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Sample records for sub-optimal unidimensional strategies

  1. The Iowa Gambling Task in depression – what have we learned about sub-optimal decision-making strategies?

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    Anita eMust

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Our earlier study found patients with depression to show a preference for larger reward as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT. In this IGT version, larger rewards were associated with even larger consequent losses. In the light of the clinical markers defining depressive disorder, this finding might appear contoversial at first. Performance of depressed patients on various decision-making (DM tasks is typically found to be impaired. Evidence points towards reduced reward learning, as well as the difficulty to shift strategy and integrate environmental changes into DM contingencies. This results in an impaired ability to modulate behavior as a function of reward, or punishment, respectively. Clinical symptoms of the disorder, the genetic profile, as well as personality traits might also influence DM strategies. More severe depression increased sensitivity to immediate large punishment, thus predicting future decisions, and was also associated with higher harm avoidance. Anhedonic features diminished reward learning abilities to a greater extent, even predicting clinical outcome. Several questions about how these aspects relate remain to be clarified. Is there a genetic predisposition for the DM impairment preceding mood symptoms? Is it the consequence of clinical signs or even learned behavior serving as a coping strategy? Are patients prone to develop an aversion of loss or are they unable to sense or deal with reward or the preference of reward? Does the DM deficit normalize or is a persisting impairment predictor for clinical outcome or relapse risk? To what extent is it influenced by medication effects? How does a long-lasting DM deficit affect daily life and social interactions? Strikingly, research evidence indicates that depressed patients tend to behave less deceptive and more self-focused, resulting in impaired social DM. The difficulty in daily interpersonal interactions might contribute to social isolation, further intensifying

  2. Unidimensional Interpretations for Multidimensional Test Items

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    Kahraman, Nilufer

    2013-01-01

    This article considers potential problems that can arise in estimating a unidimensional item response theory (IRT) model when some test items are multidimensional (i.e., show a complex factorial structure). More specifically, this study examines (1) the consequences of model misfit on IRT item parameter estimates due to unintended minor item-level…

  3. Self-care practices of Malaysian adults with diabetes and sub-optimal glycaemic control.

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    Tan, Ming Yeong; Magarey, Judy

    2008-08-01

    To investigate the self-care practices of Malaysian adults with diabetes and sub-optimal glycaemic control. Using a one-to-one interviewing approach, data were collected from 126 diabetic adults from four settings. A 75-item questionnaire was used to assess diabetes-related knowledge and self-care practices regarding, diet, medication, physical activity and self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). Most subjects had received advice on the importance of self-care in the management of their diabetes and recognised its importance. Sixty-seven subjects (53%) scored below 50% in their diabetes-related knowledge. Subjects who consumed more meals per day (80%), or who did not include their regular sweetened food intakes in their daily meal plan (80%), or who were inactive in daily life (54%), had higher mean fasting blood glucose levels (p=0.04). Subjects with medication non-adherence (46%) also tended to have higher fasting blood glucose levels. Only 15% of the subjects practiced SMBG. Predictors of knowledge deficit and poor self-care were low level of education (p = practices among the majority of diabetic patients with sub-optimal glycaemic control. This study should contribute to the development of effective education strategies to promote health for adults with sub-optimal diabetes control.

  4. Rootstock Sub-Optimal Temperature Tolerance Determines Transcriptomic Responses after Long-Term Root Cooling in Rootstocks and Scions of Grafted Tomato Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Georgia Ntatsi; Dimitrios Savvas; Vassilis Papasotiropoulos; Anastasios Katsileros; Zrenner, Rita M.; Hincha, Dirk K.; Ellen Zuther; Dietmar Schwarz

    2017-01-01

    Grafting of elite cultivars onto tolerant rootstocks is an advanced strategy to increase tomato tolerance to sub-optimal temperature. However, a detailed understanding of adaptive mechanisms to sub-optimal temperature in rootstocks and scions of grafting combinations on a physiological and molecular level is lacking. Here, the commercial cultivar Kommeet was grafted either onto ‘Moneymaker’ (sensitive) or onto the line accession LA 1777 of Solanum habrochaites (tolerant). Grafted plants were ...

  5. Delimiting coefficient alpha from internal consistency and unidimensionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsma, K.

    2015-01-01

    I discuss the contribution by Davenport, Davison, Liou, & Love (2015) in which they relate reliability represented by coefficient α to formal definitions of internal consistency and unidimensionality, both proposed by Cronbach (1951). I argue that coefficient α is a lower bound to reliability and

  6. Delimiting Coefficient a from Internal Consistency and Unidimensionality

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    Sijtsma, Klaas

    2015-01-01

    I discuss the contribution by Davenport, Davison, Liou, & Love (2015) in which they relate reliability represented by coefficient a to formal definitions of internal consistency and unidimensionality, both proposed by Cronbach (1951). I argue that coefficient a is a lower bound to reliability and that concepts of internal consistency and…

  7. Essential Unidimensionality Examination for Multicomponent Scales: An Interrelationship Decomposition Approach

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    Raykov, Tenko; Pohl, Steffi

    2013-01-01

    A procedure for examining essential unidimensionality in multicomponent measuring instruments is discussed. The method is based on an application of latent variable modeling and is concerned with the extent to which a common factor for all components of a given scale accounts for their correlations. The approach provides point and interval…

  8. Fechnerian metrics in unidimensional and multidimensional stimulus spaces.

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    Dzhafarov, E N; Colonius, H

    1999-06-01

    A new theory is proposed for subjective (Fechnerian) distances among stimuli in a continuous stimulus space of arbitrary dimensionality. Each stimulus in such a space is associated with a psychometric function that determines probabilities with which it is discriminated from other stimuli, and a certain measure of its discriminability from its infinitesimally close neighboring stimuli is computed from the shape of this psychometric function in the vicinity of its minimum. This measure of discriminability can be integrated along any path connecting any two points in the stimulus space, yielding the psychometric length of this path. The Fechnerian distance between two stimuli is defined as the infimum of the psychometric lengths of all paths connecting the two stimuli. For a broad class of models defining the dichotomy of response bias versus discriminability, the Fechnerian distances are invariant under response bias changes. In the case in which physically multidimensional stimuli are discriminated along some unidimensional subjective attribute, a systematic construction of the Fechnerian metric leads to a resolution of the long-standing controversy related to the numbers of just-noticeable differences between isosensitivity curves. It is argued that for unidimensional stimulus continua, the proposed theory is close to the intended meaning of Fechner's original theory.

  9. Rootstock Sub-Optimal Temperature Tolerance Determines Transcriptomic Responses after Long-Term Root Cooling in Rootstocks and Scions of Grafted Tomato Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntatsi, Georgia; Savvas, Dimitrios; Papasotiropoulos, Vassilis; Katsileros, Anastasios; Zrenner, Rita M; Hincha, Dirk K; Zuther, Ellen; Schwarz, Dietmar

    2017-01-01

    Grafting of elite cultivars onto tolerant rootstocks is an advanced strategy to increase tomato tolerance to sub-optimal temperature. However, a detailed understanding of adaptive mechanisms to sub-optimal temperature in rootstocks and scions of grafting combinations on a physiological and molecular level is lacking. Here, the commercial cultivar Kommeet was grafted either onto 'Moneymaker' (sensitive) or onto the line accession LA 1777 of Solanum habrochaites (tolerant). Grafted plants were grown in NFT-system at either optimal (25°C) or sub-optimal (15°C) temperatures in the root environment with optimal air temperature (25°C) for 22 days. Grafting onto the differently tolerant rootstocks caused differences in shoot fresh and dry weight, total leaf area and dry matter content of roots, in stomatal conductance and intercellular CO2 and guaiacol peroxidase activity but not in net photosynthesis, sugar, starch and amino acid content, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activity. In leaves, comparative transcriptome analysis identified 361 differentially expressed genes (DEG) responding to sub-optimal root temperature when 'Kommeet' was grafted onto the sensitive but no when grafted onto the tolerant rootstock. 1509 and 2036 DEG responding to sub-optimal temperature were identified in LA 1777 and 'Moneymaker' rootstocks, respectively. In tolerant rootstocks down-regulated genes were enriched in main stress-responsive functional categories and up-regulated genes in cellulose synthesis suggesting that cellulose synthesis may be one of the main adaptation mechanisms to long-term sub-optimal temperature. Down-regulated genes of the sensitive rootstock showed a similar response, but functional categories of up-regulated genes pointed to induced stress responses. Rootstocks of the sensitive cultivar Moneymaker showed in addition an enrichment of up-regulated genes in the functional categories fatty acid desaturation, phenylpropanoids, biotic stress, cytochrome P

  10. Rootstock Sub-Optimal Temperature Tolerance Determines Transcriptomic Responses after Long-Term Root Cooling in Rootstocks and Scions of Grafted Tomato Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Ntatsi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Grafting of elite cultivars onto tolerant rootstocks is an advanced strategy to increase tomato tolerance to sub-optimal temperature. However, a detailed understanding of adaptive mechanisms to sub-optimal temperature in rootstocks and scions of grafting combinations on a physiological and molecular level is lacking. Here, the commercial cultivar Kommeet was grafted either onto ‘Moneymaker’ (sensitive or onto the line accession LA 1777 of Solanum habrochaites (tolerant. Grafted plants were grown in NFT-system at either optimal (25°C or sub-optimal (15°C temperatures in the root environment with optimal air temperature (25°C for 22 days. Grafting onto the differently tolerant rootstocks caused differences in shoot fresh and dry weight, total leaf area and dry matter content of roots, in stomatal conductance and intercellular CO2 and guaiacol peroxidase activity but not in net photosynthesis, sugar, starch and amino acid content, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activity. In leaves, comparative transcriptome analysis identified 361 differentially expressed genes (DEG responding to sub-optimal root temperature when ‘Kommeet’ was grafted onto the sensitive but no when grafted onto the tolerant rootstock. 1509 and 2036 DEG responding to sub-optimal temperature were identified in LA 1777 and ‘Moneymaker’ rootstocks, respectively. In tolerant rootstocks down-regulated genes were enriched in main stress-responsive functional categories and up-regulated genes in cellulose synthesis suggesting that cellulose synthesis may be one of the main adaptation mechanisms to long-term sub-optimal temperature. Down-regulated genes of the sensitive rootstock showed a similar response, but functional categories of up-regulated genes pointed to induced stress responses. Rootstocks of the sensitive cultivar Moneymaker showed in addition an enrichment of up-regulated genes in the functional categories fatty acid desaturation, phenylpropanoids

  11. Exploring the Robustness of a Unidimensional Item Response Theory Model with Empirically Multidimensional Data

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    Anderson, Daniel; Kahn, Joshua D.; Tindal, Gerald

    2017-01-01

    Unidimensionality and local independence are two common assumptions of item response theory. The former implies that all items measure a common latent trait, while the latter implies that responses are independent, conditional on respondents' location on the latent trait. Yet, few tests are truly unidimensional. Unmodeled dimensions may result in…

  12. Assessing the Unidimensionality of Psychological Scales: Using Multiple Criteria from Factor Analysis

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    Slocum-Gori, Suzanne L.; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2011-01-01

    Whenever one uses a composite scale score from item responses, one is tacitly assuming that the scale is dominantly unidimensional. Investigating the unidimensionality of item response data is an essential component of construct validity. Yet, there is no universally accepted technique or set of rules to determine the number of factors to retain…

  13. Evidence for a heritable unidimensional symptom factor underlying obsessionality.

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    Mathews, Carol A; Greenwood, Tiffany; Wessel, Jennifer; Azzam, Amin; Garrido, Helena; Chavira, Denise A; Chandavarkar, Uma; Bagnarello, Monica; Stein, Murray; Schork, Nicholas J

    2008-09-05

    The division of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) into specific factors is now widely accepted. However, the utility of these categories for genetic studies remains unclear, as studies examining their heritability have been inconsistent. Less attention has been paid to the possibility that clinically significant obsessionality is primarily determined by a "core" group of OCS that crosses the boundaries between symptom subgroups. The aim of this study is to determine whether such a core group exists, and to compare its heritability to that of the more traditionally derived symptom factors. We examined the properties and heritability of obsessive-compulsive symptoms in college students, medical students, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) families using the Leyton Obsessional Inventory. In each of the three samples, we identified a core group of symptoms that comprised a single unique construct and accounted for over 90% of the variation of the four more traditional symptom factors. This core construct was highly correlated with OCD in our families and had a heritability estimate of 0.19 when OCD was not included as a covariate and 0.49 when OCD was included as a covariate. In contrast, the four symptom factors were not heritable. There appears to be an underlying unidimensional component to obsessionality, both in non-clinical and clinical samples. This component, which is heritable, accounts for the majority of the variation of the more traditionally derived symptom factors in our sample, and is composed of OCS that are not specific to any of the symptom subgroups. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Influence of sub-optimal temperature on tomato growth and yield : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, van der A.; Heuvelink, E.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of temperature on growth, development and yield of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) are reviewed with special emphasis on cultivar differences. The focus is on sub-optimal temperatures, above the level where chilling injury occurs. Temperature has a large effect on all aspects of

  15. Sub-optimal birth weight in newborns of a high socioeconomic status population

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    Conceição Aparecida de Mattos Segre

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare sub-optimal birth weight (2,500 to 2,999 g term newborns to appropriate for gestational age (birth weight ≥ 3,000 g term newborns, regarding maternal data and newborn morbidity and mortality. Methods: Single term newborns, appropriate for gestational age from a high socioeconomic population (n = 1,242 with birth weight ranging from 2,500 to 2,999 g (Group I were compared to 4,907 newborns with birth weight ≥ than 3,000 g (Group II. Maternal and newborn characteristics were compared between the groups. The Mann-Whitney test, χ2 test and multivariate analysis were used. The significance level adopted was p < 0.05. Rresults: The frequency of sub-optimal birth weight newborns in the population studied was 20.2%. There was a significant association between sub-optimal birth weight and maternal weight before pregnancy and body mass index, maternal weight gain, height, smoking habit and hypertension. Newborns’ 1-minute Apgar score, neonatal hypoglycemia, jaundice, transient tachypnea, congenital pneumonia and hospital stay were significantly different between the groups (p < 0.05. A significant relationship could not be established with the 5-minute Apgar score and pulmonary hypertension in both groups. Neonatal mortality did not differ between the groups. Cconclusions: Socioeconomic status was not a risk factor for sub-optimal birth weight in the studied population. Genetic and environmental factors were associated to sub-optimal weight and neonatal diseases. According to these data, this group of newborns should receive special attention from the health team.

  16. Arte em Herbert Marcuse: formação e resistência à sociedade unidimensional

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    Chaves, Juliana de Castro; Ribeiro,Daviane Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Este trabalho é resultado de uma pesquisa teórica que teve como objetivo analisar a contribuição de Herbert Marcuse, autor da teoria crítica da sociedade, para pensar a relação entre arte, sujeito e formação para a resistência à sociedade unidimensional. Foram estudados os seguintes textos escritos entre 1941 e 1977: Razão e revolução (1941/1978), Eros e civilização (1955/1969), Ideologia da sociedade industrial: o homem unidimensional (1964/1973), Ideias sobre uma teoria crítica da sociedade...

  17. The greatest lower bound to the reliability of a test and the hypothesis of unidimensionality

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    Ten Berge, JMF; Socan, G

    2004-01-01

    To assess the reliability of congeneric tests, specifically designed reliability measures have been proposed. This paper emphasizes that such measures rely on a unidimensionality hypothesis, which can neither be confirmed nor rejected when there are only three test parts, and will invariably be

  18. Outcome of the sub-optimal dialysis starter on peritoneal dialysis. Report from the French Language Peritoneal Dialysis Registry (RDPLF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobbedez, Thierry; Verger, Christian; Ryckelynck, Jean-Philippe; Fabre, Emmanuel; Evans, David

    2013-05-01

    This study was carried out to examine the association of sub-optimal dialysis initiation of peritoneal dialysis (PD) with all the possible outcomes on PD using survival analysis in the presence of competing risks. This was a retrospective cohort study based on the data of the French Language Peritoneal Dialysis Registry. We analysed 8527 incident patients starting PD between January 2002 and December 2010. The end of the observation period was 01 June 2011. Times from the start of PD to death, transplantation, transfer to haemodialysis (HD) and first peritonitis episode were calculated. The sub-optimal dialysis initiation was defined by a period of <30 days on HD before PD initiation. Among 8527 patients, there were 568 patients who started PD after <30 days on HD. There were 6562 events: 3078 deaths, 2136 transfers to HD, 1348 renal transplantations. When using a Fine and Gray model, sub-optimal dialysis start, early peritonitis and transplant failure were associated with a higher sub-distribution relative hazard of technique failure. There was no association between the sub-optimal dialysis start and the sub-distribution hazard of death or transplantation. In the multivariate analysis using a Fine and Gray regression model, the sub-optimal dialysis start was not associated with a higher sub distribution relative hazard of peritonitis. Sub-optimal dialysis initiation is neither associated with a higher risk of death nor with a lower risk of renal transplantation. Sub-optimal PD patients had a higher risk of transfer to HD.

  19. The unidimensionality and overestimation of metacognitive awareness in children: validating the CATOM

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    Paula C. Ferreira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Children often have difficulty in reporting their metacognitive functioning, which leads them to frequently overrating themselves under learning situations. Hence, this study presents a preliminary approach of how children's metacognitive awareness (MA can be measured. Essentially, this study aims to understand how children (n =1029 report their metacognitive functioning. In a first analysis, EFA revealed a unidimensional structure of the instrument (MK and MS. Item Response Theory was then used to analyse the unidimensionality of the dimension and the interactions between participants and items. Results revealed good item reliability (.87 and good person reliability (.87 with good Cronbach's a for MA (.95. These results show the potential of the instrument, as well as a tendency of children to overrate their metacognitive functioning. Implications for researchers and practitioners are discussed.

  20. A MATLAB Package for Markov Chain Monte Carlo with a Multi-Unidimensional IRT Model

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    Yanyan Sheng

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Unidimensional item response theory (IRT models are useful when each item is designed to measure some facet of a unified latent trait. In practical applications, items are not necessarily measuring the same underlying trait, and hence the more general multi-unidimensional model should be considered. This paper provides the requisite information and description of software that implements the Gibbs sampler for such models with two item parameters and a normal ogive form. The software developed is written in the MATLAB package IRTmu2no. The package is flexible enough to allow a user the choice to simulate binary response data with multiple dimensions, set the number of total or burn-in iterations, specify starting values or prior distributions for model parameters, check convergence of the Markov chain, as well as obtain Bayesian fit statistics. Illustrative examples are provided to demonstrate and validate the use of the software package.

  1. An Approach to Streaming Video Segmentation With Sub-Optimal Low-Rank Decomposition.

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    Li, Chenglong; Lin, Liang; Zuo, Wangmeng; Wang, Wenzhong; Tang, Jin

    2016-05-01

    This paper investigates how to perform robust and efficient video segmentation while suppressing the effects of data noises and/or corruptions, and an effective approach is introduced to this end. First, a general algorithm, called sub-optimal low-rank decomposition (SOLD), is proposed to pursue the low-rank representation for video segmentation. Given the data matrix formed by supervoxel features of an observed video sequence, SOLD seeks a sub-optimal solution by making the matrix rank explicitly determined. In particular, the representation coefficient matrix with the fixed rank can be decomposed into two sub-matrices of low rank, and then we iteratively optimize them with closed-form solutions. Moreover, we incorporate a discriminative replication prior into SOLD based on the observation that small-size video patterns tend to recur frequently within the same object. Second, based on SOLD, we present an efficient inference algorithm to perform streaming video segmentation in both unsupervised and interactive scenarios. More specifically, the constrained normalized-cut algorithm is adopted by incorporating the low-rank representation with other low level cues and temporal consistent constraints for spatio-temporal segmentation. Extensive experiments on two public challenging data sets VSB100 and SegTrack suggest that our approach outperforms other video segmentation approaches in both accuracy and efficiency.

  2. Sub-optimal parenting is associated with schizotypic and anxiety personality traits in adulthood.

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    Giakoumaki, S G; Roussos, P; Zouraraki, C; Spanoudakis, E; Mavrikaki, M; Tsapakis, E M; Bitsios, P

    2013-05-01

    Part of the variation in personality characteristics has been attributed to the child-parent interaction and sub-optimal parenting has been associated with psychiatric morbidity. In the present study, an extensive battery of personality scales (Trait Anxiety Inventory, Behavioural Inhibition/Activation System questionnaire, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised, Temperament and Character Inventory, Schizotypal Traits Questionnaire, Toronto Alexithymia Scale) and the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) were administered in 324 adult healthy males to elucidate the effects of parenting on personality configuration. Personality variables were analysed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and the factors "Schizotypy", "Anxiety", "Behavioural activation", "Novelty seeking" and "Reward dependence" were extracted. Associations between personality factors with PBI "care" and "overprotection" scores were examined with regression analyses. Subjects were divided into "parental style" groups and personality factors were subjected to categorical analyses. "Schizotypy" and "Anxiety" were significantly predicted by high maternal overprotection and low paternal care. In addition, the Affectionless control group (low care/high overprotection) had higher "Schizotypy" and "Anxiety" compared with the Optimal Parenting group (high care/low overprotection). These results further validate sub-optimal parenting as an important environmental exposure and extend our understanding on the mechanisms by which it increases risk for psychiatric morbidity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. POTENCY ICM INPARA 1 AND INDRAGIRI ON SUB OPTIMAL LAND WAEAPO, BURU

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    Wahid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Study conducted in Debowae Village, Waeapo District, Buru in growing season 2011 determine effect manure on growth and yield rice in sub-optimal area. Land area used covered one hectare. Manure derived from cow used as treatment. Each treatment repeated three times. Manure dose three ton per ha of cow applied. Two swamp rice varieties, Inpara 1 and Indragiri obtained from Indonesian Center for Rice Research at Sukamandi. These varieties cultivated under recommended technology model of Integrated CropManagement (ICM. Inorganic fertilizers applied at rate 300 kg NPK Phonska and 200 kg Urea per ha by applying half dose Urea together with full dose NPK Phonska at seven days after sowing rice, while remaining half Urea applied at 24 and 38 days after sowing. Parameters measured included soil physical and chemical properties, growth and yield component rice. Results showed average rice productivity obtained through use combination both organic and inorganic fertilizers and use recommended adaptive variety Indragiri and Inpara 1 for sub optimal land was 7.61 t per ha and 7.48 t per ha, respectively. Those produced by famers was low in which only yielded 2.6 t per ha and 2.9 t per ha rice planted through direct seeding and transplanting methods.

  4. Repeated assessment of temporomandibular joint pain : Reasoned decision-making with use of unidimensional and multidimensional pain scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kropmans, TJB; Dijkstra, PU; Stegenga, B; Stewart, R; de Bont, LGM

    2002-01-01

    Background: There are no reports in the literature about patients with painfully restricted temporomandibular joints concerning the reliability of unidimensional and multidimensional pain scales on the basis of a generalizability and decision study. Generalizability and decision studies are designed

  5. Sub-optimal asthma control in teenagers in the midland region of Ireland.

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    Kelly, I; Fitzpatrick, P

    2011-12-01

    Internationally, many children with asthma are not attaining achievable asthma control. To examine the prevalence of asthma in teenagers in four midland counties, their asthma control and the barriers, if any, to gaining control of asthma. International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC) methodology was used in a survey of Junior Cycle Year 2 second-level students. The prevalence of "wheeze ever" was 49.8%, "wheeze in the last 12 months" was 32.6% and "asthma ever" was 23.5%. Of teenagers with current asthma, 96% had evidence of sub-optimal asthma control during the previous year. For the majority of the teenagers with asthma, treatment was not guideline concordant; infrequent lung function testing, insufficient review after acute care and poor use of written asthma action plans. Barriers included lack of awareness of need for treatment. If asthma guidelines are implemented fully, these children may experience better health.

  6. A PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINING OPTIMAL FACILITY LOCATION AND SUB-OPTIMAL POSITIONS

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    P.K. Dan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This research presents a methodology for determining the optimal location of a new facility, having physical flow interaction of various degrees with other existing facilities in the presence of barriers impeding the shortest flow-path as well as the sub-optimal iso-cost positions. It also determines sub-optimal iso-cost positions with additional cost or penalty for not being able to site it at the computed optimal point. The proposed methodology considers all types of quadrilateral barrier or forbidden region configurations to generalize and by-pass such impenetrable obstacles, and adopts a scheme of searching through the vertices of the quadrilaterals to determine the alternative shortest flow-path. This procedure of obstacle avoidance is novel. Software has been developed to facilitate computations for the search algorithm to determine the optimal and iso-cost co-ordinates. The test results are presented.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die navorsing behandel ‘n procedure vir die bepaling van optimum stigtingsposisie vir ‘n onderneming met vloei vanaf ander bestaande fasiliteite in die teenwoordigheid van ‘n verskeidenheid van randvoorwaardes. Die prodedure lewer as resultaat suboptimale isokoste-stigtingsplekke met bekendmaking van die koste wat onstaan a.g.v. afwyking van die randvoorwaardlose optimum oplossingskoste, die prosedure maak gebruik van ‘n vindingryke soekmetode wat toegepas word op niersydige meerkundige voorstellings vir die bepaling van korste roetes wat versperring omseil. Die prosedure word onderskei deur programmatuur. Toetsresultate word voorgehou.

  7. The Revised Body Awareness Rating Questionnaire: Development Into a Unidimensional Scale Using Rasch Analysis.

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    Dragesund, Tove; Strand, Liv Inger; Grotle, Margreth

    2018-02-01

    The Body Awareness Rating Questionnaire (BARQ) is a self-report questionnaire aimed at capturing how people with long-lasting musculoskeletal pain reflect on their own body awareness. Methods based on classical test theory were applied to the development of the instrument and resulted in 4 subscales. However, the scales were not correlated, and construct validity might be questioned. The primary purpose of this study was to explore the possibility of developing a unidimensional scale from items initially collected for the BARQ using Rasch analysis. A secondary purpose was to investigate the test-retest reliability of a revised version of the BARQ. This was a methodological study. Rasch and reliability analyses were performed for 3 samples of participants with long-lasting musculoskeletal pain. The first Rasch analysis was carried out on 66 items generated for the original BARQ and scored by 300 participants. The items supported by the first analysis were scored by a new group of 127 participants and analyzed in a second Rasch analysis. For the test-retest reliability analysis, 48 participants scored the revised BARQ items twice within 1 week. The 2-step Rasch analysis resulted in a unidimensional 12-item revised version of the BARQ with a 4-point response scale (scores from 0 to 36). It showed a good fit to the Rasch model, with acceptable internal consistency, satisfactory fit residuals, and no disordered thresholds. Test-retest reliability was high, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of .83 (95% CI = .71-.89) and a smallest detectable change of 6.3 points. The small sample size in the second Rasch analysis was a study limitation. The revised BARQ is a unidimensional and feasible measurement of body awareness, recommended for use in the context of body-mind physical therapy approaches for musculoskeletal conditions.

  8. Noninvasive assessment of alcoholic liver disease using unidimensional transient elastography (Fibroscan®)

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    Lupsor-Platon, Monica; Badea, Radu

    2015-01-01

    Unidimensional transient elastography (TE) is a noninvasive technique, which has been increasingly used in the assessment of diffuse liver diseases. This paper focuses on reviewing the existing data on the use of TE in the diagnosis of fibrosis and in monitoring disease progression in alcoholic liver disease, on the factors that may influence the result of fibrosis prediction, and last but not least, on its potential use in assessing the steatosis degree. Therefore, this field is far from being exhausted and deserves more attention. Further studies are required, on large groups of biopsied patients, in order to find answers to all the remaining questions in this field. PMID:26576080

  9. Relación entre los cuantiles y cuasicuantiles de un batch unidimensional

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    Pérez de la Blanca, Nicolás; Herencia, José Antonio

    1986-01-01

    Dentro del contexto del Análisis Exploratorio de Datos tal como ha sido definido por Tukey (1977), se aborda el estudio de la síntesis numérica de un "batch" unidimensional. Más concretamente, se analizan las propiedades que relacionan los cuantiles muestrales con otro conjunto de valores muy cercanos a éstos y que denominaremos cuasicuantiles. Estos presentan las propiedades de poderse calcular de forma más simple que aquéllos y de concentrarse más en las colas que en el centro de la distrib...

  10. Assessing fit of alternative unidimensional polytomous IRT models using posterior predictive model checking.

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    Li, Tongyun; Xie, Chao; Jiao, Hong

    2017-06-01

    This article explored the application of the posterior predictive model checking (PPMC) method in assessing fit for unidimensional polytomous item response theory (IRT) models, specifically the divide-by-total models (e.g., the generalized partial credit model). Previous research has primarily focused on using PPMC in model checking for unidimensional and multidimensional IRT models for dichotomous data, and has paid little attention to polytomous models. A Monte Carlo simulation was conducted to investigate the performance of PPMC in detecting different sources of misfit for the partial credit model family. Results showed that the PPMC method, in combination with appropriate discrepancy measures, had adequate power in detecting different sources of misfit for the partial credit model family. Global odds ratio and item total correlation exhibited specific patterns in detecting the absence of the slope parameter, whereas Yen's Q1 was found to be promising in the detection of misfit caused by the constant category intersection parameter constraint across items. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Assessing the Unidimensionality of Trait Reactance Using a Multifaceted Model Assessment Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, Allison Brown; Finney, Sara J

    2017-03-02

    This study employed a multifaceted model assessment approach to investigate the dimensionality and nomological network of a popular measure of trait reactance, the Hong Psychological Reactance Scale (HPRS; Hong & Page, 1989 ). To address confusion regarding the scoring and modeling of the HPRS as well as its limited external validity evidence, we tested competing factor models, diagnosed model-data misfit, examined relationships between competing factor models and key personality traits, and cross-validated the results. Confirmatory factor analytic results supported modeling the HPRS via a bifactor model and, when this model was applied, trait reactance was negatively related to agreeableness, conscientiousness, and conformity, and positively related to entitlement, as expected. However, we also demonstrated the consequences of championing a 1-factor model by highlighting differences in relationships with external variables. Specifically, although modeling the HPRS scores with the bifactor model resulted in greater model-data fit than the 1-factor model, relationships with external variables based on the 2 models differed negligibly. Moreover, bifactor statistical indexes indicted that scores were essentially unidimensional, providing some support that HPRS scores can be treated as unidimensional in structure. Implications for using and scoring the HPRS are discussed.

  12. Arte em Herbert Marcuse: formação e resistência à sociedade unidimensional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Castro Chaves

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho é resultado de uma pesquisa teórica que teve como objetivo analisar a contribuição de Herbert Marcuse, autor da teoria crítica da sociedade, para pensar a relação entre arte, sujeito e formação para a resistência à sociedade unidimensional. Foram estudados os seguintes textos escritos entre 1941 e 1977: Razão e revolução (1941/1978, Eros e civilização (1955/1969, Ideologia da sociedade industrial: o homem unidimensional (1964/1973, Ideias sobre uma teoria crítica da sociedade (1969/1981 e A dimensão estética (1977/1999. Para Marcuse, a arte é política, apresenta universalidade, alteridade, transcendência, forma estética e negação e confirmação da realidade. A arte é objetivação e não trabalho alienado, ela realiza a sublimação e provoca sensibilidade, diferenciando-se da mercadoria que se apropria da cultura, fazendo-a esvaziar-se em seu sentido. Ao analisar a arte, esse autor contribuiu para uma psicologia social crítica que revela a arte como mediação psicossocial para um sujeito não adaptado.

  13. TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION AND BUSINESS DIVERSIFICATION: SUSTAINABILITY LIVELIHOODS IMPROVEMENT SCENARIO OF RICE FARMER HOUSEHOLD IN SUB-OPTIMAL LAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriani D.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The increased role of the sub-optimal land to support food security continue to be encouraged in Indonesia, given the more limited expansion for potential land. But until recently, development of sub-optimal land becomes not an easy thing. Ecological and technical barriers became the main issue. A series of these issues resulted in a high number of underemproleymeny and poverty in agriculture region. Technological inovation of agriculture and the business diversification can be seen be the solution to those issues. This research aims to analyze the impact of the technological innovation and business diversification on underemployment, working time, household income and also sustainable livelihoods of farmers on the sub-optimal land. The research was carried out in Pemulutan District, Ogan Ilir Regency, South Sumatra Province, Indonesia. The objects of research are farmers which adopter and non adopter technological innovation, and also work outside of paddy farming (business diversification. The research method is the survey. Method of sampling is stratified random sampling. Data obtained in the field analyses using descriptive statistics and inferesia. The results showed there are positive impact of technological innovation on the allocation of working time farmer households, the numbers underemployment, household income and livelihood sustainability. Determinant factors for farmers in applying technology and business diversification are paddy farming income, off-farm income, and age. The use of technology and business diversification proves to be one of the positive scenarios for sustainable livelihood of farmers in sub-optimal land.

  14. Sub-optimal wavelet denoising of coaveraged spectra employing statistics from individual scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, Roberto Kawakami Harrop; Filho, Heronides Adonias Dantas; Martins, Marcelo Nascimento; Araújo, Mário César Ugulino; Pasquini, Celio

    2007-01-02

    This paper proposes a novel wavelet denoising method, which exploits the statistics of individual scans acquired in the course of a coaveraging process. The proposed method consists of shrinking the wavelet coefficients of the noisy signal by a factor that minimizes the expected square error with respect to the true signal. Since the true signal is not known, a sub-optimal estimate of the shrinking factor is calculated by using the sample statistics of the acquired scans. It is shown that such an estimate can be generated as the limit value of a recursive formulation. In a simulated example, the performance of the proposed method is seen to be equivalent to the best choice between hard and soft thresholding for different signal-to-noise ratios. Such a conclusion is also supported by an experimental investigation involving near-infrared (NIR) scans of a diesel sample. It is worth emphasizing that this experimental example concerns the removal of actual instrumental noise, in contrast to other case studies in the denoising literature, which usually present simulations with artificial noise. The simulated and experimental cases indicate that, in classic denoising based on wavelet coefficient thresholding, choosing between the hard and soft options is not straightforward and may lead to considerably different outcomes. By resorting to the proposed method, the analyst is not required to make such a critical decision in order to achieve appropriate results.

  15. Coupling of unidimensional neutron kinetics to thermal hydraulics in parallel channels; Acoplamiento de cinetica neutronica unidimensional a canales termohidraulicos en paralelo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecenas F, M.; Campos G, R.M. [IIE, Av. Reforma 113, Col. Palmira, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. e-mail: mcf@iie.org.mx

    2003-07-01

    In this work the dynamic behavior of a consistent system in fifteen channels in parallel that represent the reactor core of a BWR type, coupled of a kinetic neutronic model in one dimension is studied by means of time series. The arrangement of channels is obtained collapsing the assemblies that it consists the core to an arrangement of channels prepared in straight lines, and it is coupled to the unidimensional solution of the neutron diffusion equation. This solution represents the radial power distribution, and initially the static solution is obtained to verify that the one modeling core is critic. The coupled set nuclear-thermal hydraulics it is solved numerically by means of a net of CPUs working in the outline teacher-slave by means of Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM), subject to the restriction that the pressure drop is equal for each channel, which is executed iterating on the refrigerant distribution. The channels are dimensioned according to the one Stability Benchmark of the Ringhals swedish plant, organized by the Nuclear Energy Agency in 1994. From the information of this benchmark it is obtained the axial power profile for each channel, which is assumed as invariant in the time. To obtain the time series, the system gets excited with white noise (sequence that statistically obeys to a normal distribution with zero media), so that the power generated in each channel it possesses the same ones characteristics of a typical signal obtained by means of the acquisition of those signals of neutron flux in a BWR reactor. (Author)

  16. Unidimensionality of the Chinese version of the Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Tsung-Yuan

    2002-12-01

    Previous research showed the Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale is reliable and valid for assessing reading anxiety in groups of American college students beginning study of French, Japanese, or Russian. Because Saito, Horwitz, and Garza (1999) reported that reading anxiety tends to vary with the target language, the present investigation examined the factorial validity of the Chinese version of the scale in college students of English as a foreign language in Taiwan, Confirmatory factor analysis with maximum likelihood method supports the unidimensionality of the scale, which is reliable and valid for eliciting reading anxiety of Chinese college foreign language learners and for predicting their global language performance. This study suggests exploring how language proficiency, culture, and topic familiarity may be related to such anxiety.

  17. Examining unidimensionality and improving reliability for the eight subscales of the SF-36 in opioid-dependent patients using Rasch analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yu-Yu; Shih, Ching-Lin; Yu, Wan-Hui; Hsieh, Cheng-Hsi; Hsieh, Ching-Lin

    2015-02-01

    The Medical Outcome Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) is one of the most commonly used questionnaires for monitoring the Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) of opioid-dependent patients. However, the unidimensionality and reliability of the SF-36 have not been verified in opioid-dependent patients. The aim of this study was to examine the unidimensionality and to improve the test reliability of the SF-36 for use in opioid-dependent patients. A total of 583 opioid-dependent patients were recruited in the study. Unidimensionality was examined by conducting unidimensional Rasch analysis. Item fit statistics and principle component analysis were used to check the item-model fit in each of the eight subscales of the SF-36. Reliability was evaluated by applying both unidimensional and multidimensional Rasch analyses. After three misfitting items were excluded, the remaining items of each subscale in the SF-36 represented a single construct. The test reliabilities (0.80-0.87) yielded by the multidimensional approach were much higher than those (0.68-0.82) produced by the unidimensional approach. The remaining 32 items of the SF-36 are appropriate for evaluating the HRQOL in opioid-dependent patients in terms of unidimensionality. Additionally, the test scores produced by the multidimensional approach were more accurate than those obtained by the unidimensional approach.

  18. The Unidimensional Relationship Closeness Scale (URCS): Reliability and Validity Evidence for a New Measure of Relationship Closeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibble, Jayson L.; Levine, Timothy R.; Park, Hee Sun

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental dimension along which all social and personal relationships vary is closeness. The Unidimensional Relationship Closeness Scale (URCS) is a 12-item self-report scale measuring the closeness of social and personal relationships. The reliability and validity of the URCS were assessed with college dating couples (N = 192), female friends…

  19. Analysis of a new unidimensional model and lateral vibrations of 1-3 piezocomposite side scan sonar array

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shatalov, MY

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel unidimensional model of 1-3 piezocomposite ultrasonic transducers is presented. A new electromechanical model is the generalization of the Smith-Auld unidimentional model, which is formulated in terms of a variational approach. It takes...

  20. Heurísticas para o problema de corte de estoque unidimensional inteiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Cristina Poldi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O problema de corte de estoque unidimensional consiste em cortar objetos disponíveis para a produção de itens de modo a atender uma demanda especificada, em que apenas uma dimensão é relevante para o corte (barras, bobinas, etc.. O problema pode ser formulado como um problema de programação linear inteira de grande porte, cuja solução ótima, via de regra, não pode ser obtida na prática, quando tipicamente dezenas de itens devem ser produzidas. Neste artigo tratamos o problema de determinar soluções inteiras para o problema de corte de estoque unidimensional, dando atenção especial a problemas com baixa demanda. Revisamos métodos heurísticos bem conhecidos e algumas variações. Esses métodos são comparados em relação à qualidade de suas soluções, número de padrões de corte e tempo computacional. Nossa análise está baseada na resolução de exemplares gerados aleatoriamente.One-dimensional cutting stock problems consist of cutting standard objects available in stock into smaller pieces called items in order to meet a known demand. Only one dimension of the stock objects is considered in the cutting process (rolls, bars, etc. This problem might be formulated as a large scale integer linear programming problem, which an optimal solution cannot be obtained in practice, especially when dozens of items have to be produced. This paper addresses the problem of finding integer solutions to the one-dimensional cutting stock problem, with special attention to problems with low demand. We study some heuristic approaches proposed in literature and some straightforward variants. These methods are compared with respect to solution quality, number of cutting patterns and computational time. Our evaluation is based on solving randomly generated instances.

  1. Bayesian Unidimensional Scaling for visualizing uncertainty in high dimensional datasets with latent ordering of observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Lan Huong; Holmes, Susan

    2017-09-13

    Detecting patterns in high-dimensional multivariate datasets is non-trivial. Clustering and dimensionality reduction techniques often help in discerning inherent structures. In biological datasets such as microbial community composition or gene expression data, observations can be generated from a continuous process, often unknown. Estimating data points' 'natural ordering' and their corresponding uncertainties can help researchers draw insights about the mechanisms involved. We introduce a Bayesian Unidimensional Scaling (BUDS) technique which extracts dominant sources of variation in high dimensional datasets and produces their visual data summaries, facilitating the exploration of a hidden continuum. The method maps multivariate data points to latent one-dimensional coordinates along their underlying trajectory, and provides estimated uncertainty bounds. By statistically modeling dissimilarities and applying a DiSTATIS registration method to their posterior samples, we are able to incorporate visualizations of uncertainties in the estimated data trajectory across different regions using confidence contours for individual data points. We also illustrate the estimated overall data density across different areas by including density clouds. One-dimensional coordinates recovered by BUDS help researchers discover sample attributes or covariates that are factors driving the main variability in a dataset. We demonstrated usefulness and accuracy of BUDS on a set of published microbiome 16S and RNA-seq and roll call data. Our method effectively recovers and visualizes natural orderings present in datasets. Automatic visualization tools for data exploration and analysis are available at: https://nlhuong.shinyapps.io/visTrajectory/ .

  2. Rasch analysis suggested three unidimensional domains for Affiliate Stigma Scale: additional psychometric evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Cheng; Su, Jian-An; Tsai, Ching-Shu; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Liu, Jiun-Horng; Lin, Chung-Ying

    2015-06-01

    To examine the psychometrics of the Affiliate Stigma Scale using rigorous psychometric analysis: classical test theory (CTT) (traditional) and Rasch analysis (modern). Differential item functioning (DIF) items were also tested using Rasch analysis. Caregivers of relatives with mental illness (n = 453; mean age: 53.29 ± 13.50 years) were recruited from southern Taiwan. Each participant filled out four questionnaires: Affiliate Stigma Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and one background information sheet. CTT analyses showed that the Affiliate Stigma Scale had satisfactory internal consistency (α = 0.85-0.94) and concurrent validity (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale: r = -0.52 to -0.46; Beck Anxiety Inventory: r = 0.27-0.34). Rasch analyses supported the unidimensionality of three domains in the Affiliate Stigma Scale and indicated four DIF items (affect domain: 1; cognitive domain: 3) across gender. Our findings, based on rigorous statistical analysis, verified the psychometrics of the Affiliate Stigma Scale and reported its DIF items. We conclude that the three domains of the Affiliate Stigma Scale can be separately used and are suitable for measuring the affiliate stigma of caregivers of relatives with mental illness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Creating Unidimensional Global Measures of Physician Practice Quality Based on Health Insurance Claims Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martsolf, Grant R; Carle, Adam C; Scanlon, Dennis P

    2017-06-01

    To explore the extent to which commonly used claims-based process quality indicators can be used to create an internally valid global composite measure of physician practice quality. Health insurance claims data (October 2007-May 2010) from 134 physician practices in Seattle, WA. We use confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis to develop theory- and empirically driven internally valid composite measures based on 19 quality indicators. Health insurance claims data from nine insurance companies and self-funded employers were collected and aggregated by third-party organization. Our results did not support a single global measure using the entire set of quality indicators. We did identify an acceptable multidimensional model (RMSEA = 0.059; CFI = 0.934; TLI = 0.910). The four dimensions in our data were diabetes, depression, preventive care, and generic drug prescribing. Our study demonstrates that commonly used process indicators can be used to create a small set of useful composite measures. However, the lack of an internally valid single unidimensional global measure has important implications for policy approaches meant to improve quality by rewarding "high-quality physicians." © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  4. Unidimensionality study about Raven's Coloured Standard Progressive Matrices / Estudo sobre a unidimensionalidade do teste Matrizes Progressivas Coloridas de Raven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermino Fernandes Sisto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the adjustment of the Rasch model concerning unidimensionality of Raven's Colored Standard Progressive Matrices. Four hundred and forty-one (441 elementary school children, of both genders, attending first to fourth grade were investigated. Considering that residuals may be enough to violate the intrinsic unidimensionality of the items, residual principal component analysis was used to assess the possibility of this violation. Items with higher factorial loading relating to the positive and negative dimensions on the first factor were selected, in respect to the test as a whole and to each subset in particular. These items were re-analyzed with the Rasch model within each data group. Then the positive and negative factor measures were correlated. Results suggested the possibility of other dimensions besides those extracted by Rasch model based on the test and subset B, though the correlation coefficients of the other subsets were close to rejection.

  5. Modelo no lineal con potencial Seno-Gordon para un cristal fotónico unidimensional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Franco Ortíz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un modelo para un cristal fotónico unidimensional formado por una sucesión de planos constituidos por material no lineal, inmersos en un medio lineal. Se resuelve la ecuación de Schrödinger introduciendo en el hamiltoniano modelo del cristal un potencial no lineal tipo Seno-Gordon. Se obtiene analíticamente una versión generalizada, dependiente de la amplitud de la onda incidente, de la ecuación trascendente que caracteriza al modelo del cristal de Kronig-Penney, de donde se determina la estructura de las bandas de energía del cristal. El modelo puede aplicarse a una versión finita de un cristal fotónico para un número limitado de capas alternadas de material lineal y no lineal para el cual se han calculado la reflectancia como una función de la intensidad de la onda electromagnética, el índice de la banda y el número de períodos. Es posible construir un sistema con estas características alternando capas muy delgadas de material de materia blanda no lineal con capas sólidas más gruesas, con el cual puede diseñarse un dispositivo para controlar la propagación de luz para intervalos de longitudes de onda específicos e intensidades de la luz de la misma señal que se propaga.

  6. Inequality in cataract blindness and services: moving beyond unidimensional analyses of social position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramke, Jacqueline; Zwi, Anthony B; Lee, Arier C; Blignault, Ilse; Gilbert, Clare E

    2017-04-01

    Inequalities in cataract blindness are well known, but data are rarely disaggregated to explore the combined effects of a range of axes describing social disadvantage. We examined inequalities in cataract blindness and services at the intersection of three social axes. Three dichotomous social variables (sex (male/female); place of residence (urban/rural); literacy (literate/illiterate)) from cross-sectional national blindness surveys in Pakistan (2001-2004; n=16 507) and Nigeria (2005-2007; n=13 591) were used to construct eight subgroups, with disadvantaged subgroups selected a priori (ie, women, rural dwellers, illiterate). In each data set, the social distribution of cataract blindness, cataract surgical coverage (CSC) and effective cataract surgical coverage (eCSC) were examined. Inequalities were assessed comparing the best-off and worst-off subgroups using rate differences and rate ratios (RRs). Logistic regression was used to assess cumulative effects of multiple disadvantage. Disadvantaged subgroups experienced higher prevalence of cataract blindness, lower CSC and lower eCSC in both countries. A social gradient was present for CSC and eCSC, with coverage increasing as social position improved. Relative inequality in eCSC was approximately twice as high as CSC (Pakistan: eCSC RR 2.7 vs CSC RR 1.3; Nigeria: eCSC RR 8.7 vs CSC RR 4.1). Cumulative disadvantage was observed for all outcomes, deteriorating further with each additional axis along which disadvantage was experienced. Each outcome tended to be worse with the addition of each layer of social disadvantage. Illiterate, rural women fared worst in both settings. Moving beyond unidimensional analyses of social position identified subgroups in most need; this permits a more nuanced response to addressing the inequitable distribution of cataract blindness. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Tuber melanosporum spread within sub-optimal climatic zones is controlled by fruiting triggers and not mycorrhiza survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul W. Thomas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Tuber melanosporum is the most valuable of all cultivatable truffle species. Farming of this species spans every continent with the exception of Antarctica. Tuber aestivum (syn. T. uncinatum and Tuber brumale are truffle species that have similar host plant preference and a similar affinity for calcareous soils as T. melanosporum, but occur over a broader geographic zone. The geographic limit of T. melanosporum is thought to be climatically dictated but it is not known whether this is due to an impact on mycorrhizal survival or climatically-derived fruiting triggers. Here, data is compiled from five cultivated research sites in the climatically sub-optimal conditions of the UK in order to address this question. Here we show: (iTuber melanosporum mycorrhiza can survive and grow in sub-optimal climatic conditions. (iiIt is climatically-derived fruiting triggers and not ectomycorrhiza survival that dictate the climatic preferences and geographic spread of T. melanosporum. (iiiImportant climatic parameters for potential fruiting triggers are sunshine hours, summer rainfall and summer temperatures.   The data presented here not only aid our understanding of the ecological parameters of T. melanosporum but also have a practical application for truffle cultivators in choosing suitable locations for a plantation.

  8. Applications of sub-optimality in dynamic programming to location and construction of nuclear fuel processing plant; Application de la sous-optimalite en programmation dynamique a la localisation et la cadence optimales de construction des equipements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiriet, L.; Deledicq, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, section des etudes economiques generales

    1968-09-01

    First, the point of applying Dynamic Programming to optimization and Operational Research problems in chemical industries are recalled, as well as the conditions in which a dynamic program is illustrated by a sequential graph. A new algorithm for the determination of sub-optimal politics in a sequential graph is then developed. Finally, the applications of sub-optimality concept is shown when taking into account the indirect effects related to possible strategies, or in the case of stochastic choices and of problems of the siting of plants... application examples are given. (authors) [French] On rappelle d'abord l'interet de la Programmation Dynamique dans les problemes d'optimisation et de Recherche Operationnelle dans les industries chimiques, et les conditions de representation d'un programme dynamique par un graphe sequentiel. On expose ensuite un nouvel algorithme de determination de politiques sous-optimales dans un graphe sequentiel. On montre enfin les applications du concept de sous-optimalite a la prise en compte d'effets indirects lies aux politiques possibles, aux choix dans l'aleatoire, a des problemes de localisation optimale d'usines... et on donne des exemples d'utilisation. (auteurs)

  9. A novel tool to assess available hydrological information and the occurrence of sub-optimal water allocation decisions in large irrigation districts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaune, Alexander; Werner, Micha; Rodríguez, Erasmo; Karimi, Poolad; Fraiture, de Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Hydrological information on water availability and demand is vital for sound water allocation decisions in irrigation districts, particularly in times of water scarcity. However, water allocation decisions are often taken based on uncertain hydrological information, which may lead to sub-optimal

  10. Sub-optimal vitamin B-12 levels among ART-naive HIV-positive individuals in an urban cohort in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggrey S Semeere

    Full Text Available Malnutrition is common among HIV-infected individuals and is often accompanied by low serum levels of micronutrients. Vitamin B-12 deficiency has been associated with various factors including faster HIV disease progression and CD4 depletion in resource-rich settings. To describe prevalence and factors associated with sub-optimal vitamin B-12 levels among HIV-infected antiretroviral therapy (ART naïve adults in a resource-poor setting, we performed a cross-sectional study with a retrospective chart review among individuals attending either the Mulago-Mbarara teaching hospitals' Joint AIDS Program (MJAP or the Infectious Diseases Institute (IDI clinics, in Kampala, Uganda. Logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with sub-optimal vitamin B-12. The mean vitamin B-12 level was 384 pg/ml, normal range (200-900. Sub-optimal vitamin B-12 levels (<300 pg/ml were found in 75/204 (36.8%. Twenty-one of 204 (10.3% had vitamin B-12 deficiency (<200 pg/ml while 54/204 (26.5% had marginal depletion (200-300 pg/ml. Irritable mood was observed more among individuals with sub-optimal vitamin B-12 levels (OR 2.5, 95% CI; 1.1-5.6, P=0.03. Increasing MCV was associated with decreasing serum B-12 category; 86.9 fl (± 5.1 vs. 83 fl (± 8.4 vs. 82 fl (± 8.4 for B-12 deficiency, marginal and normal B-12 categories respectively (test for trend, P=0.017. Compared to normal B-12, individuals with vitamin B-12 deficiency had a longer known duration of HIV infection: 42.2 months (± 27.1 vs. 29.4 months (± 23.8; P=0.02. Participants eligible for ART (CD4<350 cells/µl with sub-optimal B-12 had a higher mean rate of CD4 decline compared to counterparts with normal B-12; 118 (± 145 vs. 22 (± 115 cells/µl/year, P=0.01 respectively. The prevalence of a sub-optimal vitamin B-12 was high in this HIV-infected, ART-naïve adult clinic population in urban Uganda. We recommend prospective studies to further clarify the causal relationships of sub-optimal

  11. Brief, unidimensional melancholia rating scales are highly sensitive to the effect of citalopram and may have biological validity: Domain Criteria (RDoC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Søren D; Bech, Per; Trivedi, Madhukar H

    2014-01-01

    in this analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that the HAM-D6 and IDS-C6 melancholia scales capture a coherent construct in depression. The syndrome reflected in these scales is unidimensional, sensitive to specific pharmacological intervention, and therefore likely to have biological validity. We therefore...

  12. Educational intervention to reduce disease related to sub-optimal basic hygiene in Rwanda: initial evaluation and feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Margaret A; Ndagijimana, Hormisdas

    2018-01-01

    Despite a global reduction in morbidity related to sub-optimal water, sanitation and hygiene, the incidence of such diseases remains a significant problem in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to initially assess the potential effectiveness (primarily in terms of impact on morbidity) of a simple educational intervention delivered in Rwanda. Additionally, we sought to explore feasibility relating to the practicality of evaluating and implementing this type of intervention in a low- and middle-income country. Two districts in Northern Province were purposively selected; one was randomly allocated to receive the intervention, with the other acting as control. The intervention was based on an interactive DVD about basic hygiene. Baseline and follow-up data for incident cases of relevant morbidities were collected from health centre records. Changes were compared between the two districts using descriptive statistics and chi-squared tests. Qualitative data were obtained through observations, discussions and feedback and were analysed thematically. Cases of infection with intestinal worms and parasites were frequently recorded in both districts. For these morbidities, there was a 39% decrease in cases between baseline and follow-up in the intervention district (4995 reduced to 3069), compared to 13% (5002 reduced to 4356) in the control district (p evaluation and implementation, whilst also highlighting problems encountered and possible solutions, in particular, the potential advantages of training local personnel to deliver this type of intervention. This small-scale study has a number of acknowledged limitations which would need to be addressed in a larger study in order to confidently confirm the effectiveness of the intervention. It nevertheless provides evidence suggesting that the educational intervention is promising in terms of a potential impact on health and feasible to deliver and evaluate. These findings indicate that further evaluation and possibly early

  13. Cost-effectiveness of extended-release methylphenidate in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder sub-optimally treated with immediate release methylphenidate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurjen van der Schans

    Full Text Available Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a common psychiatric disorder in children and adolescents. Immediate-release methylphenidate (IR-MPH is the medical treatment of first choice. The necessity to use several IR-MPH tablets per day and associated potential social stigma at school often leads to reduced compliance, sub-optimal treatment, and therefore economic loss. Replacement of IR-MPH with a single-dose extended release (ER-MPH formulation may improve drug response and economic efficiency.To evaluate the cost-effectiveness from a societal perspective of a switch from IR-MPH to ER-MPH in patients who are sub-optimally treated.A daily Markov-cycle model covering a time-span of 10 years was developed including four different health states: (1 optimal response, (2 sub-optimal response, (3 discontinued treatment, and (4 natural remission. ER-MPH options included methylphenidate osmotic release oral system (MPH-OROS and Equasym XL/Medikinet CR. Both direct costs and indirect costs were included in the analysis, and effects were expressed as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs. Univariate, multivariate as well as probabilistic sensitivity analysis were conducted and the main outcomes were incremental cost-effectiveness ratios.Switching sub-optimally treated patients from IR-MPH to MPH-OROS or Equasym XL/Medikinet CR led to per-patient cost-savings of €4200 and €5400, respectively, over a 10-year treatment span. Sensitivity analysis with plausible variations of input parameters resulted in cost-savings in the vast majority of estimations.This study lends economic support to switching patients with ADHD with suboptimal response to short-acting IR-MPH to long-acting ER-MPH regimens.

  14. Cost-effectiveness of extended-release methylphenidate in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder sub-optimally treated with immediate release methylphenidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Schans, Jurjen; Kotsopoulos, Nikos; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Hak, Eelko; Postma, Maarten J

    2015-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder in children and adolescents. Immediate-release methylphenidate (IR-MPH) is the medical treatment of first choice. The necessity to use several IR-MPH tablets per day and associated potential social stigma at school often leads to reduced compliance, sub-optimal treatment, and therefore economic loss. Replacement of IR-MPH with a single-dose extended release (ER-MPH) formulation may improve drug response and economic efficiency. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness from a societal perspective of a switch from IR-MPH to ER-MPH in patients who are sub-optimally treated. A daily Markov-cycle model covering a time-span of 10 years was developed including four different health states: (1) optimal response, (2) sub-optimal response, (3) discontinued treatment, and (4) natural remission. ER-MPH options included methylphenidate osmotic release oral system (MPH-OROS) and Equasym XL/Medikinet CR. Both direct costs and indirect costs were included in the analysis, and effects were expressed as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Univariate, multivariate as well as probabilistic sensitivity analysis were conducted and the main outcomes were incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Switching sub-optimally treated patients from IR-MPH to MPH-OROS or Equasym XL/Medikinet CR led to per-patient cost-savings of €4200 and €5400, respectively, over a 10-year treatment span. Sensitivity analysis with plausible variations of input parameters resulted in cost-savings in the vast majority of estimations. This study lends economic support to switching patients with ADHD with suboptimal response to short-acting IR-MPH to long-acting ER-MPH regimens.

  15. Identifying abnormalities in symbiotic development between Trifolium spp. and Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii leading to sub-optimal and ineffective nodule phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melino, V. J.; Drew, E. A.; Ballard, R. A.; Reeve, W. G.; Thomson, G.; White, R. G.; O'Hara, G. W.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Legumes overcome nitrogen limitations by entering into a mutualistic symbiosis with N2-fixing bacteria (rhizobia). Fully compatible associations (effective) between Trifolium spp. and Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii result from successful recognition of symbiotic partners in the rhizosphere, root hair infection and the formation of nodules where N2-fixing bacteroids reside. Poorly compatible associations can result in root nodule formation with minimal (sub-optimal) or no (ineffective) N2-fixation. Despite the abundance and persistence of strains in agricultural soils which are poorly compatible with the commercially grown clover species, little is known of how and why they fail symbiotically. The aims of this research were to determine the morphological aberrations occurring in sub-optimal and ineffective clover nodules and to determine whether reduced bacteroid numbers or reduced N2-fixing activity is the main cause for the Sub-optimal phenotype. Methods Symbiotic effectiveness of four Trifolium hosts with each of four R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii strains was assessed by analysis of plant yields and nitrogen content; nodule yields, abundance, morphology and internal structure; and bacteroid cytology, quantity and activity. Key Results Effective nodules (Nodule Function 83–100 %) contained four developmental zones and N2-fixing bacteroids. In contrast, Sub-optimal nodules of the same age (Nodule Function 24–57 %) carried prematurely senescing bacteroids and a small bacteroid pool resulting in reduced shoot N. Ineffective-differentiated nodules carried bacteroids aborted at stage 2 or 3 in differentiation. In contrast, bacteroids were not observed in Ineffective-vegetative nodules despite the presence of bacteria within infection threads. Conclusions Three major responses to N2-fixation incompatibility between Trifolium spp. and R. l. trifolii strains were found: failed bacterial endocytosis from infection threads into plant cortical

  16. Estudo sobre a unidimensionalidade do teste Matrizes Progressivas Coloridas de Raven Unidimensionality study about Raven's Coloured Standard Progressive Matrices

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    Fermino Fernandes Sisto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou o ajuste do modelo Rasch quanto à unidimensionalidade das Matrizes Progressivas Coloridas de Raven. Foram estudadas 441 crianças de ambos os sexos, de 1ª a 4ª série do ensino fundamental. Para avaliar a possibilidade de violação, optou-se pela análise de componentes principais de resíduos, pois eles podem ser suficientes para violar a unidimensionalidade intrínseca dos itens. Foram selecionados os itens de maior saturação em relação à dimensão positiva e negativa do primeiro fator, em relação ao teste como um todo e a cada série em particular. Esses itens foram novamente analisados pelo modelo de Rasch, separadamente, e correlacionadas as pontuações do fator positivo com o negativo. Os resultados sugeriram que o instrumento como um todo e a série B possibilitam a interpretação da existência de outra dimensão além da extraída pelo modelo de Rasch e nas outras duas séries as correlações estiveram próximas do ponto de rejeição.This study assessed the adjustment of the Rasch model concerning unidimensionality of Raven's Colored Standard Progressive Matrices. Four hundred and forty-one (441 elementary school children, of both genders, attending first to fourth grade were investigated. Considering that residuals may be enough to violate the intrinsic unidimensionality of the items, residual principal component analysis was used to assess the possibility of this violation. Items with higher factorial loading relating to the positive and negative dimensions on the first factor were selected, in respect to the test as a whole and to each subset in particular. These items were re-analyzed with the Rasch model within each data group. Then the positive and negative factor measures were correlated. Results suggested the possibility of other dimensions besides those extracted by Rasch model based on the test and subset B, though the correlation coefficients of the other subsets were close to rejection.

  17. Reciprocal Effects of Self-Concept and Performance From a Multidimensional Perspective: Beyond Seductive Pleasure and Unidimensional Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Herbert W; Craven, Rhonda G

    2006-06-01

    We (Marsh & Craven, 1997) have claimed that academic self-concept and achievement are mutually reinforcing, each leading to gains in the other. Baumeister, Campbell, Krueger, and Vohs (2003) have claimed that self-esteem has no benefits beyond seductive pleasure and may even be detrimental to subsequent performance. Integrating these seemingly contradictory conclusions, we distinguish between (a) older, unidimensional perspectives that focus on global self-esteem and underpin the Baumeister et al. review and (b) more recent, multidimensional perspectives that focus on specific components of self-concept and are the basis of our claim. Supporting the construct validity of a multidimensional perspective, studies show that academic achievement is substantially related to academic self-concept, but nearly unrelated to self-esteem. Consistent with this distinction, research based on our reciprocal-effects model (REM) and a recent meta-analysis show that prior academic self-concept (as opposed to self-esteem) and achievement both have positive effects on subsequent self-concept and achievement. We provide an overview of new support for the generality of the REM for young children, cross-cultural research in non-Western countries, health (physical activity), and nonelite (gymnastics) and elite (international swimming championships) sport. We conclude that future reviews elucidating the significant implications of self-concept for theory, policy, and practice need to account for current research supporting the REM and a multidimensional perspective of self-concept. © 2006 Association for Psychological Science.

  18. Lax-Wendroff and TVD finite volume methods for unidimensional thermomechanical numerical simulations of impacts on elastic-plastic solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuzé, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    We present in this work two finite volume methods for the simulation of unidimensional impact problems, both for bars and plane waves, on elastic-plastic solid media within the small strain framework. First, an extension of Lax-Wendroff to elastic-plastic constitutive models with linear and nonlinear hardenings is presented. Second, a high order TVD method based on flux-difference splitting [1] and Superbee flux limiter [2] is coupled with an approximate elastic-plastic Riemann solver for nonlinear hardenings, and follows that of Fogarty [3] for linear ones. Thermomechanical coupling is accounted for through dissipation heating and thermal softening, and adiabatic conditions are assumed. This paper essentially focuses on one-dimensional problems since analytical solutions exist or can easily be developed. Accordingly, these two numerical methods are compared to analytical solutions and to the explicit finite element method on test cases involving discontinuous and continuous solutions. This allows to study in more details their respective performance during the loading, unloading and reloading stages. Particular emphasis is also paid to the accuracy of the computed plastic strains, some differences being found according to the numerical method used. Lax-Wendoff two-dimensional discretization of a one-dimensional problem is also appended at the end to demonstrate the extensibility of such numerical scheme to multidimensional problems.

  19. DOMINAÇÃO E REPRESSÃO DA SOCIEDADE INDUSTRIAL AVANÇADA EM HOMEM UNIDIMENSIONAL DE HERBERT MARCUSE

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    Ramom Gomes da Silva

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta uma reflexão acerca dos instrumentos de dominação e repressão da sociedade industrial avançada. A partir da leitura da primeira parte do livro Ideologia da sociedade industrial: O homem unidimensional, Herbert Marcuse analisa a sociedade industrial avançada e as tendências do capitalismo tardio expondo as novas formas de controle e dominação dos indivíduos na contemporaneidade. Os meios de dominação do capitalismo avançado têm-se mostrado mais eficientes e eficazes do que antigos regimes baseados na violência explícita, isto é, sem uso de um terror aberto, tem o domínio das esferas da existência humana, sejam elas públicas ou privadas. Esses mecanismos de controles proporcionaram a integração entre o pensamento e o comportamento dos indivíduos, de tal modo que o sujeito sente-se livre em situação de não liberdade, situação em que  necessidades impostas são aceitas e ainda repassadas às gerações seguintes sem o menor questionamento.

  20. Original article Multidimensional versus unidimensional models of emotional contagion: the Emotional Contagion Scale in a Polish sample

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    Monika Wróbel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The Emotional Contagion Scale (ECS measures individual differences in susceptibility to catching emotions expressed by others. Although initially the scale was reported to have a unidimensional structure, recent validation studies have suggested that the concept of emotional contagion is multidimensional. The aim of the study was therefore to test whether the structure of the ECS in a Polish sample corresponds with that observed for other non-English speaking populations. Participants and procedure The scale, translated into Polish, was completed by 633 university students in four independent samples. To investigate the factor structure of the ECS, confirmatory factor analyses of five alternative models were conducted. Results The results supported a multifaceted solution, which confirmed that susceptibility to emotional contagion may be differentiated not only across positive vs. negative states but also across discrete emotions. Moreover, the verification of internal consistency, test-retest reliability and construct validity of the Polish version indicated that its parameters are acceptable and comparable with the characteristics of other adaptations. Conclusions The Polish ECS, together with other adaptations of the scale, shows that the construct developed in the United States can be successfully measured in other cultural contexts. Thus, the Polish version can be treated as a useful tool for measuring individual differences in susceptibility to emotional contagion.

  1. Comentário sobre a esperança em O homem unidimensional, de Herbert Marcuse

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    Imaculada Kangussu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available De acordo com o modelo adotado pelo Grupo de Trabalho em Estética, o presente escrito é um comentário ao texto do colega Bruno Guimarães, “Arte, liberdade e política, em diálogo com Danto”. “Somente para os desesperados é que nos foi dada a esperança”: essa frase enigmática, com a qual Marcuse encerra o livro One-Dimensional Man, aparece na última parte do trabalho comentado e é o foco desse ensaio. Trata-se de uma citação que Marcuse faz de Walter Benjamin que com ela também termina seu ensaio sobre As afinidades eletivas, de Goethe (“Goethes Wahlverwandtschaften”. Cabe a pergunta: o que o homem unidimensional tem em comum com a novela romântica de Goethe? Tendo como foco a ideia de esperança, discorremos sobre os três textos – o de Marcuse, o de Benjamin e o de Goethe – com o propósito de esclarecer o, quase desesperado, conceito de esperança que brilha no final das obras de Benjamin e de Marcuse. A escolha foi motivada por duas razões: por o outro comentador, Rodrigo Duarte, ter se dedicado, durante um tempo considerável, ao estudo das reflexões de Danto, com mestria admirável e, portanto, ser capaz de analisá-las com competência indiscutível; e pelo fato de One-Dimensional Man, a obra mencionada de Marcuse, filósofo a cujo estudo venho me dedicando, neste ano de 2014 comemorar seu cinquentenário e, com isso, justificar o desejo de fazer-lhe essa homenagem.

  2. How common and what are the determinants of sub-optimal care for Parkinson's disease patients: the Milton Keynes community study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Michele T M; Butterworth, Richard; Kumar, Vasantha; Cooper, Jonathan; Jones, Emma; Catterall, Lesley; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    2011-03-01

    Limited data currently exists within the UK addressing the level of Parkinson's disease (PD) healthcare provision. We investigated whether care for PD patients in a UK community met national guidelines, and the determinants of sub-optimal care for this patient group. 340 PD patients were identified from a population of 242,606 (crude prevalence 140 per 100,000 (95% CI 126-156 per 100,000), age-adjusted prevalence 199 per 100,000 (95% CI 178-221 per 100,000)). 248 out of 340 (73%) PD patients identified took part, completing rating scales assessing cognitive, non-motor and sociodemographic variables. 9% of patients had never seen a neurologist for their PD and 18.5% were sub-optimally managed; defined as (a) delay between initial diagnosis and first consultation by a specialist >1 year and (b) patients who had not had specialist PD review for >1 year. Older age, poor cognition and worse mobility were major factors in determining sub-optimal care whilst lower education level and tremor as initial symptom were more modest predictors. 20% of patients had been started on dopaminergic therapies including ergot-derived agonists by their GP prior to referral and less than a third had seen allied health professionals throughout their illness. Further work is required to test whether these findings are generalizable across the country and identify what can be done to ensure equal access to specialist care so that all PD patients have access to best practice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Knowledge of Solution Strategies and IRT Modeling of Items for Transitive Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijtsma, Klaas; Verweij, Anton C.

    1999-01-01

    Presents componential item response theory as a model-oriented approach to studying processes and strategies underlying the incorrect/correct responses to cognitive test tasks. Results from 417 elementary school students show that combining knowledge of solution strategies with Item Response Theory modeling produced a useful unidimensional scale…

  4. Supplementation with macular carotenoids reduces psychological stress, serum cortisol, and sub-optimal symptoms of physical and emotional health in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringham, Nicole Tressa; Holmes, Philip V; Stringham, James M

    2017-02-15

    Oxidative stress and systemic inflammation are the root cause of several deleterious effects of chronic psychological stress. We hypothesize that the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capabilities of the macular carotenoids (MCs) lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin could, via daily supplementation, provide a dietary means of benefit. A total of 59 young healthy subjects participated in a 12-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effects of MC supplementation on blood cortisol, psychological stress ratings, behavioural measures of mood, and symptoms of sub-optimal health. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of three groups: placebo, 13 mg, or 27 mg / day total MCs. All parameters were assessed at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Serum MCs were determined via HPLC, serum cortisol via ELISA, and macular pigment optical density (MPOD) via customized heterochromatic flicker photometry. Behavioural data were obtained via questionnaire. Significant baseline correlations were found between MPOD and Beck anxiety scores (r = -0.28; P = 0.032), MPOD and Brief Symptom Inventory scores (r = 0.27; P = 0.037), and serum cortisol and psychological stress scores (r = 0.46; P stress, serum cortisol, and measures of emotional and physical health (P stress, cortisol, and symptoms of sub-optimal emotional and physical health. Determining the basis for these effects, whether systemic or a more central (i.e. brain) is a question that warrants further study.

  5. WOMAC-pf as a measure of physical function in patients with Parkinson's disease and late-onset sequels of poliomyelitis: unidimensionality and item behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steultjens, Martijn P M; Stolwijk-Swüste, Janneke; Roorda, Leo D; Dallmeijer, Annet J; van Dijk, Gabriella M; Post, Bart; Dekker, Joost

    2012-01-01

    To assess psychometric properties of the Western Ontario and MacMasters Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC)-pf, an osteoarthritis (OA)-specific questionnaire used to establish the level of physical functioning in patients with late-onset sequels of poliomyelitis (LOSP) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Unidimensionality (using principal component analyses [PCA] and Rasch analyses) was separately established for three diagnostic groups: OA (n = 288), LOSP (n = 168) and PD (n = 200). Additionally, differential item functioning (DIF) among the three diagnostic groups was assessed using ordinal regression (Polytomous Universal Model) analyses. Baseline data were used from an ongoing cohort study of these three patient populations. Unidimensionality was adequate, with all items loading on the first principal component. The Rasch analyses revealed that item fit was generally good. Uniform and non-uniform DIF were found to be present among the three diagnostic groups in three and one of the 17 physical functioning subscale (WOMAC-pf) items, respectively. The WOMAC-pf is a unidimensional measure of physical functioning in patients with LOSP and PD, in addition to its established use in OA. [ • Disability in physical functioning related to mobility(walking, stair climbing, etc.) is a common feature of many chronic diseases, including osteoarthritis, late-onset sequels of poliomyelitis and Parkinson's disease.• In this study, the Western Ontario and MacMasters Universities Osteoarthritis Index-pf was shown to bea useful and adequate tool to assess physical functioning in these patient groups.• The study highlighted that, despite differences in diagnosis,history and course of the disease, patients with different conditions experience similar disabilities in their physical functioning.

  6. Caracterización de las proteínas totales de tres ecotipos de maca (Lepidium peruvianum G. Chacón), mediante electroforesis unidimensional y bidimensional

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Monteghirfo; Armando Yarleque-Chocas

    2007-01-01

    Objetivo: Caracterizar las proteínas solubles que se encuentran en la raíz del Lepidium peruvianum G. Chacón, maca, mediante electroforesis unidimensional y electroforesis bidimensional. Diseño: Estudio de tipo observacional y transversal. Lugar: Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición Alberto Guzmán Barrón. Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Materiales: Raíces de Lepidium peruvianum G. Chacón ‘maca’ de los ecotipos blanco, amarillo y morado,...

  7. Sub-optimal delivery of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnancy in Nigeria: influence of provider factors

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    Onoka Chima A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The level of access to intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnancy (IPTp in Nigeria is still low despite relatively high antenatal care coverage in the study area. This paper presents information on provider factors that affect the delivery of IPTp in Nigeria. Methods Data were collected from heads of maternal health units of 28 public and six private health facilities offering antenatal care (ANC services in two districts in Enugu State, south-east Nigeria. Provider knowledge of guidelines for IPTp was assessed with regard to four components: the drug used for IPTp, time of first dose administration, of second dose administration, and the strategy for sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP administration (directly observed treatment, DOT. Provider practices regarding IPTp and facility-related factors that may explain observations such as availability of SP and water were also examined. Results Only five (14.7% of all 34 providers had correct knowledge of all four recommendations for provision of IPTp. None of them was a private provider. DOT strategy was practiced in only one and six private and public providers respectively. Overall, 22 providers supplied women with SP in the facility and women were allowed to take it at home. The most common reason for doing so amongst public providers was that women were required to come for antenatal care on empty stomachs to enhance the validity of manual fundal height estimation. Two private providers did not think it was necessary to use the DOT strategy because they assumed that women would take their drugs at home. Availability of SP and water in the facility, and concerns about side effects were not considered impediments to delivery of IPTp. Conclusion There was low level of knowledge of the guidelines for implementation of IPTp by all providers, especially those in the private sector. This had negative effects such as non-practice of DOT strategy by most of the providers

  8. Estudo sobre a dimensionalidade do teste R1 - Forma B Estudio sobre la dimensionalidad del test R1 - Forma B Studying the R-1 test - Form B unidimensionality

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    Fermino Fernandes Sisto

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou utilizar o modelo de Rasch para analisar a possibilidade de unidimensionalidade do teste R1-Forma B, por meio da análise dos resíduos por componentes principais. Para tanto, foram investigados 745 estudantes que freqüentavam um curso para jovens e adultos, caracterizando pessoas com defasagem na escolaridade ou em fase de escolarização tardia. Desses, 50,3% eram do sexo feminino e 48,3% do masculino, com idade variando entre 15 e 75 anos. Os resultados sugeriram, entre outros aspectos, que o Teste R1 não é unidimensional e que apenas uma pontuação global no teste não é suficiente para descrever as condutas cognitivas usadas para resolvê-lo. No entanto, a análise dos fatores 1 e 2 indicaram unidimensionalidade para ambos. Sugere-se que novos estudos sejam realizados com amostras diferentes, a fim de que sejam ampliadas as investigações aqui propostas.El presente estudio tuvo el objetivo de utilizar el modelo de Rasch para analizar la posibilidad de unidimensionalidad del test R1-Forma B, por medio del análisis de los residuos por componentes principales. Para tanto, fueron investigados 745 estudiantes que frecuentaban un curso para jóvenes y adultos, caracterizando personas con retraso en la escolaridad o en fase de escolarización tardía. De esos, el 50,3% eran del sexo femenino y el 48,3% del masculino, con edad variando entre 15 y 75 años. Los resultados han sugerido, entre otros aspectos, que el Test R1 no es unidimensional y que tan sólo un puntaje global en el test no es suficiente para describir las conductas cognitivas usadas para resolverlo. Sin embargo, el análisis de los factores 1 y 2 indicaron unidimensionalidad para ambos. Se sugiere que nuevos estudios sean realizados con muestras distintas, a fin de que sean ampliadas las investigaciones propuestas aquí.The possibility of unidimensionality of R1-Forma B test was analyzed by the Rasch model through the principal residual component

  9. Aplicación de diversos métodos numéricos para el cálculo de la subsidencia unidimensional en un suelo saturado en el caso de Murcia

    OpenAIRE

    José Luis, de Justo Alpañé; Vázquez Carretero, Narciso Jesús

    2000-01-01

    El descenso experimentado por el nivel piezométrico en Murcia, durante la ultima sequía, ha ocasionado asientos en el subsuelo que han provocado daños de cierta envergadura, tanto por su dimensión como por su extensión. Se trata del primer caso de subsidencia producido en España. De otros estudios se deduce que el estudio de la subsidencia unidimensional es apropiado para describir el fenómeno. En este artículo se presenta el cálculo de la subsidencia unidimensional para un acuita...

  10. Rotavirus-specific IgA Responses Are Impaired and Serve as a Sub-Optimal Correlate of Protection among Infants in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Benjamin; Carmolli, Marya; Dickson, Dorothy M; Colgate, E Ross; Diehl, Sean A; Uddin, Muhammad Ikhtear; Islam, Shahidul; Hossain, Motaher; Rafique, Tanzeem Ahmed; Bhuiyan, Taufiqur Rahman; Alam, Masud; Nayak, Uma; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C; McNeal, Monica M; Petri, William A; Qadri, Firdausi; Haque, Rashidul; Kirkpatrick, Beth D

    2018-01-31

    Rotavirus-specific IgA (RV-IgA) responses following oral RV vaccination are impaired in low-income countries, where the utility of RV-IgA as a correlate of protection (CoP) remains unclear. In a monovalent oral RV (Rotarix™) vaccine efficacy trial among infants in Dhaka, Bangladesh, we identified factors associated with poor RV-IgA responses and explored the utility of RV-IgA as a CoP. Infants were randomized to receive Rotarix™ or no Rotarix™ at 10 and 17 weeks of life and followed with active diarrheal surveillance. RV-IgA concentration, seroconversion, and seropositivity were determined at 18 weeks of life and analyzed for correlation(s) with rotavirus diarrhea (RVD) and for contribution to Rotarix™ vaccine effect. Among vaccinated infants, overall RV-IgA geometric mean concentration was 21 U/mL; only 27% seroconverted and 32% were seropositive after vaccination. Increased RV-specific maternal antibodies significantly impaired immunogenicity. Seroconversion was associated with reduced risk of RVD through one year of life, but RV-IgA seropositivity only explained 7.8% of the vaccine effect demonstrated by the clinical endpoint (RVD). RV-IgA responses were low among infants in Bangladesh and were significantly impaired by maternal antibodies. RV-IgA is a sub-optimal CoP in this setting; an improved CoP for RV in low-income countries is needed. NCT01375647.

  11. Human Life History Strategies

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    Kristine J. Chua

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Human life history (LH strategies are theoretically regulated by developmental exposure to environmental cues that ancestrally predicted LH-relevant world states (e.g., risk of morbidity–mortality. Recent modeling work has raised the question of whether the association of childhood family factors with adult LH variation arises via (i direct sampling of external environmental cues during development and/or (ii calibration of LH strategies to internal somatic condition (i.e., health, which itself reflects exposure to variably favorable environments. The present research tested between these possibilities through three online surveys involving a total of over 26,000 participants. Participants completed questionnaires assessing components of self-reported environmental harshness (i.e., socioeconomic status, family neglect, and neighborhood crime, health status, and various LH-related psychological and behavioral phenotypes (e.g., mating strategies, paranoia, and anxiety, modeled as a unidimensional latent variable. Structural equation models suggested that exposure to harsh ecologies had direct effects on latent LH strategy as well as indirect effects on latent LH strategy mediated via health status. These findings suggest that human LH strategies may be calibrated to both external and internal cues and that such calibrational effects manifest in a wide range of psychological and behavioral phenotypes.

  12. Sub-optimal Testing and Awareness of HCV and HBV Among High Risk Individuals at an Underserved Safety-Net Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Robert J; Campbell, Brendan; Liu, Benny; Baden, Rachel; Bhuket, Taft

    2017-06-24

    Sub-optimal screening for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) among high risk groups delays diagnosis and treatment. We aimed to evaluate overall rates of HCV and HBV screening and patient knowledge of their testing result. Adults age ≥18 years undergoing elective outpatient endoscopy at a large, urban safety-net hospital from July 2015 to July 2016 were prospectively evaluated to determine rates of HCV and HBV testing, the results of those completed tests, and patient knowledge of test results among high risk individuals (as determined by U.S. Preventative Services Task Force). Among 1125 patients (52.3% male, 70.4% foreign-born), 66.5% were high risk for chronic HCV; only 30.9% received prior testing. 14.7% had positive chronic HCV infection. Patients born in the 1945-1965 cohort were more likely to have received prior HCV testing compared to those born outside of this cohort (32.7 vs. 16.9%, p = 0.01). Among patients who received HCV screening, 29.3% were aware of test results. Overall, 61.6% were high risk for chronic HBV; only 25.1% received prior testing. 4.1% were positive for chronic HBV. Compared to Caucasians, Asians (19.0 vs. 44.4%, p HBV testing. Among patients who received prior HBV screening, 18.4% were aware of test results. Less than one-third of high risk patients received HCV and HBV screening among an ethnically diverse safety-net population. Equally low rates of patient knowledge of testing results were observed.

  13. Assessing the Accuracy of High Resolution Digital Surface Models Computed by PhotoScan® and MicMac® in Sub-Optimal Survey Conditions

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    Marion Jaud

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For monitoring purposes and in the context of geomorphological research, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV appear to be a promising solution to provide multi-temporal Digital Surface Models (DSMs and orthophotographs. There are a variety of photogrammetric software tools available for UAV-based data. The objective of this study is to investigate the level of accuracy that can be achieved using two of these software tools: Agisoft PhotoScan® Pro and an open-source alternative, IGN© MicMac®, in sub-optimal survey conditions (rugged terrain, with a large variety of morphological features covering a range of roughness sizes, poor GPS reception. A set of UAV images has been taken by a hexacopter drone above the Rivière des Remparts, a river on Reunion Island. This site was chosen for its challenging survey conditions: the topography of the study area (i involved constraints on the flight plan; (ii implied errors on some GPS measurements; (iii prevented an optimal distribution of the Ground Control Points (GCPs and; (iv was very complex to reconstruct. Several image processing tests are performed with different scenarios in order to analyze the sensitivity of each software package to different parameters (image quality, numbers of GCPs, etc.. When computing the horizontal and vertical errors within a control region on a set of ground reference targets, both methods provide rather similar results. A precision up to 3–4 cm is achievable with these software packages. The DSM quality is also assessed over the entire study area comparing PhotoScan DSM and MicMac DSM with a Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS point cloud. PhotoScan and MicMac DSM are also compared at the scale of particular features. Both software packages provide satisfying results: PhotoScan is more straightforward to use but its source code is not open; MicMac is recommended for experimented users as it is more flexible.

  14. Uni-dimensional double development HPTLC-densitometry method for simultaneous analysis of mangiferin and lupeol content in mango (Mangifera indica) pulp and peel during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyotshna; Srivastava, Pooja; Killadi, Bharti; Shanker, Karuna

    2015-06-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica) fruit is one of the important commercial fruit crops of India. Similar to other tropical fruits it is also highly perishable in nature. During storage/ripening, changes in its physico-chemical quality parameters viz. firmness, titrable acidity, total soluble solid content (TSSC), carotenoids content, and other biochemicals are inevitable. A uni-dimensional double-development high-performance thin-layer chromatography (UDDD-HPTLC) method was developed for the real-time monitoring of mangiferin and lupeol in mango pulp and peel during storage. The quantitative determination of both compounds of different classes was achieved by densitometric HPTLC method. Silica gel 60F254 HPTLC plates and two solvent systems viz. toluene/EtOAC/MeOH and EtOAC/MeOH, respectively were used for optimum separation and selective evaluation. Densitometric quantitation of mangiferin was performed at 390nm, while lupeol at 610nm after post chromatographic derivatization. Validated method was used to real-time monitoring of mangiferin and lupeol content during storage in four Indian cultivars, e.g. Bombay green (Bgreen), Dashehari, Langra, and Chausa. Significant correlations (p<0.05) between of acidity and TSSC with mangiferin and lupeol in pulp and peel during storage were also observed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of the cost effectiveness of exenatide versus insulin glargine in patients with sub-optimally controlled Type 2 diabetes in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetlow Anthony P

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Exenatide belongs to a new therapeutic class in the treatment of diabetes (incretin mimetics, allowing glucose-dependent glycaemic control in Type 2 diabetes. Randomised controlled trial data suggest that exenatide is as effective as insulin glargine at reducing HbA1c in combination therapy with metformin and sulphonylureas; with reduced weight but higher incidence of adverse gastrointestinal events. The objective of this study is to evaluate the cost effectiveness of exenatide versus insulin glargine using RCT data and a previously published model of Type 2 diabetes disease progression that is based on the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study; the perspective of the health-payer of the United Kingdom National Health Service. Methods The study used a discrete event simulation model designed to forecast the costs and health outcome of a cohort of 1,000 subjects aged over 40 years with sub-optimally-controlled Type 2 diabetes, following initiation of either exenatide, or insulin glargine, in addition to oral hypoglycaemic agents. Sensitivity analysis for a higher treatment discontinuation rate in exenatide patients was applied to the cohort in three different scenarios; (1 either ignored or (2 exenatide-failures excluded or (3 exenatide-failures switched to insulin glargine. Analyses were undertaken to evaluate the price sensitivity of exenatide in terms of relative cost effectiveness. Baseline cohort profiles and effectiveness data were taken from a published randomised controlled trial. Results The relative cost-effectiveness of exenatide and insulin glargine was tested under a variety of conditions, in which insulin glargine was dominant in all cases. Using the most conservative of assumptions, the cost-effectiveness ratio of exenatide vs. insulin glargine at the current UK NHS price was -£29,149/QALY (insulin glargine dominant and thus exenatide is not cost-effective when compared with insulin glargine, at the current

  16. Sensitivity to changes during antidepressant treatment: a comparison of unidimensional subscales of the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS-C) and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) in patients with mild major, minor or subsyndromal depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, Isabella; Wagner, Stefanie; Mergl, Roland; Allgaier, Antje-Kathrin; Hautzinger, Martin; Henkel, Verena; Hegerl, Ulrich; Tadić, André

    2012-06-01

    In the efficacy evaluation of antidepressant treatments, the total score of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) is still regarded as the 'gold standard'. We previously had shown that the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS) was more sensitive to detect depressive symptom changes than the HAMD17 (Helmreich et al. 2011). Furthermore, studies suggest that the unidimensional subscales of the HAMD, which capture the core depressive symptoms, outperform the full HAMD regarding the detection of antidepressant treatment effects. The aim of the present study was to compare several unidimensional subscales of the HAMD and the IDS regarding their sensitivity to changes in depression symptoms in a sample of patients with mild major, minor or subsyndromal depression (MIND). Biweekly IDS-C28 and HAMD17 data from 287 patients of a 10-week randomised, placebo-controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of sertraline and cognitive-behavioural group therapy in patients with MIND were converted to subscale scores and analysed during the antidepressant treatment course. We investigated sensitivity to depressive change for all scales from assessment-to-assessment, in relation to depression severity level and placebo-verum differences. The subscales performed similarly during the treatment course, with slight advantages for some subscales in detecting treatment effects depending on the treatment modality and on the items included. Most changes in depressive symptomatology were detected by the IDS short scale, but regarding the effect sizes, it performed worse than most subscales. Unidimensional subscales are a time- and cost-saving option in judging drug therapy outcomes, especially in antidepressant treatment efficacy studies. However, subscales do not cover all facets of depression (e.g. atypical symptoms, sleep disturbances), which might be important for comprehensively understanding the nature of the disease depression. Therefore, the cost-to-benefit ratio must be

  17. Exploring intra- and inter-reader variability in uni-dimensional, bi-dimensional, and volumetric measurements of solid tumors on CT scans reconstructed at different slice intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Binsheng; Tan, Yongqiang; Bell, Daniel J; Marley, Sarah E; Guo, Pingzhen; Mann, Helen; Scott, Marietta L J; Schwartz, Lawrence H; Ghiorghiu, Dana C

    2013-06-01

    Understanding magnitudes of variability when measuring tumor size may be valuable in improving detection of tumor change and thus evaluating tumor response to therapy in clinical trials and care. Our study explored intra- and inter-reader variability of tumor uni-dimensional (1D), bi-dimensional (2D), and volumetric (VOL) measurements using manual and computer-aided methods (CAM) on CT scans reconstructed at different slice intervals. Raw CT data from 30 patients enrolled in oncology clinical trials was reconstructed at 5, 2.5, and 1.25 mm slice intervals. 118 lesions in the lungs, liver, and lymph nodes were analyzed. For each lesion, two independent radiologists manually and, separately, using computer software, measured the maximum diameter (1D), maximum perpendicular diameter, and volume (CAM only). One of them blindly repeated the measurements. Intra- and inter-reader variability for the manual method and CAM were analyzed using linear mixed-effects models and Bland-Altman method. For the three slice intervals, the maximum coefficients of variation for manual intra-/inter-reader variability were 6.9%/9.0% (1D) and 12.3%/18.0% (2D), and for CAM were 5.4%/9.3% (1D), 11.3%/18.8% (2D) and 9.3%/18.0% (VOL). Maximal 95% reference ranges for the percentage difference in intra-reader measurements for manual 1D and 2D, and CAM VOL were (-15.5%, 25.8%), (-27.1%, 51.6%), and (-22.3%, 33.6%), respectively. Variability in measuring the diameter and volume of solid tumors, manually and by CAM, is affected by CT slice interval. The 2.5mm slice interval provides the least measurement variability. Among the three techniques, 2D has the greatest measurement variability compared to 1D and 3D. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Modelagem unidimensional da camada limite oceânica durante a passagem de uma frente fria na região da confluência Brasil-Malvinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Harley Cardoso

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Um modelo unidimensional com fechamento de segunda ordem é usado para investigar a resposta da superfície do oceano à passagem de uma frente fria na região da Confluência Brasil-Malvinas. Dados da boia ARGOS-32056 foram utilizados para forçar e validar o modelo para o período entre 12 e 20 de Janeiro de 2002, correspondente à ação de uma frente fria. O modelo foi capaz de reproduzir tanto o ciclo diurno, quanto o resfriamento da temperatura da superfície do mar observado com a passagem da frente fria. Os resultados da simulação numérica mostraram um aumento de 0,2 ºC no efeito do resfriamento de pele e um aprofundamento de aproximadamente 16 metros na camada de mistura oceânica com a passagem da frente fria. Essas variações foram consistentes com uma mudança no balanço de energia em superfície, devido ao aumento abrupto dos fluxos turbulentos em resposta ao aumento da velocidade do vento e da diferença de temperatura entre o ar e o mar. Após a passagem da frente fria, os fluxos de calor diminuem lentamente mostrando que, se não houver a entrada de uma nova frente fria ou advecção de massa de água, a superfície do mar e o ar adjacente tendem ao equilíbrio.

  19. Children and older adults exhibit distinct sub-optimal cost-benefit functions when preparing to move their eyes and hands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia C Gonzalez

    Full Text Available Numerous activities require an individual to respond quickly to the correct stimulus. The provision of advance information allows response priming but heightened responses can cause errors (responding too early or reacting to the wrong stimulus. Thus, a balance is required between the online cognitive mechanisms (inhibitory and anticipatory used to prepare and execute a motor response at the appropriate time. We investigated the use of advance information in 71 participants across four different age groups: (i children, (ii young adults, (iii middle-aged adults, and (iv older adults. We implemented 'cued' and 'non-cued' conditions to assess age-related changes in saccadic and touch responses to targets in three movement conditions: (a Eyes only; (b Hands only; (c Eyes and Hand. Children made less saccade errors compared to young adults, but they also exhibited longer response times in cued versus non-cued conditions. In contrast, older adults showed faster responses in cued conditions but exhibited more errors. The results indicate that young adults (18-25 years achieve an optimal balance between anticipation and execution. In contrast, children show benefits (few errors and costs (slow responses of good inhibition when preparing a motor response based on advance information; whilst older adults show the benefits and costs associated with a prospective response strategy (i.e., good anticipation.

  20. Changing chemotherapy during concurrent radiation followed by surgery after sub-optimal FDG-PET response to induction chemotherapy improves outcomes in locally advanced esophageal adenocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Geoffrey Y.; Kriplani, Anuja; Janjigian, Yelena Y.; Kelsen, David P.; Rusch, Valerie W.; Bains, Manjit; Chou, Joanne; Capanu, Marinela; Wu, Abraham J.; Goodman, Karyn. A; Ilson, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Background PET scan after induction chemotherapy before pre-operative chemoradiation and surgery for esophageal adenocarcinoma predicts outcomes. Some patients with progression on PET after induction chemotherapy had long-term overall survival (OS) when changed to alternative chemotherapy during radiation. Patients and methods We retrospectively reviewed esophageal adenocarcinoma patients who received induction chemotherapy and chemoradiation prior to planned surgery; all had PET scan before and after induction chemotherapy. Results Of 201 patients, 113 (56%) were PET-responders (≥35% decrease in maximum standardized uptake value of tumor). All PET-responders received the same chemotherapy during radiation, while 38 (43%) of 88 PET non-responders changed chemotherapy. Of 152 operated patients, the pathologic complete response (pCR) rate was 15% in PET-responders vs. 3% in PET non-responders who did not change chemotherapy (p=0.046). Median progression-free survival (PFS; 18.9 vs. 9.6 months, p=0.003) and OS (37 vs. 25.3 months, p=0.02) were significantly better for PET responders vs. PET non-responders who did not change chemotherapy. Median PFS for PET non-responders who changed chemotherapy was 18.0 months and was superior to PET non-responders who did not change chemotherapy (p=0.015). For PET non-responders, the 5-year OS rates were 37% for those who changed chemotherapy vs. 25% for those who did not change chemotherapy (p=0.18). Conclusions PET scan after induction chemotherapy predicts for outcomes in locally advanced esophageal adenocarcinoma patients who undergo chemoradiation and surgery. Median PFS is improved and trends toward improved OS appear possible in PET non-responders who change chemotherapy during radiation. The fully-accrued CALGB 80803 study (NCT01333033) is evaluating this strategy. PMID:27152857

  1. Sub-Optimal Treatment of Bacterial Biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyan Song

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial biofilm is an emerging clinical problem recognized in the treatment of infectious diseases within the last two decades. The appearance of microbial biofilm in clinical settings is steadily increasing due to several reasons including the increased use of quality of life-improving artificial devices. In contrast to infections caused by planktonic bacteria that respond relatively well to standard antibiotic therapy, biofilm-forming bacteria tend to cause chronic infections whereby infections persist despite seemingly adequate antibiotic therapy. This review briefly describes the responses of biofilm matrix components and biofilm-associated bacteria towards sub-lethal concentrations of antimicrobial agents, which may include the generation of genetic and phenotypic variabilities. Clinical implications of bacterial biofilms in relation to antibiotic treatments are also discussed.

  2. Dependent Interviewing and Sub-Optimal Responding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Eggs

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available With proactive dependent interviewing (PDI respondents are reminded of the answer they gave in the previous interview, before being asked about their current status. PDI is used in panel surveys to assist respondent recall and reduce spurious changes in responses over time. PDI may however provide scope for new errors if respondents falsely accept the previous information as still being an accurate description of their current situation. In this paper we use data from the German Labour Market and Social Security panel study, in which an error was made with the preload data for a PDI question about receipt of welfare benefit. The survey data were linked to individual administrative records on receipt of welfare benefit. A large proportion of respondents accepted the false preload. This behaviour seems mainly driven by the difficulty of the response task: respondents with a more complex history of receipt according to the records were more likely to confirm the false preload. Personality also seemed related to the probability of confirming. Predictors of satisficing, indicators of satisficing on other items in the survey, and characteristics of the survey and interviewer were not predictive of confirming the false preload.

  3. Preference Reversals: Violations of Unidimensional Procedure Invariance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.F.M. Stalmeier (Peep); P.P. Wakker (Peter); Th.G.G. Bezembinder (Thom)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractPreference reversals have usually been explained by weighted additive models, in which different tasks give rise to different importance weights for the stimulus attributes, resulting in contradictory trade-offs. This article presents a preference reversal of a more extreme nature. Let

  4. Preference reversals: violations of unidimensional procedure invariance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, P.P.; Stalmeijer, P.F.M.; Bezembinder, T.G.G.

    1997-01-01

    Preference reversals have usually been explained by weighted additive models, in which different tasks give rise to different importance weights for the stimulus attributes, resulting in contradictory tradeoffs. This article presents a preference reversal of a more extreme nature. Let (10, 5 Migr)

  5. Abordagens para otimização integrada dos problemas de geração e seqüenciamento de padrões de corte: caso unidimensional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele C. F Pileggi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O problema de geração de padrões de corte (ou problema de corte de estoque consiste em determinar o conjunto de padrões em que unidades demandadas (itens são cortadas de unidades maiores (objetos tal que, por exemplo, o custo ou a perda de material é minimizado. O problema de seqüenciamento de padrões de corte consiste em determinar a seqüência em que os padrões são cortados tal que, por exemplo, o número máximo de pilhas abertas (pilhas de itens com demanda apenas parcialmente produzida, que ainda serão cortados de um ou mais padrões seguintes nessa seqüência é minimizado. Em geral, uma boa solução para o problema de geração de padrões não corresponde a uma boa solução para o problema de seqüenciamento de padrões e vice-versa. Esses dois problemas são freqüentemente resolvidos, tanto na prática como na literatura, de forma independente e sucessiva. Este trabalho apresenta três abordagens heurísticas para resolver de forma integrada os problemas de geração e seqüenciamento de padrões, considerando o trade-off entre os objetivos envolvidos. Embora essas abordagens possam ser aplicadas para problemas de corte e empacotamento de qualquer dimensão, neste trabalho elas são analisadas e comparadas apenas para o caso de corte unidimensional.The cutting pattern generating problem (or cutting stock problem consists in determining the set of patterns in which ordered units (items are cut from larger units (objects so that, for example, the cost or waste of material is minimized. The cutting pattern sequencing problem consists in determining the sequence in which the patterns are cut so that, for example, the maximum number of open stacks (stacks of items with demand only partially produced and that will be cut in the next cutting patterns of the sequence is minimized. In general a good solution for the pattern generating problem does not correspond to a good solution for the pattern sequencing problem and vice

  6. Remember some or remember all? Ageing and strategy effects in visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Amy L; Baddeley, Alan D; Allen, Richard J

    2017-08-16

    Recent research (Bengson & Luck, 2015) has indicated that visual working memory capacity for unidimensional items might be boosted by focusing on all presented items, as opposed to a subset of them. However, it is not clear whether the same outcomes would be observed if more complex items were used which require feature binding, a potentially more demanding task. The current experiments therefore examined the effects of encoding strategy using multidimensional items in tasks that required feature binding. Effects were explored across a range of different age groups (Experiment 1) and task conditions (Experiment 2). In both experiments, participants performed significantly better when focusing on a subset of items, regardless of age or methodological variations, suggesting this is the optimal strategy to employ when several multidimensional items are presented and binding is required. Implications for task interpretation and visual working memory function are discussed.

  7. Plant and Animal Reproductive Strategies: Lessons from Offspring Size and Number Tradeoffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. Srikanta Dani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The tradeoff between offspring size and number is ubiquitous and manifestly similar in plants and animals despite fundamental differences between the evolutionary histories of these two major life forms. Fecundity (offspring number primarily affects parental fitness, while offspring size underpins the fitness of parents and offspring. We provide an overview of theoretical models dealing with offspring size and fitness relationships. We follow that with a detailed examination of life-history constraints and environmental effects on offspring size and number, separately in plants and animals. The emphasis is on seed plants, but we endeavor to also summarize information from distinct animal groups—insects, fishes, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Furthermore, we analyse genetic controls on offspring size and number in two model organisms—Arabidopsis and Drosophila. Despite the deep evolutionary divergence between plants and animals, we find four trends in reproductive strategy that are common to both lineages: (i offspring size is generally less variable than offspring number, (ii offspring size increases with increasing parent body size, (iii maternal genes restrict offspring size and increase offspring numbers, while zygotic genes act to increase offspring size; such parent-offspring conflicts are enhanced when there is sibling rivalry, and (iv variation in offspring size increases under sub-optimal (harsh environmental conditions. The most salient difference between plants and animals is that the latter tend to produce larger (fewer offspring under sub-optimal conditions while seed plants invest in smaller (many seeds, suggesting that maternal genetic control over offspring size increases in plants but decreases in animals with parental care. The time is ripe for greater experimental exploration of genetic controls on reproductive allocation and parent-offspring conflicts in plants and animals under sub-optimal (harsh environments.

  8. A Divide and Conquer Strategy for Scaling Weather Simulations with Multiple Regions of Interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Malakar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and timely prediction of weather phenomena, such as hurricanes and flash floods, require high-fidelity compute intensive simulations of multiple finer regions of interest within a coarse simulation domain. Current weather applications execute these nested simulations sequentially using all the available processors, which is sub-optimal due to their sub-linear scalability. In this work, we present a strategy for parallel execution of multiple nested domain simulations based on partitioning the 2-D processor grid into disjoint rectangular regions associated with each domain. We propose a novel combination of performance prediction, processor allocation methods and topology-aware mapping of the regions on torus interconnects. Experiments on IBM Blue Gene systems using WRF show that the proposed strategies result in performance improvement of up to 33% with topology-oblivious mapping and up to additional 7% with topology-aware mapping over the default sequential strategy.

  9. Global Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping

    2013-01-01

    Global strategy differs from domestic strategy in terms of content and process as well as context and structure. The content of global strategy can contain five key elements, while the process of global strategy can have six major stages. These are expounded below. Global strategy is influenced...... by rich and complementary local contexts with diverse resource pools and game rules at the national level to form a broad ecosystem at the global level. Further, global strategy dictates the interaction or balance between different entry strategies at the levels of internal and external networks....

  10. Strategie podniku

    OpenAIRE

    Gerlašinský, Marcel

    2009-01-01

    The aim of theoretic part of the thesis is to define the term of a strategy, specify the way how to create the strategy, what approach, methods and instruments are used for the strategy determination. Part of the definicions and further focus will be the area of strategic analysis,competetive advantage and the Enterprise's resources. In the application part, the present strategy of Airport Prague company, that is the the international Prague Ruzyne airport operator, will be specified. On the ...

  11. Bayesian inference-based environmental decision support systems for oil spill response strategy selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Andrew J; Hope, Max J

    2015-07-15

    Contingency plans are essential in guiding the response to marine oil spills. However, they are written before the pollution event occurs so must contain some degree of assumption and prediction and hence may be unsuitable for a real incident when it occurs. The use of Bayesian networks in ecology, environmental management, oil spill contingency planning and post-incident analysis is reviewed and analysed to establish their suitability for use as real-time environmental decision support systems during an oil spill response. It is demonstrated that Bayesian networks are appropriate for facilitating the re-assessment and re-validation of contingency plans following pollutant release, thus helping ensure that the optimum response strategy is adopted. This can minimise the possibility of sub-optimal response strategies causing additional environmental and socioeconomic damage beyond the original pollution event. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coto Chotto, Mayela; Wentzer, Helle; Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Lone

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents an evaluation strategy based on deliberate ideals and principles of dialogue design. The evaluation strategy is based on experiential phenomenology taking the point of departure for design and evaluation processes in the experienced practitioners themselves. The article presents...... the evaluation strategy and methodology of a research project Making Online Path to Enter new Markets, MOPEM. It is an EU-research project with partners from different Educational Institutions of Technology and Business in five European Countries....

  13. Military Strategy,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    peninsula, to the Carribean Sea, and to the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. All airplanes were held at ch> air fields with missiles and bombs loaded. One...Introduction / / Foreword to the Third Edition / / ’ Foreword to the Second Edition Introduction Chapter I. ^?Gener«l Conceptsj, General... The class essence of bourgeois military strategy The class essence of Soviet military strategy Chapter II.^ The Military Strategy of Imperialist

  14. Strategy switching in the stabilization of unstable dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacopo Zenzeri

    Full Text Available In order to understand mechanisms of strategy switching in the stabilization of unstable dynamics, this work investigates how human subjects learn to become skilled users of an underactuated bimanual tool in an unstable environment. The tool, which consists of a mass and two hand-held non-linear springs, is affected by a saddle-like force-field. The non-linearity of the springs allows the users to determine size and orientation of the tool stiffness ellipse, by using different patterns of bimanual coordination: minimal stiffness occurs when the two spring terminals are aligned and stiffness size grows by stretching them apart. Tool parameters were set such that minimal stiffness is insufficient to provide stable equilibrium whereas asymptotic stability can be achieved with sufficient stretching, although at the expense of greater effort. As a consequence, tool users have two possible strategies for stabilizing the mass in different regions of the workspace: 1 high stiffness feedforward strategy, aiming at asymptotic stability and 2 low stiffness positional feedback strategy aiming at bounded stability. The tool was simulated by a bimanual haptic robot with direct torque control of the motors. In a previous study we analyzed the behavior of naïve users and we found that they spontaneously clustered into two groups of approximately equal size. In this study we trained subjects to become expert users of both strategies in a discrete reaching task. Then we tested generalization capabilities and mechanism of strategy-switching by means of stabilization tasks which consist of tracking moving targets in the workspace. The uniqueness of the experimental setup is that it addresses the general problem of strategy-switching in an unstable environment, suggesting that complex behaviors cannot be explained in terms of a global optimization criterion but rather require the ability to switch between different sub-optimal mechanisms.

  15. Representing Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hein Duijf

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Quite some work in the ATL-tradition uses the differences between various types of strategies (positional, uniform, perfect recall to give alternative semantics to the same logical language. This paper contributes to another perspective on strategy types, one where we characterise the differences between them on the syntactic (object language level. This is important for a more traditional knowledge representation view on strategic content. Leaving differences between strategy types implicit in the semantics is a sensible idea if the goal is to use the strategic formalism for model checking. But, for traditional knowledge representation in terms of object language level formulas, we need to extent the language. This paper introduces a strategic STIT syntax with explicit operators for knowledge that allows us to charaterise strategy types. This more expressive strategic language is interpreted on standard ATL-type concurrent epistemic game structures. We introduce rule-based strategies in our language and fruitfully apply them to the representation and characterisation of positional and uniform strategies. Our representations highlight crucial conditions to be met for strategy types. We demonstrate the usefulness of our work by showing that it leads to a critical reexamination of coalitional uniform strategies.

  16. Representing strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijf, Hein; Broersen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Quite some work in the ATL-tradition uses the differences between various types of strategies (positional, uniform, perfect recall) to give alternative semantics to the same logical language. This paper contributes to another perspective on strategy types, one where we characterise the differences

  17. Export strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thorbjørn; Koed Madsen, Tage

    2002-01-01

    It is argued here that traditional export strategy research (encompassing the study of internationalization processes and export performance) is characterized by weak theoretical foundations and could benefit from a reorientation towards a dynamic capabilities perspective (DCP). We seek to draw...... on insights from DCP in order to devise a theoretical basis that could enrich export strategy research. Although our development of DCP insights builds on previous work, it also adds a crucial distinction between knowledge stocks and informational architecture. Changes in architecture are of greater...... importance. Following this elaboration of the dynamic capabilities perspective, we outline some implications and guidelines for future export strategy research....

  18. Environmental strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zabkar, Vesna; Cater, Tomaz; Bajde, Domen

    2013-01-01

    Environmental issues and the inclusion of environmental strategies in strategic thinking is an interesting subject of investigation. In general, managerial practices organized along ecologically sound principles contribute to a more environmentally sustainable global economy. From the managerial...... perspective, appropriate environmental strategies in compliance with environmental requirements aim at building competitive advantages through sustainable development. There is no universal “green” strategy that would be appropriate for each company, regardless of its market requirements and competitive...... situations. Instead, managers undertake careful consideration of the circumstances in which their company operates, paying special attention to their customers’ environmental preferences....

  19. Health professionals in Kenya: strategies to expand reach and reduce brain drain of psychiatric nurses and psychiatrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownie, Sharon; Oywer, Elizabeth

    2016-08-01

    This paper highlights the extent of the brain drain in relation to human resources for health (HRH) that is currently challenging Kenya, and suggests strategies that have the potential to change current working environments and improve HRH retention rates. Governments in partnership with health professional bodies and regulators could improve the working conditions for psychiatrists and mental health nurses: by promoting career choices in mental health; by providing accessible professional development opportunities; and by easing workload pressures by expanding service reach through thoughtfully planned and delivered task-shifting to primary care. While these strategies have the potential to make a significant difference, the evidence suggests a brain drain will continue as long as working conditions remain sub-optimal and global HRH shortages persist.

  20. Prevalence and predictors of sub-optimal medication adherence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: three hundred and seventy (370) respondents with diagnoses of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or severe depression were randomly enrolled and interviewed at the out-patient department of the Federal Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Maiduguri in northeastern Nigeria. An anonymous sociodemographic ...

  1. Sub Optimal E-Waste Management and the Lost Opportunity

    OpenAIRE

    Tyagi, Rakesh; Kaushal, Priyanka

    2018-01-01

    Electronic waste or e-waste is the wastegenerated from discarded and end of life electronic items. In recent times withchange in lifestyle and improved purchasing capacity of people has acceleratedthe demand of new and improved electronic items, quick technology obsolescence,as a consequence the generation of e-waste has seen a huge rise. In year 2016,globally 93.5 tons of E-waste was generated, India, one of the leadingproducers of e-waste, produced 1.65 Million tones of E-waste. Apart fromd...

  2. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Sub-Optimal Breastfeeding and Its Associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-01

    Jan 1, 2018 ... education, low birth order and lack of knowledge about exclusive breastfeeding were also negatively associated with .... obtained from the Institutional Review Board of the College of Medicine and Health Sciences, ..... Horii N, Guyon A, Quinn V. Determinants of delayed initiation of breastfeeding in rural.

  3. Prevalence and predictors of sub-optimal medication adherence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the levels of adherence, prevalence and the predictors of suboptimal adherence were assessed in a sub-Saharan African setting. Methods: Three hundred and seventy (370) respondents with diagnoses of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or severe depression were randomly enrolled and interviewed at the ...

  4. Duration estimates within a modality are integrated sub-optimally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Bo eCai

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Perceived duration can be influenced by various properties of sensory stimuli. For example, visual stimuli of higher temporal frequency are perceived to last longer than those of lower temporal frequency. How does the brain form a representation of duration when each of two simultaneously presented stimuli influences perceived duration in different way? To answer this question, we investigated the perceived duration of a pair of dynamic visual stimuli of different temporal frequencies in comparison to that of a single visual stimulus of either low or high temporal frequency. We found that the duration representation of simultaneously occurring visual stimuli is best described by weighting the estimates of duration based on each individual stimulus. However, the weighting performance deviates from the prediction of statistically optimal integration. In addition, we provided a Bayesian account to explain a difference in the apparent sensitivity of the psychometric curves introduced by the order in which the two stimuli are displayed in a two-alternative forced-choice task.

  5. Perioperative Pain Management Strategies for Amputation: A Topical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Michael L; Hsia, Hung-Lun John; Van de Ven, Thomas J; Buchheit, Thomas E

    2017-03-01

    To review acute pain management strategies in patients undergoing amputation with consideration of preoperative patient factors, pharmacologic/interventional modalities, and multidisciplinary care models to alleviate suffering in the immediate post-amputation setting. Regardless of surgical indication, patients undergoing amputation suffer from significant residual limb pain and phantom limb pain in the acute postoperative phase. Most studies have primarily focused on strategies to prevent persistent pain with inclusion of immediate postoperative outcomes as secondary measures. Pharmacologic agents, including gabapentin, ketamine, and calcitonin, and interventional modalities such as neuraxial and perineural catheters, have been examined in the perioperative period. Focused Literature Review. Pharmacologic agents (gabapentin, ketamine, calcitonin) have not shown consistent efficacy. Neuraxial analgesia has demonstrated both an opioid sparing and analgesic benefit while results have been mixed regarding perineural catheters in the immediate post-amputation setting. However, several early studies of perineural catheters employed sub-optimal techniques (distal surgical placement), and prolonged use of perineural catheters may provide a sustained benefit. Regardless of analgesic technique, a multidisciplinary approach is necessary for optimal care. Patient-tailored analgesic regimens utilizing catheter-based techniques are essential in the acute post-amputation phase and should be implemented in all patients undergoing amputation. Future research should focus on improved measurement of acute pain and comparisons of effective analgesic regimens instead of single techniques.

  6. Career information processing strategies of secondary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adebowale

    parents and their school counsellor bore any positive relationship with their choice of career. The study .... obtain socio-demographic information from the respondents such as age, sex, choice of career, and so on. ... An instrument is said to be unidimensional and valid if there is a single dominant first factor; this was the.

  7. Assessment of self-efficacy to employ self-initiated pornography use-reduction strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Shane W; Rosenberg, Harold; Tompsett, Carolyn J

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated several psychometric properties of a newly developed questionnaire designed to assess individuals' self-efficacy (from 0% to 100%) to employ self-initiated cognitive-behavioral strategies intended to reduce the frequency and duration of their pornography use. Using a web-based data collection procedure, we recruited 1298 male users of pornography to complete questionnaires assessing hypersexuality, pornography use history, and general self-efficacy. Based on a principal component analysis and examination of inter-item correlations, we deleted 13 items from the initial pool of 21 strategies. The resulting 8-item questionnaire had excellent internal consistency reliability, and a moderate mean inter-item correlation considered indicative of unidimensionality. In support of criterion validity, self-efficacy to employ use-reduction strategies was significantly associated with the frequency with which participants used pornography, with scores on a measure of hypersexuality, and with the number of times one had attempted to cut back using pornography. In support of discriminant validity, we found that pornography use-reduction self-efficacy scores were not strongly correlated with general self-efficacy. Both researchers and clinicians could use this questionnaire to assess pornography users' confidence to employ self-initiated strategies intended to reduce the duration and frequency with which they use pornography. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Study Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Camilla Kirketerp; Noer, Vibeke Røn

    ID: 1277 / 22 SES 06 B: 2 22. Research in Higher Education Format of Presentation: Paper Alternative EERA Network: 19. Ethnography Topics: NW 22: Teaching, learning and assessment in higher education Keywords: Profession-oriented learning, study strategies, professionalisation processes, comparat......ID: 1277 / 22 SES 06 B: 2 22. Research in Higher Education Format of Presentation: Paper Alternative EERA Network: 19. Ethnography Topics: NW 22: Teaching, learning and assessment in higher education Keywords: Profession-oriented learning, study strategies, professionalisation processes......, comparative cross-disciplinary ethnography Study Strategies – Crossing Contexts Camilla Kirketerp Nielsen 1, Vibeke Røn Noer 2,1 1 University of Copenhagen, Denmark; 2 VIA University College Presenting Author: Kirketerp Nielsen, Camilla; Røn Noer, Vibeke This paper provides comparative cross...... module”. The projects differ in terms of both starting point and main focus of research (an alternative educational model and profession-orientated Game-based learning). However, in the on-going process of research, an empirical ´harmony´ on common recurrent themes related to students `study strategies...

  9. CSR STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    LAURENTIU BARANGA; ION STEGAROIU

    2011-01-01

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has got three components: economic responsibility of shareholders, corporate environmental responsibility, corporate responsibility of the society. Each component of the CSR has its own features, according to which adequate individual behaviour is established. Knowing these features is very important in CSR strategy development.

  10. DOT strategies versus orbiter strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    The Dutch Open Telescope is a high-resolution solar imager coming on-line at La Palma. The definition of the DOT science niche, strategies, and requirements resemble Solar Orbiter considerations and deliberations. I discuss the latter in the light of the former, and claim that multi-line observation

  11. Transfusion strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Carl-Johan

    2014-01-01

    , and saturation. If oxygen delivery/consumption is out of balance, the compensation mechanisms are simple, as a decrease in one factor results in an increase in one or two other factors. Patients with coexisting cardiac diseases may be of particular risk, but studies indicate that patients with coexisting cardiac....... In conclusion the evidence supports that each institution establishes its own patient blood management strategy to both conserve blood products and maximise outcome....

  12. FLOSS strategies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabaso, NM

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Mabaso_2006_D.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 1617 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Mabaso_2006_D.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 FLOSS Strategies Presented... at Govtech Nhlanhla Mabaso Open Source Centre Manager November 2006 Slide 2 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za FLOSS in support of strategic Objectives • Competitiveness Exporting knowledge & skills • Investment Attracting meaningful...

  13. Strategies for measuring evolutionary conservation of RNA secondary structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofacker Ivo L

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolutionary conservation of RNA secondary structure is a typical feature of many functional non-coding RNAs. Since almost all of the available methods used for prediction and annotation of non-coding RNA genes rely on this evolutionary signature, accurate measures for structural conservation are essential. Results We systematically assessed the ability of various measures to detect conserved RNA structures in multiple sequence alignments. We tested three existing and eight novel strategies that are based on metrics of folding energies, metrics of single optimal structure predictions, and metrics of structure ensembles. We find that the folding energy based SCI score used in the RNAz program and a simple base-pair distance metric are by far the most accurate. The use of more complex metrics like for example tree editing does not improve performance. A variant of the SCI performed particularly well on highly conserved alignments and is thus a viable alternative when only little evolutionary information is available. Surprisingly, ensemble based methods that, in principle, could benefit from the additional information contained in sub-optimal structures, perform particularly poorly. As a general trend, we observed that methods that include a consensus structure prediction outperformed equivalent methods that only consider pairwise comparisons. Conclusion Structural conservation can be measured accurately with relatively simple and intuitive metrics. They have the potential to form the basis of future RNA gene finders, that face new challenges like finding lineage specific structures or detecting mis-aligned sequences.

  14. Quality of diabetes care worldwide and feasibility of implementation of the Alphabet Strategy: GAIA project (Global Alphabet Strategy Implementation Audit).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James D; Saravanan, Ponnusamy; Varadhan, Lakshminarayanan; Morrissey, John R; Patel, Vinod

    2014-10-11

    The Alphabet Strategy (AS) is a diabetes care checklist ensuring "important, simple things are done right all the time." Current audits of diabetes care in developed countries reveal wide variations in quality with performance of care processes frequently sub-optimal. This study had three components:• an audit to assess diabetes care quality worldwide,• a questionnaire study seeking opinions on the merits of the AS,• a pilot study to assess the practicality of implementation of the AS in a low socioeconomic setting. Audit data was collected from 52 centres across 32 countries. Data from 4537 patients were converted to Quality and Outcome Framework (QOF) scores to enable inter-centre comparison. These were compared to each country's Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and Total Health Expenditure percentage per capita (THE%). The opinions of diabetes patients and healthcare professionals from the diabetes care team at each of these centres were sought through a structured questionnaire. A retrospective audit on 100 randomly selected case notes was conducted prior to AS implementation in a diabetes outpatient clinic in India, followed by a prospective audit after four months to assess its impact on care quality. QOF scores showed wide variation across the centres (mean 49.0, range 10.2-90.1). Although there was a positive relationship between GDP and THE% to QOF scores, there were exceptions. 91% of healthcare professionals felt the AS approach was practical. Patients found the checklist to be a useful education tool. Significant improvements in several aspects of care as well as 36% improvement in QOF score were seen following implementation. International centres observed large variations in care quality, with standards frequently sub-optimal. 71% of health care professionals would consider adopting the AS in their daily practice. Implementation in a low resource country resulted in significant improvements in some aspects of diabetes care. The AS checklist for

  15. Uma heurística baseada em geração sequencial de padrões para o problema de corte de estoque unidimensional com um número reduzido de padrões A heuristic based on sequential pattern generation for the one-dimensional cutting stock problem with a reduced number of patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Hideki Yanasse

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos neste trabalho uma heurística que procura determinar uma solução para o problema de corte de estoques unidimensional com um número reduzido de padrões. A heurística é composta de 3 fases. Na primeira geram-se padrões sucessivamente que são aceitos caso tenham desperdício limitado. Cada padrão aceito é repetido o máximo possível, sem que itens sejam cortados além da demanda. Neste processo de geração de padrões priorizam-se itens grandes e itens com demandas grandes. Na segunda fase, o problema residual é resolvido e, na terceira fase, uma técnica de redução de padrões da literatura é utilizada. Os testes computacionais realizados mostram que o método proposto não é dominado pelos algoritmos existentes na literatura.In this work we present a heuristic that tries to determine a solution for the one-dimensional cutting stock problem with a reduced number of patterns. The heuristic is composed of 3 phases. In the first, patterns are generated successively, and they will be accepted if they have limited waste. Each accepted pattern is repeated as many times as possible avoiding cutting items in order to keep the demand. In this pattern, the generation process priority is given to large items and items with large demands. In the second phase, the residual problem is solved and, in the third phase, a pattern reduction technique reported in the literature is used. The computational tests performed show that the proposed method is not dominated by the existing algorithms in the literature.

  16. Curvatura escalar Riemanniana en un gas de electrones unidimensional

    OpenAIRE

    Augusto A. Melgarejo; Tori, Cora I.; Trípoli, María de las Mercedes

    2013-01-01

    En este trabajo, nos enfocaremos en sistemas unidimensionales no ideales. Siguiendo esta línea, y para considerar el efecto de la interacción entre electrones en la curvatura escalar, usamos el modelo de Tomonaga-Luttinger. En general, este modelo hace una buena descripción de las exaltaciones de baja energía en líquidos de Fermi cuasi dimensionales conocidos como cables o hilos cuánticos. Los líquidos unidimensionales de Fermi son un sistema singular porque las excitaciones elementales están...

  17. Extracting Unidimensional Chains from Multidimensional Datasets: A Graph Theory Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    Massachusetts Takoma Park. MD 20012 Auherst. MA 01003 Drt. J. Ryan Dr. Brad Sympson Department of Education Psychometric Research Group University of South... Schoenfeld Urbana, IL 61801 Department of Mathematics "ilton Collese Clinton, NY 13323 IL FILMED

  18. Plasmonic effects in unidimensional structures and graphene-based nanostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Eduardo José Machado Correia Brioso

    2016-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado em Física (área de especialização em Física Fundamental) O presente trabalho tem como objectivo discutir efeitos plasmónicos em nanoestruturas baseadas em grafeno. São estudadas, em primeiro lugar, uma cunha infinita (dieléctrica ou metálica) e uma superfície ranhurada perfeitamente condutora. Ambos os casos são estudados com e sem um revestimento de grafeno, de modo a comparar ambos os resultados e discutir a influência do mesmo nas respectivas propried...

  19. Study on the physical properties of the dynamic filter: unidimensional modulation; Estudo das propriedades fisicas do filtro dinamico: modulacao unidimensional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Roberto Salomon de

    2005-10-15

    The present work shows an characterization of the Varian linear accelerator EDW physical properties, through experimental determinations, comparing them with calculations made by CadPlan treatment planning system, under the same conditions. The following parameters were determined: EDW factor for square and rectangular fields on the central axis and off-axis, EDW factor dependency with the static collimator, percentage depth dose, EDW factor dependency with the depth on the central axis and off-axis, EDW angles and field profiles on several depths. It was verified that the EDW factor diminishes with the field size increment and with EDW nominal angle increment, and increases with energy increment. It is independent of the X collimator and dynamic collimator, except for small field sizes. It doesn't vary with depth on the central axis, but varies on the off-axis distances. A difference between EDW nominal angles and the EDW obtained experimentally was found, but it doesn't interfere in the treatment results. At the end of this work, a set of physical parameters to be determined for the commissioning, clinical implementation and quality assurance of the EDW is suggested. (author)

  20. Solução exacta de problemas de corte unidimensional usando o método de partição e avaliação sucessivas e geração diferida de colunas Exact solution of one-dimensional cutting stock problems using branch-and-bound and column generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Valério de Carvalho

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Quando se pretende obter uma solução inteira para o problema de corte unidimensional, depois de se ter resolvido a sua relaxação linear, é frequente recorrer, quer a técnicas de arredondamento de soluções, quer a diversos tipos de heurísticas. Estas dificuldades decorrem do facto de não ser viável enumerar todas as variáveis estruturais do problema, cujo número pode ser da ordem dos milhões. Neste artigo, apresenta se uma formulação em que o número de variáveis e restrições é uma função polinomial da largura do stock e do número de pedidos. Para algumas classes de problemas, é possível enumerar todas as variáveis e obter a solução óptima usando o método da partição e avaliação sucessivas. Para instâncias de maiores dimensões, apresenta se um procedimento que combina a geração diferida de colunas e o método da partição e avaliação sucessivas. Define se o subproblema e o modo como é modificado durante a fase de partição e avaliação sucessivas. São apresentados resultados de testes computacionais para diversos problemas de teste.If an integer solution to the one-dimensional cutting stock problem is required, after solving the linear programming relaxation, one frequently resorts to heuristics based on rounding up and down the continuos solution, or other heuristics similar type. The difficulties arise from the fact that it may not be practically possible to enumerate all the structural variables of the problem, whose number may be in the order of millions, even for instances of moderate size. In this article we present a formulation with a number of variables and constraints that is polinomial with respect to the width of the stock and the number of orders. For some classes of instances, it is possible to enumerate completely all the variables and to obtain an integer optional solution using a branch-and-bound method. For larger instances, we present a procedure that combines column generation and

  1. Nonadherence with antipsychotic medication in schizophrenia: challenges and management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Peter M; Brain, Cecilia; Scott, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Nonadherence with medication occurs in all chronic medical disorders. It is a particular challenge in schizophrenia due to the illness's association with social isolation, stigma, and comorbid substance misuse, plus the effect of symptom domains on adherence, including positive and negative symptoms, lack of insight, depression, and cognitive impairment. Nonadherence lies on a spectrum, is often covert, and is underestimated by clinicians, but affects more than one third of patients with schizophrenia per annum. It increases the risk of relapse, rehospitalization, and self-harm, increases inpatient costs, and lowers quality of life. It results from multiple patient, clinician, illness, medication, and service factors, but a useful distinction is between intentional and unintentional nonadherence. There is no gold standard approach to the measurement of adherence as all methods have pros and cons. Interventions to improve adherence include psychoeducation and other psychosocial interventions, antipsychotic long-acting injections, electronic reminders, service-based interventions, and financial incentives. These overlap, all have some evidence of effectiveness, and the intervention adopted should be tailored to the individual. Psychosocial interventions that utilize combined approaches seem more effective than unidimensional approaches. There is increasing interest in electronic reminders and monitoring systems to enhance adherence, eg, Short Message Service text messaging and real-time medication monitoring linked to smart pill containers or an electronic ingestible event marker. Financial incentives to enhance antipsychotic adherence raise ethical issues, and their place in practice remains unclear. Simple pragmatic strategies to improve medication adherence include shared decision-making, regular assessment of adherence, simplification of the medication regimen, ensuring that treatment is effective and that side effects are managed, and promoting a positive

  2. Improving Performance and Operational Stability of Porcine Interferon-α Production by Pichia pastoris with Combinational Induction Strategy of Low Temperature and Methanol/Sorbitol Co-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Min-Jie; Zhan, Xiao-Bei; Gao, Peng; Zhang, Xu; Dong, Shi-Juan; Li, Zhen; Shi, Zhong-Ping; Lin, Chi-Chung

    2015-05-01

    Various induction strategies were investigated for effective porcine interferon-α (pIFN-α) production by Pichia pastoris in a 10 L fermenter. We found that pIFN-α concentration could be significantly improved with the strategies of low-temperature induction or methanol/sorbitol co-feeding. On this basis, a combinational strategy of induction at lower temperature (20 °C) with methanol/sorbitol co-feeding has been proposed for improvement of pIFN-α production. The results reveal that maximal pIFN-α concentration and antiviral activity reach the highest level of 2.7 g/L and 1.8 × 10(7) IU/mg with the proposed induction strategy, about 1.3-2.1 folds higher than those obtained with other sub-optimal induction strategies. Metabolic analysis and online multi-variable measurement results indicate that energy metabolic enrichment is responsible for the performance enhancement of pIFN-α production, as a large amount of ATP could be simultaneously produced from both formaldehyde oxidation pathway in methanol metabolism and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle in sorbitol metabolism. In addition, the proposed combinational induction strategy enables P. pastoris to be resistant to high methanol concentration (42 g/L), which conceivably occur associating with the error-prone methanol over-feeding. As a result, the proposed combinational induction strategy simultaneously increased the targeted protein concentration and operational stability leading to significant improvement of pIFN-α production.

  3. Discursive strategies of strategy in public organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang; Holmgren, Jens; Friis, Ole Uhrskov

    to articulate their strategies through private sector strategy terminology about competition, ranking, benchmarking, etc.. Thus, it is time to explore how strategy making is given discursive legitimacy in public organizations. An important way to study strategy as practice is by attending of the discourse...... relations, however they have not depicted an underlying conceptual structure in how strategy making is given discursive legitimacy in public service organizations. In this study, we depart from previous discursive strategy research by taking a deconstructive approach in order to identify underlying...... of strategy. Bodies of discursive scholarship, such as critical discourse analysis, narrative analysis, metaphor analysis and conversation analysis, have contributed with significant research into important issues and themes in strategy making processes such as sense-making, subject-positions and power...

  4. What's in a Strategy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obed Madsen, Søren

    Although a strategy, in theory, should help the organization to move in the same direction by showing a direction for the organization, in practice the strategy increases the number of possible paths, as managers translate the strategy into their own context. This increases the number of strategies...... in the organization, and it becomes difficult to get an overview of the interaction and relationships between the translated strategies. This not only raises questions about which function the strategy has in an organization but also about what is strategy implementation when the managers don’t implement the strategy......, but are implementing their translations of the strategy, which is different from the original....

  5. A qualitative study of senior hospital managers' views on current and innovative strategies to improve hand hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, Elizabeth; Phillips, Rosemary; Middleton, Sandy; Gould, Dinah

    2014-11-18

    Despite universal recognition of the importance of hand hygiene in reducing the incidence of healthcare associated infections, health care workers' compliance with best practice has been sub-optimal. Senior hospital managers have responsibilities for implementing patient safety initiatives and are therefore ideally placed to provide suggestions for improving strategies to increase hand hygiene compliance. This is an under-researched area, accordingly the aim of this study was to identify senior hospital managers' views on current and innovative strategies to improve hand hygiene compliance. Qualitative design comprising face-to-face interviews with thirteen purposively sampled senior managers at a major teaching and referral hospital in Sydney, Australia. Data were analysed thematically. Seven themes emerged: culture change starts with leaders, refresh and renew the message, connect the five moments to the whole patient journey, actionable audit results, empower patients, reconceptualising non-compliance and start using the hammer. To strengthen hand hygiene programmes, strategies based on the five moments of hand hygiene should be tailored to specific roles and settings and take into account the whole patient journey including patient interactions with clinical and non-clinical staff. Senior clinical and non-clinical leaders should visibly champion and mandate best practice initiatives and articulate that hand hygiene non-compliance is culturally and professionally unacceptable to the organization. Strategies that included a disciplinary component and which conceptualise hand hygiene non-compliance as a patient safety error may be worth evaluating in terms of staff acceptability and effectiveness.

  6. Publish or perish: strategies to help rural early career researchers increase publication output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J; Wilson, S; Rix, E; Pit, S W

    2014-01-01

    Researchers are challenged to publish or perish. A range of barriers to writing can result in sub-optimal productivity, particularly for early career researchers. Researchers in rural areas may face additional challenges of distance and limited access to colleagues. Implementing strategies to address some of these obstacles was identified as a priority for a group of early career, rural researchers. In late 2010, the Wiljo-Piri Writing Group was established, embarking on fortnightly lunch-time meetings for support, networking and the public setting of writing goals; and arranging pairing of 'writing buddies' committed to writing daily, with contact before and/or after each writing session to provide motivation and accountability. Key measures for improvement were publication output (publications per person per year (PPY)) and perceptions of effectiveness of strategies. Publication output varied between individuals and over time; overall PPY rates improved from 0.5 to 1.25. 'Buddy writing' helped facilitate adherence to routine writing sessions and was associated with perceptions of increased creativity, efficiency, confidence and ability to focus. Structured peer support can be a powerful tool to create and maintain regular writing practices and increase publication output. 'Buddy writing' is applicable to any research or academic setting, and helps maintain commitment to daily writing sessions. Furthermore, such interventions can provide peer support for those working in rural settings, helping to address issues such as geographical and professional isolation. Suggested key steps in establishing structured peer support are provided.

  7. Strategies for the development of the sweetpotato early generation seed sector in eastern and southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendran Srinivasulu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Smallholders in Eastern and Southern Africa(ESA have limited access to timely availability of quality sweetpotato seed which contributes to sub-optimal root yields. To enhance availability and access to quality seed it is necessary to link formal plant breeding efforts to a sustainable seed supply system by means of identifying business opportunities for sweetpotato Early Generation Seed (EGS producers. In most ESA countries, public institutions have the sole mandate for EGS production, but have not adopted an explicit business orientation. The study used primary information collected from business plans prepared by eight National Agricultural Research Institutions(NARIs in seven countries in ESA. This study first analyzed the overall business opportunities for public institutions using a Strengths, Weaknesses Opportunities, and Threats(SWOT tool and then a Threats, Opportunities, Weaknesses and Strengths (TOWS approach was used to transform the SWOT results into strategies for the further development of the early generation seed sector. It was concluded that over a five to ten year period, the NARIs do have a business case for production of sweetpotato EGS. However, to capitalise on this NARIs and policy makers need to take up there commendations from the TOWS analysis to refine strategies for exploiting opportunities in the business environment and for mitigating weaknesses to reduce vulnerability to any identified threats to the potential business in EGS.

  8. Strategy Development in Organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene

    1999-01-01

    " as used in practice and literature. Emphasis is put on how the term is related to the problem, the organisation, the strategy process and the practical way of methodologically developing the strategy. Finally, alternative strategy developing perspectives are presented.......There exist certain ambiguities with the converging fields of information technology and organisational strategy development. The term "IT strategy" has evolved and reflects in some respects this confusion. This paper discusses some of the ambiguities and difficulties of the term "IT strategy...

  9. Drag reduction strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, D. Christopher

    1994-12-01

    previously a description was given of an active control scheme using wall transpiration that leads to a 15% reduction in surface skin friction beneath a turbulent boundary layer, according to direct numerical simulation. In this research brief further details of that scheme and its variants are given together with some suggestions as to how sensor/actuator arrays could be configured to reduce surface drag. The research which is summarized here was performed during the first half of 1994. This research is motivated by the need to understand better how the dynamics of near-wall turbulent flow can be modified so that skin friction is reduced. The reduction of turbulent skin friction is highly desirable in many engineering applications. Experiments and direct numerical simulations have led to an increased understanding of the cycle of turbulence production and transport in the boundary layer and raised awareness of the possibility of disrupting the process with a subsequent reduction in turbulent skin friction. The implementation of active feedback control in a computational setting is a viable approach for the investigation of the modifications to the flow physics that can be achieved. Bewley et al. and Hill describe how ideas from optimal control theory are employed to give 'sub-optimal' drag reduction schemes. The objectives of the work reported here is to investigate in greater detail the assumptions implicit within such schemes and their limitations. It is also our objective to describe how an array of sensors and actuators could be arranged and interconnected to form a 'smart' surface which has low skin friction.

  10. Strategy and space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    2011-01-01

    The article is based on results from a research project on space strategies and building values, which included a major case study of the development of facilities for the Danish Broadcasting Corporation over time. The focus is to identify, how different space strategies have been implemented...... in different periods and how these strategies can be related to the general conditions of the corporation. The strategic uncertainty of the corporation is investigated as a main determining factor for changes in space strategy based on theories of the relations between strategy and place. These theories...... include that corporations follows one of the three generic space strategies: Incrementalism, standardization, and value-based strategy. Among the conclusion are, that the space strategies mostly changes between incremental and value-based strategies, but one period of standardization was identified...

  11. National Privacy Research Strategy

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — On July 1, NITRD released the National Privacy Research Strategy. Research agencies across government participated in the development of the strategy, reviewing...

  12. Strategy and Chronotopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaara, Eero; Reff Pedersen, Anne

    2013-01-01

    An introduction is presented in which the editor discusses various topics within the issue including discursive aspects of strategy and strategizing, chronological notions of time for strategy narratives and classification of narratives into epic, technofuturist and purist narratives....

  13. De Nederlandse cybersecurity strategie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Recent werd de Nederlandse 'Nationale Cybersecurity Strategie: Slagkracht door samenwerking' openbaar gemaakt. Wat zijn de hoofdpunten van deze strategie en wat betekend dat voor de burgers, bedrijven, overheid, afnemers of leveranciers van informatie- en communicatie technologie?

  14. Exploring men's preferred strategies for learning about testicular disorders inclusive of testicular cancer: A qualitative descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saab, Mohamad M; Landers, Margaret; Hegarty, Josephine

    2017-02-01

    Men's awareness of testicular disorders is lacking and their intention to seek help for testicular symptoms is sub-optimal. Studies conducted to explore and raise men's awareness of testicular disorders did not address their preferred learning strategies and failed to include men who are at risk for health inequities. The aim of this study was to explore, in-depth, the preferred strategies for learning about testicular disorders inclusive of testicular cancer among men who self-identify as heterosexual, gay, or bisexual. Maximum variation and snowball sampling were used to recruit 29 men aged 18-47 years. Participation was sought from community and youth organizations and a university in the Republic of Ireland. Semi-structured individual interviews and focus groups were conducted. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Inductive analysis of manifest content was used. Seventeen informants self-identified as heterosexual, 11 as gay, and one as bisexual. Four main categories emerged, namely: strategies to enhance awareness (television, internet, campaigns, print media), educational dos and don'ts (tailoring effective messages, drawbacks of national initiatives, ineffective learning strategies), implications of raising awareness (risks and benefits of increasing awareness), and learning among gay and bisexual men (learning needs and strategies). Future studies promoting awareness of testicular disorders should take into account men's preferred learning strategies. National campaigns should be delivered frequently and altered occasionally in order to achieve a top-up effect. Clinicians are encouraged to educate young men about the seriousness of testicular symptoms and the importance of seeking timely medical attention for any abnormalities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. POSITIONING STRATEGIES DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakhshir Ghassan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The positioning strategy has suffered serious changes in the last few decades, being influenced by the rapid development of competition and the growing focus on specific traits belonging to the market, to the consumer or to the product. The purpose of this paper is to present the developments of theoretical positioning strategies and the orientation from more simple, product oriented strategies, to ones more oriented towards the client and with a briefer period of time. The world is moving in a much faster pace than in the past, thanks to communication development so companies are obliged to adopt more specific strategies in order for them to be effective. This essay represents a literary review presenting a documentary research within the scientific articles and strategy and positioning books. The paper begins with the analysis of company strategies and the marketing strategies in general. The first author to group the product positioning strategies is Porter with his three generic strategies. Following the development of brands and because of the lack of competitiveness in the simple generic positioning strategies, this paper has also presented the newer positioning strategies proposed by Kotler, Treacy & Wiersema, and also more complex ones such as Bowman's Strategy Clock and Blankson and Kalafatis positioning strategy based on the type of the consumer. The fast expansion of local brands in all categories has led to mistakes in positioning strategies, categories also presented in the current essay. The results of this study show that new positioning strategies are more and more based on the consumer and market segments and on the product specification - which have also evolved in the last decades. Adaptability to fast changes in the competitive market will represent the future positioning strategies.

  16. Processuel strategi i organisationer

    OpenAIRE

    Gylling, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is a study of processes of commercial artistic creation focusing on the practice of processual strategy in a context of designed strategy. The thesis focuses on the practice of processual strategy, seeing as strategy within the field is primarily understood and practised in a designerly approach. This concerns constructivist and objective thinking which, according to critical voices in organizationstudies, has difficulties explaining how strategic organisation creation...

  17. Strategies for Stimulating Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    practices describe ways to facilitate communication during discussion. Use constructive questioning strategies . Facilitators serve to ensure the...lecture and group discussion teaching strategies in developing critical thinking skills. Communication Education, 45, 212-227. Gilmore, T. N., & Schall, E...U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences Research Report 2008 Strategies for Stimulating Discussion

  18. Strategies Against Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riessman, Frank

    The major antipoverty strategies of the 1960's are analyzed--the conflict model of Alinsky, the welfare crisis approach of Cloward and Piven, and the new careers viewpoint of Riessman and Pearl. The latter strategy is said to have a greater "multiplier effect" on poverty than other approaches. Discussed are such specific strategies in…

  19. Backbone amide linker strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shelton, Anne Pernille Tofteng; Jensen, Knud Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    In the backbone amide linker (BAL) strategy, the peptide is anchored not at the C-terminus but through a backbone amide, which leaves the C-terminal available for various modifications. This is thus a very general strategy for the introduction of C-terminal modifications. The BAL strategy...

  20. Use of proxy models in the selection of production strategy in petroleum fields; Uso de metamodelos na selecao de estrategias de producao em campos de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avansi, Guilherme D.; Schiozer, Denis J.; Risso, Fernanda V.A. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo; Suslick, Saul B. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias

    2008-07-01

    The traditional process of production strategy demands many simulations due to the high number of variables and possibilities. Sub-optimal results can be obtained from manual processes; Automatic processes can mitigate this problem but the computational effort increases as a result of the number of simulations generated in the process. Thus, the objective of this work is an attempt of application of proxy models in the production strategy optimization and in the economic evaluation in petroleum fields, allowing the selection of production strategy evaluating a higher number of alternatives and increasing the chances to find better solutions. Proxies have been used in important applications such as risk analysis, history matching etc. The applied proxy models combine the following components: statistics methods, experimental planning, the response surface methodology and consistency checking. We have shown that proxy models can be used in a definition of production strategy, bringing an additional option in the process. The advantage is to find solutions that are not investigated by the traditional methods; proxy models create new possibilities to change a decision used in an economic evaluation process in a wider solution space. (author)

  1. The Protective Behavioral Strategies for Marijuana Scale: Further examination using item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Eric R; Huang, Wenjing; Dvorak, Robert D; Prince, Mark A; Hummer, Justin F

    2017-08-01

    Given recent state legislation legalizing marijuana for recreational purposes and majority popular opinion favoring these laws, we developed the Protective Behavioral Strategies for Marijuana scale (PBSM) to identify strategies that may mitigate the harms related to marijuana use among those young people who choose to use the drug. In the current study, we expand on the initial exploratory study of the PBSM to further validate the measure with a large and geographically diverse sample (N = 2,117; 60% women, 30% non-White) of college students from 11 different universities across the United States. We sought to develop a psychometrically sound item bank for the PBSM and to create a short assessment form that minimizes respondent burden and time. Quantitative item analyses, including exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses with item response theory (IRT) and evaluation of differential item functioning (DIF), revealed an item bank of 36 items that was examined for unidimensionality and good content coverage, as well as a short form of 17 items that is free of bias in terms of gender (men vs. women), race (White vs. non-White), ethnicity (Hispanic vs. non-Hispanic), and recreational marijuana use legal status (state recreational marijuana was legal for 25.5% of participants). We also provide a scoring table for easy transformation from sum scores to IRT scale scores. The PBSM item bank and short form associated strongly and negatively with past month marijuana use and consequences. The measure may be useful to researchers and clinicians conducting intervention and prevention programs with young adults. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Creativity and Strategy Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    This paper focus on how creative thinking, processes and methods can support the strategy development and planning process in organisations. First, several fundamental concepts related to both strategy development and planning are stipulated. In addition, the concept of living organisation...... will be discussed as well as the interaction between strategy and creativity. Then, methodological ideas to support the strategy making process are presented enhancing the use of creative methods and tools. Finally, a case study related to the development of a strategy for organisational development using...... creativity tools is discussed....

  3. Contemporary evolution strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Bäck, Thomas; Krause, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Evolution strategies have more than 50 years of history in the field of evolutionary computation. Since the early 1990s, many algorithmic variations of evolution strategies have been developed, characterized by the fact that they use the so-called derandomization concept for strategy parameter adaptation. Most importantly, the covariance matrix adaptation strategy (CMA-ES) and its successors are the key representatives of this group of contemporary evolution strategies. This book provides an overview of the key algorithm developments between 1990 and 2012, including brief descriptions of the a

  4. Strategy as a Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obed Madsen, Søren

    and organizations. In this paper, the virus theory is used to analyze a strategy process in an organization as an example of a technology. It shows how the strategy over time creates a memory loss, where the managers who are exposed to the virus forget their critique of the new strategy concept. The article also...... shows how resistant can be understood as being immune to a virus, since the strategy concepts bears resemblance to a former strategy concept. The article also argues that there should be more focus on the negative impacts of management tool and especially how organizations and managers are dealing...

  5. Strategies in PRholog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besik Dundua

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available PRholog is an experimental extension of logic programming with strategic conditional transformation rules, combining Prolog with Rholog calculus. The rules perform nondeterministic transformations on hedges. Queries may have several results that can be explored on backtracking. Strategies provide a control on rule applications in a declarative way. With strategy combinators, the user can construct more complex strategies from simpler ones. Matching with four different kinds of variables provides a flexible mechanism of selecting (subterms during execution. We give an overview on programming with strategies in PRholog and demonstrate how rewriting strategies can be expressed.

  6. Implications for local and global climate of alternative forest management strategies in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Ryan M.; Antón-Fernández, Clara; Astrup, Rasmus; Cherubini, Francesco; Kvalevåg, Maria; Hammer Strømman, Anders

    2014-05-01

    We applied a mix of observation and empirical models to evaluate both local and global climate effects of three realistic alternative forest management scenarios in the boreal forests of Norway's largest logging region. The alternative management scenarios embraced strategies aimed at increasing harvest intensities and allowing harvested conifer sites to regenerate naturally with broadleaved species. Stand-level analysis was firstly executed to attribute differences in daily, seasonal, and annual mean surface temperatures to differences in surface intrinsic biophysical properties across coniferous, deciduous, and clear-cut sites. Relative to a coniferous site, we observed a slight local cooling of 0.13 °C at a deciduous site and 0.25 °C at a clear-cut site over a 6-year period which was mostly attributed to a higher albedo throughout the year. When monthly mean albedo trajectories over the entire managed forest landscape were taken into consideration, we found that strategies promoting natural regeneration of coniferous sites with native deciduous species led to substantial global direct climate cooling benefits relative to those maintaining current silviculture regimes - despite predicted long-term regional warming feedbacks and a reduced albedo in spring and autumn months. The magnitude and duration of the cooling benefit depended largely on whether management strategies simultaneously promoted an enhanced material supply over business-as-usual levels. While additional climate impact linked to changes in life-cycle emissions and to changes in the global supply and demand of timber products ought to be factored into any mitigation-oriented climate policy involving the forestry sector, our analysis demonstrates that - within the boundaries of the managed forest ecosystem - excluding important biogeophysical considerations like surface albedo change may lead to sub-optimal climate policy.

  7. Strategy as Texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obed Madsen, Søren

    of the strategy into four categories. Second, the managers produce new texts based on the original strategy document by using four different ways of translation models. The study’s findings contribute to three areas. Firstly, it shows that translation is more than a sociological process. It is also......This article shows empirically how managers translate a strategy plan at an individual level. By analysing how managers in three organizations translate strategies, it identifies that the translation happens in two steps: First, the managers decipher the strategy by coding the different parts...... a craftsmanship that requires knowledge and skills, which unfortunately seems to be overlooked in both the literature and in practice. Secondly, it shows that even though a strategy text is in singular, the translation makes strategy plural. Thirdly, the article proposes a way to open up the black box of what...

  8. Nonadherence with antipsychotic medication in schizophrenia: challenges and management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haddad PM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Peter M Haddad,1,2 Cecilia Brain,3,4 Jan Scott5,6 1Neuroscience and Psychiatry Unit, University of Manchester, Manchester, 2Greater Manchester West Mental Health NHS Foundation Trust, Salford, UK; 3Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, 4Nå Ut-teamet, Psychosis Clinic, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden; 5Academic Psychiatry, Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle University, 6Centre for Affective Disorders, Institute of Psychiatry, London, UK Abstract: Nonadherence with medication occurs in all chronic medical disorders. It is a particular challenge in schizophrenia due to the illness's association with social isolation, stigma, and comorbid substance misuse, plus the effect of symptom domains on adherence, including positive and negative symptoms, lack of insight, depression, and cognitive impairment. Nonadherence lies on a spectrum, is often covert, and is underestimated by clinicians, but affects more than one third of patients with schizophrenia per annum. It increases the risk of relapse, rehospitalization, and self-harm, increases inpatient costs, and lowers quality of life. It results from multiple patient, clinician, illness, medication, and service factors, but a useful distinction is between intentional and unintentional nonadherence. There is no gold standard approach to the measurement of adherence as all methods have pros and cons. Interventions to improve adherence include psychoeducation and other psychosocial interventions, antipsychotic long-acting injections, electronic reminders, service-based interventions, and financial incentives. These overlap, all have some evidence of effectiveness, and the intervention adopted should be tailored to the individual. Psychosocial interventions that utilize combined approaches seem more effective than unidimensional approaches. There is increasing interest in electronic reminders

  9. Strategy as Performative Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornberger, Martin; Clegg, Stewart

    2011-01-01

    (traditionally the domain of science) and values (the realm of politics); third, and consequently, that strategy is a sociopolitical practice that aims at mobilizing people, marshalling political will and legitimizing decisions. The article concludes with reflections on five practical implications of the study.......This article focuses on the relation between strategy-as-practice and its power effects in the context of a strategy project (Sustainable Sydney 2030) undertaken by the City of Sydney. The following three interrelated questions guided the enquiry: How is strategy practised? What knowledge...... is it based upon? And what are its power effects? Based on a detailed empirical analysis of the strategy-making process, the article charts how strategy rendered the city knowable and how performative effects of strategizing mobilized the public and legitimized outcomes of the process while silencing other...

  10. Interactive Strategy-Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    2015-01-01

    to failed communication and execution of the planned actions. However, effective strategy-making comprises both central reasoning from forward-looking planning considerations and decentralised responses to emerging events as interacting elements in a dynamic adaptive system. The interaction between......This article outlines an interactive strategy-making model that combines central reasoning with ongoing learning from decentralised responses. The management literature often presents strategy as implementing an optimal plan identified through rational analysis and ascribes potential shortcomings...

  11. PRICE AND PRICING STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Titus SUCIU

    2013-01-01

    In individual companies, price is one significant factor in achieving marketing success. In many purchase situations, price can be of great importance to customers. Marketers must establish pricing strategies that are compatible with the rest of the marketing mix. Management should decide whether to charge the same price to all similar buyers of identical quantities of a product (a one-price strategy) or to set different prices (a flexible price strategy). Many organizations, especially retai...

  12. The Hotel Pricing Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Cibulková, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this thesis is an analysis of pricing strategy of Hotel Imperial and its evaluation, which should results in proposal of changes leading to increase of effectivity and hotel's income. The diploma thesis is divided into four main parts. The first two chapters are devoted to a theoretical description of pricing strategy and distribution channels used in hotel business. The third part is focused on the analysis of hotel itself and its pricing strategy. The final chapter summa...

  13. Analytical strategies for phosphoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingholm, Tine E; Jensen, Ole N; Larsen, Martin R

    2009-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is a key regulator of cellular signaling pathways. It is involved in most cellular events in which the complex interplay between protein kinases and protein phosphatases strictly controls biological processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Defective...... sensitive and specific strategies. Today, most phosphoproteomic studies are conducted by mass spectrometric strategies in combination with phospho-specific enrichment methods. This review presents an overview of different analytical strategies for the characterization of phosphoproteins. Emphasis...

  14. Morocco Integration Strategy Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Smuni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article justifies the necessity of Morocco integration strategy improvement with regard to the «Arab Spring» consequences and the global financial crisis, gives general recommendations for the development of the integration strategy in order to improve the efficiency of participation in the processes of international integration, detects cooperation lines with the European Union and the Arab Maghreb Union in coordination of these integration strategy directions

  15. from strategy formulation to strategy formation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gerhard Louw;Abel Esterhuyse

    “Good strategy presumes good anthropology and sociology. Some of the greatest military blunders of all time have resulted from juvenile evaluations in this department.”1. Abstract. By 2013, sufficient evidence had become publicly available to confirm what defence analysts had been suspecting for a while now: the military ...

  16. Strategy and New Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plesner, Ursula; Gulbrandsen, Ib Tunby

    2015-01-01

    assumptions in strategy about control, boundaries and choice. To understand their constitutive effects and the implications for strategy-making, it is necessary to develop a research agenda oriented towards understanding technological affordances – but not only in local practices. Due to vital characteristics......Despite current attention to the materiality of organizations and the performative role of tools, devices, artefacts and objects in processes of strategy-making, the impact of new media has not been thoroughly conceptualized in the strategy literature. We argue that new media challenge core...

  17. Evolutionary Stable Strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    After Maynard-Smith and Price [1] mathematically derived why a given behaviour or strategy was adopted by a certain proportion of the population at a given time, it was shown that a strategy which is currently stable in a population need not be stable in evolutionary time (across generations). Additionally it was sug-.

  18. Value oriented marketing strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Ljiljana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of business environment imposes the need for continuous change and reexamination of business marketing strategies of enterprises. Theory and practice of strategic management and marketing show that the activities of marketing, which are closely connected to corporate strategy, are the key drivers of growth. There is a positive correlation between competition intensity, marketing strategy and business performance of companies. Even though, managers of many companies don't see a clear connection between marketing strategy and business performance, numerous empirical research show that the companies which possess and efficiently use marketing resources and capabilities are more successful. In knowledge-based economics, the development of value oriented marketing strategies for all participants in the chain is a supposition of the survival, growth and development of companies. Competitive advantage is the essence of any strategy. Acquisition and maintenance of competitive advantage is more successful if the potentials for value creation are used efficiently. The paper examines the critical factors that influence alignment and transformation of marketing strategies in accordance with changes in value estimation. Superior value, is created in different network classes. Theory and practice researches create a reliable basis for the development of new concepts, marketing strategy business models that will contribute to competitive advantage of enterprises and the economy.

  19. Green product innovation strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, P.H.

    2005-01-01

    Over the last decades, companies have started to incorporate green issues in product innovation strategies. This dissertation studies green product innovation strategy, its antecedents and its outcomes. A three-stage approach is followed. In the first stage, the topic is explored and a preliminary

  20. Polish households’ saving strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Anioła

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of households’ saving strategies types classification. A cluster analysis method, based on households’ saving portfolio, was used for classification. Six types of strategies were distinguished: low risk, conservative, very passive, very conservative, diversification and aggressive.

  1. Introduction: Experimental Green Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Terri

    2011-01-01

    Defining new ways in which archietcts are responding to the challenge of creating sustainable architecture , Experimental Green Strategies present a state of the art in applied ecological architectural research.......Defining new ways in which archietcts are responding to the challenge of creating sustainable architecture , Experimental Green Strategies present a state of the art in applied ecological architectural research....

  2. Homeschooling Teaching Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Brian D.

    2000-01-01

    This article defines and describes teaching strategies used in homeschooling. It reviews several research and other literature sources from the homeschool community. It finds four themes from relevant research that inform the practices and seven major strategies used in the home-based education. Recommendations are made to parents who choose…

  3. Entrepreneurial Barriers to Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Jørgen Ravn

    2013-01-01

    En begrænsende faktor for strategisk ledelse er ofte iværksætterens uddannelse og erfaring, som efter en del forskningsbidrag synes at både fremme og hæmme bestemte strategie. Desuden kan der i hierarkier være en tendens til at opretholde de strategier, som blev dannet ved stiftelsen. Organisator...

  4. Fringe Mind Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleutels, J.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses a number of basic strategies for modeling the mind in historical perspective. The best-known strategies are expansionism and eliminativism, which are both problematic: eliminativism compromises our self-understanding, while expansionism is unable to cope with fringe minds. Using

  5. Cooperative strategies European perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Killing, J Peter

    1997-01-01

    Cooperative Strategies: European Perspectives is one of three geographically targeted volumes in which the contributors present the most current research on topics such as advances in theories of cooperative strategies, the formation of cooperative alliances, the dynamics of partner relationships, and the role of information and knowledge in cooperative alliances. Blending conceptual insights with empirical analyses, the contributors highlight commonalities and differences across national, cultural, and trade zones. The chapters in this volume are anchored in a wide set of theoretical approaches, conceptual frameworks, and models, illustrating how rich the area of cooperative strategies is for scholarly inquiry.

  6. The relationship between Business Strategy, IT Strategy and Alignment Capability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drs. A.J.G. Silvius

    2009-01-01

    Aligning business and IT strategy is a prominent area of concern. Organizations that successfully align their business strategy and their IT strategy, outperform their non-aligned peers (Chan et al., 1997). This chapter explores the relationship between business strategy, IT strategy and alignment

  7. A New Distribution Strategy : The Omnichannel Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Gabriela Belu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In an increasingly globalized world, dependent on information technology, distribution companies are searching for new marketing models meant to enrich the consumer’s experience. Therefore, the evolution of new technologies, the changes in the consumer’s behaviour are the main factors that determine changes in the business model in the distribution field. The following article presents different forms of distribution, focusing on the omnichannel strategy. In the last part of the paper, the authors analyse the Romanian retail market, namely, the evolution of the market, its key competitors and the new distribution models adopted by retaileres in our country.

  8. INTEGRATED CORPORATE STRATEGY MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CATALINA SORIANA SITNIKOV

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Corporations are at present operating in demanding and highly unsure periods, facing a mixture of increased macroeconomic need, competitive and capital market dangers, and in many cases, the prospect for significant technical and regulative gap. Throughout these demanding and highly unsure times, the corporations must pay particular attention to corporate strategy. In present times, corporate strategy must be perceived and used as a function of various fields, covers, and characters as well as a highly interactive system. For the corporation's strategy to become a competitive advantage is necessary to understand and also to integrate it in a holistic model to ensure sustainable progress of corporation activities under the optimum conditions of profitability. The model proposed in this paper is aimed at integrating the two strategic models, Hoshin Kanri and Integrated Strategy Model, as well as their consolidation with the principles of sound corporate governance set out by the OECD.

  9. E-commerce strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, Zheng; Li, Shundong; Li, Fengxiang

    2014-01-01

    This book helps deepen understanding of key e-commerce strategies. It brings together theoretical perspectives based on academic research, integrated use of technologies and a large amount of cases, especially those of China.

  10. Teaching learning strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Chugunova, N.

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes instructional approaches focused on teaching. The paper discusses four learning strategies: rehearsal, elaboration, organization, and monitoring. Because it makes learning a collective experience, the reciprocal teaching method encourages students to become a community of learners

  11. CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT STRATEGY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    CHIOSA ANA RALUCA

    2012-01-01

    .... Celebrity endorsement has become one of the communication strategies used in marketing to buildcongruence between brand image and consumers. Famous persons exert their influence on consumer throughperceived attributes such as expertise, trustworthiness, attractiveness, familiarty and likeability.

  12. Forces in strategy formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensen, Elmer Fly; Sanchez, Ron

    2008-01-01

    literature. Based on an extensive review of relevant theory and empirical work in strategic decision-making, organizational change theory, cognitive and social psychology, and strategy processes, seven kinds of ''forces'' - rational, imposed, teleological, learning, political, heuristic, and social......This chapter proposes that organizational strategy formation should be characterized theoretically as a process that is subject to several interacting forces, rather than represented by separate discrete decisionmodels or theoretic perspectives, as is commonly done in the strategic management...... - are identified as interacting in and having significant influence on the strategy formation process. It is further argued that by applying a holistic ''forces-view'' of the significant and interacting influences on strategy formation, we can better understand the dynamics and challenges in managing the process...

  13. Consolidating Social Media Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Munar, Ana Maria; Larson, Mia

    2014-01-01

    Gyimóthy & Larson (2014) portrayed three digital value co-creation strategies deployed by festival social media. Both frameworks provided novel analytical typologies which identified a series of categories (mimetic, analytic, immersion, advertising and insourcing, crowdsourcing and community consolidation......This study revisits and integrates the insights of recent studies on emergent social media strategies deployed by destination and event management organisations. In a comparative analysis Munar (2012) identified four generic approaches pursued by national tourism boards in the Nordic region, while......). This paper discusses the complementary nature of these conceptual proposals and advances an integrated conceptual framework of social media strategies. Based on the empirical findings of a case study that revisits evolving digital and social media strategies of European DMOs this paper maps the dynamics...

  14. Management strategies for fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Marshall, Kim Francis; Littlejohn, Geoffrey Owen

    2011-01-01

    What are the effective, evidence-based strategies available for the management of fibromyalgia? There are a number of management strategies available with robust evidence to support their use in clinical practice. Fibromyalgia is a complex pain syndrome characterized by widespread, chronic muscular pain and tenderness, disordered sleep, emotional distress, cognitive disturbance, and fatigue. Its prevalence is estimated to be 3%-5% in the population and higher yet in patients with comorbid rheumatic diseases. Systematic reviews, meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials (RCTs). PubMed, Cochrane Library, manual search. Key messages for patients and clinicians are: There are many effective pharmacological management strategies available for fibromyalgia.A nonpharmacological, multicomponent approach utilizing education, aerobic exercise, psychological therapy, and other strategies is also effective for fibromyalgia.Despite the significant and, at times, disabling physical and psychological symptoms, fibromyalgia can be a manageable condition with a potentially good outcome.

  15. Language teaching strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdanchick, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes some strategies of teaching English language. Special attention was paid to adult learning, writing problem and some others. The aim of the paper is to show advantages of intensive learning of English language

  16. Compositional Advantage and Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    In this paper, I first critique the composition-based view of Yadong Luo and John Child for understanding how resource-poor firms survive and thrive. To remedy the deficiencies in their perspective, I then propose a dynamic theory of compositional advantage and strategy. Here, the compositional...... advantage is redefined as the attractiveness of the composition of the producer’s offering in terms of scope and perceived value/price ratio. I identify five ways or basic compositional strategies to improve the value/price ratio. A firm may have an overall compositional strategy that is composed of some...... or all of the five basic compositional strategies. I argue there are three indispensable key success factors for a composition-based competition, i.e., aspiration (ambition-position asymmetry), attitude (being ALERT), and action (turning asymmetry into advantage). I also discuss the particular relevance...

  17. Wildfire Prevention Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Wildlife Coordinating Group, Boise, ID.

    This document provides information and guidance on wildfire prevention strategies. Chapters include: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "How to Use this Guide"; (3) "Fire Cause Classification"; (4) "Relative Effectiveness"; (5) "Degree of Difficulty"; (6) "Intervention Techniques"; (7)…

  18. Enacting Governance through Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandtner, Christof; Höllerer, Markus A.; Meyer, Renate E.

    2017-01-01

    of strategy documents in city administration addresses these challenges. Our central claim is that strategy documents can be understood as a distinct discursive device through which local governments enact aspired governance configurations. We illustrate our argument empirically using two prominent examples...... that, while showing similar features and characteristics, are anchored in different administrative traditions and institutional frameworks: the city administrations of Sydney, Australia, and Vienna, Austria. The contribution of the paper is to show how strategy documents enact governance configurations...... along four core dimensions: the setting in space and time, the definition of the public, the framing of the res publica and legitimacy issues. Moreover, our comparative analysis of Sydney and Vienna gives evidence of differences in governance configurations enacted through strategy documents....

  19. Behavioural strategy: Adaptability context

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katarzyna Piórkowska

    2016-01-01

    The paper is embedded in the following fields: strategic management in terms of behavioural strategy concept, adaptability construct, and micro-foundations realm as well as organizational theory and psychology...

  20. Strategy as Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Pedersen, Carsten; Ritter, Thomas; Andersen, Torben Juul

    This paper proposes the adoption of a project-based view to analyze strategy formation and strategic renewal over time. Projects are resource-committing, empirically-tracable investments, and as such, particularly suitable for the analysis of different manifestations of intended strategies as well...... as post-hoc manifestations of deviant, even rebellious, actions taken in opposition to the initial strategy announcement. The paper presents an analytical framework (a 5x2 matrix) of ten different project categories that together allows researchers to investigate how strategic renewal is realized through...... the enactment of different types of project initiatives throughout the organization. The developed framework is validated by two field studies that outline the robustness of the proposed matrix. In addition to the demonstration of the advantages of the framework, we discuss the limitations of the strategy-as-projects...

  1. POSITIONING STRATEGIES DEVELOPMENT

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shakhshir Ghassan;

    2014-01-01

    The positioning strategy has suffered serious changes in the last few decades, being influenced by the rapid development of competition and the growing focus on specific traits belonging to the market...

  2. Processuel strategi i organisationer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gylling, Martin

    2014-01-01

    approach. This concerns constructivist and objective thinking which, according to critical voices in organizationstudies, has difficulties explaining how strategic organisation creation gains a processual character. This is the critique that comes from the more poststructuralist positions in research...... on process theory and strategy, which in these years aims to move focus away from the dominance of designed strategy. I.e. an approach to practice understood as methodological individualism and pragmatic rationality (Chia & Holt 2009; Steyaert 2007; Stacey 2011; Hjorth 2012). Through recent poststructuralist...... currents in the field of processual strategy thinking and organisational entrepreneurship, for example Chia & Holt’s creation philosophical research in strategy without design and Steyaert’s (2007) thinking on the concept of entrepreneuring; the process theoretical thinking of entrepreneurship...

  3. SPORT PROMOTION STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Lucian MIHAI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In sport marketing, the word promotion covers a range of interrelated activities. All of these activities are designed to attract attention, stimulate the interest and awareness of consumers, and of course, encourage them to purchase a sport product. Promotion is about communicating with and educating consumers. The purpose of a sport promotional strategy is to build brand loyalty and product credibility, develop image, and position the brand. A promotional strategy is similar to a marketing strategy, but the promotional strategy seeks short-term objectives, both direct and indirect. Promotional objectives usually include increased sales, stimulate impulse buying, raise customer traffic, and present and reinforce image. It also provides information about products and services, publicizes new stores or websites, and creates and enhances customer satisfaction.

  4. Compositional Advantage and Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    or all of the five basic compositional strategies. I argue there are three indispensable key success factors for a composition-based competition, i.e., aspiration (ambition-position asymmetry), attitude (being ALERT), and action (turning asymmetry into advantage). I also discuss the particular relevance......In this paper, I first critique the composition-based view of Yadong Luo and John Child for understanding how resource-poor firms survive and thrive. To remedy the deficiencies in their perspective, I then propose a dynamic theory of compositional advantage and strategy. Here, the compositional...... advantage is redefined as the attractiveness of the composition of the producer’s offering in terms of scope and perceived value/price ratio. I identify five ways or basic compositional strategies to improve the value/price ratio. A firm may have an overall compositional strategy that is composed of some...

  5. Qualitative Data Analysis Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Greaves, Kristoffer

    2014-01-01

    A set of concept maps for qualitative data analysis strategies, inspired by Corbin, JM & Strauss, AL 2008, Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory, 3rd edn, Sage Publications, Inc, Thousand Oaks, California.

  6. Prodrug Strategies for Paclitaxel

    OpenAIRE

    Ziyuan Meng; Quanxia Lv; Jun Lu; Houzong Yao; Xiaoqing Lv; Feng Jiang; Aiping Lu; Ge Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Paclitaxel is an anti-tumor agent with remarkable anti-tumor activity and wide clinical uses. However, it is also faced with various challenges especially for its poor water solubility and low selectivity for the target. To overcome these disadvantages of paclitaxel, approaches using small molecule modifications and macromolecule modifications have been developed by many research groups from all over the world. In this review, we discuss the different strategies especially prodrug strategies ...

  7. Strategies to prevent loneliness

    OpenAIRE

    de Jong Gierveld, J.; Fokkema, T.; Sha'ked, A.; Rokach, A

    2015-01-01

    ‘Prevention is better than cure’. This also applies to loneliness experiences: preventing people from loneliness is better than helping them to reduce their feelings of loneliness through interventions. In this chapter, we argue the necessity of loneliness prevention strategies for handling future life events that might trigger the onset of loneliness. More particularly we opt for the coping strategy characterized as ‘improving one’s social convoy’ by investing time and energy in the quantity...

  8. Multimodal Strategies of Theorization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cartel, Melodie; Colombero, Sylvain; Boxenbaum, Eva

    This paper examines the role of multimodal strategies in processes of theorization. Empirically, we investigate the theorization process of a highly disruptive innovation in the history of architecture: reinforced concrete. Relying on archival data from a dominant French architectural journal from...... 1885 to 1939, we studied how this new material became legitimized for the construction of buildings. Our early coding revealed three multimodal strategies associated with theorization: emotional, narrative, and lexical. Our intention when developing the full paper is to articulate these findings...

  9. Cloud computing strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Chorafas, Dimitris N

    2011-01-01

    A guide to managing cloud projects, Cloud Computing Strategies provides the understanding required to evaluate the technology and determine how it can be best applied to improve business and enhance your overall corporate strategy. Based on extensive research, it examines the opportunities and challenges that loom in the cloud. It explains exactly what cloud computing is, what it has to offer, and calls attention to the important issues management needs to consider before passing the point of no return regarding financial commitments.

  10. Strategi Pembelajaran Menyimak

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid, Abdul Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Listening competence is a kind of language competence and it is receptive in essence. Listening competence was firstly recognized officially as a main subject in foreign language teaching in 1970 and was begun by the birth of the theory of Total PsysicalResponse (TPS) of James Asher, The Natural Approach, and Silent Period. Learning strategy is an art of designing all learning activities in the classroom. Language learning strategy is teacher's activities concerning his/her lesson plan; and l...

  11. Social Media Cocreation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Larson, Mia

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores how social media becomes a part of integrated marketing communications of festival organizations. The purpose of this paper is to conceptualize the co-creation of festival experiences online by comparing managerial strategies and communicative patterns of three large....... Based on the empirical findings, we propose an analytical framework to improve our understanding of the management of social media communications, offering three distinct value co-creation strategies in a festival context....

  12. Creative teaching strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvin, S M

    1996-01-01

    Today's nursing students feel pressured to complete research-based professional papers. Reasons that these assignments cause feelings of anxiety may be due to learners' poor writing/thinking skills, low literacy levels, lack of attention when traditional strategies are used, or expectations of entertaining teaching methods. Creative teaching strategies, using a story-telling and personification approach, may assist nurse educators to improve students' attention, retention and comprehension of primary concepts in their nursing courses.

  13. Management strategies for fibromyalgia

    OpenAIRE

    Le Marshall, Kim Francis; Littlejohn, Geoffrey Owen

    2011-01-01

    Kim Francis Le Marshall, Geoffrey Owen LittlejohnDepartments of Rheumatology and Medicine, Monash Medical Centre and Monash University, Victoria, AustraliaDate of preparation: 14 June 2011Clinical question: What are the effective, evidence-based strategies available for the management of fibromyalgia?Conclusion: There are a number of management strategies available with robust evidence to support their use in clinical practice.Definition: Fibromyalgia is a complex pain syndrome characterized ...

  14. Resources, Technology, and Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Resources, Technology and Strategy brings together contributors from Europe, North America and Asia to consider the strategic relationship between technology and other resources, such as production capabilities, marketing prowess, finance and organisational culture. Throughout the book, these exp......Resources, Technology and Strategy brings together contributors from Europe, North America and Asia to consider the strategic relationship between technology and other resources, such as production capabilities, marketing prowess, finance and organisational culture. Throughout the book...

  15. Improving cardiovascular prevention in general practice: Results of a comprehensive personalized strategy in subjects at high risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avanzini, Fausto; Marzona, Irene; Baviera, Marta; Barlera, Simona; Milani, Valentina; Caimi, Vittorio; Longoni, Paolo; Tombesi, Massimo; Silletta, Maria G; Tognoni, Gianni; Roncaglioni, Maria Carla

    2016-06-01

    Although high cardiovascular risk patients should be the main target of preventive strategies, modifiable risk factors are often inadequately controlled. To assess feasibility and results of a comprehensive personalized method for cardiovascular prevention in high risk patients followed by their general practitioner. Between 2004 and 2007, 12,513 patients (mean age 64.0 ± 9.5 years; 61.5% males) with multiple cardiovascular risk factors or history of atherosclerotic disease were identified and followed for five years. If control of major modifiable cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, diabetes, obesity, smoking, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity) was sub-optimal, at baseline and yearly thereafter general practitioners planned with patients, with the help of a brief checklist, preventive interventions to improve the global risk profile. Main outcome was the control of the seven major modifiable cardiovascular risk factors during follow-up. Secondary outcome was the incidence of cardiovascular deaths and hospitalization for cardiovascular reasons according to the improvement in global cardiovascular risk profile during the first year. Control of all major modifiable risk factors except physical inactivity improved gradually and significantly (p practice. The improvement in the global cardiovascular risk profile was associated with a better prognosis. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  16. Social strategies that work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskorski, Mikołaj Jan

    2011-11-01

    Although most companies have collected lots of friends and followers on social platforms such as Facebook, few have succeeded in generating profits there. That's because they merely port their digital strategies into social environments by broadcasting their commercial messages or seeking customer feedback. To succeed on social platforms, says Harvard Business School's Piskorski, businesses need to devise social strategies that are consistent with users' expectations and behavior in these venues--namely, people want to connect with other people, not with companies. The author defines successful social strategies as those that reduce costs or increase customers' willingness to pay by helping people establish or strengthen relationships through doing free work on a company's behalf. Citing successes at Zynga, eBay, American Express, and Yelp, Piskorski shows that social strategies can generate profits by helping people connect in exchange for tasks that benefit the company such as customer acquisition, marketing, and content creation. He lays out a systematic way to build a social strategy and shows how a major credit card company he advised used the method to roll out its own strategy.

  17. Strategy, Strategy Making, and Performance---An Empirical Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Eli Segev

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of the relationships between strategic type and strategy-making mode on organizational performance. Two important typologies were used in this study, one stressing strategic type, the other, strategy-making mode. Hypotheses were stated on strategy "fit" of specific strategy type with strategy-making modes, where strategic fit contributes to organizational performance. As part of a larger study of strategy formulation, the two top executives in ...

  18. Strategy as revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, G

    1996-01-01

    How often does the strategic-planning process start with senior executives asking what the rest of the organization can teach them about the future? Not often enough, argues Gary Hamel. In many companies, strategy making is an elitist procedure and ¿strategy¿ consists of nothing more than following the industry's rules. But more and more companies, intent on overturning the industrial order, are rewriting those rules. What can industry incumbents do? Either surrender the future to revolutionary challengers or revolutionize the way their companies create strategy. What is needed is not a tweak to the traditional strategic-planning process, Hamel says, but a new philosophical foundation: strategy is revolution. Hamel offers ten principles to help a company think about the challenge of creating truly revolutionary strategies. Perhaps the most fundamental principle is that so-called strategic planning doesn't produce true strategic innovation. The traditional planning process is little more than a rote procedure in which deeply held assumptions and industry conventions are reinforced rather than challenged. Such a process harnesses only a tiny proportion of an organization's creative potential. If there is to be any hope of industry revolution, senior managers must give up their monopoly on the creation of strategy. They must embrace a truly democratic process that can give voice to the revolutionaries that exist in every company. If senior managers are unwilling to do this, employees must become strategy activists. The opportunities for industry revolution are mostly unexplored. One thing is certain: if you don't let the revolutionaries challenge you from within, they will eventually challenge you from without--in the marketplace.

  19. The evolution of the Behavioural Approach System (BAS) : Cooperative and competitive resource acquisition strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krupić, D.; Gracanin, A.

    2016-01-01

    The nature of approach motivation has not yet been adequately defined. Some authors view it as a unidimensional construct, while others consider it to be multidimensional. Its psychometric nature is explored in this study, which tests empirically the motivational account of the Behavioural Approach

  20. Comprehensive national energy strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This Comprehensive National Energy Strategy sets forth a set of five common sense goals for national energy policy: (1) improve the efficiency of the energy system, (2) ensure against energy disruptions, (3) promote energy production and use in ways that respect health and environmental values, (4) expand future energy choices, and (5) cooperate internationally on global issues. These goals are further elaborated by a series of objectives and strategies to illustrate how the goals will be achieved. Taken together, the goals, objectives, and strategies form a blueprint for the specific programs, projects, initiatives, investments, and other actions that will be developed and undertaken by the Federal Government, with significant emphasis on the importance of the scientific and technological advancements that will allow implementation of this Comprehensive National Energy Strategy. Moreover, the statutory requirement of regular submissions of national energy policy plans ensures that this framework can be modified to reflect evolving conditions, such as better knowledge of our surroundings, changes in energy markets, and advances in technology. This Strategy, then, should be thought of as a living document. Finally, this plan benefited from the comments and suggestions of numerous individuals and organizations, both inside and outside of government. The Summary of Public Comments, located at the end of this document, describes the public participation process and summarizes the comments that were received. 8 figs.

  1. APL: a corporate strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J; Nyatanga, L; Ringer, C; Greaves, J

    1992-06-01

    This paper is based on, and summarises, papers read at the second annual international conference of Nurse Education Tomorrow held at the University of Durham (UK) September 1991. To this end this paper will offer: Some Accreditation of Prior Learning (APL) definition and process as reflected in the literature available. A distinction will be made between APL and Accreditation of Prior Experiential Learning (APEL) although the procedures and processes for assessing them will be shown to be the same. A brief outline of corporate strategy, as it applies to APL, will be given to form the basis for logical demonstration of how Derbyshire Institute of Health and Community Studies has employed such a corporate strategy. Insights developed and gained from APL research currently being undertaken through the college of nursing and midwifery will be used to inform the development and nature of corporate strategy. A flowchart of the operationalisation of the corporate strategy is offered as an integrative summary of how all the APL ideas have had a positive cumulative effect. The paper finishes by highlighting the possible strengths and limitations of APL corporate strategy.

  2. Fault Management Design Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, John C.; Johnson, Stephen B.

    2014-01-01

    Development of dependable systems relies on the ability of the system to determine and respond to off-nominal system behavior. Specification and development of these fault management capabilities must be done in a structured and principled manner to improve our understanding of these systems, and to make significant gains in dependability (safety, reliability and availability). Prior work has described a fundamental taxonomy and theory of System Health Management (SHM), and of its operational subset, Fault Management (FM). This conceptual foundation provides a basis to develop framework to design and implement FM design strategies that protect mission objectives and account for system design limitations. Selection of an SHM strategy has implications for the functions required to perform the strategy, and it places constraints on the set of possible design solutions. The framework developed in this paper provides a rigorous and principled approach to classifying SHM strategies, as well as methods for determination and implementation of SHM strategies. An illustrative example is used to describe the application of the framework and the resulting benefits to system and FM design and dependability.

  3. Human capital strategy: talent management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nagra, Michael

    2011-01-01

    .... This article elaborates the human capital management strategy within the Army Nurse Corps, which identifies, develops, and implements key talent management strategies under the umbrella of the Corps...

  4. A strategy model for management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ole Uhrskov; Holmgren, Jens; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Developing a strategy model which explains what organisations should focus on in their strategy work, both in terms of the environment as well as how the strategy is implemented. In addition, the purpose is to demonstrate how this can influence and improve the organisations’ performance....... Methodology: Using different state-of-the-art strategy approaches to create and validate a solid and causal strategy model. Findings: The nature of strategy is complex, and organisations are indeed facing more complex tasks which require that internal resources are available to meet the environmental demands......, develop an effective strategy for today and tomorrow, implement the strategy and execute the action plans....

  5. The power of strategy expertise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    , languages, metaphors, etc., however, research has only to a very limited extent been studying how strategy expertise is being received and reproduced in strategic practices. This paper contributes to the research engaged in exploring the power of strategy expertise. This paper unfolds a conception......This paper explores the power of strategy expertise in strategy making. Strategy has become central and ubiquitous in management within the last decades. Recently, research has started to explore how the power of strategy expertise unfolds in strategy making, for instance through specific logics...... of strategy expertise that stresses its innovative and critical capacity as well as its structural constraints....

  6. CO2-strategier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2008-01-01

    I 2007 henvendte Lyngby-Taarbæk kommunens Agenda 21 koordinator sig til Videnskabsbutikken og spurgte om der var interesse for at samarbejde om CO2-strategier. Da Videnskabsbutikken DTU er en åben dør til DTU for borgerne og deres organisationer, foreslog Videnskabsbutikken DTU at Danmarks...... Naturfredningsforening’s lokalkomité for Lyngby blev en del af samarbejdet for at få borgerne i kommunen involveret i arbejdet med at udvikle strategier for reduktion af CO2. Siden sommeren 2007 har Videnskabsbutikken DTU, Lyngby-Taarbæk kommune og Danmarks Naturfredningsforening i Lyngby-Taarbæk samarbejdet om analyse...... og innovation i forhold til CO2-strategier....

  7. Teaching Writing Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaououi,Merbouh

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Developing learners’ writing skills has been of concern for a long time in education. Students studying English in our educational institutions have been found to face problems mainly in writing, making them unable to cope with the institution’s literacy expectations. However, these students may be able to develop writing skills significantly with positive instructional attitudes towards the errors they make and awareness on the teachers’ part of learner problems. That is why they should improve classroom writing instruction to address the serious problem of students writing difficult. Teaching strategies has shown a dramatic effect on the quality of students’ writing. Strategy instruction involves explicitly and systematically teaching steps necessary to use strategies independently. The following table will explain the above ideas.

  8. Operations Strategy in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Niels Gorm; Koch, Christian; Boer, Harry

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we describe and illustrate a new, action-based longitudinal case study approach, which aims at helping scholars narrow the gap between the theory and practice of Operations Strategy (OS). First, we elaborate on the need for new research methods for studying OS in practice. Then, we...... present the two research strategies underpinning the approach proposed here: action research and longitudinal case study. Next, we illustrate the use of the method and exemplify it using a recent study of OS in practice. Then, based on this experience we present and discuss the advantages...... and disadvantages of the method. Finally, we draw conclusions on its potential for operations strategy and operations management studies....

  9. Assessment of strategy formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acur, Nuran; Englyst, Linda

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – Today, industrial firms need to cope with competitive challenges related to innovation, dynamic responses, knowledge sharing, etc. by means of effective and dynamic strategy formulation. In light of these challenges, the purpose of the paper is to present and evaluate an assessment tool...... for strategy formulation processes that ensures high quality in process and outcome. Design/methodology/approach – A literature review was conducted to identify success criteria for strategy formulation processes. Then, a simple questionnaire and assessment tool was developed and used to test the validity...... of the success criteria through face-to-face interviews with 46 managers, workshops involving 40 managers, and two in-depth case studies. The success criteria have been slightly modified due to the empirical results, to yield the assessment tool. Findings – The resulting assessment tool integrates three generic...

  10. Corporate Climate Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnø, Ole-Christian; Maltha, Jonas

    2003-01-01

    Since the 1997 Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change outlined the first embryonic plans for an emissions market, a significant uncertainty about the value on carbon, in concert with a swift development in energy business, has brought about the concept of carbon management. Carbon management aims...... strategic carbon management for medium to large companies with greenhouse gas intensive activities. The guideline framework is established on the basis of a generic strategy structure in which the factors influencing corporate climate strategies are identified. It is concluded that there is little rationale...... behind extracting of climate strategy from the Environmental Health and Safety (EHS) context - the truly innovative aspect is the construction of an operational multiple Green House Gas information system, which should 1) measure, monitor, aggregate, record, and disseminate emission data (e.g. through...

  11. Processuel strategi i organisationer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gylling, Martin

    2014-01-01

    approach. This concerns constructivist and objective thinking which, according to critical voices in organizationstudies, has difficulties explaining how strategic organisation creation gains a processual character. This is the critique that comes from the more poststructuralist positions in research...... currents in the field of processual strategy thinking and organisational entrepreneurship, for example Chia & Holt’s creation philosophical research in strategy without design and Steyaert’s (2007) thinking on the concept of entrepreneuring; the process theoretical thinking of entrepreneurship...... and innovation, the aim is to look beyond constructivist thinking of practice in order to understand processual dynamics in strategic work at the level of the organisation. In relation to this thinking the present thesis provides an empirically based discussion of processual strategy with an aim to contributing...

  12. Prodrug Strategies for Paclitaxel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyuan Meng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Paclitaxel is an anti-tumor agent with remarkable anti-tumor activity and wide clinical uses. However, it is also faced with various challenges especially for its poor water solubility and low selectivity for the target. To overcome these disadvantages of paclitaxel, approaches using small molecule modifications and macromolecule modifications have been developed by many research groups from all over the world. In this review, we discuss the different strategies especially prodrug strategies that are currently used to make paclitaxel more effective.

  13. When Strategy Ends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestenskov, David; Jørgensen, Lars Wille

    2014-01-01

    This chapter deals with the end of strategy, that is, conflict termination and how strategic achievements are measured and evaluated. It claims that the modern intervention of choice by NATO and its allies are transformation wars and challenges the concept of victory in such wars. Through...... a comparative analysis of the Soviet intervention in Afghanistan 1979-89 and the present NATO operation it demonstrates how evaluation and adaptation are indispensable tools for sound strategy development as the variables of legitimacy, position, and time are molded by the dynamics of strategic execution....

  14. Mobile Portal Implementation Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Ping; Damsgaard, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Mobile portal plays an important role in mobile commerce market. Current literature focuses on static analysis on the value chain of mobile portals. This article provides a dynamic perspective on mobile portal strategy. Drawing upon network economics, we describe mobile portal implementation...... as a fourphase process. In different phase, a portal provider has various challenges to overcome and adopt diverse strategies, and correspondingly the regulator has different foci. The conceptual framework proposed in this article offers a basis for further analyses on the market dynamics of mobile commerce......, and can be generalized to studying other networked technologies...

  15. Pure National Security Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Century. The concept came via Latin from Greek : stratēgēma, from stratēgein which means to ’be a general’ and from stratēgos, 11 which...of this tendency with von Clausetwitz. von Clausewitz is acutely aware of that war may take on a life on its own. He writes ―Its grammar indeed...takes on a grammar wholly consistent by military strategy, to use one of Clausewitz constructs. The study of the subject of strategy merits the

  16. Cooperative strategies in innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratner Svetlana Valerevna

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the knowledge economy one of the conventional ways to obtain economic agents access to new knowledge and technology is the creation and implementation of specific cooperative strategies, such as the formation of alliances with other economic agents. Combining competencies partners in joint research and development has a positive impact on innovation, but it is a partial convergence of competences partners that in the long term can lead to the unification of competences agents economic system and reduce their innovative activity. In this paper, we propose an effective method of information management in the implementation of a cooperative strategy of innovation.

  17. Strategy as Metatheory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan E. Singer

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Business strategy or strategic management is a subject that has comprised a major part of the curriculum in business schools around the World for at least 40 years. It is routinely described as “integrative,” yet has arguably remained somewhat limited in its scope and philosophy. The purpose of this paper is to expand the scope of strategic management accordingly (to include ethics for example but to do this in a way that arguably offers efficient insights to students and practitioners. The approach involves bringing together several formal metatheories while at the same time indicating how each of them can function as an integrative theory of strategy.

  18. Marketing Management and Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book gives readers an understanding of the factors that shape the marketing decisions of managers who operate in African economies. It brings together fifteen African cases written by scholars and executives with rich knowledge of business practices in Africa. By combining theoretical insights...... with practical information from the cases, the reader is introduced to issues relating to marketing strategy formulation, managerial actions in designing and implementing marketing decisions, as well as the operational contexts within which these actions are taken. The book is essential reading for both...... undergraduate and graduate students in marketing, international strategy and international business who require an understanding of African business...

  19. Dissemination Strategy Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Kjems, Jørgen; Farinetti, Laura

    This report describes the dissemination and exploitation strategy for project Virtual Campus Hub (EU FP7 contract RI-283746). The project duration is October 2011-13 and the dissemination and exploitation plan will be revised continuously during the project’s lifecycle.......This report describes the dissemination and exploitation strategy for project Virtual Campus Hub (EU FP7 contract RI-283746). The project duration is October 2011-13 and the dissemination and exploitation plan will be revised continuously during the project’s lifecycle....

  20. Effects of environmental factors on corporate strategy and performance of manufacturing industries in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachmad Hidayat

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine and obtain empirical evidence of the effects of external and internal environmental factors on the strategy and performance of manufacturing companies. Design/methodology/approach: This study used primary data obtained by distributing questionnaires to 150 respondents of manufacturing companies in Indonesia spreading over six major cities in Java such as Jakarta, Banten, Bandung, Yogyakarta, Semarang and Surabaya. Samples were taken by using the systematic random sampling technique. The technique was used since those major cities had different numbers of manufacturing companies. Subsequently, the feasibility of the model was tested. Several indices of model feasibility would be used to test the model developed in this structural equation model. In case of a sub-optimal model, a model modification was to be performed by adding or removing paths so that the chi-square values would decrease by the values of the index. Findings and Originality/value: Results showed that internal and external environmental factors, through the operating environments and the remote environments of manufacturing industries, jointly affected the companies’ understanding of the condition of the industrial environments to establish strategic goals in order to achieve optimal performance of manufacturing industry. Practical implications: The internal and external environmental factors through the operating and remote environments had effects on the strategy of manufacturing companies in Indonesia. However, both internal and external environments did not affect the performance of manufacturing companies in Indonesia. There was a tendency that manufacturing companies were to observe the occurring macro-economic conditions. Manufacturing industries were faced with the pressures from competition, customers and suppliers that affected companies’ revenue. Performance of manufacturing industries was more influenced by macro

  1. Ballet Balance Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Camilla; Erleben, Kenny; Sporring, Jon

    2006-01-01

    movements of a ballet dancers. It is supported by computer simulated experiments and it is in good agreement with biomechanical measurements of real-life dancers. Our results questions the previous approaches in dynamic animation, which only uses the center of gravity strategy, and instead demonstrate...

  2. Towards effective learning strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, Anouk Simone

    2015-01-01

    To become self-regulative in learning, students should be able to deploy various learning strategies in a flexible way. For this, they require specific knowledge and skills, referred to as metacognition. Metacognition is a complex concept that is difficult for teachers to teach to their students.

  3. Spying on Search Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenopir, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Only the most dedicated super-searchers are motivated to learn and control command systems, like DialogClassic, that rely on the user to input complex search strategies. Infrequent searchers and most end users choose interfaces that do some of the work for them and make the search process appear easy. However, the easier a good interface seems to…

  4. Revitalizing Strategy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitalone-Raccaro, Nancy A.

    2017-01-01

    The national focus on teacher accountability and the resulting emphasis on raising the bar for teacher evaluations challenge teachers of students with learning disabilities (LD) to rethink instructional design and delivery. In response to these challenges, this article introduces a two-part protocol for planning and teaching strategy instruction…

  5. NASA science communications strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    In 1994, the Clinton Administration issued a report, 'Science in the National Interest', which identified new national science goals. Two of the five goals are related to science communications: produce the finest scientists and engineers for the 21st century, and raise scientific and technological literacy of all Americans. In addition to the guidance and goals set forth by the Administration, NASA has been mandated by Congress under the 1958 Space Act to 'provide for the widest practicable and appropriate dissemination concerning its activities and the results thereof'. In addition to addressing eight Goals and Plans which resulted from a January 1994 meeting between NASA and members of the broader scientific, education, and communications community on the Public Communication of NASA's Science, the Science Communications Working Group (SCWG) took a comprehensive look at the way the Agency communicates its science to ensure that any changes the Agency made were long-term improvements. The SCWG developed a Science Communications Strategy for NASA and a plan to implement the Strategy. This report outlines a strategy from which effective science communications programs can be developed and implemented across the agency. Guiding principles and strategic themes for the strategy are provided, with numerous recommendations for improvement discussed within the respective themes of leadership, coordination, integration, participation, leveraging, and evaluation.

  6. Strategies of Reserve Selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cabeza, M.; Teeffelen, van A.J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Existing protected areas contain only a biased sample of the Earth's biodiversity. This is because conservation has to compete with other land-uses. Limitations in space and budget highlight the importance of effective and efficient conservation strategies. In this context, questions like what

  7. Are Communication Strategies Teachable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Samantha

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the teachability of communication strategies in the EFL classroom. As well as reflecting on the nature of speech production in the mother tongue, it looks at some of the difficulties encountered when speaking in a foreign language and the inherent difficulties in "teaching" speaking as a skill. It focuses on different types…

  8. Strategies to prevent loneliness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong Gierveld, J.; Fokkema, T.; Sha'ked, A.; Rokach, A.

    2015-01-01

    ‘Prevention is better than cure’. This also applies to loneliness experiences: preventing people from loneliness is better than helping them to reduce their feelings of loneliness through interventions. In this chapter, we argue the necessity of loneliness prevention strategies for handling future

  9. Labeling strategies for bioassays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hempen, C.M.; Karst, U.

    2006-01-01

    Different labeling strategies for enzymatic assays and immunoassays are reviewed. Techniques which make use of direct detection of a label, e.g. radioimmunoassays, are discussed, as are techniques in which the label is associated with inherent signal amplification. Examples of the latter, e.g.

  10. Resilient Grid Operational Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasqualini, Donatella [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Extreme weather-related disturbances, such as hurricanes, are a leading cause of grid outages historically. Although physical asset hardening is perhaps the most common way to mitigate the impacts of severe weather, operational strategies may be deployed to limit the extent of societal and economic losses associated with weather-related physical damage.1 The purpose of this study is to examine bulk power-system operational strategies that can be deployed to mitigate the impact of severe weather disruptions caused by hurricanes, thereby increasing grid resilience to maintain continuity of critical infrastructure during extreme weather. To estimate the impacts of resilient grid operational strategies, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) developed a framework for hurricane probabilistic risk analysis (PRA). The probabilistic nature of this framework allows us to estimate the probability distribution of likely impacts, as opposed to the worst-case impacts. The project scope does not include strategies that are not operations related, such as transmission system hardening (e.g., undergrounding, transmission tower reinforcement and substation flood protection) and solutions in the distribution network.

  11. Strategies of anaphora resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhart, T.

    2000-01-01

    First draft: November 1997 (OTS Working Papers) Revised: May 1999 Appeared in Hans Bennis, M. Everaert and E. Reuland (eds) Interface Strategies North Holland Amsterdam (2000).Several corrections were added at the proofs stage, not included here. The major points of this paper are: a. The

  12. Management strategies for fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Marshall KF

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Kim Francis Le Marshall, Geoffrey Owen LittlejohnDepartments of Rheumatology and Medicine, Monash Medical Centre and Monash University, Victoria, AustraliaDate of preparation: 14 June 2011Clinical question: What are the effective, evidence-based strategies available for the management of fibromyalgia?Conclusion: There are a number of management strategies available with robust evidence to support their use in clinical practice.Definition: Fibromyalgia is a complex pain syndrome characterized by widespread, chronic muscular pain and tenderness, disordered sleep, emotional distress, cognitive disturbance, and fatigue. Its prevalence is estimated to be 3%–5% in the population and higher yet in patients with comorbid rheumatic diseases.Level of evidence: Systematic reviews, meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials (RCTs.Search sources: PubMed, Cochrane Library, manual searchConsumer summary: Key messages for patients and clinicians are:1. There are many effective pharmacological management strategies available for fibromyalgia.2. A nonpharmacological, multicomponent approach utilizing education, aerobic exercise, psychological therapy, and other strategies is also effective for fibromyalgia.3. Despite the significant and, at times, disabling physical and psychological symptoms, fibromyalgia can be a manageable condition with a potentially good outcome.Keywords: fibromyalgia, pain, treatment, management, evidence 

  13. Inflation Protected Investment Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirco Mahlstedt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a dynamic inflation-protected investment strategy is presented, which is based on traditional asset classes and Markov-switching models. Different stock market, as well as inflation regimes are identified, and within those regimes, the inflation hedging potential of stocks, bonds, real estate, commodities and gold are investigated. Within each regime, we determine optimal investment portfolios driven by the investment idea of protection from losses due to changing inflation if inflation is rising or high, but decoupling the performance from inflation if inflation is low. The results clearly indicate that these asset classes behave differently in different stock market and inflation regimes. Whereas in the long-run, we agree with the general opinion in the literature that stocks and bonds are a suitable hedge against inflation, we observe for short time horizons that the hedging potential of each asset class, especially of real estate and commodities, depend strongly on the state of the current market environment. Thus, our approach provides a possible explanation for different statements in the literature regarding the inflation hedging properties of these asset classes. A dynamic inflation-protected investment strategy is developed, which combines inflation protection and upside potential. This strategy outperforms standard buy-and-hold strategies, as well as the well-known 1 N -portfolio.

  14. Acrylamide mitigation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palermo, M.; Gökmen, V.; Meulenaer, De B.; Ciesarová, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Pedreschi, F.; Fogliano, V.

    2016-01-01

    FoodDrinkEurope Federation recently released the latest version of the Acrylamide Toolbox to support manufacturers in acrylamide reduction activities giving indication about the possible mitigation strategies. The Toolbox is intended for small and medium size enterprises with limited R&D

  15. Strategi i praksis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Michael Jessen; Jenster, Per; Junghagen, Sven

    Præsentation af seks danske små og mellemstore virksomheder, som alle har været succesfulde inden for deres metier. Gennem en belysning af hver virksomheds strategiske situation og udviklingsinitiativer skabes et billede af hvorledes strategi praktiseres i disse virksomheder...

  16. Delta hedging strategies comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Giovanni, Domenico; Ortobelli, S.; Rachev, S.T.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we implement dynamic delta hedging strategies based on several option pricing models. We analyze different subordinated option pricing models and we examine delta hedging costs using ex-post daily prices of S&P 500. Furthermore, we compare the performance of each subordinated model...

  17. Behavioural strategy: Adaptability context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piórkowska Katarzyna

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper is embedded in the following fields: strategic management in terms of behavioural strategy concept, adaptability construct, and micro-foundations realm as well as organizational theory and psychology. Moreover, the paper concerns to some extent a multi-level approach in strategic management involving individual, team, and organizational level. The aim of the paper is to contribute to extend, on one hand, the ascertainment set in the field of behavioural strategy as behavioural strategy encompasses a mindboggling diversity of topics and methods and its conceptual unity has been hard to achieve (Powell, Lovallo, Fox 2011, p. 1371, and on the other hand, to order mixed approaches to adaptability especially to gain insights on micro-level adapting processes (individual adaptability and adaptive performance in terms of the multi-level approach. The method that has been used is literature studies and the interference is mostly deductive. The structure of the manuscript is four-fold. The first part involves the considerations in the field of adaptability and adaptive performance at the individual level. The issues of adaptability and adaptive performance at the team level have been presented in the second part. The third part encompasses the organizational adaptability assertions. Finally, the conclusion, limitations of the considerations highlighted as well as the future research directions have been emphasized. The overarching key finding is that the behavioural strategy concept may constitute the boundary spanner in exploring and explaining adaptability phenomenon at different levels of analysis.

  18. IDS technology management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halverson, K A

    1996-04-01

    The formation of integrated delivery systems has created new challenges for healthcare financial managers. Among these challenges is the need to respond to cost-cutting pressures related to technology acquisition, financing, and management. A well-developed technology management strategy can reduce technology costs and risks, free up capital for other strategic uses, and maintain the system's ability to adapt to change.

  19. NASA Education Communication Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 2008

    2008-01-01

    For the past 15 years, the number of American college students earning science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) degrees has continued to decrease. By 2010, it is projected the national demand for STEM employees will rise by 10 percent. The Education Communication Strategy identifies the steps National Aeronautics and Space…

  20. Consolidating Social Media Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Munar, Ana Maria; Larson, Mia

    2014-01-01

    Gyimóthy & Larson (2014) portrayed three digital value co-creation strategies deployed by festival social media. Both frameworks provided novel analytical typologies which identified a series of categories (mimetic, analytic, immersion, advertising and insourcing, crowdsourcing and community consolidation...

  1. Assumptions and Grand Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    definition that is applicable today, noting that grand strategy: Encompasses the decisions of a given state about its overall secu- rity—the threat...offering instead an expla- nation that draws upon Western secular and materialist (i.e., socio-economic) understandings of the individual. Yet such

  2. BUSINESS STRATEGIES IN TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brikend Aziri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The tourism sector is gaining increased importance for the economic development of countries around the world. The purpose of this paper is to give a theoretical overview of the classical and contemporary business strategies that can be implemented in a more or less modified form by tourism companies in different countries.

  3. Tax Strategy Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Christian Plesner

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines how a functional tax strategy impacts the management control system (MCS) in a multinational enterprise (MNE) facing transfer pricing tax risks. Based on case study findings it is argued that the MCS in a multinational setting is contingent upon the MNE's response to its tax...

  4. Price strategy and pricing strategy: terms and content identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panasenko Tetyana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the terminology and content identification of seemingly identical concepts "price strategy" and "pricing strategy". The article contains evidence that the price strategy determines the direction, principles and procedure of implementing the company price policy and pricing strategy creates a set of rules and practical methods of price formation in accordance with the pricing strategy of the company.

  5. Five types of organizational strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensen, Elmer Fly

    2014-01-01

    Models in the strategy field defining the strategy concept emphasize schools of thought or strategy perspectives, but not how to define the idiosyncratic composition of an organization’s strategy content. Based on a literature review in which meanings have been attached to the concept, this paper...... presents a new model including five types of organizational strategy. The model emphasizes that key influencers may make heterogeneous contributions to an organization’s strategy and also that significant effects may result from interaction between types of strategy....

  6. Corporate Strategies and Global Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, René Taudal; Jensen, Kristoffer; Christensen, René Schrøder

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes the competitive strategies of Odense Steel Shipyard between 1918 and 2012 and challenges existing scholarship on competition in global industries. Until the 1980s, the yard adopted typical strategies in shipbuilding, starting with cost leadership and subsequently adopting...... global segmentation and differentiation strategies. From the mid-1980s, however, it successfully followed a unique national responsiveness strategy, which scholars including Dong Sung Cho and Michael E. Porter had ruled out in shipbuilding. The article shows how shipyard owners shaped strategies...

  7. Editorial: Sales Strategy (2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris McPhee

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The editorial theme for this issue of the OSBR is Sales Strategy. While "marketing" is everything a company does to build interest in its offers, "sales" consists of converting these offers into cash. By "sales strategy," we refer to all sales planning and process development activities leading up to the actual selling of a product or service. In his recent blog post at MaRS Discovery District, Mark Zimmerman answered a question he is frequently asked by the founders of startups: "How do we find a good sales person?" In short, his answer is "Don't." This is not meant as a slight to sales professionals, but rather, Zimmerman is advocating that companies should not equate having sales professionals to having a sales strategy. Sales professionals have a critical role to play in a company's success, but they are being given an impossible task if asked to sell something that has not been validated with customers. Zimmerman explains that sales professionals should be hired only once a company has validated that the value proposition resonates with customers and that the sales model will be effective. This lesson also applies to established companies, where existing sales staff require this same foundation to be effective. So how does a company determine whether its value proposition resonates with customers? The answer, of course, is to talk to customers. In the OSBR and elsewhere, the need for early customer input is a dominant theme in recent discussions of product development, marketing, and now sales strategy. By talking to customers, listening to how they describe their needs, and interpreting how their needs could be met, a value proposition can tested and refined. It is far more efficient and effective to iteratively refine a value proposition before attempting to sell than to attempt a salvage operation in response to slumping sales. Customer input is also a critical ingredient in developing an effective sales strategy. In this issue of the

  8. High frequency of sub-optimal semen quality in an unselected population of young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A G; Jensen, Tina Kold; Carlsen, E

    2000-01-01

    for military service, this provided a unique opportunity to study the reproductive function in an unbiased population. Altogether 891 young men delivered a blood sample in which reproductive hormones were measured. From 708 of these men data were also obtained on semen quality and testis size. The median sperm...

  9. Transcriptional markers of sub-optimal nutrition in developing Apis mellifera nurse workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Honey bees (Apis mellifera) contribute substantially to the worldwide economy and ecosystem health as pollinators. Pollen is essential to the bee’s diet, providing protein, lipids, and micronutrients. The dramatic shifts in physiology, anatomy, and behavior that accompany normal worker development are highly plastic and recent work demonstrates that development, particularly the transition from nurse to foraging roles, is greatly impacted by diet. However, the role that diet plays in the developmental transition of newly eclosed bees to nurse workers is poorly understood. To further understand honey bee nutrition and the role of diet in nurse development, we used a high-throughput screen of the transcriptome of 3 day and 8 day old worker bees fed either honey and stored pollen (rich diet) or honey alone (poor diet) within the hive. We employed a three factor (age, diet, age x diet) analysis of the transcriptome to determine whether diet affected nurse worker physiology and whether poor diet altered the developmental processes normally associated with aging. Results Substantial changes in gene expression occurred due to starvation. Diet-induced changes in gene transcription occurring in younger bees were largely a subset of those occurring in older bees, but certain signatures of starvation were only evident 8 day old workers. Of the 18,542 annotated transcripts in the A. mellifera genome, 150 transcripts exhibited differential expression due to poor diet at 3d of age compared with 17,226 transcripts that differed due to poor diet at 8d of age, and poor diet caused more frequent down-regulation of gene expression in younger bees compared to older bees. In addition, the age-related physiological changes that accompanied early adult development differed due to the diet these young adult bees were fed. More frequent down-regulation of gene expression was observed in developing bees fed a poor diet compared to those fed an adequate diet. Functional analyses also suggest that the physiological and developmental processes occurring in well-fed bees are vastly different than those occurring in pollen deprived bees. Our data support the hypothesis that poor diet causes normal age-related development to go awry. Conclusion Poor nutrition has major consequences for the expression of genes underlying the physiology and age-related development of nurse worker bees. More work is certainly needed to fully understand the consequences of starvation and the complex biology of nutrition and development in this system, but the genes identified in the present study provide a starting point for understanding the consequences of poor diet and for mitigating the economic costs of colony starvation. PMID:24529032

  10. Cellular recovery from exposure to sub-optimal concentrations of AB toxins that inhibit protein synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga toxin 1, exotoxin A, diphtheria toxin and ricin are all AB-type protein toxins that act within the host cytosol to kill the host cell through a pathway involving the inhibition of protein synthesis. It is thought that a single molecule of cytosolic toxin is sufficient to kill the host cell. In...

  11. (Sub-)Optimality of Treating Interference as Noise in the Cellular Uplink With Weak Interference

    KAUST Repository

    Gherekhloo, Soheil

    2015-11-09

    Despite the simplicity of the scheme of treating interference as noise (TIN), it was shown to be sum-capacity optimal in the Gaussian interference channel (IC) with very-weak (noisy) interference. In this paper, the two-user IC is altered by introducing an additional transmitter that wants to communicate with one of the receivers of the IC. The resulting network thus consists of a point-to-point channel interfering with a multiple access channel (MAC) and is denoted by PIMAC. The sum-capacity of the PIMAC is studied with main focus on the optimality of TIN. It turns out that TIN in its naive variant, where all transmitters are active and both receivers use TIN for decoding, is not the best choice for the PIMAC. In fact, a scheme that combines both time division multiple access and TIN (TDMA-TIN) strictly outperforms the naive-TIN scheme. Furthermore, it is shown that in some regimes, TDMA-TIN achieves the sum-capacity for the deterministic PIMAC and the sum-capacity within a constant gap for the Gaussian PIMAC. In addition, it is shown that, even for very-weak interference, there are some regimes where a combination of interference alignment with power control and TIN at the receiver side outperforms TDMA-TIN. As a consequence, on the one hand, TIN in a cellular uplink is approximately optimal in certain regimes. On the other hand, those regimes cannot be simply described by the strength of interference.

  12. The Prediction of Pilot Opinion Ratings Using Optimal and Sub-Optimal Pilot Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    Input: AcBc ,Cc - Aircraft Dynamics Ac, Bc, Cc, Ag, Bg, Cg Ag,Bg,Cg - Task Dynamics Q,R.P,TNTD Q - Error Weighting R - Control Weighting p - Observation...Compensator States % AcBc ,Cc - Aircraft States % Gamma = Constant Disturbance Noise Matrix % (Distributes Disturbance Noise into States) % Q - State...for Disturbance at Plant Output function [J]=PIFINDER(c, AcBc ,Cc,Ag,Bg,Cg,Q,RNoise) "% This File Finds the Minimum Performance Index Value "% For

  13. Activation Layer Stabilization of High Polarization Photocathodes in Sub-Optimal RF Gun Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory A. Mulhollan

    2010-11-16

    Specific activation recipes for bulk, 100 nm thick MBE grown and high polarization III-V photocathode material have been developed which mitigate the effects of exposure to background gasses. Lifetime data using four representative gasses were acquired for bulk GaAs, 100 nm unstrained GaAs and strained superlattice GaAs/GaAsP, all activated both with Cs and then Cs and Li (bi-alkali). Each photoemitter showed marked resilience improvement when activated using the bi-alkali recipe compared to the standard single alkali recipe. A dual alkali activation system at SLAC was constructed, baked and commissioned with the purpose of performing spin-polarization measurements on electrons emitted from the bi-alkali activated surfaces. An end station at SSRL was configured with the required sources for energy resolved photoemission measurements on the bi-alkali activated and CO2 dosed surfaces. The bi-alkali recipes were successfully implemented at SLAC/SSRL. Measurements at SLAC of the photoelectron spin-polarization from the modified activation surface showed no sign of a change in value compared to the standard activated material, i.e., no ill effects. Analysis of photoemission data indicates that the addition of Li to the activation layer results in a multi-layer structure. The presence of Li in the activation layer also acts as an inhibitor to CO2 absorption, hence better lifetimes in worse vacuum were achieved. The bi-alkali activation has been tested on O2 activated GaAs for comparison with NF3 activated surfaces. Comparable resilience to CO2 exposure was achieved for the O2 activated surface. An RF PECVD amorphous silicon growth system was modified to allow high temperature heat cleaning of GaAs substrates prior to film deposition. Growth versus thickness data were collected. Very thin amorphous silicon germanium layers were optimized to exhibit good behavior as an electron emitter. Growth of the amorphous silicon germanium films on the above substrates was fine tuned with respect to time and power to moderate plasma damage to the photo-generating layer. Auger electron spectroscopy was used to analyze the composition and thickness of the emitter layers. AFM studies showed conformal growth on the GaAs substrates. Measurements at SLAC on the photoemitted electrons from high polarization substrates coated with amorphous silicon germanium indicated an ~10% relative drop in spin-polarization at the wavelength corresponding to the maximum spin-polarization when compared to the uncoated material,

  14. High frequency of sub-optimal semen quality in an unselected population of young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A G; Jensen, T K; Carlsen, E

    2000-01-01

    Male reproductive function seems to have deteriorated considerably during the past 4-5 decades. However, studies of the reproductive function in unselected populations have not previously been reported. As the large majority of young men in Denmark are subjected to a compulsory medical examinatio...

  15. Deportation of Gang Members: Sub-Optimal Solution for Both America and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    of youths who join gangs are poor, reside in urban areas with higher crime rates, have limited education and find few legitimate job opportunities...Back the Streets 36 James C. Howell. “Gang prevention: An Overview of Research and Programs”, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency ...in only the largest urban areas of the country, gangs have evolved from 50 Jonah M

  16. Transcriptional markers of sub-optimal nutrition in developing Apis mellifera nurse workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corby-Harris, Vanessa; Jones, Beryl M; Walton, Alexander; Schwan, Melissa R; Anderson, Kirk E

    2014-02-15

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) contribute substantially to the worldwide economy and ecosystem health as pollinators. Pollen is essential to the bee's diet, providing protein, lipids, and micronutrients. The dramatic shifts in physiology, anatomy, and behavior that accompany normal worker development are highly plastic and recent work demonstrates that development, particularly the transition from nurse to foraging roles, is greatly impacted by diet. However, the role that diet plays in the developmental transition of newly eclosed bees to nurse workers is poorly understood. To further understand honey bee nutrition and the role of diet in nurse development, we used a high-throughput screen of the transcriptome of 3 day and 8 day old worker bees fed either honey and stored pollen (rich diet) or honey alone (poor diet) within the hive. We employed a three factor (age, diet, age x diet) analysis of the transcriptome to determine whether diet affected nurse worker physiology and whether poor diet altered the developmental processes normally associated with aging. Substantial changes in gene expression occurred due to starvation. Diet-induced changes in gene transcription occurring in younger bees were largely a subset of those occurring in older bees, but certain signatures of starvation were only evident 8 day old workers. Of the 18,542 annotated transcripts in the A. mellifera genome, 150 transcripts exhibited differential expression due to poor diet at 3d of age compared with 17,226 transcripts that differed due to poor diet at 8d of age, and poor diet caused more frequent down-regulation of gene expression in younger bees compared to older bees. In addition, the age-related physiological changes that accompanied early adult development differed due to the diet these young adult bees were fed. More frequent down-regulation of gene expression was observed in developing bees fed a poor diet compared to those fed an adequate diet. Functional analyses also suggest that the physiological and developmental processes occurring in well-fed bees are vastly different than those occurring in pollen deprived bees. Our data support the hypothesis that poor diet causes normal age-related development to go awry. Poor nutrition has major consequences for the expression of genes underlying the physiology and age-related development of nurse worker bees. More work is certainly needed to fully understand the consequences of starvation and the complex biology of nutrition and development in this system, but the genes identified in the present study provide a starting point for understanding the consequences of poor diet and for mitigating the economic costs of colony starvation.

  17. Sub-Optimal Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus – A Local Audit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.1 The Society for Endocrinology, Metabolism and. Diabetes of South Africa (SEMDSA) published guidelines in 2003 for type 2 diabetes care. These guidelines have clear recommendations for glycaemic control, blood pressure and lipid goals ...

  18. Sub-Optimal Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus – A Local Audit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Despite increased awareness of risk factors for coronary artery disease and randomized trial data supporting comprehensive diabetic care, these risk factors continue to be largely ignored in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Objective: Cross-sectional study to determine the level of control in patients with ...

  19. Sub-optimal MCV Cover Based Method for Measuring Fractal Dimension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolle, Charles Robert; McJunkin, Timothy R; Gorsich, D. I.

    2003-01-01

    A new method for calculating fractal dimension is developed in this paper. The method is based on the box dimension concept; however, it involves direct estimation of a suboptimal covering of the data set of interest. By finding a suboptimal cover, this method is better able to estimate the required number of covering elements for a given cover size than is the standard box counting algorithm. Moreover, any decrease in the error of the covering element count directly increases the accuracy of the fractal dimension estimation. In general, our method represents a mathematical dual to the standard box counting algorithm by not solving for the number of boxes used to cover a data set given the size of the box. Instead, the method chooses the number of covering elements and then proceeds to find the placement of smallest hyperellipsoids that fully covers the data set. This method involves a variant of the Fuzzy-C Means clustering algorithm, as well as the use of the Minimum Cluster Volume clustering algorithm. A variety of fractal dimension estimators using this suboptimal covering method are discussed. Finally, these methods are compared to the standard box counting algorithm and wavelet-decomposition methods for calculating fractal dimension by using one-dimensional cantor dust sets and a set of standard Brownian random fractal images.

  20. Diabetic Patients are often Sub-Optimally Aware about their Disease and its Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Kyriazis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM represents a continuously growing worldwide threat with major financial impact on the healthcare systems. The importance of tight glycaemic control in patients with DM type II is well established and is most effectively accomplished with the proper cooperation of both the treating physicians aswell as the treated subjects.Aims: The aim of our study was to evaluate the level of awareness of patients with DM type II about the various aspects of DM, including the nature of the disease, its precipitating factors and complications, as well as its treatment.Methodology: The patients were asked to complete anonymously a questionnaire concerning their knowledge about diabetes, its basic pathophysiology and complications, the treatment options and possible side-effects. Data were analyzed using STATA statistical software (Version 9.0.Results: Eighty patients were on oral hypoglycaemic agents (OHA, 34 on insulin while 4 were under a hybrid treatment. Among patients on OHA, 40 patients (50% were taking a combination of them. 13.4% of the sample was aware of what DM stands for, 84.9% did not know the type of DM they were suffering from, while (85.7% considered that obesity plays a major role in the pathogenesis of DM. Concerning the therapy of DM, only 54.83% of the patients were aware of the brand names of their antidiabetic medication, 88.2% did not know theirway of action, while 60.5% did not know the possible side effects. The majority of the sample, 60.5%, assumed that blood glucose should be measured only before meals.Conclusions: The knowledge of the subjects visiting the center for the first time was found to be inadequate. This is probably due to inadequate information, non-availability of educational material and improper guidance.

  1. An Efficient Sub-optimal Motion Planning Method for Attitude Manoeuvres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caubet, Albert; Biggs, James D.

    A motion planning technique for efficiently generating smooth spacecraft attitude slew manoeuvres is presented. The attitude trajectory (using quaternions) is shaped by a polynomial, determined by matching prescribed boundary conditions and the manoeuvre time. This method allows constraints such as limits on velocity, acceleration, jerk, and torque to be evaluated via inverse dynamics. Pointing constraints are also considered. A spin-to-spin case is presented whereby an axis-azimuth parameterisation is used. The problem of time minimization (within the set of trajectories defined by the given polynomials) is addressed, and a method for analytically estimating the minimum time of a manoeuvre is proposed. The method requires low computational capacity, and a comparison with optimal control solutions shows its relative performance.

  2. Extracting Actionability from Machine Learning Models by Sub-optimal Deterministic Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Lyu, Qiang; Chen, Yixin; Li, Zhaorong; Cui, Zhicheng; Chen, Ling; Zhang, Xing; Shen, Haihua

    2016-01-01

    A main focus of machine learning research has been improving the generalization accuracy and efficiency of prediction models. Many models such as SVM, random forest, and deep neural nets have been proposed and achieved great success. However, what emerges as missing in many applications is actionability, i.e., the ability to turn prediction results into actions. For example, in applications such as customer relationship management, clinical prediction, and advertisement, the users need not on...

  3. Leadership strategies in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menaker, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    Healthcare is one of the largest and most important industries in the United States because it affects every individual in the nation. Numerous parties are stakeholders in healthcare, which contributes to the complexity of change efforts. Physicians and administrators play a significant role by providing direct care and influencing other decisions that impact the delivery of patient care. Success in the healthcare industry is influenced by numerous factors, some of which are controllable and others that are not. Understanding leadership and change management will be increasingly important to overcome resistance to change and to improve relationships, the core of leadership in an environment that will become more challenging. In what follows, different approaches to understanding leadership and change management are presented along with other leadership strategies to enhance the effectiveness of leaders. Raising leader awareness regarding transformational leadership behaviors and developing strategies to increase the use of these behaviors may be helpful to enhance organizational performance.

  4. Mechanical ventilation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keszler, Martin

    2017-08-01

    Although only a small proportion of full term and late preterm infants require invasive respiratory support, they are not immune from ventilator-associated lung injury. The process of lung damage from mechanical ventilation is multifactorial and cannot be linked to any single variable. Atelectrauma and volutrauma have been identified as the most important and potentially preventable elements of lung injury. Respiratory support strategies for full term and late preterm infants have not been as thoroughly studied as those for preterm infants; consequently, a strong evidence base on which to make recommendations is lacking. The choice of modalities of support and ventilation strategies should be guided by the specific underlying pathophysiologic considerations and the ventilatory approach must be individualized for each patient based on the predominant pathophysiology at the time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Dissemination and Exploitation Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Monaco, Lucio; Fransson, Torsten

    The research infrastructure project Virtual Campus Hub (VCH) runs from October 1, 2011 to September 30, 2013. Four technical universities in Europe, who are all active in the field of sustainable energy, form the project consortium: the Technical University of Denmark, The Royal Institute...... of Technology in Sweden, Politecnico di Torino in Italy, and Eindhoven University of Technology in the Netherlands. The project is partially funded by the European Commission under the 7th Framework Programme (project no. RI-283746). This report describes the final dissemination and exploitation strategy...... for project Virtual Campus Hub. A preliminary dissemination and exploitation plan was setup early in the project as described in the deliverable D6.1 Dissemination strategy paper - preliminary version. The plan has been revised on a monthly basis during the project’s lifecycle in connection with the virtual...

  6. COINCO - Strategy 2025

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Per Homann; Jensen, Anne; Lundgaard, Jacob

    2007-01-01

    InvestitionsBank des Landes Brandenburg   The regions and cities in the COINCO-corridor Oslo-Göteborg-Malmö-Copenhagen-Berlin have worked out a COINCO Strategy 2025 for becoming one of the world's most competitive regions. Behind this strategy is a political will to utilize mutual strengths and together become......The group of COINCO Partners Københavns Kommune (Lead partner) Bornholms Regionskommune Oslo Kommune Østfold Fylkeskommune Akershus Fylkeskommune Business Region Göteborg AB Region Skåne Malmö Stad Lund Kommune Landskrona Kommune Helsingborg Kommune Region Halland Region Västra Götaland...... platform for transborder collaboration on matters essential to development - ‘hard' issues such as transport infrastructure and ‘soft' issues on improving cooperation within business, administration and knowledge production. Cooperation among COINCO businesses have to be institutionally supported...

  7. The Nuclear Strategy Tripod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nellemann, Camilla

    In March 2011, the global nuclear industry was struck by the Fukushima accident which immediately and greatly affected the global business environment for nuclear power. I analyze how the industry-leader Toshiba adapted to the changing circumstances from the perspectives of the strategy tripod...... is that the company maintains its strategy for nuclear power because the management perceives the negative consequences of 3/11 as manageable........ However, I amend the tripod-framework by defining operationalizable variables based on my literature review of nuclear research to be able to apply it in my study. At the industry level, I identify coopetitive behavior as the most important variable, while the critical resources and capabilities...

  8. Modern Competitive Strategy Firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Bartes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with problems of an ever increasing number of cases of successful application of old combat strategies in business practice. Nevertheless, the author refuses the so called “direct conflict“ of firms, when it is really fought for victory on the market. His approach is based on the philosophy of “victory without fight“, in other words – of achieving the aim without direct conflict with the rival firm.In the end he comes to the conclusion that combat philosophies are more and more often incorporated into classical approach of strategic firm control and become the integral part of philosophy of management. At the close happens to opinion that the one from basic factors absolutely necessary to creation such strategy at company, is necessary present so-called „creative intelligence“.

  9. CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIOSA ANA RALUCA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Brands ofen use celebrities to get impact, because they are seen by the public as credible source of informationabout product or company. People aspire to the values and lifestyles of celebrities. Consumers selectively integrateperceived values and behavior of celebrities they admire, to build and communicate their own identity.Celebrity endorser is a person who enjoys high reputation and prestige, beeing known to most people. Celebrityendorsement is a relevant strategy for the product categories which improve the image (such as fashion, perfumes orcosmetics.This paper presents types, techniques and models of analysing celebrities’ efficiency in endorsingbrands/products. Celebrity endorsement has become one of the communication strategies used in marketing to buildcongruence between brand image and consumers. Famous persons exert their influence on consumer throughperceived attributes such as expertise, trustworthiness, attractiveness, familiarty and likeability.

  10. Safer by design strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobaleda-Siles, M.; Guillamon, A. P.; Delpivo, C.; Vázquez-Campos, S.; Puntes, V. F.

    2017-06-01

    Throughout the EU funded FP7 project GUIDENano, we are trying to control and monitor the evolution of nano-enable products during their lifecycle. Small alterations of the nanoparticle (NP) state may have critical consequences on the NP behaviour and performance. For this reason it is important to highlight the importance of an extensive and proper characterization to define the NP physico-chemical characteristics under several environmental conditions. Furthermore, this characterization is necessary to ensure that obtained results are reproducible and allow understanding the behaviour of the NP on biological systems. In this paper different strategies reported in the literature regarding the safety-by-design concept are summarized. Several strategies from the synthetic point of view that help us to modulate the main factors which determine the safety of nanomaterials are proposed.

  11. CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT STRATEGY

    OpenAIRE

    CHIOSA ANA RALUCA

    2012-01-01

    Brands ofen use celebrities to get impact, because they are seen by the public as credible source of information about product or company. People aspire to the values and lifestyles of celebrities. Consumers selectively integrate perceived values and behavior of celebrities they admire, to build and communicate their own identity. Celebrity endorser is a person who enjoys high reputation and prestige, beeing known to most people. Celebrity endorsement is a relevant strategy for the product ca...

  12. Communications and Strategy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    of strategy. Part of that expanded view of communication is that, in addition using specialized media experts, strategists need to actively consider...action (think of the limitations imposed on national sovereignty through alliances and multinational treaties). Media agents should be seen as in...system; this is known as self-organization or emergence. See Figure 1 for a graphic portrayal of how order can emerge over time from a seemingly

  13. Algeria's New Oil Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Addi, Lahouari

    1995-01-01

    Since the collapse of oil prices in the mid-1980s, Algeria has attempted to modify its national petroleum strategy in order to encourage foreign investment in oil and gas production. This effort was justified by a con stantly growing need for external resources to meet internal demands created by a growing population and to defray the increasing budgetary deficit in the public sector. In this chapter I will attempt to show that the contradictions of the Algerian economy and the rentier state ...

  14. Port Security Strategy 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-15

    incidents and events. The cognitive thinking and behavior of humans could be influenced by psychological operation. The emotions, motives, objective...to emulate dolphin sonar and incorporate search strategies that are specifically effective in the noisy near-shore environment. This is to emulate...Animals can be also trained to aid port security on different dimensions. Trained sea lions and dolphins are able to locate underwater divers

  15. Designing concepts and strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    2012-01-01

    In urban transformation some of the most interesting and complex design challenges are related to redevelopment of city centres and waterfronts. Here the conflicts between ‘the old’ and ‘the new’ are the largest, and here the potentials for mistakes are at a critical level. One of the problems is...... and strategies are briefly described in the article, and the adaption by city planners and developers has been critical reviewed....

  16. Hand hygiene strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Yazaji, Eskandar Alex

    2011-01-01

    Hand hygiene is one of the major players in preventing healthcare associated infections. However, healthcare workers compliance with hand hygiene continues to be a challenge. This article will address strategies to help improving hand hygiene compliance. Keywords: hand hygiene; healthcare associated infections; multidisciplinary program; system change; accountability; education; feedback(Published: 18 July 2011)Citation: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives 2011, 1: 72...

  17. A Strategy for Mexico?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    taking action in a foreign country. In 2010 there were more than 15,000 people killed in Mexico.4 Complicating this statistic was the belief that...control over the population .31 In an attempt to gain the upper hand in restoring order throughout the country the Calderon administration began battling...what is being called the existing strategy was the Merida Initiative.43 The Merida initiative is a security cooperation agreement between the United

  18. The Nuclear Strategy Tripod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nellemann, Camilla

    In this paper, I apply a multilevel model to analyze the strategy of GE Hitachi for the Saudi Arabian market. Based on my interview with the company and textual data I analyze how factors within the industry, inside the firm, and in the institutional context impact upon GE Hitachi’s performance i...... nuclear reactor manufacturers. In a future study, it is relevant to test my hypotheses using a larger sample size....

  19. Novel viral translation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Hilda H T; Jan, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Viral genomes are compact and encode a limited number of proteins. Because they do not encode components of the translational machinery, viruses exhibit an absolute dependence on the host ribosome and factors for viral messenger RNA (mRNA) translation. In order to recruit the host ribosome, viruses have evolved unique strategies to either outcompete cellular transcripts that are efficiently translated by the canonical translation pathway or to reroute translation factors and ribosomes to the viral genome. Furthermore, viruses must evade host antiviral responses and escape immune surveillance. This review focuses on some recent major findings that have revealed unconventional strategies that viruses utilize, which include usurping the host translational machinery, modulating canonical translation initiation factors to specifically enhance or repress overall translation for the purpose of viral production, and increasing viral coding capacity. The discovery of these diverse viral strategies has provided insights into additional translational control mechanisms and into the viral host interactions that ensure viral protein synthesis and replication. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Self-regulation strategy, feedback timing and hemodynamic properties modulate learning in a simulated fMRI neurofeedback environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oblak, Ethan F; Lewis-Peacock, Jarrod A; Sulzer, James S

    2017-07-01

    Direct manipulation of brain activity can be used to investigate causal brain-behavior relationships. Current noninvasive neural stimulation techniques are too coarse to manipulate behaviors that correlate with fine-grained spatial patterns recorded by fMRI. However, these activity patterns can be manipulated by having people learn to self-regulate their own recorded neural activity. This technique, known as fMRI neurofeedback, faces challenges as many participants are unable to self-regulate. The causes of this non-responder effect are not well understood due to the cost and complexity of such investigation in the MRI scanner. Here, we investigated the temporal dynamics of the hemodynamic response measured by fMRI as a potential cause of the non-responder effect. Learning to self-regulate the hemodynamic response involves a difficult temporal credit-assignment problem because this signal is both delayed and blurred over time. Two factors critical to this problem are the prescribed self-regulation strategy (cognitive or automatic) and feedback timing (continuous or intermittent). Here, we sought to evaluate how these factors interact with the temporal dynamics of fMRI without using the MRI scanner. We first examined the role of cognitive strategies by having participants learn to regulate a simulated neurofeedback signal using a unidimensional strategy: pressing one of two buttons to rotate a visual grating that stimulates a model of visual cortex. Under these conditions, continuous feedback led to faster regulation compared to intermittent feedback. Yet, since many neurofeedback studies prescribe implicit self-regulation strategies, we created a computational model of automatic reward-based learning to examine whether this result held true for automatic processing. When feedback was delayed and blurred based on the hemodynamics of fMRI, this model learned more reliably from intermittent feedback compared to continuous feedback. These results suggest that different

  1. Self-regulation strategy, feedback timing and hemodynamic properties modulate learning in a simulated fMRI neurofeedback environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethan F Oblak

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Direct manipulation of brain activity can be used to investigate causal brain-behavior relationships. Current noninvasive neural stimulation techniques are too coarse to manipulate behaviors that correlate with fine-grained spatial patterns recorded by fMRI. However, these activity patterns can be manipulated by having people learn to self-regulate their own recorded neural activity. This technique, known as fMRI neurofeedback, faces challenges as many participants are unable to self-regulate. The causes of this non-responder effect are not well understood due to the cost and complexity of such investigation in the MRI scanner. Here, we investigated the temporal dynamics of the hemodynamic response measured by fMRI as a potential cause of the non-responder effect. Learning to self-regulate the hemodynamic response involves a difficult temporal credit-assignment problem because this signal is both delayed and blurred over time. Two factors critical to this problem are the prescribed self-regulation strategy (cognitive or automatic and feedback timing (continuous or intermittent. Here, we sought to evaluate how these factors interact with the temporal dynamics of fMRI without using the MRI scanner. We first examined the role of cognitive strategies by having participants learn to regulate a simulated neurofeedback signal using a unidimensional strategy: pressing one of two buttons to rotate a visual grating that stimulates a model of visual cortex. Under these conditions, continuous feedback led to faster regulation compared to intermittent feedback. Yet, since many neurofeedback studies prescribe implicit self-regulation strategies, we created a computational model of automatic reward-based learning to examine whether this result held true for automatic processing. When feedback was delayed and blurred based on the hemodynamics of fMRI, this model learned more reliably from intermittent feedback compared to continuous feedback. These results

  2. Military Strategy Of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Zaitsev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the evolution of military strategy of the Republic of India and key factors that influences its development. New Delhi keeps an eye on the balance of power in South Asia to create favorable conditions for its economic and social development, yet the remaining threats and new challenges still undermine the security and stability in India. The ambitions of China aspiring to power in Asia-Pacific region, combined with its immense military build-up and territorial disputes, cause disturbance in New Delhi. The remaining tensions between India and Pakistan also cause often border skirmishes and medium-scale conflicts. Close relations between China and Pakistan, labeled as “all-weather friendship”, are a source of major concern for India. The fact that both Beijing and Islamabad wield nuclear weapons means that without effective mechanisms of nuclear deterrence any military conflict may turn into a full-scale nuclear war. Terrorist activities and insurgency in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir and in the North-Eastern regions of the country, along with maritime piracy and illicit drug trafficking contribute to the complicated nature of the challenges to the Indian security. Indian military strategy is considered as a combination of the army doctrine, maritime doctrine and nuclear doctrine. The Indian political and military leadership wants to meet the challenges of changing geopolitical environment and thus continuously adapts its strategy. However, there is still a gap between theory and practice: Indian armed forces lack the capacity to implement the declared goals because of bulky bureaucratic system, outdated military equipment and insufficient level of command and control. The government needs to mobilize political will and administrative resources to upgrade its defense sector to counter its security threats and challenges.

  3. Strategies for managing osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Norman Tiong Meng; Heesch, Kristiann C; Brown, Wendy J

    2012-09-01

    Although there are recommendations for the management of osteoarthritis (OA), little is known about how people with OA actually manage this chronic condition. The aims of this study were to identify the non-pharmacological and pharmacological therapies most commonly used for the management of hip or knee OA, in a community-based sample of adults, and to compare these with evidence-based recommendations. A questionnaire was mailed to 2,200 adult members of Arthritis Queensland living in Brisbane, Australia. It included questions about OA symptoms, management therapies, and demographic characteristics. Of the 485 participants (192 men, 293 women) with hip or knee OA who completed the questionnaire, most had mild to moderate symptoms. Ninety-six percent of participants (aged 27-95 years) reported using at least one non-pharmacological therapy, and 78% reported using at least one pharmacological therapy. The most common currently used non-pharmacological strategy was range-of-motion exercises (men 52%, women 61%, p = 0.05) and the most common frequently used pharmacological strategy was glucosamine/chondroitin (men 51%, women 60%, ns). For the most highly recommended strategies, 65% of men and 54% of women had never attended an information/education course (p = 0.04), and fewer than half (46% of women and 42% of men, p = 0.03) were frequent users of anti-inflammatory agents. The findings suggest that many people with knee or hip OA do not follow the most highly endorsed of the Osteoarthritis Research Society International recommendations for management of OA. Health professionals should be encouraged to recommend evidence-based therapies to their patients.

  4. Strategy and the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, M E

    2001-03-01

    Many of the pioneers of Internet business, both dot-coms and established companies, have competed in ways that violate nearly every precept of good strategy. Rather than focus on profits, they have chased customers indiscriminately through discounting, channel incentives, and advertising. Rather than concentrate on delivering value that earns an attractive price from customers, they have pursued indirect revenues such as advertising and click-through fees. Rather than make trade-offs, they have rushed to offer every conceivable product or service. It did not have to be this way--and it does not have to be in the future. When it comes to reinforcing a distinctive strategy, Michael Porter argues, the Internet provides a better technological platform than previous generations of IT. Gaining competitive advantage does not require a radically new approach to business; it requires building on the proven principles of effective strategy. Porter argues that, contrary to recent thought, the Internet is not disruptive to most existing industries and established companies. It rarely nullifies important sources of competitive advantage in an industry; it often makes them even more valuable. And as all companies embrace Internet technology, the Internet itself will be neutralized as a source of advantage. Robust competitive advantages will arise instead from traditional strengths such as unique products, proprietary content, and distinctive physical activities. Internet technology may be able to fortify those advantages, but it is unlikely to supplant them. Porter debunks such Internet myths as first-mover advantage, the power of virtual companies, and the multiplying rewards of network effects. He disentangles the distorted signals from the marketplace, explains why the Internet complements rather than cannibalizes existing ways of doing business, and outlines strategic imperatives for dot-coms and traditional companies.

  5. Strategies for Teaching Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J.

    2000-12-01

    No matter whether you are teaching school children, undergraduates, or colleagues, a few key strategies are always useful. I will present and give examples for the following five key strategies for teaching astronomy. 1. Provide a Contextual Framework: It is much easier to learn new facts or concepts if they can be ``binned" into some kind of pre-existing mental framework. Unless your listeners are already familiar with the basic ideas of modern astronomy (such as the hierarchy of structure in the universe, the scale of the universe, and the origin of the universe), you must provide this before going into the details of how we've developed this modern picture through history. 2. Create Conditions for Conceptual Change: Many people hold misconceptions about astronomical ideas. Therefore we cannot teach them the correct ideas unless we first help them unlearn their prior misconceptions. 3. Make the Material Relevant: It's human nature to be more interested in subjects that seem relevant to our lives. Therefore we must always show students the many connections between astronomy and their personal concerns, such as emphasizing how we are ``star stuff" (in the words of Carl Sagan), how studying other planets helps us understand our own, and so on. 4. Limit Use of Jargon: The number of new terms in many introductory astronomy books is larger than the number of words taught in many first courses in foreign language. This means the books are essentially teaching astronomy in a foreign language, which is a clear recipe for failure. We must find ways to replace jargon with plain language. 5. Challenge Your Students: Don't dumb your teaching down; by and large, students will rise to meet your expectations, as long as you follow the other strategies and practice good teaching.

  6. Natural hazards science strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Robert R.; Jones, Lucile M.; Eidenshink, Jeffery C.; Godt, Jonathan W.; Kirby, Stephen H.; Love, Jeffrey J.; Neal, Christina A.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Plunkett, Michael L.; Weaver, Craig S.; Wein, Anne; Perry, Suzanne C.

    2012-01-01

    The mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in natural hazards is to develop and apply hazard science to help protect the safety, security, and economic well-being of the Nation. The costs and consequences of natural hazards can be enormous, and each year more people and infrastructure are at risk. USGS scientific research—founded on detailed observations and improved understanding of the responsible physical processes—can help to understand and reduce natural hazard risks and to make and effectively communicate reliable statements about hazard characteristics, such as frequency, magnitude, extent, onset, consequences, and where possible, the time of future events.To accomplish its broad hazard mission, the USGS maintains an expert workforce of scientists and technicians in the earth sciences, hydrology, biology, geography, social and behavioral sciences, and other fields, and engages cooperatively with numerous agencies, research institutions, and organizations in the public and private sectors, across the Nation and around the world. The scientific expertise required to accomplish the USGS mission in natural hazards includes a wide range of disciplines that this report refers to, in aggregate, as hazard science.In October 2010, the Natural Hazards Science Strategy Planning Team (H–SSPT) was charged with developing a long-term (10-year) Science Strategy for the USGS mission in natural hazards. This report fulfills that charge, with a document hereinafter referred to as the Strategy, to provide scientific observations, analyses, and research that are critical for the Nation to become more resilient to natural hazards. Science provides the information that decisionmakers need to determine whether risk management activities are worthwhile. Moreover, as the agency with the perspective of geologic time, the USGS is uniquely positioned to extend the collective experience of society to prepare for events outside current memory. The USGS has critical statutory

  7. Essays on Strategy 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    politics. Ludendorff , however, the so-called "faithful disciple" of Clausewitz, did not see eye to eye with his teacher on this point. He claimed, " War ...the total meaning of war as a ", ntinuation of politics" so as to correctly handle the relationship between war and politics, than to pose as a lover of... Ludendorff , Der Totale Krieg, p.10. 10. Clausewitz, p. 410. 11. Ibid., p. 119. 1.Ibid., p. 121. 1.See "The World Strategy of Social-Imperialism of Soviet

  8. Optimal Strategy in Basketball

    CERN Document Server

    Skinner, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This book chapter reviews some of the major principles associated with optimal strategy in basketball. In particular, we consider the principles of allocative efficiency (optimal allocation of shots between offensive options), dynamic efficiency (optimal shot selection in the face of pressure from the shot clock), and the risk/reward tradeoff (strategic manipulation of outcome variance). For each principle, we provide a simple example of a strategic problem and show how it can be described analytically. We then review general analytical results and provide an overview of existing statistical studies. A number of open challenges in basketball analysis are highlighted.

  9. Town Centre Redevelopment Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagnby, Bo Hellisen

    urban planning and design strategieswhich have been practised in most of the larger Danish towns: pedestrian streets, shopping centres, preservation of historic features, waterfronts, concentration of offices, conference and sports facilities, improvement og traffic and transport conditions as well...... as slum clearence and urban renewal. To a certain extent parallels are drawn to international experiences, especially where these are of such a nature that they can be assumed transferred to Danish connctions. Conclusively, the strategies are discussed in the light of the turn of Danish urban planning...

  10. Conceptualizing operations strategy processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Niels Gorm; Boer, Harry; Koch, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to present insights into operations strategy (OS) in practice. It outlines a conceptualization and model of OS processes and, based on findings from an in-depth and longitudinal case study, contributes to further development of extant OS models and methods...... which presently mainly focus on OS content, as distinct from process issues. DesignImethodology/approach - The methodology combines action research and a longitudinal single site case study of OS processes in practice. Findings - The paper conceptualises an OS process as: events of dialogue and action...

  11. Projektlederen ogvirksomhedens strategi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Hans; Riis, Jens Ove

    2008-01-01

    Ledere af udviklingsprojekter må i stigende grad bruge tid og kræfter på udadvendt ledelse. For udviklingsprojekter skal gennemføres i komplekse og dynamiske omgivelser, hvor formulerede strategier og handlingsplaner ikke entydigt definerer mål og rammer for udviklingsprojekter. Projekterne under...... bevågenhed, mange, mindre forbedringstiltag i dagligdagen udført af Kaizen-grupper og kvalitetsscirkler - og en midtergruppe af enkeltstående udviklingsprojekter, som er afdelingsskabte og konkurrerer om ressourcer og opmærksomhed. Udgivelsesdato: Februar...

  12. Optimal GENCO bidding strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng

    Electricity industries worldwide are undergoing a period of profound upheaval. The conventional vertically integrated mechanism is being replaced by a competitive market environment. Generation companies have incentives to apply novel technologies to lower production costs, for example: Combined Cycle units. Economic dispatch with Combined Cycle units becomes a non-convex optimization problem, which is difficult if not impossible to solve by conventional methods. Several techniques are proposed here: Mixed Integer Linear Programming, a hybrid method, as well as Evolutionary Algorithms. Evolutionary Algorithms share a common mechanism, stochastic searching per generation. The stochastic property makes evolutionary algorithms robust and adaptive enough to solve a non-convex optimization problem. This research implements GA, EP, and PS algorithms for economic dispatch with Combined Cycle units, and makes a comparison with classical Mixed Integer Linear Programming. The electricity market equilibrium model not only helps Independent System Operator/Regulator analyze market performance and market power, but also provides Market Participants the ability to build optimal bidding strategies based on Microeconomics analysis. Supply Function Equilibrium (SFE) is attractive compared to traditional models. This research identifies a proper SFE model, which can be applied to a multiple period situation. The equilibrium condition using discrete time optimal control is then developed for fuel resource constraints. Finally, the research discusses the issues of multiple equilibria and mixed strategies, which are caused by the transmission network. Additionally, an advantage of the proposed model for merchant transmission planning is discussed. A market simulator is a valuable training and evaluation tool to assist sellers, buyers, and regulators to understand market performance and make better decisions. A traditional optimization model may not be enough to consider the distributed

  13. Market strategies for climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.; Pinkse, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    The issue of climate change has attracted increasing business attention in the past decade. Whereas companies initially aimed primarily at influencing the policy debate, corporate strategies increasingly include economic responses. Existing classifications for climate change strategies however still

  14. Nonmarket strategy for merger reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clougherty, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Mergers and acquisitions can involve a significant review by antitrust authorities; however, neither the business strategy not the corporate political strategy literature has fully explored the antitrust dimensions of merger activity. This article considers the ability of corporate political

  15. Strategies for Sustainable Energy Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyses international strategies for establishing a sustainable energy development. Proposals are given for mitigation of global warming.......The paper analyses international strategies for establishing a sustainable energy development. Proposals are given for mitigation of global warming....

  16. Evaluation strategies in CT scanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In this talk, dimensional measurement results using different measuring strategies applied in different inspection software packages for volume and surface data analysis are presented. The influence of the strategy on the dimensional measurement is determined by calculating the measurement uncert...

  17. Factors Affecting Poor Strategy Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muh. Darmin Ahmad Pella

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Research on strategy implementation has been developed for three decades, yet only a few studies focus on factors affecting poor strategy implementation. This research evaluates the influence of strategy implementation problems on strategy implementation success and firm performance. This survey was conducted in 60 Indonesian companies and the data were statistically analysed using Structural Equation Modeling Partial Least Square (SEM PLS. The results show significant influence of strategy implementation problems on the degree of successful strategy implementation and perceived firm performance. The seven major obstacles that have impact on poor strategy implementation are: problems related to corporate scorecard, key performance indicators, information technology, competence, performance appraisal, strategy management office, and financial support.

  18. National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schwalm, Keith T

    2006-01-01

    ... of a national strategy for securing cyberspace. The approach explored the development of cyber technology strategies and programs related to the mission and roles of Homeland Security Advanced Research Projects Agency...

  19. Strategi Permintaan dalam Bahasa Jepang

    OpenAIRE

    Astami, Timur Sri

    2015-01-01

    Request strategy in Japanese serves to present desires to hearer and speaker gets benefit from the request. Request strategy consists of bald on record, on record with positive politeness, on record with negative politeness, and off record. Research used qualitative descriptive approach. Data were gathered from Maya Koikeda's Tokimeki Makkun comic book. Research, in the corpus of data, found bald on record strategy was a strategy without any strings attached. Then, on record with positive pol...

  20. Strategi Permintaan dalam Bahasa Jepang

    OpenAIRE

    Timur Sri Astami

    2015-01-01

    Request strategy in Japanese serves to present desires to hearer and speaker gets benefit from the request. Request strategy consists of bald on record, on record with positive politeness, on record with negative politeness, and off record. Research used qualitative descriptive approach. Data were gathered from Maya Koikeda’s Tokimeki Makkun comic book. Research, in the corpus of data, found bald on record strategy was a strategy without any strings attached. Then, on record with positive pol...

  1. Inspection Strategies for Concrete Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    1989-01-01

    In this paper an optimal inspection strategy for concrete bridges based on periodic routine and detailed inspections is presented. The failure mode considered is corrosion of the reinforcement due to chlorides. A simple modelling of the corrosion and of the inspection strategy is presented....... The optimal inspection strategy is determined from an optimization problem, where the design variables are time intervals between detailed inspections and the concrete cover. The strategy is illustrated on a simple structure, namely a reinforced concrete beam....

  2. WHEN BUSINESS STRATEGY MEETS CREATIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    Sorin-George TOMA; Anca BRATU; Marin BURCEA

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – Our paper aims to present in short the theoretical foundation of the concepts of business strategy and creativity, and to highlight the relationship between them. Design/methodology/approach – Using the literature review, the study examined the conceptual framework of the notions of strategy, business strategy, and creativity. Also, it analysed the relationship between business strategy and creativity. Findings – The results confirm previous studies related to the...

  3. How can we integrate IP strategy with corporate strategy? Combining IP strategy with management strategy making process

    OpenAIRE

    田中, 義敏; Tanaka, Yoshitoshi

    2013-01-01

    Intellectual property systems have been introduced and used in manycountries as a global standard. However, its practical utilisation is still not yetmature because of the lack of IP strategy. Each enterprise has to define aunique IP strategy and be differentiated by other enterprises because the outsideenvironment and internal resource are different. IP people have to havebetter understandings on strategy making process, which is fundamental to themanagement field. In addition, IP strategy s...

  4. CMS multicore scheduling strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio [Madrid, CIEMAT; Hernandez, Jose [Madrid, CIEMAT; Holzman, Burt [Fermilab; Majewski, Krista [Fermilab; McCrea, Alison [UC, San Diego

    2014-01-01

    In the next years, processor architectures based on much larger numbers of cores will be most likely the model to continue 'Moore's Law' style throughput gains. This not only results in many more jobs in parallel running the LHC Run 1 era monolithic applications, but also the memory requirements of these processes push the workernode architectures to the limit. One solution is parallelizing the application itself, through forking and memory sharing or through threaded frameworks. CMS is following all of these approaches and has a comprehensive strategy to schedule multicore jobs on the GRID based on the glideinWMS submission infrastructure. The main component of the scheduling strategy, a pilot-based model with dynamic partitioning of resources that allows the transition to multicore or whole-node scheduling without disallowing the use of single-core jobs, is described. This contribution also presents the experiences made with the proposed multicore scheduling schema and gives an outlook of further developments working towards the restart of the LHC in 2015.

  5. Patent protection strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Gupta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely recognized that the pharmaceutical industry faces serious financial challenges. Large numbers of blockbuster drugs are losing patent protection and going generic. The pipeline of new drugs is too sparse to fill the gap and generate a platform for future growth. Moreover, many of the new products are biologics with much narrower target patient populations and comparatively higher prices relative to traditional pharmaceuticals. So now the time has come for pharmaceutical scientists to have a better understanding of patent fundamentals. This need is illustrated by analyses of key scientific and legal issues that arose during recent patent infringement cases involving Prozac, Prilosec, and Buspar. Facing this scenario, the pharmaceutical industry has moved to accelerate drug development process and to adopt at the same time different strategies to extend the life time of the patent monopoly to provide the economic incentives and utilizing it for drug discovery and development. This review covers the need of patent protection and various strategies to extend the patent.

  6. New cerebral protection strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thal, Serge C; Engelhard, Kristin; Werner, Christian

    2005-10-01

    This article presents an overview of the most recent and important strategies to reduce secondary brain damage. There is currently no magic bullet available to protect the brain after neuronal injury. This is related to the complex pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia, which makes it unlikely that a single pharmacological intervention results in sustained neuroprotection. Analyses of clinical studies reveal that acute physiologic derangements (e.g. fever, hypertension and hypotension, hypoxemia, hypercapnia, hyperglycemia) are the most important predictors of unfavorable outcome after brain injury and have to be treated. The effectiveness of anesthetic agents to extend the ischemic tolerance of neurons has been demonstrated in experimental settings, but such benefits have not been demonstrated in humans. The effectiveness of osmodiuretics to decrease elevated intracranial pressure, a factor with relevance to outcome, has been demonstrated. Infusion of magnesium in patients with subarachnoidal hemorrhage can reduce the occurrence of delayed ischemia caused by cerebrovascular spasm. The prophylactic administration of glucocorticoids should be avoided. While the positive effects of chronic administration of statins to reduce the incidence of stroke has been demonstrated in several clinical studies, the protective effect of acute administration of statins after a cerebral insult has do be defined. Control of physiological variables, avoidance of hyperthermia, intensive control of plasma glucose concentrations, use of anesthetic agents and osmodiuretics to control intracranial hypertension and the possible prophylactic administration of magnesium in patients at risk of vasospasm and of statins in patients with cerebrovascular risk factors are currently the most important strategies to reduce neuronal injury.

  7. Strategies in the HSCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Chang Liao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to establish a hospital supply chain management (HSCM model in which three kinds of drugs in the same class and with the same indications were used in creating an optimal robust design and adjustable ordering strategies to deal with a drug shortage. The main assumption was that although each doctor has his/her own prescription pattern, when there is a shortage of a particular drug, the doctor may choose a similar drug with the same indications as a replacement. Four steps were used to construct and analyze the HSCM model. The computation technology used included a simulation, a neural network (NN, and a genetic algorithm (GA. The mathematical methods of the simulation and the NN were used to construct a relationship between the factor levels and performance, while the GA was used to obtain the optimal combination of factor levels from the NN. A sensitivity analysis was also used to assess the change in the optimal factor levels. Adjustable ordering strategies were also developed to prevent drug shortages.

  8. Operations Strategy with Paper Boats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumukadas, Narendar

    2010-01-01

    When participants in introductory business courses encounter the term "operations strategy," it is not easy for them to appreciate what operations strategy is about, or how it fits with overall business strategy. This game breaks down highfalutin jargon into experiences that participants can readily relate to. While working in teams to make paper…

  9. A strategy model for management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ole Uhrskov; Holmgren, Jens; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Developing a strategy model which explains what organisations should focus on in their strategy work, both in terms of the environment as well as how the strategy is implemented. In addition, the purpose is to demonstrate how this can influence and improve the organisations’ performance...

  10. Optimisation of complex health interventions prior to a randomised controlled trial: a scoping review of strategies used.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levati, Sara; Campbell, Pauline; Frost, Rachael; Dougall, Nadine; Wells, Mary; Donaldson, Cam; Hagen, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Many complex intervention trials fail to show an intervention effect. Although this may be due to genuine ineffectiveness, it may also be the result of sub-optimal intervention design, implementation failure or a combination of these. Given current financial constraints and the pressure to reduce waste and increase value in health services research, pre-trial strategies are needed to reduce the likelihood of design or implementation failure and to maximise the intervention's potential for effectiveness. In this scoping review, we aimed to identify and synthesise the available evidence relating to the strategies and methods used to 'optimise' complex interventions at the pre-trial stage. We searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, AMED, PsycINFO and ProQuest Nursing & Allied Health Source for papers published between January 2000 and March 2015. We included intervention development and optimisation studies that explored potential intervention weaknesses and limitations before moving to a definitive randomised controlled trial (RCT). Two reviewers independently applied selection criteria and systematically extracted information relating to the following: study characteristics; intervention under development; framework used to guide the development process; areas of focus of the optimisation process, methods used and outcomes of the optimisation process. Data were tabulated and summarised in a narrative format. We screened 3968 titles and 231 abstracts for eligibility. Eighty-nine full-text papers were retrieved; 27 studies met our selection criteria. Optimisation strategies were used for a range of reasons: to explore the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention to patients and healthcare professionals; to estimate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of different combinations of intervention components; and to identify potential barriers to implementation. Methods varied widely across studies, from interviews and focus groups to economic modelling and probability

  11. Decision Strategy Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardeman, F

    2001-04-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on decision strategies is: (1) to study the decision-making process in a nuclear context with particular emphasis on emergency preparedness; (2) to disseminate knowledge on nuclear emergency preparedness including courses in the field of off-site emergency response to nuclear accidents; (3) to co-ordinate efforts within SCK-CEN in the field of medical applications of radiation; (4) to support projects and reflexion groups related to interdisciplinary research on the no-technical aspects of radiation protection or nuclear apllications; (5) to give advice and support to authorities and the industry on any topic related to radiation protection and to make expertise and infrastructure available. Main focus of the programme is on the surveillance of the territory and emergency preparedness. Principal achievements in 2000 are described.

  12. Evolving meningococcal immunization strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáfadi, Marco Aurélio; Bettinger, Julie A; Maturana, Gabriela Moreno; Enwere, Godwin; Borrow, Ray

    2015-04-01

    Meningococcal disease is a major public health problem and immunization is considered the best strategy for prevention. The introduction of meningococcal C conjugate immunization schedules that targeted adolescents, with catch-up programs in several European countries, Australia and Canada proved to be highly effective, with dramatic reduction in the incidence of serogroup C disease, not only in vaccinated, but also in unvaccinated individuals. Meningococcal quadrivalent (A, C, W, Y) conjugate vaccines are now licensed and are being used in adolescent programs in North America and to control serogroup W disease in South America. In the African meningitis belt, a mass immunization campaign against serogroup A disease using a meningococcal A conjugate vaccine is now controlling the devastating epidemics of meningococcal disease. After introducing new immunization programs, it is of importance to maintain enhanced surveillance for a better understanding of the changing nature of disease epidemiology. This information is crucial for identifying optimal immunization policies.

  13. Product Architecture Modularity Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkola, Juliana Hsuan

    2003-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to integrate various perspectives on product architecture modularity into a general framework, and also to propose a way to measure the degree of modularization embedded in product architectures. Various trade-offs between modular and integral product architectures...... and how components and interfaces influence the degree of modularization are considered. In order to gain a better understanding of product architecture modularity as a strategy, a theoretical framework and propositions are drawn from various academic literature sources. Based on the literature review......, the following key elements of product architecture are identified: components (standard and new-to-the-firm), interfaces (standardization and specification), degree of coupling, and substitutability. A mathematical function, termed modularization function, is introduced to measure the degree of modularization...

  14. Developing a glocalisation strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollensen, Svend; Schimmelpfennig, Christian

    2015-01-01

    the ‘economies of scope’ in the purchasing department as well as in production and packaging. But by using an adapted product communication, plus individualised packaging designs, product positionings and marketing communications for the two regions, Henkel honoured the cultural heteroge-neity of its target...... while exploiting the benefits of global integration. The challenge is to balance the local knowledge with global reach. In the case of Persil Abaya Shampoo (for the Middle East market) and Persil Black Gel (for the European market), Henkel chose a strategy that successfully benefitted from...... markets and used Persil Abayas’ particular significance in the Arab world to its advantage. The results document that it has been possible for Henkel’s Persil to gain competitive advantages in terms of higher market shares, with the ‘glocalisation strategy’ in the (Middle East) liquid detergent market....

  15. Enmax trades recruitment strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basford, G. [Enmax Energy Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This presentation described how the energy industry will be affected by a labour shortage as the aging workforce of baby boomers reaches retirement age. It described how Enmax Energy Corp. is dealing with demographic trends and how they affect the energy industry. The paper outlined the initiatives that the company has taken in terms of workforce planning to ensure that staffing needs are met. It described how to use demographics to identify recruitment needs within a company, and what to look for in data. It also described how to make sure that a recruitment strategy is tailored to various demographic groups. Energy companies are attracting young workers through apprenticeship programs, training and development programs, and other incentives. figs.

  16. SURF Model Calibration Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-10

    SURF and SURFplus are high explosive reactive burn models for shock initiation and propagation of detonation waves. They are engineering models motivated by the ignition & growth concept of high spots and for SURFplus a second slow reaction for the energy release from carbon clustering. A key feature of the SURF model is that there is a partial decoupling between model parameters and detonation properties. This enables reduced sets of independent parameters to be calibrated sequentially for the initiation and propagation regimes. Here we focus on a methodology for tting the initiation parameters to Pop plot data based on 1-D simulations to compute a numerical Pop plot. In addition, the strategy for tting the remaining parameters for the propagation regime and failure diameter is discussed.

  17. Sensemaking and strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Renate

    Research objective: The purpose of this LOK research project is to generate new understanding of what organisational sensemaking, its interpretation and structuring processes in organisations mean in a way that can be used not only retrospectively but actively in strategic planning. In the study...... of these processes my focus will be on how sensemaking processes are transformed into strategy and policies to be applied in daily routines. This way, I believe, we can learn more about how organisations develop and use this knowledge to gain further competitiveness. I will look at these processes on various...... organisational levels in order to study organisational sensemaking from a top-down as well as a bottom-up perspective....

  18. Management of integration strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimer HAMAD

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available At the current stage of socio-economic, globalization drives competitiveness, markets, imposing countries to review their international development strategies. Thus in the last decade, many actors have chosen be closer to their competitors, in order to be among the world leaders in their professional specialization. The recent period is marked, in particular, by a proliferation of cross-border mergers and a significant increase in the value of international operations. These phenomena and processes affect all areas of social and economic life. However, the performance achieved by operations conducted face strong difficulties, especially due to differences in cultural and organizational management between associates. Research on the experience of different countries and regions allows to make some predictions for the nation states. The purpose of research is to study the peculiarities of management processes in different regions and areas to draw conclusions and give recommendations organs, structures spring for process optimization.

  19. Ruslands strategi i Arktis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staun, Jørgen Meedom

    are the Russian national Security Council led by Nikolai Patrushev and the Russian Defence Ministry headed by Sergey Shoygu, which both have embedded their visions of Russia and the Arctic in the IR realism/geopolitical discourse. Russia’s president, Vladimir Putin, does the same. Nevertheless, he has primarily......Russia’s strategy in the Arctic is dominated by two overriding discourses – and foreign policy directions – which at first glance may look like opposites. On the one hand, an IR realism/geopolitical discourse that often has a clear patriotic character, dealing with “capturing”, “winning...... or less in agreement about the goal of Russia’s Arctic policy: namely, to utilize the expected wealth of oil and natural gas resources in the underground to ensure the continuation of the restoration of Russia’s position as a Great Power when the capacity of the energy fields in Siberia slowly diminishes...

  20. Candida survival strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polke, Melanie; Hube, Bernhard; Jacobsen, Ilse D

    2015-01-01

    Only few Candida species, e.g., Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida dubliniensis, and Candida parapsilosis, are successful colonizers of a human host. Under certain circumstances these species can cause infections ranging from superficial to life-threatening disseminated candidiasis. The success of C. albicans, the most prevalent and best studied Candida species, as both commensal and human pathogen depends on its genetic, biochemical, and morphological flexibility which facilitates adaptation to a wide range of host niches. In addition, formation of biofilms provides additional protection from adverse environmental conditions. Furthermore, in many host niches Candida cells coexist with members of the human microbiome. The resulting fungal-bacterial interactions have a major influence on the success of C. albicans as commensal and also influence disease development and outcome. In this chapter, we review the current knowledge of important survival strategies of Candida spp., focusing on fundamental fitness and virulence traits of C. albicans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Strategy Innovation with Employee Involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ole Uhrskov; Koch, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate how employees can be involved in strategy innovation processes and how new strategy practices (new tools and procedures) are used to change strategy praxis in order to sustain value creation. In the strategizing actions, we found that even if the mana......The purpose of this article is to investigate how employees can be involved in strategy innovation processes and how new strategy practices (new tools and procedures) are used to change strategy praxis in order to sustain value creation. In the strategizing actions, we found that even...... strategy projects. Especially the latter two are important in facilitating the employee involvement. The case, however, also exhibits enterprise-situated praxises related to unplanned events, like the mitigation of taboos....

  2. Employment strategy of the Russians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Borisovich Toreev

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available During the crisis it is especially important to choose a correct employment strategy. Every employee uses an employment strategy, as he/she selects the direction of long-term employment consciously or intuitively. The choice of strategy is determined by a number of factors shaping the person’s attitudes: health, character, upbringing, education, social environment, institutional environment. The employment strategies of the young people newly entering the labor market differ from lab our strategies of workers. Young people do not have such experience and can plan their life “from scratch”. The Soviet specialists, people who started their career in the planned economy, have their own features of employment strategies. The article describes employment strategies of the Russians

  3. WHEN BUSINESS STRATEGY MEETS CREATIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin-George TOMA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Our paper aims to present in short the theoretical foundation of the concepts of business strategy and creativity, and to highlight the relationship between them. Design/methodology/approach – Using the literature review, the study examined the conceptual framework of the notions of strategy, business strategy, and creativity. Also, it analysed the relationship between business strategy and creativity. Findings – The results confirm previous studies related to the beneficial impact of creativity on the business strategy of a company. As creativity has become an important input for a successful business strategy, companies are making significant efforts in order to bring creativity into play. Practical implications/originality/value – Business strategy and creativity are two interconnected concepts not only in theory, but also in practice. Also, creativity represents a fundamental asset of a successful company in turbulent times.

  4. An optimal strategy for epilepsy surgery: Disruption of the rich-club?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinho A Lopes

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Surgery is a therapeutic option for people with epilepsy whose seizures are not controlled by anti-epilepsy drugs. In pre-surgical planning, an array of data modalities, often including intra-cranial EEG, is used in an attempt to map regions of the brain thought to be crucial for the generation of seizures. These regions are then resected with the hope that the individual is rendered seizure free as a consequence. However, post-operative seizure freedom is currently sub-optimal, suggesting that the pre-surgical assessment may be improved by taking advantage of a mechanistic understanding of seizure generation in large brain networks. Herein we use mathematical models to uncover the relative contribution of regions of the brain to seizure generation and consequently which brain regions should be considered for resection. A critical advantage of this modeling approach is that the effect of different surgical strategies can be predicted and quantitatively compared in advance of surgery. Herein we seek to understand seizure generation in networks with different topologies and study how the removal of different nodes in these networks reduces the occurrence of seizures. Since this a computationally demanding problem, a first step for this aim is to facilitate tractability of this approach for large networks. To do this, we demonstrate that predictions arising from a neural mass model are preserved in a lower dimensional, canonical model that is quicker to simulate. We then use this simpler model to study the emergence of seizures in artificial networks with different topologies, and calculate which nodes should be removed to render the network seizure free. We find that for scale-free and rich-club networks there exist specific nodes that are critical for seizure generation and should therefore be removed, whereas for small-world networks the strategy should instead focus on removing sufficient brain tissue. We demonstrate the validity of our

  5. Benin; Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper: Growth Strategy for Poverty Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2008-01-01

    Benin has been implementing a national poverty reduction strategy for sustainable human development. The government of Benin judiciously stressed the development of the social sector and improved governance to develop human resources and enhance the effectiveness of its actions so as to lay the foundations for sustainable human development. The sectoral strategies and policies growing out of the poverty reduction and growth strategy (SCRP) will be refined and/or readjusted to more clearly del...

  6. Reasoning about Knowledge and Strategies: Epistemic Strategy Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Belardinelli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce Epistemic Strategy Logic (ESL, an extension of Strategy Logic with modal operators for individual knowledge. This enhanced framework allows us to represent explicitly and to reason about the knowledge agents have of their own and other agents' strategies. We provide a semantics to ESL in terms of epistemic concurrent game models, and consider the corresponding model checking problem. We show that the complexity of model checking ESL is not worse than (non-epistemic Strategy Logic

  7. Properties of Exercise Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Gerdes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical learning environments give domain-specific and immediate feedback to students solving a mathematical exercise. Based on a language for specifying strategies, we have developed a feedback framework that automatically calculates semantically rich feedback. We offer this feedback functionality to mathematical learning environments via a set of web services. Feedback is only effective when it is precise and to the point. The tests we have performed give some confidence about the correctness of our feedback services. To increase confidence in our services, we explicitly specify the properties our feedback services should satisfy, and, if possible, prove them correct. For this, we give a formal description of the concepts used in our feedback framework services. The formalisation allows us to reason about these concepts, and to state a number of desired properties of the concepts. Our feedback services use exercise descriptions for their instances on domains such as logic, algebra, and linear algebra. We formulate requirements these domain descriptions should satisfy for the feedback services to react as expected.

  8. Gas strategies in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Floch-Prigent, L. (Elf Aquitaine (France))

    1992-12-01

    The different factors affecting gas supply and demand in Europe are examined and the strategies considered necessary to ensure a successful European gas market in the 21st century are outlined. A number of conclusions are drawn. Even though a significant rise in the total demand for gas in Europe is forecast, there are enough sources to cover this demand. However, to think that this gas will be available at cheap conditions is an illusion. These sources are located further and further away which means that their costs will increase. Given the risks inherent in exploring, producing, transporting and marketing these reserves, all the concerned parties must be allowed an acceptable rate of return on their investment. The environmental positive assets inherent in natural gas will guarantee the industry a bright future if they can be fully exploited. New regulations must not hinder the development of new markets or the construction of new infrastructures. The transit directive already permits the softening of the rules regarding transportation; but in order for it to come into real effect there must be gas available on the market. (author)

  9. Tenable world strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meadows, D.L. (New Hampshire Univ. (USA). Inst. for Policy and Social Science Research)

    1991-10-01

    The Author presents several arguments explaining and backing the mechanics of a world strategy of zero growth. First, attention is brought to Aurelio Peccei's concerns regarding the short-sightedness of the energy and economic policies of industrialized nations. In his book (entitled 'Verso l'Abisso'), written almost 25 years ago, he correctly predicted the severity and timing of current global environmental problems such as the greenhouse effect and acid rain. Urgent and concerted action by world governments is recommended to contain and and remedy damage being caused by a diverse mix of integrated factors - over-population, uncontrolled food production, pollution, over-production by industry, and the improper use of energy and other natural resources. The Author sets guidelines for the creation of a world of steady-state growth in which an equilibrium is reached between overall standards of living and population dynamics. To meet this goal of global man/environment peaceful coexistence, he strongly urges the creation and instillation of a new set of values through the placing of emphasis on the research and development of cultural, psychological, institutional and moral philosophies which, in the last century, have been almost entirely supplanted world-wide by growing materialistic ideals and the pursuit of technological perfection.

  10. Marketing Strategy and Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-05-31

    This report documents the marketing campaign that has been designed for middle and high school students in New Mexico to increase interest in participation in national security careers at the National Nuclear Security Administration. This marketing campaign builds on the research that was previously conducted, as well as the focus groups that were conducted. This work is a part of the National Nuclear Security Preparedness Project (NSPP) being performed under a Department of Energy (DOE) / National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. Outcome analysis was performed to determine appropriate marketing strategies. The analysis was based upon focus groups with middle school and high school students, student interactions, and surveys completed by students to understand and gauge student interest in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) subjects, interest in careers at NNSA, future job considerations, and student desire to pursue post-secondary education. Further, through the focus groups, students were asked to attend a presentation on NNSA job opportunities and employee requirements. The feedback received from the students was utilized to develop the focus and components of the marketing campaign.

  11. Lymphoma: Immune Evasion Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyay, Ranjan; Hammerich, Linda; Peng, Paul [Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Brown, Brian [Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Merad, Miriam [Department of Oncological Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Brody, Joshua D., E-mail: joshua.brody@mssm.edu [Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029 (United States)

    2015-04-30

    While the cellular origin of lymphoma is often characterized by chromosomal translocations and other genetic aberrations, its growth and development into a malignant neoplasm is highly dependent upon its ability to escape natural host defenses. Neoplastic cells interact with a variety of non-malignant cells in the tumor milieu to create an immunosuppressive microenvironment. The resulting functional impairment and dysregulation of tumor-associated immune cells not only allows for passive growth of the malignancy but may even provide active growth signals upon which the tumor subsequently becomes dependent. In the past decade, the success of immune checkpoint blockade and adoptive cell transfer for relapsed or refractory lymphomas has validated immunotherapy as a possible treatment cornerstone. Here, we review the mechanisms by which lymphomas have been found to evade and even reprogram the immune system, including alterations in surface molecules, recruitment of immunosuppressive subpopulations, and secretion of anti-inflammatory factors. A fundamental understanding of the immune evasion strategies utilized by lymphomas may lead to better prognostic markers and guide the development of targeted interventions that are both safer and more effective than current standards of care.

  12. Management strategy of enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osovskiy O.A.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of market relations, increasing competition result in the accelerated necessity in strategic management as one of the most efficient and progressive means of organization management. The article deals with such researching methods as SWOT analysis (studying strength and weak points, manufacturing feasibilities of an enterprise and threats caused by environment, BCG matrix (while determining marketing roles of output, Mack Kinsey (determining branch attraction, the tree of aims (looking for perspective directions of development, and also other well-known tools of strategic management. SE «Zhytomyr distillery» is the enterprise with over century traditions of production quality of its output. The results of the SWOT analysis has allowed to determine the lines of behavior due to favorable and unfavorable factors of environment. At present, the enterprise has much strength and manufacturing feasibilities, therefore, the principal directions of its activity have to become the improvement of its technological base, the expansion of output range and sale at the expense of free financial resources. The calculations made by the authors allowed them to develop the main strategies for development of an enterprise. The practical value of the calculations lies in keeping competitive lines both on the domestic market of Ukraine and on the foreign international market.

  13. Multi-objective optimisation of stent dilation strategy in a patient-specific coronary artery via computational and surrogate modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragkousis, Georgios E; Curzen, Nick; Bressloff, Neil W

    2016-01-25

    Although contemporary stents have been shown to improve short and long term clinical outcomes, the optimum dilation protocol is still uncertain in challenging cases characterised by long, highly calcified and tortuous anatomy. Recent clinical studies have revealed that in these cases, sub-optimal delivery can result in stent thrombosis (ST) and/or neointimal thickening as a result of stent malapposition (SM) and/or severe vessel trauma. One of the major contributors to vessel trauma is the damage caused by balloon dilation during stent deployment. In the present work, a Kriging based response surface modelling approach has been implemented to search for optimum stent deployment strategies in a clinically challenging, patient specific diseased coronary artery. In particular, the aims of this study were: (i) to understand the impact of the balloon pressure and unpressurised diameter on stent malapposition, drug distribution and wall stresses via computer simulations and (ii) obtain potentially optimal dilation protocols to simultaneously minimise stent malapposition and tissue wall stresses and maximise drug diffusion in the tissue. The results indicate that SM is inversely proportional to tissue stresses and drug deliverability. After analytical multi-objective optimisation, a set of "non-dominated" dilation scenarios was proposed as a post-optimisation methodology for protocol selection. Using this method, it has been shown that, for a given patient specific model, optimal stent expansion can be predicted. Such a framework could potentially be used by interventional cardiologists to minimise stent malapposition and tissue stresses whilst maximising drug deliverability in any patient-specific case. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Trophic strategies of unicellular plankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakraborty, Subhendu; Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Andersen, Ken Haste

    2017-01-01

    Unicellular plankton employ trophic strategies ranging from pure photoautotrophs over mixotrophy to obligate heterotrophs (phagotrophs), with cell sizes from 10-8 to 1 μg C. A full understanding of how trophic strategy and cell size depend on resource environment and predation is lacking. To this......Unicellular plankton employ trophic strategies ranging from pure photoautotrophs over mixotrophy to obligate heterotrophs (phagotrophs), with cell sizes from 10-8 to 1 μg C. A full understanding of how trophic strategy and cell size depend on resource environment and predation is lacking...... unicellulars are colimited by organic carbon and nutrients, and only large photoautotrophs and smaller mixotrophs are nutrient limited; (2) trophic strategy is bottom-up selected by the environment, while optimal size is top-down selected by predation. The focus on cell size and trophic strategies facilitates...

  15. Strategic Audit and Ownership Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Franz Wahl

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the new global economy, ownership has become a central issue for organizational performance. Ownership strategy is where corporate governance meets strategic management. Highlighting a knowledge gap in the field of corporate governance, the author is asking the central research question: “how to develop an ownership strategy?” The main purpose of this paper is to answer this original question and develop a better understanding about ownership strategies. Theoretically there is evidence to indicate that there is a link between strategic audit and ownership strategy. Analyzing firm cases from Estonia allows concluding that the strategic audit is useful for developing systemically ownership strategies, which in turn could be a realistic alternative for complete contracts. The use of strategic audits gives the business owner an opportunity to analyze his own actions and behavior, learning, managing knowledge, and finally clearly expressing his will in the form of an ownership strategy.

  16. Search Strategies for Scheduling Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Kypta, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    In the present work I compare the search strategies for solving scheduling problems from the view of constraint programming. The thesis is focused on scheduling problems containing alternative activities. An analysis of previously published various ways of modelling the problems is provided, next description and experimental comparison of search strategies targetting these models is provided. The influence of strategies on the speed of the solver is studied primarily. As a sideeffect the work...

  17. Determinants of contractor pricing strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Moses, O. Douglas

    1988-01-01

    This paper investigates pricing strategies used by major defense contractors. Two pricing strategies are identified and discussed: penetration, which calls for a relatively low initial price followed by little reduction in price over time, and skimming, which calls for a relatively high initial price coupled with greater reduction in price over time. It is argued that contractor pricing strategy will depend on features of the defense program under consideration and featur...

  18. Modern strategies for effective teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Stojceska Gjorgioska, Mirjana; Serafimova, Mimoza

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Modern Teaching Strategies are introducing for students to achieve in their career. These teaching strategies are changing with the passage of time. Today’s students are into global world that will demand more understanding and abilities. Students need to understand the subject basics, but also to think decisively, to investigate, and to make conclusions. Helping students to advance these skills will require changes in teaching strategies at the school and classr...

  19. Communication: essential strategies for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Mary

    2013-06-01

    This department highlights change management strategies that may be successful in strategically planning and executing organizational change initiatives. With the goal of presenting practical approaches helpful to nurse leaders advance organizational change, content includes evidence-based projects, tool, and resources that mobilize and sustain organizational change initiatives. In this article, the author discusses strategies for communication for change processes, whether large or small. Intentional planning and development of a communication strategy alongside, not as an afterthought, to change initiatives are essential.

  20. A Taxonomy of Manufacturing Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey G. Miller; Aleda V. Roth

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the development and analysis of a numerical taxonomy of manufacturing strategies. The taxonomy was developed with standard methods of cluster analysis, and is based on the relative importance attached to eleven competitive capabilities defining the manufacturing task of 164 large American manufacturing business units. Three distinct clusters of manufacturing strategy groups were observed. Though there is an industry effect, all three manufacturing strategy types are obser...

  1. The office of strategy management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Robert S; Norton, David P

    2005-10-01

    There is a disconnect in most companies between strategy formulation and strategy execution. On average, 95% of a company's employees are unaware of, or do not understand, its strategy. If employees are unaware of the strategy, they surely cannot help the organization implement it effectively. It doesn't have to be like this. For the past 15 years, the authors have studied companies that achieved performance breakthroughs by adopting the Balanced Scorecard and its associated tools to help them better communicate strategy to their employees and to guide and monitor the execution of that strategy. Some companies, of course, have achieved better, longer-lasting improvements than others. The organizations that have managed to sustain their strategic focus have typically established a new corporate-level unit to oversee all activities related to strategy: an office of strategy management (OS M). The OSM, in effect, acts as the CEO's chief of staff. It coordinates an array of tasks: communicating corporate strategy; ensuring that enterprise-level plans are translated into the plans of the various units and departments; executing strategic initiatives to deliver on the grand design; aligning employees' plans for competency development with strategic objectives; and testing and adapting the strategy to stay abreast of the competition. The OSM does not do all the work, but it facilitates the processes so that strategy is executed in an integrated fashion across the enterprise. Although the companies that Kaplan and Norton studied use the Balanced Scorecard as the framework for their strategy management systems, the authors say the lessons of the OSM are applicable even to companies that do not use it.

  2. Asia Strategy on International Migration

    OpenAIRE

    Yasushi Iguchi

    2014-01-01

    Japan needs to develop a strategy for planning and realizing economic integration suitable for Asia. Such a strategy should cover not only liberalization of trade in goods and services and investment but also management of international migration. When developing the strategy, it is important to recognize that since the turn of the century, the leadership of globalization is shifting from developed countries to emerging countries.

  3. Strategy Assessment of Company ECOPOSTES

    OpenAIRE

    Cortazar Sanabria, Javier Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    This thesis focuses on developing a research on the different types of strategies a company can implement depending on their situation and the various analyses that must be completed before making the strategy decision. External and internal environment methods are described together with the various forms of corporate restructure methods a company can use if needed. The whole process is followed step by step to provide a strategy assessment to company Ecopostes, a Colombian company focused o...

  4. Strategy-Proof Stochastic Assignment

    OpenAIRE

    Erdil, A.

    2013-01-01

    I study strategy-proof assignment mechanisms where the agents reveal their preference rankings over the available objects. A stochastic mechanism returns lotteries over deterministic assignments, and mechanisms are compared according to first-order stochastic dominance. I show that non-wasteful strategy-proof mechanisms are not dominated by strategy-proof mechanisms, however nonwastefulness is highly restrictive when the mechanism involves randomization. In fact, the Random Priority mechanism...

  5. Determine separations process strategy decision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaathaug, E.J.

    1996-01-01

    This study provides a summary level comparative analysis of selected, top-level, waste treatment strategies. These strategies include No Separations, Separations (high-level/low-level separations), and Deferred Separations of the tank waste. These three strategies encompass the full range of viable processing alternatives based upon full retrieval of the tank wastes. The assumption of full retrieval of the tank wastes is a predecessor decision and will not be revisited in this study.

  6. Involving Employees in Strategy innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ole Uhrskov; Koch, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Strategy as a practice and continuous innovation approaches are combined to conceptualise dilemmas of short versus long term and to analyse a case of employee participation as a particular example of strategy innovation. The case is a medium size textile company developing its strategy involving...... and Balanced Score Card consultancy, an ‘open space’ workshop and organized strategy projects. Especially the latter two are important in facilitating the employee involvement. The case however also exhibit enterprise situated praxis’s like mitigation of taboos....

  7. Strategi Permintaan dalam Bahasa Jepang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timur Sri Astami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Request strategy in Japanese serves to present desires to hearer and speaker gets benefit from the request. Request strategy consists of bald on record, on record with positive politeness, on record with negative politeness, and off record. Research used qualitative descriptive approach. Data were gathered from Maya Koikeda’s Tokimeki Makkun comic book. Research, in the corpus of data, found bald on record strategy was a strategy without any strings attached. Then, on record with positive politeness was showed by the closeness and solidarity relationship. While on record with negative politeness was showed by minimizing load demand and apology, and off record with a vague ellipsis sentence. 

  8. Optimal Strategy and Business Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Peter; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2016-01-01

    This study picks up on earlier suggestions that control theory may further the study of strategy. Strategy can be formally interpreted as an idealized path optimizing heterogeneous resource deployment to produce maximum financial gain. Using standard matrix methods to describe the firm Hamiltonian......, it is possible to formalize useful notions of a business model, resources, and competitive advantage. The business model that underpins strategy may be seen as a set of constraints on resources that can be interpreted as controls in optimal control theory. Strategy then might be considered to be the control...

  9. National Drugs Strategy 2001 - 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Department of Health (Ireland)

    2001-01-01

    In April 2000, the Cabinet Committee on Social Inclusion requested that a review of the current national drugs strategy be undertaken. The overall objective of the review was to identify any gaps or deficiencies in the existing strategy and to develop revised strategies and, if necessary, new arrangements through which to deliver them. A sub-group of the Inter-Departmental Group on Drugs and the National Drugs Strategy Team â?" known as the Review Group â?" managed and oversaw the process. ...

  10. STRATEGI PROMOSI EVENT NAMASTE FESTIVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Wibowo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Promotion Strategy is the method that you use to promote the product. If we use the wrong promotion strategy, it will bring the disadvantage for the product and company. And on the contrary, if we are using the right promotion strategy, then it will bring the benefit for the product selling as did by Namaste Festival Event. This research was conducted in order to discover how promotion strategy of Namaste Festival Event to attract Yoga market by using promotion strategy theory. This research was guided by a qualitative approach with descriptive research in particular. The method being used was case study by conducting in-depth interviews. This research enabled the writer to discuss about the promotion strategy that being used by Namaste Festival event to increase the number of visitor. Therefore the researcher will able to get view on how PT Namaste Jaya Aditi as the organizer could run the promotion to get high number of visitor. After conducting an analysis, the main conclusion of this research is that the promotion strategy that been used by Namaste Festival organize is integrated several promotion activities such as online marketing, pre event road show, selling promotion, advertising (television and media printing & publicity. The result of this research is also said that promotion strategy that been use has an important role to attract visitor to participate in the event. Strategi Promosi adalah metode yang Anda gunakan untuk mempromosikan produk. Jika kita menggunakan strategi promosi yang salah, maka akan membawa kerugian bagi produk dan perusahaan. Dan sebaliknya, jika kita menggunakan strategi promosi yang tepat, maka akan membawa keuntungan bagi penjualan produk seperti yang dilakukan oleh Namaste Festival Event. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui bagaimana strategi promosi Namaste Festival Event untuk menarik pasar Yoga dengan menggunakan teori strategi promosi. Penelitian ini dipandu oleh pendekatan kualitatif dengan

  11. STRATEGIES TO CONTROL BLOWFLY STRIKES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORICA MORARIU

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Blowfly strike is a common illness of sheep flocks worldwide. In Northern hemisphere is due to Lucilia sericata, and in Southern hemisphere L. cuprina is involved. This paper presents some aspects concerning current and future strategies to control flystrikes. Current control strategies refer to general management practices, selection of naturally resistant sheep, insecticide use and the use of baits and traps, respectively. The future strategies comprise vaccination strategies against blowfly larvae and fleece rot, sterile male release, use of Bacillus thuringiensis toxins, use of new insecticides, and biological control, respectively.

  12. Working memory, strategy execution, and strategy selection in mental arithmetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbo, Ineke; Duverne, Sandrine; Lemaire, Patrick

    2007-09-01

    A total of 72 participants estimated products of complex multiplications of two-digit operands (e.g., 63 x 78), using two strategies that differed in complexity. The simple strategy involved rounding both operands down to the closest decades (e.g., 60 x 70), whereas the complex strategy required rounding both operands up to the closest decades (e.g., 70 x 80). Participants accomplished this estimation task in two conditions: a no-load condition and a working-memory load condition in which executive components of working memory were taxed. The choice/no-choice method was used to obtain unbiased strategy execution and strategy selection data. Results showed that loading working-memory resources led participants to poorer strategy execution. Additionally, participants selected the simple strategy more often under working-memory load. We discuss the implications of the results to further our understanding of variations in strategy selection and execution, as well as our understanding of the impact of working-memory load on arithmetic performance and other cognitive domains.

  13. Leadership Strategies: Re-Conceptualising Strategy for Educational Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eacott, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Strategy is a much debated concept in the field of educational leadership. This article draws on a variety of data from a larger research programme focused on reconceptualising strategy in the specific context of school leadership. Rather than offering a definitive voice, this article lays the foundations for further inquiry on the topic through a…

  14. Strategy Use and Strategy Choice in Fraction Magnitude Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Lisa K.; DeWolf, Melissa; Siegler, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    We examined, on a trial-by-trial basis, fraction magnitude comparison strategies of adults with more and less mathematical knowledge. College students with high mathematical proficiency used a large variety of strategies that were well tailored to the characteristics of the problems and that were guaranteed to yield correct performance if executed…

  15. STRATEGIES FOR THE FUTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANGHEL CAMELIA

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available "Work is determining the scope, structure and quality of material and spiritual services ordering society" (Mărginean 2002. The indicators in this domain are tied to employment and dependency on the availability of jobs, occupational structure, proportion and average duration of unemployment (Măginean, op. Cit.. In parallel there are studies on quality of life and working as indicators include: conditions, nature and content ounces, working time, labor relations, organization, management, material rewards and other benefits, work results and satisfaction. Preparation of this work is due to the acute need and the enormous pressure they felt at regional Euro-southwest Oltenia region, to remain competitive economically, while maintaining its long-term viability. The main objective of this paper is the first contribution and involvement in current scientific approach by offering solutions, analyzes the possibilities for and applicability of research developed by developing a tool for effective process improvement and sustainable development of the euro -regiunea southwest Oltenia to facilitate decision-making and not least sustainable economic growth. Secondary endpoints are represented by analyzing the current situation and developments, identifying needs and developing solutions and their correlation with national policy and territorial cohesion, economic and social development of the European Commission. Issues such as the triad growth-resource-environment, sustainability, impact of extractive industries are treated in this paper, which aims to identify some aspects of the relationship between sustainable development and economic progress in the context of Euro-South-West Oltenia, identification strategies and visions for the future that can boost this mining area par excellence for sustainable rural odezvoltare, focused on adequate training of human resources.

  16. HIV vaccine strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabel, Gary J

    2002-05-06

    Traditional methods of vaccine development have not produced effective vaccines for several prevalent infectious diseases, including AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis. These difficult diseases call attention to the importance of new approaches that profit from modern technologies. Successful efforts in the past have typically taken advantage of naturally occurring, protective immune responses, but this avenue is not readily available in certain cases, such as in HIV infection, where the immune system rarely confers protective immunity. However, there are alternative strategies and areas of research that may facilitate the development of highly effective vaccines. These include the identification of immunogens that elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies, determination of the molecular and cellular basis for immune responses to the components of the infectious agent, the identification of relevant forms of viral proteins for antigen presentation, stimulation of relevant T-cell types, and enhancement of antigen-presenting, dendritic cell function. Answering these basic research questions will aid in rational vaccine design. It is also extremely important to optimize techniques for the testing and production of new vaccines including the quantitation of immune responses in animals and in humans, identification of surrogate markers of immune protection, streamlined vaccine production, and rapid evaluation of candidate vaccines for testing in clinical trials. We have put these ideas into practice in two recent studies in which we generated enhanced cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses, while retaining robust humoral responses, to wild-type viral proteins by immunizing mice with genetically modified forms of HIV-1 Env, Gag and Pol delivered in the form of plasmid DNA expression vectors.

  17. Mapping your innovation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Scott D; Eyring, Matt; Gibson, Lib

    2006-05-01

    In the complex sport of American football, teams rely on playbooks as thick as the Manhattan phone directory. But when it comes to creating innovative growth businesses-which is at least as complicated as professional football--most companies have not developed detailed game plans. Indeed, many managers have concluded that a fog enshrouds the world of innovation, obscuring high-potential opportunities. The authors believe that companies can penetrate that fog by developing growth strategies based on disruptive innovations, as defined by Clayton Christensen. Such innovations conform to a pattern: They offer an entirely new solution; they perform adequately along traditional dimensions and much better along other dimensions that matter more to target customers; and they are not initially appealing to powerful incumbents. Companies can develop customized checklists, or playbooks, by combining this basic pattern with analysis of major innovations in their markets. The key early on is to focus not on detailed financial estimates--which will always guide companies toward the markets most hostile to disruptive innovations--but on how well the innovation fits the pattern of success. It's also crucial to encourage flexibility: Companies must be willing to kill projects that are going nowhere, exempt innovations from standard development processes, and avoid burdening project teams with extra financing, which can keep them heading in the wrong direction. Companies can create competitive advantage by becoming champions at defining the pattern of successful innovations and executing against it. But as that pattern becomes obvious--and others emerge-building a sustainable advantage on innovation competencies will again prove elusive.

  18. Marketing Strategy and Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2010-09-30

    This report documents the preparation of materials for the marketing campaign that has been designed for middle and high school students in New Mexico to increase interest in participation in national security careers at the National Nuclear Security Administration. The materials and the marketing campaign build on the research that was previously completed, as well as the focus groups that were conducted. This work is a part of the National Nuclear Security Preparedness Project (NSPP). Previous research included outcome analysis to determine appropriate marketing strategies. The analysis was based upon focus groups with middle school and high school students, student interactions, and surveys completed by students to understand and gauge student interest in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) subjects, interest in careers at NNSA, future job considerations, and student desire to pursue post-secondary education. Further, through the focus groups, students were asked to attend a presentation on NNSA job opportunities and employee requirements. The feedback received from the students was utilized to develop the focus and components of a marketing campaign divided into DISCO (Discovering Intelligence and Security Career Opportunities) for the middle school age group and DISCO…..Your Way! for high school age groups. Both campaigns have an intertwined message that focuses on the education of students in the various national security career opportunities at NNSA using the STEM concepts and the notion that almost any career they can think of has a fit within NNSA. Further, a special emphasis has been placed on the importance of obtaining a national security clearance when working at NNSA and the steps that will need to be taken during middle school, high school, and college to be allowed this opportunity.

  19. Blue ocean strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2004-10-01

    Despite a long-term decline in the circus industry, Cirque du Soleil profitably increased revenue 22-fold over the last ten years by reinventing the circus. Rather than competing within the confines of the existing industry or trying to steal customers from rivals, Cirque developed uncontested market space that made the competition irrelevant. Cirque created what the authors call a blue ocean, a previously unknown market space. In blue oceans, demand is created rather than fought over. There is ample opportunity for growth that is both profitable and rapid. In red oceans--that is, in all the industries already existing--companies compete by grabbing for a greater share of limited demand. As the market space gets more crowded, prospects for profits and growth decline. Products turn into commodities, and increasing competition turns the water bloody. There are two ways to create blue oceans. One is to launch completely new industries, as eBay did with online auctions. But it's much more common for a blue ocean to be created from within a red ocean when a company expands the boundaries of an existing industry. In studying more than 150 blue ocean creations in over 30 industries, the authors observed that the traditional units of strategic analysis--company and industry--are of limited use in explaining how and why blue oceans are created. The most appropriate unit of analysis is the strategic move, the set of managerial actions and decisions involved in making a major market-creating business offering. Creating blue oceans builds brands. So powerful is blue ocean strategy, in fact, that a blue ocean strategic move can create brand equity that lasts for decades.

  20. Putting strategy into action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    The outcome of the Women's Workshop in Oaxaca, Mexico in February 1992 is presented. 76 participants discussed strategies for promoting women's health and development in Latin America and the Caribbean and reviewed progress on last year's Plan of Action. In Colombia many points in the Plan were adopted by government policy and the Council for Women, Youth and Family. The information, education and communication (IEC) materials were helpful to a Brazilian participant in producing IEC materials and another workshop would help her support training for community leaders. The flip charts on Women's Rights to Health with topics on maternal and child health, reproductive health, and family planning (FP) were highly evaluated. Other successful materials were a video promoting breast feeding and women's rights which was produced by the Guatemala FP Association (APROFAM) and an AIDS prevention video for women made by the Center for Mothers, Children, Infants and FP of Brazil. Not only did participants evaluate materials but they also had to participate in discussions and present their ideas for a film promoting women's health at the sub-regional level. A field trip was conducted to Integrated Project (IP) villages in Oaxaca, and participants observed field workers using "Now, a New Wind Blows," a photo made by the UNFPA and JOICFP, to mobilize women. This booklet reputedly helped to mobilize a group of 70 women in the village of San Lucas Cuilapan. A comparison was made to the 1st workshop which provided an overview of the status of women in the region and the 4th which manifested concrete results and active participation of all involved.

  1. Prion disease: chemotherapeutic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Valerie L

    2012-04-01

    Prion diseases, also known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, are invariably fatal neurodegenerative diseases for which there are no efficacious treatments. Thousands of compounds have been screened for anti-prion effect, and yet of those that have effect in vitro, very few show effect in vivo, especially if administered in the later stages of disease. However, with new techniques for early diagnosis being developed, and with further insight into the pathogenesis of early disease, including the role of oligomers and the contribution of accessory molecules and signalling cascades, the chance of finding a therapeutic strategy is increasing. Beyond clinical therapy, there is increasing need to find effective decontaminants for blood supplies, as variant Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease (vCJD) is transmissible by blood. Non-toxic preventative therapies are also needed, with ongoing cases of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) and the spread of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) being a growing concern. A primary target for therapy has been the conversion of the normal form of prion protein (PrPC) to its abnormal counterpart (PrPSc). Many of the chemotherapeutic agents with antiprion effect share structural similarities, often being polyanionic or polycyclic. They may directly bind PrPC or PrPSc, or they may redistribute, sequester, or down-regulate PrPC, thus preventing its conversion. There have also been some novel approaches, including trapping PrPSc in a multimeric form such that it can no longer cause conversion, increasing clearance of PrPSc, targeting accessory molecules which play a role in conversion, targeting pathways which lead to neurodegeneration, and stem cell therapy. It may be that a combination of compounds will be necessary for maximal effect and there is evidence that synergistic responses occur with dual therapy. This updated review focuses primarily on chemicalbased treatments in light of developments in diagnostic technologies, including

  2. A Unidimensional Instrument for Measuring Internal Marketing Concept in the Higher Education Sector: IM-11 Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Suleyman Murat; Kara, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Although the existing internal marketing (IM) scales include various scale items to measure employee motivation, they fall short of incorporating the needs and expectations of service sector employees. Hence, the purpose of this study is to present a practical instrument designed to measure the IM construct in the higher education sector.…

  3. Some exact solutions for a unidimensional fokker-planck equation by using lie symmetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Hernán Ortíz-Álvarez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Fokker Planck equation appears in the study of diffusion phenomena, stochastics processes and quantum and classical mechanics. A particular case fromthis equation, ut − uxx − xux − u=0, is examined by the Lie group method approach. From the invariant condition it was possible to obtain the infinitesimal generators or vectors associated to this equation, identifying the corresponding symmetry groups. Exact solution were found for each one of this generators and new solution were constructed by using symmetry properties.

  4. Developing a Unidimensional Instrument To Measure the Effectiveness of School-based Partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainer, Deborah L.; Smith, Richard M.

    1999-01-01

    Developed and refined an instrument designed to measure the effectiveness of school-based partnerships using four theoretical models of partnering efforts. Results based on survey responses of 297 educators and volunteers from partnerships show how Rasch analysis, bias analysis, and principal-components analysis can be used to evaluate the…

  5. A GPU-Based Gibbs Sampler for a Unidimensional IRT Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Yanyan; Welling, William S; Zhu, Michelle M

    2014-01-01

    Item response theory (IRT) is a popular approach used for addressing large-scale statistical problems in psychometrics as well as in other fields. The fully Bayesian approach for estimating IRT models is usually memory and computationally expensive due to the large number of iterations. This limits the use of the procedure in many applications. In an effort to overcome such restraint, previous studies focused on utilizing the message passing interface (MPI) in a distributed memory-based Linux cluster to achieve certain speedups. However, given the high data dependencies in a single Markov chain for IRT models, the communication overhead rapidly grows as the number of cluster nodes increases. This makes it difficult to further improve the performance under such a parallel framework. This study aims to tackle the problem using massive core-based graphic processing units (GPU), which is practical, cost-effective, and convenient in actual applications. The performance comparisons among serial CPU, MPI, and compute unified device architecture (CUDA) programs demonstrate that the CUDA GPU approach has many advantages over the CPU-based approach and therefore is preferred.

  6. O problema de corte de estoque unidimensional multiperíodo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Cristina Poldi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O problema de corte de estoque multiperíodo surge imerso no planejamento e programação da produção em empresas que têm um estágio de produção caracterizado pelo corte de peças. As demandas dos itens ocorrem em períodos diversos de um horizonte de planejamento finito, sendo possível antecipar ou não a produção de itens. Os objetos não utilizados em um período ficam disponíveis no próximo, juntamente com possíveis novos objetos adquiridos ou produzidos pela própria empresa. Um modelo de otimização linear inteira de grande porte é proposto, cujo objetivo pondera as perdas nos cortes, os custos de estocagem de objetos e itens. O método simplex com geração de colunas foi especializado para resolver a relaxação linear. Experiências computacionais preliminares mostram que ganhos efetivos podem ser obtidos, quando comparado com a solução lote-por-lote, tipicamente utilizada na prática. No entanto, em problemas práticos, uma solução fracionária não é aplicável. Então, foram desenvolvidas duas abordagens para o arredondamento da solução para o problema de corte de estoque multiperíodo. Tais procedimentos são baseados em horizonte rolante, que basicamente, consiste em tentar encontrar uma solução inteira apenas para o primeiro período, já que esta será uma solução implementada na prática; para os demais períodos pode haver mudança na demanda, por exemplo, a chegada de novos pedidos ou o cancelamento de pedidos. Finalmente, concluímos que o modelo proposto para o problema de corte de estoque multiperíodo permite flexibilidade na análise da solução a ser posta em prática. O modelo multiperíodo pode ser uma ferramenta que fornece ao tomador de decisões uma ampla visão do problema e pode auxiliá-lo na tomada de decisão.The Multiperiod Cutting Stock Problem arises embedded in the production planning and programming in many industries which have a cutting process as an important stage. Ordered items have different due date over a finite planning horizon. A large scale integer linear optimization model is proposed. The model makes possible to anticipate or not the production of items. Unused objects in inventory in a period become available to the next period, added to new inventory, which are acquired or produced by the own company. The mathematical model's objective considers the waste in the cutting process, and costs for holding objects and final items. The simplex method with column generation was specialized to solve the linear relaxation. Some preliminary computational experiments showed that the multiperiod model could obtain effective gains when compared with the lot-for-lot solution, which is typically used in practice. However, in real world problems, the fractional solution is useless. So, additionally, two rounding procedures are developed to determine integer solutions for multiperiod cutting stock problems. Such procedures are based on a rolling horizon scheme, which roughly means, find an integer solution only for the first period, since this is the solution to be, in fact, carried out. Finally, we conclude that the proposed model for multiperiod cutting stock problems allows flexibility on analyzing a solution to be put in practice. The multiperiod cutting problem can be a tool that provides the decision maker a wide view of the problem and it may help him/her on making decisions.

  7. Unidimensional versus Multidimensional Approaches to the Assessment of Acculturation for Asian American Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe-Kim, Jennifer; Okazaki, Sumie; Goto, Sharon G.

    2001-01-01

    Examines approaches to assessing acculturation among Asian Americans college students in relation to the cultural indicators of individualism-collectivism, self-construal, impression management, and loss of face. An uneven nature of these relationships was found which is significant in light of the fact that acculturation differences are often…

  8. How to conduct research on burnout: Advantages and disadvantages of a unidimensional approach in burnout research.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brenninkmeijer, V.; Van Yperen, N.W.

    When conducting research on burnout, it may be difficult to decide whether one should report results separately for each burnout dimension or whether one should combine the dimensions. Although the multidimensionality of the burnout concept is widely acknowledged, for research purposes it is

  9. How to conduct research on burnout: Advantages and disadvantages of a unidimensional approach in burnout research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brenninkmeijer, V.; Yperen, N. van

    2003-01-01

    When conducting research on burnout, it may be difficult to decide whether one should report results separately for each burnout dimension or whether one should combine the dimensions. Although the multidimensionality of the burnout concept is widely acknowledged, for research purposes it is

  10. STRATEGI PENGEMBANGAN INDUSTRI KECIL CARICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Permadi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui bagaimana profil industri kecil carica di Kabupaten Wonosobo serta untuk mengetahui strategi pengembangan apa yang bisa digunakan. Variabel yang diteliti adalah profil industri yang meliputi sumber daya manusia, permodalan, teknologi, dan pemasaran. Metode analisis data yang digunakan adalah metode analisis deskriptif dan analisis SWOT. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa profil industri kecil carica di Kabupaten Wonosobo pada tahun 2014 ada 15 unit usaha. Ada beberapa prioritas strategi pengembangan yaang dilakukaan yaitu strategi SO dengan meningkatkan kualitas SDM, memanfaatkan tenaga kerja dari daerah sekitar, dan mengoptimalkan lokasi industri yang strategis. Strategi WO menyiapkan stok produk carica, mengoptimalkan produk carica, dan mengoptimalkan pelatihan dari dinas terkait. Strategi ST dengan meningkatkan kualitas ciri khas produk carica,peranan pemerintah dalam hal mengantisipasi bencana longsor di Dieng, dan melakukan inovasi produk carica. Strategi WT dengan meningkatkan kemampuan manajerial pengusaha, menaikkan harga jual produk carica, dan pada musim kemarau diganti dengan produk makanan komoditas Kabupaten Wonosobo. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, strategi yang diterapkan dalam kondisi ini adalah mendukung kebijakan yang agresif, yaitu industri kecil carica di Kabupaten Wonosobo dapat bersaing dengan produk olahan makanan jenis lainnya dari berbagai daerah dengan cara menjaga dan meningkatkan kualitas produk carica yang dihasilkan.The purpose of this study to find out the profiles of carica industries in Wonosobo regency and to determine what is the development strategy can be used. The variables in this research belongs to human resources, capital, technology, and marketing. Data analysis method used is descriptive analysis method and SWOT analysis. Based on the results of this study showed that small industrial profiles carica in Wonosobo regency in 2014 there were 15 business

  11. National Drug Control Strategy, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In May of 2010, President Obama released the Administration's inaugural "National Drug Control Strategy". Based on the premise that drug use and its consequences pose a threat not just to public safety, but also to public health, the 2010 "Strategy" represented the first comprehensive rebalancing of Federal drug control policy in the nearly 40…

  12. Leadership Strategies for Managing Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormanski, Chuck

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the impact of conflict in small group development theory. Views conflict as a positive, normally occurring behavior and presents leadership strategies involving withdrawal, suppression, integration, compromise, and power. Examines situational contingencies and presents a rationale for strategy selection and intervention. (Author)

  13. Learning Strategy Instruction Innovation Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumaker, Jean B.

    2011-01-01

    One way of helping students with learning disabilities and other struggling students to be independent life-long learners is to teach them how to use learning strategies in efficient ways. Learning strategy instruction can provide students the opportunity to succeed in today's schools and meet rigorous standards, transforming ineffective learners…

  14. Math Fact Strategies Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boso, Annie

    2011-01-01

    An action research project was conducted in order to determine effective math fact strategies for first graders. The traditional way of teaching math facts included using timed tests and flashcards, with most students counting on their fingers or a number line. Six new research-based strategies were taught and analyzed to decide which methods…

  15. Hemodialysis: stressors and coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Muayyad M; Al Nazly, Eman K

    2015-01-01

    End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is an irreversible and life-threatening condition. In Jordan, the number of ESRD patients treated with hemodialysis is on the rise. Identifying stressors and coping strategies used by patients with ESRD may help nurses and health care providers to gain a clearer understanding of the condition of these patients and thus institute effective care planning. The purpose of this study was to identify stressors perceived by Jordanian patients on hemodialysis, and the coping strategies used by them. A convenience sample of 131 Jordanian men and women was recruited from outpatients' dialysis units in four hospitals. Stressors perceived by participants on hemodialysis and the coping strategies were measured using Hemodialysis Stressor Scale, and Ways of Coping Scale-Revised. Findings showed that patients on hemodialysis psychosocial stressors scores mean was higher than the physiological stressors mean. Positive reappraisal coping strategy had the highest mean among the coping strategies and the lowest mean was accepting responsibility. Attention should be focused towards the psychosocial stressors of patients on hemodialysis and also helping patients utilize the coping strategies that help to alleviate the stressors. The most used coping strategy was positive reappraisal strategy which includes faith and prayer.

  16. Individual Differences in Generalisation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Rebecca; Inglis, Matthew; Mason, John; Watson, Anne

    2012-01-01

    A common activity in school mathematics is to derive a function from a table of values. There are two general strategies one might adopt to determine the function f. First, one might try to determine a connection between a particular n and f(n), and then evaluate whether it holds for other values of n. An alternative strategy would be to look for…

  17. Strategy Formation in an Adhocracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintzberg, Henry; McHugh, Alexandra

    1985-01-01

    This paper identifies and tracks the strategies pursued by a single-project organization, the National Film Board, across almost four decades of its history. Findings focus on three themes: the emergent nature of the organization's strategies, its cycles of behavior, and the organization's quest for "adhocracy." (TE)

  18. Pricing strategies for information goods

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Furthermore, sellers of these information goods are increasingly using bundling and versioning strategies to appropriate a greater share of the surplus. This paper examines recent research on pricing of information goods with particular focus on customisation, bundling and versioning strategies adopted by information ...

  19. Multiple strategy generation for wargaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revello, Timothy; McCartney, Robert; Santos, Eugene, Jr.

    2004-08-01

    In this paper we present a framework for the automated generation of strategies that accounts for the multiple kinds of uncertainty found in war games, provides for a domain independent approach to strategy generation, and results in robust strategies. Our approach is to sample over multiple trials for varying victory conditions, different threat profiles, and variable system performance to achieve a degree of independence in the resulting strategy. This allows a search for robust strategies versus those that are effective only under specific conditions. War games have uncertainty in what is needed to achieve victory, in system performance, and in threat behavior. There are multiple options for forces, employment, and warfare styles. All these factors combine to produce a large, complex space of possible solutions or strategies. Through the use of powerful search techniques like evolutionary computation and modern computing assets it has become practical to search this space for strategies with robust performance. Our framework is modular in nature, allowing a variety of search techniques, warfare scenarios, system models, and other parameters to be interchanged. In the paper the framework described above is demonstrated using an antisubmarine warfare scenario. Evolutionary programming techniques are used to search the space of possible strategies.

  20. From the Lisbon Strategy to EUROPE 2020

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundvall, Bengt-Åke; Lorenz, Edward

    2011-01-01

    This article compares the Lisbon Strategy and the EUROPE 2020 Strategy. It demonstrates while none of the two strategies are sufficient as support for the monetary integration and the Euro-collaboration.......This article compares the Lisbon Strategy and the EUROPE 2020 Strategy. It demonstrates while none of the two strategies are sufficient as support for the monetary integration and the Euro-collaboration....

  1. Aligning with new Digital Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yeow, Adrian; Soh, Christina; Hansen, Rina

    2017-01-01

    Prior IS research has not fully addressed the aligning process in the highly dynamic context of digital strategy. To address this gap, we conduct a longitudinal analysis of a B2B company's journey to enact its B2C digital strategy, using the dynamic capabilities approach. We found...... that as an organization shifts towards a digital strategy, misalignments between the emergent strategy and resources give rise to tension. Our study resulted in the development of an aligning process model that is comprised of three phases (exploratory, building, and extending) and generalizable organizational aligning...... actions that form the organization's sensing, seizing, and transforming capacities. These aligning actions iteratively reconfigured organizational resources and refined strategy in order to respond to both changes in the environment and internal tensions. We also recognized that there are challenges...

  2. Life history types and strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boel, Mikkel

    strategies and types in migratory freshwater fish, using brown trout and alewife as study organisms. Firstly, we investigated underlying mechanisms of resident and migratory life history strategies of salmonids, using indicators for nutritional status, stress, tissue damage and smoltification. Secondly......, avian predation pressure on the groups with different life history strategies was explored in their respective habitats. Thirdly, we demonstrated that the life history type of alewives, through regulation of zooplankton availability, influence the ontogeny of concurrent largemouth bass. Finally, a field...... study approach was used to evaluate the effect of PIT tagging on body condition of brown trout. Within a salmonid population several life history strategies can be found, each of which involves variations in migration and residency. Migratory life history strategies are often viewed as an adaptive...

  3. PROMOTION STRATEGIES IN WINE MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan MATEI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Marketing has proven to be very useful instrument in the wine industry, in fostering comprehensive, cohesive and effective strategies which wineries require to effectively compete in today’s almost saturated wine market. But within wine marketing, the promotion strategy, from our point of view, is the most important component of the winery that can ensure the success in the market or can shorten the life cycle of the product. This being said, the aim of the paper is twofold. Firstly, to determine and analyze the steps that are required to create a promotion strategy in the wine industry, by comparing different approaches. Secondly, to identify the instruments of the promotional mix that helps a winery to implement its promotional strategy. Bearing that in mind, the paper starts with some theoretical aspects regarding the promotion strategy and ends by providing a brief overview of the main findings.

  4. Human capital strategy: talent management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagra, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Large organizations, including the US Army Medical Department and the Army Nurse Corps, are people-based organizations. Consequently, effective and efficient management of the human capital within these organizations is a strategic goal for the leadership. Over time, the Department of Defense has used many different systems and strategies to manage people throughout their service life-cycle. The current system in use is called Human Capital Management. In the near future, the Army's human capital will be managed based on skills, knowledge, and behaviors through various measurement tools. This article elaborates the human capital management strategy within the Army Nurse Corps, which identifies, develops, and implements key talent management strategies under the umbrella of the Corps' human capital goals. The talent management strategy solutions are aligned under the Nurse Corps business strategy captured by the 2008 Army Nurse Corps Campaign Plan, and are implemented within the context of the culture and core values of the organization.

  5. Weigth loss strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Benetti

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Although it does not represent a great isolated cause of death, obesity may be considered one of the greatest health problems nowadays because it is associated with several diseases. Inorder to avoid both increase and appearance of new cases of obesity, it is paramount that preventive measures should be taken. Prevention may be implemented through changes in lifestyle, such as eating habits re-education and the practice of physical exercises. The objective of this study was to review what type of physical exercise and also the strategies that may be adopted in exercise prescription of to optimize weight loss. It was observed that muscular resistance exercise combined with aerobic exercise seemed to produce the best results in weight loss programs because they help to increase resting metabolic rate, to keep and/or increase fat-free mass and optimize the rate of mobilization, and use of fat during weight loss. The weight loss goal seems to be successfully reached in programs that included resistance exercise, continuous and/or intermittent aerobic exercises which demand a high energy flow (70% VO2máx.. This process seemed to be more efficient because it afforded a greater total caloric expenditure; not only during exercise, but also because it triggered an increase in post-exercise oxygen consumption, thus causing fat to be used during this period. RESUMO A obesidade pode ser considerada um dos maiores problemas de saúde da atualidade por estar associada a inúmeras doenças, apesar de não representar uma grande causa isolada de morte. Para evitar tanto o crescimento como o surgimento de novos casos de obesidade, faz-se necessário que medidas de prevenção sejam tomadas. A prevenção é realizada através de mudanças no estilo de vida, como reeducação alimentar e inclusão da prática de exercícios físicos. O objetivo desta revisão foi abordar qual o tipo de exercício físico e também as estratégias que podem ser adotadas na

  6. Strategy for E-Tailers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prafulla Joglekar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Operations researchers have always assumed that when a product's unit cost is constant and its demand curve is known and stationary, a retailer of the product would find it optimal to replenish the inventory with a fixed quantity and to sell the product always at a fixed price. We present, with proof, a model that shows that, in such a case, an e-tailer is better off using a continuously increasing price strategy than using a fixed price strategy within each inventory cycle. Sensitivity analysis shows that this strategy is particularly profitable when demand is highly price sensitive and the inventory ordering and carrying costs are high.

  7. Stalking management strategies: implementation and efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Storey, Jennifer Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The stalking literature lacks research regarding how stalking cases are resolved and which management strategies precipitate resolution. The present study focused on three aspects of case management; i) the management strategies employed, ii) the process by which police utilize management strategies, and iii) the efficacy of management strategies at promoting desistance. On average 19 management strategies were employed per case. Certain strategies (e.g. legal strategies), were more commonly ...

  8. Theoretical Aspects of Enterprise Business Strategy Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Valentinavičius, Stasys

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents interpretations of business strategy concept and analyses strategy planning and formation, models. The concept of business strategy is revised and formulated considering various authors approaches. Analysis of business strategy formation process – steps of development and management, selection of strategy type – is based on presented strategy planning models. The aspects of enterprise business and investment strategy formation, coordination and valuation are analysed. The s...

  9. Strategies for getting through labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000612.htm Strategies for getting through labor To use the sharing features on this page, ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  10. Gay Emancipation and Information Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schedler, Petra

    1996-01-01

    Written and oral information strategies used by two gay groups in the Netherlands serve three functions: dissemination of information about homosexuality; contact--creation of a public presence; and signification--a broader conception of sexuality and gay emancipation. (SK)

  11. Strategies for Getting Enough Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. Strategies for Getting Enough Sleep You can take steps to improve your sleep ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> Updated: June 7, 2017 Sleep Infographic Sleep Disorders & Insufficient Sleep: Improving Health through ...

  12. Wales transport strategy : a consultation

    OpenAIRE

    Sustainable Development Commission Wales

    2007-01-01

    Sustainable Development Commission response to the 'One Wales : connecting the nation : the Wales transport strategy'. Issues raised include road pricing, biofuels, intra Wales air link, increased capacity on the M4, and living within environmental limits. Publisher PDF

  13. COINCO Strategy 2025 - Discussion Paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Per Homann; Jensen, Anne; Stroschein, Christoph

     The regions and cities in the COINCO-corridor Oslo-Göteborg-Malmö-Copenhagen-Berlin have worked out a strategy proposal which is presented in this discussion paper. Behind the strategy is a political will to utilize mutual strengths and together become a leading player in a globalized world, based...... on common cultural, social and environmental values. The strategy comprises of a vision and more detailed aims and actions within three different areas: Corridor infrastructure, Innovation and Cooperation. In this way, the COINCO partners want to establish a political platform for transborder collaboration...... companies in the corridor, attracting innovative international companies, and supporting the creation of new knowledge intensive businesses is thus at the core of the strategy. New areas of collaboration will have to be identified systematically. Cooperation among COINCO businesses have...

  14. The power of strategy metaphors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang; Holmgren, Jens

    2016-01-01

    and post-structuralism. The paper reports on an action research study of a strategy workshop with the strategic team of a Human Resource Management Department in a Danish Municipality. It identifies two structural dimensions and four generic spatial metaphors were identified. Thus, the paper shows......This paper explores the power of spatial metaphors in strategy making. I seek to unfold a conception of the power of spatial metaphors in strategy making that stresses their creative and critical capacity as well as their constraints on strategic thinking. In order to identify the power of spatial...... metaphors in the double meaning of enabling and constraining the commitments and decisions of strategy makers, the approach taken here does not subscribe to the common distinction between pragmatism and post-structuralism. Rather, it seeks a methodological mediation between insights developed by pragmatism...

  15. Prisons must develop dementia strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    'The prison service badly needs a properly resourced national strategy for its rapidly growing population of older prisoners, to guide its staff in their management of age-related conditions, such as dementia'.

  16. Treatment strategies in interventional cardiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.J. IJsselmuiden (Alexander)

    2003-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In the treatment of patients with obstructive coronary artery disease, myocardial revascularization remains the most important goal as evidence exists that this treatment strategy, even more than prescription of drugs, effectively improves symptoms and prognosis.

  17. Proactive environmental strategies pay off

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Ateş (Melek); J.M. Bloemhof-Ruwaard (Jacqueline); E.M. van Raaij (Erik); J.Y.F. Wynstra (Finn)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAlthough there is contradicting evidence on the impact of a company’s proactive environmental strategy on its environmental performance, recent research shows such an approach can indeed make a difference.

  18. Collaborative Strategy on Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Collaborative Strategy on Bed Bugs was developed by the Federal Bed Bug Workgroup to clarify the federal role in bed bug control and highlight ways that government, community, academia and private industry can work together on bed bug issues.

  19. Strategi Memperkokoh Jantung Pendidikan Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Asep Fathur Rozi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Islamic education is the responsibility of the community and the government. To raise and advance education then required strategy. One of them is a strategy to strengthen the heart Islamic education, namely educator, library, and laboratory. They are a source of learning that most powerful thing to build personality school tuition. Strategy strengthens educator could be done by monitoring and evaluation by institutions through an assessment performance and hold internal training and involve outside training. Then to complete function library could be done by furnish library collection and allocating funding to increase the collection and improving facilities and infrastructure library including photocopy, online access library, and search engine book. The strategy we can do for strengthening laboratory among others by preparing a laboratory technician that not only mastering in managing the laboratory but also in Islamic scientific, prepare facilities and infrastructure in the lab and obliges in educator to use laboratory by order to support their teaching.

  20. Strategies for Mentoring Pedagogical Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Fundamental for mentoring a preservice teacher is the mentor's articulation of pedagogical knowledge, which in this research draws upon specific practices, viz.: planning, timetabling lessons, preparation, teaching strategies, content knowledge, problem solving, questioning, classroom management, implementation, assessment and viewpoints for…

  1. Skin anti-aging strategies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ganceviciene, Ruta; Liakou, Aikaterini I; Theodoridis, Athanasios; Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2012-01-01

    .... Because of the fact that skin health and beauty is considered one of the principal factors representing overall "well-being" and the perception of "health" in humans, several anti-aging strategies...

  2. Putting leadership back into strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Cynthia A

    2008-01-01

    In recent decades an infusion of economics has lent the study of strategy much needed theory and empirical evidence. Strategy consultants, armed with frameworks and techniques, have stepped forward to help managers analyze their industries and position their companies for strategic advantage. Strategy has come to be seen as an analytical problem to be solved. But, says Montgomery, the Timken Professor of Business Administration at Harvard Business School, the benefits of this rigorous approach have attendant costs: Strategy has become a competitive game plan, separate from the company's larger sense of purpose. The CEO's unique role as arbiter and steward of strategy has been eclipsed. And an overemphasis on sustainable competitive advantage has obscured the importance of making strategy a dynamic tool for guiding the company's development over time. For any company, intelligent guidance requires a clear sense of purpose, of what makes the organization truly distinctive. Purpose, Montgomery says, serves as both a constraint on activity and a guide to behavior. Creativity and insight are key to forging a compelling organizational purpose; analysis alone will never suffice. As the CEO--properly a company's chief strategist--translates purpose into practice, he or she must remain open to the possibility that the purpose itself may need to change. Lou Gerstner did this in the 1990s, when he decided that IBM would evolve to focus on applying technology rather than on inventing it. So did Steve Jobs, when he rescued Apple from a poorly performing strategy and expanded the company into attractive new businesses. Watching over strategy day in and day out is the CEO's greatest opportunity to shape the firm as well as outwit the competition.

  3. Color Strategies for Image Databases

    OpenAIRE

    Süsstrunk, Sabine

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, color encoding strategies for different image database applications are discussed. The color image workflow is examined in detail, and master and derivative file encoding strategies are outlined in relation to capture, maintenance, and deployment of image files. For the most common image database purposes, recommendations are given as to which type of color encoding is most suitable. Advantages and disadvantages of sensor, input-referred, output-referred, and output device spec...

  4. Learning human multimodal dialogue strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Rieser, V.; Lemon, O.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the use of different machine learning methods in combination with feature selection techniques to explore human multimodal dialogue strategies and the use of those strategies for automated dialogue systems. We learn policies from data collected in a Wizard-of-Oz study where different human 'wizards' decide whether to ask a clarification request in a multimodal manner or else to use speech alone. We first describe the data collection, the coding scheme and annotated corpus, and ...

  5. Recycling - Danish Waste Management Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romann, Anne Funch; Thøgersen, John; Husmer, Lis

    The report challanges recycling as the only waste handling strategy. The tonnes of recycled materials should not be the only goal - it is essential to minimize the waste production and focus on eliminating hazardous materials.......The report challanges recycling as the only waste handling strategy. The tonnes of recycled materials should not be the only goal - it is essential to minimize the waste production and focus on eliminating hazardous materials....

  6. Cognitive Strategies and Skill Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-09

    again was found to be the most effective strategy technique. The serial position curve was obtained, with a strong primacy effect and a slight recency ...VWith the SPA (Singer, Ridsdale, E Korienek, 1979c), and 10 positions, the typical primacy - recency effect generally exhibited during serial recall...kinesthesis, rhythm, anticipation, etc., were studied alone and in combination. Different strategies were found to be effective , depending on the task and the

  7. Adaptation, the Paramount Communication Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastin Georges L.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In Translation Studies as well as in any other discipline dealing with human communication, we can assume without any doubts that adaptation is the most efficient communicational strategy. Although it is a tactical tool used to solve isolated communicational problems or conflicts, it is far and foremost a strategy with a long term general purpose closely related to a communicational and even a lifelong project.

  8. Can NATO Practice Grand Strategy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfoed, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    In its intervention in Libya, not only did NATO fail to produce a military strategy and a campaign plan before commencing military operations, what is more worrisome was the lack of political guidance to and control of the Joint Task Force.......In its intervention in Libya, not only did NATO fail to produce a military strategy and a campaign plan before commencing military operations, what is more worrisome was the lack of political guidance to and control of the Joint Task Force....

  9. ALTERNATE PRICING STRATEGIES IN CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Mochtar

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research findings on pricing strategies both in general and in construction are reviewed and explored. First%2C pricing strategy in general%2C mostly in the manufacturing industry%2C is reviewed. It includes the concepts of pricing strategy%2C predatory pricing%2C price wars%2C and price policy development. Second%2C pricing strategy in construction is explored. It includes various pricing models for bid price determination%2C such as the Friedman-Gates models%2C expected utility models%2C risk-pricing model%2C and the crew-day%2C multiple regression%2C and fuzzy-set pricing models. In conclusion%2C pricing strategies in construction are still predominantly based on a cost-based approach. More recent models try to close the gap between the models and the real life conditions of a bidder%5C%27s decision-making process. It appears that there are more problems in cost-based pricing as opposed to market-based pricing. Consequently%2C it is highly recommended that%2C alternative pricing approach such as that are closer to the proposed market-based pricing model need to be explored and developed for use in the construction industry. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Pricing+strategy%2C+cost-based+pricing%2C+market-based+pricing.

  10. Language Learning Strategies: An Holistic View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Carol; Cansiz, Gökhan

    2015-01-01

    The language learning strategy question has been debated on a number of levels, including definition, the strategy/success relationship and strategy coordination. In addition, awareness has been steadily growing of the importance of taking an holistic view of the strategy phenomenon and examining strategies not just in isolation but as part of an…

  11. Communication Strategies in the Written Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xhaferi, Brikena

    2012-01-01

    The field of second language acquisition has distinguished between two types of strategies: learning strategies and communication strategies. Learning strategies deal with the receptive domain of intake, memory, storage, and recall. Communication strategies pertain to the employment of verbal and nonverbal mechanisms for the productive…

  12. Investigating the Alignment of Concurrent Design Strategies with Business Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidar Mirfakhredini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, managing the interface between design and other activities has received considerable attention. Effective coordination among these areas is therefore vital for effectiveness of the organization. The ideal situation would be continuous interdepartmental contact with well-developed channels of communication. In this study, the best strategy for product design department has been chosen using the strategic formulation framework with fuzzy approach. Subsequently, alignment of each functional design strategy with SAPCO business strategies has been explained. Findings indicate that developing partnerships with global automotive and engineering design companies and building strategic alliances with rival firms to achieve competitive advantages have maximum alignment with business strategies. In addition, findings provide a basis for firms in evaluating the concurrent design strategies and a reference for them to strengthen their concurrent capabilities. There are few reports on sustained use of concurrent design as an on-going strategic process in an organization. This study aims at contributing to the concurrent design solutions.

  13. Are mothers' protective attachment strategies related to their children's strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crittenden, Patricia M; Robson, Katrina; Tooby, Alison; Fleming, Charles

    2017-07-01

    We explored the relation between mothers' protective attachment strategies and those of their school-age children. In total, 49 child-mother dyads participated in a short longitudinal study when the children were 5.5 and 6.0 years old. Their strategies were first assessed with the Preschool Assessment of Attachment (PAA) and then with the School-age Assessment of Attachment (SAA). Mothers were assessed with the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). The Dynamic-Maturational Model of Attachment and Adaptation (DMM) was used to classify the assessments. The validity and precision of the DMM-AAI were supported: Mothers' AAI classifications were related to their referral group (normative or clinical) and measures of stress and distress. The DMM categories were more associated with risk than the Ainsworth categories. Types A, C and A/C were differentiated by trauma, triangulation and depression. Mothers' and children's protective attachment strategies were related, with B mothers having B children and A or C mothers having children using the same or opposite strategy. Children whose classification changed from the PAA to the SAA had mothers with complex traumas. When psychosocial treatment is needed, knowing whether mother and child use the same or different strategies and whether mothers have complex trauma can affect treatment success.

  14. Waste Management Strategy in The Netherlands. Part 3. Strategy Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haverkate, B.R.W

    2003-05-05

    This report reflects the Dutch input prepared in the framework of work package 3 of the EU thematic network COMPAS, which dealt with the evaluation and comparison of waste management strategies in EU member states and their applicant countries. Based on three generic decision trees the current strategy as well as the reason(s) for the selected options regarding radioactive waste management in The Netherlands is extensively described in this report. The trees are represented in terms of (numbered) decision nodes. Each node is discussed in the context of the Dutch situation, with relevant potential outcomes being highlighted where possible. After a short introduction (chapter 1) followed by a brief waste management policy overview (chapter 2), this approach is considered, in chapter 3, for: spent nuclear fuel and high level waste; low and intermediate level waste; disposal strategy.

  15. Strategies of Regional Development Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Włodarczyk

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the process of strategic planning the strategy of development as well as applications realizing it are formulated. Planning is the basis for preparing and taking decisions referring to principles, trends and the pace of far-reaching development. Elaboration of the strategy of regional development management is the undertaking of large scale complexity. It comprises decisions referring to development perspectives, formulating purposes and determining (choice the methods of their realization, analysis of social and political conditions, collecting and processing the information. Conditioning of defining the strategy has a versatile character. None of the above-mentioned areas can be regarded as less important. The purpose of this study is to attempt to identify basic problems of forming the strategy of regional development management. The study contains a brief description of planning regional development on the basis of the literature of the subject, and then empirical verification of the accepted hypothesis. Considerations and based upon them conclusions can be useful in working out the strategy of regional development management.

  16. Redesigning Language Learning Strategy Classifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ag. Bambang Setiyadi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current study a total of 79 university students of a 3-month English course participated. This study attempted to explore what learning strategies language Indonesian learners used and how the strategies were classified. To increase the internal consistency of the hypotesized scales, Cronbach Alpha coefficients of internal consistency were computed for each scale of skill-based areas, namely: speaking, listening, reading and writing. Correlation analysis was also conducted to see how variance of speaking, listening, reading and writing in language learning strategy questionnare were correlated. The result shows that each skill-based scale has realatively high reliability with alpha .73, .67, .69, .80 for listening, speaking, reading, and writing respectively. It is also found out that the four scales are significantly and positively correlated. The classification of learning strategies based on the language skills is a new way of learning strategy measurement, which may be worth considering in the Indonesian context in which English is learned as a foreign language.

  17. Strategy Of Translating Gadget Brochure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deny Kusuma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The title of this writing is strategy of translating gadget brochure. There were two problems discussed in this thesis, namely (1 terms found in the gadget manual book and its equivalence in Indonesia, (2 strategies applied in translating gadget brochure. Based on the analysis result, it was found that the terms and its equivalent words found in the gadget brochure were classified based on: 1 simple words or compound words and terminology forming phrase. 2 words category found are: noun and verb. The recommended pattern to determine the equivalent word was pure borrowing strategy, not adaptation borrowing strategy. The adaptation borrowing in this context was related to the spellings, the pronunciation or sound adaptation in the TL rather than adaptation for the cultural substitutes that conceptually mismatches with the standardized terminology in the SL. In addition, the result of the analysis that there were seven strategies found in gadget brochure, they were translation by more general word (Superordinate, translation by a more neutral/expressive word, translation by cultural substitution, translation by using loan word or loan word plus explanation, translation by paraphrase using related word, translation by omission and translation by illustration.

  18. Strategy Scriptions: On sociomaterial devices staging strategy formulation European Management Journal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ole Uhrskov

    2014-01-01

    Strategy formulation can be viewed as an entanglement of social and material elements, developing sociomaterial strategy devices. Devices contribute to arranging and staging occasions of strategy formulation. The article investigates which arenas are staged for strategy formulation, which types o...

  19. Acculturation and cognitive performance of migrant children in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Vijver, FJR; Helms-Lorenz, M; Feltzer, MJA

    Acculturative strategies and cognitive acculturation were studied among 118 Dutch migrant children (age: 7-12 years). Both an exploratory factor analysis and a Linear Logistic Test Model analysis provided evidence for the bipolar unidimensionality of Berry's four acculturation strategies;

  20. Design Strategy and Software Design Effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, A.; van Vliet, H.

    2012-01-01

    A study of software design activities establishes four archetypical strategies that apply under different circumstances. Designers can consider these strategies among their early design decisions. © 2012, IEEE

  1. Strategies to prevent underage drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komro, Kelli A; Toomey, Traci L

    2002-01-01

    Alcohol use by underage drinkers is a persistent public health problem in the United States, and alcohol is the most commonly used drug among adolescents. Accordingly, numerous approaches have been developed and studied that aim to prevent underage drinking. Some approaches are school based, involving curricula targeted at preventing alcohol, tobacco, or marijuana use. Other approaches are extracurricular, offering activities outside of school in the form of social or life skills training or alternative activities. Other strategies strive to involve the adolescents' families in the prevention programs. Policy strategies also have been implemented that have increased the minimum legal drinking age, reduced the commercial and social access of adolescents to alcohol, and reduced the economic availability of alcohol. Approaches involving the entire community also have been employed. Several programs (e.g., the Midwestern Prevention Project and Project Northland) have combined many of these strategies.

  2. Strategi Periklanan pada Bisnis Retail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veny Ari Sejati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyze the benefits of advertising strategy of Poundland. The method used is a qualitative approach because its ability to produce an in-depth description to obtain an authentic understanding of the experience of the people concerned. The study found that Poundland conducted intensive advertising by utilizing important moments such as Halloween, Christmas, Mother Day, etc using Internet media, social media, and e-mail sent 1-2 times per week. Poundland also employs other media such as word of mouth spread among students. Catalog is also used as the print media to reach the consumers. Poundland uses communication technology and take advantage of important moments for advertising strategy. This description can be a reference for retail businesses in Indonesia to pay attention to important events in Indonesia such as national moments and utilizing non-traditional communication technologies as an advertising strategy.

  3. The transnational strategies of migrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Connie Carøe

    both these suggestions obviously have some resonance, against them goes the observation that those who take up transnational strategies are active and most capable of succeeding and managing their lives in the receiving society. In other words, the transnational engagements of migrants...... to explain. It has been suggested that transnational strategies are applied as a safety net to substitute for prospects of a secure future in the receiving society. Solidarities or obligations, sometimes in the shape of a social contract between stayers and leavers of a family, are another suggestion. While......, and on the other women’s Islamic activism, carried out by young women of Moroccan descent. What are the motivations for these migrants to engage in transnational strategies? Are transnational activities a sort of escape from defeats in the receiving society for the migrants in question or could transnational...

  4. Ventilatory strategies in trauma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubhangi Arora

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung injury in trauma patients can occur because of direct injury to lung or due to secondary effects of injury elsewhere for example fat embolism from a long bone fracture, or due to response to a systemic insult such as; acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS secondary to sepsis or transfusion related lung injury. There are certain special situations like head injury where the primary culprit is not the lung, but the brain and the ventilator strategy is aimed at preserving the brain tissue and the respiratory system takes a second place. The present article aims to delineate the strategies addressing practical problems and challenges faced by intensivists dealing with trauma patients with or without healthy lungs. The lung protective strategies along with newer trends in ventilation are discussed. Ventilatory management for specific organ system trauma are highlighted and their physiological base is presented.

  5. Alan Greenspan, the confidence strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Le Heron

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the Greenspan era, we nevertheless need to address three questions: Is his success due to talent or just luck? Does he have a system of monetary policy or is he himself the system? What will be his legacy? Greenspan was certainly lucky, but he was also clairvoyant. Above all, he has developed a profoundly original monetary policy. His confidence strategy is clearly opposed to the credibility strategy developed in central banks and the academic milieu after 1980, but also inflation targeting, which today constitutes the mainstream monetary policy regime. The question of his legacy seems more nuanced. However, Greenspan will remain 'for a considerable period of time' a highly heterodox and original central banker. His political vision, his perception of an uncertain world, his pragmatism and his openness form the structure of a powerful alternative system, the confidence strategy, which will leave its mark on the history of monetary policy.

  6. Optimal strategies for throwing accurately

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkadesan, M.; Mahadevan, L.

    2017-04-01

    The accuracy of throwing in games and sports is governed by how errors in planning and initial conditions are propagated by the dynamics of the projectile. In the simplest setting, the projectile path is typically described by a deterministic parabolic trajectory which has the potential to amplify noisy launch conditions. By analysing how parabolic trajectories propagate errors, we show how to devise optimal strategies for a throwing task demanding accuracy. Our calculations explain observed speed-accuracy trade-offs, preferred throwing style of overarm versus underarm, and strategies for games such as dart throwing, despite having left out most biological complexities. As our criteria for optimal performance depend on the target location, shape and the level of uncertainty in planning, they also naturally suggest an iterative scheme to learn throwing strategies by trial and error.

  7. Niche-specific cognitive strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgard, K.; Ratcliffe, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Related species with different diets are predicted to rely on different cognitive strategies: those best suited for locating available and appropriate foods. Here we tested two predictions of the niche-specific cognitive strategies hypothesis in bats, which suggests that predatory species should......, these would interfere with their subsequent learning of a spatial memory task. We trained free-flying Myotis nattereri to approach palatable and unpalatable insect prey suspended below polystyrene objects. Experimentally naive bats learned to associate different objects with palatable and unpalatable prey...... the niche-specific cognitive strategies hypothesis and suggest that for gleaning and clutter-resistant aerial hawking bats, learning to associate shape with food interferes with subsequent spatial memory learning....

  8. Naesliden project: FEM modelling strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, T.

    1980-05-15

    A schematized description is given of the different stages in the project. The aim is to show the development of the project and the strategies which have been chosen. The four different stages in the project are treated from the following points of view: the reasons for the choice of material models; the determination of model properties; and the control of the calculated values. In the origin plan for the project it was stated to only use a joint element model. However, it was shown to be a reasonable strategy to use both a general linear elastic model and a geometric restricted model with joint elements. During the course of the Project's development stages, it was found that a reduction in the number of rock types could be made without loss of generality. A modified strategy is suggested based on more studies of the rock bahavior and less advanced calculations in the first stages of the project.

  9. Schools for Strategy: Teaching Strategy for 21st Century Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    they comprise a gestalt . The paradox arises in the inalienable and simultaneous essential unity of strategy and tactics, and their no less...conceptual, organizational, technical, tactical, logistic, and social, issues—to specify only some of the categories— positively invites the marketing

  10. The Media Strategy Game : Fostering Discussion on Media Strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charlotte van Nus; Rogier Brussee; Jeroen Nobel; Dr. H.M.M. van Vliet

    2013-01-01

    All social media should have a sticker saying 'Don't Jump for the Tool!' While it is tempting 'to use Twitter', the choice of a medium like Twitter cannot be seen in isolation of strategic goals, instruments and expected results, i.e. a communication strategy. We designed a board game, called the

  11. Regional strategies for global leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghemawat, Pankaj

    2005-12-01

    The leaders of such global powerhouses as GE, Wal-Mart, and Toyota seem to have grasped two crucial truths: First, far from becoming submerged by the rising tide of globalization, geographic and other regional distinctions may in fact be increasing in importance. Second, regionally focused strategies, used in conjunction with local and global initiatives, can significantly boost a company's performance. The business and economic data reveal a highly regionalized world. For example, trade within regions, rather than across them, drove the surge of international commerce in the second half of the twentieth century. Regionalization is also apparent in foreign direct investment, companies' international sales, and competition among the world's largest multinationals. Harvard Business School Professor Pankaj Ghemawat says that the most successful companies employ five types of regional strategies in addition to--or even instead of--global ones: home base, portfolio, hub, platform, and mandate. Some companies adopt the strategies in sequence, but the most nimble switch from one to another and combine approaches as their markets and businesses evolve. At Toyota, for example, exports from the home base continue to be substantial even as the company builds up an international manufacturing presence. And as Toyota achieves economies of scale and scope with a strong network of hubs, the company also pursues economies of specialization through interregional mandates. Embracing regional strategies requires flexibility and creativity. A company must decide what constitutes a region, choose the most appropriate strategies, and mesh those strategies with the organization's existing structures. In a world that is neither truly global nor truly local, finding ways of coordinating within and across regions can deliver a powerful competitive advantage.

  12. Social Systems: Resources and Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Brazhnikov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This theoretical article reviews the model describing processes in social systems based on the analysis of their resource base. Application of the system theory can help to explain why some systems are aimed at prevention of type I errors, while others seek to decrease the quantity of type II errors. Such differences are manifested in investment of resources either into deep interaction or into wide coverage. Some examples of such strategies in economic, market and production systems are provided in the article. The article introduces some provisions of the system theory in the context of the resource flows. The main indicators that are considered in this article are the characteristics of the sources of the exchanging flows of resources. Their relative frequency and quality are investigated; on the basis of which the most effective strategy of the system is derived; as a mechanism for redistribution of resources. The rigor of the system’s strategy depends on the magnitude of the difference in characteristics. It is explained how exactly it influences the exchange processes, that in reality systems do not interact simultaneously and one of the opposite resource flows is always delayed. It is shown how the system strategy depends on the risks linked with interactions. Also, there are grounds for the need to accumulate resources, including in the situation of their surplus. The model helps also explain shift of economic centers throughout history. Additionally, there is an analogy between systems strategies and the competitive strategies described by M. Porter and outsourcing versus integration.

  13. Strategy, culture and innovation performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    do Nascimento Gambi, Lillian; Boer, Harry

    2015-01-01

    Firms strive for improving their performance, and organizational culture has been recognized as an important driver of better performance. In parallel, strategy is viewed as an important contextual variable that influences organizational culture as well as performance. This study has two main goals......: (1) investigating the relationship between strategic practices and innovation performance, and (2) determining if strategy has a direct and/or an indirect, culture-mediated effect on innovation performance, and if this effect varies across strategic practices and culture profiles. The research model...

  14. Maintenance as a corporate strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, D

    2000-11-01

    As we move towards the 21st century, those Manufacturing Industries that survive, will have changed their "efficiency" focus away from the conventional wisdom of "efficient individual tasks", to focus on the "effectiveness of a total manufacturing process". This seemingly insignificant change of emphasis, (from task to process) must include "the integration of process plant maintenance into the production process". Manufacturing companies, which do not include an effective plant maintenance strategy into their business strategy, will not survive the business environment of the 21st Century.

  15. CULTURAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP STRATEGIES IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Tohidy Ardahaey

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article initially deals with the concepts of entrepreneurship, cultural entrepreneurship and its importance in the field of culture. Then, identifying the factors of cultural entrepreneurshipstrategies, it offers some models for assessing cultural entrepreneurship strategies and benchmarking it. Afterwards, it tries to reform and standardize the presented model through questioning experts and elite of the profession. It is concluded that there is a significant difference between the mean ranks of the implementation factors of the entrepreneurship strategy which is detailed through the work.

  16. Disputing strategies in medieval Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In Scandinavia the study of disputes is still a relatively new topic: The papers offered here discuss how conflicts were handled in Scandinavian societies in the Middle Ages before the emergence of strong centralized states. What strategies did people use to contest power, property, rights, honour......, and other kinds of material or symbolic assets? Seven essays by Scandinavian scholars are supplemented by contributions from Stephen White, John Hudson and Gerd Althoff, to provide a new baseline for discussing both the strategies pursued in the political game and those used to settle local disputes. Using...

  17. Security Problems of Communicative Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena B. Perelygina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The main directions of safety formation in communication strategies are connected with their adaptation to the conditions of social and psychological variability. Building up a communicative strategy is a versatile process, in which it is necessary to consider a wide spectrum of social and psychological parameters, especially topical in the modern period of social development. Forms of social interactions in schematic formats of contemporary social and economic revolution are reduced, social and functional potentials are depleted, mass society is further differentiating, the pace of historic changes is growing, all this determines the necessity to prepare changes in personality structures to the dynamics of social and fluidity.

  18. Upgrade trigger: Bandwidth strategy proposal

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, Conor; Meloni, Simone; Boettcher, Thomas Julian; Whitehead, Mark Peter; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Vesterinen, Mika Anton

    2017-01-01

    This document describes a selection strategy for the upgrade trigger using charm signals as a benchmark. The Upgrade trigger uses a 'Run 2-like' sequence consisting of a first and second stage, in between which the calibration and alignment is performed. The first stage, HLT1, uses an inclusive strategy to select beauty and charm decays, while the second stage uses offline-quality exclusive selections. A novel genetic algorithm-based bandwidth division is performed at the second stage to distribute the output bandwidth among different physics channels, maximising the efficiency for useful physics events. The performance is then studied as a function of the available output bandwidth.

  19. ACE Strategy with Virtual Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tichy

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cochlear implant is an electronic device, which can mediate hearing sensations to profoundly deaf people. Contemporary cochlear implants are sophisticated electronic devices; however, their performance could still be improved. This paper describes an experiment we made in that direction: additional 21 virtual channels were implemented by sequential stimulation of adjacent intracochlear electrodes, and the ACE strategy with virtual channels (ACEv, Advanced Combination Encoder strategy with virtual channels for the Nucleus® 24 Cochlear Implant System was created and verified in a clinical test with four patients.

  20. Bio-Inspired Antifouling Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, Chelsea M.; Brennan, Anthony B.

    2012-08-01

    Biofouling is a complex, dynamic problem that globally impacts both the economy and environment. Interdisciplinary research in marine biology, polymer science, and engineering has led to the implementation of bio-inspired strategies for the development of the next generation of antifouling marine coatings. Natural fouling defense mechanisms have been mimicked through chemical, physical, and/or stimuli-responsive strategies. This review outlines the detrimental effects associated with biofouling, describes the theoretical basis for antifouling coating design, and highlights prominent advances in bio-inspired antifouling technologies.

  1. Feedback strategies for wireless communication

    CERN Document Server

    Ozbek, Berna

    2014-01-01

    This book explores the different strategies regarding the feedback information for wireless communication systems. The text analyzes the impact of quantization and correlation of channel state information (CSI) on the system performance. The authors show the effect of the reduced and limited feedback information and gives an overview about the feedback strategies in the standards. This volume presents theoretical analysis as well as practical algorithms for the required feedback information at the base stations to perform adaptive resource allocation efficiently and mitigate interference coming from other cells.

  2. A belief-based evolutionarily stable strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xinyang; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Qi; Deng, Yong; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2014-11-21

    As an equilibrium refinement of the Nash equilibrium, evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) is a key concept in evolutionary game theory and has attracted growing interest. An ESS can be either a pure strategy or a mixed strategy. Even though the randomness is allowed in mixed strategy, the selection probability of pure strategy in a mixed strategy may fluctuate due to the impact of many factors. The fluctuation can lead to more uncertainty. In this paper, such uncertainty involved in mixed strategy has been further taken into consideration: a belief strategy is proposed in terms of Dempster-Shafer evidence theory. Furthermore, based on the proposed belief strategy, a belief-based ESS has been developed. The belief strategy and belief-based ESS can reduce to the mixed strategy and mixed ESS, which provide more realistic and powerful tools to describe interactions among agents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. One or two serological assay testing strategy for diagnosis of HBV and HCV infection? The use of predictive modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John V. Parry

    2017-11-01

    for a one-assay serological testing strategy in most testing settings and populations (≥0.4% prevalence in population tested. A one-test strategy results in few failures to diagnose infection and, although it is associated under most assumptions with a sub-optimal PPV, benefits include greater simplicity, easier implementation, lower costs and better feasibility, uptake and linkage to care. Furthermore, prior to antiviral therapy all those diagnosed either HBsAg or anti-HCV positive will require confirmation of viræmia, preventing unnecessary treatment of those who may be false positive on serology. For HBsAg, in low-prevalence settings (≤0.4%, a second recommendation was made to consider a two-assay testing strategy, using a confirmatory neutralization step or a second different HBsAg assay.

  4. Corporate Strategy an Evolutionary Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellman, Philip V.

    As Richard Rumelt indicates in his book, "Fundamental Issues in Strategy: A Research Agenda", corporate strategy is a relatively recent discipline. While pioneers in the field like B.H. Liddell Hart and Bruce Henderson (later to found the Boston Consulting Group and creator of the famous BCG Growth-Share Matrix) began their research during the Second World War, the modern field of business strategy as an academic discipline, taught in schools and colleges of business emerged rather later. Rumelt provides an interesting chronicle in the introduction to his volume by noting that historically corporate strategy, even when taught as a capstone course, was not really an organized discipline. Typically, depending on the school's location and resources, the course would either be taught by the senior most professor in the department or by an outside lecturer from industry. The agenda tended to be very much instructor specific and idiosyncratic rather than drawing in any systematized fashion upon the subject matter of an organized discipline.

  5. New Strategies in Cancer Nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Rong; Kohane, Daniel S

    2016-01-01

    We review recent progress in cancer nanomedicine, including stimulus-responsive drug delivery systems and nanoparticles responding to light for phototherapy or tumor imaging. In addition, several new strategies to improve the circulation of nanoparticles in vivo, tumor penetration, and tumor targeting are discussed. The application of nanomedicine in cancer immunology, a relatively new type of cancer therapy, is also highlighted.

  6. RAFT polymerization mediated bioconjugation strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Bulmuş, Volga

    2011-01-01

    This review aims to highlight the use of RAFT polymerization in the synthesis of polymer bioconjugates. It covers two main bioconjugation strategies using the RAFT process: (i) post-polymerization bioconjugations using pre-synthesized reactive polymers, and (ii) bioconjugations via in situ polymerization using biomolecule-modified monomers or chain transfer agents. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  7. Concurrentie & strategie in de geneesmiddelensector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Snier (Henk)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this study is to investigate competition and strategy in the Dutch pharmaceutical sector. Therefore, this study introduces Porters Five Basic Forces model (1980, 1985) to analyze competition in three separate (but connected) industries in the pharmaceutical sector, namely the

  8. Youth Suicide: An Intervention Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, James L.

    1987-01-01

    Suggests school and university intervention strategies for preventing suicides among youths, proposed following a series of teenage suicides in Minnesota: closer liaison and backup for the school counselor, peer counseling services, in-school support groups, faculty in-service on suicide, curricular introduction to coping skills and identification…

  9. Trading strategies of corporate insiders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, O.; Maug, E.; Schneider, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    We test two complementary theories of optimal trading strategies by analyzing the transaction patterns of corporate insiders. According to information-based theories, investors trade faster if they compete with others for exploiting the same information, while liquidity-based theories predict the

  10. Department of Defense Arctic Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    shipping, and tourism —is increasing in response to the growing accessibility. Arctic and non-Arctic nations are establishing their strategies and...international collaboration. DoD will take steps to work with other Federal departments and agencies to improve nautical charts, enhance relevant atmospheric

  11. Strategy for Syntax Error Recovering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry F Báez

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a new strategy for syntax error recovering for a compiler that does not have instruction separators like ";" or opening and closing brackets like "{" and "}". This strategy is based on 4 steps. 1. Find a set of tokens (called ACEPTA set for each non terminal symbol of the grammar. 2. During the syntax analysis of each non terminal symbol, eliminate the tokens that are not in the ACEPTA set. 3. Eliminate repeated tokens that are not accepted by the grammar, and 4. Complete symbols in the syntax analysis with the hope that the token that has not been erased later will match with a terminal symbol expected by the syntax analyser; otherwise the symbol will be eliminated in some particular productions. The strategy for sintax error recovering is a method that can be used in whatever not ambiguos context free grammar includying those that use instruction separators like ";". It is implemented with an algorithm and it is much more easy to implement than other strategies for syntax error recovering like those based on stacks.

  12. Refining analgesia strategies using lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampshire, Victoria

    2015-08-01

    Sound programs for the humane care and use of animals within research facilities incorporate experimental refinements such as multimodal approaches for pain management. These approaches can include non-traditional strategies along with more established ones. The use of lasers for pain relief is growing in popularity among companion animal veterinary practitioners and technologists. Therefore, its application in the research sector warrants closer consideration.

  13. Strategies for Teaching Internet Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Martha H.

    2002-01-01

    Ten strategies for teaching Internet ethics are as follows: establish acceptable use policy; communicate ethical codes; model behaviors and values; encourage discussion of ethical issues; reinforce ethical conduct; monitor student behavior; secure systems and software; discourage surfing without supervision; monitor e-mail and websites; and…

  14. Strategy as Mutually Contingent Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Martin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Schelling’s The Strategy of Conflict carries significant behavioral implications which have been overlooked by economic readers. I argue that these implications are central to Schelling’s vision of game theory, that they fit well with recent advances in experimental psychology and behavioral economics, and provide a comprehensive framework that can inform research on strategy. In my view, Schelling develops a non-mathematical approach to strategy which anticipates on Gigerenzer and Selten’s “ecological rationality” program. This approach maps the processes involved in strategic reasoning and highlights their reliance on the particular information structure of interactive social environments. Building on this approach, I model strategy as a heuristic form of reasoning that governs the way in which individuals search for and provide cues in situations of mutually contingent choice. I conclude by examining how the reference to ecological rationality can help clarify Schelling’s contribution to game theory and outline potential avenues of research into strategic reasoning and interaction.

  15. Moving toward Biobehavioral Prevention Strategie

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Brown University School of Public Health, 121 South Main St, Providence RI 02912 USA. *For Correspondence: E-mail: abigail_harrison@brown.edu; Phone: 014018636183. Abstract. This paper addresses current and emerging HIV prevention strategies for women in Sub-Saharan Africa, in light of recent trial results and ...

  16. Military Strategy vs. Military Doctrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfoed, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    The article argues that while doctrine represents the more scientific side of warfare, strategy represents the artistic side. Existing doctrine will almost never meet the requirements for winning the next war; it is through the artistic application of generic peacetime doctrine to the specific...

  17. Instructional Strategies Online Database (ISOD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Dodi; Mandlebaum, Linda Higbee; Boff, Colleen; Miller, Mitch

    2007-01-01

    This article describes an online database of evidence-based learning strategies for students. The database is a quick resource written in user-friendly language for teachers of all students but may be especially useful for teachers of students with disabilities.

  18. Multinational Corporate Strategy-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul; Andersson, Ulf

    2017-01-01

    the complementary effects of central planning and decentralized decision-making. We present and synthesize these rather field specific perspectives and try to synthesize insights from both fields in an adaptive strategy-making model including the effects of autonomous subsidiary initiatives and intended mandates...

  19. MUET Preparation Language Learning Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoong Li Kuen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the study was to examine the English language learning strategies (LLS used by Lower Six students in secondary schools who are sitting for their MUET test. It analyzed the language learning strategies that students use in order to prepare for the MUET test. Data were collected using a survey questionnaire with 300 students. The instrument used in this study called “MUET Preparation Language Strategy Use Inventory” is an adapted and bilingual questionnaire designed by Cohen, Oxford and Chi (2005 known as Language Strategy Use Inventory. Forty items were analyzed and they comprised of the four skills tested in MUET which is listening, speaking, reading and writing. Data were analyzed by performing frequency analysis. The findings revealed that the listening skill is the most frequently used, while the writing skill is the least frequently used. Only the listening skill has high frequency of use, while the reading, speaking and writing skills fall under the range of moderate frequency of use. There were variations in responses with regard to the use of LLS among Form Six students in secondary schools. The findings had practical implications.

  20. Probiotics in transition: novel strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosálbez, Luis; Ramón, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Regulations regarding health claims made for probiotics demand their proven effectiveness and limit the array of microbial species regarded as safe for live consumption. Novel strategies such as moving to postbiotics and genetically modified probiotics may be necessary to increase the effectiveness of microbial products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Strategies for Successful Clinical Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koharchik, Linda; Redding, Sharon R

    2016-07-01

    This article is one in a series on the roles of adjunct clinical faculty and preceptors, who teach nursing students and new graduates to apply knowledge in clinical settings. This article describes teaching strategies as well as the importance of the learning environment.

  2. Strategy Choices of Potential Entrepreneurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alstete, Jeffrey W.

    2014-01-01

    The author examined the written business plans of 380 students who completed courses in entrepreneurship and small business management over an 11-year period. An analysis categorized the plans into five generic competitive strategy types, and the results found that 58% chose a traditional, focused differentiation approach. A large portion (28%)…

  3. Disputing strategies in medieval Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In Scandinavia the study of disputes is still a relatively new topic: The papers offered here discuss how conflicts were handled in Scandinavian societies in the Middle Ages before the emergence of strong centralized states. What strategies did people use to contest power, property, rights, honour...

  4. Understanding Cognitive Language Learning Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Di Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over time, definitions and taxonomies of language learning strategies have been critically examined. This article defines and classifies cognitive language learning strategies on a more grounded basis. Language learning is a macro-process for which the general hypotheses of information processing are valid. Cognitive strategies are represented by the pillars underlying the encoding, storage and retrieval of information. In order to understand the processes taking place on these three dimensions, a functional model was elaborated from multiple theoretical contributions and previous models: the Smart Processing Model. This model operates with linguistic inputs as well as with any other kind of information. It helps to illustrate the stages, relations, modules and processes that occur during the flow of information. This theoretical advance is a core element to classify cognitive strategies. Contributions from cognitive neuroscience have also been considered to establish the proposed classification which consists of five categories. Each of these categories has a different predominant function: classification, preparation, association, elaboration and transfer-practice. This better founded taxonomy opens the doors to potential studies that would allow a better understanding of the interdisciplinary complexity of language learning. Pedagogical and methodological implications are also discussed.

  5. Self-access learning strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineeva, S. A.

    2004-07-01

    The object of this paper is self-access language learning and facilities self-access learners can use in their target language learning. The focus is on the beliefs of teachers and students, their changing roles in the class, and some self-access strategies and practical ideas to be helpful in the development and maintenance of self-access.

  6. Venture capital and innovation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Da Rin, Marco; Penas, Fabiana

    2017-01-01

    Venture capital investors are specialized financial intermediaries that provide funding for technological innovation with the goal of realizing a capital gain within a few years. We are the first to examine the association of venture capital funding with a company's choice of innovation strategies.

  7. A strategy for company improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley, L

    2000-03-01

    Strategies based on the kaizen methodology are designed to continuously improve company performance without the need for large capital investments. This article looks at how one company used simple kaizen principles to its advantage, achieving 67% increase in productivity and 10% reduction in the standard cost of product.

  8. Disputing strategies in medieval Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , and other kinds of material or symbolic assets? Seven essays by Scandinavian scholars are supplemented by contributions from Stephen White, John Hudson and Gerd Althoff, to provide a new baseline for discussing both the strategies pursued in the political game and those used to settle local disputes. Using...

  9. Funding strategies for wilderness management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolyn Alkire

    2000-01-01

    Funding wilderness protection will continue to be a challenge for public land managers. With continuing competition for federal funds and balanced budget goals, other sources of funds may be necessary to supplement annual federal appropriations. This paper identifies and evaluates five potential funding strategies and provides examples of each that are currently in use...

  10. Venture Capital and Innovation Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Da Rin, Marco; Penas, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Venture capital investors are specialized financial intermediaries that provides funding for technological innovation with the goal of realizing a capital gain within a few years. We are the first to examine the association of venture capital funding with a company’s choice of innovation strategies.

  11. Four Styles of Strategy Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idenburg, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    When considering the number of movements, schools and wars of position, the professional field of strategic management would appear to be maturing. Four views of the strategy development process can be distinguished: rational planning, planning as a guided learning process, planning on the basis of

  12. E-Learning Strategy for Earning Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singaravelu, G.

    2011-01-01

    The study enlightens the effectiveness of e-learning strategy in learning English among the in-service teachers who are studying B.Ed in School of Distance Education, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore. E-learning strategy is a life long learning strategy for earning in-service teachers. It is a strategy of remaining in employment, which can be…

  13. Visual and Analytic Strategies in Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kospentaris, George; Vosniadou, Stella; Kazic, Smaragda; Thanou, Emilian

    2016-01-01

    We argue that there is an increasing reliance on analytic strategies compared to visuospatial strategies, which is related to geometry expertise and not on individual differences in cognitive style. A Visual/Analytic Strategy Test (VAST) was developed to investigate the use of visuo-spatial and analytic strategies in geometry in 30 mathematics…

  14. Homosexuality in Turkey: strategies for managing heterosexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakacak, Ayça Gelgeç; Oktem, Pinar

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the strategies used by young homosexuals to manage their sexual minority status in Turkey. In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 self-identified homosexual university students. The data on the strategies employed by homosexuals suggested a categorization of these strategies into four interrelated areas: strategies employed in the process of self-acceptance; strategies to manage sexual stigma and prejudice; strategies specific to the coming-out process; and the strategies used while openly expressing their sexual identities.

  15. The concept of Ideal Strategy & its realization using White Ocean Mixed Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Sreeramana Aithal

    2016-01-01

    Strategic planning and decision making have an important role in organizational development and sustainability. Various types of strategies are used in strategic management such as Red ocean strategy, Blue ocean strategy, Green ocean strategy, Purple ocean strategy and Black ocean strategy. These strategies are used in organizations by top level executive managers for long-term organizational sustainability and to face or deviate from the competition. Based on organizational analy...

  16. The concept of Ideal Strategy and its realization using White Ocean Mixed Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Aithal, Sreeramana

    2016-01-01

    Strategic planning and decision making have an important role in organizational development and sustainability. Various types of strategies are used in strategic management such as Red ocean strategy, Blue ocean strategy, Green ocean strategy, Purple ocean strategy and Black ocean strategy. These strategies are used in organizations by top level executive managers for long term organizational sustainability and to face or deviate from the competition. Based on the organizational analysis, it...

  17. Language Learning Strategies ff EFL Learners

    OpenAIRE

    YAPICI, Gökhan Edge; BADA, Dr. Erdoğan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe individual language learning strategies employed by EFL learners graduate students of social sciences SS and basic applied sciences SA at Çukurova University The study also targets to compare the two groups in terms of strategy use in order to observe if there are any differences in the use of strategy type The strategy types to be dealt with here are metacognitive cognitive and social affective Key Words: Language Learning Strategies Learnin...

  18. Suggestions for Customer Strategy Updates : Finnish Customs

    OpenAIRE

    Kaisto, Raisa

    2014-01-01

    The case organization Finnish Customs wanted to be provided with new suggestions for their customer strategy updates. The first objective of this study was to study how the needs of the partnership and key customers are met in the customer strategy and provide suggestions for improvements. Another objective was to research the legislation influencing the customer strategy development. The customer strategy was created in 2004 and it was combined with other strategies in 2013. The customer...

  19. Water Saving Strategies & Ecological Modernisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Birgitte; Jensen, Jesper Ole; Elle, Morten

    2005-01-01

    -tainable water management. The paper focuses on the experiences from different water saving initiatives carried out since the mid 80s relating them to some central aspects of Ecological Modernisation theories: · Demands for tools and targets · New tasks and roles for suppliers, consumers and stakeholders...... to 125 l/capita/day in 2002. A series of different strategies, targets and tools have been implemented: Emphasizing demand side instead of supply side, using and communicating indicators, formulating goals for reducing water consumption and developing learning processes in water management. A main......Drawing on case studies of water saving campaigns and new collaborations, the pa-per will serve, on the one hand, as an interpretation of the water saving strategy in Co-penhagen in the light of Ecological Modernisation, and on the other hand, as a critical discussion of Ecological Modernisation...

  20. Strategies for Aging in Place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Dupuis-Blanchard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For healthy and independent older adults, aging in place can be seen as identical to any other adult living at home. Little is known about how frail seniors, particularly those who speak a minority language, manage the challenges of aging in place. The present qualitative descriptive study explores the strategies that Canadian French-speaking seniors have put in place to counter their loss of independence and promote their ability to stay in their home. Semistructured individual interviews were conducted with 39 older adults and transcribed, followed by content analysis to identify common themes related to study objectives. Six themes emerged in response to strategies described for aging in place. Findings reveal the limited extent to which language issues were perceived as a barrier by participants. In conclusion, the results of this study provide us with fruitful insights to guide community nursing practice, future research, and public policy.

  1. European strategies for mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fiandra, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    The most recent developments of strategies and policies in the mental health field in Europe are related to the World Health Organization (WHO) Declaration and Action Plan on Mental Health signed by all the Ministers of Health of all Member States in the European Region (2005). The Action Plan proposes ways and means of developing comprehensive mental health policies, listing 12 areas in which challenges are indicated and detailed actions are required. Afterwards the Green Paper on Mental Health has been launched by the European Commission for the definition of an European strategy. The more precise European Pact for Mental Health and Well-being has been presented in 2008. Many other international bodies (OECD, Council of Europe, etc.) have actively worked to stress the mental health issue. All are clearly referring to the Italian model, started 30 years ago.

  2. Legitimacy Strategy in Institutional Multiplicities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rana, Mohammad Bakhtiar; Marinova, Svetla Trifonova; Sørensen, Olav Jull

    2014-01-01

    . Our study reveals three forms of IV, i.e., system void, value chain void, and void between social need and citizen services, and two broad roles of CS, being an enabler and constrainer that affect MNE operations and survival. We validate four types of legitimacy strategies presented by previous......This paper focuses on ‘institutional void’ (IV) and ‘civil society’ (CS). Investigating five European MNEs in a fragmented business system by using a multiple-case-study method and a sense-making approach, we explore how IV and CS affect MNEs and how MNEs respond to them in pursuit of legitimacy...... research: adaptation, bypass, manipulation, and intervention/innovation. However, the paper goes further by presenting an operational framework for legitimacy strategy, postulating that it is grounded in the ‘corporate commitment’ of MNEs and is operationalized either by ‘corporate initiative...

  3. Strategies for Industrial Multivariable Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hangstrup, M.

    dynamics and gains strongly depend upon one or more physical parameters characterizing the operating point. This class covers many industrial systems such as airplanes, ships, robots and process control systems. Power plant boilers are representatives for process control systems in general. The dynamics...... and gains of power plant boilers strongly depend upon the load (instantaneous power production). This non-linear behavior suggests the use of gain-scheduling. For parameter-varying systems the multivariable control strategies can hence be divided into the following subsequent steps: choice of architecture......, choice of model type and parameter estimation algorithm, choice of LTI controller synthesis framework and choice of gain-scheduling approach. State-of-the-art methods are considered and new results are derived. A specific strategy is chosen for the solution of a power plant control problem....

  4. Machine learning for evolution strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces numerous algorithmic hybridizations between both worlds that show how machine learning can improve and support evolution strategies. The set of methods comprises covariance matrix estimation, meta-modeling of fitness and constraint functions, dimensionality reduction for search and visualization of high-dimensional optimization processes, and clustering-based niching. After giving an introduction to evolution strategies and machine learning, the book builds the bridge between both worlds with an algorithmic and experimental perspective. Experiments mostly employ a (1+1)-ES and are implemented in Python using the machine learning library scikit-learn. The examples are conducted on typical benchmark problems illustrating algorithmic concepts and their experimental behavior. The book closes with a discussion of related lines of research.

  5. Identity style and coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzonsky, M D

    1992-12-01

    This study examined the relationship between identity style and strategies used to cope with stressors that potentially threaten one's sense of identity. Identity style refers to differences in the way individuals construct and revise or maintain their sense of identity. An informational style involves actively seeking out, evaluating, and utilizing self-relevant information. A normative style highlights the expectations and standards of significant others. A diffuse/avoidant style is characterized by procrastination and situation-specific reactions. Late-adolescent college subjects were administered measures of identity style, ways of coping with academic stressors, and test anxiety. Within this self-as-student context, subjects with diffuse and normative identity styles employed avoidant-oriented coping strategies (wishful thinking, distancing, and tension reduction). An informational style was associated with deliberate, problem-focused coping. Findings are discussed in terms of a process model of identity development.

  6. Quantum Locality in Game Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo-Luna, Carlos A; Susa, Cristian E; Ducuara, Andrés F; Barreiro, Astrid; Reina, John H

    2017-03-22

    Game theory is a well established branch of mathematics whose formalism has a vast range of applications from the social sciences, biology, to economics. Motivated by quantum information science, there has been a leap in the formulation of novel game strategies that lead to new (quantum Nash) equilibrium points whereby players in some classical games are always outperformed if sharing and processing joint information ruled by the laws of quantum physics is allowed. We show that, for a bipartite non zero-sum game, input local quantum correlations, and separable states in particular, suffice to achieve an advantage over any strategy that uses classical resources, thus dispensing with quantum nonlocality, entanglement, or even discord between the players' input states. This highlights the remarkable key role played by pure quantum coherence at powering some protocols. Finally, we propose an experiment that uses separable states and basic photon interferometry to demonstrate the locally-correlated quantum advantage.

  7. Search strategies of Wikipedia readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodi, Giovanna Chiara; Loreto, Vittorio; Tria, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    The quest for information is one of the most common activity of human beings. Despite the the impressive progress of search engines, not to miss the needed piece of information could be still very tough, as well as to acquire specific competences and knowledge by shaping and following the proper learning paths. Indeed, the need to find sensible paths in information networks is one of the biggest challenges of our societies and, to effectively address it, it is important to investigate the strategies adopted by human users to cope with the cognitive bottleneck of finding their way in a growing sea of information. Here we focus on the case of Wikipedia and investigate a recently released dataset about users' click on the English Wikipedia, namely the English Wikipedia Clickstream. We perform a semantically charged analysis to uncover the general patterns followed by information seekers in the multi-dimensional space of Wikipedia topics/categories. We discover the existence of well defined strategies in which users tend to start from very general, i.e., semantically broad, pages and progressively narrow down the scope of their navigation, while keeping a growing semantic coherence. This is unlike strategies associated to tasks with predefined search goals, namely the case of the Wikispeedia game. In this case users first move from the 'particular' to the 'universal' before focusing down again to the required target. The clear picture offered here represents a very important stepping stone towards a better design of information networks and recommendation strategies, as well as the construction of radically new learning paths.

  8. Organizational change strategies within healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinke, Claudia; Dastmalchian, Ali; Blyton, Paul; Hasselback, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This study explores ways in which healthcare organizations can improve their organizational fitness for change using Beer and Nohria's framework of Theory E (concentrating on the economic value of change) and Theory O (concentrating on the organization's long-term capabilities for change). Data were collected from senior leaders/medical directors from health regions in Alberta. The results show that even though there is a tendency for reliance on Theory E change strategies, the respondents demonstrated other preferred approaches to change.

  9. Coloration strategies in peacock feathers

    OpenAIRE

    Zi, Jian; Yu, Xindi; Li, Yizhou; Hu, Xinhua; Xu, Chun; Wang, Xingjun; Liu, Xiaohan; Fu, Rongtang

    2003-01-01

    We report the mechanism of color production in peacock feathers. We find that the cortex in differently colored barbules, which contains a 2D photonic-crystal structure, is responsible for coloration. Simulations reveal that the photonic-crystal structure possesses a partial photonic bandgap along the direction normal to the cortex surface, for frequencies within which light is strongly reflected. Coloration strategies in peacock feathers are very ingenious and simple: controlling the lattice...

  10. National HIV/AIDS Strategy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-01

    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, talks about the importance of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy and the work of CDC.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  11. Egypt- Old Ally, New Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY EGYPT – OLD ALLY, NEW STRATEGY by Joshua D. Wright COL USA A Research Report Submitted to the Faculty...In Partial Fulfillment of the Graduation Requirements Advisor: COL Dale C. Kuehl USA 06 April 2017 DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public...aid (calculated in historical dollars—not adjusted for inflation ), including $1.3 billion a year in military aid from 1987 to the present.22 This

  12. Telestroke network business model strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanale, Christopher V; Demaerschalk, Bart M

    2012-10-01

    Our objective is to summarize the evidence that supports the reliability of telemedicine for diagnosis and efficacy in acute stroke treatment, identify strategies for funding the development of a telestroke network, and to present issues with respect to economic sustainability, cost effectiveness, and the status of reimbursement for telestroke. Copyright © 2012 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Auditing Marketing Strategy Implementation Success

    OpenAIRE

    Herhausen, Dennis; Egger, Thomas; Oral, Cansu

    2014-01-01

    What makes a marketing strategy implementation successful and how can managers measure this success? To answer these questions, we developed a two-step audit approach. First, managers should measure the implementation success regarding effectiveness, efficiency, performance outcomes, and strategic embeddedness. Second, they should explore the reasons that have led to success or failure by regarding managerial, leadership, and environmental traps. Doing so will also provide corrective action p...

  14. Innovative Simulation Strategies in Education

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle Aebersold; Dana Tschannen; Melissa Bathish

    2012-01-01

    The use of simulation in the undergraduate nursing curriculum is gaining popularity and is becoming a foundation of many nursing programs. The purpose of this paper is to highlight a new simulation teaching strategy, virtual reality (VR) simulation, which capitalizes on the technological skills of the new generation student. This small-scale pilot study focused on improving interpersonal skills in senior level nursing students using VR simulation. In this study, a repeated-measure design was ...

  15. Polyphasic Sleep and Napping Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADPO10471 TITLE: Polyphasic Sleep and Napping Strategies DISTRIBUTION...report. UNCLASSIFIED hfollowing comonent part numbers A cnprie the 0com ilation report- ADP010453 thru. ADP010473 20-1 Polyphasic Sleep and Napping...Irregular Rest-Work Rhythms/Status of the Use of Drugs in Sleep -Wakefulness Management [les Differences entre individus concernant les facultes d

  16. Strategies that fit emerging markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Tarun; Palepu, Krishna G; Sinha, Jayant

    2005-06-01

    It's no easy task to identify strategies for entering new international markets or to decide which countries to do business with. Many firms simply go with what they know-and fall far short of their goals. Part of the problem is that emerging markets have "institutional voids": They lack specialized intermediaries, regulatory systems, and contract-enforcing methods. These gaps have made it difficult for multinationals to succeed in developing nations; thus, many companies have resisted investing there. That may be a mistake. If Western companies don't come up with good strategies for engaging with emerging markets, they are unlikely to remain competitive. Many firms choose their markets and strategies for the wrong reasons, relying on everything from senior managers' gut feelings to the behaviors of rivals. Corporations also depend on composite indexes for help making decisions. But these analyses can be misleading; they don't account for vital information about the soft infrastructures in developing nations. A better approach is to understand institutional variations between countries. The best way to do this, the authors have found, is by using the five contexts framework. The five contexts are a country's political and social systems, its degree of openness, its product markets, its labor markets, and its capital markets. By asking a series of questions that pertain to each ofthe five areas, executives can map the institutional contexts of any nation. When companies match their strategies to each country's contexts, they can take advantage of a location's unique strengths. But first firms should weigh the benefits against the costs. If they find that the risks of adaptation are too great, they should try to change the contexts in which they operate or simply stay away.

  17. Monetary Policy Strategy in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Burghelea

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Choosing this research theme was made because some European countries went through aperiod of post-communist transition, moving from a planned economy to a type of market economy,which has been the emergence of new events in monetary policy. Thus, each country had todesignate a monetary authority to manage and control the monetary policy developments by usingmonetary policy strategy. Also, the fight against inflation is a prerequisite for stimulatingsustainable national economic growth.

  18. Maldives Low Carbon Development Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenhann, Jørgen Villy; Ramlau, Marianne

    This report presents the findings of a study for low carbon development strategy for Maldives. The study was implemented under the Memorandum of Understanding between the Ministry of Environment and Energy (MEE), Maldives and URC and was financed by Danida, Denmark’s development aid agency under...... its Green Facility Phase II. The study work was conducted from October 2010 to March 2014 and comprised a number of study missions....

  19. TREAT Modeling and Simulation Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeHart, Mark David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report summarizes a four-phase process used to describe the strategy in developing modeling and simulation software for the Transient Reactor Test Facility. The four phases of this research and development task are identified as (1) full core transient calculations with feedback, (2) experiment modeling, (3) full core plus experiment simulation and (4) quality assurance. The document describes the four phases, the relationship between these research phases, and anticipated needs within each phase.

  20. Analysis of Samsung notebook strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Rui

    2009-01-01

    Under the fast growing background, Notebook industry draws lots attention from IT companies. It is expected that by 2010, the sales of notebook will overrun the sales of desktop. After the SWOT and SPACE analysis, we recommend Samsung to improve from two different perspectives, first, set up a clear and detailed marketing goal and plan, and ensure the enforcing of such strategies. Secondly, manage the distribution channels effectively and efficiently. There are two trends Samsu...