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Sample records for sub-optimal two-burn mid-level

  1. Construction of the Mid-Level Management Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrell, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The role of the mid-level manager as an organizer, communicator, and problem-solver in student affairs has been examined within the literature, but current discussion generally excludes the perspective of managers at community colleges. This chapter focuses on the importance of managerial identity and roles, particularly as it is enacted within a…

  2. Hypothesis Support Mechanism for Mid-Level Visual Pattern Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador, Jose J (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A method of mid-level pattern recognition provides for a pose invariant Hough Transform by parametrizing pairs of points in a pattern with respect to at least two reference points, thereby providing a parameter table that is scale- or rotation-invariant. A corresponding inverse transform may be applied to test hypothesized matches in an image and a distance transform utilized to quantify the level of match.

  3. Learning a Mid-Level Representation for Multiview Action Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuiwei Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing human actions in videos is an active topic with broad commercial potentials. Most of the existing action recognition methods are supposed to have the same camera view during both training and testing. And thus performances of these single-view approaches may be severely influenced by the camera movement and variation of viewpoints. In this paper, we address the above problem by utilizing videos simultaneously recorded from multiple views. To this end, we propose a learning framework based on multitask random forest to exploit a discriminative mid-level representation for videos from multiple cameras. In the first step, subvolumes of continuous human-centered figures are extracted from original videos. In the next step, spatiotemporal cuboids sampled from these subvolumes are characterized by multiple low-level descriptors. Then a set of multitask random forests are built upon multiview cuboids sampled at adjacent positions and construct an integrated mid-level representation for multiview subvolumes of one action. Finally, a random forest classifier is employed to predict the action category in terms of the learned representation. Experiments conducted on the multiview IXMAS action dataset illustrate that the proposed method can effectively recognize human actions depicted in multiview videos.

  4. CGNS Mid-Level Software Library and Users Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Diane; Smith, Charles A. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The "CFD General Notation System" (CGNS) consists of a collection of conventions, and conforming software, for the storage and retrieval of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) data. It facilitates the exchange of data between sites and applications, and helps stabilize the archiving of aerodynamic data. This effort was initiated in order to streamline the procedures in exchanging data and software between NASA and its customers, but the goal is to develop CGNS into a National Standard for the exchange of aerodynamic data. The CGNS development team is comprised of members from Boeing Commercial Airplane Group, NASA-Ames, NASA-Langley, NASA-Lewis, McDonnell-Douglas Corporation (now Boeing-St. Louis), Air Force-Wright Lab., and ICEM-CFD Engineering. The elements of CGNS address all activities associated with the storage of data on external media and its movement to and from application programs. These elements include: - The Advanced Data Format (ADF) Database manager, consisting of both a file format specification and its I/O software, which handles the actual reading and writing of data from and to external storage media; - The Standard Interface Data Structures (SIDS), which specify the intellectual content of CFD data and the conventions governing naming and terminology; - The SIDS-to-ADF File Mapping conventions, which specify the exact location where the CFD data defined by the SIDS is to be stored within the ADF file(s); and - The CGNS Mid-level Library, which provides CFD-knowledgeable routines suitable for direct installation into application codes. The CGNS Mid-level Library was designed to ease the implementation of CGNS by providing developers with a collection of handy I/O functions. Since knowledge of the ADF core is not required to use this library, it will greatly facilitate the task of interfacing with CGNS. There are currently 48 user callable functions that comprise the Mid-level library and are described in the Users Guide. The library is written in

  5. A multi-modality approach to examine reward satisfaction amongst mid-level managers

    OpenAIRE

    Favotto, Alvise; Kominis, Georgios; Emmanuel, Clive

    2014-01-01

    Limited research addresses the perceptions of mid-level managers as recipients of desirable rewards.In contrast to CEO “tailor-made” compensation schemes, mid-level manager reward schemes are treated as homogeneously acceptable to motivate individuals. However, in large corporations, mid-level managers are organized in several echelons where size of business unit, functions or geographic locations create an organizational hierarchy. Data from 1,771 mid-level managers across fi e echelons in a...

  6. Scope of physician procedures independently billed by mid-level providers in the office setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coldiron, Brett; Ratnarathorn, Mondhipa

    2014-11-01

    Mid-level providers (nurse practitioners and physician assistants) were originally envisioned to provide primary care services in underserved areas. This study details the current scope of independent procedural billing to Medicare of difficult, invasive, and surgical procedures by medical mid-level providers. To understand the scope of independent billing to Medicare for procedures performed by mid-level providers in an outpatient office setting for a calendar year. Analyses of the 2012 Medicare Physician/Supplier Procedure Summary Master File, which reflects fee-for-service claims that were paid by Medicare, for Current Procedural Terminology procedures independently billed by mid-level providers. Outpatient office setting among health care providers. The scope of independent billing to Medicare for procedures performed by mid-level providers. In 2012, nurse practitioners and physician assistants billed independently for more than 4 million procedures at our cutoff of 5000 paid claims per procedure. Most (54.8%) of these procedures were performed in the specialty area of dermatology. The findings of this study are relevant to safety and quality of care. Recently, the shortage of primary care clinicians has prompted discussion of widening the scope of practice for mid-level providers. It would be prudent to temper widening the scope of practice of mid-level providers by recognizing that mid-level providers are not solely limited to primary care, and may involve procedures for which they may not have formal training.

  7. Sub-optimal breastfeeding and its associated factors in rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Similarly, not attending formal education, low birth order and lack of knowledge about exclusive breastfeeding were also negatively associated with exclusive breastfeeding practice. Conclusion: In this study, sub-optimal breast feeding was found to be high. Delayed initiation and non-exclusive breastfeeding practices were ...

  8. Ubiquity and impact of thin mid-level clouds in the tropics

    OpenAIRE

    Bourgeois, Quentin; Ekman, Annica M. L.; Igel, Matthew R.; Krejci, Radovan

    2016-01-01

    Clouds are crucial for Earth's climate and radiation budget. Great attention has been paid to low, high and vertically thick tropospheric clouds such as stratus, cirrus and deep convective clouds. However, much less is known about tropospheric mid-level clouds as these clouds are challenging to observe in situ and difficult to detect by remote sensing techniques. Here we use Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) satellite observations to show that thin mid-level clouds (TM...

  9. A Mid-Level Dental Provider in Oregon: Dental hygienists' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplen, Amy E; Bell, Kathryn; Aamodt, Gail L; Ironside, Lynn

    2017-10-01

    Purpose: Many states are exploring alternative provider models and examining the role of the dental hygienist to address access to care challenges as the United States continues to face increasing demands for oral healthcare services. The purpose of this study was to assess dental hygienists' opinions in the state of Oregon regarding the current limitations of dental hygienists' scope of practice, perceived need for a mid-level provider in Oregon, and personal interest in becoming a mid-level provider. Methods: In December 2013 a survey was mailed to a sample of 1,231 dental hygienists registered in Oregon representing 30% of the licentiates. All licentiates holding expanded practice permits (EPP) were included in the sample (n=351). The following categories were included in the 32-question survey: scope of practice, mid-level provider, current practice, and demographics. Results: A total of 440 surveys were returned for a response rate of 36%. Of the EPP holders, 51% responded to the survey. Over half of respondents (59%) believe that a mid-level provider is needed in the state. Respondents holding membership in the American Dental Hygienists' Association, as well as EPP holders, were significantly more likely to respond that a mid-level dental provider was needed in the state (plevel provider was introduced in Oregon, the new provider should be a registered dental hygienist model. Forty-three percent (n=186) of respondents were interested in becoming mid-level providers and 47% (n=203) of respondents believed that the minimum education for a mid-level provider should be a bachelor's degree. The majority, 74% (n=137), of those interested in becoming a mid-level provider indicated a preference in completing their education through online teaching combined with a clinical internship. Conclusion: There is strong support from dental hygienists in Oregon that a need exists for a mid-level dental provider and that this provider model should be dental hygiene based

  10. Preparing Future Leaders in Higher Education: Excellence Practices from Staff to Mid-Level Management Role Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Erica Sherese

    2016-01-01

    Mid-level leadership is key to a functioning university and it is important that mid-level leaders feel they have the tools and resources they need in order to succeed. To be successful in a new mid-level leadership position, entering supervisors must clearly communicate a strong sense of vision, values, and principles to their staff and establish…

  11. Career Development of Latinas in Mid-Level Community College Administration: A Phenomenological Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-De Jesus, Naydeen Tyffane

    2012-01-01

    Glass ceilings have been identified by scholars throughout the past 20 years as barriers to the upward career mobility of women and of people of color. There is an indication that glass ceiling barriers exist in the higher education sector. Latinas, as a subgroup of women of color, occupy many of the mid-level administrative positions in community…

  12. Evaluation of mid-level management training in immunisation in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The Mid-Level Management (MLM) training course provides managers of immunisation programmes with new, advanced skills in planning, management, monitoring and evaluation. An evaluation was conducted of the MLM training courses held between 2000 and 2004 in the African Region, in order to assess its ...

  13. Understanding job satisfaction amongst mid-level cadres in Malawi: the contribution of organisational justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliffe, Eilish; Manafa, Ogenna; Maseko, Fresier; Bowie, Cameron; White, Emma

    2009-05-01

    The migration of doctors and nurses from low- to high-income countries has left many countries relying on mid-level cadres as the mainstay of their health delivery system, Malawi being an example. Although an extremely important resource, little attention has been paid to the management and further development of these cadres. In this paper we use the concept of organisational justice - fairness of treatment, procedures and communication on the part of managers - to explore through a questionnaire how mid-level cadres in jobs traditionally done by higher-level cadres self-assessed their level of job satisfaction. All mid-level health workers present on the day of data collection in 34 health facilities in three health districts of Malawi, one district each from the three geographical regions, were invited to participate; 126 agreed. Perceptions of justice correlated strongly with level of job satisfaction, and in particular perceptions of how well they were treated by their managers and the extent to which they were informed about decisions and changes. Pay was not the only important element in job satisfaction; promotion opportunities and satisfaction with current work assignments were also significant. These findings highlight the important role that managers can play in the motivation, career development and performance of mid-level health workers.

  14. SuperPixel based mid-level image description for image recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tasli, H.E.; Sicre, R.; Gevers, T.

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes a mid-level feature descriptor and aims to validate improvement on image classification and retrieval tasks. In this paper, we propose a method to explore the conventional feature extraction techniques in the image classification pipeline from a different perspective where

  15. The Relevance among Mid-level leader & Principal's Leadership, School Climate and Guidance

    OpenAIRE

    米沢, 崇; 山崎, 茜; 栗原, 慎二

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of the leadership of school leader and organizational culture to the practice of school guidance. Single time questionnaire was taken, and 182 elementary school teachers participated in. The major findings were as follows : (a)challenging culture among teachers, principal breakthrough leadership, and mid-level leader's consideration effect on information sharing among teachers, (b) challenging culture among teachers, principal' s considerat...

  16. Developing a new mid-level health worker: lessons from South Africa's experience with clinical associates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Fonn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mid-level medical workers play an important role in health systems and hold great potential for addressing the human resource shortage, especially in low- and middle-income countries. South Africa began the production of its first mid-level medical workers – known as clinical associates – in small numbers in 2008. Objective: We describe the way in which scopes of practice and course design were negotiated and assess progress during the early years. We derive lessons for other countries wishing to introduce new types of mid-level worker. Methods: We conducted a rapid assessment in 2010 consisting of a review of 19 documents and 11 semi-structured interviews with a variety of stakeholders. A thematic analysis was performed. Results: Central to the success of the clinical associate training programme was a clear definition and understanding of the interests of various stakeholders. Stakeholder sensitivities were taken into account in the conceptualisation of the role and scope of practice of the clinical associate. This was achieved by dealing with quality of care concerns through service-based training and doctor supervision, and using a national curriculum framework to set uniform standards. Conclusions: This new mid-level medical worker can contribute to the quality of district hospital care and address human resource shortages. However, a number of significant challenges lie ahead. To sustain and expand on early achievements, clinical associates must be produced in greater numbers and the required funding, training capacity, public sector posts, and supervision must be made available. Retaining the new cadre will depend on the public system becoming an employer of choice. Nonetheless, the South African experience yields positive lessons that could be of use to other countries contemplating similar initiatives.

  17. Trigger performance of mid-level ICU mechanical ventilators during assisted ventilation: a bench study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Juliana C; Chipman, Daniel W; Kacmarek, Robert M

    2008-09-01

    To compare the triggering performance of mid-level ICU mechanical ventilators with a standard ICU mechanical ventilator. Experimental bench study. The respiratory care laboratory of a university-affiliated teaching hospital. A computerized mechanical lung model, the IngMar ASL5000. Ten mid-level ICU ventilators were compared to an ICU ventilator at two levels of lung model effort, three combinations of respiratory mechanics (normal, COPD and ARDS) and two modes of ventilation, volume and pressure assist/control. A total of 12 conditions were compared. Performance varied widely among ventilators. Mean inspiratory trigger time was ventilators. The mean inspiratory delay time (time from initiation of the breath to return of airway pressure to baseline) was longer than that for the ICU ventilator for all tested ventilators except one. The pressure drop during triggering (Ptrig) was comparable with that of the ICU ventilator for only two ventilators. Expiratory Settling Time (time for pressure to return to baseline) had the greatest variability among ventilators. Triggering differences among these mid-level ICU ventilators and with the ICU ventilator were identified. Some of these ventilators had a much poorer triggering response with high inspiratory effort than the ICU ventilator. These ventilators do not perform as well as ICU ventilators in patients with high ventilatory demand.

  18. Cameroon mid-level providers offer a promising public health dentistry model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achembong Leo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Oral health services are inadequate and unevenly distributed in many developing countries, particularly those in sub-Saharan Africa. Rural areas in these countries and poorer sections of the population in urban areas often do not have access to oral health services mainly because of a significant shortage of dentists and the high costs of care. We reviewed Cameroon’s experience with deploying a mid-level cadre of oral health professionals and the feasibility of establishing a more formal and predictable role for these health workers. We anticipate that a task-shifting approach in the provision of dental care will significantly improve the uneven distribution of oral health services particularly in the rural areas of Cameroon, which is currently served by only 3% of the total number of dentists. Methods The setting of this study was the Cameroon Baptist Convention Health Board (BCHB, which has four dentists and 42 mid-level providers. De-identified data were collected manually from the registries of 10 Baptist Convention clinics located in six of Cameroon’s 10 regions and then entered into an Excel format before importing into STATA. A retrospective abstraction of all entries for patient visits starting October 2010, and going back in time until 1500 visits were extracted from each clinic. Results This study showed that mid-level providers in BCHB clinics are offering a full scope of dental work across the 10 clinics, with the exception of treatment for major facial injuries. Mid-level providers alone performed 93.5% of all extractions, 87.5% of all fillings, 96.5% of all root canals, 97.5% of all cleanings, and 98.1% of all dentures. The dentists also typically played a teaching role in training the mid-level providers. Conclusions The Ministry of Health in Cameroon has an opportunity to learn from the BCHB model to expand access to oral health care across the country. This study shows the benefits of using a simple, workable, low

  19. Ubiquity and impact of thin mid-level clouds in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Quentin; Ekman, Annica M L; Igel, Matthew R; Krejci, Radovan

    2016-08-17

    Clouds are crucial for Earth's climate and radiation budget. Great attention has been paid to low, high and vertically thick tropospheric clouds such as stratus, cirrus and deep convective clouds. However, much less is known about tropospheric mid-level clouds as these clouds are challenging to observe in situ and difficult to detect by remote sensing techniques. Here we use Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) satellite observations to show that thin mid-level clouds (TMLCs) are ubiquitous in the tropics. Supported by high-resolution regional model simulations, we find that TMLCs are formed by detrainment from convective clouds near the zero-degree isotherm. Calculations using a radiative transfer model indicate that tropical TMLCs have a cooling effect on climate that could be as large in magnitude as the warming effect of cirrus. We conclude that more effort has to be made to understand TMLCs, as their influence on cloud feedbacks, heat and moisture transport, and climate sensitivity could be substantial.

  20. Performance of the New Turbine Mid-Level Critical Care Ventilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Carlos; Romero, Jose E; Puig, Jaume; Izquierdo, Ana; Ferrando, Carlos; Belda, F Javier; Soro, Marina

    2017-01-01

    During recent years, ventilators using turbines as flow-generating systems have become increasingly more relevant. This bench study was designed to compare triggering and pressurization of 7 turbine mid-level ICU ventilators. We used a dual-chamber lung model to test 7 mid-level ICU ventilators in pressure support mode with levels of 10, 15, and 20 cm H 2 O with 2 PEEP levels of 5 cm H 2 O and the minimum level allowed by the ventilator. A ventilator was connected to the master chamber to simulate 2 different effort levels. Pressure drop, trigger delay time, time to minimum pressure, and pressure time products (PTP) during trigger and the first 300 and 500 ms were analyzed. In the trigger evaluation, the Savina had the highest delay time, whereas the C2, the V60, and the Trilogy had the lowest pressure drops and PTP values in both effort levels. In pressurization capacity assessment using ideal PTP300 and PTP500 percentages, the C2 and the V680 had the best results, and the Carina and the Savina had lower values, with no differences between both effort levels. Differences between PEEP levels did not seem to be relevant. Pressure support mode for tested ventilators worked properly, but pressurization capacity and trigger function performance were clearly superior in the newest machines. The use of PEEP did not modify the results. Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  1. Sub-Optimal Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus – A Local Audit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Original Research: Sub-Optimal Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus – A Local Audit ... despite clinical trial data documenting improved outcomes associated not ... were used to define the Metabolic Syndrome.9 Central obesity was.

  2. FPGA-based multimodal embedded sensor system integrating low- and mid-level vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella, Guillermo; Martín H, José Antonio; Santos, Matilde; Meyer-Baese, Uwe

    2011-01-01

    Motion estimation is a low-level vision task that is especially relevant due to its wide range of applications in the real world. Many of the best motion estimation algorithms include some of the features that are found in mammalians, which would demand huge computational resources and therefore are not usually available in real-time. In this paper we present a novel bioinspired sensor based on the synergy between optical flow and orthogonal variant moments. The bioinspired sensor has been designed for Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) using properties of the mammalian cortical motion pathway. This sensor combines low-level primitives (optical flow and image moments) in order to produce a mid-level vision abstraction layer. The results are described trough experiments showing the validity of the proposed system and an analysis of the computational resources and performance of the applied algorithms.

  3. Effects of Mid-Level Ethanol Blends on Conventional Vehicle Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoll, K.; West, B.; Huff, S.; Thomas, J.; Orban, J.; Cooper, C.

    2010-06-01

    Tests were conducted in 2008 on 16 late-model conventional vehicles (1999-2007) to determine short-term effects of mid-level ethanol blends on performance and emissions. Vehicle odometer readings ranged from 10,000 to 100,000 miles, and all vehicles conformed to federal emissions requirements for their federal certification level. The LA92 drive cycle, also known as the Unified Cycle, was used for testing because it more accurately represents real-world acceleration rates and speeds than the Federal Test Procedure. Test fuels were splash-blends of up to 20 volume percent ethanol with federal certification gasoline. Both regulated and unregulated air-toxic emissions were measured. For the 16-vehicle fleet, increasing ethanol content resulted in reductions in average composite emissions of both nonmethane hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide and increases in average emissions of ethanol and aldehydes.

  4. Powertrain Component Inspection from Mid-Level Blends Vehicle Aging Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoffner, Brent [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio; Johnson, Ryan [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio; Heimrich, Martin J. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio; Lochte, Michael [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio

    2010-11-01

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 calls on the nation to significantly increase its use of renewable fuels to meet its transportation energy needs. The law expands the renewable fuel standard to require use of 36 billion gallons of renewable fuel by 2022. Given that ethanol is the most widely used renewable fuel in the U.S. market, ethanol will likely make up a significant portion of the 36-billion-gallon requirement. The vast majority of ethanol used in the United States is blended with gasoline to create E10-gasoline with up to 10% ethanol. The remaining ethanol is sold in the form of E85 - a gasoline blend with as much as 85% ethanol that can only be used in flexible-fuel vehicles (FFVs). Consumption of E85 is at present limited by both the size of the FFV fleet and the number of E85 fueling stations. Gasoline consumption in the United States is currently about 140 billion gallons per year; thus the maximum use of ethanol as E10 is only about 14 billion gallons. While the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) remains committed to expanding the E85 infrastructure, that market represented less than 1% of the ethanol consumed in 2010 and will not be able to absorb projected volumes of ethanol in the near term. Because of these factors, DOE and others have been assessing the viability of using mid-level ethanol blends (E15 or E20) as a way to accommodate growing volumes of ethanol. The DOE Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Test Program has been under way since 2007, supported jointly by the Office of the Biomass Program and the Vehicle Technologies Program. One of the larger projects, the Catalyst Durability Study, or Vehicle Aging Study, will be completed early in calendar year 2011. The following report describes a subproject of the Vehicle Aging Study in which powertrain components from 18 of the vehicles were examined at Southwest Research Institute under contract to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).

  5. Using the Two-Burn Escape Maneuver for Fast Transfers in the Solar System and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Robert B.; Richardson, Georgia A.

    2010-01-01

    The two-burn maneuver to escape the gravitational pull of a central body is described. The maneuver, originally suggested by Hermann Oberth, improves efficiency considerably for a wide range of missions of interest in space exploration and scientific investigation. A clear delineation of when the maneuver is more effective is given, as are methods to extract the most advantage when using the maneuver. Some examples are given of how this maneuver can enable exploration of the outer solar system, near interstellar space, and crewed missions to Mars and beyond. The maneuver has the potential to halve the required infrastructure associated with a crewed mission to Mars and achieve increased solar escape velocities with existing spacecraft technologies.

  6. Central attention is serial but mid-level and peripheral attention are parallel—a hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marois, Rene

    2016-01-01

    In this brief review, we will argue that attention falls along a hierarchy from peripheral through central mechanisms. We further argue that these mechanisms are distinguished not just by their functional roles in cognition, but also by a distinction between serial mechanisms (associated with central attention) and parallel mechanisms (associated with mid-level and peripheral attention). In particular, we suggest that peripheral attentional deployments in distinct representational systems may be maintained simultaneously with little or no interference, but that the serial nature of central attention means that even tasks that largely rely on distinct representational systems will come into conflict when central attention is demanded. We go on to review both behavioral and neural evidence for this prediction. We conclude that even though the existing evidence mostly favors our account of serial central and parallel non-central attention, we know of no experiment that has conclusively borne out these claims. As such, this paper offers a framework of attentional mechanisms that will aid in guiding future research on this topic. PMID:27388496

  7. Mid-level perceptual features distinguish objects of different real-world sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Bria; Konkle, Talia; Cohen, Michael A; Alvarez, George A

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how perceptual and conceptual representations are connected is a fundamental goal of cognitive science. Here, we focus on a broad conceptual distinction that constrains how we interact with objects--real-world size. Although there appear to be clear perceptual correlates for basic-level categories (apples look like other apples, oranges look like other oranges), the perceptual correlates of broader categorical distinctions are largely unexplored, i.e., do small objects look like other small objects? Because there are many kinds of small objects (e.g., cups, keys), there may be no reliable perceptual features that distinguish them from big objects (e.g., cars, tables). Contrary to this intuition, we demonstrated that big and small objects have reliable perceptual differences that can be extracted by early stages of visual processing. In a series of visual search studies, participants found target objects faster when the distractor objects differed in real-world size. These results held when we broadly sampled big and small objects, when we controlled for low-level features and image statistics, and when we reduced objects to texforms--unrecognizable textures that loosely preserve an object's form. However, this effect was absent when we used more basic textures. These results demonstrate that big and small objects have reliably different mid-level perceptual features, and suggest that early perceptual information about broad-category membership may influence downstream object perception, recognition, and categorization processes. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Providing palliative care in rural Nepal: Perceptions of mid-level health workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh N Gongal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nepal is beginning to develop palliative care services across the country. Most people live in rural areas, where the Mid-Level Health Workers (MHWs are the major service providers. Their views on providing palliative care are most important in determining how the service is organized and developed.Aim: This study aims to ascertain the perceptions of MHWs about palliative care in their local community, to inform service development.Methods: A> qualitative descriptive design, using focus group discussions, was used to collect data from a rural district of Makwanpur, 1 of the 75 districts of Nepal. Twenty-eight MHWs participated in four focus group discussions. The data were analyzed using content analysis.Result: Four themes emerged from the discussion: (i suffering of patients and families inflicted by life-threatening illness, (ii helplessness and frustration felt when caring for such patients, (iii sociocultural issues at the end of life, and (iv improving care for patients with palliative care needs.Conclusion: MHWs practicing in rural areas reported the suffering of patients inflicted with life-limiting illness and their family due to poverty, poor access, lack of resources, social discrimination, and lack of knowledge and skills of the health workers. While there are clear frustrations with the limited resources, there is a willingness to learn among the health workers and provide care in the community.

  9. Mid-level image representations for real-time heart view plane classification of echocardiograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penatti, Otávio A B; Werneck, Rafael de O; de Almeida, Waldir R; Stein, Bernardo V; Pazinato, Daniel V; Mendes Júnior, Pedro R; Torres, Ricardo da S; Rocha, Anderson

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we explore mid-level image representations for real-time heart view plane classification of 2D echocardiogram ultrasound images. The proposed representations rely on bags of visual words, successfully used by the computer vision community in visual recognition problems. An important element of the proposed representations is the image sampling with large regions, drastically reducing the execution time of the image characterization procedure. Throughout an extensive set of experiments, we evaluate the proposed approach against different image descriptors for classifying four heart view planes. The results show that our approach is effective and efficient for the target problem, making it suitable for use in real-time setups. The proposed representations are also robust to different image transformations, e.g., downsampling, noise filtering, and different machine learning classifiers, keeping classification accuracy above 90%. Feature extraction can be performed in 30 fps or 60 fps in some cases. This paper also includes an in-depth review of the literature in the area of automatic echocardiogram view classification giving the reader a through comprehension of this field of study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The harm principle as a mid-level principle?: three problems from the context of infectious disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krom, André

    2011-10-01

    Effective infectious disease control may require states to restrict the liberty of individuals. Since preventing harm to others is almost universally accepted as a legitimate (prima facie) reason for restricting the liberty of individuals, it seems plausible to employ a mid-level harm principle in infectious disease control. Moral practices like infectious disease control support - or even require - a certain level of theory-modesty. However, employing a mid-level harm principle in infectious disease control faces at least three problems. First, it is unclear what we gain by attaining convergence on a specific formulation of the harm principle. Likely candidates for convergence, a harm principle aimed at preventing harmful conduct, supplemented by considerations of effectiveness and always choosing the least intrusive means still leave ample room for normative disagreement. Second, while mid-level principles are sometimes put forward in response to the problem of normative theories attaching different weight to moral principles, employing a mid-level harm principle completely leaves open how to determine what weight to attach to it in application. Third, there appears to be a trade-off between attaining convergence and finding a formulation of the harm principle that can justify liberty-restrictions in all situations of contagion, including interventions that are commonly allowed. These are not reasons to abandon mid-level theorizing altogether. But there is no reason to be too theory-modest in applied ethics. Morally justifying e.g. if a liberty-restriction in infectious disease control is proportional to the aim of harm-prevention, promptly requires moving beyond the mid-level harm principle. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. The Effective Practices and Beliefs of School Principals in High Achieving Hispanic Majority Mid-Level Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briseno, Johnny

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological research study used narrative inquiry to investigate the effective practices and beliefs of 10 Texas principals in high achieving majority Hispanic mid-level schools. Participant interviews were analyzed using the Creswell (2007) six step method for analyzing phenomenological studies. Findings from this study…

  12. The Harm Principle as a Mid-level Principle? Three Problems from the Context of Infectious Disease Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krom, A.

    2011-01-01

    Effective infectious disease control may require states to restrict the liberty of individuals. Since preventing harm to others is almost universally accepted as a legitimate (prima facie) reason for restricting the liberty of individuals, it seems plausible to employ a mid-level harm principle in

  13. DETERMINATION OF ORGANIZATIONAL STRESS AND ORGANIZATIONAL BURNOUT LEVELS OF MID LEVEL MANAGERS WORKING IN FOUR AND FIVE STAR HOTEL BUSINESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevket Yirik

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study emphasizes the concepts of stress and organizational stress which are the main concepts constituting theoretical foundation of the research; evaluates influences of stress on organization; discusses the concept of organizational burnout as well as its sub-dimensions; and analyses organizational stress and burnout levels of mid level managers working in four and five star hotels. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between organizational stress and organizational burnout levels of mid level managers of four and five star hotel businesses. Survey has been conducted on 318 employees of four and five star hotels operating in Alanya, Turkey. According to the analysis of data, it has been observed that ages of mid level managers have an influence on their organizational stress and burnout levels. Genders of mid level managers are influential on their organizational stress levels while they have no influence on their burnout levels. Education levels of managers influence their organizational stress levels while they have no influence on their burnout levels. The departments of managers are influential both on organizational stress and burnout. Positions of managers influence their burnout levels while they have no influence on their organizational stress levels.

  14. Measuring and managing the work environment of the mid-level provider – the neglected human resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McAuliffe Eilish

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Much has been written in the past decade about the health workforce crisis that is crippling health service delivery in many middle-income and low-income countries. Countries having lost most of their highly qualified health care professionals to migration increasingly rely on mid-level providers as the mainstay for health services delivery. Mid-level providers are health workers who perform tasks conventionally associated with more highly trained and internationally mobile workers. Their training usually has lower entry requirements and is for shorter periods (usually two to four years. Our study aimed to explore a neglected but crucial aspect of human resources for health in Africa: the provision of a work environment that will promote motivation and performance of mid-level providers. This paper explores the work environment of mid-level providers in Malawi, and contributes to the validation of an instrument to measure the work environment of mid-level providers in low-income countries. Methods Three districts were purposively sampled from each of the three geographical regions in Malawi. A total of 34 health facilities from the three districts were included in the study. All staff in each of the facilities were included in the sampling frame. A total of 153 staff members consented to be interviewed. Participants completed measures of perceptions of work environment, burnout and job satisfaction. Findings The Healthcare Provider Work Index, derived through Principal Components Analysis and Rasch Analysis of our modification of an existing questionnaire, constituted four subscales, measuring: (1 levels of staffing and resources; (2 management support; (3 workplace relationships; and (4 control over practice. Multivariate analysis indicated that scores on the Work Index significantly predicted key variables concerning motivation and attrition such as emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction, satisfaction with the profession

  15. Summary of High-Octane Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theiss, Timothy J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Alleman, Teresa [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brooker, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Elgowainy, Amgad [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Fioroni, Gina [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Huff, Shean P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Caley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kass, Michael D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Leiby, Paul Newsome [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Martinez, Rocio Uria [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McCormick, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Moriarty, Kristi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Newes, Emily [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Oladosu, Gbadebo A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Szybist, James P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Thomas, John F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); West, Brian H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) of light-duty vehicles are pursuing a broad portfolio of technologies to reduce CO2 emissions and improve fuel economy. Central to this effort is higher efficiency spark ignition (SI) engines, including technologies reliant on higher compression ratios and fuels with improved anti-knock properties, such as gasoline with significantly increased octane numbers. Ethanol has an inherently high octane number and would be an ideal octane booster for lower-octane petroleum blendstocks. In fact, recently published data from Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories (Splitter and Szybist, 2014a, 2014b; Szybist, 2010; Szybist and West, 2013) and OEMs (Anderson, 2013) and discussions with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) suggest the potential of a new high octane fuel (HOF) with 25–40 vol % of ethanol to assist in reaching Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions goals. This mid-level ethanol content fuel, with a research octane number (RON) of about 100, appears to enable efficiency improvements in a suitably calibrated and designed engine/vehicle system that are sufficient to offset its lower energy density (Jung, 2013; Thomas, et al, 2015). This efficiency improvement would offset the tank mileage (range) loss typically seen for ethanol blends in conventional gasoline and flexible-fuel vehicles (FFVs). The prospects for such a fuel are additionally attractive because it can be used legally in over 18 million FFVs currently on the road. Thus the legacy FFV fleet can serve as a bridge by providing a market for the new fuel immediately, so that future vehicles will have improved efficiency as the new fuel becomes widespread. In this way, HOF can simultaneously help improve fuel economy while expanding the ethanol market in the United States via a growing market for an ethanol blend higher than E10. The DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office initiated a collaborative research program

  16. Sub-optimal birth weight in newborns of a high socioeconomic status population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição Aparecida de Mattos Segre

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare sub-optimal birth weight (2,500 to 2,999 g term newborns to appropriate for gestational age (birth weight ≥ 3,000 g term newborns, regarding maternal data and newborn morbidity and mortality. Methods: Single term newborns, appropriate for gestational age from a high socioeconomic population (n = 1,242 with birth weight ranging from 2,500 to 2,999 g (Group I were compared to 4,907 newborns with birth weight ≥ than 3,000 g (Group II. Maternal and newborn characteristics were compared between the groups. The Mann-Whitney test, χ2 test and multivariate analysis were used. The significance level adopted was p < 0.05. Rresults: The frequency of sub-optimal birth weight newborns in the population studied was 20.2%. There was a significant association between sub-optimal birth weight and maternal weight before pregnancy and body mass index, maternal weight gain, height, smoking habit and hypertension. Newborns’ 1-minute Apgar score, neonatal hypoglycemia, jaundice, transient tachypnea, congenital pneumonia and hospital stay were significantly different between the groups (p < 0.05. A significant relationship could not be established with the 5-minute Apgar score and pulmonary hypertension in both groups. Neonatal mortality did not differ between the groups. Cconclusions: Socioeconomic status was not a risk factor for sub-optimal birth weight in the studied population. Genetic and environmental factors were associated to sub-optimal weight and neonatal diseases. According to these data, this group of newborns should receive special attention from the health team.

  17. The Regional Entrepreneurial Transformation Process—A Mid-Level Framework for Describing and Fostering Socioeconomic Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Rüdiger Lange

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a conceptual framework for the socioeconomic transition of regions. It was developed in and for the region of Lusatia, which faces the challenge of becoming more entrepreneurial in order to maintain and regain economic strength. Based on theories of entrepreneurial ecosystems and structuration as well as on extensive practical experience, a mid-level framework for describing and fostering regional change is derived.

  18. Comparative Analysis Of Mid-Level Women Managers Perception Of The Existence Of Glass Ceiling In Singaporean And Malaysian Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Vlado Dimovski; Miha Skerlavaj; Mandy Mok Kim Man

    2010-01-01

    This study presents an overview of glass-ceiling type barriers in organizations based on the perceptions of a sample of Singaporean and Malaysian mid-level women managers. Previous studies indicated the existence of a glass ceiling in organizations and presented strategic recommendations with regard to what corporations could do to remove or reduce the glass ceiling. This study investigates how women in middle management perceive their career advancement opportunities and what they consider t...

  19. Regions of mid-level human visual cortex sensitive to the global coherence of local image patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannion, Damien J; Kersten, Daniel J; Olman, Cheryl A

    2014-08-01

    The global structural arrangement and spatial layout of the visual environment must be derived from the integration of local signals represented in the lower tiers of the visual system. This interaction between the spatially local and global properties of visual stimulation underlies many of our visual capacities, and how this is achieved in the brain is a central question for visual and cognitive neuroscience. Here, we examine the sensitivity of regions of the posterior human brain to the global coordination of spatially displaced naturalistic image patches. We presented observers with image patches in two circular apertures to the left and right of central fixation, with the patches drawn from either the same (coherent condition) or different (noncoherent condition) extended image. Using fMRI at 7T (n = 5), we find that global coherence affected signal amplitude in regions of dorsal mid-level cortex. Furthermore, we find that extensive regions of mid-level visual cortex contained information in their local activity pattern that could discriminate coherent and noncoherent stimuli. These findings indicate that the global coordination of local naturalistic image information has important consequences for the processing in human mid-level visual cortex.

  20. Food Image Recognition via Superpixel Based Low-Level and Mid-Level Distance Coding for Smart Home Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiannan Zheng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Food image recognition is a key enabler for many smart home applications such as smart kitchen and smart personal nutrition log. In order to improve living experience and life quality, smart home systems collect valuable insights of users’ preferences, nutrition intake and health conditions via accurate and robust food image recognition. In addition, efficiency is also a major concern since many smart home applications are deployed on mobile devices where high-end GPUs are not available. In this paper, we investigate compact and efficient food image recognition methods, namely low-level and mid-level approaches. Considering the real application scenario where only limited and noisy data are available, we first proposed a superpixel based Linear Distance Coding (LDC framework where distinctive low-level food image features are extracted to improve performance. On a challenging small food image dataset where only 12 training images are available per category, our framework has shown superior performance in both accuracy and robustness. In addition, to better model deformable food part distribution, we extend LDC’s feature-to-class distance idea and propose a mid-level superpixel food parts-to-class distance mining framework. The proposed framework show superior performance on a benchmark food image datasets compared to other low-level and mid-level approaches in the literature.

  1. Sub-optimal control of fuzzy linear dynamical systems under granular differentiability concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazandarani, Mehran; Pariz, Naser

    2018-05-01

    This paper deals with sub-optimal control of a fuzzy linear dynamical system. The aim is to keep the state variables of the fuzzy linear dynamical system close to zero in an optimal manner. In the fuzzy dynamical system, the fuzzy derivative is considered as the granular derivative; and all the coefficients and initial conditions can be uncertain. The criterion for assessing the optimality is regarded as a granular integral whose integrand is a quadratic function of the state variables and control inputs. Using the relative-distance-measure (RDM) fuzzy interval arithmetic and calculus of variations, the optimal control law is presented as the fuzzy state variables feedback. Since the optimal feedback gains are obtained as fuzzy functions, they need to be defuzzified. This will result in the sub-optimal control law. This paper also sheds light on the restrictions imposed by the approaches which are based on fuzzy standard interval arithmetic (FSIA), and use strongly generalized Hukuhara and generalized Hukuhara differentiability concepts for obtaining the optimal control law. The granular eigenvalues notion is also defined. Using an RLC circuit mathematical model, it is shown that, due to their unnatural behavior in the modeling phenomenon, the FSIA-based approaches may obtain some eigenvalues sets that might be different from the inherent eigenvalues set of the fuzzy dynamical system. This is, however, not the case with the approach proposed in this study. The notions of granular controllability and granular stabilizability of the fuzzy linear dynamical system are also presented in this paper. Moreover, a sub-optimal control for regulating a Boeing 747 in longitudinal direction with uncertain initial conditions and parameters is gained. In addition, an uncertain suspension system of one of the four wheels of a bus is regulated using the sub-optimal control introduced in this paper. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Self-care practices of Malaysian adults with diabetes and sub-optimal glycaemic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ming Yeong; Magarey, Judy

    2008-08-01

    To investigate the self-care practices of Malaysian adults with diabetes and sub-optimal glycaemic control. Using a one-to-one interviewing approach, data were collected from 126 diabetic adults from four settings. A 75-item questionnaire was used to assess diabetes-related knowledge and self-care practices regarding, diet, medication, physical activity and self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). Most subjects had received advice on the importance of self-care in the management of their diabetes and recognised its importance. Sixty-seven subjects (53%) scored below 50% in their diabetes-related knowledge. Subjects who consumed more meals per day (80%), or who did not include their regular sweetened food intakes in their daily meal plan (80%), or who were inactive in daily life (54%), had higher mean fasting blood glucose levels (p=0.04). Subjects with medication non-adherence (46%) also tended to have higher fasting blood glucose levels. Only 15% of the subjects practiced SMBG. Predictors of knowledge deficit and poor self-care were low level of education (p = <0.01), older subjects (p=0.04) and Type 2 diabetes subjects on oral anti-hyperglycaemic medication (p = <0.01). There were diabetes-related knowledge deficits and inadequate self-care practices among the majority of diabetic patients with sub-optimal glycaemic control. This study should contribute to the development of effective education strategies to promote health for adults with sub-optimal diabetes control.

  3. Ice particle production in mid-level stratiform mixed-phase clouds observed with collocated A-Train measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Collocated A-Train CloudSat radar and CALIPSO lidar measurements between 2006 and 2010 are analyzed to study primary ice particle production characteristics in mid-level stratiform mixed-phase clouds on a global scale. For similar clouds in terms of cloud top temperature and liquid water path, Northern Hemisphere latitude bands have layer-maximum radar reflectivity (ZL that is  ∼  1 to 8 dBZ larger than their counterparts in the Southern Hemisphere. The systematically larger ZL under similar cloud conditions suggests larger ice number concentrations in mid-level stratiform mixed-phase clouds over the Northern Hemisphere, which is possibly related to higher background aerosol loadings. Furthermore, we show that springtime northern mid- and high latitudes have ZL that is larger by up to 6 dBZ (a factor of 4 higher ice number concentration than other seasons, which might be related to more dust events that provide effective ice nucleating particles. Our study suggests that aerosol-dependent ice number concentration parameterizations are required in climate models to improve mixed-phase cloud simulations, especially over the Northern Hemisphere.

  4. Reflections of Turkish accounting and financial reporting standards on vocational school students: A research on comparing perceptions of intermediate and mid-level accounting professional candidates

    OpenAIRE

    Seldüz Hakan; Seldüz Emine

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to compare the perceptions of intermediate and mid-level accounting professional candidates on accounting and financial reporting standards. A significant part of accounting process is carried out by vocational school graduate intermediate and mid-level accounting professionals. However, it can be claimed that adequate education about accounting and financial reporting standards isn’t given in vocational schools although these standards structure the whole accounting proces...

  5. Sub-optimal parenting is associated with schizotypic and anxiety personality traits in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giakoumaki, S G; Roussos, P; Zouraraki, C; Spanoudakis, E; Mavrikaki, M; Tsapakis, E M; Bitsios, P

    2013-05-01

    Part of the variation in personality characteristics has been attributed to the child-parent interaction and sub-optimal parenting has been associated with psychiatric morbidity. In the present study, an extensive battery of personality scales (Trait Anxiety Inventory, Behavioural Inhibition/Activation System questionnaire, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised, Temperament and Character Inventory, Schizotypal Traits Questionnaire, Toronto Alexithymia Scale) and the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) were administered in 324 adult healthy males to elucidate the effects of parenting on personality configuration. Personality variables were analysed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and the factors "Schizotypy", "Anxiety", "Behavioural activation", "Novelty seeking" and "Reward dependence" were extracted. Associations between personality factors with PBI "care" and "overprotection" scores were examined with regression analyses. Subjects were divided into "parental style" groups and personality factors were subjected to categorical analyses. "Schizotypy" and "Anxiety" were significantly predicted by high maternal overprotection and low paternal care. In addition, the Affectionless control group (low care/high overprotection) had higher "Schizotypy" and "Anxiety" compared with the Optimal Parenting group (high care/low overprotection). These results further validate sub-optimal parenting as an important environmental exposure and extend our understanding on the mechanisms by which it increases risk for psychiatric morbidity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. A PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINING OPTIMAL FACILITY LOCATION AND SUB-OPTIMAL POSITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K. Dan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This research presents a methodology for determining the optimal location of a new facility, having physical flow interaction of various degrees with other existing facilities in the presence of barriers impeding the shortest flow-path as well as the sub-optimal iso-cost positions. It also determines sub-optimal iso-cost positions with additional cost or penalty for not being able to site it at the computed optimal point. The proposed methodology considers all types of quadrilateral barrier or forbidden region configurations to generalize and by-pass such impenetrable obstacles, and adopts a scheme of searching through the vertices of the quadrilaterals to determine the alternative shortest flow-path. This procedure of obstacle avoidance is novel. Software has been developed to facilitate computations for the search algorithm to determine the optimal and iso-cost co-ordinates. The test results are presented.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die navorsing behandel ‘n procedure vir die bepaling van optimum stigtingsposisie vir ‘n onderneming met vloei vanaf ander bestaande fasiliteite in die teenwoordigheid van ‘n verskeidenheid van randvoorwaardes. Die prodedure lewer as resultaat suboptimale isokoste-stigtingsplekke met bekendmaking van die koste wat onstaan a.g.v. afwyking van die randvoorwaardlose optimum oplossingskoste, die prosedure maak gebruik van ‘n vindingryke soekmetode wat toegepas word op niersydige meerkundige voorstellings vir die bepaling van korste roetes wat versperring omseil. Die prosedure word onderskei deur programmatuur. Toetsresultate word voorgehou.

  7. Applications of sub-optimality in dynamic programming to location and construction of nuclear fuel processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiriet, L.; Deledicq, A.

    1968-09-01

    First, the point of applying Dynamic Programming to optimization and Operational Research problems in chemical industries are recalled, as well as the conditions in which a dynamic program is illustrated by a sequential graph. A new algorithm for the determination of sub-optimal politics in a sequential graph is then developed. Finally, the applications of sub-optimality concept is shown when taking into account the indirect effects related to possible strategies, or in the case of stochastic choices and of problems of the siting of plants... application examples are given. (authors) [fr

  8. TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION AND BUSINESS DIVERSIFICATION: SUSTAINABILITY LIVELIHOODS IMPROVEMENT SCENARIO OF RICE FARMER HOUSEHOLD IN SUB-OPTIMAL LAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriani D.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The increased role of the sub-optimal land to support food security continue to be encouraged in Indonesia, given the more limited expansion for potential land. But until recently, development of sub-optimal land becomes not an easy thing. Ecological and technical barriers became the main issue. A series of these issues resulted in a high number of underemproleymeny and poverty in agriculture region. Technological inovation of agriculture and the business diversification can be seen be the solution to those issues. This research aims to analyze the impact of the technological innovation and business diversification on underemployment, working time, household income and also sustainable livelihoods of farmers on the sub-optimal land. The research was carried out in Pemulutan District, Ogan Ilir Regency, South Sumatra Province, Indonesia. The objects of research are farmers which adopter and non adopter technological innovation, and also work outside of paddy farming (business diversification. The research method is the survey. Method of sampling is stratified random sampling. Data obtained in the field analyses using descriptive statistics and inferesia. The results showed there are positive impact of technological innovation on the allocation of working time farmer households, the numbers underemployment, household income and livelihood sustainability. Determinant factors for farmers in applying technology and business diversification are paddy farming income, off-farm income, and age. The use of technology and business diversification proves to be one of the positive scenarios for sustainable livelihood of farmers in sub-optimal land.

  9. Methanol degradation in granular sludge reactors at sub-optimal metal concentrations: role of iron, nickel and cobalt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandvoort, M.H.; Geerts, R.; Lettinga, G.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of sub-optimal trace metal concentrations on the conversion of methanol in an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor was investigated by studying the effect of decreased influent trace metal concentrations on the reactor efficiency, methanol conversion route and sludge

  10. Training-Induced Recovery of Low-Level Vision Followed by Mid-Level Perceptual Improvements in Developmental Object and Face Agnosia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, Maria; Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon; Gotthilf-Nezri, Dana; Yehezkel, Oren; Brooks, Joseph L.; Perry, Anat; Bentin, Shlomo; Bonneh, Yoram; Polat, Uri

    2015-01-01

    Long-term deprivation of normal visual inputs can cause perceptual impairments at various levels of visual function, from basic visual acuity deficits, through mid-level deficits such as contour integration and motion coherence, to high-level face and object agnosia. Yet it is unclear whether training during adulthood, at a post-developmental…

  11. In the Middle: Work-Life Integration Experiences of Mid-Level Women Leaders in a Rural Community College System in the Northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill-O'Rourke, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates that work-life integration is linked with career satisfaction for women administrators in higher education. This study focuses on mid-level women leaders who are an essential component of higher education organizations. Employing a qualitative design that drew upon phenomenological methods, I explored the work-life integration…

  12. District health manager and mid-level provider perceptions of practice environments in acute obstetric settings in Tanzania: a mixed-method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng'ang'a, Njoki; Byrne, Mary Woods; Kruk, Margaret E; Shemdoe, Aloisia; de Pinho, Helen

    2016-08-08

    In sub-Saharan Africa, the capacity of human resources for health (HRH) managers to create positive practice environments that enable motivated, productive, and high-performing HRH is weak. We implemented a unique approach to examining HRH management practices by comparing perspectives offered by mid-level providers (MLPs) of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) in Tanzania to those presented by local health authorities, known as council health management teams (CHMTs). This study was guided by the basic strategic human resources management (SHRM) component model. A convergent mixed-method design was utilized to assess qualitative and quantitative data from the Health Systems Strengthening for Equity: The Power and Potential of Mid-Level Providers project. Survey data was obtained from 837 mid-level providers, 83 of whom participated in a critical incident interview whose aim was to elicit negative events in the practice environment that induced intention to leave their job. HRH management practices were assessed quantitatively in 48 districts with 37 members of CHMTs participating in semi-structured interviews. The eight human resources management practices enumerated in the basic SHRM component model were implemented unevenly. On the one hand, members of CHMTs and mid-level providers agreed that there were severe shortages of health workers, deficient salaries, and an overwhelming workload. On the other hand, members of CHMTs and mid-level providers differed in their perspectives on rewards and allocation of opportunities for in-service training. Although written standards of performance and supervision requirements were available in most districts, they did not reflect actual duties. Members of CHMTs reported high levels of autonomy in key HRH management practices, but mid-level providers disputed the degree to which the real situation on the ground was factored into job-related decision-making by CHMTs. The incongruence in perspectives offered by members of CHMTs

  13. Correlations in state space can cause sub-optimal adaptation of optimal feedback control models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprasoff, Jonathan; Donchin, Opher

    2012-04-01

    Control of our movements is apparently facilitated by an adaptive internal model in the cerebellum. It was long thought that this internal model implemented an adaptive inverse model and generated motor commands, but recently many reject that idea in favor of a forward model hypothesis. In theory, the forward model predicts upcoming state during reaching movements so the motor cortex can generate appropriate motor commands. Recent computational models of this process rely on the optimal feedback control (OFC) framework of control theory. OFC is a powerful tool for describing motor control, it does not describe adaptation. Some assume that adaptation of the forward model alone could explain motor adaptation, but this is widely understood to be overly simplistic. However, an adaptive optimal controller is difficult to implement. A reasonable alternative is to allow forward model adaptation to 're-tune' the controller. Our simulations show that, as expected, forward model adaptation alone does not produce optimal trajectories during reaching movements perturbed by force fields. However, they also show that re-optimizing the controller from the forward model can be sub-optimal. This is because, in a system with state correlations or redundancies, accurate prediction requires different information than optimal control. We find that adding noise to the movements that matches noise found in human data is enough to overcome this problem. However, since the state space for control of real movements is far more complex than in our simple simulations, the effects of correlations on re-adaptation of the controller from the forward model cannot be overlooked.

  14. Trabajadores de salud de nivel intermedio: un recurso prometedor Mid-level health providers: a promising resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Brown

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Los trabajadores de salud de nivel intermedio (TSNI son trabajadores capacitados en una institución de educación superior durante al menos dos a tres años, quienes son autorizados y regulados para trabajar de forma autónoma para el diagnóstico, control y tratamiento de dolencias, enfermedades y discapacidades, así como participar en la prevención y promoción de la salud. Su papel se ha ampliado progresivamente y ha recibido atención en particular en países de ingresos bajos y medios, como parte de una estrategia para superar los desafíos del personal sanitario, mejorar el acceso a servicios básicos de salud y lograr objetivos relacionados con los Objetivos del Desarrollo del Milenio. La evidencia, aunque limitada e imperfecta, muestra que donde los TSNI están debidamente capacitados, apoyados y coherentemente integrados en el sistema de salud, tienen el potencial para mejorar la distribución de los trabajadores de la salud y el acceso equitativo a los servicios de salud, manteniendo -si no sobrepasando- los estándares de calidad comparables a los servicios prestados por el personal médico. Sin embargo, existen desafíos importantes en términos de la marginación y el limitado apoyo a la gestión de los TSNI en los sistemas de salud. La expansión de los TSNI debe tener prioridad entre las opciones de política consideradas por países que enfrentan problemas de escasez y desigualdad en la distribución de recursos humanos. Una mejor educación, supervisión, administración y regulación de las prácticas y la integración en el sistema de salud tienen el potencial de maximizar los beneficios de la utilización de este personal.Mid-level health providers (MLP are health workers trained at a higher education institution for at least a total of 2-3 years, and authorized and regulated to work autonomously to diagnose, manage and treat illness, disease and impairments, as well as engage in preventive and promotive care. Their role

  15. Reflections of Turkish accounting and financial reporting standards on vocational school students: A research on comparing perceptions of intermediate and mid-level accounting professional candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seldüz Hakan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to compare the perceptions of intermediate and mid-level accounting professional candidates on accounting and financial reporting standards. A significant part of accounting process is carried out by vocational school graduate intermediate and mid-level accounting professionals. However, it can be claimed that adequate education about accounting and financial reporting standards isn’t given in vocational schools although these standards structure the whole accounting process. A survey is conducted over students of the related vocational school in Aksaray University. The results indicate no significant difference on students’ perceptions in terms of their school year, high school type, job or internship experience and intention to perform the profession after graduation. These results can be traced to inadequacy of present curriculums and internship programs which can’t create a difference. Based on the results, the content of internship applications is rearranged and an optional subject named as “Accounting and Reporting Standards” is established.

  16. Improving access to oral health care services among underserved populations in the U.S.: is there a role for mid-level dental providers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaefer, H Luke; Miller, Matthew

    2011-08-01

    Nearly one-third of U.S. citizens lack access to basic preventive and primary oral health care services, which is primarily the result of the high costs of care and the uneven geographic distribution of dental providers. This article examines the case for and against one possible solution to address these barriers to oral health care: the introduction of a mid-level dental provider (MDP) position within the dental field.

  17. Training-induced recovery of low-level vision followed by mid-level perceptual improvements in developmental object and face agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, Maria; Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon; Gotthilf-Nezri, Dana; Yehezkel, Oren; Brooks, Joseph L; Perry, Anat; Bentin, Shlomo; Bonneh, Yoram; Polat, Uri

    2015-01-01

    Long-term deprivation of normal visual inputs can cause perceptual impairments at various levels of visual function, from basic visual acuity deficits, through mid-level deficits such as contour integration and motion coherence, to high-level face and object agnosia. Yet it is unclear whether training during adulthood, at a post-developmental stage of the adult visual system, can overcome such developmental impairments. Here, we visually trained LG, a developmental object and face agnosic individual. Prior to training, at the age of 20, LG's basic and mid-level visual functions such as visual acuity, crowding effects, and contour integration were underdeveloped relative to normal adult vision, corresponding to or poorer than those of 5-6 year olds (Gilaie-Dotan, Perry, Bonneh, Malach & Bentin, 2009). Intensive visual training, based on lateral interactions, was applied for a period of 9 months. LG's directly trained but also untrained visual functions such as visual acuity, crowding, binocular stereopsis and also mid-level contour integration improved significantly and reached near-age-level performance, with long-term (over 4 years) persistence. Moreover, mid-level functions that were tested post-training were found to be normal in LG. Some possible subtle improvement was observed in LG's higher-order visual functions such as object recognition and part integration, while LG's face perception skills have not improved thus far. These results suggest that corrective training at a post-developmental stage, even in the adult visual system, can prove effective, and its enduring effects are the basis for a revival of a developmental cascade that can lead to reduced perceptual impairments. © 2014 The Authors. Developmental Science Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. A Markov model assessing the impact on primary care practice revenues and patient's health when using mid-level providers, lesson learned from the United Kingdom.

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    Hill, Harry; Macey, Richard; Brocklehurst, Paul

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of using mid-level providers for dental "check-up" examinations and the treatment of caries in different NHS settings in the United Kingdom. Mid-level providers are a broad category that describes non-dentist members of dental teams. This study focused on the potential use of Dental Hygiene Therapists undertaking dental "check-up" examinations and simple restorative treatment, instead of dentists. A Markov model was used to construct the natural history of caries development in adults that visit a dental practice every six months over a five-year period. Three cost perspectives are taken: those borne to dental healthcare providers in England and Wales, Northern Ireland and Scotland. These represent three separate forms of retrospective payment system that are currently in use in the United Kingdom. The cost outcome was the average amount of retained practice earnings required to provide healthcare per patient visit. The health outcome was the average length of time in a cavity-free state and the cost-effectiveness outcome was incremental cost for six months in a cavity-free state. No statistical difference was found between dentists and mid-level providers in the length of time in a cavity-free state but the use of the latter saved money in all three NHS health system jurisdictions. This ranged from £7.85 (England and Wales) to £9.16 (Northern Ireland) per patient visit ($10.20 to $11.90, respectively) meaning the incremental cost for six month in a cavity-free state ranged from £261.67 ($339.93) in England and Wales to £305.33 ($369.68) in Northern Ireland. Further, changes in baseline assumptions and parameter values did not change mid-level providers being the dominant service intervention. In a time of limited funds for dental services, these results suggest that resources in public funded systems could be saved using mid-level providers in dental practices, without any health risk to patients or capital investment.

  19. [Impact of mid-level management and support on the performance of a district health system in the Democratic Republic of the Congo].

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    Kahindo, M J B; Schirvel, C; Karemere, H; Mitangala, P; Wodon, A; Porignon, D

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the contribution of mid-level management and support practices to the overall performance of a district healthcare system. This case study was carried out in the North Kivu Province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It was based on analysis of (i) preventive and curative healthcare services and (ii) management and support practices provided from 2000 to 2008. In response to recurring sociopolitical unrest since 1992, the mid-level health system (provincial level) in North Kivu has strengthened management and support practices. The main goals have been to optimize allocation of interventions by external emergency organizations and integration of specialized program activities, to harmonize intervention techniques implemented by external partners, to standardize supervision of sanitary districts with regard to care provider skills, and to adapt strategic options defined by the Ministry of Health to the provincial level. Using this comprehensive approach, the performance of the North Kivu Province in terms of curative and preventive care has exceeded the national average since 2001. Between 2001 and 2008, use of curative services progressed from 0.36 to 0.50 new cases/capita/year. Positive results have also been recorded for infrastructure coverage, essential medicine stock, health information system, and emergency preparedness. Stronger mid-level management and support practices have improved care activities in the health district while protecting the population from unstructured interventions by emergency organizations or specialized programs. A comprehensive management approach has also improved the resilience of the district and increased its contribution to Millennium Development Goals.

  20. Sub-optimal vitamin B-12 levels among ART-naïve HIV-positive individuals in an urban cohort in Uganda.

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    Semeere, Aggrey S; Nakanjako, Damalie; Ddungu, Henry; Kambugu, Andrew; Manabe, Yukari C; Colebunders, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Malnutrition is common among HIV-infected individuals and is often accompanied by low serum levels of micronutrients. Vitamin B-12 deficiency has been associated with various factors including faster HIV disease progression and CD4 depletion in resource-rich settings. To describe prevalence and factors associated with sub-optimal vitamin B-12 levels among HIV-infected antiretroviral therapy (ART) naïve adults in a resource-poor setting, we performed a cross-sectional study with a retrospective chart review among individuals attending either the Mulago-Mbarara teaching hospitals' Joint AIDS Program (MJAP) or the Infectious Diseases Institute (IDI) clinics, in Kampala, Uganda. Logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with sub-optimal vitamin B-12. The mean vitamin B-12 level was 384 pg/ml, normal range (200-900). Sub-optimal vitamin B-12 levels (ART (CD4ART-naïve adult clinic population in urban Uganda. We recommend prospective studies to further clarify the causal relationships of sub-optimal vitamin B-12, and explore the role of vitamin B-12 supplementation in immune recovery.

  1. Sub-optimal vitamin B-12 levels among ART-naive HIV-positive individuals in an urban cohort in Uganda.

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    Aggrey S Semeere

    Full Text Available Malnutrition is common among HIV-infected individuals and is often accompanied by low serum levels of micronutrients. Vitamin B-12 deficiency has been associated with various factors including faster HIV disease progression and CD4 depletion in resource-rich settings. To describe prevalence and factors associated with sub-optimal vitamin B-12 levels among HIV-infected antiretroviral therapy (ART naïve adults in a resource-poor setting, we performed a cross-sectional study with a retrospective chart review among individuals attending either the Mulago-Mbarara teaching hospitals' Joint AIDS Program (MJAP or the Infectious Diseases Institute (IDI clinics, in Kampala, Uganda. Logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with sub-optimal vitamin B-12. The mean vitamin B-12 level was 384 pg/ml, normal range (200-900. Sub-optimal vitamin B-12 levels (<300 pg/ml were found in 75/204 (36.8%. Twenty-one of 204 (10.3% had vitamin B-12 deficiency (<200 pg/ml while 54/204 (26.5% had marginal depletion (200-300 pg/ml. Irritable mood was observed more among individuals with sub-optimal vitamin B-12 levels (OR 2.5, 95% CI; 1.1-5.6, P=0.03. Increasing MCV was associated with decreasing serum B-12 category; 86.9 fl (± 5.1 vs. 83 fl (± 8.4 vs. 82 fl (± 8.4 for B-12 deficiency, marginal and normal B-12 categories respectively (test for trend, P=0.017. Compared to normal B-12, individuals with vitamin B-12 deficiency had a longer known duration of HIV infection: 42.2 months (± 27.1 vs. 29.4 months (± 23.8; P=0.02. Participants eligible for ART (CD4<350 cells/µl with sub-optimal B-12 had a higher mean rate of CD4 decline compared to counterparts with normal B-12; 118 (± 145 vs. 22 (± 115 cells/µl/year, P=0.01 respectively. The prevalence of a sub-optimal vitamin B-12 was high in this HIV-infected, ART-naïve adult clinic population in urban Uganda. We recommend prospective studies to further clarify the causal relationships of sub-optimal

  2. Integrating views on support for mid-level health worker performance: a concept mapping study with regional health system actors in rural Guatemala.

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    Hernández, Alison R; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; Dahlblom, Kjerstin; San Sebastián, Miguel

    2015-10-08

    Mid-level health workers are on the front-lines in underserved areas in many LMICs, and their performance is critical for improving the health of vulnerable populations. However, improving performance in low-resource settings is complex and highly dependent on the organizational context of local health systems. This study aims to examine the views of actors from different levels of a regional health system in Guatemala on actions to support the performance of auxiliary nurses, a cadre of mid-level health workers with a prominent role in public sector service delivery. A concept mapping study was carried out to develop an integrated view on organizational support and identify locally relevant strategies for strengthening performance. A total of 93 regional and district managers, and primary and secondary care health workers participated in generating ideas on actions needed to support auxiliary nurses' performance. Ideas were consolidated into 30 action items, which were structured through sorting and rating exercises, involving a total of 135 of managers and health workers. Maps depicting participants' integrated views on domains of action and dynamics in sub-groups' interests were generated using a sequence of multivariate statistical analyses, and interpreted by regional managers. The combined input of health system actors provided a multi-faceted view of actions needed to support performance, which were organized in six domains, including: Communication and coordination, Tools to orient work, Organizational climate of support, Motivation through recognition, Professional development and Skills development. The nature of relationships across hierarchical levels was identified as a cross-cutting theme. Pattern matching and go-zone maps indicated directions for action based on areas of consensus and difference across sub-groups of actors. This study indicates that auxiliary nurses' performance is interconnected with the performance of other health system actors who

  3. Mid-level healthcare personnel training: an evaluation of the revised, nationally-standardized, pre-service curriculum for clinical officers in Mozambique.

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    Feldacker, Caryl; Chicumbe, Sergio; Dgedge, Martinho; Augusto, Gerito; Cesar, Freide; Robertson, Molly; Mbofana, Francisco; O'Malley, Gabrielle

    2014-01-01

    Mozambique suffers from a critical shortage of healthcare workers. Mid-level healthcare workers, (Tecnicos de Medicina Geral (TMG)), in Mozambique require less money and time to train than physicians. From 2009-2010, the Mozambique Ministry of Health (MoH) and the International Training and Education Center for Health (I-TECH), University of Washington, Seattle, revised the TMG curriculum. To evaluate the effect of the curriculum revision, we used mixed methods to determine: 1) if TMGs meet the MoH's basic standards of clinical competency; and 2) do scores on measurements of clinical knowledge, physical exam, and clinical case scenarios differ by curriculum? T-tests of differences in means examined differences in continuous score variables between curriculum groups. Univariate and multivariate linear regression models assess curriculum-related and demographic factors associated with assessment scores on each of the three evaluation methods at the pTMG scores on both the clinical cases and physical exam. TMGs trained in either curriculum may be inadequately prepared to provide quality care. Curriculum changes are a necessary, but insufficient, part of improving TMG knowledge and skills overall. A more comprehensive, multi-level approach to improving TMG training that includes post-graduation mentoring, strengthening the pre-service internship training, and greater resources for training institute faculty may result in improvements in TMG capacity and patient care over time.

  4. Improved HIV and TB Knowledge and Competence Among Mid-level Providers in a Cluster-Randomized Trial of One-on-One Mentorship for Task Shifting.

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    Naikoba, Sarah; Senjovu, Kaggwa D; Mugabe, Pallen; McCarthy, Carey F; Riley, Patricia L; Kadengye, Damazo T; Dalal, Shona

    2017-08-15

    Health worker shortages pose a challenge to the scale up of HIV care and treatment in Uganda. Training mid-level providers (MLPs) in the provision of HIV and tuberculosis (TB) treatment can expand existing health workforce capacity and access to HIV services. We conducted a cluster-randomized trial of on-site clinical mentorship for HIV and TB care at 10 health facilities in rural Uganda. Twenty MLPs at 5 randomly assigned to an intervention facilities received 8 hours a week of one-on-one mentorship, every 6 weeks over a 9-month period; and another 20 at 5 control facilities received no clinical mentorship. Enrolled MLPs' clinical knowledge and competence in management of HIV and TB was assessed using case scenarios and clinical observation at baseline and immediately after the 9-month intervention. The performance of the study health facilities on 8 TB and HIV care indicators was tracked over the 9-month period using facility patient records. Thirty-nine out 40 enrolled MLPs had case scenario and clinical observation scores for both the baseline and end of intervention assessments. Mentorship was associated with a mean score increase of 16.7% (95% confidence interval: 9.8 to 23.6, P shifting.

  5. Mid-level healthcare personnel training: an evaluation of the revised, nationally-standardized, pre-service curriculum for clinical officers in Mozambique.

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    Caryl Feldacker

    Full Text Available Mozambique suffers from a critical shortage of healthcare workers. Mid-level healthcare workers, (Tecnicos de Medicina Geral (TMG, in Mozambique require less money and time to train than physicians. From 2009-2010, the Mozambique Ministry of Health (MoH and the International Training and Education Center for Health (I-TECH, University of Washington, Seattle, revised the TMG curriculum. To evaluate the effect of the curriculum revision, we used mixed methods to determine: 1 if TMGs meet the MoH's basic standards of clinical competency; and 2 do scores on measurements of clinical knowledge, physical exam, and clinical case scenarios differ by curriculum?T-tests of differences in means examined differences in continuous score variables between curriculum groups. Univariate and multivariate linear regression models assess curriculum-related and demographic factors associated with assessment scores on each of the three evaluation methods at the p<0.05 level. Qualitative interviews and focus groups inform interpretation.We found no significant differences in sex, marital status and age between the 112 and 189 TMGs in initial and revised curriculum, respectively. Mean scores at graduation of initial curriculum TMGs were 56.7%, 63.5%, and 49.1% on the clinical cases, knowledge test, and physical exam, respectively. Scores did not differ significantly from TMGs in the revised curriculum. Results from linear regression models find that training institute was the most significant predictor of TMG scores on both the clinical cases and physical exam.TMGs trained in either curriculum may be inadequately prepared to provide quality care. Curriculum changes are a necessary, but insufficient, part of improving TMG knowledge and skills overall. A more comprehensive, multi-level approach to improving TMG training that includes post-graduation mentoring, strengthening the pre-service internship training, and greater resources for training institute faculty may

  6. Image understanding systems based on the unifying representation of perceptual and conceptual information and the solution of mid-level and high-level vision problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuvychko, Igor

    2001-10-01

    Vision is a part of a larger information system that converts visual information into knowledge structures. These structures drive vision process, resolving ambiguity and uncertainty via feedback, and provide image understanding, that is an interpretation of visual information in terms of such knowledge models. A computer vision system based on such principles requires unifying representation of perceptual and conceptual information. Computer simulation models are built on the basis of graphs/networks. The ability of human brain to emulate similar graph/networks models is found. That means a very important shift of paradigm in our knowledge about brain from neural networks to the cortical software. Starting from the primary visual areas, brain analyzes an image as a graph-type spatial structure. Primary areas provide active fusion of image features on a spatial grid-like structure, where nodes are cortical columns. The spatial combination of different neighbor features cannot be described as a statistical/integral characteristic of the analyzed region, but uniquely characterizes such region itself. Spatial logic and topology naturally present in such structures. Mid-level vision processes like clustering, perceptual grouping, multilevel hierarchical compression, separation of figure from ground, etc. are special kinds of graph/network transformations. They convert low-level image structure into the set of more abstract ones, which represent objects and visual scene, making them easy for analysis by higher-level knowledge structures. Higher-level vision phenomena like shape from shading, occlusion, etc. are results of such analysis. Such approach gives opportunity not only to explain frequently unexplainable results of the cognitive science, but also to create intelligent computer vision systems that simulate perceptional processes in both what and where visual pathways. Such systems can open new horizons for robotic and computer vision industries.

  7. Differences in the association between sickness absence and long-term sub-optimal health by occupational position: a 14-year follow-up in the GAZEL cohort.

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    Ferrie, Jane E; Kivimäki, Mika; Westerlund, Hugo; Head, Jenny; Melchior, Maria; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Zins, Marie; Goldberg, Marcel; Alexanderson, Kristina; Vahtera, Jussi

    2011-10-01

    Although sickness absence is a strong predictor of health, whether this association varies by occupational position has rarely been examined. The aim of this study was to investigate overall and diagnosis-specific sickness absence as a predictor of future long-term sub-optimal health by occupational position. This was a prospective occupational cohort study of 15 320 employees (73% men) aged 37-51. Sickness absences (1990-1992), included in 13 diagnostic categories, were examined by occupational position in relation to self-rated health measured annually during 1993-2006. 60% of employees in higher occupational positions and 22% in lower positions had no sickness absence. Conversely, 9.5% of employees in higher positions and 40% in lower positions had over 30 sick-leave days. Repeated-measures logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, sex and chronic disease showed employees with over 30 days absence, compared to those with no absence, had approximately double the risk of sub-optimal health over the 14-year follow-up in all occupational positions. 1-30 days sick-leave was associated with greater odds of sub-optimal health in the high (OR 1.48; 95% CI 1.27 to 1.72) and intermediate (1.29; 1.15 to 1.45) but not lower occupational positions (1.06; 0.82 to 1.38). Differences by occupational position in the association between sickness absence in 13 specific diagnostic categories and sub-optimal health over the ensuing 14 years were limited to stronger associations observed with cancer and mental disorders in the higher occupational positions. The association between sickness absence of more than 30 days over 3 years and future long-term self-rated health appears to differ little by occupational position.

  8. Cost-effectiveness of extended-release methylphenidate in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder sub-optimally treated with immediate release methylphenidate.

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    Jurjen van der Schans

    Full Text Available Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a common psychiatric disorder in children and adolescents. Immediate-release methylphenidate (IR-MPH is the medical treatment of first choice. The necessity to use several IR-MPH tablets per day and associated potential social stigma at school often leads to reduced compliance, sub-optimal treatment, and therefore economic loss. Replacement of IR-MPH with a single-dose extended release (ER-MPH formulation may improve drug response and economic efficiency.To evaluate the cost-effectiveness from a societal perspective of a switch from IR-MPH to ER-MPH in patients who are sub-optimally treated.A daily Markov-cycle model covering a time-span of 10 years was developed including four different health states: (1 optimal response, (2 sub-optimal response, (3 discontinued treatment, and (4 natural remission. ER-MPH options included methylphenidate osmotic release oral system (MPH-OROS and Equasym XL/Medikinet CR. Both direct costs and indirect costs were included in the analysis, and effects were expressed as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs. Univariate, multivariate as well as probabilistic sensitivity analysis were conducted and the main outcomes were incremental cost-effectiveness ratios.Switching sub-optimally treated patients from IR-MPH to MPH-OROS or Equasym XL/Medikinet CR led to per-patient cost-savings of €4200 and €5400, respectively, over a 10-year treatment span. Sensitivity analysis with plausible variations of input parameters resulted in cost-savings in the vast majority of estimations.This study lends economic support to switching patients with ADHD with suboptimal response to short-acting IR-MPH to long-acting ER-MPH regimens.

  9. Cocoa agroforestry is less resilient to sub-optimal and extreme climate than cocoa in full sun.

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    Abdulai, Issaka; Vaast, Philippe; Hoffmann, Munir P; Asare, Richard; Jassogne, Laurence; Van Asten, Piet; Rötter, Reimund P; Graefe, Sophie

    2018-01-01

    Cocoa agroforestry is perceived as potential adaptation strategy to sub-optimal or adverse environmental conditions such as drought. We tested this strategy over wet, dry and extremely dry periods comparing cocoa in full sun with agroforestry systems: shaded by (i) a leguminous tree species, Albizia ferruginea and (ii) Antiaris toxicaria, the most common shade tree species in the region. We monitored micro-climate, sap flux density, throughfall, and soil water content from November 2014 to March 2016 at the forest-savannah transition zone of Ghana with climate and drought events during the study period serving as proxy for projected future climatic conditions in marginal cocoa cultivation areas of West Africa. Combined transpiration of cocoa and shade trees was significantly higher than cocoa in full sun during wet and dry periods. During wet period, transpiration rate of cocoa plants shaded by A. ferruginea was significantly lower than cocoa under A. toxicaria and full sun. During the extreme drought of 2015/16, all cocoa plants under A. ferruginea died. Cocoa plants under A. toxicaria suffered 77% mortality and massive stress with significantly reduced sap flux density of 115 g cm -2  day -1 , whereas cocoa in full sun maintained higher sap flux density of 170 g cm -2  day -1 . Moreover, cocoa sap flux recovery after the extreme drought was significantly higher in full sun (163 g cm -2  day -1 ) than under A. toxicaria (37 g cm -2  day -1 ). Soil water content in full sun was higher than in shaded systems suggesting that cocoa mortality in the shaded systems was linked to strong competition for soil water. The present results have major implications for cocoa cultivation under climate change. Promoting shade cocoa agroforestry as drought resilient system especially under climate change needs to be carefully reconsidered as shade tree species such as the recommended leguminous A. ferruginea constitute major risk to cocoa functioning under

  10. Sub-optimal breastfeeding of infants during the first six months and associated factors in rural communities of Jimma Arjo Woreda, Southwest Ethiopia

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    Tamiru Dessalegn

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that sub-optimal breastfeeding is major contributor to infant and young child mortality in Ethiopia. To address this problem, infant and young child feeding guideline was developed in 2004 and interventions have been going on based on the guidelines. There is no study that assessed whether the infant and child feeding practices are according the guideline or not. This study was carried out to assess sub-optimal breastfeeding practices and associated factors among infants from birth to six months in rural communities of Jimma Arjo Woreda in the Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out from December to January 2009. Quantitative data were collected from a sample of 382 respondents supplemented by qualitative data generated using in-depth interviews of 15 index mothers. Multivariable logistic regression model was used to identify predictors of timely initiation of breast feeding and non-exclusive breast feeding among mother-infant pairs. Results More than three fourth of mothers breastfeed their infants sub-optimally. Thirty-seven percent of mothers initiated breastfeeding later than one hour after delivery, which was significantly associated with not attending formal education (AOR = 1.05[95%CI: 1.03, 1.94] and painful breastfeeding experiences (AOR = 5.02[95%CI: 1.01, 10.08]. The majority (67.02% of mothers had no knowledge about exclusive breastfeeding. Non-exclusive breastfeeding was negatively associated with child’s age of 0-2 months (AOR: 0.27[95%CI: 0.16, 0.47 and 3-4 months (AOR = 0.43 [95%CI: 0.25, 0.73 and ownership of radio (AOR = 0.56[95%CI: 0.37, 0.88], but positively associated with the practice of discarding colostrums (AOR = 1.78[95%CI: 1.09, 4.94]. Conclusion The findings showed that the majority of mothers sub-optimally breastfeed their children in the study area. As most of the mothers do not have knowledge on the exclusive breast feeding. Enhancing community

  11. The quality of voluntary medical male circumcision done by mid-level workers in Tshwane District, South Africa: A retrospective analysis.

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    Sanele Ngcobo

    Full Text Available Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC reduces the acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV in heterosexual men by up to 60%. One HIV infection is averted for every 5 to 15 VMMCs. To conduct VMMCs in large populations, large numbers of trained healthcare professionals are needed. Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa have a high burden of HIV and a shortage of healthcare professionals, creating a healthcare conundrum. To bridge this gap, South Africa launched a new cadre of mid-level medical worker called Clinical Associates (CA. We assessed the ability of CAs to perform circumcisions of adequate quality and their subsequent usefulness to meet the demands of VMMCs in a population with a high HIV burden.We conducted a retrospective analysis, reviewing patient files (n = 4850 of surgical VMMCs conducted over a 16-month period. Patient files were sourced from clinics and hospitals that provided free VMMCs in Tshwane district in South Africa.Clinical associates performed 88.66% of the circumcisions and doctors performed the remaining 11.34% (p < 0.001. The number of adverse events did not differ between the two groups. Data on intra-operative adverse events were available for 4 738 patients. Of these, 341 (7.2% experienced intra-operative adverse events. For the whole sample, 44 (8.1%, n = 543 adverse events occurred during circumcisions done by doctors and 297 (7.1%, n = 4195 occurred during circumcisions done by CAs (p = 0.385. Clinical associates performed circumcisions in shorter times (duration: 14.63 minutes compared to doctors (duration: 15.25 minutes, t = -7.46; p < 0.001. Recorded pain, bleeding, swelling, infection and wound destruction did not differ between clients circumcised by CAs and doctors. This study is limited by the use of data from a single district.Clinical associates contribute to the demands for high numbers of VMMCs in Tshwane district, South Africa. Clinical associates perform VMMCs at a clinical standard that is

  12. Sub-optimal Testing and Awareness of HCV and HBV Among High Risk Individuals at an Underserved Safety-Net Hospital.

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    Wong, Robert J; Campbell, Brendan; Liu, Benny; Baden, Rachel; Bhuket, Taft

    2018-02-01

    Sub-optimal screening for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) among high risk groups delays diagnosis and treatment. We aimed to evaluate overall rates of HCV and HBV screening and patient knowledge of their testing result. Adults age ≥18 years undergoing elective outpatient endoscopy at a large, urban safety-net hospital from July 2015 to July 2016 were prospectively evaluated to determine rates of HCV and HBV testing, the results of those completed tests, and patient knowledge of test results among high risk individuals (as determined by U.S. Preventative Services Task Force). Among 1125 patients (52.3% male, 70.4% foreign-born), 66.5% were high risk for chronic HCV; only 30.9% received prior testing. 14.7% had positive chronic HCV infection. Patients born in the 1945-1965 cohort were more likely to have received prior HCV testing compared to those born outside of this cohort (32.7 vs. 16.9%, p = 0.01). Among patients who received HCV screening, 29.3% were aware of test results. Overall, 61.6% were high risk for chronic HBV; only 25.1% received prior testing. 4.1% were positive for chronic HBV. Compared to Caucasians, Asians (19.0 vs. 44.4%, p HBV testing. Among patients who received prior HBV screening, 18.4% were aware of test results. Less than one-third of high risk patients received HCV and HBV screening among an ethnically diverse safety-net population. Equally low rates of patient knowledge of testing results were observed.

  13. Assessing the Accuracy of High Resolution Digital Surface Models Computed by PhotoScan® and MicMac® in Sub-Optimal Survey Conditions

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    Marion Jaud

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For monitoring purposes and in the context of geomorphological research, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV appear to be a promising solution to provide multi-temporal Digital Surface Models (DSMs and orthophotographs. There are a variety of photogrammetric software tools available for UAV-based data. The objective of this study is to investigate the level of accuracy that can be achieved using two of these software tools: Agisoft PhotoScan® Pro and an open-source alternative, IGN© MicMac®, in sub-optimal survey conditions (rugged terrain, with a large variety of morphological features covering a range of roughness sizes, poor GPS reception. A set of UAV images has been taken by a hexacopter drone above the Rivière des Remparts, a river on Reunion Island. This site was chosen for its challenging survey conditions: the topography of the study area (i involved constraints on the flight plan; (ii implied errors on some GPS measurements; (iii prevented an optimal distribution of the Ground Control Points (GCPs and; (iv was very complex to reconstruct. Several image processing tests are performed with different scenarios in order to analyze the sensitivity of each software package to different parameters (image quality, numbers of GCPs, etc.. When computing the horizontal and vertical errors within a control region on a set of ground reference targets, both methods provide rather similar results. A precision up to 3–4 cm is achievable with these software packages. The DSM quality is also assessed over the entire study area comparing PhotoScan DSM and MicMac DSM with a Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS point cloud. PhotoScan and MicMac DSM are also compared at the scale of particular features. Both software packages provide satisfying results: PhotoScan is more straightforward to use but its source code is not open; MicMac is recommended for experimented users as it is more flexible.

  14. Evaluation of the cost effectiveness of exenatide versus insulin glargine in patients with sub-optimally controlled Type 2 diabetes in the United Kingdom

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    Tetlow Anthony P

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Exenatide belongs to a new therapeutic class in the treatment of diabetes (incretin mimetics, allowing glucose-dependent glycaemic control in Type 2 diabetes. Randomised controlled trial data suggest that exenatide is as effective as insulin glargine at reducing HbA1c in combination therapy with metformin and sulphonylureas; with reduced weight but higher incidence of adverse gastrointestinal events. The objective of this study is to evaluate the cost effectiveness of exenatide versus insulin glargine using RCT data and a previously published model of Type 2 diabetes disease progression that is based on the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study; the perspective of the health-payer of the United Kingdom National Health Service. Methods The study used a discrete event simulation model designed to forecast the costs and health outcome of a cohort of 1,000 subjects aged over 40 years with sub-optimally-controlled Type 2 diabetes, following initiation of either exenatide, or insulin glargine, in addition to oral hypoglycaemic agents. Sensitivity analysis for a higher treatment discontinuation rate in exenatide patients was applied to the cohort in three different scenarios; (1 either ignored or (2 exenatide-failures excluded or (3 exenatide-failures switched to insulin glargine. Analyses were undertaken to evaluate the price sensitivity of exenatide in terms of relative cost effectiveness. Baseline cohort profiles and effectiveness data were taken from a published randomised controlled trial. Results The relative cost-effectiveness of exenatide and insulin glargine was tested under a variety of conditions, in which insulin glargine was dominant in all cases. Using the most conservative of assumptions, the cost-effectiveness ratio of exenatide vs. insulin glargine at the current UK NHS price was -£29,149/QALY (insulin glargine dominant and thus exenatide is not cost-effective when compared with insulin glargine, at the current

  15. Engaging with community-based public and private mid-level providers for promoting the use of modern contraceptive methods in rural Pakistan: results from two innovative birth spacing interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmat, Syed Khurram; Hameed, Waqas; Hamza, Hasan Bin; Mustafa, Ghulam; Ishaque, Muhammad; Abbas, Ghazunfer; Khan, Omar Farooq; Asghar, Jamshaid; Munroe, Erik; Ali, Safdar; Hussain, Wajahat; Ali, Sajid; Ahmed, Aftab; Ali, Moazzam; Temmerman, Marleen

    2016-03-17

    (prevalence ratio: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.22-1.50) of contraceptive use among MWRA. Suraj intervention highlights the importance of embedding subsidized FP services within the communities of the beneficiaries. The outcomes of the CMW intervention also improved the use of long-term contraceptives. These findings indicate the necessity of designing and implementing FP initiatives involving local mid-level providers to expand contraceptive coverage in under-served areas.

  16. Applications of sub-optimality in dynamic programming to location and construction of nuclear fuel processing plant; Application de la sous-optimalite en programmation dynamique a la localisation et la cadence optimales de construction des equipements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiriet, L; Deledicq, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, section des etudes economiques generales

    1968-09-01

    First, the point of applying Dynamic Programming to optimization and Operational Research problems in chemical industries are recalled, as well as the conditions in which a dynamic program is illustrated by a sequential graph. A new algorithm for the determination of sub-optimal politics in a sequential graph is then developed. Finally, the applications of sub-optimality concept is shown when taking into account the indirect effects related to possible strategies, or in the case of stochastic choices and of problems of the siting of plants... application examples are given. (authors) [French] On rappelle d'abord l'interet de la Programmation Dynamique dans les problemes d'optimisation et de Recherche Operationnelle dans les industries chimiques, et les conditions de representation d'un programme dynamique par un graphe sequentiel. On expose ensuite un nouvel algorithme de determination de politiques sous-optimales dans un graphe sequentiel. On montre enfin les applications du concept de sous-optimalite a la prise en compte d'effets indirects lies aux politiques possibles, aux choix dans l'aleatoire, a des problemes de localisation optimale d'usines... et on donne des exemples d'utilisation. (auteurs)

  17. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor in the prevention of postoperative infectious complications and sub-optimal recovery from operation in patients with colorectal cancer and increased preoperative risk (ASA 3 and 4). Protocol of a controlled clinical trial developed by consensus of an international study group. Part three: individual patient, complication algorithm and quality manage.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stinner, B.; Bauhofer, A.; Lorenz, W.; Rothmund, M.; Plaul, U.; Torossian, A.; Celik, I.; Sitter, H.; Koller, M.; Black, A.; Duda, D.; Encke, A.; Greger, B.; Goor, H. van; Hanisch, E.; Hesterberg, R.; Klose, K.J.; Lacaine, F.; Lorijn, R.H.; Margolis, C.; Neugebauer, E.; Nystrom, P.O.; Reemst, P.H.M.; Schein, M.; Solovera, J.

    2001-01-01

    GENERAL DESIGN: Presentation of a new type of a study protocol for evaluation of the effectiveness of an immune modifier (rhG-CSF, filgrastim): prevention of postoperative infectious complications and of sub-optimal recovery from operation in patients with colorectal cancer and increased

  18. Dependent Interviewing and Sub-Optimal Responding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Eggs

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available With proactive dependent interviewing (PDI respondents are reminded of the answer they gave in the previous interview, before being asked about their current status. PDI is used in panel surveys to assist respondent recall and reduce spurious changes in responses over time. PDI may however provide scope for new errors if respondents falsely accept the previous information as still being an accurate description of their current situation. In this paper we use data from the German Labour Market and Social Security panel study, in which an error was made with the preload data for a PDI question about receipt of welfare benefit. The survey data were linked to individual administrative records on receipt of welfare benefit. A large proportion of respondents accepted the false preload. This behaviour seems mainly driven by the difficulty of the response task: respondents with a more complex history of receipt according to the records were more likely to confirm the false preload. Personality also seemed related to the probability of confirming. Predictors of satisficing, indicators of satisficing on other items in the survey, and characteristics of the survey and interviewer were not predictive of confirming the false preload.

  19. A conceptual framework of computations in mid-level vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubilius, Jonas; Wagemans, Johan; Op de Beeck, Hans P

    2014-01-01

    If a picture is worth a thousand words, as an English idiom goes, what should those words-or, rather, descriptors-capture? What format of image representation would be sufficiently rich if we were to reconstruct the essence of images from their descriptors? In this paper, we set out to develop a conceptual framework that would be: (i) biologically plausible in order to provide a better mechanistic understanding of our visual system; (ii) sufficiently robust to apply in practice on realistic images; and (iii) able to tap into underlying structure of our visual world. We bring forward three key ideas. First, we argue that surface-based representations are constructed based on feature inference from the input in the intermediate processing layers of the visual system. Such representations are computed in a largely pre-semantic (prior to categorization) and pre-attentive manner using multiple cues (orientation, color, polarity, variation in orientation, and so on), and explicitly retain configural relations between features. The constructed surfaces may be partially overlapping to compensate for occlusions and are ordered in depth (figure-ground organization). Second, we propose that such intermediate representations could be formed by a hierarchical computation of similarity between features in local image patches and pooling of highly-similar units, and reestimated via recurrent loops according to the task demands. Finally, we suggest to use datasets composed of realistically rendered artificial objects and surfaces in order to better understand a model's behavior and its limitations.

  20. A conceptual framework of computations in mid-level vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas eKubilius

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available If a picture is worth a thousand words, as an English idiom goes, what should those words – or, rather, descriptors – capture? What format of image representation would be sufficiently rich if we were to reconstruct the essence of images from their descriptors? In this paper, we set out to develop a conceptual framework that would be: (i biologically plausible in order to provide a better mechanistic understanding of our visual system; (ii sufficiently robust to apply in practice on realistic images; and (iii able to tap into underlying structure of our visual world. We bring forward three key ideas. First, we argue that surface-based representations are constructed based on feature inference from the input in the intermediate processing layers of the visual system. Such representations are computed in a largely pre-semantic (prior to categorization and pre-attentive manner using multiple cues (orientation, color, polarity, variation in orientation and so on, and explicitly retain configural relations between features. The constructed surfaces may be partially overlapping to compensate for occlusions and are ordered in depth (figure-ground organization. Second, we propose that such intermediate representations could be formed by a hierarchical computation of similarity between features in local image patches and pooling of highly-similar units, and reestimated via recurrent loops according to the task demands. Finally, we suggest to use datasets composed of realistically rendered artificial objects and surfaces in order to better understand a model’s behavior and its limitations.

  1. High-Octane Mid-Level Ethanol Blend Market Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Caley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Newes, Emily [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brooker, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McCormick, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peterson, Steve [Lexidyne, LLC, Colorado Springs, CO (United States); Leiby, Paul [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Martinez, Rocio Uria [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Oladosu, Gbadebo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, Maxwell L. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The United States government has been promoting increased use of biofuels, including ethanol from non-food feedstocks, through policies contained in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. The objective is to enhance energy security, reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and provide economic benefits. However, the United States has reached the ethanol blend wall, where more ethanol is produced domestically than can be blended into standard gasoline. Nearly all ethanol is blended at 10 volume percent (vol%) in gasoline. At the same time, the introduction of more stringent standards for fuel economy and GHG tailpipe emissions is driving research to increase the efficiency of spark ignition (SI) engines. Advanced strategies for increasing SI engine efficiency are enabled by higher octane number (more highly knock-resistant) fuels. Ethanol has a research octane number (RON) of 109, compared to typical U.S. regular gasoline at 91-93. Accordingly, high RON ethanol blends containing 20 vol% to 40 vol% ethanol are being extensively studied as fuels that enable design of more efficient engines. These blends are referred to as high-octane fuel (HOF) in this report. HOF could enable dramatic growth in the U.S. ethanol industry, with consequent energy security and GHG emission benefits, while also supporting introduction of more efficient vehicles. HOF could provide the additional ethanol demand necessary for more widespread deployment of cellulosic ethanol. However, the potential of HOF can be realized only if it is adopted by the motor fuel marketplace. This study assesses the feasibility, economics, and logistics of this adoption by the four required participants--drivers, vehicle manufacturers, fuel retailers, and fuel producers. It first assesses the benefits that could motivate these participants to adopt HOF. Then it focuses on the drawbacks and barriers that these participants could face when adopting HOF and proposes strategies--including incentives and policies--to curtail these barriers. These curtailment strategies are grouped into scenarios that are then modeled to investigate their feasibility and explore the dynamics involved in HOF deployment. This report does not advocate for or against incentives or policies, but presents simulations of their effects.

  2. A conceptual framework of computations in mid-level vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubilius, Jonas; Wagemans, Johan; Op de Beeck, Hans P.

    2014-01-01

    If a picture is worth a thousand words, as an English idiom goes, what should those words—or, rather, descriptors—capture? What format of image representation would be sufficiently rich if we were to reconstruct the essence of images from their descriptors? In this paper, we set out to develop a conceptual framework that would be: (i) biologically plausible in order to provide a better mechanistic understanding of our visual system; (ii) sufficiently robust to apply in practice on realistic images; and (iii) able to tap into underlying structure of our visual world. We bring forward three key ideas. First, we argue that surface-based representations are constructed based on feature inference from the input in the intermediate processing layers of the visual system. Such representations are computed in a largely pre-semantic (prior to categorization) and pre-attentive manner using multiple cues (orientation, color, polarity, variation in orientation, and so on), and explicitly retain configural relations between features. The constructed surfaces may be partially overlapping to compensate for occlusions and are ordered in depth (figure-ground organization). Second, we propose that such intermediate representations could be formed by a hierarchical computation of similarity between features in local image patches and pooling of highly-similar units, and reestimated via recurrent loops according to the task demands. Finally, we suggest to use datasets composed of realistically rendered artificial objects and surfaces in order to better understand a model's behavior and its limitations. PMID:25566044

  3. Mid-Level Planning and Control for Articulated Locomoting Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-12

    processor to a 32-bit ARM Cortex M4F running at 7X the clock speed. We also wanted to enable higher frequency external control and sen- sor feedback and to...modules into separate threads. ChibiOS/RT1 was selected due to its out-of-the-box support for STM32 Cortex processors and a hardware abstraction layer...fine torque control on each joint. Additionally, each module contains a 32-bit processor and 100 Mbps Ethernet data bus, a 400X improvement in

  4. Tropical Cyclone Genesis Efficiency: Mid-Level Versus Bottom Vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    storm strength). Figure 4b shows the time evolutions of the corresponding maximum surface wind speed from the four experiments. Based on the definition...Pacific during summer. Mon. Wea. Rev., 124, 2245–2266. Chen, S. S. and W. M. Frank, 1993: A numerical study of the genesis of extratropical convective

  5. Duration estimates within a modality are integrated sub-optimally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Bo eCai

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Perceived duration can be influenced by various properties of sensory stimuli. For example, visual stimuli of higher temporal frequency are perceived to last longer than those of lower temporal frequency. How does the brain form a representation of duration when each of two simultaneously presented stimuli influences perceived duration in different way? To answer this question, we investigated the perceived duration of a pair of dynamic visual stimuli of different temporal frequencies in comparison to that of a single visual stimulus of either low or high temporal frequency. We found that the duration representation of simultaneously occurring visual stimuli is best described by weighting the estimates of duration based on each individual stimulus. However, the weighting performance deviates from the prediction of statistically optimal integration. In addition, we provided a Bayesian account to explain a difference in the apparent sensitivity of the psychometric curves introduced by the order in which the two stimuli are displayed in a two-alternative forced-choice task.

  6. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Sub-Optimal Breastfeeding and Its Associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-01

    Jan 1, 2018 ... permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any ... education, low birth order and lack of knowledge about exclusive ..... Economic status. < 500 ETB ..... studies conducted in Malaysia in which primiparous women ...

  7. O trabalho do profissional de nível médio de enfermagem nos novos dispositivos de atenção em saúde mental El trabajo del profesional de enfermería de nivel medio y los nuevos servicios de atención en la salud mental The work of the mid-level nursing professional in the new mental health care services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Regina Zerbetto

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available O estudo consiste em levantamento bibliográfico abrangendo o profissional de nível médio de enfermagem nos serviços alternativos de saúde mental, com o objetivo de refletir sobre o seu trabalho, considerando o modelo psicossocial e as suas ações de intervenção na assistência, baseadas no referencial teórico de tecnologias leves. Observou-se que há um processo de transição do modelo tradicional ao psicossocial; do tecnicista à satisfação das necessidades do usuário e a importância de rever o processo de formação dessa categoria profissional, salientando a nova postura do enfermeiro-professor que deve buscar ensino crítico-reflexivo e direcionado para os ideais da Reforma Psiquiátrica.El estudio se trata de un inventario bibliográfico que abarca al profesional de enfermería de nivel medio en los servicios alternativos de salud mental, con objeto de reflexionar sobre su trabajo, teniéndose en cuenta el modelo psicosocial y sus acciones de intervención en la atención, basadas en el referencial teórico de tecnologías livianas. Se observa que hay un proceso de transición del método tradicional al psicosocial y del técnico a la satisfacción de las necesidades del usuario y la importancia de reconsiderar el proceso de formación de esta categoría profesional, resaltando una nueva postura del enfermero(a-profesor(a que busca una enseñanza crítica y reflexiva en dirección a los ideales de la Reforma Psiquiátrica.The study consists of a bibliographic survey covering mid-level nursing professionals in alternative mental health services, with the objective to reflecting on their work, considering the psychosocial model and its care intervention actions, based on the theoretical reference framework of the so-called "light technologies". It was observed that there is a transition process from the traditional to the psychosocial model, from a technical model to the model of satisfying user needs and the importance of

  8. The role of mid-level vortex in the intensification and weakening of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Govindan Kutty

    2017-10-06

    Oct 6, 2017 ... the importance of such vortex developments in the intensification of tropical cyclone. The genesis ... ing a thermodynamically favourable environment to facilitate .... zontal extension, intensity and organization of PV at both the ...

  9. Dispensing Equipment Testing with Mid-Level Ethanol/Gasoline Test Fluid: Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyce, K.; Chapin, J. T.

    2010-11-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Nonpetroleum-Based Fuel Task addresses the hurdles to commercialization of biomass-derived fuels and fuel blends. One such hurdle is the unknown compatibility of new fuels with current infrastructure, such as the equipment used at service stations to dispense fuel into automobiles. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Vehicle Technology Program and the Biomass Program have engaged in a joint project to evaluate the potential for blending ethanol into gasoline at levels higher than nominal 10 volume percent. This project was established to help DOE and NREL better understand any potentially adverse impacts caused by a lack of knowledge about the compatibility of the dispensing equipment with ethanol blends higher than what the equipment was designed to dispense. This report provides data about the impact of introducing a gasoline with a higher volumetric ethanol content into service station dispensing equipment from a safety and a performance perspective.

  10. 22 CFR 501.5 - Mid-level FSO Candidate Program (Class 3, 2, or 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... knowledge, skills, abilities, and overseas experience. Board Domestic and Overseas Specialists must be no... university-level teacher of political science, history, English or other relevant disciplines. Appointments... Candidate. Applicants who have qualified but have not been appointed because of lack of openings will be...

  11. Development of an Orientation Program for Mid-level Managers at a Rural Civilian Community Hospital

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mullarkey, David

    1998-01-01

    .... A major turnover of middle managers that occurred over approximately a year's period brought to senior management's attention the need for orientation and training for department directors, and thus prompted the study...

  12. The Professional & the Personal: Worklife Balance and Mid-Level Student Affairs Administrators

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, Tracey LaShawne

    2011-01-01

    The integration of work and family continues to be a challenge for women and men of the academy (Gatta & Roos, 2004). Much of the research on worklife balance in the post-secondary education setting focuses on the lives of instructional faculty (Bailyn, 2003; Bassett, 2005; Drago et al., 2006; Drago & Williams, 2000; Gatta & Roos, 2004; Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1999; Ward & Wolf-Wendel, 2004). There is also a need to understand how university administrators juggle the demands of...

  13. Major surgery delegation to mid-level health practitioners in Mozambique: health professionals' perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCord Colin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examines the opinions of health professionals about the capacity and performance of the 'técnico de cirurgia', a surgically trained assistant medical officer in the Mozambican health system. Particular attention is paid to the views of medical doctors and maternal and child health nurses. Methods The results are derived from a qualitative study using both semi-structured interviews and group discussions. Health professionals (n = 71 were interviewed at both facility and system level. Eight group discussion sessions of about two hours each were run in eight rural hospitals with a total of 48 participants. Medical doctors and district officers were excluded from group discussion sessions due to their hierarchical position which could have prevented other workers from expressing opinions freely. Results Health workers at all levels voiced satisfaction with the work of the "técnicos de cirurgia". They stressed the life-saving skills of these cadres, the advantages resulting from a reduction in the need for patient referrals and the considerable cost reduction for patients and their families. Important problems in the professional status and remuneration of "técnicos de cirurgia" were identified. Conclusion This study, the first one to scrutinize the judgements and attitudes of health workers towards the "técnico de cirurgia", showed that, despite some shortcomings, this cadre is highly appreciated and that the health delivery system does not recognize and motivate them enough. The findings of this study can be used to direct efforts to improve motivation of health workers in general and of técnicos de cirurgia in particular.

  14. Sources of Career Dissatisfaction among Mid-Level Coast Guard Officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    fulfillment than staff managers, with the largest line-staff differences occurring in the esteem and self -actualization need areas; (2) line and staff...of Industrial Psychology and Organizational Behavior, ed. Marvin Dunnette, Chicago: Rand McNally & Co., 1976. Maslow , Abraham H., Motivation and...Personality, New York: Harper and Row, Publishers, 1954. Maslow , Abraham H., "The Study of Man At His Best," Behavioral Science Concepts and

  15. Development of an Orientation Program for Mid-level Managers at a Rural Civilian Community Hospital

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mullarkey, David

    1998-01-01

    This study's focus was to identify perceived orientation and management development needs of department directors and middle managers at a mid-size, not-for-profit community hospital in Beaufort. south Carolina...

  16. Geriatric Foot Care: A Model Educational Program for Mid-Level Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggs, Patricia K.; Krissak, Ruth; Caruso, Frank; Teasdall, Robert

    2002-01-01

    An educational program on geriatric foot care was completed by 59 nurse practitioners, 12 physicians' assistants, and 1 physician. The 3 1/2 day program included interactive sessions, observation, and hands-on patient care. Posttest results and 6-month follow-up showed significant knowledge increases and incorporation of learning into practice.…

  17. A Study of Army Civilian Entry Level and Mid-Level Program Management Leadership Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-08

    and mid-grade level positions is an important responsibility for senior leaders. Mentoring and coaching entry level and mid-grade level...Program Management Leadership Development Craig J. Maurice Defense Acquisition University Senior Service College Fellowship 2015-2016 Huntsville...requirements for the Army’s Senior Service College Fellowship (SSCF) under the direction of SSCF Director, Mr. John Daniels and Research Advisor, Mr. Van

  18. Socialization for New and Mid-Level Community College Student Affairs Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornak, Anne M.; Ozaki, C. Carolyn; Lunceford, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to explore the socialization of student affairs professionals in community colleges. The authors used the theory of organizational socialization (Van Maanen & Schein, 1979) and explored these nuances through a qualitative research design. Findings include differences in socialization in institutions versus the…

  19. The Relationship between Human Resource Management Practices and Turnover Intentions of Mid-Level Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker-Lively, Felicia L.

    2014-01-01

    Although "talented employees with unique knowledge and skills are increasingly being viewed as a valuable asset and a source of competitive advantage" in the private sector (Yukl, 2008, p. 710), identification, selection, and development of potential leaders are often inadequate or too late in public institutions (Bisbee, 2007). Studies…

  20. Goals, communication, participation, and feedback : mid-level management and traditional public administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Favero, N.; Meier, K.J.; O'Toole, Laurence J.

    2012-01-01

    Much recent work in the study of public administration has emphasized new challenges, and relatively unusual aspects of management, such as managerial networking and interorganizational collaboration, cross-sectoral partnerships, the centrality of information technology in contemporary management,

  1. 22 CFR 11.11 - Mid-level Foreign Service officer career candidate appointments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... GS-9, or in the Armed Forces as first lieutenant or lieutenant junior grade, or higher. Academic...) Written essay. Candidates who take the oral examination will be asked to write an essay during the...

  2. the Army Ethic-Educating and Equipping the Army Mid-Level Leaders in the CGSOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    course covered the topics of just war theory, virtue ethics, deontological and consequential ethics, and objectivism and moral relativism with the...theory and discuss strengths and weaknesses of each. To wrap up the course, E105 explores and evaluates moral objectivism and relativism in an effort...study on just war, six and eight possible 63 scenarios for E103 and E104 respectively, and one case study for E105 on moral relativism .22 What

  3. Right Here, Right Now: Career Advancement of Generation X Female Mid-Level Administrators in Community Colleges in the Southeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Terri Suzanne Holston

    2012-01-01

    Community colleges in the United States are facing what some researchers are calling a "crisis" (Piland & Wolf, 2003; Shults, 2001). The current generation of community college leaders, those born to the birth cohort known as the Baby Boomers, are eligible to retire early in the 21st century. These retirements will leave a…

  4. Models, Analysis, and Recommendations Pertaining to the Retention of Naval Special Warfare s Mid-Level Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The Analytic Hierarch/Network Process,” in Rev. R. Acad. Cien. Serie A. Mat (RACSAM), submitted by Francisco Javier Giron (Real Academia de Ciencias ...Academia de Ciencias : Spain. Scott, Nathan. Naval Special Warfare Officer Retention Survey. Monterey, CA: NPS Press, September 2013. Whittenberger

  5. Impacts of Mid-level Biofuel Content in Gasoline on SIDI Engine-Out and Tailpipe Particulate Matter Emissions: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, X.; Ireland, J. C.; Zigler, B. T.; Ratcliff, M. A.; Knoll, K. E.; Alleman, T. L.; Tester, J. T.

    2011-02-01

    The influences of ethanol and iso-butanol blended with gasoline on engine-out and post Three-Way Catalyst (TWC) particle size distribution and number concentration were studied using a GM 2.0L turbocharged Spark Ignition Direct Injection (SIDI) engine. The engine was operated using the production ECU with a dynamometer controlling the engine speed and the accelerator pedal position controlling the engine load. A TSI Fast Mobility Particle Sizer (FMPS) spectrometer was used to measure the particle size distribution in the range from 5.6 to 560 nm with a sampling rate of 1 Hz. US federal certification gasoline (E0), two ethanol-blended fuels (E10 and E20), and 11.7% iso-butanol blended fuel (BU12) were tested. Measurements were conducted at ten selected steady-state engine operation conditions. Bi-modal particle size distributions were observed for all operating conditions with peak values at particle sizes of 10 nm and 70 nm. Idle and low speed / low load conditions emitted higher total particle numbers than other operating conditions. At idle, the engine-out Particulate Matter (PM) emissions were dominated by nucleation mode particles, and the production TWC reduced these nucleation mode particles by more than 50%, while leaving the accumulation mode particle distribution unchanged. At engine load higher than 6 bar NMEP, accumulation mode particles dominated the engine-out particle emissions and the TWC had little effect. Compared to the baseline gasoline (E0), E10 does not significantly change PM emissions, while E20 and BU12 both reduce PM emissions under the conditions studied. Iso-butanol was observed to impact PM emissions more than ethanol, with up to 50% reductions at some conditions. In this paper, the issues related to PM measurement using FMPS are also discussed. While some uncertainties are due to engine variation, the FMPS must be operated under careful maintenance procedures in order to achieve repeatable measurement results.

  6. Superwoman Lives, (at Least in My Head): Reflections of a Mid-Level Professional in Student Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Colette M.

    2005-01-01

    Being from a typical African-American descent, the author's family struggled through a history tarnished by the legacy of slavery and racism in America. Many of these personal family stories of struggle she received through an oral tradition. She learned early in life the importance of discipline, hierarchy, and hard work. She was expected to…

  7. The market and consumer welfare effects of mid-level ethanol blends in the US fuel market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, Paul W.; Sleper, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the prospect that a consumer-driven market could eventually replace the myriad regulations and demand quotas in the US ethanol and gasoline fuel market. Given efficient households that minimize the cost of operating automobiles, recent vehicle technology that improves blended fuel substitution, and typical market conditions of the last five years, blended fuels with 20% ethanol concentration could occupy a volume of 82.2 billion gallons in a 138.3 billion gallon gasoline market. The consumer welfare gain associated with blended fuel is $15.9 billion annually for US consumers, or about $1000 over the life of a vehicle. The ethanol demand associated with a voluntary blended fuel market is 16.4 BGY, slightly more than the conventional component of the Renewable Fuels Standard. It is time to replace the corn RFS with a free market. But an active competition policy in the fuel marketing system may also be required. Intervention for the impending Biomass Ethanol Industry, such as a subsidy or an exemption a carbon tax, may also be in order. - Highlights: • Competiveness of 20% ethanol blends replacing gasoline is examined. • Households can reduce costs by $1000 over vehicle life with ethanol blend. • Blended fuel could gain a 60% share in a voluntary US gasoline market. • US ethanol supply in a voluntary market would match current mandated output.

  8. Development and Testing of a Life Cycle Model and a Parameterization of Thin Mid-level Stratiform Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, Steven K.

    2008-03-03

    We used a cloud-resolving model (a detailed computer model of cloud systems) to evaluate and improve the representation of clouds in global atmospheric models used for numerical weather prediction and climate modeling. We also used observations of the atmospheric state, including clouds, made at DOE's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's Climate Research Facility located in the Southern Great Plains (Kansas and Oklahoma) during Intensive Observation Periods to evaluate our detailed computer model as well as a single-column version of a global atmospheric model used for numerical weather prediction (the Global Forecast System of the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Prediction). This so-called Single-Column Modeling approach has proved to be a very effective method for testing the representation of clouds in global atmospheric models. The method relies on detailed observations of the atmospheric state, including clouds, in an atmospheric column comparable in size to a grid column used in a global atmospheric model. The required observations are made by a combination of in situ and remote sensing instruments. One of the greatest problems facing mankind at the present is climate change. Part of the problem is our limited ability to predict the regional patterns of climate change. In order to increase this ability, uncertainties in climate models must be reduced. One of the greatest of these uncertainties is the representation of clouds and cloud processes. This project, and ARM taken as a whole, has helped to improve the representation of clouds in global atmospheric models.

  9. "Monkey in a Cage": The Complicated Loyalties of Mid-Level Academic Women Working in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongalis-Macrow, Athena

    2012-01-01

    Loyalty raises a dilemma for women's career progression and leadership because it signals confidence in the organisation, despite the ongoing constraints that organisations present for women and their leadership aspirations. The research investigates women's loyalty in the context of higher education. Focussing on a select group of mid-level…

  10. Deportation of Gang Members: Sub-Optimal Solution for Both America and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    16 James C. Howell, Arlen Egley, Jr., George E. Tita , and Elizabeth Griffiths, “U.S. Gang Problem Trends and Seriousness, 1996–2009”, National Gang...Howell, James C., Arlen Egley, Jr., George E. Tita , and Elizabeth Griffiths. “U.S. Gang Problem Trends and Seriousness, 1996–2009.” National Gang Center

  11. High frequency of sub-optimal semen quality in an unselected population of young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A G; Jensen, Tina Kold; Carlsen, E

    2000-01-01

    concentration was 41 x 10(6)/ml (mean 57.4 x 10(6)/ml). Men with ejaculation abstinence above 48 h had slightly higher sperm concentrations (median 45 x10(6)/ml, mean 63.2 x 10(6)/ml), but even in this subgroup, 21 and 43% respectively had sperm counts below 20 x 10(6)/ml and 40 x 10(6)/ml. Among men...... with no history of reproductive diseases and a period of abstinence above 48 h, as many as 18 and 40% respectively had concentrations below 20 and 40 x 10(6)/ml. Sperm counts were positively correlated with testis size, percentage normal spermatozoa and inhibin B, and negatively correlated with percentage...... for military service, this provided a unique opportunity to study the reproductive function in an unbiased population. Altogether 891 young men delivered a blood sample in which reproductive hormones were measured. From 708 of these men data were also obtained on semen quality and testis size. The median sperm...

  12. Optimal and sub-optimal post-detection timing estimators for PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hero, A.O.; Antoniadis, N.; Clinthorne, N.; Rogers, W.L.; Hutchins, G.D.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the authors derive linear and non-linear approximations to the post-detection likelihood function for scintillator interaction time in nuclear particle detection systems. The likelihood function is the optimal statistic for performing detection and estimation of scintillator events and event times. The authors derive the likelihood function approximations from a statistical model for the post-detection waveform which is common in the optical communications literature and takes account of finite detector bandwidth, random gains, and thermal noise. They then present preliminary simulation results for the associated approximate maximum likelihood timing estimators which indicate that significant MSE improvements may be achieved for low post-detection signal-to-noise ratio

  13. COMPENSATORY GROWTH IN MOZAMBIQUE TILAPIA (Oreochromis mossambicus, FED A SUB-OPTIMAL DIET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewen McLean

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus, held in 30%o seawater and at 29-30 °C, were divided into four groups (n = 50/group in replicate, and given one of four feed cycles: 1 control, with continuous feedind, 2 5:5, 3 10:10 and 4 15:15, wherein fish were subjected to starvation and subsequent refeeding cycles of 5, 10 and 15 days respectively. All animals were fed a commercial diet containing 18.4% protein, 6.7% lipid, 58.6% carbohydrate and 7.2% ash, over a 60 day trial period. Growth compensation was observed in the feed cycled groups as increased (P < 0.03 weight specific growth rates during refeeding. However, feed cycled groups were unable to achieve the weghts of control fish. Starvation reduced (P<0.01 haematocrit values when compared to control levels and, in the 15:15 cycled groups, elevated the testicular index (P < 0.02. The results are considered with respect to the commercial application of compensatory growth during production of tilapia.

  14. Transcriptional markers of sub-optimal nutrition in developing Apis mellifera nurse workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Honey bees (Apis mellifera) contribute substantially to the worldwide economy and ecosystem health as pollinators. Pollen is essential to the bee’s diet, providing protein, lipids, and micronutrients. The dramatic shifts in physiology, anatomy, and behavior that accompany normal worker development are highly plastic and recent work demonstrates that development, particularly the transition from nurse to foraging roles, is greatly impacted by diet. However, the role that diet plays in the developmental transition of newly eclosed bees to nurse workers is poorly understood. To further understand honey bee nutrition and the role of diet in nurse development, we used a high-throughput screen of the transcriptome of 3 day and 8 day old worker bees fed either honey and stored pollen (rich diet) or honey alone (poor diet) within the hive. We employed a three factor (age, diet, age x diet) analysis of the transcriptome to determine whether diet affected nurse worker physiology and whether poor diet altered the developmental processes normally associated with aging. Results Substantial changes in gene expression occurred due to starvation. Diet-induced changes in gene transcription occurring in younger bees were largely a subset of those occurring in older bees, but certain signatures of starvation were only evident 8 day old workers. Of the 18,542 annotated transcripts in the A. mellifera genome, 150 transcripts exhibited differential expression due to poor diet at 3d of age compared with 17,226 transcripts that differed due to poor diet at 8d of age, and poor diet caused more frequent down-regulation of gene expression in younger bees compared to older bees. In addition, the age-related physiological changes that accompanied early adult development differed due to the diet these young adult bees were fed. More frequent down-regulation of gene expression was observed in developing bees fed a poor diet compared to those fed an adequate diet. Functional analyses also suggest that the physiological and developmental processes occurring in well-fed bees are vastly different than those occurring in pollen deprived bees. Our data support the hypothesis that poor diet causes normal age-related development to go awry. Conclusion Poor nutrition has major consequences for the expression of genes underlying the physiology and age-related development of nurse worker bees. More work is certainly needed to fully understand the consequences of starvation and the complex biology of nutrition and development in this system, but the genes identified in the present study provide a starting point for understanding the consequences of poor diet and for mitigating the economic costs of colony starvation. PMID:24529032

  15. (Sub-)Optimality of Treating Interference as Noise in the Cellular Uplink With Weak Interference

    KAUST Repository

    Gherekhloo, Soheil; Chaaban, Anas; Di, Chen; Sezgin, Aydin

    2015-01-01

    Despite the simplicity of the scheme of treating interference as noise (TIN), it was shown to be sum-capacity optimal in the Gaussian interference channel (IC) with very-weak (noisy) interference. In this paper, the two-user IC is altered by introducing an additional transmitter that wants to communicate with one of the receivers of the IC. The resulting network thus consists of a point-to-point channel interfering with a multiple access channel (MAC) and is denoted by PIMAC. The sum-capacity of the PIMAC is studied with main focus on the optimality of TIN. It turns out that TIN in its naive variant, where all transmitters are active and both receivers use TIN for decoding, is not the best choice for the PIMAC. In fact, a scheme that combines both time division multiple access and TIN (TDMA-TIN) strictly outperforms the naive-TIN scheme. Furthermore, it is shown that in some regimes, TDMA-TIN achieves the sum-capacity for the deterministic PIMAC and the sum-capacity within a constant gap for the Gaussian PIMAC. In addition, it is shown that, even for very-weak interference, there are some regimes where a combination of interference alignment with power control and TIN at the receiver side outperforms TDMA-TIN. As a consequence, on the one hand, TIN in a cellular uplink is approximately optimal in certain regimes. On the other hand, those regimes cannot be simply described by the strength of interference.

  16. Cellular recovery from exposure to sub-optimal concentrations of AB toxins that inhibit protein synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga toxin 1, exotoxin A, diphtheria toxin and ricin are all AB-type protein toxins that act within the host cytosol to kill the host cell through a pathway involving the inhibition of protein synthesis. It is thought that a single molecule of cytosolic toxin is sufficient to kill the host cell. In...

  17. Diabetic Patients are often Sub-Optimally Aware about their Disease and its Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Kyriazis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM represents a continuously growing worldwide threat with major financial impact on the healthcare systems. The importance of tight glycaemic control in patients with DM type II is well established and is most effectively accomplished with the proper cooperation of both the treating physicians aswell as the treated subjects.Aims: The aim of our study was to evaluate the level of awareness of patients with DM type II about the various aspects of DM, including the nature of the disease, its precipitating factors and complications, as well as its treatment.Methodology: The patients were asked to complete anonymously a questionnaire concerning their knowledge about diabetes, its basic pathophysiology and complications, the treatment options and possible side-effects. Data were analyzed using STATA statistical software (Version 9.0.Results: Eighty patients were on oral hypoglycaemic agents (OHA, 34 on insulin while 4 were under a hybrid treatment. Among patients on OHA, 40 patients (50% were taking a combination of them. 13.4% of the sample was aware of what DM stands for, 84.9% did not know the type of DM they were suffering from, while (85.7% considered that obesity plays a major role in the pathogenesis of DM. Concerning the therapy of DM, only 54.83% of the patients were aware of the brand names of their antidiabetic medication, 88.2% did not know theirway of action, while 60.5% did not know the possible side effects. The majority of the sample, 60.5%, assumed that blood glucose should be measured only before meals.Conclusions: The knowledge of the subjects visiting the center for the first time was found to be inadequate. This is probably due to inadequate information, non-availability of educational material and improper guidance.

  18. Doctors in a Southeast Asian country communicate sub-optimally regardless of patients' educational background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claramita, Mora; Dalen, Jan Van; Van Der Vleuten, Cees Pm

    2011-12-01

    To explore the relationship between the style of doctor-patient communication and patients' educational background in a Southeast Asian teaching hospital setting using the Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS). We analyzed a total of 245 audio-taped consultations involving 30 internal medicine residents with 7-10 patients each in the internal medicine outpatient clinics. The patients were categorized into a group with a high and a group with a low educational level. We ranked the data into 41 RIAS utterances and RIAS-based composite categories in order of observed frequency during consultations. The residents invariantly used a paternalistic style irrespective of patients' educational background. The RIAS utterances and the composite categories show no significant relationship between communication style and patients' educational level. Doctors in a Southeast Asian country use a paternalistic communication style during consultations, regardless of patients' educational background. To approach a more partnership doctor-patient communication, culture and clinical environment concern of Southeast Asian should be further investigated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Doctors in a Southeast Asian country communicate sub-optimally regardless of patients' educational background.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claramita, M.; Dalen, J.V.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between the style of doctor-patient communication and patients' educational background in a Southeast Asian teaching hospital setting using the Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS). METHODS: We analyzed a total of 245 audio-taped consultations involving 30

  20. (Sub-)Optimality of Treating Interference as Noise in the Cellular Uplink With Weak Interference

    KAUST Repository

    Gherekhloo, Soheil

    2015-11-09

    Despite the simplicity of the scheme of treating interference as noise (TIN), it was shown to be sum-capacity optimal in the Gaussian interference channel (IC) with very-weak (noisy) interference. In this paper, the two-user IC is altered by introducing an additional transmitter that wants to communicate with one of the receivers of the IC. The resulting network thus consists of a point-to-point channel interfering with a multiple access channel (MAC) and is denoted by PIMAC. The sum-capacity of the PIMAC is studied with main focus on the optimality of TIN. It turns out that TIN in its naive variant, where all transmitters are active and both receivers use TIN for decoding, is not the best choice for the PIMAC. In fact, a scheme that combines both time division multiple access and TIN (TDMA-TIN) strictly outperforms the naive-TIN scheme. Furthermore, it is shown that in some regimes, TDMA-TIN achieves the sum-capacity for the deterministic PIMAC and the sum-capacity within a constant gap for the Gaussian PIMAC. In addition, it is shown that, even for very-weak interference, there are some regimes where a combination of interference alignment with power control and TIN at the receiver side outperforms TDMA-TIN. As a consequence, on the one hand, TIN in a cellular uplink is approximately optimal in certain regimes. On the other hand, those regimes cannot be simply described by the strength of interference.

  1. High frequency of sub-optimal semen quality in an unselected population of young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A G; Jensen, T K; Carlsen, E

    2000-01-01

    for military service, this provided a unique opportunity to study the reproductive function in an unbiased population. Altogether 891 young men delivered a blood sample in which reproductive hormones were measured. From 708 of these men data were also obtained on semen quality and testis size. The median sperm...... immotile spermatozoa and follicle stimulating hormone. Possible causes for this high frequency of young men with suboptimal semen quality are obscure and need to be explored. Whether these findings apply for young male populations of comparable countries remains to be seen....

  2. Correlations in state space can cause sub-optimal adaptation of optimal feedback control models

    OpenAIRE

    Aprasoff, Jonathan; Donchin, Opher

    2011-01-01

    Control of our movements is apparently facilitated by an adaptive internal model in the cerebellum. It was long thought that this internal model implemented an adaptive inverse model and generated motor commands, but recently many reject that idea in favor of a forward model hypothesis. In theory, the forward model predicts upcoming state during reaching movements so the motor cortex can generate appropriate motor commands. Recent computational models of this process rely on the optimal feedb...

  3. Sub-optimal adherence to doxycycline and treatment outcomes among men with non-gonococcal urethritis: a prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosropour, Christine M.; Manhart, Lisa E.; Colombara, Danny V.; Gillespie, Catherine W.; Lowens, M. Sylvan; Totten, Patricia A.; Golden, Matthew R.; Simoni, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Objective Doxycycline, one of two recommended therapies for non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU), consists of a seven-day course of therapy (100mg BID). Since suboptimal adherence may contribute to poor treatment outcomes, we examined the association between self-reported imperfect adherence to doxycycline and clinical and microbiologic failure among men with NGU. Methods Men aged ≥16 years with NGU attending a Seattle, WA sexually transmitted diseases clinic were enrolled in a double-blind, parallel-group superiority trial from January 2007 to July 2011. Men were randomized to active doxycycline/placebo azithromycin or placebo doxycycline/active azithromycin. Imperfect adherence was defined as missing ≥1 dose in 7 days. Urine was tested for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Mycoplasma genitalium (MG), and Ureaplasma urealyticum-biovar2 (UU-2) using nucleic acid amplification tests. Clinical failure (symptoms and ≥5 PMNs/HPF or discharge) and microbiologic failure (positive tests for CT, MG, and/or UU-2) were determined after 3-weeks. Results 184 men with NGU were randomized to active doxycycline and provided data on adherence. Baseline prevalence of CT, MG, and UU-2 was 26%, 13%, and 27%, respectively. 28% of men reported imperfect adherence and this was associated with microbiologic failure among men with CT (aRR=9.33; 95% CI=1.00–89.2) and UU-2 (aRR=3.08; 95% CI=1.31–7.26) but not MG. Imperfect adherence was not significantly associated with clinical failure overall or for any specific pathogens, but it was more common among imperfectly adherent men with CT (aRR=2.63; 0.93–7.41, p=0.07). Conclusions Adherence may be important for microbiologic cure of select pathogens. Factors other than adherence should be considered for CT-negative men with persistent NGU. PMID:24106340

  4. Influence of prebiotics on Lactobacillus reuteri death kinetics under sub-optimal temperatures and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altieri, Clelia; Iorio, Maria Clara; Bevilacqua, Antonio; Sinigaglia, Milena

    2016-01-01

    Eaten foodstuffs are usually fortified with prebiotic ingredients, such as inulin and oligofructose (FOS). The main goal of this study was to evaluate the combined effects of inulin and FOS with either suboptimal pH or storage temperature on the viability of Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 20016. Data were modeled through Weibull equation for the evaluation of the microbiological shelf life and the survival time. Prebiotics enhanced the microbiological shelf life and enhanced the survival time of the target bacterium. The use of the factorial ANOVA highlighted that inulin and FOS exerted a different effect as a function of pH and temperature. Inulin prolonged survival time under acidic conditions, while the effect of glucose + FOS was significant at pH 8. Finally, temperature could act by increasing or decreasing the effect of prebiotics, as they could exert a protective effect at 30 °C but not at 44 °C. As the main output of this research, we could suggest that the effect of prebiotics on L. reuteri could be significantly affected by pH and temperature, thus pinpointing that the design of a symbiotic food should also rely on these factors.

  5. Hematoxylin and eosin stain shows a high sensitivity but sub-optimal specificity in demonstrating iron pigment in liver biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwahaibi, Nasar Yousuf; Alkhatri, Azza Sarhan; Kumar, Johanes Selva

    2015-01-01

    Perls' stain is routinely used to demonstrate iron in liver biopsies. We tested the hypothesis that it may be unnecessary in cases, where no iron or another similar pigment was seen on the routine hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) stained section. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of H and E stain in demonstrating iron in liver biopsies as well as to determine the possibility of replacing Perls' stain with H and E stain. Two hundred pairs of slides of liver biopsies were taken from the archival files of the Department of Pathology from 2006 to 2011. Perls' and H and E slides were independently reviewed for the presence of iron. Hundred and one cases showed the presence of iron using H and E stain. 84 of 86 cases showed positive iron using both Perls' and H and E stains. Seventeen cases were positive using H and E stain but negative with Perls'. Only two cases did not show the presence of iron using H and E stain. Ninety-seven cases were negative using both Perls' and H and E stains. H and E stain showed a sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive valve, and negative predictive value of 97.67%, 85.08%, 90.5%, 83.16%, and 97.98%, respectively. We demonstrate that the H and E stain is a sensitive method to detect iron pigment in liver biopsies, particularly when present in large quantities. A negative H and E stain might obviate the need for extra Perls' staining, thus saving costs and shortening report turn-around times.

  6. A conformal mapping based fractional order approach for sub-optimal tuning of PID controllers with guaranteed dominant pole placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Suman; Das, Saptarshi; Das, Shantanu; Gupta, Amitava

    2012-09-01

    A novel conformal mapping based fractional order (FO) methodology is developed in this paper for tuning existing classical (Integer Order) Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controllers especially for sluggish and oscillatory second order systems. The conventional pole placement tuning via Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) method is extended for open loop oscillatory systems as well. The locations of the open loop zeros of a fractional order PID (FOPID or PIλDμ) controller have been approximated in this paper vis-à-vis a LQR tuned conventional integer order PID controller, to achieve equivalent integer order PID control system. This approach eases the implementation of analog/digital realization of a FOPID controller with its integer order counterpart along with the advantages of fractional order controller preserved. It is shown here in the paper that decrease in the integro-differential operators of the FOPID/PIλDμ controller pushes the open loop zeros of the equivalent PID controller towards greater damping regions which gives a trajectory of the controller zeros and dominant closed loop poles. This trajectory is termed as "M-curve". This phenomena is used to design a two-stage tuning algorithm which reduces the existing PID controller's effort in a significant manner compared to that with a single stage LQR based pole placement method at a desired closed loop damping and frequency.

  7. The Iowa Gambling Task in depression – what have we learned about sub-optimal decision-making strategies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita eMust

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Our earlier study found patients with depression to show a preference for larger reward as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT. In this IGT version, larger rewards were associated with even larger consequent losses. In the light of the clinical markers defining depressive disorder, this finding might appear contoversial at first. Performance of depressed patients on various decision-making (DM tasks is typically found to be impaired. Evidence points towards reduced reward learning, as well as the difficulty to shift strategy and integrate environmental changes into DM contingencies. This results in an impaired ability to modulate behavior as a function of reward, or punishment, respectively. Clinical symptoms of the disorder, the genetic profile, as well as personality traits might also influence DM strategies. More severe depression increased sensitivity to immediate large punishment, thus predicting future decisions, and was also associated with higher harm avoidance. Anhedonic features diminished reward learning abilities to a greater extent, even predicting clinical outcome. Several questions about how these aspects relate remain to be clarified. Is there a genetic predisposition for the DM impairment preceding mood symptoms? Is it the consequence of clinical signs or even learned behavior serving as a coping strategy? Are patients prone to develop an aversion of loss or are they unable to sense or deal with reward or the preference of reward? Does the DM deficit normalize or is a persisting impairment predictor for clinical outcome or relapse risk? To what extent is it influenced by medication effects? How does a long-lasting DM deficit affect daily life and social interactions? Strikingly, research evidence indicates that depressed patients tend to behave less deceptive and more self-focused, resulting in impaired social DM. The difficulty in daily interpersonal interactions might contribute to social isolation, further intensifying depressive symptoms.

  8. Sub-optimal patient and physician communication in primary care consultations: its relation to severe and difficult asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moffat, M.; Cleland, J.; Van der Molen, T.; Price, D.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Asthma control can be influenced by a range of non-medical issues, including psychosocial factors. Little is known about the views of patients, particularly those with severe and/or difficult asthma, towards their asthma control and their asthma-related primary care consultations. Aims

  9. Sub-optimal delivery of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnancy in Nigeria: influence of provider factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onoka Chima A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The level of access to intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnancy (IPTp in Nigeria is still low despite relatively high antenatal care coverage in the study area. This paper presents information on provider factors that affect the delivery of IPTp in Nigeria. Methods Data were collected from heads of maternal health units of 28 public and six private health facilities offering antenatal care (ANC services in two districts in Enugu State, south-east Nigeria. Provider knowledge of guidelines for IPTp was assessed with regard to four components: the drug used for IPTp, time of first dose administration, of second dose administration, and the strategy for sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP administration (directly observed treatment, DOT. Provider practices regarding IPTp and facility-related factors that may explain observations such as availability of SP and water were also examined. Results Only five (14.7% of all 34 providers had correct knowledge of all four recommendations for provision of IPTp. None of them was a private provider. DOT strategy was practiced in only one and six private and public providers respectively. Overall, 22 providers supplied women with SP in the facility and women were allowed to take it at home. The most common reason for doing so amongst public providers was that women were required to come for antenatal care on empty stomachs to enhance the validity of manual fundal height estimation. Two private providers did not think it was necessary to use the DOT strategy because they assumed that women would take their drugs at home. Availability of SP and water in the facility, and concerns about side effects were not considered impediments to delivery of IPTp. Conclusion There was low level of knowledge of the guidelines for implementation of IPTp by all providers, especially those in the private sector. This had negative effects such as non-practice of DOT strategy by most of the providers, which can lead to low levels of adherence to IPTp and ineffectiveness of IPTp. Capacity development and regular supportive supervisory visits by programme managers could help improve the provision of IPTp.

  10. Organic Versus Contractor Logistics Support For Depot-Level Repair: Factors That Drive Sub-Optimal Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    incentive.26 CLS benefits the government because contractors control sustainment costs to maximize their profit . For the government, profit is not part...system, less maintenance, and thereby obtain better aircraft reliability, thereby maximizing profits by lowering maintenance costs.27 Government fiscal...sustainment plan. 6 Profit Incentive as Part of CLS Costs Organic support on average should be cheaper than CLS because there is no profit

  11. Career Self-Management and Career Capital of Mid-Level Administrators in Higher Education Who Previously Served as Professional Academic Advisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elecia Cole

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the prerequisites for career advancement helps to keep employees motivated and engaged. However, in the higher education (H.E.) workplace, where formalized career ladders are sparse and ambiguous for staff personnel--especially those in professional academic advising--employees who are interested in career advancement into mid-level…

  12. Cultivating Strategies for Success: How Mid-Level Women Leaders of Color in Student Affairs Navigate the Balance of Work and Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Historically, women's struggle with work-life balance has been founded upon societal expectations. Most notably is the dearth in the representation of women and women of color in top leadership positions. As a result, the internal and external challenges they navigate lead them to seek and cultivate alternative strategies and support networks to…

  13. Not to be sneezed at. On the possibility of justifying infectious disease control by appealing to a mid-level harm principle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krom, A.

    2014-01-01

    To protect population health against infection risks it may be necessary to restrict the liberty of individuals, e.g. by mandating quarantine or by imposing work restrictions. This study examines whether common measures in infectious disease control – including restrictions of liberty – can be

  14. The three stages of building and testing mid-level theories in a realist RCT: a theoretical and methodological case-example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Farah; Fletcher, Adam; Shackleton, Nichola; Elbourne, Diana; Viner, Russell; Bonell, Chris

    2015-10-15

    Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of social interventions are often criticised as failing to open the 'black box' whereby they only address questions about 'what works' without explaining the underlying processes of implementation and mechanisms of action, and how these vary by contextual characteristics of person and place. Realist RCTs are proposed as an approach to evaluation science that addresses these gaps while preserving the strengths of RCTs in providing evidence with strong internal validity in estimating effects. In the context of growing interest in designing and conducting realist trials, there is an urgent need to offer a worked example to provide guidance on how such an approach might be practically taken forward. The aim of this paper is to outline a three-staged theoretical and methodological process of undertaking a realist RCT using the example of the evaluation of a whole-school restorative intervention aiming to reduce aggression and bullying in English secondary schools. First, informed by the findings of our initial pilot trial and sociological theory, we elaborate our theory of change and specific a priori hypotheses about how intervention mechanisms interact with context to produce outcomes. Second, we describe how we will use emerging findings from the integral process evaluation within the RCT to refine, and add to, these a priori hypotheses before the collection of quantitative, follow-up data. Third, we will test our hypotheses using a combination of process and outcome data via quantitative analyses of effect mediation (examining mechanisms) and moderation (examining contextual contingencies). The results are then used to refine and further develop the theory of change. The aim of the realist RCT approach is thus not merely to assess whether the intervention is effective or not, but to develop empirically informed mid-range theory through a three-stage process. There are important implications for those involved with reporting and reviewing RCTs, including the use of new, iterative protocols. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN10751359 (Registered 11 March 2014).

  15. The Glass Ceiling Effect and Its Impact on Mid-Level Female Military Officer Career Progression in the United States Marine Corps and Air Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Evertson, Adrienne

    2004-01-01

    ...%), while the Marine Corps has the smallest proportion (6%). Multiple Defense organizations have expressed concern about the progression of women officers into senior leadership positions and if they face barriers to their continued success in the military...

  16. Evidence of sub-optimal sleep in adolescent Middle Eastern academy soccer players which is exacerbated by sleep intermission proximal to dawn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Peter M; Paul, Darren J; Tomazoli, Gustavo; Farooq, Abdulaziz; Akenhead, Richard; Taylor, Lee

    2017-10-01

    The purpose was to assess sleep patterns, quantity and quality in adolescent (16.2 ± 1.2 yr) Middle Eastern academy soccer players (n = 20) and the influence of an intermission upon these characteristics. On a 17-day training camp (located one time zone west of home) including three discrete matches, sleep was assessed pre- (PRE) and post-match (POST) via wrist actigraphy. Retrospective actigraphy analysis identified sleep characteristics, including if players experienced a sleep intermission (YES) or not (NO) proximal to dawn, and bedtime (hh:mm), get-up time (hh:mm), time in bed (h), sleep duration (h) and sleep efficiency (%). Within YES two bouts were identified (BOUT1 and BOUT2). No differences were seen between PRE and POST, nor between BOUT1 and BOUT2 (p > .05). Overall players did not meet National Sleep Foundation (NSF) guidelines (7:04 ± 1:16 h vs. recommended 8-10 h for 14-17 yr). Sleep duration was significantly reduced (∼ -13% or -1:06) in YES compared to NO (6:33 ± 1:05 vs. 7:29 ± 1:17, p sleep durations relative to NSF guidelines, with decrements increased by an intermission proximal to dawn. High inter- and intra-individual variance in the players sleep characteristics indicates the need for individualized sleep education strategies and interventions to promote appropriate sleep.

  17. Acclimation of photosynthesis, H2O2 content and antioxidants in maiza(Zea mays) grown at sub-optimal temperatures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingston-Smith, A.H.; Harbinson, J.; Foyer, C.H.

    1999-01-01

    Maize plants were grown at 14, 18 and 20 °C until the fourth leaf had emerged. Leaves from plants grown at 14 and 18 °C had less chlorophyll than those grown at 20 °C. Maximal extractable ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) activity was decreased at 14 °C compared with 20 °C,

  18. A hypothesis linking sub-optimal seawater pCO2 conditions for cnidarian-Symbiodinium symbioses with the exceedence of the interglacial threshold (>260 ppmv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Wooldridge

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Most scleractinian corals and many other cnidarians host intracellular photosynthetic dinoflagellate symbionts ("zooxanthellae". The zooxanthellae contribute to host metabolism and skeletogenesis to such an extent that this symbiosis is well recognised for its contribution in creating the coral reef ecosystem. The stable functioning of cnidarian symbioses is however dependent upon the host's ability to maintain demographic control of its algal partner. In this review, I explain how the modern envelope of seawater conditions found within many coral reef ecosystems (characterised by elevated temperatures, rising pCO2, and enriched nutrient levels are antagonistic toward the dominant host processes that restrict excessive symbiont proliferation. Moreover, I outline a new hypothesis and initial evidence base, which support the suggestion that the additional "excess" zooxanthellae fraction permitted by seawater pCO2 levels beyond 260 ppmv significantly increases the propensity for symbiosis breakdown ("bleaching" in response to temperature and irradiance extremes. The relevance of this biological threshold is discussed in terms of historical reef extinction events, glacial-interglacial climate cycles and the modern decline of coral reef ecosystems.

  19. A hypothesis linking sub-optimal seawater pCO2 conditions for cnidarian-Symbiodinium symbioses with the exceedence of the interglacial threshold (>260 ppmv)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooldridge, S. A.

    2012-05-01

    Most scleractinian corals and many other cnidarians host intracellular photosynthetic dinoflagellate symbionts ("zooxanthellae"). The zooxanthellae contribute to host metabolism and skeletogenesis to such an extent that this symbiosis is well recognised for its contribution in creating the coral reef ecosystem. The stable functioning of cnidarian symbioses is however dependent upon the host's ability to maintain demographic control of its algal partner. In this review, I explain how the modern envelope of seawater conditions found within many coral reef ecosystems (characterised by elevated temperatures, rising pCO2, and enriched nutrient levels) are antagonistic toward the dominant host processes that restrict excessive symbiont proliferation. Moreover, I outline a new hypothesis and initial evidence base, which support the suggestion that the additional "excess" zooxanthellae fraction permitted by seawater pCO2 levels beyond 260 ppmv significantly increases the propensity for symbiosis breakdown ("bleaching") in response to temperature and irradiance extremes. The relevance of this biological threshold is discussed in terms of historical reef extinction events, glacial-interglacial climate cycles and the modern decline of coral reef ecosystems.

  20. Effect of sub-optimal doses of fluoxetine plus estradiol on antidepressant-like behavior and hippocampal neurogenesis in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Rivera, Nelly M; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso; Ramírez-Rodríguez, Gerardo; Estrada-Camarena, Erika

    2015-07-01

    Estrogens and antidepressants synergize to reduce depressive symptoms and stimulate neurogenesis and neuroplastic events. The aim of this study was to explore whether the antidepressant-like effect induced by the combination of low doses of estradiol (E2) and fluoxetine (FLX) involves changes in cell proliferation, early survival, morphology and dendrite complexity of hippocampal new-immature neurons. The antidepressant-like effects of E2 and/or FLX were evaluated by the forced swimming test (FST), cell proliferation was determined with the endogenous marker Ki67, survival of newborn cells was established with bromo-deoxiuridine (BrdU) and immature neurons were ascertained by doublecortin (DCX) labeling while their dendrite complexity was evaluated with Sholl analysis. Ovariectomized Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: Vehicle (saline/14 days+Oil/-8h before FST); E2 (saline/14 days + E2 2.5 or 10 μg/rat; -8 h before FST); FLX (1.25 or 10 mg/kg for 14 days + oil -8h before FST), and FLX plus E2 (FLX 1.25 mg/kg for 14 days + E2 2.5 μg/rat -8 h before FST). The combination of sub-threshold doses of FLX plus E2 produced antidepressant-like actions similar to those induced by FLX or E2 given independently at optimal doses. Only FLX at an optimal dose and the combination of FLX plus E2 increased cell proliferation, the number of DCX-labeled immature neurons and the complexity of their dendritic tree, suggesting that these events may be responsible for their antidepressant-like effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A comparison of the economic benefits of centralized and distributed model predictive control strategies for optimal and sub-optimal mine dewatering system designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, Alberto; Millar, Dean; Carvalho, Monica; Maestre, José M.; Camacho, Eduardo F.

    2015-01-01

    Mine dewatering can represent up to 5% of the total energy demand of a mine, and is one of the mine systems that aim to guarantee safe operating conditions. As mines go deeper, dewatering pumping heads become bigger, potentially involving several lift stages. Greater depth does not only mean greater dewatering cost, but more complex systems that require more sophisticated control systems, especially if mine operators wish to gain benefits from demand response incentives that are becoming a routine part of electricity tariffs. This work explores a two stage economic optimization procedure of an underground mine dewatering system, comprising two lifting stages, each one including a pump station and a water reservoir. First, the system design is optimized considering hourly characteristic dewatering demands for twelve days, one day representing each month of the year to account for seasonal dewatering demand variations. This design optimization minimizes the annualized cost of the system, and therefore includes the investment costs in underground reservoirs. Reservoir size, as well as an hourly pumping operation plan are calculated for specific operating environments, defined by characteristic hourly electricity prices and water inflows (seepage and water use from production activities), at best known through historical observations for the previous year. There is no guarantee that the system design will remain optimal when it faces the water inflows and market determined electricity prices of the year ahead, or subsequent years ahead, because these remain unknown at design time. Consequently, the dewatering optimized system design is adopted subsequently as part of a Model Predictive Control (MPC) strategy that adaptively maintains optimality during the operations phase. Centralized, distributed and non-centralized MPC strategies are explored. Results show that the system can be reliably controlled using any of these control strategies proposed. Under the operating conditions considered, total annualized cost savings in the range of 50%, in comparison with non-optimized designs, can be achieved through design optimization and the use of predictive control. - Highlights: • Optimal Mine Site Energy Supply (OMSES) applied to underground mine dewatering system. • Systems design and pump schedule, based on past operating conditions, were optimized. • Optimal system's design was simulated based on Model Predictive Control (MPC). • Centralized, distributed and decentralized controllers were compared. • Only centralized MPC showed robust and verified OMSES optimal design.

  2. Sub-optimal pH Preadaptation Improves the Survival of Lactobacillus plantarum Strains and the Malic Acid Consumption in Wine-Like Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Succi, Mariantonietta; Pannella, Gianfranco; Tremonte, Patrizio; Tipaldi, Luca; Coppola, Raffaele; Iorizzo, Massimo; Lombardi, Silvia Jane; Sorrentino, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Forty-two oenological strains of Lb. plantarum were assessed for their response to ethanol and pH values generally encountered in wines. Strains showed a higher variability in the survival when exposed to low pH (3.5 or 3.0) than when exposed to ethanol (10 or 14%). The study allowed to individuate the highest ethanol concentration (8%) and the lowest pH value (4.0) for the growth of strains, even if the maximum specific growth rate (μ max ) resulted significantly reduced by these conditions. Two strains (GT1 and LT11) preadapted to 2% ethanol and cultured up to 14% of ethanol showed a higher growth than those non-preadapted when they were cultivated at 8% of ethanol. The evaluation of the same strains preadapted to low pH values (5.0 and 4.0) and then grown at pH 3.5 or 3.0 showed only for GT1 a sensitive μ max increment when it was cultivated in MRS at pH 3 after a preadaptation to pH 5.0. The survival of GT1 and LT11 was evaluated in Ringer's solution at 14% ethanol after a long-term adaptation in MRS with 2% ethanol or in MRS with 2% ethanol acidified at pH 5.0 (both conditions, BC). Analogously, the survival was evaluated at pH 3.5 after a long-term adaptation in MRS at pH 5.0 or in MRS BC. The impact of the physiologic state (exponential phase vs stationary phase) on the survival was also evaluated. Preadapted cells showed the same behavior of non-preadapted cells only when cultures were recovered in the stationary phase. Mathematical functions were individuated for the description of the survival of GT1 and LT11 in MRS at 14% ethanol or at pH 3.5. Finally, a synthetic wine (SW) was used to assess the behavior of Lb. plantarum GT1 and LT11 preadapted in MRS at 2% ethanol or at pH 5.0 or in BC. Only GT1 preadapted to pH 5.0 and collected in the stationary phase showed constant values of microbial counts after incubation for 15 days at 20°C. In addition, after 15 days the L-malic acid resulted completely degraded and the pH value increased of about 0.3 units.

  3. Sub-optimal CD4 reconstitution despite viral suppression in an urban cohort on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa: frequency and clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanjako, Damalie; Kiragga, Agnes; Ibrahim, Fowzia; Castelnuovo, Barbara; Kamya, Moses R; Easterbrook, Philippa J

    2008-10-28

    A proportion of individuals who start antiretroviral therapy (ART) fail to achieve adequate CD4 cell reconstitution despite sustained viral suppression. We determined the frequency and clinical significance of suboptimal CD4 reconstitution despite viral suppression (SO-CD4) in an urban HIV research cohort in Kampala, Uganda. We analyzed data from a prospective research cohort of 559 patients initiating ART between 04/04-04/05. We described the patterns of SO-CD4 both in terms of:- I) magnitude of CD4 cell increase (a CD4 count increase ART) and II) failure to achieve a CD4 cell count above 200 cells/microl at 6,12 and 24 months of ART. Using criteria I) we used logistic regression to determine the predictors of SO-CD4. We compared the cumulative risk of clinical events (death and/or recurrent or new AIDS-defining illnesses) among patients with and without SO-CD4. Of 559 patients initiating ART, 386 (69%) were female. Median (IQR) age and baseline CD4 counts were 38 yrs (33-44) and 98 cells/microl (21-163) respectively; 414 (74%) started a d4T-based regimen (D4T+3TC+NVP) and 145 (26%) a ZDV-based regimen (ZDV+3TC+EFV). After 6, 12 and 24 months of ART, 380 (68%), 339 (61%) and 309 (55%) had attained and sustained HIV-RNA viral suppression. Of these, 78 (21%), 151 (45%) and 166 (54%) respectively had SO-CD4 based on criteria I), and 165(43%), 143(42%) and 58(19%) respectively based on criteria II). With both criteria combined, 56 (15%) and 129 (38%) had SO-CD4 at 6 and 12 months respectively. A high proportion (82% and 58%) of those that had SO-CD4 at 6 months (using criteria I) maintained SO-CD4 at 12 and 24 months respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in the incidence of clinical events among patients with [19/100PYO (12-29)] and without SO-CD4 [23/100PYO (19-28)]. Using criteria I), the frequency of SO-CD4 was 21% at 6 months. Majority of patients with SO-CD4 at 6 months maintained SO-CD4 up to 2 years. We recommend studies of CD4 T-cell functional recovery among patients with SO-CD4.

  4. Cost-Effectiveness of Extended-Release Methylphenidate in Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Sub-Optimally Treated with Immediate Release Methylphenidate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schans, Jurjen; Kotsopoulos, Niko; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Hak, Eelko; Postma, Maarten J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder in children and adolescents. Immediate-release methylphenidate (IR-MPH) is the medical treatment of first choice. The necessity to use several IR-MPH tablets per day and associated potential social stigma at

  5. A reforma do ensino médio no Chile: vitrina para a América Latina? Reform of mid level teaching in Chile: showcase for Latin America?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Zibas

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available A reforma chilena tem sido apontada, principalmente por organismos internacionais, como modelo a ser seguido pela América Latina. A insistência nessa tese justifica a pesquisa desenvolvida em Santiago, que enfocou 12 escolas, em que foram entrevistados diretores e alguns professores. Representante do sindicato de professores e funcionários do Ministério da Educação também foram ouvidos. Diversos documentos oficiais foram estudados. O objetivo foi esclarecer como a reforma repercute nos agentes escolares encarregados de transformar as diretrizes em prática administrativa e pedagógica. O texto privilegia a discussão do financiamento e dos mecanismos de mercado introduzidos no sistema. Conclui que o avanço técnico-pedagógico alcançado não tem impedido que sérios agravos à justiça social sejam registrados.The Chilean reform has been pointed to (mostly by international agencies as a model to be followed by Latin America. An insistence on this hypothesis justified the research developed in Santiago which focussed on 12 schools, where directors and some teachers were interviewed, and representatives of the teachers' unions and the Ministry of Education were also heard. Various official documents were studied for the purpose of clarifying how the reform has impacted on the school agents charged with transforming the directives in administrative and pedagogical practice. The text prioritizes discussion of financing and market mechanisms introduced into the system. It concludes that the technical pedagogical advances achieved have not prevented serious damage to social justice from being registered.

  6. The Relationship of Goldberg's Big Five Personality Trait Measures of Mid-Level Leaders at Midwest State-Supported Colleges and Universities to the Cameron and Quinn Competing Values Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempke Eppler, Michelle R.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation expands previous work of Giberson, Resick, Dickson, Mitchelson, Randall, and Clark (2009), Zhang, Tsui, Song, & Jia (2008), and Tsui, Zhang, Wang, Xin, and Wu (2006) by examining higher education organizational culture and leadership. There is a paucity of research in examining the relationships between university mid-level…

  7. Recombinant TSH (Thyrogen) administration to a patient with metastatic well differentiated thyroid carcinoma in whom six weeks of T-4 withdrawal led to a sub-optimal TSH response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenorio, L.E.; Achong, D.; Bidot, P.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: A 72 y.o. white man was diagnosed with follicular thyroid carcinoma in 1991. He was partially treated with partial thyroidectomy. Pulmonary nodules evident on Radiograph were explained to the patient as 'benign in nature'. No I-131 therapy or follow up was scheduled. Seven years later, the pulmonary nodules proved to be metastatic thyroid carcinoma. Endogenous TSH levels failed to raise following T-4 withdrawal, most likely secondary to endogenous production of T-4 by metastatic cancer. Recombinant TSH (Thyrogen) stimulation before I-131 therapy was considered to improve I-131 tumor uptake. Materials and method: In an emergency room visit in June 1997 for an unrelated condition, a chest X-rays detected pulmonary nodules. He had no dyspnea, no hemoptysis, and no chest pain. CT guided biopsy demonstrated metastatic thyroid carcinoma. Pleural fluid was positive for presence of Thyroglobulin. Left hemi-thyroidectomy was performed on September 1997. His TSH was 14 mIU/mL six weeks after T-4 withdrawal. Serum thyroglobulin (sTG) level was 10100 ng/mL on 10/20/97 (Nl. less than 0.5 mIU/mL), Antithyroglobulin antibody test was negative. A Thallium-201 whole body scan demonstrated mild pulmonary uptake similar to the chest X-Rays findings (the lesser the Tl-210 uptake by the tumor, the better the response to I-131). The patient was enrolled in a compassionate use protocol for Thyrogen. Thyrogen 0.9 mg q/24h was administered. Results: The TSH after each dose of Thyrogen was > 100 mIU/mL. 199.7 mCi of I-131 were administered orally. A post therapy whole body scan (WBS) demonstrated multiple functional metastases in both lungs, some of them not shown in the previous Tl-201 scan. His sTG dropped to 2515 ng/mL on 1/29/1998, and a CT demonstrated reduction in size of the pulmonary nodules. A Tl-201 WBS dated 6/1/98 showed uptake in the left hilar region, with poor uptake in previously positive Tl-201 nodules. However, follow up Tl-201 demonstrated progressive increased uptake in the majority of the lung nodules, unresponsive to the I-131 therapy. Conclusion: A case is presented in which functioning thyroid metastases inhibited TSH stimulation after T-4 withdrawal, precluding the administration of I-131 therapy. Administration of Thyrogen facilitated I-131 therapy. Despite two more I-131 therapies , the patient died less than four years later from progressive metastases to the skull, spine and femur, and displayed a reduction in TG levels with increasing Tl-201 uptake. Delayed I-131 treatment for well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma may seriously compromise patient's survival

  8. IO CAREERS - Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    /Information Technology Economics/Trade Education/Training Energy Engineering Environment Finance/Accounting Jobs International Labor Organization, Senior-Level, Mid-Level, Entry-Level United Nations System / ILO , Switzerland (Geneva) International Telecommunication Union, Senior-Level, Mid-Level, Entry-Level United

  9. Transcriptional regulatory network triggered by oxidative signals configures the early response mechanisms of japonica rice to chilling stress

    KAUST Repository

    Yun, Kil-Young; Park, Myoung Ryoul; Mohanty, Bijayalaxmi; Herath, Venura; Xu, Fuyu; Mauleon, Ramil; Wijaya, Edward; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Bruskiewich, Richard; de los Reyes, Benildo G

    2010-01-01

    -plant level analyses established a holistic view of chilling stress response mechanism of japonica rice. Early response regulatory network triggered by oxidative signals is critical for prolonged survival under sub-optimal temperature. Integration of stress

  10. Adaptive discrete rate and power transmission for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed M.; Salem, Ahmed H.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Qaraqe, Khalid A.

    2012-01-01

    channels available at the secondary transmitter. We consider the problem under the constraints of maximum average interference power levels at the primary receiver. We develop a sub-optimal computationally efficient iterative algorithm for finding

  11. COMPUTER ASSISTED INVENTORY CONTROL SYSTEM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    issue in supply chain inventory manugement is to coordinate .... A supply chain is a network of organizations that are involved in the ... make decisions, which result in sub-optimization. ... same time reduce the ultimate cost of finished goods.

  12. The Role of Blood Transfusion in the Management of Sickle Cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). There is general lack of appreciation by clinicians, of the sub-optimal or frankly harmful effects, of inappropriate transfusion in SCD. This article discusses the relevant pathophysiology of sickle cell ...

  13. Standard Analyzer of VHDL Applications for Next Generation Technology (SAVANT)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hirsch, Herbert

    1995-01-01

    ... (IF) for the exchange of VHDL encoded electronic data among CAD systems. This absence has severely constrained basic research environments, and has precipitated the current sub-optimal nature of CAD in VHDL tool development...

  14. Prostate Dose Escalation by Innovative Inverse Planning-Driven IMRT

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xing, Lei

    2005-01-01

    .... Because of the tacit ignorance of intra-structural tradeoff, the IMRT plans generated by these systems for prostate treatment are, at best, sub-optimal and our endeavor of providing the best possible...

  15. Deep Physiological Arousal Detection in a Driving Simulator Using Wearable Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saeed, Aaqib; Trajanovski, Stojan; van Keulen, Maurice; van Erp, Johannes Bernardus Fransiscus

    2017-01-01

    Driving is an activity that requires considerable alertness. Insufficient attention, imperfect perception, inadequate information processing, and sub-optimal arousal are possible causes of poor human performance. Understanding of these causes and the implementation of effective remedies is of key

  16. The effects of introducing a clinical pharmacist on orthopaedic wards in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buck, Thomas Croft; Brandstrup, Lene; Brandslund, Ivan

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects and cost effects of introducing clinical pharmacists on hospital wards. METHODS: Comparative prospective study on four orthopaedic surgical wards in two hospitals. The primary effect variables were 10 target areas widely considered to be indicators of good...... prescription practice. Prescriptions not following good practice in these intervention areas were defined as "sub-optimal prescriptions," and then discussed between a physician and a clinical pharmacist. The primary parameter was the difference in the number of days with a sub-optimal prescription (Mann......-Whitney test). RESULTS: On an average 20% of all the patients had a sub-optimal prescription. Of these, 70% were changed by the physician after intervention by the clinical pharmacist. There was a statistically significant difference in the duration of days in treatment with a sub-optimal prescription. Where...

  17. Razvoj komunikacijskih in vodstvenih kompetenc pri vodjih tehnične stroke = The Development of Communication and Leading Competences among the Leaders of Technical Expertise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Jermanis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A leader holds an important role in the communication process.His/her way of passing information and of communication continuouslyinfluences the employees as it streams their behaviour and buildsmutual trust. The purpose of this article is to show the development ofcommunication and leading competences for mid-level leaders. Furthermore,the article defines specific competences and their importancefor the efficient management of staff. 152 mid-level leaders workingfor an automotive company – a worldwide automotive supplier –were involved in the research. They completed the education programmefor mid-level leaders. Descriptive statistical techniques and factoranalysis were used for data processing.

  18. Multivariable controller for discrete stochastic amplitude-constrained systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannu T. Toivonen

    1983-04-01

    Full Text Available A sub-optimal multivariable controller for discrete stochastic amplitude-constrained systems is presented. In the approach the regulator structure is restricted to the class of linear saturated feedback laws. The stationary covariances of the controlled system are evaluated by approximating the stationary probability distribution of the state by a gaussian distribution. An algorithm for minimizing a quadratic loss function is given, and examples are presented to illustrate the performance of the sub-optimal controller.

  19. Optimal Nonlinear Filter for INS Alignment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵瑞; 顾启泰

    2002-01-01

    All the methods to handle the inertial navigation system (INS) alignment were sub-optimal in the past. In this paper, particle filtering (PF) as an optimal method is used for solving the problem of INS alignment. A sub-optimal two-step filtering algorithm is presented to improve the real-time performance of PF. The approach combines particle filtering with Kalman filtering (KF). Simulation results illustrate the superior performance of these approaches when compared with extended Kalman filtering (EKF).

  20. Readings on Managing Organizational Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    coverage tends to be restricted primarily to tech- nizations because they implement programs while leav- nical areas and that has a three- to five...interrelated operations in separate departments, restriction of needed information, duplicated efforts, and sub-optimization. Sub-optimization occurs when...turned. Some 93% of Japanese Phil Bressier establish himself as Domino Pizza’s workers thought that they would be the prime top franchisee in the

  1. Centralized versus decentralized taxation of mobile polluting firms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanguay, Georges A.; Marceau, Nicolas

    2001-01-01

    We consider a world in which a mobile polluting firm must locate in one of two regions. The regions differ in two dimensions: their marginal cost of pollution and the production cost of the firm. It is shown that under incomplete information on regional marginal costs of pollution, fiscal competition may lead to the sub-optimal location of the firm. We also show that under incomplete information, a sub-optimal location is less likely under centralized than under decentralized taxation

  2. Inclusion & Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management System Environmental Outreach Feature Stories Individual Permit for Storm Water Public Reading Percent Women Percent URM Percent OPC Senior Leadership (Director, Deputy Director, Principal Associate Management (First-line and Mid-level) (Engineering Management, Research Management, Technical Management

  3. Graphic Turbulence Guidance

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Forecast turbulence hazards identified by the Graphical Turbulence Guidance algorithm. The Graphical Turbulence Guidance product depicts mid-level and upper-level...

  4. Graphical Turbulence Guidance - Composite

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Forecast turbulence hazards identified by the Graphical Turbulence Guidance algorithm. The Graphical Turbulence Guidance product depicts mid-level and upper-level...

  5. Risk Factors for Discharge from the Army with a Permanent Disability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bell, Nicole S

    2008-01-01

    .... Major Findings to date: Musculoskeletal disability is increasing more rapidly than other types of disability, particularly among females, soldiers between the ages of 21-35, white soldiers, of lower to mid-level enlisted...

  6. Simplified Clinical Tools and Educational Outreach for Health Workers

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The training will focus on mid-level healthcare workers, that is, nurses, medical ... Registered Trustees of the Research for Equity and Community Health ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open.

  7. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance. ... time physical activity on psycho-emotional factors in Indian men and women ... time physical activity, lifestyle and healt profile of black male mid-level managers in the ...

  8. Views of patients on a group diabetes education programme using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-06

    Sep 6, 2012 ... diabetes education or group motivational interviewing by mid- level health ..... events. Stress mostly revolved around family problems, work and the ... role of stress in managing their diabetes, and had embarked on different ...

  9. 48 CFR 302.101 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Acquisition and Logistics Management. PSC: Director, Strategic Acquisition Service. SAMHSA: Director, Division... typically a mid-level management official, usually an office director, division director, or branch chief...: Director, Division of Contracts Management. ASPR: Director, Office of Acquisitions Management, Contracts...

  10. Ambiguous meanings of projects as facilitators of sensegiving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunkka, Nina; Suhonen, Marjo

    2015-10-01

    To describe mid-level nurse managers' experiences of sensegiving in the context of hospital projects. Sensegiving is about shaping and affecting how employees see themselves, their work and issues related to their work. It has been little studied in the context of hospital projects from mid-level nurse managers' point of view. Mid-level nurse managers (n = 10) were interviewed about their experiences of projects from the viewpoint of sensegiving during change processes. Data was analysed using discourse analysis. Three repertoires were constructed from the data: the repertoires of regeneration, control and humane. Projects were considered as appropriate ways for sensegiving in hospitals from the viewpoint of mid-level nurse managers. In order to use projects effectively in hospitals as means for change management mid-level nurse managers ought to enhance their role as interpreters during the change process (i.e. strengthen their visioning, talk and dialogue skills). Training on the nature of change as a social and interactive process could deepen mid-level nurse managers' understanding of the change process in the context of hospital projects. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Identification of Gene Modules Associated with Low Temperatures Response in Bambara Groundnut by Network-Based Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Suresh Bonthala

    Full Text Available Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L. Verdc. is an African legume and is a promising underutilized crop with good seed nutritional values. Low temperature stress in a number of African countries at night, such as Botswana, can effect the growth and development of bambara groundnut, leading to losses in potential crop yield. Therefore, in this study we developed a computational pipeline to identify and analyze the genes and gene modules associated with low temperature stress responses in bambara groundnut using the cross-species microarray technique (as bambara groundnut has no microarray chip coupled with network-based analysis. Analyses of the bambara groundnut transcriptome using cross-species gene expression data resulted in the identification of 375 and 659 differentially expressed genes (p<0.01 under the sub-optimal (23°C and very sub-optimal (18°C temperatures, respectively, of which 110 genes are commonly shared between the two stress conditions. The construction of a Highest Reciprocal Rank-based gene co-expression network, followed by its partition using a Heuristic Cluster Chiseling Algorithm resulted in 6 and 7 gene modules in sub-optimal and very sub-optimal temperature stresses being identified, respectively. Modules of sub-optimal temperature stress are principally enriched with carbohydrate and lipid metabolic processes, while most of the modules of very sub-optimal temperature stress are significantly enriched with responses to stimuli and various metabolic processes. Several transcription factors (from MYB, NAC, WRKY, WHIRLY & GATA classes that may regulate the downstream genes involved in response to stimulus in order for the plant to withstand very sub-optimal temperature stress were highlighted. The identified gene modules could be useful in breeding for low-temperature stress tolerant bambara groundnut varieties.

  12. Oral and Hand Hygiene Behaviour and Risk Factors among In-School Adolescents in Four Southeast Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate oral and hand hygiene behaviour and risk factors among 13 to 15 year-old in-school adolescents in four Southeast Asian countries. Data were collected by self-reported questionnaire from nationally representative samples (total 13,824 of school children aged 13 to 15 years in India, Indonesia, Myanmar and Thailand. Results indicate that overall, 22.4% of school children reported sub-optimal oral hygiene (sub-optimal tooth brushing, and lower socioeconomic status, health risk behaviours, psychological distress and lack of protective factors were found to be associated with sub-optimal hand washing hygiene behaviour. As a conclusion, the cross-national data on oral and hand hygiene behaviour from four Southeast Asian countries found sub-optimal hygiene behaviour. Several determinants of sub-optimal hygiene behaviour were identified that can inform programmes in order to improve oral and hand hygiene behaviour of this adolescent population.

  13. Input-output analysis of high-speed axisymmetric isothermal jet noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeun, Jinah; Nichols, Joseph W.; Jovanović, Mihailo R.

    2016-04-01

    We use input-output analysis to predict and understand the aeroacoustics of high-speed isothermal turbulent jets. We consider axisymmetric linear perturbations about Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solutions of ideally expanded turbulent jets with jet Mach numbers 0.6 parabolized stability equations (PSE), and this mode dominates the response. For subsonic jets, however, the singular values indicate that the contributions of sub-optimal modes to noise generation are nearly equal to that of the optimal mode, explaining why the PSE do not fully capture the far-field sound in this case. Furthermore, high-fidelity large eddy simulation (LES) is used to assess the prevalence of sub-optimal modes in the unsteady data. By projecting LES source term data onto input modes and the LES acoustic far-field onto output modes, we demonstrate that sub-optimal modes of both types are physically relevant.

  14. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN BURNOUT SYNDROME IN INTERNAL MEDICINE RESIDENTS, THEIR REPORT OF THE SUBOPTIMAL CARE PRACTICES AND PATIENTS’ REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISABEL CASTAÑO

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This investigation pretended to establish the association between the Burnout Syndrome in internal medicine residents,the report of their sub optimal medical practices and the report of their hospitalized patients in charge, by using amultitrait-multimethod with a concurrent design that allows the research of two objects in the same investigation withconvergent results. The translated version by Moreno (2004 of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI and the semistructured interview were used in medical residents, and a questionnaire to patients based on the scales proposed byMcKinley, Manku-Scott, Hastings, French and Baker (1997 in their research. The results showed no associationbetween the Burnout Syndrome and the report of the sub optimal practices from residents and patients. On thecontrary, it was found a significant association between the communication category and the report of patients. Finally,suggestions are formulated for improvements of these sub optimal practices and complementary studiesare proposed.

  15. Centralized versus Decentralized Taxation of Mobile Polluting Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Georges A. Tanguay; Nicolas Marceau

    2000-01-01

    We consider a world in which a mobile polluting firm must locate in one of two regions. The regions differ in two dimensions: their marginal cost of pollution and the production cost of the firm. It is shown that under incomplete information on regional marginal costs of pollution, fiscal competition may lead to the sub-optimal location of the firm. We also show that under incomplete information, a sub-optimal location is less likely under centralized than under decentralized taxation. Nous é...

  16. The dynamical behaviors of a food chain model with impulsive effect and Ivlev functional response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang Zhongyi; Song Xinyu

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a food chain model with Ivlev functional response and impulsive effect of top predator is investigated. Conditions for extinction of mid-level predator are given. By using the Floquet theory of linear τ-period impulsive differential equation and small amplitude perturbation skills, we show that the lowest-level prey and the mid-level predator extinction periodic solution is unstable, while the mid-level predator eradication periodic solution is stable, and meanwhile, we prove that the system is permanent if the impulsive period is larger than some critical value. Furthermore, influences of the impulsive perturbation on the inherent oscillation are studied numerically, which displays complicated behavior including a sequence of direct and inverse cascade of period doubling, period halfing as well as chaos.

  17. Distribution and geology accumulation contamination analysis of heavy metal cadmium in agricultural soil of Zunyi county

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hongliang; Long Qian; Ke Yang

    2011-01-01

    The pollution of heavy metal Cd in agricultural soils of Zunyi County, Guizhou Province, was investigated and assessed by using geology accumulation indices (igeo) and pollution index method in this study. Results showed that the average content of Cd is 0.356 mg/kg, and the geochemistry baseline content of Cd was 0.147 mg/kg. The I geo s of Cd was 0.691, which suggested that non-contaminated soil accounts for 13.84%, 59.17% of tested soils was between non-polluted and mid-level polluted, 21.37% with mid-level polluted and 5.17% was between mid-level polluted and severely polluted, 0.45% of which was severely polluted. Contamination degree analysis indicated that non-contaminated soil was only 10.57%, 54.44% was influenced by Cd and 34.98% was seriously influenced by Cd. (authors)

  18. Homocysteine and coronary heart disease : the role of polymorphic genes and hemostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, M.

    2002-01-01

    Background Homocysteine is a sulfur-containing amino acid formed during catabolism of the essential amino acid methionine. Defects in genes encoding enzymes or sub-optimal intake of B-vitamins (e.g. folate) involved in homocysteine

  19. Biofilm growth on polyvinylchloride surface incubated in suboptimal microbial warm water and effect of sanitizers on biofilm removal post biofilm formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    An in vitro experiment was conducted to understand the nature of biofilm growth on polyvinyl chloride (PVC) surface when exposed to sub optimal quality microbial water (> 4 log10 cfu/ml) obtained from poultry drinking water source mimicking water in waterlines during the first week of poultry broodi...

  20. Bagged K-means clustering of metabolome data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, J. A.; van den Berg, R. A.; Westerhuis, J. A.; Hoefsloot, H. C. J.; Smilde, A. K.

    2006-01-01

    Clustering of metabolomics data can be hampered by noise originating from biological variation, physical sampling error and analytical error. Using data analysis methods which are not specially suited for dealing with noisy data will yield sub optimal solutions. Bootstrap aggregating (bagging) is a

  1. Representative sampling of animal feed and mixtures in the Danish agricultural sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars; Esbensen, Kim Harry

    2005-01-01

    Sampling of grain, animal feeds (solid & liquid) including important mineral mixtures in the Danish agricultural sector is subject to an ongoing investigation with the objective of improving existing (sub-optimal) sampling procedures. Results from the first 6 months are presented here; the projec...

  2. 'Help for Hay Fever', a goal-focused intervention for people with intermittent allergic rhinitis, delivered in Scottish community pharmacies: study protocol for a pilot cluster randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porteous, T.; Wyke, S.; Smith, S.; Bond, C.; Francis, J.; Lee, A.J.; Lowrie, R.; Scotland, G.; Sheikh, A.; Thomas, M.; Smith, L.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite the availability of evidence-based guidelines for managing allergic rhinitis in primary care, management of the condition in the United Kingdom (UK) remains sub-optimal. Its high prevalence and negative effects on quality of life, school performance, productivity and co-morbid

  3. The 40-item Monell Extended Sniffin' Sticks Identification Test (MONEX-40)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freiherr, J.; Gordon, A.R.; Alden, E.C.; Ponting, A.L.; Hernandez, M.; Boesveldt, S.; Lundstrom, J.N.

    2012-01-01

    Background Most existing olfactory identification (ID) tests have the primary aim of diagnosing clinical olfactory dysfunction, thereby rendering them sub-optimal for experimental settings where the aim is to detect differences in healthy subjects’ odor ID abilities. Materials and methods We have

  4. The benefit of using additional hydrological information from earth observations and reanalysis data on water allocation decisions in irrigation districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaune, Alexander; López, Patricia; Werner, Micha; de Fraiture, Charlotte

    2017-04-01

    Hydrological information on water availability and demand is vital for sound water allocation decisions in irrigation districts, particularly in times of water scarcity. However, sub-optimal water allocation decisions are often taken with incomplete hydrological information, which may lead to agricultural production loss. In this study we evaluate the benefit of additional hydrological information from earth observations and reanalysis data in supporting decisions in irrigation districts. Current water allocation decisions were emulated through heuristic operational rules for water scarce and water abundant conditions in the selected irrigation districts. The Dynamic Water Balance Model based on the Budyko framework was forced with precipitation datasets from interpolated ground measurements, remote sensing and reanalysis data, to determine the water availability for irrigation. Irrigation demands were estimated based on estimates of potential evapotranspiration and coefficient for crops grown, adjusted with the interpolated precipitation data. Decisions made using both current and additional hydrological information were evaluated through the rate at which sub-optimal decisions were made. The decisions made using an amended set of decision rules that benefit from additional information on demand in the districts were also evaluated. Results show that sub-optimal decisions can be reduced in the planning phase through improved estimates of water availability. Where there are reliable observations of water availability through gauging stations, the benefit of the improved precipitation data is found in the improved estimates of demand, equally leading to a reduction of sub-optimal decisions.

  5. Evaluation of energy and cost savings in mobile Cloud RAN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Checko, Aleksandra; Christiansen, Henrik Lehrmann; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2013-01-01

    , is sub optimal, comparing to a novel, cloud based architecture called Cloud Radio Access Network (C-RAN). In C-RAN a group of cells shares processing resources, and hence benefit from statistical multiplexing gain is expected. In this paper, the energy and cost savings in C-RAN are evaluated numerically...

  6. Reforming the Interagency Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Uchida, Ted T

    2005-01-01

    .... The result is a process that continues lacking the ability to clarify objectives, chains of command, and policy implementation plans Insights from organizational behavior theory reveal that some of the IAP's sub-optimal performance and irrational behavior are rooted in bureaucratic bargaining and decisions.

  7. The consequences of early life adversity: neurobiological, behavioural and epigenetic adaptations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maccari, S.; Krugers, H.J.; Morley-Fletcher, S.; Szyf, M.; Brunton, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    During the perinatal period, the brain is particularly sensitive to remodelling by environmental factors. Adverse early life experiences, such as stress exposure or sub-optimal maternal care can have long-lasting detrimental consequences for an individual. This phenomenon is often referred to as

  8. Robustness and Strategies of Adaptation among Farmer Varieties of African Rice (Oryza glaberrima) and Asian Rice (Oryza sativa) across West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mokuwa, A.; Nuijten, H.A.C.P.; Okry, F.; Teeken, B.W.E.; Maat, H.; Richards, P.; Struik, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    This study offers evidence of the robustness of farmer rice varieties (Oryza glaberrima and O. sativa) in West Africa. Our experiments in five West African countries showed that farmer varieties were tolerant of sub-optimal conditions, but employed a range of strategies to cope with stress.

  9. Understanding the productivity of cassava in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ezui, Kodjovi Senam

    2017-01-01

    Drought stress and sub-optimal soil fertility management are major constraints to crop production in general and to cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in particular in the rain-fed cropping systems in West Africa. Cassava is an important source of calories for millions of smallholder

  10. Base-stock policies with reservations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Foreest, Nicky D.; Teunter, Ruud H.; Syntetos, Aris A.

    2018-01-01

    All intensively studied and widely applied inventory control policies satisfy demand in accordance with the First-Come-First-Served (FCFS) rule, whether this demand is in backorder or not. Interestingly, this rule is sub-optimal when the fill-rate is constrained or when the backorder cost structure

  11. Automated Planning for Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller; Kroer, Christian

    2012-01-01

    that are a function of their duration; for example, sailing slowly between two ports is cheaper than sailing quickly. Despite its great industrial importance, the LSFRP has received little attention in the literature. We show how the LSFRP can be solved sub-optimally using the planner POPF and optimally with a mixed...

  12. Low Complexity Iterative Joint Channel Estimation and Multiuser Detection for DS-CDMA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren Skovgård; Kocian, Alexander; Fleury, Bernard Henri

    2004-01-01

    Previously the SAGE algorithm was applied to sub-optimal yet efficient Joint data Detection and channel Estimation (JDE) for DS-CDMA of moderate time complexity. Modifying the expectation and maximization steps of the SAGE-JDE scheme, it is possible to obtain an efficient receiver architecture...

  13. Robust Bayesian detection of unmodelled bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Searle, Antony C; Sutton, Patrick J; Tinto, Massimo; Woan, Graham

    2008-01-01

    We develop a Bayesian treatment of the problem of detecting unmodelled gravitational wave bursts using the new global network of interferometric detectors. We also compare this Bayesian treatment with existing coherent methods, and demonstrate that the existing methods make implicit assumptions on the distribution of signals that make them sub-optimal for realistic signal populations

  14. Linking Informaticians and End Users - Using the STARE-HI Evaluation Reporting Framework as a Unifying Design Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rigby, Michael; Talmon, Jan; Brender, Jytte; Ammenwerth, Elske; de Keizer, Nicolette F.; Nykänen, Pirkko

    2009-01-01

    There is understandable concern about low uptake and sub-optimal use of health informatics systems, which is often caused by a lack of shared objectives and values by the different stakeholders. Moreover, all parties work to different ethical codes. For future success, all need to work to the same

  15. Poor Appetite and Dietary Intake in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meij, Barbara S; Wijnhoven, Hanneke A H; Lee, Jung S; Houston, Denise K; Hue, Trisha; Harris, Tamara B; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Newman, Anne B; Visser, Marjolein

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Poor appetite in older adults leads to sub-optimal food intake and increases the risk of undernutrition. The impact of poor appetite on food intake in older adults is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the differences in food intake among older community-dwelling

  16. Self-Organization for Collective Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Putterman, Louis; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    Entrusting the power to punish to a central authority is a hallmark of civilization. We study a collective action dilemma in which self-interest should produce a sub-optimal outcome absent sanctions for non-cooperation. We then test experimentally whether subjects make the theoretically optimal...

  17. Polio Eradication Initiative (PEl) Emergency Plan: A Panacea for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TNHJOURNALPH

    and surmount the intractable problem of sub- optimal vaccine coverage which has remained a critical bottleneck in the successful eradication of the polio virus in Nigeria. It becomes pertinent therefore, to appraise this latest effort to avoid a recurrence of failure in subsequent polio eradication programs. METHODS. A review ...

  18. Does cognitive impairment impact adherence? A systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between cognitive impairment and medication non-adherence in stroke.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rohde, Daniela

    2017-12-08

    While medication adherence is essential for the secondary prevention of stroke, it is often sub-optimal, and can be compromised by cognitive impairment. This study aimed to systematically review and meta-analyse the association between cognitive impairment and medication non-adherence in stroke.

  19. Use of mobile learning technology among final year medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 21, No 1 (2015) > ... Eighty eight percent (88%) of the respondents owned a smart device and nearly all of them ... in accessing or using apps, sub-optimal internet access, cost of acquiring apps and limited device memory.

  20. Automating the production planning of a 3D printing factory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adan, I.J.B.F.; Pogromskiy, A.Y.; Freens, J.P.N.; Ploegmakers, H.; Yilmaz, L.; Chan, W.K.V.; Moon, I.; Roeder, T.M.K.; Macal, C.; Rossetti, M.D.

    2015-01-01

    To increase a 3D printer's throughput and decrease the print objects' lead times, composing good batches for 3D printers in high-volume 3D printing environments is of great importance. Since manual planners cannot oversee the whole production planning, they tend to make sub-optimal decisions. This

  1. 77 FR 76740 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Threatened Status for the Beringia and Okhotsk Distinct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... bearded seals therefore requires a focus on observed and projected changes in sea ice, ocean temperature... over the nursing period, and perhaps beyond (Watanabe et al., 2009). Learning to forage in a sub-optimal habitat could impair a pup's ability to learn effective foraging skills, potentially impacting its...

  2. Collaborative Design Workshops: Evolution of a Workshop Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quanjel, E.M.C.J.; Otter, den A.F.H.J.; Zeiler, W.; Barrett, P.; Amaratunga, D.; Haigh, R.; Keraminiyage, K.; Pathirage, C.

    2010-01-01

    In the Dutch Building Industry sub optimal use of knowledge by participants during the design- and engineering phase causes building damage and hinders innovative designs and solutions. Therefore the attitude, the mindset of the different design participants has to change as well as that they have

  3. Robustness in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Star, L.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the project ‘The genetics of robustness in laying hens’ was to investigate nature and regulation of robustness in laying hens under sub-optimal conditions and the possibility to increase robustness by using animal breeding without loss of production. At the start of the project, a robust

  4. Guidelines for Skeletal Surveys in Suspected Chils Abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussmann, Bo; Poulsen, Mette Ramsdal

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Child abuse imaging differs from general musculoskeletal imaging in that there is exceptional necessity for high quality images. The images are directly involved in legal processes and the child and the family faces major consequences if imaging is sub-optimal. The consequences of mi...

  5. A reliable genetic technique for sex determination of giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) from non-invasively collected hair samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durnin, Matthew E.; Palsboll, Per J.; Ryder, Oliver A.; McCullough, Dale R.

    Extractions from non-invasive hair samples usually yield low amounts of highly degraded DNA. Previously developed mammal molecular sexing methods were not designed with such sub-optimal conditions in mind. We developed a simple and reliable PCR-based sexing method aimed at degraded, low yield DNA

  6. The quality of care of diabetic patients in rural Malawi: A case of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Quality of diabetes care provided to diabetic patients attended to Mangochi hospital was sub-optimal due to lack of knowledge among patients and clinicians and resources. More efforts are needed towards retention of trained staff, provision of pharmaceutical and laboratory resources and health education.

  7. Effects of heterogeneity on bank efficiency scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J. W. B.; Koetter, M.; Kolari, J. W.; Kool, C. J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Bank efficiency estimates often serve as a proxy of managerial skill since they quantify sub-optimal production choices. But such deviations can also be due to omitted systematic differences among banks. In this study, we examine the effects of heterogeneity on bank efficiency scores. We compare

  8. Nazareth House, Church Hill, Sligo Town, Sligo.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rohde, Daniela

    2017-12-08

    While medication adherence is essential for the secondary prevention of stroke, it is often sub-optimal, and can be compromised by cognitive impairment. This study aimed to systematically review and meta-analyse the association between cognitive impairment and medication non-adherence in stroke.

  9. Potential of a registry in evaluation of treatment of patients with essential hypertension in primary care (using the example of polyclinic located in Saratov region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerasimov S.N.

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion ― Using the Htn, CAD and CHF Registry in primary care unit allows objective evaluation of clinical guidelines performance among Htn patients. It was revealed that combined antihypertensive treatment and separated recommended drugs in case of associated clinical conditions (statins in CAD, anticoagulants in atrial fibrillation was administered sub optimally. Only half of patients with essential hypertension had their blood pressure controlled.

  10. Burden of laboratory-confirmed Campylobacter infections in Guatemala 2008–2012: Results from a facility-based surveillance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Benoit

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: Campylobacter was a major cause of diarrhea in children in two departments in Guatemala; antimicrobial resistance was high, and treatment regimens in the ambulatory setting which included metronidazole and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and lacked oral rehydration were sub-optimal.

  11. A telepsychiatry model to support psychiatric outreach in the public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A telepsychiatry model to support psychiatric outreach in the public sector in South Africa. J Chipps, S Ramlall, M Mars. Abstract. The access of rural Mental Health Care Users in South Africa to specialist psychiatrists and quality mental health care is currently sub-optimal. Health professionals and planners working in ...

  12. "Knowing Is Not Enough; We Must Apply": Reflections on a Failed Action Learning Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Simon

    2015-01-01

    This paper reflects upon a sub-optimal action learning application with a strategic business re-design project. The objective of the project was to improve the long-term business performance of a subsidiary business and build the strategic plan. Action learning was introduced to aid the group in expanding their view of the real problems…

  13. Reducing non-allocative costs on Danish dairy farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mogens; Jacobsen, Brian H.; Hansen, Lars C.E.

    1993-01-01

    inefficiencies are far more important for dairy farms than inefficiencies due to sub-optimal farm size. Non-proportional reductions are shown to be as important as reductions due to scale economies. The paper closes with a discussion of the implications for farm policy and management practice....

  14. A new revenue sharing mechanism for coordinating multi-echelon supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhee, van der B.; Venugopal, V.; Veen, van der J.A.A.; Nalla, V.R.

    2009-01-01

    One of the key issues in Supply Chain Management is to prevent sub-optimization caused by the distribution of decision power over the various entities. Over the last decade, various contract mechanisms such as Revenue Sharing (RS) have been used to overcome such difficulties. Typically, a contract

  15. Pan African Medical Journal - Vol 21, No 1 (2015)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    De novo autoimmune hepatitis following liver transplantation for primary biliary cirrhosis: an unusual cause of late grafts dysfunction · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL .... Prevalence and predictors of sub-optimal medication adherence among patients with severe mental illnesses in a tertiary psychiatric facility in Maiduguri, ...

  16. Parental Perceptions about Pain and Pain Management Practices in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Pain management in neonates remains sub-optimal in sub-Saharan countries like Kenya due to lack of resources to procure pharmacological analgesics. There, however, exist low-cost, mother-driven pain management strategies such as breastfeeding and kangaroo care that can be used for pain relief in ...

  17. Accelerating Planted Green Ash Establishment on an Abandoned Soybean Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Groninger; Didier A. Babassana

    2002-01-01

    Planted green ash seedlings exhibit high survival rates on most bottomland sites that have recently come out of row crop production, making this species a popular choice for afforestation. Sub-optimal growth of planted hardwood tree species, including green ash, often delays the realization of many of the economic and environmental benefits that are used to justify the...

  18. Collaborative Design Strategy: Knowledge exchange for roof design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeiler, W.; Quanjel, E.M.C.J.; Roozenburg, N.; Chen, L-L; Stappers, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    In the (Dutch) Building Industry sub optimal use of knowledge by participants during the design phase causes damage and failure costs, as well as it hinders innovative sustainable solutions. Therefore a design tool was developed to support design knowledge exchange between different design team

  19. Analysis of pectic epitopes recognised by hybridoma and phage display monoclonal antibodies using defined oligosaccharides, polysaccharides, and enzymatic degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willats, William George Tycho; Limberg, G.; Buchholt, H.C.

    2000-01-01

    occurs where specific but undefined methyl-esterification patterns are present on HG domains, although fully de-esterified HG samples contain sub-optimal JIM5 epitopes. The persistence of mAb binding to epitopes in pectic antigens, with 41% blockwise esterification (P41) and 43% random esterification (F...

  20. Management of rice seed during insurgency : a case study in Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mokuwa, G.A.

    2015-01-01

    Keywords: Technography, Oryza glaberrima, Oryza sativa, farmer hybrids, sub-optimal agriculture, farmer adaptive management, plant genetic resources, peace and extreme (wartime) conditions, local seed channels, selection for robustness, Sierra Leone, West Africa.

  1. The effect of text messaging on hospital visits and blood pressure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Non-attendance to hospital appointment and non-adherence to blood pressure lowering medication are major factors in sub-optimal control of high blood pressure. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of text messaging on improving hospital visits and blood pressure control in adult hypertensives in ...

  2. The influence of maternal protein nutrition on offspring development and metabolism: the role of glucocorticoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almond, K.; Bikker, P.; Lomax, M.E.; Mostyn, A.

    2012-01-01

    The consequences of sub-optimal nutrition through alterations in the macronutrient content of the maternal diet will not simply be reflected in altered neonatal body composition and increased mortality, but are likely to continue into adulthood and confer greater risk of metabolic disease. One

  3. Instructional control of reinforcement learning: A behavioral and neurocomputational investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doll, B.B.; Jacobs, W.J.; Sanfey, A.G.; Frank, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Humans learn how to behave directly through environmental experience and indirectly through rules and instructions. Behavior analytic research has shown that instructions can control behavior, even when such behavior leads to sub-optimal outcomes (Hayes, S (Ed) 1989. Rule-governed behavior:

  4. Multi-period mean–variance portfolio optimization based on Monte-Carlo simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Cong (Fei); C.W. Oosterlee (Kees)

    2016-01-01

    htmlabstractWe propose a simulation-based approach for solving the constrained dynamic mean– variance portfolio managemen tproblem. For this dynamic optimization problem, we first consider a sub-optimal strategy, called the multi-stage strategy, which can be utilized in a forward fashion. Then,

  5. 2018-05-01T08:41:37Z https://www.ajol.info/index.php/all/oai oai:ojs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grooming undernourished children causes children to start life at mentally sub optimal levels. This becomes a serious developmental threat. Lack of education especially amongst women disadvantages children, especially as far as healthy practices like breastfeeding and child healthy foods are concerned. Adverse climatic ...

  6. Assessment of electricity demand-supply in health facilities in resource-constrained settings : optimization and evaluation of energy systems for a case in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palacios, S.G.

    2015-01-01

    In health facilities in resource-constrained settings, a lack of access to sustainable and reliable electricity can result on a sub-optimal delivery of healthcare services, as they do not have lighting for medical procedures and power to run essential equipment and devices to treat their patients.

  7. Intermediate levels of hippocampal activity appear optimal for associative memory formation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, X.; Qin, S.; Rijpkema, M.J.P.; Luo, J.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well established that hippocampal activity is positively related to effective associative memory formation. However, in biological systems often optimal levels of activity are contrasted by both sub- and supra-optimal levels. Sub-optimal levels of hippocampal activity are commonly

  8. Living on the edge: physiological and behavioural plasticity of African antelopes along a climatic gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shrestha, A.K.

    2012-01-01

    Climate change, habitat loss and fragmentation individually or synergistically force species to
    live in a sub-optimal condition in terms of climate and resource posing threat to fitness and
    survival of the species. Hence, a very pressing issue for biodiversity conservation at present

  9. A global, incremental development method for a web-based prostate cancer treatment decision aid and usability testing in a Dutch clinical setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuypers, M.; Lamers, R.E.D.; Kil, P.J.M.; The, R.; Karssen, K.; van de Poll-Franse, L.V.; de Vries, M.

    2018-01-01

    Many new decision aids are developed while aspects of existing decision aids could also be useful, leading to a sub-optimal use of resources. To support treatment decision-making in prostate cancer patients, a pre-existing evidence-based Canadian decision aid was adjusted to Dutch clinical setting.

  10. Understanding Providers' Interaction with Graphical User Interface Pertaining to Clinical Document Usage in an Electronic Health Record System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Rubina Fatima

    2017-01-01

    Despite high Electronic Health Record (EHR) system adoption rates by hospital and office-based practices, many users remain highly dissatisfied with the current state of EHRs. Sub-optimal EHR usability as a result of insufficient incorporation of User-Centered Design (UCD) approach during System Development Life Cycle process (SDLC) is considered…

  11. Barriers to ambulatory EHR: who are 'imminent adopters' and how do they differ from other physicians?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nir Menachemi

    2006-06-01

    Conclusion Policy and decision makers interested in promoting the adoption of EHR among physicians should focus on the needs and barriers of those most likely to adopt EHR. Given that imminent adopters differ considerably from their peers, current EHR incentive programmes that focus on financial barriers only might prove sub-optimal in achieving immediate widespread EHR adoption.

  12. Software for CATV Design and Frequency Plan Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Hala, O.

    2007-01-01

    The paper deals with the structure of a software medium used for design and sub-optimization of frequency plan in CATV networks, their description and design method. The software performance is described and a simple design example of energy balance of a simplified CATV network is given. The software was created in programming environment called Delphi and local optimization was made in Matlab.

  13. The clinical associate curriculum . the learning theory underpinning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Bachelor of Clinical Medical Practice (BCMP) is a new degree at the University of Pretoria (UP), designed to create a new category of mid-level medical workers, namely clinical associates. UP produced its first 44 graduates in 2011. The BCMP created the opportunity to innovate learning and teaching through ...

  14. Examining Burma's Development: A Research Fellowship Program ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Regional Center for Social Science and Sustainable Development (RCSD) at Thailand's Chiang Mai University will manage the four-year program, which targets junior and mid-level academic and non-academic Burmese scholars. The program will ... LVIF announces five more funded projects. Eleven world-class ...

  15. Women in Student Affairs: Navigating the Roles of Mother and Administrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Krista Jorge

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the experiences of women who have children and work in mid-level student affairs positions. The study of this phenomenon was driven by four problems: (a) women face barriers in rising to upper-level leadership positions, (b) women are more likely than men to leave the field of student affairs, (c) there…

  16. Lions or lambs? How deans lead and manage their faculties at Indonesian universities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngo, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    Leadership is a mysterious phenomenon often perceived as a critical factor in an organisation’s success. While mid-level leadership and management is fundamental to any organisation, this group of leaders and their management style remain under-researched. This study is one of the few that focuses

  17. Understanding Behaviors in Videos through Behavior-Specific Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Huamin; Liu, Weifeng; Olsen, Søren Ingvor

    2018-01-01

    Understanding behaviors is the core of video content analysis, which is highly related to two important applications: abnormal event detection and action recognition. Dictionary learning, as one of the mid-level representations, is an important step to process a video. It has achieved state...

  18. The Baccalaureate in the California Community College: Current Challenges & Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gándara, Patricia; Cuellar, Marcela

    2016-01-01

    Concerns over the United States' global standing have spurred a national focus on improving postsecondary attainment. At the same time, many sectors of the economy find they have difficulty recruiting highly trained individuals to fill the good jobs that exist; jobs like nursing, respiratory care, dental hygiene, and various mid-level management…

  19. Impact of Long-Term Communication Training on Managerial Style and Perceptions of Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinane, Laura E.; Stacks, Don W.

    A study examined the impact of a working commitment to corporate communication and corporate communication education on perceptions of management and managerial style and the more general perceptions of the organization. Subjects, 15 male mid-level managers at a large southeastern chemical plant that had in place a continuing corporate…

  20. The DiaNAH test battery for visual perceptual disorders : Validity and efficacy in rehabilitation practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heutink, Jochem; de Vries, Stefanie; Melis, Bart; Vrijling, Anne; Tucha, Oliver

    2018-01-01

    We developed the DiaNAH test battery for the screening of mid-level and higher-order visual perceptual disorders in clinical practice. The DiaNAH battery comprises 11 different tests and can be administered in 30-60 minutes. Important feature of the DiaNAH battery is that it is administered on a 24”

  1. Mentoring, Organizational Rank, and Women's Perceptions of Advancement Opportunities in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Christa Ellen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine perceived career barriers of women in entry-level and mid-level positions who were formally and informally mentored. Research studies have found that mentoring can yield positive outcomes; however, there is limited research on how mentoring style impacts career advancement. The primary research questions…

  2. Blended Families: The Influence of Organizational and Managerial Culture in Mergers of Career-Oriented Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambach, Michael W.

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative case study is constructed to offer insight on the infrequently investigated influence of organizational culture before and after a merger between higher education institutions. Respondents were selected from volunteers to form three strata of employees; staff, mid-level management which included some faculty members, and upper…

  3. The Role of Reinforcement Sensitivity in the Development of Childhood Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobodskaya, Helena R.; Kuznetsova, Valeriya B.

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the contribution of reinforcement sensitivity to childhood personality at three levels of the hierarchical structure, mid-level traits, the Big Five and two higher-order factors, and the moderating role of sex and age in a sample of 3-18-year-olds. The canonical correlation analyses indicated that reinforcement sensitivity and…

  4. A Behavioral Treatment for Traumatic Brain Injury-Associated Visual Dysfunction Based on Adult Cortical Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Zomet, Lev, Yehezkel, Sterkin & Levi, 2012b) and developmental object and face agnosia (Lev, Gilaie-Dotan, Gotthilf-Nezri, Yehezkel, Brooks, Perry...followed by mid-level perceptual improvements in developmental object and face agnosia . Dev Sci, Lev, M., Ludwig, K., Gilaie-Dotan, S., Voss, S

  5. Envisioning Oneself as a Leader: Comparisons of Women and Men in Spain and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killeen, Lauren A.; Lopez-Zafra, Esther; Eagly, Alice H.

    2006-01-01

    In an examination of aspirations for leadership in the United States and Spain, male and female students envisioned themselves as a chief executive officer, vice president, or mid-level manager in an industry with a feminine image (clothing manufacturing) or a masculine image (auto manufacturing). Although men and women perceived these roles as…

  6. An analysis of inter-healthcare facility transfer of neonates within the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RESEARCH. 514. May 2016, Vol. 106, No. 5. The inter-healthcare transfer of neonates is an integral component of neonatal care and is often driven by a lack .... ECT. A 2-year mid-level qualification leading to a limited number of skills within the ALS scope of practice. ECP. A 4-year professional Bachelor degree within the.

  7. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-06

    May 6, 2014 ... facilitate and support articulation between the ECT mid-level worker qualification and the professional B EMC degree. Methods. The researchers used an exploratory, sequential mixed-method design, which is characterised by a qualitative phase of research followed by a quantitative phase. This design is ...

  8. A View from CAEL: Are Your Employees Asking for Career Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for Adult and Experiential Learning, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The Council for Adult and Experiential Learning (CAEL) created this document in response to an increased amount of requests for effective career development strategies that target the entry and mid-level workforce. These requests came from a number of different industry sectors throughout the country. This paper summarizes all of those requests,…

  9. The Institutionalization of Catholic Culture through the Student Life Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtz, Joseph F.

    2012-01-01

    The main research question of this study was: How do student life offices at four diverse Catholic colleges and universities create an environment that is expressive of a Catholic way of life? This research question was operationalized by two research sub questions: How do senior student affairs officers, mid-level student affairs officers, and…

  10. Effects of Training Leaders in Needs-Based Methods of Running Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, Emily M.; Malouff, John M.; Rangan, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of brief training in how to lead organizational meetings. The training was based on an attendee-needs-based model of running meetings. Twelve mid-level managers completed the training. The study showed a significant pre to post increase in the number of needs-based behaviors displayed by meeting leaders and in…

  11. Assessing the Delivery and Effectiveness of a New Immunisation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The objective of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the training initiative to identify the challenges of immunisation at the district level in Zambia. The secondary objective was to assess the immediate impact of the training on the perceived competence of trainees who attended the Mid Level ...

  12. Mission-Driven Collaboration between Academic and Student Affairs in Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulley, Needham Yancey

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the nature of collaboration between academic affairs and student affairs units in the community college context from a basic interpretivist qualitative perspective. The aim was to examine the experiences, influences, and perceptions of mid-level and chief student affairs and academic affairs officers…

  13. A Correlational Study between IT Governance and the Effect on Strategic Management Functioning among Senior & Middle Management in Medium Scale Software Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Sam

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore whether there are relationships between elements of information technology (IT) governance, strategic planning, and strategic functions among senior and mid-level management at medium-scaled software development firms. Several topics and models of IT governance literature were discussed and the gap in…

  14. Relationship between Staff-Reported Culture Change and Occupancy Rate and Organizational Commitment among Nursing Homes in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minhong; Choi, Jae-Sung; Lim, Jinseop; Kim, Young Sun

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to examine culture change in nursing homes in South Korea and to identify the outcomes of culture change implementation. Design and Methods: Data were taken from survey responses from 223 top- or mid-level staff among nursing homes in South Korea that were selected through a proportionate random-stratified sampling method…

  15. 76 FR 68464 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... asthma supplement will collect information on the clinical decisions providers make when confronted with... patient care. In 2006, physicians and mid-level providers (i.e., nurse practitioners, physician assistants, and nurse midwives) practicing in community health centers (CHCs) were added to the NAMCS sample, and...

  16. Are further education opportunities for emergency care technicians ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. A recent review of emergency care education and training in South Africa resulted in the creation of a new 2-year, 240-credit National Qualifications Framework (NQF) level 6 Emergency Care Technician (ECT) qualification. The National Department of Health (NDoH) view ECTs as 'mid-level workers' in the ...

  17. Leadership at the Glass Ceiling: Women's Experience of Mid-Management Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, M. Carolyn; Carafella, Rosemary S.; Ingram, Peggy B.

    1998-01-01

    Examines how women in mid-level leadership positions understand themselves as leaders. Explores the women's perceptions of how they function as leaders, and compares them to the generic notions of leadership, shaped by male experience, found in the current literature. (MKA)

  18. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Kanishk Gohil. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 126 Issue 7 October 2017 pp 94. The role of mid-level vortex in the intensification and weakening of tropical cyclones · Govindan Kutty Kanishk Gohil · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. The present ...

  19. Integrating conventional classifiers with a GIS expert system to increase the accuracy of invasive species mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masocha, M.; Skidmore, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    Mapping the cover of invasive species using remotely sensed data alone is challenging, because many invaders occur as mid-level canopy species or as subtle understorey species and therefore contribute little to the spectral signatures captured by passive remote sensing devices. In this study, two

  20. Student Perception of Traditional versus Alternative Textbook Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, Ann; Kuzma, John; Thiewes, Harold

    2013-01-01

    In today's environment of rising tuition and textbook costs, we surveyed business majors concerning their preferences regarding various text options that are available for their academic studies. Specifically, we surveyed 329 students enrolled in upper-level business courses at a mid-level Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business…

  1. Enacting the Common Script: Management Ideas at Finnish Universities of Applied Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuori, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the work of mid-level management at Finnish universities of applied sciences. Based on in-depth interviews with 15 line managers, this study investigates how the standardized management ideas of rational management and employee empowerment are used in the leadership of lecturers at these institutions. The findings indicate…

  2. The Theory of Practice and the Practice of Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Michael L.; Murphy, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    As academics who interact with senior and mid-level business managers on a regular basis, both informally and as consultants, the authors often note that ideas of theory and practice are not well developed among people outside of academia. It is posited that this deficit offers the prospect of less than optimal approaches to matters such as…

  3. 78 FR 73506 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request: Infant Bath Seats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... mark or other means that identifies the date (month and year, as a minimum) of manufacture. Section 9... instructions with infant bath seats thus would be ``usual and customary'' and not within the definition of... a GS-12 level, salaried employee. The average hourly wage rate for a mid-level salaried GS-12...

  4. A User's Guide to CGNS. 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumsey, Christopher L.; Poirier, Diane M. A.; Bush, Robert H.; Towne, Charles E.

    2001-01-01

    The CFD General Notation System (CGNS) was developed to be a self-descriptive, machine-independent standard for storing CFD aerodynamic data. This guide aids users in the implementation of CGNS. It is intended as a tutorial on the usage of the CGNS mid-level library routines for reading and writing grid and flow solution datasets for both structured and unstructured methodologies.

  5. Helping Competencies of Student Affairs Professionals: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Amy L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gather student affairs professionals' perceptions of the knowledge and skills needed to effectively help students. Using the Delphi method, 159 entry-level and mid-level student affairs administrators from institutions across the United States were surveyed regarding their perceptions of the helping skills they use…

  6. College Student Concerns: Perceptions of Student Affairs Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Amy L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to increase awareness of the perceptions of student affairs professionals regarding the most frequent and challenging concerns facing college students today. Using the Delphi method, 159 entry-level and mid-level student affairs administrators from institutions across the country were surveyed about their perceptions…

  7. The Influence of Work Values on Job and Career Satisfaction, and Organizational Commitment among Korean Professional Level Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchinke, K. Peter; Kang, Hye-Seung; Oh, Seok-Young

    2008-01-01

    The study contributes to the work values literature as well as to the knowledge base of meaning of working in Asian economies. It represents the results of an empirical study of Korean mid-level employees in diverse industries, investigating the effects of different understandings of work and non-work dimensions on job satisfaction, career…

  8. Model Predictive Control for Integration of Industrial Consumers to the Smart Grid under a Direct Control Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahnama, Samira; Stoustrup, Jakob; Rasmussen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    in case there is imbalance between demand and supply. We consider heterogeneous consumers at the bottom level, namely a cold storage in supermarkets and a chiller equipped with ice storage. These consumers are under the direct control of a mid-level controller, a so-called aggregator. The aggregator...... by the aggregator....

  9. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Further, Hudhud and Helen, is compared to a deep depression formed over Bay of Bengal to highlight the significance of the mid-level vortex in the genesis of a tropical cyclone. Major results obtained are as follows: stronger positive PV anomalies are noticed over upper and lower levels of troposphere near the storm center ...

  10. Alternative oxidase pathway optimizes photosynthesis during osmotic and temperature stress by regulating cellular ROS, malate valve and antioxidative systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DINAKAR eCHALLABATHULA

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study reveals the importance of alternative oxidase (AOX pathway in optimizing photosynthesis under osmotic and temperature stress conditions in the mesophyll protoplasts of Pisum sativum. The responses of photosynthesis and respiration were monitored at saturating light intensity of 1000 µmoles m-2 s-1 at 25 oC under a range of sorbitol concentrations from 0.4 M to 1.0M to induce hyper-osmotic stress and by varying the temperature of the thermo-jacketed pre-incubation chamber from 25 oC to 10 oC to impose sub-optimal temperature stress. Compared to controls (0.4 M sorbitol and 25 OC, the mesophyll protoplasts showed remarkable decrease in NaHCO3-dependent O2 evolution (indicator of photosynthetic carbon assimilation, under both hyper-osmotic (1.0 M sorbitol and sub-optimal temperature stress conditions (10 OC, while the decrease in rates of respiratory O2 uptake were marginal. The capacity of AOX pathway increased significantly in parallel to increase in intracellular pyruvate and reactive oxygen species (ROS levels under both hyper-osmotic stress and sub-optimal temperature stress under the background of saturating light. The ratio of redox couple (Malate/OAA related to malate valve increased in contrast to the ratio of redox couple (GSH/GSSG related to antioxidative system during hyper-osmotic stress. Nevertheless, the ratio of GSH/GSSG decreased in the presence of sub-optimal temperature, while the ratio of Malate/OAA showed no visible changes. Also, the redox ratios of pyridine nucleotides increased under hyper-osmotic (NADH/NAD and sub-optimal temperature (NADPH/NADP stresses, respectively. However, upon restriction of AOX pathway by using salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM, the observed changes in NaHCO3 dependent O2 evolution, cellular ROS, redox ratios of Malate/OAA, NAD(PH/NAD(P and GSH/GSSG were further aggravated under stress conditions with concomitant modulations in NADP-MDH and antioxidant enzymes. Taken together, the

  11. Plant-integrated measurement of greenhouse gas emissions from a municipal wastewater treatment plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshida, Hiroko; Mønster, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    experiencing operational problems, such as during foaming events in anaerobic digesters and during sub-optimal operation of biological nitrogen removal in the secondary treatment of wastewater. Methane emissions detected during measurement campaigns corresponded to 2.07-32.7% of the methane generated......Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) contribute to anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Due to its spatial and temporal variation in emissions, whole plant characterization of GHG emissions from WWTPs face a number of obstacles. In this study, a tracer dispersion method was applied...... in the plant. As high as 4.27% of nitrogen entering the WWTP was emitted as nitrous oxide under the sub-optimal operation of biological treatment processes. The study shows that the unit process configuration, as well as the operation of the WWTP, determines the rate of GHG emission. The applied plant...

  12. Optimal Energy Efficiency Fairness of Nodes in Wireless Powered Communication Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Zhou, Qingjie; Ng, Derrick Wing Kwan; Jo, Minho

    2017-09-15

    In wireless powered communication networks (WPCNs), it is essential to research energy efficiency fairness in order to evaluate the balance of nodes for receiving information and harvesting energy. In this paper, we propose an efficient iterative algorithm for optimal energy efficiency proportional fairness in WPCN. The main idea is to use stochastic geometry to derive the mean proportionally fairness utility function with respect to user association probability and receive threshold. Subsequently, we prove that the relaxed proportionally fairness utility function is a concave function for user association probability and receive threshold, respectively. At the same time, a sub-optimal algorithm by exploiting alternating optimization approach is proposed. Through numerical simulations, we demonstrate that our sub-optimal algorithm can obtain a result close to optimal energy efficiency proportional fairness with significant reduction of computational complexity.

  13. Climate policies in a second-best world-A case study on India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathy, Sandrine; Guivarch, Celine

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyze the potential for synergies between climate policies and development in a case study on India focusing on the power sector sub-optimalities. To do so, we use IMACLIM-R, a dynamic recursive energy-economy model that represents a second best world with market imperfections and short-run adjustments constraints along a long-term growth path. The analysis suggests (i) global carbon pricing induces prohibitive macroeconomic costs for the Indian economy, even in the case of significant financial transfers associated with a global cap-and-trade system and a 'Contraction and Convergence in 2100' allocation scheme and (ii) the most cost efficient climate policies are not uniform carbon pricing only. The implementation of domestic policies suited to the national context, for instance targeting sub-optimalities in the power sector for India, allows reducing significantly the macroeconomic costs induced by international mitigation policies.

  14. [A modern Kaspar Hauser].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzersdorfer, Elmar; Schäfer, Monika; Becker-Pfaff, Johannes

    2002-07-01

    The case of a mentally disturbed young man is described, whose identity could not be revealed over more than four months. It is compared to Kaspar Hauser, similarities and differences are highlighted. The "Kaspar Hauser of Stuttgart" is retrospectively revealed as a young man with experiences of severe deprivation. The missing case history and independent history were an obstacle in the treatment, albeit not fundamental, advantages being reached with a relation-oriented approach. Informations obtained after clarification of the identity of the young man suggest a multiplication of unfavourable circumstances, leading to sub-optimal treatment and finally the "Kaspar-Hauser-Situation". Contributing were his belonging to the less integrated group of migrants in Germany, as well as severe deprivation in the family and a generally sub-optimal treatment of mentally disturbed young patients.

  15. Relative adrenal insufficiency in post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinclair R

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder is treated with rapid decrement of immunosuppressive therapy. This cannot be achieved with ease in patients on long-term glucocorticoid therapy, as chronically suppressed adrenal glands may not be capable of mounting adequate response to stress. A 52-year-old Caucasian male presented with fever, orthostatic hypotension, lymphadenopathy and hyponatraemia. Serum cortisol levels were within normal levels with a sub optimal response to stimulation by ACTH. Hyponatraemia and orthostasis responded poorly to fluid restriction, saline and salt repletion but corrected after increasing the steroid dose. The normal baseline cortisol levels represented a stimulated adrenal gland, however, the ACTH stimulation had inadequate response. This sub optimal stimulation and a good response to increased steroids suggest the presence of relative or occult adrenal insufficiency. Relative adrenal insufficiency must be considered in patients who have received prolonged glucocorticoid therapy and have symptoms such as hypotension and/or hyponatraemia.

  16. Secure Path Selection under Random Fading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furqan Jameel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Application-oriented Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs promises to be one of the most useful technologies of this century. However, secure communication between nodes in WSNs is still an unresolved issue. In this context, we propose two protocols (i.e. Optimal Secure Path (OSP and Sub-optimal Secure Path (SSP to minimize the outage probability of secrecy capacity in the presence of multiple eavesdroppers. We consider dissimilar fading at the main and wiretap link and provide detailed evaluation of the impact of Nakagami-m and Rician-K factors on the secrecy performance of WSNs. Extensive simulations are performed to validate our findings. Although the optimal scheme ensures more security, yet the sub-optimal scheme proves to be a more practical approach to secure wireless links.

  17. Risk programming and sparse data: how to get more reliable results

    OpenAIRE

    Hardaker, J. Brian; Lien, Gudbrand D.; Van Asseldonk, Marcel A.P.M.; Richardson, James W.; Hegrenes, Agnar

    2008-01-01

    Because relevant historical data for farms are inevitably sparse, most risk programming studies rely on few observations. We discuss how to use available information to derive an appropriate multivariate distribution function that can be sampled for a more complete representation of the possible risks in riskbased models. For the particular example of a Norwegian mixed livestock and crop farm, the solution is shown to be unstable with few states, although the cost of picking a sub-optimal pla...

  18. Active Neural Localization

    OpenAIRE

    Chaplot, Devendra Singh; Parisotto, Emilio; Salakhutdinov, Ruslan

    2018-01-01

    Localization is the problem of estimating the location of an autonomous agent from an observation and a map of the environment. Traditional methods of localization, which filter the belief based on the observations, are sub-optimal in the number of steps required, as they do not decide the actions taken by the agent. We propose "Active Neural Localizer", a fully differentiable neural network that learns to localize accurately and efficiently. The proposed model incorporates ideas of tradition...

  19. 16. The fraction of cancer attributable to lifestyle and environmental factors in the UK in 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Parkin, D M; Boyd, L; Walker, L C

    2011-01-01

    This chapter summarises the results of the preceding sections, which estimate the fraction of cancers occurring in the UK in 2010 that can be attributed to sub-optimal, past exposures of 14 lifestyle and environmental risk factors. For each of 18 cancer types, we present the percentage of cases attributable to one or all of the risk factors considered (tobacco, alcohol, four elements of diet (consumption of meat, fruit and vegetables, fibre, and salt), overweight, lack of physical exercise, o...

  20. Reasons for non-vaccination: Parental vaccine hesitancy and the childhood influenza vaccination school pilot programme in England.

    OpenAIRE

    Paterson, P; Chantler, T; Larson, HJ

    2017-01-01

    In 2013, the annual influenza immunisation programme in England was extended to children to reduce the burden of influenza, but uptake was sub-optimal at 53.2%. To explore the reasons some parents decided not to vaccinate their child against influenza as part of the pilot programme offered in schools. Cross-sectional qualitative study conducted between February and July 2015. 913 parents whose children were not vaccinated against influenza in the school pilots in West Yorkshire and Greater Ma...

  1. The cost of illness attributable to diabetic foot and cost-effectiveness of secondary prevention in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, María Kathia; Mirelman, Andrew J; Galvin, Cooper J; Lazo-Porras, María; Pinto, Miguel; Miranda, J Jaime; Gilman, Robert H

    2015-10-26

    Diabetes mellitus is a public health challenge worldwide, and roughly 25% of patients with diabetes in developing countries will develop at least one foot ulcer during their lifetime. The gravest outcome of an ulcerated foot is amputation, leading to premature death and larger economic costs. This study aimed to estimate the economic costs of diabetic foot in high-risk patients in Peru in 2012 and to model the cost-effectiveness of a year-long preventive strategy for foot ulceration including: sub-optimal care (baseline), standard care as recommended by the International Diabetes Federation, and standard care plus daily self-monitoring of foot temperature. A decision tree model using a population prevalence-based approach was used to calculate the costs and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Outcome measures were deaths and major amputations, uncertainty was tested with a one-way sensitivity analysis. The direct costs for prevention and management with sub-optimal care for high-risk diabetics is around US$74.5 million dollars in a single year, which decreases to US$71.8 million for standard care and increases to US$96.8 million for standard care plus temperature monitoring. The implementation of a standard care strategy would avert 791 deaths and is cost-saving in comparison to sub-optimal care. For standard care plus temperature monitoring compared to sub-optimal care the ICER rises to US$16,124 per death averted and averts 1,385 deaths. Diabetic foot complications are highly costly and largely preventable in Peru. The implementation of a standard care strategy would lead to net savings and avert deaths over a one-year period. More intensive prevention strategies such as incorporating temperature monitoring may also be cost-effective.

  2. Knowledge of diabetes mellitus in privately- funded diabetic patients attending a rural optometric practice in Malmesbury, South Africa*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. C. Phillips

    2012-12-01

    ment of DM. This study indicates that, despite access to private health care, these subjects level of knowledge of DM and its ocular effects was sub-optimal. It also indicated poor self-management practices of the diabetic patients towards diabetes care and management. Optometrists should form part of a team of health professionals to assist in the management of DM. (S Afr Optom 2012 71(2 70-77

  3. How to Organize Electricity Savings in a Liberalized Electricity Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The basic idea of Integrated Ressource Planning is described and it is demonstrated how this is in conflict with the sub-optimizing necessary in a liberalized market. Afterwards are outlined how the measuring of savings energy consumption constitutes a fundamental problem. Finally are dicussed...... the future actors in the electricity sector and their roles in implementing electricity savings, followed by some proposals for an energy policy....

  4. Utilization of preventive maternal and child public health interventions in sub-Saharan Africa: a multilevel analysis of individual and small-area socioeconomic disadvantage

    OpenAIRE

    Aremu, Olatunde

    2011-01-01

    Background: Uptake of programmatic maternal and childhood preventive interventions continue to be sub-optimal in sub-Saharan Africa with wide variations within and across the countries. There is evidence suggestive of socioeconomic inequities in access to and coverage of preventive health intervention. In the context of maternal and child health (MCH) in sub-Saharan Africa, women and children among the poor are more disadvantaged in terms of access to life saving preven...

  5. Bringing home the trash: Do colony-based differences in foraging distribution lead to increased plastic ingestion in Laysan albatrosses?

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Lindsay C.; Vanderlip, Cynthia; Duffy, David C.; Afanasyev, Vsevolod; Shaffer, Scott A.

    2009-01-01

    When searching for prey, animals should maximize energetic gain, while minimizing energy expenditure by altering their movements relative to prey availability. However, with increasing amounts of marine debris, what once may have been 'optimal' foraging strategies for top marine predators, are leading to sub-optimal diets comprised in large part of plastic. Indeed, the highly vagile Laysan albatross (Phoebastria immutabilis) which forages throughout the North Pacific, are well known for their...

  6. Network capacity auctions: promise and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newbery, David M.

    2003-01-01

    Well-designed auctions work favorably for allocating idiosyncratic properties efficiently. Auctions are used to allocate entry capacity for United Kingdom gas and inter-connector capacity for electricity in several European Union countries and can work well for allocating existing capacity, though careful auction design is needed to mitigate potential market power. Using auction prices to guide investment decisions in networks is problematic if bidders fear that sub-optimal investment will be compensated by regulatory fiat, lowering future capacity values. (Author)

  7. Rational bandits: Plunder, public goods, and the Vikings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurrild-Klitgaard, Peter; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2003-01-01

    The paper applies and extends insights from Mancur Olson's study of state making to the Vikings. In a world of roving bandits, a sub-optimal provision of public goods exists, most notably of security. Roving banditry leads to over-plundering and zero profits for the plunderers, which makes statio...... of the process being reflected in the variation in the number of raids and the amount of wealth extracted. Udgivelsesdato: DEC...

  8. Terminal homing position estimation forAutonomous underwater vehicle docking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    mathematical tool to execute the computations in the MHE application . Zanon et al. also used the real-time iteration scheme with shifting since the...density estimation of simulation output, as well as electricity demand forecasts with respect to weather conditions. In all of these applications , epi...sub-optimal filter. The UKF, on the other hand, is considered an optimal filter. The UKF employs the UT, which is used in calculating the statistics

  9. Exploitation of Self Organization in UAV Swarms for Optimization in Combat Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    to thank my three kids , to whom I owe thanks for the gift of perspective. Next, I would like to thank my mother who had the tedious task of proof... pedagogical problems, but does not scale well. A GA proved more efficient and effective, solving to the sub-optimal levels outside the peda- gogical... pedagogical limits. Despite the fact that this mapping approaches more of a set covering problem than a POMDP [41], its mapping proves very insightful

  10. What is diabetes distress and how can we measure it? A narrative review and conceptual model

    OpenAIRE

    Dennick, K.; Sturt, J.; Speight, J.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diabetes distress is the negative emotional impact of living with diabetes. It has tangible clinical importance, being associated with sub-optimal self-care and glycemic control. Diabetes distress has been operationalized in various ways and several measures exist. Measurement clarity is needed for both scientific and clinical reasons. OBJECTIVES: To clarify the conceptualization and operationalization of diabetes distress, identify and distinguish relevant measures, a...

  11. Agents Overcoming Resource Independent Scaling Threats (AORIST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-10-01

    20 Table 8: Tilted Consumer Preferences Experiment (m=8, N=61, G=2, C=60, Mean over 13 experiments...probabilities. Non-uniform consumer preferences create a new potential for sub-optimal system performance and thus require an additional adaptive...distribu- tion of the capacities across the sup- plier population must match the non- uniform consumer preferences . The second plot in Table 8

  12. Information Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    34 continuously over time " through a division of labor and responsibility " integrated by INFORMATION-BASED decision process * in an environment of stress...responsibilities for learning in a particular field. This division of labor is especially true for staff members who must develop expertise in particular...likely founa a commano clima e with: - Multiple layering - Sub optimization Policy of no surprises - Lip service to feedback - Over centralization and non

  13. Marginal Employment Growth Effects In The South African Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Irrshad Kaseeram; Darma Mahadea

    2017-01-01

    South Africa relative to its peers (upper middle income countries) suffers from high unemployment and sub-optimal economic growth. This study investigates the ‘marginal effects of employment’ with respect to real output and capital in South Africa, using annual data covering the period 1946-2015.  It estimates the responsiveness of employment to real output growth and capital, employing the short and long-run dynamic interactions between these variables via the application of the VAR/VECM Joh...

  14. Shadows and lights of the italian electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanza, Salvatore; Silva, Francesco

    2006-01-01

    The passage of the electricity industry from a public monopoly vertically integrated to a decentralized and competitive system poses organizational, institutional, economic and technical problems whose complexity must be taken in due account. The recent electricity reform in Italy is a good test to verity the capabilities of the policy maker to design and implement such a difficult process. Inadequate competencies, doubts, conflicts and institutional rigidities produced a sub-optimal result [it

  15. The two-dose measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) immunisation schedule: factors affecting maternal intention to vaccinate.

    OpenAIRE

    Pareek, M; Pattison, H M

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the light of sub-optimal uptake of the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination, we investigated the factors that influence the intentions of mothers to vaccinate. METHOD: A cross-sectional survey of 300 mothers in Birmingham with children approaching a routine MMR vaccination was conducted using a postal questionnaire to measure: intention to vaccinate, psychological variables, knowledge of the vaccine, and socioeconomic status. The vaccination status of the children was ...

  16. Low brain ascorbic acid increases susceptibility to seizures in mouse models of decreased brain ascorbic acid transport and Alzheimer’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Warner, Timothy A; Kang, Jing-Qiong; Kennard, John A; Harrison, Fiona E

    2014-01-01

    Seizures are a known co-occurring symptom of Alzheimer’s disease, and they can accelerate cognitive and neuropathological dysfunction. Sub-optimal vitamin C (ascorbic acid) deficiency, that is low levels that do not lead the sufferer to present with clinical signs of scurvy (e.g. lethargy, hemorrhage, hyperkeratosis), are easily obtainable with insufficient dietary intake, and may contribute to the oxidative stress environment of both Alzheimer’s disease and epilepsy. The purpose of this stud...

  17. Robustness of the division symmetry in Escherichia coli and functional consequences of symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Abhishekh; Lloyd-Price, Jason; Oliveira, Samuel M D; Yli-Harja, Olli; Muthukrishnan, Anantha-Barathi; Ribeiro, Andre S

    2014-01-01

    The morphological symmetry of the division process of Escherichia coli is well-known. Recent studies verified that, in optimal growth conditions, most divisions are symmetric, although there are exceptions. We investigate whether such morphological asymmetries in division introduce functional asymmetries between sister cells, and assess the robustness of the symmetry in division to mild chemical stresses and sub-optimal temperatures. First, we show that the difference in size between daughter cells at birth is positively correlated to the difference between the numbers of fluorescent protein complexes inherited from the parent cell. Next, we show that the degree of symmetry in division observed in optimal conditions is robust to mild acidic shift and to mild oxidative stress, but not to sub-optimal temperatures, in that the variance of the difference between the sizes of sister cells at birth is minimized at 37 °C. This increased variance affects the functionality of the cells in that, at sub-optimal temperatures, larger/smaller cells arising from asymmetric divisions exhibit faster/slower division times than the mean population division time, respectively. On the other hand, cells dividing faster do not do so at the cost of morphological symmetry in division. Finally we show that at suboptimal temperatures the mean distance between the nucleoids increases, explaining the increased variance in division. We conclude that the functionality of E. coli cells is not immune to morphological asymmetries at birth, and that the effectiveness of the mechanism responsible for ensuring the symmetry in division weakens at sub-optimal temperatures. (paper)

  18. Rational decision-making in medicine: implications for overuse and underuse

    OpenAIRE

    Djulbegovic, B.; Elqayam, Shira; Dale, W.

    2017-01-01

    open access article In spite of substantial spending and resource utilization, today's health care remains characterized by poor outcomes, largely due to overuse (over-testing/treatment) or underuse (under-testing/treatment) of services. To a significant extent, this is a consequence of low-quality decision-making that appears to violate various rationality criteria. Such sub-optimal decision-making is considered a leading cause of death and is responsible for more than 80% of health expen...

  19. Factors associated with antenatal mental disorder in West Africa: A cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Ola, Bola; Crabb, Jim; Tayo, Adetokunbo; Gleadow Ware, Selena H; Dhar, Arup; Krishnadas, Rajeev

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Maternal mental illness is likely to have a profound impact in less developed parts of the world. A mother experiencing mental illness in a low income setting is at risk of providing sub-optimal care for her offspring which can have grave consequences in an environment where poverty, overcrowding, poor sanitation, malnutrition, tropical diseases and a lack of appropriate medical services may be pronounced. Given the profound consequences of antenatal and postnatal mental i...

  20. Increasing physical activity and decreasing sedentary activity in adolescent girls – The Incorporating More Physical Activity and Calcium in Teens (IMPACT) study

    OpenAIRE

    Hergenroeder Albert; Kelder Steven H; Hoelscher Deanna M; Jones Desiree; Sharma Shreela V

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Lack of regular physical activity and consequent sub-optimal bone mass acquisition in youth has been implicated as a primary cause of adult-onset osteoporosis. IMPACT was a behavioral theory-based 1 1/2 year randomized controlled field study aimed at increasing bone accretion in middle school girls. The objective of this study was to determine the intervention effects of the IMPACT program upon key physical and sedentary activity endpoints among schools that participated i...

  1. Impact of PCA Strategies on Pain Intensity and Functional Assessment Measures in Adults with Sickle Cell Disease during Hospitalized Vaso-Occlusive Episodes

    OpenAIRE

    Dampier, Carlton D.; Wager, Carrie G.; Harrison, Ryan; Hsu, Lewis L.; Minniti, Caterina P.; Smith, Wally R.

    2012-01-01

    Clinical trials of sickle cell disease (SCD) pain treatment usually observe only small decrements in pain intensity during the course of hospitalization. Sub-optimal analgesic management and inadequate pain assessment methods are possible explanations for these findings. In a search for better methods for assessing inpatient SCD pain in adults, we examined several pain intensity and interference measures in both arms of a randomized controlled trial comparing two different opioid PCA therapie...

  2. Real-time monitoring and chemical profiling of a cultivation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peter P.; Bro, Rasmus

    2006-01-01

    they are known to reflect important properties of the fermentation process. Focus is also on important sampling issues-mainly structurally sub-optimal primary sampling methods affecting the representativity obtainable relative to the lot characteristics. Several different calibration approaches are investigated....... An enzyme marker profile as well as a tryptophan (protein marker) profile is identified. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V All rights reserved....

  3. Weak-value measurements can outperform conventional measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magaña-Loaiza, Omar S; Boyd, Robert W; Harris, Jérémie; Lundeen, Jeff S

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we provide a simple, straightforward example of a specific situation in which weak-value amplification (WVA) clearly outperforms conventional measurement in determining the angular orientation of an optical component. We also offer a perspective reconciling the views of some theorists, who claim WVA to be inherently sub-optimal for parameter estimation, with the perspective of the many experimentalists and theorists who have used the procedure to successfully access otherwise elusive phenomena. (invited comment)

  4. Dose-dependent social-cognitive effects of intranasal oxytocin delivered with novel Breath Powered device in adults with autism spectrum disorder: a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind crossover trial

    OpenAIRE

    Quintana, D S; Westlye, L T; Hope, S; N?rland, T; Elvs?shagen, T; D?rum, E; Rustan, ?; Valstad, M; Rezvaya, L; Lishaugen, H; Stens?nes, E; Yaqub, S; Smerud, K T; Mahmoud, R A; Djupesland, P G

    2017-01-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin has shown promise as a treatment for symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, clinical research progress has been hampered by a poor understanding of oxytocin?s dose?response and sub-optimal intranasal delivery methods. We examined two doses of oxytocin delivered using a novel Breath Powered intranasal delivery device designed to improve direct nose-to-brain activity in a double-blind, crossover, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. In a randomized sequ...

  5. Software for CATV Design and Frequency Plan Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Hala

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the structure of a software medium used for design and sub-optimization of frequency plan in CATV networks, their description and design method. The software performance is described and a simple design example of energy balance of a simplified CATV network is given. The software was created in programming environment called Delphi and local optimization was made in Matlab.

  6. The Organizational Improvements of Catering in the Case of the Radisson Blu Resort Restaurant in Split

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Bogdanović

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The essence of the catering industry is providing food and beverages services. The food and beverages department provides the food and beverages in the hotel industry, with its restaurant being the most visible part where the food and beverages supply and demand takes place. The researching of this organizational segment is important because it contributes to the understanding and improvement of the organizational efficacy of the food and beverage department, in particular the restaurant units of the catering organizations. The aim of this paper is to explore the organization of work within the food and beverage department in the Hotel Radisson Blu Resort in Split. The proposed research evolves around the problems of the organization of work of a specific restaurant Fig & Leaf located in the Radisson Blue Resort Split Hotel. The research was conducted by means of questionnaire that included all the employees of the restaurant (N=20. Certain problem areas have been identified in the restaurant’s organization of work: a a sub-optimal number of employees; b multiple chain of commands; c problems of sub-optimal organizational structures in the work of the restaurant; d problems regarding certain aspects of the organizational culture of the restaurant relating to team work, participatory decision-making, inter-personal trust. For the diagnosed problems in the organization of the restaurant organizational solutions were offered aimed at improving management. This way of solving the organizational sub-optimality can be generally applied within the restaurant business.

  7. A Newly‑devised Technique for the Fixation of Mesh Skin Graft

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    went skin graft using this technique. The ages ranged from. 9 months to 86 years (mean = 62.3 years). The skin defects included two burn ulcers, two decubitus, and 10 chronic leg ulcers. The size of the defects ranged from 20 cm2 to. 210 cm2. All grafts were accepted without complications. A 72-year-old man with a chronic ...

  8. The Trajectory of Professional Education of the Nursing Assistant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Regina Ulian Manzato

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the technical courses offered in Brazil, the field of nursing corresponds to 49.6% of the healthcare sector. From this total, 57% are Nursing Assistant courses. The formation of mid-level human resources has been discussed by nursing teachers and by the institutions that offer nursing-professional training, with special emphasis on the issues related to the quality of technical courses. In this context, a brief historical review of Brazilian legislation on the education and practice of these professionals, including regulations related to this education and to professional nursing practice, is presented chronologically in this paper, examining the laws and the political factors that contributed to guide the trajectory and evolution of professional Nursing Assistant Education. A comparison of the offer of mid-level courses in the field of healthcare and the quantitative of workers reveals the dimensions of Education Institutions' challenge for health sector.

  9. Data-fusion for multiplatform characterization of an italian craft beer aimed at its authentication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biancolillo, Alessandra; Bucci, Remo; Magrì, Antonio L.; Magrì, Andrea D.; Marini, Federico, E-mail: fmmonet@hotmail.com

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Characterization of beer samples by five different fingerprinting techniques. • Chemometric discriminant and class-modeling techniques used for their authentication. • Mid-level data fusion allowed correct classification of all samples. - Abstract: Five different instrumental techniques: thermogravimetry, mid-infrared, near-infrared, ultra-violet and visible spectroscopies, have been used to characterize a high quality beer (Reale) from an Italian craft brewery (Birra del Borgo) and to differentiate it from other competing and lower quality products. Chemometric classification models were built on the separate blocks using soft independent modeling of class analogies (SIMCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) obtaining good predictive ability on an external test set (75% or higher depending on the technique). The use of data fusion strategies – in particular, the mid-level one – to integrate the data from the different platforms allowed the correct classification of all the training and validation samples.

  10. Determining success factors for effective strategic change: Role of middle managers' strategic involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minhajul Islam Ukil

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Middle managers are believed to play most crucial part in strategic change that in consequence leads to organizational success. The present study seeks to identify the underlying success factors for effective strategic change and, to investigate the relationship between middle management strategic involvement and effective strategic change. Data were collected following a survey administered among a group of mid-level managers (N=144 serving in twenty different private commercial banks in Bangladesh, and analyzed using various statistical tests including descriptive analysis, Pearson correlation, and simple and multiple regressions in STATA. Results uncovers that factors like relation with top management, strategy, role and skills are essential for effective strategic change. This study also reveals significant relationship between middle management strategic involvement and effective strategic change. Findings of this research suggest that organizations shall involve mid-level managers to formulate and implement strategy since middle mangers work as a bridge between top management and ground level workers.

  11. Comparison Between CCCM and CloudSat Radar-Lidar (RL) Cloud and Radiation Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Seung-Hee; Kato, Seiji; Rose, Fred G.; Sun-Mack, Sunny

    2015-01-01

    To enhance cloud properties, LaRC and CIRA developed each combination algorithm for obtained properties from passive, active and imager in A-satellite constellation. When comparing global cloud fraction each other, LaRC-produced CERES-CALIPSO-CloudSat-MODIS (CCCM) products larger low-level cloud fraction over tropic ocean, while CIRA-produced Radar-Lidar (RL) shows larger mid-level cloud fraction for high latitude region. The reason for different low-level cloud fraction is due to different filtering method of lidar-detected cloud layers. Meanwhile difference in mid-level clouds is occurred due to different priority of cloud boundaries from lidar and radar.

  12. Creativity for teaching mathematics. A diagnosis of secondary school professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapa, Zenobia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a research completed at junior high school in Lima, Peru, involving teachers of mathematics during 2010. The objective was to assess the level of creativity of teachers of mathematics for the sake of enlarging it. Theoretical methods were used to construct a general framework; likewise interviews and observation were used and processed statistically. Motivation, originality and flexibility were considered as dimensions of creativity. The results show that 80 % of interviewed teachers self-evaluate their level of creativity as high. However, according to observations only 40 % of teacher creativity reaches a mid-level, and only a fifth of those assessed by their own pupils attained such mid-levels and show potentials for team work and initiative to elaborate or look for material aids generating a pleasant learning atmosphere.

  13. Data-fusion for multiplatform characterization of an italian craft beer aimed at its authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biancolillo, Alessandra; Bucci, Remo; Magrì, Antonio L.; Magrì, Andrea D.; Marini, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Characterization of beer samples by five different fingerprinting techniques. • Chemometric discriminant and class-modeling techniques used for their authentication. • Mid-level data fusion allowed correct classification of all samples. - Abstract: Five different instrumental techniques: thermogravimetry, mid-infrared, near-infrared, ultra-violet and visible spectroscopies, have been used to characterize a high quality beer (Reale) from an Italian craft brewery (Birra del Borgo) and to differentiate it from other competing and lower quality products. Chemometric classification models were built on the separate blocks using soft independent modeling of class analogies (SIMCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) obtaining good predictive ability on an external test set (75% or higher depending on the technique). The use of data fusion strategies – in particular, the mid-level one – to integrate the data from the different platforms allowed the correct classification of all the training and validation samples

  14. Cyber Compendium, Professional Continuing Education Course Papers. Volume 2, Issue 1, Spring 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    profession perpetuates the myth that better technology, and more of it, are the remedies for practical problems”24. A mid-level cyberspace operations...processes for training offensive cyberspace operators is inefficient and doesn’t meet the need – an overhaul is needed to make the force “ healthy ”. The...Officer (CIO) Enterprise Architecture and Services Board (EASB), 2. Washington, DC, USA. Hopkins, R., & Jenkins, K. (2008). Eating the IT Elephant

  15. Ensemble Prediction of Tropical Cyclone Genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-23

    5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) I PRCISOEST, University of Hawaii at Manoa 1680 East - West Road, POST...Tim Li IPRC/SOEST, University of Hawaii at Manoa 1680 East - West Road, POST Building 409B Honolulu, Hawaii 96822 Phone: (808) 956-9427, fax: (808... environment with a near bottom vortex or an environment with a mid- level vortex. Five experiments were designed with different initial vertical vorticity and

  16. A Stochastic Grammar for Natural Shapes

    OpenAIRE

    Felzenszwalb, Pedro F.

    2013-01-01

    We consider object detection using a generic model for natural shapes. A common approach for object recognition involves matching object models directly to images. Another approach involves building intermediate representations via a generic grouping processes. We argue that these two processes (model-based recognition and grouping) may use similar computational mechanisms. By defining a generic model for shapes we can use model-based techniques to implement a mid-level vision grouping process.

  17. The Development of a Tactical-Level Full Range Leadership Measurement Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    full range leadership theory has become established as the predominant and most widely researched theory on leadership . The most commonly used survey...instrument to assess full range leadership theory is the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, originally developed by Bass in 1985. Although much...existing literature to develop a new full range leadership theory measurement instrument that effectively targets low- to mid-level supervisors, or

  18. Energetická náročnost skialpinismu

    OpenAIRE

    Jindra, Matouš

    2009-01-01

    Title: Energy performance ski mountaineering Aim: The aim of the thesis is to measure energy expenditure, depending on the slope and constant speed. method: Empirical Research Association for 9 skialpinist mid- level performance. Calculation of the working metabolic or heart rate. VO2. results: The research results confirm the scientific issue, check with magnifying angle of slope at a constant speed and increasing energy expenditure. The second part of the scientific questions confirms multi...

  19. Is There a ‘Glass Ceiling’ for Female Managers in Singapore Organizations?

    OpenAIRE

    Vlado Dimovski; Miha Skerlavaj; Mandy Mok Kim Man

    2010-01-01

    This study presents an overview of glass-ceiling type barriers in organizations based on the perceptions of a sample of Singapore mid-level women managers. Previous studies indicated the existence of a glass ceiling in organizations and presented strategic recommendations with regard to what corporations could do to remove or reduce the glass ceiling. This study investigates how women in middle management perceive their career advancement opportunities and what they consider their organizatio...

  20. Surfacing the Iceberg of Leadership: A New Taxonomy of Leadership Concepts and Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufman, EK; Cletzer, DA

    2017-01-01

    Leadership scholars have long sought to impose order on the numerous theories in leadership literature. While mid-level theories abound, no taxonomy exists to provide hierarchy and a mechanism for explaining how theories interrelate. This poster offers a new taxonomy for organizing leadership theories and concepts based on the metaphor of an iceberg. It invites leadership scholars to vet their own leadership courses and undergraduate leadership programs to determine the depth to which they ex...

  1. Représentations de niveau intermédiaire pour la modélisation d'objets

    OpenAIRE

    Tsogkas , Stavros

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis we propose the use of mid-level representations, and in particular i) medial axes, ii) object parts, and iii)convolutional features, for modelling objects.The first part of the thesis deals with detecting medial axes in natural RGB images. We adopt a learning approach, utilizing colour, texture and spectral clustering features, to build a classifier that produces a dense probability map for symmetry. Multiple Instance Learning (MIL) allows us to treat scale and orientation as l...

  2. Expanding a digital content management system for the growing digital media enterprise

    CERN Document Server

    Arthur, Magan H

    2013-01-01

    Building large integrated content management systems is a daunting task and there is little guidance for the implementation process for the mid-level manager. There are thousands of home grown or old standalone systems in need of upgrading and expanding to keep up with the growing challenge of digital media. This book allows the non-technical executive to understand the key concepts and issues. It covers the technical process and business aspects of expanding a system.

  3. Bone tumors in R30 dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, J.P.; Pool, R.R.

    1980-01-01

    Radiographic and histologic findings from a mid-level group (38 dogs) of radium toxicity dogs showed 49 primary bone tumors with a high frequency of tumors within the axial skeleton. Additional primary bone tumors, bone tumors metastatic to bone, soft tissue metastases, and lung metastases were detected. No bone tumors were identified in 3 dogs. Lesions described as radiation osteodystrophy were found in all but 2 dogs

  4. What makes staff consider leaving the health service in Malawi?

    OpenAIRE

    Chimwaza, Wanangwa; Chipeta, Effie; Ngwira, Andrew; Kamwendo, Francis; Taulo, Frank; Bradley, Susan; McAuliffe, Eilish

    2014-01-01

    Background Malawi faces a severe shortage of health workers, a factor that has contributed greatly to high maternal mortality in the country. Most clinical care is performed by mid-level providers (MLPs). While utilization of these cadres in providing health care is a solution to the current shortages, demotivating factors within the Malawian health system are pushing them into private, non-governmental, and other non-health related positions. This study aims to highlight these demotivating f...

  5. Phase 0 Trial of Itraconazole for Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    physicians, mid-level providers, and clinic nurses . We prepared “cheat sheets” for these individuals that contained contact information and a basic...construed as an official Department of the Army position, policy or decision unless so designated by other documentation. REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE...Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The overall objective of this phase 0 clinical trial is to determine the pharmacodynamic effects of

  6. Regional Educational Laboratory Electronic Network Phase 2 System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cradler, John

    1995-01-01

    The Far West Laboratory in collaboration with the other regional educational laboratories is establishing a regionally coordinated telecommunication network to electronically interconnect each of the ten regional laboratories with educators and education stakeholders from the school to the state level. For the national distributed information database, each lab is working with mid-level networks to establish a common interface for networking throughout the country and include topics of importance to education reform as assessment and technology planning.

  7. Applied Hypergame Theory for Network Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    information technology infrastructure as they are perhaps the most wired country on the planet . Government websites, banking systems, and even media...a long way from the simple lone youth down in the basement causing mischief. Organized swaths of intelligent computer savvy attackers now exist and...out of the five hypergames choose the hyperstrategy that is the same as the full game MSNE, with the Mid-Level defender being the lone difference. Thus

  8. Does bioethics exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, L

    2009-12-01

    Bioethicists disagree over methods, theories, decision-making guides, case analyses and public policies. Thirty years ago, the thinking of many scholars coalesced around a principlist approach to bioethics. That mid-level mode of moral reasoning is now one of many approaches to moral deliberation. Significant variation in contemporary approaches to the study of ethical issues related to medicine, biotechnology and health care raises the question of whether bioethics exists as widely shared method, theory, normative framework or mode of moral reasoning.

  9. Contributions à l'analyse sémantique de la musique et de ses techniques d'accélération

    OpenAIRE

    Gao , Boyang

    2014-01-01

    Digitalized music production exploded in the past decade. Huge amount of data drives the development of effective and efficient methods for automatic music analysis and retrieval. This thesis focuses on performing semantic analysis of music, in particular mood and genre classification, with low level and mid level features since the mood and genre are among the most natural semantic concepts expressed by music perceivable by audiences. In order to delve semantics from low level features, feat...

  10. A numerical study of the role of the vertical structure of vorticity during tropical cyclone genesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesh, T N; Mathew, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    An eight-level axisymmetric model with simple parameterizations for clouds and the atmospheric boundary layer was developed to examine the evolution of vortices that are precursors to tropical cyclones. The effect of vertical distributions of vorticity, especially that arising from a merger of mid-level vortices, was studied by us to provide support for a new vortex-merger theory of tropical cyclone genesis. The basic model was validated with the analytical results available for the spin-down of axisymmetric vortices. With the inclusion of the cloud and boundary layer parameterizations, the evolution of deep vortices into hurricanes and the subsequent decay are simulated quite well. The effects of several parameters such as the initial vortex strength, radius of maximum winds, sea-surface temperature and latitude (Coriolis parameter) on the evolution were examined. A new finding is the manner in which mid-level vortices of the same strength decay and how, on simulated merger of these mid-level vortices, the resulting vortex amplifies to hurricane strength in a realistic time frame. The importance of sea-surface temperature on the evolution of full vortices was studied and explained. Also it was found that the strength of the surface vortex determines the time taken by the deep vortex to amplify to hurricane strength.

  11. The impact of mindfulness on leadership effectiveness in a health care setting: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasylkiw, Louise; Holton, Judith; Azar, Rima; Cook, William

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of mindfulness awareness practice (MAP) on mid-level health-care managers' leadership. In total, 11 mid-level health-care managers in eastern Canada took part in an intensive weekend retreat and a follow-up webinar on mindfulness awareness. Perceived stress and leadership effectiveness were assessed pre- and post-intervention (i.e. four and eight weeks). A control group (n=10) also completed the same measures twice. Additionally, informants (n=28) provided assessments of participants' leadership pre- and post-intervention. Follow-up interviews were carried out with eight participants 12-16 weeks post-intervention. In comparison to controls, retreat participants showed significant increases in mindfulness and corresponding decreases in stress that were sustained across eight weeks post-retreat; retreat participants reported significant positive changes in their leadership effectiveness that were corroborated by informants. Qualitative data, however, suggest that sustaining a mindfulness practice presents significant challenges to middle managers in a health care setting. The findings are useful to management working in health services that are plagued by increasing demands and changes. Despite the small sample and lack of random assignment, the pilot data support the efficacy of MAP in improving leadership. Little empirical research supports the claim that MAP enhances leadership. The present study employed a mixed methods approach to address this gap and demonstrates the potential benefits of MAP among mid-level managers.

  12. An examination of two pathways to tropical cyclogenesis occurring in idealized simulations with a cloud-resolving numerical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Nicholls

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Simulations are conducted with a cloud-resolving numerical model to examine the transformation of a weak incipient mid-level cyclonic vortex into a tropical cyclone. Results demonstrate that two distinct pathways are possible and that development along a particular pathway is sensitive to model physics and initial conditions. One pathway involves a steady increase of the surface winds to tropical cyclone strength as the radius of maximum winds gradually decreases. A notable feature of this evolution is the creation of small-scale lower tropospheric cyclonic vorticity anomalies by deep convective towers and subsequent merger and convergence by the low-level secondary circulation. The second pathway also begins with a strengthening low-level circulation, but eventually a significantly stronger mid-level circulation develops. Cyclogenesis occurs subsequently when a small-scale surface concentrated vortex forms abruptly near the center of the larger-scale circulation. The small-scale vortex is warm core throughout the troposphere and results in a fall in local surface pressure of a few millibars. It usually develops rapidly, undergoing a modest growth to form a small tropical cyclone. Many of the simulated systems approach or reach tropical cyclone strength prior to development of a prominent mid-level vortex so that the subsequent formation of a strong small-scale surface concentrated vortex in these cases could be considered intensification rather than genesis. Experiments are performed to investigate the dependence on the inclusion of the ice phase, radiation, the size and strength of the incipient mid-level vortex, the amount of moisture present in the initial vortex, and the sea surface temperature. Notably, as the sea surface temperature is raised, the likelihood of development along the second pathway is increased. This appears to be related to an increased production of ice. The sensitivity of the pathway taken to model physics and initial

  13. Novel Approaches for Visualizing and Analyzing Dose-Timing Data from Electronic Drug Monitors, or "How the 'Broken Window' Theory Pertains to ART Adherence".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Christopher J; DeSilva, Mary Bachman; Hamer, Davidson H; Keyi, Xu; Wilson, Ira B; Sabin, Lora

    2015-11-01

    Adherence to antiretroviral medications is usually expressed in terms of the proportion of doses taken. However, the timing of doses taken may also be an important dimension to overall adherence. Little is known about whether patients who mistime doses are also more likely to skip doses. Using data from the completed Adherence for Life randomized controlled trial, we created visual and statistical models to capture and analyze dose timing data collected longitudinally with electronic drug monitors (EDM). From scatter plots depicting dose time versus calendar date, we identified dominant patterns of dose taking and calculated key features [slope of line over calendar date; residual mean standard error (RMSE)]. Each was assessed for its ability to categorize subjects with 'sub-optimal' (<95 % of doses taken) using area under the receiver operating characteristic (AROC) curve analysis. Sixty eight subjects contributed EDM data, with ~300 to 400 observations/subject. While regression line slopes did not predict 'sub-optimal' adherence (AROC 0.51, 95 % CI 0.26-0.75), the variability in dose timing (RMSE) was strongly predictive (AROC 0.79, 95 % CI 0.62-0.97). Compared with the lowest quartile of RMSE (minimal dose time variability), each successive quartile roughly doubled the odds of 'sub-optimal' adherence (OR 2.1, 95 % CI 1.3-3.4). Patterns of dose timing and mistiming are strongly related to overall adherence behavior. Notably, individuals who skip doses are more likely to mistime doses, with the degree of risk positively correlated with the extent of dose timing variability.

  14. Why babies die in unplanned out-of-institution births: an enquiry into perinatal deaths in Norway 1999-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, Björn; Fasting, Sigurd; Skogvoll, Eirik; Smárason, Alexander K; Salvesen, Kjell Å

    2017-03-01

    The aims were to describe causes of death associated with unplanned out-of-institution births, and to study whether they could be prevented. Retrospective population-based observational study based on data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway and medical records. Between 1 January 1999 and 31 December 2013, 69 perinatal deaths among 6027 unplanned out-of-institution births, whether unplanned at home, during transportation, or unspecified, were selected for enquiry. Hospital records were investigated and cases classified according to Causes of Death and Associated Conditions. 63 cases were reviewed. There were 25 (40%) antepartum deaths, 10 (16%) intrapartum deaths, and 24 neonatal (38%) deaths. Four cases were in the unknown death category (6%). Both gestational age and birthweight followed a bimodal distribution with modes at 24 and 38 weeks and 750 and 3400 g, respectively. The most common main cause of death was infection (n = 14, 22%), neonatal (n = 14, 22%, nine due to extreme prematurity) and placental (n = 12, 19%, seven placental abruptions). There were 86 associated conditions, most commonly perinatal (n = 32), placental (n = 15) and maternal (n = 14). Further classification revealed that the largest subgroup was associated perinatal conditions/sub-optimal care, involving 25 cases (40%), most commonly due to sub-optimal maternal use of available care (n = 14, 22%). Infections, neonatal, and placental causes accounted for almost two-thirds of perinatal mortality associated with unplanned out-of-institution births in Norway. Sub-optimal maternal use of available care was found in more than one-fifth of cases. © 2016 The Authors. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology (NFOG).

  15. Adherence to adjuvant endocrine therapy: is it a factor for ethnic differences in breast cancer outcomes in New Zealand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneviratne, Sanjeewa; Campbell, Ian; Scott, Nina; Kuper-Hommel, Marion; Kim, Boa; Pillai, Avinesh; Lawrenson, Ross

    2015-02-01

    Despite the benefits of adjuvant endocrine therapy for hormone receptor positive breast cancer, many women are non-adherent or discontinue endocrine treatment early. We studied differences in adherence to adjuvant endocrine therapy by ethnicity in a cohort of New Zealand women with breast cancer and its impact on breast cancer outcomes. We analysed data on women (n = 1149) with newly diagnosed hormone receptor positive, non-metastatic, invasive breast cancer who were treated with adjuvant endocrine therapy in the Waikato during 2005-2011. Linked data from the Waikato Breast Cancer Registry and National Pharmaceutical Database were examined to identify differences by ethnicity in adherence to adjuvant endocrine therapy and the effect of sub-optimal adherence on cancer recurrence and mortality. Overall, a high level of adherence of ≥80% was observed among 70.4% of women, which declined from 76.8% to 59.3% from the first to fifth year of treatment. Māori women were significantly more likely to be sub-optimally adherent (breast cancer mortality (HR = 1.77, 95% CI 1.05-2.99) and recurrence (HR = 2.14, 95% CI 1.46-3.14). Sub-optimal adherence to adjuvant endocrine therapy was a likely contributor for breast cancer mortality inequity between Māori and European women, and highlights the need for future research to identify effective ways to increase adherence in Māori women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Continual reassessment method for dose escalation clinical trials in oncology: a comparison of prior skeleton approaches using AZD3514 data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Gareth D; Symeonides, Stefan N; Marshall, Jayne; Young, Julia; Clack, Glen

    2016-08-31

    The continual reassessment method (CRM) requires an underlying model of the dose-toxicity relationship ("prior skeleton") and there is limited guidance of what this should be when little is known about this association. In this manuscript the impact of applying the CRM with different prior skeleton approaches and the 3 + 3 method are compared in terms of ability to determine the true maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and number of patients allocated to sub-optimal and toxic doses. Post-hoc dose-escalation analyses on real-life clinical trial data on an early oncology compound (AZD3514), using the 3 + 3 method and CRM using six different prior skeleton approaches. All methods correctly identified the true MTD. The 3 + 3 method allocated six patients to both sub-optimal and toxic doses. All CRM approaches allocated four patients to sub-optimal doses. No patients were allocated to toxic doses from sigmoidal, two from conservative and five from other approaches. Prior skeletons for the CRM for phase 1 clinical trials are proposed in this manuscript and applied to a real clinical trial dataset. Highly accurate initial skeleton estimates may not be essential to determine the true MTD, and, as expected, all CRM methods out-performed the 3 + 3 method. There were differences in performance between skeletons. The choice of skeleton should depend on whether minimizing the number of patients allocated to suboptimal or toxic doses is more important. NCT01162395 , Trial date of first registration: July 13, 2010.

  17. Plant and Animal Reproductive Strategies: Lessons from Offspring Size and Number Tradeoffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. Srikanta Dani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The tradeoff between offspring size and number is ubiquitous and manifestly similar in plants and animals despite fundamental differences between the evolutionary histories of these two major life forms. Fecundity (offspring number primarily affects parental fitness, while offspring size underpins the fitness of parents and offspring. We provide an overview of theoretical models dealing with offspring size and fitness relationships. We follow that with a detailed examination of life-history constraints and environmental effects on offspring size and number, separately in plants and animals. The emphasis is on seed plants, but we endeavor to also summarize information from distinct animal groups—insects, fishes, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Furthermore, we analyse genetic controls on offspring size and number in two model organisms—Arabidopsis and Drosophila. Despite the deep evolutionary divergence between plants and animals, we find four trends in reproductive strategy that are common to both lineages: (i offspring size is generally less variable than offspring number, (ii offspring size increases with increasing parent body size, (iii maternal genes restrict offspring size and increase offspring numbers, while zygotic genes act to increase offspring size; such parent-offspring conflicts are enhanced when there is sibling rivalry, and (iv variation in offspring size increases under sub-optimal (harsh environmental conditions. The most salient difference between plants and animals is that the latter tend to produce larger (fewer offspring under sub-optimal conditions while seed plants invest in smaller (many seeds, suggesting that maternal genetic control over offspring size increases in plants but decreases in animals with parental care. The time is ripe for greater experimental exploration of genetic controls on reproductive allocation and parent-offspring conflicts in plants and animals under sub-optimal (harsh environments.

  18. Light history modulates antioxidant and photosynthetic responses of biofilms to both natural (light) and chemical (herbicides) stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnineau, Chloé; Sague, Irene Gallardo; Urrea, Gemma; Guasch, Helena

    2012-05-01

    In multiple stress situations, the co-occurrence of environmental and chemical factors can influence organisms' ability to cope with toxicity. In this context, the influence of light adaptation on the response of freshwater biofilms to sudden light changes or to herbicides exposure was investigated by determining various parameters: diatom community composition, photosynthetic parameters, chlorophyll a content, antioxidant enzyme activities. Biofilms were grown in microcosms under sub-optimal, saturating, and high light intensities and showed already described characteristics of shade/light adaptation (community structure, photosynthetic adaptation, etc.). Light history modulated antioxidant and photosynthetic responses of biofilms to the stress caused by short-term exposure to sudden light changes or to herbicides. First biofilms adapted to sub-optimal light intensity (shade-adapted) were found to be more sensitive to an increase in light intensity than high-light adapted ones to a reduction in light intensity. Second, while light history influenced biofilms' response to glyphosate, it had little influence on biofilms' response to copper and none on its response to oxyfluorfen. Indeed glyphosate exposure led to a stronger decrease in photosynthetic efficiency of shade-adapted biofilms (EC(50) = 11.7 mg L(-1)) than of high-light adapted communities (EC(50) = 35.6 mg L(-1)). Copper exposure led to an activation of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in biofilms adapted to sub-optimal and saturating light intensity while the protein content decreased in all biofilms exposed to copper. Oxyfluorfen toxicity was independent of light history provoking an increase in APX activity. In conclusion this study showed that both previous exposure to contaminants and physical habitat characteristics might influence community tolerance to disturbances strongly.

  19. Primary health care in rural Malawi - a qualitative assessment exploring the relevance of the community-directed interventions approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makaula, Peter; Bloch, Paul; Banda, Hastings T.

    2012-01-01

    Primary Health Care (PHC) is a strategy endorsed for attaining equitable access to basic health care including treatment and prevention of endemic diseases. Thirty four years later, its implementation remains sub-optimal in most Sub-Saharan African countries that access to health interventions...... is still a major challenge for a large proportion of the rural population. Community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTi) and community-directed interventions (CDI) are participatory approaches to strengthen health care at community level. Both approaches are based on values and principles associated...

  20. Evaluation of the Morpho-physiology characteristics of maize inbred lines introduced from CIMMYT to identify the best candidates for planting in acidic soil in Jasinga, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubis, K.; Sutjahjo, S. H.; Syukur, M.; Trikoesoemaningtyas

    2016-08-01

    Technological developments and climate change have affected crop planting strategies. For example, maize production has expanded to sub-optimal lands, including acidic soil common in areas like Indonesia. Breeding programs have created inbred lines of maize introduced from CIMMYT; they were tested locally in acidic soils to determine their adaptability and tolerance mechanisms. Breeds CLA 46 and NEI 9008 were found to be excellent candidates for acidic soil due to their ASI, high number of grains per year, and suitable dry seed weight.

  1. Regulating a Polluting Oligopoly : Emission Tax or Voluntary Agreement ?

    OpenAIRE

    Mala David

    2003-01-01

    This paper compares, in a polluting oligopoly, an emission tax and a form of environmental policy called voluntary agreement (VA). There are here two ways of reducing pollution: output contraction and endof- pipe abatement. Given the imperfect competition, firms' reaction to the tax is sub-optimal. They reduce output excessively in order to raise the price and do not abate enough. The VA is a take-it-or-leaveit contract on abatement effort, offered to the firms with the threat of a tax. It ha...

  2. Peak alignment and robust principal component analysis of gas chromatograms of fatty acid methyl esters and volatiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosch, Stina; Jørgensen, Bo

    2007-01-01

    . The ability of robust algorithms to deal with outlier problems, including both sample-wise and element-wise outliers, and the advantages and drawbacks of two robust PCA methods, robust PCA (ROBPCA) and robust singular value decomposition when analysing these GC data were investigated. The results show...... that the usage of ROPCA is advantageous, compared with traditional PCA, when analysing the entire profile of chromatographic data in cases of sub-optimally aligned data. It also demonstrates how choosing the most robust PCA (sample or element-wise) depends on the type of outliers present in the data set....

  3. Effect of Female Body Mass Index on Oocyte Quantity in Fertility Treatments (IVF): Treatment Cycle Number Is a Possible Effect Modifier. A Register-Based Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Wulf; Ingerslev, Hans Jakob; Degn, Birte

    2016-01-01

    linear regressions analyses were performed accounting for the non-independence of ≥2 cycles in a woman. RESULTS: Stratification according to cycle number revealed a more suboptimal outcome in the first treatment- cycles than in the following cycles, suggesting a possible interaction or effect......INTRODUCTION: Overweight and obese women may require higher doses of gonadotrophin when undergoing In Vitro Fertilization Treatment (IVF). Consequently, one may expect a sub-optimal oocyte retrieval in the first treatment cycle and thus a larger compensation in gonadotrophin-dose in the following...

  4. The role of environmental factors in the New Economic Geography framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Azqueta Oyarzun

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses a number of outcomes that the increase in the social demand for a higher environmental quality may have on the patterns of spatial specialization, irrespective of the scale of analysis. This paper aims at exploring how, together with new possibilities for backward regions, some sub-optimal solutions can also be found from a social viewpoint. On the other hand, we reflect on how an efficient allocation of resources (internalising environmental considerations, could well be incompatible with the dismantling of protectionism within the agricultural sectors of developed countries. The impact on biological diversity is specifically studied.

  5. The Role of AKT in Androgen-Independent Progression of Human Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-02-01

    myristoylated rapamycin-binding reversibly protecting tissue from apoptosis due to ischemic domain from FRAP/mTOR, called M-FRB, binds to lipid per- injury or...V[0__AAFX, BAD, GSK30 * Apoptosis M-FRB,2 - oT308 [ T3 NFP8B, FRAP, Rat - Apoptosls M-Akt v ,$473 M-APH.Akt F3-Akt L L ___ F3-APH.Akt :,,• , Akt-F3...vector. Twenty-four hours after transfection, cells were divided into aliquots 0 that were stimulated with sub-optimal levels (5 ng/ml) Vector M-Akt

  6. Effects of fishing effort allocation scenarios on energy efficiency and profitability: an individual-based model applied to Danish fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastardie, Francois; Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Andersen, Bo Sølgaard

    2010-01-01

    to the harbour, and (C) allocating effort towards optimising the expected area-specific profit per trip. The model is informed by data from each Danish fishing vessel >15 m after coupling its high resolution spatial and temporal effort data (VMS) with data from logbook landing declarations, sales slips, vessel...... effort allocation has actually been sub-optimal because increased profits from decreased fuel consumption and larger landings could have been obtained by applying a different spatial effort allocation. Based on recent advances in VMS and logbooks data analyses, this paper contributes to improve...

  7. Optimisation of strain selection in evolutionary continuous culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayen, T.; Mairet, F.

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we study a minimal time control problem for a perfectly mixed continuous culture with n ≥ 2 species and one limiting resource. The model that we consider includes a mutation factor for the microorganisms. Our aim is to provide optimal feedback control laws to optimise the selection of the species of interest. Thanks to Pontryagin's Principle, we derive optimality conditions on optimal controls and introduce a sub-optimal control law based on a most rapid approach to a singular arc that depends on the initial condition. Using adaptive dynamics theory, we also study a simplified version of this model which allows to introduce a near optimal strategy.

  8. Health-service utilization by pregnant women in the greater Mafikeng- Mmabatho district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.F. Pretorius

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the implementation of free maternity services in South Africa from 1994, more maternity services were provided (SA, 1994: 73. These services are however inaccessible to many pregnant women in the rural areas, leading to sub-optimal antenatal health service utilization. Another problem that emerged, is deterioration in antenatal health service rendering throughout the country, as well as a lack of guidelines for the mobilization of pregnant women in order to promote optimal antenatal health service utilization (ANHSU in the North West Province. The mentioned problems were the reasons for undertaking this research.

  9. A Distributed Model Predictive Control approach for the integration of flexible loads, storage and renewables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrarini, Luca; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Costanzo, Giuseppe Tommaso

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an innovative solution based on distributed model predictive controllers to integrate the control and management of energy consumption, energy storage, PV and wind generation at customer side. The overall goal is to enable an advanced prosumer to autoproduce part of the energy...... he needs with renewable sources and, at the same time, to optimally exploit the thermal and electrical storages, to trade off its comfort requirements with different pricing schemes (including real-time pricing), and apply optimal control techniques rather than sub-optimal heuristics....

  10. Game theoretic approaches for spectrum redistribution

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Fan

    2014-01-01

    This brief examines issues of spectrum allocation for the limited resources of radio spectrum. It uses a game-theoretic perspective, in which the nodes in the wireless network are rational and always pursue their own objectives. It provides a systematic study of the approaches that can guarantee the system's convergence at an equilibrium state, in which the system performance is optimal or sub-optimal. The author provides a short tutorial on game theory, explains game-theoretic channel allocation in clique and in multi-hop wireless networks and explores challenges in designing game-theoretic m

  11. Developing a Benefits Assessment Framework For Sea Traffic Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schellhorn, Lisa Kristin

    2016-01-01

    The maritime shipping industry is deeply rooted in history and tradition. Although it is one of the most important industries in today’s global world, digital transformation has so far not penetrated the entire industry but merely commenced in a few individual companies. The heavy reliance...... on manual information retrieval and the collaboration willingness of other actors pose great challenges to more efficient, safe, and sustainable operations. As nobody seems to see the ‘whole picture’, the industry is characterized by individual (sub-) optimization neglecting completely the significance...

  12. Factors Affecting Nitrogen Use Efficiency and Grain Yield of Summer Maize on Smallholder Farms in the North China Plain

    OpenAIRE

    Guangfeng Chen; Hongzhu Cao; Jun Liang; Wenqi Ma; Lufang Guo; Shuhua Zhang; Rongfeng Jiang; Hongyan Zhang; Keith W. T. Goulding; Fusuo Zhang

    2018-01-01

    The summer maize yields and partial factor productivity of nitrogen (N) fertilizer (PFPN, grain yield per unit N fertilizer) on smallholder farms in China are low, and differ between farms due to complex, sub-optimal management practices. We collected data on management practices and yields from smallholder farms in three major summer maize-producing sites—Laoling, Quzhou and Xushui—in the North China Plain (NCP) for two growing seasons, during 2015–2016. Boundary line analysis and a Proc Mix...

  13. Multi-fidelity optimization of horizontal axis wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McWilliam, Michael; Zahle, Frederik; Pavese, Christian

    2017-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the numerical design optimization of wind turbines. Many examples of wind turbine design optimization in literature rely on simplified analysis in some form. This may lead to sub-optimal design, because the optimizer does not see the full fidelity of the problem....... Finally, AMMF was used in full aero-elastic wind turbine rotor design optimization problem based on the DTU 10 MW reference wind turbine design. Mixed results were achieved for the final study and further work is needed to find the best configuration for AMMF....

  14. Pose estimation-based path planning for a tracked mobile robot traversing uneven terrains

    OpenAIRE

    Jun , Jae-Yun; Saut , Jean-Philippe; Benamar , Faïz

    2015-01-01

    International audience; A novel path-planning algorithm is proposed for a tracked mobile robot to traverse uneven terrains, which can efficiently search for stability sub-optimal paths. This algorithm consists of combining two RRT-like algorithms (the Transition-based RRT (T-RRT) and the Dynamic-Domain RRT (DD-RRT) algorithms) bidirectionally and of representing the robot-terrain interaction with the robot’s quasi-static tip-over stability measure (assuming that the robot traverses uneven ter...

  15. Energy Management of Dual-Source Propelled Electric Vehicle using Fuzzy Controller Optimized via Genetic Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoobi, Saeed; Halvaei, Abolfazl; Hajizadeh, Amin

    2016-01-01

    Energy and power distribution between multiple energy sources of electric vehicles (EVs) is the main challenge to achieve optimum performance from EV. Fuzzy inference systems are powerful tools due to nonlinearity and uncertainties of EV system. Design of fuzzy controllers for energy management...... of EV relies too much on the expert experience and it may lead to sub-optimal performance. This paper develops an optimized fuzzy controller using genetic algorithm (GA) for an electric vehicle equipped with two power bank including battery and super-capacitor. The model of EV and optimized fuzzy...

  16. Optimising growth in phenylketonuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dokoupil, Katharina; Gokmen-Ozel, Hulya; Lammardo, Anna Maria

    2012-01-01

    populations. We reviewed the literature searching for evidence regarding PKU and growth as well as possible links between dietary management of PKU and growth. The search retrieved only limited evidence on the effect of PKU and its dietary management on growth. Physical development in PKU remains an under....... Protein requirements in dietary management of PKU are met mostly from Phe-free protein substitutes with the intake of natural protein restricted to patient tolerance. Several reports have suggested that growth in early childhood in PKU is sub-optimal, relative to non-PKU control groups or reference...

  17. Design considerations for a radiation hardened nonvolatile memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    Sub-optimal design practices can reduce the radiation hardness of a circuit even though it is fabricated in a radiation hardened process. This is especially true for a nonvolatile memory, as compared to a standard digital circuit, where high voltages and unusual bias conditions are required. This paper will discuss the design technique's used in the development of a 64K EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory) to maximize radiation hardness. The circuit radiation test results will be reviewed in order to provide validation of the techniques

  18. Modelling decision-making by pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Nicholas J. M.

    1993-01-01

    Our scientific goal is to understand the process of human decision-making. Specifically, a model of human decision-making in piloting modern commercial aircraft which prescribes optimal behavior, and against which we can measure human sub-optimality is sought. This model should help us understand such diverse aspects of piloting as strategic decision-making, and the implicit decisions involved in attention allocation. Our engineering goal is to provide design specifications for (1) better computer-based decision-aids, and (2) better training programs for the human pilot (or human decision-maker, DM).

  19. MOVEMENT AND MANEUVER IN DEEP SPACE: A Framework to Leverage Advanced Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    the Casimir force—which is analogous to a pressure imbalance created by a reduction in air density ( think Bernoulli’s principle).53 Because the...many bets ” scenario. If the bets are well vetted, like the BPP model, then even a null or sub-optimal result is a valuable 37 pay-off in terms of...we must think of deep space exploration as imperative–too important to be relegated to simple political interest. 115 “Worldometers” on Worldometers

  20. Nature and causes of the immediate extinction deficit: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maren, Stephen

    2014-09-01

    Recent data in both rodents and humans suggests that the timing of extinction trials after conditioning influences the magnitude and duration of extinction. For example, administering extinction trials soon after Pavlovian fear conditioning in rats, mice, and humans results in minimal fear suppression - the so-called immediate extinction deficit. Here I review recent work examining the behavioral and neural substrates of the immediate extinction deficit. I suggest that extinction is most effective at some delay after conditioning, because brain systems involved in encoding and retrieving extinction memories function sub-optimally under stress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Radiologic procedures, policies and protocols for pediatric emergency medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, George A.

    2008-01-01

    Protocol development between radiology and pediatric emergency medicine requires a multidisciplinary approach to manage straightforward as well as complex and time-sensitive needs for emergency department patients. Imaging evaluation requires coordination of radiologic technologists, radiologists, transporters, nurses and coordinators, among others, and might require accelerated routines or occur at sub-optimal times. Standardized protocol development enables providers to design a best practice in all of these situations and should be predicated on evidence, mission, and service expectations. As in any new process, constructive feedback channels are imperative for evaluation and modification. (orig.)

  2. Conservation tillage, optimal water and organic nutrient supply enhance soil microbial activities during wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Singh, Geeta; Singh, Rana P.

    2011-01-01

    The field experiments were conducted on sandy loam soil at New Delhi, during 2007 and 2008 to investigate the effect of conservation tillage, irrigation regimes (sub-optimal, optimal and supra-optimal water regimes), and integrated nutrient management (INM) practices on soil biological parameters in wheat cultivation. The conservation tillage soils has shown significant (pbiofertilizer+25% Green Manure) has been used in combination with the conservation tillage and the optimum water supply. Study demonstrated that microbial activity could be regulated by tillage, water and nitrogen management in the soil in a sustainable manner. PMID:24031665

  3. Delivering precision antimicrobial therapy through closed-loop control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, T M; O’Hare, D; Herrero, P; Sharma, S; Moore, L S P; de Barra, E; Roberts, J A; Gordon, A C; Hope, W; Georgiou, P; Cass, A E G; Holmes, A H

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Sub-optimal exposure to antimicrobial therapy is associated with poor patient outcomes and the development of antimicrobial resistance. Mechanisms for optimizing the concentration of a drug within the individual patient are under development. However, several barriers remain in realizing true individualization of therapy. These include problems with plasma drug sampling, availability of appropriate assays, and current mechanisms for dose adjustment. Biosensor technology offers a means of providing real-time monitoring of antimicrobials in a minimally invasive fashion. We report the potential for using microneedle biosensor technology as part of closed-loop control systems for the optimization of antimicrobial therapy in individual patients. PMID:29211877

  4. Genetic Analysis of Ca2+ Priming in Arabidopsis Guard Cell Stomatal Closure in Response to the Drought Hormone Abscisic Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephan, Aaron B. [Life Sciences Research Foundation, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2014-11-01

    A primary objective of modern agriculture and biofuel production is to utilize arable land to its fullest potential. However, sub-optimal growing conditions—arising from abiotic stresses such as drought, soil salinity, low humidity, cold, and heat—reduce crop yield and quality. Optimal yield under both stressed and non-stressed conditions requires the plant to activate coping mechanisms at a level commensurate with the severity of the drought stress. The osmotic sensors and associated regulatory mechanisms that initiate drought- and salt-tolerance responses in plants are largely unknown. This research aimed to identify and characterize these initial sensory components.

  5. Sampling Criterion for EMC Near Field Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franek, Ondrej; Sørensen, Morten; Ebert, Hans

    2012-01-01

    An alternative, quasi-empirical sampling criterion for EMC near field measurements intended for close coupling investigations is proposed. The criterion is based on maximum error caused by sub-optimal sampling of near fields in the vicinity of an elementary dipole, which is suggested as a worst......-case representative of a signal trace on a typical printed circuit board. It has been found that the sampling density derived in this way is in fact very similar to that given by the antenna near field sampling theorem, if an error less than 1 dB is required. The principal advantage of the proposed formulation is its...

  6. Fully automatic and self-learning process optimisation to increase efficiency of large-scale power plants by correlation of data from the process control system with optical and acoustic information; Vollautomatische und selbstlernende Prozessoptimierung zur Wirkungsgradsteigerung von Grosskraftwerken. Softwaregestuetzte Korrelation der Prozessdaten mit optischen und akustischen Informationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanf, Alexander Carl [Powitec Intelligent Technologies GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Economic necessities have led to new challenges for the operation of coal steam generators in large power plants. The strongly fluctuating quality, in particular of imported coal, design and coal-dependent uneven distribution of pulverised coal results in a sub-optimal combustion air distribution if classical control concepts are used. This has a direct negative impact on efficiency. By using a system package consisting of intelligent software and optical sensors for flame analysis and acoustic sensors for milling degree analysis, the fuel-/air-ratio for each burner and over the burner levels is optimised. (orig.)

  7. The secret life of decisions how unconscious bias subverts your judgement

    CERN Document Server

    Thuraisingham, Meena

    2013-01-01

    The Secret Life of Decisions exposes the unchallenged myths and distortions that impact our reasoning ability, raising our awareness of the many traps we can fall into. The authors have drawn from decades of work with leaders showing that even the most talented leaders and teams can end up making sub-optimal decisions. This is rarely because they had poor critical thinking faculties but rather because they did not pay enough attention to the often invisible traps hardwired into our thinking processes, letting through only information that conforms with our current beliefs, mental models and ex

  8. Robotic surgery is ready for prime time in India: Against the motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tehemton E Udwadia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of Robotic Surgery as a purported adjunct and aid to Minimal Access Surgery (MAS is growing in several areas. The acknowledged advantages as also the obvious and hidden disadvantages of Robotic Surgery are highlighted. Survey of literature shows that while Robotic Surgery is "feasible" and the results are "comparable" there is no convincing evidence that it is any better than MAS or even open surgery in most areas. To move "Robotic Surgery is ready for prime time in India" with no less than two dozen robots, many sub-optimally utilized for a population of 1.2 billion seems untenable.

  9. Why Migrate: For Study or for Work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise S. Brezis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, globalization has led to a huge increase in the migration of workers, as well as students. This paper develops a simple two-step model that describes the decisions of an individual vis-à-vis education and migration, and presents a unified model, wherein the two migration decisions are combined into a single, unique model. This paper shows that under the plausible assumption that costs of migration differ over the human life cycle, the usual brain drain strategy is sub-optimal. With an increase in globalization, the brain drain strategy will be replaced by the strategy of migration of students.

  10. Decision Making with Imperfect Decision Makers

    CERN Document Server

    Guy, Tatiana Valentine; Wolpert, David H

    2012-01-01

    Prescriptive Bayesian decision making has reached a high level of maturity and is well-supported algorithmically. However, experimental data shows that real decision makers choose such Bayes-optimal decisions surprisingly infrequently, often making decisions that are badly sub-optimal. So prevalent is such imperfect decision-making that it should be accepted as an inherent feature of real decision makers living within interacting societies. To date such societies have been investigated from an economic and gametheoretic perspective, and even to a degree from a physics perspective. However, lit

  11. Hyperbolic Rendezvous at Mars: Risk Assessments and Mitigation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrey, Ricky; Landau, Damon; Whitley, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Given the current interest in the use of flyby trajectories for human Mars exploration, a key requirement is the capability to execute hyperbolic rendezvous. Hyperbolic rendezvous is used to transport crew from a Mars centered orbit, to a transiting Earth bound habitat that does a flyby. Representative cases are taken from future potential missions of this type, and a thorough sensitivity analysis of the hyperbolic rendezvous phase is performed. This includes early engine cutoff, missed burn times, and burn misalignment. A finite burn engine model is applied that assumes the hyperbolic rendezvous phase is done with at least two burns.

  12. Making of a burn unit: SOA burn center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayant Kumar Dash

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Each year in India, burn injuries account for more than 6 million hospital emergency department visits; of which many require hospitalization and are referred to specialized burn centers. There are few burn surgeons and very few burn centers in India. In our state, Odisha, there are only two burn centers to cater to more than 5000 burn victims per year. This article is an attempt to share the knowledge that I acquired while setting up a new burn unit in a private medical college of Odisha.

  13. A Simple Analytic Model for Estimating Mars Ascent Vehicle Mass and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Ryan C.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) is a crucial component in any sample return campaign. In this paper we present a universal model for a two-stage MAV along with the analytic equations and simple parametric relationships necessary to quickly estimate MAV mass and performance. Ascent trajectories can be modeled as two-burn transfers from the surface with appropriate loss estimations for finite burns, steering, and drag. Minimizing lift-off mass is achieved by balancing optimized staging and an optimized path-to-orbit. This model allows designers to quickly find optimized solutions and to see the effects of design choices.

  14. Convective Cold Pool Structure and Boundary Layer Recovery in DYNAMO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savarin, A.; Chen, S. S.; Kerns, B. W.; Lee, C.; Jorgensen, D. P.

    2012-12-01

    One of the key factors controlling convective cloud systems in the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) over the tropical Indian Ocean is the property of the atmospheric boundary layer. Convective downdrafts and precipitation from the cloud systems produce cold pools in the boundary layer, which can inhibit subsequent development of convection. The recovery time is the time it takes for the boundary layer to return to pre convective conditions. It may affect the variability of the convection on various time scales during the initiation of MJO. This study examines the convective cold pool structure and boundary layer recovery using the NOAA WP-3D aircraft observations, include the flight-level, Doppler radar, and GPS dropsonde data, collected during the Dynamics of MJO (DYNAMO) field campaign from November-December 2011. The depth and strength of convective cold pools are defined by the negative buoyancy, which can be computed from the dropsonde data. Convective downdraft can be affected by environmental water vapor due to entrainment. Mid-level dry air observed during the convectively suppressed phase of MJO seems to enhance convective downdraft, making the cold pools stronger and deeper. Recovery of the cold pools in the boundary layer is determined by the strength and depth of the cold pools and also the air-sea heat and moisture fluxes. Given that the water vapor and surface winds are distinct for the convectively active and suppressed phases of MJO over the Indian Ocean, the aircraft data are stratified by the two different large-scale regimes of MJO. Preliminary results show that the strength and depth of the cold pools are inversely correlated with the surrounding mid-level moisture. During the convectively suppressed phase, the recovery time is ~5-20 hours in relative weak wind condition with small air-sea fluxes. The recovery time is generally less than 6 hours during the active phase of MJO with moist mid-levels and stronger surface wind and air-sea fluxes.

  15. The critical role of supervision in retaining staff in obstetric services: a three country study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eilish McAuliffe

    Full Text Available Millennium Development Goal (MDG 5 commits us to reducing maternal mortality rates by three quarters and MDG 4 commits us to reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. In order to reach these goals, greater access to basic emergency obstetric care (EmOC as well as comprehensive EmOC which includes safe Caesarean section, is needed.. The limited capacity of health systems to meet demand for obstetric services has led several countries to utilize mid-level cadres as a substitute to more extensively trained and more internationally mobile healthcare workers. Although this does provide greater capacity for service delivery, concern about the performance and motivation of these workers is emerging. We propose that poor leadership characterized by inadequate and unstructured supervision underlies much of the dissatisfaction and turnover that has been shown to exist amongst these mid-level healthcare workers and indeed health workers more generally. To investigate this, we conducted a large-scale survey of 1,561 mid-level cadre healthcare workers (health workers trained for shorter periods to perform specific tasks e.g. clinical officers delivering obstetric care in Malawi, Tanzania, and Mozambique. Participants indicated the primary supervision method used in their facility and we assessed their job satisfaction and intentions to leave their current workplace. In all three countries we found robust evidence indicating that a formal supervision process predicted high levels of job satisfaction and low intentions to leave. We find no evidence that facility level factors modify the link between supervisory methods and key outcomes. We interpret this evidence as strongly supporting the need to strengthen leadership and implement a framework and mechanism for systematic supportive supervision. This will promote better job satisfaction and improve the retention and performance of obstetric care workers, something which has the potential

  16. Influence of Ice-phase of Hydrometeors on Moist-Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sud, Y. C.; Walker, G. K.

    2003-01-01

    Climate models often ignore the influence of ice-phase physics (IPP) of hydrometeors as a second order effect. This has also been true for McRAS (Microphysics of clouds with Relaxed Arakawa Schubert Scheme) developed by the authors. Recognizing that the temperature sounding is critical for moist-convection, and, that IPP would modify it, we investigated the influence of introducing IPP into McRAS coupled to FvGCM (finite volume General Circulation Model with NCAR physics). We analyzed three 3-yr long simulations; the first called Control Case, CC and had no IPP; the other two called Experiments El and E2 had IPP introduced with two different in-cloud freezing assumptions. Simulation El assumed that all hydrometeors remain liquid in the updraft and freeze upon detrainment. Simulation E2 invoked the in-cloud freezing of new condensate generated at subfreezing temperatures in the updraft while old cloud water continued to ascend as liquid. Upon detrainment, this cloud water also froze like in E1. With these assumptions, about 50% of hydrometeors froze in the tower and the rest froze in the anvil. However, in both El and E2, the frozen hydrometeors melted during fall at the first encounter of above freezing ambient temperature. Comparative analysis revealed that El simulated far more mid-level and far less deep clouds while E2 had modified deep and more mid-level clouds as compared to CC along with some major changes around the melt-level. We infer that IPP produced a more realistic response in E2. At the basic level, the results show that ice-phase processes influence convective detrainment at mid- and deep levels in accord with TOGAGOARE observations. The results suggest that IPP can help to mitigate less-than-observed mid-level and over-abundance of deep convective clouds in McRAS.

  17. Phonological sketch and classification of Lawu, an undocumented Ngwi language of Yunnan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathryn Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lawu is a severely endangered, undocumented Ngwi (Loloish language spoken in Yunnan, China. This paper presents a preliminary sketch of Lawu phonology based on lexico-phonetic data recorded from two speakers in 2008, with special attention to the tone splits and mergers that distinguish Lawu from other Ngwi languages. All tone categories except Proto-Ngwi Tone *3, a mid level pitch, have split, conditioned by the voicing of the initial segment. In the conditioning and effect of these tone splits, Lawu shows affinity with other Central Ngwi languages such as Lisu and Lahu and is provisionally classified as a Central Ngwi language.

  18. Determination of Relationship Between Strategic Human Resources Applications and Non-Financial Organizations Performance of Hotel Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ece KONAKLIOĞLU

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Strategic human resource management takes attention even corporate organizations hardly in the emerging economies like Turkey. In this study in terms of hotel enterprises, we evaluate the strategic human resource practices and the relationship between non-financial performances. We collect the data through 209 mid- level and senior managers of hotels which selected as sample of this study. In the analysis of the study data was analyzed with descriptive techniques and hypotheses of the research were tested by using multiple regression analysis. With this study, it is understood that organization performance is positively effected by strategic human resources practices (r=0,447.

  19. Microsoft Dynamics NAV 7 programming cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Raul, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Written in the style of a cookbook. Microsoft Dynamics NAV 7 Programming Cookbook is full of recipes to help you get the job done.If you are a junior / entry-level NAV developer then the first half of the book is designed primarily for you. You may or may not have any experience programming. It focuses on the basics of NAV programming.If you are a mid-level NAV developer, you will find these chapters explain how to think outside of the NAV box when building solutions. There are also recipes that senior developers will find useful.

  20. PRMS Data Warehousing Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guruvadoo, Eranna K.

    2002-01-01

    Project and Resource Management System (PRMS) is a web-based, mid-level management tool developed at KSC to provide a unified enterprise framework for Project and Mission management. The addition of a data warehouse as a strategic component to the PRMS is investigated through the analysis, design and implementation processes of a data warehouse prototype. As a proof of concept, a demonstration of the prototype with its OLAP's technology for multidimensional data analysis is made. The results of the data analysis and the design constraints are discussed. The prototype can be used to motivate interest and support for an operational data warehouse.

  1. Dynamic Programming and Graph Algorithms in Computer Vision*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felzenszwalb, Pedro F.; Zabih, Ramin

    2013-01-01

    Optimization is a powerful paradigm for expressing and solving problems in a wide range of areas, and has been successfully applied to many vision problems. Discrete optimization techniques are especially interesting, since by carefully exploiting problem structure they often provide non-trivial guarantees concerning solution quality. In this paper we briefly review dynamic programming and graph algorithms, and discuss representative examples of how these discrete optimization techniques have been applied to some classical vision problems. We focus on the low-level vision problem of stereo; the mid-level problem of interactive object segmentation; and the high-level problem of model-based recognition. PMID:20660950

  2. A two-level real-time vision machine combining coarse and fine grained parallelism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Baunegaard With; Kjær-Nielsen, Anders; Pauwels, Karl

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a real-time vision machine having a stereo camera as input generating visual information on two different levels of abstraction. The system provides visual low-level and mid-level information in terms of dense stereo and optical flow, egomotion, indicating areas...... a factor 90 and a reduction of latency of a factor 26 compared to processing on a single CPU--core. Since the vision machine provides generic visual information it can be used in many contexts. Currently it is used in a driver assistance context as well as in two robotic applications....

  3. Meeting report:Iraq oil ministry needs assessment workshop.3-5 Septemner 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Littlefield, Adriane C.; Pregenzer, Arian Leigh

    2006-11-01

    Representatives from the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Nuclear Security Administration, and Sandia National Laboratories met with mid-level representatives from Iraq's oil and gas companies and with former employees and senior managers of Iraq's Ministry of Oil September 3-5 in Amman, Jordan. The goals of the workshop were to assess the needs of the Iraqi Oil Ministry and industry, to provide information about capabilities at DOE and the national laboratories relevant to Iraq, and to develop ideas for potential projects.

  4. Trends in Upper-Level Cloud Cover and Surface Divergence Over the Tropical Indo-Pacific Ocean Between 1952 And 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Joel R.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the spatial pattern of linear trends in surface-observed upper-level (combined mid-level and High-level) cloud cover, precipitation, and surface divergence over the tropical Indo-Pacific Ocean during 1952-1957. Cloud values were obtained from the Extended Edited Cloud Report Archive (EECRA), precipitation values were obtained from the Hulme/Climate Research Unit Data Set, and surface divergence was alternatively calculated from wind reported Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set and from Smith and Reynolds Extended Reconstructed sea level pressure data.

  5. A new benchmark for pose estimation with ground truth from virtual reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlette, Christian; Buch, Anders Glent; Aksoy, Eren Erdal

    2014-01-01

    The development of programming paradigms for industrial assembly currently gets fresh impetus from approaches in human demonstration and programming-by-demonstration. Major low- and mid-level prerequisites for machine vision and learning in these intelligent robotic applications are pose estimation......, stereo reconstruction and action recognition. As a basis for the machine vision and learning involved, pose estimation is used for deriving object positions and orientations and thus target frames for robot execution. Our contribution introduces and applies a novel benchmark for typical multi...

  6. [Problems of X-ray mammology manpower training and management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozhkova, N I

    2014-01-01

    The paper considers the issues of manpower training in X-ray mammology. It mentions staff shortage and no special training, which reduces the efficient activities of X-ray mammographic rooms, as well as shortage of training facilities and no unified educational programs within interdisciplinary integration, inadequate technical equipment in the training facilities, the lack of an accounting system for training higher- and mid-level health workers, as well as engineers. Emphasis is placed on that the educational programs must comply with the organizational forms of testing the specialists to be employed. The introduction of a continuous education system should be accelerated to rule out the decay period of specialists' competence.

  7. İçsel ve Dışsal İş Doyum Düzeyleri ile Genel İş Doyum Düzeyi Arasındaki İlişkinin Belirlenmesi: Turist Rehberleri Üzerinde Bir Araştırma = Determination of the Relationship between the Levels of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Job Satisfaction with Level of General Job Satisfaction: An Investigation on Tour Guides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem KÖROĞLU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available An investigation conducted on tour guides using the questionnaire technique will be presented. This study aims to determine the relationship between the levels of intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction with level of general job satisfaction. The collected data were analyzed by using factor analysis, reliability analysis, arithmetic means, correlation and regression analysis. At the end of the study a high levels of intrinsic satisfaction and a mid-level extrinsic and general job satisfaction of the respondents were found. The most affecting variable of the general job satisfaction was intrinsic satisfaction and it is found that the tour guides enjoyed the most satisfaction from company policies, responsibility and social service.

  8. Principles of statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Bulmer, M G

    1979-01-01

    There are many textbooks which describe current methods of statistical analysis, while neglecting related theory. There are equally many advanced textbooks which delve into the far reaches of statistical theory, while bypassing practical applications. But between these two approaches is an unfilled gap, in which theory and practice merge at an intermediate level. Professor M. G. Bulmer's Principles of Statistics, originally published in 1965, was created to fill that need. The new, corrected Dover edition of Principles of Statistics makes this invaluable mid-level text available once again fo

  9. Managing complex child law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Idamarie Leth

    2017-01-01

    The article reports the findings of a qualitative study of Danish legal regulation of the public initial assessment of children and young persons and municipal practitioners’ decision-making under this regulation. The regulation mirrors new and complex relations between families and society...... in the form of 7 individual vignette interviews with municipal mid-level managers and professional consultants in five Danish municipalities. The study finds that the regulation is more complex than it looks, and that the complexity is handled through simplifying decision-making patterns that can be seen...

  10. Acquisition Leadership: An Opportunity Lost for Acquisition Excellence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Bryman , A. (1984). The debate about quantitative and qualitative research : A question of method or epistemology? The British Journal of Sociology, 35, 75...organization’s very way of “doing business ”—will prove a daunting task. The rationale for the research undertaken is that, by any standard, DoD is truly a...at the entry- and mid-levels to the AT&L Workforce? Method This article’s research question involves the importance of leadership training as part

  11. HIV-1 gp120 induces NFAT nuclear translocation in resting CD4+ T-cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicala, Claudia; Arthos, James; Censoplano, Nina; Cruz, Catherine; Chung, Eva; Martinelli, Elena; Lempicki, Richard A.; Natarajan, Ven; VanRyk, Donald; Daucher, Marybeth; Fauci, Anthony S.

    2006-01-01

    The replication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in CD4+ T-cells is strongly dependent upon the state of activation of infected cells. Infection of sub-optimally activated cells is believed to play a critical role in both the transmission of virus and the persistence of CD4+ T-cell reservoirs. There is accumulating evidence that HIV can modulate signal-transduction pathways in a manner that may facilitate replication in such cells. We previously demonstrated that HIV gp120 induces virus replication in resting CD4+ T cells isolated from HIV-infected individuals. Here, we show that in resting CD4+ T-cells, gp120 activates NFATs and induces their translocation into the nucleus. The HIV LTR encodes NFAT recognition sites, and NFATs may play a critical role in promoting viral replication in sub-optimally activated cells. These observations provide insight into a potential mechanism by which HIV is able to establish infection in resting cells, which may have implications for both transmission of HIV and the persistence of viral reservoirs

  12. SYMMETRIC DETERMINATION OF THE SEVERITY OF PRODUCTIVITY CONSTRAINTS OF FISH FARMERS IN THE TROPICS: A CASE STUDY OF THE NIGER DELTA REGION, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALERIE Solomon

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to fi ll the gap in the dearth of information on systematic approach to ascertain the severity as well as the magnitude of the constraints responsible for the sub-optimal operation of fi sh farming in Nigeria. 120 randomly selected fish farmers from a list of 186 fi sh farmers in the state were interviewed. Participatory appraisal technique and econometric technique were adopted to ascertain the most severe major constraints and also the severity index of each of the sub-constraints that are responsible for the sub-optimal aquaculture operation in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria and the cause of withdrawal from aquaculture by some fi sh farmers. The sub-constraints severity within the major constraints, across the region gave more insight into the causes of the high rate of withdrawals from aquaculture and the decline in aquaculture productivity in the region. How productive the regional aquaculture would be, even in the nearest future, would depend to a large extent on these major factors: production, marketing and advancement in related technology. Unless pragmatic approach is used to reduce the constraints responsible for the high rate of withdrawal, fi sh food security in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria would still be elusive.

  13. Neutralizing antibodies explain the poor clinical response to Interferon beta in a small proportion of patients with Multiple Sclerosis: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cefaro Luca

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neutralizing antibodies (NAbs against Interferon beta (IFNβ are reported to be associated with poor clinical response to therapy in multiple sclerosis (MS patients. We aimed to quantify the contribution of NAbs to the sub-optimal response of IFNβ treatment. Methods We studied the prevalence of NAbs in MS patients grouped according to their clinical response to IFNβ during the treatment period. Patients were classified as: group A, developing ≥ 1 relapse after the first 6 months of therapy; group B, exhibiting confirmed disability progression after the first 6 months of therapy, with or without superimposed relapses; group C, presenting a stable disease course during therapy. A cytopathic effect assay tested the presence of NAbs in a cohort of ambulatory MS patients treated with one of the available IFNβ formulations for at least one year. NAbs positivity was defined as NAbs titre ≥ 20 TRU. Results Seventeen patients (12.1% were NAbs positive. NAbs positivity correlated with poorer clinical response (p Conclusion The majority of patients with poor clinical response are NAbs negative suggesting that NAbs explains only partially the sub-optimal response to IFNβ.

  14. Lack of protection against rabies in neighbourhood dogs in some peri-urban and rural areas of Ogun and Oyo states, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwayelu, D O; Adebiyi, A I; Ohore, O G; Cadmus, S I B

    2014-12-01

    Rabies is a highly fatal zoonosis that causes severe destruction to the central nervous system and remains underreported in developing countries like Nigeria. The increasing close contact between dogs and their owners or neighbours suggest a need for investigation of the protective level of rabies virus (RABV) antibodies in dogs. Sera from 150 apparently healthy neighbourhood dogs from some peri-urban and rural areas of Ogun and Oyo states, southwestern Nigeria were analyzed for the presence of RABV antibodies using the indirect ELISA technique. These dogs were kept as pets, used for hunting or sold for human consumption. The results showed that none of the dogs had optimal RABV antibody titres, 25 (16.7%) had sub-optimal antibody titres while 125 (83.3%) were negative. Detection of sub-optimal RABV antibody levels in these unvaccinated dogs suggests that they might have been exposed to rabies or rabies-related viruses. Data obtained from interviews conducted revealed that 21.3% of the dog owners were informed about rabies but neglected vaccination while 44.7% were uninformed. We conclude that these dogs lacked protective levels of RABV antibodies and thus constitute a public, health threat. This finding underscores the need for dog anti-rabies vaccination campaigns covering peri-urban and rural areas as well as the promotion of large scale public enlightenment programmes on rabies in Nigeria.

  15. On a triadic neurocognitive approach of decision-making to addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Noël

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Paradoxical behaviours characterizing an addiction could be understood as the result of a combination between an attempt to cope with dominant painful feelings (e.g., anxiety with low self-esteem and sub-optimal decision-making prioritizing short-term over long-term consequences. This article focused on decision-making and emphasized that addicts’ decisions are determined by immediate outcomes because of abnormal interactions between key neural and cognitive systems: (1 an automatic, habitual and salient information processing mediated by amygdala-striatum dependent system; (2 an intention self-regulatory system forecasting the future consequences of a choice; (3 a interoceptive signals processing system which generates feeling states and in turn plays a strong influential role in decision-making and impulse control processes related to uncertainty, risk, and reward. As a whole, sub-optimal interactions such as a too strong automatic stimulus-driven actions associated with poor intentional control and a state of stress or craving are thought to result in prioritizing short-term consequences at the detriment of the necessary forecast of delayed consequences.

  16. Resource allocation via sum-rate maximization in the uplink of multi-cell OFDMA networks

    KAUST Repository

    Tabassum, Hina

    2012-10-03

    In this paper, we consider maximizing the sum rate in the uplink of a multi-cell orthogonal frequency-division multiple access network. The problem has a non-convex combinatorial structure and is known to be NP-hard. Because of the inherent complexity of implementing the optimal solution, firstly, we derive an upper bound (UB) and a lower bound (LB) to the optimal average network throughput. Moreover, we investigate the performance of a near-optimal single cell resource allocation scheme in the presence of inter-cell interference, which leads to another easily computable LB. We then develop a centralized sub-optimal scheme that is composed of a geometric programming-based power control phase in conjunction with an iterative subcarrier allocation phase. Although the scheme is computationally complex, it provides an effective benchmark for low complexity schemes even without the power control phase. Finally, we propose less complex centralized and distributed schemes that are well suited for practical scenarios. The computational complexity of all schemes is analyzed, and the performance is compared through simulations. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed low complexity schemes can achieve comparable performance with that of the centralized sub-optimal scheme in various scenarios. Moreover, comparisons with the UB and LB provide insight on the performance gap between the proposed schemes and the optimal solution. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. APPETITE PREDICTS INTAKE AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN PATIENTS RECEIVING PERITONEAL DIALYSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Valerie; Balaam, Sarah; Orazio, Linda; Bates, Annerley; Badve, Sunil V; Johnson, David W; Campbell, Katrina L

    2016-06-01

    Sub-optimal nutrition status is common amongst patients receiving peritoneal dialysis (PD) and leads to poor clinical outcome. This population experiences multi-factorial challenges to achieving optimal nutritional status, particularly driven by inadequate intake. The aim of this investigation was to identify factors associated with inadequate protein intake and sub-optimal nutritional status in patients undergoing PD. This was a cross-sectional study of 67 adult patients receiving PD (mean age 59 ± 14 years; 57% male) within a single centre. Participants were consecutively recruited and interviewed by renal dietitians, collecting: Subjective Global Assessment (SGA); quality of life (using EQ-5D); dietary intake (via dietary interview); and appetite (using Appetite and Diet Assessment Tool). Participant demographics were obtained via survey or medical charts. Main outcome measures were inadequate dietary protein intake (anorexia) was reported in 62% (18/29) of participants with inadequate protein malnourished patients reported anorexia versus 12 (23%) of the well-nourished patients (p = 0.0001). Anorexia was a key risk factor for inadequate protein intake and malnutrition in patients undergoing PD. These findings highlight a need to closely monitor patients with appetite disturbances. © 2016 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  18. Energy Efficient Resource Allocation for Cognitive Radios: A Generalized Sensing Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbasi, Abdulrahman

    2014-12-31

    In this paper, two resource allocation schemes for energy efficient cognitive radio systems are proposed. Our design considers resource allocation approaches that adopt spectrum sharing combined with soft-sensing information, adaptive sensing thresholds, and adaptive power to achieve an energy efficient system. An energy per good-bit metric is considered as an energy efficient objective function. A multi-carrier system, such as, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, is considered in the framework. The proposed resource allocation schemes, using different approaches, are designated as sub-optimal and optimal. The sub-optimal approach is attained by optimizing over a channel inversion power policy. The optimal approach utilizes the calculus of variation theory to optimize a problem of instantaneous objective function subject to average and instantaneous constraints with respect to functional optimization variables. In addition to the analytical results, selected numerical results are provided to quantify the impact of soft-sensing information and the optimal adaptive sensing threshold on the system performance.

  19. Precoding Design and Power Allocation in Two-User MU-MIMO Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haole Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the precoding design and power allocation problem for multi-user multiple-input multiple-output (MU-MIMO wireless ad hoc networks. In the first timeslot, the source node (SN transmits energy and information to a relay node (RN simultaneously within the simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT framework. Then, in the second timeslot, based on the decoder and the forwarding (DF protocol, after reassembling the received signal and its own signal, the RN forwards the information to the main user (U1 and simultaneously sends its own information to the secondary user (U2. In this paper, when the transmission rate of the U1 is restricted, the precoding, beamforming, and power splitting (PS transmission ratio are jointly considered to maximize the transmission rate of U2. To maximize the system rate, we design an optimal beamforming matrix and solve the optimization problem by semi-definite relaxation (SDR, considering the high complexity of implementing the optimal solution. Two sub-optimal precoding programs are also discussed: singular value decomposition and block diagonalization. Finally, the performance of the optimization and sub-optimization schemes are compared using a simulation.

  20. Unbiased contaminant removal for 3D galaxy power spectrum measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalus, B.; Percival, W. J.; Bacon, D. J.; Samushia, L.

    2016-11-01

    We assess and develop techniques to remove contaminants when calculating the 3D galaxy power spectrum. We separate the process into three separate stages: (I) removing the contaminant signal, (II) estimating the uncontaminated cosmological power spectrum and (III) debiasing the resulting estimates. For (I), we show that removing the best-fitting contaminant (mode subtraction) and setting the contaminated components of the covariance to be infinite (mode deprojection) are mathematically equivalent. For (II), performing a quadratic maximum likelihood (QML) estimate after mode deprojection gives an optimal unbiased solution, although it requires the manipulation of large N_mode^2 matrices (Nmode being the total number of modes), which is unfeasible for recent 3D galaxy surveys. Measuring a binned average of the modes for (II) as proposed by Feldman, Kaiser & Peacock (FKP) is faster and simpler, but is sub-optimal and gives rise to a biased solution. We present a method to debias the resulting FKP measurements that does not require any large matrix calculations. We argue that the sub-optimality of the FKP estimator compared with the QML estimator, caused by contaminants, is less severe than that commonly ignored due to the survey window.

  1. Social stigma in diabetes : a framework to understand a growing problem for an increasing epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schabert, Jasmin; Browne, Jessica L; Mosely, Kylie; Speight, Jane

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the social and psychological impact of diabetes mellitus is important for informing policy and practice. One potentially significant, yet under-researched, issue is the social stigma surrounding diabetes. This narrative review draws on literature about health-related stigma in diabetes and other chronic conditions in order to develop a framework for understanding diabetes-related stigma. Our review of the literature found that people who do not have diabetes assume that diabetes is not a stigmatized condition. In contrast, people with diabetes report that stigma is a significant concern to them, experienced across many life domains, e.g., in the workplace, in relationships. The experience of diabetes-related stigma has a significant negative impact on many aspects of psychological well-being and may also result in sub-optimal clinical outcomes for people with diabetes. We propose a framework that highlights the causes (attitudes of blame, feelings of fear and disgust, and the felt need to enforce social norms and avoid disease), experiences (being judged, rejected, and discriminated against), and consequences (e.g., distress, poorer psychological well-being, and sub-optimal self-care) of diabetes-related stigma and also identifies potential mitigating strategies to reduce diabetes-related stigma and/or enhance coping and resilience amongst people with diabetes. The systematic investigation of the experiences, causes, and consequences of diabetes-related stigma is an urgent research priority.

  2. Set shifting in anorexia nervosa: an examination before and after weight gain, in full recovery and relationship to childhood and adult OCPD traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchanturia, K; Morris, R G; Anderluh, M Brecelj; Collier, D A; Nikolaou, V; Treasure, J

    2004-01-01

    Deficits in set shifting tasks are present in anorexia nervosa (AN), but it is not known whether these deficits are traits independent of current disease or nutritional status or merely a temporary consequence of starvation or psychopathology. The aims of the present study were to determine if set-shifting sub-optimal performance are state or trait-related by examining set shifting in patients with current or past AN, and the extent of association of these deficits with obsessive compulsive traits and behaviours. To achieve this we examined set shifting abilities in three groups of subjects: (a) AN patients with current illness, prior to receiving treatment (AN); (b) people with past AN currently in long term recovery (ANRec) and a healthy comparison group (HC). We also longitudinally followed up a subset for the AN group who showed weight recovery in response to in patient treatment (ANWR). We administered a group of set shifting tests, which included cognitive, perceptual and motor shifting tasks. A semi-structured interview was obtained to ascertain obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) traits as a child and adult. Set-shifting difficulties were observed in the AN group, but to a lesser extent in the ANRec group. In the AN group these difficulties did not show any improvement follow re-testing after weight recovery. Performance on set shifting tasks was associated with childhood rigidity and inflexibility. Some aspects of set shifting sub-optimal performance in AN appear to be a trait rather than a state marker.

  3. Responses of rubber leaf phenology to climatic variations in Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, De-Li; Yu, Haiying; Chen, Si-Chong; Ranjitkar, Sailesh; Xu, Jianchu

    2017-11-01

    The phenology of rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis) could be influenced by meteorological factors and exhibits significant changes under different geoclimates. In the sub-optimal environment in Xishuangbanna, rubber trees undergo lengthy periods of defoliation and refoliation. The timing of refoliation from budburst to leaf aging could be affected by powdery mildew disease (Oidium heveae), which negatively impacts seed and latex production. Rubber trees are most susceptible to powdery mildew disease at the copper and leaf changing stages. Understanding and predicting leaf phenology of rubber trees are helpful to develop effective means of controlling the disease. This research investigated the effect of several meteorological factors on different leaf phenological stages in a sub-optimal environment for rubber cultivation in Jinghong, Yunnan in Southwest China. Partial least square regression was used to quantify the relationship between meteorological factors and recorded rubber phenologies from 2003 to 2011. Minimum temperature in December was found to be the critical factor for the leaf phenology development of rubber trees. Comparing the delayed effects of minimum temperature, the maximum temperature, diurnal temperature range, and sunshine hours were found to advancing leaf phenologies. A comparatively lower minimum temperature in December would facilitate the advancing of leaf phenologies of rubber trees. Higher levels of precipitation in February delayed the light green and the entire process of leaf aging. Delayed leaf phenology was found to be related to severe rubber powdery mildew disease. These results were used to build predictive models that could be applied to early warning systems of rubber powdery mildew disease.

  4. Measuring healthcare productivity - from unit to system level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämäräinen, Vesa Johannes; Peltokorpi, Antti; Torkki, Paulus; Tallbacka, Kaj

    2016-04-18

    Purpose - Healthcare productivity is a growing issue in most Western countries where healthcare expenditure is rapidly increasing. Therefore, accurate productivity metrics are essential to avoid sub-optimization within a healthcare system. The purpose of this paper is to focus on healthcare production system productivity measurement. Design/methodology/approach - Traditionally, healthcare productivity has been studied and measured independently at the unit, organization and system level. Suggesting that productivity measurement should be done in different levels, while simultaneously linking productivity measurement to incentives, this study presents the challenges of productivity measurement at the different levels. The study introduces different methods to measure productivity in healthcare. In addition, it provides background information on the methods used to measure productivity and the parameters used in these methods. A pilot investigation of productivity measurement is used to illustrate the challenges of measurement, to test the developed measures and to prove the practical information for managers. Findings - The study introduces different approaches and methods to measure productivity in healthcare. Practical implications - A pilot investigation of productivity measurement is used to illustrate the challenges of measurement, to test the developed measures and to prove the practical benefits for managers. Originality/value - The authors focus on the measurement of the whole healthcare production system and try to avoid sub-optimization. Additionally considering an individual patient approach, productivity measurement is examined at the unit level, the organizational level and the system level.

  5. Ownership and environmental regulation: Evidence from the European electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clò, Stefano; Ferraris, Matteo; Florio, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    The paper investigates how ownership affects the environmental performance in developed countries where environmental regulation is introduced in the form of market-based instrument. By looking at a cross-country panel dataset of 29 power markets around Europe over the period 1990–2012, we find empirical evidence that an increase of public ownership, as measured by the OECD ETCR index, is associated with a reduction of both greenhouse gas emissions and carbon intensity. We also find that the implementation of the European Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) had a limited impact on emissions' reduction due to lax allocation of allowances. The positive effect of public ownership on environmental performance has been significant even after the introduction of the ETS, giving additional incentives to mitigate emissions when the ETS cap was not stringent enough. This evidence suggests that government control over power companies in Europe can has created idiosyncratic incentives to improve environmental quality, complementing environmental regulation in the achievement of environmental goals when the latter was absent or sub-optimal. - Highlights: • We analyse the power industry's environmental performance in 29 European countries. • Public ownership is associated with lower emissions than private ownership. • Mixed oligopoly is superior to private oligopoly in environmental terms. • The ETS had a limited impact on emissions' reduction due to over-allocation. • Public ownership mitigates the effects of sub-optimal environmental regulation.

  6. The combination of IL-21 and IFN-alpha boosts STAT3 activation, cytotoxicity and experimental tumor therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Karsten W; Søndergaard, Henrik; Woetmann, Anders

    2008-01-01

    such as IFN-alpha and IL-2 have multiple and severe side effects. Accordingly, they are generally used at sub-optimal doses, which limit their clinical efficacy. Here we hypothesized that a combination of IFN-alpha and IL-21, a novel cytokine of the IL-2 family with anti-cancer effects, will increase the anti......-cancer efficacy at sub-optimal cytokine doses. We show that the combined stimulation of target-cells with IFN-alpha and IL-21 triggers an increased STAT3 activation whereas the activation of other STATs including STAT1/2 is unaffected. In parallel, the combined stimulation with IFN-alpha and IL-21 triggers...... a selective increase in MHC class I expression and NK- and CD8(+) T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity. In an experimental in vivo model of renal carcinoma, the combined treatment of IFN-alpha and IL-21 also produces a significant anti-cancer effect as judged by an inhibition of tumor growth and an increased survival...

  7. Accurate Natural Trail Detection Using a Combination of a Deep Neural Network and Dynamic Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Shyam Prasad; Yang, Changju; Slot, Krzysztof; Kim, Hyongsuk

    2018-01-10

    This paper presents a vision sensor-based solution to the challenging problem of detecting and following trails in highly unstructured natural environments like forests, rural areas and mountains, using a combination of a deep neural network and dynamic programming. The deep neural network (DNN) concept has recently emerged as a very effective tool for processing vision sensor signals. A patch-based DNN is trained with supervised data to classify fixed-size image patches into "trail" and "non-trail" categories, and reshaped to a fully convolutional architecture to produce trail segmentation map for arbitrary-sized input images. As trail and non-trail patches do not exhibit clearly defined shapes or forms, the patch-based classifier is prone to misclassification, and produces sub-optimal trail segmentation maps. Dynamic programming is introduced to find an optimal trail on the sub-optimal DNN output map. Experimental results showing accurate trail detection for real-world trail datasets captured with a head mounted vision system are presented.

  8. A Unique Pool of Compatible Solutes on Rhodopirellula baltica, Member of the Deep-Branching Phylum Planctomycetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Filipa d'Avó

    Full Text Available The intracellular accumulation of small organic solutes was described in the marine bacterium Rhodopirellula baltica, which belongs to the globally distributed phylum Planctomycetes whose members exhibit an intriguing lifestyle and cell morphology. Sucrose, α-glutamate, trehalose and mannosylglucosylglycerate (MGG are the main solutes involved in the osmoadaptation of R. baltica. The ratio and total intracellular organic solutes varied significantly in response to an increase in salinity, temperature and nitrogen content. R. baltica displayed an initial response to both osmotic and thermal stresses that includes α-glutamate accumulation. This trend was followed by a rather unique and complex osmoadaptation mechanism characterized by a dual response to sub-optimal and supra-optimal salinities. A reduction in the salinity to sub-optimal conditions led primarily to the accumulation of trehalose. In contrast, R. baltica responded to salt stress mostly by increasing the intracellular levels of sucrose. The switch between the accumulation of trehalose and sucrose was by far the most significant effect caused by increasing the salt levels of the medium. Additionally, MGG accumulation was found to be salt- as well as nitrogen-dependent. MGG accumulation was regulated by nitrogen levels replacing α-glutamate as a K(+ counterion in nitrogen-poor environments. This is the first report of the accumulation of compatible solutes in the phylum Planctomycetes and of the MGG accumulation in a mesophilic organism.

  9. Quality of CT pulmonary angiography for suspected pulmonary embolus in pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    U-King-Im, Jean Marie; Freeman, Susan J.; Boylan, Teresa; Cheow, Heok K.

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the quality of CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) for suspected pulmonary embolus (PE) in the pregnant population. We retrospectively identified 40 consecutive pregnant patients who underwent CTPA from January 2005 to December 2006. Forty consecutive age-matched non-pregnant women were used as a control group. Studies were subjectively graded according to overall image quality by two readers in consensus, in randomised and blinded manner. Moreover, contrast enhancement of pulmonary arteries was subjectively and objectively evaluated. The proportion of sub-optimal studies was more than three times higher in the pregnant group (27.5%, n = 11) compared with the non-pregnant group (7.5%, n = 3; p = 0.015). Mean contrast enhancement was consistently higher in the non-pregnant group compared with pregnant group, both subjectively and objectively. The percentage of inadequately opacified vascular segments was more than two times higher in the pregnant group (28.7%, n = 264) than in the non-pregnant group (13.3%, n 122; p = 0.0001). The incidence of sub-optimal CTPA studies is higher in pregnancy when compared with an age-matched non-pregnant control group. In addition to radiation issues, this should also be considered when implementing diagnostic strategies for suspected PE in pregnancy. (orig.)

  10. Energy-Efficient Power Allocation for Cognitive MIMO Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman

    2017-03-20

    Due to the massive data traffic in wireless networks, energy consumption has become a crucial concern, especially with the limited power supply of the mobile terminals and the increasing CO2 emission of the cellular industry. In this context, we study the energy efficiency (EE) of MIMO spectrum sharing cognitive radio (CR) systems under power and interference constraints. We present an energy-efficient power allocation framework based on maximizing the average EE per parallel channel resulting from the singular value decomposition (SVD) eigenmode transmission. We also present a sub-optimal low-complexity power allocation scheme based on the water-filling power allocation. In the numerical results, we show that the sub-optimal power allocation achieves at least 95% of the optimal performance. In addition, we show that adopting more antennas is more energy efficient for a given power budget. Finally, we show that the interference threshold has a significant effect on both the EE and the spectral efficiency at high-power regime.

  11. Optimal Control and Optimization of Stochastic Supply Chain Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Dong-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Optimal Control and Optimization of Stochastic Supply Chain Systems examines its subject in the context of the presence of a variety of uncertainties. Numerous examples with intuitive illustrations and tables are provided, to demonstrate the structural characteristics of the optimal control policies in various stochastic supply chains and to show how to make use of these characteristics to construct easy-to-operate sub-optimal policies.                 In Part I, a general introduction to stochastic supply chain systems is provided. Analytical models for various stochastic supply chain systems are formulated and analysed in Part II. In Part III the structural knowledge of the optimal control policies obtained in Part II is utilized to construct easy-to-operate sub-optimal control policies for various stochastic supply chain systems accordingly. Finally, Part IV discusses the optimisation of threshold-type control policies and their robustness. A key feature of the book is its tying together of ...

  12. APPLICATION OF GENETIC ALGORITHMS FOR ROBUST PARAMETER OPTIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Belavendram

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Parameter optimization can be achieved by many methods such as Monte-Carlo, full, and fractional factorial designs. Genetic algorithms (GA are fairly recent in this respect but afford a novel method of parameter optimization. In GA, there is an initial pool of individuals each with its own specific phenotypic trait expressed as a ‘genetic chromosome’. Different genes enable individuals with different fitness levels to reproduce according to natural reproductive gene theory. This reproduction is established in terms of selection, crossover and mutation of reproducing genes. The resulting child generation of individuals has a better fitness level akin to natural selection, namely evolution. Populations evolve towards the fittest individuals. Such a mechanism has a parallel application in parameter optimization. Factors in a parameter design can be expressed as a genetic analogue in a pool of sub-optimal random solutions. Allowing this pool of sub-optimal solutions to evolve over several generations produces fitter generations converging to a pre-defined engineering optimum. In this paper, a genetic algorithm is used to study a seven factor non-linear equation for a Wheatstone bridge as the equation to be optimized. A comparison of the full factorial design against a GA method shows that the GA method is about 1200 times faster in finding a comparable solution.

  13. Energy Efficient Resource Allocation for Cognitive Radios: A Generalized Sensing Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbasi, AbdulRahman; Rezki, Zouheir; Shihada, Basem

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, two resource allocation schemes for energy efficient cognitive radio systems are proposed. Our design considers resource allocation approaches that adopt spectrum sharing combined with soft-sensing information, adaptive sensing thresholds, and adaptive power to achieve an energy efficient system. An energy per good-bit metric is considered as an energy efficient objective function. A multi-carrier system, such as, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, is considered in the framework. The proposed resource allocation schemes, using different approaches, are designated as sub-optimal and optimal. The sub-optimal approach is attained by optimizing over a channel inversion power policy. The optimal approach utilizes the calculus of variation theory to optimize a problem of instantaneous objective function subject to average and instantaneous constraints with respect to functional optimization variables. In addition to the analytical results, selected numerical results are provided to quantify the impact of soft-sensing information and the optimal adaptive sensing threshold on the system performance.

  14. Assessment of portal venous system patency in the liver transplant candidate: A prospective study comparing ultrasound, microbubble-enhanced colour Doppler ultrasound, with arteriography and surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, M.M.; Beese, R.C.; Muiesan, P.; Sarma, D.I.; O'Grady, J.; Sidhu, P.S.

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To determine the role of microbubble-enhanced colour Doppler ultrasound (CDUS) in assessing portal venous patency prior to liver transplantation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Over a 2-year period, all patients with chronic liver disease undergoing routine pre-transplant CDUS examination in whom the portal venous system was inadequately demonstrated were recruited to the study. CDUS was performed in 368 patients and 33 patients (9%) were recruited. A repeat CDUS examination following an intravenous bolus injection of the microbubble contrast agent Levovist[reg] (Schering Healthcare AG, Berlin, Germany) was performed. Diagnostic confidence was recorded on a free linear analogue scale for both examinations. Findings were compared with indirect portography and surgery. RESULTS: Of the 33 patients with sub-optimal baseline examinations, improvement in portal vein visualization was achieved in 31 patients (94%). Median diagnostic confidence increased from 50% (interquartile range 30-60) to 90% (interquartile range 75-98) (P < 0.001) following administration of Levovist[reg]. Overall accuracy of portal vein assessment using microbubble-enhanced CDUS in 15 patients in whom a definitive diagnosis was made within 2 months was 87%. CONCLUSION: Microbubble-enhanced CDUS is a simple, inexpensive adjunct to standard pre liver transplant screening of the portal vein. It is particularly helpful in patients with end-stage cirrhosis who are at high risk of portal vein thrombosis and in whom the conventional examination is sub-optimal.Marshall, M.M. et al. (2002)

  15. Substance Use, Violence, and Antiretroviral Adherence: A Latent Class Analysis of Women Living with HIV in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Allison; Roth, Eric Abella; Ding, Erin; Milloy, M-J; Kestler, Mary; Jabbari, Shahab; Webster, Kath; de Pokomandy, Alexandra; Loutfy, Mona; Kaida, Angela

    2018-03-01

    We used latent class analysis to identify substance use patterns for 1363 women living with HIV in Canada and assessed associations with socio-economic marginalization, violence, and sub-optimal adherence to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). A six-class model was identified consisting of: abstainers (26.3%), Tobacco Users (8.81%), Alcohol Users (31.9%), 'Socially Acceptable' Poly-substance Users (13.9%), Illicit Poly-substance Users (9.81%) and Illicit Poly-substance Users of All Types (9.27%). Multinomial logistic regression showed that women experiencing recent violence had significantly higher odds of membership in all substance use latent classes, relative to Abstainers, while those reporting sub-optimal cART adherence had higher odds of being members of the poly-substance use classes only. Factors significantly associated with Illicit Poly-substance Users of All Types were sexual minority status, lower income, and lower resiliency. Findings underline a need for increased social and structural supports for women who use substances to support them in leading safe and healthy lives with HIV.

  16. Depression and diabetes distress in adults with type 2 diabetes: results from the Australian National Diabetes Audit (ANDA) 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanayakkara, Natalie; Pease, Anthony; Ranasinha, Sanjeeva; Wischer, Natalie; Andrikopoulos, Sofianos; Speight, Jane; de Courten, Barbora; Zoungas, Sophia

    2018-05-18

    This study explores the prevalence of, and factors associated with, likely depression and diabetes distress in adults with type 2 diabetes in a large, national sample. Australian National Diabetes Audit data were analysed from adults with type 2 diabetes attending 50 diabetes centres. The Brief Case find for Depression and Diabetes Distress Score 17 were administered to screen for likely depression and diabetes-related distress, respectively. A total of 2,552 adults with type 2 diabetes participated: (mean ± SD) age was 63 ± 13 years, diabetes duration was 12 ± 10 years, and HbA1c was 8 ± 2%. Twenty-nine percent of patients had likely depression, 7% had high diabetes distress, and 5% had both. Difficulty following dietary recommendations, smoking, forgetting medications, and diabetes distress were all associated with greater odds of depression whereas higher own health rating was associated with lower odds (all p < 0.02). Female gender, increasing HbA1c, insulin use, difficulty following dietary recommendations and depression were all associated with greater odds of diabetes distress & older age, higher own health rating and monitoring blood glucose levels as recommended were associated with lower odds (all p < 0.04). Depression was associated with sub-optimal self-care, while diabetes distress was associated with higher HbA1c and sub-optimal self-care.

  17. Balanced thermal structure of an intensifying tropical cyclone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Raymond

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study tests the hypothesis that the formation of a virtual potential temperature dipole in a developing tropical cyclone is a balanced response to the growth of an associated mid-level vortex. The dipole is collocated with the vortex and consists of a warm anomaly in the upper troposphere and a cool anomaly in the lower troposphere. An axisymmetric approximation to the observed potential vorticity distribution is inverted subject to non-linear balance for two successive days during the formation of typhoon Nuri in 2008. Good agreement is found between the area-averaged actual and balanced virtual temperature dipoles in these two cases. Furthermore, a strong correlation exists between the degree of bottom-heaviness of convective mass flux profiles and the strength of the balanced virtual potential temperature dipole. Since the dipole is balanced, it cannot be an immediate artefact of the existing convection, but rather is an inherent feature of the developing cyclone. Cloud resolving numerical modelling suggests that the dipole temperature anomaly actually promotes more bottom-heavy convective mass flux profiles, as observed. Such profiles are associated with low-level mass and vorticity convergence via mass continuity and the circulation theorem, resulting in low-level spin-up. The present work thus supports the hypothesis that the low-level spin-up associated with tropical cyclogenesis is made possible by the thermodynamic environment created by a strong mid-level vortex.

  18. Attending Surgeons' Leadership Style in the Operating Room: Comparing Junior Residents' Experiences and Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissane-Lee, Nicole A; Yule, Steven; Pozner, Charles N; Smink, Douglas S

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have focused on surgeons' nontechnical skills in the operating room (OR), especially leadership. In an attempt to identify trainee preferences, we explored junior residents' opinions about the OR leadership style of teaching faculty. Overall, 20 interns and 20 mid-level residents completed a previously validated survey on the style of leadership they encountered, the style they preferred to receive, and the style they personally employed in the OR. In all, 4 styles were explored; authoritative: leader makes decisions and communicates them firmly; explanatory: leader makes decisions promptly, but explains them fully; consultative: leader consults with trainees when important decisions are made, and delegative: leader puts the problem before the group and makes decisions by majority opinion. Comparisons were completed using chi-square analysis. Junior resident preference for leadership style of attending surgeons in the OR differed from what they encountered. Overall, 62% of residents encountered an authoritative leadership style; however, only 9% preferred this (p styles (41%). Preferences differed by postgraduate year. Although 40% of interns preferred a consultative style, 50% of mid-level residents preferred explanatory leadership. Junior resident preference of leadership style in the OR differs from what they actually encounter. This has the potential to create unwanted tension and may erode team performance. Awareness of this difference provides an opportunity for an educational intervention directed at both attendings and trainees. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A 1,000 Frames/s Programmable Vision Chip with Variable Resolution and Row-Pixel-Mixed Parallel Image Processors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanjian Wu

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A programmable vision chip with variable resolution and row-pixel-mixed parallel image processors is presented. The chip consists of a CMOS sensor array, with row-parallel 6-bit Algorithmic ADCs, row-parallel gray-scale image processors, pixel-parallel SIMD Processing Element (PE array, and instruction controller. The resolution of the image in the chip is variable: high resolution for a focused area and low resolution for general view. It implements gray-scale and binary mathematical morphology algorithms in series to carry out low-level and mid-level image processing and sends out features of the image for various applications. It can perform image processing at over 1,000 frames/s (fps. A prototype chip with 64 × 64 pixels resolution and 6-bit gray-scale image is fabricated in 0.18 mm Standard CMOS process. The area size of chip is 1.5 mm × 3.5 mm. Each pixel size is 9.5 μm × 9.5 μm and each processing element size is 23 μm × 29 μm. The experiment results demonstrate that the chip can perform low-level and mid-level image processing and it can be applied in the real-time vision applications, such as high speed target tracking.

  20. Comparing the Measured and Latent Dark Triad: Are Three Measures Better than One?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. Jonason

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Could measurement level be a factor worth considering when studying the Dark Triad (i.e., narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism? In two studies (N  = 465, we compared the relative fit of two Dark Triad models: one that treats the three measures as separate-yet-related personality traits and another that treats the measures as tapping a single, latent construct. Mid-level personality traits, such as mate-retention strategies (Study 1 were best explained by a three-measure model, whereas the higher-order trait of sociosexuality (Study 2, were best explained by a single, latent-factor model. When considering mid-level measurement in personality, the three traits may provide independent effects for interpersonal relationships, whereas at the higher-order level, the three traits may function as a single entity relating to other higher-order traits. We suggest one should consider level of measurement between the predictor and criterion variables to better predict correlations among variables such as the Dark Triad. DOI: 10.2458/azu_jmmss.v2i1.12363

  1. Intermediate Alcohol-Gasoline Blends, Fuels for Enabling Increased Engine Efficiency and Powertrain Possibilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Splitter, Derek A [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The present study experimentally investigates spark-ignited combustion with 87 AKI E0 gasoline in its neat form and in mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends with 24% vol./vol. iso-butanol-gasoline (IB24) and 30% vol./vol. ethanol-gasoline (E30). A single-cylinder research engine is used with a low and high compression ratio of 9.2:1 and 11.85:1 respectively. The engine is equipped with hydraulically actuated valves, laboratory intake air, and is capable of external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). All fuels are operated to full-load conditions with =1, using both 0% and 15% external cooled EGR. The results demonstrate that higher octane number bio-fuels better utilize higher compression ratios with high stoichiometric torque capability. Specifically, the unique properties of ethanol enabled a doubling of the stoichiometric torque capability with the 11.85:1 compression ratio using E30 as compared to 87 AKI, up to 20 bar IMEPg at =1 (with 15% EGR, 18.5 bar with 0% EGR). EGR was shown to provide thermodynamic advantages with all fuels. The results demonstrate that E30 may further the downsizing and downspeeding of engines by achieving increased low speed torque, even with high compression ratios. The results suggest that at mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends, engine and vehicle optimization can offset the reduced fuel energy content of alcohol-gasoline blends, and likely reduce vehicle fuel consumption and tailpipe CO2 emissions.

  2. Evidence of Convective Redistribution of Carbon Monoxide in Aura Tropospheric Emission Sounder (TES) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyin, Michael; Douglass, Anne; Schoeberl, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Vertical convective transport is a key element of the tropospheric circulation. Convection lofts air from the boundary layer into the free troposphere, allowing surface emissions to travel much further, and altering the rate of chemical processes such as ozone production. This study uses satellite observations to focus on the convective transport of CO from the boundary layer to the mid and upper troposphere. Our hypothesis is that strong convection associated with high rain rate regions leads to a correlation between mid level and upper level CO amounts. We first test this hypothesis using the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) chemistry and transport model. We find the correlation is robust and increases as the precipitation rate (the strength of convection) increases. We next examine three years of CO profiles from the Tropospheric Emission Sounder (TES) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instruments aboard EOS Aura. Rain rates are taken from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 3B-42 multi-satellite product. Again we find a correlation between mid-level and upper tropospheric CO, which increases with rain rate. Our result shows the critical importance of tropical convection in coupling vertical levels of the troposphere in the transport of trace gases. The effect is seen most clearly in strong convective regions such as the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone.

  3. FT-Raman and NIR spectroscopy data fusion strategy for multivariate qualitative analysis of food fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, Cristina; López, M Isabel; Ruisánchez, Itziar; Callao, M Pilar

    2016-12-01

    Two data fusion strategies (high- and mid-level) combined with a multivariate classification approach (Soft Independent Modelling of Class Analogy, SIMCA) have been applied to take advantage of the synergistic effect of the information obtained from two spectroscopic techniques: FT-Raman and NIR. Mid-level data fusion consists of merging some of the previous selected variables from the spectra obtained from each spectroscopic technique and then applying the classification technique. High-level data fusion combines the SIMCA classification results obtained individually from each spectroscopic technique. Of the possible ways to make the necessary combinations, we decided to use fuzzy aggregation connective operators. As a case study, we considered the possible adulteration of hazelnut paste with almond. Using the two-class SIMCA approach, class 1 consisted of unadulterated hazelnut samples and class 2 of samples adulterated with almond. Models performance was also studied with samples adulterated with chickpea. The results show that data fusion is an effective strategy since the performance parameters are better than the individual ones: sensitivity and specificity values between 75% and 100% for the individual techniques and between 96-100% and 88-100% for the mid- and high-level data fusion strategies, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Readiness to proceed: Characterization planning basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, M.R.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes characterization requirements, data availability, and data acquisition plans in support of the Phase 1 Waste Feed Readiness to Proceed Mid-Level Logic. It summarizes characterization requirements for the following program planning documents: Waste Feed Readiness Mid-Level Logic and Decomposition (in development); Master blue print (not available); Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Operations and Utilization Plan and Privatization Contract; Enabling assumptions (not available); Privatization low-activity waste (LAW) Data Quality Objective (DQO); Privatization high-level waste (HLW) DQO (draft); Problem-specific DQOs (in development); Interface control documents (draft). Section 2.0 defines the primary objectives for this report, Section 3.0 discusses the scope and assumptions, and Section 4.0 identifies general characterization needs and analyte-specific characterization needs or potential needs included in program documents and charts. Section 4.0 also shows the analyses that have been conducted, and the archive samples that are available for additional analyses. Section 5.0 discusses current plans for obtaining additional samples and analyses to meet readiness-to-proceed requirements. Section 6.0 summarizes sampling needs based on preliminary requirements and discusses other potential characterization needs. Many requirements documents are preliminary. In many cases, problem-specific DQOs have not been drafted, and only general assumptions about the document contents could be obtained from the authors. As a result, the readiness-to-proceed characterization requirements provided in this document are evolving and may change

  5. Personality structure in Slovenian three-year-olds: The inventory of child individual differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Zupančič

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents data on the validity of the newly developed culturally- and age-decentered instrument (International Inventory of Individual Differences, ICID, an internationally designed measure of individual differences in children, aged 3 to 12 years, based on a child personality lexicon from parental free descriptions. Using the fifteen of the ICID mid-level scales, three hundred and fifty-two Slovenian three-years-old children were assessed independently by their mothers, fathers and preschool teachers. The preschool teachers also rated children's social adjustment on the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation Scale. Data on satisfactory internal reliability of the childhood personality scales, their congruence across multiple observers and occasions of observed behavior as well as evidence of differential links of these scales to other measures of individual differences (social competence and maladaptive behavior are reported. The factor structure of the ICID scales across the observers is also shown in comparison to the data collected in other countries. The composition of the mid-level scales into four broad-band personality dimensions (Extraversion, Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism appeared remarkably similar when the factor structures of mothers' and fathers' assessments of three-year-old children were compared, while the preschool teachers' perceived organization of the child personality was found somewhat less differentiated (represented by the combined Conscientiousness/Openness, Extraversion/Neuroticism, and Agreeableness dimensions in comparison to the parental one.

  6. Antibiotic Resistance in Childhood with Pneumococcal Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Gunes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Resistance to antibiotics is better. Between should not be in capitals. Antibiotics resistant has been increasing in pneumococci that cause serious diseases such as pneumonia, meningitis in recent years. The resistance rates vary between geographic regions. In this study, we aimed to determine antibiotic resistance rates in pneumococcal infections in our region. Material and Method: This study included 31 pneumococcal strains isolated from blood, CSF and urine samples of patients with meningitis, sepsis and urinary tract infections who admitted Dicle University Medicine School Children Clinic and Diyarbakir Pediatric Hospital Between December 2004-April 2007. Reproducing clinical specimens with alpha-hemolysis, optochin-sensitive, bile soluble and gram-positive diplococci morphology was defined as S. pneumoniae. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of strains were measured by the E-test method. MIC values of penicillin against pneumococci was accepted as <0.06 mg / ml value of the sensitive, 0.12-1μg/ml mid-level resistance, ≥ 2 mg / ml value of the high-level resistance. Results: It was found 16% mid-level penicillin resistance and 3.2% high-level penicillin resistance by E-test method. 80.7% of Strains were percent of the penicillin-sensitive. Seftiriakson resistance was found as 3.2%. there was not Vancomycin resistance. Discussion: We think penicillin therapy is enough effective for pneumococcal infections except serious conditions such as meningitis and sepsis. Also we think it should be supported by multicenter studies.

  7. Two cold-season derechoes in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatzen, Christoph; Púčik, Tomas; Ryva, David

    2011-06-01

    In this study, we apply for the first time the definition of a derecho (Johns and Hirt, 1987) to European cold-season convective storm systems. These occurred on 18 January 2007 and 1 March 2008, respectively, and they are shown to fulfill the criteria of a derecho. Damaging winds were reported over a distance of 1500 km and locally reached F3 intensity. Synoptic analysis for the events reveal strongly forced situations that have been described for cold-season derechoes in the United States. A comparison of swaths of damaging winds, radar structures, detected lightning, cold pool development, and cloud-top temperatures indicates that both derechoes formed along cold fronts that were affected by strong quasi-geostrophic forcing. It seems that the overlap of the cold front position with the strong differential cyclonic vorticity advection at the cyclonic flank of mid-level jet streaks favoured intense convection and high winds. The movement and path width of the two derechoes seemed to be related to this overlap. The wind gust intensity that was also different for both events is discussed and could be related to the component of the mid-level winds perpendicular to the gust fronts.

  8. Hopeless, burned out, and questioning: achieving personal resilience in the midst of organizational turmoil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillery, Abbey-Robin

    2013-01-01

    There are not many personal reflection pieces about professional resilience published as health care professionals are still among the least likely to raise their own personal problems--especially in the field of emergency health care. Writing afirst person piece about the journey to finally finding professional resilience, I describe factors faced by many new and mid-level professionals that are not written about in academic journals yet contribute to: premature career termination, poor customer service/patient care, and lack of motivation. I conclude with a way forward that could be a map for others currently struggling with their career choice. As a mid level psychologist, I can now look back on the past 8 years of my development and see the obstacles I was faced with. The irony is that at the time I knew they were challenging times, but I lacked a context for them, and did not know what normal was. Now that I am a relatively safe distance away from those hard years, I can appreciate more fully what resilience means to me, and respect the years I spent secretly in crisis. This article is a blend of academic information about professional resilience and compassion fatigue, contrasted by those very concepts playing out in my own life. The recommendations I provide for leaders and those in the thick of a professional burn out are concepts I know would have made a difference to me, even in survival mode.

  9. Review: Dairy foods, red meat and processed meat in the diet: implications for health at key life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givens, D I

    2018-04-02

    Social and health care provision have led to substantial increases in life expectancy. In the UK this has become higher than 80 years with an even greater proportional increase in those aged 85 years and over. The different life stages give rise to important nutritional challenges and recent reductions in milk consumption have led to sub-optimal intakes of calcium by teenage females in particular when bone growth is at its maximum and of iodine during pregnancy needed to ensure that supply/production of thyroid hormones to the foetus is adequate. Many young and pre-menopausal women have considerably sub-optimal intakes of iron which are likely to be associated with reduced consumption of red meat. A clear concern is the low intakes of calcium especially as a high proportion of the population is of sub-optimal vitamin D status. This may already have had serious consequences in terms of bone development which may not be apparent until later life, particularly in post-menopausal women. This review aims to examine the role of dairy foods and red meat at key life stages in terms of their ability to reduce or increase chronic disease risk. It is clear that milk and dairy foods are key sources of important nutrients such as calcium and iodine and the concentration of some key nutrients, notably iodine can be influenced by the method of primary milk production, in particular, the iodine intake of the dairy cow. Recent meta-analyses show no evidence of increased risk of cardiovascular diseases from high consumption of milk and dairy foods but increasing evidence of a reduction in the risk of type 2 diabetes associated with fermented dairy foods, yoghurt in particular. The recently updated reports from the World Cancer Research Fund International/American Institute for Cancer Research on the associations between dairy foods, red meat and processed meat and various cancers provide further confidence that total dairy products and milk, are associated with a reduced risk of

  10. The Future of Coral Reefs Subject to Rapid Climate Change: Lessons from Natural Extreme Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma F. Camp

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change and localized anthropogenic stressors are driving rapid declines in coral reef health. In vitro experiments have been fundamental in providing insight into how reef organisms will potentially respond to future climates. However, such experiments are inevitably limited in their ability to reproduce the complex interactions that govern reef systems. Studies examining coral communities that already persist under naturally-occurring extreme and marginal physicochemical conditions have therefore become increasingly popular to advance ecosystem scale predictions of future reef form and function, although no single site provides a perfect analog to future reefs. Here we review the current state of knowledge that exists on the distribution of corals in marginal and extreme environments, and geographic sites at the latitudinal extremes of reef growth, as well as a variety of shallow reef systems and reef-neighboring environments (including upwelling and CO2 vent sites. We also conduct a synthesis of the abiotic data that have been collected at these systems, to provide the first collective assessment on the range of extreme conditions under which corals currently persist. We use the review and data synthesis to increase our understanding of the biological and ecological mechanisms that facilitate survival and success under sub-optimal physicochemical conditions. This comprehensive assessment can begin to: (i highlight the extent of extreme abiotic scenarios under which corals can persist, (ii explore whether there are commonalities in coral taxa able to persist in such extremes, (iii provide evidence for key mechanisms required to support survival and/or persistence under sub-optimal environmental conditions, and (iv evaluate the potential of current sub-optimal coral environments to act as potential refugia under changing environmental conditions. Such a collective approach is critical to better understand the future survival of

  11. Analysis of Properties of Reflectance Reference Targets for Permanent Radiometric Test Sites of High Resolution Airborne Imaging Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eero Ahokas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Reliable and optimal exploitation of rapidly developing airborne imaging methods requires geometric and radiometric quality assurance of production systems in operational conditions. Permanent test sites are the most promising approach for cost-efficient performance assessment. Optimal construction of permanent radiometric test sites for high resolution airborne imaging systems is an unresolved issue. The objective of this study was to assess the performance of commercially available gravels and painted and unpainted concrete targets for permanent, open-air radiometric test sites under sub-optimal climate conditions in Southern Finland. The reflectance spectrum and reflectance anisotropy and their stability were characterized during the summer of 2009. The management of reflectance anisotropy and stability were shown to be the key issues for better than 5% reflectance accuracy.

  12. Weak Form Efficiency of the Nigerian Stock Market: An Empirical Analysis (1984 – 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyemo Afego

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the weak-form of the efficient markets hypothesis for the Nigerian Stock Exchange (NSE by testing for random walks in the monthly index returns over the period 1984-2009. The results of the non-parametric runs test show that index returns on the NSE display a predictable component, thus suggesting that traders can earn superior returns by employing trading rules. Statistically significant deviations from randomness are also suggestive of sub-optimal allocation of investment capital within the economy. The findings, in general, contradict the weak-form of the efficient markets hypothesis, and a range of policy strategies for improving the allocative capacity and quality of the information environment of the NSE are discussed.

  13. Application of surrogate-based global optimization to aerodynamic design

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Aerodynamic design, like many other engineering applications, is increasingly relying on computational power. The growing need for multi-disciplinarity and high fidelity in design optimization for industrial applications requires a huge number of repeated simulations in order to find an optimal design candidate. The main drawback is that each simulation can be computationally expensive – this becomes an even bigger issue when used within parametric studies, automated search or optimization loops, which typically may require thousands of analysis evaluations. The core issue of a design-optimization problem is the search process involved. However, when facing complex problems, the high-dimensionality of the design space and the high-multi-modality of the target functions cannot be tackled with standard techniques. In recent years, global optimization using meta-models has been widely applied to design exploration in order to rapidly investigate the design space and find sub-optimal solutions. Indeed, surrogat...

  14. Critical Appraisal of Microbiology Guidelines Endorsed by two Professional Organisations: Société Française De Microbiologie (SFM) and American Society of Microbiology (ASM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonfrède, Michèle; Couaillac, Jean Paul; Augereau, Christine; Lepargneur, Jean Pierre; Watine, Joseph

    2012-07-01

    Medical practice guidelines (GLs) being tools that are mainly designed to evaluate medical professionals, it sounds logical, and fair, that professionals should in turn evaluate GLs. Microbiology being a medical discipline, we used the AGREE instrument, i.e. an established evaluation tool for GLs, in order to evaluate the quality of two major microbiology guidelines, i.e. the SFM GLs and the ASM GLs). Both guidelines remain sub-optimal in their levels of quality, and obtain scores that are not very different from the average scores obtained by many other guidelines in various medical disciplines. We therefore believe that both guidelines need to be modified before they can be recommended without provisos. A higher degree of multi-disciplinary work, including a more formal implication of methodologists, as well as of infectious disease clinicians, and of economists, might perhaps enable future editions of these guidelines to reach higher levels of quality.

  15. Gestione delle acque, pace nel Medio Oriente e un ruolo per la Banca Mondiale (Water Management, Middle East Peace and a Role for the World Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Askari

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The region comprising North Africa and the Middle East is the driest in the world. Thus conflicts over water have been a part of the landscape. These conflicts over water are invariably seen as a zero sum game; such a view does not incorporate the notion that water is an economic good and is therefore scarce. Given the limitation of competitive markets, optimal water allocation could only but help. However, even if one country allocates water efficiently within its own territory, its allocation could be sub-optimal if water interdependencies with other countries are not incorporated in a regional optimization model. The World Bank is in the best position to adopt a regional optimization model and thus ameliorate water conditions in the Middle East and in other regions around the world.       JEL Codes: Q25, Q28, Q15, Q13Keywords: Water

  16. Defining immune engagement thresholds for in vivo control of virus-driven lymphoproliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Godinho-Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Persistent infections are subject to constant surveillance by CD8+ cytotoxic T cells (CTL. Their control should therefore depend on MHC class I-restricted epitope presentation. Many epitopes are described for γ-herpesviruses and form a basis for prospective immunotherapies and vaccines. However the quantitative requirements of in vivo immune control for epitope presentation and recognition remain poorly defined. We used Murid Herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4 to determine for a latently expressed viral epitope how MHC class-I binding and CTL functional avidity impact on host colonization. Tracking MuHV-4 recombinants that differed only in epitope presentation, we found little latitude for sub-optimal MHC class I binding before immune control failed. By contrast, control remained effective across a wide range of T cell functional avidities. Thus, we could define critical engagement thresholds for the in vivo immune control of virus-driven B cell proliferation.

  17. A cognitive prosthesis for complex decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Sébastien; Gagnon, Jean-François; Lafond, Daniel; Hodgetts, Helen M; Doiron, Maxime; Jeuniaux, Patrick P J M H

    2017-01-01

    While simple heuristics can be ecologically rational and effective in naturalistic decision making contexts, complex situations require analytical decision making strategies, hypothesis-testing and learning. Sub-optimal decision strategies - using simplified as opposed to analytic decision rules - have been reported in domains such as healthcare, military operational planning, and government policy making. We investigate the potential of a computational toolkit called "IMAGE" to improve decision-making by developing structural knowledge and increasing understanding of complex situations. IMAGE is tested within the context of a complex military convoy management task through (a) interactive simulations, and (b) visualization and knowledge representation capabilities. We assess the usefulness of two versions of IMAGE (desktop and immersive) compared to a baseline. Results suggest that the prosthesis helped analysts in making better decisions, but failed to increase their structural knowledge about the situation once the cognitive prosthesis is removed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Smallholder Pig Marketing Systems in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimbi, Eliakunda C.; Mlangwa, James; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2016-01-01

    A study using two cross-sectional and a longitudinal research designs was undertaken to assess smallholder pig marketing system to explore basic information for improving smallholder pig production and marketing systems. The first design involved a cross-sectional survey of 300 pig farmers randomly...... by informal marketing channels, hence, limit the effectiveness of pig production and marketing. Marketed pigs had smaller weights compared to their ages, therefore contributing to poor returns to pig farmers and sub-optimal pork market supply. The study recommends strategic development of pig value chain...... villages who had also participated in the first design. Results showed that, pig-marketing systems had various channels and segments moving mainly pigs and pork to farmers, traders and consumers. Major market participants in the pig market chain were the pig farmers who played a dual role as pig producers...

  19. Performance of popular open source databases for HEP related computing problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalskyi, D; Sfiligoi, I; Wuerthwein, F; Yagil, A

    2014-01-01

    Databases are used in many software components of HEP computing, from monitoring and job scheduling to data storage and processing. It is not always clear at the beginning of a project if a problem can be handled by a single server, or if one needs to plan for a multi-server solution. Before a scalable solution is adopted, it helps to know how well it performs in a single server case to avoid situations when a multi-server solution is adopted mostly due to sub-optimal performance per node. This paper presents comparison benchmarks of popular open source database management systems. As a test application we use a user job monitoring system based on the Glidein workflow management system used in the CMS Collaboration.

  20. Divide and Pacify

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhuysse, Pieter

    policy." - Kenneth Shepsle, Professor, Harvard University and Fellow, American Academy of Sciences "In post-communist Europe, international advice—for example from the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank—to reforming governments focused heavily on economic policy. The political imperative......, in contrast, was a set of policies generous enough to maintain continuing support for the overall reforms. The great value of this book is that it addresses both strategic policy directions simultaneously. Specifically, it analyzes how policies that are sub-optimal in economic terms (work in the grey economy......, easy access to unemployment benefits, fiscally expensive early retirement) can be argued to be optimal (or at least roughly so) when considering economics and politics together. As such, the book offers a rich political economy perspective on post-communist reforms." – Nicholas Barr, Professor...

  1. Effective dose calculations in conventional diagnostic X-ray examinations for adult and paediatric patients in a large Italian hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compagnone, G.; Pagan, L.; Bergamini, C.

    2005-01-01

    The effective dose E is an efficient and powerful parameter to study the radioprotection of the patient. In our hospital, eight radiological departments and more than 100 radiological X-ray tubes are present. The effective doses were calculated for adults and paediatric patients in 10 standard projections. To calculate E, first the entrance skin dose (ESD) was evaluated by a mathematical model that was validated by >400 direct measurements taken with an ionisation chamber on four different phantoms: the overall accuracy of the model was better than 12%. Second, to relate ESD to E, conversion coefficients calculated by Monte Carlo techniques were used. The E-values obtained were of the same order as those presented in the literature. Finally, we analysed how the study of E distributions among the various radiological departments can help to optimise the procedures, by identifying the most critical examinations or sub-optimal clinical protocols. (authors)

  2. Computed tomography of the breast: a valuable adjunct to mammography in selected cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Gelderen, W.F.C.; Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town

    1995-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is not often used for the further assessment of a mass in the breast. In the case presented it proved to be invaluable in demonstrating a very posterior breast mass previously sub optimally demonstrated a mammography, not palpable clinically, and not visualized on ultrasound examination. The predicament of a very posterior breast mass is highlighted and it is suggested that present-day routine cranio-caudal and oblique views may not be adequate to show such a mass even if meticulous attention to radiograph technique is given. If the supine-oblique view with balloon compression cannot be obtained, CT in the prone position with the breasts dependent may be the best alternative. Fine needle aspiration biopsy can be performed under CT guidance in such cases. 4 refs., 3 figs

  3. Fault Diagnosis of Nonlinear Systems Using Structured Augmented State Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jochen Aβfalg; Frank Allg(o)wer

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an internal model approach for modeling and diagnostic functionality design for nonlinear systems operating subject to single- and multiple-faults. We therefore provide the framework of structured augmented state models. Fault characteristics are considered to be generated by dynamical exosystems that are switched via equality constraints to overcome the augmented state observability limiting the number of diagnosable faults. Based on the proposed model, the fault diagnosis problem is specified as an optimal hybrid augmented state estimation problem. Sub-optimal solutions are motivated and exemplified for the fault diagnosis of the well-known three-tank benchmark. As the considered class of fault diagnosis problems is large, the suggested approach is not only of theoretical interest but also of high practical relevance.

  4. Parallel Molecular Distributed Detection With Brownian Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Uri; Koh, Min-Sung

    2016-12-01

    This paper explores the in vivo distributed detection of an undesired biological agent's (BAs) biomarkers by a group of biological sized nanomachines in an aqueous medium under drift. The term distributed, indicates that the system information relative to the BAs presence is dispersed across the collection of nanomachines, where each nanomachine possesses limited communication, computation, and movement capabilities. Using Brownian motion with drift, a probabilistic detection and optimal data fusion framework, coined molecular distributed detection, will be introduced that combines theory from both molecular communication and distributed detection. Using the optimal data fusion framework as a guide, simulation indicates that a sub-optimal fusion method exists, allowing for a significant reduction in implementation complexity while retaining BA detection accuracy.

  5. (Preventing) two birds with one stone: improving vitamin D levels in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawless, Susie; White, Phil; Murdoch, Prue; Leitch, Sharon

    2011-06-01

    A majority of adults have sub-optimal vitamin D levels in the winter in southern New Zealand. This is associated with an increased risk of falls and fragility fractures in the elderly, with long-term adverse outcomes likely. Vitamin D supplementation decreases the risks of both falls and fractures. An intervention was undertaken by a small urban general practice to increase the number of elderly patients receiving vitamin D supplementation by linking vitamin D prescription to the annual flu vaccination campaign. Uptake of the supplementation was high and costs to the practice low. Thirty-eight patients were identified for whom long-term supplementation with vitamin D was indicated. The study could have been strengthened by incorporating a more formal method of evaluating uptake. Encouraging patients to take supplements as a population-based strategy is a realistic intervention, and linking it to the flu vaccination campaign is both seasonally appropriate and efficient.

  6. Heuristic Optimization for the Discrete Virtual Power Plant Dispatch Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mette Kirschmeyer; Hansen, Lars Henrik; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2014-01-01

    We consider a Virtual Power Plant, which is given the task of dispatching a fluctuating power supply to a portfolio of flexible consumers. The flexible consumers are modeled as discrete batch processes, and the associated optimization problem is denoted the Discrete Virtual Power Plant Dispatch...... Problem. First NP-completeness of the Discrete Virtual Power Plant Dispatch Problem is proved formally. We then proceed to develop tailored versions of the meta-heuristic algorithms Hill Climber and Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure (GRASP). The algorithms are tuned and tested on portfolios...... of varying sizes. We find that all the tailored algorithms perform satisfactorily in the sense that they are able to find sub-optimal, but usable, solutions to very large problems (on the order of 10 5 units) at computation times on the scale of just 10 seconds, which is far beyond the capabilities...

  7. Pacemaker syndrome with sub-acute left ventricular systolic dysfunction in a patient with a dual-chamber pacemaker: consequence of lead switch at the header.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurwolah, Mohammad Reeaze; Vezi, Brian Zwelethini

    In the daily practice of pacemaker insertion, the occurrence of atrial and ventricular lead switch at the pacemaker box header is a rare and unintentional phenomenon, with less than five cases reported in the literature. The lead switch may have dire consequences, depending on the indication for the pacemaker. One of these consequences is pacemaker syndrome, in which the normal sequence of atrial and ventricular activation is impaired, leading to sub-optimal ventricular filling and cardiac output. It is important for the attending physician to recognise any worsening of symptoms in a patient who has recently had a permanent pacemaker inserted. In the case of a dual-chamber pacemaker, switching of the atrial and ventricular leads at the pacemaker box header should be strongly suspected. We present an unusual case of pacemaker syndrome and right ventricular-only pacinginduced left ventricular systolic dysfunction in a patient with a dual-chamber pacemaker.

  8. Inter-laboratory evaluation of instrument platforms and experimental workflows for quantitative accuracy and reproducibility assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Percy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The reproducibility of plasma protein quantitation between laboratories and between instrument types was examined in a large-scale international study involving 16 laboratories and 19 LC–MS/MS platforms, using two kits designed to evaluate instrument performance and one kit designed to evaluate the entire bottom-up workflow. There was little effect of instrument type on the quality of the results, demonstrating the robustness of LC/MRM-MS with isotopically labeled standards. Technician skill was a factor, as errors in sample preparation and sub-optimal LC–MS performance were evident. This highlights the importance of proper training and routine quality control before quantitation is done on patient samples.

  9. Optimal planning of electric vehicle charging station at the distribution system using hybrid optimization algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awasthi, Abhishek; Venkitusamy, Karthikeyan; Padmanaban, Sanjeevikumar

    2017-01-01

    India's ever increasing population has made it necessary to develop alternative modes of transportation with electric vehicles being the most preferred option. The major obstacle is the deteriorating impact on the utility distribution system brought about by improper setup of these charging...... stations. This paper deals with the optimal planning (siting and sizing) of charging station infrastructure in the city of Allahabad, India. This city is one of the upcoming smart cities, where electric vehicle transportation pilot project is going on under Government of India initiative. In this context......, a hybrid algorithm based on genetic algorithm and improved version of conventional particle swarm optimization is utilized for finding optimal placement of charging station in the Allahabad distribution system. The particle swarm optimization algorithm re-optimizes the received sub-optimal solution (site...

  10. Feasibility Study of a Simulation Driven Approach for Estimating Reliability of Wind Turbine Fluid Power Pitch Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liniger, Jesper; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen; N. Soltani, Mohsen

    2018-01-01

    Recent field data indicates that pitch systems account for a substantial part of a wind turbines down time. Reducing downtime means increasing the total amount of energy produced during its lifetime. Both electrical and fluid power pitch systems are employed with a roughly 50/50 distribution. Fluid...... power pitch systems generally show higher reliability and have been favored on larger offshore wind turbines. Still general issues such as leakage, contamination and electrical faults make current systems work sub-optimal. Current field data for wind turbines present overall pitch system reliability...... and the reliability of component groups (valves, accumulators, pumps etc.). However, the failure modes of the components and more importantly the root causes are not evident. The root causes and failure mode probabilities are central for changing current pitch system designs and operational concepts to increase...

  11. Consumption Factor Optimization for Multihop Relaying over Nakagami-m Fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Randrianantenaina, Itsikiantsoa

    2015-10-06

    In this paper, the energy efficiency of multihop relaying over Nakagami-m fading channels is investigated. The “consumption factor”, adopted as a metric to evaluate the energy efficiency, is derived for both amplify-and-forward and decodeand- forward relaying strategies. Then, based on the obtained expressions, we propose a power allocation strategy maximizing the consumption factor. In addition, a sub-optimal, low complexity, power allocation algorithm is proposed and analyzed, and the obtained power allocation scheme is compared in terms of energy efficiency to other power allocation schemes from the literature. Analytical and simulation results confirm the accuracy of our derivations, and assess the performance gains of the proposed approach.

  12. This apple is too ugly for me!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Hooge, Ilona E.; Oostindjer, Marije; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Food waste has received increasing scientific and societal attention during the last decade. One important cause of food waste is thought to be the un-willingness of supply chains and consumers to sell, purchase, and consume suboptimal or imperfect foods. Yet, empirical research on this issue...... is scarce and contradictory. The current research investigates under which conditions consumers purchase or consume foods that deviate from regular products in terms of appearance standards, date labelling, or damaged packaging, without deviation on the intrinsic quality or safety. An online choice...... experiment among 4214 consumers from five Northern European countries reveals that consumer preferences for suboptimal products differ depending on whether the consumer is in a supermarket or at home, and depending on the type of sub-optimality. Moreover, consumer choices, discount preferences, and waste...

  13. Thermal Performance Characterization using Time Series Data - IEA EBC Annex 58 Guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Bacher, Peder; Bauwens, Geert

    -dynamical) steady state models where the parameters are found using classical methods for linear regression. Such steady state techniques provide sub-optimal use of the information embedded in the data and provides information only about the HLC and gA-values. Next the guidelines consider dynamical models. Firstly......, linear input-output models are considered. More specifically we will consider the class of AutoRegressive with eXogenous input (ARX) (p) models. These models provides information about the HLC and gA-values, and information about the dynamics (most frequently described as time-constants for the system......This document presents guidelines for using time series analysis methods, models and tools for estimating the thermal performance of buildings and building components. The thermal performance is measured as estimated parameters of a model, or parameters derived from estimated parameters of a model...

  14. Building of Reusable Reverse Logistics Model and its Optimization Considering the Decision of Backorder or Next Arrival of Goods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Eun; Gen, Mitsuo; Rhee, Kyong-Gu; Lee, Hee-Hyol

    This paper deals with the building of the reusable reverse logistics model considering the decision of the backorder or the next arrival of goods. The optimization method to minimize the transportation cost and to minimize the volume of the backorder or the next arrival of goods occurred by the Just in Time delivery of the final delivery stage between the manufacturer and the processing center is proposed. Through the optimization algorithms using the priority-based genetic algorithm and the hybrid genetic algorithm, the sub-optimal delivery routes are determined. Based on the case study of a distilling and sale company in Busan in Korea, the new model of the reusable reverse logistics of empty bottles is built and the effectiveness of the proposed method is verified.

  15. A model of methods for influencing prescribing: Part I. A review of prescribing models, persuasion theories, and administrative and educational methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raisch, D W

    1990-04-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to develop a model of methods to be used to influence prescribing. Four bodies of literature were identified as being important for developing the model: (1) Theoretical prescribing models furnish information concerning factors that affect prescribing and how prescribing decisions are made. (2) Theories of persuasion provide insight into important components of educational communications. (3) Research articles of programs to improve prescribing identify types of programs that have been found to be successful. (4) Theories of human inference describe how judgments are formulated and identify errors in judgment that can play a role in prescribing. This review is presented in two parts. This article reviews prescribing models, theories of persuasion, studies of administrative programs to control prescribing, and sub-optimally designed studies of educational efforts to influence drug prescribing.

  16. Tuberculosis contact screening and isoniazid preventive therapy in a South Indian district: operational issues for programmatic consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothukuchi, Madhavi; Nagaraja, Sharath Burugina; Kelamane, Santosha; Satyanarayana, Srinath; Shashidhar; Babu, Sai; Dewan, Puneet; Wares, Fraser

    2011-01-01

    Under India's Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP), all household contacts of sputum smear positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB) patients are screened for TB. In the absence of active TB disease, household contacts aged Isoniazid Preventive Therapy (IPT) (5 milligrams/kilogram body weight/day) for 6 months. To estimate the number of household contacts aged tablets in peripheral health centers. The reasons for non-evaluation of the remaining eligible children (n = 56, 33%) include no home visit by the health staff in 25 contacts, home visit done but not evaluated in 31 contacts. House-hold contacts in rural areas were less likely to be evaluated and initiated on IPT [risk ratio 6.65 (95% CI; 3.06-14.42)]. Contact screening and IPT implementation under routine programmatic conditions is sub-optimal. There is an urgent need to sensitize all concerned programme staff on its importance and establishment of mechanisms for rigorous monitoring.

  17. Nonparametric variational optimization of reaction coordinates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banushkina, Polina V.; Krivov, Sergei V., E-mail: s.krivov@leeds.ac.uk [Astbury Center for Structural Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-14

    State of the art realistic simulations of complex atomic processes commonly produce trajectories of large size, making the development of automated analysis tools very important. A popular approach aimed at extracting dynamical information consists of projecting these trajectories into optimally selected reaction coordinates or collective variables. For equilibrium dynamics between any two boundary states, the committor function also known as the folding probability in protein folding studies is often considered as the optimal coordinate. To determine it, one selects a functional form with many parameters and trains it on the trajectories using various criteria. A major problem with such an approach is that a poor initial choice of the functional form may lead to sub-optimal results. Here, we describe an approach which allows one to optimize the reaction coordinate without selecting its functional form and thus avoiding this source of error.

  18. Robustness and strategies of adaptation among farmer varieties of African Rice (Oryza glaberrima) and Asian Rice (Oryza sativa) across West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokuwa, Alfred; Nuijten, Edwin; Okry, Florent; Teeken, Béla; Maat, Harro; Richards, Paul; Struik, Paul C

    2013-01-01

    This study offers evidence of the robustness of farmer rice varieties (Oryza glaberrima and O. sativa) in West Africa. Our experiments in five West African countries showed that farmer varieties were tolerant of sub-optimal conditions, but employed a range of strategies to cope with stress. Varieties belonging to the species Oryza glaberrima - solely the product of farmer agency - were the most successful in adapting to a range of adverse conditions. Some of the farmer selections from within the indica and japonica subspecies of O. sativa also performed well in a range of conditions, but other farmer selections from within these two subspecies were mainly limited to more specific niches. The results contradict the rather common belief that farmer varieties are only of local value. Farmer varieties should be considered by breeding programmes and used (alongside improved varieties) in dissemination projects for rural food security.

  19. Smart Cities and National Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck

    Energy system analysis follows two tracks, either through plans for future transitions of national energy systems, or local development of smart cities and regions. These two tracks seldom overlap. National plans neglect the local implementation of intermittent renewable technology and use of local...... resources, and smart cities and local development do not relate to national targets and fail to evaluate sub-optimization. Thus, there is a need for approaches that help researchers creating links between country analyses and local energy system transitions. This paper investigates the effects...... of such an approach, by investigating Western Denmark. By splitting Western Denmark into regions, it is possible to create individual energy systems for each region. Through interconnection, these regions can exchange electricity with each other. This enables analyses of interaction between smart cities and national...

  20. An evaluation of the impact of digital imaging on radiographic practice and patient doses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrocks, J.; Violaki, K.

    2015-09-01

    Direct digital imaging technology was implemented in all areas in general and mobile radiology at Barts and the Royal London Hospitals in 2012. Evidence from recent radiation incident investigations indicates optimum exposure factors are not consistently selected, with the greater dynamic range of the digital detectors allowing sub-optimal practice. To investigate further patient dose data were extracted from the Radiology Information System for adult chest X-ray examinations in 2014, covering over 50,000 studies in the Trust. Chest X-ray examinations were selected as they are low dose but frequent examinations. The patient dose data were evaluated taking into account X-ray system type and detector performance measurements, and individual cases studies were used to highlight where practice can be improved.

  1. Can air-breathing fish be adapted to higher than present temperatures?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayley, Mark

    Air-breathing in fish is thought to have evolved in environments at lower than present oxygen levels and higher than present temperatures raising the question of whether extant species are adapted to recent temperature regimes or living at sub-optimal temperatures. The air-breathing Pangasionodon...... hypophthalmus inhabits the Mekong river system covering two climate zones during its life cycle and migrating more than 2000 km from hatching in northern Laos to its adult life in the southern delta region. It is a facultative air-breather with well-developed gills and air-breathing organ and an unusual...... circulatory bauplan. Here we examine the question of its optimal temperature through aspects of its cardio respiratory physiology including temperature effects on blood oxygen binding, ventilation and blood gasses, stereological measures of cardiorespiratory system, metabolic rate and growth. Comparing...

  2. Optimal model-based deficit irrigation scheduling using AquaCrop: a simulation study with cotton, potato and tomato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linker, Raphael; Ioslovich, Ilya; Sylaios, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    -smooth behavior of the objective function and the fact that it involves multiple integer variables. We developed an optimization scheme for generating sub-optimal irrigation schedules that take implicitly into account the response of the crop to water stress, and used these as initial guesses for a full......Water shortage is the main limiting factor for agricultural productivity in many countries and improving water use efficiency in agriculture has been the focus of numerous studies. The usual approach to limit water consumption in agriculture is to apply water quotas and in such a situation farmers...... variables are the irrigation amounts for each day of the season. The objective function is the expected yield calculated with the use of a model. In the present work we solved this optimization problem for three crops modeled by the model AquaCrop. This optimization problem is non-trivial due to the non...

  3. Comparison of memory thresholds for planar qudit geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Jacob; Jochym-O'Connor, Tomas; Gheorghiu, Vlad

    2017-11-01

    We introduce and analyze a new type of decoding algorithm called general color clustering, based on renormalization group methods, to be used in qudit color codes. The performance of this decoder is analyzed under a generalized bit-flip error model, and is used to obtain the first memory threshold estimates for qudit 6-6-6 color codes. The proposed decoder is compared with similar decoding schemes for qudit surface codes as well as the current leading qubit decoders for both sets of codes. We find that, as with surface codes, clustering performs sub-optimally for qubit color codes, giving a threshold of 5.6 % compared to the 8.0 % obtained through surface projection decoding methods. However, the threshold rate increases by up to 112% for large qudit dimensions, plateauing around 11.9 % . All the analysis is performed using QTop, a new open-source software for simulating and visualizing topological quantum error correcting codes.

  4. Models of care and delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Jens

    2014-01-01

    with community clinics for injecting drug-dependent persons is also being implemented. Shared care models require oversight to ensure that primary responsibility is defined for the persons overall health situation, for screening of co-morbidities, defining indication to treat comorbidities, prescription of non......Marked regional differences in HIV-related clinical outcomes exist across Europe. Models of outpatient HIV care, including HIV testing, linkage and retention for positive persons, also differ across the continent, including examples of sub-optimal care. Even in settings with reasonably good...... outcomes, existing models are scrutinized for simplification and/or reduced cost. Outpatient HIV care models across Europe may be centralized to specialized clinics only, primarily handled by general practitioners (GP), or a mixture of the two, depending on the setting. Key factors explaining...

  5. A game-theoretic approach to donor kidney sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, B J

    1988-01-01

    Graft survival in renal transplantation is a function, amongst other things, of the degree of histocompatibility lymphocyte-A (HLA) tissue matching achieved between donor and recipient. Yet a donor procured at centre A might match a transplant candidate at centre B and vice versa. This raises the question of whether, and under what circumstances, surgeons will offer and exchange donor kidneys and gain from such trade in terms of graft survival. We analyse the problem in a game-theoretic framework where the choice of strategy 'to offer or not?' is evaluated in the context of the uncertainty of reciprocation by the other player(s) in the game. The equilibrium solution to a number of variations of the game is predicted to be non-cooperation resulting in collectively sub-optimal graft survival rates. Some policy options for improving cooperation are considered including exchange incentives and coercive measures.

  6. Learning from Bees: An Approach for Influence Maximization on Viral Campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, C Prem; S, Asharaf; Kumar, K Satheesh

    2016-01-01

    Maximisation of influence propagation is a key ingredient to any viral marketing or socio-political campaigns. However, it is an NP-hard problem, and various approximate algorithms have been suggested to address the issue, though not largely successful. In this paper, we propose a bio-inspired approach to select the initial set of nodes which is significant in rapid convergence towards a sub-optimal solution in minimal runtime. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated using the re-tweet network of the hashtag #KissofLove on Twitter associated with the non-violent protest against the moral policing spread to many parts of India. Comparison with existing centrality based node ranking process the proposed method significant improvement on influence propagation. The proposed algorithm is one of the hardly few bio-inspired algorithms in network theory. We also report the results of the exploratory analysis of the network kiss of love campaign.

  7. Modelling the South African fruit export infrastructure: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FG Ortmann

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A description is provided of work performed as part of the fruit logistics infrastructure project commissioned by the South African Deciduous Fruit Producers’ Trust and coordinated by the South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, as described in [Van Dyk FE & Maspero E, 2004, An analysis of the South African fruit logistics infrastructure, ORiON, 20(1, pp. 55–72]. After a brief introduction to the problem, two models (a single-commodity graph theoretic model and a multi-commodity mathematical programming model are derived for determining the maximal weekly flow or throughput of fresh fruit through the South African national export infrastructure. These models are solved for two extreme seasonal export scenarios and the solutions show that no export infrastructure expansion is required in the near future - observed bottlenecks are not fundamental to the infrastructure and its capacities, but are rather due to sub-optimal management and utilisation of the existing infrastructure.

  8. Robustness and Strategies of Adaptation among Farmer Varieties of African Rice (Oryza glaberrima) and Asian Rice (Oryza sativa) across West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maat, Harro; Richards, Paul; Struik, Paul C.

    2013-01-01

    This study offers evidence of the robustness of farmer rice varieties (Oryza glaberrima and O. sativa) in West Africa. Our experiments in five West African countries showed that farmer varieties were tolerant of sub-optimal conditions, but employed a range of strategies to cope with stress. Varieties belonging to the species Oryza glaberrima – solely the product of farmer agency – were the most successful in adapting to a range of adverse conditions. Some of the farmer selections from within the indica and japonica subspecies of O. sativa also performed well in a range of conditions, but other farmer selections from within these two subspecies were mainly limited to more specific niches. The results contradict the rather common belief that farmer varieties are only of local value. Farmer varieties should be considered by breeding programmes and used (alongside improved varieties) in dissemination projects for rural food security. PMID:23536754

  9. Energy efficient scheme for cognitive radios utilizing soft sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbasi, Abdulrahman

    2014-04-06

    In this paper we propose an energy efficient cognitive radio system. Our design considers an underlaying resource allocation combined with soft sensing information to achieve a sub-optimum energy efficient system. The sub-optimality is achieved by optimizing over a channel inversion power policy instead of considering a water-filling power policy. We consider an Energy per Goodbit (EPG) metric to express the energy efficient objective function of the system and as an evaluation metric to our system performance. Since our optimization problem is not a known convex problem, we prove its convexity to guarantee its feasibility. We evaluate the proposed scheme comparing to a benchmark system through both analytical and numerical results.

  10. Optimizing nitrogen fertilizer use: Current approaches and simulation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baethgen, W.E.

    2000-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is the most common limiting nutrient in agricultural systems throughout the world. Crops need sufficient available N to achieve optimum yields and adequate grain-protein content. Consequently, sub-optimal rates of N fertilizers typically cause lower economical benefits for farmers. On the other hand, excessive N fertilizer use may result in environmental problems such as nitrate contamination of groundwater and emission of N 2 O and NO. In spite of the economical and environmental importance of good N fertilizer management, the development of optimum fertilizer recommendations is still a major challenge in most agricultural systems. This article reviews the approaches most commonly used for making N recommendations: expected yield level, soil testing and plant analysis (including quick tests). The paper introduces the application of simulation models that complement traditional approaches, and includes some examples of current applications in Africa and South America. (author)

  11. A Divide and Conquer Strategy for Scaling Weather Simulations with Multiple Regions of Interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Malakar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and timely prediction of weather phenomena, such as hurricanes and flash floods, require high-fidelity compute intensive simulations of multiple finer regions of interest within a coarse simulation domain. Current weather applications execute these nested simulations sequentially using all the available processors, which is sub-optimal due to their sub-linear scalability. In this work, we present a strategy for parallel execution of multiple nested domain simulations based on partitioning the 2-D processor grid into disjoint rectangular regions associated with each domain. We propose a novel combination of performance prediction, processor allocation methods and topology-aware mapping of the regions on torus interconnects. Experiments on IBM Blue Gene systems using WRF show that the proposed strategies result in performance improvement of up to 33% with topology-oblivious mapping and up to additional 7% with topology-aware mapping over the default sequential strategy.

  12. Exploring the origin of high optical absorption in conjugated polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Vezie, Michelle S.

    2016-05-16

    The specific optical absorption of an organic semiconductor is critical to the performance of organic optoelectronic devices. For example, higher light-harvesting efficiency can lead to higher photocurrent in solar cells that are limited by sub-optimal electrical transport. Here, we compare over 40 conjugated polymers, and find that many different chemical structures share an apparent maximum in their extinction coefficients. However, a diketopyrrolopyrrole-thienothiophene copolymer shows remarkably high optical absorption at relatively low photon energies. By investigating its backbone structure and conformation with measurements and quantum chemical calculations, we find that the high optical absorption can be explained by the high persistence length of the polymer. Accordingly, we demonstrate high absorption in other polymers with high theoretical persistence length. Visible light harvesting may be enhanced in other conjugated polymers through judicious design of the structure.

  13. Pharmacological Bypass of Cockayne Syndrome B Function in Neuronal Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuming Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cockayne syndrome (CS is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by growth abnormalities, premature aging, and photosensitivity. Mutation of Cockayne syndrome B (CSB affects neuronal gene expression and differentiation, so we attempted to bypass its function by expressing downstream target genes. Intriguingly, ectopic expression of Synaptotagmin 9 (SYT9, a key component of the machinery controlling neurotrophin release, bypasses the need for CSB in neuritogenesis. Importantly, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, a neurotrophin implicated in neuronal differentiation and synaptic modulation, and pharmacological mimics such as 7,8-dihydroxyflavone and amitriptyline can compensate for CSB deficiency in cell models of neuronal differentiation as well. SYT9 and BDNF are downregulated in CS patient brain tissue, further indicating that sub-optimal neurotrophin signaling underlies neurological defects in CS. In addition to shedding light on cellular mechanisms underlying CS and pointing to future avenues for pharmacological intervention, these data suggest an important role for SYT9 in neuronal differentiation.

  14. Adaptive discrete rate and power transmission for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed M.

    2012-04-01

    In this paper we develop a framework for optimizing the performance of the secondary link in terms of the average spectral efficiency assuming quantized channel state information (CSI) of the secondary and the secondary-to-primary interference channels available at the secondary transmitter. We consider the problem under the constraints of maximum average interference power levels at the primary receiver. We develop a sub-optimal computationally efficient iterative algorithm for finding the optimal CSI quantizers as well as the discrete power and rate employed at the cognitive transmitter for each quantized CSI level so as to maximize the average spectral efficiency. We show via analysis and simulations that the proposed algorithm converges for Rayleigh fading channels. Our numerical results give the number of bits required to sufficiently represent the CSI to achieve almost the maximum average spectral efficiency attained using full knowledge of the CSI. © 2012 IEEE.

  15. Integrative improvement method and mixed-integer programming in system planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadegheih, A.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, system planning network is formulated for mixed-integer programming and a Ga. The cost function of this problem consists of the capital investment cost in discrete form, the cost of transmission losses and the power generation costs. The Dc load flow equations for the network are embedded in the constraints of the mathematical model to avoid sub-optimal solutions that can arise if the enforcement of such constraints is done in an indirect way. The solution of the model gives the best line additions. and also provides information regarding the optimal generation at each generation point. This method of solutions is demonstrated on the expansion of a 5 bus -bar system to 6 bus-bars

  16. Energy efficient design for MIMO two-way AF multiple relay networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad M.

    2014-04-01

    This paper studies the energy efficient transmission and the power allocation problem for multiple two-way relay networks equipped with multi-input multi-output antennas where each relay employs an amplify-and-forward strategy. The goal is to minimize the total power consumption without degrading the quality of service of the terminals. In our analysis, we start by deriving closed-form expressions of the optimal powers allocated to terminals. We then employ a strong optimization tool based on the particle swarm optimization technique to find the optimal power allocated at each relay antenna. Our numerical results illustrate the performance of the proposed scheme and show that it achieves a sub-optimal solution very close to the optimal one.

  17. Exploring the origin of high optical absorption in conjugated polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Vezie, Michelle S.; Few, Sheridan; Meager, Iain; Pieridou, Galatia; Dö rling, Bernhard; Ashraf, Raja Shahid; Goñ i, Alejandro R.; Bronstein, Hugo; McCulloch, Iain; Hayes, Sophia C.; Campoy-Quiles, Mariano; Nelson, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    The specific optical absorption of an organic semiconductor is critical to the performance of organic optoelectronic devices. For example, higher light-harvesting efficiency can lead to higher photocurrent in solar cells that are limited by sub-optimal electrical transport. Here, we compare over 40 conjugated polymers, and find that many different chemical structures share an apparent maximum in their extinction coefficients. However, a diketopyrrolopyrrole-thienothiophene copolymer shows remarkably high optical absorption at relatively low photon energies. By investigating its backbone structure and conformation with measurements and quantum chemical calculations, we find that the high optical absorption can be explained by the high persistence length of the polymer. Accordingly, we demonstrate high absorption in other polymers with high theoretical persistence length. Visible light harvesting may be enhanced in other conjugated polymers through judicious design of the structure.

  18. Long-term selenium status in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baskett, C.K.; Spate, V.L.; Mason, M.M.; Nichols, T.A.; Williams, A.; Dubman, I.M.; Gudino, A.; Denison, J.; Morris, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    The association of sub-optimal selenium status with increased risk factors for some cancers has been reported in two recent epidemiological studies. In both studies the same threshold in selenium status was observed, below which, cancer incidence increased. To assess the use of nails as a biologic monitor to measure the long-term selenium status, an eight-year longitudinal study was undertaken with a group of 11 adult subjects, 5 women and 6 men. Selenium has been measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Differences between fingernails and toenails with be discussed. In addition, the results will be discussed in the context of the long-term stability of the nail monitor to measure selenium status during those periods when selenium determinants are static; and the changes that occur as a result of selenium supplementation. (author)

  19. A Power Planning Algorithm Based on RPL for AMI Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Marcio L F; Jamhour, Edgard; Pellenz, Marcelo E; Penna, Manoel C

    2017-03-25

    The advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) is an architecture for two-way communication between electric, gas and water meters and city utilities. The AMI network is a wireless sensor network that provides communication for metering devices in the neighborhood area of the smart grid. Recently, the applicability of a routing protocol for low-power and lossy networks (RPL) has been considered in AMI networks. Some studies in the literature have pointed out problems with RPL, including sub-optimal path selection and instability. In this paper, we defend the viewpoint that careful planning of the transmission power in wireless RPL networks can significantly reduce the pointed problems. This paper presents a method for planning the transmission power in order to assure that, after convergence, the size of the parent set of the RPL nodes is as close as possible to a predefined size. Another important feature is that all nodes in the parent set offer connectivity through links of similar quality.

  20. Ethics and the compensation of immigrant workers for work-related injuries and illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravel, Sylvie; Vissandjée, Bilkis; Lippel, Katherine; Brodeur, Jean-Marc; Patry, Louis; Champagne, François

    2010-10-01

    This paper examines the compensation process for work-related injuries and illnesses by assessing the trajectories of a sample of immigrant and non-immigrant workers (n = 104) in Montreal. Workers were interviewed to analyze the complexity associated with the compensation process. Experts specialized in compensation issues assessed the difficulty of the interviewees' compensation process. Immigrant workers faced greater difficulties with medical, legal, and administrative issues than non-immigrants did. While immigrant workers' claim forms tended to be written more often by employers or friends (58% vs. 8%), the claims were still more often contested by employers (64% vs. 24%). Immigrant workers were less likely to obtain a precise diagnosis (64% vs. 42%) and upon returning to work were more likely to face sub-optimal conditions. Such results throw into relief issues of ethics and equity in host societies that are building their economy with migrant workers.

  1. Mechanical valve obstruction: Review of diagnostic and treatment strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamon, Jason; Munoz-Mendoza, Jerson; Liebelt, Jared J; Taub, Cynthia C

    2015-01-01

    Prosthetic valve obstruction (PVO) is a rare but feared complication of mechanical valve replacement. Diagnostic evaluation should focus on differentiating prosthetic valve thrombosis (PVT) from pannus formation, as their treatment options differ. History of sub-optimal anti-coagulation and post-op time course to development of PVO are useful clinical characteristics in differentiating thrombus from pannus formation. Treatment of PVT is influenced by the patient’s symptoms, valve location, degree of obstruction and thrombus size and may include thrombolysis or surgical intervention. Alternatively, pannus formation requires surgical intervention. The purpose of this article is to review the pathophysiology, epidemiology, diagnostic approach and treatment options for aortic and mitral valve PVO. PMID:26730292

  2. Home range sizes for burchell's zebra equus burchelli antiquorum from the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.L. Smuts

    1975-07-01

    Full Text Available Annual home range sizes were determined for 49 marked zebra family groups in the Kruger National Park. Sizes varied from 49 to 566 sq. km, the mean for the Park being 164 square kilometre. Mean home range sizes for different zebra sub-populations and biotic areas were found to differ considerably. Present herbivore densities have not influenced intra- and inter-specific tolerance levels to the extent that home range sizes have increased. Local habitat conditions, and particularly seasonal vegetational changes, were found to have the most profound influence on the shape and mean size of home ranges. The large home range sizes obtained in the Kruger Park, when compared to an area such as the Ngorongoro Crater, can be ascribed to a lower carrying capacity with respect to zebra, large portions of the habitat being sub-optimal, either seasonally or annually.

  3. Knowledge Capture and Management for Space Flight Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, John L.

    2005-01-01

    The incorporation of knowledge capture and knowledge management strategies early in the development phase of an exploration program is necessary for safe and successful missions of human and robotic exploration vehicles over the life of a program. Following the transition from the development to the flight phase, loss of underlying theory and rationale governing design and requirements occur through a number of mechanisms. This degrades the quality of engineering work resulting in increased life cycle costs and risk to mission success and safety of flight. Due to budget constraints, concerned personnel in legacy programs often have to improvise methods for knowledge capture and management using existing, but often sub-optimal, information technology and archival resources. Application of advanced information technology to perform knowledge capture and management would be most effective if program wide requirements are defined at the beginning of a program.

  4. Randomized controlled psychotherapy trials in eating disorders: Improving their conduct, interpretation and usefulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Tracey D; Johnson, Catherine; Byrne, Susan M

    2018-04-25

    While randomized controlled trials (RCTs) inform the efficacy and effectiveness of treatments, we need to understand that even RCTs can be associated with sub-optimal execution. This is of special pertinence to eating disorders given the majority of treatment studies involving cognitive behaviour therapy are of poor quality with respect to managing risk of bias adequately. The current paper outlines the components of a good RCT for psychotherapy, and examines ways to improve the conduct, interpretation, and usefulness of RCTs. This includes managing reporting bias, recognizing the limits of randomization, applicability, and ethical considerations. We highlight a number of strategies for future research, including issues related to utilizing a variety of designs to examine treatment outcomes, integrity, openness and reproducibility. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. A new chart to assist with advanced trauma life support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, I P; Baskett, P J; McCabe, S E

    1992-10-01

    Many studies have drawn attention to deficiencies in the management of major trauma, both in the UK and elsewhere. One area that has received little attention is the documentation of such cases in the Emergency Room. When outcome may be sub-optimal, documentation assumes greater importance if advances are to be made in the organisation of trauma care. Based upon the American College of Surgeons Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) protocols, the authors have designed a document that records dynamically what happens to the multiply injured victim on arrival in the Emergency Room. It unifies the recording of vital signs, whilst acting as an assessment and resuscitation template. By ensuring no life-threatening illness is missed it is likely to improve patient survival. The document can act as a basis for teaching and a medico-legal record, whilst providing the necessary data for quality assurance and outcome audit.

  6. NITRIC OXIDE IMPLICATION IN THE CONTROL OF SEED DORMANCY AND GERMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwann eArc

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Germination ability is regulated by a combination of environmental and endogenous signals with both synergistic and antagonistic effects. Nitric oxide (NO is a potent dormancy-releasing agent in many species, including Arabidopsis, and has been suggested to behave as an endogenous regulator of this physiological blockage. Distinct reports have also highlighted a positive impact of NO on seed germination under sub-optimal conditions. However, its molecular mode of action in the context of seed biology remains poorly documented. This review aims to focus on the implications of this radical in the control of seed dormancy and germination. The consequences of NO chemistry on the investigations on both its signaling and its targets in seeds are discussed. NO-dependant protein post-translational modifications are proposed as a key mechanism underlying NO signalling during early seed germination.

  7. A clinical distance measure for evaluating treatment plan quality difference with Pareto fronts in radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristoffer Petersson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a clinical distance measure for Pareto front evaluation studies in radiotherapy, which we show strongly correlates (r = 0.74 and 0.90 with clinical plan quality evaluation. For five prostate cases, sub-optimal treatment plans located at a clinical distance value of >0.32 (0.28–0.35 from fronts of Pareto optimal plans, were assessed to be of lower plan quality by our (12 observers (p < .05. In conclusion, the clinical distance measure can be used to determine if the difference between a front and a given plan (or between different fronts corresponds to a clinically significant plan quality difference.

  8. Time domain passivity controller for 4-channel time-delay bilateral teleoperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebelo, Joao; Schiele, Andre

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an extension of the time-domain passivity control approach to a four-channel bilateral controller under the effects of time delays. Time-domain passivity control has been used successfully to stabilize teleoperation systems with position-force and position-position controllers; however, the performance with such control architectures is sub-optimal both with and without time delays. This work extends the network representation of the time-domain passivity controller to the four-channel architecture, which provides perfect transparency to the user without time delay. The proposed architecture is based on modelling the controllers as dependent voltage sources and using only series passivity controllers. The obtained results are shown on a one degree-of-freedom setup and illustrate the stabilization behaviour of the proposed controller when time delay is present in the communication channel.

  9. Learning from Bees: An Approach for Influence Maximization on Viral Campaigns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Prem Sankar

    Full Text Available Maximisation of influence propagation is a key ingredient to any viral marketing or socio-political campaigns. However, it is an NP-hard problem, and various approximate algorithms have been suggested to address the issue, though not largely successful. In this paper, we propose a bio-inspired approach to select the initial set of nodes which is significant in rapid convergence towards a sub-optimal solution in minimal runtime. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated using the re-tweet network of the hashtag #KissofLove on Twitter associated with the non-violent protest against the moral policing spread to many parts of India. Comparison with existing centrality based node ranking process the proposed method significant improvement on influence propagation. The proposed algorithm is one of the hardly few bio-inspired algorithms in network theory. We also report the results of the exploratory analysis of the network kiss of love campaign.

  10. Metformin and breast cancer: basic knowledge in clinical context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzuti, Laura; Vici, Patrizia; Di Lauro, Luigi; Sergi, Domenico; Della Giulia, Marina; Marchetti, Paolo; Maugeri-Saccà, Marcello; Giordano, Antonio; Barba, Maddalena

    2015-05-01

    Although preclinical work is vital in unraveling the molecular tenets which apply to metformin action in breast cancer, it is by nature unable to capture the host's response to metformin in terms of insulin-mediated effects and related changes in the hormonal and metabolic asset at the systemic level. The latter might sound seemingly paradoxical when considering the inveterate use of metformin in dysmetabolisms and pathologic conditions with underlying hormonal disruption. Bridging the gap between the molecular target and characteristics of breast cancer patients may help lab-based experiments and clinical work converge into one or more well characterized sub-populations instead of a sub optimally selected one. An appropriate patient selection is the main key to the most suitable outcome interpretation and amelioration, in an attempt to meet our patients needs midway between overestimation of benefits and efficacy dilution for any given intervention and/or co-intervention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. DESIGNING FITRAH MONEY: A MAQASIDIC DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imtiaz Mohammad Sifat

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Academic efforts in concocting a plausible alternative to fiat regime often staggers given inherent constrictions of Islamic jurisprudence and economic technicalities. Despite passionate advocacy of Muslim scholars, the campaign for gold dinar and silver dirham runs into allegations of being simplistic, anachronistic, regressive, unnecessary, and sub-optimal. Shunning the popular Maqasidic and historical approaches in debunking these claims, this paper highlights the need for a return to basics, the default factory settings as designed by God, and trowels a fitrah approach in evaluating gold and silver. As such, we proffer an open-minded approach in formulating an Islamically congruent currency and decry obstinate fixation with gold and silver, which hardly serve the best interests of ummah.

  12. A mathematical model for optimization of an integrated network logistic design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lida Tafaghodi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the integrated forward/reverse logistics network is investigated, and a capacitated multi-stage, multi-product logistics network design is proposed by formulating a generalized logistics network problem into a mixed-integer nonlinear programming model (MINLP for minimizing the total cost of the closed-loop supply chain network. Moreover, the proposed model is solved by using optimization solver, which provides the decisions related to the facility location problem, optimum quantity of shipped product, and facility capacity. Numerical results show the power of the proposed MINLP model to avoid th sub-optimality caused by separate design of forward and reverse logistics networks and to handle various transportation modes and periodic demand.

  13. Decision making with epistemic uncertainty under safety constraints: An application to seismic design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneziano, D.; Agarwal, A.; Karaca, E.

    2009-01-01

    The problem of accounting for epistemic uncertainty in risk management decisions is conceptually straightforward, but is riddled with practical difficulties. Simple approximations are often used whereby future variations in epistemic uncertainty are ignored or worst-case scenarios are postulated. These strategies tend to produce sub-optimal decisions. We develop a general framework based on Bayesian decision theory and exemplify it for the case of seismic design of buildings. When temporal fluctuations of the epistemic uncertainties and regulatory safety constraints are included, the optimal level of seismic protection exceeds the normative level at the time of construction. Optimal Bayesian decisions do not depend on the aleatory or epistemic nature of the uncertainties, but only on the total (epistemic plus aleatory) uncertainty and how that total uncertainty varies randomly during the lifetime of the project. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. An Evaluation of Research Ethics in Undergraduate Health Science Research Methodology Programs at a South African University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, Tanya; Hoffmann, Willem A; de Roubaix, Malcolm

    2015-10-01

    The amended research ethics policy at a South African University required the ethics review of undergraduate research projects, prompting the need to explore the content and teaching approach of research ethics education in health science undergraduate programs. Two qualitative data collection strategies were used: document analysis (syllabi and study guides) and semi-structured interviews with research methodology coordinators. Five main themes emerged: (a) timing of research ethics courses, (b) research ethics course content, (c) sub-optimal use of creative classroom activities to facilitate research ethics lectures, (d) understanding the need for undergraduate project research ethics review, and (e) research ethics capacity training for research methodology lecturers and undergraduate project supervisors. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Influenza Vaccine Uptake, Hand Hygiene Practices, and Perceived Barriers in Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedman-Smith, Maggie; Kingsbury, Diana M; Dubois, Cathy L Z; Grey, Scott F

    2017-01-01

    The annual costs of influenza are in the billions of dollars, with employers bearing substantial burdens. Yet, influenza vaccine uptake is sub-optimal. A random survey was administered to employees at a Midwestern public university using mixed quantitative and qualitative methods to identify the rate, characteristics, and barriers of self-reported flu vaccine uptake during March-April of 2012. The lowest uptake was among adults, ages 18 to 49 (29.8%), even though they are included in universal recommendations. Multiple regression analysis adjusted for demographic confounders showed an increase in self-identified protective hand hygiene behavior among those who reported influenza vaccine uptake compared with those who did not. Qualitative thematic analysis revealed contextual accounts of why vaccine uptake was declined including structural, perceptual, and knowledge barriers. Implementation and evaluation of novel multicomponent worksite vaccine interventions tailored to reach young and middle-aged employees including utilization of risk communication is needed to facilitate increased uptake.

  16. Beyond the Stern Review. Lessons from a risky venture at the limits of the cost-benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hourcade, Jean-Charles; Ambrosi, Philippe; Dumas, Patrice

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that debates amongst economists triggered by the Stern Review are partly relevant, focusing on key parameters translating real ethical issues, and partly misplaced in that they do not consider enough other determinants of climate change damages: (1) the specifications of the utility function used for the assessments (preference for the environment, preference for smooth growth paths), (2) the interplay between uncertainty and the sequentiality of the decision, and (3) whether the growth engines behind the integrated assessment models can account for transient disequilibrium and sub-optimality. We derive some suggestions for any future research agenda in integrated assessment modelling, whatever the position of the analysts about the relevance of the intertemporal optimisation framework and the Bayesian approach to uncertainty in the climate affair. (author)

  17. Review paper of gateway selection schemes for MANET of NEMO (MANEMO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, Z; Hashim, A; Khalifa, O; Anwar, F; Hameed, S

    2013-01-01

    The fast growth of Internet applications brings with it new challenges for researchers to provide new solutions that guarantee better Internet access for mobile hosts and networks. The globally reachable, Home-Agent based, infrastructure Network Mobility (NEMO) and the local, multi-hop, and infrastructure-less Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) developed by Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) support different topologies of the mobile networks. A new architecture was proposed by combining both topologies to obtain Mobile Ad Hoc NEMO (MANEMO). However, the integration of NEMO and MANET introduces many challenges such as network loops, sub-optimal route, redundant tunnel problem, absence of communication without Home Agent reachability, and exit router selection when multiple Exit Routers to the Internet exist. This paper aims to review the different proposed models that could be used to implement the gateway selection mechanism and it highlights the strengths as well as the limitations of these approaches

  18. Maintaining turbidity and current flow in laboratory aquarium studies, a case study using Sabellaria spinulosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Andrew J.; S. Last, Kim; Attard, Karl

    2009-01-01

    RT) is a simple and reliable system for the resuspension of food or sediments using an enclosed airlift. The particle rain from the lift is mixed in the tank by two water inputs that provide directional current flow across the study organism(s). The vortex mixing creates a turbulent lateral water flow that allows......Many aquatic organisms rely on the suspension of particulate matter for food or for building materials, yet these conditions are difficult to replicate in laboratory mesocosms. Consequently, husbandry and experimental conditions may often be sub-optimal. The Vortex Resuspension Tank (Vo...... the distribution of particulate matter outwards from the sediment outflow. By calibrating a VoRT it is possible to control sedimentation rate by manipulating water and air flow rates. As an example application, three VoRTs were maintained under different sediment loadings to assess the sediment fraction...

  19. Redesign of the Analysing Magnet in the ISIS H- Penning Ion Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrie, S. R.; Faircloth, D. C.; Letchford, A. P.; Westall, M.; Whitehead, M. O.; Wood, T.; Pozimski, J.

    2009-01-01

    A full 3D electromagnetic finite element analysis and particle tracking study is undertaken of the ISIS Penning surface plasma H - ion source. The extraction electrode, 90 deg. analysing magnet, post-extraction acceleration gap and 700 mm of drift space have been modelled in CST Particle Studio 2008 to study the beam acceleration and transport at all points in the system. The analyzing magnet is found to have a sub-optimal field index, causing beam divergence and contributing the beam loss. Different magnet pole piece geometries are modelled and the effects of space charge investigated. The best design for the analysing magnet involves a shallower intersection angle and larger separation of the pole faces. This provides radial focusing to the beam, leading to less collimation. Three new sets of magnet poles are manufactured and tested on the Ion Source Development Rig to compare with predictions.

  20. Person identification from aerial footage by a remote-controlled drone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindemann, Markus; Fysh, Matthew C; Sage, Sophie S K; Douglas, Kristina; Tummon, Hannah M

    2017-10-19

    Remote-controlled aerial drones (or unmanned aerial vehicles; UAVs) are employed for surveillance by the military and police, which suggests that drone-captured footage might provide sufficient information for person identification. This study demonstrates that person identification from drone-captured images is poor when targets are unfamiliar (Experiment 1), when targets are familiar and the number of possible identities is restricted by context (Experiment 2), and when moving footage is employed (Experiment 3). Person information such as sex, race and age is also difficult to access from drone-captured footage (Experiment 4). These findings suggest that such footage provides a particularly poor medium for person identification. This is likely to reflect the sub-optimal quality of such footage, which is subject to factors such as the height and velocity at which drones fly, viewing distance, unfavourable vantage points, and ambient conditions.