WorldWideScience

Sample records for sub-nanometre particle mapping

  1. Sub-nanometrically resolved chemical mappings of quantum-cascade laser active regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantzas, Konstantinos; Beaudoin, Grégoire; Patriarche, Gilles; Largeau, Ludovic; Mauguin, Olivia; Sagnes, Isabelle; Pegolotti, Giulia; Vasanelli, Angela; Calvar, Ariane; Amanti, Maria; Sirtori, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    A procedure that produces sub-nanometrically resolved chemical mappings of MOCVD-grown InGaAs/InAlAs/InP quantum cascade lasers is presented. The chemical mappings reveal that, although the structure is lattice-matched to InP, the InAlAs barriers do not attain the nominal aluminum content—48%—and are, in fact, InGaAlAs quaternaries. This information is used to adjust the aluminum precursor flow and fine-tune the composition of the barriers, resulting in a significant improvement of the fabricated lasers. (paper)

  2. Sub-nanometre channels embedded in two-dimensional materials

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Yimo

    2017-12-04

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials are among the most promising candidates for next-generation electronics due to their atomic thinness, allowing for flexible transparent electronics and ultimate length scaling1. Thus far, atomically thin p–n junctions2,3,4,5,6,7,8, metal–semiconductor contacts9,10,11, and metal–insulator barriers12,13,14 have been demonstrated. Although 2D materials achieve the thinnest possible devices, precise nanoscale control over the lateral dimensions is also necessary. Here, we report the direct synthesis of sub-nanometre-wide one-dimensional (1D) MoS2 channels embedded within WSe2 monolayers, using a dislocation-catalysed approach. The 1D channels have edges free of misfit dislocations and dangling bonds, forming a coherent interface with the embedding 2D matrix. Periodic dislocation arrays produce 2D superlattices of coherent MoS2 1D channels in WSe2. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we have identified other combinations of 2D materials where 1D channels can also be formed. The electronic band structure of these 1D channels offers the promise of carrier confinement in a direct-gap material and the charge separation needed to access the ultimate length scales necessary for future electronic applications.

  3. Glomerular barrier behaves as an atomically precise bandpass filter in a sub-nanometre regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Bujie; Jiang, Xingya; Das, Anindita; Zhou, Qinhan; Yu, Mengxiao; Jin, Rongchao; Zheng, Jie

    2017-11-01

    The glomerular filtration barrier is known as a 'size cutoff' slit, which retains nanoparticles or proteins larger than 6-8 nm in the body and rapidly excretes smaller ones through the kidneys. However, in the sub-nanometre size regime, we have found that this barrier behaves as an atomically precise 'bandpass' filter to significantly slow down renal clearance of few-atom gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) with the same surface ligands but different sizes (Au18, Au15 and Au10-11). Compared to Au25 (∼1.0 nm), just few-atom decreases in size result in four- to ninefold reductions in renal clearance efficiency in the early elimination stage, because the smaller AuNCs are more readily trapped by the glomerular glycocalyx than larger ones. This unique in vivo nano-bio interaction in the sub-nanometre regime also slows down the extravasation of sub-nanometre AuNCs from normal blood vessels and enhances their passive targeting to cancerous tissues through an enhanced permeability and retention effect. This discovery highlights the size precision in the body's response to nanoparticles and opens a new pathway to develop nanomedicines for many diseases associated with glycocalyx dysfunction.

  4. A review of recent work in sub-nanometre displacement measurement using optical and X-ray interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peggs, G N; Yacoot, A

    2002-05-15

    This paper reviews recent work in the field of displacement measurement using optical and X-ray interferometry at the sub-nanometre level of accuracy. The major sources of uncertainty in optical interferometry are discussed and a selection of recent designs of ultra-precise, optical-interferometer-based, displacement measuring transducers presented. The use of X-ray interferometry and its combination with optical interferometry is discussed.

  5. Sub-nanometre resolution imaging of polymer-fullerene photovoltaic blends using energy-filtered scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Robert C; Pearson, Andrew J; Glen, Tom S; Sasam, Fabian-Cyril; Li, Letian; Dapor, Maurizio; Donald, Athene M; Lidzey, David G; Rodenburg, Cornelia

    2015-04-24

    The resolution capability of the scanning electron microscope has increased immensely in recent years, and is now within the sub-nanometre range, at least for inorganic materials. An equivalent advance has not yet been achieved for imaging the morphologies of nanostructured organic materials, such as organic photovoltaic blends. Here we show that energy-selective secondary electron detection can be used to obtain high-contrast, material-specific images of an organic photovoltaic blend. We also find that we can differentiate mixed phases from pure material phases in our data. The lateral resolution demonstrated is twice that previously reported from secondary electron imaging. Our results suggest that our energy-filtered scanning electron microscopy approach will be able to make major inroads into the understanding of complex, nano-structured organic materials.

  6. Sub-nanometre resolution imaging of polymer–fullerene photovoltaic blends using energy-filtered scanning electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Robert C.; Pearson, Andrew J.; Glen, Tom S.; Sasam, Fabian-Cyril; Li, Letian; Dapor, Maurizio; Donald, Athene M.; Lidzey, David G.; Rodenburg, Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    The resolution capability of the scanning electron microscope has increased immensely in recent years, and is now within the sub-nanometre range, at least for inorganic materials. An equivalent advance has not yet been achieved for imaging the morphologies of nanostructured organic materials, such as organic photovoltaic blends. Here we show that energy-selective secondary electron detection can be used to obtain high-contrast, material-specific images of an organic photovoltaic blend. We also find that we can differentiate mixed phases from pure material phases in our data. The lateral resolution demonstrated is twice that previously reported from secondary electron imaging. Our results suggest that our energy-filtered scanning electron microscopy approach will be able to make major inroads into the understanding of complex, nano-structured organic materials. PMID:25906738

  7. Accelerator and Technical Sector Seminar: Mechanical stabilization and positioning of CLIC quadrupoles with sub-nanometre resolution

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    Thursday 24 November 2010 Accelerator and Technical Sector Seminar at 14:15  -  BE Auditorium, bldg. 6 (Meyrin) – please note unusual place Mechanical stabilization and positioning of CLIC quadrupoles with sub-nanometre resolution Stef Janssens /EN-MME Abstract: To reach the required luminosity at the CLIC interaction point, about 4000 quadrupoles are needed to obtain a vertical beam size of 1 nm at the interaction point. The mechanical jitter of the quadrupole magnets will result in an emittance growth. An active vibration isolation system is required to reduce vibrations from the ground and from external forces to about 1.5 nm integrated root mean square (r.m.s.) vertical displacement at 1 Hz. A short overview of vibration damping and isolation strategies will be presented as well as a comparison of existing systems. The unprecedented resolution requirements and the instruments enabling these measurements will be discussed. The vibration sources from which the magnets need to...

  8. Mapping chaos in particle revolutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Arthur L.

    2000-01-01

    The relatively new technique of frequency map analysis has over the last 10 years turned out to be very effective for the analysis of numerical simulations in physical systems ranging even beyond the solar system to galaxies and back again to particle accelerators, particularly for systems with three or more degrees of freedom. More recently, with an eye towards revealing the dynamics of an actual particle beam, it has been applied for the first time to measured rather than simulated electron trajectories in a storage ring, in this case at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab)

  9. Application of a parallel genetic algorithm to the global optimization of medium-sized Au-Pd sub-nanometre clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Heider A.; Demiroglu, Ilker; Johnston, Roy L.

    2018-02-01

    To contribute to the discussion of the high activity and reactivity of Au-Pd system, we have adopted the BPGA-DFT approach to study the structural and energetic properties of medium-sized Au-Pd sub-nanometre clusters with 11-18 atoms. We have examined the structural behaviour and stability as a function of cluster size and composition. The study suggests 2D-3D crossover points for pure Au clusters at 14 and 16 atoms, whereas pure Pd clusters are all found to be 3D. For Au-Pd nanoalloys, the role of cluster size and the influence of doping were found to be extensive and non-monotonic in altering cluster structures. Various stability criteria (e.g. binding energies, second differences in energy, and mixing energies) are used to evaluate the energetics, structures, and tendency of segregation in sub-nanometre Au-Pd clusters. HOMO-LUMO gaps were calculated to give additional information on cluster stability and a systematic homotop search was used to evaluate the energies of the generated global minima of mono-substituted clusters and the preferred doping sites, as well as confirming the validity of the BPGA-DFT approach.

  10. Study on the dielectric properties of Al2O3/TiO2 sub-nanometric laminates: effect of the bottom electrode and the total thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Elbahri, M.; Kahouli, A.; Mercey, B.; Lebedev, O.; Donner, W.; Lüders, U.

    2018-02-01

    Dielectrics based on amorphous sub-nanometric laminates of TiO2 and Al2O3 are subject to elevated dielectric losses and leakage currents, in large parts due to the extremely thin individual layer thickness chosen for the creation of the Maxwell-Wagner relaxation and therefore the high apparent dielectric constants. The optimization of performances of the laminate itself being strongly limited by this contradiction concerning its internal structure, we will show in this study that modifications of the dielectric stack of capacitors based on these sub-nanometric laminates can positively influence the dielectric losses and the leakage, as for example the nature of the electrodes, the introduction of thick insulating layers at the laminate/electrode interfaces and the modification of the total laminate thickness. The optimization of the dielectric stack leads to the demonstration of a capacitor with an apparent dielectric constant of 90, combined with low dielectric loss (tan δ) of 7 · 10-2 and with leakage currents smaller than 1  ×  10-6 A cm-2 at 10 MV m-1.

  11. Particle filter based MAP state estimation: A comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saha, S.; Boers, Y.; Driessen, J.N.; Mandal, Pranab K.; Bagchi, Arunabha

    2009-01-01

    MAP estimation is a good alternative to MMSE for certain applications involving nonlinear non Gaussian systems. Recently a new particle filter based MAP estimator has been derived. This new method extracts the MAP directly from the output of a running particle filter. In the recent past, a Viterbi

  12. A map for heavy inertial particles in fluid flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Rafael D.; de Oliveira, Vitor M.

    2017-06-01

    We introduce a map which reproduces qualitatively many fundamental properties of the dynamics of heavy particles in fluid flows. These include a uniform rate of decrease of volume in phase space, a slow-manifold effective dynamics when the single parameter s (analogous of the Stokes number) approaches zero, the possibility of fold caustics in the "velocity field", and a minimum, as a function of s, of the Lyapunov (Kaplan-Yorke) dimension of the attractor where particles accumulate.

  13. Symplectic maps and chromatic optics in particle accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yunhai

    2015-10-11

    We have applied the nonlinear map method to comprehensively characterize the chromatic optics in particle accelerators. Our approach is built on the foundation of symplectic transfer maps of magnetic elements. The chromatic lattice parameters can be transported from one element to another by the maps. We introduce a Jacobian operator that provides an intrinsic linkage between the maps and the matrix with parameter dependence. The link allows us to directly apply the formulation of the linear optics to compute the chromatic lattice parameters. As an illustration, we analyze an alternating-gradient cell with nonlinear sextupoles, octupoles, and decapoles and derive analytically their settings for the local chromatic compensation. As a result, the cell becomes nearly perfect up to the third-order of the momentum deviation.

  14. A map of the invisible journeys into particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Butterworth, Jon

    2017-01-01

    What is the universe really made of? How do we know? Follow the map of the invisible to find out... Over the last sixty years, scientists around the world have worked together to explore the fundamental constituents of matter, and the forces that govern their behaviour. The result, so far, is the ‘Standard Model’ of elementary particles: a theoretical map of the basic building blocks of the universe. With the discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012, the map as we know it was completed, but also extended into strange new territory. A Map of the Invisible is an explorer’s guide to the Standard Model and the extraordinary realms of particle physics. After shrinking us down to the size of a sub-atomic particle, pioneering physicist Jon Butterworth takes us on board his research vessel for a journey in search of atoms and quarks, electrons and neutrinos, and the forces that shape the universe. Step by step, discovery by discovery, we journey into the world of the unseen, from the atom to black holes and dark ...

  15. Relaxation-based viscosity mapping for magnetic particle imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utkur, M.; Muslu, Y.; Saritas, E. U.

    2017-05-01

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) has been shown to provide remarkable contrast for imaging applications such as angiography, stem cell tracking, and cancer imaging. Recently, there is growing interest in the functional imaging capabilities of MPI, where ‘color MPI’ techniques have explored separating different nanoparticles, which could potentially be used to distinguish nanoparticles in different states or environments. Viscosity mapping is a promising functional imaging application for MPI, as increased viscosity levels in vivo have been associated with numerous diseases such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cancer. In this work, we propose a viscosity mapping technique for MPI through the estimation of the relaxation time constant of the nanoparticles. Importantly, the proposed time constant estimation scheme does not require any prior information regarding the nanoparticles. We validate this method with extensive experiments in an in-house magnetic particle spectroscopy (MPS) setup at four different frequencies (between 250 Hz and 10.8 kHz) and at three different field strengths (between 5 mT and 15 mT) for viscosities ranging between 0.89 mPa · s-15.33 mPa · s. Our results demonstrate the viscosity mapping ability of MPI in the biologically relevant viscosity range.

  16. Validation of the erosion map for spherical particle impacts on glass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verspui, M.A.; Slikkerveer, P.J.; Skerka, G.J.E.; Oomen, I.; With, de G.

    1998-01-01

    Hard spherical particles may exhibit a variation in impact damage on a softer target depending on the particle diameter and particle velocity. In this paper quantitative equations will be derived for these transitions in material behaviour. These equations have been presented in an erosion map of

  17. Portable cosmic particle detectors for subsurface density mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oláh, László; Gábor Barnaföldi, Gergely; Hamar, Gergö; Surányi, Gergely; Varga, Dezsö

    2016-04-01

    Muography deduces the density length in the interior of the investigated geological object, such as a mountain or volcano by the measurement of the cosmic muon absorption along different paths through the object. If path lengths (average densities) are measured, the average density (path length) can be deduced along the muon paths. A portable, low power consumption cosmic particle tracking detector based on Close Cathode multi-wire proportional chambers [1,2] has been developed for muography based on our earlier developments and experiences at the Wigner RCP of the HAS in Budapest [3,4,5]. The newly developed tracking system consists of six layers with the sensitive area of 0.25 m2 [6]. The spatial resolution of 2 mm provides an angular resolution of 15 mrad. This instrument has been optimized for underground and outdoor measurements: it has a Raspberry pi controlled data acquisition system which includes a custom designed board with a coincidence unit and allows high level remote control, data management and analysis. The individual trigger signals, number of missed triggers, analogue signals from chambers and the temperature are recorded. The duration of data readout (dead time) is 100 microsec. The DAQ software runs on the Raspberry Pi. For standard operation, a graphical user interface has been developed, running on any remote computer with Internet connection (both of wired and wireless) to the Raspberry Pi. A temperature-controlled high-voltage power supply provides a stable and reasonable (> 95 %) tracking performance for the measurements. With total power consumption of 5W, a portable tracking detector can operate for 5 days with a standard 50 Ah battery and with gas (non flammable Ar-CO2 mixture) consumption of 0.5 liter per hour, a 10 l bottle at pressure of 150 bar is enough for four month. The portability (total weight of less than 30 kg) allowed that our tracking detectors have been applied in underground caverns for subsurface density mapping. The

  18. A microstructure-composition map of a ternary liquid/liquid/particle system with partially-wetting particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junyi; Roell, David; Echavarria, Martin; Velankar, Sachin S

    2017-11-22

    We examine the effect of composition on the morphology of a ternary mixture comprising two molten polymeric liquid phases (polyisobutylene and polyethylene oxide) and micron-scale spherical silica particles. The silica particles were treated with silanes to make them partially wetted by both polymers. Particle loadings up to 30 vol% are examined while varying the fluid phase ratios across a wide range. Numerous effects of particle addition are catalogued, stabilization of Pickering emulsions and of interfacially-jammed co-continuous microstructures, meniscus-bridging of particles, particle-induced coalescence of the dispersed phase, and significant shifts in the phase inversion composition. Many of the effects are asymmetric, for example particle-induced coalescence is more severe and drop sizes are larger when polyisobutylene is the continuous phase, and particles promote phase continuity of the polyethylene oxide. These asymmetries are likely attributable to a slight preferential wettability of the particles towards the polyethylene oxide. A state map is constructed which classifies the various microstructures within a triangular composition diagram. Comparisons are made between this diagram vs. a previous one constructed for the case when particles are fully-wetted by polyethylene oxide.

  19. Learning about a Level Physics Students' Understandings of Particle Physics Using Concept Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourlay, H.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a small-scale piece of research using concept mapping to elicit A level students' understandings of particle physics. Fifty-nine year 12 (16- and 17 year-old) students from two London schools participated. The exercise took place during school physics lessons. Students were instructed how to make a concept map and were…

  20. Basics and principles of particle image velocimetry (PIV) for mapping biogenic and biologically relevant flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stamhuis, Eize J.

    2006-01-01

    Particle image velocimetry (PIV) has proven to be a very useful technique in mapping animal-generated flows or flow patterns relevant to biota. Here, theoretical background is provided and experimental details of 2-dimensional digital PIV are explained for mapping flow produced by or relevant to

  1. MapReduce particle filtering with exact resampling and deterministic runtime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiyagalingam, Jeyarajan; Kekempanos, Lykourgos; Maskell, Simon

    2017-12-01

    Particle filtering is a numerical Bayesian technique that has great potential for solving sequential estimation problems involving non-linear and non-Gaussian models. Since the estimation accuracy achieved by particle filters improves as the number of particles increases, it is natural to consider as many particles as possible. MapReduce is a generic programming model that makes it possible to scale a wide variety of algorithms to Big data. However, despite the application of particle filters across many domains, little attention has been devoted to implementing particle filters using MapReduce. In this paper, we describe an implementation of a particle filter using MapReduce. We focus on a component that what would otherwise be a bottleneck to parallel execution, the resampling component. We devise a new implementation of this component, which requires no approximations, has O( N) spatial complexity and deterministic O((log N)2) time complexity. Results demonstrate the utility of this new component and culminate in consideration of a particle filter with 224 particles being distributed across 512 processor cores.

  2. Mapping Ring Particle Cooling across Saturn's Rings with Cassini CIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Shawn M.; Spilker, L. J.; Edgington, S. G.; Pilorz, S. H.; Deau, E.

    2010-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that the rings' thermal inertia, a measure of their response to changes in the thermal environment, varies from ring to ring. Thermal inertia can provide insight into the physical structure of Saturn's ring particles and their regoliths. Low thermal inertia and quick temperature responses are suggestive of ring particles that have more porous or fluffy regoliths or that are riddled with cracks. Solid, coherent particles can be expected to have higher thermal inertias (Ferrari et al. 2005). Cassini's Composite Infrared Spectrometer has recorded millions of spectra of Saturn's rings since its arrival at Saturn in 2004 (personal communication, M. Segura). CIRS records far infrared radiation between 10 and 600 cm-1 (16.7 and 1000 µm) at focal plane 1 (FP1), which has a field of view of 3.9 mrad. Thermal emission from Saturn's rings peaks in this wavelength range. FP1 spectra can be used to infer ring temperatures. By tracking how ring temperatures vary, we can determine the thermal inertia of the rings. In this work we focus on CIRS observations of the shadowed portion of Saturn's rings. The thermal budget of the rings is dominated by the solar radiation absorbed by its constituent particles. When ring particles enter Saturn's shadow this source of energy is abruptly cut off. As a result, ring particles cool as they traverse Saturn's shadow. From these shadow observations we can create cooling curves at specific locations across the rings. We will show that the rings' cooling curves and thus their thermal inertia vary not only from ring to ring, but by location within the individual rings. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA. Copyright 2010 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  3. Symmetry mappings concomitant to particle-number-conservation-baryon-number conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, W.R.

    1977-01-01

    Four theorem serve to demonstrate that matter fields in space-time admit certain timelike symmetry mappings concomitant to the familiar notion of particle number conservation, which can be more fundamentally accounted for by a type of projective invariance principle. These particular symmetry mappings include a family of symmetry properties that may be admitted by Riemannian space-times. In their strongest form, the results obtained provide some insight relating to the conservation of baryon number

  4. Analytic mappings: a new approach in particle production by accelerated observers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, N.

    1982-01-01

    This is a summary of the authors recent results about physical consequences of analytic mappings in the space-time. Classically, the mapping defines an accelerated frame. At the quantum level it gives rise to particle production. Statistically, the real singularities of the mapping have associated temperatures. This concerns a new approach in Q.F.T. as formulated in accelerated frames. It has been considered as a first step in the understanding of the deep connection that could exist between the structure (geometry and topology) of the space-time and thermodynamics, mainly motivated by the works of Hawking since 1975. (Auth.)

  5. H-SLAM: Rao-Blackwellized Particle Filter SLAM Using Hilbert Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillem Vallicrosa

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Occupancy Grid maps provide a probabilistic representation of space which is important for a variety of robotic applications like path planning and autonomous manipulation. In this paper, a SLAM (Simultaneous Localization and Mapping framework capable of obtaining this representation online is presented. The H-SLAM (Hilbert Maps SLAM is based on Hilbert Map representation and uses a Particle Filter to represent the robot state. Hilbert Maps offer a continuous probabilistic representation with a small memory footprint. We present a series of experimental results carried both in simulation and with real AUVs (Autonomous Underwater Vehicles. These results demonstrate that our approach is able to represent the environment more consistently while capable of running online.

  6. Detecting chaos in particle accelerators through the frequency map analysis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaphilippou, Yannis

    2014-06-01

    The motion of beams in particle accelerators is dominated by a plethora of non-linear effects, which can enhance chaotic motion and limit their performance. The application of advanced non-linear dynamics methods for detecting and correcting these effects and thereby increasing the region of beam stability plays an essential role during the accelerator design phase but also their operation. After describing the nature of non-linear effects and their impact on performance parameters of different particle accelerator categories, the theory of non-linear particle motion is outlined. The recent developments on the methods employed for the analysis of chaotic beam motion are detailed. In particular, the ability of the frequency map analysis method to detect chaotic motion and guide the correction of non-linear effects is demonstrated in particle tracking simulations but also experimental data.

  7. Optical method for mapping the transverse phase space of a charged particle beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorito, R.B.; Shkvarunets, A.G.; O'Shea, P.G.

    2002-01-01

    We are developing an all optical method to map the transverse phase space map of a charged particle beam. Our technique employs OTR interferometry (OTRI) in combination with a scanning pinhole to make local orthogonal (x,y) divergence and trajectory angle measurements as function of position within the transverse profile of the beam. The localized data allows a reconstruction of the horizontal and vertical phase spaces of the beam. We have also demonstrated how single and multiple pinholes can in principle be used to make such measurements simultaneously

  8. Position map calculations of BPMs by CST particle studio for non-relativistic energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forck, Peter; Almalki, Mohammed; Kester, Oliver [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Goethe Universitaet Frankfurt (Germany); He, Jun [Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS Beijing (China); Kaufmann, Wolfgang; Sieber, Thomas; Singh, Rahul [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Beam positon monitors BPM at LINACs serve as the basic instrument for non-destructive position determination as yield from the difference-over-sum of signal of opposite electrodes. The time evolution of the signals, and consequently their Fourier-transformations, depend on the particle velocity and the distance from the electrodes. Position maps, i.e. electrodes difference-over-sum signal versus beam offset, were calculated using the wake-field solver CST Particle Studio in the velocity range from 0.05c to 0.5c for two BPM types. For the planned proton LINAC at FAIR, four separated button BPM electrodes are foreseen. The BPMs installed in the GSI UNILAC are made of a ceramic ring with four metallized sectors installed in a special housing. For the latter type resonances and capacitive coupling between the sectors modify the position map. The general findings and peculiarities of both types are presented.

  9. Uncertainty relations and reduced density matrices: Mapping many-body quantum mechanics onto four particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazziotti, David A.; Erdahl, Robert M.

    2001-04-01

    For the description of ground-state correlation phenomena an accurate mapping of many-body quantum mechanics onto four particles is developed. The energy for a quantum system with no more than two-particle interactions may be expressed in terms of a two-particle reduced density matrix (2-RDM), but variational optimization of the 2-RDM requires that it corresponds to an N-particle wave function. We derive N-representability conditions on the 2-RDM that guarantee the validity of the uncertainty relations for all operators with two-particle interactions. One of these conditions is shown to be necessary and sufficient to make the RDM solutions of the dispersion condition equivalent to those from the contracted Schrödinger equation (CSE) [Mazziotti, Phys. Rev. A 57, 4219 (1998)]. In general, the CSE is a stronger N-representability condition than the dispersion condition because the CSE implies the dispersion condition as well as additional N-representability constraints from the Hellmann-Feynman theorem. Energy minimization subject to the representability constraints is performed for a boson model with 10, 30, and 75 particles. Even when traditional wave-function methods fail at large perturbations, the present method yields correlation energies within 2%.

  10. Process maps for plasma spray: Part 1: Plasma-particle interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmore, Delwyn L.; Neiser, Richard A. Jr.; Wan, Yuepeng; Sampath, Sanjay

    2000-01-01

    This is the first paper of a two part series based on an integrated study carried out at Sandia National Laboratories and the State University of New York at Stony Brook. The aim of the study is to develop a more fundamental understanding of plasma-particle interactions, droplet-substrate interactions, deposit formation dynamics and microstructural development as well as final deposit properties. The purpose is to create models that can be used to link processing to performance. Process maps have been developed for air plasma spray of molybdenum. Experimental work was done to investigate the importance of such spray parameters as gun current, auxiliary gas flow, and powder carrier gas flow. In-flight particle diameters, temperatures, and velocities were measured in various areas of the spray plume. Samples were produced for analysis of microstructures and properties. An empirical model was developed, relating the input parameters to the in-flight particle characteristics. Multi-dimensional numerical simulations of the plasma gas flow field and in-flight particles under different operating conditions were also performed. In addition to the parameters which were experimentally investigated, the effect of particle injection velocity was also considered. The simulation results were found to be in good general agreement with the experimental data

  11. Raman mapping of mannitol/lysozyme particles produced via spray drying and single droplet drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajander, Jari Pekka; Matero, Sanni; Sloth, Jakob; Wan, Feng; Rantanen, Jukka; Yang, Mingshi

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of a model protein on the solid state of a commonly used bulk agent in spray-dried formulations. A series of lysozyme/mannitol formulations were spray-dried using a lab-scale spray dryer. Further, the surface temperature of drying droplet/particles was monitored using the DRYING KINETICS ANALYZER™ (DKA) with controllable drying conditions mimicking the spray-drying process to estimate the drying kinetics of the lysozyme/mannitol formulations. The mannitol polymorphism and the spatial distribution of lysozyme in the particles were examined using X-ray powder diffractometry (XRPD) and Raman microscopy. Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis was used for analyzing the Raman microscopy data. XRPD results indicated that a mixture of β-mannitol and α-mannitol was produced in the spray-drying process which was supported by the Raman analysis, whereas Raman analysis indicated that a mixture of α-mannitol and δ-mannitol was detected in the single particles from DKA. In addition Raman mapping indicated that the presence of lysozyme seemed to favor the appearance of α-mannitol in the particles from DKA evidenced by close proximity of lysozyme and mannitol in the particles. It suggested that the presence of lysozyme tend to induce metastable solid state forms upon the drying process.

  12. Seiberg–Witten map and quantum phase effects for neutral Dirac particle on noncommutative plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Ma

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We provide a new approach to study the noncommutative effects on the neutral Dirac particle with anomalous magnetic or electric dipole moment on the noncommutative plane. The advantages of this approach are demonstrated by investigating the noncommutative corrections on the Aharonov–Casher and He–McKellar–Wilkens effects. This approach is based on the effective U(1 gauge symmetry for the electrodynamics of spin on the two dimensional space. The Seiberg–Witten map for this symmetry is then employed when we study the noncommutative corrections. Because the Seiberg–Witten map preserves the gauge symmetry, the noncommutative corrections can be defined consistently with the ordinary phases. Based on this approach we find the noncommutative corrections on the Aharonov–Casher and He–McKellar–Wilkens phases consist of two terms. The first one depends on the beam particle velocity and consistence with the previous results. However the second term is velocity-independent and then completely new. Therefore our results indicate it is possible to investigate the noncommutative space by using ultra-cold neutron interferometer in which the velocity-dependent term is negligible. Furthermore, both these two terms are proportional to the ratio between the noncommutative parameter θ and the cross section Ae/m of the electrical/magnetic charged line enclosed by the trajectory of beam particles. Therefore the experimental sensitivity can be significantly enhanced by reducing the cross section of the charge line Ae/m.

  13. Sub-nanometre channels embedded in two-dimensional materials

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Yimo; Li, Ming-yang; Jung, Gang-Seob; Marsalis, Mark A.; Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J.; Li, Lain-Jong; Muller, David A.

    2017-01-01

    with the embedding 2D matrix. Periodic dislocation arrays produce 2D superlattices of coherent MoS2 1D channels in WSe2. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we have identified other combinations of 2D materials where 1D channels can also be formed. The electronic

  14. Use of mobile robots for mapping radiation field around particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.; Agashe, V.; Pal, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    In Particle Accelerators, when the accelerated particles hit the target or inadvertently strike the wall, prompt and induced radiation is produced. It is necessary to monitor the resulting radiation field in order to reduce radiation exposure to operating personnel, as well as to locate points of leakage of the particle beam. This paper describes the development of mobile robots equipped with onboard radiation detectors for mapping such radiation fields. They include a user interface software running on a host computer to tele operate the robot, monitor radiation levels, and build and display a radiation map out of these data through interpolation. One such robot (ARMER-II), designed and developed by us in consultation with Radiation Safety Division (RSD), is a portable mobile robot for identifying locations with radiation levels higher than permissible limits. Its remote interface computes and guides the robot to move in a direction in which the increase in intensity of radiation is the steepest. Another mobile robot (ARMER-I) has a telescopic arm fitted with a light and small GM tube. This also can be controlled remotely, and is very useful in remote measurement of radiation from locations which are difficult to reach otherwise. Another version (ASHWA) has been successfully adapted by VECC, Kolkata, for gamma and neutron radiation profiling in the cyclotron vault area. We are presently working on the design and development of a four-wheel differentially driven mobile robot (RADMAPPER) with higher payload capacity for carrying radiation detectors like gamma camera and neutron dosimeters and positioning them at desired heights. With appropriate localization capability, this is going to be a very flexible mobile robot based system for radiation profiling around particle accelerators. The specification for this robot has been prepared in consultation with VECC for use in their cyclotron facilities. (author)

  15. Novel Mobile Robot Simultaneous Localization and Mapping Using Rao-Blackwellised Particle Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Bingrong

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the novel method of mobile robot simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM, which is implemented by using the Rao-Blackwellised particle filter (RBPF for monocular vision-based autonomous robot in unknown indoor environment. The particle filter is combined with unscented Kalman filter (UKF to extending the path posterior by sampling new poses that integrate the current observation. The landmark position estimation and update is implemented through the unscented transform (UT. Furthermore, the number of resampling steps is determined adaptively, which seriously reduces the particle depletion problem. Monocular CCD camera mounted on the robot tracks the 3D natural point landmarks, which are structured with matching image feature pairs extracted through Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT. The matching for multi-dimension SIFT features which are highly distinctive due to a special descriptor is implemented with a KDTree in the time cost of O(log2N. Experiments on the robot Pioneer3 in our real indoor environment show that our method is of high precision and stability.

  16. Novel Mobile Robot Simultaneous Loclization and Mapping Using Rao-Blackwellised Particle Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Maohai

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the novel method of mobile robot simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM, which is implemented by using the Rao-Blackwellised particle filter (RBPF for monocular vision-based autonomous robot in unknown indoor environment. The particle filter is combined with unscented Kalman filter (UKF to extending the path posterior by sampling new poses that integrate the current observation. The landmark position estimation and update is implemented through the unscented transform (UT. Furthermore, the number of resampling steps is determined adaptively, which seriously reduces the particle depletion problem. Monocular CCD camera mounted on the robot tracks the 3D natural point landmarks, which are structured with matching image feature pairs extracted through Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT. The matching for multi-dimension SIFT features which are highly distinctive due to a special descriptor is implemented with a KD-Tree in the time cost of O(log2N. Experiments on the robot Pioneer3 in our real indoor environment show that our method is of high precision and stability.

  17. Flow mapping of multiphase flows using a novel single stem endoscopic particle image velocimetry instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lad, N; Adebayo, D; Aroussi, A

    2011-01-01

    Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is a successful flow mapping technique which can optically quantify large portions of a flow regime. This enables the method to be completely non-intrusive. The ability to be non-intrusive to any flow has allowed PIV to be used in a large range of industrial sectors for many applications. However, a fundamental disadvantage of the conventional PIV technique is that it cannot easily be used with flows which have no or limited optical access. Flows which have limited optical access for PIV measurement have been addressed using endoscopic PIV techniques. This system uses two separate probes which relay a light sheet and imaging optics to a planar position within the desired flow regime. This system is effective in medical and engineering applications. The present study has been involved in the development of a new endoscopic PIV system which integrates the illumination and imaging optics into one rigid probe. This paper focuses on the validation of the images taken from the novel single stem endoscopic PIV system. The probe is used within atomized spray flow and is compared with conventional PIV measurement and also pitot-static data. The endoscopic PIV system provides images which create localized velocity maps that are comparable with the global measurement of the conventional PIV system. The velocity information for both systems clearly show similar results for the spray characterization and are also validated using the pitot-static data

  18. Mapping travelling convection vortex events with respect to energetic particle boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Moretto

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen events of high-latitude ionospheric travelling convection vortices during very quiet conditions were identified in the Greenland magnetometer data during 1990 and 1991. The latitudes of the vortex centres for these events are compared to the energetic electron trapping boundaries as identified by the particle measurements of the NOAA 10 satellite. In addition, for all events at least one close DMSP overpass was available. All but one of the 13 cases agree to an exceptional degree that: the TCV centres are located within the region of trapped, high energy electrons close to the trapping boundary for the population of electrons with energy greater than >100 keV. Correspondingly, from the DMSP data they are located within the region of plasmasheet-type precipitation close to the CPS/BPS precipitation boundary. That is, the TCV centres map to deep inside the magnetosphere and not to the magnetopause.Key Words. Ionosphere (Electric fields and currents; Particle precipitation · Magnetospheric physics (Magnetosphere-ionosphere interaction

  19. Blocked edges on Eulerian maps and mobiles: application to spanning trees, hard particles and the Ising model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouttier, J; Francesco, P Di; Guitter, E

    2007-01-01

    We introduce Eulerian maps with blocked edges as a general way to implement statistical matter models on random maps by a modification of intrinsic distances. We show how to code these dressed maps by means of mobiles, i.e. decorated trees with labelled vertices, leading to a closed system of recursion relations for their generating functions. We discuss particular solvable cases in detail, as well as various applications of our method to several statistical systems such as spanning trees on quadrangulations, mutually excluding particles on Eulerian triangulations or the Ising model on quadrangulations

  20. Multisensor on-the-go mapping of readily dispersible clay, particle size and soil organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debaene, Guillaume; Niedźwiecki, Jacek; Papierowska, Ewa

    2016-04-01

    Particle size fractions affect strongly the physical and chemical properties of soil. Readily dispersible clay (RDC) is the part of the clay fraction in soils that is easily or potentially dispersible in water when small amounts of mechanical energy are applied to soil. The amount of RDC in the soil is of significant importance for agriculture and environment because clay dispersion is a cause of poor soil stability in water which in turn contributes to soil erodibility, mud flows, and cementation. To obtain a detailed map of soil texture, many samples are needed. Moreover, RDC determination is time consuming. The use of a mobile visible and near-infrared (VIS-NIR) platform is proposed here to map those soil properties and obtain the first detailed map of RDC at field level. Soil properties prediction was based on calibration model developed with 10 representative samples selected by a fuzzy logic algorithm. Calibration samples were analysed for soil texture (clay, silt and sand), RDC and soil organic carbon (SOC) using conventional wet chemistry analysis. Moreover, the Veris mobile sensor platform is also collecting electrical conductivity (EC) data (deep and shallow), and soil temperature. These auxiliary data were combined with VIS-NIR measurement (data fusion) to improve prediction results. EC maps were also produced to help understanding RDC data. The resulting maps were visually compared with an orthophotography of the field taken at the beginning of the plant growing season. Models were developed with partial least square regression (PLSR) and support vector machine regression (SVMR). There were no significant differences between calibration using PLSR or SVMR. Nevertheless, the best models were obtained with PLSR and standard normal variate (SNV) pretreatment and the fusion with deep EC data (e.g. for RDC and clay content: RMSECV = 0,35% and R2 = 0,71; RMSECV = 0,32% and R2 = 0,73 respectively). The best models were used to predict soil properties from the

  1. Mapping soil particle-size fractions: A comparison of compositional kriging and log-ratio kriging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zong; Shi, Wenjiao

    2017-03-01

    Soil particle-size fractions (psf) as basic physical variables need to be accurately predicted for regional hydrological, ecological, geological, agricultural and environmental studies frequently. Some methods had been proposed to interpolate the spatial distributions of soil psf, but the performance of compositional kriging and different log-ratio kriging methods is still unclear. Four log-ratio transformations, including additive log-ratio (alr), centered log-ratio (clr), isometric log-ratio (ilr), and symmetry log-ratio (slr), combined with ordinary kriging (log-ratio kriging: alr_OK, clr_OK, ilr_OK and slr_OK) were selected to be compared with compositional kriging (CK) for the spatial prediction of soil psf in Tianlaochi of Heihe River Basin, China. Root mean squared error (RMSE), Aitchison's distance (AD), standardized residual sum of squares (STRESS) and right ratio of the predicted soil texture types (RR) were chosen to evaluate the accuracy for different interpolators. The results showed that CK had a better accuracy than the four log-ratio kriging methods. The RMSE (sand, 9.27%; silt, 7.67%; clay, 4.17%), AD (0.45), STRESS (0.60) of CK were the lowest and the RR (58.65%) was the highest in the five interpolators. The clr_OK achieved relatively better performance than the other log-ratio kriging methods. In addition, CK presented reasonable and smooth transition on mapping soil psf according to the environmental factors. The study gives insights for mapping soil psf accurately by comparing different methods for compositional data interpolation. Further researches of methods combined with ancillary variables are needed to be implemented to improve the interpolation performance.

  2. Hysteresis compensation of the Prandtl-Ishlinskii model for piezoelectric actuators using modified particle swarm optimization with chaotic map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Zhili; Wang, Rui; Fang, Jiwen; Dai, Xufei; Li, Zuohua

    2017-07-01

    Piezoelectric actuators invariably exhibit hysteresis nonlinearities that tend to become significant under the open-loop condition and could cause oscillations and errors in nanometer-positioning tasks. Chaotic map modified particle swarm optimization (MPSO) is proposed and implemented to identify the Prandtl-Ishlinskii model for piezoelectric actuators. Hysteresis compensation is attained through application of an inverse Prandtl-Ishlinskii model, in which the parameters are formulated based on the original model with chaotic map MPSO. To strengthen the diversity and improve the searching ergodicity of the swarm, an initial method of adaptive inertia weight based on a chaotic map is proposed. To compare and prove that the swarm's convergence occurs before stochastic initialization and to attain an optimal particle swarm optimization algorithm, the parameters of a proportional-integral-derivative controller are searched using self-tuning, and the simulated results are used to verify the search effectiveness of chaotic map MPSO. The results show that chaotic map MPSO is superior to its competitors for identifying the Prandtl-Ishlinskii model and that the inverse Prandtl-Ishlinskii model can provide hysteresis compensation under different conditions in a simple and effective manner.

  3. Comparison of different chaotic maps in particle swarm optimization algorithm for long-term cascaded hydroelectric system scheduling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Yaoyao; Zhou Jianzhong; Xiang Xiuqiao; Chen Heng; Qin Hui

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present a novel chaotic particle swarm optimization (CPSO) algorithm and compares the efficiency of three one-dimensional chaotic maps within symmetrical region for long-term cascaded hydroelectric system scheduling. The introduced chaotic maps improve the global optimal capability of CPSO algorithm. Moreover, a piecewise linear interpolation function is employed to transform all constraints into restrict upriver water level for implementing the maximum of objective function. Numerical results and comparisons demonstrate the effect and speed of different algorithms on a practical hydro-system.

  4. Sub-micrometer scale minor element mapping in interplanetary dust particles: a test for stratospheric contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, G.J.; Keller, L.P.; Sutton, S.R.

    2006-01-01

    We mapped the spatial distribution of minor elements including K, Mn, and Zn in 3 IDPs and found no evidence for the surface coatings (rims) of these elements that would be expected if the enrichments previously reported were due to contamination. Combined X-ray microprobe (XRM), energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence using a Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), and electron microprobe measurements have determined that the average bulk chemical composition of the interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected from the Earth's stratosphere is enriched relative to the CI meteorite composition by a factor of 2 to 4 for carbon and for the moderately volatile elements Na, K, P, Mn, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, and Se, and enriched to ∼30 times CI for Br. However, Jessberger et al., who have reported similar bulk enrichments using Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), attribute the enrichments to contamination by meteor-derived atmospheric aerosols during the several weeks these IDPs reside in the Earth's atmosphere prior to collection. Using scanning Auger spectroscopy, a very sensitive surface analysis technique, Mackinnon and Mogk have observed S contamination on the surface of IDPs, presumably due to the accretion of sulfate aerosols during stratospheric residence. But the S-rich layer they detected was so thin (∼100 angstroms thick) that the total amount of S on the surface was too small to significantly perturb the bulk S-content of a chondritic IDP. Stephan et al. provide support for the contamination hypothesis by reporting the enrichment of Br on the edges of the IDPs using Time-of-Flight Secondary-Ion Mass-Spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), but TOF-SIMS is notorious for producing false edge-effects, particularly on irregularly-shaped samples like IDPs. Sutton et al. mapped the spatial distribution of Fe, Ni, Zn, Br, and Sr, at the ∼2 (micro)m scale, in four IDPs using element-specific x-ray fluorescence (XRF) computed microtomography. They found the moderately volatile

  5. Particle-based optical pressure sensors for 3D pressure mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Niladri; Xie, Yan; Chalaseni, Sandeep; Mastrangelo, Carlos H

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents particle-based optical pressure sensors for in-flow pressure sensing, especially for microfluidic environments. Three generations of pressure sensitive particles have been developed- flat planar particles, particles with integrated retroreflectors and spherical microballoon particles. The first two versions suffer from pressure measurement dependence on particles orientation in 3D space and angle of interrogation. The third generation of microspherical particles with spherical symmetry solves these problems making particle-based manometry in microfluidic environment a viable and efficient methodology. Static and dynamic pressure measurements have been performed in liquid medium for long periods of time in a pressure range of atmospheric to 40 psi. Spherical particles with radius of 12 μm and balloon-wall thickness of 0.5 μm are effective for more than 5 h in this pressure range with an error of less than 5%.

  6. Short-term cascaded hydroelectric system scheduling based on chaotic particle swarm optimization using improved logistic map

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yaoyao; Yang, Shanlin; Xu, Qifa

    2013-07-01

    In order to solve the model of short-term cascaded hydroelectric system scheduling, a novel chaotic particle swarm optimization (CPSO) algorithm using improved logistic map is introduced, which uses the water discharge as the decision variables combined with the death penalty function. According to the principle of maximum power generation, the proposed approach makes use of the ergodicity, symmetry and stochastic property of improved logistic chaotic map for enhancing the performance of particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. The new hybrid method has been examined and tested on two test functions and a practical cascaded hydroelectric system. The experimental results show that the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed CPSO algorithm in comparison with other traditional algorithms.

  7. Computation of Charged-Particle Transfer Maps for General Fields and Geometries Using Electromagnetic Boundary-Value Data

    OpenAIRE

    Dragt, A. J.; Roberts, P.; Stasevich, T. J.; Dragt, A. Bodoh-Creed A. J.; Roberts, P.; Stasevich, T. J.; Bodoh-Creed, A.; Walstrom, P. L.

    2010-01-01

    Three-dimensional field distributions from realistic beamline elements can be obtained only by measurement or by numerical solution of a boundary-value problem. In numerical charged-particle map generation, fields along a reference trajectory are differentiated multiple times. Any attempt to differentiate directly such field data multiple times is soon dominated by "noise" due to finite meshing and/or measurement errors. This problem can be overcome by the use of field data on a surface outsi...

  8. A novel chaotic particle swarm optimization approach using Henon map and implicit filtering local search for economic load dispatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, Leandro dos Santos; Mariani, Viviana Cocco

    2009-01-01

    Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is a population-based swarm intelligence algorithm driven by the simulation of a social psychological metaphor instead of the survival of the fittest individual. Based on the chaotic systems theory, this paper proposed a novel chaotic PSO combined with an implicit filtering (IF) local search method to solve economic dispatch problems. Since chaotic mapping enjoys certainty, ergodicity and the stochastic property, the proposed PSO introduces chaos mapping using Henon map sequences which increases its convergence rate and resulting precision. The chaotic PSO approach is used to produce good potential solutions, and the IF is used to fine-tune of final solution of PSO. The hybrid methodology is validated for a test system consisting of 13 thermal units whose incremental fuel cost function takes into account the valve-point loading effects. Simulation results are promising and show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  9. Recovering Sample Diversity in Rao-Blackwellized Particle Filters for Simultaneous Localization and Mapping

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anderson, Andrew D

    2006-01-01

    ...) in simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) situations that arises when precise feature measurements yield a limited perceptual distribution relative to a motion-based proposal distribution...

  10. Flow Mapping in a Gas-Solid Riser via Computer Automated Radioactive Particle Tracking (CARPT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muthanna Al-Dahhan; Milorad P. Dudukovic; Satish Bhusarapu; Timothy J. O' hern; Steven Trujillo; Michael R. Prairie

    2005-06-04

    Statement of the Problem: Developing and disseminating a general and experimentally validated model for turbulent multiphase fluid dynamics suitable for engineering design purposes in industrial scale applications of riser reactors and pneumatic conveying, require collecting reliable data on solids trajectories, velocities ? averaged and instantaneous, solids holdup distribution and solids fluxes in the riser as a function of operating conditions. Such data are currently not available on the same system. Multiphase Fluid Dynamics Research Consortium (MFDRC) was established to address these issues on a chosen example of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) reactor, which is widely used in petroleum and chemical industry including coal combustion. This project addresses the problem of lacking reliable data to advance CFB technology. Project Objectives: The objective of this project is to advance the understanding of the solids flow pattern and mixing in a well-developed flow region of a gas-solid riser, operated at different gas flow rates and solids loading using the state-of-the-art non-intrusive measurements. This work creates an insight and reliable database for local solids fluid-dynamic quantities in a pilot-plant scale CFB, which can then be used to validate/develop phenomenological models for the riser. This study also attempts to provide benchmark data for validation of Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) codes and their current closures. Technical Approach: Non-Invasive Computer Automated Radioactive Particle Tracking (CARPT) technique provides complete Eulerian solids flow field (time average velocity map and various turbulence parameters such as the Reynolds stresses, turbulent kinetic energy, and eddy diffusivities). It also gives directly the Lagrangian information of solids flow and yields the true solids residence time distribution (RTD). Another radiation based technique, Computed Tomography (CT) yields detailed time averaged local holdup profiles at

  11. Mapping metals incorporation of a whole single catalyst particle using element specific X-ray nanotomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meirer, Florian; Morris, Darius T; Kalirai, Samanbir; Liu, Yijin; Andrews, Joy C; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2015-01-01

    Full-field transmission X-ray microscopy has been used to determine the 3D structure of a whole individual fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) particle at high spatial resolution and in a fast, noninvasive manner, maintaining the full integrity of the particle. Using X-ray absorption mosaic imaging to

  12. CMOS MAPS in a Homogeneous 3D Process for Charged Particle Tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Manazza, A; Manghisoni, M; Re, V; Traversi, G; Bettarini, S; Forti, F; Morsani, F; Rizzo, G; 10.1109/TNS.2014.2299341

    2014-01-01

    This work presents the characterization of deep n-well (DNW) CMOS monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) fabricated in a 130 nm homogeneous, vertically integrated technology. An evaluation of the 3D MAPS device performance, designed for application of the experiments at the future high luminosity colliders, is provided through the characterization of the prototypes, including tests with infrared (IR) laser, 55Fe and 90Sr sources. The radiation hardness study of the technology will also be presented together with its impact on 3D DNW MAPS performance.

  13. Review of single particle dynamics for third generation light sources through frequency map analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Nadolski

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Frequency map analysis [J. Laskar, Icarus 88, 266 (1990] is used here to analyze the transverse dynamics of four third generation synchrotron light sources: the ALS, the ESRF, the SOLEIL project, and Super-ACO. Time variations of the betatron tunes give additional information for the global dynamics of the beam. The main resonances are revealed; a one-to-one correspondence between the configuration space and the frequency space can be performed. We stress that the frequency maps, and therefore the dynamics optimization, are highly sensitive to sextupolar strengths and vary in a large amount from one machine to another. The frequency maps can thus be used to characterize the different machines.

  14. Detecting unstable periodic orbits of nonlinear mappings by a novel quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization non-Lyapunov way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Fei; Gao Hongrui; Li Zhuoqiu; Tong Hengqing; Lee, Ju-Jang

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that set of unstable periodic orbits (UPOs) can be thought of as the skeleton for the dynamics. However, detecting UPOs of nonlinear map is one of the most challenging problems of nonlinear science in both numerical computations and experimental measures. In this paper, a new method is proposed to detect the UPOs in a non-Lyapunov way. Firstly three special techniques are added to quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO), a novel mbest particle, contracting the searching space self-adaptively and boundaries restriction (NCB), then the new method NCB-QPSO is proposed. It can maintain an effective search mechanism with fine equilibrium between exploitation and exploration. Secondly, the problems of detecting the UPOs are converted into a non-negative functions' minimization through a proper translation in a non-Lyapunov way. Thirdly the simulations to 6 benchmark optimization problems and different high order UPOs of 5 classic nonlinear maps are done by the proposed method. And the results show that NCB-QPSO is a successful method in detecting the UPOs, and it has the advantages of fast convergence, high precision and robustness.

  15. Scaling relation and regime map of explosive gas–liquid flow of binary Lennard-Jones particle system

    KAUST Repository

    Inaoka, Hajime

    2012-02-01

    We study explosive gasliquid flows caused by rapid depressurization using a molecular dynamics model of Lennard-Jones particle systems. A unique feature of our model is that it consists of two types of particles: liquid particles, which tend to form liquid droplets, and gas particles, which remain supercritical gaseous states under the depressurization realized by simulations. The system has a pipe-like structure similar to the model of a shock tube. We observed physical quantities and flow regimes in systems with various combinations of initial particle number densities and initial temperatures. It is observed that a physical quantity Q, such as pressure, at position z measured along a pipe-like system at time t follows a scaling relation Q(z,t)=Q(zt) with a scaling function Q(ζ). A similar scaling relation holds for time evolution of flow regimes in a system. These scaling relations lead to a regime map of explosive flows in parameter spaces of local physical quantities. The validity of the scaling relations of physical quantities means that physics of equilibrium systems, such as an equation of state, is applicable to explosive flows in our simulations, though the explosive flows involve highly nonequilibrium processes. In other words, if the breaking of the scaling relations is observed, it means that the explosive flows cannot be fully described by physics of equilibrium systems. We show the possibility of breaking of the scaling relations and discuss its implications in the last section. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Big Data: A Parallel Particle Swarm Optimization-Back-Propagation Neural Network Algorithm Based on MapReduce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jianfang; Cui, Hongyan; Shi, Hao; Jiao, Lijuan

    2016-01-01

    A back-propagation (BP) neural network can solve complicated random nonlinear mapping problems; therefore, it can be applied to a wide range of problems. However, as the sample size increases, the time required to train BP neural networks becomes lengthy. Moreover, the classification accuracy decreases as well. To improve the classification accuracy and runtime efficiency of the BP neural network algorithm, we proposed a parallel design and realization method for a particle swarm optimization (PSO)-optimized BP neural network based on MapReduce on the Hadoop platform using both the PSO algorithm and a parallel design. The PSO algorithm was used to optimize the BP neural network's initial weights and thresholds and improve the accuracy of the classification algorithm. The MapReduce parallel programming model was utilized to achieve parallel processing of the BP algorithm, thereby solving the problems of hardware and communication overhead when the BP neural network addresses big data. Datasets on 5 different scales were constructed using the scene image library from the SUN Database. The classification accuracy of the parallel PSO-BP neural network algorithm is approximately 92%, and the system efficiency is approximately 0.85, which presents obvious advantages when processing big data. The algorithm proposed in this study demonstrated both higher classification accuracy and improved time efficiency, which represents a significant improvement obtained from applying parallel processing to an intelligent algorithm on big data.

  17. Charge state mapping of mixed valent iron and manganese mineral particles using Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecher, K.; Nealson, K.; Kneedler, E.; Rothe, J.; Meigs, G.; Warwick, T.; Tonner, B.

    2000-01-01

    The interfaces between solid mineral particles and water play a crucial role in partitioning and chemical transformation of many inorganic as well as organic pollutants in environmental systems. Among environmentally significant minerals, mixed-valent oxides and hydroxides of iron (e.g. magnetite, green rusts) and manganese (hausmanite, birnessite) have been recognized as particularly strong sorbents for metal ions. In addition, minerals containing Fe(II) have recently been proven to be powerful reductants for a wide range of pollutants. Chemical properties of these minerals strongly depend on the distribution and availability of reactive sites and little is known quantitatively about the nature of these sites. We have investigated the bulk distribution of charge states of manganese (Mn (II, III, IV)) and iron (Fe(II, III)) in single particles of natural manganese nodules and synthetic green rusts using Scanning Transmission X-ray SpectroMicroscopy (STXM). Pixel resolved spectra (XANES) extracted from stacks of images taken at different wave lengths across the metal absorption edge were fitted to total electron yield (TEY) spectra of single valent reference compounds. Two dimensional maps of bulk charge state distributions clearly reveal domains of different oxidation states within single particles of Mn-nodules and green rust precipitates. Changes of oxidation states of iron were followed as a result of reductive transformation of an environmental contaminant (CCl 4 ) using green rust as the only reductant

  18. High-temperature deformation and processing maps of Zr-4 metal matrix with dispersed coated surrogate nuclear fuel particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Liu, Huiqun; Zhang, Ruiqian; Li, Gang; Yi, Danqing; Lin, Gaoyong; Guo, Zhen; Liu, Shaoqiang

    2018-06-01

    High-temperature compression deformation of a Zr-4 metal matrix with dispersed coated surrogate nuclear fuel particles was investigated at 750 °C-950 °C with a strain rate of 0.01-1.0 s-1 and height reduction of 20%. Scanning electron microscopy was utilized to investigate the influence of the deformation conditions on the microstructure of the composite and damage to the coated surrogate fuel particles. The results indicated that the flow stress of the composite increased with increasing strain rate and decreasing temperature. The true stress-strain curves showed obvious serrated oscillation characteristics. There were stable deformation ranges at the initial deformation stage with low true strain at strain rate 0.01 s-1 for all measured temperatures. Additionally, the coating on the surface of the surrogate nuclear fuel particles was damaged when the Zr-4 matrix was deformed at conditions of high strain rate and low temperature. The deformation stability was obtained from the processing maps and microstructural characterization. The high-temperature deformation activation energy was 354.22, 407.68, and 433.81 kJ/mol at true strains of 0.02, 0.08, and 0.15, respectively. The optimum deformation parameters for the composite were 900-950 °C and 0.01 s-1. These results are expected to provide guidance for subsequent determination of possible hot working processes for this composite.

  19. Raman mapping of mannitol/lysozyme particles produced via spray drying and single droplet drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pekka Pajander, Jari; Matero, Sanni Elina; Sloth, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of a model protein on the solid state of a commonly used bulk agent in spray-dried formulations. METHODS: A series of lysozyme/mannitol formulations were spray-dried using a lab-scale spray dryer. Further, the surface temperature of drying droplet....../particles was monitored using the DRYING KINETICS ANALYZER™ (DKA) with controllable drying conditions mimicking the spray-drying process to estimate the drying kinetics of the lysozyme/mannitol formulations. The mannitol polymorphism and the spatial distribution of lysozyme in the particles were examined using X......-ray powder diffractometry (XRPD) and Raman microscopy. Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis was used for analyzing the Raman microscopy data. RESULTS: XRPD results indicated that a mixture of β-mannitol and α-mannitol was produced in the spray-drying process which was supported by the Raman analysis...

  20. WE-FG-BRB-02: Spatial Mapping of the RBE of Scanned Particle Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosshans, D. [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (United States)

    2016-06-15

    The physical pattern of energy deposition and the enhanced relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of protons and carbon ions compared to photons offer unique and not fully understood or exploited opportunities to improve the efficacy of radiation therapy. Variations in RBE within a pristine or spread out Bragg peak and between particle types may be exploited to enhance cell killing in target regions without a corresponding increase in damage to normal tissue structures. In addition, the decreased sensitivity of hypoxic tumors to photon-based therapies may be partially overcome through the use of more densely ionizing radiations. These and other differences between particle and photon beams may be used to generate biologically optimized treatments that reduce normal tissue complications. In this symposium, speakers will examine the impact of the RBE of charged particles on measurable biological endpoints, treatment plan optimization, and the prediction or retrospective assessment of treatment outcomes. In particular, an AAPM task group was formed to critically examine the evidence for a spatially-variant RBE in proton therapy. Current knowledge of proton RBE variation with respect to dose, biological endpoint, and physics parameters will be reviewed. Further, the clinical relevance of these variations will be discussed. Recent work focused on improving simulations of radiation physics and biological response in proton and carbon ion therapy will also be presented. Finally, relevant biology research and areas of research needs will be highlighted, including the dependence of RBE on genetic factors including status of DNA repair pathways, the sensitivity of cancer stem-like cells to charged particles, the role of charged particles in hypoxic tumors, and the importance of fractionation effects. In addition to the physical advantages of protons and more massive ions over photons, the future application of biologically optimized treatment plans and their potential to

  1. Three-dimensional deformation mapping of Mode I interlaminar crack extension in particle-toughened interlayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borstnar, G.; Gillard, F.; Mavrogordato, M.N.; Sinclair, I.; Spearing, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the first use of Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) on Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastics (CFRPs) to quantify the strain fields ahead of a Mode I delamination. DVC is a relatively novel tool that can be used to measure displacements and strains occurring inside materials under load. In conjunction with Computed Tomography (CT), the technique has been applied to porous materials, with results providing strain data for validation of Finite Element (FE) models. However, the application of the technique to laminated materials has been limited, with studies often requiring fiducial markings required for volume correlation. In this work, crack propagation steps were captured at a 325 nm voxel resolution using Synchrotron Radiation Computed Tomography (SRCT). The material systems investigated featured different crack bridging mechanisms such as; particle-bridges, resin ligaments, and fibre-bridges. An assessment of noise and sub-volume size on the strain measurement determined that the optimal sub-volume size was 150 voxels with 50% overlap. This provided a spatial resolution of 48.8 μm for strain and a corresponding strain resolution ranging between 220 and 690 με for the repeated reference scans. A rigid body translation study confirmed that specimen movements perpendicular to the fibre orientation support the ‘real’ physical displacements. However, along the fibre direction, the correlation was poor, with correct displacements being detected only within the particle-toughened interlayers. The study demonstrates that strain measurements can be made perpendicular to the fibre direction across the interlayer, which could be used to validate future FE models of these poorly understood particle-toughened interlayers.

  2. Accurate Mapping of Multilevel Rydberg Atoms on Interacting Spin-1 /2 Particles for the Quantum Simulation of Ising Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Léséleuc, Sylvain; Weber, Sebastian; Lienhard, Vincent; Barredo, Daniel; Büchler, Hans Peter; Lahaye, Thierry; Browaeys, Antoine

    2018-03-01

    We study a system of atoms that are laser driven to n D3 /2 Rydberg states and assess how accurately they can be mapped onto spin-1 /2 particles for the quantum simulation of anisotropic Ising magnets. Using nonperturbative calculations of the pair potentials between two atoms in the presence of electric and magnetic fields, we emphasize the importance of a careful selection of experimental parameters in order to maintain the Rydberg blockade and avoid excitation of unwanted Rydberg states. We benchmark these theoretical observations against experiments using two atoms. Finally, we show that in these conditions, the experimental dynamics observed after a quench is in good agreement with numerical simulations of spin-1 /2 Ising models in systems with up to 49 spins, for which numerical simulations become intractable.

  3. 3D Mapping of the SPRY2 domain of ryanodine receptor 1 by single-particle cryo-EM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Perálvarez-Marín

    Full Text Available The type 1 skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor (RyR1 is principally responsible for Ca(2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and for the subsequent muscle contraction. The RyR1 contains three SPRY domains. SPRY domains are generally known to mediate protein-protein interactions, however the location of the three SPRY domains in the 3D structure of the RyR1 is not known. Combining immunolabeling and single-particle cryo-electron microscopy we have mapped the SPRY2 domain (S1085-V1208 in the 3D structure of RyR1 using three different antibodies against the SPRY2 domain. Two obstacles for the image processing procedure; limited amount of data and signal dilution introduced by the multiple orientations of the antibody bound in the tetrameric RyR1, were overcome by modifying the 3D reconstruction scheme. This approach enabled us to ascertain that the three antibodies bind to the same region, to obtain a 3D reconstruction of RyR1 with the antibody bound, and to map SPRY2 to the periphery of the cytoplasmic domain of RyR1. We report here the first 3D localization of a SPRY2 domain in any known RyR isoform.

  4. Annealing-Induced Bi Bilayer on Bi2Te3 Investigated via Quasi-Particle-Interference Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouteden, Koen; Govaerts, Kirsten; Debehets, Jolien; Thupakula, Umamahesh; Chen, Taishi; Li, Zhe; Netsou, Asteriona; Song, Fengqi; Lamoen, Dirk; Van Haesendonck, Chris; Partoens, Bart; Park, Kyungwha

    2016-09-27

    Topological insulators (TIs) are renowned for their exotic topological surface states (TSSs) that reside in the top atomic layers, and hence, detailed knowledge of the surface top atomic layers is of utmost importance. Here we present the remarkable morphology changes of Bi2Te3 surfaces, which have been freshly cleaved in air, upon subsequent systematic annealing in ultrahigh vacuum and the resulting effects on the local and area-averaging electronic properties of the surface states, which are investigated by combining scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS), and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) experiments with density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Our findings demonstrate that the annealing induces the formation of a Bi bilayer atop the Bi2Te3 surface. The adlayer results in n-type doping, and the atomic defects act as scattering centers of the TSS electrons. We also investigated the annealing-induced Bi bilayer surface on Bi2Te3 via voltage-dependent quasi-particle-interference (QPI) mapping of the surface local density of states and via comparison with the calculated constant-energy contours and QPI patterns. We observed closed hexagonal patterns in the Fourier transform of real-space QPI maps with secondary outer spikes. DFT calculations attribute these complex QPI patterns to the appearance of a "second" cone due to the surface charge transfer between the Bi bilayer and the Bi2Te3. Annealing in ultrahigh vacuum offers a facile route for tuning of the topological properties and may yield similar results for other topological materials.

  5. Double-Bottom Chaotic Map Particle Swarm Optimization Based on Chi-Square Test to Determine Gene-Gene Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng-Hong; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Gene-gene interaction studies focus on the investigation of the association between the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of genes for disease susceptibility. Statistical methods are widely used to search for a good model of gene-gene interaction for disease analysis, and the previously determined models have successfully explained the effects between SNPs and diseases. However, the huge numbers of potential combinations of SNP genotypes limit the use of statistical methods for analysing high-order interaction, and finding an available high-order model of gene-gene interaction remains a challenge. In this study, an improved particle swarm optimization with double-bottom chaotic maps (DBM-PSO) was applied to assist statistical methods in the analysis of associated variations to disease susceptibility. A big data set was simulated using the published genotype frequencies of 26 SNPs amongst eight genes for breast cancer. Results showed that the proposed DBM-PSO successfully determined two- to six-order models of gene-gene interaction for the risk association with breast cancer (odds ratio > 1.0; P value <0.05). Analysis results supported that the proposed DBM-PSO can identify good models and provide higher chi-square values than conventional PSO. This study indicates that DBM-PSO is a robust and precise algorithm for determination of gene-gene interaction models for breast cancer. PMID:24895547

  6. Intercalation pathway in many-particle LiFePO4 electrode revealed by nanoscale state-of-charge mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chueh, William C; El Gabaly, Farid; Sugar, Joshua D; Bartelt, Norman C; McDaniel, Anthony H; Fenton, Kyle R; Zavadil, Kevin R; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Lai, Wei; McCarty, Kevin F

    2013-03-13

    The intercalation pathway of lithium iron phosphate (LFP) in the positive electrode of a lithium-ion battery was probed at the ∼40 nm length scale using oxidation-state-sensitive X-ray microscopy. Combined with morphological observations of the same exact locations using transmission electron microscopy, we quantified the local state-of-charge of approximately 450 individual LFP particles over nearly the entire thickness of the porous electrode. With the electrode charged to 50% state-of-charge in 0.5 h, we observed that the overwhelming majority of particles were either almost completely delithiated or lithiated. Specifically, only ∼2% of individual particles were at an intermediate state-of-charge. From this small fraction of particles that were actively undergoing delithiation, we conclude that the time needed to charge a particle is ∼1/50 the time needed to charge the entire particle ensemble. Surprisingly, we observed a very weak correlation between the sequence of delithiation and the particle size, contrary to the common expectation that smaller particles delithiate before larger ones. Our quantitative results unambiguously confirm the mosaic (particle-by-particle) pathway of intercalation and suggest that the rate-limiting process of charging is initiating the phase transformation by, for example, a nucleation-like event. Therefore, strategies for further enhancing the performance of LFP electrodes should not focus on increasing the phase-boundary velocity but on the rate of phase-transformation initiation.

  7. Edge dislocations as sinks for sub-nanometric radiation induced defects in α-iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anento, N.; Malerba, L.; Serra, A.

    2018-01-01

    The role of edge dislocations as sinks for small radiation induced defects in bcc-Fe is investigated by means of atomistic computer simulation. In this work we investigate by Molecular Statics (T = 0K) the interaction between an immobile dislocation line and defect clusters of small sizes invisible experimentally. The study highlights in particular the anisotropy of the interaction and distinguishes between absorbed and trapped defects. When the considered defect intersects the dislocation glide plane and the distance from the dislocation line to the defect is on the range between 2 nm and 4 nm, either total or partial absorption of the cluster takes place leading to the formation of jogs. Residual defects produced during partial absorption pin the dislocation. By the calculation of stress-strain curves we have assessed the strength of those residues as obstacles for the motion of the dislocation, which is reflected on the unpinning stresses and the binding energies obtained. When the defect is outside this range, but on planes close to the dislocation glide plane, instead of absorption we have observed a capture process. Finally, with a view to introducing explicitly in kinetic Monte Carlo models a sink with the shape of a dislocation line, we have summarized our findings on a table presenting the most relevant parameters, which define the interaction of the dislocation with the defects considered.

  8. Metal-insulator-metal diodes with sub-nanometre surface roughness for energy-harvesting applications

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, A.A.; Jayaswal, Gaurav; Gahaffar, F.A.; Shamim, Atif

    2017-01-01

    For ambient radio-frequency (RF) energy harvesting, the available power levels are quite low, and it is highly desirable that the rectifying diodes do not consume any power at all. Contrary to semiconducting diodes, a tunnelling diode – also known as a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) diode – can provide zero-bias rectification, provided the two metals have different work functions. This could result in a complete passive rectenna system. Despite great potential, MIM diodes have not been investigated much in the GHz-frequency regime due to challenging nano-fabrication requirements. In this work, we investigate zero-bias MIM diodes for RF energy-harvesting applications. We studied the surface roughness issue for the bottom metal of the MIM diode for various deposition techniques such as sputtering, atomic layer deposition (ALD) and electron-beam (e-beam) evaporation for crystalline metals as well as for an amorphous alloy, namely ZrCuAlNi. A surface roughness of sub-1nm has been achieved for both the crystalline metals as well as the amorphous alloy, which is vital for the reliable operation of the MIM diode. An MIM diode comprising of a Ti-ZnO-Pt combination yields a zero-bias responsivity of 0.25V−1 and a dynamic resistance of 1200Ω. Complete RF characterisation has been performed by integrating the MIM diode with a coplanar waveguide transmission line. The input impedance varies from 100Ω to 50Ω in the frequency range of between 2GHz and 10GHz, which can be easily matched to typical antenna impedances in this frequency range. Finally, a rectified DC voltage of 4.7mV is obtained for an incoming RF power of 0.4W at zero bias. These preliminary results of zero-bias rectification indicate that complete, passive rectennas (a rectifier and antenna combination) are feasible with further optimisation of MIM devices.

  9. Sub-nanometre resolution of atomic motion during electronic excitation in phase-change materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofanov, Kirill V; Fons, Paul; Makino, Kotaro; Terashima, Ryo; Shimada, Toru; Kolobov, Alexander V; Tominaga, Junji; Bragaglia, Valeria; Giussani, Alessandro; Calarco, Raffaella; Riechert, Henning; Sato, Takahiro; Katayama, Tetsuo; Ogawa, Kanade; Togashi, Tadashi; Yabashi, Makina; Wall, Simon; Brewe, Dale; Hase, Muneaki

    2016-02-12

    Phase-change materials based on Ge-Sb-Te alloys are widely used in industrial applications such as nonvolatile memories, but reaction pathways for crystalline-to-amorphous phase-change on picosecond timescales remain unknown. Femtosecond laser excitation and an ultrashort x-ray probe is used to show the temporal separation of electronic and thermal effects in a long-lived (>100 ps) transient metastable state of Ge2Sb2Te5 with muted interatomic interaction induced by a weakening of resonant bonding. Due to a specific electronic state, the lattice undergoes a reversible nondestructive modification over a nanoscale region, remaining cold for 4 ps. An independent time-resolved x-ray absorption fine structure experiment confirms the existence of an intermediate state with disordered bonds. This newly unveiled effect allows the utilization of non-thermal ultra-fast pathways enabling artificial manipulation of the switching process, ultimately leading to a redefined speed limit, and improved energy efficiency and reliability of phase-change memory technologies.

  10. Metal-insulator-metal diodes with sub-nanometre surface roughness for energy-harvesting applications

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, A.A.

    2017-07-27

    For ambient radio-frequency (RF) energy harvesting, the available power levels are quite low, and it is highly desirable that the rectifying diodes do not consume any power at all. Contrary to semiconducting diodes, a tunnelling diode – also known as a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) diode – can provide zero-bias rectification, provided the two metals have different work functions. This could result in a complete passive rectenna system. Despite great potential, MIM diodes have not been investigated much in the GHz-frequency regime due to challenging nano-fabrication requirements. In this work, we investigate zero-bias MIM diodes for RF energy-harvesting applications. We studied the surface roughness issue for the bottom metal of the MIM diode for various deposition techniques such as sputtering, atomic layer deposition (ALD) and electron-beam (e-beam) evaporation for crystalline metals as well as for an amorphous alloy, namely ZrCuAlNi. A surface roughness of sub-1nm has been achieved for both the crystalline metals as well as the amorphous alloy, which is vital for the reliable operation of the MIM diode. An MIM diode comprising of a Ti-ZnO-Pt combination yields a zero-bias responsivity of 0.25V−1 and a dynamic resistance of 1200Ω. Complete RF characterisation has been performed by integrating the MIM diode with a coplanar waveguide transmission line. The input impedance varies from 100Ω to 50Ω in the frequency range of between 2GHz and 10GHz, which can be easily matched to typical antenna impedances in this frequency range. Finally, a rectified DC voltage of 4.7mV is obtained for an incoming RF power of 0.4W at zero bias. These preliminary results of zero-bias rectification indicate that complete, passive rectennas (a rectifier and antenna combination) are feasible with further optimisation of MIM devices.

  11. A Combination of Geographically Weighted Regression, Particle Swarm Optimization and Support Vector Machine for Landslide Susceptibility Mapping: A Case Study at Wanzhou in the Three Gorges Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianyu Yu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a novel coupling model for landslide susceptibility mapping is presented. In practice, environmental factors may have different impacts at a local scale in study areas. To provide better predictions, a geographically weighted regression (GWR technique is firstly used in our method to segment study areas into a series of prediction regions with appropriate sizes. Meanwhile, a support vector machine (SVM classifier is exploited in each prediction region for landslide susceptibility mapping. To further improve the prediction performance, the particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm is used in the prediction regions to obtain optimal parameters for the SVM classifier. To evaluate the prediction performance of our model, several SVM-based prediction models are utilized for comparison on a study area of the Wanzhou district in the Three Gorges Reservoir. Experimental results, based on three objective quantitative measures and visual qualitative evaluation, indicate that our model can achieve better prediction accuracies and is more effective for landslide susceptibility mapping. For instance, our model can achieve an overall prediction accuracy of 91.10%, which is 7.8%–19.1% higher than the traditional SVM-based models. In addition, the obtained landslide susceptibility map by our model can demonstrate an intensive correlation between the classified very high-susceptibility zone and the previously investigated landslides.

  12. A Combination of Geographically Weighted Regression, Particle Swarm Optimization and Support Vector Machine for Landslide Susceptibility Mapping: A Case Study at Wanzhou in the Three Gorges Area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xianyu; Wang, Yi; Niu, Ruiqing; Hu, Youjian

    2016-05-11

    In this study, a novel coupling model for landslide susceptibility mapping is presented. In practice, environmental factors may have different impacts at a local scale in study areas. To provide better predictions, a geographically weighted regression (GWR) technique is firstly used in our method to segment study areas into a series of prediction regions with appropriate sizes. Meanwhile, a support vector machine (SVM) classifier is exploited in each prediction region for landslide susceptibility mapping. To further improve the prediction performance, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is used in the prediction regions to obtain optimal parameters for the SVM classifier. To evaluate the prediction performance of our model, several SVM-based prediction models are utilized for comparison on a study area of the Wanzhou district in the Three Gorges Reservoir. Experimental results, based on three objective quantitative measures and visual qualitative evaluation, indicate that our model can achieve better prediction accuracies and is more effective for landslide susceptibility mapping. For instance, our model can achieve an overall prediction accuracy of 91.10%, which is 7.8%-19.1% higher than the traditional SVM-based models. In addition, the obtained landslide susceptibility map by our model can demonstrate an intensive correlation between the classified very high-susceptibility zone and the previously investigated landslides.

  13. Scaling relation and regime map of explosive gas–liquid flow of binary Lennard-Jones particle system

    KAUST Repository

    Inaoka, Hajime; Yukawa, Satoshi; Ito, Nobuyasu

    2012-01-01

    liquid droplets, and gas particles, which remain supercritical gaseous states under the depressurization realized by simulations. The system has a pipe-like structure similar to the model of a shock tube. We observed physical quantities and flow regimes

  14. Demonstration of an In-Situ Friction-Sound Probe for Mapping Particle Size at Contaminated Sediment Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    sedimentation according to the Stokes Law through pipettes (Plumb, 1981) or hydrometer (ASTM, 1988). Various optical techniques, electro-resistance (Coulter...used by the contracting laboratory (ASTM, 1998) is a combined mechanical sieving and hydrometer method. The sieves are used to quantify particle sizes...in the sand range (> 63 µm) and larger, and a sedimentation- hydrometer technique is used to quantify the silt and clay size ranges (< 63 µm

  15. Vertically integrated deep N-well CMOS MAPS with sparsification and time stamping capabilities for thin charged particle trackers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratti, L.; Gaioni, L.; Manghisoni, M.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.

    2010-01-01

    A fine pitch, deep N-well CMOS monolithic active pixel sensor (DNW CMOS MAPS) with sparsified readout architecture and time stamping capabilities has been designed in a vertical integration (3D) technology. In this process, two 130 nm CMOS wafers are face-to-face bonded by means of thermo-compression techniques ensuring both the mechanical stability of the structure and the electrical interconnection between circuits belonging to different layers. This 3D design represents the evolution of a DNW monolithic sensor already fabricated in a planar 130 nm CMOS technology in view of applications to the vertex detector of the International Linear Collider (ILC). The paper is devoted to discussing the main design features and expected performance of the 3D DNW MAPS. Besides describing the front-end circuits and the general architecture of the detector, the work also provides some results from calculations and Monte Carlo device simulations comparing the old 2D solution with the new 3D one and illustrating the attainable detection efficiency improvements.

  16. Vertically integrated deep N-well CMOS MAPS with sparsification and time stamping capabilities for thin charged particle trackers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratti, L., E-mail: lodovico.ratti@unipv.i [Universita di Pavia, Dipartimento di Elettronica, Via Ferrata 1, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pavia, Via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Gaioni, L. [Universita di Pavia, Dipartimento di Elettronica, Via Ferrata 1, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pavia, Via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Manghisoni, M.; Re, V.; Traversi, G. [Universita di Bergamo, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Via Marconi 5, I-24044 Dalmine (Bulgaria) (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pavia, Via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy)

    2010-12-11

    A fine pitch, deep N-well CMOS monolithic active pixel sensor (DNW CMOS MAPS) with sparsified readout architecture and time stamping capabilities has been designed in a vertical integration (3D) technology. In this process, two 130 nm CMOS wafers are face-to-face bonded by means of thermo-compression techniques ensuring both the mechanical stability of the structure and the electrical interconnection between circuits belonging to different layers. This 3D design represents the evolution of a DNW monolithic sensor already fabricated in a planar 130 nm CMOS technology in view of applications to the vertex detector of the International Linear Collider (ILC). The paper is devoted to discussing the main design features and expected performance of the 3D DNW MAPS. Besides describing the front-end circuits and the general architecture of the detector, the work also provides some results from calculations and Monte Carlo device simulations comparing the old 2D solution with the new 3D one and illustrating the attainable detection efficiency improvements.

  17. Soil organic carbon and particle sizes mapping using vis–NIR, EC and temperature mobile sensor platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knadel, Maria; Thomsen, Anton Gårde; Schelde, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is an important parameter in the climate change mitigation strategies and it is crucial for the function of ecosystems and agriculture. Particle size fractions affect strongly the physical and chemical properties of soil and thus also SOC. Conventional analyses of SOC...... predictive ability for SOC was obtained using a fusion of sensor data. The calibration models based on vis–NIR spectra and temperature resulted in RMSECV = 0.14% and R2 = 0.94 in Voulund1. In Voulund2, the combination of EC, temperature and spectral data generated a SOC model with RMSECV = 0.17% and R2 = 0...

  18. An integrated high-performance beam optics-nuclear processes framework with hybrid transfer map-Monte Carlo particle transport and optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandura, L., E-mail: bandura@msu.ed [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Erdelyi, B. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States); Nolen, J. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2010-12-01

    An integrated beam optics-nuclear processes framework is essential for accurate simulation of fragment separator beam dynamics. The code COSY INFINITY provides powerful differential algebraic methods for modeling and beam dynamics simulations in absence of beam-material interactions. However, these interactions are key for accurately simulating the dynamics of heavy ion fragmentation and fission. We have developed an extended version of the code that includes these interactions, and a set of new tools that allow efficient and accurate particle transport: by transfer map in vacuum and by Monte Carlo methods in materials. The new framework is presented, along with several examples from a preliminary layout of a fragment separator for a facility for rare isotope beams.

  19. An integrated high-performance beam optics-nuclear processes framework with hybrid transfer map-Monte Carlo particle transport and optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandura, L.; Erdelyi, B.; Nolen, J.

    2010-01-01

    An integrated beam optics-nuclear processes framework is essential for accurate simulation of fragment separator beam dynamics. The code COSY INFINITY provides powerful differential algebraic methods for modeling and beam dynamics simulations in absence of beam-material interactions. However, these interactions are key for accurately simulating the dynamics of heavy ion fragmentation and fission. We have developed an extended version of the code that includes these interactions, and a set of new tools that allow efficient and accurate particle transport: by transfer map in vacuum and by Monte Carlo methods in materials. The new framework is presented, along with several examples from a preliminary layout of a fragment separator for a facility for rare isotope beams.

  20. Rapid Mapping of Lithiation Dynamics in Transition Metal Oxide Particles with Operando X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowack, Lea; Grolimund, Daniel; Samson, Vallerie; Marone, Federica; Wood, Vanessa

    2016-02-01

    Since the commercialization of lithium ion batteries (LIBs), layered transition metal oxides (LiMO2, where M = Co, Mn, Ni, or mixtures thereof) have been materials of choice for LIB cathodes. During cycling, the transition metals change their oxidation states, an effect that can be tracked by detecting energy shifts in the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectrum. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) can therefore be used to visualize and quantify lithiation kinetics in transition metal oxide cathodes; however, in-situ measurements are often constrained by temporal resolution and X-ray dose, necessitating compromises in the electrochemistry cycling conditions used or the materials examined. We report a combined approach to reduce measurement time and X-ray exposure for operando XAS studies of lithium ion batteries. A highly discretized energy resolution coupled with advanced post-processing enables rapid yet reliable identification of the oxidation state. A full-field microscopy setup provides sub-particle resolution over a large area of battery electrode, enabling the oxidation state within many transition metal oxide particles to be tracked simultaneously. Here, we apply this approach to gain insights into the lithiation kinetics of a commercial, mixed-metal oxide cathode material, nickel cobalt aluminium oxide (NCA), during (dis)charge and its degradation during overcharge.

  1. Accurate positioning of pedestrains in mixed indoor/outdoor settings : A particle filter approach to sensor and map fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftkjær, Thomas

    , through an extensive GNSS measurement campaign. The results of this campaign provides researchers a foundation for choosing and designing complementary technologies and systems. The contributions in this thesis are novel sensor fusion methods based on particle lters for improved positioning, hence......Pedestrian positioning with full coverage in urban environments is a long sought after research goal. This thesis proposes new techniques for handling the challenging task of truly pervasive pedestrian positioning. It shows that through sensor fusion one can both improve accuracy and extend...... the following four aspects all advance this research direction. Firstly, this thesis proposes ProPosition, a system that utilizes GNSS-complementary technologies such as WiFi and Dead Reckoning by Inertial Measurements Units. We show, that through ProPosition's use of the probabilistic Bayes lter technique...

  2. A particle swarm optimized kernel-based clustering method for crop mapping from multi-temporal polarimetric L-band SAR observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamiminia, Haifa; Homayouni, Saeid; McNairn, Heather; Safari, Abdoreza

    2017-06-01

    Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolSAR) data, thanks to their specific characteristics such as high resolution, weather and daylight independence, have become a valuable source of information for environment monitoring and management. The discrimination capability of observations acquired by these sensors can be used for land cover classification and mapping. The aim of this paper is to propose an optimized kernel-based C-means clustering algorithm for agriculture crop mapping from multi-temporal PolSAR data. Firstly, several polarimetric features are extracted from preprocessed data. These features are linear polarization intensities, and several statistical and physical based decompositions such as Cloude-Pottier, Freeman-Durden and Yamaguchi techniques. Then, the kernelized version of hard and fuzzy C-means clustering algorithms are applied to these polarimetric features in order to identify crop types. The kernel function, unlike the conventional partitioning clustering algorithms, simplifies the non-spherical and non-linearly patterns of data structure, to be clustered easily. In addition, in order to enhance the results, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm is used to tune the kernel parameters, cluster centers and to optimize features selection. The efficiency of this method was evaluated by using multi-temporal UAVSAR L-band images acquired over an agricultural area near Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, during June and July in 2012. The results demonstrate more accurate crop maps using the proposed method when compared to the classical approaches, (e.g. 12% improvement in general). In addition, when the optimization technique is used, greater improvement is observed in crop classification, e.g. 5% in overall. Furthermore, a strong relationship between Freeman-Durden volume scattering component, which is related to canopy structure, and phenological growth stages is observed.

  3. Landslide Susceptibility Mapping Based on Particle Swarm Optimization of Multiple Kernel Relevance Vector Machines: Case of a Low Hill Area in Sichuan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongliang Lin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a multiple kernel relevance vector machine (RVM method based on the adaptive cloud particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm to map landslide susceptibility in the low hill area of Sichuan Province, China. In the multi-kernel structure, the kernel selection problem can be solved by adjusting the kernel weight, which determines the single kernel contribution of the final kernel mapping. The weights and parameters of the multi-kernel function were optimized using the PSO algorithm. In addition, the convergence speed of the PSO algorithm was increased using cloud theory. To ensure the stability of the prediction model, the result of a five-fold cross-validation method was used as the fitness of the PSO algorithm. To verify the results, receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC and landslide dot density (LDD were used. The results show that the model that used a heterogeneous kernel (a combination of two different kernel functions had a larger area under the ROC curve (0.7616 and a lower prediction error ratio (0.28% than did the other types of kernel models employed in this study. In addition, both the sum of two high susceptibility zone LDDs (6.71/100 km2 and the sum of two low susceptibility zone LDDs (0.82/100 km2 demonstrated that the landslide susceptibility map based on the heterogeneous kernel model was closest to the historical landslide distribution. In conclusion, the results obtained in this study can provide very useful information for disaster prevention and land-use planning in the study area.

  4. The Interstellar Mapping and Acceleration Probe - A Mission to Discover the Origin of Particle Acceleration and its Fundamental Connection to the Global Interstellar Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwadron, N.

    2017-12-01

    Our piece of cosmic real-estate, the heliosphere, is the domain of all human existence - an astrophysical case-history of the successful evolution of life in a habitable system. The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) was the first mission to explore the global heliosphere and in concert with Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 is discovering a fundamentally new and uncharted physical domain of the outer heliosphere. In parallel, Cassini/INCA maps the global heliosphere at energies ( 5-55 keV) above those measured by IBEX. The enigmatic IBEX ribbon and the INCA belt were unanticipated discoveries demonstrating that much of what we know or think we understand about the outer heliosphere needs to be revised. The global structure of the heliosphere is highly complex and influenced by competing factors ranging from the local interstellar magnetic field, suprathermal populations both within and beyond the heliopause, and the detailed flow properties of the LISM. Global heliospheric structure and microphysics in turn influences the acceleration of energetic particles and creates feedbacks that modify the interstellar interaction as a whole. The next quantum leap enabled by IMAP will open new windows on the frontier of Heliophysics and probe the acceleration of suprathermal and higher energy particles at a time when the space environment is rapidly evolving. IMAP ultimately connects the acceleration processes observed directly at 1 AU with unprecedented sensitivity and temporal resolution with the global structure of our heliosphere. The remarkable synergy between IMAP, Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 will remain for at least the next decade as Voyager 1 pushes further into the interstellar domain and Voyager 2 moves through the heliosheath. IMAP, like ACE before it, will be a keystone of the Heliophysics System Observatory by providing comprehensive energetic particle, pickup ion, suprathermal ion, neutral atom, solar wind, solar wind heavy ion, and magnetic field observations to diagnose

  5. Applying digital particle image velocimetry to animal-generated flows : Traps, hurdles and cures in mapping steady and unsteady flows in Re regimes between 10(-2) and 10(5)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stamhuis, EJ; Videler, JJ; van Duren, LA; Muller, UK

    2002-01-01

    Digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) has been applied to animal-generated flows since 1993 to map the flow patterns and vortex wakes produced by a range of feeding and swimming aquatic animals, covering a Re range of 10(-2)-10(5). In this paper, the special circumstances, problems and some

  6. Epitope mapping of the U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and mixed connective tissue disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somarelli, J A; Mesa, A; Rodriguez, R; Avellan, R; Martinez, L; Zang, Y J; Greidinger, E L; Herrera, R J

    2011-03-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) are autoimmune illnesses characterized by the presence of high titers of autoantibodies directed against a wide range of 'self ' antigens. Proteins of the U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (U1 snRNP) are among the most immunogenic molecules in patients with SLE and MCTD. The recent release of a crystallized U1 snRNP provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the effects of tertiary and quaternary structures on autoantigenicity within the U1 snRNP. In the present study, an epitope map was created using the U1 snRNP crystal structure. A total of 15 peptides were tested in a cohort of 68 patients with SLE, 29 with MCTD and 26 healthy individuals and mapped onto the U1 snRNP structure. Antigenic sites were detected in a variety of structures and appear to include RNA binding domains, but mostly exclude regions necessary for protein-protein interactions. These data suggest that while some autoantibodies may target U1 snRNP proteins as monomers or apoptosis-induced, protease-digested fragments, others may recognize epitopes on assembled protein subcomplexes of the U1 snRNP. Although nearly all of the peptides are strong predictors of autoimmune illness, none were successful at distinguishing between SLE and MCTD. The antigenicity of some peptides significantly correlated with several clinical symptoms. This investigation implicitly highlights the complexities of autoimmune epitopes, and autoimmune illnesses in general, and demonstrates the variability of antigens in patient populations, all of which contribute to difficult clinical diagnoses.

  7. Magnetic Particle / Magnetic Resonance Imaging: In-Vitro MPI-Guided Real Time Catheter Tracking and 4D Angioplasty Using a Road Map and Blood Pool Tracer Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Salamon

    Full Text Available In-vitro evaluation of the feasibility of 4D real time tracking of endovascular devices and stenosis treatment with a magnetic particle imaging (MPI / magnetic resonance imaging (MRI road map approach and an MPI-guided approach using a blood pool tracer.A guide wire and angioplasty-catheter were labeled with a thin layer of magnetic lacquer. For real time MPI a custom made software framework was developed. A stenotic vessel phantom filled with saline or superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MM4 was equipped with bimodal fiducial markers for co-registration in preclinical 7T MRI and MPI. In-vitro angioplasty was performed inflating the balloon with saline or MM4. MPI data were acquired using a field of view of 37.3×37.3×18.6 mm3 and a frame rate of 46 volumes/sec. Analysis of the magnetic lacquer-marks on the devices were performed with electron microscopy, atomic absorption spectrometry and micro-computed tomography.Magnetic marks allowed for MPI/MRI guidance of interventional devices. Bimodal fiducial markers enable MPI/MRI image fusion for MRI based roadmapping. MRI roadmapping and the blood pool tracer approach facilitate MPI real time monitoring of in-vitro angioplasty. Successful angioplasty was verified with MPI and MRI. Magnetic marks consist of micrometer sized ferromagnetic plates mainly composed of iron and iron oxide.4D real time MP imaging, tracking and guiding of endovascular instruments and in-vitro angioplasty is feasible. In addition to an approach that requires a blood pool tracer, MRI based roadmapping might emerge as a promising tool for radiation free 4D MPI-guided interventions.

  8. Magnetic Particle / Magnetic Resonance Imaging: In-Vitro MPI-Guided Real Time Catheter Tracking and 4D Angioplasty Using a Road Map and Blood Pool Tracer Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamon, Johannes; Hofmann, Martin; Jung, Caroline; Kaul, Michael Gerhard; Werner, Franziska; Them, Kolja; Reimer, Rudolph; Nielsen, Peter; Vom Scheidt, Annika; Adam, Gerhard; Knopp, Tobias; Ittrich, Harald

    2016-01-01

    In-vitro evaluation of the feasibility of 4D real time tracking of endovascular devices and stenosis treatment with a magnetic particle imaging (MPI) / magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) road map approach and an MPI-guided approach using a blood pool tracer. A guide wire and angioplasty-catheter were labeled with a thin layer of magnetic lacquer. For real time MPI a custom made software framework was developed. A stenotic vessel phantom filled with saline or superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MM4) was equipped with bimodal fiducial markers for co-registration in preclinical 7T MRI and MPI. In-vitro angioplasty was performed inflating the balloon with saline or MM4. MPI data were acquired using a field of view of 37.3×37.3×18.6 mm3 and a frame rate of 46 volumes/sec. Analysis of the magnetic lacquer-marks on the devices were performed with electron microscopy, atomic absorption spectrometry and micro-computed tomography. Magnetic marks allowed for MPI/MRI guidance of interventional devices. Bimodal fiducial markers enable MPI/MRI image fusion for MRI based roadmapping. MRI roadmapping and the blood pool tracer approach facilitate MPI real time monitoring of in-vitro angioplasty. Successful angioplasty was verified with MPI and MRI. Magnetic marks consist of micrometer sized ferromagnetic plates mainly composed of iron and iron oxide. 4D real time MP imaging, tracking and guiding of endovascular instruments and in-vitro angioplasty is feasible. In addition to an approach that requires a blood pool tracer, MRI based roadmapping might emerge as a promising tool for radiation free 4D MPI-guided interventions.

  9. The HSOB GAIA: a cryogenic high stability cesic optical bench for missions requiring sub-nanometric optical stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courteau, Pascal; Poupinet, Anne; Kroedel, Mathias; Sarri, Giuseppe

    2017-11-01

    Global astrometry, very demanding in term of stability, requires extremely stable material for optical bench. CeSiC developed by ECM and Alcatel Alenia Space for mirrors and high stability structures, offers the best compromise in term of structural strength, stability and very high lightweight capability, with characteristics leading to be insensitive to thermo-elastic at cryogenic T°. The HSOB GAIA study realised by Alcatel Alenia Space under ESA contract aimed to design, develop and test a full scale representative High Stability Optical Bench in CeSiC. The bench has been equipped with SAGEIS-CSO laser metrology system MOUSE1, Michelson interferometer composed of integrated optics with a nm resolution. The HSOB bench has been submitted to an homogeneous T° step under vacuum to characterise the homothetic behaviour of its two arms. The quite negligible inter-arms differential measured with a nm range reproducibility, demonstrates that a complete 3D structure in CeSiC has the same CTE homogeneity as characterisation samples, fully in line with the GAIA need (1pm at 120K). This participates to the demonstration that CeSiC properties at cryogenic T° is fully appropriate to the manufacturing of complex highly stable optical structures. This successful study confirms ECM and Alcatel Alenia Space ability to define and manufacture monolithic lightweight highly stable optical structures, based on inner cells triangular design made only possible by the unique CeSiC manufacturing process.

  10. Mapping out Map Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferjan Ormeling

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Discussing the requirements for map data quality, map users and their library/archives environment, the paper focuses on the metadata the user would need for a correct and efficient interpretation of the map data. For such a correct interpretation, knowledge of the rules and guidelines according to which the topographers/cartographers work (such as the kind of data categories to be collected, and the degree to which these rules and guidelines were indeed followed are essential. This is not only valid for the old maps stored in our libraries and archives, but perhaps even more so for the new digital files as the format in which we now have to access our geospatial data. As this would be too much to ask from map librarians/curators, some sort of web 2.0 environment is sought where comments about data quality, completeness and up-to-dateness from knowledgeable map users regarding the specific maps or map series studied can be collected and tagged to scanned versions of these maps on the web. In order not to be subject to the same disadvantages as Wikipedia, where the ‘communis opinio’ rather than scholarship, seems to be decisive, some checking by map curators of this tagged map use information would still be needed. Cooperation between map curators and the International Cartographic Association ( ICA map and spatial data use commission to this end is suggested.

  11. Particle Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Health Particle Pollution Public Health Issues Particle Pollution Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Particle pollution — ... see them in the air. Where does particle pollution come from? Particle pollution can come from two ...

  12. Symplectic maps for accelerator lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnock, R.L.; Ruth, R.; Gabella, W.

    1988-05-01

    We describe a method for numerical construction of a symplectic map for particle propagation in a general accelerator lattice. The generating function of the map is obtained by integrating the Hamilton-Jacobi equation as an initial-value problem on a finite time interval. Given the generating function, the map is put in explicit form by means of a Fourier inversion technique. We give an example which suggests that the method has promise. 9 refs., 9 figs

  13. Rare particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutschera, W.

    1984-01-01

    The use of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) to search for hypothetical particles and known particles of rare processes is discussed. The hypothetical particles considered include fractionally charged particles, anomalously heavy isotopes, and superheavy elements. The known particles produced in rare processes discussed include doubly-charged negative ions, counting neutrino-produced atoms in detectors for solar neutrino detection, and the spontaneous emission of 14 C from 223 Ra. 35 references

  14. Particle Filtering Methods for Incorporating Intelligence Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    past time steps. 3.2.1 Particle Filtering through Bayesian Bootstrap Sampling Although SIS helps resolve the computational and complexity issues...variables. This insight was called the Bayesian bootstrap filter, or more commonly called the particle filter. Multiple particles are sampled from an...2012) 16 maps of drug flow into the United States. Business Insider Online, (July 8), http://www.businessinsider.com/16-maps-of-drug-flow-into-the

  15. Topographic mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) produced its first topographic map in 1879, the same year it was established. Today, more than 100 years and millions of map copies later, topographic mapping is still a central activity for the USGS. The topographic map remains an indispensable tool for government, science, industry, and leisure. Much has changed since early topographers traveled the unsettled West and carefully plotted the first USGS maps by hand. Advances in survey techniques, instrumentation, and design and printing technologies, as well as the use of aerial photography and satellite data, have dramatically improved mapping coverage, accuracy, and efficiency. Yet cartography, the art and science of mapping, may never before have undergone change more profound than today.

  16. Particle detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpak, G.

    2000-01-01

    In this article G.Charpak presents the principles on which particle detection is based. Particle accelerators are becoming more and more powerful and require new detectors able to track the right particle in a huge flux of particles. The gigantic size of detectors in high energy physics is often due to the necessity of getting a long enough trajectory in a magnetic field in order to deduce from the curvature an accurate account of impulses in the reaction. (A.C.)

  17. Strange particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinowsky, W.

    1989-01-01

    Work done in the mid 1950s at Brookhaven National Laboratory on strange particles is described. Experiments were done on the Cosmotron. The author describes his own and others' work on neutral kaons, lambda and theta particles and points out the theoretical gap between predictions and experimental findings. By the end of the decade, the theory of strange particles was better understood. (UK)

  18. Participatory Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    2016-01-01

    practice. In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human-made disasters has become one focal point for environmental knowledge production. This type of digital map has been highlighted as a processual turn in critical cartography, whereas in related computational journalism...... of a geo-visualization within information mapping that enhances embodiment in the experience of the information. InfoAmazonia is defined as a digitally created map-space within which journalistic practice can be seen as dynamic, performative interactions between journalists, ecosystems, space, and species...

  19. Grated waveguide-based optical cavities as compact sensors for sub-nanometre cantilever deflections, and small refractive-index changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kauppinen, L.J.; Hoekstra, Hugo; Dijkstra, Mindert; de Ridder, R.M.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; MacCraith, B; McDonagh, C.

    2008-01-01

    The paper reports on theoretical and experimental results of integrated optical (IO) cavities defined by grated waveguides in $Si_3N_4$ and Si, for the accurate detection of cantilever deflection and bulk index changes.

  20. Concept Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology & Learning, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Concept maps are graphical ways of working with ideas and presenting information. They reveal patterns and relationships and help students to clarify their thinking, and to process, organize and prioritize. Displaying information visually--in concept maps, word webs, or diagrams--stimulates creativity. Being able to think logically teaches…

  1. Particle therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raju, M.R.

    1993-09-01

    Particle therapy has a long history. The experimentation with particles for their therapeutic application got started soon after they were produced in the laboratory. Physicists played a major role in proposing the potential applications in radiotherapy as well as in the development of particle therapy. A brief review of the current status of particle radiotherapy with some historical perspective is presented and specific contributions made by physicists will be pointed out wherever appropriate. The rationale of using particles in cancer treatment is to reduce the treatment volume to the target volume by using precise dose distributions in three dimensions by using particles such as protons and to improve the differential effects on tumors compared to normal tissues by using high-LET radiations such as neutrons. Pions and heavy ions combine the above two characteristics.

  2. Particle therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    Particle therapy has a long history. The experimentation with particles for their therapeutic application got started soon after they were produced in the laboratory. Physicists played a major role in proposing the potential applications in radiotherapy as well as in the development of particle therapy. A brief review of the current status of particle radiotherapy with some historical perspective is presented and specific contributions made by physicists will be pointed out wherever appropriate. The rationale of using particles in cancer treatment is to reduce the treatment volume to the target volume by using precise dose distributions in three dimensions by using particles such as protons and to improve the differential effects on tumors compared to normal tissues by using high-LET radiations such as neutrons. Pions and heavy ions combine the above two characteristics

  3. Particle cosmology

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    The understanding of the Universe at the largest and smallest scales traditionally has been the subject of cosmology and particle physics, respectively. Studying the evolution of the Universe connects today's large scales with the tiny scales in the very early Universe and provides the link between the physics of particles and of the cosmos. This series of five lectures aims at a modern and critical presentation of the basic ideas, methods, models and observations in today's particle cosmology.

  4. Particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, Anwar

    2014-01-01

    Provides step-by-step derivations. Contains numerous tables and diagrams. Supports learning and teaching with numerous worked examples, questions and problems with answers. Sketches also the historical development of the subject. This textbook teaches particle physics very didactically. It supports learning and teaching with numerous worked examples, questions and problems with answers. Numerous tables and diagrams lead to a better understanding of the explanations. The content of the book covers all important topics of particle physics: Elementary particles are classified from the point of view of the four fundamental interactions. The nomenclature used in particle physics is explained. The discoveries and properties of known elementary particles and resonances are given. The particles considered are positrons, muon, pions, anti-protons, strange particles, neutrino and hadrons. The conservation laws governing the interactions of elementary particles are given. The concepts of parity, spin, charge conjugation, time reversal and gauge invariance are explained. The quark theory is introduced to explain the hadron structure and strong interactions. The solar neutrino problem is considered. Weak interactions are classified into various types, and the selection rules are stated. Non-conservation of parity and the universality of the weak interactions are discussed. Neutral and charged currents, discovery of W and Z bosons and the early universe form important topics of the electroweak interactions. The principles of high energy accelerators including colliders are elaborately explained. Additionally, in the book detectors used in nuclear and particle physics are described. This book is on the upper undergraduate level.

  5. Magnetic particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Manchium (Inventor); Colvin, Michael S. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Magnetic polymer particles are formed by swelling porous, polymer particles and impregnating the particles with an aqueous solution of precursor magnetic metal salt such as an equimolar mixture of ferrous chloride and ferric chloride. On addition of a basic reagent such as dilute sodium hydroxide, the metal salts are converted to crystals of magnetite which are uniformly contained througout the pores of the polymer particle. The magnetite content can be increased and neutral buoyancy achieved by repetition of the impregnaton and neutralization steps to adjust the magnetite content to a desired level.

  6. Stochastic motion of particles in tandem mirror devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Y.H.; Kamimura, T.

    1982-01-01

    Stochastic motion of particles in tandem mirror devices is examined on basis of a nonlinear mapping of particle positions on the equatorial plane. Local stability analysis provides detailed informations on particle trajectories. The rate of stochastic plasma diffusion is estimated from numerical observations of motions of particles over a large number of time steps. (author)

  7. Mapping racism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Donald B

    2006-01-01

    The author uses the metaphor of mapping to illuminate a structural feature of racist thought, locating the degraded object along vertical and horizontal axes. These axes establish coordinates of hierarchy and of distance. With the coordinates in place, racist thought begins to seem grounded in natural processes. The other's identity becomes consolidated, and parochialism results. The use of this kind of mapping is illustrated via two patient vignettes. The author presents Freud's (1905, 1927) views in relation to such a "mapping" process, as well as Adorno's (1951) and Baldwin's (1965). Finally, the author conceptualizes the crucial status of primitivity in the workings of racist thought.

  8. Feigenbaum attractor and intermittency in particle collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batunin, A.V.

    1992-01-01

    The hypothesis is proposed that the Feigenbaum attractor arising as a limit set in an infinite pichfork bifurcation sequence for unimodal one-dimensional maps underlies the intermittency phenomena in particle collisions. 23 refs.; 8 figs

  9. Particle accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ress, R.I.

    1976-01-01

    Charged particles are entrained in a predetermined direction, independent of their polarity, in a circular orbit by a magnetic field rotating at high speed about an axis in a closed cylindrical or toroidal vessel. The field may be generated by a cylindrical laser structure, whose beam is polygonally reflected from the walls of an excited cavity centered on the axis, or by high-frequency energization of a set of electromagnets perpendicular to the axis. In the latter case, a separate magnetostatic axial field limits the orbital radius of the particles. These rotating and stationary magnetic fields may be generated centrally or by individual magnets peripherally spaced along its circular orbit. Chemical or nuclear reactions can be induced by collisions between the orbiting particles and an injected reactant, or by diverting high-speed particles from one doughnut into the path of counterrotating particles in an adjoining doughnut

  10. Genetic Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... greatly advanced genetics research. The improved quality of genetic data has reduced the time required to identify a ... cases, a matter of months or even weeks. Genetic mapping data generated by the HGP's laboratories is freely accessible ...

  11. Selective encapsulation by Janus particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wei, E-mail: wel208@mrl.ucsb.edu [Materials Research Laboratory, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Ruth, Donovan; Gunton, James D. [Department of Physics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States); Rickman, Jeffrey M. [Department of Physics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States)

    2015-06-28

    We employ Monte Carlo simulation to examine encapsulation in a system comprising Janus oblate spheroids and isotropic spheres. More specifically, the impact of variations in temperature, particle size, inter-particle interaction range, and strength is examined for a system in which the spheroids act as the encapsulating agents and the spheres as the encapsulated guests. In this picture, particle interactions are described by a quasi-square-well patch model. This study highlights the environmental adaptation and selectivity of the encapsulation system to changes in temperature and guest particle size, respectively. Moreover, we identify an important range in parameter space where encapsulation is favored, as summarized by an encapsulation map. Finally, we discuss the generalization of our results to systems having a wide range of particle geometries.

  12. Particle detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hilke, Hans Jürgen

    1992-01-01

    We shall discuss the principles of the main techniques applied to particle detection (including front-end electronics), the construction and performance of some of the devices presently in operation and a few ideas on future developments.

  13. Auroral particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    The problems concerning the aurora posed prior to the war are now either solved in principle or were restated in a more fundamental form. The pre-war hypothesis concerning the nature of the auroral particles and their energies was fully confirmed, with the exception that helium and oxygen ions were identified as participating in the auroral particle precipitation in addition to the protons. The nature of the near-Earth energization processes affecting auroral particles was clarified. Charged particle trajectories in various electric field geometries were modeled. The physical problems have now moved from determining the nature and geometry of the electric fields, which accelerate charged particles near the Earth, to accounting for the existence of these electric fields as a natural consequence of the solar wind's interaction with Earth. Ultimately the reward in continuing the work in auroral and magnetospheric particle dynamics will be a deeper understanding of the subtleties of classical electricity and magnetism as applied to situations not blessed with well-defined and invariant geometries

  14. Elementary particles and particle interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethge, K.; Schroeder, U.E.

    1986-01-01

    This book is a textbook for an introductory course of elementary particle physics. After a general introduction the symmetry principles governing the interactions of elementary particles are discussed. Then the phenomenology of the electroweak and strong interactions are described together with a short introduction to the Weinberg-Salam theory respectively to quantum chromodynamics. Finally a short outlook is given to grand unification with special regards to SU(5) and cosmology in the framework of the current understanding of the fundamental principles of nature. In the appendix is a table of particle properties and physical constants. (HSI) [de

  15. Projective mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehlholm, Christian; Brockhoff, Per B.; Bredie, Wender Laurentius Petrus

    2012-01-01

    by the practical testing environment. As a result of the changes, a reasonable assumption would be to question the consequences caused by the variations in method procedures. Here, the aim is to highlight the proven or hypothetic consequences of variations of Projective Mapping. Presented variations will include...... instructions and influence heavily the product placements and the descriptive vocabulary (Dehlholm et.al., 2012b). The type of assessors performing the method influences results with an extra aspect in Projective Mapping compared to more analytical tests, as the given spontaneous perceptions are much dependent......Projective Mapping (Risvik et.al., 1994) and its Napping (Pagès, 2003) variations have become increasingly popular in the sensory field for rapid collection of spontaneous product perceptions. It has been applied in variations which sometimes are caused by the purpose of the analysis and sometimes...

  16. Affective Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    . In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human made disasters has become one of the focal point of affective knowledge production. These ‘more-than-humangeographies’ practices include notions of species, space and territory, and movement towards a new political ecology. This type...... of digital cartographies has been highlighted as the ‘processual turn’ in critical cartography, whereas in related computational journalism it can be seen as an interactive and iterative process of mapping complex and fragile ecological developments. This paper looks at computer-assisted cartography as part...

  17. Energetic map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This report explains the energetic map of Uruguay as well as the different systems that delimits political frontiers in the region. The electrical system importance is due to the electricity, oil and derived , natural gas, potential study, biofuels, wind and solar energy

  18. Necklace maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speckmann, B.; Verbeek, K.A.B.

    2010-01-01

    Statistical data associated with geographic regions is nowadays globally available in large amounts and hence automated methods to visually display these data are in high demand. There are several well-established thematic map types for quantitative data on the ratio-scale associated with regions:

  19. Participatory maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    towards a new political ecology. This type of digital cartographies has been highlighted as the ‘processual turn’ in critical cartography, whereas in related computational journalism it can be seen as an interactive and iterative process of mapping complex and fragile ecological developments. This paper...

  20. Particle detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hilke, Hans Jürgen; Joram, Christian; CERN. Geneva

    1991-01-01

    Lecture 5: Detector characteristics: ALEPH Experiment cut through the devices and events - Discuss the principles of the main techniques applied to particle detection ( including front-end electronics), the construction and performance of some of the devices presently in operartion and a few ideas on the future performance. Lecture 4-pt. b Following the Scintillators. Lecture 4-pt. a : Scintillators - Used for: -Timing (TOF, Trigger) - Energy Measurement (Calorimeters) - Tracking (Fibres) Basic scintillation processes- Inorganic Scintillators - Organic Scintil - Discuss the principles of the main techniques applied to particle detection ( including front-end electronics), the construction and performance of some of the devices presently in operation and a fiew ideas on future developpement session 3 - part. b Following Calorimeters lecture 3-pt. a Calorimeters - determine energy E by total absorption of charged or neutral particles - fraction of E is transformed into measurable quantities - try to acheive sig...

  1. Stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.

    1993-01-01

    I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets. with a few more additions -- with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers-exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the forte of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc

  2. Particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Brian R

    2017-01-01

    An accessible and carefully structured introduction to Particle Physics, including important coverage of the Higgs Boson and recent progress in neutrino physics. Fourth edition of this successful title in the Manchester Physics series. Includes information on recent key discoveries including : An account of the discovery of exotic hadrons, beyond the simple quark model; Expanded treatments of neutrino physics and CP violation in B-decays; An updated account of ‘physics beyond the standard model’, including the interaction of particle physics with cosmology; Additional problems in all chapters, with solutions to selected problems available on the book’s website; Advanced material appears in optional starred sections.

  3. Nonlinear dynamics of the relativistic standard map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Y.; Ichikawa, Y.H.; Horton, W.

    1991-04-01

    Heating and acceleration of charged particles by RF fields have been extensively investigated by the standard map. The question arises as to how the relativistic effects change the nonlinear dynamical behavior described by the classical standard map. The relativistic standard map is a two parameter (K, Β = ω/kc) family of dynamical systems reducing to the standard map when Β → 0. For Β ≠ 0 the relativistic mass increase suppresses the onset of stochasticity. It shown that the speed of light limits the rate of advance of the phase in the relativistic standard map and introduces KAM surfaces persisting in the high momentum region. An intricate structure of mixing in the higher order periodic orbits and chaotic orbits is analyzed using the symmetry properties of the relativistic standard map. The interchange of the stability of the periodic orbits in the relativistic standard map is also observed and is explained by the local linear stability of the orbits. 12 refs., 16 figs

  4. A method for mapping the motion and temperature history of fuel particles in grate boilers and waste incinerators - stage 1; Metod foer kartlaeggning av braenslepartiklars roerelse och temperaturhistorik i rosterpannor/avfallsugnar - etapp 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsson, Lennart; Blom, Elisabeth; Hald Pedersen, Niels; Moritz, Anders; Maardsjoe, Olle; Oskarsson, Jan; Petersson, Mats

    2000-04-01

    A feasibility study has been conducted where methods using radioactive tracer techniques for studying the behaviour of fuel particles on a grate are proposed and assessed. The following topics are addressed: - the possibility to continuously register the position of a single fuel particle on a grate from the fuel feed to burn-out; - the possibility to determine when a single fuel particle reach a certain temperature; and - the possibility to study drying and pyrolysis processes for a single fuel particle. In addition, a method to determine the height and density profiles of a fuel bed on a grate is proposed. The method for continuous determination of position is based on including a radiation source of the isotope {sup 24}Na in a fuel particle which is then supplied to the fuel feed. The gamma radiation emitted is registered by a number of detectors, mounted on the outside of the boiler. Since the radiation registered is dependent on both the distance between the source and detector and on the materials in the pathway, it is possible to continuously calculate the position of the fuel particle with the aid of Monte Carlo simulation. The inaccuracy in the determination is estimated to less than 5 cm. This is deemed to be accurate enough to be interesting. In order to study when a fuel particle reach a certain temperature, it is proposed that vials, manufactured in materials that will be broken at a defined temperature, is filled with the isotope {sup 85}Kr and mounted in fuel particles. When this noble gas is released, it follows the flue gases through the boiler and can be detected in the flue gas duct through its beta emission. The drying process of a fuel particle is proposed to be studied through impregnating fuel particles with tritium-containing water. The tritium-containing water is evaporated as the fuel particle dries and through analysing the tritium content of the flue gases the drying process can be followed. The feasibility study also deals with the

  5. Visual SLAM Using Variance Grid Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Andrew B.; Marks, Tim K.

    2011-01-01

    An algorithm denoted Gamma-SLAM performs further processing, in real time, of preprocessed digitized images acquired by a stereoscopic pair of electronic cameras aboard an off-road robotic ground vehicle to build accurate maps of the terrain and determine the location of the vehicle with respect to the maps. Part of the name of the algorithm reflects the fact that the process of building the maps and determining the location with respect to them is denoted simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM). Most prior real-time SLAM algorithms have been limited in applicability to (1) systems equipped with scanning laser range finders as the primary sensors in (2) indoor environments (or relatively simply structured outdoor environments). The few prior vision-based SLAM algorithms have been feature-based and not suitable for real-time applications and, hence, not suitable for autonomous navigation on irregularly structured terrain. The Gamma-SLAM algorithm incorporates two key innovations: Visual odometry (in contradistinction to wheel odometry) is used to estimate the motion of the vehicle. An elevation variance map (in contradistinction to an occupancy or an elevation map) is used to represent the terrain. The Gamma-SLAM algorithm makes use of a Rao-Blackwellized particle filter (RBPF) from Bayesian estimation theory for maintaining a distribution over poses and maps. The core idea of the RBPF approach is that the SLAM problem can be factored into two parts: (1) finding the distribution over robot trajectories, and (2) finding the map conditioned on any given trajectory. The factorization involves the use of a particle filter in which each particle encodes both a possible trajectory and a map conditioned on that trajectory. The base estimate of the trajectory is derived from visual odometry, and the map conditioned on that trajectory is a Cartesian grid of elevation variances. In comparison with traditional occupancy or elevation grid maps, the grid elevation variance

  6. Elementary particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, R.

    1984-01-01

    Two previous monographs report on investigations into the extent to which a unified field theory can satisfactorily describe physical reality. The first, Unified field Theory, showed that the paths within a non-Riemannian space are governed by eigenvalue equations. The second, Fundamental Constants, show that the field tensors satisfy sets of differential equations with solutions which represent the evolution of the fields along the paths of the space. The results from the first two monographs are used in this one to make progress on the theory of elementary particles. The five chapters are as follows - Quantum mechanics, gravitation and electromagnetism are aspects of the Unified theory; the fields inside the particle; the quadratic and linear theories; the calculation of the eigenvalues and elementary particles as stable configurations of interacting fields. It is shown that it is possible to construct an internal structure theory for elementary particles. The theory lies within the framework of Einstein's programme-to identify physical reality with a specified geometrical structure. (U.K.)

  7. Pinpointing particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, David J.

    1987-01-01

    The Conference on Position-Sensitive Detectors held at London's University College from 7-11 September highlighted the importance and the growing applications of these precision devices in many branches of science, underlining once again the high spinoff potential for techniques developed inside particle physics

  8. Particle tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mais, H.; Ripken, G.; Wrulich, A.; Schmidt, F.

    1986-02-01

    After a brief description of typical applications of particle tracking in storage rings and after a short discussion of some limitations and problems related with tracking we summarize some concepts and methods developed in the qualitative theory of dynamical systems. We show how these concepts can be applied to the proton ring HERA. (orig.)

  9. Pinpointing particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David J.

    1987-10-15

    The Conference on Position-Sensitive Detectors held at London's University College from 7-11 September highlighted the importance and the growing applications of these precision devices in many branches of science, underlining once again the high spinoff potential for techniques developed inside particle physics.

  10. Particle Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    While biomedicine and geoscience use grids to bring together many different sub-disciplines, particle physicists use grid computing to increase computing power and storage resources, and to access and analyze vast amounts of data collected from detectors at the world's most powerful accelerators (1 page)

  11. MAPPING INNOVATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian Langhoff; Koch, Christian

    2011-01-01

    By adopting a theoretical framework from strategic niche management research (SNM) this paper presents an analysis of the innovation system of the Danish Construction industry. The analysis shows a multifaceted landscape of innovation around an existing regime, built around existing ways of working...... and developed over generations. The regime is challenged from various niches and the socio-technical landscape through trends as globalization. Three niches (Lean Construction, BIM and System Deliveries) are subject to a detailed analysis showing partly incompatible rationales and various degrees of innovation...... potential. The paper further discusses how existing policymaking operates in a number of tensions one being between government and governance. Based on the concepts from SNM the paper introduces an innovation map in order to support the development of meta-governance policymaking. By mapping some...

  12. Mapping filmmaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilje, Øystein; Frølunde, Lisbeth; Lindstrand, Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    This chapter concerns mapping patterns in regards to how young filmmakers (age 15 – 20) in the Scandinavian countries learn about filmmaking. To uncover the patterns, we present portraits of four young filmmakers who participated in the Scandinavian research project Making a filmmaker. The focus ...... is on their learning practices and how they create ‘learning paths’ in relation to resources in diverse learning contexts, whether formal, non-formal and informal contexts.......This chapter concerns mapping patterns in regards to how young filmmakers (age 15 – 20) in the Scandinavian countries learn about filmmaking. To uncover the patterns, we present portraits of four young filmmakers who participated in the Scandinavian research project Making a filmmaker. The focus...

  13. Duality and 'particle' democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellani, Elena

    2017-08-01

    Weak/strong duality is usually accompanied by what seems a puzzling ontological feature: the fact that under this kind of duality what is viewed as 'elementary' in one description gets mapped to what is viewed as 'composite' in the dual description. This paper investigates the meaning of this apparent 'particle democracy', as it has been called, by adopting an historical approach. The aim is to clarify the nature of the correspondence between 'dual particles' in the light of a historical analysis of the developments of the idea of weak/strong duality, starting with Dirac's electric-magnetic duality and its successive generalizations in the context of (Abelian and non-Abelian) field theory, to arrive at its first extension to string theory. This analysis is then used as evidential basis for discussing the 'elementary/composite' divide and, after taking another historical detour by analyzing an instructive analogy case (DHS duality and related nuclear democracy), drawing some conclusions on the particle-democracy issue.

  14. Active particles

    CERN Document Server

    Degond, Pierre; Tadmor, Eitan

    2017-01-01

    This volume collects ten surveys on the modeling, simulation, and applications of active particles using methods ranging from mathematical kinetic theory to nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. The contributing authors are leading experts working in this challenging field, and each of their chapters provides a review of the most recent results in their areas and looks ahead to future research directions. The approaches to studying active matter are presented here from many different perspectives, such as individual-based models, evolutionary games, Brownian motion, and continuum theories, as well as various combinations of these. Applications covered include biological network formation and network theory; opinion formation and social systems; control theory of sparse systems; theory and applications of mean field games; population learning; dynamics of flocking systems; vehicular traffic flow; and stochastic particles and mean field approximation. Mathematicians and other members of the scientific commu...

  15. Hot particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merwin, S.E.; Moeller, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensees are required to assess the dose to skin from a hot particle contamination event at a depth of skin of7mg/cm 2 over an area of 1 cm 2 and compare the value to the current dose limit for the skin. Although the resulting number is interesting from a comparative standpoint and can be used to predict local skin reactions, comparison of the number to existing limits based on uniform exposures is inappropriate. Most incidents that can be classified as overexposures based on this interpretation of dose actually have no effect on the health of the worker. As a result, resources are expended to reduce the likelihood that an overexposure event will occur when they could be directed toward eliminating the cause of the problem or enhancing existing programs such as contamination control. Furthermore, from a risk standpoint, this practice is not ALARA because some workers receive whole body doses in order to minimize the occurrence of hot particle skin contaminations. In this paper the authors suggest an alternative approach to controlling hot particle exposures

  16. Mapping Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carruth, Susan

    2015-01-01

    by planners when aiming to construct resilient energy plans. It concludes that a graphical language has the potential to be a significant tool, flexibly facilitating cross-disciplinary communication and decision-making, while emphasising that its role is to support imaginative, resilient planning rather than...... the relationship between resilience and energy planning, suggesting that planning in, and with, time is a core necessity in this domain. It then reviews four examples of graphically mapping with time, highlighting some of the key challenges, before tentatively proposing a graphical language to be employed...

  17. The Mapping X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (MapX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrazin, P.; Blake, D. F.; Marchis, F.; Bristow, T.; Thompson, K.

    2017-12-01

    Many planetary surface processes leave traces of their actions as features in the size range 10s to 100s of microns. The Mapping X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (MapX) will provide elemental imaging at 100 micron spatial resolution, yielding elemental chemistry at a scale where many relict physical, chemical, or biological features can be imaged and interpreted in ancient rocks on planetary bodies and planetesimals. MapX is an arm-based instrument positioned on a rock or regolith with touch sensors. During an analysis, an X-ray source (tube or radioisotope) bombards the sample with X-rays or alpha-particles / gamma-rays, resulting in sample X-ray Fluorescence (XRF). X-rays emitted in the direction of an X-ray sensitive CCD imager pass through a 1:1 focusing lens (X-ray micro-pore Optic (MPO)) that projects a spatially resolved image of the X-rays onto the CCD. The CCD is operated in single photon counting mode so that the energies and positions of individual X-ray photons are recorded. In a single analysis, several thousand frames are both stored and processed in real-time. Higher level data products include single-element maps with a lateral spatial resolution of 100 microns and quantitative XRF spectra from ground- or instrument- selected Regions of Interest (ROI). XRF spectra from ROI are compared with known rock and mineral compositions to extrapolate the data to rock types and putative mineralogies. When applied to airless bodies and implemented with an appropriate radioisotope source for alpha-particle excitation, MapX will be able to analyze biogenic elements C, N, O, P, S, in addition to the cations of the rock-forming elements >Na, accessible with either X-ray or gamma-ray excitation. The MapX concept has been demonstrated with a series of lab-based prototypes and is currently under refinement and TRL maturation.

  18. Mapping of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed M. Arafat

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Land cover map of North Sinai was produced based on the FAO-Land Cover Classification System (LCCS of 2004. The standard FAO classification scheme provides a standardized system of classification that can be used to analyze spatial and temporal land cover variability in the study area. This approach also has the advantage of facilitating the integration of Sinai land cover mapping products to be included with the regional and global land cover datasets. The total study area is covering a total area of 20,310.4 km2 (203,104 hectare. The landscape classification was based on SPOT4 data acquired in 2011 using combined multispectral bands of 20 m spatial resolution. Geographic Information System (GIS was used to manipulate the attributed layers of classification in order to reach the maximum possible accuracy. GIS was also used to include all necessary information. The identified vegetative land cover classes of the study area are irrigated herbaceous crops, irrigated tree crops and rain fed tree crops. The non-vegetated land covers in the study area include bare rock, bare soils (stony, very stony and salt crusts, loose and shifting sands and sand dunes. The water bodies were classified as artificial perennial water bodies (fish ponds and irrigated canals and natural perennial water bodies as lakes (standing. The artificial surfaces include linear and non-linear features.

  19. Moment methods for nonlinear maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, G.D.; Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON

    1993-01-01

    It is shown that Differential Algebra (DA) may be used to push moments of distributions through a map, at a computational cost per moment comparable to pushing a single particle. The algorithm is independent of order, and whether or not the map is symplectic. Starting from the known result that moment-vectors transform linearly - like a tensor - even under a nonlinear map, I suggest that the form of the moment transformation rule indicates that the moment-vectors are elements of the dual to DA-vector space. I propose several methods of manipulating moments and constructing invariants using DA. I close with speculations on how DA might be used to ''close the circle'' to solve the inverse moment problem, yielding an entirely DA-and-moment-based space-charge code. (Author)

  20. Quantisation of monotonic twist maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boasman, P.A.; Smilansky, U.

    1993-08-01

    Using an approach suggested by Moser, classical Hamiltonians are generated that provide an interpolating flow to the stroboscopic motion of maps with a monotonic twist condition. The quantum properties of these Hamiltonians are then studied in analogy with recent work on the semiclassical quantization of systems based on Poincare surfaces of section. For the generalized standard map, the correspondence with the usual classical and quantum results is shown, and the advantages of the quantum Moser Hamiltonian demonstrated. The same approach is then applied to the free motion of a particle on a 2-torus, and to the circle billiard. A natural quantization condition based on the eigenphases of the unitary time--development operator is applied, leaving the exact eigenvalues of the torus, but only the semiclassical eigenvalues for the billiard; an explanation for this failure is proposed. It is also seen how iterating the classical map commutes with the quantization. (authors)

  1. New particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khare, A.

    1980-07-01

    Current state of art in the discovery of new elementary particles is reviewed. At present, quarks and mesons are accepted as the basic constituents of matter. The charmonium model (canti-c system), and the 'open charm' are discussed. Explanations are offered for the recent discovery of the heavy lepton tau. Quark states such as the beauty and taste are also dealt with at length. The properties of the tanti-t bound system are speculated. It is concluded that the understanding of canti-c and banti-b families is facilitated by the assumption of the quarkonium model. Implications at the astrophysical level are indicated.

  2. Particle Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Collinson, Chris

    1995-01-01

    * Assumes no prior knowledge* Adopts a modelling approach* Numerous tutorial problems, worked examples and exercises included* Elementary topics augmented by planetary motion and rotating framesThis text provides an invaluable introduction to mechanicsm confining attention to the motion of a particle. It begins with a full discussion of the foundations of the subject within the context of mathematical modelling before covering more advanced topics including the theory of planetary orbits and the use of rotating frames of reference. Truly introductory , the style adoped is perfect for those u

  3. Fermilab | Particle Physics Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diversity Education Safety Sustainability and Environment Contact Science Science Particle Physics Neutrinos Scientific Computing Research & Development Key Discoveries Benefits of Particle Physics Particle Superconducting Test Accelerator LHC and Future Accelerators Accelerators for Science and Society Particle Physics

  4. Statistics of particle time-temperature histories.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewson, John C.; Lignell, David O.; Sun, Guangyuan

    2014-10-01

    Particles in non - isothermal turbulent flow are subject to a stochastic environment tha t produces a distribution of particle time - temperature histories. This distribution is a function of the dispersion of the non - isothermal (continuous) gas phase and the distribution of particles relative to that gas phase. In this work we extend the one - dimensional turbulence (ODT) model to predict the joint dispersion of a dispersed particle phase and a continuous phase. The ODT model predicts the turbulent evolution of continuous scalar fields with a model for the cascade of fluctuations to smaller sc ales (the 'triplet map') at a rate that is a function of the fully resolved one - dimens ional velocity field . Stochastic triplet maps also drive Lagrangian particle dispersion with finite Stokes number s including inertial and eddy trajectory - crossing effect s included. Two distinct approaches to this coupling between triplet maps and particle dispersion are developed and implemented along with a hybrid approach. An 'instantaneous' particle displacement model matches the tracer particle limit and provide s an accurate description of particle dispersion. A 'continuous' particle displacement m odel translates triplet maps into a continuous velocity field to which particles respond. Particles can alter the turbulence, and modifications to the stochastic rate expr ession are developed for two - way coupling between particles and the continuous phase. Each aspect of model development is evaluated in canonical flows (homogeneous turbulence, free - shear flows and wall - bounded flows) for which quality measurements are ava ilable. ODT simulations of non - isothermal flows provide statistics for particle heating. These simulations show the significance of accurately predicting the joint statistics of particle and fluid dispersion . Inhomogeneous turbulence coupled with the in fluence of the mean flow fields on particles of varying properties

  5. Cold deconfined matter EOS through an HTL quasi-particle model

    OpenAIRE

    Romatschke, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Using quasi-particle models, lattice data can be mapped to finite chemical potential. By comparing a simple and an HTL quasi-particle model, we derive the general trend that a full inclusion of the plasmon effect will give.

  6. Human Mind Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Tom

    2016-01-01

    When students generate mind maps, or concept maps, the maps are usually on paper, computer screens, or a blackboard. Human Mind Maps require few resources and little preparation. The main requirements are space where students can move around and a little creativity and imagination. Mind maps can be used for a variety of purposes, and Human Mind…

  7. Modification of the ultrasound induced activity by the presence of an electrode in a sono-reactor working at two low frequencies (20 and 40 kHz). Part II: Mapping flow velocities by particle image velocimetry (PIV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandroyan, A; Doche, M L; Hihn, J Y; Viennet, R; Bailly, Y; Simonin, L

    2009-01-01

    Sonoelectrochemical experiments differ from sonochemical ones by the introduction of electrodes in the sonicated reaction vessel. The aim of the study is to characterize the changes in the ultrasonic activity induced by the presence of an electrode located in front of the transducer. The scope of our investigations concerns two low frequency vibration modes: 20 and 40 kHz. For this purpose, two laser visualization techniques have been used. The first part of the study, described in a previous paper (Part I), deals with the laser tomography technique which provides an accurate picture of the reactor active zones, related to numerous cavitation events. The second part of the paper (Part II) will describe the particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique used to measure the velocity vector field in the fluid portion between the horn and the electrode. As for the previous study, two parameters were studied: the electrical power supplied to the transducer and the electrode/transducer distance. The velocity vector fields show a main flow in the reactor axis. This flow seems to correspond to the conical cavitation bubbles structure which is observed on the laser tomography pictures. When an electrode is introduced into the reactor, two additional symmetric transversal flows can be quantified on both sides of the electrode.

  8. Particle kickers

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    These devices are designed to provide a current pulse of 5000 Amps which will in turn generate a fast magnetic pulse that steers the incoming beam into the LHC. Today, the comprehensive upgrade of the LHC injection kicker system is entering its final stages. The upgraded system will ensure the LHC can be refilled without needing to wait for the kicker magnets to cool, thus enhancing the performance of the whole accelerator.   An upgraded kicker magnet in its vacuum tank, with an upgraded beam screen. The LHC is equipped with two kicker systems installed at the injection points (near points 2 and 8, see schematic diagram) where the particle beams coming from the SPS are injected into the accelerator’s orbit. Each system comprises four magnets and four pulse generators in which the field rises to 0.12 Tesla in less than 900 nanoseconds and for a duration of approximately 8 microseconds. Although the injection kickers only pulse 12 times to fill the LHC up with beam, the LHC beam circ...

  9. The Relationship between Self-Assembly and Conformal Mappings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Carlos; Santangelo, Christian

    The isotropic growth of a thin sheet has been used as a way to generate programmed shapes through controlled buckling. We discuss how conformal mappings, which are transformations that locally preserve angles, provide a way to quantify the area growth needed to produce a particular shape. A discrete version of the conformal map can be constructed from circle packings, which are maps between packings of circles whose contact network is preserved. This provides a link to the self-assembly of particles on curved surfaces. We performed simulations of attractive particles on a curved surface using molecular dynamics. The resulting particle configurations were used to generate the corresponding discrete conformal map, allowing us to quantify the degree of area distortion required to produce a particular shape by finding particle configurations that minimize the area distortion.

  10. Data Assimilation with Optimal Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Moselhy, T.; Marzouk, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Tarek El Moselhy and Youssef Marzouk Massachusetts Institute of Technology We present a new approach to Bayesian inference that entirely avoids Markov chain simulation and sequential importance resampling, by constructing a map that pushes forward the prior measure to the posterior measure. Existence and uniqueness of a suitable measure-preserving map is established by formulating the problem in the context of optimal transport theory. The map is written as a multivariate polynomial expansion and computed efficiently through the solution of a stochastic optimization problem. While our previous work [1] focused on static Bayesian inference problems, we now extend the map-based approach to sequential data assimilation, i.e., nonlinear filtering and smoothing. One scheme involves pushing forward a fixed reference measure to each filtered state distribution, while an alternative scheme computes maps that push forward the filtering distribution from one stage to the other. We compare the performance of these schemes and extend the former to problems of smoothing, using a map implementation of the forward-backward smoothing formula. Advantages of a map-based representation of the filtering and smoothing distributions include analytical expressions for posterior moments and the ability to generate arbitrary numbers of independent uniformly-weighted posterior samples without additional evaluations of the dynamical model. Perhaps the main advantage, however, is that the map approach inherently avoids issues of sample impoverishment, since it explicitly represents the posterior as the pushforward of a reference measure, rather than with a particular set of samples. The computational complexity of our algorithm is comparable to state-of-the-art particle filters. Moreover, the accuracy of the approach is controlled via the convergence criterion of the underlying optimization problem. We demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the map approach via data assimilation in

  11. Maps & minds : mapping through the ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1984-01-01

    Throughout time, maps have expressed our understanding of our world. Human affairs have been influenced strongly by the quality of maps available to us at the major turning points in our history. "Maps & Minds" traces the ebb and flow of a few central ideas in the mainstream of mapping. Our expanding knowledge of our cosmic neighborhood stems largely from a small number of simple but grand ideas, vigorously pursued.

  12. Lunar Map Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Map Catalog includes various maps of the moon's surface, including Apollo landing sites; earthside, farside, and polar charts; photography index maps; zone...

  13. Baby Brain Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Member Home Resources & Services Professional Resource Baby Brain Map Mar 17, 2016 The Brain Map was adapted in 2006 by ZERO TO ... supports Adobe Flash Player. To view the Baby Brain Map, please visit this page on a browser ...

  14. Snapshots for Semantic Maps

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nielsen, Curtis W; Ricks, Bob; Goodrich, Michael A; Bruemmer, David; Few, Doug; Walton, Miles

    2004-01-01

    .... Semantic maps are a relatively new approach to information presentation. Semantic maps provide more detail about an environment than typical maps because they are augmented by icons or symbols that provide meaning for places or objects of interest...

  15. Analytic transfer maps for Lie algebraic design codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Zeijts, J.; Neri, F.; Dragt, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    Lie algebraic methods provide a powerful tool for modeling particle transport through Hamiltonian systems. Briefly summarized, Lie algebraic design codes work as follows: first the time t flow generated by a Hamiltonian system is represented by a Lie algebraic map acting on the initial conditions. Maps are generated for each element in the lattice or beamline under study. Next all these maps are concatenated into a one-turn or one-pass map that represents the complete dynamics of the system. Finally, the resulting map is analyzed and design decisions are made based on the linear and nonlinear entries in the map. The authors give a short description of how to find Lie algebraic transfer maps in analytic form, for inclusion in accelerator design codes. As an example they find the transfer map, through third order, for the combined-function quadrupole magnet, and use such magnets to correct detrimental third-order aberrations in a spot forming system

  16. Fermilab | Science | Particle Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photos and videos Latest news For the media Particle Physics Neutrinos Fermilab and the LHC Dark matter initiatives Research and development Key discoveries Benefits of particle physics Particle Accelerators society Particle Physics 101 Science of matter, energy, space and time How particle physics discovery

  17. PSO algorithm enhanced with Lozi Chaotic Map - Tuning experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pluhacek, Michal; Senkerik, Roman; Zelinka, Ivan [Tomas Bata University in Zlín, Faculty of Applied Informatics Department of Informatics and Artificial Intelligence nám. T.G. Masaryka 5555, 760 01 Zlín (Czech Republic)

    2015-03-10

    In this paper it is investigated the effect of tuning of control parameters of the Lozi Chaotic Map employed as a chaotic pseudo-random number generator for the particle swarm optimization algorithm. Three different benchmark functions are selected from the IEEE CEC 2013 competition benchmark set. The Lozi map is extensively tuned and the performance of PSO is evaluated.

  18. Highlighting material structure with transmission electron diffraction correlation coefficient maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Ákos K; Rauch, Edgar F; Lábár, János L

    2016-04-01

    Correlation coefficient maps are constructed by computing the differences between neighboring diffraction patterns collected in a transmission electron microscope in scanning mode. The maps are shown to highlight material structural features like grain boundaries, second phase particles or dislocations. The inclination of the inner crystal interfaces are directly deduced from the resulting contrast. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. PSO algorithm enhanced with Lozi Chaotic Map - Tuning experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pluhacek, Michal; Senkerik, Roman; Zelinka, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper it is investigated the effect of tuning of control parameters of the Lozi Chaotic Map employed as a chaotic pseudo-random number generator for the particle swarm optimization algorithm. Three different benchmark functions are selected from the IEEE CEC 2013 competition benchmark set. The Lozi map is extensively tuned and the performance of PSO is evaluated

  20. Ripple enhanced transport of suprathermal alpha particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tani, K.; Takizuka, T.; Azumi, M.

    1986-01-01

    The ripple enhanced transport of suprathermal alpha particles has been studied by the newly developed Monte-Carlo code in which the motion of banana orbit in a toroidal field ripple is described by a mapping method. The existence of ripple-resonance diffusion has been confirmed numerically. We have developed another new code in which the radial displacement of banana orbit is given by the diffusion coefficients from the mapping code or the orbit following Monte-Carlo code. The ripple loss of α particles during slowing down has been estimated by the mapping model code as well as the diffusion model code. From the comparison of the results with those from the orbit-following Monte-Carlo code, it has been found that all of them agree very well. (author)

  1. Mapping the Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulse, Grace

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how her fourth graders made ceramic heart maps. The impetus for this project came from reading "My Map Book" by Sara Fanelli. This book is a collection of quirky, hand-drawn and collaged maps that diagram a child's world. There are maps of her stomach, her day, her family, and her heart, among others. The…

  2. Particle theory and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaisser, T.K.; Shafi, Q.; Barr, S.M.; Seckel, D.; Rusjan, E.; Fletcher, R.S.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses research of professor at Bartol research institute in the following general areas: particle phenomenology and non-accelerator physics; particle physics and cosmology; theories with higher symmetry; and particle astrophysics and cosmology

  3. USGS Map Indices Overlay Map Service from The National Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Map Indices service from The National Map (TNM) consists of 1x1 Degree, 30x60 Minute (100K), 15 Minute (63K), 7.5 Minute (24K), and 3.75 Minute grid...

  4. 7. Annex II: Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Aeberli, Annina

    2012-01-01

    Map 1: States of South Sudan UN OCHA (2012) Republic of South Sudan – States, as of 15 July 2012, Reliefweb http://reliefweb.int/map/south-sudan-republic/republic-south-sudan-states-15-july-2012-reference-map, accessed 31 July 2012. Map 2: Counties of South Sudan UN OCHA (2012) Republic of South Sudan – Counties, as of 16 July 2012, Reliefweb http://reliefweb.int/map/south-sudan-republic/republic-south-sudan-counties-16-july-2012-reference-map, accessed 31 July 2012. Map 3: Eastern Equato...

  5. Applicability of vulnerability maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, L.J.; Gosk, E.

    1989-01-01

    A number of aspects to vulnerability maps are discussed: the vulnerability concept, mapping purposes, possible users, and applicability of vulnerability maps. Problems associated with general-type vulnerability mapping, including large-scale maps, universal pollutant, and universal pollution scenario are also discussed. An alternative approach to vulnerability assessment - specific vulnerability mapping for limited areas, specific pollutant, and predefined pollution scenario - is suggested. A simplification of the vulnerability concept is proposed in order to make vulnerability mapping more objective and by this means more comparable. An extension of the vulnerability concept to the rest of the hydrogeological cycle (lakes, rivers, and the sea) is proposed. Some recommendations regarding future activities are given

  6. Differential maps, difference maps, interpolated maps, and long term prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talman, R.

    1988-06-01

    Mapping techniques may be thought to be attractive for the long term prediction of motion in accelerators, especially because a simple map can approximately represent an arbitrarily complicated lattice. The intention of this paper is to develop prejudices as to the validity of such methods by applying them to a simple, exactly solveable, example. It is shown that a numerical interpolation map, such as can be generated in the accelerator tracking program TEAPOT, predicts the evolution more accurately than an analytically derived differential map of the same order. Even so, in the presence of ''appreciable'' nonlinearity, it is shown to be impractical to achieve ''accurate'' prediction beyond some hundreds of cycles of oscillation. This suggests that the value of nonlinear maps is restricted to the parameterization of only the ''leading'' deviation from linearity. 41 refs., 6 figs

  7. An incompressible two-dimensional multiphase particle-in-cell model for dense particle flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snider, D.M. [SAIC, Albuquerque, NM (United States); O`Rourke, P.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Andrews, M.J. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1997-06-01

    A two-dimensional, incompressible, multiphase particle-in-cell (MP-PIC) method is presented for dense particle flows. The numerical technique solves the governing equations of the fluid phase using a continuum model and those of the particle phase using a Lagrangian model. Difficulties associated with calculating interparticle interactions for dense particle flows with volume fractions above 5% have been eliminated by mapping particle properties to a Eulerian grid and then mapping back computed stress tensors to particle positions. This approach utilizes the best of Eulerian/Eulerian continuum models and Eulerian/Lagrangian discrete models. The solution scheme allows for distributions of types, sizes, and density of particles, with no numerical diffusion from the Lagrangian particle calculations. The computational method is implicit with respect to pressure, velocity, and volume fraction in the continuum solution thus avoiding courant limits on computational time advancement. MP-PIC simulations are compared with one-dimensional problems that have analytical solutions and with two-dimensional problems for which there are experimental data.

  8. VEGETATION MAPPING IN WETLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. PEDROTTI

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The current work examines the main aspects of wetland vegetation mapping, which can be summarized as analysis of the ecological-vegetational (ecotone gradients; vegetation complexes; relationships between vegetation distribution and geomorphology; vegetation of the hydrographic basin lo which the wetland in question belongs; vegetation monitoring with help of four vegetation maps: phytosociological map of the real and potential vegetation, map of vegetation dynamical tendencies, map of vegetation series.

  9. Highlighting material structure with transmission electron diffraction correlation coefficient maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiss, Ákos K.; Rauch, Edgar F.; Lábár, János L.

    2016-01-01

    Correlation coefficient maps are constructed by computing the differences between neighboring diffraction patterns collected in a transmission electron microscope in scanning mode. The maps are shown to highlight material structural features like grain boundaries, second phase particles or dislocations. The inclination of the inner crystal interfaces are directly deduced from the resulting contrast. - Highlights: • We propose a novel technique to image the structure of polycrystalline TEM-samples. • Correlation coefficients maps highlights the evolution of the diffracting signal. • 3D views of grain boundaries are provided for nano-particles or polycrystals.

  10. 跨年級中學生認知地圖之分析研究:以粒子行為試題為例 A Secondary Analysis Study of Student Conceptions on the Behavior of Gas Particles by Utilizing the Cognitive Map Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    邱美虹 Mei-Hung Chiu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available 本研究針對全國概念調查的結果進行次級資料分析(secondary data analysis),目的在探索中學生的認知地圖及其形成的相關限制因素。研究的分析架構是以Hempel(1958)描述現象觀察的理論解釋與Wellman(1994)和其他學者(Chaib-draa & Desharnais, 1998; Peña, Sossa, &Gutiérrez, 2008)詮釋因果推論的認知地圖為基礎。首先,研究者依據全國概念調查雙層診斷測驗試題內容(Chiu, 2007),找出特定概念間的相互關係;其次,透過雙層試題的語意連結,形成不同試題選項之認知地圖的質性描述;最後,分析跨年級中學生認知地圖的分布情形,藉以瞭解學生在概念發展上的差異。本研究結果指出:一、跨年級中學生正確連結理論系統與經驗觀察的人數比例,雖然隨年級增加而提高,但是比例仍然偏低。二、在相似情境試題中,跨年級中學生受到壓力、重量以及隨機性等不同限制因素的影響,會形成不同類型的認知地圖。本研究所確認的概念限制因素可解釋認知地圖在概念圖像化的因果推論關係,而以認知地圖作為次級資料分析的研究方法所產生的限制與對研究的意涵將在文末一併討論。 The purpose of this secondary data analysis study is to explore the cognitive maps (CMs held by the students and their constraints of conceptions while forming their qualitative inferences regarding the behaviors of gas particles. The data used in this study was derived from the National Science Concept Learning Study via the use of two-tier diagnostic instruments proposed by Treagust (1988, 1995. Unlike other studies only comparing student performance, the analytical method of this study adapted a model of scientific explanations proposed by Hempel (1958, and cognitive maps by Wellman (1994 and others (Chaib-draa & Desharnais, 1998; Peña, Sossa, & Gutiérrez, 2008. The results

  11. Expanding Thurston maps

    CERN Document Server

    Bonk, Mario

    2017-01-01

    This monograph is devoted to the study of the dynamics of expanding Thurston maps under iteration. A Thurston map is a branched covering map on a two-dimensional topological sphere such that each critical point of the map has a finite orbit under iteration. It is called expanding if, roughly speaking, preimages of a fine open cover of the underlying sphere under iterates of the map become finer and finer as the order of the iterate increases. Every expanding Thurston map gives rise to a fractal space, called its visual sphere. Many dynamical properties of the map are encoded in the geometry of this visual sphere. For example, an expanding Thurston map is topologically conjugate to a rational map if and only if its visual sphere is quasisymmetrically equivalent to the Riemann sphere. This relation between dynamics and fractal geometry is the main focus for the investigations in this work.

  12. Drift Wave Test Particle Transport in Reversed Shear Profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, W.; Park, H.B.; Kwon, J.M.; Stronzzi, D.; Morrison, P.J.; Choi, D.I.

    1998-01-01

    Drift wave maps, area preserving maps that describe the motion of charged particles in drift waves, are derived. The maps allow the integration of particle orbits on the long time scale needed to describe transport. Calculations using the drift wave maps show that dramatic improvement in the particle confinement, in the presence of a given level and spectrum of E x B turbulence, can occur for q(r)-profiles with reversed shear. A similar reduction in the transport, i.e. one that is independent of the turbulence, is observed in the presence of an equilibrium radial electric field with shear. The transport reduction, caused by the combined effects of radial electric field shear and both monotonic and reversed shear magnetic q-profiles, is also investigated

  13. The relations of particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okun, L.B.

    1991-01-01

    This book presents papers on elementary particle physics, relations between various particles, and the connections between particle physics with other branches of physics. The papers include: Contemporary status and prospects of high-energy physics; Particle physics prospects; and High energy physics

  14. Mapping in the cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    This engaging text provides a solid introduction to mapmaking in the era of cloud computing. It takes students through both the concepts and technology of modern cartography, geographic information systems (GIS), and Web-based mapping. Conceptual chapters delve into the meaning of maps and how they are developed, covering such topics as map layers, GIS tools, mobile mapping, and map animation. Methods chapters take a learn-by-doing approach to help students master application programming interfaces and build other technical skills for creating maps and making them available on the Internet. Th

  15. Mapping with Drupal

    CERN Document Server

    Palazzolo, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Build beautiful interactive maps on your Drupal website, and tell engaging visual stories with your data. This concise guide shows you how to create custom geographical maps from top to bottom, using Drupal 7 tools and out-of-the-box modules. You'll learn how mapping works in Drupal, with examples on how to use intuitive interfaces to map local events, businesses, groups, and other custom data. Although building maps with Drupal can be tricky, this book helps you navigate the system's complexities for creating sophisticated maps that match your site design. Get the knowledge and tools you ne

  16. Particle adhesion and removal

    CERN Document Server

    Mittal, K L

    2015-01-01

    The book provides a comprehensive and easily accessible reference source covering all important aspects of particle adhesion and removal.  The core objective is to cover both fundamental and applied aspects of particle adhesion and removal with emphasis on recent developments.  Among the topics to be covered include: 1. Fundamentals of surface forces in particle adhesion and removal.2. Mechanisms of particle adhesion and removal.3. Experimental methods (e.g. AFM, SFA,SFM,IFM, etc.) to understand  particle-particle and particle-substrate interactions.4. Mechanics of adhesion of micro- and  n

  17. Meso(topoclimatic maps and mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Plánka

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric characteristics can be studied from many points of view, most often we talk about time and spatial standpoint. Application of time standpoint leads either to different kinds of the synoptic and prognostic maps production, which presents actual state of atmosphere in short time section in the past or in the near future or to the climatic maps production which presents longterm weather regime. Spatial standpoint then differs map works according to natural phenomenon proportions, whereas the scale of their graphic presentation can be different. It depends on production purpose of each work.In the paper there are analysed methods of mapping and climatic maps production, which display longterm regime of chosen atmospheric features. These athmosphere features are formed in interaction with land surface and also have direct influence on people and their activities throughout the country. At the same time they’re influenced by anthropogenic intervention to the landscape.

  18. Nonlinear dynamics of the relativistic standard map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Y.; Ichikawa, Y.H.; Horton, W.

    1991-01-01

    Heating and acceleration of charged particles by RF fields have been extensively investigated by the standard map (ST). Thus, it is natural to pose the question asking how the relativistic effects change the nonlinear dynamical behavior described by the classical ST map. The authors show that the speed of light limits the rate of advance of the phase in the relativistic standard map (RST) and introduces KAM surfaces persisting in the high momentum region. The RST map is a two parameter (k, β = ω/kc) family of dynamics reducing to the ST map when β → 0. For β ≠ 0 the relativity suppresses the onset of stochasticity. Chernikov et al. has also reported this effect. They have carried out extensive studies of nonlinear dynamics of the RST map and found very intricate structure of mixing of the higher order periodic orbits and chaotic orbits. They have shown that no matter how its gets chaotic the symmetry properties of the RST map determines its nonlinear dynamical behavior. 1 ref

  19. Review of particle properties. Particle Data Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    This review of the properties of leptons, mesons, and baryons is an updating of Review of Particle Properties, Particle Data Group [Rev. Mod. Phys. 48 (1976) No. 2, Part II; and Supplement, Phys. Lett. 68B (1977) 1]. Data are evaluated, listed, averaged, and summarized in tables. Numerous tables, figures, and formulae of interest to particle physicists are also included. A data booklet is available

  20. Standard map in magnetized relativistic systems: fixed points and regular acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, M C; Steffens, F M; Pakter, R; Rizzato, F B

    2010-08-01

    We investigate the concept of a standard map for the interaction of relativistic particles and electrostatic waves of arbitrary amplitudes, under the action of external magnetic fields. The map is adequate for physical settings where waves and particles interact impulsively, and allows for a series of analytical result to be exactly obtained. Unlike the traditional form of the standard map, the present map is nonlinear in the wave amplitude and displays a series of peculiar properties. Among these properties we discuss the relation involving fixed points of the maps and accelerator regimes.

  1. Unstable particles as open quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caban, Pawel; Rembielinski, Jakub; Smolinski, Kordian A.; Walczak, Zbigniew

    2005-01-01

    We present the probability-preserving description of the decaying particle within the framework of quantum mechanics of open systems, taking into account the superselection rule prohibiting the superposition of the particle and vacuum. In our approach the evolution of the system is given by a family of completely positive trace-preserving maps forming a one-parameter dynamical semigroup. We give the Kraus representation for the general evolution of such systems, which allows one to write the evolution for systems with two or more particles. Moreover, we show that the decay of the particle can be regarded as a Markov process by finding explicitly the master equation in the Lindblad form. We also show that there are remarkable restrictions on the possible strength of decoherence

  2. Detailed SEM-EPMA investigation of high specific radioactivity particles (hot particles)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burin, K.; Tsacheva, Ts.; Mandjoukov, I.; Mandjoukova, B.

    1993-01-01

    Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) spectra of a group of hot particles collected in Bulgaria after the Chernobyl accident have been obtained. A technique for hot particle localization is described. The object is irradiated for two days with a β source and the resulting autoradiographs show particles location precisely. High resolution x-ray spectrum of each particle has been obtained using EPMA. The distribution of chemical elements is visualized by colour dot maps representing the regions of interest of the spectrum. It is concluded that apart from reactor fuel the investigated hot particles come from either construction materials or materials used for the covering of the damaged reactor. 7 figs., 2 ref

  3. Active Fire Mapping Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Active Fire Mapping Program Current Large Incidents (Home) New Large Incidents Fire Detection Maps MODIS Satellite Imagery VIIRS Satellite Imagery Fire Detection GIS Data Fire Data in Google Earth ...

  4. Using maps in genealogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2002-01-01

    In genealogical research, maps can provide clues to where our ancestors may have lived and where to look for written records about them. Beginners should master basic genealogical research techniques before starting to use topographic maps.

  5. NGS Survey Control Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NGS Survey Control Map provides a map of the US which allows you to find and display geodetic survey control points stored in the database of the National...

  6. National Pipeline Mapping System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The NPMS Public Map Viewer allows the general public to view maps of transmission pipelines, LNG plants, and breakout tanks in one selected county. Distribution and...

  7. NAIP Status Maps Gallery

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — NAIP Status Maps Gallery. These maps illustrate what aerial imagery collection is planned, whats been collected, when it is available and how it is available. These...

  8. Mapping Medicare Disparities Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Office of Minority Health has designed an interactive map, the Mapping Medicare Disparities Tool, to identify areas of disparities between subgroups of...

  9. Recovery Action Mapping Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Recovery Action Mapping Tool is a web map that allows users to visually interact with and query actions that were developed to recover species listed under the...

  10. Letter of Map Revision

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  11. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1999-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere....

  12. Multi-moment maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swann, Andrew Francis; Madsen, Thomas Bruun

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a notion of moment map adapted to actions of Lie groups that preserve a closed three-form. We show existence of our multi-moment maps in many circumstances, including mild topological assumptions on the underlying manifold. Such maps are also shown to exist for all groups whose second...

  13. Diffusion Based Photon Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Fogh Olsen, Ole; Sporring, Jon

    2007-01-01

    . To address this problem we introduce a novel photon mapping algorithm based on nonlinear anisotropic diffusion. Our algorithm adapts according to the structure of the photon map such that smoothing occurs along edges and structures and not across. In this way we preserve the important illumination features......, while eliminating noise. We call our method diffusion based photon mapping....

  14. Diffusion Based Photon Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Olsen, Ole Fogh; Sporring, Jon

    2006-01-01

    . To address this problem we introduce a novel photon mapping algorithm based on nonlinear anisotropic diffusion. Our algorithm adapts according to the structure of the photon map such that smoothing occurs along edges and structures and not across. In this way we preserve the important illumination features......, while eliminating noise. We call our method diffusion based photon mapping....

  15. On parabolic external maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomonaco, Luna; Petersen, Carsten Lunde; Shen, Weixiao

    2017-01-01

    We prove that any C1+BV degree d ≥ 2 circle covering h having all periodic orbits weakly expanding, is conjugate by a C1+BV diffeomorphism to a metrically expanding map. We use this to connect the space of parabolic external maps (coming from the theory of parabolic-like maps) to metrically expan...

  16. Digitised Maps in the Danish Map Collection

    OpenAIRE

    Annie Lenschau-Teglers; Vivi Gade Rønsberg

    2005-01-01

    As in the rest of the library world, The Royal Library in Copenhagen is in the process of digitising its collections. At the moment we are mainly working on the handwritten manual catalogue - but digitising the material is also a major working assignment. The Map Collection at The Royal Library has today divided the effort in digitising its materials into 3 groups: 1. Digitised maps as a vital addition to the records in our bibliographic database REX 2. Digitised maps presented as a Digital F...

  17. Mapping of wine industry

    OpenAIRE

    Віліна Пересадько; Надія Максименко; Катерина Біла

    2016-01-01

    Having reviewed a variety of approaches to understanding the essence of wine industry, having studied the modern ideas about the future of wine industry, having analyzed more than 50 maps from the Internet we have set the trends and special features of wine industry mapping in the world, such as: - the vast majority of maps displays the development of the industry at regional or national level, whereas there are practically no world maps; - wine-growing regions are represented on maps very un...

  18. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2002-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch ...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.......A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...

  19. Accelerators of atomic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarancev, V.

    1975-01-01

    A brief survey is presented of accelerators and methods of accelerating elementary particles. The principle of collective accelerating of elementary particles is clarified and the problems are discussed of its realization. (B.S.)

  20. Elementary particles and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audouze, J.; Paty, M.

    2000-01-01

    The universe is the most efficient laboratory of particle physics and the understanding of cosmological processes implies the knowledge of how elementary particles interact. This article recalls the mutual influences between on the one hand: astrophysics and cosmology and on the other hand: nuclear physics and particle physics. The big-bang theory relies on nuclear physics to explain the successive stages of nucleo-synthesis and the study of solar neutrinos has led to discover new aspects of this particle: it is likely that neutrinos undergo oscillations from one neutrino type to another. In some universe events such as the bursting of a super-nova, particles are released with a kinetic energy that would be impossible to reach on earth with a particle accelerator. These events are become common points of interest between astrophysicists and particle physicists and have promoted a deeper cooperation between astrophysics and elementary particle physics. (A.C.)

  1. Particle Physics Education Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    back to home page Particle Physics Education Sites quick reference Education and Information - National Laboratory Education Programs - Women and Minorities in Physics - Other Physics Sites - Physics Alliance - Accelerators at National Laboratories icon Particle Physics Education and Information sites: top

  2. Understanding modern magnets through conformal mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbach, K.

    1989-10-01

    I want to show with the help of a number of examples that conformal mapping is a unique and enormously powerful tool for thinking about, and solving, problems. Usually one has to write down only a few equations, and sometimes none at all exclamation point When I started getting involved in work for which conformal mapping seemed to be a powerful tool, I did not think that I would ever be able to use that technique successfully because it seemed to require a nearly encyclopedic memory, an impression that was strengthened when I saw K. Kober's Dictionary of Conformal Representations. This attitude changed when I started to realize that beyond the basics of the theory of a function of a complex variable, I needed to know only about a handful of conformal maps and procedures. Consequently, my second goal for this talk is to show that in most cases conformal mapping functions can be obtained by formulating the underlying physics appropriately. This means particularly that encyclopedic knowledge of conformal maps is not necessary for successful use of conformal mapping techniques. To demonstrate these facts I have chosen examples from an area of physics/engineering in which I am active, namely accelerator physics. In order to do that successfully I start with a brief introduction into high energy charged particle storage ring technology, even though not all examples used in this paper to elucidate my points come directly from this particular field of accelerator technology

  3. Review of particle properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yost, G P; Barnett, R M; Hinchliffe, I; Lynch, G R; Rittenberg, A; Ross, R R; Suzuki, M; Trippe, T G; Wohl, C G; Armstrong, B

    1988-04-14

    This review of the properties of gauge bosons, leptons, mesons, and baryons is an updating of the Review of Particle Properties, Particle Data Group (Phys. Lett. 170B (1986)). Data are evaluated, listed, averaged, and summarized in tables. We continue the more orderly set of particle names implemented in the 1986 edition. Numerous tables, figures, and formulae of interest to particle physicists are also included. A data booklet is available.

  4. Beyond the God particle

    CERN Document Server

    Lederman, Leon M

    2013-01-01

    On July 4, 2012, the long-sought Higgs Boson--aka "the God Particle"--was discovered at the world's largest particle accelerator, the LHC, in Geneva, Switzerland. On March 14, 2013, physicists at CERN confirmed it. This elusive subatomic particle forms a field that permeates the entire universe, creating the masses of the elementary particles that are the basic building blocks of everything in the known world--from viruses to elephants, from atoms to quasars.

  5. Particle physics and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, D.N.; Turner, M.S.

    1982-06-01

    work is described in these areas: cosmological baryon production; cosmological production of free quarks and other exotic particle species; the quark-hadron transition in the early universe; astrophysical and cosmological constraints on particle properties; massive neutrinos; phase transitions in the early universe; and astrophysical implications of an axion-like particle

  6. Particle-nuclear intersections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    With the traditional distinctions between particle and nuclear physics becoming increasing blurred, the Fifth Conference on the Intersections of Particle and Nuclear Physics, held from May 31 to June 6 in St. Petersburg, Florida, brought together particle and nuclear physicists to discuss common research efforts and to define and plan a united approach

  7. Review of particle properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trippe, T.G.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Kelly, R.L.; Rittenberg, A.; Rosenfeld, A.H.; Yost, G.P.; Barash-Schmidt, N.; Bricman, C.; Hemingway, R.J.; Losty, M.J.; Roos, M.; Chaloupka, V.; Armstrong, B.

    1976-01-01

    This review of the properties of leptons, mesons, and baryons is an updating of Review of Particle Properties, Particle Data Group [Phys. Letters 50B, No.1 (1974), and Supplement, Rev. Mod. Phys. 47 (1975) 535]. Data are evaluated, listed, averaged, and summarized in tables. Numerous tables, figures, and formulae of interest to particle physicists are also included. A data booklet is available

  8. Atomic Particle Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellman, Hal

    1970-01-01

    This booklet tells how scientists observe the particles and electromagnetic radiation that emerges from an atomic nucleus. The equipment used falls into two general categories: counters which count each particle as it passes by, and track detectors, which make a photographic record of the particle's track.

  9. On palaeogeographic map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng-Zhao Feng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The palaeogeographic map is a graphic representation of physical geographical characteristics in geological history periods and human history periods. It is the most important result of palaeogeographic study. The author, as the Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Palaeogeography, Chinese Edition and English Edition, aimed at the problems of the articles submitted to and published in the Journal of Palaeogeography in recent years and the relevant papers and books of others, and integrated with his practice of palaeogeographic study and mapping, wrote this paper. The content mainly includes the data of palaeogeographic mapping, the problems of palaeogeographic mapping method, the “Single factor analysis and multifactor comprehensive mapping method —— Methodology of quantitative lithofacies palaeogeography”, i.e., the “4 steps mapping method”, the nomenclature of each palaeogeographic unit in palaeogeographic map, the explanation of each palaeogeographic unit in palaeogeographic map, the explanation of significance of palaeogeographic map and palaeogeographic article, the evaluative standards of palaeogeographic map and palaeogeographic article, and the self-evaluation. Criticisms and corrections are welcome.

  10. Mapping Urban Social Divisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Ball

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Against the background of increased levels of interest in space and images beyond the field of geography, this article (re- introduces earlier work on the semiotics of maps undertaken by geographers in the 1960s. The data limitations, purpose and cultural context in which a user interprets a map's codes and conventions are highlighted in this work, which remains relevant to the interpretation of maps—new and old—forty years later. By means of drawing on geography's contribution to the semiotics of maps, the article goes on to examine the concept of urban social divisions as represented in map images. Using a small number of map images, including two of the most widely known maps of urban social division in Europe and North America, the roles of context, data and purpose in the production and interpretation of maps are discussed. By presenting the examples chronologically the article shows that although advances in data collection and manipulation have allowed researchers to combine different social variables in maps of social division, and to interact with map images, work by geographers on the semiotics of maps is no less relevant today than when it was first proposed forty years ago. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1002372

  11. Study of particle swarm optimization particle trajectories

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van den Bergh, F

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available . These theoretical studies concentrate mainly on simplified PSO systems. This paper overviews current theoretical studies, and extend these studies to investigate particle trajectories for general swarms to include the influence of the inertia term. The paper also...

  12. Light scattering by cosmic particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovenier, J.W.; Min, M.

    2008-01-01

    We define cosmic particles as particles outside the Earth. Two types of cosmic particles can be distinguished, namely liquid and solid particles. The solid particles are often called grains or cosmic dust particles. Cosmic particles occur in a great variety of astronomical objects and environments.

  13. Slowing of charged particles by particle methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercier, B.

    1985-03-01

    We review some facts about particle methods for solving linear hyperbolic equations. We show how one gets an evaluation of integral quantities like: ∫ u(x,t) zeta(x,t) dxdt where u denotes the solution and zeta an arbitrary weight function. Then, we apply the method to the equation describing charged particle transport in a plasma with emphasis on the evaluation of energy deposition on ions and electrons [fr

  14. Elementary particles. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranft, G.; Ranft, J.

    1977-01-01

    In this part the subject is covered under the following headings, methods for producing high-energy particles; interaction of high-energy particles with matter; methods for the detection of high-energy particles; symmetry properties and conservation laws; quantum number and selection rules; theorem of scattering behaviour at asymptotically high energies; statistical methods in elementary particle physics; interaction of high-energy particles with nuclei; relations of high-energy physics to other branches of science and its response to engineering. Intended as information on high-energy physics for graduate students and research workers familiar with the fundamentals of classical and quantum physics

  15. Review of particle properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montanet, L.; Gieselmann, K. Technical Associate; Barnett, R.M.; Groom, D.E.; Trippe, T.G.; Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, B. Technical Associate; Wagman, G.S. Technical Associate; Murayama, H.; Stone, J.; Hernandez, J.J.; Porter, F.C.; Morrison, R.J.; Manohar, A.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Caso, C.; Lantero, P. Technical Associate; Crawford, R.L.; Roos, M.; Toernqvist, N.A.; Hayes, K.G.; Hoehler, G.

    1994-01-01

    This biennial review summarizes much of Particle Physics. Using data from previous editions, plus 2300 new measurements from 700 papers, we list evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We also summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as Higgs bosons, heavy neutrinos, monopoles, and supersymmetric particles. All the particle properties and search limits are listed in Summary Tables. We also give numerous tables, figures, formulae, and reviews of topics such as the Standard Model, particle detectors, probability, and statistics. A booklet is available containing the Summary Tables and abbreviated versions of some of the other sections of this full Review

  16. A Novel Distributed Quantum-Behaved Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangyang Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO is an improved version of particle swarm optimization (PSO and has shown superior performance on many optimization problems. But for now, it may not always satisfy the situations. Nowadays, problems become larger and more complex, and most serial optimization algorithms cannot deal with the problem or need plenty of computing cost. Fortunately, as an effective model in dealing with problems with big data which need huge computation, MapReduce has been widely used in many areas. In this paper, we implement QPSO on MapReduce model and propose MapReduce quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (MRQPSO which achieves parallel and distributed QPSO. Comparisons are made between MRQPSO and QPSO on some test problems and nonlinear equation systems. The results show that MRQPSO could complete computing task with less time. Meanwhile, from the view of optimization performance, MRQPSO outperforms QPSO in many cases.

  17. Fluidization of spherocylindrical particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Vinay V.; Nijssen, Tim M. J.; Fitzgerald, Barry W.; Hofman, Jeroen; Kuipers, Hans; Padding, Johan T.

    2017-06-01

    Multiphase (gas-solid) flows are encountered in numerous industrial applications such as pharmaceutical, food, agricultural processing and energy generation. A coupled computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and discrete element method (DEM) approach is a popular way to study such flows at a particle scale. However, most of these studies deal with spherical particles while in reality, the particles are rarely spherical. The particle shape can have significant effect on hydrodynamics in a fluidized bed. Moreover, most studies in literature use inaccurate drag laws because accurate laws are not readily available. The drag force acting on a non-spherical particle can vary considerably with particle shape, orientation with the flow, Reynolds number and packing fraction. In this work, the CFD-DEM approach is extended to model a laboratory scale fluidized bed of spherocylinder (rod-like) particles. These rod-like particles can be classified as Geldart D particles and have an aspect ratio of 4. Experiments are performed to study the particle flow behavior in a quasi-2D fluidized bed. Numerically obtained results for pressure drop and bed height are compared with experiments. The capability of CFD-DEM approach to efficiently describe the global bed dynamics for fluidized bed of rod-like particles is demonstrated.

  18. Monosodium titanate particle characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, G.T.; Hobbs, D.T.

    1993-01-01

    A characterization study was performed on monosodium titanate (MST) particles to determine the effect of high shear forces expected from the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) process pumps on the particle size distribution. The particles were characterized using particle size analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). No significant changes in particle size distributions were observed between as-received MST and after 2--4 hours of shearing. Both as-received and sheared MST particles contained a large percentage of porosity with pore sizes on the order of 500 to 2,000 Angstroms. Because of the large percentage of porosity, the overall surface area of the MST is dominated by the internal surfaces. The uranium and plutonium species present in the waste solution will have access to both interior and exterior surfaces. Therefore, uranium and plutonium loading should not be a strong function of MST particle size

  19. Mapping of wine industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Віліна Пересадько

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Having reviewed a variety of approaches to understanding the essence of wine industry, having studied the modern ideas about the future of wine industry, having analyzed more than 50 maps from the Internet we have set the trends and special features of wine industry mapping in the world, such as: - the vast majority of maps displays the development of the industry at regional or national level, whereas there are practically no world maps; - wine-growing regions are represented on maps very unevenly; - all existing maps of the industry could be classified as analytical ascertaining inventory type; - the dominant ways of cartographic representation are area method and qualitative background method, sign method and collation maps are rarely used; - basically all the Internet maps have low quality as they are scanned images with poor resolution; - the special feature of maps published lately is lack of geographical basis (except for state borders and coastline. We created wine production and consumption world map «Wine Industry» in the scale of 1:60 000 000 with simple geographical basis (state names, state borders, major rivers, coastline. It was concluded that from the methodological point of view it is incorrect not to show geographical basis on maps of wine industry. Analysis of this map allowed us to identify areas of traditional wine-making, potential wine-making areas and countries which claim to be the world leaders in the field of wine production. We found disbalans between wine production and wine consumption - increasing wine production in South America, China and the United States and increasing wine consumption (mainly due to the import products in countries where the grape is not the primary agricultural product.

  20. Introduction to "Mapping Vietnameseness"

    OpenAIRE

    Hue-Tam Ho Tai

    2016-01-01

    Vietnam and China are currently engaged in a map war, with each country using ancient maps to buttress its claims to territorial sovereignty over some uninhabited islands in the South China Sea (in Chinese terminology), also known as the Eastern Sea (in Vietnamese). But what do maps in fact represent? What is meant by “territory”? How are territorial limits conceived? These questions were raised in a May 2015 workshop inspired by Thongchai Winichakul’s Siam Mapped: A History of the Geo-Body o...

  1. North America pipeline map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    This map presents details of pipelines currently in place throughout North America. Fifty-nine natural gas pipelines are presented, as well as 16 oil pipelines. The map also identifies six proposed natural gas pipelines. Major cities, roads and highways are included as well as state and provincial boundaries. The National Petroleum Reserve is identified, as well as the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. The following companies placed advertisements on the map with details of the services they provide relating to pipeline management and construction: Ferus Gas Industries Trust; Proline; SulfaTreat Direct Oxidation; and TransGas. 1 map

  2. Open land use map

    OpenAIRE

    Mildorf, T.; Charvát, K.; Jezek, J.; Templer, Simon; Malewski, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Open Land Use Map is an initiative that has been started by the Plan4business project and that will be extended as part of the SDI4Apps project in the future. This service aims to create an improved worldwide land use map. The initial map will be prepared using the CORINE Land Cover, Global Cover dataset and Open Street Map. Contributors, mainly volunteers, will able to change the geometry and assign up-to-date land use according to the HILUCS specification. For certain regions more detailed ...

  3. Foundations of nuclear and particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Donnelly, T William; Holstein, Barry R; Milner, Richard G; Surrow, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    This textbook brings together nuclear and particle physics, presenting a balanced overview of both fields as well as the interplay between the two. The theoretical as well as the experimental foundations are covered, providing students with a deep understanding of the subject. In-chapter exercises ranging from basic experimental to sophisticated theoretical questions provide an important tool for students to solidify their knowledge. Suitable for upper undergraduate courses in nuclear and particle physics as well as more advanced courses, the book includes road maps guiding instructors on tailoring the content to their course. Online resources including color figures, tables, and a solutions manual complete the teaching package. This textbook will be essential for students preparing for further study or a career in the field who require a solid grasp of both nuclear and particle physics.

  4. Saltation movement of large spherical particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chara, Z.; Dolansky, J.; Kysela, B.

    2017-07-01

    The paper presents experimental and numerical investigations of the saltation motion of a large spherical particle in an open channel. The channel bottom was roughed by one layer of glass rods of diameter 6 mm. The plastic spheres of diameter 25.7 mm and density 1160 kgm-3 were fed into the water channel and theirs positions were viewed by a digital camera. Two light sheets were placed above and under the channel, so the flow was simultaneously lighted from the top and the bottom. Only particles centers of which moved through the light sheets were recorded. Using a 2D PIV method the trajectories of the spheres and the velocity maps of the channel flow were analyzed. The Lattice-Boldzmann Method (LBM) was used to simulate the particle motion.

  5. Nonlinear dynamics aspects of particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jowett, J.M.; Turner, S.; Month, M.

    1986-01-01

    These proceedings contain the lectures presented at the named winter school. They deal with the application of dynamical systems to accelerator theory. Especially considered are the statistical description of charged-beam plasmas, integrable and nonintegrable Hamiltonian systems, single particle dynamics and nonlinear resonances in circular accelerators, nonlinear dynamics aspects of modern storage rings, nonlinear beam-beam resonances, synchro-betatron resonances, observations of the beam-beam interactions, the dynamics of the beam-beam interactions, beam-beam simulations, the perturbation method in nonlinear dynamics, theories of statistical equilibrium in electron-positron storage rings, nonlinear dissipative phenomena in electron storage rings, the dynamical aperture, the transition to chaos for area-preserving maps, special processors for particle tracking, algorithms for tracking of charged particles in circular accelerators, the breakdown of stability, and a personal perspective of nonlinear dynamics. (HSI)

  6. Nonlinear dynamics aspects of particle accelerators. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jowett, J M; Turner, S; Month, M

    1986-01-01

    These proceedings contain the lectures presented at the named winter school. They deal with the application of dynamical systems to accelerator theory. Especially considered are the statistical description of charged-beam plasmas, integrable and nonintegrable Hamiltonian systems, single particle dynamics and nonlinear resonances in circular accelerators, nonlinear dynamics aspects of modern storage rings, nonlinear beam-beam resonances, synchro-betatron resonances, observations of the beam-beam interactions, the dynamics of the beam-beam interactions, beam-beam simulations, the perturbation method in nonlinear dynamics, theories of statistical equilibrium in electron-positron storage rings, nonlinear dissipative phenomena in electron storage rings, the dynamical aperture, the transition to chaos for area-preserving maps, special processors for particle tracking, algorithms for tracking of charged particles in circular accelerators, the breakdown of stability, and a personal perspective of nonlinear dynamics. (HSI).

  7. Fast particle tracking with wake fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohlus, M.; Floettmann, K.; Henning, C.

    2012-01-15

    Tracking calculations of charged particles in electromagnetic fields require in principle the simultaneous solution of the equation of motion and of Maxwell's equations. In many tracking codes a simpler and more efficient approach is used: external fields like that of the accelerating structures are provided as field maps, generated in separate computations and for the calculation of self fields the model of a particle bunch in uniform motion is used. We describe how an externally computed wake function can be approximated by a table of Taylor coefficients and how the wake field kick can be calculated for the particle distribution in a tracking calculation. The integrated kick, representing the effect of a distributed structure, is applied at a discrete time. As an example, we use our approach to calculate the emittance growth of a bunch in an undulator beam pipe due to resistive wall wake field effects. (orig.)

  8. Linear Algebraic Method for Non-Linear Map Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, L.; Nash, B.

    2009-01-01

    We present a newly developed method to analyze some non-linear dynamics problems such as the Henon map using a matrix analysis method from linear algebra. Choosing the Henon map as an example, we analyze the spectral structure, the tune-amplitude dependence, the variation of tune and amplitude during the particle motion, etc., using the method of Jordan decomposition which is widely used in conventional linear algebra.

  9. An algorithm for symplectic implicit Taylor-map tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Y.; Channell, P.; Syphers, M.

    1992-10-01

    An algorithm has been developed for converting an ''order-by-order symplectic'' Taylor map that is truncated to an arbitrary order (thus not exactly symplectic) into a Courant-Snyder matrix and a symplectic implicit Taylor map for symplectic tracking. This algorithm is implemented using differential algebras, and it is numerically stable and fast. Thus, lifetime charged-particle tracking for large hadron colliders, such as the Superconducting Super Collider, is now made possible

  10. Algorithms for tracking of charged particles in circular accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iselin, F.Ch.

    1986-01-01

    An important problem in accelerator design is the determination of the largest stable betatron amplitude. This stability limit is also known as the dynamic aperture. The equations describing the particle motion are non-linear, and the Linear Lattice Functions cannot be used to compute the stability limits. The stability limits are therefore usually searched for by particle tracking. One selects a set of particles with different betatron amplitudes and tracks them for many turns around the machine. The particles which survive a sufficient number of turns are termed stable. This paper concentrates on conservative systems. For this case the particle motion can be described by a Hamiltonian, i.e. tracking particles means application of canonical transformations. Canonical transformations are equivalent to symplectic mappings, which implies that there exist invariants. These invariants should not be destroyed in tracking

  11. Ballistic target tracking algorithm based on improved particle filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Xiao-lei; Chen, Zhan-qi; Li, Xiao-yang

    2015-10-01

    Tracking ballistic re-entry target is a typical nonlinear filtering problem. In order to track the ballistic re-entry target in the nonlinear and non-Gaussian complex environment, a novel chaos map particle filter (CMPF) is used to estimate the target state. CMPF has better performance in application to estimate the state and parameter of nonlinear and non-Gassuian system. The Monte Carlo simulation results show that, this method can effectively solve particle degeneracy and particle impoverishment problem by improving the efficiency of particle sampling to obtain the better particles to part in estimation. Meanwhile CMPF can improve the state estimation precision and convergence velocity compared with EKF, UKF and the ordinary particle filter.

  12. Comparing the performance of various digital soil mapping approaches to map physical soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborczi, Annamária; Takács, Katalin; Pásztor, László

    2015-04-01

    Spatial information on physical soil properties is intensely expected, in order to support environmental related and land use management decisions. One of the most widely used properties to characterize soils physically is particle size distribution (PSD), which determines soil water management and cultivability. According to their size, different particles can be categorized as clay, silt, or sand. The size intervals are defined by national or international textural classification systems. The relative percentage of sand, silt, and clay in the soil constitutes textural classes, which are also specified miscellaneously in various national and/or specialty systems. The most commonly used is the classification system of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Soil texture information is essential input data in meteorological, hydrological and agricultural prediction modelling. Although Hungary has a great deal of legacy soil maps and other relevant soil information, it often occurs, that maps do not exist on a certain characteristic with the required thematic and/or spatial representation. The recent developments in digital soil mapping (DSM), however, provide wide opportunities for the elaboration of object specific soil maps (OSSM) with predefined parameters (resolution, accuracy, reliability etc.). Due to the simultaneous richness of available Hungarian legacy soil data, spatial inference methods and auxiliary environmental information, there is a high versatility of possible approaches for the compilation of a given soil map. This suggests the opportunity of optimization. For the creation of an OSSM one might intend to identify the optimum set of soil data, method and auxiliary co-variables optimized for the resources (data costs, computation requirements etc.). We started comprehensive analysis of the effects of the various DSM components on the accuracy of the output maps on pilot areas. The aim of this study is to compare and evaluate different

  13. Lecture II. Charmed particle spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The discussion of charmed particle spectroscopy covers the particle properties and interrelations from a charmed quark composition point of view including SU(4)-symmetry generalities, mesons, baryons, charmed particle masses, and decays of charmed particles. 6 references

  14. On circle map coupled map lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, E

    2002-01-01

    Circle map in one and two dimensions is studied. Both its stability, synchronization using bounded control and persistence is discussed. This work is expected to be applicable in ecology where spatial effects are known to be important. Also it will be relevant to systems where delay effects are not negligible.

  15. Mapping online consumer search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronnenberg, B.J.; Kim, J.; Albuquerque, P.

    2011-01-01

    The authors propose a new method to visualize browsing behavior in so-called product search maps. Manufacturers can use these maps to understand how consumers search for competing products before choice, including how information acquisition and product search are organized along brands, product

  16. Map of Nasca Geoglyphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzalová, K.; Pavelka, K.

    2013-07-01

    The Czech Technical University in Prague in the cooperation with the University of Applied Sciences in Dresden (Germany) work on the Nasca Project. The cooperation started in 2004 and much work has been done since then. All work is connected with Nasca lines in southern Peru. The Nasca project started in 1995 and its main target is documentation and conservation of the Nasca lines. Most of the project results are presented as WebGIS application via Internet. In the face of the impending destruction of the soil drawings, it is possible to preserve this world cultural heritage for the posterity at least in a digital form. Creating of Nasca lines map is very useful. The map is in a digital form and it is also available as a paper map. The map contains planimetric component of the map, map lettering and altimetry. Thematic folder in this map is a vector layer of the geoglyphs in Nasca/Peru. Basis for planimetry are georeferenced satellite images, altimetry is created from digital elevation model. This map was created in ArcGis software.

  17. Mapping of Outdoor Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Victor G.

    Mapping symbols adopted by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources are presented with their explanations. In an effort to provide standardization and familiarity teachers and other school people involved in an outdoor education program are encouraged to utilize the same symbols in constructing maps. (DK)

  18. MAP OF NASCA GEOGLYPHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hanzalová

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Czech Technical University in Prague in the cooperation with the University of Applied Sciences in Dresden (Germany work on the Nasca Project. The cooperation started in 2004 and much work has been done since then. All work is connected with Nasca lines in southern Peru. The Nasca project started in 1995 and its main target is documentation and conservation of the Nasca lines. Most of the project results are presented as WebGIS application via Internet. In the face of the impending destruction of the soil drawings, it is possible to preserve this world cultural heritage for the posterity at least in a digital form. Creating of Nasca lines map is very useful. The map is in a digital form and it is also available as a paper map. The map contains planimetric component of the map, map lettering and altimetry. Thematic folder in this map is a vector layer of the geoglyphs in Nasca/Peru. Basis for planimetry are georeferenced satellite images, altimetry is created from digital elevation model. This map was created in ArcGis software.

  19. Diffusion Based Photon Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Sporring, Jon; Fogh Olsen, Ole

    2008-01-01

    . To address this problem, we introduce a photon mapping algorithm based on nonlinear anisotropic diffusion. Our algorithm adapts according to the structure of the photon map such that smoothing occurs along edges and structures and not across. In this way, we preserve important illumination features, while...

  20. Maps between Grassmann manifolds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Parameswaran Sankaran Institute of Mathematical Sciences Chennai, India sankaran@imsc.res.in Indian Academy of Sciences Platinum Jubilee Meeting Hyderabad

    2009-07-02

    Jul 2, 2009 ... Classification of all manifolds (or maps between them) is an impossible task. The coarser, homotopical classification, is relatively easier–but only relatively! Homotopy is, roughly speaking, the study of properties of spaces and maps invariant under continuous deformations. Denote by [X, Y ] the set of all ...

  1. Constructing Maps Collaboratively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinhardt, Gaea; Stainton, Catherine; Bausmith, Jennifer Merriman

    1998-01-01

    Summarizes a study that maintains that students who work together in small groups had a better understanding of map concepts. Discusses why making maps in groups can enhance students' conceptual geographic understanding and offers suggestions for improving geography instructions using small group configurations. Includes statistical and graphic…

  2. Algorithms for necklace maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speckmann, B.; Verbeek, K.A.B.

    2015-01-01

    Necklace maps visualize quantitative data associated with regions by placing scaled symbols, usually disks, without overlap on a closed curve (the necklace) surrounding the map regions. Each region is projected onto an interval on the necklace that contains its symbol. In this paper we address the

  3. Text 2 Mind Map

    OpenAIRE

    Iona, John

    2017-01-01

    This is a review of the web resource 'Text 2 Mind Map' www.Text2MindMap.com. It covers what the resource is, and how it might be used in Library and education context, in particular for School Librarians.

  4. Formal genetic maps

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohammad Saad Zaghloul Salem

    2014-12-24

    Dec 24, 2014 ... ome/transcriptome/proteome, experimental induced maps that are intentionally designed and con- ... genetic maps imposed their application in nearly all fields of medical genetics including ..... or genes located adjacent to, or near, them. ...... types of markers, e.g., clinical markers (eye color), genomic.

  5. Non-perturbative particle dynamics in (2+1)-gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Bellini, A; Valtancoli, P

    1995-01-01

    We construct a non-perturbative, single-valued solution for the metric and the motion of two interacting particles in (2+1)-Gravity, by using a Coulomb gauge of conformal type. The method provides the mapping from multivalued ( minkowskian ) coordinates to single-valued ones, which solves the non-abelian monodromies due to particles's momenta and can be applied also to the general N-body case.

  6. Methods for forming particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert V.; Zhang, Fengyan; Rodriguez, Rene G.; Pak, Joshua J.; Sun, Chivin

    2016-06-21

    Single source precursors or pre-copolymers of single source precursors are subjected to microwave radiation to form particles of a I-III-VI.sub.2 material. Such particles may be formed in a wurtzite phase and may be converted to a chalcopyrite phase by, for example, exposure to heat. The particles in the wurtzite phase may have a substantially hexagonal shape that enables stacking into ordered layers. The particles in the wurtzite phase may be mixed with particles in the chalcopyrite phase (i.e., chalcopyrite nanoparticles) that may fill voids within the ordered layers of the particles in the wurtzite phase thus produce films with good coverage. In some embodiments, the methods are used to form layers of semiconductor materials comprising a I-III-VI.sub.2 material. Devices such as, for example, thin-film solar cells may be fabricated using such methods.

  7. LHCb unveils new particles

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb collaboration announces the observation of four “exotic” particles from its analysis of the LHC data.   The LHCb experimental cavern. On 28 June, the LHCb collaboration reported the observation of three new "exotic" particles and confirmation of the existence of a fourth one in data from the LHC. These particles each appear to be formed by four quarks (the fundamental constituents of the matter inside all the atoms of the universe): two quarks and two antiquarks (that is, a tetraquark). Due to their non-standard quark content, the newly observed particles have been included in the broad category of so-called exotic particles, although their exact theoretical interpretation is still under study.            The quark model, proposed by Murray Gell-Mann and George Zweig in 1964, is considered to be the most valid scheme for the classification of hadrons (all the composite particles) that has been fou...

  8. Particle Swarm Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Gerhard; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski Jaroslaw

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show how the search algorithm known as particle swarm optimization performs. Here, particle swarm optimization is applied to structural design problems, but the method has a much wider range of possible applications. The paper's new contributions are improvements to the particle swarm optimization algorithm and conclusions and recommendations as to the utility of the algorithm, Results of numerical experiments for both continuous and discrete applications are presented in the paper. The results indicate that the particle swarm optimization algorithm does locate the constrained minimum design in continuous applications with very good precision, albeit at a much higher computational cost than that of a typical gradient based optimizer. However, the true potential of particle swarm optimization is primarily in applications with discrete and/or discontinuous functions and variables. Additionally, particle swarm optimization has the potential of efficient computation with very large numbers of concurrently operating processors.

  9. Bodily maps of emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Glerean, Enrico; Hari, Riitta; Hietanen, Jari K

    2014-01-14

    Emotions are often felt in the body, and somatosensory feedback has been proposed to trigger conscious emotional experiences. Here we reveal maps of bodily sensations associated with different emotions using a unique topographical self-report method. In five experiments, participants (n = 701) were shown two silhouettes of bodies alongside emotional words, stories, movies, or facial expressions. They were asked to color the bodily regions whose activity they felt increasing or decreasing while viewing each stimulus. Different emotions were consistently associated with statistically separable bodily sensation maps across experiments. These maps were concordant across West European and East Asian samples. Statistical classifiers distinguished emotion-specific activation maps accurately, confirming independence of topographies across emotions. We propose that emotions are represented in the somatosensory system as culturally universal categorical somatotopic maps. Perception of these emotion-triggered bodily changes may play a key role in generating consciously felt emotions.

  10. Application of ecological mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherk, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The US Fish and Wildlife Service has initiated the production of a comprehensive ecological inventory map series for use as a major new planning tool. Important species data along with special land use designations are displayed on 1:250,000 scale topographic base maps. Sets of maps have been published for the Atlantic and Pacific coastal areas of the United States. Preparation of a map set for the Gulf of Mexico is underway at the present time. Potential application of ecological inventory map series information to a typical land disposal facility could occur during the narrowing of the number of possible disposal sites, the design of potential disposal site studies of ecological resources, the preparation of the environmental report, and the regulatory review of license applications. 3 figures, 3 tables

  11. The projective heat map

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, Richard Evan

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces a simple dynamical model for a planar heat map that is invariant under projective transformations. The map is defined by iterating a polygon map, where one starts with a finite planar N-gon and produces a new N-gon by a prescribed geometric construction. One of the appeals of the topic of this book is the simplicity of the construction that yet leads to deep and far reaching mathematics. To construct the projective heat map, the author modifies the classical affine invariant midpoint map, which takes a polygon to a new polygon whose vertices are the midpoints of the original. The author provides useful background which makes this book accessible to a beginning graduate student or advanced undergraduate as well as researchers approaching this subject from other fields of specialty. The book includes many illustrations, and there is also a companion computer program.

  12. Music of elementary particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sternheimer, J.

    1983-01-01

    This Note offers a new point of view on particle masses. It is shown that they are distributed following a musical scale, the chromatic tempered scale -for stable particles- subdivided into microintervals including unstable particles. A theoretical explanation, based on causality, allows one also to calculate their global distribution along the mass scale, in agreement with experiment, and indicating the existence of ''musical'' laws in the vibratory organisation of matter [fr

  13. Low energy particle composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloeckler, G.

    1975-01-01

    More than 50 papers presented at this Conference dealt with the composition of low energy particles. The topics can be divided roughly into two broad categories. The first is the study of the energy spectra and composition of the steady or 'quiet-time' particle flux, whose origin is at this time unknown. The second category includes the study of particles and photons which are associated with solar flares or active regions on the sun. (orig.) [de

  14. Music of elementary particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sternheimer, J.

    1983-12-12

    This note offers a new point of view on particle masses. It is shown that they are distributed following a musical scale, the chromatic tempered scale -for stable particles- subdivided into microintervals including unstable particles. A theoretical explanation, based on causality, allows one also to calculate their global distribution along the mass scale, in agreement with experiment, and indicating the existence of ''musical'' laws in the vibratory organisation of matter.

  15. Review of particle properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bricman, C.; Dionisi, C.; Hemingway, R.J.; Mazzucato, M.; Montanet, L.; Barash-Schmidt, N.; Crawford, R.C.; Roos, M.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Horne, C.P.; Kelly, R.L.; Losty, M.J.; Rittenberg, A.; Trippe, T.G.; Yost, G.P.; Armstrong, B.

    1978-01-01

    This review of the properties of leptons, mesons, and baryons is an updating of Review of Particle Properties, Particle Data Group [Rev. Mod. Phys. 48 (1976) No. 2, Part II; and Supplement, Phys. Lett. 68B (1977) 1]. Data are evaluated, listed, averaged, and summarized in tables. Numerous tables, figures, and formulae of interest to particle physicists are also included. A data booklet is available. (Auth.)

  16. Condensed elementary particle matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajantie, K.

    1996-01-01

    Quark matter is a special case of condensed elementary particle matter, matter governed by the laws of particle physics. The talk discusses how far one can get in the study of particle matter by reducing the problem to computations based on the action. As an example the computation of the phase diagram of electroweak matter is presented. It is quite possible that ultimately an antireductionist attitude will prevail: experiments will reveal unpredicted phenomena not obviously reducible to the study of the action. (orig.)

  17. Particle correlations at ALICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erazmus, B.; Lednicky, R.; Lyuboshitz, V.; Martin, L.; Mikhailov, K.; Pluta, J.; Sinyukov, Yu.; Stavinsky, A.; Werner, K

    1998-12-31

    The ability of the ALICE detector for determination of the space-time characteristics of particle production in heavy-ion collisions at LHC from measurements of the correlation functions of identical and non-identical particles at small relative velocities is discussed. The possibility to use the correlations of non-identical particles for a direct determination of the delays in emission of various particle species at time scales as small as 10{sup -23} s is demonstrated. The influence of the multi-boson effects on pion multiplicities, single-pion spectra and two-pion correlation functions is discussed. (author) 63 refs.

  18. Particle Correlations at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Kress, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Particle correlations are extensively studied to obtain information about the dynamics of hadron production. From 1989 to 2000 the four LEP collaborations recorded more than 16 million hadronic Z0 decays and several thousand W+W- events. In Z0 decays, two-particle correlations were analysed in detail to study Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac correlations for various particle species. In fully-hadronic W+W- decays, particle correlations were used to study whether the two W bosons decay independently. A review of selected results is presented.

  19. Particle Image Velocimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Vasilevskis, Sandijs; Kozlowski, Bartosz

    Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is a non-intrusive, whole filed optical method providing instantaneous velocity information in fluids. The flow is seeded with tracer particles. The particles are illuminated in the target area with a light sheet at least twice within a short time interval....... The camera images the target area and captures each light pulse in separate image frames. The displacement of the particle between the light pulses can be used to determine the velocity vectors. This guideline introduces the principle of the PIV system and the system configuration. The measurement procedure...

  20. Review of particle properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hikasa, K.; Hagiwara, K.; Kawabata, S.; Barnett, R.M.; Groom, D.E.; Trippe, T.G.; Wohl, C.G.; Yost, G.P.; Armstrong, B. Technical Associate; Wagman, G.S. Technical Associate; Stone, J.; Porter, F.C.; Morrison, R.J.; Cutkosky, R.E.; Montanet, L.; Gieselmann, K. Technical Associate; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Caso, C.; Crawford, R.L.; Roos, M.; Toernqvist, N.A.; Hayes, K.G.; Hoehler, G.; Manley, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    In this Review, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We also summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as Higgs bosons, the top quark, heavy neutrinos, monopoles, and supersymmetric particles. All the particle properties and search limits are listed in Summary Tables. We also give numerous tables, figures, formulae, and reviews of topics such as the Standard Model, particle detectors, probability, and statistics. A booklet is available containing the Summary Tables and abbreviated versions of some other sections of this full Review

  1. Elementary particle theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciano, W.J.

    1984-12-01

    The present state of the art in elementary particle theory is reviewed. Topics include quantum electrodynamics, weak interactions, electroweak unification, quantum chromodynamics, and grand unified theories. 113 references

  2. Particle physics experiments 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, G.W.

    1983-01-01

    The report describes work carried out in 1983 on experiments approved by the Particle Physics Experiments Selection Panel. The contents consist of unedited contributions from each experiment. (author)

  3. Particle Physics & Astrophysics (PPA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Scientists at SLAC's Particle Physics and Astrophysics develop and utilize unique instruments from underground to outer space to explore the ultimate laws of nature...

  4. USGS Topo Base Map from The National Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Topographic Base Map from The National Map. This tile cached web map service combines the most current data services (Boundaries, Names, Transportation,...

  5. Analyzing thematic maps and mapping for accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, G.H.

    1982-01-01

    Two problems which exist while attempting to test the accuracy of thematic maps and mapping are: (1) evaluating the accuracy of thematic content, and (2) evaluating the effects of the variables on thematic mapping. Statistical analysis techniques are applicable to both these problems and include techniques for sampling the data and determining their accuracy. In addition, techniques for hypothesis testing, or inferential statistics, are used when comparing the effects of variables. A comprehensive and valid accuracy test of a classification project, such as thematic mapping from remotely sensed data, includes the following components of statistical analysis: (1) sample design, including the sample distribution, sample size, size of the sample unit, and sampling procedure; and (2) accuracy estimation, including estimation of the variance and confidence limits. Careful consideration must be given to the minimum sample size necessary to validate the accuracy of a given. classification category. The results of an accuracy test are presented in a contingency table sometimes called a classification error matrix. Usually the rows represent the interpretation, and the columns represent the verification. The diagonal elements represent the correct classifications. The remaining elements of the rows represent errors by commission, and the remaining elements of the columns represent the errors of omission. For tests of hypothesis that compare variables, the general practice has been to use only the diagonal elements from several related classification error matrices. These data are arranged in the form of another contingency table. The columns of the table represent the different variables being compared, such as different scales of mapping. The rows represent the blocking characteristics, such as the various categories of classification. The values in the cells of the tables might be the counts of correct classification or the binomial proportions of these counts divided by

  6. Particle Swarm Optimisation with Spatial Particle Extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krink, Thiemo; Vesterstrøm, Jakob Svaneborg; Riget, Jacques

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce spatial extension to particles in the PSO model in order to overcome premature convergence in iterative optimisation. The standard PSO and the new model (SEPSO) are compared w.r.t. performance on well-studied benchmark problems. We show that the SEPSO indeed managed...

  7. Violation of Particle Anti-particle Symmetry

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    Symmetry is a fundamental concept which can be found in the whole range of human activities e. g. from arts to science. The beauty of a statues is often related to its symmetric form. In physics, all the laws are related to some sort of symmetry. Equally important is a small breakdown ofsymmetry. Even for the case of a statue, its beauty might be enhanced by introducing small distortions. In this course, we investigate the role symmetry in the world of elementary particles. Some symmetries found there are very similar to those which can be seen in our daily life, while others are more exotic and related to the quantum nature of the elementary particles. Our particular focus ismade on symmetry and its violation between the matter and anti-matter, known as CP violation. It is experimentally well established that particleand anti-particle behave a tiny bit differently in the world of elementary particles. We discuss how this would be explained and how we can extendour knowledge. Evolution of our universe is stro...

  8. Color on emergency mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lili; Qi, Qingwen; Zhang, An

    2007-06-01

    There are so many emergency issues in our daily life. Such as typhoons, tsunamis, earthquake, fires, floods, epidemics, etc. These emergencies made people lose their lives and their belongings. Every day, every hour, even every minute people probably face the emergency, so how to handle it and how to decrease its hurt are the matters people care most. If we can map it exactly before or after the emergencies; it will be helpful to the emergency researchers and people who live in the emergency place. So , through the emergency map, before emergency is occurring we can predict the situation, such as when and where the emergency will be happen; where people can refuge, etc. After disaster, we can also easily assess the lost, discuss the cause and make the lost less. The primary effect of mapping is offering information to the people who care about the emergency and the researcher who want to study it. Mapping allows the viewers to get a spatial sense of hazard. It can also provide the clues to study the relationship of the phenomenon in emergency. Color, as the basic element of the map, it can simplify and clarify the phenomenon. Color can also affects the general perceptibility of the map, and elicits subjective reactions to the map. It is to say, structure, readability, and the reader's psychological reactions can be affected by the use of color.

  9. Cognitive maps and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardt, Oliver; Nadel, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive map theory suggested that exploring an environment and attending to a stimulus should lead to its integration into an allocentric environmental representation. We here report that directed attention in the form of exploration serves to gather information needed to determine an optimal spatial strategy, given task demands and characteristics of the environment. Attended environmental features may integrate into spatial representations if they meet the requirements of the optimal spatial strategy: when learning involves a cognitive mapping strategy, cues with high codability (e.g., concrete objects) will be incorporated into a map, but cues with low codability (e.g., abstract paintings) will not. However, instructions encouraging map learning can lead to the incorporation of cues with low codability. On the other hand, if spatial learning is not map-based, abstract cues can and will be used to encode locations. Since exploration appears to determine what strategy to apply and whether or not to encode a cue, recognition memory for environmental features is independent of whether or not a cue is part of a spatial representation. In fact, when abstract cues were used in a way that was not map-based, or when they were not used for spatial navigation at all, they were nevertheless recognized as familiar. Thus, the relation between exploratory activity on the one hand and spatial strategy and memory on the other appears more complex than initially suggested by cognitive map theory.

  10. Crowdsourcing The National Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, Elizabeth; Craun, Kari J.; Korris, Erin M.; Brostuen, David A.; Moore, Laurence R.

    2015-01-01

    Using crowdsourcing techniques, the US Geological Survey’s (USGS) Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) project known as “The National Map Corps (TNMCorps)” encourages citizen scientists to collect and edit data about man-made structures in an effort to provide accurate and authoritative map data for the USGS National Geospatial Program’s web-based The National Map. VGI is not new to the USGS, but past efforts have been hampered by available technologies. Building on lessons learned, TNMCorps volunteers are successfully editing 10 different structure types in all 50 states as well as Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands.

  11. Region & Gateway Mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Schröter, Derik

    2007-01-01

    State-of-the-art robot mapping approaches are capable of acquiring impressively accurate 2D and 3D models of their environments. To the best of our knowledge, few of them represent structure or acquire models of task-relevant objects. In this work, a new approach to mapping of indoor environments is presented, in which the environment structure in terms of regions and gateways is automatically extracted, while the robot explores. Objects, both in 2D and 3D, are modeled explicitly in those map...

  12. MUTYH Associated Polyposis (MAP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Marie Louise Mølgaard; Bisgaard, M L

    2008-01-01

    Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP) and to a lesser extend Lynch Syndrome, which are caused by germline mutations in the APC and Mismatch Repair (MMR) genes, respectively.Here we review research findings regarding MUTYH interactions, genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of MAP, as well as surveillance......MUTYH Associated Polyposis (MAP), a Polyposis predisposition caused by biallelic mutations in the Base Excision Repair (BER) gene MUTYH, confers a marked risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). The MAP phenotype is difficult to distinguish from other hereditary CRC syndromes. Especially from Familial...

  13. Particle size determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burr, K.J.

    1979-01-01

    A specification is given for an apparatus to provide a completely automatic testing cycle to determine the proportion of particles of less than a predetermined size in one of a number of fluid suspensions. Monitoring of the particle concentration during part of the process can be carried out by an x-ray source and detector. (U.K.)

  14. Elementary particle theory

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanovich, Eugene

    2018-01-01

    This book introduces notation, terminology, and basic ideas of relativistic quantum theories. The discussion proceeds systematically from the principle of relativity and postulates of quantum logics to the construction of Poincaré invariant few-particle models of interaction and scattering. It is the first of three volumes formulating a consistent relativistic quantum theory of interacting charged particles.

  15. History of Particle Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    back to history page Back Particle Physics Timeline For over two thousand years people have thought the Standard Model. We invite you to explore this history of particle physics with a focus on the : Quantum Theory 1964 - Present: The Modern View (the Standard Model) back to history page Back Sections of

  16. Light particles in turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagendra Prakash, Vivek

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with the broad topic of particles in turbulence, which has applications in a diverse number of fields. A vast majority of fluid flows found in nature and in the industry are turbulent and contain dispersed elements. In this thesis, I have focused on light particles (air bubbles in

  17. Particle physics instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riegler, W.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes a series of three lectures aimed at giving an overview of basic particle detection principles, the interaction of particles with matter, the application of these principles in modern detector systems, as well techniques to read out detector signals in high-rate experiments. (author)

  18. Particles, contacts, bulk behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luding, Stefan; Tomas, J.

    2014-01-01

    Granular matter consists of discrete “particles”. These can be separate sand-grains, agglomerates (made of many primary particles), or solid materials like rock, composites, or metal-alloys—all with particulate inhomogeneous, possibly anisotropic micro-structure. Particles can be as small as

  19. Particle Astrophysics of Neutrinos

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amol Dighe

    Energy spectra of neutrino sources. ASPERA. Page 4. Some unique features of neutrinos. The second most abundant particles in the universe. Cosmic microwave background photons: 400 / cm3. Cosmic background neutrinos: 330 / cm3. The lightest massive particles. A million times lighter than the electron. No direct mass ...

  20. Astro-particle-physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salam, A.

    1985-09-01

    Opening remarks at the Fourth Marcel Grossman Meeting, 17-21 June 1985, in Rome, Italy, are reported. The meeting was concerned with the symbiosis of cosmology and particle physics. Numerous connections between work in particle physics and cosmology, in both experimental and theoretical areas, are pointed out

  1. When is a particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drell, S.D.

    1978-01-01

    The concept of elementary constituents or ultimate building blocks of nature in recent years is reviewed. The quark hypothesis, neutrinos, color, hard collisions, psi and other recent resonances, flavor, quantum chromodynamics, the tau particle, and particle structure are among the ideas considered. 22 references

  2. Concepts of particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottfried, K.; Weisskopf, V.F.

    1984-01-01

    This volume elucidates basic and well-established concepts of particle physics for the autodidact who is curious about recent developments in fundamental physics. Elementary quantum mechanics is a background must. Contents, abridged: The evolution of the particle concept before the advent of quantum mechanics. Nonrelativistic quantum mechanics and atomic physics. Relativistic quantum theory. Nuclear phenomena. Subnuclear phenomena. Index

  3. RESEARCH IN PARTICLE PHYSICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kearns, Edward [Boston Universiy

    2013-07-12

    This is the final report for the Department of Energy Grant to Principal Investigators in Experimental and Theoretical Particle Physics at Boston University. The research performed was in the Energy Frontier at the LHC, the Intensity Frontier at Super-Kamiokande and T2K, the Cosmic Frontier and detector R&D in dark matter detector development, and in particle theory.

  4. Optics of charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollnik, H.

    1987-01-01

    Suitable for both the specialist and non-specialist, this book develops all statements from first principles. Key chapters of the book focus upon how to design particle-optical systems, the systematics of image abberations, the effects of fringing fields, systematics of beams, and solutions for particle-optical systems. An undergraduate background in physics and mathematics is required for this work

  5. Introduction to particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zitoun, R.

    2000-01-01

    This book proposes an introduction to particle physics that requires only a high-school level mathematical knowledge. Elementary particles (leptons, quarks, bosons) are presented according to a modern view taking into account of their symmetries and interactions. The author shows how physicists have elaborated the standard model and what are its implications in cosmology. (J.S.)

  6. Microchip Coulter particle counter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ulrik Darling; Blankenstein, Gert; Branebjerg, J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a micro device employing the Coulter principle for counting and sizing of living cells and particles in liquid suspension. The microchip Coulter particle counter (μCPC) has been employed in a planar silicon structure covered with glass, which enables detailed observation during...

  7. Interactive Terascale Particle Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, David; Green, Bryan; Moran, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the methods used to produce an interactive visualization of a 2 TB computational fluid dynamics (CFD) data set using particle tracing (streaklines). We use the method introduced by Bruckschen et al. [2001] that pre-computes a large number of particles, stores them on disk using a space-filling curve ordering that minimizes seeks, and then retrieves and displays the particles according to the user's command. We describe how the particle computation can be performed using a PC cluster, how the algorithm can be adapted to work with a multi-block curvilinear mesh, and how the out-of-core visualization can be scaled to 296 billion particles while still achieving interactive performance on PG hardware. Compared to the earlier work, our data set size and total number of particles are an order of magnitude larger. We also describe a new compression technique that allows the lossless compression of the particles by 41% and speeds the particle retrieval by about 30%.

  8. Teaching particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hanley, P

    2000-01-01

    Particle physics attracts many students who hear of news from CERN or elsewhere in the media. This article examines which current A-level syllabuses include which bits of particle physics and surveys the many different types of resource available to teachers and students. (0 refs).

  9. Particles, imaging and nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J.

    1986-01-01

    The book on particles, imaging and nuclei is one of the Background Readers for the Revised Nuffield Advanced Physics course. The contents contain five educational articles, which extend concepts covered in the course and examine recent developments in physics. Four of the articles on:- particles and the forces of nature, radioisotopes, lasers probe the atomic nucleus, and nuclear history, are indexed separately. (UK)

  10. Elevation data for floodplain mapping

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Floodplain Mapping Technologies; National Research Council; Division on Earth and Life Studies; National Research Council

    2007-01-01

    .... Elevation Data for Floodplain Mapping shows that there is sufficient two-dimensional base map imagery to meet FEMA's flood map modernization goals, but that the three-dimensional base elevation data...

  11. Northern Hemisphere Synoptic Weather Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Daily Series of Synoptic Weather Maps. Part I consists of plotted and analyzed daily maps of sea-level and 500-mb maps for 0300, 0400, 1200, 1230, 1300, and 1500...

  12. DOT Official County Highway Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The County Highway Map theme is a scanned and rectified version of the original MnDOT County Highway Map Series. The cultural features on some of these maps may be...

  13. Tools for mapping ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo, Ignacio; Adamescu, Mihai; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Cazacu, Constantin; Klug, Hermann; Nedkov, Stoyan; Burkhard, Benjamin; Maes, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Mapping tools have evolved impressively in recent decades. From early computerised mapping techniques to current cloud-based mapping approaches, we have witnessed a technological evolution that has facilitated the democratisation of Geographic Information

  14. Compact particle accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M.

    2017-08-29

    A compact particle accelerator having an input portion configured to receive power to produce particles for acceleration, where the input portion includes a switch, is provided. In a general embodiment, a vacuum tube receives particles produced from the input portion at a first end, and a plurality of wafer stacks are positioned serially along the vacuum tube. Each of the plurality of wafer stacks include a dielectric and metal-oxide pair, wherein each of the plurality of wafer stacks further accelerate the particles in the vacuum tube. A beam shaper coupled to a second end of the vacuum tube shapes the particles accelerated by the plurality of wafer stacks into a beam and an output portion outputs the beam.

  15. DEM Particle Fracture Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Boning [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Herbold, Eric B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Homel, Michael A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Regueiro, Richard A. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-12-01

    An adaptive particle fracture model in poly-ellipsoidal Discrete Element Method is developed. The poly-ellipsoidal particle will break into several sub-poly-ellipsoids by Hoek-Brown fracture criterion based on continuum stress and the maximum tensile stress in contacts. Also Weibull theory is introduced to consider the statistics and size effects on particle strength. Finally, high strain-rate split Hopkinson pressure bar experiment of silica sand is simulated using this newly developed model. Comparisons with experiments show that our particle fracture model can capture the mechanical behavior of this experiment very well, both in stress-strain response and particle size redistribution. The effects of density and packings o the samples are also studied in numerical examples.

  16. Particle-assisted wetting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Hui; Yan Feng; Tierno, Pietro; Marczewski, Dawid; Goedel, Werner A

    2005-01-01

    Wetting of a solid surface by a liquid is dramatically impeded if either the solid or the liquid is decorated by particles. Here it is shown that in the case of contact between two liquids the opposite effect may occur; mixtures of a hydrophobic liquid and suitable particles form wetting layers on a water surface though the liquid alone is non-wetting. In these wetting layers, the particles adsorb to, and partially penetrate through, the liquid/air and/or the liquid/water interface. This formation of wetting layers can be explained by the reduction in total interfacial energy due to the replacement of part of the fluid/fluid interfaces by the particles. It is most prominent if the contact angles at the fluid/fluid/particle contact lines are close to 90 0

  17. Effect of alpha particles on Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, H.L.

    1992-11-01

    An overview is given of the analytic structure for the linear theory of the Toroidal Alfven Eigenmode (TAE), where multiple gap structures occur. A discussion is given of the alpha particle drive and the various dissipation mechanisms that can stabilize the system. A self-consistent calculation of the TAE mode, for a low-beta high-aspect-ratio plasma, indicates that though the alpha particle drive is comparable to the dissipation mechanisms, overall stability is still achieved for ignited ITER-like plasma. A brief discussion is given of the nonlinear theory for the TAE mode and how nonlinear alpha particle dynamics can be treated by mapping methods

  18. Relativistic local quantum field theory for m=0 particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales Villasevil, A.

    1965-01-01

    A method is introduced ta deal with relativistic quantum field theory for particles with m=0. Two mappings I and J, giving rise respectively to particle and anti particle states, are defined between a test space and the physical Hilbert space. The intrinsic field operator is then defined as the minimal causal linear combinations of operators belonging to the annihilation-creation algebra associated to the germ and antigerm parts of the element. Local elements are introduced as improper test elements and local field operators are constructed in the same way as the intrinsic ones. Commutation rules are given. (Author) 17 refs

  19. Programming with Hierarchical Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørbæk, Peter

    This report desribes the hierarchical maps used as a central data structure in the Corundum framework. We describe its most prominent features, ague for its usefulness and briefly describe some of the software prototypes implemented using the technology....

  20. Haz-Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Haz-Map is an occupational health database designed for health and safety professionals and for consumers seeking information about the adverse effects of workplace...

  1. TOXMAP®: Environmental Health Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — TOXMAP® is a Geographic Information System (GIS) that uses maps of the United States and Canada to help users visually explore data primarily from the EPA's Toxics...

  2. The CPD Maps System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CPD Maps includes data on the locations of existing CDBG, HOME, public housing and other HUD-funded community assets, so that users can view past investments...

  3. MetaMap

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — MetaMap is a highly configurable application developed by the Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications at the National Library of Medicine (NLM) to...

  4. FLOODPLAIN MAPPING, Bandera, TEXAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  5. FLOODPLAIN MAPPING, Atascosa, TEXAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  6. Public Waters Inventory Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This theme is a scanned and rectified version of the Minnesota DNR - Division of Waters "Public Waters Inventory" (PWI) maps. DNR Waters utilizes a small scale...

  7. Daily Weather Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Several different government offices have published the Daily weather maps over its history. The publication has also gone by different names over time. The U.S....

  8. Mapping Intermediality in Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    Mapping Intermediality in Performance benadert het vraagstuk van intermedialiteit met betrekking tot performance (vooral theater) vanuit vijf verschillende invalshoeken: performativiteit en lichaam; tijd en ruimte; digitale cultuur en posthumanisme; netwerken; pedagogiek en praxis. In deze boeiende

  9. Mapping the HISS Dipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McParland, C.; Bieser, F.

    1984-01-01

    The principal component of the Bevalac HISS facility is a large super-conducting 3 Tesla dipole. The facility's need for a large magnetic volume spectrometer resulted in a large gap geometry - a 2 meter pole tip diameter and a 1 meter pole gap. Obviously, the field required detailed mapping for effective use as a spectrometer. The mapping device was designed with several major features in mind. The device would measure field values on a grid which described a closed rectangular solid. The grid would be a regular with the exact measurement intervals adjustable by software. The device would function unattended over the long period of time required to complete a field map. During this time, the progress of the map could be monitored by anyone with access to the HISS VAX computer. Details of the mechanical, electrical, and control design follow

  10. NOS Bathymetric Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection of bathymetric contour maps which represent the seafloor topography includes over 400 individual titles and covers US offshore areas including Hawaii...

  11. Survey on Ontology Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junwu

    To create a sharable semantic space in which the terms from different domain ontology or knowledge system, Ontology mapping become a hot research point in Semantic Web Community. In this paper, motivated factors of ontology mapping research are given firstly, and then 5 dominating theories and methods, such as information accessing technology, machine learning, linguistics, structure graph and similarity, are illustrated according their technology class. Before we analyses the new requirements and takes a long view, the contributions of these theories and methods are summarized in details. At last, this paper suggest to design a group of semantic connector with the ability of migration learning for OWL-2 extended with constrains and the ontology mapping theory of axiom, so as to provide a new methodology for ontology mapping.

  12. Interest rates mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanevski, M.; Maignan, M.; Pozdnoukhov, A.; Timonin, V.

    2008-06-01

    The present study deals with the analysis and mapping of Swiss franc interest rates. Interest rates depend on time and maturity, defining term structure of the interest rate curves (IRC). In the present study IRC are considered in a two-dimensional feature space-time and maturity. Exploratory data analysis includes a variety of tools widely used in econophysics and geostatistics. Geostatistical models and machine learning algorithms (multilayer perceptron and Support Vector Machines) were applied to produce interest rate maps. IR maps can be used for the visualisation and pattern perception purposes, to develop and to explore economical hypotheses, to produce dynamic asset-liability simulations and for financial risk assessments. The feasibility of an application of interest rates mapping approach for the IRC forecasting is considered as well.

  13. National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) National Coastal Mapping Program (NCMP) is designed to provide high-resolution elevation and imagery data along U.S....

  14. BaseMap

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The goal of this project is to provide a convenient base map that can be used as a starting point for CA projects. It's simple, but designed to work at a number of...

  15. Fermilab | Science | Particle Physics | Benefits of Particle Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photos and videos Latest news For the media Particle Physics Neutrinos Fermilab and the LHC Dark matter initiatives Research and development Key discoveries Benefits of particle physics Particle Accelerators society Particle Physics 101 Science of matter, energy, space and time How particle physics discovery

  16. Particle tracking in E - φ space for synchrotron design and diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLachlan, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    The single particle equations for the longitudinal motion in a synchrotron can be faithfully represented as a one-turn mapping of a particle's phase space position relative to the synchronous particle. Applied to a distribution of particles, the mapping can be used to model the evolution of bunches to test beam manipulations or to extract the time dependence of quantities like the bunching factor, momentum spread, etc. which can be difficult to calculate. Such modelling requires rather few representative particles, permitting numerical experimentation and exploratory design trials. By modifying the mapping each turn to introduce the collective effects of the distribution, one can model such processes as phase feedback, space-charge effects, coupled bunch motion, etc. Calculations of this type offer quantitative performance predictions, aid diagnosis of existing accelerators, and contribute to the understanding of the underlying dynamics. This talk introduces the tools and some illustrations

  17. Stochasticity in the Josephson map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Y.; Ichikawa, Y.H.; Filippov, A.T.

    1996-04-01

    The Josephson map describes nonlinear dynamics of systems characterized by standard map with the uniform external bias superposed. The intricate structures of the phase space portrait of the Josephson map are examined on the basis of the tangent map associated with the Josephson map. Numerical observation of the stochastic diffusion in the Josephson map is examined in comparison with the renormalized diffusion coefficient calculated by the method of characteristic function. The global stochasticity of the Josephson map occurs at the values of far smaller stochastic parameter than the case of the standard map. (author)

  18. Probability Maps for the Visualization of Assimilation Ensemble Flow Data

    KAUST Repository

    Hollt, Thomas

    2015-05-25

    Ocean forecasts nowadays are created by running ensemble simulations in combination with data assimilation techniques. Most of these techniques resample the ensemble members after each assimilation cycle. This means that in a time series, after resampling, every member can follow up on any of the members before resampling. Tracking behavior over time, such as all possible paths of a particle in an ensemble vector field, becomes very difficult, as the number of combinations rises exponentially with the number of assimilation cycles. In general a single possible path is not of interest but only the probabilities that any point in space might be reached by a particle at some point in time. In this work we present an approach using probability-weighted piecewise particle trajectories to allow such a mapping interactively, instead of tracing quadrillions of individual particles. We achieve interactive rates by binning the domain and splitting up the tracing process into the individual assimilation cycles, so that particles that fall into the same bin after a cycle can be treated as a single particle with a larger probability as input for the next time step. As a result we loose the possibility to track individual particles, but can create probability maps for any desired seed at interactive rates.

  19. Ogallala Aquifer Mapping Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-10-01

    A computerized data file has been established which can be used efficiently by the contour-plotting program SURFACE II to produce maps of the Ogallala aquifer in 17 counties of the Texas Panhandle. The data collected have been evaluated and compiled into three sets, from which SURFACE II can generate maps of well control, aquifer thickness, saturated thickness, water level, and the difference between virgin (pre-1942) and recent (1979 to 1981) water levels. 29 figures, 1 table

  20. Maps for the future.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina D’Alessandro-Scarpari

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Geographers’ relations with maps have a long story of attraction and repulsion. The map has always fascinated Geographers (even before the institutionalization of the discipline as a powerful tool, able to demarcate territories, to produce different visions of them and to transform them by the actions they may cause or influence. Sometimes for strategic reasons Geographers have also denigrated cartography as a secondary and technical form of knowledge, a tool merely for understanding and ...

  1. Dynamics of exponential maps

    OpenAIRE

    Rempe, Lasse

    2003-01-01

    This thesis contains several new results about the dynamics of exponential maps $z\\mapsto \\exp(z)+\\kappa$. In particular, we prove that periodic external rays of exponential maps with nonescaping singular value always land. This is an analog of a theorem of Douady and Hubbard for polynomials. We also answer a question of Herman, Baker and Rippon by showing that the boundary of an unbounded exponential Siegel disk always contains the singular value. In addition to the presentation of new resul...

  2. Flow Mapping of a Jet in Crossflow with Stereoscopic PIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Knud Erik; Özcan, Oktay; Westergaard, C. H.

    2002-01-01

    Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) has been used to make a three-dimensional flow mapping of a jet in crossflow. The Reynolds number based on the free stream velocity and the jet diameter was nominally 2400. A jet-to-crossflow velocity ratio of 3.3 was used. Details of the formation...

  3. The National Map - Orthoimagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauck, James; Brown, Kim; Carswell, William J.

    2009-01-01

    Orthorectified digital aerial photographs and satellite images of 1-meter (m) pixel resolution or finer make up the orthoimagery component of The National Map. The process of orthorectification removes feature displacements and scale variations caused by terrain relief and sensor geometry. The result is a combination of the image characteristics of an aerial photograph or satellite image and the geometric qualities of a map. These attributes allow users to: *Measure distance *Calculate areas *Determine shapes of features *Calculate directions *Determine accurate coordinates *Determine land cover and use *Perform change detection *Update maps The standard digital orthoimage is a 1-m or finer resolution, natural color or color infra-red product. Most are now produced as GeoTIFFs and accompanied by a Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC)-compliant metadata file. The primary source for 1-m data is the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) leaf-on imagery. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) utilizes NAIP imagery as the image layer on its 'Digital- Map' - a new generation of USGS topographic maps (http://nationalmap.gov/digital_map). However, many Federal, State, and local governments and organizations require finer resolutions to meet a myriad of needs. Most of these images are leaf-off, natural-color products at resolutions of 1-foot (ft) or finer.

  4. Linear particle accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    A linear particle accelerator which provides a pulsed beam of charged particles of uniform energy is described. The accelerator is in the form of an evacuated dielectric tube, inside of which a particle source is located at one end of the tube, with a target or window located at the other end of the dielectric tube. Along the length of the tube are externally located pairs of metal plates, each insulated from each other in an insulated housing. Each of the plates of a pair are connected to an electrical source of voltage of opposed polarity, with the polarity of the voltage of the plates oriented so that the plate of a pair, nearer to the particle source, is of the opposed polarity to the charge of the particle emitted by the source. Thus, a first plate about the tube located nearest the particle source, attracts a particle which as it passes through the tube past the first plate is then repelled by the reverse polarity of the second plate of the pair to continue moving towards the target

  5. MAPS of Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Lincoln

    1998-01-01

    Our goal was to produce an interactive visualization from a mathematical model that successfully predicts metastases from head and neck cancer. We met this goal early in the project. The visualization is available for the public to view. Our work appears to fill a need for more information about this deadly disease. The idea of this project was to make an easily interpretable visualization based on what we call "functional maps" of disease. A functional map is a graphic summary of medical data, where distances between parts of the body are determined by the probability of disease, not by anatomical distances. Functional maps often beat little resemblance to anatomical maps, but they can be used to predict the spread of disease. The idea of modeling the spread of disease in an abstract multidimensional space is difficult for many people. Our goal was to make the important predictions easy to see. NASA must face this problem frequently: how to help laypersons and professionals see important trends in abstract, complex data. We took advantage of concepts perfected in NASA's graphics libraries. As an analogy, consider a functional map of early America. Suppose we choose travel times, rather than miles, as our measures of inter-city distances. For Abraham Lincoln, travel times would have been the more meaningful measure of separation between cities. In such a map New Orleans would be close to Memphis because of the Mississippi River. St. Louis would be close to Portland because of the Oregon Trail. Oklahoma City would be far from Little Rock because of the Cheyenne. Such a map would look puzzling to those of us who have always seen physical maps, but the functional map would be more useful in predicting the probabilities of inter-site transit. Continuing the analogy, we could predict the spread of social diseases such as gambling along the rivers and cattle rustling along the trails. We could simply print the functional map of America, but it would be more interesting

  6. Validation and application of Acoustic Mapping Velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranya, Sandor; Muste, Marian

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this paper is to introduce a novel methodology to estimate bedload transport in rivers based on an improved bedform tracking procedure. The measurement technique combines components and processing protocols from two contemporary nonintrusive instruments: acoustic and image-based. The bedform mapping is conducted with acoustic surveys while the estimation of the velocity of the bedforms is obtained with processing techniques pertaining to image-based velocimetry. The technique is therefore called Acoustic Mapping Velocimetry (AMV). The implementation of this technique produces a whole-field velocity map associated with the multi-directional bedform movement. Based on the calculated two-dimensional bedform migration velocity field, the bedload transport estimation is done using the Exner equation. A proof-of-concept experiment was performed to validate the AMV based bedload estimation in a laboratory flume at IIHR-Hydroscience & Engineering (IIHR). The bedform migration was analysed at three different flow discharges. Repeated bed geometry mapping, using a multiple transducer array (MTA), provided acoustic maps, which were post-processed with a particle image velocimetry (PIV) method. Bedload transport rates were calculated along longitudinal sections using the streamwise components of the bedform velocity vectors and the measured bedform heights. The bulk transport rates were compared with the results from concurrent direct physical samplings and acceptable agreement was found. As a first field implementation of the AMV an attempt was made to estimate bedload transport for a section of the Ohio river in the United States, where bed geometry maps, resulted by repeated multibeam echo sounder (MBES) surveys, served as input data. Cross-sectional distributions of bedload transport rates from the AMV based method were compared with the ones obtained from another non-intrusive technique (due to the lack of direct samplings), ISSDOTv2, developed by the US Army

  7. Normalization of the parameterized Courant-Snyder matrix for symplectic factorization of a parameterized Taylor map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Y.T.

    1991-01-01

    The transverse motion of charged particles in a circular accelerator can be well represented by a one-turn high-order Taylor map. For particles without energy deviation, the one-turn Taylor map is a 4-dimensional polynomials of four variables. The four variables are the transverse canonical coordinates and their conjugate momenta. To include the energy deviation (off-momentum) effects, the map has to be parameterized with a smallness factor representing the off-momentum and so the Taylor map becomes a 4-dimensional polynomials of five variables. It is for this type of parameterized Taylor map that a mehtod is presented for converting it into a parameterized Dragt-Finn factorization map. Parameterized nonlinear normal form and parameterized kick factorization can thus be obtained with suitable modification of the existing technique

  8. Charged particle detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, R.D.

    1975-01-01

    A device for detecting the emission of charged particles from a specimen is described. The specimen is placed within an accumulator means which statically accumulates any charged particles emitted from the specimen. The accumulator means is pivotally positioned between a first capacitor plate having a positive electrical charge and a second capacitor plate having a negative electrical charge. The accumulator means is attracted to one capacitor plate and repelled from the other capacitor plate by an amount proportional to the amount and intensity of charged particles emitted by the specimen. (auth)

  9. Cosmology and particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrow, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    A brief overview is given of recent work that integrates cosmology and particle physics. The observational data regarding the abundance of matter and radiation in the Universe is described. The manner in which the cosmological survival density of stable massive particles can be calculated is discussed along with the process of cosmological nucleosynthesis. Several applications of these general arguments are given with reference to the survival density of nucleons, neutrinos and unconfined fractionally charge particles. The use of nucleosynthesis to limit the number of lepton generations is described together with the implications of a small neutrino mass for the origin of galaxies and clusters. (Auth.)

  10. Particles near threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, T.; Willenbrock, S.

    1993-01-01

    We propose returning to the definition of the width of a particle in terms of the pole in the particle's propagator. Away from thresholds, this definition of width is equivalent to the standard perturbative definition, up to next-to-leading order; however, near a threshold, the two definitions differ significantly. The width as defined by the pole position provides more information in the threshold region than the standard perturbative definition and, in contrast with the perturbative definition, does not vanish when a two-particle s-wave threshold is approached from below

  11. Sources for charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arianer, J.

    1997-01-01

    This document is a basic course on charged particle sources for post-graduate students and thematic schools on large facilities and accelerator physics. A simple but precise description of the creation and the emission of charged particles is presented. This course relies on every year upgraded reference documents. Following relevant topics are considered: electronic emission processes, technological and practical considerations on electron guns, positron sources, production of neutral atoms, ionization, plasma and discharge, different types of positive and negative ion sources, polarized particle sources, materials for the construction of ion sources, low energy beam production and transport. (N.T.)

  12. Cosmology and particle physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steigman, G [California Univ., Santa Barbara (USA). Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Bartol Research Foundation, Newark, Delaware (USA))

    1982-01-29

    The cosmic connections between physics on the very largest and very smallest scales are reviewed with an emphasis on the symbiotic relation between elementary particle physics and cosmology. After a review of the early Universe as a cosmic accelerator, various cosmological and astrophysical constraints on models of particle physics are outlined. To illustrate this approach to particle physics via cosmology, reference is made to several areas of current research: baryon non-conservation and baryon asymmetry; free quarks, heavy hadrons and other exotic relics; primordial nucleosynthesis and neutrino masses.

  13. Particle physics and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srednicki, M.

    1990-01-01

    At least eighty percent of the mass of the universe consists of some material which, unlike ordinary matter, neither emits nor absorbs light. This book collects key papers related to the discovery of this astonishing fact and its profound implications for astrophysics, cosmology, and the physics of elementary particles. The book focusses on the likely possibility that the dark matter is composed of an as yet undiscovered elementary particle, and examines the boundaries of our present knowledge of the properties such a particle must possess. (author). refs.; figs.; tabs

  14. How BenMAP-CE Estimates the Health and Economic Effects of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    The BenMAP-CE tool estimates the number and economic value of health impacts resulting from changes in air quality - specifically, ground-level ozone and fine particles. Learn what data BenMAP-CE uses and how the estimates are calculated.

  15. Mapping 1995 global anthropogenic emissions of mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacyna, Jozef M.; Pacyna, Elisabeth G.; Steenhuisen, Frits; Wilson, Simon

    This paper presents maps of anthropogenic Hg emissions worldwide within a 1°×1° latitude/longitude grid system in 1995. As such, the paper is designed for modelers simulating the Hg transport within air masses and Hg deposition to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Maps of total Hg emissions and its three main chemical species: elemental gaseous Hg, divalent gaseous Hg, and particle-associated Hg are presented. The main emissions occur in southeast Asia (particularly in China), South Africa, Central and Eastern Europe, and the Eastern United States. These are the regions where coal combustion is the main source of electricity and heat production. Waste incineration adds to these emissions in the Eastern United States. Emissions of total Hg and its three species are quite similar in terms of their (global) spatial distributions. They reflect the worldwide distribution of coal consumption in large power plants, industrial burners, and small combustion units, such as residential and commercial furnaces.

  16. Flow field mapping in data rack model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matěcha J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to map the flow field inside the data rack model, fitted with three 1U server models. The server model is based on the common four-processor 1U server. The main dimensions of the data rack model geometry are taken fully from the real geometry. Only the model was simplified with respect to the greatest possibility in the experimental measurements. The flow field mapping was carried out both experimentally and numerically. PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry method was used for the experimental flow field mapping, when the flow field has been mapped for defined regions within the 2D/3D data rack model. Ansys CFX and OpenFOAM software were used for the numerical solution. Boundary conditions for numerical model were based on data obtained from experimental measurement of velocity profile at the output of the server mockup. This velocity profile was used as the input boundary condition in the calculation. In order to achieve greater consistency of the numerical model with experimental data, the numerical model was modified with regard to the results of experimental measurements. Results from the experimental and numerical measurements were compared and the areas of disparateness were identified. In further steps the obtained proven numerical model will be utilized for the real geometry of data racks and data.

  17. Dynamic map labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Been, Ken; Daiches, Eli; Yap, Chee

    2006-01-01

    We address the problem of filtering, selecting and placing labels on a dynamic map, which is characterized by continuous zooming and panning capabilities. This consists of two interrelated issues. The first is to avoid label popping and other artifacts that cause confusion and interrupt navigation, and the second is to label at interactive speed. In most formulations the static map labeling problem is NP-hard, and a fast approximation might have O(nlogn) complexity. Even this is too slow during interaction, when the number of labels shown can be several orders of magnitude less than the number in the map. In this paper we introduce a set of desiderata for "consistent" dynamic map labeling, which has qualities desirable for navigation. We develop a new framework for dynamic labeling that achieves the desiderata and allows for fast interactive display by moving all of the selection and placement decisions into the preprocessing phase. This framework is general enough to accommodate a variety of selection and placement algorithms. It does not appear possible to achieve our desiderata using previous frameworks. Prior to this paper, there were no formal models of dynamic maps or of dynamic labels; our paper introduces both. We formulate a general optimization problem for dynamic map labeling and give a solution to a simple version of the problem. The simple version is based on label priorities and a versatile and intuitive class of dynamic label placements we call "invariant point placements". Despite these restrictions, our approach gives a useful and practical solution. Our implementation is incorporated into the G-Vis system which is a full-detail dynamic map of the continental USA. This demo is available through any browser.

  18. Elementary particle interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugg, W.M.; Condo, G.T.; Handler, T.; Hart, E.L.; Read, K.; Ward, B.F.L.

    1992-10-01

    Work continues on strange particle production in weak interactions using data from a high-energy neutrino exposure in a freon bubble chamber. Meson photoproduction has also consumed considerable effort. Detector research and development activities have been carried out

  19. Particle physics experiments 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bairstow, R.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes work carried out in 1989 on experiments approved by the Particle Physics Experiments Selection Panel of Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. The contents consist of unedited contributions from each experiment. (author)

  20. The Acquisition of Particles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    process of language acquisition on the basis of linguistic evidence the child is exposed to. ..... particle verbs are recognized in language processing differs from the way morphologically ..... In Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 11.

  1. Particle physics experiments 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, G.W.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes work carried out in 1987 on experiments approved by the Particle Physics Experiments Selection Panel (United Kingdom). The contents consist of unedited contributions from each experiment. (author)

  2. Particle physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, G.W.

    1986-01-01

    The report of the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory describes the work carried out in 1985 on experiments approved by the Particle Physics Experiments Selection Panel. The contents consist of unedited contributions from each experiment. (author)

  3. Particle physics experiments 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, G.

    1985-01-01

    The Rutherford Appleton laboratory report describes work carried out in 1984 on experiments approved by the Particle Physics selection panel. The contents consist of unedited contributions from each experiment. (author)

  4. Modern particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2079874

    2013-01-01

    Unique in its coverage of all aspects of modern particle physics, this textbook provides a clear connection between the theory and recent experimental results, including the discovery of the Higgs boson at CERN. It provides a comprehensive and self-contained description of the Standard Model of particle physics suitable for upper-level undergraduate students and graduate students studying experimental particle physics. Physical theory is introduced in a straightforward manner with full mathematical derivations throughout. Fully-worked examples enable students to link the mathematical theory to results from modern particle physics experiments. End-of-chapter exercises, graded by difficulty, provide students with a deeper understanding of the subject. Online resources available at www.cambridge.org/MPP feature password-protected fully-worked solutions to problems for instructors, numerical solutions and hints to the problems for students and PowerPoint slides and JPEGs of figures from the book

  5. Search for Hidden Particles

    CERN Multimedia

    Solovev, V

    The SHiP Experiment is a new general-purpose fixed target facility at the SPS to search for hidden particles as predicted by a very large number of recently elaborated models of Hidden Sectors which are capable of accommodating dark matter, neutrino oscillations, and the origin of the full baryon asymmetry in the Universe. Specifically, the experiment is aimed at searching for very weakly interacting long lived particles including Heavy Neutral Leptons - right-handed partners of the active neutrinos; light supersymmetric particles - sgoldstinos, etc.; scalar, axion and vector portals to the hidden sector. The high intensity of the SPS and in particular the large production of charm mesons with the 400 GeV beam allow accessing a wide variety of light long-lived exotic particles of such models and of SUSY. Moreover, the facility is ideally suited to study the interactions of tau neutrinos.

  6. Blog: the God particle

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Dateline video journalist Aaron Lewis this week reprots on the search to find the elusive "God particle", which, if found, could explain to scientists how everything in the world got its mass."(1/2 page)

  7. Research in particle theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansouri, F.; Suranyi, P; Wijewardhana, L.C.R.

    1991-10-01

    In the test particle approximation, the scattering amplitude for two-particle scattering in (2+1)-dimensional Chern-Simons-Witten gravity and supergravity was computed and compared to the corresponding metric solutions. The formalism was then extended to the exact gauge theoretic treatment of the two-particle scattering problem and compared to 't Hooft's results from the metric approach. We have studied dynamical symmetry breaking in 2+1 dimensional field theories. We have analyzed strong Extended Technicolor (ETC) models where the ETC coupling is close to a critical value. There are effective scalar fields in each of the theories. We have worked our how such scalar particles can be produced and how they decay. The φ 4 field theory was investigated in the Schrodinger representation. The critical behavior was extracted in an arbitrary number of dimensions in second order of a systematic truncation approximation. The correlation exponent agrees with known values within a few percent

  8. Particle Engulfment and Pushing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    As a liquefied metal solidifies, particles dispersed in the liquid are either pushed ahead of or engulfed by the moving solidification front. Similar effects can be seen when the ground freezes and pushes large particles out of the soil. The Particle Engulfment and Pushing (PEP) experiment, conducted aboard the fourth U.S. Microgravity Payload (USMP-4) mission in 1997, used a glass and plastic beads suspended in a transparent liquid. The liquid was then frozen, trapping or pushing the particles as the solidifying front moved. This simulated the formation of advanced alloys and composite materials. Such studies help scientists to understand how to improve the processes for making advanced materials on Earth. The principal investigator is Dr. Doru Stefanescu of the University of Alabama. This image is from a video downlink.

  9. Big Bang Day: 5 Particles - 5. The Next Particle

    CERN Multimedia

    Franck Close

    2008-01-01

    Simon Singh looks at the stories behind the discovery of 5 of the universe's most significant subatomic particles: the Electron, the Quark, the Anti-particle, the Neutrino and the "next particle". 5. The Next Particle The "sparticle" - a super symmetric partner to all the known particles could be the answer to uniting all the known particles and their interactions under one grand theoretical pattern of activity. But how do researchers know where to look for such phenomena and how do they know if they find them? Simon Singh reviews the next particle that physicists would like to find if the current particle theories are to ring true.

  10. Safe biodegradable fluorescent particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sue I [Berkeley, CA; Fergenson, David P [Alamo, CA; Srivastava, Abneesh [Santa Clara, CA; Bogan, Michael J [Dublin, CA; Riot, Vincent J [Oakland, CA; Frank, Matthias [Oakland, CA

    2010-08-24

    A human-safe fluorescence particle that can be used for fluorescence detection instruments or act as a safe simulant for mimicking the fluorescence properties of microorganisms. The particle comprises a non-biological carrier and natural fluorophores encapsulated in the non-biological carrier. By doping biodegradable-polymer drug delivery microspheres with natural or synthetic fluorophores, the desired fluorescence can be attained or biological organisms can be simulated without the associated risks and logistical difficulties of live microorganisms.

  11. PARTICLE BEAMS: Frontier course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Driven by the quest for higher energies and optimal physics conditions, the behaviour of particle beams in accelerators and storage rings is the subject of increasing attention. Thus the second course organized jointly by the US and CERN Accelerator Schools looked towards the frontiers of particle beam knowledge. The programme held at South Padre Island, Texas, from 23-29 October attracted 125 participants including some 35 from Europe

  12. Particle physics and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.S.; Schramm, D.N.

    1985-01-01

    During the past year, the research of the members of our group has spanned virtually all the topics at the interface of cosmology and particle physics: inflationary Universe scenarios, astrophysical and cosmological constraints on particle properties, ultra-high energy cosmic ray physics, quantum field theory in curved space-time, cosmology with extra dimensions, superstring cosmology, neutrino astronomy with large, underground detectors, and the formation of structure in the Universe

  13. Ionization particle detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ried, L.

    1982-01-01

    A new device is claimed for detecting particles in a gas. The invention comprises a low cost, easy to assemble, and highly accurate particle detector using a single ionization chamber to contain a reference region and a sensing region. The chamber is designed with the radioactive source near one electrode and the second electrode located at a distance less than the distance of maximum ionization from the radioactive source

  14. PARTICLE BEAMS: Frontier course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1987-01-15

    Driven by the quest for higher energies and optimal physics conditions, the behaviour of particle beams in accelerators and storage rings is the subject of increasing attention. Thus the second course organized jointly by the US and CERN Accelerator Schools looked towards the frontiers of particle beam knowledge. The programme held at South Padre Island, Texas, from 23-29 October attracted 125 participants including some 35 from Europe.

  15. The Least Particle Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartsock, Robert

    2011-10-01

    The Least Particle Theory states that the universe was cast as a great sea of energy. MaX Planck declared a quantum of energy to be the least value in the universe. We declare the quantum of energy to be the least particle in the universe. Stephen Hawking declared quantum mechanics to be of no value in todays gross mechanics. That's like saying the number 1 has no place in mathematics.

  16. Single particle dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemens, P.J.; Jensen, A.S.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that the opening of the 3-quasiparticle continuum at 3Δ sets the energy scale for the enhancement of the effective mass near the Fermi surface of nuclei. The authors argue that the spreading width of single-particle states due to coupling with low-lying collective modes is qualitatively different from the two-body collision mechanism, and contributes little to the single-particle lifetime in the sense of the optical model. (orig.)

  17. Particle physics experiments 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, G.W.

    1987-01-01

    The paper presents research work carried out in 1986 on 52 elementary particle experiments approved by the Particle Physics Experiments Selection Panel. Most of the experiments were collaborative and involved research groups from different countries. About half of the experiments were conducted at CERN, the remaining experiments employed the accelerators: LAMPT, LEP, PETRA, SLAC, and HERA. The contents consist of unedited contributions from each experiment. (U.K.)

  18. Gravity, particles and astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesson, P.S.

    1980-01-01

    The author deals with the relationship between gravitation and elementary particle physics, and the implications of these subjects for astrophysics. The text is split up into two parts. The first part represents a relatively non-technical overview of the subject, while the second part represents a technical examination of the most important aspects of non-Einsteinian gravitational theory and its relation to astrophysics. Relevant references from the fields of gravitation, elementary particle theory and astrophysics are included. (Auth.)

  19. Particle electric dipole moments

    CERN Document Server

    Pendlebury, J M

    2000-01-01

    Measurements of particle electric dipole moments (EDMs) continue to put powerful constraints on theories of T-symmetry and CP-symmetry violation, which form currently one of the most prominent fields in particle physics. EDM measurements have been concentrated on neutral systems such as the neutron and atoms and molecules. These measurements allow one to deduce, in turn, the electric dipole moments of the fundamental fermions, that is, the lighter leptons and quarks and also those of some heavy nuclei.

  20. Applications of particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbalat, O.

    1994-01-01

    Particle accelerators are now widely used in a variety of applications for scientific research, applied physics, medicine, industrial processing, while possible utilisation in power engineering is envisaged. Earlier presentations of this subject, given at previous CERN Accelerator School sessions have been updated with papers contributed to the first European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology (ECAART) held in September 1989 in Frankfurt and to the Second European Particle Accelerator Conference in Nice in June 1990. (orig.)

  1. Canonical particle tracking in undulator fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuestefeld, G.; Bahrdt, J.

    1991-01-01

    A new algebraic mapping routine for particle tracking across wiggler and undulator fields in presented. It is based on a power series expansion of the generating function to guarantee fully canonical transformations. This method is 10 to 100 times faster than integration routines, applied in tracking codes like BETA or RACETRACK. The tracking method presented is not restricted to wigglers and undulators, it can be applied to other magnetic fields as well such as fringing fields of quadrupoles or dipoles if the suggested expansion converges

  2. Geodetic monitoring of suspended particles in rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamnik, Rok; Maksimova, Daria; Kovačič, Boštjan

    2017-10-01

    There is a trend in modern approach to the management of space of collecting the spatial data, in order to obtain useful information. In this paper a research of suspended particles in the river Drava and Mura will be introduced. The goal is to connect different fields of water management in countries where the rivers Drava and Mura flows in purpose of water management sustainability. The methods such as GNSS for mapping cross sections of the river, the use of ADCP (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) measurement system and water sampling to monitor sediment in the water will be presented.

  3. Dispersal of sticky particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Ramana; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2007-12-01

    In this paper, we show through simulations that when sticky particles are broken continually, particles are dispersed into fine dust only if they are present in a narrow range of volume fractions. The upper limit of this range is 0.20 in the 2D and 0.10 in the 3D space. An increase in the dimensionality of space reduces the upper limit nearly by a factor of two. This scaling holds for dispersal of particles in hyperdimensional space of dimensions up to ten, the maximum dimension studied in this work. The maximum values of volume fractions obtained are significantly lower than those required for close packing and random packing of discs in 2D and spheres in 3D space. These values are also smaller than those required for critical phenomena of cluster percolation. The results obtained are attributed to merger cascades of sticky particles, triggered by breakup events. A simple theory that incorporates this cascade is developed to quantitatively explain the observed scaling of the upper limit with the dimensionality of space. The theory also captures the dynamics of the dispersal process in the corresponding range of particle volume fractions. The theory suggests that cascades of order one and two predominantly decide the upper limit for complete dispersal of particles.

  4. Quaternary Geologic Map of the Regina 4 Degrees x 6 Degrees Quadrangle, United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, David S.; Christiansen, Earl A.; Schreiner, Bryan T.; Colton, Roger B.; Clayton, Lee; Bush, Charles A.; Fullerton, David S.

    2007-01-01

    For scientific purposes, the map differentiates Quaternary surficial deposits and materials on the basis of clast lithology or composition, matrix texture or particle size, structure, genesis, stratigraphic relations, engineering geologic properties, and relative age, as shown on the correlation diagram and indicated in the 'Description of Map Units'. Deposits of some constructional landforms, such as end moraines, are distinguished as map units. Deposits of erosional landforms, such as outwash terraces, are not distinguished, although glaciofluvial, ice-contact, fluvial, and lacustrine deposits that are mapped may be terraced. Differentiation of sequences of fluvial and glaciofluvial deposits at this scale is not possible. For practical purposes, the map is a surficial materials map. Materials are distinguished on the basis of lithology or composition, texture or particle size, and other physical, chemical, and engineering characteristics. It is not a map of soils that are recognized and classified in pedology or agronomy. Rather, it is a generalized map of soils as recognized in engineering geology, or of substrata or parent materials in which pedologic or agronomic soils are formed. As a materials map, it serves as a base from which a variety of maps for use in planning engineering, land-use planning, or land-management projects can be derived and from which a variety of maps relating to earth surface processes and Quaternary geologic history can be derived.

  5. spinning self-dual particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamboa, J.; Rivelles, V.O.

    1989-01-01

    Self-dual particles in two-dimensions are presented. They were obtained from chiral boson particle by square root technique. The propagator of spinning self-dual particle is calculated using the BFV formalism. (M.C.K.)

  6. Introduction to "Mapping Vietnameseness"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hue-Tam Ho Tai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vietnam and China are currently engaged in a map war, with each country using ancient maps to buttress its claims to territorial sovereignty over some uninhabited islands in the South China Sea (in Chinese terminology, also known as the Eastern Sea (in Vietnamese. But what do maps in fact represent? What is meant by “territory”? How are territorial limits conceived? These questions were raised in a May 2015 workshop inspired by Thongchai Winichakul’s Siam Mapped: A History of the Geo-Body of a Nation (1994, a groundbreaking book that traces the transformation of Thai geographical consciousness as a result of Siam’s encounter with Western powers in the nineteenth century. While many of Thongchai’s insights apply to the Vietnamese case, as the first of the three articles included in this special issue of Cross-Currents shows, some of the 2015 workshop participants’ conclusions departed from his, especially regarding the formation of a Vietnamese geographical consciousness before the colonial period.[i] This is true of the other two papers, which focus specifically on the construction of borders and the associated production of maps in the nineteenth century before French colonial conquest... Notes 1 Thanks are due to the Max Planck Institute for the Study of Religious and Ethnic Change in Gottingen, Germany, for its gracious hosting and generous funding of the conference, together with the Asia Center of Harvard University.

  7. Mapping sequences by parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guziolowski Carito

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: We present the N-map method, a pairwise and asymmetrical approach which allows us to compare sequences by taking into account evolutionary events that produce shuffled, reversed or repeated elements. Basically, the optimal N-map of a sequence s over a sequence t is the best way of partitioning the first sequence into N parts and placing them, possibly complementary reversed, over the second sequence in order to maximize the sum of their gapless alignment scores. Results: We introduce an algorithm computing an optimal N-map with time complexity O (|s| × |t| × N using O (|s| × |t| × N memory space. Among all the numbers of parts taken in a reasonable range, we select the value N for which the optimal N-map has the most significant score. To evaluate this significance, we study the empirical distributions of the scores of optimal N-maps and show that they can be approximated by normal distributions with a reasonable accuracy. We test the functionality of the approach over random sequences on which we apply artificial evolutionary events. Practical Application: The method is illustrated with four case studies of pairs of sequences involving non-standard evolutionary events.

  8. QUANTITATIVE FLOW-ANALYSIS AROUND AQUATIC ANIMALS USING LASER SHEET PARTICLE IMAGE VELOCIMETRY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STAMHUIS, EJ; VIDELER, JJ

    Two alternative particle image velocimetry (PIV) methods have been developed, applying laser light sheet illumination of particle-seeded flows around marine organisms, Successive video images, recorded perpendicular to a light sheet parallel to the main stream, were digitized and processed to map

  9. Imaging of the strain field around precipitate particles using transmission ion channeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    King, PJC; Breese, MBH; Meekeson, D; Smulders, PJM; Wilshaw, PR; Grime, GW

    1996-01-01

    This paper shows ion channeling images of the strain field produced by precipitate particles in a crystal matrix. Images have been produced by mapping the energy of 3 MeV protons transmitted through a thinned silicon crystal containing colonies of copper silicide particles, with the incident beam at

  10. From symplectic integrator to Poincare map: Spline expansion of a map generator in Cartesian coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnock, R.L.; Ellison, J.A.; Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM

    1997-08-01

    Data from orbits of a symplectic integrator can be interpolated so as to construct an approximation to the generating function of a Poincare map. The time required to compute an orbit of the symplectic map induced by the generator can be much less than the time to follow the same orbit by symplectic integration. The construction has been carried out previously for full-turn maps of large particle accelerators, and a big saving in time (for instance a factor of 60) has been demonstrated. A shortcoming of the work to date arose from the use of canonical polar coordinates, which precluded map construction in small regions of phase space near coordinate singularities. This paper shows that Cartesian coordinates can also be used, thus avoiding singularities. The generator is represented in a basis of tensor product B-splines. Under weak conditions the spline expansion converges uniformly as the mesh is refined, approaching the exact generator of the Poincare map as defined by the symplectic integrator, in some parallelepiped of phase space centered at the origin

  11. The evolving Alaska mapping program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, P.D.; O'Brien, T. J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the development of mapping in Alaska, the current status of the National Mapping Program, and future plans for expanding and improving the mapping coverage. Research projects with Landsat Multispectral Scanner and Return Vidicon imagery and real- and synthetic-aperture radar; image mapping programs; digital mapping; remote sensing projects; the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act; and the Alaska High-Altitude Aerial Photography Program are also discussed.-from Authors

  12. Ergodicity of polygonal slap maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Magno, Gianluigi; Pedro Gaivão, José; Lopes Dias, João; Duarte, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Polygonal slap maps are piecewise affine expanding maps of the interval obtained by projecting the sides of a polygon along their normals onto the perimeter of the polygon. These maps arise in the study of polygonal billiards with non-specular reflection laws. We study the absolutely continuous invariant probabilities (acips) of the slap maps for several polygons, including regular polygons and triangles. We also present a general method for constructing polygons with slap maps with more than one ergodic acip. (paper)

  13. Mapping Unknown Knowns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diogo de Andrade Silva, Elisa; Lanng, Ditte Bendix; Wind, Simon

    representative dimensions of travellers’ embodied ‘dwelling-in-motion’ (Urry, 2007) and experiences. The paper foregrounds a ‘Mapping-in-Motion’ graphic example, an experimental urban design student assignment aiming to map some of the less representative dimensions of journeys between A and B in Berlin...... in relation to analysis, representation, exploration and design of everyday travelling in the city. Such ‘mobilities design’ (Jensen and Lanng 2017) concerns routes, sites and artefacts of mobilities, e.g., road networks, train stations, and bike parking facilities. Some dimensions of these structures...

  14. Learning Bing maps API

    CERN Document Server

    Sinani, Artan

    2013-01-01

    This is a practical, hands-on guide with illustrative examples, which will help you explore the vast universe of Bing maps.If you are a developer who wants to learn how to exploit the numerous features of Bing Maps then this book is ideal for you. It can also be useful for more experienced developers who wish to explore other areas of the APIs. It is assumed that you have some knowledge of JavaScript, HTML, and CSS. For some chapters a working knowledge of .Net and Visual Studio is also needed.

  15. Graphene Conductance Uniformity Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buron, Jonas Christian Due; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Bøggild, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a combination of micro four-point probe (M4PP) and non-contact terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) measurements for centimeter scale quantitative mapping of the sheet conductance of large area chemical vapor deposited graphene films. Dual configuration M4PP measurements......, demonstrated on graphene for the first time, provide valuable statistical insight into the influence of microscale defects on the conductance, while THz-TDS has potential as a fast, non-contact metrology method for mapping of the spatially averaged nanoscopic conductance on wafer-scale graphene with scan times......, dominating the microscale conductance of the investigated graphene film....

  16. Proton: the particle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suit, Herman

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to review briefly the nature of protons: creation at the Big Bang, abundance, physical characteristics, internal components, and life span. Several particle discoveries by proton as the experimental tool are considered. Protons play important roles in science, medicine, and industry. This article was prompted by my experience in the curative treatment of cancer patients by protons and my interest in the nature of protons as particles. The latter has been stimulated by many discussions with particle physicists and reading related books and journals. Protons in our universe number ≈10(80). Protons were created at 10(-6) -1 second after the Big Bang at ≈1.37 × 10(10) years beforethe present. Proton life span has been experimentally determined to be ≥10(34) years; that is, the age of the universe is 10(-24)th of the minimum life span of a proton. The abundance of the elements is hydrogen, ≈74%; helium, ≈24%; and heavier atoms, ≈2%. Accordingly, protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the universe because ≈87% are protons. They are in each atom in our universe and thus involved in virtually every activity of matter in the visible universe, including life on our planet. Protons were discovered in 1919. In 1968, they were determined to be composed of even smaller particles, principally quarks and gluons. Protons have been the experimental tool in the discoveries of quarks (charm, bottom, and top), bosons (W(+), W(-), Z(0), and Higgs), antiprotons, and antineutrons. Industrial applications of protons are numerous and important. Additionally, protons are well appreciated in medicine for their role in radiation oncology and in magnetic resonance imaging. Protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the visible universe, comprising ≈87% of the particle mass. They are present in each atom of our universe and thus a participant in every activity involving matter. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All

  17. Proton: The Particle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suit, Herman

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to review briefly the nature of protons: creation at the Big Bang, abundance, physical characteristics, internal components, and life span. Several particle discoveries by proton as the experimental tool are considered. Protons play important roles in science, medicine, and industry. This article was prompted by my experience in the curative treatment of cancer patients by protons and my interest in the nature of protons as particles. The latter has been stimulated by many discussions with particle physicists and reading related books and journals. Protons in our universe number ≈10{sup 80}. Protons were created at 10{sup −6} –1 second after the Big Bang at ≈1.37 × 10{sup 10} years beforethe present. Proton life span has been experimentally determined to be ≥10{sup 34} years; that is, the age of the universe is 10{sup −24}th of the minimum life span of a proton. The abundance of the elements is hydrogen, ≈74%; helium, ≈24%; and heavier atoms, ≈2%. Accordingly, protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the universe because ≈87% are protons. They are in each atom in our universe and thus involved in virtually every activity of matter in the visible universe, including life on our planet. Protons were discovered in 1919. In 1968, they were determined to be composed of even smaller particles, principally quarks and gluons. Protons have been the experimental tool in the discoveries of quarks (charm, bottom, and top), bosons (W{sup +}, W{sup −}, Z{sup 0}, and Higgs), antiprotons, and antineutrons. Industrial applications of protons are numerous and important. Additionally, protons are well appreciated in medicine for their role in radiation oncology and in magnetic resonance imaging. Protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the visible universe, comprising ≈87% of the particle mass. They are present in each atom of our universe and thus a participant in every activity involving matter.

  18. Particle resuspension due to human walking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mana, Zakaria

    2014-01-01

    In nuclear facilities, during normal operations in controlled areas, workers could be exposed to radioactive aerosols (1 μm ≤ dp ≤ 10 μm). One of the airborne contamination sources is particles that are initially seeded on the floor and could be removed by workers while they are walking. During the outage of EDF nuclear facilities, there is a resuspension of some radionuclides in aerosol form (1 μm ≤ dp ≤ 10 μm). Since the number of co-activity will increase in reactors buildings of EDF, it becomes important to understand particle resuspension due to the activity of the operators to reduce their radiation exposure. The purpose of this Ph.D thesis is to quantify the resuspension of particles due to the progress of operators on a contaminated soil. Thus, the approach is to combine an aerodynamic resuspension model with numerical calculations of flow under a shoe, and then to characterize experimentally some input parameters of the model (particle diameter, adhesion forces, shoes motion). The resuspension model Rock'n'Roll proposed by Reeks and Hall (2001) was chosen because it describes physically the resuspension mechanism and because it is based on the moment of forces applied to a particle. This model requires two input parameters such as friction velocity and adhesion forces distribution applied on each particle. Regarding the first argument, numerical simulations were carried on using the ANSYS CFX software applied to a safety shoe in motion (digitized by 3D CAO); the mapping of friction velocity shows values of about 1 m.s -1 for an angular average velocity of 200 degrees.s -1 . As regards the second parameter, AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy) measurements were carried out with alumina and cobalt oxide particles in contact with epoxy surfaces representative of those encountered in EDF power plants. AFM provides the distribution of adhesion forces and reveals a much lower value than what can be calculated theoretically using JKR model (Johnson

  19. Aircraft route planning based on digital map pre-treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran ZHEN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the flight path project in low complicated airspace, the influence of terrain conditions and surface threatening to aircraft flight are studied. Through the analysis of digital map and static threat, the paper explores the processing method of the digital map, and uses the Hermite function to process the map smoothly, reducing the searching range of optimal trajectory. By designing the terrain following, terrain avoidance and the way of avoiding a threat, the safety of aircraft can be guaranteed. In-depth analysis of particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm realizes the three dimensional paths project before the aircraft performs a task. Through simulation, the difference of the maps before and after processing is shown, and offline programming of the three dimensional optimal path is achieved.

  20. Entanglement between particle partitions in itinerant many-particle states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haque, M.; Zozulya, O.S.; Schoutens, K.

    2009-01-01

    We review 'particle-partitioning entanglement' for itinerant many-particle systems. This is defined as the entanglement between two subsets of particles making up the system. We identify generic features and mechanisms of particle entanglement that are valid over whole classes of itinerant quantum

  1. Particle physics and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, E.W.

    1986-10-01

    This series of lectures is about the role of particle physics in physical processes that occurred in the very early stages of the bug gang. Of particular interest is the role of particle physics in determining the evolution of the early Universe, and the effect of particle physics on the present structure of the Universe. The use of the big bang as a laboratory for placing limits on new particle physics theories will also be discussed. Section 1 reviews the standard cosmology, including primordial nucleosynthesis. Section 2 reviews the decoupling of weakly interacting particles in the early Universe, and discusses neutrino cosmology and the resulting limits that may be placed on the mass and lifetime of massive neutrinos. Section 3 discusses the evolution of the vacuum through phase transitions in the early Universe and the formation of topological defects in the transitions. Section 4 covers recent work on the generation of the baryon asymmetry by baryon-number violating reactions in Grand Unified Theories, and mentions some recent work on baryon number violation effects at the electroweak transition. Section 5 is devoted to theories of cosmic inflation. Finally, Section 6 is a discussion of the role of extra spatial dimensions in the evolution of the early Universe. 78 refs., 32 figs., 6 tabs

  2. Neutron particle injection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Kiyoshi.

    1997-01-01

    Plasma particles are used as target particles for converting ions to neutral particles by a charge exchange reaction in a neutralization cell, and a neutralization cell is disposed in adjacent with drawing electrodes. In addition, a magnetic field generation means is disposed additionally for generating magnetic rays substantially in parallel with the drawing electrode at the downmost stream in the progressing direction of the ions. The intensity of electric fields between the drawing electrode at the downmost stream and the nearest electrode, among electrodes present at the upstream, is made smaller than the intensity of electric fields between other electrodes. Since magnetic rays substantially in parallel with the drawing electrode at the downmost stream in the progressing direction of the ions are generated, the ions are prevented from being accelerated in the direction reverse to the progressing direction thereby further enhancing the neutralization efficiency of the neutralizing cell. Then, there can be provided effects that the constitution of the electrode of NBI (Neutral particle Beam Injector) can be simplified and the power source for preventing acceleration of neutral particles can be saved. (N.H.)

  3. Cosmology and particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salati, P.

    1986-01-01

    If the hot Big Bang model is correct, the very early universe provides us with a good laboratory to test our ideas on particle physics. The temperature and the density at that time are so high that each known particle must exist in chemical and in thermal equilibrium with the others. When the universe cools, the particles freeze out, leaving us today with a cosmic background. Such a kind of relic is of great interest because we can probe the Big Bang Model by studying the fossilized gas of a known particle. Conversely we can use that model to derive information about a hypothetical particle. Basically the freezing of a gas occurs a temperature T o and may be thermal or chemical. Studying the decoupling of a stable neutrino brings information on its mass: if the mass M ν lies in the forbidden range, the neutrino has to be unstable and its lifetime is constrained by cosmology. As for the G.U.T. Monopole, cosmology tells us that its present mass density is either to big or to small (1 monopole/observable universe) owing to a predicted flux far from the Parker Limit. Finally, the super red-giant star life time constrains the axion or the Higgs to be more massive than .2 MeV [fr

  4. New particle searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrick, M.

    1985-01-01

    The Standard Model is a remarkable result of decades of work in particle physics, but it is clearly an incomplete representation of the world. Exploring possibilities beyond the Standard Model is a major preoccupation of both theorists and experimentalists. Despite the many suggestions that are extant about the missing links within the Standard Model as well as extensions beyond it, no hard experimental evidence exists. In particular, in more than five years of experimentation both at PETRA and PEP no new particles have been found that would indicate new physics. Several reasons are possible for these negative results: the particles may be too heavy; the experiments may not be looking in the proper way; the cross sections may be too small or finally the particles may not exist. A continuing PEP program, at high luminosity will ensure that the second and third reason continue to be addressed. The higher energy e + e - storage rings such as TRISTAN and LEP will extend the mass limits. High mass particles can also be produced at the CERN collider and soon with the Tevatron collider. A concise summary of the mass limits from the PETRA experiments has been given in a recent Mark J publication. The results shown provide a convenient yardstick against which to measure future search experiments

  5. Particle-hole symmetry in the interacting-boson model: Fermion and boson aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.B.; Vincent, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    We show that the S-D subspaces, which are used in the Otsuka-Arima-Iachello microscopic derivation of the interacting-boson model, form a particle-hole-symmetric family. Consequently, there exist particle-hole-symmetric prescriptions for determining the structure of the S and D pairs. This result holds independently of whether the Hamiltonian conserves generalized seniority. Nevertheless, there are deviations from particle-hole symmetry when boson matrix elements involving more than two d bosons are calculated in lowest order using the boson mapping procedure of Otsuka, Arima, and Iachello. These deviations are used to estimate the inaccuracies introduced by the lowest-order mapping

  6. Surge Flow in a Centrifugal Compressor Measured by Digital Particle Image Velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernet, Mark P.

    2000-01-01

    A planar optical velocity measurement technique known as Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is being used to study transient events in compressors. In PIV, a pulsed laser light sheet is used to record the positions of particles entrained in a fluid at two instances in time across a planar region of the flow. Determining the recorded particle displacement between exposures yields an instantaneous velocity vector map across the illuminated plane. Detailed flow mappings obtained using PIV in high-speed rotating turbomachinery components are used to improve the accuracy of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, which in turn, are used to guide advances in state-of-the-art aircraft engine hardware designs.

  7. Big Bang Day: 5 Particles - 3. The Anti-particle

    CERN Multimedia

    Franck Close

    2008-01-01

    Simon Singh looks at the stories behind the discovery of 5 of the universe's most significant subatomic particles: the Electron, the Quark, the Anti-particle, the Neutrino and the "next particle". 3. The Anti-particle. It appears to be the stuff of science fiction. Associated with every elementary particle is an antiparticle which has the same mass and opposite charge. Should the two meet and combine, the result is annihilation - and a flash of light. Thanks to mysterious processes that occurred after the Big Bang there are a vastly greater number of particles than anti-particles. So how could their elusive existence be proved? At CERN particle physicists are crashing together subatomic particles at incredibly high speeds to create antimatter, which they hope will finally reveal what happened at the precise moment of the Big Bang to create the repertoire of elementary particles and antiparticles in existence today.

  8. Localization and force analysis at the single virus particle level using atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chih-Hao; Horng, Jim-Tong; Chang, Jeng-Shian; Hsieh, Chung-Fan; Tseng, You-Chen; Lin, Shiming

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Localization of single virus particle. ► Force measurements. ► Force mapping. -- Abstract: Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a vital instrument in nanobiotechnology. In this study, we developed a method that enables AFM to simultaneously measure specific unbinding force and map the viral glycoprotein at the single virus particle level. The average diameter of virus particles from AFM images and the specificity between the viral surface antigen and antibody probe were integrated to design a three-stage method that sets the measuring area to a single virus particle before obtaining the force measurements, where the influenza virus was used as the object of measurements. Based on the purposed method and performed analysis, several findings can be derived from the results. The mean unbinding force of a single virus particle can be quantified, and no significant difference exists in this value among virus particles. Furthermore, the repeatability of the proposed method is demonstrated. The force mapping images reveal that the distributions of surface viral antigens recognized by antibody probe were dispersed on the whole surface of individual virus particles under the proposed method and experimental criteria; meanwhile, the binding probabilities are similar among particles. This approach can be easily applied to most AFM systems without specific components or configurations. These results help understand the force-based analysis at the single virus particle level, and therefore, can reinforce the capability of AFM to investigate a specific type of viral surface protein and its distributions.

  9. 2004 Alaska Lidar Mapping

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data sets are generated using the OPTECH ALTM 70 kHz LIDAR system mounted onboard AeroMap's twin-engine Cessna 320 aircraft. Classified data sets such as this...

  10. Ramachandran and his Map

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ramachandran map, detailed in this article. His current interests are peptide, cyclic peptide and protein conforma- tions, energetics, data analysis, computer modeling as well as development of new algorithms useful for the conformational studies. C Ramakrishnan. Introduction. Professor G N Ramachandran was one of the ...

  11. Photogrammetry and Digital Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Poul

    1998-01-01

    Technical tour to Lithuania, Poland and Estonia for 13 technical staff and managers of State Land Service, HQ, Latvia. Focus on technical aspects and management of geographical data for map production and administration. Visits to state and local government organisations and newly established...

  12. Mapping World Hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vliet, Lucille W.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a lesson designed to involve students in grades 6 through 8 in learning how geography was affected the problem of world hunger. Emphasis is placed on using maps, globes, atlases, and geographic dictionaries, as well as books, magazines, and other resources. (MES)

  13. Fluence map segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenwald, J.-C.

    2008-01-01

    The lecture addressed the following topics: 'Interpreting' the fluence map; The sequencer; Reasons for difference between desired and actual fluence map; Principle of 'Step and Shoot' segmentation; Large number of solutions for given fluence map; Optimizing 'step and shoot' segmentation; The interdigitation constraint; Main algorithms; Conclusions on segmentation algorithms (static mode); Optimizing intensity levels and monitor units; Sliding window sequencing; Synchronization to avoid the tongue-and-groove effect; Accounting for physical characteristics of MLC; Importance of corrections for leaf transmission and offset; Accounting for MLC mechanical constraints; The 'complexity' factor; Incorporating the sequencing into optimization algorithm; Data transfer to the treatment machine; Interface between R and V and accelerator; and Conclusions on fluence map segmentation (Segmentation is part of the overall inverse planning procedure; 'Step and Shoot' and 'Dynamic' options are available for most TPS (depending on accelerator model; The segmentation phase tends to come into the optimization loop; The physical characteristics of the MLC have a large influence on final dose distribution; The IMRT plans (MU and relative dose distribution) must be carefully validated). (P.A.)

  14. Mapping the Heavens

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    results of astrophysical mapping along multi- ple dimensions of space and time that deter- mine the distribution ... discipline, the book evocatively charts out the enormous impact of these advances on human culture, in that our ... And her evocative writing skills make the de- scriptions of these various discoveries come alive.

  15. Bike Map Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Chapel Hill Bike Map Lines from KMZ file.This data came from the wiki comment board for the public, not an “official map” showing the Town of Chapel Hill's plans or...

  16. Copenhagen Sonic Experience Map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzfeldt, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    In the wake of present European interest for mapping urban noise, it seems increasingly relevant to investigate the multiple ways in which sound intersects with the everyday experiences of urban citizens. Focusing on the polluting effects of infrastructural noise, the EU-initiated project of asse...

  17. Extending Lipschitz mappings continuously

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecká, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 2 (2012), s. 167-177 ISSN 1425-6908 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Lipschitz mapping * Hilbert space * extension Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/jaa.2012.18.issue-2/jaa-2012-0011/jaa-2012-0011. xml

  18. STOCHASTIC FLOWS OF MAPPINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the stochastic flow of mappings generated by a Feller convolution semigroup on a compact metric space is studied. This kind of flow is the generalization of superprocesses of stochastic flows and stochastic diffeomorphism induced by the strong solutions of stochastic differential equations.

  19. Mapping the Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boulus-Rødje, Nina

    2012-01-01

    As the utilization of various e-voting technologies has notably increased in the past few years, so has the amount of publications on experiences with these technologies. This article, will, therefore map the literature while highlighting some of the important topics discussed within the field of e...

  20. eMAPS

    CERN Document Server

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Starting with the 2005 performance appraisal and advancement exercise (MAPS), the paper version of the annual appraisal report has been replaced by an electronic EDH version - eMAPS (see Weekly Bulletin 48/2004). As announced in Weekly Bulletin 2/2005, information sessions to explain the features of eMAPS using EDH have been arranged as follows: 18 January 2005: Main Auditorium (500-1-001) from 14:00 to 15:30. 20 January 2005: AB Auditorium II (864-1-D02) from 14:00 to 15:30. 24 January 2005: AT Auditorium (30-7-018) from 10:00 to 11:30. The changeover to an electronic appraisal report is designed to reduce the administrative workload involving, e.g. photocopying, tracing and filing paper copies, while allowing staff members and their hierarchy access to the report form at the appropriate times. There is no change in the procedure for the annual interview and the advancement exercise, though Administrative Circular No 26 (Rev. 5) has been updated to take account of the introduction of eMAPS. The content...

  1. Mapping functional connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Vogt; Joseph R. Ferrari; Todd R. Lookingbill; Robert H. Gardner; Kurt H. Riitters; Katarzyna Ostapowicz

    2009-01-01

    An objective and reliable assessment of wildlife movement is important in theoretical and applied ecology. The identification and mapping of landscape elements that may enhance functional connectivity is usually a subjective process based on visual interpretations of species movement patterns. New methods based on mathematical morphology provide a generic, flexible,...

  2. Historical Topographic Map Collection bookmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishburn, Kristin A.; Allord, Gregory J.

    2017-06-29

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Geospatial Program is scanning published USGS 1:250,000-scale and larger topographic maps printed between 1884, the inception of the topographic mapping program, and 2006. The goal of this project, which began publishing the historical scanned maps in 2011, is to provide a digital repository of USGS topographic maps, available to the public at no cost. For more than 125 years, USGS topographic maps have accurately portrayed the complex geography of the Nation. The USGS is the Nation’s largest producer of printed topographic maps, and prior to 2006, USGS topographic maps were created using traditional cartographic methods and printed using a lithographic printing process. As the USGS continues the release of a new generation of topographic maps (US Topo) in electronic form, the topographic map remains an indispensable tool for government, science, industry, land management planning, and leisure.

  3. Particles in flows

    CERN Document Server

    Galdi, Giovanni; Nečasová, Šárka

    2017-01-01

    This book aims to face particles in flows from many different, but essentially interconnected sides and points of view. Thus the selection of authors and topics represented in the chapters, ranges from deep mathematical analysis of the associated models, through the techniques of their numerical solution, towards real applications and physical implications. The scope and structure of the book as well as the selection of authors was motivated by the very successful summer course and workshop "Particles in Flows'' that was held in Prague in the August of 2014. This meeting revealed the need for a book dealing with this specific and challenging multidisciplinary subject, i.e. particles in industrial, environmental and biomedical flows and the combination of fluid mechanics, solid body mechanics with various aspects of specific applications.

  4. Charged particle accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ress, T.I.; Nolde, G.V.

    1974-01-01

    A charged particle accelerator is described. It is made of an enclosure arranged for channeling a stream of charged particles along a predetermined path, and propelling means juxtaposed to said enclosure for generating therein a magnetic field moving in a predetermined direction with respect to each point of said path, the magnetic flux vector of that field being transverse to that path at every point, which gives the particles, along said path, a velocity connected to that of the mobile field by a predetermined relation. This can be applied to the fast production of chemical compounds, to the emission of neutrons and of thermal energy, and to the production of mechanical energy for propelling space ships [fr

  5. Detectors for Particle Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinknecht, Konrad

    1999-01-01

    This textbook provides a clear, concise and comprehensive review of the physical principles behind the devices used to detect charged particles and gamma rays, and the construction and performance of these many different types of detectors. Detectors for high-energy particles and radiation are used in many areas of science, especially particle physics and nuclear physics experiments, nuclear medicine, cosmic ray measurements, space sciences and geological exploration. This second edition includes all the latest developments in detector technology, including several new chapters covering micro-strip gas chambers, silicion strip detectors and CCDs, scintillating fibers, shower detectors using noble liquid gases, and compensating calorimeters for hadronic showers. This well-illustrated textbook contains examples from the many areas in science in which these detectors are used. It provides both a coursebook for students in physics, and a useful introduction for researchers in other fields.

  6. Charged particle accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ress, T I; Nolde, G V

    1974-11-25

    A charged particle accelerator is described. It is made of an enclosure arranged for channeling a stream of charged particles along a predetermined path, and propelling means juxtaposed to the enclosure for generating a magnetic field moving in a predetermined direction with respect to each point of the path, the magnetic flux vector of that field being transverse to that path at every point, which gives the particles, along said path, a velocity connected to that of the mobile field by a predetermined relation. This can be applied to the fast production of chemical compounds, to the emission of neutrons and of thermal energy, and to the production of mechanical energy for propelling space ships.

  7. Radiance and particle fluence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papiez, L.; Battista, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Units and Measurements (ICRU) has defined fluence in terms of the number of the radiation particles crossing a small sampling sphere. A second definition has been proposed in which the length of track segments contained within any sampling volume are used to calculate the incident fluence. This approach is often used in Monte Carlo simulations of individual particle tracks, allowing the fluence to be scored in small volumes of any shape. In this paper we stress that the second definition generalizes the classical (ICRU) concept of fluence. We also identify the assumptions inherent in the two definitions of fluence and prove their equivalence for the case of straight-line particle trajectories. (author)

  8. New particle data

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The 2002 edition of the Review of Particle Physics has been published. It appears in the July 1st edition of Physical Review D with the reference: K. Hagiwara et al., Physical Review D66, 010001 (2002). The printing of the Particle Physics Booklets is planned to be finished at the end of August, so copies are expected to arrive at CERN for distribution by mid-September. The full data are available at the Berkeley site, as well as at various other mirrors around the world. As for copies of the full Review, for which CERN is responsible for the distribution outside the Americas, the Far East and Australasia, the quantity has been reduced by 60% compared to the 2000 edition. It will thus no longer be possible for all individuals to have their personal copy. Priority will be given to ensure that copies are sent to all groups and institutes engaged in particle physics research.

  9. Particle accelerator physics

    CERN Document Server

    Wiedemann, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    This book by Helmut Wiedemann is a well-established, classic text, providing an in-depth and comprehensive introduction to the field of high-energy particle acceleration and beam dynamics. The present 4th edition has been significantly revised, updated and expanded. The newly conceived Part I is an elementary introduction to the subject matter for undergraduate students. Part II gathers the basic tools in preparation of a more advanced treatment, summarizing the essentials of electrostatics and electrodynamics as well as of particle dynamics in electromagnetic fields. Part III is an extensive primer in beam dynamics, followed, in Part IV, by an introduction and description of the main beam parameters and including a new chapter on beam emittance and lattice design. Part V is devoted to the treatment of perturbations in beam dynamics. Part VI then discusses the details of charged particle acceleration. Parts VII and VIII introduce the more advanced topics of coupled beam dynamics and describe very intense bea...

  10. The particle zoo

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2079223

    2016-01-01

    What is everything really made of? If we split matter down into smaller and infinitesimally smaller pieces, where do we arrive? At the Particle Zoo - the extraordinary subatomic world of antimatter, neutrinos, strange-flavoured quarks and yetis, gravitons, ghosts and glueballs, mindboggling eleven-dimensional strings and the elusive Higgs boson itself. Be guided around this strangest of zoos by Gavin Hesketh, experimental particle physicist at humanity's greatest experiment, the Large Hadron Collider. Concisely and with a rare clarity, he demystifies how we are uncovering the inner workings of the universe and heading towards the next scientific revolution. Why are atoms so small? How did the Higgs boson save the universe? And is there a theory of everything? The Particle Zoo answers these and many other profound questions, and explains the big ideas of Quantum Physics, String Theory, The Big Bang and Dark Matter...and, ultimately, what we know about the true, fundamental nature of reality.

  11. Precision wood particle feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2013-07-30

    Wood particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein: the wood particles are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L; the L.times.H dimensions define two side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers; the W.times.H dimensions define two cross-grain end surfaces characterized individually as aligned either normal to the grain or oblique to the grain; the L.times.W dimensions define two substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces; and, a majority of the W.times.H surfaces in the mixture of wood particles have end checking.

  12. Magnetic particle inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastri, Sankar

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment is to familiarize the student with magnetic particle inspection and relate it to classification of various defects. Magnetic particle inspection is a method of detecting the presence of cracks, laps, tears, inclusions, and similar discontinuities in ferromagnetic materials such as iron and steel. This method will most clearly show defects that are perpendicular to the magnetic field. The Magnaglo method uses a liquid which is sprayed on the workpiece to be inspected, and the part is magnetized at the same time. The workpiece is then viewed under a black light, and the presence of discontinuity is shown by the formation of a bright indication formed by the magnetic particles over the discontinuity. The equipment and experimental procedures are described.

  13. Particle fuel bed tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, F.L.; Powell, J.R.; Savino, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Gas-cooled reactors, using packed beds of small diameter coated fuel particles have been proposed for compact, high-power systems. The particulate fuel used in the tests was 800 microns in diameter, consisting of a thoria kernel coated with 200 microns of pyrocarbon. Typically, the bed of fuel particles was contained in a ceramic cylinder with porous metallic frits at each end. A dc voltage was applied to the metallic frits and the resulting electric current heated the bed. Heat was removed by passing coolant (helium or hydrogen) through the bed. Candidate frit materials, rhenium, nickel, zirconium carbide, and zirconium oxide were unaffected, while tungsten and tungsten-rhenium lost weight and strength. Zirconium-carbide particles were tested at 2000 K in H 2 for 12 hours with no visible reaction or weight loss

  14. Generalized Smooth Transition Map Between Tent and Logistic Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Wafaa S.; Fahmy, Hossam A. H.; Rezk, Ahmed A.; Radwan, Ahmed G.

    There is a continuous demand on novel chaotic generators to be employed in various modeling and pseudo-random number generation applications. This paper proposes a new chaotic map which is a general form for one-dimensional discrete-time maps employing the power function with the tent and logistic maps as special cases. The proposed map uses extra parameters to provide responses that fit multiple applications for which conventional maps were not enough. The proposed generalization covers also maps whose iterative relations are not based on polynomials, i.e. with fractional powers. We introduce a framework for analyzing the proposed map mathematically and predicting its behavior for various combinations of its parameters. In addition, we present and explain the transition map which results in intermediate responses as the parameters vary from their values corresponding to tent map to those corresponding to logistic map case. We study the properties of the proposed map including graph of the map equation, general bifurcation diagram and its key-points, output sequences, and maximum Lyapunov exponent. We present further explorations such as effects of scaling, system response with respect to the new parameters, and operating ranges other than transition region. Finally, a stream cipher system based on the generalized transition map validates its utility for image encryption applications. The system allows the construction of more efficient encryption keys which enhances its sensitivity and other cryptographic properties.

  15. WORKSHOP: Stable particle motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, Alessandro G.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: Particle beam stability is crucial to any accelerator or collider, particularly big ones, such as Brookhaven's RHIC heavy ion collider and the larger SSC and LHC proton collider schemes. A workshop on the Stability of Particle Motion in Storage Rings held at Brookhaven in October dealt with the important issue of determining the short- and long-term stability of single particle motion in hadron storage rings and colliders, and explored new methods for ensuring it. In the quest for realistic environments, the imperfections of superconducting magnets and the effects of field modulation and noise were taken into account. The workshop was divided into three study groups: Short-Term Stability in storage rings, including chromatic and geometric effects and correction strategies; Long-Term Stability, including modulation and random noise effects and slow varying effects; and Methods for determining the stability of particle motion. The first two were run in parallel, but the third was attended by everyone. Each group considered analytical, computational and experimental methods, reviewing work done so far, comparing results and approaches and underlining outstanding issues. By resolving conflicts, it was possible to identify problems of common interest. The workshop reaffirmed the validity of methods proposed several years ago. Major breakthroughs have been in the rapid improvement of computer capacity and speed, in the development of more sophisticated mathematical packages, and in the introduction of more powerful analytic approaches. In a typical storage ring, a particle may be required to circulate for about a billion revolutions. While ten years ago it was only possible to predict accurately stability over about a thousand revolutions, it is now possible to predict over as many as one million turns. If this trend continues, in ten years it could become feasible to predict particle stability over the entire storage period. About ninety participants

  16. Plasma particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) will require an 87-kilometer accelerator ring to boost particles to 40 TeV. The SSC's size is due in part to the fact that its operating principle is the same one that has dominated accelerator design for 50 years: it guides particles by means of magnetic fields and propels them by strong electric fields. If one were to build an equally powerful but smaller accelerator, one would need to increase the strength of the guiding and propelling fields. Actually, however, conventional technology may not be able to provide significant increases in field strength. There are two reasons. First, the forces from magnetic fields are becoming greater than the structural forces that hold a magnetic material together; the magnets that produce these fields would themselves be torn apart. Second, the energy from electric fields is reaching the energies that bind electrons to atoms; it would tear electrons from nuclei in the accelerator's support structures. It is the electric field problem that plasma accelerators can overcome. Plasma particle accelerators are based on the principle that particles can be accelerated by the electric fields generated within a plasma. Because the plasma has already been ionized, plasma particle accelerators are not susceptible to electron dissociation. They can in theory sustain accelerating fields thousands of times stronger that conventional technologies. So far two methods for creating plasma waves for accelerators have been proposed and tested: the wakefield and the beat wave. Although promising electric fields have been produced, more research is necessary to determine whether plasma particle accelerators can compete with the existing accelerators. 7 figs

  17. Spatial Variability of Sources and Mixing State of Atmospheric Particles in a Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qing; Gu, Peishi; Li, Hugh Z; Robinson, Ellis S; Lipsky, Eric; Kaltsonoudis, Christos; Lee, Alex K Y; Apte, Joshua S; Robinson, Allen L; Sullivan, Ryan C; Presto, Albert A; Donahue, Neil M

    2018-05-30

    Characterizing intracity variations of atmospheric particulate matter has mostly relied on fixed-site monitoring and quantifying variability in terms of different bulk aerosol species. In this study, we performed ground-based mobile measurements using a single-particle mass spectrometer to study spatial patterns of source-specific particles and the evolution of particle mixing state in 21 areas in the metropolitan area of Pittsburgh, PA. We selected sampling areas based on traffic density and restaurant density with each area ranging from 0.2 to 2 km 2 . Organics dominate particle composition in all of the areas we sampled while the sources of organics differ. The contribution of particles from traffic and restaurant cooking varies greatly on the neighborhood scale. We also investigate how primary and aged components in particles mix across the urban scale. Lastly we quantify and map the particle mixing state for all areas we sampled and discuss the overall pattern of mixing state evolution and its implications. We find that in the upwind and downwind of the urban areas, particles are more internally mixed while in the city center, particle mixing state shows large spatial heterogeneity that is mostly driven by emissions. This study is to our knowledge, the first study to perform fine spatial scale mapping of particle mixing state using ground-based mobile measurement and single-particle mass spectrometry.

  18. Composite magnetic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, G.E.; Janata, J.

    1981-01-01

    This patent claim on behalf of I.C.I. Ltd., relates to the preparation and use of composite magnetic particles, comprising a low density core, and having a magnetic coating over at least a proportion of the surface. The density of such particles can be chosen to suit a range of applications, e.g. in affinity chromatography, in radioimmunoassay, in the transport of the associated component, such as a drug or enzyme, to a specific site in a living organism. (U.K.)

  19. Overview of particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salam, A.

    1993-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the situation in particle physics and a prognosis of its future: ideas which have been tested or will soon be tested (standard model and the light Higgs particle), ideas whose time has not yet come (supersymmetry, supersymmetry and N=1 supergravity, right-left symmetry and preons, unification of gravity with other forces, anomaly-free supergravities, supersymmetry strings, string theory as the ''Theory of Everything'' (T.O.E.); passive and non accelerator experiments. 6 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Collection of particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frew, J.D.

    1979-01-01

    Apparatus and a method for collecting particles formed by vaporisation during a high temperature treatment of steel (eg cutting or welding) are described in which gas is drawn from the area in which the treatment is taking place through a collector in which the particles are separated magnetically. The air may be drawn by an air ejector from a hood around the treatment area. The invention has particular application where the high temperature treatment is the laser cutting of the stainless steel wrapper around a nuclear fuel sub-assembly. (author)

  1. The paradox particle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, Christine

    1993-11-15

    As well as being a leading physics writer, Christine Sutton of Oxford is also a particle physicist, currently working on the Zeus experiment at DESY's HERA electron-proton collider. Her latest book ''Spaceship Neutrino'' Cambridge University Press ISBN 0 521 36404 3 [hardback] or 0 521 36703 4 [paperback]) is a fascinating account of the emergence of the neutrino on the stage of science. In sixty years, the neutrino has been transformed from an apologetic idea its originator dared not publish to one of the main experimental tools of modern high energy research, while cosmologists have realized that this bizarre particle could play a major role in the Universe.

  2. Beta particle measurement fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    The necessary concepts for understanding beta particle behavior are stopping power, range, and scattering. Dose as a consequence of beta particle interaction with tissue can be derived and explained by these concepts. Any calculations of dose, however, assume or require detailed knowledge of the beta spectrum at the tissue depth of calculation. A rudimentary knowledge of the incident spectrum can be of use in estimating dose, interpretating dose measuring devices and designing protection. The stopping power and range based on the csda will give a conservative estimate in cases of protection design, as scattering will reduce the range. Estimates of dose may be low because scattering effects were neglected

  3. Particles and forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peierls, R.

    1981-01-01

    The particles and forces of matter, found in the Universe, are discussed with especial reference to some of the laws which govern behaviour in the sub-atomic world and which determine the way forces work to give matter its various characteristics. The recent history of the search for elementary constituents of matter in this century is outlined and the replacement of the simplicity anticipated in the 1930s by the proliferation of particle states uncovered in the 1950s and 1960s which led to the quark model is examined. (U.K.)

  4. Single particle detecting telescope system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, I.; Tomiyama, T.; Iga, Y.; Komatsubara, T.; Kanada, M.; Yamashita, Y.; Wada, T.; Furukawa, S.

    1981-01-01

    We constructed the single particle detecting telescope system for detecting a fractionally charged particle. The telescope consists of position detecting counters, wall-less multi-cell chambers, single detecting circuits and microcomputer system as data I/0 processor. Especially, a frequency of double particle is compared the case of the single particle detecting with the case of an ordinary measurement

  5. Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Robert A.; Mendez, Victor P.; Kaplan, Selig N.

    1988-01-01

    Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors having a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a--Si:H) thin film deposited via plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition techniques are utilized to detect the presence, position and counting of high energy ionizing particles, such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation.

  6. New particle searches and discoveries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trippe, T.G.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Horne, C.P.; Kelly, R.L.; Rittenberg, A.; Rosenfeld, A.H.; Yost, G.P.; Armstrong, B.; Bricman, C.; Hemingway, R.J.; Losty, M.J.; Roos, M.

    1977-01-01

    This supplement to the 1976 edition of 'Review of particle properties', Particle Data Group [Rev. Mod. Phys. 48, No. 2, Part II (1976)], contains tabulations of experimental data bearing on the 'new particles' and related topics; categories covered include charmed particles, psi's and their decay products, and heavy leptons. Errata to the previous edition are also given. (Auth.)

  7. Empirically characteristic analysis of chaotic PID controlling particle swarm optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Danping; Lu, Yongzhong; Zhou, Min; Chen, Shiping; Levy, David

    2017-01-01

    Since chaos systems generally have the intrinsic properties of sensitivity to initial conditions, topological mixing and density of periodic orbits, they may tactfully use the chaotic ergodic orbits to achieve the global optimum or their better approximation to given cost functions with high probability. During the past decade, they have increasingly received much attention from academic community and industry society throughout the world. To improve the performance of particle swarm optimization (PSO), we herein propose a chaotic proportional integral derivative (PID) controlling PSO algorithm by the hybridization of chaotic logistic dynamics and hierarchical inertia weight. The hierarchical inertia weight coefficients are determined in accordance with the present fitness values of the local best positions so as to adaptively expand the particles' search space. Moreover, the chaotic logistic map is not only used in the substitution of the two random parameters affecting the convergence behavior, but also used in the chaotic local search for the global best position so as to easily avoid the particles' premature behaviors via the whole search space. Thereafter, the convergent analysis of chaotic PID controlling PSO is under deep investigation. Empirical simulation results demonstrate that compared with other several chaotic PSO algorithms like chaotic PSO with the logistic map, chaotic PSO with the tent map and chaotic catfish PSO with the logistic map, chaotic PID controlling PSO exhibits much better search efficiency and quality when solving the optimization problems. Additionally, the parameter estimation of a nonlinear dynamic system also further clarifies its superiority to chaotic catfish PSO, genetic algorithm (GA) and PSO.

  8. USGS Imagery Only Base Map Service from The National Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — USGS Imagery Only is a tile cache base map of orthoimagery in The National Map visible to the 1:18,000 scale. Orthoimagery data are typically high resolution images...

  9. Dipole-magnet field models based on a conformal map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. Walstrom

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In general, generation of charged-particle transfer maps for conventional iron-pole-piece dipole magnets to third and higher order requires a model for the midplane field profile and its transverse derivatives (soft-edge model to high order and numerical integration of map coefficients. An exact treatment of the problem for a particular magnet requires use of measured magnetic data. However, in initial design of beam transport systems, users of charged-particle optics codes generally rely on magnet models built into the codes. Indeed, if maps to third order are adequate for the problem, an approximate analytic field model together with numerical map coefficient integration can capture the important features of the transfer map. The model described in this paper is based on the fact that, except at very large distances from the magnet, the magnetic field for parallel pole-face magnets with constant pole gap height and wide pole faces is basically two dimensional (2D. The field for all space outside of the pole pieces is given by a single (complex analytic expression and includes a parameter that controls the rate of falloff of the fringe field. Since the field function is analytic in the complex plane outside of the pole pieces, it satisfies two basic requirements of a field model for higher-order map codes: it is infinitely differentiable at the midplane and also a solution of the Laplace equation. It is apparently the only simple model available that combines an exponential approach to the central field with an inverse cubic falloff of field at large distances from the magnet in a single expression. The model is not intended for detailed fitting of magnetic field data, but for use in numerical map-generating codes for studying the effect of extended fringe fields on higher-order transfer maps. It is based on conformally mapping the area between the pole pieces to the upper half plane, and placing current filaments on the pole faces. An

  10. Performance evaluation of different types of particle representation procedures of Particle Swarm Optimization in Job-shop Scheduling Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izah Anuar, Nurul; Saptari, Adi

    2016-02-01

    This paper addresses the types of particle representation (encoding) procedures in a population-based stochastic optimization technique in solving scheduling problems known in the job-shop manufacturing environment. It intends to evaluate and compare the performance of different particle representation procedures in Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) in the case of solving Job-shop Scheduling Problems (JSP). Particle representation procedures refer to the mapping between the particle position in PSO and the scheduling solution in JSP. It is an important step to be carried out so that each particle in PSO can represent a schedule in JSP. Three procedures such as Operation and Particle Position Sequence (OPPS), random keys representation and random-key encoding scheme are used in this study. These procedures have been tested on FT06 and FT10 benchmark problems available in the OR-Library, where the objective function is to minimize the makespan by the use of MATLAB software. Based on the experimental results, it is discovered that OPPS gives the best performance in solving both benchmark problems. The contribution of this paper is the fact that it demonstrates to the practitioners involved in complex scheduling problems that different particle representation procedures can have significant effects on the performance of PSO in solving JSP.

  11. Classical foundations of many-particle quantum chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutkin, Boris; Osipov, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of semiclassical theory the universal properties of quantum systems with classically chaotic dynamics can be accounted for through correlations between partner periodic orbits with small action differences. So far, however, the scope of this approach has been mainly limited to systems of a few particles with low-dimensional phase spaces. In the present work we consider N-particle chaotic systems with local homogeneous interactions, where N is not necessarily small. Based on a model of coupled cat maps we demonstrate emergence of a new mechanism for correlation between periodic orbit actions. In particular, we show the existence of partner orbits which are specific to many-particle systems. For a sufficiently large N these new partners dominate the spectrum of correlating periodic orbits and seem to be necessary for construction of a consistent many-particle semiclassical theory. (paper)

  12. Large scale particle simulations in a virtual memory computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, P.C.; Million, R.; Wagner, J.S.; Tajima, T.

    1983-01-01

    Virtual memory computers are capable of executing large-scale particle simulations even when the memory requirements exceeds the computer core size. The required address space is automatically mapped onto slow disc memory the the operating system. When the simulation size is very large, frequent random accesses to slow memory occur during the charge accumulation and particle pushing processes. Assesses to slow memory significantly reduce the excecution rate of the simulation. We demonstrate in this paper that with the proper choice of sorting algorithm, a nominal amount of sorting to keep physically adjacent particles near particles with neighboring array indices can reduce random access to slow memory, increase the efficiency of the I/O system, and hence, reduce the required computing time. (orig.)

  13. Particle image velocimetry - Principles and first results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laporta, A.; Marechal, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is a measurement technique elaborated towards the end of the 1970's, but which has developed considerably in recent years. The general principle of PIV is very simple and enables access to instantaneous velocity fields. It consists in recording images of tracer-particles injected into the flow and determining the distance covered by these particles. Since we know the time lapse between successive images of the same particle, we can derive the local fluid velocity. Among the many existing image acquisition and processing methods, the image inter-correlation analysis techniques, used with a pulsed laser source, is the most effective. Since we know the influence of different parameters (number of particles, beam power, time lapse between two successive images, size of query zones, etc.) on the quality of the final result, we can optimize practical adjustment of the PIV measurement scheme. The PIV was tested on the LAVITA hydraulic mockup (simulating the operation of a tangential fan). First results are, all in all, highly satisfactory. These have enabled the rapid drafting of instantaneous mean velocity field maps (20 images acquired in less than 90 seconds, with a post-processing time of about 10 minutes). Observation of the instantaneous fields has evidenced the presence of low frequency non-stationary phenomena which are not revealed by Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV). Quantitative comparison between LDV and PIV, concerning average fields, showed close results, with, however, local divergences which could be relatively marked. It must nevertheless be noted that the PIV measurements performed on LAVITA have not been optimized with a view to obtaining a consistently good accuracy level. Priority in the present case was given to the scope of the field explored, with a view to observing the large non-stationary structures within a flow. The PIV measurement technique is thus operational for prompt flow characterization. However

  14. Matter: the fundamental particles

    CERN Multimedia

    Landua, Rolf

    2007-01-01

    "The largest particle physics centre in the world is located in Europe. It straddles the Franco-Swiss border, near Geneva. At CERN - the European Organisation for Nuclear Research , which is focused on the science of nuclear matter rather than on the exploitation of atomic energy - there are over 6 500 scientists." (1 page)

  15. Our Particle Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and “why is the universe the way it is?” Not long before ... to each other. The interactions of particles in the universe ... theory by Jean Perrin in 1908 convinced people that atoms and ..... ing the origin and evolution of our universe13. This is an ...

  16. Elementary particle interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugg, W.M.; Condo, G.T.; Handler, T.; Hart, E.L.; Ward, B.F.L.; Close, F.E.; Christophorou, L.G.

    1990-10-01

    This report discusses freon bubble chamber experiments exposed to μ + and neutrinos, photon-proton interactions; shower counter simulations; SLD detectors at the Stanford Linear Collider, and the detectors at the Superconducting Super Collider; elementary particle interactions; physical properties of dielectric materials used in High Energy Physics detectors; and Nuclear Physics

  17. Particle physics and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.; Nanopoulos, D.

    1983-01-01

    The authors describe the connection between cosmology and particle physics in an introductory way. In this connection the big bang theory and unified gauge models of strong, electromagnetic, and weak interactions are considered. Furthermore cosmological nucleosynthesis is discussed in this framework, and the problem of cosmic neutrinos is considered with special regards to its rest mass. (HSI).

  18. Charged particle beams

    CERN Document Server

    Humphries, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    Detailed enough for a text and sufficiently comprehensive for a reference, this volume addresses topics vital to understanding high-power accelerators and high-brightness-charged particle beams. Subjects include stochastic cooling, high-brightness injectors, and the free electron laser. Humphries provides students with the critical skills necessary for the problem-solving insights unique to collective physics problems. 1990 edition.

  19. Lord of the particles

    CERN Multimedia

    Loll, Anna-Cathrin

    2009-01-01

    "Rolf-Dieter Heuer is the new director general of the world's largest particle physics research center. Though the German physicist never expected to gain this influential position in Switzerland, it seems a natural step in his career trajectory" (1.5 pages)

  20. Particle physics experiments 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousseau, M.D.; Stuart, G.

    1983-01-01

    Work carried out in 1982 on 52 experiments approved by the Particle Physics Experiments Selection Panel is described. Each experiment is listed under title, collaboration, technique, accelerator, year of running, status and spokesman. Unedited contributions are given from each experiment. (U.K.)

  1. Energetic solar particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, M.

    1975-01-01

    In this review, some of the important aspects of energetic solar particles and their relation to solar physics are discussed. The major aspects of solar cosmic ray studies currently under investigation are identified and attention is focussed on the problems of the physical processes in the sun which may be responsible for these phenomena. The studies of the composition and energy spectra of solar cosmic ray nuclei are related to the basic problem of particle acceleration process in sun and to the composition of elements in solar atmosphere. The composition of higher energy (>20 MeV/amu) multiply charged nuclei of He, C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si and Fe give information on the abundance of elements in the solar atmosphere. At lower energies (approximately 1-10 MeV/amu), the abundances of these elements show enhancements relative to solar abundances and these enhancements are believed to be due to particle acceleration mechanisms operative in the sun which are not fully understood at present. Studies of the relative abundances of H 2 , H 3 and He 3 isotopes and Li, Be, B nuclei in the solar cosmic rays can also be studied. The question of the relationship of the accelerated particles in the sun to the optical flare phenomena is discussed. Further studies of different aspects of these phenomena may give important clues to a wide ranging phenomena in the active sun. The observational methods employed for these studies are mentioned. (A.K.)

  2. Exotic Long - Lived Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Jørgensen, Morten Dam

    A search for hadronising long-lived massive particles at the Large Hadron Collider is conducted with the ATLAS detector. No excess events are found. Based on statistical analysis, upper limits on the production cross section are observed to be between $0.01$ pb and $0.006$ pb for colour octet particles (gluinos) with masses ranging from $300 \\ \\mathrm{GeV/c}^2$ to $1400 \\ \\mathrm{GeV/c}^2$, and $0.01$ pb to $0.004$ pb for colour triplet particles (stops and sbottoms) with masses ranging from $200 \\ \\mathrm{GeV/c}^2$ to $900 \\ \\mathrm{GeV/c}^2$. In the context of Supersymmetry with decoupled sfermion and sboson sectors (Split-SUSY), this gives a lower limit on the gluino mass of $989 \\ \\mathrm{GeV/c}^2$, and $683 \\ \\mathrm{GeV/c}^2$ for the stop mass and $618 \\ \\mathrm{GeV/c}^2$ for the sbottom mass. In addition, a new method is presented that improves the speed ($\\beta$) estimation for long-lived particles in the ATLAS tile calorimeter with a factor of $7$ improvement in resolution at low-$\\beta$ and ...

  3. Particle physics experiments 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bairstow, R.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes work carried out in 1988 on experiments approved by the Particle Physics Experiments Selection Panel. The contents consist of unedited contributions from each experiment. More than forty projects at different accelerators (SPS, ISIS, PETRA, LAMPF, LEP, HERA, BNL, ILL, LEAR) are listed. Different organisations collaborate on different projects. A brief progress report is given. References to published articles are given. (author)

  4. Lévy particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Linda Vadgård; Thorarinsdottir, Thordis Linda; Gneiting, Tilmann

    to a von Mises–Fisher density, or uniform on a spherical cap, the correlation function of the associated random field admits a closed form expression. Using a Gaussian basis, the fractal or Hausdorff dimension of the surface of the Lévy particle reflects the decay of the correlation function at the origin...

  5. Two beautiful new particles

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    In beautiful agreement with the Standard Model, two new excited states (see below) of the Λb beauty particle have just been observed by the LHCb Collaboration. Similarly to protons and neutrons, Λb is composed of three quarks. In the Λb’s case, these are up, down and… beauty.   Although discovering new particles is increasingly looking like a routine exercise for the LHC experiments (see previous features), it is far from being an obvious performance, particularly when the mass of the particles is high. Created in the high-energy proton-proton collisions produced by the LHC, these new excited states of the Λb particle have been found to have a mass of, respectively, 5912 MeV/c2 and 5920 MeV/c2. In other words, they are over five times heavier than the proton or the neutron. Physicists only declare a discovery when data significantly show the relevant signal. In order to do that, they often have to analyse large samples of data. To ...

  6. Prospects of particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer-Berkhout, U.

    1986-01-01

    Remarkable progress has been achieved in the last two decades in the field of particle physics. From the insight gained by the many experimental data, physicists derive a framework picture of matter on the sub-nuclear level, consisting of fundamental components which interact with each other in a defined and quantitatively detectable manner. The data now available allowed a quantum field theory of strong interactions to be set up for the first time, and a unified theory of electromagnetic and weak interaction. Particle physicists today take particular interest in the problem of whether the strong interaction might fit into an extended unified theory. Such a grand unified theory would have a far-reaching impact on the conceptual models both of the cosmic and sub-nuclear dimensions, and possibly lead to observable effects in domains of energy and mass which will be opened up for experiments by the new accelerator generation underway. Current activities throughout the world for constructing or projecting the new high-energy particle accelerators are outlined in the article, together with the prospects expected by particle physicists, and a look back on the history and achievements of this field of science. (orig.) [de

  7. Particle physics experiments 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, B.A.

    1993-03-01

    The research programs described here were carried out in 1992 at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and funded by the United Kingdom Science and Engineering Research Council. The area covered in these experiments is particle physics. Unedited contributions from over forty experimental programs are included. Experiments are listed according to their current status, the accelerator used and its years of operation. (UK)

  8. Fuel particle coating data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollabaugh, C.M.; Wagner, P.; Wahman, L.A.; White, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    Development of coating on nuclear fuel particles for the High-Temperature Fuels Technology program at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory included process studies for low-density porous and high-density isotropic carbon coats, and for ZrC and ''alloy'' C/ZrC coats. This report documents the data generated by these studies

  9. Elementary particles physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    It is discussed the physics in Brazil in the next decade with regard to elementary particles and field theories. The situation of brazilian research institutes as well as its personnel is also presented. Some recommendations and financing of new projects are also considered. (A.C.A.S.)

  10. MAPS development for the ALICE ITS upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, P.; Aglieri, G.; Cavicchioli, C.; Chalmet, P. L.; Chanlek, N.; Collu, A.; Gao, C.; Hillemanns, H.; Junique, A.; Kofarago, M.; Keil, M.; Kugathasan, T.; Kim, D.; Kim, J.; Lattuca, A.; Marin Tobon, C. A.; Marras, D.; Mager, M.; Martinengo, P.; Mazza, G.; Mugnier, H.; Musa, L.; Puggioni, C.; Rousset, J.; Reidt, F.; Riedler, P.; Snoeys, W.; Siddhanta, S.; Usai, G.; van Hoorne, J. W.; Yi, J.

    2015-03-01

    Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) offer the possibility to build pixel detectors and tracking layers with high spatial resolution and low material budget in commercial CMOS processes. Significant progress has been made in the field of MAPS in recent years, and they are now considered for the upgrades of the LHC experiments. This contribution will focus on MAPS detectors developed for the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS) upgrade and manufactured in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS imaging sensor process on wafers with a high resistivity epitaxial layer. Several sensor chip prototypes have been developed and produced to optimise both charge collection and readout circuitry. The chips have been characterised using electrical measurements, radioactive sources and particle beams. The tests indicate that the sensors satisfy the ALICE requirements and first prototypes with the final size of 1.5 × 3 cm2 have been produced in the first half of 2014. This contribution summarises the characterisation measurements and presents first results from the full-scale chips.

  11. MAPS development for the ALICE ITS upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, P.; Gao, C.; Huang, G.; Aglieri, G.; Cavicchioli, C.; Hillemanns, H.; Junique, A.; Kofarago, M.; Keil, M.; Kugathasan, T.; Tobon, C.A. Marin; Mager, M.; Martinengo, P.; Chalmet, P.L.; Chanlek, N.; Collu, A.; Marras, D.; Kim, D.; Kim, J.; Lattuca, A.

    2015-01-01

    Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) offer the possibility to build pixel detectors and tracking layers with high spatial resolution and low material budget in commercial CMOS processes. Significant progress has been made in the field of MAPS in recent years, and they are now considered for the upgrades of the LHC experiments. This contribution will focus on MAPS detectors developed for the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS) upgrade and manufactured in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS imaging sensor process on wafers with a high resistivity epitaxial layer. Several sensor chip prototypes have been developed and produced to optimise both charge collection and readout circuitry. The chips have been characterised using electrical measurements, radioactive sources and particle beams. The tests indicate that the sensors satisfy the ALICE requirements and first prototypes with the final size of 1.5 × 3 cm 2 have been produced in the first half of 2014. This contribution summarises the characterisation measurements and presents first results from the full-scale chips

  12. Elementary particle physics: Experimental

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lord, J.J.; Burnett, T.H.; Wilkes, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    We are carrying out a research program in high energy experimental particle physics. Studies of high energy hadronic interactions and leptoproduction processes continue using several experimental techniques. Progress has been made on the study of multiparticle production processes in nuclei. Ultra-high energy cosmic ray nucleus-nucleus interactions have been investigated by the Japanese American Cosmic Emulsion Experiment (JACEE) using balloon-borne emulsion chamber detectors. In the area of particle astrophysics, our studies of cosmic ray nuclear interactions have enabled use to make the world's most accurate determination of the comparison of the cosmic rays above 10 13 eV. We have only the detector that can observe interaction vertices and identify particles at energies up to 10**15 eV. Our observations are getting close to placing limits on the acceleration mechanisms postulated for pulsars in which the spin and magnetic moment axes are at different angles. In June, 1989 approval was given by NASA for our participation in the Space Station program. The SCINATT experiment will make use of emulsion chamber detectors, similar to the planned JACEE hybrid balloon flight detectors. These detector will permit precise determination of secondary particle charges, momenta and rapidities, and the accumulation of data will be at least a factor of 10 to 100 greater than in balloon experiments. Emulsion chamber techniques ate also employed in an experiment using accelerator heavy ion beams at CERN and Brookhaven National Laboratory to investigate particle production processes in central collisions of nuclei in the energy range 15 -- 200A GeV. Our study of hadroproduction in lepton interactions is continuing with approval of another 8 months run for deep inelastic muon scattering experiment E665 at Fermilab

  13. Particle Swarm Optimization Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The Particle Swarm Optimization Toolbox is a library of evolutionary optimization tools developed in the MATLAB environment. The algorithms contained in the library include a genetic algorithm (GA), a single-objective particle swarm optimizer (SOPSO), and a multi-objective particle swarm optimizer (MOPSO). Development focused on both the SOPSO and MOPSO. A GA was included mainly for comparison purposes, and the particle swarm optimizers appeared to perform better for a wide variety of optimization problems. All algorithms are capable of performing unconstrained and constrained optimization. The particle swarm optimizers are capable of performing single and multi-objective optimization. The SOPSO and MOPSO algorithms are based on swarming theory and bird-flocking patterns to search the trade space for the optimal solution or optimal trade in competing objectives. The MOPSO generates Pareto fronts for objectives that are in competition. A GA, based on Darwin evolutionary theory, is also included in the library. The GA consists of individuals that form a population in the design space. The population mates to form offspring at new locations in the design space. These offspring contain traits from both of the parents. The algorithm is based on this combination of traits from parents to hopefully provide an improved solution than either of the original parents. As the algorithm progresses, individuals that hold these optimal traits will emerge as the optimal solutions. Due to the generic design of all optimization algorithms, each algorithm interfaces with a user-supplied objective function. This function serves as a "black-box" to the optimizers in which the only purpose of this function is to evaluate solutions provided by the optimizers. Hence, the user-supplied function can be numerical simulations, analytical functions, etc., since the specific detail of this function is of no concern to the optimizer. These algorithms were originally developed to support entry

  14. Letters of Map Change (LOMC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Documents, including different types of Letters of MAP Revision (LOMR) and Letters of Map Amendment (LOMA), which are issued by FEMA to revise or amend the flood...

  15. NEPR Geographic Zone Map 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This geographic zone map was created by interpreting satellite and aerial imagery, seafloor topography (bathymetry model), and the new NEPR Benthic Habitat Map...

  16. NEPR Benthic Habitat Map 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This benthic habitat map was created from a semi-automated habitat mapping process, using a combination of bathymetry, satellite imagery, aerial imagery and...

  17. Map Usage in Virtual Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cevik, Helsin

    1998-01-01

    ... of map representation as an aid in performing navigation tasks. The approach taken was first to determine and then investigate the parameters that affect virtual map representation through an experiment designed specifically for this thesis...

  18. q-Deformed nonlinear maps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 64; Issue 3 ... Keywords. Nonlinear dynamics; logistic map; -deformation; Tsallis statistics. ... As a specific example, a -deformation procedure is applied to the logistic map. Compared ...

  19. The Europa Global Geologic Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, E. J.; Patthoff, D. A.; Senske, D. A.; Collins, G. C.

    2018-06-01

    The Europa Global Geologic Map reveals three periods in Europa's surface history as well as an interesting distribution of microchaos. We will discuss the mapping and the interesting implications of our analysis of Europa's surface.

  20. Map projections cartographic information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Grafarend, Erik W; Syffus, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    This book offers a timely review of map projections including sphere, ellipsoid, rotational surfaces, and geodetic datum transformations. Coverage includes computer vision, and remote sensing space projective mappings in photogrammetry.

  1. Map projections cartographic information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Grafarend, Erik W

    2006-01-01

    In the context of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) the book offers a timely review of map projections (sphere, ellipsoid, rotational surfaces) and geodetic datum transformations. For the needs of photogrammetry, computer vision, and remote sensing space projective mappings are reviewed.

  2. Universal map for cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Morales, V.

    2012-01-01

    A universal map is derived for all deterministic 1D cellular automata (CAs) containing no freely adjustable parameters and valid for any alphabet size and any neighborhood range (including non-symmetrical neighborhoods). The map can be extended to an arbitrary number of dimensions and topologies and to arbitrary order in time. Specific CA maps for the famous Conway's Game of Life and Wolfram's 256 elementary CAs are given. An induction method for CAs, based in the universal map, allows mathematical expressions for the orbits of a wide variety of elementary CAs to be systematically derived. -- Highlights: ► A universal map is derived for all deterministic 1D cellular automata (CA). ► The map is generalized to 2D for Von Neumann, Moore and hexagonal neighborhoods. ► A map for all Wolfram's 256 elementary CAs is derived. ► A map for Conway's “Game of Life” is obtained.

  3. North America Synoptic Weather Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Series of Synoptic Weather Maps. Maps contains a surface analysis comprised of plotted weather station observations, isobars indicating low and high-pressure...

  4. Associators in generalized octonionic maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, C.J.; Joshi, G.C.

    1994-01-01

    Generalizing previous work, it is shown that structural transitions are a general property of a large class of octonionic maps. They can thus be used as an indicator of non-associativity in an octonionic map. 7 refs., ills

  5. Mapping earthworm communities in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, M.; Orgiazzi, A.; Gardi, C.; Römbke, J.; Jansch, S.; Keith, A.; Neilson, R.; Boag, B.; Schmidt, O.; Murchie, A.K.; Blackshaw, R.P.; Pérès, G.; Cluzeau, D.; Guernion, M.; Briones, M.J.I.; Rodeiro, J.; Pineiro, R.; Diaz Cosin, D.J.; Sousa, J.P.; Suhadolc, M.; Kos, I.; Krogh, P.H.; Faber, J.H.; Mulder, C.; Bogte, J.J.; Wijnen, van H.J.; Schouten, A.J.; Zwart, de D.

    2016-01-01

    Existing data sets on earthworm communities in Europe were collected, harmonized, collated, modelled and depicted on a soil biodiversity map. Digital Soil Mapping was applied using multiple regressions relating relatively low density earthworm community data to soil characteristics, land use,

  6. Map Usage in Virtual Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cevik, Helsin

    1998-01-01

    .... Instead, we can determine the parameters that affect virtual map representation and that help to construct a mental map, and then manipulate these parameters in order to increase the effectiveness...

  7. Mapping Deviant Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    A number of countries have emerged as stable (though minimalist) democracies despite low levels of modernization, lack of democratic neighbouring countries and other factors consistently related to democratic stability in the literature. The study of these deviant democracies is a promising new...... research field but it is afflicted by a notable problem, viz. the lack of a consensus as to which countries are actually instances of deviant democracy. The present article attempts to solve this problem by carrying out a comprehensive mapping of deviant democracies. First, I review the existing literature...... to provide an overview of the cases most often identified as deviant democracies. Second, I use a large-N analysis to systematically map deviant democracies. The analysis includes 159 countries covering the time period 1993–2008. The analysis points to 12 cases that merits further attention, viz...

  8. MAPS Appraisal Report Form

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2005-01-01

    As announced in Weekly Bulletin 48/2004, from now onwards, the paper MAPS appraisal report form has been replaced by an electronic form, which is available via EDH (on the EDH desktop under Other Tasks / HR & Training) No changes have been made to the contents of the form. Practical information will be available on the web page http://cern.ch/ais/projs/forms/maps/info.htm, and information meetings will be held on the following dates: 18 January 2005: MAIN AUDITORIUM (500-1-001) from 14:00 to 15:30. 20 January 2005: AB AUDITORIUM II (864-1-D02) from14:00 to 15:30. 24 January 2005: AT AUDITORIUM (30-7-018) from 10:00 to 11:30. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  9. Graphene mobility mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buron, Jonas Christian Due; Pizzocchero, Filippo; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2015-01-01

    Carrier mobility and chemical doping level are essential figures of merit for graphene, and large-scale characterization of these properties and their uniformity is a prerequisite for commercialization of graphene for electronics and electrodes. However, existing mapping techniques cannot directly...... assess these vital parameters in a non-destructive way. By deconvoluting carrier mobility and density from non-contact terahertz spectroscopic measurements of conductance in graphene samples with terahertz-transparent backgates, we are able to present maps of the spatial variation of both quantities over...... graphene indicates dominance by charged scatterers. Unexpectedly, significant variations in mobility rather than doping are the cause of large conductance inhomogeneities, highlighting the importance of statistical approaches when assessing large-area graphene transport properties....

  10. Mixed Map Labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Löffler

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Point feature map labeling is a geometric visualization problem, in which a set of input points must be labeled with a set of disjoint rectangles (the bounding boxes of the label texts. It is predominantly motivated by label placement in maps but it also has other visualization applications. Typically, labeling models either use internal labels, which must touch their feature point, or external (boundary labels, which are placed outside the input image and which are connected to their feature points by crossing-free leader lines. In this paper we study polynomial-time algorithms for maximizing the number of internal labels in a mixed labeling model that combines internal and external labels. The model requires that all leaders are parallel to a given orientation θ ∈ [0, 2π, the value of which influences the geometric properties and hence the running times of our algorithms.

  11. ASTROMETRIC REVERBERATION MAPPING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Yue

    2012-01-01

    Spatially extended emission regions of active galactic nuclei respond to continuum variations, if such emission regions are powered by energy reprocessing of the continuum. The response from different parts of the reverberating region arrives at different times lagging behind the continuum variation. The lags can be used to map the geometry and kinematics of the emission region (i.e., reverberation mapping, RM). If the extended emission region is not spherically symmetric in configuration and velocity space, reverberation may produce astrometric offsets in the emission region photocenter as a function of time delay and velocity, detectable with future μas to tens of μas astrometry. Such astrometric responses provide independent constraints on the geometric and kinematic structure of the extended emission region, complementary to traditional RM. In addition, astrometric RM is more sensitive to infer the inclination of a flattened geometry and the rotation angle of the extended emission region.

  12. Mapping Homophobia in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Flood, Michael Gaston; Flood, Michael; Flood, C.; Hamilton, Clive

    2008-01-01

    One-third of the Australian population believe that 'homosexuality is immoral', and this belief is spread in distinct ways across the nation. Using data from a survey of nearly 25,000 Australians, we can 'map' homophobia in Australia. Homophobic attitudes are worst in country areas of Queensland and Tasmania. Men are far more likely than women to feel that homosexuality does not have moral legitimacy, and this gender gap in attitudes persists across age, socioeconomic, educational, and region...

  13. Intercreativity: Mapping Online Activism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meikle, Graham

    How do activists use the Internet? This article maps a wide range of activist practice and research by applying and developing Tim Berners-Lee's concept of ‘intercreativity' (1999). It identifies four dimensions of Net activism: intercreative texts, tactics, strategies and networks. It develops these through examples of manifestations of Net activism around one cluster of issues: support campaigns for refugees and asylum seekers.

  14. MAP user's manual copyright

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillsbury, R.D. Jr.

    1991-12-01

    The program MITMAP represents a set of general purpose, two- dimensional, finite element programs for the calculation of magnetic fields. It consists of the program MAP and MAP2DJ. The two programs are used to solve different electromagnetic problems, but they have a common set of subrountines for pre- and postprocessing. Originally separate programs, they have been combined to make modification easier. The manuals, however, will remain separate. The program MAP is described in this manual. MAP is applicable to the class of problems with two-dimensional-planar or axisymmetric - geometries, in which the current density and the magnetic vector potential have only a single nonvanishing component. The single component is associated with the direction that is perpendicular to the plane of the problem and is invariant with respect to that direction. Maxwell's equations can be reduced to a solver diffusion equation in terms of the single, nonvanishing component of the magnetic vector potential for planar problems and to a single component of a vector potential for planar problems and to a single component of a vector diffusion equation for axisymmetric problems. The magnetic permeability appears in the governing equation. The permeability may be a function of the magnetic flux density. In addition, any electrically conducting material present will have eddy currents induced by a time varying magnetic field. These eddy currents must be included in the solution process. This manual provides a description of the structure of the input data and output for the program. There are several example problems presented that illustrate the major program features. Appendices are included that contain a derivation of the governing equations and the application of the finite element method to the solution of the equations

  15. Algebraic entropy for algebraic maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hone, A N W; Ragnisco, Orlando; Zullo, Federico

    2016-01-01

    We propose an extension of the concept of algebraic entropy, as introduced by Bellon and Viallet for rational maps, to algebraic maps (or correspondences) of a certain kind. The corresponding entropy is an index of the complexity of the map. The definition inherits the basic properties from the definition of entropy for rational maps. We give an example with positive entropy, as well as two examples taken from the theory of Bäcklund transformations. (letter)

  16. Mind mapping in qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Christopher; Powell, Julia; Stroud, James; Pringle, Jan

    We tested a theory that mind mapping could be used as a tool in qualitative research to transcribe and analyse an interview. We compared results derived from mind mapping with those from interpretive phenomenological analysis by examining patients' and carers' perceptions of a new nurse-led service. Mind mapping could be used to rapidly analyse simple qualitative audio-recorded interviews. More research is needed to establish the extent to which mind mapping can assist qualitative researchers.

  17. Fermion to boson mappings revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginocchio, J.N.; Johnson, C.W.

    1996-01-01

    We briefly review various mappings of fermion pairs to bosons, including those based on mapping operators, such as Belyaev-Zelevinskii, and those on mapping states, such as Marumori; in particular we consider the work of Otsuka-Arima-Iachello, aimed at deriving the Interacting Boson Model. We then give a rigorous and unified description of state-mapping procedures which allows one to systematically go beyond Otsuka-Arima-Iachello and related approaches, along with several exact results. (orig.)

  18. System of automated map design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponomarjov, S.Yu.; Rybalko, S.I.; Proskura, N.I.

    1992-01-01

    Preprint 'System of automated map design' contains information about the program shell for construction of territory map, performing level line drawing of arbitrary two-dimension field (in particular, the radionuclide concentration field). The work schedule and data structures are supplied, as well as data on system performance. The preprint can become useful for experts in radioecology and for all persons involved in territory pollution mapping or multi-purpose geochemical mapping. (author)

  19. Motion of charged particles in a knotted electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrayas, M; Trueba, J L

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we consider the classical relativistic motion of charged particles in a knotted electromagnetic field. After reviewing how to construct electromagnetic knots from maps between the three-sphere and the two-sphere, we introduce a mean quadratic radius of the energy density distribution in order to study some properties of this field. We study the classical relativistic motion of electrons in the electromagnetic field of the Hopf map, and compute their trajectories. It is observed that these electrons initially at rest are strongly accelerated by the electromagnetic force, becoming ultrarelativistic in a period of time that depends on the knot energy and size.

  20. Motion of charged particles in a knotted electromagnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrayas, M; Trueba, J L, E-mail: joseluis.trueba@urjc.e [Area de Electromagnetismo, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Camino del Molino s/n, 28943 Fuenlabrada, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-06-11

    In this paper we consider the classical relativistic motion of charged particles in a knotted electromagnetic field. After reviewing how to construct electromagnetic knots from maps between the three-sphere and the two-sphere, we introduce a mean quadratic radius of the energy density distribution in order to study some properties of this field. We study the classical relativistic motion of electrons in the electromagnetic field of the Hopf map, and compute their trajectories. It is observed that these electrons initially at rest are strongly accelerated by the electromagnetic force, becoming ultrarelativistic in a period of time that depends on the knot energy and size.

  1. Mapping in inertial frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunasalam, V.

    1989-05-01

    World space mapping in inertial frames is used to examine the Lorentz covariance of symmetry operations. It is found that the Galilean invariant concepts of simultaneity (S), parity (P), and time reversal symmetry (T) are not Lorentz covariant concepts for inertial observers. That is, just as the concept of simultaneity has no significance independent of the Lorentz inertial frame, likewise so are the concepts of parity and time reversal. However, the world parity (W) [i.e., the space-time reversal symmetry (P-T)] is a truly Lorentz covariant concept. Indeed, it is shown that only those mapping matrices M that commute with the Lorentz transformation matrix L (i.e., [M,L] = 0) are the ones that correspond to manifestly Lorentz covariant operations. This result is in accordance with the spirit of the world space Mach's principle. Since the Lorentz transformation is an orthogonal transformation while the Galilean transformation is not an orthogonal transformation, the formal relativistic space-time mapping theory used here does not have a corresponding non-relativistic counterpart. 12 refs

  2. Lectures on quasiconformal mappings

    CERN Document Server

    Ahlfors, Lars V

    2006-01-01

    Lars Ahlfors's Lectures on Quasiconformal Mappings, based on a course he gave at Harvard University in the spring term of 1964, was first published in 1966 and was soon recognized as the classic it was shortly destined to become. These lectures develop the theory of quasiconformal mappings from scratch, give a self-contained treatment of the Beltrami equation, and cover the basic properties of Teichm�ller spaces, including the Bers embedding and the Teichm�ller curve. It is remarkable how Ahlfors goes straight to the heart of the matter, presenting major results with a minimum set of prerequisites. Many graduate students and other mathematicians have learned the foundations of the theories of quasiconformal mappings and Teichm�ller spaces from these lecture notes. This edition includes three new chapters. The first, written by Earle and Kra, describes further developments in the theory of Teichm�ller spaces and provides many references to the vast literature on Teichm�ller spaces and quasiconformal ...

  3. Using Playground Maps for Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, A. Vonnie

    2016-01-01

    Many schools now decorate their outside hard surface areas with maps. These maps provide color and excitement to a playground and are a terrific teaching tool for geography. But these maps can easily be integrated into physical education as well to promote both physical activity as well as knowledge of geography. The purpose of this article is to…

  4. Drawing subway maps : a survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolff, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with automating the drawing of subway maps. There are two features of schematic subway maps that make them different from drawings of other networks such as flow charts or organigrams. First, most schematic subway maps use not only horizontal and vertical lines, but also diagonals.

  5. Genetic algorithms for map labeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Steven Ferdinand van

    2001-01-01

    Map labeling is the cartographic problem of placing the names of features (for example cities or rivers) on the map. A good labeling has no intersections between labels. Even basic versions of the problem are NP-hard. In addition, realistic map-labeling problems deal with many cartographic

  6. Try This: Collaborative Mind Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    In this "Try This" article, students learn about collaborative mind mapping. A mind map is a type of graphic organizer that allows for short ideas to be written and linked to related ideas on a "map." A central idea is placed in the middle of the paper with related ideas connected to the central idea as well as to other ideas.…

  7. Particle physics in your pocket!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    CERN physicists, take out your smartphones! Two new particle physics applications for Android phones have been developed by a physicist from the University of Bern: “Particle Properties” and “Particle Physics Booklet 2010”.   “When I'm on shift, I enjoy looking at the online event displays,” says Igor Kreslo from the Laboratory for High Energy Physics at the University of Bern, the physicist who has developed the two particle physics applications for Android. “Sometimes very beautiful events appear, with many different particles. I like to discuss these displays with my students, just to develop their ability to identify particles. We try to find out which particle is which and how it might decay… I think that's the best way to teach students the phenomenology of particle physics.” When scientists study particle physics, they require some vital information, such as the decay branching ...

  8. Decision Tree Technique for Particle Identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiller, Ryan

    2003-01-01

    Particle identification based on measurements such as the Cerenkov angle, momentum, and the rate of energy loss per unit distance (-dE/dx) is fundamental to the BaBar detector for particle physics experiments. It is particularly important to separate the charged forms of kaons and pions. Currently, the Neural Net, an algorithm based on mapping input variables to an output variable using hidden variables as intermediaries, is one of the primary tools used for identification. In this study, a decision tree classification technique implemented in the computer program, CART, was investigated and compared to the Neural Net over the range of momenta, 0.25 GeV/c to 5.0 GeV/c. For a given subinterval of momentum, three decision trees were made using different sets of input variables. The sensitivity and specificity were calculated for varying kaon acceptance thresholds. This data was used to plot Receiver Operating Characteristic curves (ROC curves) to compare the performance of the classification methods. Also, input variables used in constructing the decision trees were analyzed. It was found that the Neural Net was a significant contributor to decision trees using dE/dx and the Cerenkov angle as inputs. Furthermore, the Neural Net had poorer performance than the decision tree technique, but tended to improve decision tree performance when used as an input variable. These results suggest that the decision tree technique using Neural Net input may possibly increase accuracy of particle identification in BaBar

  9. Particle precipitaion into the thermosphere (invited review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiff, P.H.

    1986-01-01

    A review of research on particle precipitation into the thermosphere is presented. Particle precipitation plays an important role in thermospheric dynamics, often being both the most important ionization source and the most important heat source, comparable to Joule heating rates in the auroral zones and typically exceeding solar ultraviolet as an ionization mechanism in the nightside auroral zones and winter polar caps. Rees (1963) has shown that, roughly speaking, one electron-ion pair is produced by each 35 eV of incident electron energy flux; thus, over half of the incident electron energy flux goes into heating rather than into ionization. Precipitating ions also can produce ionization, also requiring roughly 35 eV per pair; however, since ion energy fluxes are typically much weaker than electron fluxes, they have often been neglected. The particle precipitation into the thermosphere is both an important ionization source and an important heat source; since the globally integrated value can vary over more than a factor of ten, and the instantaneous local rate can vary over nearly three orders of magnitude global, maps of precipitation rates are extremely important for predicting thermospheric weather

  10. Experimental Particle Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenfeld, Carl [Univ of South Carolina; Mishra, Sanjib R. [Univ of South Carolina; Petti, Roberto [Univ of South Carolina; Purohit, Milind V. [Univ of South Carolina

    2014-08-31

    The high energy physics group at the University of South Carolina, under the leadership of Profs. S.R. Mishra, R. Petti, M.V. Purohit, J.R. Wilson (co-PI's), and C. Rosenfeld (PI), engaged in studies in "Experimental Particle Physics." The group collaborated with similar groups at other universities and at national laboratories to conduct experimental studies of elementary particle properties. We utilized the particle accelerators at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Illinois, the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in California, and the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Switzerland. Mishra, Rosenfeld, and Petti worked predominantly on neutrino experiments. Experiments conducted in the last fifteen years that used cosmic rays and the core of the sun as a source of neutrinos showed conclusively that, contrary to the former conventional wisdom, the "flavor" of a neutrino is not immutable. A neutrino of flavor "e," "mu," or "tau," as determined from its provenance, may swap its identity with one of the other flavors -- in our jargon, they "oscillate." The oscillation phenomenon is extraordinarily difficult to study because neutrino interactions with our instruments are exceedingly rare -- they travel through the earth mostly unimpeded -- and because they must travel great distances before a substantial proportion have made the identity swap. Three of the experiments that we worked on, MINOS, NOvA, and LBNE utilize a beam of neutrinos from an accelerator at Fermilab to determine the parameters governing the oscillation. Two other experiments that we worked on, NOMAD and MIPP, provide measurements supportive of the oscillation experiments. Good measurements of the neutrino oscillation parameters may constitute a "low energy window" on related phenomena that are otherwise unobservable because they would occur only at energies way above the reach of conceivable accelerators. Purohit and Wilson participated in the Ba

  11. Single-edition quadrangle maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1998-01-01

    In August 1993, the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Mapping Division and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Forest Service signed an Interagency Agreement to begin a single-edition joint mapping program. This agreement established the coordination for producing and maintaining single-edition primary series topographic maps for quadrangles containing National Forest System lands. The joint mapping program saves money by eliminating duplication of effort by the agencies and results in a more frequent revision cycle for quadrangles containing national forests. Maps are revised on the basis of jointly developed standards and contain normal features mapped by the USGS, as well as additional features required for efficient management of National Forest System lands. Single-edition maps look slightly different but meet the content, accuracy, and quality criteria of other USGS products. The Forest Service is responsible for the land management of more than 191 million acres of land throughout the continental United States, Alaska, and Puerto Rico, including 155 national forests and 20 national grasslands. These areas make up the National Forest System lands and comprise more than 10,600 of the 56,000 primary series 7.5-minute quadrangle maps (15-minute in Alaska) covering the United States. The Forest Service has assumed responsibility for maintaining these maps, and the USGS remains responsible for printing and distributing them. Before the agreement, both agencies published similar maps of the same areas. The maps were used for different purposes, but had comparable types of features that were revised at different times. Now, the two products have been combined into one so that the revision cycle is stabilized and only one agency revises the maps, thus increasing the number of current maps available for National Forest System lands. This agreement has improved service to the public by requiring that the agencies share the same maps and that the maps meet a

  12. Effective field theory of thermal Casimir interactions between anisotropic particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haussman, Robert C; Deserno, Markus

    2014-06-01

    We employ an effective field theory (EFT) approach to study thermal Casimir interactions between objects bound to a fluctuating fluid surface or interface dominated by surface tension, with a focus on the effects of particle anisotropy. The EFT prescription disentangles the constraints imposed by the particles' boundaries from the calculation of the interaction free energy by constructing an equivalent point particle description. The finite-size information is captured in a derivative expansion that encodes the particles' response to external fields. The coefficients of the expansion terms correspond to generalized tensorial polarizabilities and are found by matching the results of a linear response boundary value problem computed in both the full and effective theories. We demonstrate the versatility of the EFT approach by constructing the general effective Hamiltonian for a collection of particles of arbitrary shapes. Taking advantage of the conformal symmetry of the Hamiltonian, we discuss a straightforward conformal mapping procedure to systematically determine the polarizabilities and derive a complete description for elliptical particles. We compute the pairwise interaction energies to several orders for nonidentical ellipses as well as their leading-order triplet interactions and discuss the resulting preferred pair and multibody configurations. Furthermore, we elaborate on the complications that arise with pinned particle boundary conditions and show that the powerlike corrections expected from dimensional analysis are exponentially suppressed by the leading-order interaction energies.

  13. Fundamentals of gas particle flow

    CERN Document Server

    Rudinger, G

    1980-01-01

    Fundamentals of Gas-Particle Flow is an edited, updated, and expanded version of a number of lectures presented on the "Gas-Solid Suspensions” course organized by the von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics. Materials presented in this book are mostly analytical in nature, but some experimental techniques are included. The book focuses on relaxation processes, including the viscous drag of single particles, drag in gas-particles flow, gas-particle heat transfer, equilibrium, and frozen flow. It also discusses the dynamics of single particles, such as particles in an arbitrary flow, in a r

  14. Particle measurement systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Paul T [Livermore, CA

    2011-10-04

    A system according to one embodiment includes a light source for generating light fringes; a sampling mechanism for directing a particle through the light fringes; and at least one light detector for detecting light scattered by the particle as the particle passes through the light fringes. A method according to one embodiment includes generating light fringes using a light source; directing a particle through the light fringes; and detecting light scattered by the particle as the particle passes through the light fringes using at least one light detector.

  15. Effective particle magnetic moment of multi-core particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrentorp, Fredrik; Astalan, Andrea; Blomgren, Jakob; Jonasson, Christian; Wetterskog, Erik; Svedlindh, Peter; Lak, Aidin; Ludwig, Frank; IJzendoorn, Leo J. van; Westphal, Fritz; Grüttner, Cordula; Gehrke, Nicole; Gustafsson, Stefan; Olsson, Eva; Johansson, Christer

    2015-01-01

    In this study we investigate the magnetic behavior of magnetic multi-core particles and the differences in the magnetic properties of multi-core and single-core nanoparticles and correlate the results with the nanostructure of the different particles as determined from transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We also investigate how the effective particle magnetic moment is coupled to the individual moments of the single-domain nanocrystals by using different measurement techniques: DC magnetometry, AC susceptometry, dynamic light scattering and TEM. We have studied two magnetic multi-core particle systems – BNF Starch from Micromod with a median particle diameter of 100 nm and FeraSpin R from nanoPET with a median particle diameter of 70 nm – and one single-core particle system – SHP25 from Ocean NanoTech with a median particle core diameter of 25 nm

  16. Effective particle magnetic moment of multi-core particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrentorp, Fredrik; Astalan, Andrea; Blomgren, Jakob; Jonasson, Christian; Wetterskog, Erik; Svedlindh, Peter; Lak, Aidin; Ludwig, Frank; van IJzendoorn, Leo J.; Westphal, Fritz; Grüttner, Cordula; Gehrke, Nicole; Gustafsson, Stefan; Olsson, Eva; Johansson, Christer

    2015-04-01

    In this study we investigate the magnetic behavior of magnetic multi-core particles and the differences in the magnetic properties of multi-core and single-core nanoparticles and correlate the results with the nanostructure of the different particles as determined from transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We also investigate how the effective particle magnetic moment is coupled to the individual moments of the single-domain nanocrystals by using different measurement techniques: DC magnetometry, AC susceptometry, dynamic light scattering and TEM. We have studied two magnetic multi-core particle systems - BNF Starch from Micromod with a median particle diameter of 100 nm and FeraSpin R from nanoPET with a median particle diameter of 70 nm - and one single-core particle system - SHP25 from Ocean NanoTech with a median particle core diameter of 25 nm.

  17. Effective particle magnetic moment of multi-core particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrentorp, Fredrik; Astalan, Andrea; Blomgren, Jakob; Jonasson, Christian [Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Arvid Hedvalls backe 4, SE-411 33 Göteborg (Sweden); Wetterskog, Erik; Svedlindh, Peter [Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Lak, Aidin; Ludwig, Frank [Institute of Electrical Measurement and Fundamental Electrical Engineering, TU Braunschweig, D‐38106 Braunschweig Germany (Germany); IJzendoorn, Leo J. van [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Westphal, Fritz; Grüttner, Cordula [Micromod Partikeltechnologie GmbH, D ‐18119 Rostock (Germany); Gehrke, Nicole [nanoPET Pharma GmbH, D ‐10115 Berlin Germany (Germany); Gustafsson, Stefan; Olsson, Eva [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg (Sweden); Johansson, Christer, E-mail: christer.johansson@acreo.se [Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Arvid Hedvalls backe 4, SE-411 33 Göteborg (Sweden)

    2015-04-15

    In this study we investigate the magnetic behavior of magnetic multi-core particles and the differences in the magnetic properties of multi-core and single-core nanoparticles and correlate the results with the nanostructure of the different particles as determined from transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We also investigate how the effective particle magnetic moment is coupled to the individual moments of the single-domain nanocrystals by using different measurement techniques: DC magnetometry, AC susceptometry, dynamic light scattering and TEM. We have studied two magnetic multi-core particle systems – BNF Starch from Micromod with a median particle diameter of 100 nm and FeraSpin R from nanoPET with a median particle diameter of 70 nm – and one single-core particle system – SHP25 from Ocean NanoTech with a median particle core diameter of 25 nm.

  18. Charmed particle lifetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosner, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    Conventional estimates are reviewed for charmed particle lifetimes. Free-quark models give values of (a few) x 10 -13 sec to (a few) x 10 -12 sec. The shorter of these values also follows from an extrapolation based on D → Ke/sup nu/. Possible differences among the lifetimes and production rates of D 0 , D + , F + , C 0 + , the heavy lepton tau, and the fifth quark b are discussed. Extreme values of mixing angles in a six-quark model could extend charmed particle lifetimes by a factor of at most three from the above estimates, while shorter lifetimes than those predicted could occur for some species like D 0 or F + if their nonleptonic decays were enhanced. The predictions are discussed in the light of some current experimental results, and it is estimated that sigma(pp → charm) approx. = 10 μb at 400 GeV/c. 95 references

  19. Research in particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    This proposal presents the research accomplishments and ongoing activities of Boston University researchers in high energy physics. Some changes have been made in the structure of the program from the previous arrangement of tasks. Task B, Accelerator Design Physics, is being submitted as a separate proposal for an independent grant; this will be consistent with the nature of the research and the source of funding. We are active in seven principal areas which will be discussed in this report: Colliding Beams - physics of e + e - and bar pp collisions; MACRO Experiment - search for magnetic monopoles and study of cosmic rays; Proton Decay - search for nucleon instability and study of neutrino interactions; Particle Theory - theoretical high energy particle physics, including two Outstanding Junior Investigator awards; Muon G-2 - measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon; SSCintcal - calorimetry for the GEM Experiment; and Muon detectors for the GEM Experiment

  20. Particle therapy planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zink, S.

    1987-01-01

    The Radiation Research Program (RRP) supports a variety of research through grants and contracts. During the last few years, considerable effort has been devoted to treatment planning evaluation in particle, photon and electron radiotherapy. In 1981, RRP issued a request for proposals (RFP) for the evaluation of treatment planning with particle beam radiotherapy - to include protons, heavy ions and neutrons. Contracts were subsequently awarded to four institutions: Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), University of Texas and M.D. Anderson Hospital (MDAH), the heavy ion project at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and University of Pennsylvania (UPa). These contracts reached completion December 31, 1986. The work for the contracts was carried out at the individual institutions and guided through a Working Group made up of the Project Officer and Principal Investigators and primary physicians and physicists at each of the participating institutions. This report summarizes the findings of the Working Group and makes recommendations for further research