.91%). Later marriage (after age 24) was associated with increased odds of HIV prevalence. Our analysis suggests an association between marital status and HIV prevalence and incidence in contemporary South Africa, where odds of being HIV-positive were found to be lower among married individuals who lived with their spouses compared to all other marital status groups. HIV prevention messages therefore need to be targeted to unmarried populations, especially cohabitating populations. As low socio-economic status, low social cohesion and the resulting destabilization of sexual relationships may explain the increased risk of HIV among unmarried populations, it is necessary to address structural issues including poverty that create an environment unfavourable to stable sexual relationships.

  12. HIV prevalence and behavioral and psychosocial factors among transgender women and cisgender men who have sex with men in 8 African countries: A cross-sectional analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Benjamin; Diouf, Daouda; Ceesay, Nuha; Mothopeng, Tampose; Odette, Ky-Zerbo; Kouanda, Seni; Ouedraogo, Henri Gautier; Simplice, Anato; Kouame, Abo; Trapence, Gift; van der Merwe, L. Leigh Ann; Jumbe, Vicente; Baral, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Sub-Saharan Africa bears more than two-thirds of the worldwide burden of HIV; however, data among transgender women from the region are sparse. Transgender women across the world face significant vulnerability to HIV. This analysis aimed to assess HIV prevalence as well as psychosocial and behavioral drivers of HIV infection among transgender women compared with cisgender (non-transgender) men who have sex with men (cis-MSM) in 8 sub-Saharan African countries. Methods and findings Respondent-driven sampling targeted cis-MSM for enrollment. Data collection took place at 14 sites across 8 countries: Burkina Faso (January–August 2013), Côte d’Ivoire (March 2015–February 2016), The Gambia (July–December 2011), Lesotho (February–September 2014), Malawi (July 2011–March 2012), Senegal (February–November 2015), Swaziland (August–December 2011), and Togo (January–June 2013). Surveys gathered information on sexual orientation, gender identity, stigma, mental health, sexual behavior, and HIV testing. Rapid tests for HIV were conducted. Data were merged, and mixed effects logistic regression models were used to estimate relationships between gender identity and HIV infection. Among 4,586 participants assigned male sex at birth, 937 (20%) identified as transgender or female, and 3,649 were cis-MSM. The mean age of study participants was approximately 24 years, with no difference between transgender participants and cis-MSM. Compared to cis-MSM participants, transgender women were more likely to experience family exclusion (odds ratio [OR] 1.75, 95% CI 1.42–2.16, p HIV (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.49–2.19, p HIV prevalence was 25% (235/926) in transgender women and 14% (505/3,594) in cis-MSM. When adjusted for age, condomless receptive anal sex, depression, interpersonal stigma, law enforcement stigma, and violence, and the interaction of gender with condomless receptive anal sex, the odds of HIV infection for transgender women were 2.2 times greater

  13. East African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The East African Medical Journal is intended for publication of papers on ... research on problems relevant to East Africa and other African countries will receive special ... Analysis of survival patterns of TB‐HIV co‐infected patients in relation to ...

  14. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Historically, scholarly information has flowed from North to South and from West to East. It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other African academics. In partnership with hundreds of journals from all ... Featured Country: Nigeria, Featured Journal: Nigeria Journal of Business Administration ...

  15. African Journals Online: Guernsey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Guernsey. Home > African Journals Online: Guernsey. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ...

  16. African Journals Online: Grenada

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Grenada. Home > African Journals Online: Grenada. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ...

  17. African Journals Online: India

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: India. Home > African Journals Online: India. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access. Afghanistan ...

  18. African Journals Online: Barbados

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Barbados. Home > African Journals Online: Barbados. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ...

  19. African Journals Online: Malta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Malta. Home > African Journals Online: Malta. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access. Afghanistan ...

  20. African Journals Online: Bahamas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Bahamas. Home > African Journals Online: Bahamas. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ...

  1. African Journals Online: Liechtenstein

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Liechtenstein. Home > African Journals Online: Liechtenstein. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ...

  2. African Journals Online: Vanuatu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Vanuatu. Home > African Journals Online: Vanuatu. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ...

  3. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences; Conflicts in Africa: Meaning, Causes, Impact and Solution African Research Review; The competitive advantage of nations: is Porter's Diamond Framework a new theory that explains the international competitiveness of countries? Southern African Business Review; The Rise of ...

  4. African Journals Online: Aruba

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Aruba. Home > African Journals Online: Aruba. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access. Afghanistan ...

  5. African Journals Online: Kazakhstan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Kazakhstan. Home > African Journals Online: Kazakhstan. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ...

  6. African Journals Online: Switzerland

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Switzerland. Home > African Journals Online: Switzerland. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ...

  7. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In partnership with hundreds of journals from all over the continent, AJOL works to change this, so that African-origin research output is available to Africans and to the rest of the world. AJOL is a Non-Profit Organisation ... Featured Country: Nigeria, Featured Journal: Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology ...

  8. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mizan Law Review; The competitive advantage of nations: is Porter's Diamond Framework a new theory that explains the international competitiveness of countries? ... African Journal of Biotechnology; The application of just administrative action in the South African environmental governance sphere: An analysis of some ...

  9. Annals of African Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Annals of African Medicine is published by the Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria and the Annals of African Medicine Society. The Journal is intended to serve as a medium for the publication of research findings in the broad field of Medicine in Africa and other developing countries, and ...

  10. African Journals Online: Andorra

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Andorra. Home > African Journals Online: Andorra. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ...

  11. African Journals Online: Ireland

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Ireland. Home > African Journals Online: Ireland. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access. Afghanistan ...

  12. African Journals Online: Belgium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Belgium. Home > African Journals Online: Belgium. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ...

  13. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals OnLine (AJOL) is the world's largest and pre-eminent collection of peer-reviewed, African-published scholarly journals. ... Continuing Medical Education; The competitive advantage of nations: is Porter's Diamond Framework a new theory that explains the international competitiveness of countries?

  14. Urban-rural and geographic differences in overweight and obesity in four sub-Saharan African adult populations: a multi-country cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, IkeOluwapo O; Adebamowo, Clement; Adami, Hans-Olov; Dalal, Shona; Diamond, Megan B; Bajunirwe, Francis; Guwatudde, David; Njelekela, Marina; Nankya-Mutyoba, Joan; Chiwanga, Faraja S; Volmink, Jimmy; Kalyesubula, Robert; Laurence, Carien; Reid, Todd G; Dockery, Douglas; Hemenway, David; Spiegelman, Donna; Holmes, Michelle D

    2016-10-28

    .18, 7.78], and Tanzania [AOR = 2.68; 95 % CI: 1.60, 4.49] were more likely to have BMI > =25 kg/m 2 compared with the rural and peri-urban sites. The high prevalence of overweight and obesity in these sub-Saharan African countries and the differentials in prevalence and risk factors further highlights the need for urgent focused intervention to stem this trend, especially among women, professionals and urban dwellers.

  15. African Research Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    imports over exports leading to unfavourable balance of payments, low domestic ... on the subject examine the effect of FDI on economic growth and a few ..... Given that the data sample in this thesis covers the selected African countries,.

  16. adicating African Wars:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    countries, African decision makers nonetheless began to reconsider the role and place of military ..... challenged the war—fighting paradigm for armed forces or the 2003 Gulf ..... Carlisle: Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College. Evans ...

  17. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Featured Country: Ghana, Featured Journal: Journal of Business Research. Most recent issues on AJOL: Vol 13 (2017). African Journal of Educational Studies in Mathematics and Sciences. Vol 7 (2017) ... Vol 6, No 2 (2014). Journal of ...

  18. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reviewed, African-published scholarly journals. Historically, scholarly information has flowed from North to South and from West to East. It has also been difficult ... Featured Country: Egypt, Arab Rep. Featured Journal: Alexandria Journal of Medicine ...

  19. HIV prevalence and behavioral and psychosocial factors among transgender women and cisgender men who have sex with men in 8 African countries: A cross-sectional analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonia Poteat

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sub-Saharan Africa bears more than two-thirds of the worldwide burden of HIV; however, data among transgender women from the region are sparse. Transgender women across the world face significant vulnerability to HIV. This analysis aimed to assess HIV prevalence as well as psychosocial and behavioral drivers of HIV infection among transgender women compared with cisgender (non-transgender men who have sex with men (cis-MSM in 8 sub-Saharan African countries.Respondent-driven sampling targeted cis-MSM for enrollment. Data collection took place at 14 sites across 8 countries: Burkina Faso (January-August 2013, Côte d'Ivoire (March 2015-February 2016, The Gambia (July-December 2011, Lesotho (February-September 2014, Malawi (July 2011-March 2012, Senegal (February-November 2015, Swaziland (August-December 2011, and Togo (January-June 2013. Surveys gathered information on sexual orientation, gender identity, stigma, mental health, sexual behavior, and HIV testing. Rapid tests for HIV were conducted. Data were merged, and mixed effects logistic regression models were used to estimate relationships between gender identity and HIV infection. Among 4,586 participants assigned male sex at birth, 937 (20% identified as transgender or female, and 3,649 were cis-MSM. The mean age of study participants was approximately 24 years, with no difference between transgender participants and cis-MSM. Compared to cis-MSM participants, transgender women were more likely to experience family exclusion (odds ratio [OR] 1.75, 95% CI 1.42-2.16, p < 0.001, rape (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.63-2.36, p < 0.001, and depressive symptoms (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.12-1.52, p < 0.001. Transgender women were more likely to report condomless receptive anal sex in the prior 12 months (OR 2.44, 95% CI 2.05-2.90, p < 0.001 and to be currently living with HIV (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.49-2.19, p < 0.001. Overall HIV prevalence was 25% (235/926 in transgender women and 14% (505/3,594 in cis-MSM. When adjusted

  20. Improving the Quality of Host Country Ethical Oversight of International Research: The Use of a Collaborative 'Pre-Review' Mechanism for a Study of Fexinidazole for Human African Trypanosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Carl H; Ardiot, Chantal; Blesson, Séverine; Bonnin, Yves; Bompart, Francois; Colonna, Pierre; Dhai, Ames; Ecuru, Julius; Edielu, Andrew; Hervé, Christian; Hirsch, François; Kouyaté, Bocar; Mamzer-Bruneel, Marie-France; Maoundé, Dionko; Martinent, Eric; Ntsiba, Honoré; Pelé, Gérard; Quéva, Gilles; Reinmund, Marie-Christine; Sarr, Samba Cor; Sepou, Abdoulaye; Tarral, Antoine; Tetimian, Djetodjide; Valverde, Olaf; Van Nieuwenhove, Simon; Strub-Wourgaft, Nathalie

    2015-12-01

    Developing countries face numerous barriers to conducting effective and efficient ethics reviews of international collaborative research. In addition to potentially overlooking important scientific and ethical considerations, inadequate or insufficiently trained ethics committees may insist on unwarranted changes to protocols that can impair a study's scientific or ethical validity. Moreover, poorly functioning review systems can impose substantial delays on the commencement of research, which needlessly undermine the development of new interventions for urgent medical needs. In response to these concerns, the Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative (DNDi), an independent nonprofit organization founded by a coalition of public sector and international organizations, developed a mechanism to facilitate more effective and efficient host country ethics review for a study of the use of fexinidazole for the treatment of late stage African Trypanosomiasis (HAT). The project involved the implementation of a novel 'pre-review' process of ethical oversight, conducted by an ad hoc committee of ethics committee representatives from African and European countries, in collaboration with internationally recognized scientific experts. This article examines the process and outcomes of this collaborative process. © 2014 The Authors. Developing World Bioethics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The Relationship between Adiposity and Insulin Sensitivity in African Women Living with the Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: A Clamp Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuella Doh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We aimed to assess the variation of insulin sensitivity in relation to obesity in women living with PCOS in a sub-Sahara African setting. Methods. We studied body composition, insulin sensitivity, and resting energy expenditure in 14 PCOS patients (6 obese and 8 nonobese compared to 10 matched nonobese non-PCOS subjects. Insulin sensitivity was assessed using the gold standard 80 mU/m2/min euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp and resting energy expenditure was measured by indirect calorimetry. Results. Insulin sensitivity adjusted to lean mass was lowest in obese PCOS subjects and highest in healthy subjects (11.2 [10.1–12.4] versus 12.9 [12.1–13.8] versus 16.6 [13.8–17.9], p=0.012; there was a tendency for resting energy expenditure adjusted for total body mass to decrease across the groups highest in obese PCOS subjects (1411 [1368–1613] versus 1274 [1174–1355] versus 1239 [1195–1454], p=0.306. Conclusion. In this sub-Saharan population, insulin resistance is associated with PCOS per se but is further aggravated by obesity. Obesity did not seem to be explained by low resting energy expenditure suggesting that dietary intake may be a determinant of the obesity in this context.

  2. Shocks, civil war and economic development in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Nillesen, E.E.M.

    2010-01-01

    Foreign aid, low institutional quality and civil wars are associated with slow economic development in many Sub-Sahara African countries. I aim to identify causal relations and mechanisms that explain significant correlations. I use both macro- and micro-economic data and show that results are not necessarily far apart. I assess the influence of foreign aid using macro-level data of 30 Sub-Saharan African countries. Opponents argue that foreign aid corrupts, and will end up in the hands of a...

  3. Blood donation barriers and facilitators of Sub-Saharan African migrants and minorities in Western high-income countries: a systematic review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klinkenberg, E. F.; Huis In 't Veld, E. M. J.; de Wit, P. D.; van Dongen, A.; Daams, J. G.; de Kort, W. L. A. M.; Fransen, M. P.

    2018-01-01

    The present study aimed to gain more insight into, and summarise, blood donation determinants among migrants or minorities of Sub-Saharan heritage by systematically reviewing the current literature. Sub-Saharan Africans are under-represented in the blood donor population in Western high-income

  4. Patterns of HIV-1 Drug Resistance After First-Line Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Failure in 6 Sub-Saharan African Countries: Implications for Second-Line ART Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamers, Raph L.; Sigaloff, Kim C. E.; Wensing, Annemarie M.; Wallis, Carole L.; Kityo, Cissy; Siwale, Margaret; Mandaliya, Kishor; Ive, Prudence; Botes, Mariette E.; Wellington, Maureen; Osibogun, Akin; Stevens, Wendy S.; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.; Schuurman, Rob; Siwale, M.; Njovu, C.; Labib, M.; Menke, J.; Botes, M. E.; Conradie, F.; Ive, P.; Sanne, I.; Wallis, C. L.; Letsoalo, E.; Stevens, W. S.; Hardman, M.; Wellington, M.; Luthy, R.; Mandaliya, K.; Abdallah, S.; Jao, I.; Dolan, M.; Namayanja, G.; Nakatudde, L.; Nankya, I.; Kiconco, M.; Abwola, M.; Mugyenyi, P.; Osibogun, A.; Akanmu, S.; Schuurman, R.; Wensing, A. M.; Straatsma, E.; Wit, F. W.; Dekker, J.; van Vugt, M.; Lange, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) drug resistance may limit the benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART). This cohort study examined patterns of drug-resistance mutations (DRMs) in individuals with virological failure on first-line ART at 13 clinical sites in 6 African

  5. Country Presentation Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oriada, R.; Byakagaba, A.; Kiza, M.; Magembe, M.

    2010-01-01

    Like Many African countries, Uganda is not Immune to the problem of illicit trafficking of Nuclear and Radioactive materials. This has been worsened by the porosity of the Ugandan Borders. There is control on the few Entry points and much of the border line does not have adequate control on what enters and leaves the country. Uganda is also used as a transit route with the neighboring countries like Sudan, Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya,Tanzania.

  6. Associations between psychological stress and smoking, drinking, obesity, and high blood pressure in an upper middle-income country in the African region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamik, Tanja; Viswanathan, Bharathi; Gedeon, Jude; Bovet, Pascal

    2018-02-01

    The direction and magnitude of the associations between cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) and psychological stress continue to be debated, and no data are available from surveys in the African region. In this study, we examine the associations between CVRFs and psychological stress in the Seychelles, a rapidly developing small island state in the African region. A survey was conducted in 1,240 adults aged 25-64 years representative of the Seychelles. Participants were asked to rank psychological stress that they had experienced during the past 12 months in four domains: work, social life, financial situation, and environment around home. CVRFs (high blood pressure, tobacco use, alcohol drinking, and obesity) were assessed using standard procedures. Psychological stress was associated with age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Overall, there were only few consistent associations between psychological stress and CVRFs, adjusting for age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Social stress was associated with smoking, drinking, and obesity, and there were marginal associations between stress at work and drinking, and between financial stress, and smoking and drinking. Psychological stress was not associated with high blood pressure. These findings suggest that psychological stress should be considered in cardiovascular disease prevention and control strategies. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. African Journals Online: Brunei Darussalam

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Brunei Darussalam. Home > African Journals Online: Brunei Darussalam. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is ...

  8. AFRICAN JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC REVIEW

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Kazungu

    African Journal of Economic Review, Volume IV, Issue 1, January 2016 ... infant mortality rates in 31 selected sub-Saharan African countries for the .... Also, declines in nutritional status as a result of upsurge in food prices may cause poor birth ..... Deaton, A. (1989) 'Rice Prices and Income Distribution in Thailand: A Non- ...

  9. Migration as a turning point in food habits: the early phase of dietary acculturation among women from South Asian, African, and Middle Eastern Countries living in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terragni, Laura; Garnweidner, Lisa M; Pettersen, Kjell Sverre; Mosdøl, Annhild

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the early phase of dietary acculturation after migration. South Asian, African and Middle Eastern women (N = 21) living in Norway were interviewed about their early experiences with food in a new context. The findings pointed to abrupt changes in food habits in the first period after migration. To various degrees, women reported unfamiliarity with foods in shops, uncertainty about meal formats and food preparation and fear of eating food prohibited by their religion. Their food consumption tended to be restricted to food items perceived as familiar or safe. Our findings indicate that the first period after migration represents a specific phase in the process of dietary acculturation. Early initiatives aimed at enhancing confidence in food and familiarity with the new food culture are recommended.

  10. Accuracy of parasitological and immunological tests for the screening of human schistosomiasis in immigrants and refugees from African countries: An approach with Latent Class Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Beltrame

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a neglected infection affecting millions of people, mostly living in sub-Saharan Africa. Morbidity and mortality due to chronic infection are relevant, although schistosomiasis is often clinically silent. Different diagnostic tests have been implemented in order to improve screening and diagnosis, that traditionally rely on parasitological tests with low sensitivity. Aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of different tests for the screening of schistosomiasis in African migrants, in a non endemic setting.A retrospective study was conducted on 373 patients screened at the Centre for Tropical Diseases (CTD in Negrar, Verona, Italy. Biological samples were tested with: stool/urine microscopy, Circulating Cathodic Antigen (CCA dipstick test, ELISA, Western blot, immune-chromatographic test (ICT. Test accuracy and predictive values of the immunological tests were assessed primarily on the basis of the results of microscopy (primary reference standard: ICT and WB resulted the test with highest sensitivity (94% and 92%, respectively, with a high NPV (98%. CCA showed the highest specificity (93%, but low sensitivity (48%. The analysis was conducted also using a composite reference standard, CRS (patients classified as infected in case of positive microscopy and/or at least 2 concordant positive immunological tests and Latent Class Analysis (LCA. The latter two models demonstrated excellent agreement (Cohen's kappa: 0.92 for the classification of the results. In fact, they both confirmed ICT as the test with the highest sensitivity (96% and NPV (97%, moreover PPV was reasonably good (78% and 72% according to CRS and LCA, respectively. ELISA resulted the most specific immunological test (over 99%. The ICT appears to be a suitable screening test, even when used alone.The rapid test ICT was the most sensitive test, with the potential of being used as a single screening test for African migrants.

  11. South African Music Studies: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAMUS: South African Music Studies is the official organ for the South African Society for Research in Music (SASRIM). It gives priority to the publication of research on South African music, but continues to represent the wider field of research interests in the country and in the rest of Africa. The journal invites work from any ...

  12. WEST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    which is generally believed to be rare in most African countries. The objectives of the ..... diagnosis of patients with IBD in Nigeria. Variables. Frequency Percentages. Sex. Male. 8. 66.7. Female. 4 ... schools or work frequently. DISCUSSION.

  13. Promoting anti-corruption reforms. Evaluating the implementation of a World Bank anti-corruption program in seven African countries (1999-2001)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Haarhuis, C.M.

    2005-01-01

    This study offers an investigation of the implementation of a World Bank anti-corruption program, by applying various relevant social science theories and methods. The aim of the program is to provide countries with tools to build a relevant and participatory anti-corruption program. The study

  14. Promoting anti-corruption reforms : Evaluating the implementation of a World Bank anti-corruption program in seven African countries (1999-2001)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Haarhuis, Carolien Maria

    2005-01-01

    This study offers an investigation of the implementation of a World Bank anti-corruption program, by applying various relevant social science theories and methods. The aim of the program is to provide countries with tools to build a relevant and participatory anti-corruption program. The study

  15. Genetic diversity and genetic structure of Persian walnut (Juglans regia) accessions from 14 European, African, and Asian countries using SSR markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz Ebrahimi; Abdolkarim Zarei; Shaneka Lawson; Keith E. Woeste; M. J. M. Smulders

    2016-01-01

    Persian walnut (Juglans regia L.) is the world's most widely grown nut crop, but large-scale assessments and comparisons of the genetic diversity of the crop are notably lacking. To guide the conservation and utilization of Persian walnut genetic resources, genotypes (n = 189) from 25 different regions in 14 countries on...

  16. Oral and injectable contraceptive use and HIV acquisition risk among women in four African countries: a secondary analysis of data from a microbicide trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkus, Jennifer E; Brown, Elizabeth R; Hillier, Sharon L; Coletti, Anne; Ramjee, Gita; Mgodi, Nyaradzo; Makanani, Bonus; Reid, Cheri; Martinson, Francis; Soto-Torres, Lydia; Abdool Karim, Salim S; Chirenje, Zvavahera M

    2016-01-01

    To assess the effect of oral and injectable contraceptive use compared to nonhormonal contraceptive use on HIV acquisition among Southern African women enrolled in a microbicide trial. This is a prospective cohort study using data from women enrolled in HIV Prevention Trials Network protocol 035. At each quarterly visit, participants were interviewed about self-reported contraceptive use and sexual behaviors and underwent HIV testing. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess the effect of injectable and oral hormonal contraceptive use on HIV acquisition. The analysis included 2830 participants, of whom 106 became HIV infected (4.07 per 100 person-years). At baseline, 1546 (51%) participants reported using injectable contraceptives and 595 (21%) reported using oral contraceptives. HIV incidence among injectable, oral and nonhormonal contraceptive method users was 4.72, 2.68 and 3.83 per 100 person-years, respectively. Injectable contraceptive use was associated with a nonstatistically significant increased risk of HIV acquisition [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR)=1.17; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.70, 1.96], while oral contraceptive use was associated with a nonstatistically significant decreased risk of HIV acquisition (aHR=0.76; 95% CI 0.37,1.55). In this secondary analysis of randomized trial data, a marginal, but nonstatistically significant, increase in HIV risk among women using injectable hormonal contraceptives was observed. No increased HIV risk was observed among women using oral contraceptives. Our findings support the World Health Organization's recommendation that women at high risk for acquiring HIV, including those using progestogen-only injectable contraception, should be strongly advised to always use condoms and other HIV prevention measures. Among Southern African women participating in an HIV prevention trial, women using injectable hormonal contraceptives had a modest increased risk of HIV acquisition; however, this association was

  17. Building capacity to develop an African teaching platform on health workforce development: a collaborative initiative of universities from four sub Saharan countries

    OpenAIRE

    Amde, Woldekidan Kifle; Sanders, David; Lehmann, Uta

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Health systems in many low-income countries remain fragile, and the record of human resource planning and management in Ministries of Health very uneven. Public health training institutions face the dual challenge of building human resources capacity in ministries and health services while alleviating and improving their own capacity constraints. This paper reports on an initiative aimed at addressing this dual challenge through the development and implementation of a joint Maste...

  18. Establishing a baseline to measure change in political will and the use of data for decision-making in maternal and newborn health in six African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nove, Andrea; Hulton, Louise; Martin-Hilber, Adriane; Matthews, Zoe

    2014-10-01

    The Evidence for Action (E4A) program assumes that both resource allocation and quality of care can improve via a strategy that combines evidence and advocacy to stimulate accountability. The present paper explains the methods used to collect baseline monitoring data using two tools developed to inform program design in six focus countries. The first tool is designed to understand the extent to which decision-makers have access to the data they need, when they need it, and in meaningful formats, and then to use the data to prioritize, plan, and allocate resources. The second tool seeks the views of people working in the area of maternal and newborn health (MNH) about political will, including: quality of care, the political and financial priority accorded to MNH, and the extent to which MNH decision-makers are accountable to service users. Findings indicate significant potential to improve access to and use of data for decision-making, particularly at subnational levels. Respondents across all six program countries reported lack of access by ordinary citizens to information on the health and MNH budget, and data on MNH outcomes. In all six countries there was a perceived inequity in the distribution of resources and a perception that politicians do not fully understand the priorities of their constituents. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. Primary commodity export and economic growth in sub sahara africa: evidence from panel data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Ocran

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper sought to examine the impact of instability in primary commodity export earnings and the level of commodity dependence on economic growth in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA.  Fixed effects panel data estimator was used in the empirical estimation. The findings of the study suggest that there is a negative relationship between instability in export earnings and economic growth. The results also indicate that the level of commodity dependence matter in determining economic growth in the region. The results of the paper have economic development policy implications for SSA economies and these are not farfetched. First, it appears the difficult growth experience of SSA is not solely due to instability in export receipts. The question of continued dependence on a narrow range of primary commodities is also matter of great importance.

  20. Epidemiologie des Diabetes mellitus Typ 2 in sub-Sahara Afrika

    OpenAIRE

    Danquah, Ina

    2018-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) constitutes an emerging health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. Up to date, the characteristics of DM2, the associated lifestyle factors, and the potential interactions with the prevailing infectious diseases are only poorly understood. Therefore, this piece of work aimed at i) describing the characteristics of DM2 in Ghana, ii) examining the associated lifestyle factors for DM2 in Ghana, particularly dietary behavior, and iii) investigating potential interactions...

  1. Efforts of Proliferation of Small Arms in Sub-Sahara Africa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nganga, Frankonero

    2008-01-01

    .... Belligerents in the conflict areas for example Somali Sudan and parts of northern Uganda use the small arms and light weapons as the primary tools of violence causing deaths and injuring thousands...

  2. Child Survival in sub Sahara Africa: the role of CAPGAN and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    our region, missed opportunities and the un-abating scourge ... and the World Bank estimates that as a result the number ... Historically in Europe, the civic society with its trade ... oriented organizations, its social welfare system have not.

  3. From patronage to neopatrimonialism: Postcolonial governance in Sub-Sahara Africa and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekers, D.T.; van Gool, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Even if ‘good governance’ goals have dominated public policy in postcolonial polities in the last decades, their politics and public administration often continue to be marked by authoritarianism, nepotism and corruption – the very practices good governance policy was to eradicate. In this article,

  4. From patronage to neopatrimonialism : postcolonial governance in Sub-Sahara Africa and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekers, D.; Gool, van B.

    2012-01-01

    Even if 'good governance' goals have dominated public policy in postcolonial polities in the last decades, their politics and public administration often continue to be marked by authoritarianism, nepotism and corruption - the very practices good governance policy was to eradicate. In this article,

  5. From patronage to neopatrimonialism: Postcolonial governance in Sub-Sahara Africa and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gool, Bas; Beekers, Daan

    Even if ‘good governance’ goals have dominated public policy in postcolonial polities in the last decades, their politics and public administration often continue to be marked by authoritarianism, nepotism and corruption – the very practices good governance policy was to eradicate. In this article,

  6. Impact of partial fuel switch on household air pollutants in sub-Sahara Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumwesige, Vianney; Okello, Gabriel; Semple, Sean; Smith, Jo

    2017-12-01

    Over 700 million people in Sub-Saharan Africa depend on solid biomass fuel and use simple cookstoves in poorly ventilated kitchens, which results in high indoor concentrations of household air pollutants. Switching from biomass to biogas as a cooking fuel can reduce airborne emissions of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and carbon monoxide (CO), but households often only partially convert to biogas, continuing to use solid biomass fuels for part of their daily cooking needs. There is little evidence of the benefits of partial switching to biogas. This study monitored real-time PM 2.5 and CO concentrations in 35 households in Cameroon and Uganda where biogas and firewood (or charcoal) were used. The 24 h mean PM 2.5 concentrations in households that used: (1) firewood and charcoal; (2) both firewood (mean 54% cooking time) and biogas (mean 46% cooking time); and (3) only biogas, were 449 μg m -3 , 173 μg m -3 and 18 μg m -3 respectively. The corresponding 24 h mean CO concentrations were 14.2 ppm, 2.7 ppm and 0.5 ppm. Concentrations of both PM 2.5 and CO were high and exceeded the World Health Organisation guidelines when firewood and charcoal were used. Partially switching to biogas reduced CO exposure to below the World Health Organisation guidelines, but PM 2.5 concentrations were only below the 24 h recommended limits when households fully converted to biogas fuel. These results indicate that partial switching from solid fuels to biogas is not sufficient and continues to produce concentrations of household air pollution that are likely to harm the health of those exposed. Programmes introducing biogas should aim to ensure that household energy needs can be fully achieved using biogas with no requirement to continue using solid fuels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Do anti-malarials in Africa meet quality standards? The market penetration of non quality-assured artemisinin combination therapy in eight African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Paul N; Hanson, Kara; Goodman, Catherine

    2017-05-25

    Quality of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is important for ensuring malaria parasite clearance and protecting the efficacy of artemisinin-based therapies. The extent to which non quality-assured ACT (non-QAACT), or those not granted global regulatory approval, are available and used to treat malaria in endemic countries is poorly documented. This paper uses national and sub-national medicine outlet surveys conducted in eight study countries (Benin, Kinshasa and Kantanga [Democratic Republic of the Congo, DRC], Kenya, Madagascar, Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia) between 2009 and 2015 to describe the non-QAACT market and to document trends in availability and distribution of non-QAACT in the public and private sector. In 2014/15, non-QAACT were most commonly available in Kinshasa (83%), followed by Katanga (53%), Nigeria (48%), Kenya (42%), and Uganda (33%). Non-QAACT accounted for 20% of the market share in the private sector in Kenya, followed by Benin and Uganda (19%), Nigeria (12%) and Zambia (8%); this figure was 27% in Katanga and 40% in Kinshasa. Public sector non-QAACT availability and distribution was much lower, with the exception of Zambia (availability, 85%; market share, 32%). Diverse generics and formulations were available, but non-QAACT were most commonly artemether-lumefantrine (AL) or dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA PPQ), in tablet formulation, imported, and distributed in urban areas at either pharmacies or drug stores. The number of unique manufacturers supplying non-QAACT to each country ranged from 9 in Uganda to 92 in Nigeria. Addressing the availability and distribution of non-QAACT will require effective private sector engagement and evidence-based strategies to address provider and consumer demand for these products. Given the variation in non-QAACT markets observed across the eight study countries, active efforts to limit registration, importation and distribution of non-QAACT must be tailored to the country context

  8. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuing Medical Education; The competitive advantage of nations: is Porter's Diamond Framework a new theory that explains the international competitiveness of countries? Southern African Business Review; The Basis of Distinction Between Qualitative and Quantitative Research in Social Science: Reflection on ...

  9. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals OnLine (AJOL) is the world's largest and pre-eminent collection of peer-reviewed, ... Featured Country: Ethiopia, Featured Journal: AFRREV STECH: An International Journal of Science and Technology ... Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences. Vol 38, No 2 ... Journal of Applied Biosciences.

  10. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences; The competitive advantage of nations: is Porter's Diamond Framework a new theory that explains the international competitiveness of countries? Southern African Business Review; Income Tax Assignment under the Ethiopian Constitution: Issues to Worry About Mizan Law ...

  11. Why do some physicians in Portuguese-speaking African countries work exclusively for the private sector? Findings from a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Giuliano; de Sousa, Bruno; Sidat, Mohsin; Ferrinho, Paulo; Dussault, Gilles

    2014-09-11

    Despite the growing interest in the private health sector in low- and middle-income countries, little is known about physicians working outside the public sector. The present work adopts a mixed-methods approach to explore characteristics, working patterns, choices, and motivations of the physicians working exclusively for the private sector in the capital cities of Cape Verde, Guinea Bissau, and Mozambique. The paper's objective is to contribute to the understanding of such physicians, ultimately informing the policies regulating the medical profession in low- and middle-income countries. The qualitative part of the study involved 48 interviews with physicians and health policy-makers and aimed at understanding the practice in the three locations. The quantitative study included a survey of 329 physicians, and multivariate analysis was conducted to analyse characteristics, time allocation, earnings, and motivations of those physicians working only for the private sector, in comparison to their public sector-only and dual practice peers. Our findings showed that only a limited proportion of physicians in the three locations work exclusively for the private sector (11.2%), with members of this group being older than those practicing only in the public or in both sectors. They were found to work fewer hours per week (49 hours) than their public (56 hours) and dual practice peers (62 hours) (P private-only physicians' preference for an independent and more flexible work modality, and this was quoted as a determining factor for their choice of sector. This group appears to include those working in the more informal sector, and those who decided to leave the civil service following a disagreement with the public employer. The study shows the importance of understanding the relation between health professionals' characteristics, motivations, and their engagement with the private sector to develop effective policies to regulate the profession. This may ultimately

  12. Should I stay or should I go?: consistency and switching of delivery locations among new mothers in 39 Sub-Saharan African and South/Southeast Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benova, Lenka; Macleod, David; Radovich, Emma; Lynch, Caroline A; Campbell, Oona M R

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this article is to assess the extent and determinants of switching delivery location between women's first and second deliveries. We used Demographic and Health Survey data from 39 low- and middle-income countries on delivery locations from >30 000 women who had their first two deliveries in the 5-year survey recall period. Each delivery was characterized as occurring at home or in a health facility, facilities were classified as public- or private-sector. The extent of switching was estimated for each country, region and overall. Multivariable logistic regression models assessed determinants of switching (home to facility or facility to home), using four dimensions (perceived/biological need, socioeconomic characteristics, utilization of care and availability of care). Overall, 49.0% of first and 44.5% of second deliveries occurred in health facilities. Among women who had their first delivery at home, 11.8% used a facility for their second (7.0% public-sector and 4.8% private-sector). Among women who had their first delivery in a facility, 21.6% switched to a home location for their second. The extent of switching varied by country; but the overall net effect was either non-existent (n = 20) or away from facilities (n = 17) in all but two countries-Cambodia and Burkina Faso. Four factors were associated with switching to a facility after a home delivery: higher education, urban residence, non-poor household status and multiple gestation. Majority of women consistently used the same delivery location for their first two deliveries. We found some evidence that where switching occurred, women were being lost from facility care during this important transition, and that all four included dimensions were important determinants of women's pattern of delivery care use. The relative importance of these factors should be understood in each specific context to improve retention in and provision of quality intrapartum care for women and their

  13. Differentiated quality assurance for the African Virtual University's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For the African Virtual University and its consortium of African universities the implementation of quality promoting initiatives are not without challenges and scepticisms. To be discussed in this article is the case of a teacher education qualification in ten different African countries. Seven countries were sampled and visited in ...

  14. Surgery for rheumatic mitral valve disease in sub-saharan African countries: why valve repair is still the best surgical option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mvondo, Charles Mve; Pugliese, Marta; Giamberti, Alessandro; Chelo, David; Kuate, Liliane Mfeukeu; Boombhi, Jerome; Dailor, Ellen Marie

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatic valve disease, a consequence of acute rheumatic fever, remains endemic in developing countries in the sub-Saharan region where it is the leading cause of heart failure and cardiovascular death, involving predominantly a young population. The involvement of the mitral valve is pathognomonic and mitral surgery has become the lone therapeutic option for the majority of these patients. However, controversies exist on the choice between valve repair or prosthetic valve replacement. Although the advantages of mitral valve repair over prosthetic valve replacement in degenerative mitral disease are well established, this has not been the case for rheumatic lesions, where the use of prosthetic valves, specifically mechanical devices, even in poorly compliant populations remains very common. These patients deserve more accurate evaluation in the choice of the surgical strategy which strongly impacts the post-operative outcomes. This report discusses the factors supporting mitral repair surgery in rheumatic disease, according to the patients' characteristics and the effectiveness of the current repair techniques compared to prosthetic valve replacement in developing countries.

  15. Geoconservation - a southern African and African perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimold, Wolf Uwe

    1999-10-01

    In contrast to Europe, where geoconservation is actively pursued in most countries and where two international symposia on this subject have been staged in 1991 and 1996, geoconservation in Africa has indeed a very poor record. Considering the wealth of outstanding geological sites and the importance African stratigraphy has within the global geological record, pro-active geoconservation on this continent has not featured very prominently to date. In the interest of science, education and tourism, unique and typical geosites need to be identified, catalogued, and prioritised with the aim being their protection. Most African countries do not have vibrant non-governmental organisations such as a strong geological society, which could drive projects like geoconservation, or strong support from the private sector for environmental work. Here, a case is made for the role that established National Geological Surveys, some of which are already involved with retroactive environmental geological work, could play in the forefront of pro-active geoconservation and site protection.

  16. Differences in HIV natural history among African and non-African seroconverters in Europe and seroconverters in sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantazis, Nikos; Morrison, Charles; Amornkul, Pauli N

    2012-01-01

    It is unknown whether HIV treatment guidelines, based on resource-rich country cohorts, are applicable to African populations.......It is unknown whether HIV treatment guidelines, based on resource-rich country cohorts, are applicable to African populations....

  17. African Anthropologist

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... It provides a forum for African and Africanist anthropologists to publish research reports, articles, book ... A Qualitative Exploration · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  18. Political instability in a country and health state in another country ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    political alternation, ethnic conflicts, tribalism, wars, coup d'états). These plagues that consume African society have serious impact on the economic growth of these countries, and diversely affect neighbouring countries known for their relative ...

  19. Transportability of an Evidence-Based Early Childhood Intervention in a Low-Income African Country: Results of a Cluster Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Keng-Yen; Nakigudde, Janet; Rhule, Dana; Gumikiriza-Onoria, Joy Louise; Abura, Gloria; Kolawole, Bukky; Ndyanabangi, Sheila; Kim, Sharon; Seidman, Edward; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Brotman, Laurie Miller

    2017-11-01

    Children in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are burdened by significant unmet mental health needs. Despite the successes of numerous school-based interventions for promoting child mental health, most evidence-based interventions (EBIs) are not available in SSA. This study investigated the implementation quality and effectiveness of one component of an EBI from a developed country (USA) in a SSA country (Uganda). The EBI component, Professional Development, was provided by trained Ugandan mental health professionals to Ugandan primary school teachers. It included large-group experiential training and small-group coaching to introduce and support a range of evidence-based practices (EBPs) to create nurturing and predictable classroom experiences. The study was guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research, the Teacher Training Implementation Model, and the RE-AIM evaluation framework. Effectiveness outcomes were studied using a cluster randomized design, in which 10 schools were randomized to intervention and wait-list control conditions. A total of 79 early childhood teachers participated. Teacher knowledge and the use of EBPs were assessed at baseline and immediately post-intervention (4-5 months later). A sample of 154 parents was randomly selected to report on child behavior at baseline and post-intervention. Linear mixed effect modeling was applied to examine effectiveness outcomes. Findings support the feasibility of training Ugandan mental health professionals to provide Professional Development for Ugandan teachers. Professional Development was delivered with high levels of fidelity and resulted in improved teacher EBP knowledge and the use of EBPs in the classroom, and child social competence.

  20. The role of partners' educational attainment in the association between HIV and education amongst women in seven sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harling, Guy; Bärnighausen, Till

    2016-01-01

    Individuals' educational attainment has long been considered as a risk factor for HIV. However, little attention has been paid to the association between partner educational attainment and HIV infection. We conducted cross-sectional analysis of young women (aged 15-34) in 14 Demographic and Health Surveys from seven sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries with generalized HIV epidemics. We measured the degree of similarity in educational attainment (partner homophily) in 75,373 partnerships and evaluated the correlation between homophily and female HIV prevalence at the survey cluster level. We then used logistic regression to assess whether own and partner educational attainment was associated with HIV serostatus amongst 38,791 women. Educational attainment was positively correlated within partnerships in both urban and rural areas of every survey (Newman assortativity coefficients between 0.09 and 0.44), but this correlation was not ecologically associated with HIV prevalence. At the individual level, larger absolute differences between own and partner educational attainment were associated with significantly higher HIV prevalence amongst women. This association was heterogeneous across countries, but not between survey waves. In contrast to other women, for those aged 25-34 who had secondary or higher education, a more-educated partner was associated with lower HIV prevalence. HIV prevalence amongst women in SSA is associated not only with one's own education but also with that of one's partner. These findings highlight the importance of understanding how partners place individuals at risk of infection and suggest that HIV prevention efforts may benefit from considering partner characteristics.

  1. The role of partners’ educational attainment in the association between HIV and education amongst women in seven sub-Saharan African countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harling, Guy; Bärnighausen, Till

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Individuals’ educational attainment has long been considered as a risk factor for HIV. However, little attention has been paid to the association between partner educational attainment and HIV infection. Methods We conducted cross-sectional analysis of young women (aged 15–34) in 14 Demographic and Health Surveys from seven sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries with generalized HIV epidemics. We measured the degree of similarity in educational attainment (partner homophily) in 75,373 partnerships and evaluated the correlation between homophily and female HIV prevalence at the survey cluster level. We then used logistic regression to assess whether own and partner educational attainment was associated with HIV serostatus amongst 38,791 women. Results Educational attainment was positively correlated within partnerships in both urban and rural areas of every survey (Newman assortativity coefficients between 0.09 and 0.44), but this correlation was not ecologically associated with HIV prevalence. At the individual level, larger absolute differences between own and partner educational attainment were associated with significantly higher HIV prevalence amongst women. This association was heterogeneous across countries, but not between survey waves. In contrast to other women, for those aged 25–34 who had secondary or higher education, a more-educated partner was associated with lower HIV prevalence. Conclusions HIV prevalence amongst women in SSA is associated not only with one's own education but also with that of one's partner. These findings highlight the importance of understanding how partners place individuals at risk of infection and suggest that HIV prevention efforts may benefit from considering partner characteristics. PMID:26902392

  2. Framework for supporting countries to address the food crisis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Framework for supporting countries to address the food crisis and malnutrition in the African region. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... Protection of vulnerable groups; and Evidence- based interventions.

  3. Original Research Challenges facing young African scientists in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at identifying the challenges that young African scientists face in their career development. Methods ... The research profile of Africans is relatively new, and the .... outside the country because it will support my original ideas.”.

  4. Analytical Support to African and Caribbean Trade Negotiations ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Analytical Support to African and Caribbean Trade Negotiations - Phase III. International Lawyers and Economists against Poverty (ILEAP) is an initiative that aims to help African and Caribbean countries derive full benefit from integration into ...

  5. The African Union Peace and Security mechanism's crawl from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-07-09

    Jul 9, 2002 ... 1963 gave hope that African countries would unite in eradicating ..... the TNC while others either remained undecided or opted to openly support ..... restore their reputations and gain a larger share of the new African ...

  6. Women's perceptions of effects of war on intimate partner violence and gender roles in two post-conflict West African Countries: consequences and unexpected opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Rebecca; Puffer, Eve S; Roesch, Elisabeth; Lehmann, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore women's perceptions of the causes of intimate partner violence (IPV) in West Africa, and the ways in which they understand these causes to interact with the experiences of war. The study was conducted in two locations in Sierra Leone and two in Liberia, using focus group discussions (N groups =14) and individual interviews (N = 20). Women perceive the causes of IPV to be linked with other difficulties faced by women in these settings, including their financial dependence on men, traditional gender expectations and social changes that took place during and after the wars in those countries. According to respondents, the wars increased the use of violence by some men, as violence became for them a normal way of responding to frustrations and challenges. However, the war also resulted in women becoming economically active, which was said by some to have decreased IPV, as the pressure on men to provide for their families reduced. Economic independence, together with services provided by NGOs, also gave women the option of leaving a violent relationship. IPV was found to be a significant problem for women in Sierra Leone and Liberia. The interactions between war experiences and financial and cultural issues are multi-faceted and not uniformly positive or negative.

  7. Determinants of self-perceived risk of HIV infection: population-based observations in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Mwangala, Sheila Monde

    2008-01-01

    Background Perception of risk of HIV infection has been suggested to be an important area of study as it can be an assumed to be an indicator of one’s understanding of susceptibility to HIV infection and a precursor to behavioral change, which could determine future decision making regarding risk taking. Studies that have examined perception of HIV risk and its determinants still remain limited. Zambia is among the worst affected countries by the HIV pandemic in the sub-Sahara African r...

  8. African Journals Online: African Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 56 of 56 ... Research Review of the Institute of African Studies. Please note: As of 2013 the Research Review of the Institute of African Studies is now publishing under the title Contemporary Journal of African Studies. You can view the CJAS pages on AJOL here: http://www.ajol.info/index.php/contjas/index.

  9. Status of HIV Epidemic Control Among Adolescent Girls and Young Women Aged 15-24 Years - Seven African Countries, 2015-2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kristin; Williams, Daniel B; Kinchen, Steve; Saito, Suzue; Radin, Elizabeth; Patel, Hetal; Low, Andrea; Delgado, Stephen; Mugurungi, Owen; Musuka, Godfrey; Tippett Barr, Beth A; Nwankwo-Igomu, E Amaka; Ruangtragool, Leala; Hakim, Avi J; Kalua, Thokozani; Nyirenda, Rose; Chipungu, Gertrude; Auld, Andrew; Kim, Evelyn; Payne, Danielle; Wadonda-Kabondo, Nellie; West, Christine; Brennan, Elizabeth; Deutsch, Beth; Worku, Anteneh; Jonnalagadda, Sasi; Mulenga, Lloyd B; Dzekedzeke, Kumbutso; Barradas, Danielle T; Cai, Haotian; Gupta, Sundeep; Kamocha, Stanley; Riggs, Margaret A; Sachathep, Karampreet; Kirungi, Wilford; Musinguzi, Joshua; Opio, Alex; Biraro, Sam; Bancroft, Elizabeth; Galbraith, Jennifer; Kiyingi, Herbert; Farahani, Mansoor; Hladik, Wolfgang; Nyangoma, Edith; Ginindza, Choice; Masangane, Zandile; Mhlanga, Fortune; Mnisi, Zandile; Munyaradzi, Pasipamire; Zwane, Amos; Burke, Sean; Kayigamba, Felix B; Nuwagaba-Biribonwoha, Harriet; Sahabo, Ruben; Ao, Trong T; Draghi, Chiara; Ryan, Caroline; Philip, Neena M; Mosha, Fausta; Mulokozi, Aroldia; Ntigiti, Phausta; Ramadhani, Angela A; Somi, Geoffrey R; Makafu, Cecilia; Mugisha, Veronicah; Zelothe, Julius; Lavilla, Kayla; Lowrance, David W; Mdodo, Rennatus; Gummerson, Elizabeth; Stupp, Paul; Thin, Kyaw; Frederix, Koen; Davia, Stefania; Schwitters, Amee M; McCracken, Stephen D; Duong, Yen T; Hoos, David; Parekh, Bharat; Justman, Jessica E; Voetsch, Andrew C

    2018-01-12

    In 2016, an estimated 1.5 million females aged 15-24 years were living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Eastern and Southern Africa, where the prevalence of HIV infection among adolescent girls and young women (3.4%) is more than double that for males in the same age range (1.6%) (1). Progress was assessed toward the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) 2020 targets for adolescent girls and young women in sub-Saharan Africa (90% of those with HIV infection aware of their status, 90% of HIV-infected persons aware of their status on antiretroviral treatment [ART], and 90% of those on treatment virally suppressed [HIV viral load girls and young women aged 15-24 years, the percentage who were aware of their status, and among those persons who were aware, the percentage who had achieved viral suppression were calculated. The target for viral suppression among all persons with HIV infection is 73% (the product of 90% x 90% x 90%). Among all seven countries, the prevalence of HIV infection among adolescent girls and young women was 3.6%; among those in this group, 46.3% reported being aware of their HIV-positive status, and 45.0% were virally suppressed. Sustained efforts by national HIV and public health programs to diagnose HIV infection in adolescent girls and young women as early as possible to ensure rapid initiation of ART should help achieve epidemic control among adolescent girls and young women.

  10. Associations Between Orphan and Vulnerable Child Caregiving, Household Wealth Disparities, and Women's Overweight Status in Three Southern African Countries Participating in Demographic Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Mariano J; Carter-Pokras, Olivia D; Madhavan, Sangeetha; Lee, Sunmin; He, Xin; Feldman, Robert H

    2015-08-01

    This study examines whether orphan and vulnerable children (OVC) primary caregivers are facing absolute household wealth (AWI) disparities, the association between AWI and women's overweight status, and the modifying role of OVC primary caregiving status on this relationship. Demographic Health Surveys data (2006-2007) from 20 to 49 year old women in Namibia (n = 6,305), Swaziland (n = 2,786), and Zambia (n = 4,389) were analyzed using weighted marginal means and logistic regressions. OVC primary caregivers in Namibia and Swaziland had a lower mean AWI than other women in the same country. In Zambia, OVC primary caregivers had a lower mean AWI score than non-primary caregivers living with an OVC but a higher mean AWI score than non-OVC primary caregivers. In Swaziland and Zambia, even small increases in household wealth were associated with higher odds for being overweight regardless of women's caregiving status. Only in Namibia, OVC primary caregiving modified the effect of the previous association. Among Namibian OVC primary caregivers, women who had at least medium household wealth (4 or more AWI items) were more likely to be overweight than their poorest counterparts (0 or 1 AWI items). OVC primary caregivers are facing household wealth disparities as compared to other women from their communities. Future studies/interventions should consider using population-based approaches to reach women from every household wealth level to curb overweight in Swaziland and Zambia and to focus on specific household wealth characteristics that are associated with OVC primary caregivers' overweight status in Namibia.

  11. Stigma, explanatory models and unmet needs of caregivers of children with developmental disorders in a low-income African country: a cross-sectional facility-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilahun, Dejene; Hanlon, Charlotte; Fekadu, Abebaw; Tekola, Bethlehem; Baheretibeb, Yonas; Hoekstra, Rosa A

    2016-04-27

    Understanding the perspectives of caregivers of children with developmental disorders living in low-income countries is important to inform intervention programmes. The purpose of this study was to examine the stigma experiences, explanatory models, unmet needs, preferred interventions and coping mechanisms of caregivers of children with developmental disorders in Ethiopia. Participants comprised caregivers (n = 102) of children with developmental disorders attending two child mental health clinics in Addis Ababa. The majority (66.7%; n = 68) had a diagnosis of intellectual disability (ID); 34 children (33.3%) had autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as their primary diagnosis. All caregivers were administered a structured questionnaire via a face-to-face interview, which included an adaptation of the Family Interview Schedule, closed questions about socio-demographic characteristics, explanatory models of illness, type of interventions used or desired and coping strategies, and an open ended question regarding the family's unmet needs. Most caregivers reported experience of stigma: 43.1% worried about being treated differently, 45.1% felt ashamed about their child's condition and 26.7% made an effort to keep their child's condition secret. Stigma did not depend on the type of developmental disorder, the child's age or gender, or on the age or level of education of the caregiver (all p > 0.05). Reported stigma was significantly higher in caregivers who had sought traditional help (p child's condition (p = .02) and in caregivers of Orthodox Christian faith (p = .03). Caregivers gave a mixture of biomedical explanations (e.g. head injury (30.4%) or birth complications (25.5%)) and supernatural explanations (e.g. spirit possession (40.2%) or sinful act (27.5%)) for their child's condition. The biggest reported unmet need was educational provision for their child (74.5%), followed by treatment by a health professional (47.1%), financial support (30.4%) and expert help to

  12. How to understand, evaluate and influence efficient progress in South Africa’s land reform process: A typology from historical lessons from selected sub-Saharan African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhlanhla C. Mbatha

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: With reports of widespread failures in South Africa’s land reform programmes, the levels of policy uncertainty in the political rhetoric that influences land reform have been increasing. Since 1994 policy targets to transfer land to black farmers have not been met. Of the 2005 target to transfer about 25 million ha of commercial farmland to black farmers by 2014, less than 5 million ha. have been transferred for commercial use. Some studies report failure rates in resettlement projects of up to 90%. To account for the failures, revisions of policies and amendments to legislations have been proposed within a political environment that is becoming increasingly intolerant to slow progress in land transfers and to resettlement failures. Aim: Against this environment, this paper presents a typology for understanding and evaluating important elements of the land reform project in order to influence progress in the process. Setting: The study adopts a historical review of land reform processes in post-colonial Kenya and Zimbabwe in order to identify potential challenges and key lessons for South Africa. Methods: Hence, using institutional and historical analytical lenses in exploring different narratives, the paper reviews reported failures and successes in land reform policy cases from the selected countries. From an institutional framework, prevalent social institutions and key lessons from Kenya, Zimbabwe and South Africa, a typology for evaluating important elements of the land reform process in South Africa is developed and discussed. Additionally, a review of global data collected on average sizes of farms in different regions of the world is provided as evidence to support propositions of what would constitute efficient farmland size ranges for small to medium commercial farms in South Africa. Results and conclusion: A proposition is made on how to use the typology to guide policy and research interventions to reduce failures

  13. Building capacity to develop an African teaching platform on health workforce development: a collaborative initiative of universities from four sub Saharan countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amde, Woldekidan Kifle; Sanders, David; Lehmann, Uta

    2014-05-30

    Health systems in many low-income countries remain fragile, and the record of human resource planning and management in Ministries of Health very uneven. Public health training institutions face the dual challenge of building human resources capacity in ministries and health services while alleviating and improving their own capacity constraints. This paper reports on an initiative aimed at addressing this dual challenge through the development and implementation of a joint Masters in Public Health (MPH) programme with a focus on health workforce development by four academic institutions from East and Southern Africa and the building of a joint teaching platform. Data were obtained through interviews and group discussions with stakeholders, direct and participant observations, and reviews of publications and project documents. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. The institutions developed and collaboratively implemented a 'Masters Degree programme with a focus on health workforce development'. It was geared towards strengthening the leadership capacity of Health ministries to develop expertise in health human resources (HRH) planning and management, and simultaneously build capacity of faculty in curriculum development and innovative educational practices to teach health workforce development. The initiative was configured to facilitate sharing of experience and resources. The implementation of this initiative has been complex, straddling multiple and changing contexts, actors and agendas. Some of these are common to postgraduate programmes with working learners, while others are unique to this particular partnership, such as weak institutional capacity to champion and embed new programmes and approaches to teaching. The partnership, despite significant inherent challenges, has potential for providing real opportunities for building the field and community of practice, and strengthening the staff and organizational capacity of participant institutions. Key

  14. Deterioration and spoilage of peanuts and desiccated coconuts from two sub-Saharan tropical East African countries due to the associated mycobiota and their degradative enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, M A

    2001-01-01

    A broad variety of fungi (84 species belonging to 36 genera) were identified with more taxa infesting peanut seed samples from two tropical countries (29 genera and 61 species) compared to those found in desiccated coconuts (20 genera and 55 species) on both DRBC and DG18 media. This may be due to the higher moisture levels in peanuts (5.07-7.97%) compared with coconuts (1.5-4.17%). More taxa and propagules were recovered on DG18 in both cases. The dominant fungi from both substrates on both isolation media were Aspergillus and Penicillium, with other fungi from only one substrate/medium. The aflatoxigenic species (A. flavus) dominated Kenyan samples more so than Ugandan samples on both substrates. However only 71.5% and 87.5% of the peanut kernels, on DRBC and DG18, respectively, were found to be infested with fungi. The aflatoxigenic species (A. flavus/parasiticus) were found in 75% of the samples, however only 15.75% and 13% of the kernels analyzed were infested. The most frequently isolated species from peanuts were A. niger followed by A. flavus and M. phaseolina. E. repens, E. amstelodami, E. rubrum and E. chevalieri dominated peanut seeds on DG18, and R. stolonifer, A. parasiticus, F. solani, L. theobromae and P. chrysogenum on DRBC. The mean count of fungal propagules in coconut samples were approximately 0.7 x 10(3) and 0.8 x 10(3) on DRBC and DG18, respectively, with a high proportion of those propagules recorded for the aflatoxigenic species (about 0. 17 x 10(3) and 0.25 x 10(3) colonies/g). The mycobiota of desiccated coconut was dominated by A. niger, A. flavus and P. chrysogenum. Also A. ochraceus, P. waksmanii, Paecilomyces variotii, P. islandicum and R. mucilaginosa were more frequent on DRBC, while, species of Cladosporium. Chrysosporium and Eurotium were more frequent on DG18. Enzyme indices (or the activities) for each specific strain, when determined after 5 and 8 days of incubation, proved to be similar. A recommendation is given. The

  15. Blood component use in a sub-Saharan African country: results of a 4-year evaluation of diagnoses associated with transfusion orders in Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, John P; Wilkinson, Robert; Liu, Yang; von Finckenstein, Bjorn; Smit Sibinga, Cees Th; Lowrance, David W; Marfin, Anthony A; Postma, Maarten J; Mataranyika, Mary; Basavaraju, Sridhar V

    2015-01-01

    National blood use patterns in sub-Saharan Africa are poorly described. Although malaria and maternal hemorrhage remain important drivers of blood demand across Africa, economic growth and changes in malaria, HIV/AIDS, and noncommunicable disease epidemiology may contribute to changes in blood demand. We evaluated indications for blood use in Namibia, a country in southern Africa, using a nationally representative sample and discuss implications for the region. Clinical and demographic data related to the issuance of blood component units in Namibia were reviewed for a 4-year period (August 1, 2007-July 31, 2011). Variables included blood component type, recipient age and sex, and diagnosis. Diagnoses reported by clinicians were reclassified into International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision categories. Multiple imputation methods were used to complete a data set missing age, sex or diagnosis data. Descriptive analyses were conducted to describe indications for transfusions and use of red blood cells (RBCs), platelets, and plasma. A total of 39,313 records accounting for 91,207 blood component units were analyzed. The median age of Namibian transfusion recipients was 45 years (SD, ±19). A total of 78,660 RBC units were issued in Namibia during the study period. Red blood cells transfused for "unspecified anemia" accounted for the single largest category of blood issued (24,798 units). Of the overall total, 38.9% were for diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs (D50-D89). Infectious disease (A00-B99), pregnancy (O00-O99), and gastrointestinal (K20-K93) accounted for 14.8%, 11.1%, and 6.1% of RBC units issued, respectively. Although a specific diagnosis of malaria accounted for only 2.7% of pediatric transfusions, an unknown number of additional transfusions for malaria may have been categorized by requesting physicians as unspecified anemia and counted under diseases of blood forming organs. During the study period, 9751 units of fresh

  16. Monitoring fever treatment behaviour and equitable access to effective medicines in the context of initiatives to improve ACT access: baseline results and implications for programming in six African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Littrell Megan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Access to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT remains limited in high malaria-burden countries, and there are concerns that the poorest people are particularly disadvantaged. This paper presents new evidence on household treatment-seeking behaviour in six African countries. These data provide a baseline for monitoring interventions to increase ACT coverage, such as the Affordable Medicines Facility for malaria (AMFm. Methods Nationally representative household surveys were conducted in Benin, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC, Madagascar, Nigeria, Uganda and Zambia between 2008 and 2010. Caregivers responded to questions about management of recent fevers in children under five. Treatment indicators were tabulated across countries, and differences in case management provided by the public versus private sector were examined using chi-square tests. Logistic regression was used to test for association between socioeconomic status and 1 malaria blood testing, and 2 ACT treatment. Results Fever treatment with an ACT is low in Benin (10%, the DRC (5%, Madagascar (3% and Nigeria (5%, but higher in Uganda (21% and Zambia (21%. The wealthiest children are significantly more likely to receive ACT compared to the poorest children in Benin (OR = 2.68, 95% CI = 1.12-6.42; the DRC (OR = 2.18, 95% CI = 1.12-4.24; Madagascar (OR = 5.37, 95% CI = 1.58-18.24; and Nigeria (OR = 6.59, 95% CI = 2.73-15.89. Most caregivers seek treatment outside of the home, and private sector outlets are commonly the sole external source of treatment (except in Zambia. However, children treated in the public sector are significantly more likely to receive ACT treatment than those treated in the private sector (except in Madagascar. Nonetheless, levels of testing and ACT treatment in the public sector are low. Few caregivers name the national first-line drug as most effective for treating malaria in Madagascar (2%, the DRC (2%, Nigeria (4% and Benin (10

  17. Tendências e tensões de sociabilidade de estudantes dos Palop em duas universidades brasileiras Tendencies and tensions in the sociability of students from African countries where Portuguese is the official language at two Brazilian universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho discute, a partir de uma perspectiva etnográfica, tendências e tensões características da sociabilidade de estudantes africanos - vindos de países de língua oficial portuguesa - na Universidade de Brasília (UnB e na Universidade de São Paulo (USP. Abordamos os modos pelos quais eles experimentam as práticas linguísticas e pedagógicas das universidades, vivenciam as tensões raciais existentes no Brasil, atribuem sentido aos espaços urbanos nos quais são acolhidos; e analisamos seus padrões mais comuns de interação e agregação. Sugerimos que o tempo de participação no fluxo migratório, a nacionalidade de origem dos estudantes e a cidade de acolhida no Brasil são variáveis que condicionam de forma importante a sociabilidade dos estudantes. Residualmente, e de forma ainda incipiente, exploramos algumas dinâmicas de identificação entre os alunos. Alguns se apresentam como sujeitos em diáspora. Outros, contudo, chamam atenção para a necessidade de continuarem a ser reconhecidos como estrangeiros. A maioria demonstra surpresa em se ver percebido como negro ou africano, simplesmente. Os estudantes vêm para o Brasil mediante o Programa Estudante Convênio de Graduação (PEC-G, um acordo diplomático que facilita o deslocamento do aluno ao nosso país a fim de realizar seu curso de nível superior.This article discusses typical tendencies and tensions of the sociability of foreign students from African countries where Portuguese is the official language at 'Universidade de Brasilia' and at 'Universidade de São Paulo'. Our analysis is carried out through an ethnographic approach. We analyze the way students experienced the linguistic and pedagogical practices at the universities, the way they make sense the urban spaces they live as well as the Brazilian typical racial tensions and their most common patterns of integration and aggregation. The time they are involved in the migratory flow, the city they live in

  18. In vitro activity of Ceftaroline against bacterial pathogens isolated from patients with skin and soft tissue and respiratory tract infections in African and Middle Eastern countries: AWARE global surveillance program 2012-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlowsky, James A; Biedenbach, Douglas J; Bouchillon, Samuel K; Hackel, Meredith; Iaconis, Joseph P; Sahm, Daniel F

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this report was to document antimicrobial susceptibility testing surveillance data for ceftaroline and comparative agents from the AWARE (Assessing Worldwide Antimicrobial Resistance Evaluation) global surveillance program for bacterial pathogens causing skin and soft tissue and respiratory tract infections in African and Middle Eastern countries from 2012 through 2014. Pathogen identities were confirmed by MALDI-TOF and antimicrobial susceptibility testing performed by CLSI broth microdilution methodology in a central laboratory. All methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) (n= 923; MIC90, 0.25 μg/mL) and 91.8% of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) (n= 1161; MIC90, 1 μg/mL) tested were susceptible to ceftaroline. The maximum ceftaroline MIC observed for isolates of MRSA was 2 μg/mL. All Streptococcus pyogenes (n= 174; MIC90, 0.008 μg/mL), Streptococcus agalactiae (n= 44; MIC90, 0.015 μg/mL), Streptococcus pneumoniae (n= 351; MIC90, 0.25 μg/mL), and Haemophilus influenzae (n= 84; MIC90, ≤0.015 μg/mL) were susceptible to ceftaroline. Rates of susceptibility to ceftaroline among ESBL-negative Escherichia coli (n= 338), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n= 241), and Klebsiella oxytoca (n= 97) were 89.1% (MIC90, 1 μg/mL), 94.2% (MIC90, 0.5 μg/mL), and 99.0% (MIC90, 0.5 μg/mL), respectively. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. 'I am treated well if I adhere to my HIV medication': putting patient-provider interactions in context through insights from qualitative research in five sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondenge, Ken; Renju, Jenny; Bonnington, Oliver; Moshabela, Mosa; Wamoyi, Joyce; Nyamukapa, Constance; Seeley, Janet; Wringe, Alison; Skovdal, Morten

    2017-07-01

    The nature of patient-provider interactions and communication is widely documented to significantly impact on patient experiences, treatment adherence and health outcomes. Yet little is known about the broader contextual factors and dynamics that shape patient-provider interactions in high HIV prevalence and limited-resource settings. Drawing on qualitative research from five sub-Saharan African countries, we seek to unpack local dynamics that serve to hinder or facilitate productive patient-provider interactions. This qualitative study, conducted in Kisumu (Kenya), Kisesa (Tanzania), Manicaland (Zimbabwe), Karonga (Malawi) and uMkhanyakude (South Africa), draws upon 278 in-depth interviews with purposively sampled people living with HIV with different diagnosis and treatment histories, 29 family members of people who died due to HIV and 38 HIV healthcare workers. Data were collected using topic guides that explored patient testing and antiretroviral therapy treatment journeys. Thematic analysis was conducted, aided by NVivo V.8.0 software. Our analysis revealed an array of inter-related contextual factors and power dynamics shaping patient-provider interactions. These included (1) participants' perceptions of roles and identities of 'self' and 'other'; (2) conformity or resistance to the 'rules of HIV service engagement' and a 'patient-persona'; (3) the influence of significant others' views on service provision; and (4) resources in health services. We observed that these four factors/dynamics were located in the wider context of conceptualisations of power, autonomy and structure. Patient-provider interaction is complex, multidimensional and deeply embedded in wider social dynamics. Multiple contextual domains shape patient-provider interactions in the context of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Interventions to improve patient experiences and treatment adherence through enhanced interactions need to go beyond the existing focus on patient-provider communication

  20. African Zoology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Zoology, a peer-reviewed research journal, publishes original scientific contributions and critical reviews that focus principally on African fauna in terrestrial, freshwater, and marine ecosystems. Research from other regions that advances practical and theoretical aspects of zoology will be considered. Rigorous ...

  1. CAPACITY BUILDING FOR WOMEN IN AFRICAN COUNTRIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UDS-CAPTURED

    In spite of ongoing efforts, the status of women remains low. ... of poverty due to low incomes and poor access to paid employment all lead to the poor .... significant for the following reasons: There is need to tackle the problem of gender ... inequality which exist between men and women, which has constrained their full ...

  2. Productive Government Expenditure and Economic Performance in sub-Saharan Africa: An Empirical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adefeso Hammed Adetola

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of government expenditure on its disaggregated level on economic growth in a sample of 20 sub-Saharan African Countries over the period of 1980-2010 in a dynamic panel data model. The result from Generalised Method of Moments (GMM revealed an inverse relationship between productive government expenditure and economic growth in sub-Sahara Africa. Also, productive government expenditures were not actually productive most especially when financed by non-distortonary government tax revenue in sub-Saharan African countries. The study concluded that the productive government expenditure and its corresponding source of the mode of financing were counterproductive for economic performance in the African countries.

  3. African Journals Online: Biology & Life Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 71 ... African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... in the promotion of scientific proceedings and publications in developing countries. ... and proteomics, food and agricultural technologies, and metabolic engineering. ... The African Journal of Chemical Education (AJCE) is a biannual online journal ...

  4. African Journals Online: Turks and Caicos Islands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Turks and Caicos Islands. Home > African Journals Online: Turks and Caicos Islands. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This ...

  5. African Journals Online: Papua New Guinea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Papua New Guinea. Home > African Journals Online: Papua New Guinea. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is ...

  6. African Journals Online: Northern Mariana Islands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Northern Mariana Islands. Home > African Journals Online: Northern Mariana Islands. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This ...

  7. African Journals Online: Saint Kitts and Nevis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Saint Kitts and Nevis. Home > African Journals Online: Saint Kitts and Nevis. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is ...

  8. African Education and Globalization: Critical Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Ali A., Ed.; Puplampu, Korbla P., Ed.; Dei, George J. Sefa, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Containing both theoretical discussions of globalization and specific case analyses of individual African countries, this collection of essays examines the intersections of African education and globalization with multiple analytical and geographical emphases and intentions. The 11 essays critically analyze the issues from historical, cultural,…

  9. African Journals Online: Virgin Islands (British)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Virgin Islands (British). Home > African Journals Online: Virgin Islands (British). Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal ...

  10. Strengthening African Union for African Integration: An African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... in the international state system and seek for African initiative in solving African problems. ... of the African Union by examining the efforts of African Leaders towards African integration, ...

  11. East African rarities committee report | Fisher | Scopus: Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East African Rarities Committee (EARC) Special Report Species included for East African countries in Britton (1980) which have since been considered unacceptable. East African Rarities Committee Report 2013–2015. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ...

  12. Contemporary African philosophy, identity and the question of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This essay reviews the import of the issue of identity in contemporary African philosophy vis-a-vis the language policy of most African countries as well as the attitude of many Africans towards their indigenous languages. Given the pivotal importance of language in ensuring cultural identity it argues that there is an antithesis ...

  13. Challenges facing young African scientists in their research careers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Africa accounts for 14% of world's population, and the economies of most African countries are considered to be growing, but this is not reflected in the amount of research published by Africans. This study aimed at identifying the challenges that young African scientists face in their career development.

  14. African Health Economics and Policy Research Capacity Building ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    African Health Economics and Policy Research Capacity Building and Dissemination. As African countries move toward universal health coverage, it is clear there is a shortage of African experts with applied research skills in health financing such as fiscal space analysis, needs-based resource allocation methods, and ...

  15. AIDS Prevention in the Southern African Development Community ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    AIDS Prevention in the Southern African Development Community : Policy Research and Decision Support. The Southern African Development Community (SADC) is at the epicentre of the AIDS pandemic. The regional adult HIV prevalence is approximately 11%, twice the average in other African countries. Scores of ...

  16. Sit-Tight Syndrome and Tenure Elongation in African Politics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The post-independence politics of African countries has been dominated by the phenomenon of sit-tight African heads of state and government who had acceeded to office by election or coup d'etat. This paper examines this recurring problem in post-independence African politics by examining its general and specific ...

  17. African Crop Science Journal: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Crop Science Journal was established with the primary objective of ... and all those concerned with agricultural development issues in the region. .... as possible, the editors avoid appointing reviewers from the country of origin of ...

  18. Job Sorting in African Labor Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Marcel Fafchamps; Mans Soderbom; Najy Benhassine

    2006-01-01

    Using matched employer-employee data from eleven African countries, we investigate if there is a job sorting in African labor markets. We find that much of the wage gap correlated with education is driven by selection across occupations and firms. This is consistent with educated workers being more effective at complex tasks like labor management. In all countries the education wage gap widens rapidly at high low levels of education. Most of the education wage gap at low levels of education c...

  19. Program-level and contextual-level determinants of low-median CD4+ cell count in cohorts of persons initiating ART in eight sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Denis; Wu, Yingfeng; Elul, Batya; Hoos, David; El Sadr, Wafaa

    2011-07-31

    In sub-Saharan Africa, many patients initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) at CD4 cell counts much lower than those recommended in national guidelines. We examined program-level and contextual-level factors associated with low median CD4 cell count at ART initiation in populations initiating ART. Multilevel analysis of aggregate and program-level service delivery data. We examined data on 1690 cohorts of patients initiating ART during 2004-2008 in eight sub-Saharan African countries. Cohorts with median CD4 less than 111 cells/μl (the lowest quartile) were classified as having low median CD4 cell count at ART initiation. Cohort information was combined with time-updated program-level data and subnational contextual-level data, and analyzed using multilevel models. The 1690 cohorts had median CD4 cell count of 136 cells/μl and included 121,504 patients initiating ART at 267 clinics. Program-level factors associated with low cohort median CD4 cell count included urban setting [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.1; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-3.3], lower provider-to-patient ratio (AOR 2.2; 95% CI 1.3-4.0), no PMTCT program (AOR 3.6; 95% CI 1.0-12.8), outreach services for ART patients only vs. both pre-ART and ART patients (AOR 2.4; 95% CI 1.5-3.9), fewer vs. more adherence support services (AOR 1.6; 95% CI 1.0-2.5), and smaller cohort size (AOR 2.5; 95% CI 1.4-4.5). Contextual-level factors associated with low cohort median CD4 cell count included initiating ART in areas where a lower proportion of the population heard of AIDS, tested for HIV recently, and a higher proportion believed 'limiting themselves to one HIV-uninfected sexual partner reduces HIV risk'. Determinants of CD4 cell count at ART initiation in populations initiating ART operate at multiple levels. Structural interventions targeting points upstream from ART initiation along the continuum from infection to diagnosis to care engagement are needed.

  20. African Journal of Urology: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. The African Journal of Urology welcomes original papers, case reports and letters to the editor from any country of the world, particularly from Africa. Review articles are usually commissioned, but the Editorial Board are happy to discuss potential articles with authors who would like to contribute.

  1. African Journals Online: Veterinary Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 15 of 15 ... African Journals Online: Veterinary Science ... Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ... Life Sciences, Chemistry, Mathematics & Physics, Earth Sciences ... The Nigerian Journal of Animal Science (NJAS) is an official ...

  2. The Impact of the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA): An Empirical Analysis of Sub-Saharan African Agricultural Exports

    OpenAIRE

    Zenebe, Addisalem; Peterson, Wesley; Wamisho, Kassu

    2014-01-01

    The African Growth and Opportunities Act (AGOA) which was signed into law in 2000 as part of U.S. trade legislation has the objectives of increasing trade and investment between the U.S. and eligible Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries, by reducing or eliminating tariffs applied to African exports of different products. This Act represents a promising approach to economic growth and development in SSA through international trade. This research paper examines the impact of AGOA on African agri...

  3. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals OnLine (AJOL) is the world's largest online library of ... AJOL works to change this, so that African-origin research output is available to Africans ... South African Medical Journal ... Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences.

  4. Immunizations and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Immunizations Immunizations and African Americans African American adults are less ... 19 to 35 months had comparable rates of immunization. African American women are as likely to have ...

  5. African mining '91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The second 'African Mining' conference was held in June 1991, and followed the first event held in May 1987. That full four-year period was characterized by substantial changes in the political and economic climate of many countries in both hemispheres. The results of many of these changing facets of our industry are described in the papers in African Mining'91. Many of the papers deal with advances in technology, which is the main reason for the meeting. There are 37 papers under the headings general, mining, metallurgy and geology and exploration. Most papers are concerned with gold, copper and mineral mining. One paper concerning uranium mining operations in Namibia is indexed separately. (author)

  6. African Social Security Systems: An Ordinal Evaluation | Dixon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this paper is to rank the social security systems in 45 African countries using a comparative evaluation methodology that enables an assess ment to be ma(le of a country's statutory social security intention. The conclusion drawn is that the spread of African social security system design standards are ...

  7. The Topology of African Exports: emerging patterns on spanning trees

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, Tanya; Ferreira, M. Ennes

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a contribution to interweaving two lines of research that have progressed in separate ways: network analyses of international trade and the literature on African trade and development. Gathering empirical data on African countries has important limitations and so does the space occupied by African countries in the analyses of trade networks. Here, these limitations are dealt with by the definition of two independent bipartite networks: a destination share network and a commodit...

  8. [African neurosurgery. 1: Historical outline].

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Khamlichi, A

    1996-01-01

    This outline of the history of African Neurosurgery explains the role that North Africa has played in the Middle Ages in the development of Neurosurgery, the origins of the development of the latter in twentieth century, and the delay that African Neurosurgery still shows at the present time in the majority of African countries. On the papyrus of the pharaonic era, we have found the description of some neurosurgical procedures such as trephination and brain aspiration by a transphenoidal approach used before mummification. It is particularly trephination which summarizes the ancient history of African neurosurgery, as it was widely used throughout the continent, practised and taught by healers in African tribes. The technical concepts of trephination are based, to a great extent, on the descriptions of Arab physicians of the Middle Ages. It was at that time (Middle Ages) that several Arab physicians such as Avicenne, Rhazes, and Avenzhoer described many types of nervous system diseases and the techniques to treat them. But it was mainly Abulkassim Al Zahraoui (Abulkassis) who was the pioneer of neurosurgery as he devoted one volume of his treatise (made up of 30 volumes) to neurosurgery, a precise description of many aspects of neurosurgical pathology, its treatment, instruments and neurosurgical techniques. We have reported in this article five original extracts in Arabic which deal with skull fractures and their treatment, vertebro-medullary traumas and their treatment, hydrocephalus and its treatment, tumors of the skull vault and their treatment, and finally the basic knowledge of anatomy which is of great interest for a surgeon. The medical knowledge of that time which gave birth to medical schools and hospitals was transmitted progressively to Europe and played an important role in the development of medicine during the European Renaissance in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. During colonization, neurosurgical practice started and developed in many

  9. Mapping human resources for eye health in 21 countries of sub-Saharan Africa: current progress towards VISION 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Development of human resources for eye health (HReH) is a major focus of the Global Action Plan 2014 to 2019 to reduce the prevalence of avoidable visual impairment by 25% by the year 2019. The eye health workforce is thought to be much smaller in sub-Saharan Africa than in other regions of the world but data to support this for policy-making is scarce. We collected HReH and cataract surgeries data from 21 countries in sub-Sahara to estimate progress towards key suggested population-based VISION 2020 HReH indicators and cataract surgery rates (CSR) in 2011. Methods Routinely collected data on practitioner and surgery numbers in 2011 was requested from national eye care coordinators via electronic questionnaires. Telephone and e-mail discussions were used to determine data collection strategies that fit the national context and to verify reported data quality. Information was collected on six practitioner cadres: ophthalmologists, cataract surgeons, ophthalmic clinical officers, ophthalmic nurses, optometrists and ‘mid-level refractionists’ and combined with publicly available population data to calculate practitioner to population ratios and CSRs. Associations with development characteristics were conducted using Wilcoxon rank sum tests and Spearman rank correlations. Results HReH data was not easily available. A minority of countries had achieved the suggested VISION 2020 targets in 2011; five countries for ophthalmologists/cataract surgeons, four for ophthalmic nurses/clinical officers and two for CSR. All countries were below target for optometrists, even when other cadres who perform refractions as a primary duty were considered. The regional (sample) ratio for surgeons (ophthalmologists and cataract surgeons) was 2.9 per million population, 5.5 for ophthalmic clinical officers and nurses, 3.7 for optometrists and other refractionists, and 515 for CSR. A positive correlation between GDP and CSR as well as many practitioner ratios was observed

  10. Mapping human resources for eye health in 21 countries of sub-Saharan Africa: current progress towards VISION 2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Jennifer J; Chinanayi, Farai; Gilbert, Alice; Pillay, Devan; Fox, Samantha; Jaggernath, Jyoti; Naidoo, Kovin; Graham, Ronnie; Patel, Daksha; Blanchet, Karl

    2014-08-15

    Development of human resources for eye health (HReH) is a major focus of the Global Action Plan 2014 to 2019 to reduce the prevalence of avoidable visual impairment by 25% by the year 2019. The eye health workforce is thought to be much smaller in sub-Saharan Africa than in other regions of the world but data to support this for policy-making is scarce. We collected HReH and cataract surgeries data from 21 countries in sub-Sahara to estimate progress towards key suggested population-based VISION 2020 HReH indicators and cataract surgery rates (CSR) in 2011. Routinely collected data on practitioner and surgery numbers in 2011 was requested from national eye care coordinators via electronic questionnaires. Telephone and e-mail discussions were used to determine data collection strategies that fit the national context and to verify reported data quality. Information was collected on six practitioner cadres: ophthalmologists, cataract surgeons, ophthalmic clinical officers, ophthalmic nurses, optometrists and 'mid-level refractionists' and combined with publicly available population data to calculate practitioner to population ratios and CSRs. Associations with development characteristics were conducted using Wilcoxon rank sum tests and Spearman rank correlations. HReH data was not easily available. A minority of countries had achieved the suggested VISION 2020 targets in 2011; five countries for ophthalmologists/cataract surgeons, four for ophthalmic nurses/clinical officers and two for CSR. All countries were below target for optometrists, even when other cadres who perform refractions as a primary duty were considered. The regional (sample) ratio for surgeons (ophthalmologists and cataract surgeons) was 2.9 per million population, 5.5 for ophthalmic clinical officers and nurses, 3.7 for optometrists and other refractionists, and 515 for CSR. A positive correlation between GDP and CSR as well as many practitioner ratios was observed (CSR P = 0

  11. A profile of informal traders in four South African city central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The situation in South African cities is no exception as the unemployment rate ... 1. INTRODUCTION. In developing countries, state resources and formal employment opportunities .... like labour-force surveys in resource- constrained African ...

  12. African Environment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental Studies and Regional Planning Bulletin African Environment is published in French and English, and for some issues, in Arabic. (only the issue below has been received by AJOL). Vol 10, No 3 (1999). DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Table of ...

  13. African Journals Online: African Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 56 ... Africa Development is the quarterly bilingual journal of CODESRIA. .... relationship in the family, workplace, schools and organisations. .... activities, and personalities driving the democracy and development agenda in the region; 4. Conflict .... with preference for the results of African and Africanist studies.

  14. Ethnicity-related differences in inguinal canal dimensions between African and Caucasian populations and their potential impact on the mesh size for open and laparoscopic groin hernia repair in low-resource countries in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitura, Kryspin; Kozieł, Sławomir; Pasierbek, Michał

    2018-03-01

    Access to surgery in Africa is significantly limited. Treatment outcomes in Africa differ significantly compared to those achieved in Europe or the US. Therefore, to popularise tension-free repair, it is essential to determine the economically justified mesh size for the African population. To conduct anthropometric evaluation of the inguinal canal in African and European patients to determine its potential consequences for the mesh size for open and laparoscopic hernia repair. The measurements were made in 44 adult males in Africa (group I) and were compared to measurements in 45 consecutive Caucasian males (group II). The mean age of patients was respectively 48.3 and 51.2 years. There was no statistically significant difference in the internal ring diameter between groups (2.2 vs. 2.1 cm; p = 0.58). The distance between the pubic tubercle and the inferomedial border of the internal inguinal ring was significantly shorter in group I (3.8 vs. 5.1 cm; p < 0.001). A similar difference was found in the length of transverse arch aponeurosis (2.9 vs. 4.0 cm; p < 0.001). The distance between the pubic tubercle and anterior superior iliac spine in group I was approximately 2 cm shorter on each side (10.0 vs. 11.8 cm; p < 0.001). The anatomical differences in inguinal dimensions between Central African and European populations support the potential need to adjust the standard size of synthetic mesh used for hernia repair to the needs of local populations. The significantly smaller dimensions of the inguinal canal in African males may allow the use of smaller meshes.

  15. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other African academics. In partnership with hundreds of journals from all over the continent, AJOL works to change this, so that African-origin research output is available to Africans and to the rest of the world. AJOL is ... African Journal of AIDS Research.

  16. South African coal statistics 2006. Marketing manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-08-15

    The report shows that South African thermal exports increased 5% from 66.6Mt to 69.9Mt in 2005 and that the country was the world's third largest seaborne exporter of thermal coal last year. Covering local coal consumption, South African coal imports, exports, prices and qualities, the report offers a complete statistical review of 2005. The report also includes details on labour, individual collieries, export and rail infrastructure and Black Empowerment (BEE) companies.

  17. Obesity and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...

  18. African Journals Online: Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 29 of 29 ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... African and international non-governmental organizations (NGOs); African and .... for scholars and practitioners in all spheres of biological sciences to publish ...

  19. Retraction | Simon | African Zoology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Panthera leo) ina. West African national park”. African Zoology is publishing an Editorial Expression of Concern regarding the following article: “New records of a threatened lion population (Panthera leo) in a West African national park” by ...

  20. Emerging revenue model structure for mobile industry: the case for traditional and OTT service providers in Sub-Sahara

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mahola, U

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available . The conclusion is that network operators can no longer ignore the presence of OTT. There is a change in dominance of the revenue model between the existing and impending revenue models due to OTT presence, with advertisements and revenue-share agreements possibly...

  1. The topology of African exports: Emerging patterns on spanning trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Tanya; Ferreira, Manuel Ennes

    2016-11-01

    This paper is a contribution to interweaving two lines of research that have progressed in separate ways: network analysis of international trade and the literature on African trade and development. Gathering empirical data on African countries has important limitations and so does the space occupied by African countries in the analysis of trade networks. Here, these limitations are dealt with by the definition of two independent bipartite networks: a destination share network and a commodity share network. These networks-together with their corresponding minimal spanning trees-allow to uncover some ordering emerging from African exports in the broader context of international trade. The emerging patterns help to understand important characteristics of African exports and its binding relations to other economic, geographic and organizational concerns as the recent literature on African trade, development and growth has shown.

  2. Conflict and human African trypanosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrang-Ford, Lea; Lundine, Jamie; Breau, Sebastien

    2011-02-01

    Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) has reemerged in sub-Saharan Africa as a disease of major public health importance. The success of HAT elimination in sub-Saharan Africa is subject to the feasibility of controlling, eliminating, or mitigating the determinants of incidence in affected countries. Conflict has been widely recognized and cited as a contributing factor to the resurgence of HAT in many countries, as well as to continuing HAT incidence in politically unstable and resource-poor regions. Despite extensive anecdotal and qualitative recognition of the role of conflict, there has been no quantitative research of this topic at the population level in affected African countries. We characterize the qualitative and quantitative associations between HAT incidence and conflict-related processes in HAT-affected African countries over the past 30 years. HAT and conflict-related data were collected for 35 affected countries in sub-Saharan Africa for the years 1976-2004. Descriptive and univariate inferential statistics, as well as negative binomial regression modeling, are used to assess the associations between HAT and conflict. A space-time scan statistic is used to identify significant incidence clusters. Clusters of HAT incidence over the past 30 years have predominantly coincided with periods of conflict or socio-political instability. HAT cases occurred significantly more often in countries and during years with conflict, high political terror, and internationalized civil war. The results indicate a lag period between the start of conflict events and a peak in incidence of approximately 10 years. We recommend explicit consideration and quantification of socio-political measures such as conflict and terror indices in GIS (Geographic Information Systems)-based risk assessments for HAT policy and intervention. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. List of Higher Risk Countries and Territories (IDRC, April 2012 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    List of Higher Risk Countries and Territories (IDRC, April 2012). Afghanistan. Belarus. Burundi. Central African Republic. Congo, Democratic Republic of. Chad. Cuba. Eastern Europe, countries of. Eritrea. Former Soviet Union, countries of. Iran. Iraq. Korea, Democratic People's Republic of. Liberia. Libya. Mali. Myanmar ...

  4. List of Higher Risk Countries and Territories (IDRC, July 2013 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    List of Higher Risk Countries and Territories (IDRC, July 2013). Afghanistan. Central African Republic. Congo, Brazzaville. Congo, Democratic Republic of. Chad. Cuba. Eastern Europe, countries of. Equatorial Guinea. Eritrea. Former Soviet Union, countries of. Gabon. Guinea-Bissau. Iran. Iraq. Korea, Democratic People's ...

  5. List of Higher Risk Countries and Territories (IDRC, September 2012 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    List of Higher Risk Countries and Territories (IDRC, September 2012). Afghanistan. Belarus. Burundi. Central African Republic. Congo, Democratic Republic of. Chad. Cuba. Eastern Europe, countries of. Eritrea. Former Soviet Union, countries of. Iran. Iraq. Korea, Democratic People's Republic of. Liberia. Libya. Mali.

  6. Rapid screening of toxic glycoalkaloids and micronutrients in edible nightshades (Solanum spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yuan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available African indigenous vegetables (AIVs because of their nutrient density have the unique potential to reduce micronutrient deficiencies in sub-Saharan Africa, yet some may also contain anti-nutritive compounds. Vegetable nightshades from Solanum americanum, Solanum nigrum, Solanum scabrum and Solanum villosum are among the major AIVs used as a leafy vegetables and consumed regularly in many countries in sub-Sahara Africa. These under-recognized food crops have not been subjected to extensive studies for their nutritional and antinutritive factors. In this study, 15 entries of the vegetable nightshades were field-grown and the leaves which are the consumed product of commerce chemically profiled by LC/ESI-MS. Twenty-three flavones, eight saponins, and two glycoalkaloids along with a phenolic acid of chlorogenic acid were identified by MS and UV data. Anti-nutrient glycoalkaloids were quantified as total aglycones after acidic hydrolysis using MS detection and found to be within safe-consumption thresholds by comparison with the glycoalkaloid level in the globally consumed Solanum member eggplants. Edible nightshades were also found to be sources of β-carotene, vitamin E and total polyphenols and exhibited high antioxidant activity. Results of this study support that consumption of vegetable nightshades are safe from the presence of glycoalkaloids and thus, can contribute to the reduction of micronutrient deficiency in sub-Sahara Africa. Keywords: Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Carotene, Vitamin E, Antioxidant activity, Saponins, Solanum

  7. Stressors in the professional lives of South African secondary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We identify current stressors in the professional lives of South African secondary school educators. The study was exploratory, using a questionnaire, which listed 19 possible causes of stress and was completed by 987 educators from all racial groups and provinces in the country. South African educators in general ...

  8. Parenting African American Children in the Context of Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Angela W.; Smyke, Anna T.; Middleton, Melissa; Black, Corey L.

    2015-01-01

    The legacy of slavery in the United States has impacted generations of African Americans, especially parents who must prepare their children to face the challenges associated with being a person of color in this country. The authors explore aspects of racism, White privilege, racial socialization, and African American parents' fears as they equip…

  9. African Journals Online: United States Minor Outlying Islands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: United States Minor Outlying Islands. Home > African Journals Online: United States Minor Outlying Islands. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles ...

  10. Mainstreaming African Local Content in the Information Society: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The global transition to the information and knowledge society requires that every country contribute its local content to the burgeoning global information infrastructure. African states and the African continent as a whole have much to offer in form of indigenous knowledge and scholarly research. However, it has been very ...

  11. The African Institutions Initiative: Insights from the First Four Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Gavin; Robin, Enora; Marjanovic, Sonja; Diepeveen, Stephanie; Hanlin, Rebecca; Kryl, David; Muchova, Lucia; Yaqub, Ohid; Chataway, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, the Wellcome Trust launched a research capacity strengthening programme known as the "African Institutions Initiative" (AII). The AII is innovative in its methods and organization. The Initiative funded networked consortia (7 consortia involving 54 institutions in 18 African countries, and Northern partners). RAND Europe was…

  12. African economists inspire growth, reduce poverty | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    25 oct. 2010 ... AERC awards research grants on issues such as poverty, trade and finance and manages collaborative Master's and PhD programs in economics with dozens of African universities. “Within the first 10 years of AERC support for economic policy research, many African countries began to see growth rates ...

  13. Malaria prophylaxis - the South African viewpoint | Baker | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A consensus meeting was held under the auspices of the Department of National Health and Population Development in September 1991 in order to establish local, current consensus on malaria prophylaxis for the South African traveller within South Africa and neighbouring African countries. The meeting was attended by ...

  14. Regional Integration: A Political Federation of the East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this paper is to explore the possibility and viability of an East African political federation project. Since the late 1800s under the then British East Africa, the countries of East Africa have been searching for ways to integrate. The search led to the establishment of the East African Community (EAC) in December ...

  15. A checklist of South African theses and dissertations on Shakespeare

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This checklist is in two parts. The first lists South African Shakespearean theses and dissertations, as well as some work on Shakespeare completed abroad by South Africans recently or currently active in the country. A few items in which Shakespeare is an important subordinate focus are included. The second list is ...

  16. Aspects of size and geography of an African cyberspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Nwagwu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, data on web links collected from 15 African countries, three with the highest Internet penetration in each of North, West, Central, East, and South regions were used to study the number and origins of links to Africa. The sample has a ratio of one Internet user per 12 persons. Altogether, all African countries generated a total of 124,047,702 Web pages and 30,546,967 inlinks to the pages, an average of about 0.25 links per page. But the sample constituted which 28% of all the countries in the region generated 98,629,700 pages and 21,272,500 inlinks, an average of about 0.21 inlinks per page. South Africa ranked highest in web pages and web links per population and also received the highest number of inlinks from other African countries and the G8. However, Kenya linked other African countries more than the others did. Population size does not relate to number of web pages, self-inlinks, and inlinks or penetration, but relates positively with number of Internet users. Among others, a major step in boosting use of Internet resources in Africa will be in developing policies that will encourage African countries to use information developed by other African countries.

  17. African Solutions to African Problems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmanuel, Nikolas G.; Schwartz, Brendan

    2017-01-01

    . The emergence of Déby’s Chad depends both on its ability to accomplish sub-imperial tasks encouraged by these actors, while obfuscating undemocratic governance and human rights abuses at home. Nonetheless, Déby’s role in regional security has helped him achieve a certain degree of agency in his relationship...... and maintain control of the state. These range from “liberal” desires to help control the region’s trouble spots in places like Mali, to clearly illiberal medaling in the domestic affairs of neighbors like the Central African Republic, with the fight against Boko Haram somewhere in the middle. This paper seeks...

  18. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other African academics. In partnership with hundreds of journals from all over the continent, AJOL works to change this, so that African-origin research output is available to Africans and to the rest of the ... Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics.

  19. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals OnLine (AJOL) is the world's largest and pre-eminent collection of peer-reviewed, African-published scholarly journals. Historically, scholarly information has flowed from North to South and from West to East. It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other African academics.

  20. Trends in African philosophy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JONATHAN

    In the contention of Oladipo (2006), the debate on the idea of. African philosophy which has been divided into trends or schools, dates back to the 1960's and 70's, which constitute the modern epoch of African philosophy, when some African thinkers began to question the perspective that traditional African beliefs and.

  1. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other African ... search for an article by title, author/s or keywords,; and find other information sources ... Southern African Business Review; The role played by the South African ... The Basis of Distinction Between Qualitative and Quantitative Research in ...

  2. Bioenergy and African transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynd, Lee R; Sow, Mariam; Chimphango, Annie Fa; Cortez, Luis Ab; Brito Cruz, Carlos H; Elmissiry, Mosad; Laser, Mark; Mayaki, Ibrahim A; Moraes, Marcia Afd; Nogueira, Luiz Ah; Wolfaardt, Gideon M; Woods, Jeremy; van Zyl, Willem H

    2015-01-01

    Among the world's continents, Africa has the highest incidence of food insecurity and poverty and the highest rates of population growth. Yet Africa also has the most arable land, the lowest crop yields, and by far the most plentiful land resources relative to energy demand. It is thus of interest to examine the potential of expanded modern bioenergy production in Africa. Here we consider bioenergy as an enabler for development, and provide an overview of modern bioenergy technologies with a comment on application in an Africa context. Experience with bioenergy in Africa offers evidence of social benefits and also some important lessons. In Brazil, social development, agricultural development and food security, and bioenergy development have been synergistic rather than antagonistic. Realizing similar success in African countries will require clear vision, good governance, and adaptation of technologies, knowledge, and business models to myriad local circumstances. Strategies for integrated production of food crops, livestock, and bioenergy are potentially attractive and offer an alternative to an agricultural model featuring specialized land use. If done thoughtfully, there is considerable evidence that food security and economic development in Africa can be addressed more effectively with modern bioenergy than without it. Modern bioenergy can be an agent of African transformation, with potential social benefits accruing to multiple sectors and extending well beyond energy supply per se. Potential negative impacts also cut across sectors. Thus, institutionally inclusive multi-sector legislative structures will be more effective at maximizing the social benefits of bioenergy compared to institutionally exclusive, single-sector structures.

  3. Management Strategies and Economic Development in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John

    2014-01-01

    as number 2 on the World Bank’s world economic growth list. It has also scored high on measures of civil liberty, political rights and political stability among other nations on the West African sub-continent. But Ghana still faces serious economic and social challenges and is, therefore, in search of new......Ghana has experienced a tumultuous political and economic history since its independence in 1957. But today it is among the handful of African nations that showcase the dreams and aspirations of Sub-Sahara Africa. In 2011 it achieved an impressive economic growth rate of 14.6 per cent and ranked...... to provides illustrations of the usefulness of the human capability development framework presented in volume one as a foundation for sustainable and inclusive economic development in SSA. It also highlights the challenges that the country continues to grapple with and provides some directions for further...

  4. Local Villages and Global Networks: The Language and Migration Experiences of African Skilled Migrant Academics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    African skilled migrants and their circular and return migration strategies have received relatively little attention in the literature, with the previous focus of much African migration literature being on the net loss of skills to countries with developed economies in the global north. This article considers 13 interviews with African skilled…

  5. African Engagements: on whose terms? Africa negotiating and emerging multi-polar world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, T.; Havnevik, K.; Kaag, M.M.A.; Oestigaard, T.

    2011-01-01

    During the recent World EXPO in Shanghai, most African countries were housed under one roof, a huge building bustling with activity. The African dances and the loud drumming attracted many Chinese visitors, who were amazed, thrilled and shocked at the same time. The African market stalls (see

  6. A Case Study of the Development of African American Women Executives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks Greaux, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Even in an era when the country elected an African American man as President of the United States, there is still a paucity of African American women executives within Fortune 500 companies. Although more African American women have joined the ranks of corporate management over the last two decades, the numbers, when compared to those of White…

  7. Reproductive Parameters of the West African Dwarf Bucks Raised in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR Ezihe

    Sahelian vegetational region, the Yankasa which is the most numerous and widespread found in the guinea savannah and spread to other parts of the country, and finally the hardy, short-legged. West African Dwarf sheep restricted to high.

  8. Strengthening Peace Research and Peace Education in African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    peace education in African higher education, especially in the universities. ..... of research, teaching and learning in the universities and, by logical ... of violence profile is that in most volatile conflict-prone and war-affected countries and.

  9. African Ruling Political Parties and the Making of 'Authoritarian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the light of this there seems to be a theoretical and empirical lacuna in the discourse of ... and fourth democratic waves led to more than two-thirds of African countries ...... to grow without serious intervention to promote development. Where.

  10. Oxidative stress biomarkers in West African Dwarf goats reared ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DAMLOLA

    2017-03-30

    Mar 30, 2017 ... 2Department of Animal Science, School of Agricultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Science and Technology, North ... West African dwarf (WAD) goats are an extremely important livestock species in developing countries.

  11. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development - Vol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009) ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... Micronutrient deficiencies in food aid beneficiaries: A review of seven African countries. ... Efficacy of traditional maize (Zea mays L.) seed storage methods in western Kenya.

  12. African Climate Change Fellowship Program - Phase II | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ACCFP), 16 policy, 13 doctoral, 13 postdoctoral, and three teaching fellowships were awarded to a total of 45 fellows from 18 African countries. This grant will finance two additional ... Institute of Resource Assessment. Pays d' institution. Tanzania ...

  13. African Research Review - Vol 6, No 4 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uncertainty in Less Developed Countries in the Face of Crisis · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL ... VS Zhattau, 24-39 ... Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Application in Secondary Schools and ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  14. African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences - Vol 19 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance. ... Adiposity and physical activity among children in countries at different stages of the physical ... The world in turmoil: Promotion of peace and international understanding ...

  15. African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences - Vol 15 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance. ... of adolescent taekwondo participants in comparison with hockey participants and a non ... of physical education curriculumin six Arab countries: International perspective ...

  16. THE QUESTION OF AFRICAN PHILOSOPHY AND KWASI wm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    subject qf careful scrutiny by African philosophers and others who are engaged in .... an overly nationalist attempt to restrict philosophy to country ..... philosophy in Africa at the present time is the production ... William Lovitt (New York: Harper.

  17. Advocating for efforts to protect African children, families, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    utilised vaccines; including hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenza type b, pneumococcal conjugate, rotavirus, meningococcal A conjugate, and human papillomavirus vaccines. In May 2012, African countries endorsed the Global Vaccine Action ...

  18. South African Medical' Journal Suid,Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    teaching in this country. For this issue articles ... training ana qualifications abroad (chiefly but not exclusively in Great ... Africans, in both the English and Afrikaans languages, and one ... found it possible to develop their postgraduate teaching.

  19. Protocol and baseline data for a multi-year cohort study of the effects of different mass drug treatment approaches on functional morbidities from schistosomiasis in four African countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Ye; King, Charles H.; Binder, Sue

    2017-01-01

    Background The Schistosomiasis Consortium for Operational Research and Evaluation (SCORE) focus is on randomized trials of different approaches to mass drug administration (MDA) in endemic countries in Africa. Because their studies provided an opportunity to evaluate the effects of mass treatment...

  20. Energy resources in Arab countries: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Lababidi, M. Mukhtar [Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries, Technical Affairs Dept., Safat (Kuwait)

    1999-12-01

    The author examines the energy resources of Middle East and North African countries under the headings: oil (proven reserves, undiscovered potential recovery, improved recovery techniques, production capacities), natural gas (reserves, undiscovered potential gas recovery), shale oil and tar sand, coal, uranium, hydro, wind energy, solar energy and biomass. (UK)