Sample records for sub-nanometer surface metrology

  1. Chemical vapor deposition-prepared sub-nanometer Zr clusters on Pd surfaces: promotion of methane dry reforming. (United States)

    Mayr, Lukas; Shi, Xue-Rong; Köpfle, Norbert; Milligan, Cory A; Zemlyanov, Dmitry Y; Knop-Gericke, Axel; Hävecker, Michael; Klötzer, Bernhard; Penner, Simon


    An inverse Pd-Zr model catalyst was prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using zirconium-t-butoxide (ZTB) as an organometallic precursor. Pd-Zr interaction was then investigated with focus on the correlation of reforming performance with the oxidation state of Zr. As test reactions, dry reforming of methane (DRM) and methanol steam reforming (MSR) were chosen. Depending on treatments, either ZrOxHy or ZrO2 overlayers or Zr as sub-nanometer clusters could be obtained. Following the adsorption of ZTB on Pd(111), a partially hydroxylated Zr4+-containing layer was formed, which can be reduced to metallic Zr by thermal annealing in ultrahigh vacuum, leading to redox-active Zr0 sub-nanometer clusters. Complementary density functional theoretical (DFT) calculations showed that a single layer of ZrO2 on Pd(111) can be more easily reduced toward the metallic state than a double- and triple layer. Also, the initial and resulting layer compositions greatly depend on gas environment. The lower the water background partial pressure, the faster and more complete the reduction of Zr4+ species to Zr0 on Pd takes place. Under methanol steam reforming conditions, water activation by hydroxylation of Zr occurs. In excess of methanol, strong coking is induced by the Pd/ZrOxHy interface. In contrast, dry reforming of methane is effectively promoted if these initially metallic Zr species are present in the pre-catalyst, leading to a Pd/ZrOxHy phase boundary by oxidative activation under reaction conditions. These reaction-induced active sites for DRM are stable with respect to carbon blocking or coking. In essence, Zr doping of Pd opens specific CO2 activation channels, which are absent on pure metallic Pd.

  2. Sub-nanometer surface chemistry and orbital hybridization in lanthanum-doped ceria nano-catalysts revealed by 3D electron microscopy. (United States)

    Collins, Sean M; Fernandez-Garcia, Susana; Calvino, José J; Midgley, Paul A


    Surface chemical composition, electronic structure, and bonding characteristics determine catalytic activity but are not resolved for individual catalyst particles by conventional spectroscopy. In particular, the nano-scale three-dimensional distribution of aliovalent lanthanide dopants in ceria catalysts and their effect on the surface electronic structure remains unclear. Here, we reveal the surface segregation of dopant cations and oxygen vacancies and observe bonding changes in lanthanum-doped ceria catalyst particle aggregates with sub-nanometer precision using a new model-based spectroscopic tomography approach. These findings refine our understanding of the spatially varying electronic structure and bonding in ceria-based nanoparticle aggregates with aliovalent cation concentrations and identify new strategies for advancing high efficiency doped ceria nano-catalysts.

  3. Applications of Morphological Operations in Surface Metrology and Dimensional Metrology


    Lou, Shan; Jiang, Xiangqian; Scott, Paul J.


    In contrast to the widely used mean-line based evaluation techniques, the\\ud capabilities of morphological methods are not fully recognized in practice. Morphological\\ud operations, e.g. dilation, erosion, closing and opening, are useful tools in surface metrology and\\ud dimensional metrology. This paper presents a variety of novel applications of morphological\\ud operations in association with several of existing critical cases to demonstrate their usability\\ud and capability. These applicat...

  4. Surface metrology by phase contrast (United States)

    Baker, Lionel R.


    Increasing use of electrooptical imaging and detection systems in thermography high density information storage laser instrumentation and X-ray optics has led to a pressing need for machinecompatible sensors for the measurement of surface texture. This paper reviews recent advances in the use of deterministic and parametric noncontact methods for texture measurement and justifies the need for objective simple and yet precise means for displaying the microfinish of a machined surface. The design of a simple two channel phase contrast microscope is described which can be calibrated by test pieces and used as a means for optimising the process parameters involved in the generation of high quality surfaces. Typical results obtained with this technique including dynamic range and ultimate sensitivity are discussed. 1 . NEED FOR SURFACE METROLOGY Surface quality has a direct influence on product acceptability in many different industries including those concerned with optoelectronics and engineering. The influence may be cosmetic as with paint finish on a motor car body or functional for example when excessive wear rates may occur in a bearing surface with inadequate oil retention. Since perfection can never be achieved and overspecification can be costly it is clearly necessary to be able to define thresholds of acceptance in relation to different situations. Such thresholds do of course require agreed methods of measurement with traceability to national standards. The current trends in surface metrology are towards higher

  5. Metrology and properties of engineering surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Greenwood, J; Chetwynd, D


    Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces provides in a single volume a comprehensive and authoritative treatment of the crucial topics involved in the metrology and properties of engineering surfaces. The subject matter is a central issue in manufacturing technology, since the quality and reliability of manufactured components depend greatly upon the selection and qualities of the appropriate materials as ascertained through measurement. The book can in broad terms be split into two parts; the first deals with the metrology of engineering surfaces and covers the important issues relating to the measurement and characterization of surfaces in both two and three dimensions. This covers topics such as filtering, power spectral densities, autocorrelation functions and the use of Fractals in topography. A significant proportion is dedicated to the calibration of scanning probe microscopes using the latest techniques. The remainder of the book deals with the properties of engineering surfaces and covers a w...

  6. Emerging trends in surface metrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lonardo, P.M.; Lucca, D.A.; De Chiffre, Leonardo


    Recent advancements and some emerging trends in the methods and instruments used for surface and near surface characterisation are presented, considering the measurement of both topography and physical properties. In particular, surfaces that present difficulties in measurement or require new pro...

  7. Applications of surface metrology in firearm identification (United States)

    Zheng, X.; Soons, J.; Vorburger, T. V.; Song, J.; Renegar, T.; Thompson, R.


    Surface metrology is commonly used to characterize functional engineering surfaces. The technologies developed offer opportunities to improve forensic toolmark identification. Toolmarks are created when a hard surface, the tool, comes into contact with a softer surface and causes plastic deformation. Toolmarks are commonly found on fired bullets and cartridge cases. Trained firearms examiners use these toolmarks to link an evidence bullet or cartridge case to a specific firearm, which can lead to a criminal conviction. Currently, identification is typically based on qualitative visual comparison by a trained examiner using a comparison microscope. In 2009, a report by the National Academies called this method into question. Amongst other issues, they questioned the objectivity of visual toolmark identification by firearms examiners. The National Academies recommended the development of objective toolmark identification criteria and confidence limits. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have applied its experience in surface metrology to develop objective identification criteria, measurement methods, and reference artefacts for toolmark identification. NIST developed the Standard Reference Material SRM 2460 standard bullet and SRM 2461 standard cartridge case to facilitate quality control and traceability of identifications performed in crime laboratories. Objectivity is improved through measurement of surface topography and application of unambiguous surface similarity metrics, such as the maximum value (ACCFMAX) of the areal cross correlation function. Case studies were performed on consecutively manufactured tools, such as gun barrels and breech faces, to demonstrate that, even in this worst case scenario, all the tested tools imparted unique surface topographies that were identifiable. These studies provide scientific support for toolmark evidence admissibility in criminal court cases.

  8. Morphological method for surface metrology and dimensional metrology based on the alpha shape


    Jiang, Xiang; Lou, Shan; Scott, Paul J.


    Morphological filters are useful tools as they are commonly employed in surface metrology and dimensional metrology, serving for surface texture analysis and data smoothing respectively. Compared to the mean-line filtering techniques, such as the Gaussian filter, morphological filters have the merits of compact support, no need to remove form, and being relevant to geometrical properties of surfaces. This paper proposes a novel morphological method based on the alpha shape. The proposed metho...

  9. Surface texture metrology for high precision surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Gasparin, Stefania; Tosello, Guido


    This paper introduces some of the challenges related to surface texture measurement of high precision surfaces. The paper is presenting two case studies related to polished tool surfaces and micro part surfaces. In both cases measuring instrumentation, measurement procedure and the measurement re...

  10. Evaluation of metrology technologies for free form surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arámbula, K.; Siller, H.R.; De Chiffre, Leonardo


    This research work describes a novel approach for comparing different technologies for free form surface metrology: computerized tomography (CT), photogrammetry and coordinate measuring machines (CMM). The comparison has the aim of providing relevant information for the selection of metrology...... also deals with costs issues, required standards, and necessary additional information when selecting inspection equipment....

  11. Metrology of sub-micron structured polymer surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quagliotti, Danilo; Tosello, Guido; Salaga, J.

    surface replication of the tool insert component when moulding the polymer melt [1]. This aspect is particularly critical when dealing with increasingly small dimensional scales in micro- and nano-structured surfaces [2, 3].In this context, a metrological investigation of polymer replicated surfaces using...

  12. Sub-nanometer drift correction for super-resolution imaging. (United States)

    Tang, Y; Wang, X; Zhang, X; Li, J; Dai, L


    Spatial resolution of conventional far-field fluorescence microscopy is limited by diffraction of light. Single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM), such as (direct) stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM/STORM), and (fluorescence) photoactivation localization microscopy (fPALM/PALM), can break this barrier by localizing single emitters and reconstructing super-resolution image with much higher precision. Nevertheless, a SMLM measurement needs to record a large number of image frames and takes considerable recording time. In this process, sample drift becomes a critical problem and cannot be neglected. In this Letter, we present a sub-nanometer precision, low-cost sample drift correction method based on minimizing normalized root-mean-square error (NRMSE) between bright field images. Two optical configurations are suggested for recording bright field and fluorescence images simultaneously or alternately. The method was demonstrated on simulated data, and better than 0.3 nm drift correction precision was achieved. It was also applied on dSTORM imaging of F-actins of 3T3 cell, and the quality of reconstructed super-resolution image was improved observably. This method does not require special hardware, extra labelling or markers, and no precision decline due to photobleaching. It can be applied as an add-on for SMLM setups and achieves sub-nanometer precision drift correction for post-measurement or real time drift compensation.

  13. Fabrication and metrology of high-precision freeform surfaces (United States)

    Supranowitz, Chris; Dumas, Paul; Nitzsche, Tobias; DeGroote Nelson, Jessica; Light, Brandon B.; Medicus, Kate; Smith, Nathan


    Freeform applications are growing and include helmet-mounted displays, conformal optics (e.g. windows integrated into airplane wings), and those requiring the extreme precision of EUV. These non-rotationally symmetric surfaces pose challenges to optical fabrication, mostly in the areas of polishing and metrology. The varying curvature of freeform surfaces drives the need for smaller, more "conformal", tools for polishing and reference beams for interferometry. In this paper, we present fabrication results of a high-precision freeform surface. We will discuss the total manufacturing process, including generation, pre-polishing, MRF®, and metrology, highlighting the capabilities available in today's optical fabrication companies.

  14. The Development of a Deflectometer for Accurate Surface Figure Metrology (United States)

    Gubarev, Mikhail; Eberhardt, Andrew; Ramsey, Brian; Atkins, Carolyn


    Marshall Space Flight Center is developing the method of direct fabrication for high resolution full-shell x-ray optics. In this technique the x-ray optics axial profiles are figured and polished using a computer-controlled ZeekoIRP600X polishing machine. Based on the Chandra optics fabrication history about one third of the manufacturing time is spent on moving a mirror between fabrication and metrology sites, reinstallation and alignment with either the metrology or fabrication instruments. Also, the accuracy of the alignment significantly affects the ultimate accuracy of the resulting mirrors. In order to achieve higher convergence rate it is highly desirable to have a metrology technique capable of in situ surface figure measurements of the optics under fabrication, so the overall fabrication costs would be greatly reduced while removing the surface errors due to the re-alignment necessary after each metrology cycle during the fabrication. The goal of this feasibility study is to demonstrate if the Phase Measuring Deflectometry can be applied for in situ metrology of full shell x-ray optics. Examples of the full-shell mirror substrates suitable for the direct fabrication

  15. Complex biomembrane mimetics on the sub-nanometer scale. (United States)

    Heberle, Frederick A; Pabst, Georg


    Biomimetic lipid vesicles are indispensable tools for gaining insight into the biophysics of cell physiology on the molecular level. The level of complexity of these model systems has steadily increased, and now spans from domain-forming lipid mixtures to asymmetric lipid bilayers. Here, we review recent progress in the development and application of elastic neutron and X-ray scattering techniques for studying these systems in situ and under physiologically relevant conditions on the nanometer to sub-nanometer length scales. In particular, we focus on: (1) structural details of coexisting liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered domains, including their thickness and lipid packing mismatch as a function of a size transition from nanoscopic to macroscopic domains; (2) membrane-mediated protein partitioning into lipid domains; (3) the role of the aqueous medium in tuning interactions between membranes and domains; and (4) leaflet-specific structure in asymmetric bilayers and passive lipid flip-flop.

  16. Helium Ion Microscopy (HIM) for the imaging of biological samples at sub-nanometer resolution (United States)

    Joens, Matthew S.; Huynh, Chuong; Kasuboski, James M.; Ferranti, David; Sigal, Yury J.; Zeitvogel, Fabian; Obst, Martin; Burkhardt, Claus J.; Curran, Kevin P.; Chalasani, Sreekanth H.; Stern, Lewis A.; Goetze, Bernhard; Fitzpatrick, James A. J.


    Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) has long been the standard in imaging the sub-micrometer surface ultrastructure of both hard and soft materials. In the case of biological samples, it has provided great insights into their physical architecture. However, three of the fundamental challenges in the SEM imaging of soft materials are that of limited imaging resolution at high magnification, charging caused by the insulating properties of most biological samples and the loss of subtle surface features by heavy metal coating. These challenges have recently been overcome with the development of the Helium Ion Microscope (HIM), which boasts advances in charge reduction, minimized sample damage, high surface contrast without the need for metal coating, increased depth of field, and 5 angstrom imaging resolution. We demonstrate the advantages of HIM for imaging biological surfaces as well as compare and contrast the effects of sample preparation techniques and their consequences on sub-nanometer ultrastructure. PMID:24343236

  17. Sub-nanometer resolution XPS depth profiling: Sensing of atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szklarczyk, Marek, E-mail: [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, ul. Pasteura 1, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Shim-Pol, ul. Lubomirskiego 5, 05-080 Izabelin (Poland); Macak, Karol; Roberts, Adam J. [Kratos Analytical Ltd, Wharfside, Trafford Wharf Road, Manchester, M17 1GP (United Kingdom); Takahashi, Kazuhiro [Kratos XPS Section, Shimadzu Corp., 380-1 Horiyamashita, Hadano, Kanagawa 259-1304 (Japan); Hutton, Simon [Kratos Analytical Ltd, Wharfside, Trafford Wharf Road, Manchester, M17 1GP (United Kingdom); Głaszczka, Rafał [Shim-Pol, ul. Lubomirskiego 5, 05-080 Izabelin (Poland); Blomfield, Christopher [Kratos Analytical Ltd, Wharfside, Trafford Wharf Road, Manchester, M17 1GP (United Kingdom)


    Highlights: • Angle resolved photoelectron depth profiling of nano thin films. • Sensing atomic position in SAM films. • Detection of direction position of adsorbed molecules. - Abstract: The development of a method capable of distinguishing a single atom in a single molecule is important in many fields. The results reported herein demonstrate sub-nanometer resolution for angularly resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS). This is made possible by the incorporation of a Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) model, which utilize density corrected electronic emission factors to the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) experimental results. In this paper we report on the comparison between experimental ARXPS results and reconstructed for both inorganic and organic thin film samples. Unexpected deviations between experimental data and calculated points are explained by the inaccuracy of the constants and standards used for the calculation, e.g. emission factors, scattering intensity and atomic density through the studied thickness. The positions of iron, nitrogen and fluorine atoms were determined in the molecules of the studied self-assembled monolayers. It has been shown that reconstruction of real spectroscopic data with 0.2 nm resolution is possible.

  18. Sub-nanometer resolution XPS depth profiling: Sensing of atoms (United States)

    Szklarczyk, Marek; Macak, Karol; Roberts, Adam J.; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Hutton, Simon; Głaszczka, Rafał; Blomfield, Christopher


    The development of a method capable of distinguishing a single atom in a single molecule is important in many fields. The results reported herein demonstrate sub-nanometer resolution for angularly resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS). This is made possible by the incorporation of a Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) model, which utilize density corrected electronic emission factors to the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) experimental results. In this paper we report on the comparison between experimental ARXPS results and reconstructed for both inorganic and organic thin film samples. Unexpected deviations between experimental data and calculated points are explained by the inaccuracy of the constants and standards used for the calculation, e.g. emission factors, scattering intensity and atomic density through the studied thickness. The positions of iron, nitrogen and fluorine atoms were determined in the molecules of the studied self-assembled monolayers. It has been shown that reconstruction of real spectroscopic data with 0.2 nm resolution is possible.

  19. Sub-Nanometer Channels Embedded in Two-Dimensional Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Yimo


    Two-dimensional (2D) materials are among the most promising candidates for next-generation electronics due to their atomic thinness, allowing for flexible transparent electronics and ultimate length scaling1. Thus far, atomically-thin p-n junctions2-7, metal-semiconductor contacts8-10, and metal-insulator barriers11-13 have been demonstrated. While 2D materials achieve the thinnest possible devices, precise nanoscale control over the lateral dimensions are also necessary. Although external one-dimensional (1D) carbon nanotubes14 can be used to locally gate 2D materials, this adds a non-trivial third dimension, complicating device integration and flexibility. Here, we report the direct synthesis of sub-nanometer 1D MoS2 channels embedded within WSe2 monolayers, using a dislocation-catalyzed approach. The 1D channels have edges free of misfit dislocations and dangling bonds, forming a coherent interface with the embedding 2D matrix. Periodic dislocation arrays produce 2D superlattices of coherent MoS2 1D channels in WSe2. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have identified other combinations of 2D materials that could form 1D channels. Density function theory (DFT) calculation predicts these 1D channels display type II band alignment needed for carrier confinement and charge separation to access the ultimate length scales necessary for future electronic applications.

  20. Figuring large optics at the sub-nanometer level: compensation for coating and gravity distortions. (United States)

    Gensemer, Stephen; Gross, Mark


    Large, precision optics can now be manufactured with surface figures specified at the sub-nanometer level. However, coatings and gravity deform large optics, and there are limits to what can be corrected by clever compensation. Instead, deformations caused by stress from optical mounts and deposited coatings must be incorporated into the optical design. We demonstrate compensation of coating stress on a 370mm substrate to λ/200 by a process of coating and annealing. We also model the same process and identify the leading effects that must be anticipated in fabrication of optics for future gravitational wave detectors and other applications of large, precisely figured optics, and identify the limitations inherent in using coatings to compensate for these deformations.

  1. Bimetallic Ag-Pt Sub-nanometer Supported Clusters as Highly Efficient and Robust Oxidation Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negreiros, Fabio R. [CNR-ICCOM & IPCF, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pisa Italy; Halder, Avik [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL USA; Yin, Chunrong [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL USA; Singh, Akansha [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, HBNI, Chhatnag Road Jhunsi Allahabad 211019 India; Barcaro, Giovanni [CNR-ICCOM & IPCF, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pisa Italy; Sementa, Luca [CNR-ICCOM & IPCF, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pisa Italy; Tyo, Eric C. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL USA; Pellin, Michael J. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL USA; Bartling, Stephan [Institut für Physik, Universität Rostock, Rostock Germany; Meiwes-Broer, Karl-Heinz [Institut für Physik, Universität Rostock, Rostock Germany; Seifert, Sönke [X-ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL USA; Sen, Prasenjit [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, HBNI, Chhatnag Road Jhunsi Allahabad 211019 India; Nigam, Sandeep [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay Mumbai- 400 085 India; Majumder, Chiranjib [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay Mumbai- 400 085 India; Fukui, Nobuyuki [East Tokyo Laboratory, Genesis Research Institute, Inc., Ichikawa Chiba 272-0001 Japan; Yasumatsu, Hisato [Cluster Research Laboratory, Toyota Technological Institute: in, East Tokyo Laboratory, Genesis Research Institute, Inc. Ichikawa, Chiba 272-0001 Japan; Vajda, Stefan [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL USA; Nanoscience and Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL USA; Institute for Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago IL USA; Fortunelli, Alessandro [CNR-ICCOM & IPCF, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pisa Italy; Materials and Process Simulation Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena CA USA


    A combined experimental and theoretical investigation of Ag-Pt sub-nanometer clusters as heterogeneous catalysts in the CO -> CO2 reaction (COox) is presented. Ag9Pt2 and Ag9Pt3 clusters are size-selected in the gas phase, deposited on an ultrathin amorphous alumina support, and tested as catalysts experimentally under realistic conditions and by first-principles simulations at realistic coverage. Insitu GISAXS/TPRx demonstrates that the clusters do not sinter or deactivate even after prolonged exposure to reactants at high temperature, and present comparable, extremely high COox catalytic efficiency. Such high activity and stability are ascribed to a synergic role of Ag and Pt in ultranano-aggregates, in which Pt anchors the clusters to the support and binds and activates two CO molecules, while Ag binds and activates O-2, and Ag/Pt surface proximity disfavors poisoning by CO or oxidized species.

  2. Fiber coupler end face wavefront surface metrology (United States)

    Compertore, David C.; Ignatovich, Filipp V.; Marcus, Michael A.


    Despite significant technological advances in the field of fiber optic communications, one area remains surprisingly `low-tech': fiber termination. In many instances it involves manual labor and subjective visual inspection. At the same time, high quality fiber connections are one of the most critical parameters in constructing an efficient communication link. The shape and finish of the fiber end faces determines the efficiency of a connection comprised of coupled fiber end faces. The importance of fiber end face quality becomes even more critical for fiber connection arrays and for in the field applications. In this article we propose and demonstrate a quantitative inspection method for the fiber connectors using reflected wavefront technology. The manufactured and polished fiber tip is illuminated by a collimated light from a microscope objective. The reflected light is collected by the objective and is directed to a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. A set of lenses is used to create the image of the fiber tip on the surface of the sensor. The wavefront is analyzed by the sensor, and the measured parameters are used to obtain surface properties of the fiber tip, and estimate connection loss. For example, defocus components in the reflected light indicate the presence of bow in the fiber end face. This inspection method provides a contact-free approach for quantitative inspection of fiber end faces and for estimating the connection loss, and can potentially be integrated into a feedback system for automated inspection and polishing of fiber tips and fiber tip arrays.

  3. Data fusion for accurate microscopic rough surface metrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yuhang, E-mail:


    Data fusion for rough surface measurement and evaluation was analyzed on simulated datasets, one with higher density (HD) but lower accuracy and the other with lower density (LD) but higher accuracy. Experimental verifications were then performed on laser scanning microscopy (LSM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) characterizations of surface areal roughness artifacts. The results demonstrated that the fusion based on Gaussian process models is effective and robust under different measurement biases and noise strengths. All the amplitude, height distribution, and spatial characteristics of the original sample structure can be precisely recovered, with better metrological performance than any individual measurements. As for the influencing factors, the HD noise has a relatively weaker effect as compared with the LD noise. Furthermore, to enable an accurate fusion, the ratio of LD sampling interval to surface autocorrelation length should be smaller than a critical threshold. In general, data fusion is capable of enhancing the nanometrology of rough surfaces by combining efficient LSM measurement and down-sampled fast AFM scan. The accuracy, resolution, spatial coverage and efficiency can all be significantly improved. It is thus expected to have potential applications in development of hybrid microscopy and in surface metrology. - Highlights: • Data fusion for rough surface nanometrology has been investigated. • Gaussian process based fusion is robust under different biases and noise strengths. • Sampling interval should be smaller than a threshold to enable accurate fusion. • Measurement accuracy, resolution, and efficiency can all be significantly improved. • Data fusion is expected to have potential applications in hybrid microscopy.

  4. Data fusion for accurate microscopic rough surface metrology. (United States)

    Chen, Yuhang


    Data fusion for rough surface measurement and evaluation was analyzed on simulated datasets, one with higher density (HD) but lower accuracy and the other with lower density (LD) but higher accuracy. Experimental verifications were then performed on laser scanning microscopy (LSM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) characterizations of surface areal roughness artifacts. The results demonstrated that the fusion based on Gaussian process models is effective and robust under different measurement biases and noise strengths. All the amplitude, height distribution, and spatial characteristics of the original sample structure can be precisely recovered, with better metrological performance than any individual measurements. As for the influencing factors, the HD noise has a relatively weaker effect as compared with the LD noise. Furthermore, to enable an accurate fusion, the ratio of LD sampling interval to surface autocorrelation length should be smaller than a critical threshold. In general, data fusion is capable of enhancing the nanometrology of rough surfaces by combining efficient LSM measurement and down-sampled fast AFM scan. The accuracy, resolution, spatial coverage and efficiency can all be significantly improved. It is thus expected to have potential applications in development of hybrid microscopy and in surface metrology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. An Areal Isotropic Spline Filter for Surface Metrology. (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Tong, Mingsi; Chu, Wei


    This paper deals with the application of the spline filter as an areal filter for surface metrology. A profile (2D) filter is often applied in orthogonal directions to yield an areal filter for a three-dimensional (3D) measurement. Unlike the Gaussian filter, the spline filter presents an anisotropic characteristic when used as an areal filter. This disadvantage hampers the wide application of spline filters for evaluation and analysis of areal surface topography. An approximation method is proposed in this paper to overcome the problem. In this method, a profile high-order spline filter serial is constructed to approximate the filtering characteristic of the Gaussian filter. Then an areal filter with isotropic characteristic is composed by implementing the profile spline filter in the orthogonal directions. It is demonstrated that the constructed areal filter has two important features for surface metrology: an isotropic amplitude characteristic and no end effects. Some examples of applying this method on simulated and practical surfaces are analyzed.

  6. A 3D edge detection technique for surface extraction in computed tomography for dimensional metrology applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yagüe-Fabra, J.A.; Ontiveros, S.; Jiménez, R.


    Many factors influence the measurement uncertainty when using computed tomography for dimensional metrology applications. One of the most critical steps is the surface extraction phase. An incorrect determination of the surface may significantly increase the measurement uncertainty. This paper...

  7. Insight into Ion Transfer through the Sub-Nanometer Channels in Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks. (United States)

    Jiang, Ze-Yu; Liu, Hai-Ling; Ahmed, Saud Asif; Hanif, Sumaira; Ren, Shi-Bin; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan; Xia, Xing-Hua; Wang, Kang


    A crack-free sub-nanometer composite structure for the study of ion transfer was constructed by in situ growth of ZIF-90 [Zn(ICA)2 , ICA=Imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde] on the tip of a glass nanopipette. The potential-driven ion transfer through the sub-nanometer channels in ZIF-90 is strongly influenced by the pH of the solution. A rectification ratio over 500 is observed in 1 m KCl solution under alkaline conditions (pH 11.58), which is the highest value reported under such a high salt concentration. Fluorescence experiments show the super-high rectification ratio under alkaline conditions results from the strong electrostatic interaction between ions and the sub-nanometer channels of ZIF-90. In addition to providing a general pathway for further study of mass-transfer process through sub-nanometer channels, the approach enable all kinds of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) to be used as ionic permselectivity materials in nanopore-based analysis. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Sub-nanometer dimensions control of core/shell nanoparticles prepared by atomic layer deposition. (United States)

    Weber, M J; Verheijen, M A; Bol, A A; Kessels, W M M


    Bimetallic core/shell nanoparticles (NPs) are the subject of intense research due to their unique electronic, optical and catalytic properties. Accurate and independent control over the dimensions of both core and shell would allow for unprecedented catalytic performance. Here, we demonstrate that both core and shell dimensions of Pd/Pt core/shell nanoparticles (NPs) supported on Al2O3 substrates can be controlled at the sub-nanometer level by using a novel strategy based on atomic layer deposition (ALD). From the results it is derived that the main conditions for accurate dimension control of these core/shell NPs are: (i) a difference in surface energy between the deposited core metal and the substrate to obtain island growth; (ii) a process yielding linear growth of the NP cores with ALD cycles to obtain monodispersed NPs with a narrow size distribution; (iii) a selective ALD process for the shell metal yielding a linearly increasing thickness to obtain controllable shell growth exclusively on the cores. For Pd/Pt core/shell NPs it is found that a minimum core diameter of 1 nm exists above which the NP cores are able to catalytically dissociate the precursor molecules for shell growth. In addition, initial studies on the stability of these core/shell NPs have been carried out, and it has been demonstrated that core/shell NPs can be deposited by ALD on high aspect ratio substrates such as nanowire arrays. These achievements show therefore that ALD has significant potential for the preparation of tuneable heterogeneous catalyst systems.

  9. Self-assembling organic nanotubes with precisely defined, sub-nanometer pores: formation and mass transport characteristics. (United States)

    Gong, Bing; Shao, Zhifeng


    hydrophilic pores. These self-assembling hydrophilic pores can form ion channels in lipid membranes with very large ion conductances. To control the assembly, we have further introduced multiple hydrogen-bonding side chains to enforce the stacking of rigid macrocycles into self-assembling nanotubes. This strategy has produced a self-assembling, sub-nanometer hydrophobic pore that not only acted as a transmembrane channel with surprisingly high ion selectivity, but also mediated a significant transmembrane water flux. The stacking of rigid macrocycles that can be chemically modified in either the lumen or the exterior surface can produce self-assembling organic nanotubes with inner pores of defined sizes. The combination of our approach with the availability and synthetic tunability of various rigid macrocycles should produce a variety of organic nanopores. Such structures would allow researchers to systematically explore mass transport in the sub-nanometer regime. Further advances should lead to novel applications such as biosensing, materials separation, and molecular purifications.

  10. Data processing for point-based in situ metrology of freeform optical surface. (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Cheng, Hsiang-Nan; Wu, Rengmao; Liang, Rongguang


    Freeform surfaces are widely used in advanced optical systems and the point-based metrology methods are often used for freeform surface measurement. In order to accurately process the measured data from point-based metrology system, the coordinate matching and surface fitting are essential. To ensure the matching efficiency and accuracy, we use a two-step coordinate matching method: pre-adjustment and accurate adjustment. We also develop an improved Newton iterative (INI) fitting algorithm to generate initial value and improve the fitting speed. The simulation and experiment verify the correctness and feasibility of the data processing.

  11. Coherent double-color interference microscope for traceable optical surface metrology (United States)

    Malinovski, I.; França, R. S.; Bessa, M. S.; Silva, C. R.; Couceiro, I. B.


    Interference microscopy is an important field of dimensional surface metrology because it provides direct traceability of the measurements to the SI base unit definition of the metre. With a typical measurement range from micrometres to nanometres interference microscopy (IM) covers the gap between classic metrology and nanometrology, providing continuous transfer of dimensional metrology into new areas of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Therefore IM is considered to be an indispensable tool for traceable transfer of the metre unit to different instruments. We report here the metrological study of an absolute Linnik interference microscope (IM) based on two frequency stabilized lasers. The design permits the flexible use of both lasers for measurements depending on the demand of the concrete measurement task. By principle of operation IM is combination of imaging and phase-shifting interferometry (PSI). The traceability is provided by the wavelength reference, that is, a He-Ne 633 nm stabilized laser. The second laser source, that is, a Blue-Green 488 nm grating stabilized laser diode, is used for improvements of resolution, and also for resolving integer fringe discontinuities on sharp features of the surface. The IM was optimized for surface height metrology. We have performed the study of the systematic effects of the measurements. This study allowed us to improve the hardware and software of IM and to find corrections for main systematic errors. The IM is purposed for 1D to 3D height metrology and surface topography in an extended range from nanometres to micrometres. The advantages and disadvantages of the design and developed methods are discussed.

  12. Disparity pattern-based autostereoscopic 3D metrology system for in situ measurement of microstructured surfaces. (United States)

    Li, Da; Cheung, Chi Fai; Ren, MingJun; Whitehouse, David; Zhao, Xing


    This paper presents a disparity pattern-based autostereoscopic (DPA) 3D metrology system that makes use of a microlens array to capture raw 3D information of the measured surface in a single snapshot through a CCD camera. Hence, a 3D digital model of the target surface with the measuring data is generated through a system-associated direct extraction of disparity information (DEDI) method. The DEDI method is highly efficient for performing the direct 3D mapping of the target surface based on tomography-like operation upon every depth plane with the defocused information excluded. Precise measurement results are provided through an error-elimination process based on statistical analysis. Experimental results show that the proposed DPA 3D metrology system is capable of measuring 3D microstructured surfaces with submicrometer measuring repeatability for high precision and in situ measurement of microstructured surfaces.

  13. Computational evaluation of sub-nanometer cluster activity of singly exposed copper atom with various coordinative environment in catalytic CO2 transformation (United States)

    Shanmugam, Ramasamy; Thamaraichelvan, Arunachalam; Ganesan, Tharumeya Kuppusamy; Viswanathan, Balasubramanian


    Metal cluster, at sub-nanometer level has a unique property in the activation of small molecules, in contrast to that of bulk surface. In the present work, singly exposed active site of copper metal cluster at sub-nanometer level was designed to arrive at the energy minimised configurations, binding energy, electrostatic potential map, frontier molecular orbitals and partial density of states. The ab initio molecular dynamics was carried out to probe the catalytic nature of the cluster. Further, the stability of the metal cluster and its catalytic activity in the electrochemical reduction of CO2 to CO were evaluated by means of computational hydrogen electrode via calculation of the free energy profile using DFT/B3LYP level of theory in vacuum. The activity of the cluster is ascertained from the fact that the copper atom, present in a two coordinative environment, performs a more selective conversion of CO2 to CO at an applied potential of -0.35 V which is comparatively lower than that of higher coordinative sites. The present study helps to design any sub-nano level metal catalyst for electrochemical reduction of CO2 to various value added chemicals.

  14. In-Situ Extended Lateral Range Surface Metrology Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop an extended lateral range capability for a dynamic optical profiling system to enable non-contact, surface roughness measurement of large and...

  15. Metrological Aspects of Abrasive Tool Active Surface Topography Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipiński Dariusz


    Full Text Available Analysis of the shape and location of abrasive grain tips as well as their changes during the grinding process, is the basis for forecasting the machining process results. This paper presents a methodology of using the watershed segmentation in identifying abrasive grains on the abrasive tool active surface. Some abrasive grain tips were selected to minimize the errors of detecting many tips on a single abrasive grain. The abrasive grains, singled out as a result of the watershed segmentation, were then analyzed to determine their geometric parameters. Moreover, the statistical parameters describing their locations on the abrasive tool active surface and the parameters characterizing intergranular spaces were determined.

  16. Shear force microscopy using piezoresistive cantilevers in surface metrology (United States)

    Gotszalk, Teodor; Kopiec, Daniel; Sierakowski, Andrzej; Janus, Paweł; Grabiec, Piotr; Rangelow, Ivo W.


    In this article we describe application of piezoresistive cantilevers in surface investigations carried out with the use of shear force microscopy (ShFM). The novel piezoresistive cantilevers integrate a Wheatstone piezoresistive bridge was used to detect the cantilever deflection, thermal deflection detector and planar tip protruding out of the spring beam. Because the planar tip deflection can be detected and controlled electronically the described technology is very flexible and can be applied in many surface investigations. In this article we will present operation theory of the described solution, experimental setup, methods for calibration of the tip deflection detection and actuation The analysis will be illustrated with example results of topography measurements performed using the described technology.

  17. Surface coating metrology of carbides of cutting tools (United States)

    Parfenov, V. D.; Basova, G. D.


    The coatings were studied by their main sign of the micrometric thickness by means of coating destruction and electron microscopical study of cleavage surfaces. Shock stress ruptures of heated carbides of cutting tools were performed. The discovery of the coating technology and creation of the coating structure for nonuniform and nonequilibrium conditions of the cutting process were dealt with. Multifracture microdestruction of nitride coatings, caused by complex external influences, was analysed to reveal the mechanism of interaction of elementary failures. Positive results were obtained in the form of improving the strength and wear resistance of the product, crack resistance increasing.

  18. A Simple and Fast Spline Filtering Algorithm for Surface Metrology. (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Ott, Daniel; Song, John; Tong, Mingsi; Chu, Wei


    Spline filters and their corresponding robust filters are commonly used filters recommended in ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) standards for surface evaluation. Generally, these linear and non-linear spline filters, composed of symmetric, positive-definite matrices, are solved in an iterative fashion based on a Cholesky decomposition. They have been demonstrated to be relatively efficient, but complicated and inconvenient to implement. A new spline-filter algorithm is proposed by means of the discrete cosine transform or the discrete Fourier transform. The algorithm is conceptually simple and very convenient to implement.

  19. Computational evaluation of sub-nanometer cluster activity of singly exposed copper atom with various coordinative environment in catalytic CO{sub 2} transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanmugam, Ramasamy [Department of Chemistry, Thiagarajar College, Madurai, Tamilnadu 625 009 (India); National Center for Catalysis Research, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, Tamilnadu 600 036 (India); Thamaraichelvan, Arunachalam [Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Chettinad Hospital & Research Institute, Kelambakkam, Tamilnadu 603 103 (India); Ganesan, Tharumeya Kuppusamy [Department of Chemistry, The American College, Madurai, Tamilnadu 625 002 (India); Viswanathan, Balasubramanian, E-mail: [National Center for Catalysis Research, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, Tamilnadu 600 036 (India)


    Highlights: • On interaction with adsorbate CO{sub 2,} the adsorbent changes its configuration around the metal. • Electron transfer is faster in low coordinative environment of Cu. • CO formation is more favorable on Cu sites with even coordination number. • Cu at coordination number two has a over potential of −0.35 V. - Abstract: Metal cluster, at sub-nanometer level has a unique property in the activation of small molecules, in contrast to that of bulk surface. In the present work, singly exposed active site of copper metal cluster at sub-nanometer level was designed to arrive at the energy minimised configurations, binding energy, electrostatic potential map, frontier molecular orbitals and partial density of states. The ab initio molecular dynamics was carried out to probe the catalytic nature of the cluster. Further, the stability of the metal cluster and its catalytic activity in the electrochemical reduction of CO{sub 2} to CO were evaluated by means of computational hydrogen electrode via calculation of the free energy profile using DFT/B3LYP level of theory in vacuum. The activity of the cluster is ascertained from the fact that the copper atom, present in a two coordinative environment, performs a more selective conversion of CO{sub 2} to CO at an applied potential of −0.35 V which is comparatively lower than that of higher coordinative sites. The present study helps to design any sub-nano level metal catalyst for electrochemical reduction of CO{sub 2} to various value added chemicals.

  20. Non-contact metrology of aspheric surfaces based on MWLI technology (United States)

    Berger, G.; Petter, J.


    A non-contact optical scanning metrology solution measuring aspheric surfaces is presented, which is based on multi wavelength interferometry (MWLI). The technology yields high density 3D data in short measurement times (including set up time) and provides high, reproducible form measurement accuracy. It measures any asphere without restrictions in terms of spherical departures. In addition, measurement of a large variety of special optics is enabled, such as annular lenses, segmented optics, optics with diffractive steps, ground optics, optics made of opaque and transparent materials, and small and thin optics (e.g. smart phone lenses). The measurement instrument can be used under production conditions.

  1. 3D-profile measurement of advanced semiconductor features by using FIB as reference metrology (United States)

    Takamasu, Kiyoshi; Iwaki, Yuuki; Takahashi, Satoru; Kawada, Hiroki; Ikota, Masami


    A novel method of sub-nanometer uncertainty for the 3D-profile measurement and LWR (Line Width Roughness) measurement by using FIB (Focused Ion Beam) processing, and TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope) and CD-SEM (Critical Dimension Scanning Electron Microscope) images measurement is proposed to standardize 3D-profile measurement through reference metrology. In this article, we apply the methodology to line profile measurements and roughness measurement of advanced FinFET (Fin-shaped Field-Effect Transistor) features. The FinFET features are horizontally sliced as a thin specimen by FIB micro sampling system. Horizontally images of the specimens are obtained then by a planar TEM. LWR is calculated from the edges positions on TEM images. Moreover, we already have demonstrated the novel on-wafer 3D-profile metrology as "FIB-to-CDSEM method" with FIB slope cut and CD-SEM measuring. Using the method, a few micrometers wide on a wafer is coated and cut by 45-degree slope using FIB tool. Then, the wafer is transferred to CD-SEM to measure the cross section image by top down CD-SEM measurement. We applied FIB-to-CDSEM method to a CMOS image sensor feature. The 45-degree slope cut surface is observed using AFM. The surface profile of slope cut surface and line profiles are analyzed for improving the accuracy of FIB-to-CDSEM method.

  2. Nuclear Technology. Course 27: Metrology. Module 27-4, Angle Measurement Instruments, Optical Projections and Surface Texture Gages. (United States)

    Selleck, Ben; Espy, John

    This fourth in a series of eight modules for a course titled Metrology describes the universal bevel protractor and the sine bar, the engineering microscope and optical projector, and several types of surface texture gages. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module prerequisites, (3)…

  3. Super-aperture metrology: overcoming a fundamental limit in imaging smooth highly curved surfaces. (United States)

    Liu, J; Liu, C; Tan, J; Yang, B; Wilson, T


    The imaging of smooth, highly curved or tilted surfaces is widely recognized as one of the most challenging and unsolved problems in optical imaging and metrology today. The reason is that even when such surfaces are imaged using high aperture microscope objectives the steepness of the features causes the light to be reflected in such a way that it is not captured by the lens. This is true even in the limiting case of unity numerical aperture since the illuminating light may also be reflected in the forward direction. In order to overcome this fundamental problem we have developed a method whereby such specimens are covered with a readily removable organic fluorescent film thereby creating an isotropic scattering surface. We show that we are readily able to detect slopes with angles close 90° using a 0.75 NA objective--an 82% improvement over the theoretical aperture limit. Issues of variation in film thickness deposition are shown to be readily accommodated. This approach may be used with other fluorophore materials, organic or inorganic, since there is no need for biocompatibility in this application. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  4. Confocal signal evaluation algorithms for surface metrology: uncertainty and numerical efficiency. (United States)

    Rahlves, Maik; Roth, Bernhard; Reithmeier, Eduard


    Confocal microscopy is one of the dominating measurement techniques in surface metrology, with an enhanced lateral resolution compared to alternative optical methods. However, the axial resolution in confocal microscopy is strongly dependent on the accuracy of signal evaluation algorithms, which are limited by random noise. Here, we discuss the influence of various noise sources on confocal intensity signal evaluating algorithms, including center-of-mass, parabolic least-square fit, and cross-correlation-based methods. We derive results in closed form for the uncertainty in height evaluation on surface microstructures, also accounting for the number of axially measured intensity values and a threshold that is commonly applied before signal evaluation. The validity of our results is verified by numerical Monte Carlo simulations. In addition, we implemented all three algorithms and analyzed their numerical efficiency. Our results can serve as guidance for a suitable choice of measurement parameters in confocal surface topography measurement, and thus lead to a shorter measurement time in practical applications.

  5. Mechanism and Prediction of Gas Permeation through Sub-Nanometer Graphene Pores: Comparison of Theory and Simulation. (United States)

    Yuan, Zhe; Govind Rajan, Ananth; Misra, Rahul Prasanna; Drahushuk, Lee W; Agrawal, Kumar Varoon; Strano, Michael S; Blankschtein, Daniel


    Due to its atomic thickness, porous graphene with sub-nanometer pore sizes constitutes a promising candidate for gas separation membranes that exhibit ultrahigh permeances. While graphene pores can greatly facilitate gas mixture separation, there is currently no validated analytical framework with which one can predict gas permeation through a given graphene pore. In this work, we simulate the permeation of adsorptive gases, such as CO2 and CH4, through sub-nanometer graphene pores using molecular dynamics simulations. We show that gas permeation can typically be decoupled into two steps: (1) adsorption of gas molecules to the pore mouth and (2) translocation of gas molecules from the pore mouth on one side of the graphene membrane to the pore mouth on the other side. We find that the translocation rate coefficient can be expressed using an Arrhenius-type equation, where the energy barrier and the pre-exponential factor can be theoretically predicted using the transition state theory for classical barrier crossing events. We propose a relation between the pre-exponential factor and the entropy penalty of a gas molecule crossing the pore. Furthermore, on the basis of the theory, we propose an efficient algorithm to calculate CO2 and CH4 permeances per pore for sub-nanometer graphene pores of any shape. For the CO2/CH4 mixture, the graphene nanopores exhibit a trade-off between the CO2 permeance and the CO2/CH4 separation factor. This upper bound on a Robeson plot of selectivity versus permeance for a given pore density is predicted and described by the theory. Pores with CO2/CH4 separation factors higher than 10(2) have CO2 permeances per pore lower than 10(-22) mol s(-1) Pa(-1), and pores with separation factors of ∼10 have CO2 permeances per pore between 10(-22) and 10(-21) mol s(-1) Pa(-1). Finally, we show that a pore density of 10(14) m(-2) is required for a porous graphene membrane to exceed the permeance-selectivity upper bound of polymeric materials

  6. PREFACE: 14th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces (Met & Props 2013) (United States)

    Fu, Wei-En


    hospitality. It is my privilege and pleasure to welcome you all to the 14th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces here in Taipei. Tom Thomas Halmstad, 1st June 2013 Greetings from Chairman of Local Organizing CommitteeVictor Lin It is the great honor of Center for Measurement Standards (CMS), metrology group of Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI), to host the 14th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces (Met & Props 2013) from 17-21 June, 2013, in Taipei, Taiwan. In collaboration with four local universities, National Taiwan University (NTU), National Cheng-Kung University (NCKU), National Taiwan University of Science and Technology (NTST) and National Tsing-Hua University (NTHU), we have spent more than one year to prepare this Conference since the approval by the International Programme Committee (IPC). With the guidance from the IPC, we are able to go through the laborious, but important, process of paper selection and review from more than 100 submissions, and also to maintain the tradition in gathering the high quality and state-of-the-art papers. Finally, more than 65 full papers are collected in the programme (oral and poster), and over 120 surface metrologists from 17 countries (or economies) will attend the Conference. As stated in the preface by Professor Thomas, this series of conferences were founded by Tom and late Professor Ken Stout in the United Kingdom more than thirty years ago. I was lucky to join Ken's research group in Birmingham, and to start my journey over surface metrology in 1989, under the financial support from ITRI. With the encouragement from Professor Liam Blunt and endeavors of my colleagues, we are able to hold the Conference first time in emerging Asia, and to ''carry on the heritage and pave the way to the future'' (a Chinese proverb) in surface metrology. Taiwan is also known as Formosa, from Portuguese Ilha Formosa, which means ''Beautiful Island

  7. Effect of electric field gradient on sub-nanometer spatial resolution of tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. (United States)

    Meng, Lingyan; Yang, Zhilin; Chen, Jianing; Sun, Mengtao


    Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) with sub-nanometer spatial resolution has been recently demonstrated experimentally. However, the physical mechanism underlying is still under discussion. Here we theoretically investigate the electric field gradient of a coupled tip-substrate system. Our calculations suggest that the ultra-high spatial resolution of TERS can be partially attributed to the electric field gradient effect owning to its tighter spatial confinement and sensitivity to the infrared (IR)-active of molecules. Particularly, in the case of TERS of flat-lying H₂TBPP molecules,we find the electric field gradient enhancement is the dominating factor for the high spatial resolution, which qualitatively coincides with previous experimental report. Our theoretical study offers a new paradigm for understanding the mechanisms of the ultra-high spatial resolution demonstrated in tip-enhanced spectroscopy which is of importance but neglected.

  8. Differential optical shadow sensor for sub-nanometer displacement measurement and its application to drag-free satellites. (United States)

    Zoellner, Andreas; Tan, Si; Saraf, Shailendhar; Alfauwaz, Abdul; DeBra, Dan; Buchman, Sasha; Lipa, John A


    We present a method for 3D sub-nanometer displacement measurement using a set of differential optical shadow sensors. It is based on using pairs of collimated beams on opposite sides of an object that are partially blocked by it. Applied to a sphere, our 3-axis sensor module consists of 8 parallel beam-detector sets for redundancy. The sphere blocks half of each beam's power in the nominal centered position, and any displacement can be measured by the differential optical power changes amongst the pairs of detectors. We have experimentally demonstrated a displacement sensitivity of 0.87nm/Hz at 1 Hz and 0.39nm/Hz at 10 Hz. We describe the application of the module to the inertial sensor of a drag-free satellite, which can potentially be used for navigation, geodesy and fundamental science experiments as well as ground based applications.

  9. Ultra-stable and versatile widefield cryo-fluorescence microscope for single-molecule localization with sub-nanometer accuracy. (United States)

    Li, Weixing; Stein, Simon C; Gregor, Ingo; Enderlein, Jörg


    We developed a stand-alone cryostat with optical access to the sample which can be adapted to any epi-fluorescence microscope for single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging. The cryostat cools the sample to a cryogenic temperature of 89 K, and allows for imaging single molecules using an air objective with a numerical aperture of 0.7. An important property of this system is its excellent thermal and mechanical stability, enabling long-time observations of samples over several hours with negligible drift. Using this system, we performed photo-bleaching studies of Atto647N dye molecules, and find an improvement of the photostability of these molecules by more than two orders of magnitude. The resulting increased photon numbers of several millions allow for single-molecule localization accuracy of sub-nanometer.

  10. Dimensional Metrology for Microtechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bariani, Paolo


    This ph. D. project was aimed at developing and validating techniques for dimensional metrology of: miniaturized items, microsystem components, and surfaces. In particular the study was focused on techniques based on: AFM-CMM integration and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Development...... was proposed and the principle demonstrated on software gauges. Simulations of Surface Mapping were done, based on the model developed. Direct performance verification of the Large Range AFM was eventually carried out, and lateral metrology was possible, in the millimeter range, with accuracy in the order...... at high magnifications was, proposed and this has resulted into a patent application. The final part of the thesis is devoted to applications of dimensional metrology to case studies. Three applications are presented, two of them are investigations of surface metrology, while the third is about extraction...

  11. Supported sub-nanometer Ta oxide clusters as model catalysts for the selective epoxidation of cyclooctene

    KAUST Repository

    Zwaschka, Gregor


    The preparation of organic ligands-free, isolated tantalum oxide atoms (Ta1) and small clusters (Tan>1) on flat silicate supports was accomplished by ultra-high vacuum (UHV) techniques followed by oxidation in air. The resulting surface complexes were thoroughly characterized and tested as supported catalysts for the epoxidation of cycloalkenes. The observed catalytic performance highlights the potential of the applied method for the production of active catalysts and the study of well-defined, ligand-free metal oxide moieties.

  12. Metrology system for the Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph (United States)

    Shaklin, Stuart; Marchen, Luis; Zhao, Feng; Peters, Robert D.; Ho, Tim; Holmes, Buck


    The Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) employs an aggressive coronagraph designed to obtain better than 1e-10 contrast inside the third Airy ring. Minute changes in low-order aberration content scatter significant light at this position. One implication is the requirement to control low-order aberrations induced by motion of the secondary mirror relative to the primary mirror; sub-nanometer relative positional stability is required. We propose a 6-beam laser truss to monitor the relative positions of the two mirrors. The truss is based on laser metrology developed for the Space Interferometry Mission.

  13. Bovine bone screws: metrology and effects of chemical processing and ethylene oxide sterilization on bone surface and mechanical properties. (United States)

    Haje, D P; Volpon, J B; Moro, C A


    We assess the effects of chemical processing, ethylene oxide sterilization, and threading on bone surface and mechanical properties of bovine undecalcified bone screws. In addition, we evaluate the possibility of manufacturing bone screws with predefined dimensions. Scanning electronic microscopic images show that chemical processing and ethylene oxide treatment causes collagen fiber amalgamation on the bone surface. Processed screws hold higher ultimate loads under bending and torsion than the in natura bone group, with no change in pull-out strength between groups. Threading significantly reduces deformation and bone strength under torsion. Metrological data demonstrate the possibility of manufacturing bone screws with standardized dimensions.

  14. Direct sub-nanometer scale electron microscopy analysis of anion incorporation to self-ordered anodic alumina layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Rovira, L.; Lopez-Haro, M.; Hungria, A.B.; El Amrani, K. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering and Inorganic Chemistry, University of Cadiz, Republica Saharaui s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Sanchez-Amaya, J.M. [Titania, Ensayos y Proyectos Industriales, S.L. Parque Tecnobahia, Edificio RETSE, Nave 4, 11500 El Puerto de Santa Maria (Cadiz) (Spain); Calvino, J.J. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering and Inorganic Chemistry, University of Cadiz, Republica Saharaui s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Botana, F.J., E-mail: javier.botana@uca.e [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering and Inorganic Chemistry, University of Cadiz, Republica Saharaui s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain)


    Research highlights: {yields} Morphological and chemical characterization at atomic scale of porous alumina layers anodised in ordered regimes. {yields} Characterization based on the use of FEG-SEM, STEM-HAADF, STEM-EELS and STEM-X-EDS. {yields} Nanoscale distribution of P-, C- and S-bearing species in the pore wall. - Abstract: Ordered porous alumina layers prepared by two-step anodising in phosphoric, oxalic and sulphuric acids have been characterized at sub-nanometer scale using electron microscopy techniques. FEG-SEM and STEM-HAADF images allowed estimating the pore size, cell wall and pore wall thicknesses of the layers. Nanoanalytical characterization has been performed by STEM-EELS and STEM-X-EDS. Detailed features of the spatial distribution of anions in the pore wall of the films have been obtained. Maximum concentration of P-species occurs, approximately, at the middle of the pore wall; adjacent to the pore for C-species, whereas the distribution of S-species appears to be uniform.

  15. Small data set analysis in surface metrology: an investigation using a single point incremental forming case study. (United States)

    Powers, B M; Ham, M; Wilkinson, M G


    A new method for applying statistical techniques with small data sets in surface metrology is demonstrated. This method allows for surfaces or surface-creation processes to be differentiated with as few as six measurement regions. A case study in surface roughness of single point incremental forming is used to demonstrate this method because previous work in this area has not provided quantitative statistical testing to support conclusions. The results from the case study indicate that surface roughness parameters Sz and relative length at scales less than 200 nm are greater when the roll marks on the surface are oriented perpendicular rather than parallel to the forming direction. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Development of Pseudorandom Binary Arrays for Calibration of Surface Profile Metrology Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, S.K.; Takacs, P.; Soldate, P.; Anderson, E.H.; Cambie, R.; McKinney, W.R.; Voronov, D.L.; Yashchuk, V.V.


    Optical metrology tools, especially for short wavelengths (extreme ultraviolet and x-ray), must cover a wide range of spatial frequencies from the very low, which affects figure, to the important mid-spatial frequencies and the high spatial frequency range, which produces undesirable scattering. A major difficulty in using surface profilometers arises due to the unknown point-spread function (PSF) of the instruments [G. D. Boreman, Modulation Transfer Function in Optical and Electro-Optical Systems (SPIE, Bellingham, WA, 2001)] that is responsible for distortion of the measured surface profile. Generally, the distortion due to the PSF is difficult to account for because the PSF is a complex function that comes to the measurement via the convolution operation, while the measured profile is described with a real function. Accounting for instrumental PSF becomes significantly simpler if the result of measurement of a profile is presented in the spatial frequency domain as a power spectral density (PSD) distribution [J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 3rd ed. (Roberts and Company, Englewood, CO, 2005)]. For example, measured PSD distributions provide a closed set of data necessary for three-dimensional calculations of scattering of light by the optical surfaces [E. L. Church et al., Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 18, 125 (1979); J. C. Stover, Optical Scattering, 2nd ed. (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Bellingham, WA, 1995)]. The distortion of the surface PSD distribution due to the PSF can be modeled with the modulation transfer function (MTF), which is defined over the spatial frequency bandwidth of the instrument. The measured PSD distribution can be presented as a product of the squared MTF and the ideal PSD distribution inherent for the system under test. Therefore, the instrumental MTF can be evaluated by comparing a measured PSD distribution of a known test surface with the corresponding ideal numerically simulated PSD. The square root of the ratio of the

  17. Characterization and analysis of micro channels and sub-micron surface roughness of injection moulded microfluidic systems using optical metrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Marinello, Francesco; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard


    Precision injection moulding of miniaturized products with micro features such as channels for microfluidic applications poses the greatest challenges in terms of tooling technology and process optimization. The injection moulding process window of polypropylene was validated using a metrological...... approach for the production of a microfluidic substrate. Dimensional accuracy of micro channels 48 µm wide and 110 µm deep, as well as quality surface topography replication (surface roughness from 30 nm to 360 nm) were investigated using non-contact measuring instruments such as an optical coordinate...... measuring machine and a white light interferometer respectively. The effect of the dimensional scale range on the micro/nano features replication was evaluated and it was found to be the dominant parameter if compared with the effect of the other process-related parameters investigated (melt and mould...

  18. Characterization and analysis of micro channels and sub-micron surface roughness of injection moulded microfluidic systems using optical metrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Marinello, Francesco; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard


    Precision injection moulding of miniaturized products with micro features such as channels for microfluidic applications poses the greatest challenges in terms of tooling technology and process optimization. The injection moulding process window of polypropylene was validated using a metrological...... approach for the production of a microfluidic substrate. Dimensional accuracy of micro channels 48 µm wide and 110 µm deep, as well as quality surface topography replication (surface roughness from 30 nm to 360 nm) were investigated using non-contact measuring instruments such as an optical coordinate...... measuring machine and a white light interferometer respectively. The effect of the dimensional scale range on the micro/nano features replication was evaluated and it was found to be the dominant parameter if compared with the effect of the other process-related parameters investigated (melt and mould...

  19. On the evaluation of photogrammetric methods for dense 3D surface reconstruction in a metrological context (United States)

    Toschi, I.; Capra, A.; De Luca, L.; Beraldin, J.-A.; Cournoyer, L.


    This paper discusses a methodology to evaluate the accuracy of recently developed image-based 3D modelling techniques. So far, the emergence of these novel methods has not been supported by the definition of an internationally recognized standard which is fundamental for user confidence and market growth. In order to provide an element of reflection and solution to the different communities involved in 3D imaging, a promising approach is presented in this paper for the assessment of both metric quality and limitations of an open-source suite of tools (Apero/MicMac), developed for the extraction of dense 3D point clouds from a set of unordered 2D images. The proposed procedural workflow is performed within a metrological context, through inter-comparisons with "reference" data acquired with two hemispherical laser scanners, one total station, and one laser tracker. The methodology is applied to two case studies, designed in order to analyse the software performances in dealing with both outdoor and environmentally controlled conditions, i.e. the main entrance of Cathédrale de la Major (Marseille, France) and a custom-made scene located at National Research Council of Canada 3D imaging Metrology Laboratory (Ottawa). Comparative data and accuracy evidence produced for both tests allow the study of some key factors affecting 3D model accuracy.

  20. Scatterometry for semiconductor sub-micrometer and nanometer critical dimension metrology (United States)

    Al-Assaad, Rayan M.

    Scatterometry1 is one optical measurement technique that has been explored extensively for semiconductor sub-micrometer dimensional metrology. The technique refers to the measurements of reflected power upon the interaction of an incident beam with some periodic surface (grating). The characteristics of the diffractive surface affect directly the acquired measurements. Therefore it is possible to resolve some information about the grating line profile and dimensions from the measurements, which is referred to as the inverse scatterometry problem. As technology is continuously pushing lithographic processes to sub-nanometer precision2, aspects of the inverse scatterometry problem related to the accurate estimation and modeling of errors and the enhancement of the optimization methods become of great importance. For this purpose the effects of measurement errors on the estimated grating profile are analyzed in this dissertation and optimization methods are proposed to improve the accuracies in the estimated geometrical parameters for various grating profiles in real experimental conditions. A technique based on the information content analysis of the measurement data is further suggested to reduce the number of measurements required without the loss in the solution accuracies resulting in lower cost and more suitable real time implementation. Theoretical and experimental results are presented to validate these studies where the solutions to the profile parameters are accomplished by implementing a linear regression technique3. In addition a new scheme is proposed to address resolving more difficult profile parameters with sub-wavelength dimensions (sub-100 nm) that are until now subject to ongoing investigation with inconclusive results. The proposed approach consists of using a large number of angular reflectance measurements with linearly polarized TM incidence. In the case where the profile dimensions are many times smaller than the light wavelength, the parameter

  1. Precision metrology. (United States)

    Jiang, X; Whitehouse, D J


    This article is a summary of the Satellite Meeting, which followed on from the Discussion Meeting at the Royal Society on 'Ultra-precision engineering: from physics to manufacture', held at the Kavli Royal Society International Centre, Chicheley Hall, Buckinghamshire, UK. The meeting was restricted to 18 invited experts in various aspects of precision metrology from academics from the UK and Sweden, Government Institutes from the UK and Germany and global aerospace industries. It examined and identified metrology problem areas that are, or may be, limiting future developments in precision engineering and, in particular, metrology. The Satellite Meeting was intended to produce a vision that will inspire academia and industry to address the solutions of those open-ended problems identified. The discussion covered three areas, namely the function of engineering parts, their measurement and their manufacture, as well as their interactions.

  2. EDITORIAL: Nanoscale metrology Nanoscale metrology (United States)

    Picotto, G. B.; Koenders, L.; Wilkening, G.


    characterization. The papers in the first part report on new or improved instrumentation, details of developments of metrology SFM, improvements to SFM, probes and scanning methods in the direction of nanoscale coordinate measuring machines and true 3D measurements as well as of progress of a 2D encoder based on a regular crystalline lattice. To ensure traceability to the SI unit of length many highly sophisticated instruments are equipped with laser interferometers to measure small displacements in the nanometre range very accurately. Improving these techniques is still a challenge and therefore new interferometric techniques are considered in several papers as well as improved sensors for nanodisplacement measurements or the development of a deep UV microscope for micro- and nanostructures. The tactile measurement of small structures also calls for a better control of forces in the nano- and piconewton range. A nanoforce facility, based on a disk-pendulum with electrostatic stiffness reduction and electrostatic force compensation, is presented for the measurement of small forces. In the second part the contributions are related to calibration and correction strategies and standards such as the development of test objects based on 3D silicon structures, and of samples with irregular surface profiles, and their use for calibration. The shape of the tip and its influence on measurements is still a contentious issue and addressed in several papers: use of nanospheres for tip characterization, a geometrical approach for reconstruction errors by tactile probing. Molecular dynamical calculations, classical as well as ab initio (based on density functional theory), are used to discuss effects of tip-sample relaxation on the topography and to have a better base from which to estimate uncertainties in measurements of small particles or features. Some papers report about measurements of air refractivity fluctuations by phase modulation interferometry, angle-scale traceability by laser

  3. SI-traceable absolute distance measurement over more than 800 meters with sub-nanometer interferometry by two-color inline refractivity compensation (United States)

    Meiners-Hagen, Karl; Meyer, Tobias; Mildner, Jutta; Pollinger, Florian


    In this work, we demonstrate two-color inline refractivity compensation in a heterodyne synthetic wavelength interferometer for a measurement of absolute distances over several hundred meters with sub-millimeter accuracy. Two frequency-doubled Nd:YAG lasers with a coherence length of more than 1 km are used as light sources. Direct SI traceability is achieved by controlling the lasers' frequency difference in the radio frequency regime. The resulting synthetic wavelengths at 532 nm and 1064 nm are used for the absolute distance measurement and dispersion-based inline refractive index compensation. A standard deviation of 50 μm is achieved for distances up to 864 m. This performance corresponds to a standard deviation of the observable, the difference of the four optical wavelengths, on a sub-nanometer level. Comparison against white light interferometry confirms sub-millimeter accuracy over this distance. Temporally resolved data over 864 m provide quantitative insights into the influence of chromatic beam paths.

  4. Metrological investigation of nanostructured polymer surfaces replication using atomic force microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quagliotti, D.; Tosello, G.; Hansen, H. N.


    Polymer specimens have been manufactured by injection moulding and measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) with the aim to investigate the possibility of replicating their surfaces with good fidelity at the sub-μm dimensional scale. Three different cases with surface features in the 100 nm...

  5. Optical micro-metrology of structured surfaces micro-machined by jet-ECM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quagliotti, Danilo; Tosello, Guido; Islam, Aminul


    A procedure for statistical analysis and uncertainty evaluation is presented with regards to measurements of step height and surface texture. Measurements have been performed with a focus-variation microscope over jet electrochemical micro-machined surfaces. Traceability has been achieved using...

  6. Optical micro-metrology of structured surfaces micro-machined by jet-ECM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quagliotti, Danilo; Tosello, Guido; Islam, Aminul

    A procedure for statistical analysis and uncertainty evaluation is presented with regards to measurements of step height and surface texture. Measurements have been performed with a focus-variation microscope over jet electrochemical micro-machined surfaces. Traceability has been achieved using...

  7. Metrological changes in the surface morphology of cereal grains in the mixing process (United States)

    Królczyk, Jolanta B.


    The paper presents a new idea of approach to the analysis of surface morphology of cereal grains. In this paper, the surfaces of maize were analyzed using an optical 3D measurement system to determine the surface morphology and parameters of surface topography. It was established how changes in the moisture influence on the surface characteristics. Comprehensive parametric analysis was conducted for maize grains with different moisture contents. The objective of this study was to comprehensively characterize the surface morphology of maize in contact area using standardized 3D roughness parameters as well as other characteristics such as structure direction and isotropy. This is the first study that has presented, elucidated, and discussed the relationships between some morphological parameters of cereal grains. This research contributes to better understanding of the mixing process. The main findings are: the values of roughness parameters kurtosis and skewness are characterized by higher values for maize grains with lower moisture, compared with maize grains with higher moisture content; there is a close relationship between the maize grain moisture content and the surface roughness parameters of kurtosis and skewness; maize grains have an anisotropic structure.

  8. Metrological Aspects of Surface Topographies Produced by Different Machining Operations Regarding Their Potential Functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żak Krzysztof


    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive methodology for measuring and characterizing the surface topographies on machined steel parts produced by precision machining operations. The performed case studies concern a wide spectrum of topographic features of surfaces with different geometrical structures but the same values of the arithmetic mean height Sa. The tested machining operations included hard turning operations performed with CBN tools, grinding operations with Al2O3 ceramic and CBN wheels and superfinish using ceramic stones. As a result, several characteristic surface textures with the Sa roughness parameter value of about 0.2 μm were thoroughly characterized and compared regarding their potential functional capabilities. Apart from the standard 2D and 3D roughness parameters, the fractal, motif and frequency parameters were taken in the consideration.

  9. EDITORIAL: Nanoscale metrology Nanoscale metrology (United States)

    Klapetek, P.; Koenders, L.


    This special issue of Measurement Science and Technology presents selected contributions from the NanoScale 2010 seminar held in Brno, Czech Republic. It was the 5th Seminar on Nanoscale Calibration Standards and Methods and the 9th Seminar on Quantitative Microscopy (the first being held in 1995). The seminar was jointly organized with the Czech Metrology Institute (CMI) and the Nanometrology Group of the Technical Committee-Length of EURAMET. There were two workshops that were integrated into NanoScale 2010: first a workshop presenting the results obtained in NANOTRACE, a European Metrology Research Project (EMRP) on displacement-measuring optical interferometers, and second a workshop about the European metrology landscape in nanometrology related to thin films, scanning probe microscopy and critical dimension. The aim of this workshop was to bring together developers, applicants and metrologists working in this field of nanometrology and to discuss future needs. For more information see The articles in this special issue of Measurement Science and Technology cover some novel scientific results. This issue can serve also as a representative selection of topics that are currently being investigated in the field of European and world-wide nanometrology. Besides traditional topics of dimensional metrology, like development of novel interferometers or laser stabilization techniques, some novel interesting trends in the field of nanometrology are observed. As metrology generally reflects the needs of scientific and industrial research, many research topics addressed refer to current trends in nanotechnology, too, focusing on traceability and improved measurement accuracy in this field. While historically the most studied standards in nanometrology were related to simple geometric structures like step heights or 1D or 2D gratings, now we are facing tasks to measure 3D structures and many unforeseen questions arising from interesting physical

  10. Spectral and parameter estimation problems arising in the metrology of high performance mirror surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Church, E.L.; Takacs, P.Z.


    The accurate characterization of mirror surfaces requires the estimation of two-dimensional distribution functions and power spectra from trend-contaminated profile measurements. The rationale behind this, and our measurement and processing procedures, are described. The distinction between profile and area spectra is indicated, and since measurements often suggest inverse-power-law forms, a discussion of classical and fractal models of processes leading to these forms is included. 9 refs.

  11. Picosecond Photoacoustic Metrology of SiO2 and LiNbO3 Layer Systems Used for High Frequency Surface-Acoustic-Wave Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Brick


    Full Text Available Many applications of thin films necessitate detailed information about their thicknesses and sound velocities. Here, we study SiO2/LiNbO3 layer systems by picosecond photoacoustic metrology and measure the sound velocities of the respective layers and the film thickness of SiO2, which pose crucial information for the fabrication of surface-acoustic-wave filters for communication technology. Additionally, we utilize the birefringence and the accompanying change in the detection sensitivity of coherent acoustic phonons in the LiNbO3 layer to infer information about the LiNbO3 orientation and the layer interface.

  12. Heterodyne Interferometer Angle Metrology (United States)

    Hahn, Inseob; Weilert, Mark A.; Wang, Xu; Goullioud, Renaud


    A compact, high-resolution angle measurement instrument has been developed that is based on a heterodyne interferometer. The common-path heterodyne interferometer metrology is used to measure displacements of a reflective target surface. In the interferometer setup, an optical mask is used to sample the measurement laser beam reflecting back from a target surface. Angular rotations, around two orthogonal axes in a plane perpendicular to the measurement- beam propagation direction, are determined simultaneously from the relative displacement measurement of the target surface. The device is used in a tracking telescope system where pitch and yaw measurements of a flat mirror were simultaneously performed with a sensitivity of 0.1 nrad, per second, and a measuring range of 0.15 mrad at a working distance of an order of a meter. The nonlinearity of the device is also measured less than one percent over the measurement range.

  13. Reconstruction of mechanically recorded sound from an edison cylinder using three dimensional non-contact optical surface metrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadeyev, V.; Haber, C.; Maul, C.; McBride, J.W.; Golden, M.


    Audio information stored in the undulations of grooves in a medium such as a phonograph disc record or cylinder may be reconstructed, without contact, by measuring the groove shape using precision optical metrology methods and digital image processing. The viability of this approach was recently demonstrated on a 78 rpm shellac disc using two dimensional image acquisition and analysis methods. The present work reports the first three dimensional reconstruction of mechanically recorded sound. The source material, a celluloid cylinder, was scanned using color coded confocal microscopy techniques and resulted in a faithful playback of the recorded information.

  14. Future metrology needs for FEL reflective optics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assoufid, L.


    An International Workshop on Metrology for X-ray and Neutron Optics has been held March 16-17, 2000, at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, near Chicago, Illinois (USA). The workshop gathered engineers and scientists from both the U.S. and around the world to evaluate metrology instrumentation and methods used to characterize surface figure and finish for long grazing incidence optics used in beamlines at synchrotrons radiation sources. This two-day workshop was motivated by the rapid evolution in the performance of x-ray and neutron sources along with requirements in optics figure and finish. More specifically, the performance of future light sources, such as free-electron laser (FEL)-based x-ray sources, is being pushed to new limits in term of both brilliance and coherence. As a consequence, tolerances on surface figure and finish of the next generation of optics are expected to become tighter. The timing of the workshop provided an excellent opportunity to study the problem, evaluate the state of the art in metrology instrumentation, and stimulate innovation on future metrology instruments and techniques to be used to characterize these optics. This paper focuses on FEL optics and metrology needs. (A more comprehensive summary of the workshop can be found elsewhere.) The performance and limitations of current metrology instrumentation will be discussed and recommendations from the workshop on future metrology development to meet the FEL challenges will be detailed.

  15. Capability Handbook- offline metrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul; Marhöfer, David Maximilian; Tosello, Guido

    This offline metrological capability handbook has been made in relation to HiMicro Task 3.3. The purpose of this document is to assess the metrological capability of the HiMicro partners and to gather the information of all available metrological instruments in the one single document. It provides...... a quick overview of what is possible today by the state of the art, what the HiMicro consortium can do and what metrological requirements we have concerning the HiMicro industrial demonstrators....

  16. Lithography, metrology and nanomanufacturing. (United States)

    Liddle, J Alexander; Gallatin, Gregg M


    Semiconductor chip manufacturing is by far the predominant nanomanufacturing technology in the world today. Top-down lithography techniques are used for fabrication of logic and memory chips since, in order to function, these chips must essentially be perfect. Assuring perfection requires expensive metrology. Top of the line logic sells for several hundred thousand dollars per square metre and, even though the required metrology is expensive, it is a small percentage of the overall manufacturing cost. The level of stability and control afforded by current lithography tools means that much of this metrology can be online and statistical. In contrast, many of the novel types of nanomanufacturing currently being developed will produce products worth only a few dollars per square metre. To be cost effective, the required metrology must cost proportionately less. Fortunately many of these nanofabrication techniques, such as block copolymer self-assembly, colloidal self-assembly, DNA origami, roll-2-roll nano-imprint, etc., will not require the same level of perfection to meet specification. Given the variability of these self-assembly processes, in order to maintain process control, these techniques will require some level of real time online metrology. Hence we are led to the conclusion that future nanomanufacturing may well necessitate "cheap" nanometre scale metrology which functions real time and on-line, e.g. at GHz rates, in the production stream. In this paper we review top-down and bottom-up nanofabrication techniques and compare and contrast the various metrology requirements.

  17. Industrial graphene metrology. (United States)

    Kyle, Jennifer Reiber; Ozkan, Cengiz S; Ozkan, Mihrimah


    Graphene is an allotrope of carbon whose structure is based on one-atom-thick planar sheets of carbon atoms that are densely packed in a honeycomb crystal lattice. Its unique electrical and optical properties raised worldwide interest towards the design and fabrication of future electronic and optical devices with unmatched performance. At the moment, extensive efforts are underway to evaluate the reliability and performance of a number of such devices. With the recent advances in synthesizing large-area graphene sheets, engineers have begun investigating viable methodologies for conducting graphene metrology and quality control at industrial scales to understand a variety of reliability issues including defects, patternability, electrical, and physical properties. This review summarizes the current state of industrial graphene metrology and provides an overview of graphene metrology techniques. In addition, a recently developed large-area graphene metrology technique based on fluorescence quenching is introduced. For each metrology technique, the industrial metrics it measures are identified--layer thickness, edge structure, defects, Fermi level, and thermal conductivity--and a detailed description is provided as to how the measurements are performed. Additionally, the potential advantages of each technique for industrial use are identified, including throughput, scalability, sensitivity to substrate/environment, and on their demonstrated ability to achieve quantified results. The recently developed fluorescence-quenching metrology technique is shown to meet all the necessary criteria for industrial applications, rendering it the first industry-ready graphene metrology technique.

  18. 3D-profile measurement of advanced semiconductor features by reference metrology (United States)

    Takamasu, Kiyoshi; Iwaki, Yuuki; Takahashi, Satoru; Kawada, Hiroki; Ikota, Masami; Lorusso, Gian F.; Horiguchi, Naoto


    A method of sub-nanometer uncertainty for the 3D-profile measurement using TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope) images is proposed to standardize 3D-profile measurement through reference metrology. The proposed method has been validated for profiles of Si lines, photoresist features and advanced-FinFET (Fin-shaped Field-Effect Transistor) features in our previous investigations. However, efficiency of 3D-profile measurement using TEM is limited by measurement time including processing of the sample. In this article, we demonstrate a novel on-wafer 3D-profile metrology as "FIB-to-CDSEM method" with FIB (Focused Ion Beam) slope cut and CD-SEM (Critical Dimension Secondary Electron Microscope) measuring. Using the method, a few micrometer wide on a wafer is coated and cut by 45 degree slope using FIB tool. Then, the wafer is transferred to CD-SEM to measure the cross section image by top down CD-SEM measurement. We apply FIB-to-CDSEM method to CMOS sensor device. 3D-profile and 3D-profile parameters such as top line width and side wall angles of CMOS sensor device are evaluated. The 3D-profile parameters also are measured by TEM images as reference metrology. We compare the 3D-profile parameters by TEM method and FIB-to-CDSEM method. The average values and correlations on the wafer are agreed well between TEM and FIB-to- CDSEM methods.

  19. Metrology Measurement Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, L.M.


    This document contains descriptions of Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) Metrology capabilities, traceability flow charts, and the measurement uncertainty of each measurement capability. Metrology provides NIST traceable precision measurements or equipment calibration for a wide variety of parameters, ranges, and state-of-the-art uncertainties. Metrology laboratories conform to the requirements of the Department of Energy Development and Production Manual Chapter 8.4, ANSI/ISO/IEC ANSI/ISO/IEC 17025:2000, and ANSI/NCSL Z540-1 (equivalent to ISO Guide 25). FM&T Metrology laboratories are accredited by NVLAP for the parameters, ranges, and uncertainties listed in the specific scope of accreditation under NVLAP Lab code 200108-0. See the Internet at These parameters are summarized in the table at the bottom of this introduction.

  20. A Century of Acoustic Metrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Knud


    The development in acoustic measurement technique over the last century is reviewed with special emphasis on the metrological aspect.......The development in acoustic measurement technique over the last century is reviewed with special emphasis on the metrological aspect....

  1. Metrology of microcomponents and nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bariani, Paolo


    OH presentation at Conference on "Optical Coordinate Metrology, 3D Digitisation and Reverse Engineering", DTU, 28. oktober 2004......OH presentation at Conference on "Optical Coordinate Metrology, 3D Digitisation and Reverse Engineering", DTU, 28. oktober 2004...

  2. Advances in speckle metrology and related techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufmann, Guillermo H


    Speckle metrology includes various optical techniques that are based on the speckle fields generated by reflection from a rough surface or by transmission through a rough diffuser. These techniques have proven to be very useful in testing different materials in a non-destructive way. They have changed dramatically during the last years due to the development of modern optical components, with faster and more powerful digital computers, and novel data processing approaches. This most up-to-date overview of the topic describes new techniques developed in the field of speckle metrology over the l

  3. Single shot interferogram analysis for optical metrology. (United States)

    Singh, Mahendra Pratap; Singh, Mandeep; Khare, Kedar


    We report a novel constrained optimization method for single shot interferogram analysis. The unknown test wavefront is estimated as a minimum L2-norm squared solution whose phase is constrained to the space spanned by a finite number of Zernike polynomials. Using a single frame from standard phase shifting datasets, we demonstrate that our approach provides a phase map that matches with that generated using phase shifting algorithms to within λ/100  rms error. Our simulations and experimental results suggest the possibility of a simplified low-cost high quality optical metrology system for performing routine metrology tests involving smooth surface profiles.

  4. Realizing "value-added" metrology (United States)

    Bunday, Benjamin; Lipscomb, Pete; Allgair, John; Patel, Dilip; Caldwell, Mark; Solecky, Eric; Archie, Chas; Morningstar, Jennifer; Rice, Bryan J.; Singh, Bhanwar; Cain, Jason; Emami, Iraj; Banke, Bill, Jr.; Herrera, Alfredo; Ukraintsev, Vladamir; Schlessinger, Jerry; Ritchison, Jeff


    The conventional premise that metrology is a "non-value-added necessary evil" is a misleading and dangerous assertion, which must be viewed as obsolete thinking. Many metrology applications are key enablers to traditionally labeled "value-added" processing steps in lithography and etch, such that they can be considered integral parts of the processes. Various key trends in modern, state-of-the-art processing such as optical proximity correction (OPC), design for manufacturability (DFM), and advanced process control (APC) are based, at their hearts, on the assumption of fine-tuned metrology, in terms of uncertainty and accuracy. These trends are vehicles where metrology thus has large opportunities to create value through the engineering of tight and targetable process distributions. Such distributions make possible predictability in speed-sorts and in other parameters, which results in high-end product. Additionally, significant reliance has also been placed on defect metrology to predict, improve, and reduce yield variability. The necessary quality metrology is strongly influenced by not only the choice of equipment, but also the quality application of these tools in a production environment. The ultimate value added by metrology is a result of quality tools run by a quality metrology team using quality practices. This paper will explore the relationships among present and future trends and challenges in metrology, including equipment, key applications, and metrology deployment in the manufacturing flow. Of key importance are metrology personnel, with their expertise, practices, and metrics in achieving and maintaining the required level of metrology performance, including where precision, matching, and accuracy fit into these considerations. The value of metrology will be demonstrated to have shifted to "key enabler of large revenues," debunking the out-of-date premise that metrology is "non-value-added." Examples used will be from critical dimension (CD

  5. Optical Fabrication and Metrology of Aspheric and Freeform Mirrors Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The requirement for cost effective manufacturing and metrology of large optical surfaces is instrumental for the success of future NASA programs such as LISA, WFIRST...

  6. Metrology automation reliability (United States)

    Chain, Elizabeth E.


    At Motorola's MOS-12 facility automated measurements on 200- mm diameter wafers proceed in a hands-off 'load-and-go' mode requiring only wafer loading, measurement recipe loading, and a 'run' command for processing. Upon completion of all sample measurements, the data is uploaded to the factory's data collection software system via a SECS II interface, eliminating the requirement of manual data entry. The scope of in-line measurement automation has been extended to the entire metrology scheme from job file generation to measurement and data collection. Data analysis and comparison to part specification limits is also carried out automatically. Successful integration of automated metrology into the factory measurement system requires that automated functions, such as autofocus and pattern recognition algorithms, display a high degree of reliability. In the 24- hour factory reliability data can be collected automatically on every part measured. This reliability data is then uploaded to the factory data collection software system at the same time as the measurement data. Analysis of the metrology reliability data permits improvements to be made as needed, and provides an accurate accounting of automation reliability. This reliability data has so far been collected for the CD-SEM (critical dimension scanning electron microscope) metrology tool, and examples are presented. This analysis method can be applied to such automated in-line measurements as CD, overlay, particle and film thickness measurements.

  7. A new optics metrology laboratory at CNPEM: metrology capabilities, performance, and future plans (United States)

    Meyer, Bernd C.; da Silva, Murilo B.


    A new metrology and assembly facility was constructed at CNPEM and turned recently into operation. The facility includes an assembly area of 100 m2, a high-precision mechanical metrology laboratory and an optical metrology laboratory (OML), both of 50 m2, and provide improved environmental and instrumental conditions. All three laboratories sit on inertial blocks with special foundations originally developed and tested as prototype for the SIRIUS tunnel floor. The inertial blocks perform very well in attenuation of external vibrations. The OML is cleanroom ISO7 and has temperature stability better than +/-0.1 K. Measurements of the surface under test (SUT) using NOM, Fizeau- Interferometer (FI), Micro-Interferometer (MI) and AFM as the four instruments inside the OML cover the full required range of spatial frequencies. We report on the performance of the NOM and FI, the first instruments installed in the OML.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinello, Francesco; Carmignato, Simone; Savio, Enrico


    This paper addresses the metrological performance of three-dimensional measurements performed with Scanning Electron Microscopes (SEMs) using reconstruction of surface topography through stereo-photogrammetry. Reconstruction is based on the model function introduced by Piazzesi adapted for eucent......This paper addresses the metrological performance of three-dimensional measurements performed with Scanning Electron Microscopes (SEMs) using reconstruction of surface topography through stereo-photogrammetry. Reconstruction is based on the model function introduced by Piazzesi adapted...... and the instrument set-up; the second concerns the quality of scanned images and represents the major criticality in the application of SEMs for 3D characterizations. In particular the critical role played by the tilting angle and its relative uncertainty, the magnification and the deviations from the eucentricity...

  9. Elastic recoil atomic spectroscopy of light elements with sub-nanometer depth resolution; Elastische Rueckstossatomspektrometrie leichter Elemente mit Subnanometer-Tiefenaufloesung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosmata, Marcel


    heavy ion irradiation. It is shown that the used energies occur both electronic sputtering and electronically induced interface mixing. Electronic sputtering is minimised by using optimised beam parameters. For most samples the effect is below the detection limit for a fluence sufficient for the analysis. However, the influence of interface mixing is so strong that it has to be included in the analysis of the layers of the depth profiles. It is concluded from these studies that at the Rossendorf 5 MV tandem accelerator chlorine ions with an energy of 20 MeV deliver the best results. In some cases, such as the analysis of boron, the energy must be reduced to 6.5 MeV in order to retain the electronic sputtering below the detection limit. The fourth focus is the study of the influence of specific sample properties, such as surface roughness, on the shape of a measured energy spectra and respectively on the analysed depth profile. It is shown that knowledge of the roughness of a sample at the surface and at the interfaces for the analysis is needed. In addition, the contribution parameters limiting the depth resolution are calculated and compared with the conventional ion beam analysis. Finally, a comparison is made between the highresolution ion beam analysis and complementary methods published by other research groups. The fifth and last focus is the analysis of light elements in ultra thin layers. All models presented in this thesis to reduce the influence of beam damage are taken into account. The dynamic non-equilibrium charge state is also included for the quantification of elements. Depth profiling of multilayer systems is demonstrated for systems consisting of SiO{sub 2}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}O{sub x}-SiO{sub 2} on silicon, boron implantation profiles for ultra shallow junctions and ultra thin oxide layers, such as used as high-k materials.

  10. Metrological Support in Technosphere Safety (United States)

    Akhobadze, G. N.


    The principle of metrological support in technosphere safety is considered. It is based on the practical metrology. The theoretical aspects of accuracy and errors of the measuring instruments intended for diagnostics and control of the technosphere under the influence of factors harmful to human beings are presented. The necessity to choose measuring devices with high metrological characteristics according to the accuracy class and contact of sensitive elements with a medium under control is shown. The types of additional errors in measuring instruments that arise when they are affected by environmental influences are described. A specific example of the analyzers application to control industrial emissions and measure the oil and particulate matter in wastewater is shown; it allows assessing advantages and disadvantages of analyzers. Besides, the recommendations regarding the missing metrological characteristics of the instruments in use are provided. The technosphere continuous monitoring taking into account the metrological principles is expected to efficiently forecast the technosphere development and make appropriate decisions.

  11. New advancements in freeform optical metrology (United States)

    DeFisher, Scott; Matthews, Greg; Ross, James


    Metrology of freeform shapes has traditionally been difficult, especially at the sub-micron level. Sub-aperture polishing techniques and diamond turning allow optical designers to incorporate freeform surfaces into their systems. Contact measuring systems typically lack the accuracy or resolution required for optical qualification and can potentially damage the surfaces. Interferometric systems are unable to handle high spherical departures and may require complicated lateral calibration to generate feedback for deterministic grinding and polishing. OptiPro has developed UltraSurf, a noncontact coordinate measuring machine to determine the form, figure, and thickness of freeform optics. We integrated several non-contact sensors that acquire surface information through different optical principles. Each probe has strength and weaknesses relative to an optic's material properties, surface finish, and figure error. The measuring probe is scanned over the optical surface while maintaining perpendicularity and a constant focal offset. Incorporating datums from mechanical prints into the non-contact measuring method is especially important for freeform surfaces. UltraSurf has the ability to measure a wide range of surface roughness and has the degrees of freeform needed to scan datums and surfaces. The metrology method of UltraSurf and the non-contact probes will be presented. Form, figure, and thickness data will highlight the capabilities of UltraSurf to measure freeform surfaces.

  12. Adaptive interferometric null testing for unknown freeform optics metrology. (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Choi, Heejoo; Zhao, Wenchuan; Graves, Logan R; Kim, Dae Wook


    We report an adaptive interferometric null testing method for overcoming the dynamic range limitations of conventional null testing approaches during unknown freeform optics metrology or optics manufacturing processes that require not-yet-completed surface measurements to guide the next fabrication process. In the presented adaptive method, a deformable mirror functions as an adaptable null component for an unknown optical surface. The optimal deformable mirror's shape is determined by the stochastic parallel gradient descent algorithm and controlled by a deflectometry system. An adaptive interferometric null testing setup was constructed, and its metrology data successfully demonstrated superb adaptive capability in measuring an unknown surface.

  13. Laser Metrology in the Micro-Arcsecond Metrology Testbed (United States)

    An, Xin; Marx, D.; Goullioud, Renaud; Zhao, Feng


    The Space Interferometer Mission (SIM), scheduled for launch in 2009, is a space-born visible light stellar interferometer capable of micro-arcsecond-level astrometry. The Micro-Arcsecond Metrology testbed (MAM) is the ground-based testbed that incorporates all the functionalities of SIM minus the telescope, for mission-enabling technology development and verification. MAM employs a laser heterodyne metrology system using the Sub-Aperture Vertex-to-Vertex (SAVV) concept. In this paper, we describe the development and modification of the SAVV metrology launchers and the metrology instrument electronics, precision alignments and pointing control, locating cyclic error sources in the MAM testbed and methods to mitigate the cyclic errors, as well as the performance under the MAM performance metrics.

  14. Combining classical metrology models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Roldán


    Full Text Available The results obtained in the graphic analysis of the modulation of the Cuarto Real de Santo Domingo building in Granada, Spain, (ROLDÁN, 2011 have provided new insights to further approach the research on possible use the double-scale in historical monumental architecture. We propose the characterization of the singularities of the system, from the implications and graphic representation required by the metrological scheme identified, as well as the variety of typologies that are presented in their modular frames, and the iterative combination of two-scale modules which allow operational approximations to fractions and ratios not explicitly present in the system.

  15. Color and appearance metrology facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NIST Physical Measurement Laboratory has established the color and appearance metrology facility to support calibration services for 0°/45° colored samples, 20°,...

  16. Metrology of IXO Mirror Segments (United States)

    Chan, Kai-Wing


    For future x-ray astrophysics mission that demands optics with large throughput and excellent angular resolution, many telescope concepts build around assembling thin mirror segments in a Wolter I geometry, such as that originally proposed for the International X-ray Observatory. The arc-second resolution requirement posts unique challenges not just for fabrication, mounting but also for metrology of these mirror segments. In this paper, we shall discuss the metrology of these segments using normal incidence metrological method with interferometers and null lenses. We present results of the calibration of the metrology systems we are currently using, discuss their accuracy and address the precision in measuring near-cylindrical mirror segments and the stability of the measurements.

  17. Advanced Mathematical Tools in Metrology III (United States)

    Ciarlini, P.

    Superconducting Magnetic Levitation in Matlab Environment * Data Flow Evaluation in Metrology * A Generalized Data Model for Integrating Clinical Data and Biosignal Records of Patients * Assessment of Three-Dimensional Structures in Clinical Dentistry * Maximum Entropy and Bayesian Approaches to Parameter Estimation in Mass Metrology * Amplitude and Phase Determination of Sinusoidal Vibration in the Nanometer Range using Quadrature Signals * A Class of Symmetric Compactly Supported Wavelets and Associated Dual Bases * Analysis of Surface Topography by Maximum Entropy Power Spectrum Estimation * Influence of Different Kinds of Errors on Imaging Results in Optical Tomography * Application of the Laser Interferometry for Automatic Calibration of Height Setting Micrometer * Author Index

  18. CSAM Metrology Software Tool (United States)

    Vu, Duc; Sandor, Michael; Agarwal, Shri


    CSAM Metrology Software Tool (CMeST) is a computer program for analysis of false-color CSAM images of plastic-encapsulated microcircuits. (CSAM signifies C-mode scanning acoustic microscopy.) The colors in the images indicate areas of delamination within the plastic packages. Heretofore, the images have been interpreted by human examiners. Hence, interpretations have not been entirely consistent and objective. CMeST processes the color information in image-data files to detect areas of delamination without incurring inconsistencies of subjective judgement. CMeST can be used to create a database of baseline images of packages acquired at given times for comparison with images of the same packages acquired at later times. Any area within an image can be selected for analysis, which can include examination of different delamination types by location. CMeST can also be used to perform statistical analyses of image data. Results of analyses are available in a spreadsheet format for further processing. The results can be exported to any data-base-processing software.

  19. Micro-optics metrology using advanced interferometry (United States)

    Reichelt, Stephan; Bieber, Alexander; Aatz, Bernd; Zappe, Hans


    Interferometric testing of micro-optical components involves some challenges due to problems such as Fresnel diffraction artefacts, the non-common path interferometer configuration, coherent noise as well disturbing interferences, and uncertainties in distance measurements. Recently we have developed a versatile Mach-Zehnder / Twyman-Green hybride interferometer for micro-optics testing. The system combines the advantages of both interferometer types and allows full characterization of lens and surface figure errors as well as radius of curvature and focal length measurements. The interferometer system is explained and measurement results of micro-lenses are presented. Furthermore, this paper is concerned with the metrology challenges of interferometric testing on microscopic scales.

  20. Frequency Standards and Metrology (United States)

    Maleki, Lute


    Preface / Lute Maleki -- Symposium history / Jacques Vanier -- Symposium photos -- pt. I. Fundamental physics. Variation of fundamental constants from the big bang to atomic clocks: theory and observations (Invited) / V. V. Flambaum and J. C. Berengut. Alpha-dot or not: comparison of two single atom optical clocks (Invited) / T. Rosenband ... [et al.]. Variation of the fine-structure constant and laser cooling of atomic dysprosium (Invited) / N. A. Leefer ... [et al.]. Measurement of short range forces using cold atoms (Invited) / F. Pereira Dos Santos ... [et al.]. Atom interferometry experiments in fundamental physics (Invited) / S. W. Chiow ... [et al.]. Space science applications of frequency standards and metrology (Invited) / M. Tinto -- pt. II. Frequency & metrology. Quantum metrology with lattice-confined ultracold Sr atoms (Invited) / A. D. Ludlow ... [et al.]. LNE-SYRTE clock ensemble: new [symbol]Rb hyperfine frequency measurement - spectroscopy of [symbol]Hg optical clock transition (Invited) / M. Petersen ... [et al.]. Precise measurements of S-wave scattering phase shifts with a juggling atomic clock (Invited) / S. Gensemer ... [et al.]. Absolute frequency measurement of the [symbol] clock transition (Invited) / M. Chwalla ... [et al.]. The semiclassical stochastic-field/atom interaction problem (Invited) / J. Camparo. Phase and frequency noise metrology (Invited) / E. Rubiola ... [et al.]. Optical spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen for an improved determination of the Rydberg constant / J. L. Flowers ... [et al.] -- pt. III. Clock applications in space. Recent progress on the ACES mission (Invited) / L. Cacciapuoti and C. Salomon. The SAGAS mission (Invited) / P. Wolf. Small mercury microwave ion clock for navigation and radioScience (Invited) / J. D. Prestage ... [et al.]. Astro-comb: revolutionizing precision spectroscopy in astrophysics (Invited) / C. E. Kramer ... [et al.]. High frequency very long baseline interferometry: frequency standards and

  1. Dimensional micro and nano metrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; da Costa Carneiro, Kim; Haitjema, Han


    The need for dimensional micro and nano metrology is evident, and as critical dimensions are scaled down and geometrical complexity of objects is increased, the available technologies appear not sufficient. Major research and development efforts have to be undertaken in order to answer these chal......The need for dimensional micro and nano metrology is evident, and as critical dimensions are scaled down and geometrical complexity of objects is increased, the available technologies appear not sufficient. Major research and development efforts have to be undertaken in order to answer...... these challenges. The developments have to include new measuring principles and instrumentation, tolerancing rules and procedures as well as traceability and calibration. The current paper describes issues and challenges in dimensional micro and nano metrology by reviewing typical measurement tasks and available...

  2. Metrology - Beyond the Calibration Lab (United States)

    Mimbs, Scott M.


    We rely on data from measurements every day; a gas-pump, a speedometer, and a supermarket weight scale are just three examples of measurements we use to make decisions. We generally accept the data from these measurements as "valid." One reason we can accept the data is the "legal metrology" requirements established and regulated by the government in matters of commerce. The measurement data used by NASA, other government agencies, and industry can be critical to decisions which affect everything from economic viability, to mission success, to the security of the nation. Measurement data can even affect life and death decisions. Metrology requirements must adequately provide for risks associated with these decisions. To do this, metrology must be integrated into all aspects of an industry including research, design, testing, and product acceptance. Metrology, the science of measurement, has traditionally focused on the calibration of instruments, and although instrument calibration is vital, it is only a part of the process that assures quality in measurement data. For example, measurements made in research can influence the fundamental premises that establish the design parameters, which then flow down to the manufacturing processes, and eventually impact the final product. Because a breakdown can occur anywhere within this cycle, measurement quality assurance has to be integrated into every part of the life-cycle process starting with the basic research and ending with the final product inspection process. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the role of metrology in the various phases of a product's life-cycle. For simplicity, the cycle will be divided in four broad phases, with discussions centering on metrology within NASA. .

  3. Celtiberian metrology and its romanization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard A. CURCHIN


    Full Text Available Celtiberian metrology has scarcely been investigated until now, with the exception of coin weights. On the basis of measurements of pre-Roman mud bricks, a Celtiberian foot of 24 cm is proposed. With regard to weights, we can accept a module of 9 g for silver jewelry and some bronze coins; however, loom weights do not conform to any metrological system. Over time, Roman measures of length (as indicated by the dimensions of bricks, tiles and architectural monuments and weight were adopted.

  4. Absolute metrology for space interferometers (United States)

    Salvadé, Yves; Courteville, Alain; Dändliker, René


    The crucial issue of space-based interferometers is the laser interferometric metrology systems to monitor with very high accuracy optical path differences. Although classical high-resolution laser interferometers using a single wavelength are well developed, this type of incremental interferometer has a severe drawback: any interruption of the interferometer signal results in the loss of the zero reference, which requires a new calibration, starting at zero optical path difference. We propose in this paper an absolute metrology system based on multiplewavelength interferometry.

  5. Ionizing radiation metrology. 1. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peixoto, Jose Guilherme P. (ed.)


    The main purpose of this publication is to review various concepts, fundamental topics and methods related to the primary or secondary measurements of ionizing radiation. Following the approach proposed by the BIPM Comite Consultatif pour les Etalons de Mesures des Rayonnements Ionisants, the book is fully devoted to three different aspects of metrology, namely: radionuclides and radioactivity; X-rays, Gamma, Electron and Charged Particles; Neutron metrology. Approaches inherent traceability, primary standard (absolute) and secondary (relative), assessment of uncertainties, nuclear instrumentation, and laboratory infrastructure were also contemplated herein. (author)

  6. Metrological Issues in Molecular Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Arienzo Marco


    Full Text Available The therapeutic effect from molecular radiation therapy (MRT, on both tumour and normal tissue, is determined by the radiation absorbed dose. Recent research indicates that as a consequence of biological variation across patients the absorbed dose can vary, for the same administered activity, by as much as two orders of magnitude. The international collaborative EURAMET-EMRP project “Metrology for molecular radiotherapy (MetroMRT” is addressing this problem. The overall aim of the project is to develop methods of calibrating and verifying clinical dosimetry in MRT. In the present paper an overview of the metrological issues in molecular radiotherapy is provided.

  7. Non-null full field X-ray mirror metrology using SCOTS: a reflection deflectometry approach. (United States)

    Su, Peng; Wang, Yuhao; Burge, James H; Kaznatcheev, Konstantine; Idir, Mourad


    In a previous paper, the University of Arizona (UA) has developed a measurement technique called: Software Configurable Optical Test System (SCOTS) based on the principle of reflection deflectometry. In this paper, we present results of this very efficient optical metrology method applied to the metrology of X-ray mirrors. We used this technique to measure surface slope errors with precision and accuracy better than 100 nrad (rms) and ~200 nrad (rms), respectively, with a lateral resolution of few mm or less. We present results of the calibration of the metrology systems, discuss their accuracy and address the precision in measuring a spherical mirror.

  8. Calculations and surface quality measurements of high-asymmetry angle x-ray crystal monochromators for advanced x-ray imaging and metrological applications (United States)

    Zápražný, Zdenko; Korytár, Dušan; Jergel, Matej; Šiffalovič, Peter; Dobročka, Edmund; Vagovič, Patrik; Ferrari, Claudio; Mikulík, Petr; Demydenko, Maksym; Mikloška, Marek


    We present the numerical optimization and the technological development progress of x-ray optics based on asymmetric germanium crystals. We show the results of several basic calculations of diffraction properties of germanium x-ray crystal monochromators and of an analyzer-based imaging method for various asymmetry factors using an x-ray energy range from 8 to 20 keV. The important parameter of highly asymmetric monochromators as image magnifiers or compressors is the crystal surface quality. We have applied several crystal surface finishing methods, including advanced nanomachining using single-point diamond turning (SPDT), conventional mechanical lapping, chemical polishing, and chemomechanical polishing, and we have evaluated these methods by means of atomic force microscopy, diffractometry, reciprocal space mapping, and others. Our goal is to exclude the chemical etching methods as the final processing technique because it causes surface undulations. The aim is to implement very precise deterministic methods with a control of surface roughness down to 0.1 nm. The smallest roughness (˜0.3 nm), best planarity, and absence of the subsurface damage were observed for the sample which was machined using an SPDT with a feed rate of 1 mm/min and was consequently polished using a fine polishing 15-min process with a solution containing SiO2 nanoparticles (20 nm).

  9. Heisenberg Limit Superradiant Superresolving Metrology


    Wang, Da-Wei; Scully, Marlan O.


    We propose a superradiant metrology technique to achieve the Heisenberg limit super-resolving displacement measurement by encoding multiple light momenta into a three-level atomic ensemble. We use $2N$ coherent pulses to prepare a single excitation superradiant state in a superposition of two timed Dicke states that are $4N$ light momenta apart in momentum space. The phase difference between these two states induced by a uniform displacement of the atomic ensemble has $1/4N$ sensitivity. Expe...

  10. Metrology at Philip Morris Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gualandris R


    Full Text Available The importance of the metrology function at Philip Morris Europe (PME, a multinational organisation producing at over 40 sites in the European, Middle Eastern and African Regions is presented. Standardisation of test methods and equipment as well as the traceability of calibration gauges to the same reference gauge are essential in order to obtain comparable results among the various production centers. The metrology function as well as the qualification of instruments and the drafting of test and calibration operating procedures for this region are conducted or co-ordinated by the Research and Development Department in Neuchatel, Switzerland. In this paper the metrology function within PME is presented based on the measurement of the resistance to draw for which the PME R&D laboratory is accredited (ISO/CEI 17025, as both a calibration and a testing laboratory. The following topics are addressed in this paper: traceability of calibration standards to national standards; comparison of results among manufacturing centres; the choice, the budget as well as the computation of uncertainties. Furthermore, some practical aspects related to the calibration and use of the glass multicapillary gauges are discussed.

  11. Precision metrology using weak measurements. (United States)

    Zhang, Lijian; Datta, Animesh; Walmsley, Ian A


    Weak values and measurements have been proposed as a means to achieve dramatic enhancements in metrology based on the greatly increased range of possible measurement outcomes. Unfortunately, the very large values of measurement outcomes occur with highly suppressed probabilities. This raises three vital questions in weak-measurement-based metrology. Namely, (Q1) Does postselection enhance the measurement precision? (Q2) Does weak measurement offer better precision than strong measurement? (Q3) Is it possible to beat the standard quantum limit or to achieve the Heisenberg limit with weak measurement using only classical resources? We analyze these questions for two prototypical, and generic, measurement protocols and show that while the answers to the first two questions are negative for both protocols, the answer to the last is affirmative for measurements with phase-space interactions, and negative for configuration space interactions. Our results, particularly the ability of weak measurements to perform at par with strong measurements in some cases, are instructive for the design of weak-measurement-based protocols for quantum metrology.

  12. Economic benefits of metrology in manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savio, Enrico; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Carmignato, S.


    In streamlined manufacturing systems, the added value of inspection activities is often questioned, and metrology in particular is sometimes considered only as an avoidable expense. Documented quantification of economic benefits of metrology is generally not available. This work presents concrete...... and process design stages, as well as on the improved accuracy and efficiency of manufacturing through better measuring equipment and process chains with integrated metrology for process control....

  13. TNO TPD contributions to high precision optical metrology, a Darwin metrology breadboard for ESA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlaan, A.L.; Dool, T.C. van den; Braam, B.C.; Calvel, B.; Sesselman, R.; Pöschel, W.; Dontsov, D.; Vega, I.C.; Manske, E.; Schuldt, T.; Sodnik, Z.


    A Darwin precursor breadboard, comprising both fine lateral and longitudinal metrology sensors was designed, built and partially tested. The lateral metrology sensor was designed and built by TNO TPD and more than meets the imposed requirements. The longitudinal metrology sensor consists of a dual

  14. X-ray microscope assemblies. Final report and metrology report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zehnpfennig, T.F.


    This is the Final Report and Metrology Report prepared under Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Subcontract 9936205, X-ray Microscope Assemblies. The purpose of this program was to design, fabricate, and perform detailed metrology on an axisymmetric grazing-incidence x-ray microscope (XRMS) to be used as a diagnostic instrument in the Lawrence Livermore Laser Fusion Program. The optical configuration chosen for this device consists of two internally polished surfaces of revolution: an hyperboloid facing the object; and a confocal, co-axial elliposid facing the image. This arrangement is known as the Wolter Type-I configuration. The grazing angle of reflection for both surfaces is approximately 1/sup 0/. The general optical performance goals under this program were to achieve a spatial resolution in the object plane in the soft x-ray region of approximately 1 micron, and to achieve an effective solid collecting angle which is an appreciable fraction of the geometric solid collecting angle.

  15. Hierarchical characterization procedures for dimensional metrology (United States)

    MacKinnon, David; Beraldin, Jean-Angelo; Cournoyer, Luc; Carrier, Benjamin


    We present a series of dimensional metrology procedures for evaluating the geometrical performance of a 3D imaging system that have either been designed or modified from existing procedures to ensure, where possible, statistical traceability of each characteristic value from the certified reference surface to the certifying laboratory. Because there are currently no internationally-accepted standards for characterizing 3D imaging systems, these procedures have been designed to avoid using characteristic values provided by the vendors of 3D imaging systems. For this paper, we focus only on characteristics related to geometric surface properties, dividing them into surface form precision and surface fit trueness. These characteristics have been selected to be familiar to operators of 3D imaging systems that use Geometrical Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T). The procedures for generating characteristic values would form the basis of either a volumetric or application-specific analysis of the characteristic profile of a 3D imaging system. We use a hierarchical approach in which each procedure builds on either certified reference values or previously-generated characteristic values. Starting from one of three classes of surface forms, we demonstrate how procedures for quantifying for flatness, roundness, angularity, diameter error, angle error, sphere-spacing error, and unidirectional and bidirectional plane-spacing error are built upon each other. We demonstrate how these procedures can be used as part of a process for characterizing the geometrical performance of a 3D imaging system.

  16. Opportunities and Risks in Semiconductor Metrology (United States)

    Borden, Peter


    New metrology opportunities are constantly emerging as the semiconductor industry attempts to meet scaling requirements. The paper summarizes some of the key FEOL and BEOL needs. These must be weighed against a number of considerations to ensure that they are good opportunities for the metrology equipment supplier. The paper discusses some of these considerations.

  17. Pico meter metrology for the GAIA mission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.A.; Nijenhuis, J.N.; Vink, R.J.P.; Kamphues, F.G.; Gielesen, W.L.M.; Coatantiec, C.


    To measure the relative motions of GAIA's telescopes, the angle between the telescopes is monitored by an all Silicon Carbide Basic Angle Monitoring subsystem (BAM OMA). TNO is developing this metrology system. The stability requirements for this metrology system go into the pico meter and pico

  18. Metrology Careers: Jobs for Good Measure (United States)

    Liming, Drew


    What kind of career rewards precision and accuracy? One in metrology--the science of measurement. By evaluating and calibrating the technology in people's everyday lives, metrologists keep their world running smoothly. Metrology is used in the design and production of almost everything people encounter daily, from the cell phones in their pockets…

  19. The quality of measurements: a metrological reference

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fridman, A. E


    .... Mendeleev made a fundamental contribution to the development of metrology, both domestically and around the world. In 1892, he headed the first government metrological institution in Russia - the Depositary of Standard Weights and Measures, transforming it into a scientific research center of world significance - the Main Chamber of Weights ...

  20. Software Metrics and Software Metrology

    CERN Document Server

    Abran, Alain


    Most of the software measures currently proposed to the industry bring few real benefits to either software managers or developers. This book looks at the classical metrology concepts from science and engineering, using them as criteria to propose an approach to analyze the design of current software measures and then design new software measures (illustrated with the design of a software measure that has been adopted as an ISO measurement standard). The book includes several case studies analyzing strengths and weaknesses of some of the software measures most often quoted. It is meant for sof

  1. Metrological assurance in radiochemical production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya A. Tadevosyan


    Full Text Available Introduction: Radiochemical production is one of the richest in terms of data for analytical control, high-quality implementation of which is impossible without using type approved reference materials (RMs. Industry-specific institutes used to satisfy the demand for RMs, many of which nowadays have ceased this type of activities due to various reasons. The paper in question covers problems of metrological support in radiochemical production caused by the lack of type approved RMs.Materials and methods: Technologies used for obtaining homogeneous reference material for radiochemical production are described. Methods and measuring instruments used for certifying RMs are listed.Results: Results of developing certified reference materials at Mayak Production Association are given. Examples of codeveloping RMs of triuranium octoxide and plutonium dioxide are provided.Discussion and conclusions: Assessment of the current situation in terms of provision of type approved RMs is given. The paper provides data on availability of raw material, quality of instrument and methodological base in order to create a reference material production site at Mayak Production Association. Results of step-by-step solutions to problems of metrological assurance in radiochemical production are presented. Research prospects of developing RMs for inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry are outlined. An outlook is given and practical proposals are formulated in the paper. The proposals in question are related to the interaction between institutes and enterprises of the field in terms of developing type approved RMs. 

  2. Fractal Metrology for biogeosystems analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Torres-Argüelles


    Full Text Available The solid-pore distribution pattern plays an important role in soil functioning being related with the main physical, chemical and biological multiscale and multitemporal processes of this complex system. In the present research, we studied the aggregation process as self-organizing and operating near a critical point. The structural pattern is extracted from the digital images of three soils (Chernozem, Solonetz and "Chocolate" Clay and compared in terms of roughness of the gray-intensity distribution quantified by several measurement techniques. Special attention was paid to the uncertainty of each of them measured in terms of standard deviation. Some of the applied methods are known as classical in the fractal context (box-counting, rescaling-range and wavelets analyses, etc. while the others have been recently developed by our Group. The combination of these techniques, coming from Fractal Geometry, Metrology, Informatics, Probability Theory and Statistics is termed in this paper Fractal Metrology (FM. We show the usefulness of FM for complex systems analysis through a case study of the soil's physical and chemical degradation applying the selected toolbox to describe and compare the structural attributes of three porous media with contrasting structure but similar clay mineralogy dominated by montmorillonites.

  3. Fractal Metrology for biogeosystems analysis (United States)

    Torres-Argüelles, V.; Oleschko, K.; Tarquis, A. M.; Korvin, G.; Gaona, C.; Parrot, J.-F.; Ventura-Ramos, E.


    The solid-pore distribution pattern plays an important role in soil functioning being related with the main physical, chemical and biological multiscale and multitemporal processes of this complex system. In the present research, we studied the aggregation process as self-organizing and operating near a critical point. The structural pattern is extracted from the digital images of three soils (Chernozem, Solonetz and "Chocolate" Clay) and compared in terms of roughness of the gray-intensity distribution quantified by several measurement techniques. Special attention was paid to the uncertainty of each of them measured in terms of standard deviation. Some of the applied methods are known as classical in the fractal context (box-counting, rescaling-range and wavelets analyses, etc.) while the others have been recently developed by our Group. The combination of these techniques, coming from Fractal Geometry, Metrology, Informatics, Probability Theory and Statistics is termed in this paper Fractal Metrology (FM). We show the usefulness of FM for complex systems analysis through a case study of the soil's physical and chemical degradation applying the selected toolbox to describe and compare the structural attributes of three porous media with contrasting structure but similar clay mineralogy dominated by montmorillonites.

  4. Roles of chemical metrology in electronics industry and associated environment in Korea: a tutorial. (United States)

    Kang, Namgoo; Kim, Kyung Joong; Kim, Jin Seog; Lee, Joung Hae


    Chemical metrology is gaining importance in electronics industry that manufactures semiconductors, electronic displays, and microelectronics. Extensive and growing needs from this industry have raised the significance of accurate measurements of the amount of substances and material properties. For the first time, this paper presents information on how chemical metrology is being applied to meet a variety of needs in the aspects of quality control of electronics products and environmental regulations closely associated with electronics industry. For a better understanding of the roles of the chemical metrology within electronics industry, the recent research activities and results in chemical metrology are presented using typical examples in Korea where electronic industry is leading a national economy. Particular attention is paid to the applications of chemical metrology for advancing emerging electronics technology developments. Such examples are a novel technique for the accurate quantification of gas composition at nano-liter levels within a MEMS package, the surface chemical analysis of a semiconductor device. Typical metrological tools are also presented for the development of certified reference materials for fluorinated greenhouse gases and proficiency testing schemes for heavy metals and chlorinated toxic gas in order to cope properly with environmental issues within electronics industry. In addition, a recent technique is presented for the accurate measurement of the destruction and removal efficiency of a typical greenhouse gas scrubber. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Metrology of Large Parts. Chapter 5 (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip


    As discussed in the first chapter of this book, there are many different methods to measure a part using optical technology. Chapter 2 discussed the use of machine vision to measure macroscopic features such as length and position, which was extended to the use of interferometry as a linear measurement tool in chapter 3, and laser or other trackers to find the relation of key points on large parts in chapter 4. This chapter looks at measuring large parts to optical tolerances in the sub-micron range using interferometry, ranging, and optical tools discussed in the previous chapters. The purpose of this chapter is not to discuss specific metrology tools (such as interferometers or gauges), but to describe a systems engineering approach to testing large parts. Issues such as material warpage and temperature drifts that may be insignificant when measuring a part to micron levels under a microscope, as will be discussed in later chapters, can prove to be very important when making the same measurement over a larger part. In this chapter, we will define a set of guiding principles for successfully overcoming these challenges and illustrate the application of these principles with real world examples. While these examples are drawn from specific large optical testing applications, they inform the problems associated with testing any large part to optical tolerances. Manufacturing today relies on micrometer level part performance. Fields such as energy and transportation are demanding higher tolerances to provide increased efficiencies and fuel savings. By looking at how the optics industry approaches sub-micrometer metrology, one can gain a better understanding of the metrology challenges for any larger part specified to micrometer tolerances. Testing large parts, whether optical components or precision structures, to optical tolerances is just like testing small parts, only harder. Identical with what one does for small parts, a metrologist tests large parts and optics

  6. Metrology in Pharmaceutical Industry - A Case Study (United States)

    Yuvamoto, Priscila D.; Fermam, Ricardo K. S.; Nascimento, Elizabeth S.


    Metrology is recognized by improving production process, increasing the productivity, giving more reliability to the measurements and consequently, it impacts in the economy of a country. Pharmaceutical area developed GMP (Good Manufacture Practice) requeriments, with no introduction of metrological concepts. However, due to Nanomedicines, it is expected this approach and the consequent positive results. The aim of this work is to verify the level of metrology implementation in a Brazilian pharmaceutical industry, using a case study. The purpose is a better mutual comprehension by both areas, acting together and governmental support to robustness of Brazilian pharmaceutical area.

  7. Electromagnetic compatibility and interference metrology (United States)

    Ma, M. T.; Kanda, M.


    The material included in the report is intended for a short course on electromagnetic compatibility/interference (EMC/EM) metrology. The entire course is presented in nine chapters with the introductory part given as Chapter 1. The particular measurement topics to be covered are: (1) open sites (Chapters 2 and 6), (2) transverse electromagnetic cells (Chapter 3), (3) techniques for measuring the electromagnetic shielding of materials (Chapter 4), (4) anechoic chambers (Chapter 5), and (5) reverberating chambers (Chapter 8). In addition, since small probe antennas play an important role in some of the EMC/EMI measurements discussed, a separate chapter on various probe systems developed at NBS is given in Chapter 7. Selected contemporary EMI topics such as the characterization and measurement of a complex EM environment, interferences in the form of out-of-band receptions to an antenna, and some conducted EMI problems are also briefly discussed (Chapter 9).

  8. Metrology for Fuel Cell Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stocker, Michael [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Stanfield, Eric [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)


    The project was divided into three subprojects. The first subproject is Fuel Cell Manufacturing Variability and Its Impact on Performance. The objective was to determine if flow field channel dimensional variability has an impact on fuel cell performance. The second subproject is Non-contact Sensor Evaluation for Bipolar Plate Manufacturing Process Control and Smart Assembly of Fuel Cell Stacks. The objective was to enable cost reduction in the manufacture of fuel cell plates by providing a rapid non-contact measurement system for in-line process control. The third subproject is Optical Scatterfield Metrology for Online Catalyst Coating Inspection of PEM Soft Goods. The objective was to evaluate the suitability of Optical Scatterfield Microscopy as a viable measurement tool for in situ process control of catalyst coatings.

  9. 100 years of radionuclide metrology. (United States)

    Judge, S M; Arnold, D; Chauvenet, B; Collé, R; De Felice, P; García-Toraño, E; Wätjen, U


    The discipline of radionuclide metrology at national standards institutes started in 1913 with the certification by Curie, Rutherford and Meyer of the first primary standards of radium. In early years, radium was a valuable commodity and the aim of the standards was largely to facilitate trade. The focus later changed to providing standards for the new wide range of radionuclides, so that radioactivity could be used for healthcare and industrial applications while minimising the risk to patients, workers and the environment. National measurement institutes responded to the changing demands by developing new techniques for realising primary standards of radioactivity. Looking ahead, there are likely to be demands for standards for new radionuclides used in nuclear medicine, an expansion of the scope of the field into quantitative imaging to facilitate accurate patient dosimetry for nuclear medicine, and an increasing need for accurate standards for radioactive waste management and nuclear forensics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Swept Frequency Laser Metrology System (United States)

    Zhao, Feng (Inventor)


    A swept frequency laser ranging system having sub-micron accuracy that employs multiple common-path heterodyne interferometers, one coupled to a calibrated delay-line for use as an absolute reference for the ranging system. An exemplary embodiment uses two laser heterodyne interferometers to create two laser beams at two different frequencies to measure distance and motions of target(s). Heterodyne fringes generated from reflections off a reference fiducial X(sub R) and measurement (or target) fiducial X(sub M) are reflected back and are then detected by photodiodes. The measured phase changes Delta phi(sub R) and Delta phi (sub m) resulting from the laser frequency swept gives target position. The reference delay-line is the only absolute reference needed in the metrology system and this provides an ultra-stable reference and simple/economical system.

  11. National Needs for Appearance Metrology (United States)

    Nadal, Maria E.


    Appearance greatly influences a customer's judgement of the quality and acceptability of manufactured products, as yearly there is approximately $700 billion worth of shipped goods for which overall appearance is critical to their sale. For example, appearance is reported to be a major factor in about half of automobile purchases. The appearance of an object is the result of a complex interaction of the light field incident upon the object, the scattering and absorption properties of the object, and human perception. The measurable attributes of appearance are divided into color (hue, saturation, and lightness) and geometry (gloss, haze). The nature of the global economy has increased international competition and the need to improve the quality of many manufactured products. Since the manufacturing and marketing of these products is international in scope, the lack of national appearance standard artifacts and measurement protocols results in a direct loss to the supplier. One of the primary missions of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is to strengthen the U.S. economy by working with industry to develop and apply technology, measurements and standards. The NIST Physics Laboratory has established an appearance metrology laboratory. This new laboratory provides calibration services for 0^o/45^o color standards and 20^o°, 60^o°, and 85^o° specular gloss, and research in the colorimetric characterization of gonioapparent including a new Standard Reference Material for metallic coatings (SRM 2017) and measurement protocols for pearlescent coatings. These services are NIST's first appearance metrology efforts in many years; a response to needs articulated by industry. These services are designed to meet demands for improved measurements and standards to enhance the acceptability of final products since appearance often plays a major role in their acceptability.

  12. Improving automated 3D reconstruction methods via vision metrology (United States)

    Toschi, Isabella; Nocerino, Erica; Hess, Mona; Menna, Fabio; Sargeant, Ben; MacDonald, Lindsay; Remondino, Fabio; Robson, Stuart


    This paper aims to provide a procedure for improving automated 3D reconstruction methods via vision metrology. The 3D reconstruction problem is generally addressed using two different approaches. On the one hand, vision metrology (VM) systems try to accurately derive 3D coordinates of few sparse object points for industrial measurement and inspection applications; on the other, recent dense image matching (DIM) algorithms are designed to produce dense point clouds for surface representations and analyses. This paper strives to demonstrate a step towards narrowing the gap between traditional VM and DIM approaches. Efforts are therefore intended to (i) test the metric performance of the automated photogrammetric 3D reconstruction procedure, (ii) enhance the accuracy of the final results and (iii) obtain statistical indicators of the quality achieved in the orientation step. VM tools are exploited to integrate their main functionalities (centroid measurement, photogrammetric network adjustment, precision assessment, etc.) into the pipeline of 3D dense reconstruction. Finally, geometric analyses and accuracy evaluations are performed on the raw output of the matching (i.e. the point clouds) by adopting a metrological approach. The latter is based on the use of known geometric shapes and quality parameters derived from VDI/VDE guidelines. Tests are carried out by imaging the calibrated Portable Metric Test Object, designed and built at University College London (UCL), UK. It allows assessment of the performance of the image orientation and matching procedures within a typical industrial scenario, characterised by poor texture and known 3D/2D shapes.

  13. Large dynamic range optical metrology with radial shearing interferometry (United States)

    Li, Dahai; Qi, Xiaoping; Cao, Yiping; Zhou, Xin; Wang, Qionghua


    Optical metrology for elements with large dynamic range is very important, especially in aspheric components testing field. Cyclic radial shearing interferometer(CRSI) with a small radial shearing ratio of the expanded wavefront's radii to the contracted version's radii can obtain a small magnitude optical path difference(OPD) because the expanded wavefront and its contracted version nearly have the same shape and magnitude, especially for an optical component to be tested with rotationally symmetric surface. The number of fringe pattern can be decreased dramatically and recorded by CCD. This paper demonstrates the feasibility that CRSI could be used to measure an aspheric surface with large dynamic range and large aperture.

  14. The quality of measurements a metrological reference

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, A E


    This book provides a detailed discussion and commentary on the fundamentals of metrology. The fundamentals of metrology, the principles underlying the design of the SI International System of units, the theory of measurement error, a new methodology for estimation of measurement accuracy based on uncertainty, and methods for reduction of measured results and estimation of measurement uncertainty are all discussed from a modern point of view. The concept of uncertainty is shown to be consistent with the classical theory of accuracy. The theory of random measurement errors is supplemented by a very general description based on the generalized normal distribution; systematic instrumental error is described in terms of a methodology for normalizing the metrological characteristics of measuring instruments. A new international system for assuring uniformity of measurements based on agreements between national metrological institutes is discussed, in addition to the role and procedure for performance of key compari...

  15. Information modeling for interoperable dimensional metrology

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Y; Brown, Robert; Xu, Xun


    This book analyzes interoperability issues in dimensional metrology systems and describes information modeling techniques. Coverage includes theory, techniques and key technologies, and explores new approaches for solving real-world interoperability problems.

  16. Optical metrology techniques for dimensional stability measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, Jonathan David


    This thesis work is optical metrology techniques to determine material stability. In addition to displacement interferometry, topics such as periodic nonlinearity, Fabry-Perot interferometry, refractometry, and laser stabilization are covered.

  17. Quantum metrology in local dissipative environments (United States)

    Wang, Yuan-Sheng; Chen, Chong; An, Jun-Hong


    Quantum metrology allows us to attain a measurement precision that surpasses the classically achievable limit by using quantum characters. The metrology precision is raised from the standard quantum limit (SQL) to the Heisenberg limit (HL) by using entanglement. However, it has been reported that the HL returns to the SQL in the presence of local dephasing environments under the long encoding-time condition. We evaluate here the exact impacts of local dissipative environments on quantum metrology, based on the Ramsey interferometer. It is found that the HL is asymptotically recovered under the long encoding-time condition for a finite number of the probe atoms. Our analysis reveals that this is essentially due to the formation of a bound state between each atom and its environment. This provides an avenue for experimentation to implement quantum metrology under practical conditions via the engineering of the formation of the system–environment bound state.

  18. NIF Target Assembly Metrology Methodology and Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alger, E. T. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Kroll, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dzenitis, E. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Montesanti, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hughes, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Swisher, M. [IAP, Livermore, CA (United States); Taylor, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Segraves, K. [IAP, Livermore, CA (United States); Lord, D. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reynolds, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Castro, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Edwards, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    During our inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) we require cryogenic targets at the 1-cm scale to be fabricated, assembled, and metrologized to micron-level tolerances. During assembly of these ICF targets, there are physical dimensmetrology is completed using optical coordinate measurement machines that provide repeatable measurements with micron precision, while also allowing in-process data collection for absolute accuracy in assembly. To date, 51 targets have been assembled and metrologized, and 34 targets have been successfully fielded on NIF relying on these metrology data. In the near future, ignition experiments on NIF will require tighter tolerances and more demanding target assembly and metrology capability. Metrology methods, calculations, and uncertainty estimates will be discussed. Target diagnostic port alignment, target position, and capsule location results will be reviewed for the 2009 Energetics Campaign. The information is presented via control charts showing the effect of process improvements that were made during target production. Certain parameters, including capsule position, met the 2009 campaign specifications but will have much tighter requirements in the future. Finally, in order to meet these new requirements assembly process changes and metrology capability upgrades will be necessary.

  19. Nanoliter-droplet acoustic streaming via ultra high frequency surface acoustic waves. (United States)

    Shilton, Richie J; Travagliati, Marco; Beltram, Fabio; Cecchini, Marco


    The relevant length scales in sub-nanometer amplitude surface acoustic wave-driven acoustic streaming are demonstrated. We demonstrate the absence of any physical limitations preventing the downscaling of SAW-driven internal streaming to nanoliter microreactors and beyond by extending SAW microfluidics up to operating frequencies in the GHz range. This method is applied to nanoliter scale fluid mixing. © 2014 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Nuclear Technology. Course 27: Metrology. Module 27-1, Fundamentals of Metrology. (United States)

    Selleck, Ben; Espy, John

    This first in a series of eight modules for a course titled Metrology describes the fundamentals of metrology as they pertain to dimensional inspection. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module prerequisites, (3) objectives, (4) notes to instructor/student, (5) subject matter, (6)…

  1. Nuclear Technology. Course 26: Metrology. Module 27-7, Statistical Techniques in Metrology. (United States)

    Espy, John; Selleck, Ben

    This seventh in a series of eight modules for a course titled Metrology focuses on descriptive and inferential statistical techniques in metrology. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module prerequisites, (3) objectives, (4) notes to instructor/student, (5) subject matter, (6) materials…

  2. Ocular microtremor laser speckle metrology (United States)

    Al-Kalbani, M.; Mihaylova, E.; Collins, N.; Toal, V.; Coakley, D.; Boyle, G.


    Ocular Microtremor (OMT) is a continual, high frequency physiological tremor of the eye present in all subjects even when the eye is apparently at rest. OMT causes a peak to peak displacement of around 150nm-2500nm with a broadband frequency spectrum between 30Hz to 120Hz; with a peak at about 83Hz. OMT carries useful clinical information on depth of consciousness and on some neurological disorders. Nearly all quantitative clinical investigations have been based on OMT measurements using an eye contacting piezoelectric probe which has low clinical acceptability. Laser speckle metrology is a candidate for a high resolution, non-contacting, compact, portable OMT measurement technique. However, tear flow and biospeckle might be expected to interfere with the displacement information carried by the speckle. The paper investigates the properties of the scattered speckle of laser light (λ = 632.8nm) from the eye sclera to assess the feasibility of using speckle techniques to measure OMT such as the speckle correlation. The investigation is carried using a high speed CMOS video camera adequate to capture the high frequency of the tremor. The investigation is supported by studies using an eye movement simulator (a bovine sclera driven by piezoelectric bimorphs). The speckle contrast and the frame to frame spatiotemporal variations are analyzed to determine if the OMT characteristics are detectable within speckle changes induced by the biospeckle or other movements.

  3. Metrology qualification of EUV resists (United States)

    Gershtein, Liraz; Peltinov, Ram; Ventola, Stefano; Masia, Claudio; Xing, Chanjuan


    The ASML extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUV) alpha demo tool is a 0.25NA fully functional lithography tool with a field size of 26×33 mm2, enabling process development for sub-40-nm technology. Two exposure tools are installed in two research centers. The main topic of this paper is the examination of the measured pattern roughness LER contributed by measurement (SEM), exposure (EUV exposure tool) and the resists itself. The authors also examined suspected metrology SEM challenges on different EUV resist types exposed by one of the EUV demo tools. Standard CD SEM tests, such as precision and shrinkage were performed in order to get best working conditions. As part of the research, special attention was given to expected electron - material interactions, such as resist's slimming, low contrast and contamination build up on both lines. LER was analyzed in order to determine separately the contribution effect of the exposure tool and the different resists. Additional comparison was performed on different CDs with different orientations and densities.

  4. Integrating optical fabrication and metrology into the optical design process (United States)

    Harvey, James E.


    Image degradation due to scattered radiation from residual optical fabrication errors is a serious problem in many short wavelength (X-ray/EUV) imaging systems. Most commercially-available image analysis codes (ZEMAX, Code V, ASAP, FRED, etc.) currently require the scatter behavior (BSDF data) to be provided as input in order to calculate the image quality of such systems. This BSDF data is difficult to measure and rarely available for the operational wavelengths of interest. Since the smooth-surface approximation is often not satisfied at these short wavelengths, the classical Rayleigh-Rice expression that indicates the BRDF is directly proportional to the surface PSD cannot be used to calculate BRDFs from surface metrology data for even slightly rough surfaces. However, an FFTLog numerical Hankel transform algorithm enables the practical use of the computationally intensive Generalized Harvey-Shack (GHS) surface scatter theory [1] to calculate BRDFs from surface PSDs for increasingly short wavelengths that violate the smooth surface approximation implicit in the Rayleigh-Rice surface scatter theory [2-3]. The recent numerical validation [4] of the GHS theory (a generalized linear systems formulation of surface scatter theory), and an analysis of image degradation due to surface scatter in the presence of aberrations [5] has provided credence to the development of a systems engineering analysis of image quality as degraded not only by diffraction effects and geometrical aberrations, but to scattering effects due to residual optical fabrication errors as well. These advances, combined with the continuing increase in computer speed, leave us poised to fully integrate optical metrology and fabrication into the optical design process.

  5. Speckle-based at-wavelength metrology of x-ray optics at Diamond Light Source (United States)

    Wang, Hongchang; Zhou, Tunhe; Kashyap, Yogesh; Sawhney, Kawal


    To achieve high resolution and sensitivity on the nanometer scale, further development of X-ray optics is required. Although ex-situ metrology provides valuable information about X-ray optics, the ultimate performance of X-ray optics is critically dependent on the exact nature of the working conditions. Therefore, it is equally important to perform in-situ metrology at the optics' operating wavelength (`at-wavelength' metrology) to optimize the performance of X-ray optics and correct and minimize the collective distortions of the upstream beamline optics, e.g. monochromator, windows, etc. Speckle-based technique has been implemented and further improved at Diamond Light Source. We have demonstrated that the angular sensitivity for measuring the slope error of an optical surface can reach an accuracy of two nanoradians. The recent development of the speckle-based at-wavelength metrology techniques will be presented. Representative examples of the applications of the speckle-based technique will also be given - including optimization of X-ray mirrors and characterization of compound refraction lenses. Such a high-precision metrology technique will be extremely beneficial for the manufacture and in-situ alignment/optimization of X-ray mirrors for next-generation synchrotron beamlines.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seugling, R M; Woody, S C; Bauza, M B


    Typically, parts and geometries of interest to LLNL are made from a combination of complex geometries and a wide array of different materials ranging from metals and ceramics to low density foams and plastic foils. These parts are combined to develop physics experiments for studying material properties, equation of state (EOS) and radiation transport. Understanding the dimensional uncertainty of the parts contained within an experiment is critical to the physical understanding of the phenomena being observed and represents the motivation for developing probe metrology capability that can address LLNL's unique problems. Standing wave probes were developed for measuring high aspect ratio, micrometer scaled features with nanometer resolution. Originally conceived of for the use in the automotive industry for characterizing fuel injector bores and similar geometries, this concept was investigated and improved for use on geometries and materials important to LLNL needs within target fabrication. As part of the original project, detailed understanding of the probe dynamics and interactions with the surface of the sample was investigated. In addition, the upgraded system was utilized for measuring fuel injector bores and micro-lenses as a means of demonstrating capability. This report discusses the use of the standing wave probe for measuring features in low density foams, 55 mg/cc SiO{sub 2} and 982 mg/cc (%6 relative density) copper foam respectively. These two foam materials represent a difficult metrology challenge because of their material properties and surface topography. Traditional non-contact metrology systems such as normal incident interferometry and/or confocal microscopy have difficulty obtaining a signal from the relatively absorptive characteristics of these materials. In addition to the foam samples, a solid copper and plastic (Rexolite{trademark}) sample of similar geometry was measured with the standing wave probe as a reference for both conductive

  7. Distributed large-scale dimensional metrology new insights

    CERN Document Server

    Franceschini, Fiorenzo; Maisano, Domenico


    Focuses on the latest insights into and challenges of distributed large scale dimensional metrology Enables practitioners to study distributed large scale dimensional metrology independently Includes specific examples of the development of new system prototypes

  8. Joint Research on Scatterometry and AFM Wafer Metrology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodermann, B.; Buhr, E.; Danzebrink, H.U.; Bär, M.; Scholze, F.; Krumrey, M.; Wurm, M.; Klapetek, P.; Hansen, P.E.; Korpelainen, V.; Van Veghel, M.; Yacoot, A.; Siitonen, S.; El Gawhary, O.; Burger, S.; Saastamoinen, T.


    Supported by the European Commission and EURAMET, a consortium of 10 participants from national metrology institutes, universities and companies has started a joint research project with the aim of overcoming current challenges in optical scatterometry for traceable linewidth metrology. Both

  9. Multi-petahertz electronic metrology. (United States)

    Garg, M; Zhan, M; Luu, T T; Lakhotia, H; Klostermann, T; Guggenmos, A; Goulielmakis, E


    The frequency of electric currents associated with charge carriers moving in the electronic bands of solids determines the speed limit of electronics and thereby that of information and signal processing. The use of light fields to drive electrons promises access to vastly higher frequencies than conventionally used, as electric currents can be induced and manipulated on timescales faster than that of the quantum dephasing of charge carriers in solids. This forms the basis of terahertz (1012 hertz) electronics in artificial superlattices, and has enabled light-based switches and sampling of currents extending in frequency up to a few hundred terahertz. Here we demonstrate the extension of electronic metrology to the multi-petahertz (1015 hertz) frequency range. We use single-cycle intense optical fields (about one volt per ångström) to drive electron motion in the bulk of silicon dioxide, and then probe its dynamics by using attosecond (10-18 seconds) streaking to map the time structure of emerging isolated attosecond extreme ultraviolet transients and their optical driver. The data establish a firm link between the emission of the extreme ultraviolet radiation and the light-induced intraband, phase-coherent electric currents that extend in frequency up to about eight petahertz, and enable access to the dynamic nonlinear conductivity of silicon dioxide. Direct probing, confinement and control of the waveform of intraband currents inside solids on attosecond timescales establish a method of realizing multi-petahertz coherent electronics. We expect this technique to enable new ways of exploring the interplay between electron dynamics and the structure of condensed matter on the atomic scale.

  10. Dynamic metrology and data processing for precision freeform optics fabrication and testing (United States)

    Aftab, Maham; Trumper, Isaac; Huang, Lei; Choi, Heejoo; Zhao, Wenchuan; Graves, Logan; Oh, Chang Jin; Kim, Dae Wook


    Dynamic metrology holds the key to overcoming several challenging limitations of conventional optical metrology, especially with regards to precision freeform optical elements. We present two dynamic metrology systems: 1) adaptive interferometric null testing; and 2) instantaneous phase shifting deflectometry, along with an overview of a gradient data processing and surface reconstruction technique. The adaptive null testing method, utilizing a deformable mirror, adopts a stochastic parallel gradient descent search algorithm in order to dynamically create a null testing condition for unknown freeform optics. The single-shot deflectometry system implemented on an iPhone uses a multiplexed display pattern to enable dynamic measurements of time-varying optical components or optics in vibration. Experimental data, measurement accuracy / precision, and data processing algorithms are discussed.

  11. Advanced in situ metrology for x-ray beam shaping with super precision. (United States)

    Wang, Hongchang; Sutter, John; Sawhney, Kawal


    We report a novel method for in situ metrology of an X-ray bimorph mirror by using the speckle scanning technique. Both the focusing beam and the "tophat" defocussed beam have been generated by optimizing the bimorph mirror in a single iteration. Importantly, we have demonstrated that the angular sensitivity for measuring the slope error of an optical surface can reach accuracy in the range of two nanoradians. When compared with conventional ex-situ metrology techniques, the method enables a substantial increase of around two orders of magnitude in the angular sensitivity and opens the way to a previously inaccessible region of slope error measurement. Such a super precision metrology technique will be beneficial for both the manufacture of polished mirrors and the optimization of beam shaping.

  12. Large-volume metrology instrument selection and measurability analysis


    Muelaner, J.E.; Cai, B.; Maropoulos, P.G.


    A wide range of metrology processes are involved in the manufacture of large products. In addition to the traditional tool-setting and product-verification operations, increasingly flexible metrology-enabled automation is also being used. Faced with many possible measurement problems and a very large number of metrology instruments employing diverse technologies, the selection of the appropriate instrument for a given task can be highly complex. Also, as metrology has become a key manufacturi...

  13. Large volume metrology instrument selection and measurability analysis


    Muelaner, Jody E.; Cai, Bin; Maropoulos, Paul G.


    A wide range of metrology processes are involved in the manufacture of large products. In addition to the traditional tool setting and product verification operations increasingly flexible metrology enabled automation is also being used. Faced with many possible measurement problems and a very large number of metrology instruments, employing diverse technologies, the selection of the appropriate instrument for a given task can be highly complex. Also, since metrology has become a key manufact...

  14. NASA metrology information system: A NEMS subsystem (United States)

    German, E. S., Jr.; Kern, F. A.; Yow, R. P.; Peterson, E.


    the NASA Metrology Information Systems (NMIS) is being developed as a standardized tool in managing the NASA field Center's instrument calibration programs. This system, as defined by the NASA Metrology and Calibration Workshop, will function as a subsystem of the newly developed NASA Equipment Management System (NEMS). The Metrology Information System is designed to utilize and update applicable NEMS data fields for controlled property and to function as a stand alone system for noncontrolled property. The NMIS provides automatic instrument calibration recall control, instrument historical performance data storage and analysis, calibration and repair labor and parts cost data, and instrument user and location data. Nineteen standardized reports were developed to analyze calibration system operations.

  15. Quantum limits on postselected, probabilistic quantum metrology (United States)

    Combes, Joshua; Ferrie, Christopher; Jiang, Zhang; Caves, Carlton M.


    Probabilistic metrology attempts to improve parameter estimation by occasionally reporting an excellent estimate and the rest of the time either guessing or doing nothing at all. Here we show that probabilistic metrology can never improve quantum limits on estimation of a single parameter, both on average and asymptotically in number of trials, if performance is judged relative to mean-square estimation error. We extend the result by showing that for a finite number of trials, the probability of obtaining better estimates using probabilistic metrology, as measured by mean-square error, decreases exponentially with the number of trials. To be tight, the performance bounds we derive require that likelihood functions be approximately normal, which in turn depends on how rapidly specific distributions converge to a normal distribution with number of trials.

  16. Improved photomask metrology through exposure emulation (United States)

    Potzick, James E.


    The ultimate purpose of the photomask in IC manufacture is to define the image to be printed on a silicon wafer. Of the many factors which affect this aerial image in the wafer stepper, some are properties of the stepper projection system and some are properties of the photomask. The purpose of photomask metrology is to help optimize photomask properties to produce the desired aerial image in the stepper. Those factors attributable to the photomask include chrome feature size, phase shifter accuracy (if used), chrome edge roughness and runout, defects, etc. Most of these are usually imaged differently in the exposure tool and the metrology tool because these tools' optical systems are different. Two ways to predict the stepper aerial image from photomask measurements are simulation (modeling) and emulation. In the first, the values of the relevant photomask measurements and properties (if they are known) can be inserted into the models for both tools, and then the stepper aerial image can be predicted from the photomask measurements. Or, the stepper's aerial image of the photomask can be emulated in the metrology tool and magnified for the purpose of measurement. Present mask metrology tools, when used in transmission, duplicate the optical morphology of the projection tool. The projected stepper aerial image can be emulated by adjusting the few major generic optical parameters of the metrology tool to match those of the wafer stepper to be used. Then the measured image in the metrology tool emulates the image in the stepper, and photomask properties affect both images in the same ways. Diverse measurements of photomask characteristics can be made accurately and fast by emulating photomask performance instead of measuring the chrome geometry. All of the significant optical performance parameters of the photomask can be measured with a single tool, at the small expense of shifting to a more appropriate philosophy of mask measurement.

  17. Innovative Ge Quantum Dot Functional Sensing/Metrology Devices (United States)


    Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 20140507 - 20150506 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Innovative Ge Quantum Dot Functional Sensing/ Metrology ...unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Motivation to employ QDs for primary sensing and metrology devices is strong in light of peculiar...optical and thermal properties of QDs that has opened up access to wide-ranging applications in logics, computing, photonics, and metrology

  18. Laser and Optical Fiber Metrology in Romania (United States)

    Sporea, Dan; Sporea, Adelina


    The Romanian government established in the last five years a National Program for the improvement of country's infrastructure of metrology. The set goal was to develop and accredit testing and calibration laboratories, as well as certification bodies, according to the ISO 17025:2005 norm. Our Institute benefited from this policy, and developed a laboratory for laser and optical fibers metrology in order to provide testing and calibration services for the certification of laser-based industrial, medical and communication products. The paper will present the laboratory accredited facilities and some of the results obtained in the evaluation of irradiation effects of optical and optoelectronic parts, tests run under the EU's Fusion Program.

  19. Three-dimensional metrology for printed electronics (United States)

    Bromberg, Vadim; Harding, Kevin


    Novel materials and printing technologies can enable rapid and low cost prototyping and manufacturing of electronic devices with increased flexibility and complexity. However, robust and on-demand printing of circuits will require accurate metrology methods that can measure micron level patterns to verify proper production. This paper presents an evaluation of a range of optical gaging tools ranging from confocal to area 3D systems to determine metrological capability for a range of key parameters from trace thickness to solder paste volumes. Finally, this paper will present a select set of optimized measurement tools detailing both capabilities and gaps in the available technologies needed to fully realize the potential of printed electronics.

  20. Interoperability: linking design and tolerancing with metrology. (United States)

    Morse, Edward; Heysiattalab, Saeed; Barnard-Feeney, Allison; Hedberg, Thomas


    On October 30, 2014 the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) approved QIF v 2.0 (Quality Information Framework, version 2.0) as an American National Standard. Subsequently in early 2016 QIF version 2.1 was approved. This paper describes how the QIF standard models the information necessary for quality workflow across the full metrology enterprise. After a brief description of the XML 'language' used in the standard, the paper reports on how the standard enables information exchange among four major activities in the metrology enterprise (product definition; measurement planning; measurement execution; and the analysis and reporting of the quality data).

  1. Using entanglement against noise in quantum metrology. (United States)

    Demkowicz-Dobrzański, Rafal; Maccone, Lorenzo


    We analyze the role of entanglement among probes and with external ancillas in quantum metrology. In the absence of noise, it is known that unentangled sequential strategies can achieve the same Heisenberg scaling of entangled strategies and that external ancillas are useless. This changes in the presence of noise; here we prove that entangled strategies can have higher precision than unentangled ones and that the addition of passive external ancillas can also increase the precision. We analyze some specific noise models and use the results to conjecture a general hierarchy for quantum metrology strategies in the presence of noise.

  2. Vacuum Technology Considerations For Mass Metrology (United States)

    Abbott, Patrick J.; Jabour, Zeina J.


    Vacuum weighing of mass artifacts eliminates the necessity of air buoyancy correction and its contribution to the measurement uncertainty. Vacuum weighing is also an important process in the experiments currently underway for the redefinition of the SI mass unit, the kilogram. Creating the optimum vacuum environment for mass metrology requires careful design and selection of construction materials, plumbing components, pumping, and pressure gauging technologies. We review the vacuum technology1 required for mass metrology and suggest procedures and hardware for successful and reproducible operation. PMID:26989593

  3. DABAM: an open-source database of X-ray mirrors metrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez del Rio, Manuel, E-mail: [ESRF - The European Synchrotron, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, 38000 Grenoble (France); Bianchi, Davide [AC2T Research GmbH, Viktro-Kaplan-Strasse 2-C, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Cocco, Daniele [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Glass, Mark [ESRF - The European Synchrotron, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, 38000 Grenoble (France); Idir, Mourad [NSLS II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Metz, Jim [InSync Inc., 2511C Broadbent Parkway, Albuquerque, NM 87107 (United States); Raimondi, Lorenzo; Rebuffi, Luca [Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste SCpA, Basovizza (TS) (Italy); Reininger, Ruben; Shi, Xianbo [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Siewert, Frank [BESSY II, Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, Institute for Nanometre Optics and Technology, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Spielmann-Jaeggi, Sibylle [Swiss Light Source at Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Takacs, Peter [Instrumentation Division, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Tomasset, Muriel [Synchrotron Soleil (France); Tonnessen, Tom [InSync Inc., 2511C Broadbent Parkway, Albuquerque, NM 87107 (United States); Vivo, Amparo [ESRF - The European Synchrotron, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, 38000 Grenoble (France); Yashchuk, Valeriy [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS 15-R0317, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720-8199 (United States)


    DABAM, an open-source database of X-ray mirrors metrology to be used with ray-tracing and wave-propagation codes for simulating the effect of the surface errors on the performance of a synchrotron radiation beamline. An open-source database containing metrology data for X-ray mirrors is presented. It makes available metrology data (mirror heights and slopes profiles) that can be used with simulation tools for calculating the effects of optical surface errors in the performances of an optical instrument, such as a synchrotron beamline. A typical case is the degradation of the intensity profile at the focal position in a beamline due to mirror surface errors. This database for metrology (DABAM) aims to provide to the users of simulation tools the data of real mirrors. The data included in the database are described in this paper, with details of how the mirror parameters are stored. An accompanying software is provided to allow simple access and processing of these data, calculate the most usual statistical parameters, and also include the option of creating input files for most used simulation codes. Some optics simulations are presented and discussed to illustrate the real use of the profiles from the database.

  4. A normative frame of reference for the metrology function (United States)

    Barbier, Pierre

    Metrology is discussed and reasons for the necessity of it being exact, its original appearance in the legal domain, its development up until the use of digital techniques, and existing metrological documentation, are discussed. Exact measurements are necessary since the security of individuals or installations depends on the results of such operations. The incertitude of a measurement is determined through comparisons to standards. The metrological documentation includes information on the metrological obligations of certain industries, and means of assuring quality measurements. This documentation contains the norms supplied by a normative reference frame which serves as an information base to facilitate the installation of metrological functions in industries.

  5. Optical vortex metrology: Are phase singularities foes or friends in optical metrology?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takeda, M.; Wang, W.; Hanson, Steen Grüner


    We raise an issue whether phase singularities are foes or friends in optical metrology, and give an answer by introducing the principle and applications of a new technique which we recently proposed for displacement and flow measurements. The technique is called optical vortex metrology because i...... or Laguerre-Gauss transform to the random pattern. © (2008) COPYRIGHT SPIE--The International Society for Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only....


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauza, M B; Woody, S C; Smith, S T; Seugling, R M; Darnell, I; Florando, J N


    Miniaturization has been one of the driving forces in the development of new technologies leading to new products in a variety of industries. As a result, the integration of components over several orders of magnitude on the length scale poses enormous challenges for quality assurance and control. Therefore, new solutions are necessary to meet the growing need for more challenging metrology tasks and metrology requirements in nano- and micro-technology. However, with miniaturization, new challenges arise such as the increased influence of adhesion, electrostatic, Van der Waals and meniscus forces that affect the measurement process. Technical solutions to overcome these micro- and nano-metrology challenges will include the need for traceability, new calibration procedures and calibration artifacts. Over the past decade many new metrology tools have been proposed, however; for contact based measurements, adhesion between the measurement probe and the specimen still proves to be one of the more difficult challenges to overcome. To address this issue, a new class of tactile sensing probe referred to as standing wave sensor has been developed and was previously presented. Previous work introduced the principle of operation of the standing wave senor. This work presents new measurements showing applications of the standing wave probe as the sensing element in a microscale high aspect ratio profiling system.

  7. Traceability and uncertainty estimation in coordinate metrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Savio, Enrico; De Chiffre, Leonardo


    are required. Depending on the requirements for uncertainty level, different approaches may be adopted to achieve traceability. Especially in the case of complex measurement situations and workpieces the procedures are not trivial. This paper discusses the establishment of traceability in coordinate metrology...

  8. Absolute distance metrology for space interferometers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinkels, B.L.; Latoui, A.; Bhattacharya, N.; Wielders, A.A.; Braat, J.J.M.


    Future space missions, among which the Darwin Space Interferometer, will consist of several free flying satellites. A complex metrology system is required to have all the components fly accurately in formation and have it operate as a single instrument. Our work focuses on a possible implementation

  9. An Assessment of Critical Dimension Small Angle X-ray Scattering Metrology for Advanced Semiconductor Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Settens, Charles M. [State Univ. of New York (SUNY), Albany, NY (United States)


    Simultaneous migration of planar transistors to FinFET architectures, the introduction of a plurality of materials to ensure suitable electrical characteristics, and the establishment of reliable multiple patterning lithography schemes to pattern sub-10 nm feature sizes imposes formidable challenges to current in-line dimensional metrologies. Because the shape of a FinFET channel cross-section immediately influences the electrical characteristics, the evaluation of 3D device structures requires measurement of parameters beyond traditional critical dimension (CD), including their sidewall angles, top corner rounding and footing, roughness, recesses and undercuts at single nanometer dimensions; thus, metrologies require sub-nm and approaching atomic level measurement uncertainty. Synchrotron critical dimension small angle X-ray scattering (CD-SAXS) has unique capabilities to non-destructively monitor the cross-section shape of surface structures with single nanometer uncertainty and can perform overlay metrology to sub-nm uncertainty. In this dissertation, we perform a systematic experimental investigation using CD-SAXS metrology on a hierarchy of semiconductor 3D device architectures including, high-aspect-ratio contact holes, H2 annealed Si fins, and a series of grating type samples at multiple points along a FinFET fabrication process increasing in structural intricacy and ending with fully fabricated FinFET. Comparative studies between CD-SAXS metrology and other relevant semiconductor dimensional metrologies, particularly CDSEM, CD-AFM and TEM are used to determine physical limits of CD-SAXS approach for advanced semiconductor samples. CD-SAXS experimental tradeoffs, advice for model-dependent analysis and thoughts on the compatibility with a semiconductor manufacturing environment are discussed.

  10. An Assessment of Critical Dimension Small Angle X-ray Scattering Metrology for Advanced Semiconductor Manufacturing (United States)

    Settens, Charles M.

    Simultaneous migration of planar transistors to FinFET architectures, the introduction of a plurality of materials to ensure suitable electrical characteristics, and the establishment of reliable multiple patterning lithography schemes to pattern sub-10 nm feature sizes imposes formidable challenges to current in-line dimensional metrologies. Because the shape of a FinFET channel cross-section immediately influences the electrical characteristics, the evaluation of 3D device structures requires measurement of parameters beyond traditional critical dimension (CD), including their sidewall angles, top corner rounding and footing, roughness, recesses and undercuts at single nanometer dimensions; thus, metrologies require sub-nm and approaching atomic level measurement uncertainty. Synchrotron critical dimension small angle X-ray scattering (CD-SAXS) has unique capabilities to non-destructively monitor the cross-section shape of surface structures with single nanometer uncertainty and can perform overlay metrology to sub-nm uncertainty. In this dissertation, we perform a systematic experimental investigation using CD-SAXS metrology on a hierarchy of semiconductor 3D device architectures including, high-aspect-ratio contact holes, H 2 annealed Si fins, and a series of grating type samples at multiple points along a FinFET fabrication process increasing in structural intricacy and ending with fully fabricated FinFET. Comparative studies between CD-SAXS metrology and other relevant semiconductor dimensional metrologies, particularly CD-SEM, CD-AFM and TEM are used to determine physical limits of CD-SAXS approach for advanced semiconductor samples. CD-SAXS experimental tradeoffs, advice for model-dependent analysis and thoughts on the compatibility with a semiconductor manufacturing environment are discussed.

  11. An alternative method to achieve metrological confirmation in measurement process (United States)

    Villeta, M.; Rubio, E. M.; Sanz, A.; Sevilla, L.


    Metrological confirmation process must be designed and implemented to ensure that metrological characteristics of the measurement system meet metrological requirements of the measurement process. The aim of this paper is to present an alternative method to the traditional metrological requirements about the relationship between tolerance and measurement uncertainty, to develop such confirmation processes. The proposed way to metrological confirmation considers a given inspection task of the measurement process into the manufacturing system, and it is based on the Index of Contamination of the Capability, ICC. Metrological confirmation process is then developed taking into account the producer risks and economic considerations on this index. As a consequence, depending on the capability of the manufacturing process, the measurement system will be or will not be in adequate state of metrological confirmation for the measurement process.

  12. Advanced metrology by offline SEM data processing (United States)

    Lakcher, Amine; Schneider, Loïc.; Le-Gratiet, Bertrand; Ducoté, Julien; Farys, Vincent; Besacier, Maxime


    Today's technology nodes contain more and more complex designs bringing increasing challenges to chip manufacturing process steps. It is necessary to have an efficient metrology to assess process variability of these complex patterns and thus extract relevant data to generate process aware design rules and to improve OPC models. Today process variability is mostly addressed through the analysis of in-line monitoring features which are often designed to support robust measurements and as a consequence are not always very representative of critical design rules. CD-SEM is the main CD metrology technique used in chip manufacturing process but it is challenged when it comes to measure metrics like tip to tip, tip to line, areas or necking in high quantity and with robustness. CD-SEM images contain a lot of information that is not always used in metrology. Suppliers have provided tools that allow engineers to extract the SEM contours of their features and to convert them into a GDS. Contours can be seen as the signature of the shape as it contains all the dimensional data. Thus the methodology is to use the CD-SEM to take high quality images then generate SEM contours and create a data base out of them. Contours are used to feed an offline metrology tool that will process them to extract different metrics. It was shown in two previous papers that it is possible to perform complex measurements on hotspots at different process steps (lithography, etch, copper CMP) by using SEM contours with an in-house offline metrology tool. In the current paper, the methodology presented previously will be expanded to improve its robustness and combined with the use of phylogeny to classify the SEM images according to their geometrical proximities.

  13. Recent Progress in Target Metrology at General Atomics (United States)

    Huang, Haibo; Engelhorn, Kyle; Sequoia, Kevin; Boehm, Kurt; Xu, Hongwei; Jaquez, Javier; Greenwood, Annette; Crippen, Jay; Kong, Casey; Rice, Neal; Reed, Christopher; Elsner, Fred; Farrell, Mike


    Targets are central to all ICF/HED programs. Many target specifications are so tight or specialized that the measurements cannot be performed on commercial equipment. General Atomics continues to provide on-demand target metrology development to support the evolving needs of the community. In this talk, we will present our latest efforts in new instrument design, equipment automation and data analysis technique development. Examples include a dark-field imaging algorithm to measure ablator defects down to 0.1um size required by Laboratory for Laser Energetics direct drive program, a full-surface wall-thickness mapper that enables polystyrene shell development, an integrated set up for GDP dome mapping and removal, an automated x-ray absorption spectroscope to improve the precision and accuracy of dopant measurement, a hohlraum interior surface inspection technique, optical transmission characterization of thin metallic films for micro-dots hohlraum diagnostic platform, new high-resolution NEXIV pin-hole array characterization, etc.

  14. Axial-Stereo 3-D Optical Metrology for Inner Profile of Pipes Using a Scanning Laser Endoscope. (United States)

    Gong, Yuanzheng; Johnston, Richard S; Melville, C David; Seibel, Eric J

    As the rapid progress in the development of optoelectronic components and computational power, 3D optical metrology becomes more and more popular in manufacturing and quality control due to its flexibility and high speed. However, most of the optical metrology methods are limited to external surfaces. This paper proposed a new approach to measure tiny internal 3D surfaces with a scanning fiber endoscope and axial-stereo vision algorithm. A dense, accurate point cloud of internally machined threads was generated to compare with its corresponding X-ray 3D data as ground truth, and the quantification was analyzed by Iterative Closest Points algorithm.

  15. Manufacturing and metrology for IR conformal windows and domes (United States)

    Ferralli, Ian; Blalock, Todd; Brunelle, Matt; Lynch, Timothy; Myer, Brian; Medicus, Kate


    Freeform and conformal optics have the potential to dramatically improve optical systems by enabling systems with fewer optical components, reduced aberrations, and improved aerodynamic performance. These optical components differ from standard components in their surface shape, typically a non-symmetric equation based definition, and material properties. Traditional grinding and polishing tools are unable to handle these freeform shapes. Additionally, standard metrology tools cannot measure these surfaces. Desired substrates are typically hard ceramics, including poly-crystalline alumina or aluminum oxynitride. Notwithstanding the challenges that the hardness provides to manufacturing, these crystalline materials can be highly susceptible to grain decoration creating unacceptable scatter in optical systems. In this presentation, we will show progress towards addressing the unique challenges of manufacturing conformal windows and domes. Particular attention is given to our robotic polishing platform. This platform is based on an industrial robot adapted to accept a wide range of tooling and parts. The robot's flexibility has provided us an opportunity to address the unique challenges of conformal windows. Slurries and polishing active layers can easily be changed to adapt to varying materials and address grain decoration. We have the flexibility to change tool size and shape to address the varying sizes and shapes of conformal optics. In addition, the robotic platform can be a base for a deflectometry-based metrology tool to measure surface form error. This system, whose precision is independent of the robot's positioning accuracy, will allow us to measure optics in-situ saving time and reducing part risk. In conclusion, we will show examples of the conformal windows manufactured using our developed processes.

  16. Machine tool metrology an industrial handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Graham T


    Maximizing reader insights into the key scientific disciplines of Machine Tool Metrology, this text will prove useful for the industrial-practitioner and those interested in the operation of machine tools. Within this current level of industrial-content, this book incorporates significant usage of the existing published literature and valid information obtained from a wide-spectrum of manufacturers of plant, equipment and instrumentation before putting forward novel ideas and methodologies. Providing easy to understand bullet points and lucid descriptions of metrological and calibration subjects, this book aids reader understanding of the topics discussed whilst adding a voluminous-amount of footnotes utilised throughout all of the chapters, which adds some additional detail to the subject. Featuring an extensive amount of photographic-support, this book will serve as a key reference text for all those involved in the field. .

  17. Quantum metrology foundation of units and measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Goebel, Ernst O


    The International System of Units (SI) is the world's most widely used system of measurement, used every day in commerce and science, and is the modern form of the metric system. It currently comprises the meter (m), the kilogram (kg), the second (s), the ampere (A), the kelvin (K), the candela (cd) and the mole (mol)). The system is changing though, units and unit definitions are modified through international agreements as the technology of measurement progresses, and as the precision of measurements improves. The SI is now being redefined based on constants of nature and their realization by quantum standards. Therefore, the underlying physics and technologies will receive increasing interest, and not only in the metrology community but in all fields of science. This book introduces and explains the applications of modern physics concepts to metrology, the science and the applications of measurements. A special focus is made on the use of quantum standards for the realization of the forthcoming new SI (the...

  18. Metrology for fire experiments in outdoor conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Silvani, Xavier


    Natural fires can be considered as scale-dependant, non-linear processes of mass, momentum and heat transport, resulting from a turbulent reactive and radiative fluid medium flowing over a complex medium, the vegetal fuel. In natural outdoor conditions, the experimental study of natural fires at real scale needs the development of an original metrology, one able to capture the large range of time and length scales involved in its dynamic nature and also able to resist the thermal, mechanical and chemical aggression of flames on devices. Robust, accurate and poorly intrusive tools must be carefully set-up and used for gaining very fluctuating data over long periods. These signals also need the development of original post-processing tools that take into account the non-steady nature of their stochastic components. Metrology for Fire Experiments in Outdoor Conditions closely analyzes these features, and also describes measurements techniques, the thermal insulation of fragile electronic systems, data acquisitio...

  19. UPWIND 1A2 Metrology. Final Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eecen, P.J.; Wagenaar, J.W.; Stefanatos, N.

    percent of a new design by field experiments is very hard to almost impossible. As long as convincing field tests have not confirmed the actual improvement, the industry will not invest much to change the turbine design. This is an example that clarifies why the development of wind energy is hindered...... was to perform a state of the art assessment to identify all relevant measurands. The required accuracies and required sampling frequencies have been identified from the perspective of the users of the data (the other work packages in UpWind). This work led to the definition of the Metrology Database, which...... is a valuable tool for the further assessment and interest has been shown from other work packages, such as Training. This report describes the activities that have been carried out in the Work Package 1A2 Metrology of the UpWind project. Activities from Risø are described in a separate report: T.F. Pedersen...

  20. Quantum metrology embraced for the worst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adesso, Gerardo [School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)


    Quantum metrology exploits quantum mechanical laws to improve the precision in estimating technologically relevant parameters such as phase, frequency, or magnetic fields. Probe states are usually tailored on the particular dynamics whose parameters are being estimated. Here we consider a novel framework where quantum estimation is performed in an interferometric configuration, using bipartite probe states prepared without full knowledge of the generating Hamiltonian. We introduce a figure of merit for the scheme, given by the worst case precision over a suitable class of Hamiltonians, and prove that it amounts exactly to a measure of quantum discord for the input probe. We demonstrate the superiority of discordant probes over classically correlated ones in a highly controllable metrology experiment with room temperature nuclear magnetic resonance, one of the paradigmatic testbeds for quantum information processing. We thus provide a rigorous operational interpretation of discord, shedding light on its potential for quantum technology.

  1. Quantum metrology and estimation of Unruh effect. (United States)

    Wang, Jieci; Tian, Zehua; Jing, Jiliang; Fan, Heng


    We study the quantum metrology for a pair of entangled Unruh-Dewitt detectors when one of them is accelerated and coupled to a massless scalar field. Comparing with previous schemes, our model requires only local interaction and avoids the use of cavities in the probe state preparation process. We show that the probe state preparation and the interaction between the accelerated detector and the external field have significant effects on the value of quantum Fisher information, correspondingly pose variable ultimate limit of precision in the estimation of Unruh effect. We find that the precision of the estimation can be improved by a larger effective coupling strength and a longer interaction time. Alternatively, the energy gap of the detector has a range that can provide us a better precision. Thus we may adjust those parameters and attain a higher precision in the estimation. We also find that an extremely high acceleration is not required in the quantum metrology process.

  2. Sequential Path Entanglement for Quantum Metrology (United States)

    Jin, Xian-Min; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Deng, Youjin; Barbieri, Marco; Nunn, Joshua; Walmsley, Ian A.


    Path entanglement is a key resource for quantum metrology. Using path-entangled states, the standard quantum limit can be beaten, and the Heisenberg limit can be achieved. However, the preparation and detection of such states scales unfavourably with the number of photons. Here we introduce sequential path entanglement, in which photons are distributed across distinct time bins with arbitrary separation, as a resource for quantum metrology. We demonstrate a scheme for converting polarization Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger entanglement into sequential path entanglement. We observe the same enhanced phase resolution expected for conventional path entanglement, independent of the delay between consecutive photons. Sequential path entanglement can be prepared comparably easily from polarization entanglement, can be detected without using photon-number-resolving detectors, and enables novel applications.

  3. Automated metrology and NDE measurements for increased throughput in aerospace component manufacture (United States)

    MacLeod, Charles N.; Pierce, S. Gareth; Morozov, Maxim; Summan, Rahul; Dobie, Gordon; McCubbin, Paul; McCubbin, Coreen; Dearie, Scott; Munro, Gavin


    Composite materials, particularly Carbon-Fibre-Reinforced Polymer (CFRP), find extensive use in construction of modern airframe structures. Quality and conformance checks can be a serious limitation on production throughput in aerospace manufacturing. Traditionally Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) and metrology measurements are undertaken at different stages of a product manufacture cycle using specific dedicated equipment and personnel. However, since both processes involve direct interaction with the component's surface, an opportunity exists to combine these to potentially reduce overall cycle time. In addition when considering moves towards automation of both inspection processes, it is clear that measured metrology data is an essential input parameter to the automated NDE workflow. The authors present the findings of a proof of concept combined sub-scale NDE and Metrology demonstrator cell for aerospace components. Permitting a maximum part area size of 3 × 1 m2, KUKA KR5 6 degree of freedom robotic manipulators were utilised to deploy two inspection payloads. Firstly automated non-contact photogrammetric metrology measurement was employed to inspect the structure for conformance of dimension in relation to reference designs (available from CAD). Secondly automated phased array technology was deployed to inspect and produce ultrasonic thickness mapping of components of nominal 20mm thickness. Parameters such as overall cycle time, part dimensional accuracy, robotic path accuracy and data registration are assessed in the paper to highlight both the current state of the art performance available and the future direction of required research focus.

  4. Speckle-based at-wavelength metrology of X-ray mirrors with super accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashyap, Yogesh; Wang, Hongchang; Sawhney, Kawal, E-mail: [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)


    X-ray active mirrors, such as bimorph and mechanically bendable mirrors, are increasingly being used on beamlines at modern synchrotron source facilities to generate either focused or “tophat” beams. As well as optical tests in the metrology lab, it is becoming increasingly important to optimise and characterise active optics under actual beamline operating conditions. Recently developed X-ray speckle-based at-wavelength metrology technique has shown great potential. The technique has been established and further developed at the Diamond Light Source and is increasingly being used to optimise active mirrors. Details of the X-ray speckle-based at-wavelength metrology technique and an example of its applicability in characterising and optimising a micro-focusing bimorph X-ray mirror are presented. Importantly, an unprecedented angular sensitivity in the range of two nanoradians for measuring the slope error of an optical surface has been demonstrated. Such a super precision metrology technique will be beneficial to the manufacturers of polished mirrors and also in optimization of beam shaping during experiments.

  5. Speckle-based at-wavelength metrology of X-ray mirrors with super accuracy. (United States)

    Kashyap, Yogesh; Wang, Hongchang; Sawhney, Kawal


    X-ray active mirrors, such as bimorph and mechanically bendable mirrors, are increasingly being used on beamlines at modern synchrotron source facilities to generate either focused or "tophat" beams. As well as optical tests in the metrology lab, it is becoming increasingly important to optimise and characterise active optics under actual beamline operating conditions. Recently developed X-ray speckle-based at-wavelength metrology technique has shown great potential. The technique has been established and further developed at the Diamond Light Source and is increasingly being used to optimise active mirrors. Details of the X-ray speckle-based at-wavelength metrology technique and an example of its applicability in characterising and optimising a micro-focusing bimorph X-ray mirror are presented. Importantly, an unprecedented angular sensitivity in the range of two nanoradians for measuring the slope error of an optical surface has been demonstrated. Such a super precision metrology technique will be beneficial to the manufacturers of polished mirrors and also in optimization of beam shaping during experiments.

  6. Quantum metrology and its application in biology (United States)

    Taylor, Michael A.; Bowen, Warwick P.


    Quantum metrology provides a route to overcome practical limits in sensing devices. It holds particular relevance to biology, where sensitivity and resolution constraints restrict applications both in fundamental biophysics and in medicine. Here, we review quantum metrology from this biological context, focusing on optical techniques due to their particular relevance for biological imaging, sensing, and stimulation. Our understanding of quantum mechanics has already enabled important applications in biology, including positron emission tomography (PET) with entangled photons, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using nuclear magnetic resonance, and bio-magnetic imaging with superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). In quantum metrology an even greater range of applications arise from the ability to not just understand, but to engineer, coherence and correlations at the quantum level. In the past few years, quite dramatic progress has been seen in applying these ideas into biological systems. Capabilities that have been demonstrated include enhanced sensitivity and resolution, immunity to imaging artefacts and technical noise, and characterization of the biological response to light at the single-photon level. New quantum measurement techniques offer even greater promise, raising the prospect for improved multi-photon microscopy and magnetic imaging, among many other possible applications. Realization of this potential will require cross-disciplinary input from researchers in both biology and quantum physics. In this review we seek to communicate the developments of quantum metrology in a way that is accessible to biologists and biophysicists, while providing sufficient details to allow the interested reader to obtain a solid understanding of the field. We further seek to introduce quantum physicists to some of the central challenges of optical measurements in biological science. We hope that this will aid in bridging the communication gap that exists

  7. Digital holography for MEMS and microsystem metrology

    CERN Document Server

    Asundi, Anand


    Approaching the topic of digital holography from the practical perspective of industrial inspection, Digital Holography for MEMS and Microsystem Metrology describes the process of digital holography and its growing applications for MEMS characterization, residual stress measurement, design and evaluation, and device testing and inspection. Asundi also provides a thorough theoretical grounding that enables the reader to understand basic concepts and thus identify areas where this technique can be adopted. This combination of both practical and theoretical approach will ensure the

  8. Volumetric rendering and metrology of spherical gradient refractive index lens imaged by angular scan optical coherence tomography system. (United States)

    Yao, Jianing; Thompson, Kevin P; Ma, Bin; Ponting, Michael; Rolland, Jannick P


    In this paper, we develop the methodology, including the refraction correction, geometrical thickness correction, coordinate transformation, and layer segmentation algorithms, for 3D rendering and metrology of a layered spherical gradient refractive index (S-GRIN) lens based on the imaging data collected by an angular scan optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. The 3D mapping and rendering enables direct 3D visualization and internal defect inspection of the lens. The metrology provides assessment of the surface geometry, the lens thickness, the radii of curvature of the internal layer interfaces, and the misalignment of the internal S-GRIN distribution with respect to the lens surface. The OCT metrology results identify the manufacturing defects, and enable targeted process development for optimizing the manufacturing parameters. The newly fabricated S-GRIN lenses show up to a 7x spherical aberration reduction that allows a significantly increased utilizable effective aperture.

  9. 7th International Workshop on Advanced Optical Imaging and Metrology

    CERN Document Server


    In continuation of the FRINGE Workshop Series this Proceeding contains all contributions presented at the 7. International Workshop on Advanced Optical Imaging and Metrology. The FRINGE Workshop Series is dedicated to the presentation, discussion and dissemination of recent results in Optical Imaging and Metrology. Topics of particular interest for the 7. Workshop are: - New methods and tools for the generation, acquisition, processing, and evaluation of data in Optical Imaging and Metrology (digital wavefront engineering, computational imaging, model-based reconstruction, compressed sensing, inverse problems solution) - Application-driven technologies in Optical Imaging and Metrology (high-resolution, adaptive, active, robust, reliable, flexible, in-line, real-time) - High-dynamic range solutions in Optical Imaging and Metrology (from macro to nano) - Hybrid technologies in Optical Imaging and Metrology (hybrid optics, sensor and data fusion, model-based solutions, multimodality) - New optical sensors, imagi...

  10. Large volume metrology instrument selection and measurability analysis


    Muelaner, Jody E; Cai, Bin; Maropoulos, Paul G


    Metrology processes used in the manufacture of large products include tool setting, product verification and flexible metrology enabled automation. The range of applications and instruments available makes the selection of the appropriate instrument for a given task highly complex. Since metrology is a key manufacturing process it should be considered in the early stages of design. This paper provides an overview of the important selection criteria for typical measurement processes and presen...

  11. Optical metrology tools for the Virgo projet (United States)

    Loriette, V.

    For more than thirty years the search for gravitationnal waves, predicted by Einstein's relativistic theory of gravitation, has been an intense research field in experimental as well as theoretical physics. Today, with the constant advance of technology in optics, lasers, data analysis and processing, ... a promising way of directly detecting gravitationnal waves with earth-based instruments is optical interferometry. Before the end of this century many experiments will be carried on in Australia, Europe, Japan and the United States to detect the passage of a gravitationnal wave through giant Michelson-type interferometers. The effects predicted are so small, (a gravitationnal wave changes the length of three kilometer long arms by one thousandth of a fermi) that the need for “perfect” optical components is a key to the success of these experiments. Still a few years ago it would have been impossible to make optical components that would satisfy the required specifications for such interferometric detectors. For nearly ten years constant R&D efforts in optical coating manufacturing, optical material fabrication and optical metrology, allow us today to make such components. This text is intended to describe the field of optical metrology as it is needed for the testing of optical parts having performances far beyond than everything previously made. The first chapter is an introduction to gravitationnal waves, their sources and their effects on detectors. Starting by newtonian mechanics we jump rapidly to the general theory of relativity and describe particular solutions of Einstein's equations in the case of weak gravitationnal fields, which are periodic perturbations of the space-time metric in the form of plane waves, the so-called gravitationnal waves. We present various candidate sources, terrestrial and extra-terrestrial and give a short description of the two families of detectors: resonnant bars and optical interferometers. The second part of this chapter

  12. Development of Electromechanical Architectures for AC Voltage Metrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre BOUNOUH


    Full Text Available This paper presents results of work undertaken for exploring MEMS capabilities to fabricate AC voltage references for electrical metrology and high precision instrumentation through the mechanical-electrical coupling in MEMS. From first MEMS test structures previously realized, a second set of devices with improved characteristics has been developed and fabricated with Silicon on Insulator (SOI Surface Micromachining process. These MEMS exhibit pull-in voltages of 5 V and 10 V to match with the best performance of the read-out electronics developed for driving the MEMS. Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy measurements carried out on the new design show resonance frequencies of about only some kHz, and the stability of the MEMS output voltage measured at 100 kHz has been found very promising for the best samples where the relative deviation from the mean value over almost 12 hours showed a standard deviation of about 6.3 ppm.

  13. Silver Nanoparticles: Technological Advances, Societal Impacts, and Metrological Challenges (United States)

    Calderón-Jiménez, Bryan; Johnson, Monique E.; Montoro Bustos, Antonio R.; Murphy, Karen E.; Winchester, Michael R.; Vega Baudrit, José R.


    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) show different physical and chemical properties compared to their macroscale analogs. This is primarily due to their small size and, consequently, the exceptional surface area of these materials. Presently, advances in the synthesis, stabilization, and production of AgNPs have fostered a new generation of commercial products and intensified scientific investigation within the nanotechnology field. The use of AgNPs in commercial products is increasing and impacts on the environment and human health are largely unknown. This article discusses advances in AgNP production and presents an overview of the commercial, societal, and environmental impacts of this emerging nanoparticle (NP), and nanomaterials in general. Finally, we examine the challenges associated with AgNP characterization, discuss the importance of the development of NP reference materials (RMs) and explore their role as a metrological mechanism to improve the quality and comparability of NP measurements. PMID:28271059

  14. Design, fabrication and metrological evaluation of wearable pressure sensors. (United States)

    Goy, C B; Menichetti, V; Yanicelli, L M; Lucero, J B; López, M A Gómez; Parodi, N F; Herrera, M C


    Pressure sensors are valuable transducers that are necessary in a huge number of medical application. However, the state of the art of compact and lightweight pressure sensors with the capability of measuring the contact pressure between two surfaces (contact pressure sensors) is very poor. In this work, several types of wearable contact pressure sensors are fabricated using different conductive textile materials and piezo-resistive films. The fabricated sensors differ in size, the textile conductor used and/or the number of layers of the sandwiched piezo-resistive film. The intention is to study, through the obtaining of their calibration curves, their metrological properties (repeatability, sensitivity and range) and determine which physical characteristics improve their ability for measuring contact pressures. It has been found that it is possible to obtain wearable contact pressure sensors through the proposed fabrication process with satisfactory repeatability, range and sensitivity; and that some of these properties can be improved by the physical characteristics of the sensors.

  15. Silver nanoparticles: technological advances, societal impacts, and metrological challenges (United States)

    Calderón-Jiménez, Bryan; Johnson, Monique E.; Montoro Bustos, Antonio R.; Murphy, Karen E.; Winchester, Michael R.; Vega Baudrit, José R.


    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) show different physical and chemical properties compared to their macroscale analogs. This is primarily due to their small size and, consequently, the exceptional surface area of these materials. Presently, advances in the synthesis, stabilization, and production of AgNPs have fostered a new generation of commercial products and intensified scientific investigation within the nanotechnology field. The use of AgNPs in commercial products is increasing and impacts on the environment and human health are largely unknown. This article discusses advances in AgNP production and presents an overview of the commercial, societal, and environmental impacts of this emerging nanoparticle (NP), and nanomaterials in general. Finally, we examine the challenges associated with AgNP characterization, discuss the importance of the development of NP reference materials (RMs) and explore their role as a metrological mechanism to improve the quality and comparability of NP measurements.

  16. Silver Nanoparticles: Technological Advances, Societal Impacts, and Metrological Challenges. (United States)

    Calderón-Jiménez, Bryan; Johnson, Monique E; Montoro Bustos, Antonio R; Murphy, Karen E; Winchester, Michael R; Vega Baudrit, José R


    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) show different physical and chemical properties compared to their macroscale analogs. This is primarily due to their small size and, consequently, the exceptional surface area of these materials. Presently, advances in the synthesis, stabilization, and production of AgNPs have fostered a new generation of commercial products and intensified scientific investigation within the nanotechnology field. The use of AgNPs in commercial products is increasing and impacts on the environment and human health are largely unknown. This article discusses advances in AgNP production and presents an overview of the commercial, societal, and environmental impacts of this emerging nanoparticle (NP), and nanomaterials in general. Finally, we examine the challenges associated with AgNP characterization, discuss the importance of the development of NP reference materials (RMs) and explore their role as a metrological mechanism to improve the quality and comparability of NP measurements.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola Mykyychuk


    Full Text Available The authors offer to solve the problem of providing traceability of measurements by increasing metrological autonomy of in-plant measuring systems. The paper shows the expedience of increasing metrological autonomy by creating a "virtual" reference. There are analysed possible variants of implementation of the "virtual" reference, which will provide high metrological stability of measurements at insignificant additional expenses. The authors point out the necessity of creation of universal technical and programmatic means of mutual comparison for the in-plant measuring systems to increase the reliability of measurements in the conditions of metrological autonomy.

  18. PREFACE: VII Brazilian Congress on Metrology (Metrologia 2013) (United States)

    Costa-Félix, Rodrigo; Bernardes, Americo; Valente de Oliveira, José Carlos; Mauro Granjeiro, José; Epsztejn, Ruth; Ihlenfeld, Waldemar; Smarçaro da Cunha, Valnei


    SEVENTH BRAZILIAN CONGRESS ON METROLOGY (METROLOGIA 2013) Metrology and Quality for a Sustainable Development From November 24th to 27th 2013 was issued the Seventh Brazilian Congress on Metrology (Metrologia 2013), which is a biannual conference organized and sponsored by the Brazilian Society of Metrology (SBM) and the Brazilian National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology (Inmetro). This edition was held in the charming and historical city of Ouro Preto, MG, Brazil, and aimed to join people and institutions devoted to the dissemination of the metrology and conformity assessment. The Metrologia 2013 Conference consisted of Keynote Speeches (7) and regular papers (204). Among the regular papers, the 47 most outstanding ones, comprising a high quality content on Metrology and Conformity Assessment, were selected to be published in this issue of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The topics of the conference covered all important areas of Metrology, which were agglutinated in the following sessions in the present issue: . Physical Metrology (Acoustics, Vibration and Ultrasound; Electricity and Magnetism; Mechanics; Optics); . Metrology on Ionizing Radiations; . Time and Frequency; . Chemistry Metrology; . Materials Metrology; . Biotechnology; . Uncertainty, Statistics and Mathematics; . Legal Metrology; . Conformity Assessment. It is our great pleasure to present this volume of IOP Journal of Physics: Conference Series (JPCS) to the scientific community to promote further research in Metrology and related areas. We believe that this volume will be both an excellent source of scientific material in the fast evolving fields that were covered by Metrologia 2013. President of the congress Americo Bernardes Federal University of Ouro Preto Editor-in-chief Rodrigo Costa-Félix Brazilian National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology Editors José Carlos Valente de Oliveira (Editor on Mechanical Metrology

  19. Surface inspection using FTIR spectroscopy (United States)

    Powell, G. L.; Smyrl, N. R.; Williams, D. M.; Meyers, H. M., III; Barber, T. E.; Marrero-Rivera, M.


    The use of reflectance Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy as a tool for surface inspection is described. Laboratory instruments and portable instruments can support remote sensing probes that can map chemical contaminants on surfaces with detection limits under the best of conditions in the sub-nanometer range, i.e.. near absolute cleanliness, excellent performance in the sub-micrometer range, and useful performance for films tens of microns thick. Examples of discovering and quantifying contamination such as mineral oils and greases, vegetable oils, and silicone oils on aluminum foil, galvanized sheet steel, smooth aluminum tubing, and sandblasted 7075 aluminum alloy and D6AC steel. The ability to map in time and space the distribution of oil stains on metals is demonstrated. Techniques associated with quantitatively applying oils to metals, subsequently verifying the application, and non-linear relationships between reflectance and the quantity oil are described.

  20. DCM: device correlated metrology for overlay measurements (United States)

    Chen, Charlie; Huang, George K. C.; Pai, Yuan Chi; Wu, Jimmy C. H.; Cheng, Yu Wei; Hsu, Simon C. C.; Yu, Chun Chi; Amir, Nuriel; Choi, Dongsub; Itzkovich, Tal; Tarshish-Shapir, Inna; Tien, David C.; Huang, Eros; Kuo, Kelly T. L.; Kato, Takeshi; Inoue, Osamu; Kawada, Hiroki; Okagawa, Yutaka; Huang, Luis; Hsu, Matthew; Su, Amei


    One of the main issues with overlay error metrology accuracy is the bias between results based on overlay (OVL) targets and actual device overlay error. In this study, we introduce the concept of Device Correlated Metrology (DCM), which is a systematic approach to quantifying and overcoming the bias between target-based overlay results and device overlay issues. For systematically quantifying the bias components between target and device, we introduce a new hybrid target integrating an optical OVL target with a device mimicking CD-SEM (Critical Dimension - Scanning Electron Microscope) target. The hybrid OVL target is designed to accurately represent the process influence found on the real device. In the general case, the CD-SEM can measure the bias between target and device on the same layer at AEI (After Etch Inspection) for all layers, the OVL between layers at AEI for most cases and at ADI (After Develop Inspection) for limited cases such as DPL (Double Patterning Lithography). The results shown demonstrate that for the new process compatible hybrid targets the bias between target and device is small, of the order of CD-SEM measurement uncertainty. Direct OVL measurements by CD-SEM show excellent correlation with optical OVL measurements in certain conditions. This correlation helps verify the accuracy of the optical measurement results and is applicable for imaging based OVL metrology methods using AIM or AIMid OVL targets, and scatterometry-based overlay methods such as SCOL (Scatterometry OVL). Future plans include broadening the hybrid target design to better mimic each layer's process conditions such as pattern density. We are also designing hybrid targets for memory devices.

  1. Metrology for graphene and 2D materials (United States)

    Pollard, Andrew J.


    The application of graphene, a one atom-thick honeycomb lattice of carbon atoms with superlative properties, such as electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and strength, has already shown that it can be used to benefit metrology itself as a new quantum standard for resistance. However, there are many application areas where graphene and other 2D materials, such as molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), may be disruptive, areas such as flexible electronics, nanocomposites, sensing and energy storage. Applying metrology to the area of graphene is now critical to enable the new, emerging global graphene commercial world and bridge the gap between academia and industry. Measurement capabilities and expertise in a wide range of scientific areas are required to address this challenge. The combined and complementary approach of varied characterisation methods for structural, chemical, electrical and other properties, will allow the real-world issues of commercialising graphene and other 2D materials to be addressed. Here, examples of metrology challenges that have been overcome through a multi-technique or new approach are discussed. Firstly, the structural characterisation of defects in both graphene and MoS2 via Raman spectroscopy is described, and how nanoscale mapping of vacancy defects in graphene is also possible using tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS). Furthermore, the chemical characterisation and removal of polymer residue on chemical vapour deposition (CVD) grown graphene via secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is detailed, as well as the chemical characterisation of iron films used to grow large domain single-layer h-BN through CVD growth, revealing how contamination of the substrate itself plays a role in the resulting h-BN layer. In addition, the role of international standardisation in this area is described, outlining the current work ongoing in both the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) and the

  2. Device-correlated metrology for overlay measurements (United States)

    Chen, Charlie; Huang, George K. C.; Pai, Yuan Chi; Wu, Jimmy C. H.; Cheng, Yu Wei; Hsu, Simon C. C.; Yu, Chun Chi; Amir, Nuriel; Choi, Dongsub; Itzkovich, Tal; Tarshish-Shapir, Inna; Tien, David C.; Huang, Eros; Kuo, Kelly T. L.; Kato, Takeshi; Inoue, Osamu; Kawada, Hiroki; Okagawa, Yutaka; Huang, Luis; Hsu, Matthew; Su, Amei


    One of the main issues with accuracy is the bias between the overlay (OVL) target and actual device OVL. In this study, we introduce the concept of device-correlated metrology (DCM), which is a systematic approach to quantify and overcome the bias between target-based OVL results and device OVL values. In order to systematically quantify the bias components between target and device, we introduce a new hybrid target integrating an optical OVL target with a device mimicking critical dimension scanning electron microscope (CD-SEM) target. The hybrid OVL target is designed to accurately represent the process influence on the actual device. In the general case, the CD-SEM can measure the bias between the target and device on the same layer after etch inspection (AEI) for all layers, the OVL between layers at AEI for most cases and after develop inspection for limited cases such as double-patterning layers. The results have shown that for the innovative process compatible hybrid targets the bias between the target and device is small, within the order of CD-SEM noise. Direct OVL measurements by CD-SEM show excellent correlation between CD-SEM and optical OVL measurements at certain conditions. This correlation helps verify the accuracy of the optical measurement results and is applicable for the imaging base OVL method using several target types advance imaging metrology, advance imaging metrology in die OVL, and the scatterometrybase OVL method. Future plans include broadening the hybrid target design to better mimic each layer process conditions such as pattern density. Additionally, for memory devices we are developing hybrid targets which enable other methods of accuracy verification.

  3. A metrological large range atomic force microscope with improved performance. (United States)

    Dai, Gaoliang; Wolff, Helmut; Pohlenz, Frank; Danzebrink, Hans-Ulrich


    A metrological large range atomic force microscope (Met. LR-AFM) has been set up and improved over the past years at Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). Being designed as a scanning sample type instrument, the sample is moved in three dimensions by a mechanical ball bearing stage in combination with a compact z-piezostage. Its topography is detected by a position-stationary AFM head. The sample displacement is measured by three embedded miniature homodyne interferometers in the x, y, and z directions. The AFM head is aligned in such a way that its cantilever tip is positioned on the sample surface at the intersection point of the three interferometer measurement beams for satisfying the Abbe measurement principle. In this paper, further improvements of the Met. LR-AFM are reported. A new AFM head using the beam deflection principle has been developed to reduce the influence of parasitic optical interference phenomena. Furthermore, an off-line Heydemann correction method has been applied to reduce the inherent interferometer nonlinearities to less than 0.3 nm (p-v). Versatile scanning functions, for example, radial scanning or local AFM measurement functions, have been implemented to optimize the measurement process. The measurement software is also improved and allows comfortable operations of the instrument via graphical user interface or script-based command sets. The improved Met. LR-AFM is capable of measuring, for instance, the step height, lateral pitch, line width, nanoroughness, and other geometrical parameters of nanostructures. Calibration results of a one-dimensional grating and a set of film thickness standards are demonstrated, showing the excellent metrological performance of the instrument.

  4. Primary Laboratory for Dimentional Metrology Annual Report 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Rasmussen, Svend Nytoft


    The measurement capability concerning different areas within geometrical metrology has been maintained through approximately 1700 calibration and testing tasks for Danish clients.......The measurement capability concerning different areas within geometrical metrology has been maintained through approximately 1700 calibration and testing tasks for Danish clients....

  5. Differential Evolution for Many-Particle Adaptive Quantum Metrology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lovett, N.B.; Crosnier, C.; Perarnau- Llobet, M.; Sanders, B.


    We devise powerful algorithms based on differential evolution for adaptive many-particle quantum metrology. Our new approach delivers adaptive quantum metrology policies for feedback control that are orders-of-magnitude more efficient and surpass the few-dozen-particle limitation arising in methods

  6. Multicolor quantum metrology with entangled photons. (United States)

    Bell, Bryn; Kannan, Srikanth; McMillan, Alex; Clark, Alex S; Wadsworth, William J; Rarity, John G


    Entangled photons can be used to make measurements with an accuracy beyond that possible with classical light. While most implementations of quantum metrology have used states made up of a single color of photons, we show that entangled states of two colors can show supersensitivity to optical phase and path length by using a photonic crystal fiber source of photon pairs inside an interferometer. This setup is relatively simple and robust to experimental imperfections. We demonstrate sensitivity beyond the standard quantum limit and show superresolved interference fringes using entangled states of two, four, and six photons.

  7. Quantum metrology for gravitational wave astronomy. (United States)

    Schnabel, Roman; Mavalvala, Nergis; McClelland, David E; Lam, Ping K


    Einstein's general theory of relativity predicts that accelerating mass distributions produce gravitational radiation, analogous to electromagnetic radiation from accelerating charges. These gravitational waves (GWs) have not been directly detected to date, but are expected to open a new window to the Universe once the detectors, kilometre-scale laser interferometers measuring the distance between quasi-free-falling mirrors, have achieved adequate sensitivity. Recent advances in quantum metrology may now contribute to provide the required sensitivity boost. The so-called squeezed light is able to quantum entangle the high-power laser fields in the interferometer arms, and could have a key role in the realization of GW astronomy.

  8. Laser thermoreflectance for semiconductor thin films metrology (United States)

    Gailly, P.; Hastanin, J.; Duterte, C.; Hernandez, Y.; Lecourt, J.-B.; Kupisiewicz, A.; Martin, P.-E.; Fleury-Frenette, K.


    We present a thermoreflectance-based metrology concept applied to compound semiconductor thin films off-line characterization in the solar cells scribing process. The presented thermoreflectance setup has been used to evaluate the thermal diffusivity of thin CdTe films and to measure eventual changes in the thermal properties of 5 μm CdTe films ablated by nano and picosecond laser pulses. The temperature response of the CdTe thin film to the nanosecond heating pulse has been numerically investigated using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The computational and experimental results have been compared.

  9. Dual absolute and relative high precision laser metrology (United States)

    Ergenzinger, Klaus; Schuldt, Thilo; Berlioz, Philippe; Braxmaier, Claus; Johann, Ulrich


    Design, integration, test setup, test results, and lessons-learnt of a high precision laser metrology demonstrator for dual absolute and relative laser distance metrology are presented. The different working principles are described and their main subsystems and performance drivers are presented. All subsystems have strong commonalities with flight models as of LTP on LISA Pathfinder and laser communication missions, and different pathways to flight models for varying applications and missions are presented. The setup has initially been realized within the ESA project "High Precision Optical Metrology (HPOM)", originally initiated for DARWIN formation flying optical metrology, though now serves as demonstrator for a variety of future applications. These are sketched and brought into context (PROBA-3, IXO onboard metrology, laser gravimetry earth observation missions, fundamental science missions like LISA and Pioneer anomaly).

  10. Estimation of gradients in quantum metrology (United States)

    Altenburg, Sanah; Oszmaniec, Michał; Wölk, Sabine; Gühne, Otfried


    We develop a general theory to estimate magnetic field gradients in quantum metrology. We consider a system of N particles distributed on a line whose internal degrees of freedom interact with a magnetic field. Usually gradient estimation is based on precise measurements of the magnetic field at two different locations, performed with two independent groups of particles. This approach, however, is sensitive to fluctuations of the offset field determining the level splitting of the particles and results in collective dephasing. In this work, we use the framework of quantum metrology to assess the maximal accuracy for gradient estimation. For arbitrary positioning of particles, we identify optimal entangled and separable states, allowing the estimation of gradients with maximal accuracy, quantified by the quantum Fisher information. We also analyze the performance of states from the decoherence-free subspace (DFS), which are insensitive to the fluctuations of the magnetic offset field. We find that these states allow us to measure a gradient directly, without the necessity of estimating the magnetic offset field. Moreover, we show that DFS states attain a precision for gradient estimation comparable to the optimal entangled states. Finally, for the above classes of states, we find simple and feasible measurements saturating the quantum Cramér-Rao bound.

  11. Random Bosonic States for Robust Quantum Metrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Oszmaniec


    Full Text Available We study how useful random states are for quantum metrology, i.e., whether they surpass the classical limits imposed on precision in the canonical phase sensing scenario. First, we prove that random pure states drawn from the Hilbert space of distinguishable particles typically do not lead to superclassical scaling of precision even when allowing for local unitary optimization. Conversely, we show that random pure states from the symmetric subspace typically achieve the optimal Heisenberg scaling without the need for local unitary optimization. Surprisingly, the Heisenberg scaling is observed for random isospectral states of arbitrarily low purity and preserved under loss of a fixed number of particles. Moreover, we prove that for pure states, a standard photon-counting interferometric measurement suffices to typically achieve resolution following the Heisenberg scaling for all values of the phase at the same time. Finally, we demonstrate that metrologically useful states can be prepared with short random optical circuits generated from three types of beam splitters and a single nonlinear (Kerr-like transformation.

  12. High resolution quantum metrology via quantum interpolation (United States)

    Ajoy, Ashok; Liu, Yixiang; Saha, Kasturi; Marseglia, Luca; Jaskula, Jean-Christophe; Cappellaro, Paola


    Nitrogen Vacancy (NV) centers in diamond are a promising platform for quantum metrology - in particular for nanoscale magnetic resonance imaging to determine high resolution structures of single molecules placed outside the diamond. The conventional technique for sensing of external nuclear spins involves monitoring the effects of the target nuclear spins on the NV center coherence under dynamical decoupling (the CPMG/XY8 pulse sequence). However, the nuclear spin affects the NV coherence only at precise free evolution times - and finite timing resolution set by hardware often severely limits the sensitivity and resolution of the method. In this work, we overcome this timing resolution barrier by developing a technique to supersample the metrology signal by effectively implementing a quantum interpolation of the spin system dynamics. This method will enable spin sensing at high magnetic fields and high repetition rate, allowing significant improvements in sensitivity and spectral resolution. We experimentally demonstrate a resolution boost by over a factor of 100 for spin sensing and AC magnetometry. The method is shown to be robust, versatile to sensing normal and spurious signal harmonics, and ultimately limited in resolution only by the number of pulses that can be applied.

  13. Quantum metrology in non-Markovian environments. (United States)

    Chin, Alex W; Huelga, Susana F; Plenio, Martin B


    We analyze precision bounds for a local phase estimation in the presence of general, non-Markovian phase noise. We demonstrate that the metrological equivalence of product and maximally entangled states that holds under strictly Markovian dephasing fails in the non-Markovian case. Using an exactly solvable model of a physically realistic finite bandwidth dephasing environment, we demonstrate that the ensuing non-Markovian dynamics enables quantum correlated states to outperform metrological strategies based on uncorrelated states using otherwise identical resources. We show that this conclusion is a direct result of the coherent dynamics of the global state of the system and environment and therefore the obtained scaling with the number of particles, which surpasses the standard quantum limit but does not achieve Heisenberg resolution, possesses general validity that goes beyond specific models. This is in marked contrast with the situation encountered under general Markovian noise, where an arbitrarily small amount of noise is enough to restore the scaling dictated by the standard quantum limit.

  14. MAMMUT: mirror vibration metrology for VLTI (United States)

    Spaleniak, Izabela; Giessler, Frank; Geiss, Reinhard; Minardi, Stefano; Pertsch, Thomas; Neuhaeuser, Ralph; Becker, Martin; Rothhardt, Manfred; Delplancke, Françoise; Richichi, Andrea; Ménardi, Serge; Schmid, Christian


    MAMMUT (Mirror vibrAtion Metrolology systeM for the Unit Telescope) is an ESO funded feasibility project for the development of a fiber interferometer prototype designed for optical path laser-metrology along the optical train of the Unit Telescopes (UT) of the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). Fast mechanical vibrations originating in the VLTI cause fast variations of the optical path difference between two arms of the stellar interferometer, thus reducing the contrast of measured interference fringes. MAMMUT aims at monitoring in real time the optical path variations inside the Coudé train of the UT, for active control purposes. MAMMUT features a 250-meter-long optical fiber which can be used to deliver and inject a laser beam at 1353 nm into the UT. The injected beam can be dropped from the telescope in the Coudé room and interfered with a phase reference, provided by the second 250-meter-long arm of the fiber interferometer. The optical path variations are measured by means of an active homodyne scheme. Coherence between the beam at the injection point and the phase reference is provided by active fiber stabilization, made possible by the implementation of an internal metrology channel in MAMMUT. Here we present the initial laboratory performance results of the MAMMUT prototype, which will be able to sense optical path variations of +/- 5 μm with sub-10 nm precision within a bandwidth of at least 100 Hz.

  15. Resolution and Functionality Enhancements in Optical Metrology (United States)

    Gillmer, Steven R.

    The effective implementation of optical metrology and its associated instrumentation involves a multi-disciplinary approach. This dissertation will draw from mechanical, electrical, and optical engineering subject areas in order to implement the proposed resolution and functionality enhancements. The discussion will focus on three forms of optical metrology: optical displacement sensing, scatterometry, and interferometric weak measurements. A variety of novel concepts and experiments will be presented within these fields of research. First, in optical displacement sensing, increased degree-of-freedom measurements will be explored. The development of a three degree-of-freedom displacement measuring interferometer will serve as the foundation for a six degree-of-freedom optical measurement system. In the pursuit of simultaneous six axis measurement, novel straightness and roll angle sensors will develop. Second, a novel form of scatterometry that uses a spatially varying polarization applied to a focused beam will be presented. The principles of precision control and optical holography are necessary in the system development of the instrument. It will be shown that lateral scanning applied to the inspected sample greatly enhances sensitivity to changes in process parameters. Finally, optical displacement sensing and scatterometry will find parallels through weak measurements. Both application areas have potential for vast performance improvements via the measurement of a weak value. The feasibility of weak value amplification will be investigated for optical roll sensing and the novel scatterometry approach using an interferometric analogy.

  16. Quantum metrology with unitary parametrization processes. (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Jing, Xiao-Xing; Wang, Xiaoguang


    Quantum Fisher information is a central quantity in quantum metrology. We discuss an alternative representation of quantum Fisher information for unitary parametrization processes. In this representation, all information of parametrization transformation, i.e., the entire dynamical information, is totally involved in a Hermitian operator H. Utilizing this representation, quantum Fisher information is only determined by H and the initial state. Furthermore, H can be expressed in an expanded form. The highlights of this form is that it can bring great convenience during the calculation for the Hamiltonians owning recursive commutations with their partial derivative. We apply this representation in a collective spin system and show the specific expression of H. For a simple case, a spin-half system, the quantum Fisher information is given and the optimal states to access maximum quantum Fisher information are found. Moreover, for an exponential form initial state, an analytical expression of quantum Fisher information by H operator is provided. The multiparameter quantum metrology is also considered and discussed utilizing this representation.

  17. High pressure metrology for industrial applications (United States)

    Sabuga, Wladimir; Rabault, Thierry; Wüthrich, Christian; Pražák, Dominik; Chytil, Miroslav; Brouwer, Ludwig; Ahmed, Ahmed D. S.


    To meet the needs of industries using high pressure technologies, in traceable, reliable and accurate pressure measurements, a joint research project of the five national metrology institutes and the university was carried out within the European Metrology Research Programme. In particular, finite element methods were established for stress–strain analysis of elastic and nonlinear elastic–plastic deformation, as well as of contact processes in pressure-measuring piston-cylinder assemblies, and high-pressure components at pressures above 1 GPa. New pressure measuring multipliers were developed and characterised, which allow realisation of the pressure scale up to 1.6 GPa. This characterisation is based on research including measurements of material elastic constants by the resonant ultrasound spectroscopy, hardness of materials of high pressure components, density and viscosity of pressure transmitting liquids at pressures up to 1.4 GPa and dimensional measurements on piston-cylinders. A 1.6 GPa pressure system was created for operation of the 1.6 GPa multipliers and calibration of high pressure transducers. A transfer standard for 1.5 GPa pressure range, based on pressure transducers, was built and tested. Herewith, the project developed the capability of measuring pressures up to 1.6 GPa, from which industrial users can calibrate their pressure measurement devices for accurate measurements up to 1.5 GPa.

  18. Investigating quantum metrology in noisy channels. (United States)

    Falaye, B J; Adepoju, A G; Aliyu, A S; Melchor, M M; Liman, M S; Oluwadare, O J; González-Ramírez, M D; Oyewumi, K J


    Quantum entanglement lies at the heart of quantum information and quantum metrology. In quantum metrology, with a colossal amount of quantum Fisher information (QFI), entangled systems can be ameliorated to be a better resource scheme. However, noisy channels affect the QFI substantially. This research work seeks to investigate how QFI of N-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state is affected when subjected to decoherence channels: bit-phase flip (BPF) and generalize amplitude damping (GAD) channels, which can be induced experimentally. We determine the evolution under these channels, deduce the eigenvalues, and then derive the QFI. We found that when there is no interaction with the environment, the Heisenberg limit can be achieved via rotations along the z direction. It has been shown that in BPF channel, the maximal mean QFI of the N-qubit GHZ state ([Formula: see text]) dwindles as decoherence rate (p B ) increases due to flow of information from the system to the environment, until p B  = 0.5, then revives to form a symmetric around p B  = 0.5. Thus, p B  > 0.5 leads to a situation where more noise yields more efficiency. We found that in GAD channel, at finite temperature, QFIs decay more rapidly than at zero temperature. Our results also reveal that QFI can be enhanced by adjusting the temperature of the environment.

  19. Multi-dimensional, non-contact metrology using trilateration and high resolution FMCW ladar. (United States)

    Mateo, Ana Baselga; Barber, Zeb W


    Here we propose, describe, and provide experimental proof-of-concept demonstrations of a multidimensional, non-contact-length metrology system design based on high resolution (millimeter to sub-100 micron) frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) ladar and trilateration based on length measurements from multiple, optical fiber-connected transmitters. With an accurate FMCW ladar source, the trilateration-based design provides 3D resolution inherently independent of standoff range and allows self-calibration to provide flexible setup of a field system. A proof-of-concept experimental demonstration was performed using a highly stabilized, 2 THz bandwidth chirped laser source, two emitters, and one scanning emitter/receiver providing 1D surface profiles (2D metrology) of diffuse targets. The measured coordinate precision of <200 microns was determined to be limited by laser speckle issues caused by diffuse scattering of the targets.

  20. DABAM: an open-source database of X-ray mirrors metrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez del Rio, Manuel; Bianchi, Davide; Cocco, Daniele; Glass, Mark; Idir, Mourad; Metz, Jim; Raimondi, Lorenzo; Rebuffi, Luca; Reininger, Ruben; Shi, Xianbo; Siewert, Frank; Spielmann-Jaeggi, Sibylle; Takacs, Peter; Tomasset, Muriel; Tonnessen, Tom; Vivo, Amparo; Yashchuk, Valeriy


    An open-source database containing metrology data for X-ray mirrors is presented. It makes available metrology data (mirror heights and slopes profiles) that can be used with simulation tools for calculating the effects of optical surface errors in the performances of an optical instrument, such as a synchrotron beamline. A typical case is the degradation of the intensity profile at the focal position in a beamline due to mirror surface errors. This database for metrology (DABAM) aims to provide to the users of simulation tools the data of real mirrors. The data included in the database are described in this paper, with details of how the mirror parameters are stored. An accompanying software is provided to allow simple access and processing of these data, calculate the most usual statistical parameters, and also include the option of creating input files for most used simulation codes. Some optics simulations are presented and discussed to illustrate the real use of the profiles from the database.

  1. DABAM: an open-source database of X-ray mirrors metrology. (United States)

    Sanchez Del Rio, Manuel; Bianchi, Davide; Cocco, Daniele; Glass, Mark; Idir, Mourad; Metz, Jim; Raimondi, Lorenzo; Rebuffi, Luca; Reininger, Ruben; Shi, Xianbo; Siewert, Frank; Spielmann-Jaeggi, Sibylle; Takacs, Peter; Tomasset, Muriel; Tonnessen, Tom; Vivo, Amparo; Yashchuk, Valeriy


    An open-source database containing metrology data for X-ray mirrors is presented. It makes available metrology data (mirror heights and slopes profiles) that can be used with simulation tools for calculating the effects of optical surface errors in the performances of an optical instrument, such as a synchrotron beamline. A typical case is the degradation of the intensity profile at the focal position in a beamline due to mirror surface errors. This database for metrology (DABAM) aims to provide to the users of simulation tools the data of real mirrors. The data included in the database are described in this paper, with details of how the mirror parameters are stored. An accompanying software is provided to allow simple access and processing of these data, calculate the most usual statistical parameters, and also include the option of creating input files for most used simulation codes. Some optics simulations are presented and discussed to illustrate the real use of the profiles from the database.

  2. Advanced applications of scatterometry based optical metrology (United States)

    Dixit, Dhairya; Keller, Nick; Kagalwala, Taher; Recchia, Fiona; Lifshitz, Yevgeny; Elia, Alexander; Todi, Vinit; Fronheiser, Jody; Vaid, Alok


    The semiconductor industry continues to drive patterning solutions that enable devices with higher memory storage capacity, faster computing performance, and lower cost per transistor. These developments in the field of semiconductor manufacturing along with the overall minimization of the size of transistors require continuous development of metrology tools used for characterization of these complex 3D device architectures. Optical scatterometry or optical critical dimension (OCD) is one of the most prevalent inline metrology techniques in semiconductor manufacturing because it is a quick, precise and non-destructive metrology technique. However, at present OCD is predominantly used to measure the feature dimensions such as line-width, height, side-wall angle, etc. of the patterned nano structures. Use of optical scatterometry for characterizing defects such as pitch-walking, overlay, line edge roughness, etc. is fairly limited. Inspection of process induced abnormalities is a fundamental part of process yield improvement. It provides process engineers with important information about process errors, and consequently helps optimize materials and process parameters. Scatterometry is an averaging technique and extending it to measure the position of local process induced defectivity and feature-to-feature variation is extremely challenging. This report is an overview of applications and benefits of using optical scatterometry for characterizing defects such as pitch-walking, overlay and fin bending for advanced technology nodes beyond 7nm. Currently, the optical scatterometry is based on conventional spectroscopic ellipsometry and spectroscopic reflectometry measurements, but generalized ellipsometry or Mueller matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry data provides important, additional information about complex structures that exhibit anisotropy and depolarization effects. In addition the symmetry-antisymmetry properties associated with Mueller matrix (MM) elements

  3. Overlay metrology tool calibration using blossom (United States)

    Binns, Lewis A.; Smith, Nigel P.; Dasari, Prasad


    As overlay budgets continue to shrink, there is an increasing need to more fully characterize the tools used to measure overlay. In a previous paper, it was shown how a single-layer Blossom overlay target could be utilized to measure aberrations across the field of view of an overlay tool in an efficient and low-cost manner. In this paper, we build upon this method, and discuss the results obtained, and experiences gained in applying this method to a fleet of currently operational overlay tools. In particular, the post-processing of the raw calibration data is discussed in detail, and a number of different approaches are considered. The quadrant-based and full-field based methods described previously are compared, along with a half-field method. In each case we examine a number of features, including the trade off between ease of use (including the total number of measurements required) versus sensitivity / potential signal to noise ratio. We also examine how some techniques are desensitized to specific types of tool or mark aberration, and suggest how to combine these with non-desensitized methods to quickly identify these anomalies. There are two distinct applications of these tool calibration methods. Firstly, they can be used as part of the tool build and qualification process, to provide absolute metrics of imaging quality. Secondly, they can be of significant assistance in diagnosing tool or metrology issues or providing preventative maintenance diagnostics, as (as shown previously) under normal operation the results show very high consistency, even compared to aggressive overlay requirements. Previous work assumed that the errors in calibration, from reticle creation through to the metrology itself, would be Gaussian in nature; in this paper we challenge that assumption, and examine a specific scenario that would lead to very non-Gaussian behavior. In the tool build / qualification application, most scenarios lead to a systematic trend being superimposed

  4. Hybrid metrology: from the lab into the fab (United States)

    Vaid, Alok; Elia, Alexander; Iddawela, Givantha; Bozdog, Cornel; Sendelbach, Matthew; Kang, Byung Cheol (Charles); Isbester, Paul K.; Wolfling, Shay


    The accelerated pace of the semiconductor industry in recent years is putting a strain on existing dimensional metrology equipment (such as critical dimension-secondary electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, scatterometry) to keep up with ever-increasing metrology challenges. However, a revolution appears to be forming with the recent advent of hybrid metrology (HM). We highlight some of the challenges and lessons learned when setting up a standard HM solution and describe the first-in-industry implementation of HM within a high-volume manufacturing environment.

  5. Ionising radiation metrology for the metallurgical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Toraño E.


    Full Text Available Every year millions tons of steel are produced worldwide from recycled scrap loads. Although the detection systems in the steelworks prevent most orphan radioactive sources from entering the furnace, there is still the possibility of accidentally melting a radioactive source. The MetroMetal project, carried out in the frame of the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP, addresses this problem by studying the existing measurement systems, developing sets of reference sources in various matrices (cast steel, slag, fume dust and proposing new detection instruments. This paper presents the key lines of the project and describes the preparation of radioactive sources as well as the intercomparison exercises used to test the calibration and correction methods proposed within the project.

  6. Coordinate metrology accuracy of systems and measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Sładek, Jerzy A


    This book focuses on effective methods for assessing the accuracy of both coordinate measuring systems and coordinate measurements. It mainly reports on original research work conducted by Sladek’s team at Cracow University of Technology’s Laboratory of Coordinate Metrology. The book describes the implementation of different methods, including artificial neural networks, the Matrix Method, the Monte Carlo method and the virtual CMM (Coordinate Measuring Machine), and demonstrates how these methods can be effectively used in practice to gauge the accuracy of coordinate measurements. Moreover, the book includes an introduction to the theory of measurement uncertainty and to key techniques for assessing measurement accuracy. All methods and tools are presented in detail, using suitable mathematical formulations and illustrated with numerous examples. The book fills an important gap in the literature, providing readers with an advanced text on a topic that has been rapidly developing in recent years. The book...

  7. Radionuclide metrology research for nuclear site decommissioning (United States)

    Judge, S. M.; Regan, P. H.


    The safe and cost-effective decommissioning of legacy nuclear sites relies on accurate measurement of the radioactivity content of the waste materials, so that the waste can be assigned to the most appropriate disposal route. Such measurements are a new challenge for the science of radionuclide metrology which was established largely to support routine measurements on operating nuclear sites and other applications such as nuclear medicine. In this paper, we provide a brief summary of the international measurement system that is established to enable nuclear site operators to demonstrate that measurements are accurate, independent and fit for purpose, and highlight some of the projects that are underway to adapt the measurement system to meet the changing demands from the industry.

  8. Metrology of vibration measurements by laser techniques (United States)

    von Martens, Hans-Jürgen


    Metrology as the art of careful measurement has been understood as uniform methodology for measurements in natural sciences, covering methods for the consistent assessment of experimental data and a corpus of rules regulating application in technology and in trade and industry. The knowledge, methods and tools available for precision measurements can be exploited for measurements at any level of uncertainty in any field of science and technology. A metrological approach to the preparation, execution and evaluation (including expression of uncertainty) of measurements of translational and rotational motion quantities using laser interferometer methods and techniques will be presented. The realization and dissemination of the SI units of motion quantities (vibration and shock) have been based on laser interferometer methods specified in international documentary standards. New and upgraded ISO standards are reviewed with respect to their suitability for ensuring traceable vibration measurements and calibrations in an extended frequency range of 0.4 Hz to higher than 100 kHz. Using adequate vibration exciters to generate sufficient displacement or velocity amplitudes, the upper frequency limits of the laser interferometer methods specified in ISO 16063-11 for frequencies <= 10 kHz can be expanded to 100 kHz and beyond. A comparison of different methods simultaneously used for vibration measurements at 100 kHz will be demonstrated. A statistical analysis of numerous experimental results proves the highest accuracy achievable currently in vibration measurements by specific laser methods, techniques and procedures (i.e. measurement uncertainty 0.05 % at frequencies <= 10 kHz, <= 1 % up to 100 kHz).

  9. Metrology of variable-line-spacing x-ray gratings using the APS Long Trace Profiler (United States)

    Sheung, Janet; Qian, Jun; Sullivan, Joseph; Thomasset, Muriel; Manton, Jonathan; Bean, Sunil; Takacs, Peter; Dvorak, Joseph; Assoufid, Lahsen


    As resolving power targets have increased with each generation of beamlines commissioned in synchrotron radiation facilities worldwide, diffraction gratings are quickly becoming crucial optical components for meeting performance targets. However, the metrology of variable-line-spacing (VLS) gratings for high resolution beamlines is not widespread; in particular, no metrology facility at any US DOE facility is currently equipped to fully characterize such gratings. To begin to address this issue, the Optics Group at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne, in collaboration with SOLEIL and with support from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), has developed an alternative beam path addition to the Long Trace Profiler (LTP) at Argonne's Advanced Photon Source. This significantly expands the functionality of the LTP not only to measure mirrors surface slope profile at normal incidence, but also to characterize the groove density of VLS diffraction gratings in the Littrow incidence up to 79°, which covers virtually all diffraction gratings used at synchrotrons in the first order. The LTP light source is a 20mW HeNe laser, which yields enough signal for diffraction measurements to be performed on low angle blazed gratings optimized for soft X-ray wavelengths. We will present the design of the beam path, technical requirements for the optomechanics, and our data analysis procedure. Finally, we discuss challenges still to be overcome and potential limitations with use of the LTP to perform metrology on diffraction gratings.

  10. Performance-based gear metrology kinematic, transmission, error computation and diagnosis

    CERN Document Server

    Mark, William D


    A mathematically rigorous explanation of how manufacturing deviations and damage on the working surfaces of gear teeth cause transmission-error contributions to vibration excitations Some gear-tooth working-surface manufacturing deviations of significant amplitude cause negligible vibration excitation and noise, yet others of minuscule amplitude are a source of significant vibration excitation and noise.   Presently available computer-numerically-controlled dedicated gear metrology equipment can measure such error patterns on a gear in a few hours in sufficient detail to enable

  11. Consultative committee on ionizing radiation: Impact on radionuclide metrology. (United States)

    Karam, L R; Ratel, G


    In response to the CIPM MRA, and to improve radioactivity measurements in the face of advancing technologies, the CIPM's consultative committee on ionizing radiation developed a strategic approach to the realization and validation of measurement traceability for radionuclide metrology. As a consequence, measurement institutions throughout the world have devoted no small effort to establish radionuclide metrology capabilities, supported by active quality management systems and validated through prioritized participation in international comparisons, providing a varied stakeholder community with measurement confidence. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Optical vortex metrology for non-destructive testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, W.; Hanson, Steen Grüner


    Based on the phase singularities in optical fields, we introduce a new technique, referred to as Optical Vortex Metrology, and demonstrate its application to nano- displacement, flow measurements and biological kinematic analysis.......Based on the phase singularities in optical fields, we introduce a new technique, referred to as Optical Vortex Metrology, and demonstrate its application to nano- displacement, flow measurements and biological kinematic analysis....

  13. Quantum limits on post-selected, probabilistic quantum metrology


    Combes, Joshua; Ferrie, Christopher; Jiang, Zhang; Caves, Carlton M.


    Probabilistic metrology attempts to improve parameter estimation by occasionally reporting an excellent estimate and the rest of the time either guessing or doing nothing at all. Here we show that probabilistic metrology can never improve quantum limits on estimation of a single parameter, both on average and asymptotically in number of trials, if performance is judged relative to mean-square estimation error. We extend the result by showing that for a finite number of trials, the probability...

  14. PREFACE: 3rd International Congress on Mechanical Metrology (CIMMEC2014) (United States)


    From October 14th to 16th 2014, The Brazilian National Institute of Metrology, Quality, and Technology (Inmetro) and the Brazilian Society of Metrology (SBM) organized the 3rd International Congress on Mechanical Metrology (3rd CIMMEC). The 3rd CIMMEC was held in the city of Gramado, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Anticipating the interest and enthusiasm of the technical-scientific community, the Organizing Institutions invite people and organizations to participate in this important congress, reiterating the commitment to organize an event according to highest international standards. This event has been conceived to integrate people and organizations from Brazil and abroad in the discussion of advanced themes in metrology. Manufacturers and dealers of measuring equipment and standards, as well as of auxiliary accessories and bibliographic material, had the chance to promote their products and services in stands at the Fair, which has taken place alongside the Congress. The 3rd CIMMEC consisted of five Keynote Speeches and 116 regular papers. Among the regular papers, the 25 most outstanding ones, comprising a high quality content on Mechanical Metrology, were selected to be published in this issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series. It is our great pleasure to present this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series to the scientific community to promote further research in Mechanical Metrology and related areas. We believe that this volume will be both an excellent source of scientific material in the fast evolving fields that were covered by CIMMEC 2014.

  15. Metrology in electricity and magnetism: EURAMET activities today and tomorrow (United States)

    Piquemal, F.; Jeckelmann, B.; Callegaro, L.; Hällström, J.; Janssen, T. J. B. M.; Melcher, J.; Rietveld, G.; Siegner, U.; Wright, P.; Zeier, M.


    Metrology dedicated to electricity and magnetism has changed considerably in recent years. It encompasses almost all modern scientific, industrial, and societal challenges, e.g. the revision of the International System of Units, the profound transformation of industry, changes in energy use and generation, health, and environment, as well as nanotechnologies (including graphene and 2D materials) and quantum engineering. Over the same period, driven by the globalization of worldwide trade, the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (referred to as the CIPM MRA) was set up. As a result, the regional metrology organizations (RMOs) of national metrology institutes have grown in significance. EURAMET is the European RMO and has been very prominent in developing a strategic research agenda (SRA) and has established a comprehensive research programme. This paper reviews the highlights of EURAMET in electrical metrology within the European Metrology Research Programme and its main contributions to the CIPM MRA. In 2012 EURAMET undertook an extensive roadmapping exercise for proposed activities for the next decade which will also be discussed in this paper. This work has resulted in a new SRA of the second largest European funding programme: European Metrology Programme for Innovation and Research.

  16. Cost analysis and risk assessment for metrology applications (United States)

    Kudva, Sudhakar M.; Potter, Randall


    Historically, the significance of an accurate and precise metrology tool has been determined by rules of thumb such as the Gagemaker's Rule. However, with the advent of statistical process control of IC manufacturing, it has become practical to statistically determine the probability of a product being misclassified during metrology. Several parameters, such as the process distribution, the precision and accuracy of the metrology tool, the measurement strategies, etc., determine the probability that a good product is classified as bad and vice versa. The probability function can subsequently be converted to a number equivalent to the percentage of product misclassified. From this number, the cost of misclassification can be calculated, which is a function of the precision, the accuracy, and the measurement strategy used. This cost can be used in making decisions involving justification of new metrology capability, better measurement strategies, or to decide whether metrology is needed at all. Examples have been generated to illustrate the actual cost involved in using a poor metrology tool, and strategies have been suggested to contain the cost of misclassification.

  17. A primary mirror metrology system for the GMT (United States)

    Rakich, A.


    The Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT)1 is a 25 m "doubly segmented" telescope composed of seven 8.4 m "unit Gregorian telescopes", on a common mount. Each primary and secondary mirror segment will ideally lie on the geometrical surface of the corresponding rotationally symmetrical full aperture optical element. Therefore, each primary and conjugated secondary mirror segment will feed a common instrument interface, their focal planes co-aligned and cophased. First light with a subset of four unit telescopes is currently scheduled for 2022. The project is currently considering an important aspect of the assembly, integration and verification (AIV) phase of the project. This paper will discuss a dedicated system to directly characterize the on-sky performance of the M1 segments, independently of the M2 subsystem. A Primary Mirror Metrology System (PMS) is proposed. The main purpose of this system will be to he4lp determine the rotation axis of an instrument rotator (the Gregorian Instrument Rotator or GIR in this case) and then to characterize the deflections and deformations of the M1 segments with respect to this axis as a function of gravity and temperature. The metrology system will incorporate a small (180 mm diameter largest element) prime focus corrector (PFC) that simultaneously feeds a risk reduction during AIV; it allows an on-sky characterization of the primary mirror segments and cells, without the complications of other optical elements. The PMS enables a very useful alignment strategy that constrains each primary mirror segments' optical axes to follow the GIR axis to within a few arc seconds. An additional attractive feature of the incorporation of the PMS into the AIV plan, is that it allows first on-sky telescope operations to occur with a system of considerably less optical and control complexity than the final doubly segmented Gregorian telescope configuration. This paper first discusses the strategic rationale for a PMS. Next the system itself is

  18. Some answers to new challenges in optical metrology (United States)

    Osten, W.


    The visible trend in the implementation of new technologies and creation of new products is the continuous reduction of feature sizes. However, in the same way as the feature sizes are decreasing, the theoretical and practical constraints of making them and ensuring their quality are increasing. Consequently, modern production and inspection technologies are confronted with a bundle of challenges. An important barrier for optical imaging and sensing is the diffraction limited lateral resolution. The observation of this physical limitation is of increasing importance, not only for microscopic techniques but also for the application of 3D-measurement techniques on wafer scale level. A further challenge is the reliable detection of imperfections and material faults within the production chain. This means in-line metrology/defectoscopy is a must for future production systems. Only the real-time feedback of the inspection results into the production process can contribute to a consistent quality assurance in processes with high cost risk. Moreover the reliable measurement of free form surfaces, both technical and optical, the assurance of the traceability and the certified assessment of the uncertainty of the measurement results are ongoing challenges. The challenges and the physical limitations are addressed here by new approaches for testing semiconductor structures with enhanced resolution, the measurement of aspheric lenses with increased flexibility and the inspection of micro components with improved traceability.

  19. Image-based metrology of porous tissue engineering scaffolds (United States)

    Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Robb, Richard A.


    Tissue engineering is an interdisciplinary effort aimed at the repair and regeneration of biological tissues through the application and control of cells, porous scaffolds and growth factors. The regeneration of specific tissues guided by tissue analogous substrates is dependent on diverse scaffold architectural indices that can be derived quantitatively from the microCT and microMR images of the scaffolds. However, the randomness of pore-solid distributions in conventional stochastic scaffolds presents unique computational challenges. As a result, image-based characterization of scaffolds has been predominantly qualitative. In this paper, we discuss quantitative image-based techniques that can be used to compute the metrological indices of porous tissue engineering scaffolds. While bulk averaged quantities such as porosity and surface are derived directly from the optimal pore-solid delineations, the spatially distributed geometric indices are derived from the medial axis representations of the pore network. The computational framework proposed (to the best of our knowledge for the first time in tissue engineering) in this paper might have profound implications towards unraveling the symbiotic structure-function relationship of porous tissue engineering scaffolds.

  20. Metrological analysis of the human foot: 3D multisensor exploration (United States)

    Muñoz Potosi, A.; Meneses Fonseca, J.; León Téllez, J.


    In the podiatry field, many of the foot dysfunctions are mainly generated due to: Congenital malformations, accidents or misuse of footwear. For the treatment or prevention of foot disorders, the podiatrist diagnoses prosthesis or specific adapted footwear, according to the real dimension of foot. Therefore, it is necessary to acquire 3D information of foot with 360 degrees of observation. As alternative solution, it was developed and implemented an optical system of threedimensional reconstruction based in the principle of laser triangulation. The system is constituted by an illumination unit that project a laser plane into the foot surface, an acquisition unit with 4 CCD cameras placed around of axial foot axis, an axial moving unit that displaces the illumination and acquisition units in the axial axis direction and a processing and exploration unit. The exploration software allows the extraction of distances on three-dimensional image, taking into account the topography of foot. The optical system was tested and their metrological performances were evaluated in experimental conditions. The optical system was developed to acquire 3D information in order to design and make more appropriate footwear.

  1. Flash spectral imaging for optical metrology of solar cells (United States)

    Ho, Jian Wei; Koh, Jessica Li Jian; Wong, Johnson Kai Chi; Raj, Samuel; Janssen, Eric; Aberle, Armin G.


    Flash spectral imaging of full area (156 mm by 156 mm) silicon solar wafers and cells is realized in a setup integrating pseudo-monochromatic LEDs over the wavelength range of 370 to 1050 nm and a high-resolution monochrome camera. The captured information allows the computation of sample reflectance as a function of wavelength and coordinates, thereby constituting a spectral reflectance map. The derived values match that obtained from monochromator-based measurements. Optical inspection is then based on the characteristic reflectance of surface features at optimally contrasting wavelengths. The technique reveals otherwise hidden stains and anti-reflection coating (ARC) non-uniformities, and enable more selective visualization of grains in multicrystalline Si wafers. Optical contrast enhancement of metallization significantly improves accuracy of metal detection. The high effective resolution of the monochrome camera also allows fine metallization patterns to be measured. The rapid succession of flash-and-image-capture at each wavelength makes the reported optical metrology technique amenable in photovoltaic manufacturing for solar wafers/cells sorting, monitoring and optimization of processes.

  2. Optical metrology in the conflict between desire and reality (United States)

    Osten, W.


    In the context of measurement technology, optical methods have a number of unique features. On the other hand the user is faced with serious challenges. One of the biggest challenges that currently attracts high attention in both the technical as well as life sciences, relates to exceeding the physical limits of resolution. Nowadays people prefer to talk about super-resolution. However, this concept creates an often excessive expectation, since this way only the diffraction limit can be achieved in many practical cases. Not to forget are those negative consequences that arise from the high information density in optical signals. The nature of light and its fascinating interaction with matter that makes our visual sense on the one hand the most valuable information carrier, often prevents on the other hand, the metrologically correct interpretation of the results. Nevertheless, it can be proven by numerous examples that no alternative to the optical principles exists. Because critical structures are getting smaller and functional surfaces are becoming increasingly complex, the wavelength of light provides the most flexible and traceable standard to cope with the challenges. But the potential of optical methods, often seduced to an overload of the wish list or to unrealistic promises. Therefore, this paper is dedicated to the tension between desire and reality in optical measuring techniques.

  3. Indentation metrology of clamped, ultra-thin elastic sheets. (United States)

    Vella, Dominic; Davidovitch, Benny


    We study the indentation of ultrathin elastic sheets clamped to the edge of a circular hole. This classical setup has received considerable attention lately, being used by various experimental groups as a probe to measure the surface properties and stretching modulus of thin solid films. Despite the apparent simplicity of this method, the geometric nonlinearity inherent in the mechanical response of thin solid objects renders the analysis of the resulting data a nontrivial task. Importantly, the essence of this difficulty is in the geometric coupling between in-plane stress and out-of-plane deformations, and hence is present in the behaviour of Hookean solids even when the slope of the deformed membrane remains small. Here we take a systematic approach to address this problem, using the membrane limit of the Föppl-von-Kármán equations. This approach highlights some of the dangers in the use of approximate formulae in the metrology of solid films, which can introduce large errors; we suggest how such errors may be avoided in performing experiments and analyzing the resulting data.

  4. LIDAR Metrology for Prescription Characterization and Alignment of Large Mirrors (United States)

    Eegholm, B.; Eichhorn, W.; von Handorf, R.; Hayden, J.; Ohl, R.; Wenzel, G.


    We describe the use of LIDAR, or "laser radar," (LR) as a fast, accurate, and non-contact tool for the measurement of the radius of curvature (RoC) of large mirrors. We report the results of a demonstration of this concept using a commercial laser radar system. We measured the RoC of a 1.4m x 1m spherical mirror with a nominal RoC of 4.6 m with a manufacturing tolerance of 4600mm +/- 6mm. The prescription of the mirror is related to its role as ground support equipment used in the test of part of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The RoC of such a large mirror is not easily measured without contacting the surface. From a position near the center of curvature of the mirror, the LIDAR scanned the mirror surface, sampling it with 1 point per 3.5 sq cm. The measurement consisted of 3983 points and lasted only a few minutes. The laser radar uses the LIDAR signal to provide range, and encoder information from angular azimuth and elevation rotation stages provide the spherical coordinates of a given point. A best-fit to a sphere of the measured points was performed. The resulting RoC was within 20 ppm of the nominal RoC, also showing good agreement with the results of a laser tracker-based, contact metrology. This paper also discusses parameters such as test alignment, scan density, and optical surface type, as well as future possible application for full prescription characterization of aspherical mirrors, including radius, conic, off-axis distance, and aperture.

  5. Metrology for ocean salinity and acidity- the European Metrology Research Project ENV05 (United States)

    Spitzer, Petra; Seitz, Steffen; Lago, Simona; Stoica, Daniela; Mariassy, Michal; Clough, Robert; Camões, Maria Filomena


    An overview and status report on the EMRP (European Metrology Research Project) "Metrology for ocean salinity and acidity" will be given. The project has been started in September 2011. The consortium consists of partners from ten European metrology institutes and two universities. Need for the project The project covers the thermodynamic quantities salinity, conductivity, density, speed of sound, and temperature, and the chemical quantities pH, oxygen content and composition. It aims to develop methods, standards and tools to improve the databases used for climate models. Measurement standards with well characterized uncertainties will enable calibration of in-situ observing sensor networks and satellite systems traceable to SI units. The results will improve the metrological infrastructure required for a reliable monitoring and modelling of ocean processes. This will allow scientists to measure more accurately small changes in long-term oceanographic data series. Expected results and potential impact The basis for data at higher pressure of up to 70 MPa and in a temperature range between 0 ° C and 40 ° C for the Equation of State will be improved by measurements of density, salinity and speed of sound. A novel primary conductivity sensor which can be used at high pressure will be developed, tested and linked to primary improved density measurements at the same high pressure. Improved and robust speed of sound measurement data for both high accuracy laboratory and in situ measurements of seawater, will provided by means of an ultrasonic double-reflector pulse-echo overlap technique. This also includes improved temperature measurements with an uncertainty of 5 mK. The determination of dissolved oxygen measurement methods will be optimised for the special requirements of seawater. A reduction of the uncertainty by a least a factor of three is anticipated. Harmonised pH measurement procedures will be provided to underpin the traceability of the pH data of seawater

  6. Using a Savart plate in optical metrology (United States)

    Blain, P.; Michel, F.; Renotte, Y.; Habraken, S.


    Non-contact optical measurement methods are essential tools in many industrial and research domains. A family of new non-contact optical measurement methods based on the polarization states splitting technique and monochromatic light projection as a way to overcome ambient lighting for in-situ measurement has been developed1,2. Recent works3 on a birefringent element, a Savart plate, allow to build a more flexible and robust interferometer. This interferometer is a multipurpose metrological device. On one hand, the interferometer can be set in front of a CCD camera. This optical measurement system is called a shearography interferometer and allows to measure micro displacement between two states of the studied object under coherent lighting. On the other hand, by producing and shifting multiple sinusoidal Young's interference patterns with this interferometer, and using a CCD camera, it is possible to build a 3D structured light profilometer. After giving the behavior of the Savart plate, an overview of the two devices will be given as well as their specifications and some applications.

  7. Real-time determination of interconnect metrology (United States)

    AbuGhazaleh, Shadi A.; Christie, Phillip


    Poor control of wire geometry can result in unacceptable variations in signal propagation velocity and cross-talk. A novel laser diffraction technique for the real-time determination of global interconnect metrology is presented and tested on several different types of chips. Analysis of the diffraction patterns produced by He-Cd (lambda equals 442 nm) and He-Ne (lambda equals 633 nm) laser irradiation of the interconnect structure is shown to reveal global information on variations in wiring parameters. The diffraction intensity profile for a commercial microprocessor fabricated using 2 micrometer design rules is used to test the validity of the approach. Standard diffraction theory reveals that the process variation in wire pitch is of the order of 9%, a value confirmed by examination under a phase contrast microscope. In addition to wire pitch variations the diffraction technique is also used for the measurement of the characteristic fractal dimension of the wiring. Initial results indicate that these measurements may provide an extremely rapid method of assessing important wiring figures of merit, such as the on- chip Rent exponent.

  8. Advanced overlay analysis through design based metrology (United States)

    Ji, Sunkeun; Yoo, Gyun; Jo, Gyoyeon; Kang, Hyunwoo; Park, Minwoo; Kim, Jungchan; Park, Chanha; Yang, Hyunjo; Yim, Donggyu; Maruyama, Kotaro; Park, Byungjun; Yamamoto, Masahiro


    As design rule shrink, overlay has been critical factor for semiconductor manufacturing. However, the overlay error which is determined by a conventional measurement with an overlay mark based on IBO and DBO often does not represent the physical placement error in the cell area. The mismatch may arise from the size or pitch difference between the overlay mark and the cell pattern. Pattern distortion caused by etching or CMP also can be a source of the mismatch. In 2014, we have demonstrated that method of overlay measurement in the cell area by using DBM (Design Based Metrology) tool has more accurate overlay value than conventional method by using an overlay mark. We have verified the reproducibility by measuring repeatable patterns in the cell area, and also demonstrated the reliability by comparing with CD-SEM data. We have focused overlay mismatching between overlay mark and cell area until now, further more we have concerned with the cell area having different pattern density and etch loading. There appears a phenomenon which has different overlay values on the cells with diverse patterning environment. In this paper, the overlay error was investigated from cell edge to center. For this experiment, we have verified several critical layers in DRAM by using improved(Better resolution and speed) DBM tool, NGR3520.

  9. Metrology Sampling Strategies for Process Monitoring Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Vincent, Tyrone L.


    Shrinking process windows in very large scale integration semiconductor manufacturing have already necessitated the development of control systems capable of addressing sub-lot-level variation. Within-wafer control is the next milestone in the evolution of advanced process control from lot-based and wafer-based control. In order to adequately comprehend and control within-wafer spatial variation, inline measurements must be performed at multiple locations across the wafer. At the same time, economic pressures prompt a reduction in metrology, for both capital and cycle-time reasons. This paper explores the use of modeling and minimum-variance prediction as a method to select the sites for measurement on each wafer. The models are developed using the standard statistical tools of principle component analysis and canonical correlation analysis. The proposed selection method is validated using real manufacturing data, and results indicate that it is possible to significantly reduce the number of measurements with little loss in the information obtained for the process control systems. © 2011 IEEE.

  10. Developments in remote metrology at JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mindham, T.J., E-mail: [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Sandford, G.C.; Hermon, G. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Belcher, C. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Oxford Technologies Ltd., 7 Nuffield Way, Abingdon, OX14 1RJ (United Kingdom); CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Pace, N. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Babcock Nuclear Division, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)


    The need to maximise the operational availability of fusion devices has driven the enhancements in accuracy, flexibility and speed associated with the inspection techniques used at JET. To this end, the remote installation of the ITER-Like Wall (ILW) tiles, conduits and embedded diagnostics has necessitated the adoption of technologies from other industries for their use in conjunction with the JET Remote Handling (RH) system. The novel adaptation of targetless stereophotogrammetry, targeted single-camera photogrammetry and gap measurement techniques for remote applications has prompted a range of challenges and lessons learnt both from the design process and operational experience. Interfacing Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) components with the existing RH equipment has highlighted several issues of relevance to the developing ITER RH system. This paper reports results from the stereophotogrammetry and the single-camera photogrammetry surveys, allowing analysis of the effectiveness of the RH system as a platform for in-vessel measurement. This includes scrutiny of the accuracy achieved with each technique as well as the impact on the in-vessel Configuration Management Model (CMM). The paper concludes with a summary of key recommendations for the ITER RH system based on the experience of remote metrology at JET.

  11. Nanomanufacturing metrology for cellulosic nanomaterials: an update (United States)

    Postek, Michael T.


    The development of the metrology and standards for advanced manufacturing of cellulosic nanomaterials (or basically, wood-based nanotechnology) is imperative to the success of this rising economic sector. Wood-based nanotechnology is a revolutionary technology that will create new jobs and strengthen America's forest-based economy through industrial development and expansion. It allows this, previously perceived, low-tech industry to leap-frog directly into high-tech products and processes and thus improves its current economic slump. Recent global investments in nanotechnology programs have led to a deeper appreciation of the high performance nature of cellulose nanomaterials. Cellulose, manufactured to the smallest possible-size ( 2 nm x 100 nm), is a high-value material that enables products to be lighter and stronger; have less embodied energy; utilize no catalysts in the manufacturing, are biologically compatible and, come from a readily renewable resource. In addition to the potential for a dramatic impact on the national economy - estimated to be as much as $250 billion worldwide by 2020 - cellulose-based nanotechnology creates a pathway for expanded and new markets utilizing these renewable materials. The installed capacity associated with the US pulp and paper industry represents an opportunity, with investment, to rapidly move to large scale production of nano-based materials. However, effective imaging, characterization and fundamental measurement science for process control and characterization are lacking at the present time. This talk will discuss some of these needed measurements and potential solutions.

  12. Effect of measurement error budgets and hybrid metrology on qualification metrology sampling (United States)

    Sendelbach, Matthew; Sarig, Niv; Wakamoto, Koichi; Kim, Hyang Kyun (Helen); Isbester, Paul; Asano, Masafumi; Matsuki, Kazuto; Osorio, Carmen; Archie, Chas


    Until now, metrologists had no statistics-based method to determine the sampling needed for an experiment before the start that accuracy experiment. We show a solution to this problem called inverse total measurement uncertainty (TMU) analysis, by presenting statistically based equations that allow the user to estimate the needed sampling after providing appropriate inputs, allowing him to make important "risk versus reward" sampling, cost, and equipment decisions. Application examples using experimental data from scatterometry and critical dimension scanning electron microscope tools are used first to demonstrate how the inverse TMU analysis methodology can be used to make intelligent sampling decisions and then to reveal why low sampling can lead to unstable and misleading results. One model is developed that can help experimenters minimize sampling costs. A second cost model reveals the inadequacy of some current sampling practices-and the enormous costs associated with sampling that provides reasonable levels of certainty in the result. We introduce the strategies on how to manage and mitigate these costs and begin the discussion on how fabs are able to manufacture devices using minimal reference sampling when qualifying metrology steps. Finally, the relationship between inverse TMU analysis and hybrid metrology is explored.

  13. Quantitative imaging, dosimetry and metrology; Where do National Metrology Institutes fit in? (United States)

    Fenwick, A J; Wevrett, J L; Ferreira, K M; Denis-Bacelar, A M; Robinson, A P


    In External Beam Radiotherapy, National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) play a critical role in the delivery of accurate absorbed doses to patients undergoing treatment. In contrast for nuclear medicine the role of the NMI is less clear and although significant work has been done in order to establish links for activity measurement, the calculation of administered absorbed doses is not traceable in the same manner as EBRT. Over recent decades the use of novel radiolabelled pharmaceuticals has increased dramatically. The limitation of secondary complications due to radiation damage to non-target tissue has historically been achieved by the use of activity escalation studies during clinical trials and this in turn has led to a chronic under dosing of the majority of patients. This paper looks to address the difficulties in combining clinical everyday practice with the grand challenges laid out by national metrology institutes to improve measurement capability in all walks of life. In the life sciences it can often be difficult to find the correct balance between pure research and practical solutions to measurement problems, and this paper is a discussion regarding these difficulties and how some NMIs have chosen to tackle these issues. The necessity of establishing strong links to underlying standards in the field of quantitative nuclear medicine imaging is highlighted. The difficulties and successes of current methods for providing traceability in nuclear medicine are discussed. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Simulation and System Design of a 3D Metrology Optical System Based on a Bidirectional OLED Microdisplay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanze Großmann


    and photo sensitive detectors (photodiode matrix on one single chip based on OLED-on-CMOS-technology. Currently this kind of display is still a prototype. Based on such a novel bidirectional OLED microdisplay, we present for the first time a system simulation and design of a 3D optical surface metrology system. The first step is the full characterization of the microdisplay. Depending on the characterization results the future system parameters are determined. Based on the characterization results and the application parameters the system design parameters are defined. The functionality of the system is simulated, and a theoretical proof of concept is presented. An example for our application on 3D optical surface metrology system is evaluated.

  15. Progress in the specification of optical instruments for the measurement of surface form and texture (United States)

    de Groot, Peter J.


    Specifications for confocal microscopes, optical interferometers and other methods of measuring areal surface topography can be confusing and misleading. The emerging ISO 25178 standards, together with the established international vocabulary of metrology, provide a foundation for improved specifications for 3D surface metrology instrumentation. The approach in this paper links instrument specifications to metrological characteristics that can influence a measurement, using consistent definitions of terms, and reference to verification procedures.

  16. Integration of mask and silicon metrology in DFM (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ryoichi; Mito, Hiroaki; Sugiyama, Akiyuki; Toyoda, Yasutaka


    We have developed a highly integrated method of mask and silicon metrology. The method adopts a metrology management system based on DBM (Design Based Metrology). This is the high accurate contouring created by an edge detection algorithm used in mask CD-SEM and silicon CD-SEM. We have inspected the high accuracy, stability and reproducibility in the experiments of integration. The accuracy is comparable with that of the mask and silicon CD-SEM metrology. In this report, we introduce the experimental results and the application. As shrinkage of design rule for semiconductor device advances, OPC (Optical Proximity Correction) goes aggressively dense in RET (Resolution Enhancement Technology). However, from the view point of DFM (Design for Manufacturability), the cost of data process for advanced MDP (Mask Data Preparation) and mask producing is a problem. Such trade-off between RET and mask producing is a big issue in semiconductor market especially in mask business. Seeing silicon device production process, information sharing is not completely organized between design section and production section. Design data created with OPC and MDP should be linked to process control on production. But design data and process control data are optimized independently. Thus, we provided a solution of DFM: advanced integration of mask metrology and silicon metrology. The system we propose here is composed of followings. 1) Design based recipe creation: Specify patterns on the design data for metrology. This step is fully automated since they are interfaced with hot spot coordinate information detected by various verification methods. 2) Design based image acquisition: Acquire the images of mask and silicon automatically by a recipe based on the pattern design of CD-SEM.It is a robust automated step because a wide range of design data is used for the image acquisition. 3) Contour profiling and GDS data generation: An image profiling process is applied to the acquired image based

  17. Laser metrology for a next generation gravimetric mission (United States)

    Mottini, Sergio; Biondetti, Giorgio; Cesare, Stefano; Castorina, Giuseppe; Musso, Fabio; Pisani, Marco; Leone, Bruno


    Within the ESA technology research project "Laser Interferometer High Precision tracking for LEO", Thales Alenia Space Italia is developing a laser metrology system for a Next Generation Gravimetric Mission (NGGM) based on satellite-to-satellite tracking. This technique is based on the precise measurement of the displacement between two satellites flying in formation at low altitude for monitoring the variations of Earth's gravity field at high resolution over a long time period. The laser metrology system that has been defined for this mission consists of the following elements: • an heterodyne Michelson interferometer for measuring the distance variation between retroreflectors positioned on the two satellites; • an angle metrology for measuring the orientation of the laser beam in the reference frames of the two satellites; • a lateral displacement metrology for measuring the deviations of the laser beam axis from the target retro-reflector. The laser interferometer makes use of a chopped measurement beam to avoid spurious signals and nonlinearity caused by the unbalance between the strong local beam and the weak return beam. The main results of the design, development and test activities performed on the breadboard of the metrology system are summarized in this paper.

  18. [The EFS metrology: From the production to the reason]. (United States)

    Reifenberg, J-M; Riout, E; Leroy, A; Begue, S


    In order to answer statutory requirements and to anticipate the future needs and standards, the EFS is committed, since a few years, in a process of harmonization of its metrology function. In particular, the institution has opted for the skills development by internalizing the metrological traceability of the main critical quantities (temperature, volumetric) measurements. The development of metrology so resulted in a significant increase in calibration and testing activities. Methods are homogenized and improved through accreditations. The investment strategies are based on more and more demanding specifications. The performance of the equipments is better known and mastered. Technical expertise and maturity of the national metrology function today are assets to review in more informed ways the appropriateness of the applied periodicities. Analysis of numerous information and data in the calibration and testing reports could be pooled and operated on behalf of the unique establishment. The objective of this article is to illustrate these reflections with a few examples from of a feedback of the EFS Pyrénées Méditerranée. The analysis of some methods of qualification, the exploitation of the historical metrology in order to quantify the risk of non-compliance, and to adapt the control strategy, analysis of the criticality of an instrument in a measurement process, risk analyses are tools that deserve to be more widely exploited for that discipline wins in efficiency at the national level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Introduction to quantum metrology quantum standards and instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Nawrocki, Waldemar


    This book presents the theory of quantum effects used in metrology and results of the author’s own research in the field of quantum electronics. The book provides also quantum measurement standards used in many branches of metrology for electrical quantities, mass, length, time and frequency. This book represents the first comprehensive survey of quantum metrology problems. As a scientific survey, it propagates a new approach to metrology with more emphasis on its connection with physics. This is of importance for the constantly developing technologies and nanotechnologies in particular. Providing a presentation of practical applications of the effects used in quantum metrology for the construction of quantum standards and sensitive electronic components, the book is useful for a wide audience of physicists and metrologists in the broad sense of both terms. In 2014 a new system of units, the so called  Quantum SI, is introduced. This book helps to understand and approve the new system to both technology a...

  20. Traceable quantum sensing and metrology relied up a quantum electrical triangle principle (United States)

    Fang, Yan; Wang, Hengliang; Yang, Xinju; Wei, Jingsong


    Hybrid quantum state engineering in quantum communication and imaging1-2 needs traceable quantum sensing and metrology, which are especially critical to quantum internet3 and precision measurements4 that are important across all fields of science and technology-. We aim to set up a mode of traceable quantum sensing and metrology. We developed a method by specially transforming an atomic force microscopy (AFM) and a scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) into a conducting atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) with a feedback control loop, wherein quantum entanglement enabling higher precision was relied upon a set-point, a visible light laser beam-controlled an interferometer with a surface standard at z axis, diffractometers with lateral standards at x-y axes, four-quadrant photodiode detectors, a scanner and its image software, a phase-locked pre-amplifier, a cantilever with a kHz Pt/Au conducting tip, a double barrier tunneling junction model, a STM circuit by frequency modulation and a quantum electrical triangle principle involving single electron tunneling effect, quantum Hall effect and Josephson effect5. The average and standard deviation result of repeated measurements on a 1 nm height local micro-region of nanomedicine crystal hybrid quantum state engineering surface and its differential pA level current and voltage (dI/dV) in time domains by using C-AFM was converted into an international system of units: Siemens (S), an indicated value 0.86×10-12 S (n=6) of a relative standard uncertainty was superior over a relative standard uncertainty reference value 2.3×10-10 S of 2012 CODADA quantized conductance6. It is concluded that traceable quantum sensing and metrology is emerging.

  1. Dynamic Length Metrology (DLM) for measurements with sub-micrometre uncertainty in a production environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Hattel, Jesper Henri


    Conventional length metrology for traceable accurate measurements requires costly temperature controlled facilities, long waiting time for part acclimatisation, and separate part material characterisation. This work describes a method called Dynamic Length Metrology (DLM) developed to achieve sub...

  2. The coming of age of the first hybrid metrology software platform dedicated to nanotechnologies (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Foucher, Johann; Labrosse, Aurelien; Dervillé, Alexandre; Zimmermann, Yann; Bernard, Guilhem; Martinez, Sergio; Grönqvist, Hanna; Baderot, Julien; Pinzan, Florian


    The development and integration of new materials and structures at the nanoscale require multiple parallel characterizations in order to control mostly physico-chemical properties as a function of applications. Among all properties, we can list physical properties such as: size, shape, specific surface area, aspect ratio, agglomeration/aggregation state, size distribution, surface morphology/topography, structure (including crystallinity and defect structure), solubility and chemical properties such as: structural formula/molecular structure, composition (including degree of purity, known impurities or additives), phase identity, surface chemistry (composition, charge, tension, reactive sites, physical structure, photocatalytic properties, zeta potential), hydrophilicity/lipophilicity. Depending on the final material formulation (aerosol, powder, nanostructuration…) and the industrial application (semiconductor, cosmetics, chemistry, automotive…), a fleet of complementary characterization equipments must be used in synergy for accurate process tuning and high production yield. The synergy between equipment so-called hybrid metrology consists in using the strength of each technique in order to reduce the global uncertainty for better and faster process control. The only way to succeed doing this exercise is to use data fusion methodology. In this paper, we will introduce the work that has been done to create the first generic hybrid metrology software platform dedicated to nanotechnologies process control. The first part will be dedicated to process flow modeling that is related to a fleet of metrology tools. The second part will introduce the concept of entity model which describes the various parameters that have to be extracted. The entity model is fed with data analysis as a function of the application (automatic analysis or semi-automated analysis). The final part will introduce two ways of doing data fusion on real data coming from imaging (SEM, TEM, AFM

  3. Advanced X-ray Optics Metrology for Nanofocusing and Coherence Preservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Yashchuk, Valeriy


    What is the point of developing new high-brightness light sources if beamline optics won't be available to realize the goals of nano-focusing and coherence preservation? That was one of the central questions raised during a workshop at the 2007 Advanced Light Source Users Meeting. Titled, 'Advanced X-Ray Optics Metrology for Nano-focusing and Coherence Preservation', the workshop was organized by Kenneth Goldberg and Valeriy Yashchuk (both of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, LBNL), and it brought together industry representatives and researchers from Japan, Europe, and the US to discuss the state of the art and to outline the optics requirements of new light sources. Many of the presentations are viewable on the workshop website Many speakers shared the same view of one of the most significant challenges facing the development of new high-brightness third and fourth generation x-ray, soft x-ray, and EUV light sources: these sources place extremely high demands on the surface quality of beamline optics. In many cases, the 1-2-nm surface error specs that define the outer bounds of 'diffraction-limited' quality are beyond the reach of leading facilities and optics vendors. To focus light to 50-nm focal spots, or smaller, from reflective optics and to preserve the high coherent flux that new sources make possible, the optical surface quality and alignment tolerances must be measured in nano-meters and nano-radians. Without a significant, well-supported research effort, including the development of new metrology techniques for use both on and off the beamline, these goals will likely not be met. The scant attention this issue has garnered is evident in the stretched budgets and limited manpower currently dedicated to metrology. With many of the world's leading groups represented at the workshop, it became clear that Japan and Europe are several steps ahead of the US in this critical area

  4. Metrology camera system of prime focus spectrograph for Subaru telescope (United States)

    Wang, Shiang-Yu; Chou, Chueh-Yi; Chang, Yin-Chang; Huang, Pin-Jie; Hu, Yen-Sang; Chen, Hsin-Yo; Tamura, Naoyuki; Takato, Naruhisa; Ling, Hung-Hsu; Gunn, James E.; Karr, Jennifer; Yan, Chi-Hung; Mao, Peter; Ohyama, Youichi; Karoji, Hiroshi; Sugai, Hajime; Shimono, Atsushi


    The Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) is a new optical/near-infrared multi-fiber spectrograph designed for the prime focus of the 8.2m Subaru telescope. The metrology camera system of PFS serves as the optical encoder of the COBRA fiber motors for the configuring of fibers. The 380mm diameter aperture metrology camera will locate at the Cassegrain focus of Subaru telescope to cover the whole focal plane with one 50M pixel Canon CMOS sensor. The metrology camera is designed to provide the fiber position information within 5μm error over the 45cm focal plane. The positions of all fibers can be obtained within 1s after the exposure is finished. This enables the overall fiber configuration to be less than 2 minutes.

  5. Metrology of DNA arrays by super-resolution microscopy. (United States)

    Green, Christopher M; Schutt, Kelly; Morris, Noah; Zadegan, Reza M; Hughes, William L; Kuang, Wan; Graugnard, Elton


    Recent results in the assembly of DNA into structures and arrays with nanoscale features and patterns have opened the possibility of using DNA for sub-10 nm lithographic patterning of semiconductor devices. Super-resolution microscopy is being actively developed for DNA-based imaging and is compatible with inline optical metrology techniques for high volume manufacturing. Here, we combine DNA tile assembly with state-dependent super-resolution microscopy to introduce crystal-PAINT as a novel approach for metrology of DNA arrays. Using this approach, we demonstrate optical imaging and characterization of DNA arrays revealing grain boundaries and the temperature dependence of array quality. For finite arrays, analysis of crystal-PAINT images provides further quantitative information of array properties. This metrology approach enables defect detection and classification and facilitates statistical analysis of self-assembled DNA nanostructures.

  6. Reduction of Classical Measurement Noise via Quantum-Dense Metrology. (United States)

    Ast, Melanie; Steinlechner, Sebastian; Schnabel, Roman


    Quantum-dense metrology constitutes a special case of quantum metrology in which two orthogonal phase space projections of a signal are simultaneously sensed beyond the shot-noise limit. Previously, it was shown that the additional sensing channel that is provided by quantum-dense metrology contains information that can be used to identify and to discard corrupted segments from the measurement data. Here, we propose and demonstrate a new method in which this information is used for improving the sensitivity without discarding any measurement segments. Our measurement reached sub-shot-noise performance, although initially strong classical noise polluted the data. The new method has high potential for improving the noise spectral density of gravitational-wave detectors at signal frequencies of high astrophysical relevance.

  7. Handbook of 3D machine vision optical metrology and imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Song


    With the ongoing release of 3D movies and the emergence of 3D TVs, 3D imaging technologies have penetrated our daily lives. Yet choosing from the numerous 3D vision methods available can be frustrating for scientists and engineers, especially without a comprehensive resource to consult. Filling this gap, Handbook of 3D Machine Vision: Optical Metrology and Imaging gives an extensive, in-depth look at the most popular 3D imaging techniques. It focuses on noninvasive, noncontact optical methods (optical metrology and imaging). The handbook begins with the well-studied method of stereo vision and

  8. Metrology for Radiological Early Warning Networks in Europe ("METROERM")-A Joint European Metrology Research Project. (United States)

    Neumaier, Stefan; Dombrowski, Harald; Kessler, Patrick


    As a consequence of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986, all European countries have installed automatic dosimetry network stations as well as air sampling systems for the monitoring of airborne radioactivity. In Europe, at present, almost 5,000 stations measure dose rate values in nearly real time. In addition, a few hundred air samplers are operated. Most of them need extended accumulation times with no real-time capability. National dose rate data are provided to the European Commission (EC) via the EUropean Radiological Data Exchange Platform (EURDEP). In case of a nuclear emergency with transboundary implications, the EC may issue momentous recommendations to EU member states based on the radiological data collected by EURDEP. These recommendations may affect millions of people and could have severe economic and sociological consequences. Therefore, the reliability of the EURDEP data is of key importance. Unfortunately, the dose rate and activity concentration data are not harmonized between the different networks. Therefore, within the framework of the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP), 16 European institutions formed the consortium MetroERM with the aim to improve the metrological foundation of measurements and to introduce a pan-European harmonization for the collation and evaluation of radiological data in early warning network systems. In addition, a new generation of detector systems based on spectrometers capable of providing both reliable dose rate values as well as nuclide specific information in real time are in development. The MetroERM project and its first results will be presented and discussed in this article.

  9. Performance verification of Surface Mapping Instrument developed at CGM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bariani, Paolo

    covering applications in micro-technology and in surface metrology. The paper addresses the description of the stitching procedure, its validation, and a more comprehensive metrological evaluation of the AFM-CMM instrument performance. Experimental validation of the method was performed by the use of...

  10. Figuring and Polishing Precision Optical Surfaces Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The requirements for cost effective manufacturing and metrology of large optical surfaces is instrumental for the success of future NASA programs such as LISA,...

  11. Dark matter: a problem in relativistic metrology? (United States)

    Lusanna, Luca


    Besides the tidal degrees of freedom of Einstein general relativity (GR) (namely the two polarizations of gravitational waves after linearization of the theory) there are the inertial gauge ones connected with the freedom in the choice of the 4-coordinates of the space-time, i.e. in the choice of the notions of time and 3-space (the 3+1 splitting of space-time) and in their use to define a non-inertial frame (the inertial ones being forbidden by the equivalence principle) by means of a set of conventions for the relativistic metrology of the space-time (like the GPS ones near the Earth). The canonical York basis of canonical ADM gravity allows us to identify the Hamiltonian inertial gauge variables in globally hyperbolic asymptotically Minkowskian space-times without super-translations and to define the family of non-harmonic Schwinger time gauges. In these 3+1 splittings of space-time the freedom in the choice of time (the problem of clock synchronization) is described by the inertial gauge variable York time (the trace of the extrinsic curvature of the instantaneous 3-spaces). This inertial gauge freedom and the non-Euclidean nature of the instantaneous 3-spaces required by the equivalence principle need to be incorporated as metrical conventions in a relativistic suitable extension of the existing (essentially Galilean) ICRS celestial reference system. In this paper I make a short review of the existing possibilities to explain the presence of dark matter (or at least of part of it) as a relativistic inertial effect induced by the non- Euclidean nature of the 3-spaces. After a Hamiltonian Post-Minkowskian (HPM) linearization of canonical ADM tetrad gravity with particles, having equal inertial and gravitational masses, as matter, followed by a Post-Newtonian (PN) expansion, we find that the Newtonian equality of inertial and gravitational masses breaks down and that the inertial gauge York time produces an increment of the inertial masses explaining at least

  12. Digital Image Correlation: Metrological Characterization in Mechanical Analysis (United States)

    Petrella, Orsola; Signore, Davide; Caramuta, Pietro; Toscano, Cinzia; Ferraiuolo, Michele


    The Digital Image Correlation (DIC) is a newly developed optical technique that is spreading in all engineering sectors because it allows the non-destructive estimation of the entire surface deformation without any contact with the component under analysis. These characteristics make the DIC very appealing in all the cases the global deformation state is to be known without using strain gages, which are the most used measuring device. The DIC is applicable to any material subjected to distortion caused by either thermal or mechanical load, allowing to obtain high-definition mapping of displacements and deformations. That is why in the civil and the transportation industry, DIC is very useful for studying the behavior of metallic materials as well as of composite materials. DIC is also used in the medical field for the characterization of the local strain field of the vascular tissues surface subjected to uniaxial tensile loading. DIC can be carried out in the two dimension mode (2D DIC) if a single camera is used or in a three dimension mode (3D DIC) if two cameras are involved. Each point of the test surface framed by the cameras can be associated with a specific pixel of the image and the coordinates of each point are calculated knowing the relative distance between the two cameras together with their orientation. In both arrangements, when a component is subjected to a load, several images related to different deformation states can be are acquired through the cameras. A specific software analyzes the images via the mutual correlation between the reference image (obtained without any applied load) and those acquired during the deformation giving the relative displacements. In this paper, a Metrological Characterization of the Digital Image Correlation is performed on aluminum and composite targets both in static and dynamic loading conditions by comparison between DIC and strain gauges measures. In the static test, interesting results have been obtained thanks

  13. Deep-ultraviolet quantum interference metrology with ultrashort laser pulses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witte, S.; Zinkstok, R.T.; Ubachs, W.M.G.; Hogervorst, W.; Eikema, K.S.E.


    Precision spectroscopy at ultraviolet and shorter wavelengths has been hindered by the poor access of narrow-band lasers to that spectral region. We demonstrate high-accuracy quantum interference metrology on atomic transitions with the use of an amplified train of phase-controlled pulses from a

  14. Repeatable mask metrology for next-generation lithography tools (United States)

    Hentschel, Steve L.; Kamberian, Henry H.; Kovatch, Julius


    Recent advances in pattern placement accuracy by photomask lithography tools are requiring much tighter repeatability specifications from the metrology equipment used in the characterization and monitoring process of these reticle writing systems. As pattern positioning accuracy specifications for the next generation tools (i.e., MEBES 4500 and ALTA 3000) dip below the 40 nanometer mark, the metrology tool must maintain a pattern placement measurement precision four times smaller than the writing tool, or less than 10 nanometers to satisfy current industry standards. The newest line width and coordinate registration metrology tool from Nikon, the Laser XY-5i, can measure photomasks and reticles with sub-10 nanometer precision. Recent acceptance test results as well as long term stability data (2-4 months) from a tool in a production environment prove the XY-5i worthy to characterize and monitor the newest mask and reticle lithography tools. A road map for future improvements and specification reduction will show the XY-5i capable of meeting the industry's metrology needs well into the 0.25 micron device generation and beyond.

  15. Optical antennas for far and near field metrology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvestri, F.; Bernal Arango, F.; Vendel, K.J.A.; Gerini, G.; Bäumer, S.M.B.; Koenderink, A.F.


    This paper presents the use of optical antennas in metrology scenarios. Two design concepts are presented: dielectric nanoresonator arrays and plasmonic nanoantennas arrays. The first ones are able to focus an incident light beam at an arbitrary focal plane. The nanoantennas arrays can be employed

  16. Information system planning work on maintenance metrological equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry V. Shtoller


    Full Text Available Computerization has entered into all human activities. Important role in the work now is a workstation, which increases productivity. Did not remain without attention and work of the metrological services of enterprises. Electronic records can help solve many problems for the organization of data.

  17. Using grating based X-ray contrast modalities for metrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angel, Jais Andreas Breusch; Lauridsen, T.; Feidenhans'l, R.


    Traditionally, segmentation between multi-materials in CT is only available for cases, where material densities are not close to each other. A novel method called GBI offers a new possibility to overcome this problem, and was evaluated with respect to its metrological performance by comparisons t...

  18. Parasitic light scattered by complex optical coatings: modelization and metrology (United States)

    Zerrad, Myriam; Lequime, Michel; Liukaityte, Simona; Amra, Claude


    Optical components realized for space applications have to be mastered in term of parasitic light. This paper present the last improvements performed at the Institute Fresnel to predict and measure scattering losses of optical components with a special care to complex optical coatings. Agreement between numerical models and metrology is now excellent. Some examples will be presented.

  19. Nuclear Technology. Course 27: Metrology. Module 27-6, Calibration. (United States)

    Espy, John; Selleck, Ben

    This sixth in a series of eight modules for a course titled Metrology describes the principles on which calibration programs are developed, no matter which instruments are included in the calibration program. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module prerequisites, (3) objectives, (4)…

  20. Nuclear Technology. Course 27: Metrology. Module 27-5, Tolerancing. (United States)

    Selleck, Ben; Espy, John

    This fifth in a series of eight modules for a course titled Metrology describes the application of the American National Standard (ANSI Y14.5-1973) for dimensioning and tolerancing and gives guidance on interpreting form and location controls consistent with the national standard. The module follows a typical format that includes the following…

  1. Development of the metrology and imaging of cellulose nanocrystals (United States)

    Michael T. Postek; Andras Vladar; John Dagata; Natalia Farkas; Bin Ming; Ryan Wagner; Arvind Raman; Robert J. Moon; Ronald Sabo; Theodore H. Wegner; James Beecher


    The development of metrology for nanoparticles is a significant challenge. Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are one group of nanoparticles that have high potential economic value but present substantial challenges to the development of the measurement science. Even the largest trees owe their strength to this newly appreciated class of nanomaterials. Cellulose is the...

  2. La Metrología Óptica y sus Aplicaciones La Metrología Óptica y sus Aplicaciones


    Daniel Malacara Hernández


    En este trabajo se presenta una introducción al campo de la metrología óptica y de su herramienta principal que es la interferometría. También se presenta un panorama de los diferentes métodos empleados en metrología describiendo con especial detalle los avances más recientes en este campo. In this work an introduction to optical metrology is presented with a brief description of its main tool which is interferometry. Also, a survey of the main different methods used in optical metrology is ...

  3. Advancements in non-contact metrology of asphere and diffractive optics (United States)

    DeFisher, Scott


    Advancements in optical manufacturing technology allow optical designers to implement steep aspheric or high departure surfaces into their systems. Measuring these surfaces with profilometers or CMMs can be difficult due to large surface slopes or sharp steps in the surface. OptiPro has developed UltraSurf to qualify the form and figure of steep aspheric and diffractive optics. UltraSurf is a computer controlled, non-contact coordinate measuring machine. It incorporates five air-bearing axes, linear motors, high-resolution feedback, and a non-contact probe. The measuring probe is scanned over the optical surface while maintaining perpendicularity and a constant focal offset. Multiple probe technologies are available on UltraSurf. Each probe has strengths and weaknesses relative to the material properties, surface finish, and figure error of an optical component. The measuring probes utilize absolute distance to resolve step heights and diffractive surface patterns. The non-contact scanning method avoids common pitfalls with stylus contact instruments. Advancements in measuring speed and precision has enabled fast and accurate non-contact metrology of diffractive and steep aspheric surfaces. The benefits of data sampling with twodimensional profiles and three-dimensional topography maps will be presented. In addition, accuracy, repeatability, and machine qualification will be discussed with regards to aspheres and diffractive surfaces.

  4. Vibration-immune compact optical metrology to enable production-line quantification of fine scale features (United States)

    Novak, Erik


    Inspectors attempting to quantify defects and fine-scale features on precision machined surfaces are often limited by the capabilities and form factors of existing measurement techniques. Inspectors most often rely on imprecise and inaccurate visual comparison tools or pin gauges to determine the geometry of surface features. This paper will describe key attributes of a metrology system for quantification of small features in a production environment and present critical performance tests on the system including vertical and lateral resolution and correlation with other techniques. Additionally, various new applications will be discussed which are fundamentally enabled through access to a portable, vibration-immune, system that is both quantitative and easy-to-use.

  5. Tomographic reconstruction of circularly polarized high-harmonic fields: 3D attosecond metrology. (United States)

    Chen, Cong; Tao, Zhensheng; Hernández-García, Carlos; Matyba, Piotr; Carr, Adra; Knut, Ronny; Kfir, Ofer; Zusin, Dimitry; Gentry, Christian; Grychtol, Patrik; Cohen, Oren; Plaja, Luis; Becker, Andreas; Jaron-Becker, Agnieszka; Kapteyn, Henry; Murnane, Margaret


    Bright, circularly polarized, extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft x-ray high-harmonic beams can now be produced using counter-rotating circularly polarized driving laser fields. Although the resulting circularly polarized harmonics consist of relatively simple pairs of peaks in the spectral domain, in the time domain, the field is predicted to emerge as a complex series of rotating linearly polarized bursts, varying rapidly in amplitude, frequency, and polarization. We extend attosecond metrology techniques to circularly polarized light by simultaneously irradiating a copper surface with circularly polarized high-harmonic and linearly polarized infrared laser fields. The resulting temporal modulation of the photoelectron spectra carries essential phase information about the EUV field. Utilizing the polarization selectivity of the solid surface and by rotating the circularly polarized EUV field in space, we fully retrieve the amplitude and phase of the circularly polarized harmonics, allowing us to reconstruct one of the most complex coherent light fields produced to date.

  6. Leveraging advanced data analytics, machine learning, and metrology models to enable critical dimension metrology solutions for advanced integrated circuit nodes (United States)

    Rana, Narender; Zhang, Yunlin; Kagalwala, Taher; Bailey, Todd


    Integrated circuit (IC) technology is changing in multiple ways: 193i to extreme ultraviolet exposure, planar to nonplanar device architecture, from single exposure lithography to multiple exposure and directed self-assembly (DSA) patterning, and so on. Critical dimension (CD) control requirement is becoming stringent and more exhaustive: CD and process windows are shrinking, three-sigma CD control of predictive data analytics, along with patterning simulation and metrology models and data integration techniques to selected applications demonstrating the potential solution and practicality of such an approach to enhance CD metrology accuracy. Data from multiple metrology techniques have been analyzed in multiple ways to extract information with associated uncertainties and integrated to extract the useful and more accurate CD and profile information of the structures. This paper presents the optimization of scatterometry and MBIR model calibration and the feasibility to extrapolate not only in design and process space but also from one process step to a previous process step. A well-calibrated scatterometry model or patterning simulation model can be used to accurately extrapolate and interpolate in the design and process space for lithography patterning where AFM is not capable of accurately measuring sub-40 nm trenches. The uncertainty associated with extrapolation can be large and needs to be minimized. We have made use of measurements from CD-SEM and CD-AFM, along with the patterning and scatterometry simulation models to estimate the uncertainty associated with extrapolation and the methods to reduce it. For the first time, we have reported the application of machine learning (artificial neural networks) to the resist shrinkage systematic phenomenon to accurately predict the preshrink CD based on supervised learning using the CD-AFM data. The study lays out various basic concepts, approaches, and protocols of multiple source data processing and integration for

  7. Challenges of SEM-based critical dimension metrology of interconnect (United States)

    Ukraintsev, Vladimir A.; Jessen, Scott; Mikeska, Brian; Sallee, Chris; Khvatkov, Vitali


    Semiconductor technology is advancing below 50 nm critical dimensions bringing unprecedented challenges to process engineering, control and metrology. Traditionally, interconnect metrology is put behind high-priority gate metrology; however, considering metrology, process and yield control challenges this decision is not always justified. Optical scatterometry is working its way to interconnect manufacturing process control, but scanning electron microscopy (SEM) remains the number one critical dimension (CD) metrology for interconnect process engineering and optical proximity correction (OPC) modeling. Recently, several publications have described secondary electron (SE) trapping within narrow high-aspect ratio interconnect structures. In these papers, pre-dosing of the sample helped to extract SE from the bottom of the hole and measure its diameter. Based on current understanding of the phenomenon, one should expect that high-aspect ratio interconnect structures (holes and trenches) with critical dimensions below 100 nm may show signs of SE trapping of various degree. As a result, there may be an uncontrolled effect on SE waveform and, therefore, bias of CDSEM measurement. CD atomic force microscopy (AFM) was employed in this work as a reference metrology for evaluation of uncertainty of trench and hole measurements by CDSEM. As the data indicates, CDSEM bias shows a strong dependence on pitch of periodic interconnect structure starting from drawn CD of 50 nm. CDSEM bias variation for the evaluated set of samples is about 19 nm. A typical OPC sample consists of both photoresist and etched interlayer materials. As the AFM data for photoresist material indicates, the hole diameter changes quite significantly with depth and the hole profile varies from one OPC structure to another. Abe et al. [1] have used a clever way to correlate physical bottom diameter of holes with CDSEM measurements and demonstrated that for their process and dimensions the SEM "top" diameter

  8. Development of a virtual metrology method using plasma harmonics analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Jun


    Full Text Available A virtual metrology technique based on plasma harmonics is developed for predicting semiconductor processes. From a plasma process performed by 300 mm photoresist stripper equipment, a strong correlation is found between optical plasma harmonics intensities and the process results, such as the photoresist strip rate and strip non-uniformity. Based on this finding, a general process prediction model is developed. The developed virtual metrology model shows that the R-squared (R2 values between the measured and predicted process results are 95% and 64% for the photoresist strip rate and photoresist strip non-uniformity, respectively. This is the first research on process prediction based on optical plasma harmonics analysis, and the results can be applied to semiconductor processes such as dry etching and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition.

  9. Development of a virtual metrology method using plasma harmonics analysis (United States)

    Jun, H.; Shin, J.; Kim, S.; Choi, H.


    A virtual metrology technique based on plasma harmonics is developed for predicting semiconductor processes. From a plasma process performed by 300 mm photoresist stripper equipment, a strong correlation is found between optical plasma harmonics intensities and the process results, such as the photoresist strip rate and strip non-uniformity. Based on this finding, a general process prediction model is developed. The developed virtual metrology model shows that the R-squared (R2) values between the measured and predicted process results are 95% and 64% for the photoresist strip rate and photoresist strip non-uniformity, respectively. This is the first research on process prediction based on optical plasma harmonics analysis, and the results can be applied to semiconductor processes such as dry etching and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition.

  10. Metrology for industrial quantum communications: the MIQC project (United States)

    Rastello, M. L.; Degiovanni, I. P.; Sinclair, A. G.; Kück, S.; Chunnilall, C. J.; Porrovecchio, G.; Smid, M.; Manoocheri, F.; Ikonen, E.; Kubarsepp, T.; Stucki, D.; Hong, K. S.; Kim, S. K.; Tosi, A.; Brida, G.; Meda, A.; Piacentini, F.; Traina, P.; Natsheh, A. Al; Cheung, J. Y.; Müller, I.; Klein, R.; Vaigu, A.


    The ‘Metrology for Industrial Quantum Communication Technologies’ project (MIQC) is a metrology framework that fosters development and market take-up of quantum communication technologies and is aimed at achieving maximum impact for the European industry in this area. MIQC is focused on quantum key distribution (QKD) technologies, the most advanced quantum-based technology towards practical application. QKD is a way of sending cryptographic keys with absolute security. It does this by exploiting the ability to encode in a photon's degree of freedom specific quantum states that are noticeably disturbed if an eavesdropper trying to decode it is present in the communication channel. The MIQC project has started the development of independent measurement standards and definitions for the optical components of QKD system, since one of the perceived barriers to QKD market success is the lack of standardization and quality assurance.

  11. High-intensity therapeutic ultrasound: metrological requirements versus clinical usage (United States)

    Aubry, J.-F.


    High-intensity therapeutic ultrasound (HITU) is an appealing non-invasive, non-ionizing therapeutic modality with a wide range of tissue interactions ranging from transient permeabilization of cell membranes to thermal ablation. The ability to guide and monitor the treatment with an associated ultrasonic or magnetic resonance imaging device has resulted in a dramatic rise in the clinical use of therapeutic ultrasound in the past two decades. Nevertheless, the range of clinical applications and the number of patients treated has grown at a much higher pace than the definition of standards. In this paper the metrological requirements of the therapeutic beams are reviewed and are compared with the current clinical use of image-guided HITU mostly based on a practical approach. Liver therapy, a particularly challenging clinical application, is discussed to highlight the differences between some complex clinical situations and the experimental conditions of the metrological characterization of ultrasonic transducers.

  12. Toward a harmonized treatment of nominal properties in metrology (United States)

    Mari, Luca


    This paper explores in a metrological perspective the basic characteristics of an (i) experimental process that (ii) provides publicly trustworthy information (iii) on the property of an object as a value of that property (iv) through the comparison of the property and a reference set of properties of the same kind, at the same time not requiring that the property is quantitative. The conclusion is that such a process, called here a nominal property evaluation, is not only both logically and operatively possible, but actually shares most of the fundamental features of measurement, and in particular the possibility to provide publicly trustworthy information. Hence the proposed conceptual framework paves the way toward a harmonized treatment of nominal properties in metrology.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G A Stupakova


    Full Text Available Activities of the All-Russian Research Institute of Agrochemistry are outlined in the field of the development of interstate, state, and branch certified reference materials for the composition of soils, forages, foods, and raw materials used in the certification of analytical procedures, verification and calibration of measuring instruments, and intralaboratory tests, as well as in the organization and fulfillment of interlaboratory comparison tests within the framework of the metrological support of Russia agrochemical service. It is shown that the All-Russian Research Institute of Agrochemistry has developed the system of metrological supply of analytical work, which is based on the methodology of the development and application of certified reference materials for the composition of soils and plant products, and applied it in the laboratories of Russian agroindustrial complex.

  14. Optimizing Hybrid Metrology: Rigorous Implementation of Bayesian and Combined Regression. (United States)

    Henn, Mark-Alexander; Silver, Richard M; Villarrubia, John S; Zhang, Nien Fan; Zhou, Hui; Barnes, Bryan M; Ming, Bin; Vladár, András E


    Hybrid metrology, e.g., the combination of several measurement techniques to determine critical dimensions, is an increasingly important approach to meet the needs of the semiconductor industry. A proper use of hybrid metrology may yield not only more reliable estimates for the quantitative characterization of 3-D structures but also a more realistic estimation of the corresponding uncertainties. Recent developments at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) feature the combination of optical critical dimension (OCD) measurements and scanning electron microscope (SEM) results. The hybrid methodology offers the potential to make measurements of essential 3-D attributes that may not be otherwise feasible. However, combining techniques gives rise to essential challenges in error analysis and comparing results from different instrument models, especially the effect of systematic and highly correlated errors in the measurement on the χ2 function that is minimized. Both hypothetical examples and measurement data are used to illustrate solutions to these challenges.

  15. The elusive Heisenberg limit in quantum-enhanced metrology (United States)

    Demkowicz-Dobrzański, Rafał; Kołodyński, Jan; Guţă, Mădălin


    Quantum precision enhancement is of fundamental importance for the development of advanced metrological optical experiments, such as gravitational wave detection and frequency calibration with atomic clocks. Precision in these experiments is strongly limited by the 1/√N shot noise factor with N being the number of probes (photons, atoms) employed in the experiment. Quantum theory provides tools to overcome the bound by using entangled probes. In an idealized scenario this gives rise to the Heisenberg scaling of precision 1/N. Here we show that when decoherence is taken into account, the maximal possible quantum enhancement in the asymptotic limit of infinite N amounts generically to a constant factor rather than quadratic improvement. We provide efficient and intuitive tools for deriving the bounds based on the geometry of quantum channels and semi-definite programming. We apply these tools to derive bounds for models of decoherence relevant for metrological applications including: depolarization, dephasing, spontaneous emission and photon loss. PMID:22990859

  16. Metrology in an ISO 15189 accredited medical biology laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guichet C.


    Full Text Available All French medical biology laboratories must be accredited according to ISO 15189 for all tests conducted. Metrology is therefore critical and covers a wide variety of areas. This presentation will focus on the metrology manager’s role which is tailored to the medical biology laboratory: human resources in place, methods used, parameters followed, equipment used and strategies implemented when using equipment which is not connected to the International System of Units. It will be illustrated by examples of in vitro and in vivo clinical biochemistry, biological haematology, human toxicology and radiotoxicology. The presentation will cover the exploitation of results of internal controls and interlaboratory comparisons in order to calculate uncertainties and provide doctors with a result along with an interpretation or opinion to ensure optimum patient care. The conclusion will present the steps carried out at the Laboratoire National d’Essai (French National Testing Laboratory to provide medical biology laboratories with certified clinical biology standards.

  17. A curved edge diffraction-utilized displacement sensor for spindle metrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, ChaBum, E-mail:; Zhao, Rui; Jeon, Seongkyul [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tennessee Technological University, 1 William L. Jones Dr., Cookeville, Tennessee 38505 (United States); Mahajan, Satish M. [Department of Electrical and Computing Engineering, Tennessee Technological University, 1 William L. Jones Dr., Cookeville, Tennessee 38505 (United States)


    This paper presents a new dimensional metrological sensing principle for a curved surface based on curved edge diffraction. Spindle error measurement technology utilizes a cylindrical or spherical target artifact attached to the spindle with non-contact sensors, typically a capacitive sensor (CS) or an eddy current sensor, pointed at the artifact. However, these sensors are designed for flat surface measurement. Therefore, measuring a target with a curved surface causes error. This is due to electric fields behaving differently between a flat and curved surface than between two flat surfaces. In this study, a laser is positioned incident to the cylindrical surface of the spindle, and a photodetector collects the total field produced by the diffraction around the target surface. The proposed sensor was compared with a CS within a range of 500 μm. The discrepancy between the proposed sensor and CS was 0.017% of the full range. Its sensing performance showed a resolution of 14 nm and a drift of less than 10 nm for 7 min of operation. This sensor was also used to measure dynamic characteristics of the spindle system (natural frequency 181.8 Hz, damping ratio 0.042) and spindle runout (22.0 μm at 2000 rpm). The combined standard uncertainty was estimated as 85.9 nm under current experiment conditions. It is anticipated that this measurement technique allows for in situ health monitoring of a precision spindle system in an accurate, convenient, and low cost manner.

  18. Metrology concepts for a space interferometer mission: SMART-2 (United States)

    Wielders, Arno A.; Calvel, Bertrand; Swinkels, Bas L.; Chapman, Patrick D.


    In preparation for the planet-finding missions DARWIN (ESA) and the Terrestrial Planet Finder (NASA) a range of precursor missions are being defined, aimed at testing and validating the technology needed to make the planet-finder missions feasible from a technology point of view. In Europe the SMART-2 mission is meant to test high critical technologies for the DARWIN and the gravitation wave mission LISA (ESA/NASA). The mission SMART-2 consists of two spacecraft. These two spacecraft will demonstrate the feasibility of formation flying related to the DARWIN mission. Furthermore SMART-2 will simulate a stellar interferometer by combining white light from the two spacecraft in an interferometric focus. Two fringe-tracking modes of operations will be tested. In the standard fringe-tracking mode an onboard optical delay line is commanded to keep the optical path difference within the coherence length of the combined light. In the second mode the optical path difference is equalised by commanding the FEEPS (Field Emission Electric Propulsion) thrusters. In both modes a range of metrology systems are needed to measure deviations from the nominal configuration of the two spacecraft. Here we report on the work related to metrology systems for the SMART-2 mission needed to measure the longitudinal distance with nanometer accuracy and the lateral position of one spacecraft with respect to the second spacecraft with 5 mm accuracy. We discuss the present concepts for the metrology systems for SMART-2 and we will elaborate on the possibility to integrate the different optical metrology systems into a single system reducing complexity, risks and mass.

  19. Experimentally quantifying the advantages of weak-value-based metrology


    Viza, Gerardo I.; Martínez-Rincón, Julián; Alves, Gabriel B.; Jordan, Andrew N.; Howell, John C.


    We experimentally investigate the relative advantages of implementing weak-value-based metrology versus standard methods. While the techniques outlined herein apply more generally, we measure small optical beam deflections both using a Sagnac interferometer with a monitored dark port (the weak-value-based technique), and by focusing the entire beam to a split detector (the standard technique). By introducing controlled external transverse detector modulations and transverse beam deflection mo...

  20. Scanning spot metrology for testing of photolithographic masks


    Blattner, Peter; Herzig, Hans-Peter; Sohail, S; Naqvi, H.


    We investigated an optical method for characterizing submicrometer structures of photolithographic masks, enabling fast and non-destructive testing over large areas. The scanning spot metrology provides accurate information about edge locations of opaque structures on chrome masks. Algorithms for the extraction of edge locations from the detector signal are discussed and applied to the characterization of a modulated grating mask. Local fabrication errors of the order of 10 to 50 nm can be de...

  1. A blueprint for radioanalytical metrology CRMs, intercomparisons, and PE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inn, Kenneth G.W. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Dr., MS 8462, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8462 (United States)], E-mail:; Kurosaki, Hiromu [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Dr., MS 8462, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8462 (United States); Frechou, Carole [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, CE Saclay-Bat 459, Gif sur Yvette Cedex 91191 (France); Gilligan, Chris [National Physical Laboratory, F6-A4 Hampton Road, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Jones, Robert [Center for Disease Control, 4770 Buford Highway, MS F-18, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); LaMont, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, MS J514, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Leggitt, Jeff [Federal Bureau of Investigation, 2501 Investigation Pkwy, Quantico, VA 22135 (United States); Li Chunsheng [Health Canada, 775 Brookfield Rd, Ottawa, K1A 1C1 (Canada); McCroan, Keith [US Environmental Protection Agency, 540 S Morris Avenue, Montgomery, AL 36115 (United States); Swatski, Ronald [Department of Army USACHPPM, 5158 Blackhawk Rd., APG-EA, MD 21010-5422 (United States)


    A workshop was held from 28 February to 2 March 2006 at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to evaluate the needs for new directions for complex matrix reference materials certified for radionuclide content, interlaboratory comparisons and performance evaluation (PE) programs. The workshop identified new radioanalytical metrology thrust areas needed for environmental, radiobioassay, emergency consequence management, and nuclear forensics, attribution, nonproliferation, and safeguards.

  2. Terahertz Frequency Metrology for Spectroscopic Applications: a Review (United States)

    Consolino, L.; Bartalini, S.; De Natale, P.


    We provide an overview on terahertz (THz) frequency metrology, starting from the nowadays available continuous wave THz sources, discussing their main features such as tunability, spectral purity, and frequency referencing to the primary frequency standards. A comparison on the achieved results in high-precision molecular spectroscopy is given and discussed, and finally, a special emphasis poses on the future developments of this upcoming field.

  3. Alternative measures of uncertainty in quantum metrology: Contradictions and limits (United States)

    Luis, Alfredo; Rodil, Alfonso


    We examine a family of intrinsic performance measures in terms of probability distributions that generalize Hellinger distance and Fisher information. They are applied to quantum metrology to assess the uncertainty in the detection of minute changes of physical quantities. We show that different measures lead to contradictory conclusions, including the possibility of arbitrarily small uncertainty for fixed resources. These intrinsic performances are compared with the averaged error in the corresponding estimation problem after single-shot measurements.

  4. Optimal and Robust Quantum Metrology Using Interaction-Based Readouts


    Nolan, Samuel P; Szigeti, Stuart S.; Haine, Simon A.


    Useful quantum metrology requires nonclassical states with a high particle number and the (close to) optimal exploitation of the state's quantum correlations. Unfortunately, the single-particle detection resolution demanded by conventional protocols, such as spin squeezing via one-axis twisting, places severe limits on the particle number. Additionally, the challenge of finding optimal measurements (that saturate the quantum Cram\\'er-Rao bound) for an arbitrary nonclassical state limits most ...

  5. World wide matching of registration metrology tools of various generations (United States)

    Laske, F.; Pudnos, A.; Mackey, L.; Tran, P.; Higuchi, M.; Enkrich, C.; Roeth, K.-D.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Adam, D.; Bender, J.


    Turn around time/cycle time is a key success criterion in the semiconductor photomask business. Therefore, global mask suppliers typically allocate work loads based on fab capability and utilization capacity. From a logistical point of view, the manufacturing location of a photomask should be transparent to the customer (mask user). Matching capability of production equipment and especially metrology tools is considered a key enabler to guarantee cross site manufacturing flexibility. Toppan, with manufacturing sites in eight countries worldwide, has an on-going program to match the registration metrology systems of all its production sites. This allows for manufacturing flexibility and risk mitigation.In cooperation with Vistec Semiconductor Systems, Toppan has recently completed a program to match the Vistec LMS IPRO systems at all production sites worldwide. Vistec has developed a new software feature which allows for significantly improved matching of LMS IPRO(x) registration metrology tools of various generations. We will report on the results of the global matching campaign of several of the leading Toppan sites.

  6. Weak-value Metrology and Shot-Noise Limited Measurements (United States)

    Viza, Gerardo Ivan

    This thesis contains a subset of the research in which I have participated in during my studies at the University of Rochester. It contains three projects and one overarching theme of weak-value metrology. We start with chapter 1 where we cover the historical background leading up to quantum optics, which we use for precision metrology. We also introduce the weak-value formulation and give examples of metrological implementations for parameter estimation. Chapter 2 introduces two experiments to measure a longitudinal velocity and a transverse momentum kick. We show that weak-value based techniques are shot-noise limited because we saturate the Cramer-Rao bound for the estimator used, and efficient because we experimentally demonstrate there is virtually no loss of Fisher information of the parameter of interest from the discarded events. In Chapter 3 we present a comparison of two experiments that measure a beam deflection. One experiment is a weak-value based technique, while the other is the standard focusing technique. We set up the two experiments in the presence of simulated technical noise sources and show how the weak-value based technique out performs the standard technique in both visibility and in deviation of the transverse momentum kick. Chapter 4 contains work of the exploration of concatenated postselection for weak-value amplification. We demonstrate an optimization and conditions where postselecting on two degrees of freedom can be beneficial to enhance the weak-value amplification.

  7. Laser metrology for ultra-stable space-based coronagraphs (United States)

    Nissen, Joel A.; Azizi, Alireza; Zhao, Feng; Zareh, Shannon Kian G.; Rao, Shanti R.; Jewell, Jeffrey B.; Moore, Dustin


    Sensing starlight rejected from a coronagraph is essential in stabilizing the telescope pointing and wavefront drift, but performance is degraded for dim stars. Laser Metrology (MET) provides a different, complementary sensing method, one that can be used to measure changes in the alignment of the optics at high bandwidth, independent of the magnitude of the host star. Laser metrology measures changes in the separation of optical fiducial pairs, which can be separated by many meters. The principle of operations is similar to the laser metrology system used in LISA-Pathfinder to measure the in-orbit displacement between two test masses to a precision of 10 picometers. In closed loop with actuators, MET actively maintains rigid body alignment of the front-end optics, thereby eliminating the dominant source of wavefront drift. Because MET is not photon starved, it can operate at high bandwidth and feed-forward secondary-mirror jitter to a fast-steering mirror, correcting line-of-sight errors. In the case of a segmented, active primary mirror, MET provides six degrees of freedom sensing, replacing edge sensors. MET maintains wavefront control even during attitude maneuvers, such as slews between target stars, thereby avoiding the need to repeat time-consuming speckle suppression. These features can significantly improve the performance and observational efficiency of future large-aperture space telescopes equipped with internal coronagraphs. We evaluate MET trusses for various proposed monolithic and segmented spacebased coronagraphs and present the performance requirements necessary to maintain contrast drift below 10-11.

  8. New optical metrology for masks: range and accuracy rivals SEM (United States)

    Cottle, Rand; Fiekowsky, Peter; Hung, C. C.; Lin, Sheng-che


    Metrology is essential to success in all manufacturing processes. In microlithography metrology techniques have begun to shift from optical to SEM. In this paper we compare the capabilities of the new Flux-Area optical technique and of SEM techniques. SEM measurement has been increasing in mask shops because of the higher resolution it provides, despite disadvantages including damage to masks, charging effects, and inability to operate with pellicles. Optical measurements of photomasks are preferred because they are performed with light, in transmission. The success of virtual stepper software, which uses optical images in simulating stepper output, has demonstrated that optical images contain sufficient information to predict the results of even subwavelength lithography. Flux-Area measurement allows optical instruments to accurately measure features as small as (lambda) /6, or 0.08 (mu) using visible light (Fiekowsky and Selassie, 1999). It also allows the measurement of Optical Dimensions. This is the width of a line defined by the flux of light it transmits to the objective lens. In this study Flux-Area measurements of linewidths and contact are compared to SEM measurements and DUV AIMS microscope images. Results show that Flux-Area measurements are linear down to the smallest lines and holes tested, 0.23 (mu) and 0.4(mu) respectively. Thus the Flux-Area technique provides a practical alternative to SEM for metrology on current and future generation photomasks.

  9. Metrology-base for scientific cognition and technical production (United States)

    Weckenmann, A.; Krämer, P.; Akkasoglu, G.


    For understanding today's metrology a brief historical review is given, starting with the definition of units for trade and construction of buildings. Later on, industrial metrology is needed for the development of modern production processes and interchangeable manufacturing. In order to support the international exchange of goods and the development of precise manufacturing processes traceability of measurement results had to be established. Global trade as well as international companies profited from the standards to achieve lower costs for products from all over the world and simultaneously new measurement techniques were developed. The firstly defined two point-size-tolerances and measurements with simple measurement devices like calipers became soon insufficient. Together with the improvement of manufacturing processes and increasing demands for an economical way of production, advanced measurement techniques were found. In this overview, the development from tactile to optical measurement techniques with some important examples is shown in parallel with the development of standards. The requirements for today's manufacturing metrology methods as well as the role of measurement of geometrical quantities in industry and trade are derived and future trends are pointed out.

  10. Metrological traceability of carbon dioxide measurements in atmosphere and seawater (United States)

    Rolle, F.; Pessana, E.; Sega, M.


    The accurate determination of gaseous pollutants is fundamental for the monitoring of the trends of these analytes in the environment and the application of the metrological concepts to this field is necessary to assure the reliability of the measurement results. In this work, an overview of the activity carried out at Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica to establish the metrological traceability of the measurements of gaseous atmospheric pollutants, in particular of carbon dioxide (CO2), is presented. Two primary methods, the gravimetry and the dynamic dilution, are used for the preparation of reference standards for composition which can be used to calibrate sensors and analytical instrumentation. At present, research is carried out to lower the measurement uncertainties of the primary gas mixtures and to extend their application to the oceanic field. The reason of such investigation is due to the evidence of the changes occurring in seawater carbonate chemistry, connected to the rising level of CO2 in the atmosphere. The well established activity to assure the metrological traceability of CO2 in the atmosphere will be applied to the determination of CO2 in seawater, by developing suitable reference materials for calibration and control of the sensors during their routine use.

  11. Relativistic quantum metrology: exploiting relativity to improve quantum measurement technologies. (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mehdi; Bruschi, David Edward; Sabín, Carlos; Adesso, Gerardo; Fuentes, Ivette


    We present a framework for relativistic quantum metrology that is useful for both Earth-based and space-based technologies. Quantum metrology has been so far successfully applied to design precision instruments such as clocks and sensors which outperform classical devices by exploiting quantum properties. There are advanced plans to implement these and other quantum technologies in space, for instance Space-QUEST and Space Optical Clock projects intend to implement quantum communications and quantum clocks at regimes where relativity starts to kick in. However, typical setups do not take into account the effects of relativity on quantum properties. To include and exploit these effects, we introduce techniques for the application of metrology to quantum field theory. Quantum field theory properly incorporates quantum theory and relativity, in particular, at regimes where space-based experiments take place. This framework allows for high precision estimation of parameters that appear in quantum field theory including proper times and accelerations. Indeed, the techniques can be applied to develop a novel generation of relativistic quantum technologies for gravimeters, clocks and sensors. As an example, we present a high precision device which in principle improves the state-of-the-art in quantum accelerometers by exploiting relativistic effects.

  12. Optimal and Robust Quantum Metrology Using Interaction-Based Readouts (United States)

    Nolan, Samuel P.; Szigeti, Stuart S.; Haine, Simon A.


    Useful quantum metrology requires nonclassical states with a high particle number and (close to) the optimal exploitation of the state's quantum correlations. Unfortunately, the single-particle detection resolution demanded by conventional protocols, such as spin squeezing via one-axis twisting, places severe limits on the particle number. Additionally, the challenge of finding optimal measurements (that saturate the quantum Cramér-Rao bound) for an arbitrary nonclassical state limits most metrological protocols to only moderate levels of quantum enhancement. "Interaction-based readout" protocols have been shown to allow optimal interferometry or to provide robustness against detection noise at the expense of optimality. In this Letter, we prove that one has great flexibility in constructing an optimal protocol, thereby allowing it to also be robust to detection noise. This requires the full probability distribution of outcomes in an optimal measurement basis, which is typically easily accessible and can be determined from specific criteria we provide. Additionally, we quantify the robustness of several classes of interaction-based readouts under realistic experimental constraints. We determine that optimal and robust quantum metrology is achievable in current spin-squeezing experiments.

  13. A Knowledge-Navigation System for Dimensional Metrology (United States)

    Moncarz, Howard T.


    Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing (GD&T) is a method to specify the dimensions and form of a part so that it will meet its design intent. GD&T is difficult to master for two main reasons. First, it is based on complex 3D geometric entities and relationships. Second, the geometry is associated with a large, diverse knowledge base of dimensional metrology with many interconnections. This paper describes an approach to create a dimensional metrology knowledge base that is organized around a set of key concepts and to represent those concepts as virtual objects that can be navigated with interactive, computer visualization techniques to access the associated knowledge. The approach can enable several applications. First is the application to convey the definition and meaning of GD&T over a broad range of tolerance types. Second is the application to provide a visualization of dimensional metrology knowledge within a control hierarchy of the inspection process. Third is the application to show the coverage of interoperability standards to enable industry to make decisions on standards development and harmonization efforts. A prototype system has been implemented to demonstrate the principles involved in the approach. PMID:27446727

  14. Extended convexity of quantum Fisher information in quantum metrology (United States)

    Alipour, S.; Rezakhani, A. T.


    We prove an extended convexity for quantum Fisher information of a mixed state with a given convex decomposition. This convexity introduces a bound which has two parts: (i) The classical part associated with the Fisher information of the probability distribution of the states contributing to the decomposition, and (ii) the quantum part given by the average quantum Fisher information of the states in this decomposition. Next we use a non-Hermitian extension of a symmetric logarithmic derivative in order to obtain another upper bound on quantum Fisher information, which helps to derive a closed form for the bound in evolutions having the semigroup property. We enhance the extended convexity with this concept of a non-Hermitian symmetric logarithmic derivative (which we show is computable) to lay out a general metrology framework where the dynamics is described by a quantum channel and derive the ultimate precision limit for open-system quantum metrology. We illustrate our results and their applications through two examples where we also demonstrate how the extended convexity allows identifying a crossover between quantum and classical behaviors for metrology.

  15. Management of metrology in measuring of the displacement of building construction


    Jiří Kratochvíl


    The metrology management of the measurement of the displacement of building construction is not regulated in the standard ČSN ISO 73 0405 - Measurement of the displacement of building construction. But the metrology management has to be included in the project of measurement of the displacement (Stage of project). Then we have to pay an attention to the metrological management during this measurement (Stage of realization) and during the evaluation of this measurement (Stage of evaluation). W...

  16. Advancements in NORM metrology - Results and impact of the European joint research project MetroNORM. (United States)

    Josef Maringer, Franz; Baumgartner, Andreas; Cardellini, Francesco; Cassette, Philippe; Crespo, Teresa; Dean, Julian; Wiedner, Hannah; Hůlka, Jiři; Hult, Mikael; Jerome, Simon; Kabrt, Franz; Kovář, Petr; Larijani, Cyrus; Lutter, Guillaume; Marouli, Maria; Mauring, Alexander; Mazánová, Monika; Michalik, Bogusław; Michielsen, Nathalie; Peyres, Virginia; Pierre, Sylvie; Pöllänen, Roy; Pommé, Stefaan; Reis, Mário; Stietka, Michael; Szücs, László; Vodenik, Branko


    The results of the three years European Metrology Research Programme's (EMRP) joint research project 'Metrology for processing materials with high natural radioactivity' (MetroNORM) are presented. In this project, metrologically sound novel instruments and procedures for laboratory and in-situ NORM activity measurements have been developed. Additionally, standard reference materials and sources for traceable calibration and improved decay data of natural radionuclides have been established. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Recommendations on the metrology and the control of the quality of the critical equipments]. (United States)

    Daunizeau, A


    Metrology resumes activities which allow the management of results measurement quality. In this paper, we present basic principles of metrology applied to the activities of laboratory medicine. We successively treat general concepts useful for laboratory staff, the interest in the definition of a metrological function and its activities field, the applications in measuring instruments necessary for the exams of medical biology, and the specific documentation control needed.

  18. Metrology for the Development of High Energy X-Ray Optics (United States)

    Gubarev, Mikhail; Ramsey, Brian; Engelhaupt, Darell; Dpeegle, Chet


    We are developing grazing incidence x-ray optics for a balloon-borne hard-x-ray telescope (HERO). The instrument will have 200 sq cm effective collecting area at 40 keV and an angular resolution goal of 15 arcsec. The HERO mirror shells are fabricated using electroform-nickel replication off super-polished cylindrical mandrels. The angular resolution goal puts stringent requirements on the quality of x-ray mirrors and, hence, on mandrel quality. We used metrology in an iterative approach to monitor and refine the x- ray mirror fabrication process. Comparison of surface figure and microroughness measurements of the mandrel and the shells will be presented together with results from x-ray tests.

  19. The Measuring Position Designed to Determine the Metrological Properties of air Gauges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Jakubowicz


    Full Text Available This article describes the measurement system designed in order to determine the metrological properties of air gauges. The said scientific study makes it possible to determine the static pk = f(s and flow qv = f(s characteristics. It consists of three modules: a mechanical module, a control and register data module and a special software module. Apart from the possibility of determining the static and flow characteristics, the presented study makes it possible to measure the temperature in the duct that supplies the compressed air to the transducer as well as in the measuring chamber. The above-mentioned measurement system makes it possible to determine the pressure applied on the surface measured by an air stream coming from the nozzle. Apart from a detailed description of a test station and the software, the article also contains sample results of tests performed on air gauges.

  20. Optical vortex metrology based on the core structures of phase singularities in Laguerre-Gauss transform of a speckle pattern. (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Yokozeki, Tomoaki; Ishijima, Reika; Takeda, Mitsuo; Hanson, Steen G


    A new technique for displacement measurement is proposed that makes use of phase singularities in the complex signal generated by a Laguerre-Gauss filter operation applied to a speckle pattern. The core structures of phase singularities are used as unique fingerprints attached to the object surface, and the displacement is determined by tracing the movement of registered phase singularities with their correspondence being identified by the fingerprints. Experimental results for translational and rotational displacement measurements are presented that demonstrate large dynamic range and high spatial resolution of the proposed optical vortex metrology.

  1. Evaluating a hybrid three-dimensional metrology system: merging data from optical and touch probe devices (United States)

    Gerde, Janice R.; Christens-Barry, William A.


    In a project to meet requirements for CBP Laboratory analysis of footwear under the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTSUS), a hybrid metrology system comprising both optical and touch probe devices has been assembled. A unique requirement must be met: To identify the interface-typically obscured in samples of concern-of the "external surface area upper" (ESAU) and the sole without physically destroying the sample. The sample outer surface is determined by discrete point cloud coordinates obtained using laser scanner optical measurements. Measurements from the optically inaccessible insole region are obtained using a coordinate measuring machine (CMM). That surface similarly is defined by point cloud data. Mathematically, the individual CMM and scanner data sets are transformed into a single, common reference frame. Custom software then fits a polynomial surface to the insole data and extends it to intersect the mesh fitted to the outer surface point cloud. This line of intersection defines the required ESAU boundary, thus permitting further fractional area calculations to determine the percentage of materials present. With a draft method in place, and first-level method validation underway, we examine the transformation of the two dissimilar data sets into the single, common reference frame. We also will consider the six previously-identified potential error factors versus the method process. This paper reports our on-going work and discusses our findings to date.

  2. Probing surface and bulk electrochemical processes on the LaAlO3-SrTiO3 interface. (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Arruda, Thomas M; Kim, Yunseok; Ivanov, Ilia N; Jesse, Stephen; Bark, Chung W; Bristowe, Nicholas C; Artacho, Emilio; Littlewood, Peter B; Eom, Chang-Beom; Kalinin, Sergei V


    Local electrochemical phenomena on the surfaces of the LaAlO(3)-SrTiO(3) heterostructure are explored using unipolar and bipolar dynamic electrochemical strain microscopy (D-ESM). The D-ESM suggests the presence of at least two distinct electrochemical processes, including fast reversible low-voltage process and slow high-voltage process. The latter process is associated with static surface deformations in the sub-nanometer regime. These behaviors are compared with Kelvin probe force microscopy hysteresis data. The possible origins of observed phenomena are discussed, and these studies suggest that charge-writing behavior in LAO-STO includes a strong surface/bulk electrochemical component and is more complicated than simple screening by surface adsorbates.

  3. 77 FR 25406 - Consortium on “Concrete Rheology: Enabling Metrology (CREME)”: Membership Fee Update (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Institute of Standards and Technology Consortium on ``Concrete Rheology: Enabling Metrology (CREME... NIST/Industry Consortium on Concrete Rheology: Enabling Metrology (CREME)''. The notice stated that...

  4. Spectroscopic metrology for isotope composition measurements and transfer standards (United States)

    Anyangwe Nwaboh, Javis; Balslev-Harder, David; Kääriäinen, Teemu; Richmond, Craig; Manninen, Albert; Mohn, Joachim; Kiseleva, Maria; Petersen, Jan C.; Werhahn, Olav; Ebert, Volker


    The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) has identified greenhouse gases such as CO2, CH4 and N2O as critical for global climate monitoring. Other molecules such as CO that has an indirect effect of enhancing global warming are also monitored. WMO has stated compatibility goals for atmospheric concentration and isotope ratio measurements of these gases, e.g. 0.1 ppm for CO2 concentration measurements in the northern hemisphere and 0.01 ‰ for δ13C-CO2. For measurements of the concentration of greenhouse gases, gas analysers are typically calibrated with static gas standards e.g. traceable to the WMO scale or to the International System of Units (SI) through a national metrology institute. However, concentrations of target components, e.g. CO, in static gas standards have been observed to drift, and typically the gas matrix as well as the isotopic composition of the target component does not always reflect field gas composition, leading to deviations of the analyser response, even after calibration. The deviations are dependent on the measurement technique. To address this issue, part of the HIGHGAS (Metrology for high-impact greenhouse gases) project [1] focused on the development of optical transfer standards (OTSs) for greenhouse gases, e.g. CO2 and CO, potentially complementing gas standards. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) [2] is currently used to provide state-of-the-art high precision (in the 0.01 ‰ range) measurements for the isotopic composition of greenhouse gases. However, there is a need for field-deployable techniques such as optical isotope ratio spectroscopy (OIRS) that can be combined with metrological measurement methods. Within the HIGHGAS project, OIRS methods and procedures based on e.g. cavity enhanced spectroscopy (CES) and tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS), matched to metrological principles have been established for the measurement of 13C/12C and 18O/16O ratios in CO2, 15N/14N ratios in N2O, and 13C/12C and 2H

  5. Easy parallel screening of reagent stability, quality control, and metrology in solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) and peptide couplings for microarrays. (United States)

    Achyuthan, Komandoor E; Wheeler, David R


    Evaluating the stability of coupling reagents, quality control (QC), and surface functionalization metrology are all critical to the production of high quality peptide microarrays. We describe a broadly applicable screening technique for evaluating the fidelity of solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS), the stability of activation/coupling reagents, and a microarray surface metrology tool. This technique was used to assess the stability of the activation reagent 1-{[1-(Cyano-2-ethoxy-2-oxo-ethylidenaminooxy)dimethylamino-morpholinomethylene]}methaneaminiumHexafluorophosphate (COMU) (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) by SPPS of Leu-Enkephalin (YGGFL) or the coupling of commercially synthesized YGGFL peptides to (3-aminopropyl)triethyoxysilane-modified glass surfaces. Coupling efficiency was quantitated by fluorescence signaling based on immunoreactivity of the YGGFL motif. It was concluded that COMU solutions should be prepared fresh and used within 5 h when stored at ~23 °C and not beyond 24 h if stored refrigerated, both in closed containers. Caveats to gauging COMU stability by absorption spectroscopy are discussed. Commercial YGGFL peptides needed independent QC, due to immunoreactivity variations for the same sequence synthesized by different vendors. This technique is useful in evaluating the stability of other activation/coupling reagents besides COMU and as a metrology tool for SPPS and peptide microarrays. Copyright © 2015 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Metrology of human-based and other qualitative measurements (United States)

    Pendrill, Leslie; Petersson, Niclas


    The metrology of human-based and other qualitative measurements is in its infancy—concepts such as traceability and uncertainty are as yet poorly developed. This paper reviews how a measurement system analysis approach, particularly invoking as performance metric the ability of a probe (such as a human being) acting as a measurement instrument to make a successful decision, can enable a more general metrological treatment of qualitative observations. Measures based on human observations are typically qualitative, not only in sectors, such as health care, services and safety, where the human factor is obvious, but also in customer perception of traditional products of all kinds. A principal challenge is that the usual tools of statistics normally employed for expressing measurement accuracy and uncertainty will probably not work reliably if relations between distances on different portions of scales are not fully known, as is typical of ordinal or other qualitative measurements. A key enabling insight is to connect the treatment of decision risks associated with measurement uncertainty to generalized linear modelling (GLM). Handling qualitative observations in this way unites information theory, the perceptive identification and choice paradigms of psychophysics. The Rasch invariant measure psychometric GLM approach in particular enables a proper treatment of ordinal data; a clear separation of probe and item attribute estimates; simple expressions for instrument sensitivity; etc. Examples include two aspects of the care of breast cancer patients, from diagnosis to rehabilitation. The Rasch approach leads in turn to opportunities of establishing metrological references for quality assurance of qualitative measurements. In psychometrics, one could imagine a certified reference for knowledge challenge, for example, a particular concept in understanding physics or for product quality of a certain health care service. Multivariate methods, such as Principal Component

  7. Target-Tracking Camera for a Metrology System (United States)

    Liebe, Carl; Bartman, Randall; Chapsky, Jacob; Abramovici, Alexander; Brown, David


    An analog electronic camera that is part of a metrology system measures the varying direction to a light-emitting diode that serves as a bright point target. In the original application for which the camera was developed, the metrological system is used to determine the varying relative positions of radiating elements of an airborne synthetic aperture-radar (SAR) antenna as the airplane flexes during flight; precise knowledge of the relative positions as a function of time is needed for processing SAR readings. It has been common metrology system practice to measure the varying direction to a bright target by use of an electronic camera of the charge-coupled-device or active-pixel-sensor type. A major disadvantage of this practice arises from the necessity of reading out and digitizing the outputs from a large number of pixels and processing the resulting digital values in a computer to determine the centroid of a target: Because of the time taken by the readout, digitization, and computation, the update rate is limited to tens of hertz. In contrast, the analog nature of the present camera makes it possible to achieve an update rate of hundreds of hertz, and no computer is needed to determine the centroid. The camera is based on a position-sensitive detector (PSD), which is a rectangular photodiode with output contacts at opposite ends. PSDs are usually used in triangulation for measuring small distances. PSDs are manufactured in both one- and two-dimensional versions. Because it is very difficult to calibrate two-dimensional PSDs accurately, the focal-plane sensors used in this camera are two orthogonally mounted one-dimensional PSDs.

  8. Dimensional Metrology of Non-rigid Parts Without Specialized Inspection Fixtures = (United States)

    Sabri, Vahid

    Quality control is an important factor for manufacturing companies looking to prosper in an era of globalization, market pressures and technological advances. Functionality and product quality cannot be guaranteed without this important aspect. Manufactured parts have deviations from their nominal (CAD) shape caused by the manufacturing process. Thus, geometric inspection is a very important element in the quality control of mechanical parts. We will focus here on the geometric inspection of non-rigid (flexible) parts which are widely used in the aeronautic and automotive industries. Non-rigid parts can have different forms in a free-state condition compared with their nominal models due to residual stress and gravity loads. To solve this problem, dedicated inspection fixtures are generally used in industry to compensate for the displacement of such parts for simulating the use state in order to perform geometric inspections. These fixtures and the installation and inspection processes are expensive and time-consuming. Our aim in this thesis is therefore to develop an inspection method which eliminates the need for specialized fixtures. This is done by acquiring a point cloud from the part in a free-state condition using a contactless measuring device such as optical scanning and comparing it with the CAD model for the deviation identification. Using a non-rigid registration method and finite element analysis, we numerically inspect the profile of a non-rigid part. To do so, a simulated displacement is performed using an improved definition of displacement boundary conditions for simulating unfixed parts. In addition, we propose a numerical method for dimensional metrology of non-rigid parts in a free-state condition based on the arc length measurement by calculating the geodesic distance using the Fast Marching Method (FMM). In this thesis, we apply our developed methods on industrial non-rigid parts with free-form surfaces simulated with different types of

  9. Issues of Teaching Metrology in Higher Education Institutions of Civil Engineering in Russia (United States)

    Pukharenko, Yurii Vladimirovich; Norin, Veniamin Aleksandrovich


    The work analyses the training process condition in teaching the discipline "Metrology, Standardization, Certification and Quality Control." It proves that the current educational standard regarding the instruction of the discipline "Metrology, Standardization, Certification and Quality Control" does not meet the needs of the…

  10. Metrology Measurements of the DSTO Transonic Wind Tunnel Store Support Arm (United States)


    1 2. TWT STORE SUPPORT SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ..................................................... 3 3. METROLOGY in the TWT test section ............................................................... 3 Figure 3: Metrology arbor, clinometer, CMM, height...18 List of Tables Table 1: TWT store model support range of motion and design specification

  11. Management of metrology in measuring of the displacement of building construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Kratochvíl


    Full Text Available The metrology management of the measurement of the displacement of building construction is not regulated in the standard ČSN ISO 73 0405 - Measurement of the displacement of building construction. But the metrology management has to be included in the project of measurement of the displacement (Stage of project. Then we have to pay an attention to the metrological management during this measurement (Stage of realization and during the evaluation of this measurement (Stage of evaluation. We have to insist on the subsequent improving of metrology management within the frame of the next project (so-called feedback. The metrology management in the measurement of the displacement during the stages should be based on an application of statutory instruments and technical standards. We should insist especially on the system of standards for the quality control ISO 9000. Considering specialities of geodetic measurements it is necessary to adapt the metrology management. That is why it will differ from the metrology management in other fields of knowledge. This paper includes some steps of metrological provision which must not be ignored.

  12. National Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation Metrology - Brazilian CNEN; Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The activities of the Brazilian National Laboratory of Ionizing Radiations Metrology are described. They include research and development of metrological techniques and procedures, the calibration of area radiation monitors, clinical dosemeters and other instruments and the preparation and standardization of reference radioactive sources. 4 figs., 13 tabs.

  13. Nuclear Technology. Course 27: Metrology. Module 27-8, The Total Measurement System. (United States)

    General Physics Corp., Columbia, MD.

    This eighth in a series of eight modules for a course titled Metrology describes the overall metrology program and the associated typical responsibilities of the quality assurance/quality control technician. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module prerequisites, (3) objectives, (4)…

  14. Dimensional quality control of Ti-Ni dental file by optical coordinate metrology and computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yagüe-Fabra, J.A.; Tosello, Guido; Ontiveros, S.


    Endodontic dental files usually present complex 3D geometries, which make the complete measurement of the component very challenging with conventional micro metrology tools. Computed Tomography (CT) can represent a suitable alternative solution to micro metrology tools based on optical and tactile...

  15. Metrology-based control and profitability in the semiconductor industry (United States)

    Weber, Charles


    This paper summarizes three studies of the semiconductor industry conducted at SEMATECH and MIT's Sloan School of Management. In conjunction they lead to the conclusion that rapid problem solving is an essential component of profitability in the semiconductor industry, and that metrology-based control is instrumental to rapid problem solving. The studies also identify the need for defect attribution. Once a source of a defect has been identified, the appropriate resources--human and technological--need to be brought into the physically optimal location for corrective action. The Internet is likely to enable effective defect attribution by inducing collaboration between different companies.

  16. Electrical test prediction using hybrid metrology and machine learning (United States)

    Breton, Mary; Chao, Robin; Muthinti, Gangadhara Raja; de la Peña, Abraham A.; Simon, Jacques; Cepler, Aron J.; Sendelbach, Matthew; Gaudiello, John; Emans, Susan; Shifrin, Michael; Etzioni, Yoav; Urenski, Ronen; Lee, Wei Ti


    Electrical test measurement in the back-end of line (BEOL) is crucial for wafer and die sorting as well as comparing intended process splits. Any in-line, nondestructive technique in the process flow to accurately predict these measurements can significantly improve mean-time-to-detect (MTTD) of defects and improve cycle times for yield and process learning. Measuring after BEOL metallization is commonly done for process control and learning, particularly with scatterometry (also called OCD (Optical Critical Dimension)), which can solve for multiple profile parameters such as metal line height or sidewall angle and does so within patterned regions. This gives scatterometry an advantage over inline microscopy-based techniques, which provide top-down information, since such techniques can be insensitive to sidewall variations hidden under the metal fill of the trench. But when faced with correlation to electrical test measurements that are specific to the BEOL processing, both techniques face the additional challenge of sampling. Microscopy-based techniques are sampling-limited by their small probe size, while scatterometry is traditionally limited (for microprocessors) to scribe targets that mimic device ground rules but are not necessarily designed to be electrically testable. A solution to this sampling challenge lies in a fast reference-based machine learning capability that allows for OCD measurement directly of the electrically-testable structures, even when they are not OCD-compatible. By incorporating such direct OCD measurements, correlation to, and therefore prediction of, resistance of BEOL electrical test structures is significantly improved. Improvements in prediction capability for multiple types of in-die electrically-testable device structures is demonstrated. To further improve the quality of the prediction of the electrical resistance measurements, hybrid metrology using the OCD measurements as well as X-ray metrology (XRF) is used. Hybrid metrology

  17. Laser metrology in fluid mechanics granulometry, temperature and concentration measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Boutier, Alain


    In fluid mechanics, non-intrusive measurements are fundamental in order to improve knowledge of the behavior and main physical phenomena of flows in order to further validate codes.The principles and characteristics of the different techniques available in laser metrology are described in detail in this book.Velocity, temperature and concentration measurements by spectroscopic techniques based on light scattered by molecules are achieved by different techniques: laser-induced fluorescence, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering using lasers and parametric sources, and absorption sp

  18. On-product metrology results from MEBES 4-TFE System (United States)

    Braun, Christopher P.; Peiffer, Frederick R.


    At Lucent Technologies, lithography tool performance metric measurements are required on every plate. The QA cell patterning is designed to monitor the lithography tool, and the data is captured within the Mask Information Management System. It allows the manufacturer to use actual production data to determine machine performance trends, and it yields an extremely large sample of plates for SPC purposes. Closure, X vs. Y uniformity, butting, and registration data is reported in this way. The usage of on-product data for machine metrology is demonstrated, and actual production performance of the MEBES 4 TFE is shown.

  19. LISA Pathfinder: Optical Metrology System monitoring during operations (United States)

    Audley, Heather E.; LISA Pathfinder Collaboration


    The LISA Pathfinder (LPF) mission has demonstrated excellent performance. In addition to having surpassed the main mission goals, data has been collected from the various subsystems throughout the duration of the mission. This data is a valuable resource, both for a more complete understanding of the LPF satellite and the differential acceleration measurements, as well as for the design of the future Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission. Initial analysis of the Optical Metrology System (OMS) data was performed as part of daily system monitoring, and more in-depth analyses are ongoing. This contribution presents an overview of these activities along with an introduction to the OMS.

  20. Fringe pattern analysis for optical metrology theory, algorithms, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Servin, Manuel; Padilla, Moises


    The main objective of this book is to present the basic theoretical principles and practical applications for the classical interferometric techniques and the most advanced methods in the field of modern fringe pattern analysis applied to optical metrology. A major novelty of this work is the presentation of a unified theoretical framework based on the Fourier description of phase shifting interferometry using the Frequency Transfer Function (FTF) along with the theory of Stochastic Process for the straightforward analysis and synthesis of phase shifting algorithms with desired properties such

  1. Scientific language and metrology; El lenguaje cientificio y la metrologia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campo Maldonado, D. del; Martin Blasco, B.; Prieto Esteban, E.


    The International System of Units (SI) reflects all the decisions and recommendations regarding units of measurement issued by the General Conference on Weights and Measures, including rules for writing the names and symbols of measurement units and for expressing the values of quantities. Even though the SI is internationally accepted and is the declared legal system whose use is obligatory in Spain, the Spanish Metrology Centre has been detecting an incorrect use of the units of measurement both in textbooks at all levels and in scientific articles. (Author) 5 refs.

  2. Metrology System for a Large, Somewhat Flexible Telescope (United States)

    Liebe, Carl Christian; Bartman, Randall; Cook, Walter; Craig, William


    A proposed metrology system would be incorporated into a proposed telescope that would include focusing optics on a rigid bench connected via a deployable mast to another rigid bench holding a focal-plane array of photon counting photodetectors. Deformations of the deployable mast would give rise to optical misalignments that would alter the directions (and, hence, locations) of incidence of photons on the focal plane. The metrology system would measure the relative displacement of the focusing- optics bench and the focal-plane array bench. The measurement data would be used in post-processing of the digitized photodetector outputs to compensate for the mast-deformation-induced changes in the locations of incidence of photons on the focal plane, thereby making it possible to determine the original directions of incidence of photons with greater accuracy. The proposed metrology system is designed specifically for the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) a proposed spaceborne x-ray telescope. The basic principles of design and operation are also applicable to other large, somewhat flexible telescopes, both terrestrial and spaceborne. In the NuSTAR, the structural member connecting the optical bench and the photodetector array would be a 10-m-long deployable mast, and there is a requirement to keep errors in measured directions of incidence of photons below 10 arc seconds (3 sigma). The proposed system would include three diode lasers that would be mounted on the focusing-optics bench. For clarity, only one laser is shown in the figure, which is a greatly simplified schematic diagram of the system. Each laser would be aimed at a position-sensitive photodiode that would be mounted on the detector bench alongside the aforementioned telescope photodetector array. The diode lasers would operate at a wavelength of 830 nm, each at a power of 200 mW. Each laser beam would be focused to a spot of .1-mm diameter on the corresponding position-sensitive photodiode. To

  3. Metrology measurements for large-aperture VPH gratings (United States)

    Zheng, Jessica R.; Gers, Luke; Heijmans, Jeroen


    The High Efficiency and Resolution Multi Element Spectrograph (HERMES) for the Australian Astronomical Observatory (AAO) uses four large aperture, high angle of incidence volume phase holographic gratings (VPHG) for high resolution `Galactic archaeology' spectroscopy. The large clear aperture, the high diffraction efficiency, the line frequency homogeneity, and mosaic alignment made manufacturing and testing challenging. We developed new metrology systems at the AAO to verify the performance of these VPH gratings. The measured diffraction efficiencies and line frequency of the VPH gratings received so far meet the vendor's provided data. The wavefront quality for the Blue VPH grating is good but the Green and Red VPH gratings need to be post polishing.

  4. FOREWORD: Special issue on Statistical and Probabilistic Methods for Metrology (United States)

    Bich, Walter; Cox, Maurice G.


    This special issue of Metrologia is the first that is not devoted to units, or constants, or measurement techniques in some specific field of metrology, but to the generic topic of statistical and probabilistic methods for metrology. The number of papers on this subject in measurement journals, and in Metrologia in particular, has continued to increase over the years, driven by the publication of the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) [1] and the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA) of the CIPM [2]. The former stimulated metrologists to think in greater depth about the appropriate modelling of their measurements, in order to provide uncertainty evaluations associated with measurement results. The latter obliged the metrological community to investigate reliable measures for assessing the calibration and measurement capabilities declared by the national metrology institutes (NMIs). Furthermore, statistical analysis of measurement data became even more important than hitherto, with the need, on the one hand, to treat the greater quantities of data provided by sophisticated measurement systems, and, on the other, to deal appropriately with relatively small sets of data that are difficult or expensive to obtain. The importance of supporting the GUM and extending its provisions was recognized by the formation in the year 2000 of Working Group 1, Measurement uncertainty, of the Joint Committee for Guides in Metrology. The need to provide guidance on key comparison data evaluation was recognized by the formation in the year 2001 of the BIPM Director's Advisory Group on Uncertainty. A further international initiative was the revision, in the year 2004, of the remit and title of a working group of ISO/TC 69, Application of Statistical Methods, to reflect the need to concentrate more on statistical methods to support measurement uncertainty evaluation. These international activities are supplemented by national programmes such as the Software Support

  5. La Metrología Óptica y sus Aplicaciones La Metrología Óptica y sus Aplicaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Malacara Hernández


    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta una introducción al campo de la metrología óptica y de su herramienta principal que es la interferometría. También se presenta un panorama de los diferentes métodos empleados en metrología describiendo con especial detalle los avances más recientes en este campo. In this work an introduction to optical metrology is presented with a brief description of its main tool which is interferometry. Also, a survey of the main different methods used in optical metrology is described with a special emphasis on the most recent developments.

  6. Product Surfaces in Precision Engineering, Micorengineering and Nanotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Kunzmann, H.; Peggs, G. N.


    This paper is and excerpt from a recently published CIRP Key-Note paper on surfaces in Precision Engineering, Micorengineering and Nanotechnology [1]. It is focussed on the relevance of surface metrology at the micrometric and nanometric length scales. The applied measurement technologies...... are strongly dependent from the functional requirements on those surfaces. Examples of surfaces obtained with precision engineering, microengineering and nanotechnology are mentioned, encompassing surfaces in computers, MEMS, biomedical systems, ligth and X-ray optics, as well as in chemical systems. Surface...... in surface metrology at micro and nanoscale are strongly required for future progress of Precision Engineering, Microengineering, and Nanotechnology; and their fundamental importance can not be overestimated....

  7. Breakthrough In Current In Plane Metrology For Monitoring Large Scale MRAM Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cagliani, Alberto; Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Hansen, Ole


    -scale production. This will require a metrology to precisely monitor the properties of the MTJ stacks over 300 mm wafers with high performance in terms of reproducibility and repeatability. Here, we present a major breakthrough in the CIPT metrology that can deliver a substantial improvement on the precision...... of the Resistance Area product (RA) and the Tunnel Magnetoresistance (TMR) measurements, compared to state of the art CIPT metrology tools dedicated to R&D. On two test wafers, the repeatability of RA and MR was improved up to 350% and the measurement reproducibility up to 1700%. We believe that CIPT metrology now...... constitutes a very strong candidate for monitoring MRAM production, since it can guarantee the high metrology performance needed for the advent of the MRAM era....

  8. Infrared differential interference contrast microscopy for overlay metrology on 3D-interconnect bonded wafers (United States)

    Ku, Yi-sha; Shyu, Deh-Ming; Lin, Yeou-Sung; Cho, Chia-Hung


    Overlay metrology for stacked layers will be playing a key role in bringing 3D IC devices into manufacturing. However, such bonded wafer pairs present a metrology challenge for optical microscopy tools by the opaque nature of silicon. Using infrared microscopy, silicon wafers become transparent to the near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum, enabling metrology at the interface of bonded wafer pairs. Wafers can be bonded face to face (F2F) or face to back (F2B) which the stacking direction is dictated by how the stacks are carried in the process and functionality required. For example, Memory stacks tend to use F2B stacking enables a better managed design. Current commercial tools use single image technique for F2F bonding overlay measurement because depth of focus is sufficient to include both surfaces; and use multiple image techniques for F2B overlay measurement application for the depth of focus is no longer sufficient to include both stacked wafer surfaces. There is a need to specify the Z coordinate or stacking wafer number through the silicon when visiting measurement wafer sites. Two shown images are of the same (X, Y) but separate Z location acquired at focus position of each wafer surface containing overlay marks. Usually the top surface image is bright and clear; however, the bottom surface image is somewhat darker and noisier as an adhesive layer is used in between to bond the silicon wafers. Thus the top and bottom surface images are further processed to achieve similar brightness and noise level before merged for overlay measurement. This paper presents a special overlay measurement technique, using the infrared differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy technique to measure the F2B wafer bonding overlay by a single shot image. A pair of thinned wafers at 50 and 150 μm thickness is bonded on top of a carrier wafer to evaluate the bonding overlay. It works on the principle of interferometry to gain information about the

  9. Metrology for decommissioning nuclear facilities: Partial outcomes of joint research project within the European Metrology Research Program. (United States)

    Suran, Jiri; Kovar, Petr; Smoldasova, Jana; Solc, Jaroslav; Van Ammel, Raf; Garcia Miranda, Maria; Russell, Ben; Arnold, Dirk; Zapata-García, Daniel; Boden, Sven; Rogiers, Bart; Sand, Johan; Peräjärvi, Kari; Holm, Philip; Hay, Bruno; Failleau, Guillaume; Plumeri, Stephane; Laurent Beck, Yves; Grisa, Tomas


    Decommissioning of nuclear facilities incurs high costs regarding the accurate characterisation and correct disposal of the decommissioned materials. Therefore, there is a need for the implementation of new and traceable measurement technologies to select the appropriate release or disposal route of radioactive wastes. This paper addresses some of the innovative outcomes of the project "Metrology for Decommissioning Nuclear Facilities" related to mapping of contamination inside nuclear facilities, waste clearance measurement, Raman distributed temperature sensing for long term repository integrity monitoring and validation of radiochemical procedures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ice flood velocity calculating approach based on single view metrology (United States)

    Wu, X.; Xu, L.


    Yellow River is the river in which the ice flood occurs most frequently in China, hence, the Ice flood forecasting has great significance for the river flood prevention work. In various ice flood forecast models, the flow velocity is one of the most important parameters. In spite of the great significance of the flow velocity, its acquisition heavily relies on manual observation or deriving from empirical formula. In recent years, with the high development of video surveillance technology and wireless transmission network, the Yellow River Conservancy Commission set up the ice situation monitoring system, in which live videos can be transmitted to the monitoring center through 3G mobile networks. In this paper, an approach to get the ice velocity based on single view metrology and motion tracking technique using monitoring videos as input data is proposed. First of all, River way can be approximated as a plane. On this condition, we analyze the geometry relevance between the object side and the image side. Besides, we present the principle to measure length in object side from image. Secondly, we use LK optical flow which support pyramid data to track the ice in motion. Combining the result of camera calibration and single view metrology, we propose a flow to calculate the real velocity of ice flood. At last we realize a prototype system by programming and use it to test the reliability and rationality of the whole solution.

  11. Development of laser materials processing and laser metrology techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Chung, Chin Man; Kim, Jeong Mook; Kim, Min Suk; Kim, Kwang Suk; Baik, Sung Hoon; Kim, Seong Ouk; Park, Seung Kyu


    The applications of remote laser materials processing and metrology have been investigated in nuclear industry from the beginning of laser invention because they can reduce the risks of workers in the hostile environment by remote operation. The objective of this project is the development of laser material processing and metrology techniques for repairing and inspection to improve the safety of nuclear power plants. As to repairing, we developed our own laser sleeve welding head and innovative optical laser weld monitoring techniques to control the sleeve welding process. Furthermore, we designedand fabricated a 800 W Nd:YAG and a 150 W Excimer laser systems for high power laser materials processing in nuclear industry such as cladding and decontamination. As to inspection, we developed an ESPI and a laser triangulation 3-D profile measurement system for defect detection which can complement ECT and UT inspections. We also developed a scanning laser vibrometer for remote vibration measurement of large structures and tested its performance. (author). 58 refs., 16 tabs., 137 figs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Bösemann


    Full Text Available New production technologies like 3D printing and other adaptive manufacturing technologies have changed the industrial manufacturing process, often referred to as next industrial revolution or short industry 4.0. Such Cyber Physical Production Systems combine virtual and real world through digitization, model building process simulation and optimization. It is commonly understood that measurement technologies are the key to combine the real and virtual worlds (eg. [Schmitt 2014]. This change from measurement as a quality control tool to a fully integrated step in the production process has also changed the requirements for 3D metrology solutions. Key words like MAA (Measurement Assisted Assembly illustrate that new position of metrology in the industrial production process. At the same time it is obvious that these processes not only require more measurements but also systems to deliver the required information in high density in a short time. Here optical solutions including photogrammetry for 3D measurements have big advantages over traditional mechanical CMM’s. The paper describes the relevance of different photogrammetric solutions including state of the art, industry requirements and application examples.

  13. Industrial Photogrammetry - Accepted Metrology Tool or Exotic Niche (United States)

    Bösemann, Werner


    New production technologies like 3D printing and other adaptive manufacturing technologies have changed the industrial manufacturing process, often referred to as next industrial revolution or short industry 4.0. Such Cyber Physical Production Systems combine virtual and real world through digitization, model building process simulation and optimization. It is commonly understood that measurement technologies are the key to combine the real and virtual worlds (eg. [Schmitt 2014]). This change from measurement as a quality control tool to a fully integrated step in the production process has also changed the requirements for 3D metrology solutions. Key words like MAA (Measurement Assisted Assembly) illustrate that new position of metrology in the industrial production process. At the same time it is obvious that these processes not only require more measurements but also systems to deliver the required information in high density in a short time. Here optical solutions including photogrammetry for 3D measurements have big advantages over traditional mechanical CMM's. The paper describes the relevance of different photogrammetric solutions including state of the art, industry requirements and application examples.

  14. X-ray pulse wavefront metrology using speckle tracking. (United States)

    Berujon, Sebastien; Ziegler, Eric; Cloetens, Peter


    An instrument allowing the quantitative analysis of X-ray pulsed wavefronts is presented and its processing method explained. The system relies on the X-ray speckle tracking principle to accurately measure the phase gradient of the X-ray beam from which beam optical aberrations can be deduced. The key component of this instrument, a semi-transparent scintillator emitting visible light while transmitting X-rays, allows simultaneous recording of two speckle images at two different propagation distances from the X-ray source. The speckle tracking procedure for a reference-less metrology mode is described with a detailed account on the advanced processing schemes used. A method to characterize and compensate for the imaging detector distortion, whose principle is also based on speckle, is included. The presented instrument is expected to find interest at synchrotrons and at the new X-ray free-electron laser sources under development worldwide where successful exploitation of beams relies on the availability of an accurate wavefront metrology.

  15. Nonlinear Quantum Metrology of Many-Body Open Systems. (United States)

    Beau, M; Del Campo, A


    We introduce general bounds for the parameter estimation error in nonlinear quantum metrology of many-body open systems in the Markovian limit. Given a k-body Hamiltonian and p-body Lindblad operators, the estimation error of a Hamiltonian parameter using a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state as a probe is shown to scale as N^{-[k-(p/2)]}, surpassing the shot-noise limit for 2k>p+1. Metrology equivalence between initial product states and maximally entangled states is established for p≥1. We further show that one can estimate the system-environment coupling parameter with precision N^{-(p/2)}, while many-body decoherence enhances the precision to N^{-k} in the noise-amplitude estimation of a fluctuating k-body Hamiltonian. For the long-range Ising model, we show that the precision of this parameter beats the shot-noise limit when the range of interactions is below a threshold value.

  16. Efficient high-order suppression system for a metrology beamline. (United States)

    Sokolov, A; Sertsu, M G; Gaupp, A; Lüttecke, M; Schäfers, F


    High-quality metrology with synchrotron radiation requires in particular a very high spectral purity of the incident beam. This is usually achieved by a set of transmission filters with suitable absorption edges to suppress high-order radiation of the monochromator. The at-wavelength metrology station at a BESSY-II bending-magnet collimated plane-grating monochromator (c-PGM) beamline has recently commissioned a high-order suppression system (HiOS) based on four reflections from mirrors which can be inserted into the beam path. Two pairs of mirrors are aligned parallel so as not to disturb the original beam path and are rotated clockwise and counter-clockwise. Three sets of coatings are available for the different energy ranges and the incidence angle is freely tunable to find the optimum figure of merit for maximum suppression at maximum transmission for each photon energy required. Measured performance results of the HiOS for the EUV and XUV range are compared with simulations, and applications are discussed.

  17. New integrated Monte Carlo code for the simulation of high-resolution scanning electron microscopy images for metrology in microlithography (United States)

    Ilgüsatiroglu, Emre; Illarionov, Alexey Yu.; Ciappa, Mauro; Pfäffli, Paul; Bomholt, Lars


    A new Monte Carlo code is presented that includes among others definition of arbitrary geometries with sub-nanometer resolution, high performance parallel computing capabilities, trapped charge, electric field calculation, electron tracking in electrostatic field, and calculation of 3D dose distributions. These functionalities are efficiently implemented thanks to the coupling of the Monte Carlo simulator with a TCAD environment. Applications shown are the synthesis of SEM linescans and images that focus on the evaluation of the impact of proximity effects and self charging on the quantitative extraction of critical dimensions in dense photoresist structures.

  18. Molecular Electronics at Metal/Semiconductor Junctions. Si Inversion by Sub-Nanometer Molecular Films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yaffe, O.; Scheres, L.M.W.; Reddy Puniredd, S.; Stein, N.; Biller, A.; Har Lavan, R.; Shpaisman, H.; Zuilhof, H.; Haick, H.; Cahen, D.; Vilan, A.


    Electronic transport across n-Si-alkyl monolayer/Hg junctions is, at reverse and low forward bias, independent of alkyl chain length from 18 down to 1 or 2 carbons! This and further recent results indicate that electron transport is minority, rather than majority carrier dominated, occurs via

  19. Sub-nanometer stable precision MEMS clamping mechanism maintaining clamp force unpowered for TEM application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Dannis Michel; de Jong, B.R.; Soemers, Herman; van Dijk, Johannes


    A design is presented for a relatively large force (0.5 mN) high-precision MEMS clamping mechanism. The clamp is a part of a MEMS transmission electron microscope (TEM) sample manipulator, which needs to be fixed unpowered once positioned. The elastic deformation of the clamp suspension has been

  20. Imaging a pore network in a clay-rock at the sub-nanometer scale


    Gaboreau, Stéphane; Pret², D; Tournassat, Christophe


    International audience; Mini-Symposium Description (2.22) Clayey rocks properties are the focus of an ever-increasing interest from the geoscience community. These fine-grained sedimentary rocks (mudstone, argillite, shalesetc.) are recognized as key-components for energy-related technologies, for which they could serve as isolation material (in radioactive waste disposal), caprocks (in CO 2 capture and storage systems), or as reservoir rocks for hydrocarbons (gas and oil shales) (Bourg, 2015...

  1. Experimental Demonstration of Higher Precision Weak-Value-Based Metrology Using Power Recycling (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Tao; Tang, Jian-Shun; Hu, Gang; Wang, Jian; Yu, Shang; Zhou, Zong-Quan; Cheng, Ze-Di; Xu, Jin-Shi; Fang, Sen-Zhi; Wu, Qing-Lin; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can


    The weak-value-based metrology is very promising and has attracted a lot of attention in recent years because of its remarkable ability in signal amplification. However, it is suggested that the upper limit of the precision of this metrology cannot exceed that of classical metrology because of the low sample size caused by the probe loss during postselection. Nevertheless, a recent proposal shows that this probe loss can be reduced by the power-recycling technique, and thus enhance the precision of weak-value-based metrology. Here we experimentally realize the power-recycled interferometric weak-value-based beam-deflection measurement and obtain the amplitude of the detected signal and white noise by discrete Fourier transform. Our results show that the detected signal can be strengthened by power recycling, and the power-recycled weak-value-based signal-to-noise ratio can surpass the upper limit of the classical scheme, corresponding to the shot-noise limit. This work sheds light on higher precision metrology and explores the real advantage of the weak-value-based metrology over classical metrology.

  2. Low-cost scheme for high-precision dual-wavelength laser metrology. (United States)

    Kok, Yitping; Ireland, Michael J; Robertson, J Gordon; Tuthill, Peter G; Warrington, Benjamin A; Tango, William J


    A method capable of delivering relative optical path length metrology with nanometer precision is demonstrated. Unlike conventional dual-wavelength metrology, which employs heterodyne detection, the method developed in this work utilizes direct detection of interference fringes of two He-Ne lasers as well as a less precise stepper motor open-loop position control system to perform its measurement. Although the method may be applicable to a variety of circumstances, the specific application in which this metrology is essential is in an astrometric optical long baseline stellar interferometer dedicated to precise measurement of stellar positions. In our example application of this metrology to a narrow-angle astrometric interferometer, measurement of nanometer precision could be achieved without frequency-stabilized lasers, although the use of such lasers would extend the range of optical path length the metrology can accurately measure. Implementation of the method requires very little additional optics or electronics, thus minimizing the cost and effort of implementation. Furthermore, the optical path traversed by the metrology lasers is identical to that of the starlight or science beams, even down to using the same photodetectors, thereby minimizing the noncommon path between metrology and science channels.

  3. Replication of micro and nano surface geometries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Hocken, R.J.; Tosello, Guido


    The paper describes the state-of-the-art in replication of surface texture and topography at micro and nano scale. The description includes replication of surfaces in polymers, metals and glass. Three different main technological areas enabled by surface replication processes are presented......: manufacture of net-shape micro/nano surfaces, tooling (i.e. master making), and surface quality control (metrology, inspection). Replication processes and methods as well as the metrology of surfaces to determine the degree of replication are presented and classified. Examples from various application areas...... are given including replication for surface texture measurements, surface roughness standards, manufacture of micro and nano structured functional surfaces, replicated surfaces for optical applications (e.g. optical gratings), and process chains based on combinations of repeated surface replication steps....

  4. Reducing the overlay metrology sensitivity to perturbations of the measurement stack (United States)

    Zhou, Yue; Park, DeNeil; Gutjahr, Karsten; Gottipati, Abhishek; Vuong, Tam; Bae, Sung Yong; Stokes, Nicholas; Jiang, Aiqin; Hsu, Po Ya; O'Mahony, Mark; Donini, Andrea; Visser, Bart; de Ruiter, Chris; Grzela, Grzegorz; van der Laan, Hans; Jak, Martin; Izikson, Pavel; Morgan, Stephen


    Overlay metrology setup today faces a continuously changing landscape of process steps. During Diffraction Based Overlay (DBO) metrology setup, many different metrology target designs are evaluated in order to cover the full process window. The standard method for overlay metrology setup consists of single-wafer optimization in which the performance of all available metrology targets is evaluated. Without the availability of external reference data or multiwafer measurements it is hard to predict the metrology accuracy and robustness against process variations which naturally occur from wafer-to-wafer and lot-to-lot. In this paper, the capabilities of the Holistic Metrology Qualification (HMQ) setup flow are outlined, in particular with respect to overlay metrology accuracy and process robustness. The significance of robustness and its impact on overlay measurements is discussed using multiple examples. Measurement differences caused by slight stack variations across the target area, called grating imbalance, are shown to cause significant errors in the overlay calculation in case the recipe and target have not been selected properly. To this point, an overlay sensitivity check on perturbations of the measurement stack is presented for improvement of the overlay metrology setup flow. An extensive analysis on Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) from HMQ recipe optimization is performed on µDBO measurements of product wafers. The key parameters describing the sensitivity to perturbations of the measurement stack are based on an intra-target analysis. Using advanced image analysis, which is only possible for image plane detection of μDBO instead of pupil plane detection of DBO, the process robustness performance of a recipe can be determined. Intra-target analysis can be applied for a wide range of applications, independent of layers and devices.

  5. 5th Conference on Advanced Mathematical and Computational Tools in Metrology

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, M G; Filipe, E; Pavese, F; Richter, D


    Advances in metrology depend on improvements in scientific and technical knowledge and in instrumentation quality, as well as on better use of advanced mathematical tools and development of new ones. In this volume, scientists from both the mathematical and the metrological fields exchange their experiences. Industrial sectors, such as instrumentation and software, will benefit from this exchange, since metrology has a high impact on the overall quality of industrial products, and applied mathematics is becoming more and more important in industrial processes.This book is of interest to people

  6. Metrology and process control: dealing with measurement uncertainty (United States)

    Potzick, James


    Metrology is often used in designing and controlling manufacturing processes. A product sample is processed, some relevant property is measured, and the process adjusted to bring the next processed sample closer to its specification. This feedback loop can be remarkably effective for the complex processes used in semiconductor manufacturing, but there is some risk involved because measurements have uncertainty and product specifications have tolerances. There is finite risk that good product will fail testing or that faulty product will pass. Standard methods for quantifying measurement uncertainty have been presented, but the question arises: how much measurement uncertainty is tolerable in a specific case? Or, How does measurement uncertainty relate to manufacturing risk? This paper looks at some of the components inside this process control feedback loop and describes methods to answer these questions.

  7. The At-Wavelength Metrology Facility at BESSY-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Schäfers


    Full Text Available The At-Wavelength Metrology Facility at BESSY-II is dedicated to short-term characterization of novel UV, EUV and XUV optical elements, such as diffraction gratings, mirrors, multilayers and nano-optical devices like reflection zone plates. It consists of an Optics Beamline PM-1 and a Reflectometer in a clean-room hutch as a fixed end station. The bending magnet Beamline is a Plane Grating Monochromator beamline (c-PGM equipped with an SX700 monochromator. The beamline is specially tailored for efficient high-order suppression and stray light reduction. The versatile 11-axes UHV-Reflectometer can house life-sized optical elements, which are fully adjustable and of which the reflection properties can be measured in the full incidence angular range as well as in the full azimuthal angular range to determine polarization properties.

  8. Quantum metrology with spin cat states under dissipation (United States)

    Huang, Jiahao; Qin, Xizhou; Zhong, Honghua; Ke, Yongguan; Lee, Chaohong


    Quantum metrology aims to yield higher measurement precisions via quantum techniques such as entanglement. It is of great importance for both fundamental sciences and practical technologies, from testing equivalence principle to designing high-precision atomic clocks. However, due to environment effects, highly entangled states become fragile and the achieved precisions may even be worse than the standard quantum limit (SQL). Here we present a high-precision measurement scheme via spin cat states (a kind of non-Gaussian entangled states in superposition of two quasi-orthogonal spin coherent states) under dissipation. In comparison to maximally entangled states, spin cat states with modest entanglement are more robust against losses and their achievable precisions may still beat the SQL. Even if the detector is imperfect, the achieved precisions of the parity measurement are higher than the ones of the population measurement. Our scheme provides a realizable way to achieve high-precision measurements via dissipative quantum systems of Bose atoms.

  9. Quantum-enhanced metrology for multiple phase estimation with noise (United States)

    Yue, Jie-Dong; Zhang, Yu-Ran; Fan, Heng


    We present a general quantum metrology framework to study the simultaneous estimation of multiple phases in the presence of noise as a discretized model for phase imaging. This approach can lead to nontrivial bounds of the precision for multiphase estimation. Our results show that simultaneous estimation (SE) of multiple phases is always better than individual estimation (IE) of each phase even in noisy environment. The utility of the bounds of multiple phase estimation for photon loss channels is exemplified explicitly. When noise is low, those bounds possess the Heisenberg scale showing quantum-enhanced precision with the O(d) advantage for SE, where d is the number of phases. However, this O(d) advantage of SE scheme in the variance of the estimation may disappear asymptotically when photon loss becomes significant and then only a constant advantage over that of IE scheme demonstrates. Potential application of those results is presented. PMID:25090445

  10. Robust symmetry-protected metrology with the Haldane phase (United States)

    Bartlett, Stephen D.; Brennen, Gavin K.; Miyake, Akimasa


    We propose a metrology scheme that is made robust to a wide range of noise processes by using the passive, error-preventing properties of symmetry-protected topological phases. The so-called fractionalized edge mode of an antiferromagnetic Heisenberg spin-1 chain in a rotationally- symmetric Haldane phase can be used to measure the direction of an unknown electric field, by exploiting the way in which the field direction reduces the symmetry of the chain. Specifically, the direction (and when supplementing with a known background field, also the strength) of the field is registered in the holonomy under an adiabatic sensing protocol, and the degenerate fractionalized edge mode is protected through this process by the remaining reduced symmetry. We illustrate the scheme with respect to a potential realization by Rydberg dressed atoms.

  11. The effects of symmetrical arrangement on quantum metrology. (United States)

    Jin, Yao


    An obstacle for precision improvement in quantum metrology is the information loss causing by the unavoidable interaction between probe system and environment. Quantum fluctuations are environment no system can be isolated from and it will make the precision of initial parameter estimation of the probe atom decrease with time. After the typical time of the spontaneous decay of the probe atom, the precision is greatly damaged. However, quantum fluctuations can be modified. Our results show that if we put several ancillary atoms beside the probe atom in symmetrical arrangement, the probe atom will be affected by the ancillary atoms indirectly and the information loss of the probe atom causing by the quantum fluctuations will be partially avoided. We find that the retained precision after long time evolution can approaches to [Formula: see text] times of the initial precision in condition that the probe atom and three ancillary atoms are located in the vertex of regular tetrahedron.

  12. Digital holographic metrology based on multi-angle interferometry. (United States)

    Dong, Jun; Jiang, Chao; Jia, Shuhai


    We propose a multi-angle interferometry method for digital holographic metrology. In an application of three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction, the hologram corresponding to a different illumination angle is recorded as the illumination angle with a single wavelength tilted at regular intervals by an electronically controlled rotating stage. A Fourier-transform-based axial depth scanning algorithm formed by the reconstructed phase is used to obtain the height point by point over the whole field of view. Hence, the 3D reconstruction can be obtained effectively; even the object has large depth discontinuities resulting from the difficulty of the phase unwrapping. Due to a monochrome source only being used, the method is available for objects with wavelength-dependent reflectivity and those that are free of chromatic aberration caused by the different wavelengths.

  13. MetNH3: Metrology for ammonia in ambient air (United States)

    Braban, Christine; Twigg, Marsailidh; Tang, Sim; Leuenberger, Daiana; Ferracci, Valerio; Martin, Nick; Pascale, Celine; Hieta, Tuomas; Pogany, Andrea; Persijn, Stefan; van Wijk, Janneke; Gerwig, Holger; Wirtze, Klaus; Tiebe, Carlo; Balslev-Harder, David; Niederhausen, Bernhardt


    Measuring ammonia in ambient air is a sensitive and priority issue due to its harmful effects on human health and ecosystems. The European Directive 2001/81/EC on 'National Emission Ceilings for Certain Atmospheric Pollutants (NEC)' regulates ammonia emissions in the member states. However, there is a lack of regulation to ensure reliable ammonia measurements namely in applicable analytical technology, maximum allowed uncertainty, quality assurance and quality control (QC/QA) procedures as well as in the infrastructure to attain metrological traceability. Validated ammonia measurement data of high quality from air monitoring networks are vitally important for identifying changes due to implementations of environment policies, for understanding where the uncertainties in current emission inventories are derived from and for providing independent verification of atmospheric model predictions. The new EURAMET project MetNH3 aims to develop improved reference gas mixtures by static and dynamic gravimetric generation methods, develop and characterise laser based optical spectrometric standards and establish the transfer from high-accuracy standards to field applicable methods. MetNH3started in June 2014 and in this presentation the first results from the metrological characterisation of a commercially available cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS) will be discussed. Also first tests and results from a new design, Controlled Atmosphere Test Facility (CATFAC), which is to be characterised and used to validate the performance of diffusive samplers, denuders and on-line instruments, will be reported. CAFTEC can be used to control test parameters such as ammonia concentration, relative humidity and wind speed. Outline plans for international laboratory and field intercomparisons in 2016 will be presented.

  14. New method of 2-dimensional metrology using mask contouring (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ryoichi; Yamagata, Yoshikazu; Sugiyama, Akiyuki; Toyoda, Yasutaka


    We have developed a new method of accurately profiling and measuring of a mask shape by utilizing a Mask CD-SEM. The method is intended to realize high accuracy, stability and reproducibility of the Mask CD-SEM adopting an edge detection algorithm as the key technology used in CD-SEM for high accuracy CD measurement. In comparison with a conventional image processing method for contour profiling, this edge detection method is possible to create the profiles with much higher accuracy which is comparable with CD-SEM for semiconductor device CD measurement. This method realizes two-dimensional metrology for refined pattern that had been difficult to measure conventionally by utilizing high precision contour profile. In this report, we will introduce the algorithm in general, the experimental results and the application in practice. As shrinkage of design rule for semiconductor device has further advanced, an aggressive OPC (Optical Proximity Correction) is indispensable in RET (Resolution Enhancement Technology). From the view point of DFM (Design for Manufacturability), a dramatic increase of data processing cost for advanced MDP (Mask Data Preparation) for instance and surge of mask making cost have become a big concern to the device manufacturers. This is to say, demands for quality is becoming strenuous because of enormous quantity of data growth with increasing of refined pattern on photo mask manufacture. In the result, massive amount of simulated error occurs on mask inspection that causes lengthening of mask production and inspection period, cost increasing, and long delivery time. In a sense, it is a trade-off between the high accuracy RET and the mask production cost, while it gives a significant impact on the semiconductor market centered around the mask business. To cope with the problem, we propose the best method of a DFM solution using two-dimensional metrology for refined pattern.

  15. In-line CD metrology with combined use of scatterometry and CD-SEM (United States)

    Asano, Masafumi; Ikeda, Takahiro; Koike, Toru; Abe, Hideaki


    Measurement characteristics in scatterometry and CD-SEM for lot acceptance sampling of inline critical dimension (CD) metrology were investigated by using a statistical approach with Monte Carlo simulation. By operation characteristics curve analysis, producer's risk and consumer's risk arising from sampling were clarified. Single use of scatterometry involves a higher risk, such risk being particularly acute in the case of large intra-chip CD variation because it is unable to sufficiently monitor intra-chip CD variation including local CD error. Substituting scatterometry for conventional SEM metrology is accompanied with risks, resulting in the increase of unnecessary cost. The combined use of scatterometry and SEM metrology in which the sampling plan for SEM is controlled by scatterometry is a promising metrology from the viewpoint of the suppression of risks and cost. This is due to the effect that CD errors existing in the distribution tails are efficiently caught.

  16. Metrological analysis of a virtual flowmeter-based transducer for cryogenic helium. (United States)

    Arpaia, P; Girone, M; Liccardo, A; Pezzetti, M; Piccinelli, F


    The metrological performance of a virtual flowmeter-based transducer for monitoring helium under cryogenic conditions is assessed. At this aim, an uncertainty model of the transducer, mainly based on a valve model, exploiting finite-element approach, and a virtual flowmeter model, based on the Sereg-Schlumberger method, are presented. The models are validated experimentally on a case study for helium monitoring in cryogenic systems at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). The impact of uncertainty sources on the transducer metrological performance is assessed by a sensitivity analysis, based on statistical experiment design and analysis of variance. In this way, the uncertainty sources most influencing metrological performance of the transducer are singled out over the input range as a whole, at varying operating and setting conditions. This analysis turns out to be important for CERN cryogenics operation because the metrological design of the transducer is validated, and its components and working conditions with critical specifications for future improvements are identified.

  17. Two-spheres method for evaluating the metrological structural resolution in dimensional computed tomography (United States)

    Zanini, F.; Carmignato, S.


    In recent years, x-ray computed tomography has been successfully applied as an innovative coordinate measurement technology for dimensional metrology. An important characteristic to be evaluated when testing the metrological performances of computed tomography systems is the metrological structural resolution for dimensional measurements, which describes the size of the smallest structure that can still be measured within error limits to be specified. The ‘two-spheres’ concept allows for the investigation of the metrological structural resolution by using a simple reference standard consisting of two touching spheres with the same nominal diameter. This work is aimed at defining and validating an enhanced method based on the ‘two-spheres’ concept and on a new measurement strategy. Advantages in using this method are discussed and a selection of the factors influencing the results are evaluated through experimental and simulation analyses.

  18. Integration of full-spectrum metrology and polishing for rapid production of large aspheres Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Integration of three proven, non-contact, optical metrology techniques with an emerging new polishing approach in a single machine will enable the rapid production...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has unique non-contact precision metrology requirements for dimensionally inspecting the global position and orientation of large and highly-polished...

  20. Coherent Laser Radar Metrology System for Large Scale Optical Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A new type of laser radar metrology inspection system is proposed that incorporates a novel, dual laser coherent detection scheme capable of eliminating both...

  1. Adjustment method for embedded metrology engine in an EM773 series microcontroller. (United States)

    Blazinšek, Iztok; Kotnik, Bojan; Chowdhury, Amor; Kačič, Zdravko


    This paper presents the problems of implementation and adjustment (calibration) of a metrology engine embedded in NXP's EM773 series microcontroller. The metrology engine is used in a smart metering application to collect data about energy utilization and is controlled with the use of metrology engine adjustment (calibration) parameters. The aim of this research is to develop a method which would enable the operators to find and verify the optimum parameters which would ensure the best possible accuracy. Properly adjusted (calibrated) metrology engines can then be used as a base for variety of products used in smart and intelligent environments. This paper focuses on the problems encountered in the development, partial automatisation, implementation and verification of this method. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Material synthesis and evaluation of metrological characteristics of potassium fluozirconate certified reference material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Lisienko


    Full Text Available The relevance of the study. For metrological support of control methods for composition ofpotassium fluozirconate, used in the production of metallic zirconium, applied in various technical fields, including nuclear power, electronics, chemical engineering. The purpose: development of synthesis technology, and determination of metrological characteristics of certified reference material for composition ofpotassium fluozirconate (set, intended for metrological support of measuring element mass fraction: hafnium (Hf, silicon (Si, iron (Fe, aluminium (Al, chromium (Cr, tin (Sn, titanium (Ti in potassium fluozirconate. Research methods: X-ray diffraction, differential scanning colorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, atomic-emission spectral analysis with arc excitation, mass spectral analysis, X-ray fluorescence analysis. Results. As a result of research a set of certified reference materials for composition of potassium fluozirconate is developed and produced. The CRM type is approved by Federal Agency on Technical Regulating and Metrology and registered in State Register of Approved Reference Material Types under number GSO 10593-2015.

  3. Report on non-destructive traceable measuring technologies for micro systems metrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasparin, Stefania; Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard


    The present chapter introduces the state of the art of the available technologies for carrying out micro and nano dimensional measurements, a description of the available calibration standards and a prospection of the future needs in the metrology field......The present chapter introduces the state of the art of the available technologies for carrying out micro and nano dimensional measurements, a description of the available calibration standards and a prospection of the future needs in the metrology field...

  4. X-ray Phase-Contrast Imaging and Metrology through Unified Modulated Pattern Analysis. (United States)

    Zdora, Marie-Christine; Thibault, Pierre; Zhou, Tunhe; Koch, Frieder J; Romell, Jenny; Sala, Simone; Last, Arndt; Rau, Christoph; Zanette, Irene


    We present a method for x-ray phase-contrast imaging and metrology applications based on the sample-induced modulation and subsequent computational demodulation of a random or periodic reference interference pattern. The proposed unified modulated pattern analysis (UMPA) technique is a versatile approach and allows tuning of signal sensitivity, spatial resolution, and scan time. We characterize the method and demonstrate its potential for high-sensitivity, quantitative phase imaging, and metrology to overcome the limitations of existing methods.

  5. Mapping surface charge density with a scanning nanopipette (United States)

    Klausen, Lasse Hyldgaard; Fuhs, Thomas; Besenbacher, Flemming; Dong, Mingdong


    Characterisation of the surface charge density (SCD) is important in interface and colloid science, and especially local variations in SCD of biological samples are of keen interest. The surface charge of lipid bilayers governs the uptake of charged particles and guides cell-cell interactions. As the electrostatic potential is screened by high physiological salt concentrations, direct probing of the potential can only be performed at a sub nanometer distance; therefore it was impossible to directly measure the SCD under physiological conditions. Yet the charged surface attracts counter ions leading to an enhanced ionic concentration near the surface, creating a measurable surface conductivity. In this study we measure SCD using a scanning ion-conductance microscope (SICM) setup, where the electrolyte current through a nanopipette is monitored as the pipette is positioned in the vicinity of the sample. We investigate the current dependency of SCD and pipette potential using numerical solutions to Poisson and Nernst-Planck equations and characterise a complex system governed by a multitude of factors such as pipette size, geometry and charge. We then propose an imaging method and prove its feasibility by mapping the surface charge density of phase separated lipid bilayers.

  6. Correlation methods in optical metrology with state-of-the-art x-ray mirrors (United States)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Centers, Gary; Gevorkyan, Gevork S.; Lacey, Ian; Smith, Brian V.


    The development of fully coherent free electron lasers and diffraction limited storage ring x-ray sources has brought to focus the need for higher performing x-ray optics with unprecedented tolerances for surface slope and height errors and roughness. For example, the proposed beamlines for the future upgraded Advance Light Source, ALS-U, require optical elements characterized by a residual slope error of art x-ray mirror performed at the XROL, we demonstrate the efficiency of combining the developed experimental correlation methods to the advanced optimal scanning strategy (AOSS) technique. This allows a significant improvement in the accuracy and capacity of the measurements via suppression of the instrumental low frequency noise, temporal drift, and systematic error in a single measurement run. Practically speaking, implementation of the AOSS technique leads to an increase of the measurement accuracy, as well as the capacity of ex situ metrology by a factor of about four. The developed method is general and applicable to a broad spectrum of high accuracy measurements.

  7. Towards a Uniform Metrological Assessment of Grating-Based Optical Fiber Sensors: From Refractometers to Biosensors. (United States)

    Chiavaioli, Francesco; Gouveia, Carlos A J; Jorge, Pedro A S; Baldini, Francesco


    A metrological assessment of grating-based optical fiber sensors is proposed with the aim of providing an objective evaluation of the performance of this sensor category. Attention was focused on the most common parameters, used to describe the performance of both optical refractometers and biosensors, which encompassed sensitivity, with a distinction between volume or bulk sensitivity and surface sensitivity, resolution, response time, limit of detection, specificity (or selectivity), reusability (or regenerability) and some other parameters of generic interest, such as measurement uncertainty, accuracy, precision, stability, drift, repeatability and reproducibility. Clearly, the concepts discussed here can also be applied to any resonance-based sensor, thus providing the basis for an easier and direct performance comparison of a great number of sensors published in the literature up to now. In addition, common mistakes present in the literature made for the evaluation of sensor performance are highlighted, and lastly a uniform performance assessment is discussed and provided. Finally, some design strategies will be proposed to develop a grating-based optical fiber sensing scheme with improved performance.

  8. Computer vision of the foot sole based on laser metrology and algorithms of artificial intelligence (United States)

    Muñoz-Rodríguez, J. Apolinar


    An automatic technique for the 3-D vision of the foot sole is presented. This technique is performed by means of laser metrology and approximation networks. To retrieve the topography, the foot sole is scanned by a laser line through a glass window. The contouring of the foot sole is based on the behavior of the laser line. This 3-D modeling is performed by an approximation network. The structure of this network is built based on the line shift that is generated due to surface variation and the camera position. Also, the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of the vision system are computed based on the network. In this manner, online setup modifications can be performed. Thus, the external measurements are not passed to the vision system. In this manner, the accuracy and the performance are improved because physical measurements are avoided. The approach of this vision system is to fit the shoe sole mold to the foot sole via contour curves. The results are evaluated by means of a root mean square of error using references from a contact method. Thus, a contribution in computer vision is achieved for profitable shoe design. The processing time is also described.

  9. On the metrology of interparticle contacts in sand from x-ray tomography images (United States)

    Wiebicke, Max; Andò, Edward; Herle, Ivo; Viggiani, Gioacchino


    In the mechanics of granular materials, interparticle contacts play a major role. These have been historically difficult to study experimentally, but the advent of x-ray microtomography allows the identification of all the thousands of individual particles needed for representative mechanical testing. This paper studies the metrology of detecting interparticle contacts and measuring their orientation from such images. Using synthetic images of spheres and high-resolution tomographies of two very different granular materials (spherical and very angular) as ground truths, we find that these measurements are far from trivial. For example, if a physically correct threshold is used to separate particles from pores there is a systematic over-detection of contacts. We propose a method of improvement that is effective for non-angular particles. When contact orientations are measured from the pixels that make up the contact area, standard watershed approaches make significant systematic errors. We confirm and build upon previous results showing the improvement in orientation measurement using a refined notion of particle separation. Building on this solid basis, future work should focus on a link between contact topology and measurement error, as well as evaluating the use of local surface normals for orientation measurement.

  10. Analysis of spurious diffraction orders of computer-generated hologram in symmetric aspheric metrology. (United States)

    He, Yiwei; Hou, Xi; Wu, Fan; Ma, Xinxue; Liang, Rongguang


    Computer-generated hologram (CGH) has been widely used as a wavefront compensator in symmetric aspheric metrology. As a diffractive element, it generates different diffraction orders, but only the 1st-order diffraction is used to test aspheric surface. The light from spurious diffraction orders (SDO) will produce many high-frequency fringes in interferogram and reduce measurement accuracy. In this paper, we regard the CGH null system as an imaging system and develop an aberration model in Seidel formalism to analyze the SDO. This model has the advantage to address the difference between the SDO (k1, k2) and (k2, k1). We consider the effect of the pupil distortion so that our model can analyze the SDO with a large pupil distortion. We derive the condition to ensure the 2nd-order and 4th-order aberrations have the same sign and calculate the minimum defocused distance (power carrier frequency) of CGH. According to the marginal-ray heights (h1andh3) on the CGH in the first and second passes, we determine the condition that the SDO covers the whole CGH in the second pass. We analyze the SDO of 4 CGH designs and compare the results from our aberration model with these from real ray trace. These results validate that our aberration model is feasible whether the aspheric part is convex or concave and whether CGH is inside or outside the focus of the transmission sphere.

  11. A Novel Low Energy Electron Microscope for DNA Sequencing and Surface Analysis (United States)

    Mankos, M.; Shadman, K.; Persson, H.H.J.; N’Diaye, A.T.; Schmid, A.K.; Davis, R.W.


    Monochromatic, aberration-corrected, dual-beam low energy electron microscopy (MAD-LEEM) is a novel technique that is directed towards imaging nanostructures and surfaces with sub-nanometer resolution. The technique combines a monochromator, a mirror aberration corrector, an energy filter, and dual beam illumination in a single instrument. The monochromator reduces the energy spread of the illuminating electron beam, which significantly improves spectroscopic and spatial resolution. Simulation results predict that the novel aberration corrector design will eliminate the second rank chromatic and third and fifth order spherical aberrations, thereby improving the resolution into the sub-nanometer regime at landing energies as low as one hundred electron-Volts. The energy filter produces a beam that can extract detailed information about the chemical composition and local electronic states of non-periodic objects such as nanoparticles, interfaces, defects, and macromolecules. The dual flood illumination eliminates charging effects that are generated when a conventional LEEM is used to image insulating specimens. A potential application for MAD-LEEM is in DNA sequencing, which requires high resolution to distinguish the individual bases and high speed to reduce the cost. The MAD-LEEM approach images the DNA with low electron impact energies, which provides nucleobase contrast mechanisms without organometallic labels. Furthermore, the micron-size field of view when combined with imaging on the fly provides long read lengths, thereby reducing the demand on assembling the sequence. Experimental results from bulk specimens with immobilized single-base oligonucleotides demonstrate that base specific contrast is available with reflected, photo-emitted, and Auger electrons. Image contrast simulations of model rectangular features mimicking the individual nucleotides in a DNA strand have been developed to translate measurements of contrast on bulk DNA to the detectability of

  12. Entanglement and Metrology with Singlet-Triplet Qubits (United States)

    Shulman, Michael Dean

    Electron spins confined in semiconductor quantum dots are emerging as a promising system to study quantum information science and to perform sensitive metrology. Their weak interaction with the environment leads to long coherence times and robust storage for quantum information, and the intrinsic tunability of semiconductors allows for controllable operations, initialization, and readout of their quantum state. These spin qubits are also promising candidates for the building block for a scalable quantum information processor due to their prospects for scalability and miniaturization. However, several obstacles limit the performance of quantum information experiments in these systems. For example, the weak coupling to the environment makes inter-qubit operations challenging, and a fluctuating nuclear magnetic field limits the performance of single-qubit operations. The focus of this thesis will be several experiments which address some of the outstanding problems in semiconductor spin qubits, in particular, singlet-triplet (S-T0) qubits. We use these qubits to probe both the electric field and magnetic field noise that limit the performance of these qubits. The magnetic noise bath is probed with high bandwidth and precision using novel techniques borrowed from the field of Hamiltonian learning, which are effective due to the rapid control and readout available in S-T 0 qubits. These findings allow us to effectively undo the undesired effects of the fluctuating nuclear magnetic field by tracking them in real-time, and we demonstrate a 30-fold improvement in the coherence time T2*. We probe the voltage noise environment of the qubit using coherent qubit oscillations, which is partially enabled by control of the nuclear magnetic field. We find that the voltage noise bath is frequency-dependent, even at frequencies as high as 1MHz, and it shows surprising and, as of yet, unexplained temperature dependence. We leverage this knowledge of the voltage noise environment, the

  13. State preparation for quantum information science and metrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samblowski, Aiko


    The precise preparation of non-classical states of light is a basic requirement for performing quantum information tasks and quantum metrology. Depending on the assignment, the range of required states varies from preparing and modifying squeezed states to generating bipartite entanglement and establishing multimode entanglement networks. Every state needs special preparation techniques and hence it is important to develop the experimental expertise to generate all states with the desired degree of accuracy. In this thesis, the experimental preparation of different kinds of non-classical states of light is demonstrated. Starting with a multimode entangled state, the preparation of an unconditionally generated bound entangled state of light of unprecedented accuracy is shown. Its existence is of fundamental interest, since it certifies an intrinsic irreversibility of entanglement and suggests a connection with thermodynamics. The state is created in a network of linear optics, utilizing optical parametric amplifiers, operated below threshold, beam splitters and phase gates. The experimental platform developed here afforded the precise and stable control of all experimental parameters. Focusing on the aspect of quantum information networks, the generation of suitable bipartite entangled states of light is desirable. The optical connection between atomic transitions and light that can be transmitted via telecommunications fibers opens the possibility to employ quantum memories within fiber networks. For this purpose, a non-degenerate optical parametric oscillator is operated above threshold and the generation of bright bipartite entanglement between its twin beams at the wavelengths of 810 nm and 1550 nm is demonstrated. In the field of metrology, quantum states are used to enhance the measurement precision of interferometric gravitational wave (GW) detectors. Recently, the sensitivity of a GW detector operated at a wavelength of 1064 nm was increased using squeezed

  14. Metrology Camera System Using Two-Color Interferometry (United States)

    Dubovitsky, Serge; Liebe, Carl Christian; Peters, Robert; Lay, Oliver


    A metrology system that contains no moving parts simultaneously measures the bearings and ranges of multiple reflective targets in its vicinity, enabling determination of the three-dimensional (3D) positions of the targets with submillimeter accuracy. The system combines a direction-measuring metrology camera and an interferometric range-finding subsystem. Because the system is based partly on a prior instrument denoted the Modulation Sideband Technology for Absolute Ranging (MSTAR) sensor and because of its 3D capability, the system is denoted the MSTAR3D. Developed for use in measuring the shape (for the purpose of compensating for distortion) of large structures like radar antennas, it can also be used to measure positions of multiple targets in the course of conventional terrestrial surveying. A diagram of the system is shown in the figure. One of the targets is a reference target having a known, constant distance with respect to the system. The system comprises a laser for generating local and target beams at a carrier frequency; a frequency shifting unit to introduce a frequency shift offset between the target and local beams; a pair of high-speed modulators that apply modulation to the carrier frequency in the local and target beams to produce a series of modulation sidebands, the highspeed modulators having modulation frequencies of FL and FM; a target beam launcher that illuminates the targets with the target beam; optics and a multipixel photodetector; a local beam launcher that launches the local beam towards the multi-pixel photodetector; a mirror for projecting to the optics a portion of the target beam reflected from the targets, the optics being configured to focus the portion of the target beam at the multi-pixel photodetector; and a signal-processing unit connected to the photodetector. The portion of the target beam reflected from the targets produces spots on the multi-pixel photodetector corresponding to the targets, respectively, and the signal

  15. Comparison Between 2D And 3D Surface Roughness Parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For many decades engineers and researchers have been using two-dimensional (2D) instruments to measure the roughness of a surface. Several 2D surface roughness parameters have been developed, and have emerged in different countries where researches in the area of surface metrology were carried out. The most ...

  16. Characterisation of Functional Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lonardo, P.M.; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Bruzzone, A.A.


    Characterisation of surfaces is of fundamental importance to control the manufacturing process and the functional performance of the part. Many applications concern contact and tribology problems, which include friction, wear and lubrication. This paper presents the techniques and instruments...... for characterisation of surfaces, discussing their operating principles and metrological properties. A review of the conventional 2D and new 3D roughness parameters is given, considering both the current standards and new proposals for texture quantification, with a particular attention to the methods orientated...... towards a functional characterisation of surfaces....

  17. A simulation-based study on the influence of beam hardening in X-ray computed tomography for dimensional metrology. (United States)

    Lifton, Joseph J; Malcolm, Andrew A; McBride, John W


    X-ray computed tomography (CT) is a radiographic scanning technique for visualising cross-sectional images of an object non-destructively. From these cross-sectional images it is possible to evaluate internal dimensional features of a workpiece which may otherwise be inaccessible to tactile and optical instruments. Beam hardening is a physical process that degrades the quality of CT images and has previously been suggested to influence dimensional measurements. Using a validated simulation tool, the influence of spectrum pre-filtration and beam hardening correction are evaluated for internal and external dimensional measurements. Beam hardening is shown to influence internal and external dimensions in opposition, and to have a greater influence on outer dimensions compared to inner dimensions. The results suggest the combination of spectrum pre-filtration and a local gradient-based surface determination method are able to greatly reduce the influence of beam hardening in X-ray CT for dimensional metrology.

  18. Definition of a metrology servo-system for a solar imaging fourier transform spectrometer working in the far UV (IFTSUV) (United States)

    Ruiz de Galarreta Fanju, C.; Philippon, A.; Bouzit, M.; Appourchaux, T.; Vial, J.-C.; Maillard, J.-P.; Lemaire, P.


    The understanding of the solar outer atmosphere requires a simultaneous combination of imaging and spectral observations concerning the far UV lines that arise from the high chromospheres up to the corona. These observations must be performed with enough spectral, spatial and temporal resolution to reveal the small atmospheric structures and to resolve the solar dynamics. An Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer working in the far-UV (IFTSUV, Figure 1) is an attractive instrumental solution to fulfill these requirements. However, due to the short wavelength, to preserve IFTSUV spectral precision and Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) requires a high optical surface quality and a very accurate (linear and angular) metrology to maintain the optical path difference (OPD) during the entire scanning process by: optical path difference sampling trigger; and dynamic alignment for tip/tilt compensation (Figure 2).

  19. Application of Vision Metrology to In-Orbit Measurement of Large Reflector Onboard Communication Satellite for Next Generation Mobile Satellite Communication (United States)

    Akioka, M.; Orikasa, T.; Satoh, M.; Miura, A.; Tsuji, H.; Toyoshima, M.; Fujino, Y.


    measurement for large structure with similar dimension with large deployable reflector to confirm the validity of the network design and instrumentation. In this report, the overview of this R&D project and the results of feasibility study of network design based on simulations on vision metrology and beam pattern compensation of antenna with very large reflector in orbit is discussed. The feasibility of assumed network design for vision metrology and satisfaction of accuracy requirements are discussed. The feasibility of beam pattern compensation by using accurately measured reflector shape is confirmed with antenna pattern simulation for deformed parabola reflector. If reflector surface of communication satellite can be measured routinely in orbit, the antenna pattern can be compensated and maintain the high performance every moment.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Akioka


    2 Trial measurement for large structure with similar dimension with large deployable reflector to confirm the validity of the network design and instrumentation. In this report, the overview of this R&D project and the results of feasibility study of network design based on simulations on vision metrology and beam pattern compensation of antenna with very large reflector in orbit is discussed. The feasibility of assumed network design for vision metrology and satisfaction of accuracy requirements are discussed. The feasibility of beam pattern compensation by using accurately measured reflector shape is confirmed with antenna pattern simulation for deformed parabola reflector. If reflector surface of communication satellite can be measured routinely in orbit, the antenna pattern can be compensated and maintain the high performance every moment.

  1. Metrology tools for EUV-source characterization and optimization (United States)

    Missalla, Thomas; Schuermann, Max C.; Lebert, Rainer; Wies, Christian; Juschkin, Larissa; Klein, Roman M.; Scholze, Frank; Ulm, Gerhard; Egbert, Andre; Tkachenko, Boris; Chichkov, Boris N.


    The development of suitable radiation sources for extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) is a major challenge. For the optimization of these sources and for the determination of the parameters needed for the system design and the system integration these sources have to be characterized in terms of the absolute in-band power, the spectral distribution in the EUV spectral region and the out-of-band spectral regions, the spatial distribution of the emitting volume and the angular distribution of the emission. For improving the lifetime of such sources, generally accepted as one key risk with EUVL, another task, the debris emitted from sources under development has to be investigated. Therefore, JENOPTIK Mikrotechnik GmbH is co-operating with the Laser Laboratorium Goettingen, the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) and the AIXUV GmbH in developing ready-for-use metrology tools for EUVL source characterization and optimization. The set of the tools employed for EUV-source characterization is presented in detail as well as concepts for calibration and measurement procedures.

  2. Automated CD-SEM metrology for efficient TD and HVM (United States)

    Starikov, Alexander; Mulapudi, Satya P.


    CD-SEM is the metrology tool of choice for patterning process development and production process control. We can make these applications more efficient by extracting more information from each CD-SEM image. This enables direct monitors of key process parameters, such as lithography dose and focus, or predicting the outcome of processing, such as etched dimensions or electrical parameters. Automating CD-SEM recipes at the early stages of process development can accelerate technology characterization, segmentation of variance and process improvements. This leverages the engineering effort, reduces development costs and helps to manage the risks inherent in new technology. Automating CD-SEM for manufacturing enables efficient operations. Novel SEM Alarm Time Indicator (SATI) makes this task manageable. SATI pulls together data mining, trend charting of the key recipe and Operations (OPS) indicators, Pareto of OPS losses and inputs for root cause analysis. This approach proved natural to our FAB personnel. After minimal initial training, we applied new methods in 65nm FLASH manufacture. This resulted in significant lasting improvements of CD-SEM recipe robustness, portability and automation, increased CD-SEM capacity and MT productivity.

  3. Weak-Values Metrological Techniques for Parameter Estimation (United States)

    Martinez-Rincon, Julian Rodrigo

    Precision measurements are bounded by the Standard Quantum Limit, and preparing non-classical states is often used to circumvent such a limit. In all cases, it is common to improve the precision in a parameter estimation procedure by averaging measurements of a large ensemble of identically prepared systems. However, such a task cannot be performed indefinitely due to sources of technical noise setting an experimental bound. Weak-Value Amplification (WVA) allows one to overcome some of these issues by amplifying a signal of interest above the technical-noise floor. This built-in robustness to external sources of noise relies on a weak coupling to a meter and postselection. In this document we evaluate, theoretically and experimentally, under what circumstances the technique is superior to non-postselected standard techniques. We also present a novel protocol where a WVA-like response is induced in an optical homodyne-type detection technique. We dub this technique Almost-Balanced Weak Values (ABWV) and present three experimental measurements of different physical velocities to evaluate the practical advantages over the well-known technique of WVA. In addition, we point out the existence of a third postselected-weak-measurements technique for metrology, Inverse Weak Value (IWV), that has been ignored by the scientific community. We use this protocol to measure ultra small tilts of a mirror in a Sagnac interferometer. We report all three techniques as complementary to each other, and show their robustness for low-frequency signals.

  4. Experimentally quantifying the advantages of weak-value-based metrology (United States)

    Viza, Gerardo I.; Martínez-Rincón, Julián; Alves, Gabriel B.; Jordan, Andrew N.; Howell, John C.


    We experimentally investigate the relative advantages of implementing weak-value-based metrology versus standard methods. While the techniques outlined herein apply more generally, we measure small optical beam deflections both using a Sagnac interferometer with a monitored dark port (the weak-value-based technique), and by focusing the entire beam to a split detector (the standard technique). By introducing controlled external transverse detector modulations and transverse beam deflection momentum modulations, we quantify the mitigation of these sources in the weak-value-based experiment versus the standard focusing experiment. The experiments are compared using a combination of deterministic and stochastic methods. In all cases, the weak-value technique performs the same or better than the standard technique by up to two orders of magnitude in precision for our parameters. We further measure the statistical efficiency of the weak-value-based technique. By postselecting on 1 % of the photons, we obtain 99 % of the available Fisher information of the beam deflection parameter.

  5. Using RF Smart Points for the Improvement of Metrological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio de Capua


    Full Text Available This work describes the realization of a “radio-frequency identification system” for the improvement of the activities of a metrological laboratory. Some radio-frequency modules, called by the authors RF Smart Points (“radio-frequency smart points”, have been designed to store into their memories all data which are necessary for the instruments tracking (the type of instruments, their identification numbers or serial numbers, the manufacturer, the date when they have been admitted to the installed base of the laboratory, their working state, the elapsed time from the last calibration procedure. The insertion of the data and the inquiry of the instruments are executed by the technical staff of the laboratory through a PDA (Personal Digital Assistant or a PC, which manage the radio-frequency communication by using the RS 232 interface for sending messages to a RF Transceiver. The executable software for managing the communication between the Smart Points and the “PDA/PC-Controllers” is realized in LabVIEW graphical programming environment.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Maksimuk


    Full Text Available The high-usage measurement equipment for heat of combustion of organic fuels are bomb isoperibol calorimeters with a water thermostat. The stability of work of calorimeters at real conditions is important for maintenance of reliability of measurement results. The article purpose – the analysis of stability for parameters of calorimeters to environment changes. In this work influence room temperature (Тк and heat exchange conditions on metrological characteristics of two models of calorimeters is considered with different degree of thermal protection: V-08МА and BIC 100. For calorimeters V-08МА the increase in a effective heat capacity (W on 0,1 % by growth of Tк on everyone 5 °С is established. To use value W in all interval laboratory temperatures Tк = 14–28 °С it is necessary to correct W on 2,8 J/°C on everyone 1 °С changes of Tк. Updating W is required, if the correction exceeds error in determination W. For calorimeter BIC 100 it is not revealed dependences W from Tк. BIC 100 have constant-temperature cap, high stability a temperature in thermostat and stabilized heat exchange. It is established that an standard deviation of cooling constant for all calorimeters in direct proportional to standard deviation W. 

  7. Robust overlay metrology with differential Mueller matrix calculus. (United States)

    Chen, Xiuguo; Gu, Honggang; Jiang, Hao; Zhang, Chuanwei; Liu, Shiyuan


    Overlay control is of vital importance to good device performances in semiconductor manufacturing. In this work, the differential Mueller matrix calculus is introduced to investigate the Mueller matrices of double-patterned gratings with overlay displacements, which helps to reveal six elementary optical properties hidden in the Mueller matrices. We find and demonstrate that, among these six elementary optical properties, the linear birefringence and dichroism, LB' and LD', along the ± 45° axes show a linear response to the overlay displacement and are zero when the overlay displacement is absent at any conical mounting. Although the elements from the two 2 × 2 off-diagonal blocks of the Mueller matrix have a similar property to LB' and LD', as reported in the literature, we demonstrate that it is only valid at a special conical mounting with the plane of incidence parallel to grating lines. The better property of LB' and LD' than the Mueller matrix elements of the off-diagonal blocks in the presence of overlay displacement verifies them to be a more robust indicator for the diffraction-based overlay metrology.

  8. Metrology of Multiphoton Microscopes Using Second Harmonic Generation Nanoprobes. (United States)

    Mahou, Pierre; Malkinson, Guy; Chaudan, Élodie; Gacoin, Thierry; Beaurepaire, Emmanuel; Supatto, Willy


    In multiphoton microscopy, the ongoing trend toward the use of excitation wavelengths spanning the entire near-infrared range calls for new standards in order to quantify and compare the performances of microscopes. This article describes a new method for characterizing the imaging properties of multiphoton microscopes over a broad range of excitation wavelengths in a straightforward and efficient manner. It demonstrates how second harmonic generation (SHG) nanoprobes can be used to map the spatial resolution, field curvature, and chromatic aberrations across the microscope field of view with a precision below the diffraction limit and with unique advantages over methods based on fluorescence. KTiOPO4 nanocrystals are used as SHG nanoprobes to measure and compare the performances over the 850-1100 nm wavelength range of several microscope objectives designed for multiphoton microscopy. Finally, this approach is extended to the post-acquisition correction of chromatic aberrations in multicolor multiphoton imaging. Overall, the use of SHG nanoprobes appears as a uniquely suited method to standardize the metrology of multiphoton microscopes. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. metrological performance improvement of a superconducting cable test station

    CERN Document Server

    Montenero, Giuseppe; Ballarino, Amalia

    The work presented in this PhD thesis concerns the metrological performance improvement of a superconducting cable test station based on superconducting transformers. The main cable’s parameter to be assessed –as a function of temperature and magnetic field– is the critical current, i.e. beyond this limit the phase transition to the normal state occurs. Ramping the current at levels in the order of the tens of kA can be achieved with superconducting transformers at moderate capital and operational cost. But, issues such as (i) accurate/precise measurements and (ii) monitoring of the secondary current during the device operation have to be addressed. In this regard, the goals of the thesis are the design, prototyping, and validation of a new cryogenic current transducer and effective monitoring system for test stations transformer-based. Among the available transducers for current sensing at room temperature, the DC current transformer (DCCT) provides measurement accuracy in the order of the hundreds of ...

  10. Applications of image diagnostics to metrology quality assurance and process control (United States)

    Allgair, John A.; Boksha, Victor V.; Bunday, Benjamin D.; Diebold, Alain C.; Cole, Daniel C.; Davidson, Mark P.; Hutcheson, Jerry D.; Gurnell, Andrew W.; Joy, David C.; McIntosh, John M.; Muckenhirn, Sylvain G.; Pellegrini, Joseph C.; Larrabee, Robert D.; Potzick, James E.; Vladar, Andras E.; Smith, Nigel P.; Starikov, Alexander; Sullivan, Neal T.; Wells, Oliver C.


    The purpose of this paper is to define standard methods for effective and efficient image-based dimensional metrology for microlithography applications in the manufacture of integrated circuits. This paper represents a consensual view of the co-authors, not necessarily in total agreement across all subjects, but in complete agreement on the fundamentals of dimensional metrology in this application. Fundamental expectations in the conventional comparison-based metrology of width are reviewed, with its reliance on calibration and standards, and how it is different from metrology of pitch and image placement. We discuss the wealth of a priori information in an image of a feature on a mask or a wafer. We define the estimates of deviations from these expectations and their applications to effective detection and identification of the measurement errors attributable to the measurement procedure or the metrology tool, as well as to the sample and the process o fits manufacture. Although many individuals and organizations already use such efficient methods, industry-wide standard methods do not exist today. This group of professionals expects that, by placing de facto standard meth-odologies into public domain, we can help reduce waste and risks inherent in a "spontaneous" technology build-out, thereby enabling a seamless proliferation of these methods by equipment vendors and users of dimensional metrology. Progress in this key technology, with the new dimensional metrology capabilities enabled, leads to improved perform-ance and yield of IC products, as well as increased automation and manufacturing efficiency, ensuring the long-term health of our industry.

  11. Analysis of Standards and Specific Documentation about Equipment of Dimensional Metrology (United States)

    Martin, M. J.; Flores, I.; Sebastian, M. A.


    Currently the certification of quality systems and accreditation of laboratories for metrology and testing are activities of great interest within the framework of advanced production systems. In this context, the availability of standardized documents, complete and efficient as well as specific documents edited by agencies with experience in this field, is especially important to obtain better results and lower costs. This work tries to establish the foundations to evaluate a documental system about equipment of Dimensional Metrology. An integrated and complete system does not exist in international field, so the Spanish case will be analyzed as example to the general study. In this paper we consider three types of instruments commonly used in the field of Dimensional Metrology (vernier calliper, micrometer calliper and mechanical dial gauge) and are passed to analyze the contents of UNE standards that affect them directly, and the two collections of documents produced and edited by the Centro Español de Metrología (CEM), such as "calibration procedures" and "use manuals." Given the results of this analysis, a discussion on the metrological characteristics of the contents of the document in question is developed and recommendations for their use and improvement are proposed.

  12. Coherent X-ray beam metrology using 2D high-resolution Fresnel-diffraction analysis. (United States)

    Ruiz-Lopez, M; Faenov, A; Pikuz, T; Ozaki, N; Mitrofanov, A; Albertazzi, B; Hartley, N; Matsuoka, T; Ochante, Y; Tange, Y; Yabuuchi, T; Habara, T; Tanaka, K A; Inubushi, Y; Yabashi, M; Nishikino, M; Kawachi, T; Pikuz, S; Ishikawa, T; Kodama, R; Bleiner, D


    Direct metrology of coherent short-wavelength beamlines is important for obtaining operational beam characteristics at the experimental site. However, since beam-time limitation imposes fast metrology procedures, a multi-parametric metrology from as low as a single shot is desirable. Here a two-dimensional (2D) procedure based on high-resolution Fresnel diffraction analysis is discussed and applied, which allowed an efficient and detailed beamline characterization at the SACLA XFEL. So far, the potential of Fresnel diffraction for beamline metrology has not been fully exploited because its high-frequency fringes could be only partly resolved with ordinary pixel-limited detectors. Using the high-spatial-frequency imaging capability of an irradiated LiF crystal, 2D information of the coherence degree, beam divergence and beam quality factor M2 were retrieved from simple diffraction patterns. The developed beam metrology was validated with a laboratory reference laser, and then successfully applied at a beamline facility, in agreement with the source specifications.

  13. In-field Raman amplification on coherent optical fiber links for frequency metrology. (United States)

    Clivati, C; Bolognini, G; Calonico, D; Faralli, S; Mura, A; Levi, F


    Distributed Raman amplification (DRA) is widely exploited for the transmission of broadband, modulated signals used in data links, but not yet in coherent optical links for frequency metrology, where the requirements are rather different. After preliminary tests on fiber spools, in this paper we deeper investigate Raman amplification on deployed in-field optical metrological links. We actually test a Doppler-stabilized optical link both on a 94 km-long metro-network implementation with multiplexed ITU data channels and on a 180 km-long dedicated fiber haul connecting two cities, where DRA is employed in combination with Erbium-doped fiber amplification (EDFA). The performance of DRA is detailed in both experiments, indicating that it does not introduce noticeable penalties for the metrological signal or for the ITU data channels. We hence show that Raman amplification of metrological signals can be compatible with a wavelength division multiplexing architecture and that it can be used as an alternative or in combination with dedicated bidirectional EDFAs. No deterioration is noticed in the coherence properties of the delivered signal, which attains frequency instability at the 10(-19) level in both cases. This study can be of interest also in view of the undergoing deployment of continental fiber networks for frequency metrology.

  14. Specular Reflection from Rough Surfaces Revisited (United States)

    Yasuda, Kensei; Kim, Alvin; Cho, Hayley; Timofejev, Timofej; Walecki, Wojciech J.; Klep, James; Edelson, Amy S.; Walecki, Abigail S.; Walecki, Eve S.; Walecki, Peter S.


    In his beautiful paper, Hasan Fakhruddin reported observations of mirror-like reflections in the rough surface of a ground glass plate. Similar effects have been recently employed for metrology of the roughness of optical diffusers used in modern light emitting device illumination systems. We report the observations of specular reflection in…

  15. Emerging metrology for high-throughput nanomaterial genotoxicology. (United States)

    Nelson, Bryant C; Wright, Christa W; Ibuki, Yuko; Moreno-Villanueva, Maria; Karlsson, Hanna L; Hendriks, Giel; Sims, Christopher M; Singh, Neenu; Doak, Shareen H


    The rapid development of the engineered nanomaterial (ENM) manufacturing industry has accelerated the incorporation of ENMs into a wide variety of consumer products across the globe. Unintentionally or not, some of these ENMs may be introduced into the environment or come into contact with humans or other organisms resulting in unexpected biological effects. It is thus prudent to have rapid and robust analytical metrology in place that can be used to critically assess and/or predict the cytotoxicity, as well as the potential genotoxicity of these ENMs. Many of the traditional genotoxicity test methods [e.g. unscheduled DNA synthesis assay, bacterial reverse mutation (Ames) test, etc.,] for determining the DNA damaging potential of chemical and biological compounds are not suitable for the evaluation of ENMs, due to a variety of methodological issues ranging from potential assay interferences to problems centered on low sample throughput. Recently, a number of sensitive, high-throughput genotoxicity assays/platforms (CometChip assay, flow cytometry/micronucleus assay, flow cytometry/γ-H2AX assay, automated 'Fluorimetric Detection of Alkaline DNA Unwinding' (FADU) assay, ToxTracker reporter assay) have been developed, based on substantial modifications and enhancements of traditional genotoxicity assays. These new assays have been used for the rapid measurement of DNA damage (strand breaks), chromosomal damage (micronuclei) and for detecting upregulated DNA damage signalling pathways resulting from ENM exposures. In this critical review, we describe and discuss the fundamental measurement principles and measurement endpoints of these new assays, as well as the modes of operation, analytical metrics and potential interferences, as applicable to ENM exposures. An unbiased discussion of the major technical advantages and limitations of each assay for evaluating and predicting the genotoxic potential of ENMs is also provided. Published by Oxford University Press on

  16. REVIEW ARTICLE: Bayesian assessment of uncertainty in metrology: a tutorial (United States)

    Lira, I.; Grientschnig, D.


    The publication of the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM), and later of its Supplement 1, can be considered to be landmarks in the field of metrology. The second of these documents recommends a general Monte Carlo method for numerically constructing the probability distribution of a measurand given the probability distributions of its input quantities. The output probability distribution can be used to estimate the fixed value of the measurand and to calculate the limits of an interval wherein that value is expected to be found with a given probability. The approach in Supplement 1 is not restricted to linear or linearized models (as is the GUM) but it is limited to a single measurand. In this paper the theory underlying Supplement 1 is re-examined with a view to covering explicit or implicit measurement models that may include any number of output quantities. It is shown that the main elements of the theory are Bayes' theorem, the principles of probability calculus and the rules for constructing prior probability distributions. The focus is on developing an analytical expression for the joint probability distribution of all quantities involved. In practice, most times this expression will have to be integrated numerically to obtain the distribution of the output quantities, but not necessarily by using the Monte Carlo method. It is stressed that all quantities are assumed to have unique values, so their probability distributions are to be interpreted as encoding states of knowledge that are (i) logically consistent with all available information and (ii) conditional on the correctness of the measurement model and on the validity of the statistical assumptions that are used to process the measurement data. A rigorous notation emphasizes this interpretation.

  17. The cell pattern correction through design-based metrology (United States)

    Kim, Yonghyeon; Lee, Kweonjae; Chang, Jinman; Kim, Taeheon; Han, Daehan; Lee, Kyusun; Hong, Aeran; Kang, Jinyoung; Choi, Bumjin; Lee, Joosung; Yeom, Kyehee; Lee, Jooyoung; Hong, Hyeongsun; Lee, Kyupil; Jin, Gyoyoung


    Starting with the sub 2Xnm node, the process window becomes smaller and tighter than before. Pattern related error budget is required for accurate critical-dimension control of Cell layers. Therefore, lithography has been faced with its various difficulties, such as weird distribution, overlay error, patterning difficulty etc. The distribution of cell pattern and overlay management are the most important factors in DRAM field. We had been experiencing that the fatal risk is caused by the patterns located in the tail of the distribution. The overlay also induces the various defect sources and misalignment issues. Even though we knew that these elements are important, we could not classify the defect type of Cell patterns. Because there is no way to gather massive small pattern CD samples in cell unit block and to compare layout with cell patterns by the CD-SEM. The CD- SEM is used in order to gather these data through high resolution, but CD-SEM takes long time to inspect and extract data because it measures the small FOV. (Field Of View) However, the NGR(E-beam tool) provides high speed with large FOV and high resolution. Also, it's possible to measure an accurate overlay between the target layout and cell patterns because they provide DBM. (Design Based Metrology) By using massive measured data, we extract the result that it is persuasive by applying the various analysis techniques, as cell distribution and defects, the pattern overlay error correction etc. We introduce how to correct cell pattern, by using the DBM measurement, and new analysis methods.

  18. The Application of Marker Based Segmentation for Surface Texture Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che Pin Nuraini binti


    Full Text Available Structured surfaces have been increasingly used in industry for a variety of applications, including improving the tribological properties of the surfaces. Surface metrology plays an important role in this discipline since with the help of surface metrology technology, surface texture can be measured, visualize and quantified. Traditional surface texture parameters, such as roughness and waviness, cannot be related to the function for structured surfaces due to the less statistical description and little information. Therefore, a new approaches based on characterizing the structured surface is introduces where this paper focus on type of edges grain surface. To identify features, it is a must to detect the location of the edges and segmented the features based on the detected edges. Hence characterization of surface texture segmentation based on the edges detection is developing using Marker Based segmentation and it is prove that this method is possible to be used in order to characterize the structured surface.

  19. SOLEIL shining on the solution-state structure of biomacromolecules by synchrotron X-ray footprinting at the Metrology beamline. (United States)

    Baud, A; Aymé, L; Gonnet, F; Salard, I; Gohon, Y; Jolivet, P; Brodolin, K; Da Silva, P; Giuliani, A; Sclavi, B; Chardot, T; Mercère, P; Roblin, P; Daniel, R


    Synchrotron X-ray footprinting complements the techniques commonly used to define the structure of molecules such as crystallography, small-angle X-ray scattering and nuclear magnetic resonance. It is remarkably useful in probing the structure and interactions of proteins with lipids, nucleic acids or with other proteins in solution, often better reflecting the in vivo state dynamics. To date, most X-ray footprinting studies have been carried out at the National Synchrotron Light Source, USA, and at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble, France. This work presents X-ray footprinting of biomolecules performed for the first time at the X-ray Metrology beamline at the SOLEIL synchrotron radiation source. The installation at this beamline of a stopped-flow apparatus for sample delivery, an irradiation capillary and an automatic sample collector enabled the X-ray footprinting study of the structure of the soluble protein factor H (FH) from the human complement system as well as of the lipid-associated hydrophobic protein S3 oleosin from plant seed. Mass spectrometry analysis showed that the structural integrity of both proteins was not affected by the short exposition to the oxygen radicals produced during the irradiation. Irradiated molecules were subsequently analysed using high-resolution mass spectrometry to identify and locate oxidized amino acids. Moreover, the analyses of FH in its free state and in complex with complement C3b protein have allowed us to create a map of reactive solvent-exposed residues on the surface of FH and to observe the changes in oxidation of FH residues upon C3b binding. Studies of the solvent accessibility of the S3 oleosin show that X-ray footprinting offers also a unique approach to studying the structure of proteins embedded within membranes or lipid bodies. All the biomolecular applications reported herein demonstrate that the Metrology beamline at SOLEIL can be successfully used for synchrotron X-ray footprinting of

  20. Robust quantum metrological schemes based on protection of quantum Fisher information. (United States)

    Lu, Xiao-Ming; Yu, Sixia; Oh, C H


    Fragile quantum features such as entanglement are employed to improve the precision of parameter estimation and as a consequence the quantum gain becomes vulnerable to noise. As an established tool to subdue noise, quantum error correction is unfortunately overprotective because the quantum enhancement can still be achieved even if the states are irrecoverably affected, provided that the quantum Fisher information, which sets the ultimate limit to the precision of metrological schemes, is preserved and attained. Here we develop a theory of robust metrological schemes that preserve the quantum Fisher information instead of the quantum states themselves against noise. After deriving a minimal set of testable conditions on this kind of robustness, we construct a family of 2t+1 qubits metrological schemes being immune to t-qubit errors after the signal sensing. In comparison, at least five qubits are required for correcting arbitrary 1-qubit errors in standard quantum error correction.

  1. LMS IPRO: enabling accurate registration metrology on SiN-based phase-shift masks (United States)

    Steigerwald, Hendrik; Han, Runyuan; Buettner, Alexander; Roeth, Klaus-Dieter


    SiN-based absorber materials are considered to be the new work horse for cutting-edge patterning using 193-nm immersion lithography. The high robustness against cleaning procedures and the low susceptibility for haze makes SiN an ideal material for phase-shift masks. Reliable metrology with high precision, on target as well as on feature, is enabled by the LMS IPROTM metrology tool. This is achieved by taking into account the optical properties of the novel materials and utilisation of the high-accuracy die-to-database algorithm. Simulation as well as actual measurement results are presented. Cost effectiveness of the LMS IPRO is demonstrated by comparison of high-performance mode results versus high-throughput results, confirming suitable metrology performance for high-volume manufacturing.

  2. Oriental Metrology and the Politics of Antiquity in Nineteenth-Century Survey Sciences. (United States)

    Schaffer, Simon


    Argument Metrological techniques to establish shared quantitative measures have often been seen as signs of rational modernization. The cases considered here show instead the close relation of such techniques with antiquarian and revivalist programs under imperial regimes. Enterprises in survey sciences in Egypt in the wake of the French invasion of 1798 and in India during the East India Company's revenue surveys involved the promotion of a new kind of oriental metrology designed to represent colonizers' measures as restorations of ancient values to be applied to current systems of survey and measurement. Surveyors' practice and hardware help clarify the significance of the complex historical and political functions of scientific standards. The balance of the paper discusses the survey work of later nineteenth-century indigenous Egyptian astronomers at a conjuncture of major economic and political dislocation to explore the various versions of antiquity at stake in these metrological programs.

  3. Two-dimensional in situ metrology of X-ray mirrors using the speckle scanning technique. (United States)

    Wang, Hongchang; Kashyap, Yogesh; Laundy, David; Sawhney, Kawal


    In situ metrology overcomes many of the limitations of existing metrology techniques and is capable of exceeding the performance of present-day optics. A novel technique for precisely characterizing an X-ray bimorph mirror and deducing its two-dimensional (2D) slope error map is presented. This technique has also been used to perform fast optimization of a bimorph mirror using the derived 2D piezo response functions. The measured focused beam size was significantly reduced after the optimization, and the slope error map was then verified by using geometrical optics to simulate the focused beam profile. This proposed technique is expected to be valuable for in situ metrology of X-ray mirrors at synchrotron radiation facilities and in astronomical telescopes.

  4. Angular scan optical coherence tomography imaging and metrology of spherical gradient refractive index preforms. (United States)

    Yao, Jianing; Meemon, Panomsak; Ponting, Michael; Rolland, Jannick P


    The fabrication of high-performance spherical gradient refractive index (S-GRIN) optics requires nondestructive metrology techniques to inspect the samples. We have developed an angular-scan, swept-source-based, Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) system centered at 1318 nm with 5 mm imaging depth capable of 180° polar scan and 360° azimuthal scan to investigate polymeric S-GRIN preforms. We demonstrate a method that enables simultaneous mapping of the group optical thickness, physical thickness, the radially-averaged group refractive index, and the transmitted wavefront of the S-GRIN preforms. The angular scan OCT imaging and metrology enables direct visualization, molding uniformity characterization, and optical property evaluations of the preforms. The results on two generations of S-GRIN preforms are discussed that showcase the evolution of the manufacturing process in response to the OCT metrology feedback.

  5. Phase-locking to a free-space terahertz comb for metrological-grade terahertz lasers. (United States)

    Consolino, L; Taschin, A; Bartolini, P; Bartalini, S; Cancio, P; Tredicucci, A; Beere, H E; Ritchie, D A; Torre, R; Vitiello, M S; De Natale, P


    Optical frequency comb synthesizers have represented a revolutionary approach to frequency metrology, providing a grid of frequency references for any laser emitting within their spectral coverage. Extending the metrological features of optical frequency comb synthesizers to the terahertz domain would be a major breakthrough, due to the widespread range of accessible strategic applications and the availability of stable, high-power and widely tunable sources such as quantum cascade lasers. Here we demonstrate phase-locking of a 2.5 THz quantum cascade laser to a free-space comb, generated in a LiNbO(3) waveguide and covering the 0.1-6 THz frequency range. We show that even a small fraction (laser is sufficient to generate a beat note suitable for phase-locking to the comb, paving the way to novel metrological-grade terahertz applications, including high-resolution spectroscopy, manipulation of cold molecules, astronomy and telecommunications.

  6. Two-dimensional in situ metrology of X-ray mirrors using the speckle scanning technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hongchang, E-mail:; Kashyap, Yogesh; Laundy, David; Sawhney, Kawal [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)


    The two-dimensional slope error of an X-ray mirror has been retrieved by employing the speckle scanning technique, which will be valuable at synchrotron radiation facilities and in astronomical telescopes. In situ metrology overcomes many of the limitations of existing metrology techniques and is capable of exceeding the performance of present-day optics. A novel technique for precisely characterizing an X-ray bimorph mirror and deducing its two-dimensional (2D) slope error map is presented. This technique has also been used to perform fast optimization of a bimorph mirror using the derived 2D piezo response functions. The measured focused beam size was significantly reduced after the optimization, and the slope error map was then verified by using geometrical optics to simulate the focused beam profile. This proposed technique is expected to be valuable for in situ metrology of X-ray mirrors at synchrotron radiation facilities and in astronomical telescopes.

  7. Potential new CD metrology metric combined with data fusion for future node production (United States)

    Foucher, J.; Hazart, J.; Griesbach Schuch Figueiro, N.


    Introduction of new material stacks, more sophisticated design rules and complex 3D architectures in semiconductor technology has led to major metrology challenges by posing stringent measurement precision and accuracy requirements for various critical dimensions (CD), feature shape and profile. Current CD metrology techniques being used in development and production such as CD-SEM, scatterometry and CDAFM, individually have intrinsic limitations that must be overcome. The approach of hybrid automated metrology seems necessary. Using multiple tools in unison is an adequate solution when adding their respective strengths to overcome individual limitations. Such solution will give the industry a better metrology solution than the conventional approach. Nevertheless, this is not enough since the industry is requested for 2D and 3D profiles information. Indeed, CD, height and/or Sidewall angle are information which is limited for future nodes production. Full profile information is necessary. In this paper, the first part will be dedicated to the introduction of contour object as a new standard for the semiconductor industry. This metric will take into account all pattern's profile information in order to overcome the limitations of simple CD and/or SWA information. The second part will present and discuss results concerning data fusion and its application to hybrid metrology. We will illustrate hybrid metrology with an application to CD-SEM enhancement with a reference technique such as the AFM3D or TEM technology. We will show that it could be possible to improve RMS error of CD-SEM by a factor of 78%. We think that such trend can be extended to all microelectronic levels in IC manufacturing and subsequently significantly reduce cycle time and improve production yield through easier hotspot detection.

  8. Scaffold characterization using NLO multimodal microscopy in metrology for regenerative medicine (United States)

    Mortati, Leonardo; Divieto, Carla; Boffitto, Monica; Sartori, Susanna; Ciardelli, Gianluca; Sassi, Maria Paola


    Metrology in regenerative medicine aims to develop traceable measurement technologies for characterizing cellular and macromolecule behaviour in regenerative medicine products and processes. One key component in regenerative medicine is using three-dimensional porous scaffolds to guide cells during the regeneration process. The regeneration of specific tissues guided by tissue analogous substrates is dependent on diverse scaffold architectural properties that can be derived quantitatively from scaffolds images. This paper discuss the results obtained with the multimodal NLO microscope recently realized in our laboratory in characterizing 3D tissue engineered (TE) scaffolds colonized from human Mesenchimal stem cells (hMSC), focusing on the study of the three-dimensional metrological parameters.

  9. Estudio de singularidades de fase con aplicaciones a la metrología


    Sierra Sosa, Daniel Esteban


    La temática presentada en este documento de tesis para optar al grado de Doctor, se desarrolla de manera tal que siga la línea de pensamiento en la que fueron estudiados los diferentes temas, sintetizando el estudio realizado de las singularidades de fase y sus propiedades, cuando son empleadas en técnicas de metrología de vórtices ópticos. Se estudian las técnicas convencionales de la metrología de vórtices para la síntesis de campos de speckle o similares al speckle, incluyendo el...

  10. Preface: The 5th International Workshop on X-ray Mirror Design, Fabrication, and Metrology. (United States)

    Assoufid, Lahsen; Goldberg, Kenneth; Yashchuk, Valeriy V


    Recent developments in synchrotron storage rings and free-electron laser-based x-ray sources with ever-increasing brightness and coherent flux have pushed x-ray optics requirements to new frontiers. This Special Topic gathers a set of articles derived from a subset of the key presentations of the International Workshop on X-ray Mirrors Fabrication (IWXM-2015) and Metrology held at Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California, USA, July 14-16, 2015. The workshop objective was to report on recent progress in x-ray synchrotron radiation mirrors fabrication as well as on new developments in related metrology tools and methods.

  11. Metrology with PT-Symmetric Cavities: Enhanced Sensitivity near the PT-Phase Transition. (United States)

    Liu, Zhong-Peng; Zhang, Jing; Özdemir, Şahin Kaya; Peng, Bo; Jing, Hui; Lü, Xin-You; Li, Chun-Wen; Yang, Lan; Nori, Franco; Liu, Yu-Xi


    We propose and analyze a new approach based on parity-time (PT) symmetric microcavities with balanced gain and loss to enhance the performance of cavity-assisted metrology. We identify the conditions under which PT-symmetric microcavities allow us to improve sensitivity beyond what is achievable in loss-only systems. We discuss the application of PT-symmetric microcavities to the detection of mechanical motion, and show that the sensitivity is significantly enhanced near the transition point from unbroken- to broken-PT regimes. Our results open a new direction for PT-symmetric physical systems and it may find use in ultrahigh precision metrology and sensing.

  12. Application Of The SPV-based Surface Lifetime Technique To In-Line Monitoring Of Surface Cu Contamination (United States)

    D'Amico, John; Savtchouk, Alexandre; Wilson, Matthew; Kim, Chul Hong; Yoo, Hyung Won; Lee, Chang Hwan; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Son, Sang Hoon


    Implementation of Cu interconnects into Silicon Integrated Circuits (IC's) has been instrumental in the continuing improvement of IC device performance. Copper as a well known Gate Oxide Integrity (GOI) killer [1, 2] requires extensive protocols to minimize the possibility of cross contamination. Despite such protocols the risk for cross contamination exists, and consequently there is the need for in-line Cu cross-contamination detection metrology. Preferably the metrology will be non-destructive, fast, and capable of mapping on product wafers. Up to now the most common approaches for monitoring Cu contamination in IC fabrication lines either measure Cu in the bulk Si, which is not applicable to Cu cross-contamination monitoring because Back-End-of-the-Line thermal budgets restrict the ability to diffuse the surface Cu into the bulk Si; or the techniques are not optimal for in-line monitoring due to their destructive, time-consuming, or costly nature. In this work we demonstrate for the first time the application of the ac-Surface Photo Voltage (ac-SPV) surface lifetime approach [3] to in-line, full wafer coverage mapping of low level (metrology system. Furthermore, because the metrology is non-contact (utilizing edge-grip handling) and non-destructive, it is directly applicable to measurement of production wafers. In-line fab data acquired using this metrology is presented and compared to data from Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS).

  13. Optical fabrication and metrology for a visible through thermal infrared multi-band imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magner, J. [Raytheon Optical Systems, Inc., Danbury, CT (United States); Henson, T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The optical fabrication, metrology, and system wavefront testing of an off-axis three mirror anastigmatic telescope will be presented. The telescope is part of a multi-band imaging system which includes a single mechanically cooled focal plane with 15 spectral bands covering a wavelength range from 0.45 microns to 10.7 microns and an on board calibration subsystem. The imaging system is to be operated in a low earth orbit in a pushbroom scanning mode. The telescope has a 36 cm aperture, a 1.38 degree cross track by 1.82 degree along-track field of view (FOV), near diffraction limited performance in the visible, and strictly diffraction limited performance from 1.3 microns to 10.7 microns. The primary and the tertiary mirrors are general aspheres which have undergone 80% lightweighting. The secondary mirror is a hyperbola. The primary mirror was extremely difficult to fabricate and test due to its large departure from sphericity, fast f-number, and large off axis distance. The tertiary mirror has a small departure from sphericity and is only slightly off-axis, but it has a very fast f-number also. The surface wavefront measurements for the three mirrors after final figuring and lightweighting are 0.048 waves rms {at}0.6328 microns for the primary mirror and 0.025 waves rms {at}0.6328 microns for the secondary and tertiary mirrors. The telescope wavefront requirement at the center of the along-track FOV is 0.178 waves rms {at}0.6328 microns and at the edge of the along-track FOV is 0.677 waves rms {at} 0.6328 microns.

  14. Metrology of deep trench etched memory structures using 3D scatterometry (United States)

    Reinig, Peter; Dost, Rene; Moert, Manfred; Hingst, Thomas; Mantz, Ulrich; Moffitt, Jasen; Shakya, Sushil; Raymond, Christopher J.; Littau, Mike


    Scatterometry is receiving considerable attention as an emerging optical metrology in the silicon industry. One area of progress in deploying these powerful measurements in process control is performing measurements on real device structures, as opposed to limiting scatterometry measurements to periodic structures, such as line-space gratings, placed in the wafer scribe. In this work we will discuss applications of 3D scatterometry to the measurement of advanced trench memory devices. This is a challenging and complex scatterometry application that requires exceptionally high-performance computational abilities. In order to represent the physical device, the relatively tall structures require a high number of slices in the rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) theoretical model. This is complicated further by the presence of an amorphous silicon hard mask on the surface, which is highly sensitive to reflectance scattering and therefore needs to be modeled in detail. The overall structure is comprised of several layers, with the trenches presenting a complex bow-shape sidewall that must be measured. Finally, the double periodicity in the structures demands significantly greater computational capabilities. Our results demonstrate that angular scatterometry is sensitive to the key parameters of interest. The influence of further model parameters and parameter cross correlations have to be carefully taken into account. Profile results obtained by non-library optimization methods compare favorably with cross-section SEM images. Generating a model library suitable for process control, which is preferred for precision, presents numerical throughput challenges. Details will be discussed regarding library generation approaches and strategies for reducing the numerical overhead. Scatterometry and SEM results will be compared, leading to conclusions about the feasibility of this advanced application.

  15. Fiber based infrared lasers and their applications in medicine, spectroscopy and metrology (United States)

    Alexander, Vinay Varkey

    In my thesis, I have demonstrated the development of fiber based infrared lasers and devices for applications in medicine, spectroscopy and metrology. One of the key accomplishments presented in this thesis for medical applications is the demonstration of a focused infrared laser to perform renal denervation both in vivo and in vitro. Hypertension is a significant health hazard in the US and throughout the world, and the laser based renal denervation procedure may be a potential treatment for resistant hypertension. Compared to current treatment modalities, lasers may be able to perform treatments with lesser collateral tissue damage and quicker treatment times helping to reduce patient discomfort and pain. An additional medical application demonstrated in this thesis is the use of infrared fiber lasers to damage sebaceous glands in human skin as a potential treatment for acne. Another significant work presented in this thesis is a field trial performed at the Wright Patterson Air Force Base using a Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) Supercontinuum (SC) laser as an active illumination source for long distance reflectance measurements. In this case, an SC laser developed as part of this thesis is kept on a 12 story tower and propagated through the atmosphere to a target kept 1.6 km away and used to perform spectroscopy measurements. In the future this technology may permit 24/7 surveillance based on looking for the spectral signatures of materials. Beyond applications in defense, this technology may have far reaching commercial applications as well, including areas such as oil and natural resources exploration. Beyond these major contributions to the state-of-the-art, this thesis also describes other significant studies such as power scalability of SWIR SC sources and non-invasive measurement of surface roughness.

  16. Strip Coating Metrology on Large Scale Telescope Optics: Scalable Cost Saving Preventative Maintenance with First Contact Polymer (United States)

    Hamilton, J.


    Protection and cleaning of precision optical surfaces on large scale astronomical instruments has entered a new era. First surface mirrors have been restored to "like-new" condition avoiding the expense and downtime of recoating. Nearly 10 years of testing and evaluation at a variety of sites including optics at Vandenberg Air Force Base, the Canada France Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) and the W.M Keck Telescope on Mauna Kea, have yielded impressive results: restored reflectivity, no residue, insitu cleaning and better coating performance when used as a precleaner when coating. Metrology and research in our labs has resulted in these novel, commercially available polymeric stripcoatings that are applied as a liquid and subsequently peeled off the substrate as a solid film. These designer polymer solutions safely clean and protect a wide variety of nanostructured surfaces and leave the surface almost atomically clean. Contaminant removal was monitored by a variety of techniques including Reflectivity, Nomarski, Atomic Force and Scanning Electron Microscopy as well as XPS. In addition, data demonstrates that the material safely removes particulate contamination and finger oils from nanostructures such as the 300nm wide lines on diffraction gratings and similar submicron features on Si wafers. High power laser damage testing found no residue on the optical surfaces following dried film removal and YAG laser damage thresholds after cleaning on coated BK7 of 15J/cm2 at 20ns and 20Hz were unchanged. Additionally to these adhesion tunable polymer systems, nanotube and graphene doped, ESD free polymer strip coatings for surface protection, nanoreplication, cleaning and dust mitigation have also been developed. Our coatings have been successfully used on diverse surfaces like high power laser optics, the Hope Diamond in Washington DC, CCD s for the 520 megapixel Dark Energy Survey Camera being built at Fermilab and lithographically fabbed detector surfaces for the Cryogenic Dark

  17. Tribological Analysis of Ventral Scale Structure in a Python Regius in Relation to Laser Textured Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Abdel-aal, Hisham A


    Laser Texturing is one of the leading technologies applied to modify surface topography. To date, however, a standardized procedure to generate deterministic textures is virtually non-existent. In nature, especially in squamata, there are many examples of deterministic structured textures that allow species to control friction and condition their tribological response for efficient function. In this work, we draw a comparison between industrial surfaces and reptilian surfaces. We chose the python regius species as a bio-analogue with a deterministic surface. We first study the structural make up of the ventral scales of the snake (both construction and metrology). We further compare the metrological features of the ventral scales to experimentally recommended performance indicators of industrial surfaces extracted from open literature. The results indicate the feasibility of engineering a Laser Textured Surface based on the reptilian ornamentation constructs. It is shown that the metrological features, key to...

  18. Remote photonic metrology in the conservation of cultural heritage (United States)

    Tornari, Vivi; Pedrini, G.; Osten, W.


    not only remote research, inspection and evaluation, but also providing the results to the members and the public with instant and simultaneous access to necessary information, knowledge and technologies. In this paper it is presented the concept and first results confirming the potential of implementing metrology techniques as remote digital laboratory facilities in artwork structural assessment. The method paves the way of the general objective to introduce remote photonic technologies in the sensitive field of Cultural Heritage.

  19. Metrological aspects to quality control for natural gas analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Claudia Cipriano; Borges, Cleber Nogueira; Cunha, Valnei S. [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalizacao e Qualidade Industrial (INMETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Augusto, Cristiane R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Augusto, Marco Ignazio [Companhia Estadual de Gas do Rio de Janeiro (CEG), RJ (Brazil)


    The Product's Quality and Services are fundamental topics in the globalized commercial relationship inclusive concern the measurements in natural gas. Considerable investments were necessary for industry especially about the quality control in the commercialized gas with an inclusion of the natural gas in Brazilian energetic resources The Brazilian Regulatory Agency, ANP - Agencia Nacional de Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis - created the Resolution ANP no.16. This Resolution defines the natural gas specification, either national or international source, for commercialization in Brazil and list the tolerance concentration for some components. Between of this components are the inert compounds like the CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}. The presence of this compounds reduce the calorific power, apart from increase the resistance concern the detonation in the case of vehicular application, and occasion the reduction in the methane concentration in the gas. Controls charts can be useful to verify if the process are or not under Statistical Control. The process can be considerate under statistical control if the measurements have it values between in lower and upper limits stated previously The controls charts can be approach several characteristics in each subgroup: means, standard deviations, amplitude or proportion of defects. The charts are draws for a specific characteristic and to detect some deviate in the process under specific environment conditions. The CEG - Companhia de Distribuicao de Gas do Rio de Janeiro and the DQUIM - Chemical Metrology Division has an agreement for technical cooperation in research and development of gas natural composition Concern the importance of the natural gas in the Nation development, as well as the question approaching the custody transference, the objective of this work is demonstrate the control quality of the natural gas composition between the CEG laboratory and the DQUIM laboratory aiming the quality increase of the

  20. Metrology camera system of prime focus spectrograph for Suburu telescope (United States)

    Wang, Shiang-Yu; Chou, Richard C. Y.; Huang, Pin-Jie; Ling, Hung-Hsu; Karr, Jennifer; Chang, Yin-Chang; Hu, Yen-Sang; Hsu, Shu-Fu; Chen, Hsin-Yo; Gunn, James E.; Reiley, Dan J.; Tamura, Naoyuki; Takato, Naruhisa; Shimono, Atsushi


    The Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) is a new optical/near-infrared multi-fiber spectrograph designed for the prime focus of the 8.2m Subaru telescope. PFS will cover a 1.3 degree diameter field with 2394 fibers to complement the imaging capabilities of Hyper SuprimeCam. To retain high throughput, the final positioning accuracy between the fibers and observing targets of PFS is required to be less than 10 microns. The metrology camera system (MCS) serves as the optical encoder of the fiber motors for the configuring of fibers. MCS provides the fiber positions within a 5 microns error over the 45 cm focal plane. The information from MCS will be fed into the fiber positioner control system for the closed loop control. MCS will be located at the Cassegrain focus of Subaru telescope in order to cover the whole focal plane with one 50M pixel Canon CMOS camera. It is a 380mm Schmidt type telescope which generates a uniform spot size with a 10 micron FWHM across the field for reasonable sampling of the point spread function. Carbon fiber tubes are used to provide a stable structure over the operating conditions without focus adjustments. The CMOS sensor can be read in 0.8s to reduce the overhead for the fiber configuration. The positions of all fibers can be obtained within 0.5s after the readout of the frame. This enables the overall fiber configuration to be less than 2 minutes. MCS will be installed inside a standard Subaru Cassgrain Box. All components that generate heat are located inside a glycol cooled cabinet to reduce the possible image motion due to heat. The optics and camera for MCS have been delivered and tested. The mechanical parts and supporting structure are ready as of spring 2016. The integration of MCS will start in the summer of 2016. In this report, the performance of the MCS components, the alignment and testing procedure as well as the status of the PFS MCS will be presented.

  1. Absolute Position of Targets Measured Through a Chamber Window Using Lidar Metrology Systems (United States)

    Kubalak, David; Hadjimichael, Theodore; Ohl, Raymond; Slotwinski, Anthony; Telfer, Randal; Hayden, Joseph


    Lidar is a useful tool for taking metrology measurements without the need for physical contact with the parts under test. Lidar instruments are aimed at a target using azimuth and elevation stages, then focus a beam of coherent, frequency modulated laser energy onto the target, such as the surface of a mechanical structure. Energy from the reflected beam is mixed with an optical reference signal that travels in a fiber path internal to the instrument, and the range to the target is calculated based on the difference in the frequency of the returned and reference signals. In cases when the parts are in extreme environments, additional steps need to be taken to separate the operator and lidar from that environment. A model has been developed that accurately reduces the lidar data to an absolute position and accounts for the three media in the testbed air, fused silica, and vacuum but the approach can be adapted for any environment or material. The accuracy of laser metrology measurements depends upon knowing the parameters of the media through which the measurement beam travels. Under normal conditions, this means knowledge of the temperature, pressure, and humidity of the air in the measurement volume. In the past, chamber windows have been used to separate the measuring device from the extreme environment within the chamber and still permit optical measurement, but, so far, only relative changes have been diagnosed. The ability to make accurate measurements through a window presents a challenge as there are a number of factors to consider. In the case of the lidar, the window will increase the time-of-flight of the laser beam causing a ranging error, and refract the direction of the beam causing angular positioning errors. In addition, differences in pressure, temperature, and humidity on each side of the window will cause slight atmospheric index changes and induce deformation and a refractive index gradient within the window. Also, since the window is a

  2. Metrological Traceability in the Social Sciences: A Model from Reading Measurement (United States)

    Stenner, A. Jackson; Fisher, William P., Jr.


    The central importance of reading ability in learning makes it the natural place to start in formative and summative assessments in education. The Lexile Framework for Reading constitutes a commercial metrological traceability network linking books, test results, instructional materials, and students in elementary and secondary English and Spanish language reading education in the U.S., Canada, Mexico, and Australia.

  3. Signal processing for order 10 pm accuracy displacement metrology in real-world scientific applications (United States)

    Halverson, Peter G.; Loya, Frank M.


    This paper describes heterodyne displacement metrology gauge signal processing methods that achieve satisfactory robustness against low signal strength and spurious signals, and good long-term stability. We have a proven displacement-measuring approach that is useful not only to space-optical projects at JPL, but also to the wider field of distance measurements.

  4. Metrology to enable high temperature erosion testing - A new european initiative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fry, A.T.; Gee, M.G.; Clausen, Sønnik


    is required. However, limitations in current measurement capability within this form of test prevent the advancement. A new European initiative, METROSION, on the development of high temperature solid particle erosion testing has a primary aim to develop this metrological framework. Several key parameters...

  5. Laser metrology applied to the nuclear maintenance; Metrologia laser aplicada al mantenimiento nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrido Garcia, J.; Sarti Fernandez, F.


    The development of this paper focuses on providing an overview of the state of the art about laser metrology. This type of equipment combines the measurement philosophy of laser scanning with the great precision of the robotic equipment of auscultation. Getting micron.

  6. Fluorescence metrology of silica sol–gels–The effect of D2O and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... over traditional techniques for nanometre metrology, such as small angle X-ray and neutron scattering and electron microscopy. In this paper we present silica particle growth dynamics in a hydrogel as detected by two near-infrared dyes, the effect of adding D2O on the hydrodynamic radius and the effect of salt addition.

  7. The role of metrology in mediating and mobilizing the language and culture of scientific facts (United States)

    Fisher, W. P., Jr.; Stenner, A. J.


    The self-conscious awareness of language and its use is arguably nowhere more intense than in metrology. The careful and deliberate coordination and alignment of shared metrological frames of reference for theory, experiment, and practical application have been characteristics of scientific culture at least since the origins of the SI units in revolutionary France. Though close attention has been focused on the logical and analytical aspects of language use in science, little concern has been shown for understanding how the social and historical aspects of everyday language may have foreshadowed and influenced the development and character of metrological language, especially relative to the inevitably partial knowledge possessed by any given stakeholder participating in the scientific enterprise. Insight in this regard may be helpful in discerning how and if an analogous role for metrology might be created in psychology and the social sciences. It may be that the success of psychology as a science will depend less on taking physics as the relevant model than on attending to the interplay of concepts, models, and social organization that make any culture effective.

  8. The implementation of the Gaussian filter for dimensional metrology basics, algorithms and C code

    CERN Document Server

    Krystek, Michael, Dr


    The Gaussian filter is set to remain of enduring importance in metrology. This publication deals with the digital implementation of the Gaussian filter and the estimation of the occurring errors. Guidance is given on how to keep these errors as small as possible. In addition algorithms for the implementation of the Gaussian filter are given.

  9. Metrology as part and parcel of training programmes for science and engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regtien, Paulus P.L.; Frollo, I.


    At many universities and training institutes education in metrology or measurement science is in strong competition with upcoming disciplines. Its importance for science and engineering remains, however, evident. Advanced instruments make measuring almost a routine activity, but it is shown that a

  10. Regression Methods for Virtual Metrology of Layer Thickness in Chemical Vapor Deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purwins, Hendrik; Barak, Bernd; Nagi, Ahmed


    The quality of wafer production in semiconductor manufacturing cannot always be monitored by a costly physical measurement. Instead of measuring a quantity directly, it can be predicted by a regression method (Virtual Metrology). In this paper, a survey on regression methods is given to predict a...

  11. 1.5nm fabrication of test patterns for characterization of metrological systems (United States)

    Babin, S.; Bouet, N.; Cabrini, S.; Calafiore, G.; Conley, R.; Gevorkyan, G.; Munechika, K.; Vladár, A.; Yashchuk, V. V.


    The semiconductor industry is moving toward a half-pitch of 7 nm. The required metrology equipment should be one order of magnitude more accurate than that. Any metrology tool is only as good as it is calibrated. The characterization of metrology systems requires test patterns that are one order of magnitude smaller than the measured features. The test sample was designed in such a way that the distribution of linewidths appears to be random at any location and any magnification. The power spectral density of such pseudo-random test pattern is inherently flat, down to the minimum size of lines. Metrology systems add a cut-off of the spectra at high frequencies; the shape of the cut-off characterizes the system in its entire dynamic range. This method is widely used in optics, and has allowed optical systems to be perfected down to their diffraction limit. There were attempts to use the spectral method to characterize nanometrology systems such as SEMs, but the absence of natural samples with known spatial frequencies was a common problem. Pseudo-random test patterns with linewidths down to 1.5 nm were fabricated. The system characterization includes the imaging of a pseudo-random test sample and image analysis by a developed software to automatically extract the power spectral density and the contrast transfer function of the nanoimaging system.

  12. About perspective directions of establishment and further development of economic metrology


    Bashnyanyn, G. I.


    The characteristic of perspective directions of econometric studies at the present stage is carried out. The following directions like traditional, post-traditional and modern are distinguished. The necessity of establishing an economic metrology as a general theory of economic measurement and a theoretical-methodological basis of econometric science further development is grounded.

  13. Nuclear Technology. Course 27: Metrology. Module 27-2, Fixed Gages, Dividers, Calipers, and Micrometers. (United States)

    Selleck, Ben; Espy, John

    This second in a series of eight modules for a course titled Metrology dscribes fixed gages, dividers, calipers, vernier and dial calipers, and micrometers. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (l) introduction, (2) module prerequisites, (3) objectives, (4) notes to instructor/student, (5) subject matter, (6)…

  14. Toward advancing nano-object count metrology: a best practice framework. (United States)

    Brown, Scott C; Boyko, Volodymyr; Meyers, Greg; Voetz, Matthias; Wohlleben, Wendel


    A movement among international agencies and policy makers to classify industrial materials by their number content of sub-100-nm particles could have broad implications for the development of sustainable nanotechnologies. Here we highlight current particle size metrology challenges faced by the chemical industry due to these emerging number percent content thresholds, provide a suggested best-practice framework for nano-object identification, and identify research needs as a path forward. Harmonized methods for identifying nanomaterials by size and count for many real-world samples do not currently exist. Although particle size remains the sole discriminating factor for classifying a material as "nano," inconsistencies in size metrology will continue to confound policy and decision making. Moreover, there are concerns that the casting of a wide net with still-unproven metrology methods may stifle the development and judicious implementation of sustainable nanotechnologies. Based on the current state of the art, we propose a tiered approach for evaluating materials. To enable future risk-based refinements of these emerging definitions, we recommend that this framework also be considered in environmental and human health research involving the implications of nanomaterials. Substantial scientific scrutiny is needed in the area of nanomaterial metrology to establish best practices and to develop suitable methods before implementing definitions based solely on number percent nano-object content for regulatory purposes. Strong cooperation between industry, academia, and research institutions will be required to fully develop and implement detailed frameworks for nanomaterial identification with respect to emerging count-based metrics.

  15. Advancements in Wind Energy Metrology – UPWIND 1A2.3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelou, Nikolas; Bingöl, Ferhat; Courtney, Michael

    An overview of wind related metrology research made at Risø DTU over the period of the UPWIND project is given. A main part of the overview is devoted to development of the Lidar technology with several sub-chapters considering different topics of the research. Technical problems are not rare...

  16. Quantum Metrology: Surpassing the shot-noise limit with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. (United States)

    Ozaydin, Fatih; Altintas, Azmi Ali


    Entanglement is at the heart of quantum technologies such as quantum information and quantum metrology. Providing larger quantum Fisher information (QFI), entangled systems can be better resources than separable systems in quantum metrology. However the effects on the entanglement dynamics such as decoherence usually decrease the QFI considerably. On the other hand, Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction has been shown to excite entanglement. Since an increase in entanglement does not imply an increase in QFI, and also there are cases where QFI decreases as entanglement increases, it is interesting to study the influence of DM interaction on quantum metrology. In this work, we study the QFI of thermal entanglement of two-qubit and three-qubit Heisenberg models with respect to SU(2) rotations. We show that even at high temperatures, DM interaction excites QFI of both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic models. We also show that QFI of the ferromagnetic model of two qubits can surpass the shot-noise limit of the separable states, while QFI of the antiferromagnetic model in consideration can only approach to the shot-noise limit. Our results open new insights in quantum metrology with Heisenberg models.

  17. Reference Materials for Food and Nutrition Metrology: Past, Present and Future (United States)

    Establishment of a metrology-based measurement system requires the solid foundation of traceability of measurements to available, appropriate certified reference materials (CRM). In the early 1970’s the first “biological” RM of Bowens Kale, as well as Orchard Leaves and Bovine Liver SRMs, from the ...

  18. Demonstration of Parallel Scanning Probe Microscope for high throughput metrology and inspection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadeghian Marnani, H.; Dekker, A.; Herfst, R.W.; Winters, J.; Eigenraam, A.B.C.; Rijnbeek, R.A.; Nulkes, N.


    With the device dimensions moving towards the 1X node and below, the semiconductor industry is rapidly approaching the point where existing metrology, inspection and review tools face huge challenges in terms of resolution, the ability to resolve 3D and the throughput. Due to the advantages of

  19. Ambient Optomechanical Alignment and Pupil Metrology for the Flight Instruments Aboard the James Webb Space Telescope (United States)

    Coulter, Phillip; Beaton, Alexander; Gum, Jeffrey S.; Hadjimichael, Theodore J.; Hayden, Joseph E.; Hummel, Susann; Hylan, Jason E.; Lee, David; Madison, Timothy J.; Maszkiewicz, Michael; hide


    The James Webb Space Telescope science instruments are in the final stages of being integrated into the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) element. Each instrument is tied into a common coordinate system through mechanical references that are used for optical alignment and metrology within ISIM after element-level assembly. In addition, a set of ground support equipment (GSE) consisting of large, precisely calibrated, ambient, and cryogenic structures are used as alignment references and gauges during various phases of integration and test (I&T). This GSE, the flight instruments, and ISIM structure feature different types of complimentary metrology targeting. These GSE targets are used to establish and track six degrees of freedom instrument alignment during I&T in the vehicle coordinate system (VCS). This paper describes the optomechanical metrology conducted during science instrument integration and alignment in the Spacecraft Systems Development and Integration Facility (SSDIF) cleanroom at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The measurement of each instrument's ambient entrance pupil location in the telescope coordinate system is discussed. The construction of the database of target locations and the development of metrology uncertainties is also discussed.

  20. Nuclear Technology. Course 27: Metrology. Module 27-3, Gage Blocks, Mechanical Comparators and Electronic Comparators. (United States)

    Selleck, Ben; Espy, John

    This third in a series of eight modules for a course titled Metrology describes gage blocks and mechanical and electronic comparators. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module prerequisites, (3) objectives, (4) notes to instructor/student, (5) subject matter, (6) materials needed, (7)…

  1. Self-Mixing Thin-Slice Solid-State Laser Metrology (United States)

    Otsuka, Kenju


    This paper reviews the dynamic effect of thin-slice solid-state lasers subjected to frequency-shifted optical feedback, which led to the discovery of the self-mixing modulation effect, and its applications to quantum-noise-limited versatile laser metrology systems with extreme optical sensitivity. PMID:22319406

  2. Cryogenic current comparators with optimum SQUID readout for current and resistance quantum metrology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartolomé Porcar, María Elena


    This thesis describes the development of several systems based on the Cryogenic Current Comparator with optimum SQUID readout, for current and resistance metrology applications. the CCC-SQUID is at present the most accurate current comparator available. A (type I) CCC consists basically of a

  3. Directly mapping the surface charge density of lipid bilayers under physiological conditions (United States)

    Fuhs, Thomas; Klausen, Lasse Hyldgaard; Besenbacher, Flemming; Dong, Mingdong


    The surface charge density of lipid bilayers governs the cellular uptake of charged particles and guides cell-cell and cell-surface interactions. Direct probing of the potential requires sub nanometer distances as the electrostatic potential is screened by high physiological salt concentrations. This prevented direct measurement of the SCD under physiological conditions. In this study we investigate supported bilayers of lipid mixtures that form domains of distinct surface charges, submerged in 150mM NaCl. We use a scanning ion-conductance microscope (SICM) setup to measure the ionic current through a nanopipette as the pipette is scanned several nanometers above the sample. The charged headgroups of the lipids attract counter ions leading to a charge dependent enhancement of the ion concentration near the surface. This creates a measurable change of conductivity in the vicinity of the surface. As the dependency of the current on the SCD and pipette potential is non-trivial we characterized it using numerical solutions to Poisson and Nernst-Planck equations. Based on the simulation results we propose an imaging method. We confirm feasibility of the proposed method by experimentally mapping the local surface charge density of phase separated lipid bilayers.

  4. CD-SEM metrology and OPC modeling for 2D patterning in advanced technology nodes (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Wallow, Thomas I.; Zhang, Chen; Fumar-Pici, Anita; Chen, Jun; Laenens, Bart; Spence, Christopher A.; Rio, David; van Adrichem, Paul; Dillen, Harm; Wang, Jing; Yang, Peng-Cheng; Gillijns, Werner; Jaenen, Patrick; van Roey, Frieda; van de Kerkhove, Jeroen; Babin, Sergey


    In the course of assessing OPC compact modeling capabilities and future requirements, we chose to investigate the interface between CD-SEM metrology methods and OPC modeling in some detail. Two linked observations motivated our study: 1) OPC modeling is, in principle, agnostic of metrology methods and best practice implementation. 2) Metrology teams across the industry use a wide variety of equipment, hardware settings, and image/data analysis methods to generate the large volumes of CD-SEM measurement data that are required for OPC in advanced technology nodes. Initial analyses led to the conclusion that many independent best practice metrology choices based on systematic study as well as accumulated institutional knowledge and experience can be reasonably made. Furthermore, these choices can result in substantial variations in measurement of otherwise identical model calibration and verification patterns. We will describe several experimental 2D test cases (i.e., metal, via/cut layers) that examine how systematic changes in metrology practice impact both the metrology data itself and the resulting full chip compact model behavior. Assessment of specific methodology choices will include: • CD-SEM hardware configurations and settings: these may range from SEM beam conditions (voltage, current, etc.,) to magnification, to frame integration optimizations that balance signal-to-noise vs. resist damage. • Image and measurement optimization: these may include choice of smoothing filters for noise suppression, threshold settings, etc. • Pattern measurement methodologies: these may include sampling strategies, CD- and contour- based approaches, and various strategies to optimize the measurement of complex 2D shapes. In addition, we will present conceptual frameworks and experimental methods that allow practitioners of OPC metrology to assess impacts of metrology best practice choices on model behavior. Finally, we will also assess requirements posed by node scaling

  5. Establishing an applied training session in metrology at an agricultural engineering school (CIRAD, Montpellier, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calchera G.


    Full Text Available As part of its training activities, SupAgro – Institut des Régions Chaudes (IRC, an agricultural engineering school in Montpellier, has introduced an applied training session in metrology for its students. This was undertaken by the CIRAD metrology platform in partnership with the agrifood technology platform of the Qualisud Joint Research Unit. The session comprises two hour workshops during which students can apply the basic notions required for metrological monitoring of the quantities “temperature” and “weight”. To that end, standard weights, a temperature calibration device comprising a thermostatically controlled calibration oil bath (uncertainty at k = 2 of 0.14 °C and a standard temperature probe with an accuracy of ±0.01 °C were made available to the technology platform by the CIRAD metrology platform. During practical work, these COFRAC calibrated instruments are used to check balances and, in particular, make students aware of the importance of parameters that might influence the temperature measurement of a thermostatically controlled bath (homogeneity, resolution and accuracy of the thermometers, measurement repeatability, etc.. To that end, the Qualisud team specifically adapted a water bath so as to be able to position several temperature probes at different places in the bath. Students have to acquire an approach that needs to take into account a particular measuring context. The teaching scenario of the training session is structured around these metrological checks proposed directly to the students. The training session takes place each year with 2nd year students on the SAADS 2/IAAS course “Sustainable Agriculture and Agrifood Systems in the South” at SupAgro in Montpellier.

  6. Whispering gallery mode resonators for frequency metrology applications (United States)

    Baumgartel, Lukas

    This dissertation describes an investigation into the use of whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators for applications towards frequency reference and metrology. Laser stabilization and the measurement of optical frequencies have enabled myriad technologies of both academic and commercial interest. A technology which seems to span both motivations is optical atomic clocks. These devices are virtually unimaginable without the ultra stable lasers plus frequency measurement and down-conversion afforded by Fabry Perot (FP) cavities and model-locked laser combs, respectively. However, WGM resonators can potentially perform both of these tasks while having the distinct advantages of compactness and simplicity. This work represents progress towards understanding and mitigating the performance limitations of WGM cavities for such applications. A system for laser frequency stabilization to a the cavity via the Pound-Drever-Hall (PDH) method is described. While the laser lock itself is found to perform at the level of several parts in 1015, a variety of fundamental and technical mechanisms destabilize the WGM frequency itself. Owing to the relatively large thermal expansion coefficients in optical crystals, environmental temperature drifts set the stability limit at time scales greater than the thermal relaxation time of the crystal. Uncompensated, these drifts pull WGM frequencies about 3 orders of magnitude more than they would in an FP cavity. Thus, two temperature compensation schemes are developed. An active scheme measures and stabilizes the mode volume temperature to the level of several nK, reducing the effective temperature coefficient of the resonator to 1.7x10-7 K-1; simulations suggest that the value could eventually be as low as 3.5x10-8 K-1, on par with the aforementioned FP cavities. A second, passive scheme is also described, which employs a heterogeneous resonator structure that capitalizes on the thermo-mechanical properties of one material and the optical

  7. Surface Response-based Behavioral Modeling of Accurate Digitizers a Case Study on a Fast Digital Integrator at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Arpaia, Pasquale; Spiezia, Giovanni; Tiso, Stefano


    A statistical approach to behavioral modeling for assessing dynamic metrological performance during the concept design of accurate digitizers is proposed. A surface-response approach based on statistical experiment design is exploited for avoiding unrealistic hypothesis of linearity, optimizing simulation, exploring operating conditions systematically, as well as verifying identification and validation uncertainty. An actual case study on the dynamic metrological characterization of a Fast Digital Integrator for high-performance magnetic measurements at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) is presented.

  8. Empirical Models For The Correlation With Sunshine Duration of Metrological Data For Tikrit-TuzKhurmato and Kirkuk-IRAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayadh M. Abed Al-Dulaimy


    Full Text Available Measurements of metrological data of maximum, minimum ambient temperature, humidity and sunshine duration for a period of 23 years during the period of 1977-2000, at Tikrit (34. 35°N, 43.37°E, TuzKurmato (34.88°N, 44.64°E, and Kirkuk (35.30°N, 44. 21°E, were used to established an Angstrom type corrélation équations for direct global solar radiation. The diffuse radiation was estimated by using klien and Page Models. This calculation appears to be sufficient to discriminate each station from the others due to it’s local characteristic of the sites. The overall results shown for TuzKurmato, the received radiation on the plane surface is higher than Tikrit and Kirkuk while the diffuse radiation reversely behaved as for Tiktit is the highest. The developed model can be used for estimating global solar radiation on horizontal surfaces. The monthly average total solar radiation was estimated. The value of correlation coefficient (r and value of Root Mean Square Error (RMSE, Mean Bias Error (MBE and Mean Percentage Error (MPE were determined for each equation

  9. Enabling CD SEM metrology for 5nm technology node and beyond (United States)

    Lorusso, Gian Francesco; Ohashi, Takeyoshi; Yamaguchi, Astuko; Inoue, Osamu; Sutani, Takumichi; Horiguchi, Naoto; Bömmels, Jürgen; Wilson, Christopher J.; Briggs, Basoene; Tan, Chi Lim; Raymaekers, Tom; Delhougne, Romain; Van den Bosch, Geert; Di Piazza, Luca; Kar, Gouri Sankar; Furnémont, Arnaud; Fantini, Andrea; Donadio, Gabriele Luca; Souriau, Laurent; Crotti, Davide; Yasin, Farrukh; Appeltans, Raf; Rao, Siddharth; De Simone, Danilo; Rincon Delgadillo, Paulina; Leray, Philippe; Charley, Anne-Laure; Zhou, Daisy; Veloso, Anabela; Collaert, Nadine; Hasumi, Kazuhisa; Koshihara, Shunsuke; Ikota, Masami; Okagawa, Yutaka; Ishimoto, Toru


    The CD SEM (Critical Dimension Scanning Electron Microscope) is one of the main tools used to estimate Critical Dimension (CD) in semiconductor manufacturing nowadays, but, as all metrology tools, it will face considerable challenges to keep up with the requirements of the future technology nodes. The root causes of these challenges are not uniquely related to the shrinking CD values, as one might expect, but to the increase in complexity of the devices in terms of morphology and chemical composition as well. In fact, complicated threedimensional device architectures, high aspect ratio features, and wide variety of materials are some of the unavoidable characteristics of the future metrology nodes. This means that, beside an improvement in resolution, it is critical to develop a CD SEM metrology capable of satisfying the specific needs of the devices of the nodes to come, needs that sometimes will have to be addressed through dramatic changes in approach with respect to traditional CD SEM metrology. In this paper, we report on the development of advanced CD SEM metrology at imec on a variety of device platform and processes, for both logic and memories. We discuss newly developed approaches for standard, IIIV, and germanium FinFETs (Fin Field Effect Transistors), for lateral and vertical nanowires (NW), 3D NAND (three-dimensional NAND), STT-MRAM (Spin Transfer Magnetic Torque Random-Access Memory), and ReRAM (Resistive Random Access Memory). Applications for both front-end of line (FEOL) and back-end of line (BEOL) are developed. In terms of process, S/D Epi (Source Drain Epitaxy), SAQP (Self-Aligned Quadruple Patterning), DSA (Dynamic Self-Assembly), and EUVL (Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography) have been used. The work reported here has been performed on Hitachi CG5000, CG6300, and CV5000. In terms of logic, we discuss here the S/D epi defect classification, the metrology optimization for STI (Shallow Trench Isolation) Ge FinFETs, the defectivity of III-V STI Fin

  10. Design-based metrology: advanced automation for CD-SEM recipe generation (United States)

    Tabery, C.; Capodieci, L.; Haidinyak, C.; Shah, K.; Threefoot, M.; Choo, B.; Singh, B.; Nehmadi, Y.; Ofek, C.; Menadeva, O.; Ben-Porath, A.


    The procedure for properly implementing OPC for a new technology node or chip design involves multiple steps: selection of the RET (resolution enhance technique), selection of design rules, OPC Model Building, OPC Verification, CD control quantification (across chip, reticle, wafer, focus, exposure, etc), calibration of Optical Rule Checks (ORC), and other verification steps. Many of these steps require up to thousands of wafer measurements, and while state-of-the-art CD-SEM tools provide automated metrology for production, manually creating a CD recipe with thousands of unique sites is extremely tedious and error-prone. This places a practical limit on both the quality and number of measurements that can be acquired during the technology development and qualification period. At the same time, the number of measurements required to qualify a new reticle design has increased drastically due to the growing complexity of RET and diminishing tolerances. To meet this challenge, a direct and automated link from the design systems to the process metrology tools is needed. Novel methodologies must also be developed to enable automated generation of teh recipe from the design inputs and to translate the flood of metrology results into information that can improve the design, mask data processing, or the patterning process. To facilitate this two-way data flow, a new framework has been created enabling true Design-Based Metrology (DBM), and an application named OPC-Check has been developed to operate within this framework. This DBM framework provides the common language and interface that facilitates the direct transfer of desired measurement locations from teh design to the metrology tool. This link is a critical element in Design for Manufacturability (DFM) efforts, a central theme in many presentations at Microlithography 2005. This article discusses the significant benefits of the tight integration of design and process metrology for OPC implementation in a new

  11. Very large computer generated holograms for precision metrology of aspheric optical surfaces Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Both ground and space telescopes employ aspheric mirrors. A particular example is the X-ray telescope where primary and secondary mirrors have nearly cylindrical...

  12. Surface Displacement Measurements, Strain and Vibrational Analysis using Speckle Metrology Techniques. (United States)


    the factor /cos (n,r) - cos (n,s)7 will not vary appreciably over the aperture. All angles are assumed to be small . The factor /-cos (n,r) - cos (n,s...132) describes a linear variation of nhase with y, so the effect is as if all the rays contributing to a single speckle tilted by a small angle , (1...STATIENT (of this * J140 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 17. 01O f UT OOK ST mA IEMEW? fol 1*0 .aeee tofd Uin Sloe& ". 01 iftmrw

  13. Imaging and Information Processing of Pitting-Corroded Aluminum Alloy Panels with Surface Metrology Methods (United States)


    Treatable Aluminium Alloys and Welds : A Review. Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals, Vol. 57, No. 6, pp. 593-610. Shell, E. B...Senior Research Scientist at NeuroPace, Inc., responsible for the seizure detection system of an implantable brain neurostimulator for epilepsy...recenty approved by the FDA. With NeuroVista Corp., Dr. Echauz developed algorithms and data quality protocols resulting in an implantable seizure

  14. Stochastic analysis of 1D and 2D surface topography of x-ray mirrors (United States)

    Tyurina, Anastasia Y.; Tyurin, Yury N.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.


    The design and evaluation of the expected performance of new optical systems requires sophisticated and reliable information about the surface topography for planned optical elements before they are fabricated. The problem is especially complex in the case of x-ray optics, particularly for the X-ray Surveyor under development and other missions. Modern x-ray source facilities are reliant upon the availability of optics with unprecedented quality (surface slope accuracy quality optics. The uniqueness of the optics and limited number of proficient vendors makes the fabrication extremely time consuming and expensive, mostly due to the limitations in accuracy and measurement rate of metrology used in fabrication. We discuss improvements in metrology efficiency via comprehensive statistical analysis of a compact volume of metrology data. The data is considered stochastic and a new statistical model called Invertible Time Invariant Linear Filter (InTILF) is developed now for 2D surface profiles to provide compact description of the 2D data additionally to 1D data treated so far. The model captures faint patterns in the data and serves as a quality metric and feedback to polishing processes, avoiding high resolution metrology measurements over the entire optical surface. The modeling, implemented in our Beatmark software, allows simulating metrology data for optics made by the same vendor and technology. The forecast data is vital for reliable specification for optical fabrication, to be exactly adequate for the required system performance.

  15. Physics colloquium: Single-electron counting in quantum metrology and in statistical mechanics

    CERN Multimedia

    Geneva University


    GENEVA UNIVERSITY Ecole de physique Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 Genève 4 Tél.: (022) 379 62 73 Fax: (022) 379 69 92olé   Lundi 17 octobre 2011 17h00 - Ecole de Physique, Auditoire Stueckelberg PHYSICS COLLOQUIUM « Single-electron counting in quantum metrology and in statistical mechanics » Prof. Jukka Pekola Low Temperature Laboratory, Aalto University Helsinki, Finland   First I discuss the basics of single-electron tunneling and its potential applications in metrology. My main focus is in developing an accurate source of single-electron current for the realization of the unit ampere. I discuss the principle and the present status of the so-called single- electron turnstile. Investigation of errors in transporting electrons one by one has revealed a wealth of observations on fundamental phenomena in mesoscopic superconductivity, including individual Andreev...

  16. Metrology in the Bolivia-Brazil Pipeline; Medicao no gasoduro Bolivia-Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palhares, Julio C.C.M.; Nunes, Ildemar Pinto [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    measurement guideline of TBG seeks to be always assisting to the customer's needs and aligned with the changes of the market of natural gas. In five years of existence, TBG attended the forming regulatory legislation and the establishment of the contract fiscal, important marks of the evolution of the market. This work presents the definitions that orientated the metrological issues of TBG, making use of efficient tools in the answers to each demand and seeking to satisfy its own needs, its customers' needs and all the new regulatory demands. This paper approaches, the calibration procedures, the qualification of suppliers, maintenance of the metrological reliability, the daily confirmation of the delivered volumes, the fail treatment, and the unaccounted gas monitoring in rigorous limits practiced in world class companies in foreigner countries. (author)

  17. Theory-based metrological traceability in education: A reading measurement network. (United States)

    Fisher, William P; Stenner, A Jackson


    Huge resources are invested in metrology and standards in the natural sciences, engineering, and across a wide range of commercial technologies. Significant positive returns of human, social, environmental, and economic value on these investments have been sustained for decades. Proven methods for calibrating test and survey instruments in linear units are readily available, as are data- and theory-based methods for equating those instruments to a shared unit. Using these methods, metrological traceability is obtained in a variety of commercially available elementary and secondary English and Spanish language reading education programs in the U.S., Canada, Mexico, and Australia. Given established historical patterns, widespread routine reproduction of predicted text-based and instructional effects expressed in a common language and shared frame of reference may lead to significant developments in theory and practice. Opportunities for systematic implementations of teacher-driven lean thinking and continuous quality improvement methods may be of particular interest and value.

  18. Metrological challenges for measurements of key climatological observables, Part 4: Atmospheric relative humidity. (United States)

    Lovell-Smith, J W; Feistel, R; Harvey, A H; Hellmuth, O; Bell, S A; Heinonen, M; Cooper, J R

    Water in its three ambient phases plays the central thermodynamic role in the terrestrial climate system. Clouds control Earth's radiation balance, atmospheric water vapour is the strongest "greenhouse" gas, and non-equilibrium relative humidity at the air-sea interface drives evaporation and latent heat export from the ocean. In this paper, we examine the climatologically relevant atmospheric relative humidity, noting fundamental deficiencies in the definition of this key observable. The metrological history of this quantity is reviewed, problems with its current definition and measurement practice are analysed, and options for future improvements are discussed in conjunction with the recent seawater standard TEOS-10. It is concluded that the International Bureau of Weights and Measures, (BIPM), in cooperation with the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam, IAPWS, along with other international organisations and institutions, can make significant contributions by developing and recommending state-of-the-art solutions for this long standing metrological problem, such as are suggested here.

  19. Overcoming the Invisibility of Metrology: A Reading Measurement Network for Education and the Social Sciences (United States)

    Fisher, William P., Jr.; Stenner, A. Jackson


    The public and researchers in psychology and the social sciences are largely unaware of the huge resources invested in metrology and standards in science and commerce, for understandable reasons, but with unfortunate consequences. Measurement quality varies widely in fields lacking uniform standards, making it impossible to coordinate local behaviours and decisions in tune with individually observed instrument readings. However, recent developments in reading measurement have effectively instituted metrological traceability methods within elementary and secondary English and Spanish language reading education in the U.S., Canada, Mexico, and Australia. Given established patterns in the history of science, it may be reasonable to expect that widespread routine reproduction of controlled effects expressed in uniform units in the social sciences may lead to significant developments in theory and practice.

  20. Strain Sensor of Carbon Nanotubes in Microscale: From Model to Metrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Qiu


    Full Text Available A strain sensor composed of carbon nanotubes with Raman spectroscopy can achieve measurement of the three in-plane strain components in microscale. Based on previous work on the mathematic model of carbon nanotube strain sensors, this paper presents a detailed study on the optimization, diversification, and standardization of a CNT strain sensor from the viewpoint of metrology. A new miniaccessory for polarization control is designed, and two different preparing methods for CNT films as sensing media are introduced to provide diversified choices for applications. Then, the standard procedure of creating CNT strain sensors is proposed. Application experiments confirmed the effectiveness of the above improvement, which is helpful in developing this method for convenient metrology.

  1. Metrological Array of Cyber-Physical Systems. Part 11. Remote Error Correction of Measuring Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy YATSUK


    Full Text Available The multi-channel measuring instruments with both the classical structure and the isolated one is identified their errors major factors basing on general it metrological properties analysis. Limiting possibilities of the remote automatic method for additive and multiplicative errors correction of measuring instruments with help of code-control measures are studied. For on-site calibration of multi- channel measuring instruments, the portable voltage calibrators structures are suggested and their metrological properties while automatic errors adjusting are analysed. It was experimentally envisaged that unadjusted error value does not exceed ± 1 mV that satisfies most industrial applications. This has confirmed the main approval concerning the possibilities of remote errors self-adjustment as well multi- channel measuring instruments as calibration tools for proper verification.

  2. SEM imaging capability for advanced nano-structures and its application to metrology (United States)

    Suzuki, Makoto; Ikeda, Uki; Kasai, Yuji; Mizuhara, Yuzuru; Kishimoto, Takanori; Tachibana, Ichiro; Suzuki, Naomasa; Kawano, Hajime


    In recent trend of semiconductor manufacturing, accurate critical dimension (CD) metrology is required to realize miniaturized three-dimensional (3D) structures. However, the conventional edge contrast of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is often suppressed when imaging the deep bottom of the 3D structures. In this paper, we propose effective approaches realizing the improved SEM image contrast for such metrology targets. Our approach utilizes the principle of the SEM contrast, and optimizes the three major influencing factors of SEM contrast; signal generation, signal propagation inside the specimen, and signal detection by the detectors. We show the examples of improved image contrast including, embedded voids imaging by high landing beam energy, contact-hole bottom imaging by angular selective detections, and precise edge position extraction realized by energy-angular selective imaging.

  3. Nano-metrology: The art of measuring X-ray mirrors with slope errors <100 nrad. (United States)

    Alcock, Simon G; Nistea, Ioana; Sawhney, Kawal


    We present a comprehensive investigation of the systematic and random errors of the nano-metrology instruments used to characterize synchrotron X-ray optics at Diamond Light Source. With experimental skill and careful analysis, we show that these instruments used in combination are capable of measuring state-of-the-art X-ray mirrors. Examples are provided of how Diamond metrology data have helped to achieve slope errors of <100 nrad for optical systems installed on synchrotron beamlines, including: iterative correction of substrates using ion beam figuring and optimal clamping of monochromator grating blanks in their holders. Simulations demonstrate how random noise from the Diamond-NOM's autocollimator adds into the overall measured value of the mirror's slope error, and thus predict how many averaged scans are required to accurately characterize different grades of mirror.

  4. Nano-metrology: The art of measuring X-ray mirrors with slope errors <100 nrad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcock, Simon G., E-mail:; Nistea, Ioana; Sawhney, Kawal [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)


    We present a comprehensive investigation of the systematic and random errors of the nano-metrology instruments used to characterize synchrotron X-ray optics at Diamond Light Source. With experimental skill and careful analysis, we show that these instruments used in combination are capable of measuring state-of-the-art X-ray mirrors. Examples are provided of how Diamond metrology data have helped to achieve slope errors of <100 nrad for optical systems installed on synchrotron beamlines, including: iterative correction of substrates using ion beam figuring and optimal clamping of monochromator grating blanks in their holders. Simulations demonstrate how random noise from the Diamond-NOM’s autocollimator adds into the overall measured value of the mirror’s slope error, and thus predict how many averaged scans are required to accurately characterize different grades of mirror.

  5. Thin Film Optical Metrology Using Principles of Wavefront Sensing and Interference - Poster Paper (United States)

    Faichnie, David M.; Greenaway, Alan H.; Bain, Ian


    Thin film metrology is an important quality control mechanism used in many industrial processes. Conventional techniques of Ellipsometry and Spectral Reflectance are limited in applicability to in situ measurements during film manufacture. This paper considers the measurement of wavefront shape reflected from interfaces within a laminate for determination of layer thickness and profile. For thick layers a wavefront sensor can provide the requisite wavefront shape data, for thin layers the interference between reflected wavefronts is used to retrieve wavefront shape.

  6. Multiphoton Interference in Quantum Fourier Transform Circuits and Applications to Quantum Metrology. (United States)

    Su, Zu-En; Li, Yuan; Rohde, Peter P; Huang, He-Liang; Wang, Xi-Lin; Li, Li; Liu, Nai-Le; Dowling, Jonathan P; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei


    Quantum Fourier transforms (QFTs) have gained increased attention with the rise of quantum walks, boson sampling, and quantum metrology. Here, we present and demonstrate a general technique that simplifies the construction of QFT interferometers using both path and polarization modes. On that basis, we first observe the generalized Hong-Ou-Mandel effect with up to four photons. Furthermore, we directly exploit number-path entanglement generated in these QFT interferometers and demonstrate optical phase supersensitivities deterministically.

  7. Evolution of 30 years of the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM) (United States)

    Mari, Luca


    Since its first edition, published in 1984, the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM) has become a landmark for the language of measurement, and in its three editions it has evolved together with the evolution of measurement science and its applications. This paper discusses the fundamental features of the VIM as a concept system and proposes some highlights about the way in the VIM some basic and general concepts of measurement have changed their definitions in the last thirty years.

  8. Metrological Array of Cyber-Physical Systems. Part 10. Foundations of Objective Qualimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svyatoslav YATSYSHYN


    Full Text Available Contemporary trend of Cyber-Physical Systems evolution considers as promising line the metrology science development ability for estimation the quality of final or intermediate product. The reliability and perfection of smart and flexible operation of mentioned systems could be permanently improved if determination of critical characteristics would be performed correctly, and particular coordinated assessment would be non-correlatively fulfilled. Last is guaranteed at applying thermodynamic principles of coordinates’ choice.

  9. Riesz transforms in statistical signal processing and their applications to speckle metrology: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wei; Zhang, Shun; Ma, Ning


    In this paper, a high-dimensional statistical signal processing is revisited with the aim of introducing the concept of vector signal representation derived from the Riesz transforms, which are the natural extension and generalization of the one-dimensional Hilbert transform. Under the new concep...... of vector correlations proposed recently, the statistical properties of the vector signal representation for random signal are presented and some applications to speckle metrology developed recently are reviewed to demonstrate the unique capability of Riesz transforms....

  10. System for automatic gauge block length measurement optimized for secondary length metrology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buchta, Zdeněk; Šarbort, Martin; Čížek, Martin; Hucl, Václav; Řeřucha, Šimon; Pikálek, Tomáš; Dvořáčková, Š.; Dvořáček, F.; Kůr, J.; Konečný, P.; Weigl, M.; Lazar, Josef; Číp, Ondřej


    Roč. 49, JULY (2017), s. 322-331 ISSN 0141-6359 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TA03010663; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : low-coherence interferometry * laser interferometry * Gauge block * metrology Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.237, year: 2016

  11. Dimensional metrology for process and part quality control in micro manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tosello, Guido; Gasparin, Stefania


    dimensions are scaled down and geometrical complexity of objects is increased, the available measurement technologies appear not sufficient. New solutions for measuring principles and instrumentation, tolerancing rules and procedures as well as traceability and calibration are necessary if micro...... manufacturing is to develop into industrial manufacturing solutions. In this paper the application of dimensional precision metrology to both component and process quality control will be demonstrated. The parts investigated are micro injection moulded polymer parts, typical for the field of micro manufacturing....

  12. Sclero-topometry Metrology in Valorisation of Waste Oil for Micro-machining of Ductile Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eymard S.


    Full Text Available During the time, the specific characteristics and the efficient lifetime of oil progressively decrease, due to complex pollution, ultimately making the oil unsuitable for the initial applications. The strategy to regenerate and to valorise waste oils is investigated using improved combinations of sclerometric and topometric tests on ductile nodular cast iron. Tribo-abrasive tests are performed in critical conditions, with base oil, waste oil and regenerated oil, of similar viscosities in order to discriminate their interfacial performances. The forms of the scratch traces indicate wear resistance and tendency to elasto-plastic deformation. The mechanisms of deformation and frictional behaviours were evaluated using optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy and measured for various tribological conditions with tactile and optical profilometry. The Energy Dispersive X ray Spectroscopy completes the chemical superficial distribution of pertinent elements. The surface topography metrology is used to characterize the scratch profiles and to determine the volume of the displaced and removed material, as well as maximum pit height. The originality of this paper is that it is a unique approach specifically devoted to transformer oil concerning tribological conditions.

  13. Optimal adaptive control for quantum metrology with time-dependent Hamiltonians (United States)

    Pang, Shengshi; Jordan, Andrew N.


    Quantum metrology has been studied for a wide range of systems with time-independent Hamiltonians. For systems with time-dependent Hamiltonians, however, due to the complexity of dynamics, little has been known about quantum metrology. Here we investigate quantum metrology with time-dependent Hamiltonians to bridge this gap. We obtain the optimal quantum Fisher information for parameters in time-dependent Hamiltonians, and show proper Hamiltonian control is generally necessary to optimize the Fisher information. We derive the optimal Hamiltonian control, which is generally adaptive, and the measurement scheme to attain the optimal Fisher information. In a minimal example of a qubit in a rotating magnetic field, we find a surprising result that the fundamental limit of T2 time scaling of quantum Fisher information can be broken with time-dependent Hamiltonians, which reaches T4 in estimating the rotation frequency of the field. We conclude by considering level crossings in the derivatives of the Hamiltonians, and point out additional control is necessary for that case. PMID:28276428

  14. Importance of education and competence maintenance in metrology field (measurement science) (United States)

    Dobiliene, J.; Meskuotiene, A.


    For certain tasks in metrology field trained employers might be necessary to fulfill specific requirements. It is important to pay attention that metrologists are responsible for fluent work of devices that belong to huge variety of vide spectrum of measurements. People who perform measurements (that are related to our safety, security or everyday life) with reliable measuring instruments must be sure for trueness of their results or conclusions. So with the purpose to reach the harmony between the ordinary man and his used means it is very important to ensure competence of specialists that are responsible for mentioned harmony implementation. Usually these specialists have a university degree and perform highly specified tasks in science, industry or laboratories. Their task is quite narrow. For example, type approval of measuring instrument or calibration and verification. Due to the fact that the number of such employers and their tasks is relatively small in the field of legal metrology, this paper focuses on the significance of training and qualification of legal metrology officers.

  15. Metrological and operational performance of measuring systems used in vehicle compressed natural gas filling stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velosa, Jhonn F.; Abril, Henry; Garcia, Luis E. [CDT de GAS (Venezuela). Gas Technological Development Center Corporation


    Corporation CDT GAS financially supported by the Colombian government through COLCIENCIAS, carried out a study aimed at designing, developing and implementing in Colombia a calibration and metrological verification 'specialized service' for gas meters installed at dispensers of filling stations using compressed natural gas. The results permitted the identification of improving opportunities (in measuring systems, equipment and devices used to deliver natural gas) which are focused on achieving the highest security and reliability of trading processes of CNG for vehicles. In the development of the first stage of the project, metrological type variables were initially considered, but given the importance of the measuring system and its interaction with the various elements involving gas supply to the filling station, the scope of the work done included aspects related to the operational performance, that is, those influencing the security of the users and the metrological performance of the measuring system. The development of the second stage counted on the collaboration of national companies from the sector of CNG for vehicles, which permitted the carrying out of multiple calibrations to the measuring systems installed in the CNG dispensers, thus achieving, in a concrete way, valid and reliable technological information of the implemented procedures. (author)

  16. Machine learning and predictive data analytics enabling metrology and process control in IC fabrication (United States)

    Rana, Narender; Zhang, Yunlin; Wall, Donald; Dirahoui, Bachir; Bailey, Todd C.


    Integrate circuit (IC) technology is going through multiple changes in terms of patterning techniques (multiple patterning, EUV and DSA), device architectures (FinFET, nanowire, graphene) and patterning scale (few nanometers). These changes require tight controls on processes and measurements to achieve the required device performance, and challenge the metrology and process control in terms of capability and quality. Multivariate data with complex nonlinear trends and correlations generally cannot be described well by mathematical or parametric models but can be relatively easily learned by computing machines and used to predict or extrapolate. This paper introduces the predictive metrology approach which has been applied to three different applications. Machine learning and predictive analytics have been leveraged to accurately predict dimensions of EUV resist patterns down to 18 nm half pitch leveraging resist shrinkage patterns. These patterns could not be directly and accurately measured due to metrology tool limitations. Machine learning has also been applied to predict the electrical performance early in the process pipeline for deep trench capacitance and metal line resistance. As the wafer goes through various processes its associated cost multiplies. It may take days to weeks to get the electrical performance readout. Predicting the electrical performance early on can be very valuable in enabling timely actionable decision such as rework, scrap, feedforward, feedback predicted information or information derived from prediction to improve or monitor processes. This paper provides a general overview of machine learning and advanced analytics application in the advanced semiconductor development and manufacturing.

  17. Virtual Distances Methodology as Verification Technique for AACMMs with a Capacitive Sensor Based Indexed Metrology Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Acero


    Full Text Available This paper presents a new verification procedure for articulated arm coordinate measuring machines (AACMMs together with a capacitive sensor-based indexed metrology platform (IMP based on the generation of virtual reference distances. The novelty of this procedure lays on the possibility of creating virtual points, virtual gauges and virtual distances through the indexed metrology platform’s mathematical model taking as a reference the measurements of a ball bar gauge located in a fixed position of the instrument’s working volume. The measurements are carried out with the AACMM assembled on the IMP from the six rotating positions of the platform. In this way, an unlimited number and types of reference distances could be created without the need of using a physical gauge, therefore optimizing the testing time, the number of gauge positions and the space needed in the calibration and verification procedures. Four evaluation methods are presented to assess the volumetric performance of the AACMM. The results obtained proved the suitability of the virtual distances methodology as an alternative procedure for verification of AACMMs using the indexed metrology platform.

  18. Optimal adaptive control for quantum metrology with time-dependent Hamiltonians. (United States)

    Pang, Shengshi; Jordan, Andrew N


    Quantum metrology has been studied for a wide range of systems with time-independent Hamiltonians. For systems with time-dependent Hamiltonians, however, due to the complexity of dynamics, little has been known about quantum metrology. Here we investigate quantum metrology with time-dependent Hamiltonians to bridge this gap. We obtain the optimal quantum Fisher information for parameters in time-dependent Hamiltonians, and show proper Hamiltonian control is generally necessary to optimize the Fisher information. We derive the optimal Hamiltonian control, which is generally adaptive, and the measurement scheme to attain the optimal Fisher information. In a minimal example of a qubit in a rotating magnetic field, we find a surprising result that the fundamental limit of T2 time scaling of quantum Fisher information can be broken with time-dependent Hamiltonians, which reaches T4 in estimating the rotation frequency of the field. We conclude by considering level crossings in the derivatives of the Hamiltonians, and point out additional control is necessary for that case.

  19. Diffraction gratings metrology and ray-tracing results for an XUV Raman spectrometer at FLASH. (United States)

    Dziarzhytski, Siarhei; Siewert, Frank; Sokolov, Andrey; Gwalt, Grzegorz; Seliger, Tino; Rübhausen, Michael; Weigelt, Holger; Brenner, Günter


    The extreme-ultraviolet double-stage imaging Raman spectrometer is a permanent experimental endstation at the plane-grating monochromator beamline branch PG1 at FLASH at DESY in Hamburg, Germany. This unique instrument covers the photon energy range from 20 to 200 eV with high energy resolution of about 2 to 20 meV (design values) featuring an efficient elastic line suppression as well as effective stray light rejection. Such a design enables studies of low-energy excitations like, for example, phonons in solids close to the vicinity of the elastic line. The Raman spectrometer effectively operates with four reflective off-axial parabolic mirrors and two plane-grating units. The optics quality and their precise alignment are crucial to guarantee best performance of the instrument. Here, results on a comprehensive investigation of the quality of the spectrometer diffraction gratings are presented. The gratings have been characterized by ex situ metrology at the BESSY-II Optics Laboratory, employing slope measuring deflectometry and interferometry as well as atomic force microscopy studies. The efficiency of these key optical elements has been measured at the at-wavelength metrology laboratory using the reflectometer at the BESSY-II Optics beamline. Also, the metrology results are discussed with respect to the expected resolving power of the instrument by including them in ray-tracing studies of the instrument.

  20. Virtual Distances Methodology as Verification Technique for AACMMs with a Capacitive Sensor Based Indexed Metrology Platform. (United States)

    Acero, Raquel; Santolaria, Jorge; Brau, Agustin; Pueo, Marcos


    This paper presents a new verification procedure for articulated arm coordinate measuring machines (AACMMs) together with a capacitive sensor-based indexed metrology platform (IMP) based on the generation of virtual reference distances. The novelty of this procedure lays on the possibility of creating virtual points, virtual gauges and virtual distances through the indexed metrology platform's mathematical model taking as a reference the measurements of a ball bar gauge located in a fixed position of the instrument's working volume. The measurements are carried out with the AACMM assembled on the IMP from the six rotating positions of the platform. In this way, an unlimited number and types of reference distances could be created without the need of using a physical gauge, therefore optimizing the testing time, the number of gauge positions and the space needed in the calibration and verification procedures. Four evaluation methods are presented to assess the volumetric performance of the AACMM. The results obtained proved the suitability of the virtual distances methodology as an alternative procedure for verification of AACMMs using the indexed metrology platform.