WorldWideScience

Sample records for sub-nanometer surface metrology

  1. Sub-nanometer glass surface dynamics induced by illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Duc; Nienhaus, Lea; Haasch, Richard T.; Lyding, Joseph; Gruebele, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Illumination is known to induce stress and morphology changes in opaque glasses. Amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC) has a smaller bandgap than the crystal. Thus, we were able to excite with 532 nm light a 1 μm amorphous surface layer on a SiC crystal while recording time-lapse movies of glass surface dynamics by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Photoexcitation of the a-SiC surface layer through the transparent crystal avoids heating the STM tip. Up to 6 × 10 4 s, long movies of surface dynamics with 40 s time resolution and sub-nanometer spatial resolution were obtained. Clusters of ca. 3-5 glass forming units diameter are seen to cooperatively hop between two states at the surface. Photoexcitation with green laser light recruits immobile clusters to hop, rather than increasing the rate at which already mobile clusters hop. No significant laser heating was observed. Thus, we favor an athermal mechanism whereby electronic excitation of a-SiC directly controls glassy surface dynamics. This mechanism is supported by an exciton migration-relaxation-thermal diffusion model. Individual clusters take ∼1 h to populate states differently after the light intensity has changed. We believe the surrounding matrix rearranges slowly when it is stressed by a change in laser intensity, and clusters serve as a diagnostic. Such cluster hopping and matrix rearrangement could underlie the microscopic mechanism of photoinduced aging of opaque glasses

  2. Displacement laser interferometry with sub-nanometer uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cosijns, S.J.A.G.

    2004-01-01

    Development in industry is asking for improved resolution and higher accuracy in mechanical measurement. Together with miniaturization the demand for sub nanometer uncertainty on dimensional metrology is increasing rapidly. Displacement laser interferometers are used widely as precision displacement

  3. Metrology and properties of engineering surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Greenwood, J; Chetwynd, D

    2001-01-01

    Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces provides in a single volume a comprehensive and authoritative treatment of the crucial topics involved in the metrology and properties of engineering surfaces. The subject matter is a central issue in manufacturing technology, since the quality and reliability of manufactured components depend greatly upon the selection and qualities of the appropriate materials as ascertained through measurement. The book can in broad terms be split into two parts; the first deals with the metrology of engineering surfaces and covers the important issues relating to the measurement and characterization of surfaces in both two and three dimensions. This covers topics such as filtering, power spectral densities, autocorrelation functions and the use of Fractals in topography. A significant proportion is dedicated to the calibration of scanning probe microscopes using the latest techniques. The remainder of the book deals with the properties of engineering surfaces and covers a w...

  4. Emerging trends in surface metrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lonardo, P.M.; Lucca, D.A.; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2002-01-01

    Recent advancements and some emerging trends in the methods and instruments used for surface and near surface characterisation are presented, considering the measurement of both topography and physical properties. In particular, surfaces that present difficulties in measurement or require new...... procedures are considered, with emphasis on measurements approaching the nanometre scale. Examples of new instruments and promising innovations for roughness measurement and surface integrity characterisation are presented. The new needs for tolerancing, traceability and calibration are also addressed....

  5. Applications of surface metrology in firearm identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, X; Soons, J; Vorburger, T V; Song, J; Renegar, T; Thompson, R

    2014-01-01

    Surface metrology is commonly used to characterize functional engineering surfaces. The technologies developed offer opportunities to improve forensic toolmark identification. Toolmarks are created when a hard surface, the tool, comes into contact with a softer surface and causes plastic deformation. Toolmarks are commonly found on fired bullets and cartridge cases. Trained firearms examiners use these toolmarks to link an evidence bullet or cartridge case to a specific firearm, which can lead to a criminal conviction. Currently, identification is typically based on qualitative visual comparison by a trained examiner using a comparison microscope. In 2009, a report by the National Academies called this method into question. Amongst other issues, they questioned the objectivity of visual toolmark identification by firearms examiners. The National Academies recommended the development of objective toolmark identification criteria and confidence limits. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have applied its experience in surface metrology to develop objective identification criteria, measurement methods, and reference artefacts for toolmark identification. NIST developed the Standard Reference Material SRM 2460 standard bullet and SRM 2461 standard cartridge case to facilitate quality control and traceability of identifications performed in crime laboratories. Objectivity is improved through measurement of surface topography and application of unambiguous surface similarity metrics, such as the maximum value (ACCF MAX ) of the areal cross correlation function. Case studies were performed on consecutively manufactured tools, such as gun barrels and breech faces, to demonstrate that, even in this worst case scenario, all the tested tools imparted unique surface topographies that were identifiable. These studies provide scientific support for toolmark evidence admissibility in criminal court cases. (paper)

  6. Welcome to Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Richard

    2013-11-01

    I am delighted to welcome readers to this inaugural issue of Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties (STMP). In these days of citation indexes and academic reviews, it is a tough, and maybe a brave, job to start a new journal. But the subject area has never been more active and we are seeing genuine breakthroughs in the use of surfaces to control functional performance. Most manufactured parts rely on some form of control of their surface characteristics. The surface is usually defined as that feature on a component or device, which interacts with either the environment in which it is housed (or in which the device operates), or with another surface. The surface topography and material characteristics of a part can affect how fluids interact with it, how the part looks and feels and how two bearing parts will slide together. The need to control, and hence measure, surface features is becoming increasingly important as we move into a miniaturized world. Surface features can become the dominant functional features of a part and may become large in comparison to the overall size of an object. Research into surface texture measurement and characterization has been carried out for over a century and is now more active than ever, especially as new areal surface texture specification standards begin to be introduced. The range of disciplines for which the function of a surface relates to its topography is very diverse; from metal sheet manufacturing to art restoration, from plastic electronics to forensics. Until now, there has been no obvious publishing venue to bring together all these applications with the underlying research and theory, or to unite those working in academia with engineering and industry. Hence the creation of Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties . STMP will publish the best work being done across this broad discipline in one journal, helping researchers to share common themes and highlighting and promoting the extraordinary benefits this

  7. Reconstruction of freeform surfaces for metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hayek, N; Nouira, H; Anwer, N; Damak, M; Gibaru, O

    2014-01-01

    The application of freeform surfaces has increased since their complex shapes closely express a product's functional specifications and their machining is obtained with higher accuracy. In particular, optical surfaces exhibit enhanced performance especially when they take aspheric forms or more complex forms with multi-undulations. This study is mainly focused on the reconstruction of complex shapes such as freeform optical surfaces, and on the characterization of their form. The computer graphics community has proposed various algorithms for constructing a mesh based on the cloud of sample points. The mesh is a piecewise linear approximation of the surface and an interpolation of the point set. The mesh can further be processed for fitting parametric surfaces (Polyworks ® or Geomagic ® ). The metrology community investigates direct fitting approaches. If the surface mathematical model is given, fitting is a straight forward task. Nonetheless, if the surface model is unknown, fitting is only possible through the association of polynomial Spline parametric surfaces. In this paper, a comparative study carried out on methods proposed by the computer graphics community will be presented to elucidate the advantages of these approaches. We stress the importance of the pre-processing phase as well as the significance of initial conditions. We further emphasize the importance of the meshing phase by stating that a proper mesh has two major advantages. First, it organizes the initially unstructured point set and it provides an insight of orientation, neighbourhood and curvature, and infers information on both its geometry and topology. Second, it conveys a better segmentation of the space, leading to a correct patching and association of parametric surfaces

  8. Sub-nanometer-resolution imaging of peptide nanotubes in water using frequency modulation atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugihara, Tomoki; Hayashi, Itsuho; Onishi, Hiroshi [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Kimura, Kenjiro, E-mail: kimura@gold.kobe-u.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Tamura, Atsuo [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2013-06-20

    Highlights: ► Peptide nanotubes were aligned on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite surface. ► We visualized sub-nanometer-scale structure on peptide nanotube surface in water. ► We observed hydration structure at a peptide nanotube/water interface. - Abstract: Peptide nanotubes are self-assembled fibrous materials composed of cyclic polypeptides. Recently, various aspects of peptide nanotubes have been studied, in particular the utility of different methods for making peptide nanotubes with diverse designed functions. In order to investigate the relationship between formation, function and stability, it is essential to analyze the precise structure of peptide nanotubes. Atomic-scale surface imaging in liquids was recently achieved using frequency modulation atomic force microscopy with improved force sensing. Here we provide a precise surface structural analysis of peptide nanotubes in water without crystallizing them obtained by imaging the nanotubes at the sub-nanometer scale in water. In addition, the local hydration structure around the peptide nanotubes was observed at the nanotube/water interface.

  9. Helium Ion Microscopy (HIM) for the imaging of biological samples at sub-nanometer resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joens, Matthew S.; Huynh, Chuong; Kasuboski, James M.; Ferranti, David; Sigal, Yury J.; Zeitvogel, Fabian; Obst, Martin; Burkhardt, Claus J.; Curran, Kevin P.; Chalasani, Sreekanth H.; Stern, Lewis A.; Goetze, Bernhard; Fitzpatrick, James A. J.

    2013-12-01

    Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) has long been the standard in imaging the sub-micrometer surface ultrastructure of both hard and soft materials. In the case of biological samples, it has provided great insights into their physical architecture. However, three of the fundamental challenges in the SEM imaging of soft materials are that of limited imaging resolution at high magnification, charging caused by the insulating properties of most biological samples and the loss of subtle surface features by heavy metal coating. These challenges have recently been overcome with the development of the Helium Ion Microscope (HIM), which boasts advances in charge reduction, minimized sample damage, high surface contrast without the need for metal coating, increased depth of field, and 5 angstrom imaging resolution. We demonstrate the advantages of HIM for imaging biological surfaces as well as compare and contrast the effects of sample preparation techniques and their consequences on sub-nanometer ultrastructure.

  10. Mirror surface metrology and polishing for AXAF/TMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slomba, A.; Babish, R.; Glenn, P.

    1985-01-01

    The achievement of the derived goals for mirror surface quality on the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), Technology Mirror Assembly (TMA) required a combination of state-of-the-art metrology and polishing techniques. In this paper, the authors summarize the derived goals and cover the main facets of the various metrology instruments employed, as well as the philosophy and technique used in the polishing work. In addition, they show how progress was measured against the goals, using the detailed error budget for surface errors and a mathematical model for performance prediction. The metrology instruments represented a considerable advance on the state-of-the-art and fully satisfied the error budget goals for the various surface errors. They were capable of measuring the surface errors over a large range of spatial periods, from low-frequency figure errors to microroughness. The polishing was accomplished with a computer-controlled process, guided by the combined data from various metrology instruments. This process was also tailored to reduce the surface errors over the full range of spatial periods

  11. Sub-nanometer resolution XPS depth profiling: Sensing of atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szklarczyk, Marek, E-mail: szklarcz@chem.uw.edu.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, ul. Pasteura 1, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Shim-Pol, ul. Lubomirskiego 5, 05-080 Izabelin (Poland); Macak, Karol; Roberts, Adam J. [Kratos Analytical Ltd, Wharfside, Trafford Wharf Road, Manchester, M17 1GP (United Kingdom); Takahashi, Kazuhiro [Kratos XPS Section, Shimadzu Corp., 380-1 Horiyamashita, Hadano, Kanagawa 259-1304 (Japan); Hutton, Simon [Kratos Analytical Ltd, Wharfside, Trafford Wharf Road, Manchester, M17 1GP (United Kingdom); Głaszczka, Rafał [Shim-Pol, ul. Lubomirskiego 5, 05-080 Izabelin (Poland); Blomfield, Christopher [Kratos Analytical Ltd, Wharfside, Trafford Wharf Road, Manchester, M17 1GP (United Kingdom)

    2017-07-31

    Highlights: • Angle resolved photoelectron depth profiling of nano thin films. • Sensing atomic position in SAM films. • Detection of direction position of adsorbed molecules. - Abstract: The development of a method capable of distinguishing a single atom in a single molecule is important in many fields. The results reported herein demonstrate sub-nanometer resolution for angularly resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS). This is made possible by the incorporation of a Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) model, which utilize density corrected electronic emission factors to the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) experimental results. In this paper we report on the comparison between experimental ARXPS results and reconstructed for both inorganic and organic thin film samples. Unexpected deviations between experimental data and calculated points are explained by the inaccuracy of the constants and standards used for the calculation, e.g. emission factors, scattering intensity and atomic density through the studied thickness. The positions of iron, nitrogen and fluorine atoms were determined in the molecules of the studied self-assembled monolayers. It has been shown that reconstruction of real spectroscopic data with 0.2 nm resolution is possible.

  12. Sub-Nanometer Channels Embedded in Two-Dimensional Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Yimo

    2017-07-31

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials are among the most promising candidates for next-generation electronics due to their atomic thinness, allowing for flexible transparent electronics and ultimate length scaling1. Thus far, atomically-thin p-n junctions2-7, metal-semiconductor contacts8-10, and metal-insulator barriers11-13 have been demonstrated. While 2D materials achieve the thinnest possible devices, precise nanoscale control over the lateral dimensions are also necessary. Although external one-dimensional (1D) carbon nanotubes14 can be used to locally gate 2D materials, this adds a non-trivial third dimension, complicating device integration and flexibility. Here, we report the direct synthesis of sub-nanometer 1D MoS2 channels embedded within WSe2 monolayers, using a dislocation-catalyzed approach. The 1D channels have edges free of misfit dislocations and dangling bonds, forming a coherent interface with the embedding 2D matrix. Periodic dislocation arrays produce 2D superlattices of coherent MoS2 1D channels in WSe2. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have identified other combinations of 2D materials that could form 1D channels. Density function theory (DFT) calculation predicts these 1D channels display type II band alignment needed for carrier confinement and charge separation to access the ultimate length scales necessary for future electronic applications.

  13. Bimetallic Ag-Pt Sub-nanometer Supported Clusters as Highly Efficient and Robust Oxidation Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negreiros, Fabio R. [CNR-ICCOM & IPCF, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pisa Italy; Halder, Avik [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL USA; Yin, Chunrong [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL USA; Singh, Akansha [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, HBNI, Chhatnag Road Jhunsi Allahabad 211019 India; Barcaro, Giovanni [CNR-ICCOM & IPCF, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pisa Italy; Sementa, Luca [CNR-ICCOM & IPCF, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pisa Italy; Tyo, Eric C. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL USA; Pellin, Michael J. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL USA; Bartling, Stephan [Institut für Physik, Universität Rostock, Rostock Germany; Meiwes-Broer, Karl-Heinz [Institut für Physik, Universität Rostock, Rostock Germany; Seifert, Sönke [X-ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL USA; Sen, Prasenjit [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, HBNI, Chhatnag Road Jhunsi Allahabad 211019 India; Nigam, Sandeep [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay Mumbai- 400 085 India; Majumder, Chiranjib [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay Mumbai- 400 085 India; Fukui, Nobuyuki [East Tokyo Laboratory, Genesis Research Institute, Inc., Ichikawa Chiba 272-0001 Japan; Yasumatsu, Hisato [Cluster Research Laboratory, Toyota Technological Institute: in, East Tokyo Laboratory, Genesis Research Institute, Inc. Ichikawa, Chiba 272-0001 Japan; Vajda, Stefan [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL USA; Nanoscience and Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL USA; Institute for Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago IL USA; Fortunelli, Alessandro [CNR-ICCOM & IPCF, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pisa Italy; Materials and Process Simulation Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena CA USA

    2017-12-29

    A combined experimental and theoretical investigation of Ag-Pt sub-nanometer clusters as heterogeneous catalysts in the CO -> CO2 reaction (COox) is presented. Ag9Pt2 and Ag9Pt3 clusters are size-selected in the gas phase, deposited on an ultrathin amorphous alumina support, and tested as catalysts experimentally under realistic conditions and by first-principles simulations at realistic coverage. Insitu GISAXS/TPRx demonstrates that the clusters do not sinter or deactivate even after prolonged exposure to reactants at high temperature, and present comparable, extremely high COox catalytic efficiency. Such high activity and stability are ascribed to a synergic role of Ag and Pt in ultranano-aggregates, in which Pt anchors the clusters to the support and binds and activates two CO molecules, while Ag binds and activates O-2, and Ag/Pt surface proximity disfavors poisoning by CO or oxidized species.

  14. Surface Slope Metrology on Deformable Soft X-ray Mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Sheng; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Celestre, Rich; Church, Matthew; McKinney, Wayne R.; Morrison, Greg; Warwick, Tony

    2010-01-01

    We report on the current state of surface slope metrology on deformable mirrors for soft x-rays at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). While we are developing techniques for in situ at-wavelength tuning, we are refining methods of ex situ visible-light optical metrology to achieve sub-100-nrad accuracy. This paper reports on laboratory studies, measurements and tuning of a deformable test-KB mirror prior to its use. The test mirror was bent to a much different optical configuration than its original design, achieving a 0.38 micro-radian residual slope error. Modeling shows that in some cases, by including the image conjugate distance as an additional free parameter in the alignment, along with the two force couples, fourth-order tangential shape errors (the so-called bird shape) can be reduced or eliminated.

  15. Surface Slope Metrology on Deformable Soft X-ray Mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, S.; Yashchuk, V.V.; Goldberg, K.A.; Celestre, R.; Church, M.; McKinney, W.R.; Morrison, G.; Warwick, T.

    2009-01-01

    We report on the current state of surface slope metrology on deformable mirrors for soft x-rays at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). While we are developing techniques for in situ at-wavelength tuning, we are refining methods of ex situvisible-light optical metrology to achieve sub-100-nrad accuracy. This paper reports on laboratory studies, measurements and tuning of a deformable test-KB mirror prior to its use. The test mirror was bent to a much different optical configuration than its original design, achieving a 0.38 micro-radian residual slope error. Modeling shows that in some cases, by including the image conjugate distance as an additional free parameter in the alignment, along with the two force couples, fourth-order tangential shape errors (the so-called bird shape) can be reduced or eliminated.

  16. Forensic surface metrology: tool mark evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambino, Carol; McLaughlin, Patrick; Kuo, Loretta; Kammerman, Frani; Shenkin, Peter; Diaczuk, Peter; Petraco, Nicholas; Hamby, James; Petraco, Nicholas D K

    2011-01-01

    Over the last several decades, forensic examiners of impression evidence have come under scrutiny in the courtroom due to analysis methods that rely heavily on subjective morphological comparisons. Currently, there is no universally accepted system that generates numerical data to independently corroborate visual comparisons. Our research attempts to develop such a system for tool mark evidence, proposing a methodology that objectively evaluates the association of striated tool marks with the tools that generated them. In our study, 58 primer shear marks on 9 mm cartridge cases, fired from four Glock model 19 pistols, were collected using high-resolution white light confocal microscopy. The resulting three-dimensional surface topographies were filtered to extract all "waviness surfaces"-the essential "line" information that firearm and tool mark examiners view under a microscope. Extracted waviness profiles were processed with principal component analysis (PCA) for dimension reduction. Support vector machines (SVM) were used to make the profile-gun associations, and conformal prediction theory (CPT) for establishing confidence levels. At the 95% confidence level, CPT coupled with PCA-SVM yielded an empirical error rate of 3.5%. Complementary, bootstrap-based computations for estimated error rates were 0%, indicating that the error rate for the algorithmic procedure is likely to remain low on larger data sets. Finally, suggestions are made for practical courtroom application of CPT for assigning levels of confidence to SVM identifications of tool marks recorded with confocal microscopy. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Precision metrology of NSTX surfaces using coherent laser radar ranging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, H.W.; Loesser, D.; Roquemore, A. L.; Menon, M. M.; Barry, R. E.

    2000-01-01

    A frequency modulated Coherent Laser Radar ranging diagnostic is being used on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) for precision metrology. The distance (range) between the 1.5 microm laser source and the target is measured by the shift in frequency of the linearly modulated beam reflected off the target. The range can be measured to a precision of < 100microm at distances of up to 22 meters. A description is given of the geometry and procedure for measuring NSTX interior and exterior surfaces during open vessel conditions, and the results of measurements are elaborated

  18. Atomistic Insight on the Charging Energetics in Sub-nanometer Pore Supercacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao, Rui [ORNL; Huang, Jingsong [ORNL; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Meunier, Vincent [ORNL; Feng, Guang [Clemson University

    2010-01-01

    Electrodes featuring sub-nanometer pores can significantly enhance the capacitance and energy density of supercapacitors. However, ions must pay an energy penalty to enter sub-nanometer pores as they have to shed part of their solvation shell. The magnitude of such energy penalty plays a key role in determining the accessibility and charging/discharging of these sub-nanometer pores. Here we report on the atomistic simulation of Na+ and Cl ions entering a polarizable slit pore with a width of 0.82 nm. We show that the free energy penalty for these ions to enter the pore is less than 14 kJ/mol for both Na+ and Cl ions. The surprisingly small energy penalty is caused by the van der Waals attractions between ion and pore walls, the image charge effects, the moderate (19-26%) de-hydration of the ions inside the pore, and the strengthened interactions between ions and their hydration water molecules in the sub-nanometer pore. The results provide strong impetus for further developing nanoporous electrodes featuring sub- nanometer pores.

  19. Absolute surface reconstruction by slope metrology and photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yue

    Developing the manufacture of aspheric and freeform optical elements requires an advanced metrology method which is capable of inspecting these elements with arbitrary freeform surfaces. In this dissertation, a new surface measurement scheme is investigated for such a purpose, which is to measure the absolute surface shape of an object under test through its surface slope information obtained by photogrammetric measurement. A laser beam propagating toward the object reflects on its surface while the vectors of the incident and reflected beams are evaluated from the four spots they leave on the two parallel transparent windows in front of the object. The spots' spatial coordinates are determined by photogrammetry. With the knowledge of the incident and reflected beam vectors, the local slope information of the object surface is obtained through vector calculus and finally yields the absolute object surface profile by a reconstruction algorithm. An experimental setup is designed and the proposed measuring principle is experimentally demonstrated by measuring the absolute surface shape of a spherical mirror. The measurement uncertainty is analyzed, and efforts for improvement are made accordingly. In particular, structured windows are designed and fabricated to generate uniform scattering spots left by the transmitted laser beams. Calibration of the fringe reflection instrument, another typical surface slope measurement method, is also reported in the dissertation. Finally, a method for uncertainty analysis of a photogrammetry measurement system by optical simulation is investigated.

  20. Imaging Action Potential in Single Mammalian Neurons by Tracking the Accompanying Sub-Nanometer Mechanical Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yunze; Liu, Xian-Wei; Wang, Hui; Yu, Hui; Guan, Yan; Wang, Shaopeng; Tao, Nongjian

    2018-03-28

    Action potentials in neurons have been studied traditionally by intracellular electrophysiological recordings and more recently by the fluorescence detection methods. Here we describe a label-free optical imaging method that can measure mechanical motion in single cells with a sub-nanometer detection limit. Using the method, we have observed sub-nanometer mechanical motion accompanying the action potential in single mammalian neurons by averaging the repeated action potential spikes. The shape and width of the transient displacement are similar to those of the electrically recorded action potential, but the amplitude varies from neuron to neuron, and from one region of a neuron to another, ranging from 0.2-0.4 nm. The work indicates that action potentials may be studied noninvasively in single mammalian neurons by label-free imaging of the accompanying sub-nanometer mechanical motion.

  1. Helium Ion Microscope: A New Tool for Sub-nanometer Imaging of Soft Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutthanandan, V.; Arey, B.; Smallwood, C. R.; Evans, J. E.

    2017-12-01

    High-resolution inspection of surface details is needed in many biological and environmental researches to understand the Soil organic material (SOM)-mineral interactions along with identifying microbial communities and their interactions. SOM shares many imaging characteristics with biological samples and getting true surface details from these materials are challenging since they consist of low atomic number materials. FE-SEM imaging is the main imagining technique used to image these materials in the past. These SEM images often show loss of resolution and increase noise due to beam damage and charging issues. Newly developed Helium Ion Microscope (HIM), on the other hand can overcome these difficulties and give very fine details. HIM is very similar to scanning electron microscopy (SEM) but instead of using electrons as a probe beam, HIM uses helium ions with energy ranges from 5 to 40 keV. HIM offers a series of advantages compared to SEM such as nanometer and sub-nanometer image resolutions (about 0.35 nm), detailed surface topography, high surface sensitivity, low Z material imaging (especially for polymers and biological samples), high image contrast, and large depth of field. In addition, HIM also has the ability to image insulating materials without any conductive coatings so that surface details are not modified. In this presentation, several scientific applications across biology and geochemistry will be presented to highlight the effectiveness of this powerful microscope. Acknowledgements: Research was performed using the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at PNNL. Work was supported by DOE-BER Mesoscale to Molecules Bioimaging Project FWP# 66382.

  2. Coherent double-color interference microscope for traceable optical surface metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinovski, I.; França, R. S.; Bessa, M. S.; Silva, C. R.; Couceiro, I. B.

    2016-06-01

    Interference microscopy is an important field of dimensional surface metrology because it provides direct traceability of the measurements to the SI base unit definition of the metre. With a typical measurement range from micrometres to nanometres interference microscopy (IM) covers the gap between classic metrology and nanometrology, providing continuous transfer of dimensional metrology into new areas of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Therefore IM is considered to be an indispensable tool for traceable transfer of the metre unit to different instruments. We report here the metrological study of an absolute Linnik interference microscope (IM) based on two frequency stabilized lasers. The design permits the flexible use of both lasers for measurements depending on the demand of the concrete measurement task. By principle of operation IM is combination of imaging and phase-shifting interferometry (PSI). The traceability is provided by the wavelength reference, that is, a He-Ne 633 nm stabilized laser. The second laser source, that is, a Blue-Green 488 nm grating stabilized laser diode, is used for improvements of resolution, and also for resolving integer fringe discontinuities on sharp features of the surface. The IM was optimized for surface height metrology. We have performed the study of the systematic effects of the measurements. This study allowed us to improve the hardware and software of IM and to find corrections for main systematic errors. The IM is purposed for 1D to 3D height metrology and surface topography in an extended range from nanometres to micrometres. The advantages and disadvantages of the design and developed methods are discussed.

  3. Coherent double-color interference microscope for traceable optical surface metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinovski, I; França, R S; Bessa, M S; Silva, C R; Couceiro, I B

    2016-01-01

    Interference microscopy is an important field of dimensional surface metrology because it provides direct traceability of the measurements to the SI base unit definition of the metre. With a typical measurement range from micrometres to nanometres interference microscopy (IM) covers the gap between classic metrology and nanometrology, providing continuous transfer of dimensional metrology into new areas of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Therefore IM is considered to be an indispensable tool for traceable transfer of the metre unit to different instruments. We report here the metrological study of an absolute Linnik interference microscope (IM) based on two frequency stabilized lasers. The design permits the flexible use of both lasers for measurements depending on the demand of the concrete measurement task. By principle of operation IM is combination of imaging and phase-shifting interferometry (PSI). The traceability is provided by the wavelength reference, that is, a He-Ne 633 nm stabilized laser. The second laser source, that is, a Blue-Green 488 nm grating stabilized laser diode, is used for improvements of resolution, and also for resolving integer fringe discontinuities on sharp features of the surface. The IM was optimized for surface height metrology. We have performed the study of the systematic effects of the measurements. This study allowed us to improve the hardware and software of IM and to find corrections for main systematic errors. The IM is purposed for 1D to 3D height metrology and surface topography in an extended range from nanometres to micrometres. The advantages and disadvantages of the design and developed methods are discussed. (paper)

  4. True-color 3D surface metrology for additive manufacturing using interference microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    DiSciacca, Jack; Gomez, Carlos; Thompson, Adam; Lawes, Simon; Leach, Richard; Colonna de Lega, Xavier; de Groot, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Coherence scanning interferometry (CSI) is widely used for surface topography characterisation. With the ability to measure both rough surfaces with the high slopes and optical finishes, CSI has made contibutions in fields from industrial machining to optical fabrication and polishing [1,2]. While the low coherence sources for CSI are typically broadband and suitable for color imaging, the metrology is usually performed without regards for the color information [3]. We present color surface t...

  5. Computational evaluation of sub-nanometer cluster activity of singly exposed copper atom with various coordinative environment in catalytic CO2 transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Ramasamy; Thamaraichelvan, Arunachalam; Ganesan, Tharumeya Kuppusamy; Viswanathan, Balasubramanian

    2017-02-01

    Metal cluster, at sub-nanometer level has a unique property in the activation of small molecules, in contrast to that of bulk surface. In the present work, singly exposed active site of copper metal cluster at sub-nanometer level was designed to arrive at the energy minimised configurations, binding energy, electrostatic potential map, frontier molecular orbitals and partial density of states. The ab initio molecular dynamics was carried out to probe the catalytic nature of the cluster. Further, the stability of the metal cluster and its catalytic activity in the electrochemical reduction of CO2 to CO were evaluated by means of computational hydrogen electrode via calculation of the free energy profile using DFT/B3LYP level of theory in vacuum. The activity of the cluster is ascertained from the fact that the copper atom, present in a two coordinative environment, performs a more selective conversion of CO2 to CO at an applied potential of -0.35 V which is comparatively lower than that of higher coordinative sites. The present study helps to design any sub-nano level metal catalyst for electrochemical reduction of CO2 to various value added chemicals.

  6. Metrology of nanosize biopowders using porous silicon surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuravel', L.V.; Latukhina, N.V.; Pisareva, E.V.; Vlasov, M.Yu.; Volkov, A.V.; Volodkin, B.O.

    2008-01-01

    Powders of hydroxyapatite deposited on porous silicon surface were investigated by TEM and STM methods. Thickness of porous lay was 1-100 micrometers; porous diameter was 0.01-10 micrometers. Images of porous silicon surface with deposited particles give possibility to estimate particles size and induce that only proportionate porous diameter particles have good adhesion to porous silicon surface.

  7. Metrology of sub-micron structured polymer surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quagliotti, Danilo; Tosello, Guido; Salaga, J.

    metal masters with different types of finish has been carried out.Four types of surface finish were considered: a) Diamond buff polishing. b) Grit paper polishing. c) Stone polishing. d) Dry blast polishing (see Fig. 1). Both master and replicated surfaces were measured using a laser scanning confocal...... of about 70 %. The worst amplitude replication was achieved for both diamond buff and grit paper polished surfaces with a replication fidelity around 50 %.The tendency is almost the same for slope replication but the replication fidelity values are lower: 70 % for stone polished surfaces. 50 % for dry...... evaluated according to ISO 15530-3:2011, adapted to optical measure-ments, and propagated to the replication fidelity.A good amplitude replication was achieved for stone polished surfaces with a replication fidelity larger than 90 %. The dry blast ones were evaluated with an amplitude replication fidelity...

  8. In-Situ Extended Lateral Range Surface Metrology, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop an extended lateral range capability for a dynamic optical profiling system to enable non-contact, surface roughness measurement of large and...

  9. Surface slope metrology of highly curved x-ray optics with an interferometric microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevorkyan, Gevork S.; Centers, Gary; Polonska, Kateryna S.; Nikitin, Sergey M.; Lacey, Ian; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.

    2017-09-01

    The development of deterministic polishing techniques has given rise to vendors that manufacture high quality threedimensional x-ray optics. The surface metrology on these optics remains a difficult task. For the fabrication, vendors usually use unique surface metrology tools, generally developed on site, that are not available in the optical metrology labs at x-ray facilities. At the Advanced Light Source X-Ray Optics Laboratory, we have developed a rather straightforward interferometric-microscopy-based procedure capable of sub microradian characterization of sagittal slope variation of x-ray optics for two-dimensionally focusing and collimating (such as ellipsoids, paraboloids, etc.). In the paper, we provide the mathematical foundation of the procedure and describe the related instrument calibration. We also present analytical expression describing the ideal surface shape in the sagittal direction of a spheroid specified by the conjugate parameters of the optic's beamline application. The expression is useful when analyzing data obtained with such optics. The high efficiency of the developed measurement and data analysis procedures is demonstrated in results of measurements with a number of x-ray optics with sagittal radius of curvature between 56 mm and 480 mm. We also discuss potential areas of further improvement.

  10. Forensic Examination Using a Nondestructive Evaluation Method for Surface Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, David J.; Chumbley, L. Scott

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the use of a new technique of optical profilometry in a nondestructive, non-contact fashion for the comparison of two metallic surfaces, one hard and one soft. When brought in contact with one another, the harder material (i.e. the tool) will impress its surface roughness onto the softer. It is understood that the resulting set of impressions left from a tool tip act in a manner similar to a photographic negative, in that it leaves a reverse, or negative impression on the surface of a plate. If properly inverted and reversed, measurements from the softer material should be identical to the harder indenting object with regard to surface texture and roughness. This assumption is inherent in the area of forensics, where bullets, cartridge cases, and toolmarked surfaces from crime scenes are compared to similar marks made under controlled conditions in the forensic laboratory. This paper will examine the methodology used to compare two surfaces for similarities and dissimilarities, and comment on the applicability of this technique to other studies.

  11. Generating Sub-nanometer Displacement Using Reduction Mechanism Consisting of Torsional Leaf Spring Hinges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukuda Makoto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent demand on the measurement resolution of precise positioning comes up to tens of picometers. Some distinguished researches have been performed to measure the displacement in picometer order, however, few of them can verify the measurement performance as available tools in industry. This is not only because the picometer displacement is not yet required for industrial use, but also due to the lack of standard tools to verify such precise displacement. We proposed a displacement reduction mechanism for generating precise displacement using torsional leaf spring hinges (TLSHs that consist of four leaf springs arranged radially. It has been demonstrated that a prototype of the reduction mechanism was able to provide one-nanometer displacement with 1/1000 reduction rate by a piezoelectric actuator. In order to clarify the potential of the reduction mechanism, a displacement reduction table that can be mounted on AFM stage was newly developed using TLSHs. This paper describes the design of the reduction mechanism and the sub-nanometer displacement performance of the table obtained from its dynamic and static characteristics measured by displacement sensors and from the AFM images

  12. Nanopore Measurements of Filamentous Viruses Reveal a Sub-nanometer-Scale Stagnant Fluid Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Angus J; Tang, Jay X; Stein, Derek

    2017-11-28

    We report measurements and analyses of nanopore translocations by fd and M13, two related strains of filamentous virus that are identical except for their charge densities. The standard continuum theory of electrokinetics greatly overestimates the translocation speed and the conductance associated with counterions for both viruses. Furthermore, fd and M13 behave differently from one another, even translocating in opposite directions under certain conditions. This cannot be explained by Manning-condensed counterions or a number of other proposed models. Instead, we argue that these anomalous findings are consequences of the breakdown of the validity of continuum hydrodynamics at the scale of a few molecular layers. Next to a polyelectrolyte, there exists an extra-viscous, sub-nanometer-thin boundary layer that has a giant influence on the transport characteristics. We show that a stagnant boundary layer captures the essential hydrodynamics and extends the validity of the electrokinetic theory beyond the continuum limit. A stagnant layer with a thickness of about half a nanometer consistently improves predictions of the ionic current change induced by virus translocations and of the translocation velocity for both fd and M13 over a wide range of nanopore dimensions and salt concentrations.

  13. A 3D edge detection technique for surface extraction in computed tomography for dimensional metrology applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yagüe-Fabra, J.A.; Ontiveros, S.; Jiménez, R.

    2013-01-01

    Many factors influence the measurement uncertainty when using computed tomography for dimensional metrology applications. One of the most critical steps is the surface extraction phase. An incorrect determination of the surface may significantly increase the measurement uncertainty. This paper...... presents an edge detection method for the surface extraction based on a 3D Canny algorithm with sub-voxel resolution. The advantages of this method are shown in comparison with the most commonly used technique nowadays, i.e. the local threshold definition. Both methods are applied to reference standards...

  14. Statistical and signal-processing concepts in surface metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Church, E.L.; Takacs, P.Z.

    1986-03-01

    This paper proposes the use of a simple two-scale model of surface roughness for testing and specifying the topographic figure and finish of synchrotron-radiation mirrors. In this approach the effects of figure and finish are described in terms of their slope distribution and power spectrum, respectively, which are then combined with the system point spread function to produce a composite image. The result can be used to predict mirror performance or to translate design requirements into manufacturing specifications. Pacing problems in this approach are the development of a practical long-trace slope-profiling instrument and realistic statistical models for figure and finish errors

  15. Statistical and signal-processing concepts in surface metrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Church, E.L.; Takacs, P.Z.

    1986-03-01

    This paper proposes the use of a simple two-scale model of surface roughness for testing and specifying the topographic figure and finish of synchrotron-radiation mirrors. In this approach the effects of figure and finish are described in terms of their slope distribution and power spectrum, respectively, which are then combined with the system point spread function to produce a composite image. The result can be used to predict mirror performance or to translate design requirements into manufacturing specifications. Pacing problems in this approach are the development of a practical long-trace slope-profiling instrument and realistic statistical models for figure and finish errors.

  16. Fast and accurate: high-speed metrological large-range AFM for surface and nanometrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Gaoliang; Koenders, Ludger; Fluegge, Jens; Hemmleb, Matthias

    2018-05-01

    Low measurement speed remains a major shortcoming of the scanning probe microscopic technique. It not only leads to a low measurement throughput, but a significant measurement drift over the long measurement time needed (up to hours or even days). To overcome this challenge, PTB, the national metrology institute of Germany, has developed a high-speed metrological large-range atomic force microscope (HS Met. LR-AFM) capable of measuring speeds up to 1 mm s‑1. This paper has introduced the design concept in detail. After modelling scanning probe microscopic measurements, our results suggest that the signal spectrum of the surface to be measured is the spatial spectrum of the surface scaled by the scanning speed. The higher the scanning speed , the broader the spectrum to be measured. To realise an accurate HS Met. LR-AFM, our solution is to combine different stages/sensors synchronously in measurements, which provide a much larger spectrum area for high-speed measurement capability. Two application examples have been demonstrated. The first is a new concept called reference areal surface metrology. Using the developed HS Met. LR-AFM, surfaces are measured accurately and traceably at a speed of 500 µm s‑1 and the results are applied as a reference 3D data map of the surfaces. By correlating the reference 3D data sets and 3D data sets of tools under calibration, which are measured at the same surface, it has the potential to comprehensively characterise the tools, for instance, the spectrum properties of the tools. The investigation results of two commercial confocal microscopes are demonstrated, indicating very promising results. The second example is the calibration of a kind of 3D nano standard, which has spatially distributed landmarks, i.e. special unique features defined by 3D-coordinates. Experimental investigations confirmed that the calibration accuracy is maintained at a measurement speed of 100 µm s‑1, which improves the calibration efficiency by a

  17. Measurement range of phase retrieval in optical surface and wavefront metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, Gregory R.; Fienup, James R.

    2009-01-01

    Phase retrieval employs very simple data collection hardware and iterative algorithms to determine the phase of an optical field. We have derived limitations on phase retrieval, as applied to optical surface and wavefront metrology, in terms of the speed of beam (i.e., f-number or numerical aperture) and amount of aberration using arguments based on sampling theory and geometrical optics. These limitations suggest methodologies for expanding these ranges by increasing the complexity of the measurement arrangement, the phase-retrieval algorithm, or both. We have simulated one of these methods where a surface is measured at unusual conjugates

  18. Assessing the concept of structure sensitivity or insensitivity for sub-nanometer catalyst materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampton, Andrew S.; Rötzer, Marian D.; Ridge, Claron J.; Yoon, Bokwon; Schweinberger, Florian F.; Landman, Uzi; Heiz, Ueli

    2016-10-01

    The nature of the nano-catalyzed hydrogenation of ethylene, yielding benchmark information pertaining to the concept of structure sensitivity/insensitivity and its applicability at the bottom of the catalyst particle size-range, is explored with experiments on size-selected Ptn (n = 7-40) clusters soft-landed on MgO, in conjunction with first-principles simulations. As in the case of larger particles both the direct ethylene hydrogenation channel and the parallel hydrogenation-dehydrogenation ethylidyne-producing route must be considered, with the fundamental uncovering that at the reaction exhibits characteristics consistent with structure sensitivity, in contrast to the structure insensitivity found for larger particles. In this size-regime, the chemical properties can be modulated and tuned by a single atom, reflected by the onset of low temperature hydrogenation at T > 150 K catalyzed by Ptn (n ≥ 10) clusters, with maximum room temperature reactivity observed for Pt13 using a pulsed molecular beam technique. Structure insensitive behavior, inherent for specific cluster sizes at ambient temperatures, can be induced in the more active sizes, e.g. Pt13, by a temperature increase, up to 400 K, which opens dehydrogenation channels leading to ethylidyne formation. This reaction channel was, however found to be attenuated on Pt20, as catalyst activity remained elevated after the 400 K step. Pt30 displayed behavior which can be understood from extrapolating bulk properties to this size range; in particular the calculated d-band center. In the non-scalable sub-nanometer size regime, however, precise control of particle size may be used for atom-by-atom tuning and manipulation of catalyzed hydrogenation activity and selectivity.

  19. Computational evaluation of sub-nanometer cluster activity of singly exposed copper atom with various coordinative environment in catalytic CO{sub 2} transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanmugam, Ramasamy [Department of Chemistry, Thiagarajar College, Madurai, Tamilnadu 625 009 (India); National Center for Catalysis Research, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, Tamilnadu 600 036 (India); Thamaraichelvan, Arunachalam [Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Chettinad Hospital & Research Institute, Kelambakkam, Tamilnadu 603 103 (India); Ganesan, Tharumeya Kuppusamy [Department of Chemistry, The American College, Madurai, Tamilnadu 625 002 (India); Viswanathan, Balasubramanian, E-mail: bvnathan@iitm.ac.in [National Center for Catalysis Research, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, Tamilnadu 600 036 (India)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • On interaction with adsorbate CO{sub 2,} the adsorbent changes its configuration around the metal. • Electron transfer is faster in low coordinative environment of Cu. • CO formation is more favorable on Cu sites with even coordination number. • Cu at coordination number two has a over potential of −0.35 V. - Abstract: Metal cluster, at sub-nanometer level has a unique property in the activation of small molecules, in contrast to that of bulk surface. In the present work, singly exposed active site of copper metal cluster at sub-nanometer level was designed to arrive at the energy minimised configurations, binding energy, electrostatic potential map, frontier molecular orbitals and partial density of states. The ab initio molecular dynamics was carried out to probe the catalytic nature of the cluster. Further, the stability of the metal cluster and its catalytic activity in the electrochemical reduction of CO{sub 2} to CO were evaluated by means of computational hydrogen electrode via calculation of the free energy profile using DFT/B3LYP level of theory in vacuum. The activity of the cluster is ascertained from the fact that the copper atom, present in a two coordinative environment, performs a more selective conversion of CO{sub 2} to CO at an applied potential of −0.35 V which is comparatively lower than that of higher coordinative sites. The present study helps to design any sub-nano level metal catalyst for electrochemical reduction of CO{sub 2} to various value added chemicals.

  20. Albuquerque Regional Training: The Third Seminar on Surface Metrology for the Americas May 12-13 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Sophie M [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Tran, Hy D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The Third Seminar on Surface Metrology for the Americas (SSMA) took place in Albuquerque, New Mexico May 12-13, 2014. The conference was at the Marriott Hotel, in the heart of Albuquerque Uptown, within walking distance of many fantastic restaurants. Why surface metrology? Ask Professor Chris Brown of Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI), the chair of the first two SSMAs in 2011 and 2012 and the chair of the ASME B46 committee on classification and designation of surface qualities, and Professor Brown responds: “Because surfaces cover everything.”

  1. Picometre and nanoradian heterodyne interferometry and its application in dilatometry and surface metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuldt, T; Kögel, H; Spannagel, R; Braxmaier, C; Gohlke, M; Peters, A; Johann, U; Weise, D

    2012-01-01

    A high-sensitivity heterodyne interferometer implementing differential wavefront sensing for tilt measurement was developed over the last few years. With this setup, using an aluminium breadboard and compact optical mounts with a beam height of 2 cm, noise levels less than 5 pm Hz −1/2 in translation and less than 10 nrad Hz −1/2 in tilt measurement, both for frequencies above 10 −2 Hz, have been demonstrated. Here, a new, compact and ruggedized interferometer setup utilizing a baseplate made of Zerodur, a thermally and mechanically highly stable glass ceramic with a coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of 2 × 10 −8 K −1 , is presented. The optical components are fixed to the baseplate using a specifically developed, easy-to-handle, assembly-integration technology based on a space-qualified two-component epoxy. While developed as a prototype for future applications aboard satellite space missions (such as Laser Interferometer Space Antenna), the interferometer is used in laboratory experiments for dilatometry and surface metrology. A first dilatometer setup with a demonstrated accuracy of 10 −7 K −1 in CTE measurement was realized. As it was seen that the accuracy is limited by the dimensional stability of the sample tube support, a new setup was developed utilizing Zerodur as structural material for the sample tube support. In another activity, the interferometer is used for characterization of high-quality mirror surfaces at the picometre level and for high-accuracy two-dimensional surface characterization in a prototype for industrial applications. In this paper, the corresponding designs, their realizations and first measurements of both applications in dilatometry and surface metrology are presented

  2. Development of a sub-nanometer positioning device: combining a new linear motor with linear motion ball guide ways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, J; Tanaka, T; Masuda, I

    2010-01-01

    A new type of linear motor described in this note has some advantages compared with conventional motors. The attractive magnetic force between the stator (permanent magnets) and mover (armature) is diminished almost to zero. The efficiency is better because the magnetic flux leakage is very small, the size of motor is smaller and detent (force ripple) is smaller than for conventional motors. Therefore, we think that this motor is greatly suitable for ultra-precision positioning as an actuator. An ultra-precision positioning device using this motor and linear motion ball guide ways is newly developed by making the device very rigid and using a suitable control method. Moreover, the positioning performance is evaluated by a positioning resolution, and deviation and dispersion errors. As a result of repeated step response tests, the positioning resolution is 0.3 nm, with the deviation error and dispersion error (3σ) being sub-nanometer. Consequently, the positioning device achieves sub-nanometer positioning. (technical design note)

  3. PREFACE: 14th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces (Met & Props 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wei-En

    2014-03-01

    hospitality. It is my privilege and pleasure to welcome you all to the 14th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces here in Taipei. Tom Thomas Halmstad, 1st June 2013 Greetings from Chairman of Local Organizing CommitteeVictor Lin It is the great honor of Center for Measurement Standards (CMS), metrology group of Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI), to host the 14th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces (Met & Props 2013) from 17-21 June, 2013, in Taipei, Taiwan. In collaboration with four local universities, National Taiwan University (NTU), National Cheng-Kung University (NCKU), National Taiwan University of Science and Technology (NTST) and National Tsing-Hua University (NTHU), we have spent more than one year to prepare this Conference since the approval by the International Programme Committee (IPC). With the guidance from the IPC, we are able to go through the laborious, but important, process of paper selection and review from more than 100 submissions, and also to maintain the tradition in gathering the high quality and state-of-the-art papers. Finally, more than 65 full papers are collected in the programme (oral and poster), and over 120 surface metrologists from 17 countries (or economies) will attend the Conference. As stated in the preface by Professor Thomas, this series of conferences were founded by Tom and late Professor Ken Stout in the United Kingdom more than thirty years ago. I was lucky to join Ken's research group in Birmingham, and to start my journey over surface metrology in 1989, under the financial support from ITRI. With the encouragement from Professor Liam Blunt and endeavors of my colleagues, we are able to hold the Conference first time in emerging Asia, and to ''carry on the heritage and pave the way to the future'' (a Chinese proverb) in surface metrology. Taiwan is also known as Formosa, from Portuguese Ilha Formosa, which means ''Beautiful Island

  4. Improving the surface metrology accuracy of optical profilers by using multiple measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xudong; Huang, Qiushi; Shen, Zhengxiang; Wang, Zhanshan

    2016-10-01

    The performance of high-resolution optical systems is affected by small angle scattering at the mid-spatial-frequency irregularities of the optical surface. Characterizing these irregularities is, therefore, important. However, surface measurements obtained with optical profilers are influenced by additive white noise, as indicated by the heavy-tail effect observable on their power spectral density (PSD). A multiple-measurement method is used to reduce the effects of white noise by averaging individual measurements. The intensity of white noise is determined using a model based on the theoretical PSD of fractal surface measurements with additive white noise. The intensity of white noise decreases as the number of times of multiple measurements increases. Using multiple measurements also increases the highest observed spatial frequency; this increase is derived and calculated. Additionally, the accuracy obtained using multiple measurements is carefully studied, with the analysis of both the residual reference error after calibration, and the random errors appearing in the range of measured spatial frequencies. The resulting insights on the effects of white noise in optical profiler measurements and the methods to mitigate them may prove invaluable to improve the quality of surface metrology with optical profilers.

  5. Mechanism and Prediction of Gas Permeation through Sub-Nanometer Graphene Pores: Comparison of Theory and Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhe; Govind Rajan, Ananth; Misra, Rahul Prasanna; Drahushuk, Lee W; Agrawal, Kumar Varoon; Strano, Michael S; Blankschtein, Daniel

    2017-08-22

    Due to its atomic thickness, porous graphene with sub-nanometer pore sizes constitutes a promising candidate for gas separation membranes that exhibit ultrahigh permeances. While graphene pores can greatly facilitate gas mixture separation, there is currently no validated analytical framework with which one can predict gas permeation through a given graphene pore. In this work, we simulate the permeation of adsorptive gases, such as CO 2 and CH 4 , through sub-nanometer graphene pores using molecular dynamics simulations. We show that gas permeation can typically be decoupled into two steps: (1) adsorption of gas molecules to the pore mouth and (2) translocation of gas molecules from the pore mouth on one side of the graphene membrane to the pore mouth on the other side. We find that the translocation rate coefficient can be expressed using an Arrhenius-type equation, where the energy barrier and the pre-exponential factor can be theoretically predicted using the transition state theory for classical barrier crossing events. We propose a relation between the pre-exponential factor and the entropy penalty of a gas molecule crossing the pore. Furthermore, on the basis of the theory, we propose an efficient algorithm to calculate CO 2 and CH 4 permeances per pore for sub-nanometer graphene pores of any shape. For the CO 2 /CH 4 mixture, the graphene nanopores exhibit a trade-off between the CO 2 permeance and the CO 2 /CH 4 separation factor. This upper bound on a Robeson plot of selectivity versus permeance for a given pore density is predicted and described by the theory. Pores with CO 2 /CH 4 separation factors higher than 10 2 have CO 2 permeances per pore lower than 10 -22 mol s -1 Pa -1 , and pores with separation factors of ∼10 have CO 2 permeances per pore between 10 -22 and 10 -21 mol s -1 Pa -1 . Finally, we show that a pore density of 10 14 m -2 is required for a porous graphene membrane to exceed the permeance-selectivity upper bound of polymeric

  6. Differential optical shadow sensor for sub-nanometer displacement measurement and its application to drag-free satellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoellner, Andreas; Tan, Si; Saraf, Shailendhar; Alfauwaz, Abdul; DeBra, Dan; Buchman, Sasha; Lipa, John A

    2017-10-16

    We present a method for 3D sub-nanometer displacement measurement using a set of differential optical shadow sensors. It is based on using pairs of collimated beams on opposite sides of an object that are partially blocked by it. Applied to a sphere, our 3-axis sensor module consists of 8 parallel beam-detector sets for redundancy. The sphere blocks half of each beam's power in the nominal centered position, and any displacement can be measured by the differential optical power changes amongst the pairs of detectors. We have experimentally demonstrated a displacement sensitivity of 0.87nm/Hz at 1 Hz and 0.39nm/Hz at 10 Hz. We describe the application of the module to the inertial sensor of a drag-free satellite, which can potentially be used for navigation, geodesy and fundamental science experiments as well as ground based applications.

  7. Metrological issues related to BRDF measurements around the specular direction in the particular case of glossy surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obein, Gaël.; Audenaert, Jan; Ged, Guillaume; Leloup, Frédéric B.

    2015-03-01

    Among the complete bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF), visual gloss is principally related to physical reflection characteristics located around the specular reflection direction. This particular part of the BRDF is usually referred to as the specular peak. A good starting point for the physical description of gloss could be to measure the reflection properties around this specular peak. Unfortunately, such a characterization is not trivial, since for glossy surfaces the width of the specular peak can become very narrow (typically a full width at half maximum inferior to 0.5° is encountered). In result, new BRDF measurement devices with a very small solid angle of detection are being introduced. Yet, differences in the optical design of BRDF measurement instruments engender different measurement results for the same specimen, complicating direct comparison of the measurement results. This issue is addressed in this paper. By way of example, BRDF measurement results of two samples, one being matte and the other one glossy, obtained by use of two high level goniospectrophotometers with a different optical design, are described. Important discrepancies in the results of the glossy sample are discussed. Finally, luminance maps obtained from renderings with the acquired BRDF data are presented, exemplifying the large visual differences that might be obtained. This stresses the metrological aspects that must be known for using BRDF data. Indeed, the comprehension of parameters affecting the measurement results is an inevitable step towards progress in the metrology of surface gloss, and thus towards a better metrology of appearance in general.

  8. Multilayer X-ray mirrors for formation of sub-nanometer wavelength range beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhsakhalyan, A.A.; Akhsakhalyan, A.D.; Klyuenkov, E.B.; Murav'ev, V.A.; Salashchenko, N.N.; Kharitonov, A.I.

    2005-01-01

    Paper reviews the efforts undertaken in the RF Academy of Sciences IPM within recent 5 years to design multilayer mirror systems to produce X-ray wavelength subnanometer range beams. Paper describes a process to fabricate the mentioned systems covering the procedures to obtain supersmooth surfaces of the specified shape, to deposit gradient multilayer structures on the mentioned surfaces and describes the rules to calculate the optimal parameters of mirrors. Paper presents characteristics of mirror system two types: a mirror in the shape of a parabolic cylinder to collimate radiation in the DRON-4, DRON-6 production-type X-ray diffractometers and in the shape of a quadraelliptic reflector - a new wide-aperture four-corner focusing system [ru

  9. Supported sub-nanometer Ta oxide clusters as model catalysts for the selective epoxidation of cyclooctene

    KAUST Repository

    Zwaschka, Gregor; Rondelli, Manuel; Krause, Maximilian; Rö tzer, Marian David; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Heiz, Ulrich; Basset, Jean-Marie; Schweinberger, Florian; D'Elia, Valerio

    2018-01-01

    The preparation of organic ligands-free, isolated tantalum oxide atoms (Ta1) and small clusters (Tan>1) on flat silicate supports was accomplished by ultra-high vacuum (UHV) techniques followed by oxidation in air. The resulting surface complexes were thoroughly characterized and tested as supported catalysts for the epoxidation of cycloalkenes. The observed catalytic performance highlights the potential of the applied method for the production of active catalysts and the study of well-defined, ligand-free metal oxide moieties.

  10. Supported sub-nanometer Ta oxide clusters as model catalysts for the selective epoxidation of cyclooctene

    KAUST Repository

    Zwaschka, Gregor

    2018-01-22

    The preparation of organic ligands-free, isolated tantalum oxide atoms (Ta1) and small clusters (Tan>1) on flat silicate supports was accomplished by ultra-high vacuum (UHV) techniques followed by oxidation in air. The resulting surface complexes were thoroughly characterized and tested as supported catalysts for the epoxidation of cycloalkenes. The observed catalytic performance highlights the potential of the applied method for the production of active catalysts and the study of well-defined, ligand-free metal oxide moieties.

  11. Improving OCD time to solution using Signal Response Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fang; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Vaid, Alok; Pandev, Stilian; Sanko, Dimitry; Ramanathan, Vidya; Venkataraman, Kartik; Haupt, Ronny

    2016-03-01

    In recent technology nodes, advanced process and novel integration scheme have challenged the precision limits of conventional metrology; with critical dimensions (CD) of device reduce to sub-nanometer region. Optical metrology has proved its capability to precisely detect intricate details on the complex structures, however, conventional RCWA-based (rigorous coupled wave analysis) scatterometry has the limitations of long time-to-results and lack of flexibility to adapt to wide process variations. Signal Response Metrology (SRM) is a new metrology technique targeted to alleviate the consumption of engineering and computation resources by eliminating geometric/dispersion modeling and spectral simulation from the workflow. This is achieved by directly correlating the spectra acquired from a set of wafers with known process variations encoded. In SPIE 2015, we presented the results of SRM application in lithography metrology and control [1], accomplished the mission of setting up a new measurement recipe of focus/dose monitoring in hours. This work will demonstrate our recent field exploration of SRM implementation in 20nm technology and beyond, including focus metrology for scanner control; post etch geometric profile measurement, and actual device profile metrology.

  12. A general approach to homogeneous sub-nanometer metallic particle/graphene composites by S-coordinator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Senhao; Wang, Wei; Gu, Shangzhi; Zhang, Guoxin; Song, Ningning

    2018-05-01

    In this study, sulphur-modified reduced graphene oxide (S-rGO) was employed as substrate to investigate the growth mechanism of metal and metallic nanoparticles (NPs). It is observed that the monodispersed Au, SnO2, FeO(OH) and Co3S4 NPs in sub-nanometer (sub-nm) with narrow size distribution were successfully anchored on S-rGO, respectively. The results indicate that the S contained radicals, viz. the Cdbnd S and Csbnd Ssbnd C functional groups play an important role in determining the homogeneous distribution of NPs on S-rGO by providing active sites for the NPs anchoring and nucleation. In additional, as anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), the as-synthesized sub-nm sized Co3S4/S-rGO and SnO2/S-rGO composites show excellent Li storage performance. It could be stabilized at ca. 600 mAh/g after formation cycle with the coulombic efficiency of 98%. It is expected that the strategy of growing sub-nm sized metallic component onto graphene by applying sulphur functionalities could be utilized as a general method to prepare monodispersed graphene-based NPs with other metals, especially with transition metals in sub-nm sizes.

  13. Elastic recoil atomic spectroscopy of light elements with sub-nanometer depth resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosmata, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    heavy ion irradiation. It is shown that the used energies occur both electronic sputtering and electronically induced interface mixing. Electronic sputtering is minimised by using optimised beam parameters. For most samples the effect is below the detection limit for a fluence sufficient for the analysis. However, the influence of interface mixing is so strong that it has to be included in the analysis of the layers of the depth profiles. It is concluded from these studies that at the Rossendorf 5 MV tandem accelerator chlorine ions with an energy of 20 MeV deliver the best results. In some cases, such as the analysis of boron, the energy must be reduced to 6.5 MeV in order to retain the electronic sputtering below the detection limit. The fourth focus is the study of the influence of specific sample properties, such as surface roughness, on the shape of a measured energy spectra and respectively on the analysed depth profile. It is shown that knowledge of the roughness of a sample at the surface and at the interfaces for the analysis is needed. In addition, the contribution parameters limiting the depth resolution are calculated and compared with the conventional ion beam analysis. Finally, a comparison is made between the highresolution ion beam analysis and complementary methods published by other research groups. The fifth and last focus is the analysis of light elements in ultra thin layers. All models presented in this thesis to reduce the influence of beam damage are taken into account. The dynamic non-equilibrium charge state is also included for the quantification of elements. Depth profiling of multilayer systems is demonstrated for systems consisting of SiO 2 -Si 3 N 4 O x -SiO 2 on silicon, boron implantation profiles for ultra shallow junctions and ultra thin oxide layers, such as used as high-k materials.

  14. Development of Pseudorandom Binary Arrays for Calibration of Surface Profile Metrology Tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, S.K.; Takacs, P.; Soldate, P.; Anderson, E.H.; Cambie, R.; McKinney, W.R.; Voronov, D.L.; Yashchuk, V.V.

    2009-01-01

    Optical metrology tools, especially for short wavelengths (extreme ultraviolet and x-ray), must cover a wide range of spatial frequencies from the very low, which affects figure, to the important mid-spatial frequencies and the high spatial frequency range, which produces undesirable scattering. A major difficulty in using surface profilometers arises due to the unknown point-spread function (PSF) of the instruments [G. D. Boreman, Modulation Transfer Function in Optical and Electro-Optical Systems (SPIE, Bellingham, WA, 2001)] that is responsible for distortion of the measured surface profile. Generally, the distortion due to the PSF is difficult to account for because the PSF is a complex function that comes to the measurement via the convolution operation, while the measured profile is described with a real function. Accounting for instrumental PSF becomes significantly simpler if the result of measurement of a profile is presented in the spatial frequency domain as a power spectral density (PSD) distribution [J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 3rd ed. (Roberts and Company, Englewood, CO, 2005)]. For example, measured PSD distributions provide a closed set of data necessary for three-dimensional calculations of scattering of light by the optical surfaces [E. L. Church et al., Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 18, 125 (1979); J. C. Stover, Optical Scattering, 2nd ed. (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Bellingham, WA, 1995)]. The distortion of the surface PSD distribution due to the PSF can be modeled with the modulation transfer function (MTF), which is defined over the spatial frequency bandwidth of the instrument. The measured PSD distribution can be presented as a product of the squared MTF and the ideal PSD distribution inherent for the system under test. Therefore, the instrumental MTF can be evaluated by comparing a measured PSD distribution of a known test surface with the corresponding ideal numerically simulated PSD. The square root of the ratio of the

  15. Image-based overlay and alignment metrology through optically opaque media with sub-surface probe microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Es, Maarten H.; Mohtashami, Abbas; Piras, Daniele; Sadeghian, Hamed

    2018-03-01

    Nondestructive subsurface nanoimaging through optically opaque media is considered to be extremely challenging and is essential for several semiconductor metrology applications including overlay and alignment and buried void and defect characterization. The current key challenge in overlay and alignment is the measurement of targets that are covered by optically opaque layers. Moreover, with the device dimensions moving to the smaller nodes and the issue of the so-called loading effect causing offsets between between targets and product features, it is increasingly desirable to perform alignment and overlay on product features or so-called on-cell overlay, which requires higher lateral resolution than optical methods can provide. Our recently developed technique known as SubSurface Ultrasonic Resonance Force Microscopy (SSURFM) has shown the capability for high-resolution imaging of structures below a surface based on (visco-)elasticity of the constituent materials and as such is a promising technique to perform overlay and alignment with high resolution in upcoming production nodes. In this paper, we describe the developed SSURFM technique and the experimental results on imaging buried features through various layers and the ability to detect objects with resolution below 10 nm. In summary, the experimental results show that the SSURFM is a potential solution for on-cell overlay and alignment as well as detecting buried defects or voids and generally metrology through optically opaque layers.

  16. On the evaluation of photogrammetric methods for dense 3D surface reconstruction in a metrological context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toschi, I.; Capra, A.; De Luca, L.; Beraldin, J.-A.; Cournoyer, L.

    2014-05-01

    This paper discusses a methodology to evaluate the accuracy of recently developed image-based 3D modelling techniques. So far, the emergence of these novel methods has not been supported by the definition of an internationally recognized standard which is fundamental for user confidence and market growth. In order to provide an element of reflection and solution to the different communities involved in 3D imaging, a promising approach is presented in this paper for the assessment of both metric quality and limitations of an open-source suite of tools (Apero/MicMac), developed for the extraction of dense 3D point clouds from a set of unordered 2D images. The proposed procedural workflow is performed within a metrological context, through inter-comparisons with "reference" data acquired with two hemispherical laser scanners, one total station, and one laser tracker. The methodology is applied to two case studies, designed in order to analyse the software performances in dealing with both outdoor and environmentally controlled conditions, i.e. the main entrance of Cathédrale de la Major (Marseille, France) and a custom-made scene located at National Research Council of Canada 3D imaging Metrology Laboratory (Ottawa). Comparative data and accuracy evidence produced for both tests allow the study of some key factors affecting 3D model accuracy.

  17. Quantum metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang Guo-Yong; Guo Guang-Can

    2013-01-01

    The statistical error is ineluctable in any measurement. Quantum techniques, especially with the development of quantum information, can help us squeeze the statistical error and enhance the precision of measurement. In a quantum system, there are some quantum parameters, such as the quantum state, quantum operator, and quantum dimension, which have no classical counterparts. So quantum metrology deals with not only the traditional parameters, but also the quantum parameters. Quantum metrology includes two important parts: measuring the physical parameters with a precision beating the classical physics limit and measuring the quantum parameters precisely. In this review, we will introduce how quantum characters (e.g., squeezed state and quantum entanglement) yield a higher precision, what the research areas are scientists most interesting in, and what the development status of quantum metrology and its perspectives are. (topical review - quantum information)

  18. Radioactivity metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legrand, J.

    1979-01-01

    Some aspects of the radioactivity metrology are reviewed. Radioactivity primary references; absolute methods of radioactivity measurements used in the Laboratoire de Metrologie des Rayonnements Ionisants; relative measurement methods; traceability through international comparisons and interlaboratory tests; production and distribution of secondary standards [fr

  19. A compact, all-optical, THz wave generator based on self-modulation in a slab photonic crystal waveguide with a single sub-nanometer graphene layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, R; Ouyang, Z; Mohammd, M M

    2015-07-14

    We design a compact, all-optical THz wave generator based on self-modulation in a 1-D slab photonic crystal (PhC) waveguide with a single sub-nanometer graphene layer by using enhanced nonlinearity of graphene. It has been shown that at the bandgap edge of higher bands of a 1-D slab PhC, through only one sub-nanometer graphene layer we can obtain a compact, high modulation factor (about 0.98 percent), self-intensity modulator at a high frequency (about 0.6 THz) and low threshold intensity (about 15 MW per square centimeter), and further a compact, all-optical THz wave generator by integrating the self-modulator with a THz photodiode or photonic mixer. Such a THz source is expected to have a relatively high efficiency compared with conventional sources based on optical methods. The proposed THz source can find wide applications in THz science and technology, e.g., in THz imaging, THz sensors and detectors, THz communication systems, and THz optical integrated logic circuits.

  20. Optical micro-metrology of structured surfaces micro-machined by jet-ECM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quagliotti, Danilo; Tosello, Guido; Islam, Aminul

    2015-01-01

    A procedure for statistical analysis and uncertainty evaluation is presented with regards to measurements of step height and surface texture. Measurements have been performed with a focus-variation microscope over jet electrochemical micro-machined surfaces. Traceability has been achieved using a...

  1. Temperature metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, J.; Fellmuth, B.

    2005-05-01

    The majority of the processes used by the manufacturing industry depend upon the accurate measurement and control of temperature. Thermal metrology is also a key factor affecting the efficiency and environmental impact of many high-energy industrial processes, the development of innovative products and the health and safety of the general population. Applications range from the processing, storage and shipment of perishable foodstuffs and biological materials to the development of more efficient and less environmentally polluting combustion processes for steel-making. Accurate measurement and control of temperature is, for instance, also important in areas such as the characterization of new materials used in the automotive, aerospace and semiconductor industries. This paper reviews the current status of temperature metrology. It starts with the determination of thermodynamic temperatures required on principle because temperature is an intensive quantity. Methods to determine thermodynamic temperatures are reviewed in detail to introduce the underlying physical basis. As these methods cannot usually be applied for practical measurements the need for a practical temperature scale for day-to-day work is motivated. The International Temperature Scale of 1990 and the Provisional Low Temperature Scale PLTS-2000 are described as important parts of the International System of Units to support science and technology. Its main importance becomes obvious in connection with industrial development and international markets. Every country is strongly interested in unique measures, in order to guarantee quality, reproducibility and functionability of products. The eventual realization of an international system, however, is only possible within the well-functioning organization of metrological laboratories. In developed countries the government established scientific institutes have certain metrological duties, as, for instance, the maintenance and dissemination of national

  2. Temperature metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J; Fellmuth, B

    2005-01-01

    The majority of the processes used by the manufacturing industry depend upon the accurate measurement and control of temperature. Thermal metrology is also a key factor affecting the efficiency and environmental impact of many high-energy industrial processes, the development of innovative products and the health and safety of the general population. Applications range from the processing, storage and shipment of perishable foodstuffs and biological materials to the development of more efficient and less environmentally polluting combustion processes for steel-making. Accurate measurement and control of temperature is, for instance, also important in areas such as the characterization of new materials used in the automotive, aerospace and semiconductor industries. This paper reviews the current status of temperature metrology. It starts with the determination of thermodynamic temperatures required on principle because temperature is an intensive quantity. Methods to determine thermodynamic temperatures are reviewed in detail to introduce the underlying physical basis. As these methods cannot usually be applied for practical measurements the need for a practical temperature scale for day-to-day work is motivated. The International Temperature Scale of 1990 and the Provisional Low Temperature Scale PLTS-2000 are described as important parts of the International System of Units to support science and technology. Its main importance becomes obvious in connection with industrial development and international markets. Every country is strongly interested in unique measures, in order to guarantee quality, reproducibility and functionability of products. The eventual realization of an international system, however, is only possible within the well-functioning organization of metrological laboratories. In developed countries the government established scientific institutes have certain metrological duties, as, for instance, the maintenance and dissemination of national

  3. Metrological Aspects of Surface Topographies Produced by Different Machining Operations Regarding Their Potential Functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żak Krzysztof

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive methodology for measuring and characterizing the surface topographies on machined steel parts produced by precision machining operations. The performed case studies concern a wide spectrum of topographic features of surfaces with different geometrical structures but the same values of the arithmetic mean height Sa. The tested machining operations included hard turning operations performed with CBN tools, grinding operations with Al2O3 ceramic and CBN wheels and superfinish using ceramic stones. As a result, several characteristic surface textures with the Sa roughness parameter value of about 0.2 μm were thoroughly characterized and compared regarding their potential functional capabilities. Apart from the standard 2D and 3D roughness parameters, the fractal, motif and frequency parameters were taken in the consideration.

  4. Spectral and parameter estimation problems arising in the metrology of high performance mirror surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Church, E.L.; Takacs, P.Z.

    1986-04-01

    The accurate characterization of mirror surfaces requires the estimation of two-dimensional distribution functions and power spectra from trend-contaminated profile measurements. The rationale behind this, and our measurement and processing procedures, are described. The distinction between profile and area spectra is indicated, and since measurements often suggest inverse-power-law forms, a discussion of classical and fractal models of processes leading to these forms is included. 9 refs

  5. Development of ballistics identification—from image comparison to topography measurement in surface metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, J; Chu, W; Vorburger, T V; Thompson, R; Renegar, T B; Zheng, A; Yen, J; Silver, R; Ols, M

    2012-01-01

    Fired bullets and ejected cartridge cases have unique ballistics signatures left by the firearm. By analyzing the ballistics signatures, forensic examiners can trace these bullets and cartridge cases to the firearm used in a crime scene. Current automated ballistics identification systems are primarily based on image comparisons using optical microscopy. The correlation accuracy depends on image quality which is largely affected by lighting conditions. Because ballistics signatures are geometrical micro-topographies by nature, direct measurement and correlation of the surface topography is being investigated for ballistics identification. A Two-dimensional and Three-dimensional Topography Measurement and Correlation System was developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology for certification of Standard Reference Material 2460/2461 bullets and cartridge cases. Based on this system, a prototype system for bullet signature measurement and correlation has been developed for bullet signature identifications, and has demonstrated superior correlation results. (paper)

  6. FOREWORD: Materials metrology Materials metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Seton; Valdés, Joaquin

    2010-04-01

    It seems that so much of modern life is defined by the materials we use. From aircraft to architecture, from cars to communications, from microelectronics to medicine, the development of new materials and the innovative application of existing ones have underpinned the technological advances that have transformed the way we live, work and play. Recognizing the need for a sound technical basis for drafting codes of practice and specifications for advanced materials, the governments of countries of the Economic Summit (G7) and the European Commission signed a Memorandum of Understanding in 1982 to establish the Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards (VAMAS). This project supports international trade by enabling scientific collaboration as a precursor to the drafting of standards. The VAMAS participants recognized the importance of agreeing a reliable, universally accepted basis for the traceability of the measurements on which standards depend for their preparation and implementation. Seeing the need to involve the wider metrology community, VAMAS approached the Comité International des Poids et Mesures (CIPM). Following discussions with NMI Directors and a workshop at the BIPM in February 2005, the CIPM decided to establish an ad hoc Working Group on the metrology applicable to the measurement of material properties. The Working Group presented its conclusions to the CIPM in October 2007 and published its final report in 2008, leading to the signature of a Memorandum of Understanding between VAMAS and the BIPM. This MoU recognizes the work that is already going on in VAMAS as well as in the Consultative Committees of the CIPM and establishes a framework for an ongoing dialogue on issues of materials metrology. The question of what is meant by traceability in the metrology of the properties of materials is particularly vexed when the measurement results depend on a specified procedure. In these cases, confidence in results requires not only traceable

  7. Emerging technology for astronomical optics metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumper, Isaac; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Kim, Dae Wook

    2018-05-01

    Next generation astronomical optics will enable science discoveries across all fields and impact the way we perceive the Universe in which we live. To build these systems, optical metrology tools have been developed that push the boundary of what is possible. We present a summary of a few key metrology technologies that we believe are critical for the coming generation of optical surfaces.

  8. Nanoelectronics: Metrology and Computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundstrom, Mark; Clark, Jason V.; Klimeck, Gerhard; Raman, Arvind

    2007-01-01

    Research in nanoelectronics poses new challenges for metrology, but advances in theory, simulation and computing and networking technology provide new opportunities to couple simulation and metrology. This paper begins with a brief overview of current work in computational nanoelectronics. Three examples of how computation can assist metrology will then be discussed. The paper concludes with a discussion of how cyberinfrastructure can help connect computing and metrology using the nanoHUB (www.nanoHUB.org) as a specific example

  9. Capability Handbook- offline metrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul; Marhöfer, David Maximilian; Tosello, Guido

    This offline metrological capability handbook has been made in relation to HiMicro Task 3.3. The purpose of this document is to assess the metrological capability of the HiMicro partners and to gather the information of all available metrological instruments in the one single document. It provides...

  10. Reconstruction of mechanically recorded sound from an edison cylinder using three dimensional non-contact optical surface metrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadeyev, V.; Haber, C.; Maul, C.; McBride, J.W.; Golden, M.

    2004-04-20

    Audio information stored in the undulations of grooves in a medium such as a phonograph disc record or cylinder may be reconstructed, without contact, by measuring the groove shape using precision optical metrology methods and digital image processing. The viability of this approach was recently demonstrated on a 78 rpm shellac disc using two dimensional image acquisition and analysis methods. The present work reports the first three dimensional reconstruction of mechanically recorded sound. The source material, a celluloid cylinder, was scanned using color coded confocal microscopy techniques and resulted in a faithful playback of the recorded information.

  11. Future metrology needs for FEL reflective optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assoufid, L.

    2000-01-01

    An International Workshop on Metrology for X-ray and Neutron Optics has been held March 16-17, 2000, at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, near Chicago, Illinois (USA). The workshop gathered engineers and scientists from both the U.S. and around the world to evaluate metrology instrumentation and methods used to characterize surface figure and finish for long grazing incidence optics used in beamlines at synchrotrons radiation sources. This two-day workshop was motivated by the rapid evolution in the performance of x-ray and neutron sources along with requirements in optics figure and finish. More specifically, the performance of future light sources, such as free-electron laser (FEL)-based x-ray sources, is being pushed to new limits in term of both brilliance and coherence. As a consequence, tolerances on surface figure and finish of the next generation of optics are expected to become tighter. The timing of the workshop provided an excellent opportunity to study the problem, evaluate the state of the art in metrology instrumentation, and stimulate innovation on future metrology instruments and techniques to be used to characterize these optics. This paper focuses on FEL optics and metrology needs. (A more comprehensive summary of the workshop can be found elsewhere.) The performance and limitations of current metrology instrumentation will be discussed and recommendations from the workshop on future metrology development to meet the FEL challenges will be detailed

  12. Future metrology needs for FEL reflective optics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assoufid, L.

    2000-09-21

    An International Workshop on Metrology for X-ray and Neutron Optics has been held March 16-17, 2000, at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, near Chicago, Illinois (USA). The workshop gathered engineers and scientists from both the U.S. and around the world to evaluate metrology instrumentation and methods used to characterize surface figure and finish for long grazing incidence optics used in beamlines at synchrotrons radiation sources. This two-day workshop was motivated by the rapid evolution in the performance of x-ray and neutron sources along with requirements in optics figure and finish. More specifically, the performance of future light sources, such as free-electron laser (FEL)-based x-ray sources, is being pushed to new limits in term of both brilliance and coherence. As a consequence, tolerances on surface figure and finish of the next generation of optics are expected to become tighter. The timing of the workshop provided an excellent opportunity to study the problem, evaluate the state of the art in metrology instrumentation, and stimulate innovation on future metrology instruments and techniques to be used to characterize these optics. This paper focuses on FEL optics and metrology needs. (A more comprehensive summary of the workshop can be found elsewhere.) The performance and limitations of current metrology instrumentation will be discussed and recommendations from the workshop on future metrology development to meet the FEL challenges will be detailed.

  13. Dual-beam focused ion beam/electron microscopy processing and metrology of redeposition during ion-surface 3D interactions, from micromachining to self-organized picostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moberlychan, Warren J

    2009-06-03

    Focused ion beam (FIB) tools have become a mainstay for processing and metrology of small structures. In order to expand the understanding of an ion impinging a surface (Sigmund sputtering theory) to our processing of small structures, the significance of 3D boundary conditions must be realized. We consider ion erosion for patterning/lithography, and optimize yields using the angle of incidence and chemical enhancement, but we find that the critical 3D parameters are aspect ratio and redeposition. We consider focused ion beam sputtering for micromachining small holes through membranes, but we find that the critical 3D considerations are implantation and redeposition. We consider ion beam self-assembly of nanostructures, but we find that control of the redeposition by ion and/or electron beams enables the growth of nanostructures and picostructures.

  14. Metrology of image placement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starikov, Alexander

    1998-01-01

    Metrology of registration, overlay and alignment offset in microlithography are discussed. Requirements and limitations are traced to the device ground rules and the definitions of edge, linewidth and centerline. Precision, accuracy, system performance and metrology in applications are discussed. The impact of image acquisition and data handling on performance is elucidated. Much attention is given to the manufacturing environment and effects of processing. General new methods of metrology error diagnostics and technology characterization are introduced and illustrated. Applications of these diagnostics to tests of tool performance, error diagnostics and culling, as well as to process integration in manufacturing are described. Realistic overlay reference materials and results of accuracy evaluations are discussed. Requirements in primary standards and alternative metrology are explained. The role and capability of SEM based overlay metrology is described, along with applications to device overlay metrology

  15. Metrology and testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The chapter presents the Metrology Service of Ionizing Radiation (SEMRI), the Metrology Service of Radioisotopes (SEMRA), the External Individual Monitoring Service (SEMEX), the Internal Individual Monitoring Service (SEMIN) and the associated laboratories, the analysis of environmental samples, system for management of quality from IRD and the National Program for intercomparison results of environmental samples analysis to radioisotopes determination

  16. Metrology Measurement Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Glen E. Gronniger

    2007-10-02

    This document contains descriptions of Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) Metrology capabilities, traceability flow charts, and the measurement uncertainty of each measurement capability. Metrology provides NIST traceable precision measurements or equipment calibration for a wide variety of parameters, ranges, and state-of-the-art uncertainties. Metrology laboratories conform to the requirements of the Department of Energy Development and Production Manual Chapter 13.2, ANSI/ISO/IEC ANSI/ISO/IEC 17025:2005, and ANSI/NCSL Z540-1. FM&T Metrology laboratories are accredited by NVLAP for the parameters, ranges, and uncertainties listed in the specific scope of accreditation under NVLAP Lab code 200108-0. See the Internet at http://ts.nist.gov/Standards/scopes/2001080.pdf. These parameters are summarized. The Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) Metrology Department has developed measurement technology and calibration capability in four major fields of measurement: (1) Mechanical; (2) Environmental, Gas, Liquid; (3) Electrical (DC, AC, RF/Microwave); and (4) Optical and Radiation. Metrology Engineering provides the expertise to develop measurement capabilities for virtually any type of measurement in the fields listed above. A strong audit function has been developed to provide a means to evaluate the calibration programs of our suppliers and internal calibration organizations. Evaluation includes measurement audits and technical surveys.

  17. Comparison of asphere measurements by tactile and optical metrological instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, R.H.; Nieuwenkamp, H.J.; Kok, G.J.P.; Blobel, G.; Nouira, H.; Küng, A.; Baas, M.; Voert, M.J.A. te; Baer, G.; Stuerwald, S.

    2015-01-01

    A comparison of topography measurements of aspherical surfaces was carried out by European metrology institutes, other research institutes and a company as part of an European metrology research project. In this paper the results of this comparison are presented. Two artefacts were circulated, a

  18. Metrology of electrical quantum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camon, A.

    1996-01-01

    Since 1989 the electrical metrology laboratory of TPYCEA and the low temperature physics department of ICMA have been collaborating in the development of electrical quantum metrology. ICMA has been mainly dedicated to implement the state of the art quantum standards for which its experience on cryogenics, superconductivity and low noise instrumentation was essential. On the other hand TPYCEA concentrated its efforts on the metrological aspects, in which it has great experience. The complimentary knowledge of both laboratories, as well as the advice obtained from several prestigious metrology institutes was the key to successful completion of the two projects so far developed: i) The Josephson voltage standard (1989-1991) ii) The quantum Hall resistance standard (1991-1996) This report contains a description of both projects. Even though we can consider that the two projects are finished from the instrumental and metrological point of view, there is still a strong cooperation between ICMA and TPYCEA on the improvement of these standards, as well as on their international validation

  19. A Century of Acoustic Metrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Knud

    1998-01-01

    The development in acoustic measurement technique over the last century is reviewed with special emphasis on the metrological aspect.......The development in acoustic measurement technique over the last century is reviewed with special emphasis on the metrological aspect....

  20. Advances in speckle metrology and related techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufmann, Guillermo H

    2010-01-01

    Speckle metrology includes various optical techniques that are based on the speckle fields generated by reflection from a rough surface or by transmission through a rough diffuser. These techniques have proven to be very useful in testing different materials in a non-destructive way. They have changed dramatically during the last years due to the development of modern optical components, with faster and more powerful digital computers, and novel data processing approaches. This most up-to-date overview of the topic describes new techniques developed in the field of speckle metrology over the l

  1. Realizing "value-added" metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunday, Benjamin; Lipscomb, Pete; Allgair, John; Patel, Dilip; Caldwell, Mark; Solecky, Eric; Archie, Chas; Morningstar, Jennifer; Rice, Bryan J.; Singh, Bhanwar; Cain, Jason; Emami, Iraj; Banke, Bill, Jr.; Herrera, Alfredo; Ukraintsev, Vladamir; Schlessinger, Jerry; Ritchison, Jeff

    2007-03-01

    The conventional premise that metrology is a "non-value-added necessary evil" is a misleading and dangerous assertion, which must be viewed as obsolete thinking. Many metrology applications are key enablers to traditionally labeled "value-added" processing steps in lithography and etch, such that they can be considered integral parts of the processes. Various key trends in modern, state-of-the-art processing such as optical proximity correction (OPC), design for manufacturability (DFM), and advanced process control (APC) are based, at their hearts, on the assumption of fine-tuned metrology, in terms of uncertainty and accuracy. These trends are vehicles where metrology thus has large opportunities to create value through the engineering of tight and targetable process distributions. Such distributions make possible predictability in speed-sorts and in other parameters, which results in high-end product. Additionally, significant reliance has also been placed on defect metrology to predict, improve, and reduce yield variability. The necessary quality metrology is strongly influenced by not only the choice of equipment, but also the quality application of these tools in a production environment. The ultimate value added by metrology is a result of quality tools run by a quality metrology team using quality practices. This paper will explore the relationships among present and future trends and challenges in metrology, including equipment, key applications, and metrology deployment in the manufacturing flow. Of key importance are metrology personnel, with their expertise, practices, and metrics in achieving and maintaining the required level of metrology performance, including where precision, matching, and accuracy fit into these considerations. The value of metrology will be demonstrated to have shifted to "key enabler of large revenues," debunking the out-of-date premise that metrology is "non-value-added." Examples used will be from critical dimension (CD

  2. Radiation protection - quality and metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broutin, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    The radiation protection gathers three occupations: radiation protection agents; environment agents ( control and monitoring); metrology agents ( activities measurement and calibration). The quality and the metrology constitute a contribution in the technique competence and the guarantee of the service quality. This article, after a historical aspect of quality and metrology in France explains the advantages of such a policy. (N.C.)

  3. Metrology Department - DEMET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    In this report are presented the activities and purposes of the Metrology Dept. of the Institute of Radioprotection and Dosimetry of Brazilian CNEN. It is also presented a list of services rendered by that Dept., the projects in course, personnel and publications.(J.A.M.M.)

  4. Metrology for Grayscale Lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murali, Raghunath

    2007-01-01

    Three dimensional microstructures find applications in diffractive optical elements, photonic elements, etc. and can be efficiently fabricated by grayscale lithography. Good process control is important for achieving the desired structures. Metrology methods for grayscale lithography are discussed. Process optimization for grayscale e-beam lithography is explored and various process parameters that affect the grayscale process are discussed

  5. Magnetic nanoparticles. Metrological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikiforov, V N; Nikiforov, A V; Oxengendler, B L; Turaeva, N N; Sredin, V G

    2011-01-01

    The experiments on influence of the iron oxide cluster size on the specific magnetic moment are performed. Both free and covered clusters are investigated. The experiments are interpreted on the base of core-shell model by analogy to Weizsaecker formula in the nuclear physics. Metrological parameters for the cluster size investigation are obtained.

  6. Optical metrology for advanced process control: full module metrology solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozdog, Cornel; Turovets, Igor

    2016-03-01

    Optical metrology is the workhorse metrology in manufacturing and key enabler to patterning process control. Recent advances in device architecture are gradually shifting the need for process control from the lithography module to other patterning processes (etch, trim, clean, LER/LWR treatments, etc..). Complex multi-patterning integration solutions, where the final pattern is the result of multiple process steps require a step-by-step holistic process control and a uniformly accurate holistic metrology solution for pattern transfer for the entire module. For effective process control, more process "knobs" are needed, and a tighter integration of metrology with process architecture.

  7. In-cell overlay metrology by using optical metrology tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Honggoo; Han, Sangjun; Hong, Minhyung; Kim, Seungyoung; Lee, Jieun; Lee, DongYoung; Oh, Eungryong; Choi, Ahlin; Park, Hyowon; Liang, Waley; Choi, DongSub; Kim, Nakyoon; Lee, Jeongpyo; Pandev, Stilian; Jeon, Sanghuck; Robinson, John C.

    2018-03-01

    Overlay is one of the most critical process control steps of semiconductor manufacturing technology. A typical advanced scheme includes an overlay feedback loop based on after litho optical imaging overlay metrology on scribeline targets. The after litho control loop typically involves high frequency sampling: every lot or nearly every lot. An after etch overlay metrology step is often included, at a lower sampling frequency, in order to characterize and compensate for bias. The after etch metrology step often involves CD-SEM metrology, in this case in-cell and ondevice. This work explores an alternative approach using spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) metrology and a machine learning analysis technique. Advanced 1x nm DRAM wafers were prepared, including both nominal (POR) wafers with mean overlay offsets, as well as DOE wafers with intentional across wafer overlay modulation. After litho metrology was measured using optical imaging metrology, as well as after etch metrology using both SE and CD-SEM for comparison. We investigate 2 types of machine learning techniques with SE data: model-less and model-based, showing excellent performance for after etch in-cell on-device overlay metrology.

  8. Elastic recoil atomic spectroscopy of light elements with sub-nanometer depth resolution; Elastische Rueckstossatomspektrometrie leichter Elemente mit Subnanometer-Tiefenaufloesung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosmata, Marcel

    2011-06-30

    heavy ion irradiation. It is shown that the used energies occur both electronic sputtering and electronically induced interface mixing. Electronic sputtering is minimised by using optimised beam parameters. For most samples the effect is below the detection limit for a fluence sufficient for the analysis. However, the influence of interface mixing is so strong that it has to be included in the analysis of the layers of the depth profiles. It is concluded from these studies that at the Rossendorf 5 MV tandem accelerator chlorine ions with an energy of 20 MeV deliver the best results. In some cases, such as the analysis of boron, the energy must be reduced to 6.5 MeV in order to retain the electronic sputtering below the detection limit. The fourth focus is the study of the influence of specific sample properties, such as surface roughness, on the shape of a measured energy spectra and respectively on the analysed depth profile. It is shown that knowledge of the roughness of a sample at the surface and at the interfaces for the analysis is needed. In addition, the contribution parameters limiting the depth resolution are calculated and compared with the conventional ion beam analysis. Finally, a comparison is made between the highresolution ion beam analysis and complementary methods published by other research groups. The fifth and last focus is the analysis of light elements in ultra thin layers. All models presented in this thesis to reduce the influence of beam damage are taken into account. The dynamic non-equilibrium charge state is also included for the quantification of elements. Depth profiling of multilayer systems is demonstrated for systems consisting of SiO{sub 2}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}O{sub x}-SiO{sub 2} on silicon, boron implantation profiles for ultra shallow junctions and ultra thin oxide layers, such as used as high-k materials.

  9. Computed tomography for dimensional metrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruth, J.P.; Bartscher, M.; Carmignato, S.

    2011-01-01

    metrology, putting emphasis on issues as accuracy, traceability to the unit of length (the meter) and measurement uncertainty. It provides a state of the art (anno 2011) and application examples, showing the aptitude of CT metrology to: (i) check internal dimensions that cannot be measured using traditional...

  10. Metrology's role in quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeederberg, L.B.

    1982-01-01

    Metrology, the science of measurement, is playing an increasing role in modern industry as part of an on-going quality assurance programme. At Escom, quality assurance was critical during the construction of the Koeberg nuclear facility, and also a function in controlling services provided by Escom. This article deals with the role metrology plays in quality assurance

  11. Metrology for ITER Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogusch, E.

    2006-01-01

    The overall dimensions of the ITER Tokamak and the particular assembly sequence preclude the use of conventional optical metrology, mechanical jigs and traditional dimensional control equipment, as used for the assembly of smaller, previous generation, fusion devices. This paper describes the state of the art of the capabilities of available metrology systems, with reference to the previous experience in Fusion engineering and in other industries. Two complementary procedures of transferring datum from the primary datum network on the bioshield to the secondary datum s inside the VV with the desired accuracy of about 0.1 mm is described, one method using the access directly through the ports and the other using transfer techniques, developed during the co-operation with ITER/EFDA. Another important task described is the development of a method for the rapid and easy measurement of the gaps between sectors, required for the production of the customised splice plates between them. The scope of the paper includes the evaluation of the composition and cost of the systems and team of technical staff required to meet the requirements of the assembly procedure. The results from a practical, full-scale demonstration of the methodologies used, using the proposed equipment, is described. This work has demonstrated the feasibility of achieving the necessary accuracies for the successful building of ITER. (author)

  12. Gloss evaluation from soft and hard metrologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zihao; Xu, Lihao; Hu, Yu; Mirjalili, Fereshteh; Luo, Ming Ronnier

    2017-09-01

    Recent advances in bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) acquisitions have provided a novel approach for appearance measurement and analysis. In particular, since gloss appearance is dependent on the directional reflective properties of surfaces, it is reasonable to leverage the BRDF for gloss evaluation. In this paper, we investigate gloss appearance from both soft metrology and hard metrology. A psychophysical experiment was conducted for the gloss assessment of 47 neutral-color samples. In the evaluation of gloss perception from gloss meter measurements, we report several ambiguous correspondences in the medium gloss range. In order to analyze and explain this phenomenon, the BRDF was acquired and examined using a commercial BRDF measuring device. With an improved correlation-to-visual perception, we propose a two-dimensional gloss model by combining a parameter, the standard deviation of the specular lobe, from Ward's BRDF model with measured gloss values.

  13. Color and appearance metrology facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NIST Physical Measurement Laboratory has established the color and appearance metrology facility to support calibration services for 0°/45° colored samples, 20°,...

  14. A Roadmap for Thermal Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojkovski, J.; Fischer, J.; Machin, G.; Pavese, F.; Peruzzi, A.; Renaot, E.; Tegeler, E.

    2009-02-01

    A provisional roadmap for thermal metrology was developed in Spring 2006 as part of the EUROMET iMERA activity toward increasing impact from national investment in European metrology R&D. This consisted of two parts: one addressing the influence of thermal metrology on society, industry, and science, and the other specifying the requirements of enabling thermal metrology to serve future needs. The roadmap represents the shared vision of the EUROMET TC Therm committee as to how thermal metrology should develop to meet future requirements over the next 15 years. It is important to stress that these documents are a first attempt to roadmap the whole of thermal metrology and will certainly need regular review and revision to remain relevant and useful to the community they seek to serve. The first part of the roadmap, “Thermal metrology for society, industry, and science,” identifies the main social and economic triggers driving developments in thermal metrology—notably citizen safety and security, new production technologies, environment and global climate change, energy, and health. Stemming from these triggers, key targets are identified that require improved thermal measurements. The second part of the roadmap, “Enabling thermal metrology to serve future needs” identifies another set of triggers, like global trade and interoperability, future needs in transport, and the earth radiation budget. Stemming from these triggers, key targets are identified, such as improved realizations and dissemination of the SI unit the kelvin, anchoring the kelvin to the Boltzmann constant, k B, and calculating thermal properties from first principles. To facilitate these outcomes, the roadmap identifies the technical advances required in thermal measurement standards.

  15. CD-SEM real time bias correction using reference metrology based modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukraintsev, V.; Banke, W.; Zagorodnev, G.; Archie, C.; Rana, N.; Pavlovsky, V.; Smirnov, V.; Briginas, I.; Katnani, A.; Vaid, A.

    2018-03-01

    Accuracy of patterning impacts yield, IC performance and technology time to market. Accuracy of patterning relies on optical proximity correction (OPC) models built using CD-SEM inputs and intra die critical dimension (CD) control based on CD-SEM. Sub-nanometer measurement uncertainty (MU) of CD-SEM is required for current technologies. Reported design and process related bias variation of CD-SEM is in the range of several nanometers. Reference metrology and numerical modeling are used to correct SEM. Both methods are slow to be used for real time bias correction. We report on real time CD-SEM bias correction using empirical models based on reference metrology (RM) data. Significant amount of currently untapped information (sidewall angle, corner rounding, etc.) is obtainable from SEM waveforms. Using additional RM information provided for specific technology (design rules, materials, processes) CD extraction algorithms can be pre-built and then used in real time for accurate CD extraction from regular CD-SEM images. The art and challenge of SEM modeling is in finding robust correlation between SEM waveform features and bias of CD-SEM as well as in minimizing RM inputs needed to create accurate (within the design and process space) model. The new approach was applied to improve CD-SEM accuracy of 45 nm GATE and 32 nm MET1 OPC 1D models. In both cases MU of the state of the art CD-SEM has been improved by 3x and reduced to a nanometer level. Similar approach can be applied to 2D (end of line, contours, etc.) and 3D (sidewall angle, corner rounding, etc.) cases.

  16. Enhanced resolution and accuracy of freeform metrology through Subaperture Stitching Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supranowitz, Chris; Maloney, Chris; Murphy, Paul; Dumas, Paul

    2017-10-01

    Recent advances in polishing and metrology have addressed many of the challenges in the fabrication and metrology of freeform surfaces, and the manufacture of these surfaces is possible today. However, achieving the form and mid-spatial frequency (MSF) specifications that are typical of visible imaging systems remains a challenge. Interferometric metrology for freeform surfaces is thus highly desirable for such applications, but the capability is currently quite limited for freeforms. In this paper, we provide preliminary results that demonstrate accurate, high-resolution measurements of freeform surfaces using prototype software on QED's ASI™ (Aspheric Stitching Interferometer).

  17. Economic benefits of metrology in manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savio, Enrico; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Carmignato, S.

    2016-01-01

    examples from industrial production, in which the added value of metrology in manufacturing is discussed and quantified. Case studies include: general manufacturing, forging, machining, and related metrology. The focus of the paper is on the improved effectiveness of metrology when used at product...... and process design stages, as well as on the improved accuracy and efficiency of manufacturing through better measuring equipment and process chains with integrated metrology for process control.......In streamlined manufacturing systems, the added value of inspection activities is often questioned, and metrology in particular is sometimes considered only as an avoidable expense. Documented quantification of economic benefits of metrology is generally not available. This work presents concrete...

  18. Frequency Standards and Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Lute

    2009-04-01

    Preface / Lute Maleki -- Symposium history / Jacques Vanier -- Symposium photos -- pt. I. Fundamental physics. Variation of fundamental constants from the big bang to atomic clocks: theory and observations (Invited) / V. V. Flambaum and J. C. Berengut. Alpha-dot or not: comparison of two single atom optical clocks (Invited) / T. Rosenband ... [et al.]. Variation of the fine-structure constant and laser cooling of atomic dysprosium (Invited) / N. A. Leefer ... [et al.]. Measurement of short range forces using cold atoms (Invited) / F. Pereira Dos Santos ... [et al.]. Atom interferometry experiments in fundamental physics (Invited) / S. W. Chiow ... [et al.]. Space science applications of frequency standards and metrology (Invited) / M. Tinto -- pt. II. Frequency & metrology. Quantum metrology with lattice-confined ultracold Sr atoms (Invited) / A. D. Ludlow ... [et al.]. LNE-SYRTE clock ensemble: new [symbol]Rb hyperfine frequency measurement - spectroscopy of [symbol]Hg optical clock transition (Invited) / M. Petersen ... [et al.]. Precise measurements of S-wave scattering phase shifts with a juggling atomic clock (Invited) / S. Gensemer ... [et al.]. Absolute frequency measurement of the [symbol] clock transition (Invited) / M. Chwalla ... [et al.]. The semiclassical stochastic-field/atom interaction problem (Invited) / J. Camparo. Phase and frequency noise metrology (Invited) / E. Rubiola ... [et al.]. Optical spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen for an improved determination of the Rydberg constant / J. L. Flowers ... [et al.] -- pt. III. Clock applications in space. Recent progress on the ACES mission (Invited) / L. Cacciapuoti and C. Salomon. The SAGAS mission (Invited) / P. Wolf. Small mercury microwave ion clock for navigation and radioScience (Invited) / J. D. Prestage ... [et al.]. Astro-comb: revolutionizing precision spectroscopy in astrophysics (Invited) / C. E. Kramer ... [et al.]. High frequency very long baseline interferometry: frequency standards and

  19. Metrology of reflection optics for synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takacs, P.Z.

    1985-09-01

    Recent years have seen an almost explosive growth in the number of beam lines on new and existing synchrotron radiation facilities throughout the world. The need for optical components to utilize the unique characteristics of synchrotron radiation has increased accordingly. Unfortunately, the technology to manufacture and measure the large, smooth, exotic optical surfaces required to focus and steer the synchrotron radiation beam has not progressed as rapidly as the operational demands on these components. Most companies do not wish to become involved with a project that requires producing a single, very expensive, aspheric optic with surface roughness and figure tolerances that are beyond their capabilities to measure. This paper will review some of the experiences of the National Synchrotron Light Source in procuring grazing incidence optical components over the past several years. We will review the specification process - how it is related to the function of the optic, and how it relates to the metrology available during the manufacturing process and after delivery to the user's laboratory. We will also discuss practical aspects of our experience with new technologies, such as single point diamond turning of metal mirrors and the use of SiC as a mirror material. Recent advances in metrology instrumentation have the potential to move the measurement of surface figure and finish from the research laboratory into the optical shop, which should stimulate growth and interest in the manufacturing of optics to meet the needs of the synchrotron radiation user community

  20. Critical issues in overlay metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, Neal T.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, following an overview of overlay metrology, the difficult relationship of overlay with device performance and yield is discussed and supported with several examples. This is followed by a discussion of the impending collision of metrology equipment performance and 'real' process tolerances for sub 0.18 um technologies. This convergence of tolerance and performance is demonstrated to lead to the current emergence of real-time overlay modeling in a feed-forward/feedback process environment and the associated metrology/sampling implications. This modeling takes advantage of the wealth of understanding concerning the systematic behavior of overlay registration errors. Finally, the impact of new process technologies (RET, OAI, CPSM, CMP, and etc.) on the measurement target is discussed and shown to de-stabilize overlay performance on standard overlay measurement target designs

  1. Dimensional micro and nano metrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; da Costa Carneiro, Kim; Haitjema, Han

    2006-01-01

    The need for dimensional micro and nano metrology is evident, and as critical dimensions are scaled down and geometrical complexity of objects is increased, the available technologies appear not sufficient. Major research and development efforts have to be undertaken in order to answer these chal......The need for dimensional micro and nano metrology is evident, and as critical dimensions are scaled down and geometrical complexity of objects is increased, the available technologies appear not sufficient. Major research and development efforts have to be undertaken in order to answer...... these challenges. The developments have to include new measuring principles and instrumentation, tolerancing rules and procedures as well as traceability and calibration. The current paper describes issues and challenges in dimensional micro and nano metrology by reviewing typical measurement tasks and available...

  2. Metrological Reliability of Medical Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Monteiro, E.; Leon, L. F.

    2015-02-01

    The prominent development of health technologies of the 20th century triggered demands for metrological reliability of physiological measurements comprising physical, chemical and biological quantities, essential to ensure accurate and comparable results of clinical measurements. In the present work, aspects concerning metrological reliability in premarket and postmarket assessments of medical devices are discussed, pointing out challenges to be overcome. In addition, considering the social relevance of the biomeasurements results, Biometrological Principles to be pursued by research and innovation aimed at biomedical applications are proposed, along with the analysis of their contributions to guarantee the innovative health technologies compliance with the main ethical pillars of Bioethics.

  3. Celtiberian metrology and its romanization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard A. CURCHIN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Celtiberian metrology has scarcely been investigated until now, with the exception of coin weights. On the basis of measurements of pre-Roman mud bricks, a Celtiberian foot of 24 cm is proposed. With regard to weights, we can accept a module of 9 g for silver jewelry and some bronze coins; however, loom weights do not conform to any metrological system. Over time, Roman measures of length (as indicated by the dimensions of bricks, tiles and architectural monuments and weight were adopted.

  4. Metrological issues in molecular radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Arienzo, Marco; Capogni, Marco; Smyth, Vere; Cox, Maurice; Johansson, Lena; Bobin, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The therapeutic effect from molecular radiation therapy (MRT), on both tumour and normal tissue, is determined by the radiation absorbed dose. Recent research indicates that as a consequence of biological variation across patients the absorbed dose can vary, for the same administered activity, by as much as two orders of magnitude. The international collaborative EURAMET-EMRP project Metrology for molecular radiotherapy (MetroMRT) is addressing this problem. The overall aim of the project is to develop methods of calibrating and verifying clinical dosimetry in MRT. In the present paper an overview of the metrological issues in molecular radiotherapy is provided. (authors)

  5. Metrology/viewing system for next generation fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spampinato, P.T.; Barry, R.E.; Chesser, J.B.; Menon, M.M.; Dagher, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Next generation fusion reactors require accurate measuring systems to verify sub-millimeter alignment of plasma-facing components in the reactor vessel. A metrology system capable of achieving such accuracy must be compatible with the vessel environment of high gamma radiation, high vacuum, elevated temperature, and magnetic field. This environment requires that the system must be remotely deployed. A coherent, frequency modulated laser radar system is being integrated with a remotely operated deployment system to meet these requirements. The metrology/viewing system consists of a compact laser transceiver optics module which is linked through fiber optics to the laser source and imaging units that are located outside of the harsh environment. The deployment mechanism is a telescopic-mast positioning system. This paper identifies the requirements for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor metrology and viewing system, and describes a remotely operated precision ranging and surface mapping system

  6. Metrological large range scanning probe microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Gaoliang; Pohlenz, Frank; Danzebrink, Hans-Ulrich; Xu Min; Hasche, Klaus; Wilkening, Guenter

    2004-01-01

    We describe a metrological large range scanning probe microscope (LR-SPM) with an Abbe error free design and direct interferometric position measurement capability, aimed at versatile traceable topographic measurements that require nanometer accuracy. A dual-stage positioning system was designed to achieve both a large measurement range and a high measurement speed. This dual-stage system consists of a commercially available stage, referred to as nanomeasuring machine (NMM), with a motion range of 25 mmx25 mmx5 mm along x, y, and z axes, and a compact z-axis piezoelectric positioning stage (compact z stage) with an extension range of 2 μm. The metrological LR-SPM described here senses the surface using a stationary fixed scanning force microscope (SFM) head working in contact mode. During operation, lateral scanning of the sample is performed solely by the NMM. Whereas the z motion, controlled by the SFM signal, is carried out by a combination of the NMM and the compact z stage. In this case the compact z stage, with its high mechanical resonance frequency (greater than 20 kHz), is responsible for the rapid motion while the NMM simultaneously makes slower movements over a larger motion range. To reduce the Abbe offset to a minimum the SFM tip is located at the intersection of three interferometer measurement beams orientated in x, y, and z directions. To improve real time performance two high-end digital signal processing (DSP) systems are used for NMM positioning and SFM servocontrol. Comprehensive DSP firmware and Windows XP-based software are implemented, providing a flexible and user-friendly interface. The instrument is able to perform large area imaging or profile scanning directly without stitching small scanned images. Several measurements on different samples such as flatness standards, nanostep height standards, roughness standards as well as sharp nanoedge samples and 1D gratings demonstrate the outstanding metrological capabilities of the instrument

  7. Neutron metrology in the HFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraakman, R.; Voorbraak, W.P.

    1993-04-01

    Additional to the in-core EXOTIC experiments, six irradiations of ceramic material, R212-001 to R212-006, have been performed in the PSF of the HFR. This note presents the neutron metrology results for these irradiations. (orig.)

  8. Metrology and ionospheric observation standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panshin, Evgeniy; Minligareev, Vladimir; Pronin, Anton

    Accuracy and ionospheric observation validity are urgent trends nowadays. WMO, URSI and national metrological and standardisation services bring forward requirements and descriptions of the ionospheric observation means. Researches in the sphere of metrological and standardisation observation moved to the next level in the Russian Federation. Fedorov Institute of Applied Geophysics (IAG) is in charge of ionospheric observation in the Russian Federation and the National Technical Committee, TC-101 , which was set up on the base of IAG- of the standardisation in the sphere. TC-101 can be the platform for initiation of the core international committee in the network of ISO The new type of the ionosounde “Parus-A” is engineered, which is up to the national requirements. “Parus-A” calibration and test were conducted by National metrological Institute (NMI) -D.I. Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology (VNIIM), signed CIMP MRA in 1991. VNIIM is a basic NMI in the sphere of Space weather (including ionospheric observations), the founder of which was celebrated chemist and metrologist Dmitriy I. Mendeleyev. Tests and calibration were carried out for the 1st time throughout 50-year-history of ionosonde exploitation in Russia. The following metrological characteristics were tested: -measurement range of radiofrequency time delay 0.5-10 ms; -time measurement inaccuracy of radio- frequency pulse ±12mcs; -frequency range of radio impulse 1-20 MHz ; -measurement inaccuracy of radio impulse carrier frequency± 5KHz. For example, the sound impulse simulator that was built-in in the ionosounde was used for measurement range of radiofrequency time delay testing. The number of standards on different levels is developed. - “Ionospheric observation guidance”; - “The Earth ionosphere. Terms and definitions”.

  9. At-wavelength Optical Metrology Development at the ALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Sheng Sam; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Celestre, Richard; Mochi, Iacopo; Macdougall, James; Morrison, Gregory Y.; Smith, Brian V.; Domning, Edward E.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Warwick, Tony

    2010-01-01

    Nano-focusing and brightness preservation for ever brighter synchrotron radiation and free electron laser beamlines require surface slope tolerances of x-ray optics on the order of 100 nrad. While the accuracy of fabrication and ex situ metrology of x-ray mirrors has improved over time, beamline in situ performance of the optics is often limited by application specific factors such as x-ray beam heat loading, temperature drift, alignment, vibration, etc. In the present work, we discuss the recent results from the Advanced Light Source developing high accuracy, in situ, at-wavelength wavefront measurement techniques to surpass 100-nrad accuracy surface slope measurements with reflecting x-ray optics. The techniques will ultimately allow closed-loop feedback systems to be implemented for x-ray nano-focusing. In addition, we present a dedicated metrology beamline endstation, applicable to a wide range of in situ metrology and test experiments. The design and performance of a bendable Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirror with active temperature stabilization will also be presented. The mirror is currently used to study, refine, and optimize in situ mirror alignment, bending and metrology methods essential for nano-focusing application.

  10. SAQP pitch walk metrology using single target metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fang; Herrera, Pedro; Kagalwala, Taher; Camp, Janay; Vaid, Alok; Pandev, Stilian; Zach, Franz

    2017-03-01

    Self-aligned quadruple patterning (SAQP) processes have found widespread acceptance in advanced technology nodes to drive device scaling beyond the resolution limitations of immersion scanners. Of the four spaces generated in this process from one lithography pattern two tend to be equivalent as they are derived from the first spacer deposition. The three independent spaces are commonly labelled as α, β and γ. α, β and γ are controlled by multiple process steps including the initial lithographic patterning process, the two mandrel and spacer etches as well as the two spacer depositions. Scatterometry has been the preferred metrology approach, however is restricted to repetitive arrays. In these arrays independent measurements, in particular of alpha and gamma, are not possible due to degeneracy of the standard array targets. . In this work we present a single target approach which lifts the degeneracies commonly encountered while using product relevant layout geometries. We will first describe the metrology approach which includes the previously described SRM (signal response metrology) combined with reference data derived from CD SEM data. The performance of the methodology is shown in figures 1-3. In these figures the optically determined values for alpha, beta and gamma are compared to the CD SEM reference data. The variations are achieved using controlled process experiments varying Mandrel CD and Spacer deposition thicknesses.

  11. AWRE (nonconventional) metrology scene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, F.L.

    1978-01-01

    Progress at AWRE in the adaptation of optical interferometry to contour and thickness measurement arising with two-dimensional shell and metal mirror parts is described. The primary aim is to outline various inspection problems encountered with use of rotary contour gauges in order to illustrate reasons for the direction of development and to invite comment on proposed solutions. Surface finish of machined parts is seen as a linked problem bearing directly on determination accuracy and repeatability of measurement. A clearer understanding of surface topography and its measurement is being sought as a necessary adjunct to precision inspection of conventional parts and to guide tooling development in mirror manufacture

  12. Comparison of metrological techniques for evaluation of the impact of a cosmetic product containing hyaluronic acid on the properties of skin surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiš, Rahula; Pata, Vladimír; Egner, Pavlína; Pavlačková, Jana; Zapletalová, Andrea; Kejlová, Kristina

    2017-06-14

    The aim of this research was to evaluate mutual interchangeability of four principally different biometric instrumental techniques designed for objective measurement of changes in the physical, mechanical, and topographical properties of the skin surface treated with commercial antiaging cosmetic products with hyaluronic acid. The following instrumental devices were used: Visioscope PC 35, Corneometer Multiprobe Adapter MPA 6, Reviscometer RVM 600, and 3D scanner Talysurf CLI 500. The comparison of the individual methods was performed using cluster analysis. The study involved 25 female volunteers aged 40-65. Measurements were taken before and after 30 daily in vivo applications of an antiaging preparation to the skin surface in the periorbital area. A slight reduction in skin surface roughness was recorded in 55% of the volunteers. On the contrary, a worsening from their initial states was detected in 25% of the subjects, while for 20%, no significant change was reported. Cluster analysis confirmed that the mentioned methodologies can be divided into two basic clusters, namely, a cluster of methods recording the changes in skin relief by means of optical techniques, and a cluster of methods investigating changes in hydration and anisotropy. In practice, the techniques in different clusters are not interchangeable and should be assessed separately.

  13. TSOM method for semiconductor metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attota, Ravikiran; Dixson, Ronald G.; Kramar, John A.; Potzick, James E.; Vladár, András E.; Bunday, Benjamin; Novak, Erik; Rudack, Andrew

    2011-03-01

    Through-focus scanning optical microscopy (TSOM) is a new metrology method that achieves 3D nanoscale measurement sensitivity using conventional optical microscopes; measurement sensitivities are comparable to what is typical when using scatterometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). TSOM can be used in both reflection and transmission modes and is applicable to a variety of target materials and shapes. Nanometrology applications that have been demonstrated by experiments or simulations include defect analysis, inspection and process control; critical dimension, photomask, overlay, nanoparticle, thin film, and 3D interconnect metrologies; line-edge roughness measurements; and nanoscale movements of parts in MEMS/NEMS. Industries that could benefit include semiconductor, data storage, photonics, biotechnology, and nanomanufacturing. TSOM is relatively simple and inexpensive, has a high throughput, and provides nanoscale sensitivity for 3D measurements with potentially significant savings and yield improvements in manufacturing.

  14. Metrology and quality control handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, D.

    1983-01-01

    This book tries to present the fundamentals of metrology and quality control in brief surveys. Compromises had to be made in order to reduce the material available to a sensible volume for the sake of clarity. This becomes evident by the following two restrictions which had to made: First, in dealing with the theoretical principles of metrology and quality control, mere reference had to be made in many cases to the great variety of special literature without discussing it to explain further details. Second, in dealing with the application of metrology and quality control techniques in practice, only the basic qantities of the International System of Units (SI) could be taken into account as a rule. Some readers will note that many special measuring methods and equipment known to them are not included in this book. I do hope, however, that this short-coming will show to have a positive effect, too. This book will show the reader how to find the basic quantities and units from the derived quantities and units, and the steps that are necessary to solve any kind of measuring task. (orig./RW) [de

  15. Metrology at Philip Morris Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gualandris R

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the metrology function at Philip Morris Europe (PME, a multinational organisation producing at over 40 sites in the European, Middle Eastern and African Regions is presented. Standardisation of test methods and equipment as well as the traceability of calibration gauges to the same reference gauge are essential in order to obtain comparable results among the various production centers. The metrology function as well as the qualification of instruments and the drafting of test and calibration operating procedures for this region are conducted or co-ordinated by the Research and Development Department in Neuchatel, Switzerland. In this paper the metrology function within PME is presented based on the measurement of the resistance to draw for which the PME R&D laboratory is accredited (ISO/CEI 17025, as both a calibration and a testing laboratory. The following topics are addressed in this paper: traceability of calibration standards to national standards; comparison of results among manufacturing centres; the choice, the budget as well as the computation of uncertainties. Furthermore, some practical aspects related to the calibration and use of the glass multicapillary gauges are discussed.

  16. Flexible resources for quantum metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis, Nicolai; Orsucci, Davide; Skotiniotis, Michalis; Sekatski, Pavel; Dunjko, Vedran; Briegel, Hans J.; Dür, Wolfgang

    2017-06-01

    Quantum metrology offers a quadratic advantage over classical approaches to parameter estimation problems by utilising entanglement and nonclassicality. However, the hurdle of actually implementing the necessary quantum probe states and measurements, which vary drastically for different metrological scenarios, is usually not taken into account. We show that for a wide range of tasks in metrology, 2D cluster states (a particular family of states useful for measurement-based quantum computation) can serve as flexible resources that allow one to efficiently prepare any required state for sensing, and perform appropriate (entangled) measurements using only single qubit operations. Crucially, the overhead in the number of qubits is less than quadratic, thus preserving the quantum scaling advantage. This is ensured by using a compression to a logarithmically sized space that contains all relevant information for sensing. We specifically demonstrate how our method can be used to obtain optimal scaling for phase and frequency estimation in local estimation problems, as well as for the Bayesian equivalents with Gaussian priors of varying widths. Furthermore, we show that in the paradigmatic case of local phase estimation 1D cluster states are sufficient for optimal state preparation and measurement.

  17. Flexible resources for quantum metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friis, Nicolai; Orsucci, Davide; Skotiniotis, Michalis; Sekatski, Pavel; Dunjko, Vedran; Briegel, Hans J; Dür, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Quantum metrology offers a quadratic advantage over classical approaches to parameter estimation problems by utilising entanglement and nonclassicality. However, the hurdle of actually implementing the necessary quantum probe states and measurements, which vary drastically for different metrological scenarios, is usually not taken into account. We show that for a wide range of tasks in metrology, 2D cluster states (a particular family of states useful for measurement-based quantum computation) can serve as flexible resources that allow one to efficiently prepare any required state for sensing, and perform appropriate (entangled) measurements using only single qubit operations. Crucially, the overhead in the number of qubits is less than quadratic, thus preserving the quantum scaling advantage. This is ensured by using a compression to a logarithmically sized space that contains all relevant information for sensing. We specifically demonstrate how our method can be used to obtain optimal scaling for phase and frequency estimation in local estimation problems, as well as for the Bayesian equivalents with Gaussian priors of varying widths. Furthermore, we show that in the paradigmatic case of local phase estimation 1D cluster states are sufficient for optimal state preparation and measurement. (paper)

  18. Interferometer scanning mechanisms and metrology at ABB: recent developments and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandmont, Frédéric; Buijs, Henry; Mandar, Julie

    2017-11-01

    Interferometers are devices meant to create an interference pattern between photons emitted from a given target of interest. In most cases, this interference pattern must be scanned over time or space to reveal useful information about the target (ex.: radiance spectra or a star diameter). This scanning is typically achieved by moving mirrors at a precision a few orders of magnitude smaller than the wavelength under study. This sometimes leads to mechanism requirements of especially high dynamic range equivalent to 30 bits or more (ex. Sub-nanometer precision over stoke of tens of cms for spectroscopy or tens of meters for astronomical spatial interferometry). On top of this mechanical challenge, the servo control of the mirror position involves obtaining relative distance measurement between distant optical elements with similar if not better dynamic range. The feedback information for such servo-control loop is usually the optical path difference (OPD) measured with a metrology laser beam injected in the interferometer. Over the years since the establishement of the Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FTS) in the 60's as a standard spectroscopic tools, many different approaches have been used to accomplish this task. When it comes to space however, not all approaches are successful. The design challenge can be viewed as analogous to that of scene scanning modules with the exception that the sensitivity and precision are much finer. These mechanisms must move freely to allow fine corrections while remaining stiff to reject external perturbations with frequencies outside of the servo control system reach. Space also brings the additional challenges of implementing as much redundancy as possible and offering protection during launch for these sub-systems viewed as critical single point failures of the payloads they serve.

  19. Improving Metrological Reliability of Information-Measuring Systems Using Mathematical Modeling of Their Metrological Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnosov, R. Yu; Chernyshova, T. I.; Chernyshov, V. N.

    2018-05-01

    The algorithms for improving the metrological reliability of analogue blocks of measuring channels and information-measuring systems are developed. The proposed algorithms ensure the optimum values of their metrological reliability indices for a given analogue circuit block solution.

  20. Three-lambda metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfoertner, Andreas; Schwider, Johannes

    2002-06-01

    The state-of-the-art technique for measuring discontinuous surface profiles, e.g. diffractive optical elements (DOE) is white-light interferometry. Compared to single wavelength phase-shifting interferometry conventional white-light-interferometry is rather slow, because the number of frames to be evaluated is about ten times greater than in phase-shifting-interferometry. Therefore white-light-interferometry needs more memory capacity and computer time. Single wavelength phase-shifting interferometry cannot be used for the mentioned task since the order of the interference fringes cannot be determined. But if three wavelengths, e.g. a red, a green, and a blue one are used which preferably have no common factor it is possible to determine the interference order of the fringes or the absolute optical path difference (OPD) of the interferometer. The interference patterns are simultaneously recorded by a color CCD-camera having 3 separate chips. The OPD is calculated for each pixel from the three phase values mod 2π . The algorithms used and experimental results will be presented.

  1. A new approach to stitching optical metrology data

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Christopher W.

    The next generation of optical instruments, including telescopes and imaging apparatus, will generate an increased requirement for larger and more complex optical forms. A major limiting factor for the production of such optical components is the metrology: how do we measure such parts and with respect to what reference datum This metrology can be thought of as part of a complete cycle in the production of optical components and it is currently the most challenging aspect of production. This thesis investigates a new and complete approach to stitching optical metrology data to extend the effective aperture or, in future, the dynamic range of optical metrology instruments. A practical approach is used to build up a complete process for stitching on piano and spherical parts. The work forms a basis upon which a stitching system for aspheres might be developed in the future, which is inherently more complicated. Beginning with a historical perspective and a review of optical polishing and metrology, the work presented relates the commercially available metrology instruments to the stitching process developed. The stitching is then performed by a numerical optimization routine that seeks to join together overlapping sub-aperture measurements by consideration of the aberrations introduced by the measurement scenario, and by the overlap areas between measurements. The stitching is part of a larger project, the PPARC Optical Manipulation and Metrology project, and was to benefit from new wavefront sensing technology developed by a project partner, and to be used for the sub-aperture measurement. Difficult mathematical problems meant that such a wavefront sensor was not avail able for this work and a work-around was therefore developed using commercial instruments. The techniques developed can be adapted to work on commercial ma chine platforms, and in partuicular, the OMAM NPL/UCL swing-arm profilometer described in chapter 5, or the computer controlled polishing machines

  2. Tools intented to nuclear metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munayco Tasayco, A.F.

    1980-08-01

    The study undertaken in the metrological laboratory of the C.E.N. Saclay Electronics Services is intended to improve the measurement methods in two fields concerning nuclear instrumentation: the current's measurement in the range 1pA to 0,01 pA and the study of a measurement's system for the linear circuits used in spectrometer gamma ray with semiconductor. Two systems are now working. Its permit an improvement of precision measurement, an automation of the measurement process and many possibilities in the choice of parameters and the laying-out of results [fr

  3. Primary calibration in acoustics metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milhomem, T A Bacelar; Soares, Z M Defilippo

    2015-01-01

    SI unit in acoustics is realized by the reciprocity calibrations of laboratory standard microphones in pressure field, free field and diffuse field. Calibrations in pressure field and in free field are already consolidated and the Inmetro already done them. Calibration in diffuse field is not yet consolidated, however, some national metrology institutes, including Inmetro, are conducting researches on this subject. This paper presents the reciprocity calibration, the results of Inmetro in recent key comparisons and the research that is being developed for the implementation of reciprocity calibration in diffuse field

  4. Opportunities and Risks in Semiconductor Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, Peter

    2005-09-01

    New metrology opportunities are constantly emerging as the semiconductor industry attempts to meet scaling requirements. The paper summarizes some of the key FEOL and BEOL needs. These must be weighed against a number of considerations to ensure that they are good opportunities for the metrology equipment supplier. The paper discusses some of these considerations.

  5. Laboratorio de Metrología - LABM

    OpenAIRE

    Jaramillo Ch., Zaira J.

    2011-01-01

    esos y transacciones de forma transparente y justa para todas las partes involucradas. Una herramienta necesaria para este propósito es la Metrología, ciencia que es utilizada en el Laboratorio de Metrología (LABM) del Centro Experimenta

  6. Fractal Metrology for biogeosystems analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Torres-Argüelles

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The solid-pore distribution pattern plays an important role in soil functioning being related with the main physical, chemical and biological multiscale and multitemporal processes of this complex system. In the present research, we studied the aggregation process as self-organizing and operating near a critical point. The structural pattern is extracted from the digital images of three soils (Chernozem, Solonetz and "Chocolate" Clay and compared in terms of roughness of the gray-intensity distribution quantified by several measurement techniques. Special attention was paid to the uncertainty of each of them measured in terms of standard deviation. Some of the applied methods are known as classical in the fractal context (box-counting, rescaling-range and wavelets analyses, etc. while the others have been recently developed by our Group. The combination of these techniques, coming from Fractal Geometry, Metrology, Informatics, Probability Theory and Statistics is termed in this paper Fractal Metrology (FM. We show the usefulness of FM for complex systems analysis through a case study of the soil's physical and chemical degradation applying the selected toolbox to describe and compare the structural attributes of three porous media with contrasting structure but similar clay mineralogy dominated by montmorillonites.

  7. 100 Years of radionuclide metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judge, S.M.; Arnold, D.; Chauvenet, B.; Collé, R.; De Felice, P.; García-Toraño, E.; Wätjen, U.

    2014-01-01

    The discipline of radionuclide metrology at national standards institutes started in 1913 with the certification by Curie, Rutherford and Meyer of the first primary standards of radium. In early years, radium was a valuable commodity and the aim of the standards was largely to facilitate trade. The focus later changed to providing standards for the new wide range of radionuclides, so that radioactivity could be used for healthcare and industrial applications while minimising the risk to patients, workers and the environment. National measurement institutes responded to the changing demands by developing new techniques for realising primary standards of radioactivity. Looking ahead, there are likely to be demands for standards for new radionuclides used in nuclear medicine, an expansion of the scope of the field into quantitative imaging to facilitate accurate patient dosimetry for nuclear medicine, and an increasing need for accurate standards for radioactive waste management and nuclear forensics. - Highlights: • The driving forces for the development of radionuclide metrology. • Radium standards to facilitate trade of this valuable commodity in the early years. • After 1950, focus changes to healthcare and industrial applications. • National Measurement Institutes develop new techniques, standards, and disseminate the best practice in measurement. • Challenges in nuclear medicine, radioactive waste management and nuclear forensics

  8. New twist in the optical schematic of surface slope measuring long trace profiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, Sergey M.; Gevorkyan, Gevork S.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Lacey, Ian; Takacs, Peter Z.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.

    2017-09-01

    The advents of fully coherent free electron lasers and diffraction limited synchrotron storage ring sources of x-rays are catalyzing the development of new, ultra-high accuracy metrology methods. To fully exploit the potential of these sources, metrology needs to be capable of determining the figure of an optical element with sub-nanometer height accuracy. Currently, the two most prevalent slope measuring instruments used for characterization of x-ray optics are the auto-collimator based nanometer optical measuring device (NOM) and the long trace profiler (LTP) using pencil beam interferometry (PBI). These devices have been consistently improved upon by the x-ray optics metrology community, but appear to be approaching their metrological limits. Here, we revise the traditional optical schematic of the LTP. We experimentally show that, for the level of accuracy desired for metrology with state-of-the-art x-ray optics, the Dove prism in the LTP reference channel appears to be one of the major sources of instrumental error. Therefore, we suggest returning back to the original PBI LTP schematics with no Dove prism in the reference channel. In this case, the optimal scanning strategies [Yashchuk, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 115101 (2009)] used to suppress the instrumental drift error have to be used to suppress a possible drift error associated with laser beam pointing instability. We experimentally and by numerical simulation demonstrate the usefulness of the suggested approach for measurements with x-ray optics with both face up and face down orientations.

  9. Bayesian estimation methods in metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, M.G.; Forbes, A.B.; Harris, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    In metrology -- the science of measurement -- a measurement result must be accompanied by a statement of its associated uncertainty. The degree of validity of a measurement result is determined by the validity of the uncertainty statement. In recognition of the importance of uncertainty evaluation, the International Standardization Organization in 1995 published the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement and the Guide has been widely adopted. The validity of uncertainty statements is tested in interlaboratory comparisons in which an artefact is measured by a number of laboratories and their measurement results compared. Since the introduction of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement, key comparisons are being undertaken to determine the degree of equivalence of laboratories for particular measurement tasks. In this paper, we discuss the possible development of the Guide to reflect Bayesian approaches and the evaluation of key comparison data using Bayesian estimation methods

  10. Metrology for Fuel Cell Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stocker, Michael [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Stanfield, Eric [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    2015-02-04

    The project was divided into three subprojects. The first subproject is Fuel Cell Manufacturing Variability and Its Impact on Performance. The objective was to determine if flow field channel dimensional variability has an impact on fuel cell performance. The second subproject is Non-contact Sensor Evaluation for Bipolar Plate Manufacturing Process Control and Smart Assembly of Fuel Cell Stacks. The objective was to enable cost reduction in the manufacture of fuel cell plates by providing a rapid non-contact measurement system for in-line process control. The third subproject is Optical Scatterfield Metrology for Online Catalyst Coating Inspection of PEM Soft Goods. The objective was to evaluate the suitability of Optical Scatterfield Microscopy as a viable measurement tool for in situ process control of catalyst coatings.

  11. Neutron metrology in the HFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polle, A.N.; Voorbraak, W.P.

    1991-11-01

    The experiment R-139-416 for testing the stainless steel type 316L(N) has been irradiated in the HFR Petten. This report presents the final metrology results obtained from activation monitors near the CT-specimen (Compact Tension). Data about the helium production as well as the number of displacements per atom are also included. The irradiation conditions for this experiment, carried out in a REFA-170 type capsule in the HFR position H8, are as close as possible to the conditions of the EFR (European Fast Reactor) above-core structures. The main results of the thermal and fast neutron fluence measurements are presented in table 1 and in figure 1. (author). 10 refs.; 2 figs.; 11 tabs

  12. Metrological aspects of enzyme production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerber, T M; Pereira-Meirelles, F V; Dellamora-Ortiz, G M

    2010-01-01

    Enzymes are frequently used in biotechnology to carry out specific biological reactions, either in industrial processes or for the production of bioproducts and drugs. Microbial lipases are an important group of biotechnologically valuable enzymes that present widely diversified applications. Lipase production by microorganisms is described in several published papers; however, none of them refer to metrological evaluation and the estimation of the uncertainty in measurement. Moreover, few of them refer to process optimization through experimental design. The objectives of this work were to enhance lipase production in shaken-flasks with Yarrowia lipolytica cells employing experimental design and to evaluate the uncertainty in measurement of lipase activity. The highest lipolytic activity obtained was about three- and fivefold higher than the reported activities of CRMs BCR-693 and BCR-694, respectively. Lipase production by Y. lipolytica cells aiming the classification as certified reference material is recommended after further purification and stability studies

  13. Context-based virtual metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersbach, Peter; Urbanowicz, Adam M.; Likhachev, Dmitriy; Hartig, Carsten; Shifrin, Michael

    2018-03-01

    Hybrid and data feed forward methodologies are well established for advanced optical process control solutions in highvolume semiconductor manufacturing. Appropriate information from previous measurements, transferred into advanced optical model(s) at following step(s), provides enhanced accuracy and exactness of the measured topographic (thicknesses, critical dimensions, etc.) and material parameters. In some cases, hybrid or feed-forward data are missed or invalid for dies or for a whole wafer. We focus on approaches of virtual metrology to re-create hybrid or feed-forward data inputs in high-volume manufacturing. We discuss missing data inputs reconstruction which is based on various interpolation and extrapolation schemes and uses information about wafer's process history. Moreover, we demonstrate data reconstruction approach based on machine learning techniques utilizing optical model and measured spectra. And finally, we investigate metrics that allow one to assess error margin of virtual data input.

  14. National Needs for Appearance Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Maria E.

    2003-04-01

    Appearance greatly influences a customer's judgement of the quality and acceptability of manufactured products, as yearly there is approximately $700 billion worth of shipped goods for which overall appearance is critical to their sale. For example, appearance is reported to be a major factor in about half of automobile purchases. The appearance of an object is the result of a complex interaction of the light field incident upon the object, the scattering and absorption properties of the object, and human perception. The measurable attributes of appearance are divided into color (hue, saturation, and lightness) and geometry (gloss, haze). The nature of the global economy has increased international competition and the need to improve the quality of many manufactured products. Since the manufacturing and marketing of these products is international in scope, the lack of national appearance standard artifacts and measurement protocols results in a direct loss to the supplier. One of the primary missions of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is to strengthen the U.S. economy by working with industry to develop and apply technology, measurements and standards. The NIST Physics Laboratory has established an appearance metrology laboratory. This new laboratory provides calibration services for 0^o/45^o color standards and 20^o°, 60^o°, and 85^o° specular gloss, and research in the colorimetric characterization of gonioapparent including a new Standard Reference Material for metallic coatings (SRM 2017) and measurement protocols for pearlescent coatings. These services are NIST's first appearance metrology efforts in many years; a response to needs articulated by industry. These services are designed to meet demands for improved measurements and standards to enhance the acceptability of final products since appearance often plays a major role in their acceptability.

  15. Metrology in Pharmaceutical Industry - A Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuvamoto, Priscila D.; Fermam, Ricardo K. S.; Nascimento, Elizabeth S.

    2016-01-01

    Metrology is recognized by improving production process, increasing the productivity, giving more reliability to the measurements and consequently, it impacts in the economy of a country. Pharmaceutical area developed GMP (Good Manufacture Practice) requeriments, with no introduction of metrological concepts. However, due to Nanomedicines, it is expected this approach and the consequent positive results. The aim of this work is to verify the level of metrology implementation in a Brazilian pharmaceutical industry, using a case study. The purpose is a better mutual comprehension by both areas, acting together and governmental support to robustness of Brazilian pharmaceutical area. (paper)

  16. Nanoliter-droplet acoustic streaming via ultra high frequency surface acoustic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilton, Richie J; Travagliati, Marco; Beltram, Fabio; Cecchini, Marco

    2014-08-06

    The relevant length scales in sub-nanometer amplitude surface acoustic wave-driven acoustic streaming are demonstrated. We demonstrate the absence of any physical limitations preventing the downscaling of SAW-driven internal streaming to nanoliter microreactors and beyond by extending SAW microfluidics up to operating frequencies in the GHz range. This method is applied to nanoliter scale fluid mixing. © 2014 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Improving automated 3D reconstruction methods via vision metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toschi, Isabella; Nocerino, Erica; Hess, Mona; Menna, Fabio; Sargeant, Ben; MacDonald, Lindsay; Remondino, Fabio; Robson, Stuart

    2015-05-01

    This paper aims to provide a procedure for improving automated 3D reconstruction methods via vision metrology. The 3D reconstruction problem is generally addressed using two different approaches. On the one hand, vision metrology (VM) systems try to accurately derive 3D coordinates of few sparse object points for industrial measurement and inspection applications; on the other, recent dense image matching (DIM) algorithms are designed to produce dense point clouds for surface representations and analyses. This paper strives to demonstrate a step towards narrowing the gap between traditional VM and DIM approaches. Efforts are therefore intended to (i) test the metric performance of the automated photogrammetric 3D reconstruction procedure, (ii) enhance the accuracy of the final results and (iii) obtain statistical indicators of the quality achieved in the orientation step. VM tools are exploited to integrate their main functionalities (centroid measurement, photogrammetric network adjustment, precision assessment, etc.) into the pipeline of 3D dense reconstruction. Finally, geometric analyses and accuracy evaluations are performed on the raw output of the matching (i.e. the point clouds) by adopting a metrological approach. The latter is based on the use of known geometric shapes and quality parameters derived from VDI/VDE guidelines. Tests are carried out by imaging the calibrated Portable Metric Test Object, designed and built at University College London (UCL), UK. It allows assessment of the performance of the image orientation and matching procedures within a typical industrial scenario, characterised by poor texture and known 3D/2D shapes.

  18. The quality of measurements a metrological reference

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, A E

    2012-01-01

    This book provides a detailed discussion and commentary on the fundamentals of metrology. The fundamentals of metrology, the principles underlying the design of the SI International System of units, the theory of measurement error, a new methodology for estimation of measurement accuracy based on uncertainty, and methods for reduction of measured results and estimation of measurement uncertainty are all discussed from a modern point of view. The concept of uncertainty is shown to be consistent with the classical theory of accuracy. The theory of random measurement errors is supplemented by a very general description based on the generalized normal distribution; systematic instrumental error is described in terms of a methodology for normalizing the metrological characteristics of measuring instruments. A new international system for assuring uniformity of measurements based on agreements between national metrological institutes is discussed, in addition to the role and procedure for performance of key compari...

  19. Optical metrology techniques for dimensional stability measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, Jonathan David

    2010-01-01

    This thesis work is optical metrology techniques to determine material stability. In addition to displacement interferometry, topics such as periodic nonlinearity, Fabry-Perot interferometry, refractometry, and laser stabilization are covered.

  20. UPWIND 1A2 Metrology. Final Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eecen, P.J.; Wagenaar, J.W.; Stefanatos, N.

    . Since this problem covers many areas of wind energy, the work package is defined as a crosscutting activity. The objectives of the metrology work package are to develop metrology tools in wind energy to significantly enhance the quality of measurement and testing techniques. The first deliverable...... is a valuable tool for the further assessment and interest has been shown from other work packages, such as Training. This report describes the activities that have been carried out in the Work Package 1A2 Metrology of the UpWind project. Activities from Risø are described in a separate report: T.F. Pedersen...... was to perform a state of the art assessment to identify all relevant measurands. The required accuracies and required sampling frequencies have been identified from the perspective of the users of the data (the other work packages in UpWind). This work led to the definition of the Metrology Database, which...

  1. Impact of the ITRS Metrology Roadmap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diebold, Alain C.

    2001-01-01

    The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) provides the semiconductor industry with the timing of critical technology needs for future generations of integrated circuits. The Metrology roadmap in the ITRS describes the measurement needs based on the process requirements found in the Lithography, Front End Processes, Interconnect, and Packaging Roadmaps. This paper illustrates the impact of the Metrology Roadmap on the development of key measurement technology

  2. Slovak Institute of Metrology. Annual Report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bily, M.

    2002-03-01

    A brief account of activities carried out by the Slovak Institute of Metrology (SMU) in 2001 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) Organisation identification; (2) Mission and medium-term perspectives; (3) Contract with Slovak Office of Standards, Metrology and Testing of the Slovak Republic; (4) SMU activities ; (5) Economic results; (6) Personnel management; (7) Aims and results of their fulfilment; (8) Evaluation and analysis of SMU development in 2001; (9) Main group of outputs users; (10) Conclusion

  3. Objectives and functions of ionizing radiation metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothe, H.

    1981-01-01

    Proceeding from the fundamental objectives of ionizing radiation metrology, the main tasks of metrological research and assurances of accurate measurements in dosimetry and activity determination are summarized. With a view to the technical performance of these tasks the state-of-the-art and the trends in reproduction and dissemination of dosimetric and activity units are outlined. Problems are derived that should be solved within the framework of the CMEA Standing Commissions on Standardization and on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy. (author)

  4. NIF Target Assembly Metrology Methodology and Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alger, E. T. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Kroll, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dzenitis, E. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Montesanti, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hughes, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Swisher, M. [IAP, Livermore, CA (United States); Taylor, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Segraves, K. [IAP, Livermore, CA (United States); Lord, D. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reynolds, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Castro, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Edwards, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    During our inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) we require cryogenic targets at the 1-cm scale to be fabricated, assembled, and metrologized to micron-level tolerances. During assembly of these ICF targets, there are physical dimensmetrology is completed using optical coordinate measurement machines that provide repeatable measurements with micron precision, while also allowing in-process data collection for absolute accuracy in assembly. To date, 51 targets have been assembled and metrologized, and 34 targets have been successfully fielded on NIF relying on these metrology data. In the near future, ignition experiments on NIF will require tighter tolerances and more demanding target assembly and metrology capability. Metrology methods, calculations, and uncertainty estimates will be discussed. Target diagnostic port alignment, target position, and capsule location results will be reviewed for the 2009 Energetics Campaign. The information is presented via control charts showing the effect of process improvements that were made during target production. Certain parameters, including capsule position, met the 2009 campaign specifications but will have much tighter requirements in the future. Finally, in order to meet these new requirements assembly process changes and metrology capability upgrades will be necessary.

  5. Optical vortex metrology: Are phase singularities foes or friends in optical metrology?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takeda, M.; Wang, W.; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2008-01-01

    We raise an issue whether phase singularities are foes or friends in optical metrology, and give an answer by introducing the principle and applications of a new technique which we recently proposed for displacement and flow measurements. The technique is called optical vortex metrology because i...

  6. European Congress on Optics Applied to Metrology /METROP/, 2nd, Strasbourg, France, November 26-30, 1979, Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosmann, M.; Meyrueis, P.

    1980-01-01

    The paper deals with speckle metrology, advances in classical optical metrology and measurement, and holographic metrology. Specific topics include hybrid holographic computer image processing, a speckle method of flow velocity measurement, the measurement of vibratory strains on turbine blades by speckle photography, the use of optical heterodyning and the Doppler effect in laser vibrometers and anemometers, subpicosecond dye lasers for optical metrology, and laser-beam scanning for remote control. Holographic interferometry of brittle materials is discussed, along with a system for the automatic analysis of holographic interferograms, the measurement of surface tension by holographic interferometry, nondestructive testing by means of holographic interferometry, real-time holographic interferometry of heat transfer at the surface of cold solar collectors, and the effective practical use of holography and related technologies in industry

  7. Joint Research on Scatterometry and AFM Wafer Metrology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodermann, B.; Buhr, E.; Danzebrink, H.U.; Bär, M.; Scholze, F.; Krumrey, M.; Wurm, M.; Klapetek, P.; Hansen, P.E.; Korpelainen, V.; Van Veghel, M.; Yacoot, A.; Siitonen, S.; El Gawhary, O.; Burger, S.; Saastamoinen, T.

    2011-01-01

    Supported by the European Commission and EURAMET, a consortium of 10 participants from national metrology institutes, universities and companies has started a joint research project with the aim of overcoming current challenges in optical scatterometry for traceable linewidth metrology. Both

  8. Distributed large-scale dimensional metrology new insights

    CERN Document Server

    Franceschini, Fiorenzo; Maisano, Domenico

    2011-01-01

    Focuses on the latest insights into and challenges of distributed large scale dimensional metrology Enables practitioners to study distributed large scale dimensional metrology independently Includes specific examples of the development of new system prototypes

  9. Speckle-based at-wavelength metrology of x-ray optics at Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongchang; Zhou, Tunhe; Kashyap, Yogesh; Sawhney, Kawal

    2017-08-01

    To achieve high resolution and sensitivity on the nanometer scale, further development of X-ray optics is required. Although ex-situ metrology provides valuable information about X-ray optics, the ultimate performance of X-ray optics is critically dependent on the exact nature of the working conditions. Therefore, it is equally important to perform in-situ metrology at the optics' operating wavelength (`at-wavelength' metrology) to optimize the performance of X-ray optics and correct and minimize the collective distortions of the upstream beamline optics, e.g. monochromator, windows, etc. Speckle-based technique has been implemented and further improved at Diamond Light Source. We have demonstrated that the angular sensitivity for measuring the slope error of an optical surface can reach an accuracy of two nanoradians. The recent development of the speckle-based at-wavelength metrology techniques will be presented. Representative examples of the applications of the speckle-based technique will also be given - including optimization of X-ray mirrors and characterization of compound refraction lenses. Such a high-precision metrology technique will be extremely beneficial for the manufacture and in-situ alignment/optimization of X-ray mirrors for next-generation synchrotron beamlines.

  10. Metrological AFMs and its application for versatile nano-dimensional metrology tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Gaoliang; Dziomba, T.; Pohlenz, F.; Danzebrink, H.-U.; Koenders, L.

    2010-08-01

    Traceable calibrations of various micro and nano measurement devices are crucial tasks for ensuring reliable measurements for micro and nanotechnology. Today metrological AFM are widely used for traceable calibrations of nano dimensional standards. In this paper, we introduced the developments of metrological force microscopes at PTB. Of the three metrological AFMs described here, one is capable of measuring in a volume of 25 mm x 25 mm x 5 mm. All instruments feature interferometers and the three-dimensional position measurements are thus directly traceable to the metre definition. Some calibration examples on, for instance, flatness standards, step height standards, one and two dimensional gratings are demonstrated.

  11. Interoperability: linking design and tolerancing with metrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Edward; Heysiattalab, Saeed; Barnard-Feeney, Allison; Hedberg, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    On October 30, 2014 the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) approved QIF v 2.0 (Quality Information Framework, version 2.0) as an American National Standard. Subsequently in early 2016 QIF version 2.1 was approved. This paper describes how the QIF standard models the information necessary for quality workflow across the full metrology enterprise. After a brief description of the XML 'language' used in the standard, the paper reports on how the standard enables information exchange among four major activities in the metrology enterprise (product definition; measurement planning; measurement execution; and the analysis and reporting of the quality data).

  12. Remote metrology system (RMS) design concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    A 3D remote metrology system (RMS) is needed to map the interior plasma-facing components of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The performance and survival of these components within the reactor vessel are strongly dependent on their precise alignment and positioning with respect to the plasma edge. Without proper positioning and alignment, plasma-facing surfaces will erode rapidly. A RMS design involving Coleman Research Corporation (CRC) fiber optic coherent laser radar (CLR) technology is examined in this study. The fiber optic CLR approach was selected because its high precision should be able to meet the ITER 0.1 mm accuracy requirement and because the CLR's fiber optic implementation allows a 3D scanner to operate remotely from the RMS system's vulnerable components. This design study has largely verified that a fiber optic CLR based RMS can survive the ITER environment and map the ITER interior at the required accuracy at a one measurement/cm 2 density with a total measurement time of less than one hour from each of six or more vertically deployed measurement probes. The design approach employs a sealed and pressurized measurement probe which is attached with an umbilical spiral bellows conduit. This conduit bears fiber optic and electronic links plus a stream of air to lower the temperature in the interior of the probe. Lowering the probe temperature is desirable because probe electromechanical components which could survive the radiation environment often were not rated for the 200 C temperature. The tip of the probe whose outer shell has a flexible bellows joint can swivel in two degrees of freedom to allow mapping operations at each probe deployment level. This design study has concluded that the most successful scanner design will involve a hybrid AO beam deflector and mechanical scanner

  13. Remote metrology system (RMS) design concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-19

    A 3D remote metrology system (RMS) is needed to map the interior plasma-facing components of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The performance and survival of these components within the reactor vessel are strongly dependent on their precise alignment and positioning with respect to the plasma edge. Without proper positioning and alignment, plasma-facing surfaces will erode rapidly. A RMS design involving Coleman Research Corporation (CRC) fiber optic coherent laser radar (CLR) technology is examined in this study. The fiber optic CLR approach was selected because its high precision should be able to meet the ITER 0.1 mm accuracy requirement and because the CLR`s fiber optic implementation allows a 3D scanner to operate remotely from the RMS system`s vulnerable components. This design study has largely verified that a fiber optic CLR based RMS can survive the ITER environment and map the ITER interior at the required accuracy at a one measurement/cm{sup 2} density with a total measurement time of less than one hour from each of six or more vertically deployed measurement probes. The design approach employs a sealed and pressurized measurement probe which is attached with an umbilical spiral bellows conduit. This conduit bears fiber optic and electronic links plus a stream of air to lower the temperature in the interior of the probe. Lowering the probe temperature is desirable because probe electromechanical components which could survive the radiation environment often were not rated for the 200 C temperature. The tip of the probe whose outer shell has a flexible bellows joint can swivel in two degrees of freedom to allow mapping operations at each probe deployment level. This design study has concluded that the most successful scanner design will involve a hybrid AO beam deflector and mechanical scanner.

  14. Remote Metrology, Mapping, and Motion Sensing of Plasma Facing Components Using FM Coherent Laser Radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, M.M.; Barry, R.E.; Slotwinsky, A.; Kugel, H.W.; Skinner, C.H.

    2000-01-01

    Metrology inside a D/T burning fusion reactor must necessarily be conducted remotely since the in-vessel environment would be highly radioactive due to neutron activation of the torus walls. A technique based on frequency modulated coherent laser radar (FM CLR) for such remote metrology is described. Since the FM CLR relies on frequency shift to measure distances, the results are largely insensitive to surface reflectance characteristics. Results of measurements in TFTR and NSTX fusion devices using a prototype FM CLR unit, capable of remotely measuring distances (range) up to 22 m with better than 0.1-mm precision, are provided. These results illustrate that the FM CLR can be used for precision remote metrology as well as viewing. It is also shown that by conducting Doppler corrected range measurements using the CLR, the motion of objects can be tracked. Thus, the FM CLR has the potential to remotely measure the motion of plasma facing components (PFCs) during plasma disruptions

  15. A laser metrology/viewing system for ITER in-vessel inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spampinato, P.T.; Barry, R.E.; Chesser, J.B.; Herndon, J.N.; Menon, M.M.; Slotwinski, A.; Dagher, M.A.; Yuen, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper identifies the requirements for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor metrology and viewing system, and describes a remotely operated precision surface mapping system. A metrology system capable of achieving sub-millimeter accuracy must operate in a reactor vessel that has high gamma radiation, high vacuum, elevated temperature, and magnetic field. A coherent, frequency modulated laser radar system is under development to meet these requirements. The metrology/viewing sensor consists of a compact laser optics module linked through fiber optics to the laser source and imaging units, located outside the harsh environment. The deployment mechanism is a remotely operated telescopic-mast. Gamma irradiation to 10 7 Gy was conducted on critical sensor components at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, with no significant impact to data transmission, and analysis indicates that critical sensor components can operate in a magnetic field with certain design modifications. Plans for testing key components in a magnetic field are underway. (orig.)

  16. Sub-Nanometer Channels Embedded in Two-Dimensional Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Yimo; Li, Ming-yang; Jung, Gang-Seob; Marsalis, Mark A.; Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J.; Li, Lain-Jong; Muller, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials are among the most promising candidates for next-generation electronics due to their atomic thinness, allowing for flexible transparent electronics and ultimate length scaling1. Thus far, atomically-thin p-n junctions2

  17. Sub-nanometer periodic nonlinearity error in absolute distance interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongxing; Huang, Kaiqi; Hu, Pengcheng; Zhu, Pengfei; Tan, Jiubin; Fan, Zhigang

    2015-05-01

    Periodic nonlinearity which can result in error in nanometer scale has become a main problem limiting the absolute distance measurement accuracy. In order to eliminate this error, a new integrated interferometer with non-polarizing beam splitter is developed. This leads to disappearing of the frequency and/or polarization mixing. Furthermore, a strict requirement on the laser source polarization is highly reduced. By combining retro-reflector and angel prism, reference and measuring beams can be spatially separated, and therefore, their optical paths are not overlapped. So, the main cause of the periodic nonlinearity error, i.e., the frequency and/or polarization mixing and leakage of beam, is eliminated. Experimental results indicate that the periodic phase error is kept within 0.0018°.

  18. Metrological traceability of holmium oxide solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, D. E. F.; Gomes, J. F. S.; Alvarenga, A. P. D.; Borges, P. P.; Araujo, T. O.

    2018-03-01

    Holmium oxide solution was prepared as a candidate of certified reference material for spectrophotometer wavelength scale calibration. Here is presented the necessary steps for evaluation of the uncertainty and the establishment of metrological traceability for the production of this material. Preliminary results from the first produced batch are shown.

  19. Metrology Sampling Strategies for Process Monitoring Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Vincent, Tyrone L.; Stirton, James Broc; Poolla, Kameshwar

    2011-01-01

    , economic pressures prompt a reduction in metrology, for both capital and cycle-time reasons. This paper explores the use of modeling and minimum-variance prediction as a method to select the sites for measurement on each wafer. The models are developed

  20. Laser metrology applied to the nuclear maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrido Garcia, J.; Sarti Fernandez, F.

    2012-01-01

    The development of this paper focuses on providing an overview of the state of the art about laser metrology. This type of equipment combines the measurement philosophy of laser scanning with the great precision of the robotic equipment of auscultation. Getting micron.

  1. Activities of IPEN Nuclear Metrology Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, M.S.; Koskinas, M.F.; Pocobi, E.; Silva, C.A.M.; Machado, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    The activities of IPEN Nuclear Metrology Laboratory, which the principal objective is radionuclides activities determination for supplying sources and standard radioactive solutions in activity are presented. The systems installed, the activity bands and some of standards radionuclides are shown. (C.G.C.) [pt

  2. Correlation methods in optical metrology with state-of-the-art x-ray mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Centers, Gary; Gevorkyan, Gevork S.; Lacey, Ian; Smith, Brian V.

    2018-01-01

    The development of fully coherent free electron lasers and diffraction limited storage ring x-ray sources has brought to focus the need for higher performing x-ray optics with unprecedented tolerances for surface slope and height errors and roughness. For example, the proposed beamlines for the future upgraded Advance Light Source, ALS-U, require optical elements characterized by a residual slope error of optics with a length of up to one meter. However, the current performance of x-ray optical fabrication and metrology generally falls short of these requirements. The major limitation comes from the lack of reliable and efficient surface metrology with required accuracy and with reasonably high measurement rate, suitable for integration into the modern deterministic surface figuring processes. The major problems of current surface metrology relate to the inherent instrumental temporal drifts, systematic errors, and/or an unacceptably high cost, as in the case of interferometry with computer-generated holograms as a reference. In this paper, we discuss the experimental methods and approaches based on correlation analysis to the acquisition and processing of metrology data developed at the ALS X-Ray Optical Laboratory (XROL). Using an example of surface topography measurements of a state-of-the-art x-ray mirror performed at the XROL, we demonstrate the efficiency of combining the developed experimental correlation methods to the advanced optimal scanning strategy (AOSS) technique. This allows a significant improvement in the accuracy and capacity of the measurements via suppression of the instrumental low frequency noise, temporal drift, and systematic error in a single measurement run. Practically speaking, implementation of the AOSS technique leads to an increase of the measurement accuracy, as well as the capacity of ex situ metrology by a factor of about four. The developed method is general and applicable to a broad spectrum of high accuracy measurements.

  3. DABAM: an open-source database of X-ray mirrors metrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez del Rio, Manuel, E-mail: srio@esrf.eu [ESRF - The European Synchrotron, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, 38000 Grenoble (France); Bianchi, Davide [AC2T Research GmbH, Viktro-Kaplan-Strasse 2-C, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Cocco, Daniele [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Glass, Mark [ESRF - The European Synchrotron, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, 38000 Grenoble (France); Idir, Mourad [NSLS II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Metz, Jim [InSync Inc., 2511C Broadbent Parkway, Albuquerque, NM 87107 (United States); Raimondi, Lorenzo; Rebuffi, Luca [Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste SCpA, Basovizza (TS) (Italy); Reininger, Ruben; Shi, Xianbo [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Siewert, Frank [BESSY II, Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, Institute for Nanometre Optics and Technology, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Spielmann-Jaeggi, Sibylle [Swiss Light Source at Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Takacs, Peter [Instrumentation Division, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Tomasset, Muriel [Synchrotron Soleil (France); Tonnessen, Tom [InSync Inc., 2511C Broadbent Parkway, Albuquerque, NM 87107 (United States); Vivo, Amparo [ESRF - The European Synchrotron, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, 38000 Grenoble (France); Yashchuk, Valeriy [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS 15-R0317, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720-8199 (United States)

    2016-04-20

    DABAM, an open-source database of X-ray mirrors metrology to be used with ray-tracing and wave-propagation codes for simulating the effect of the surface errors on the performance of a synchrotron radiation beamline. An open-source database containing metrology data for X-ray mirrors is presented. It makes available metrology data (mirror heights and slopes profiles) that can be used with simulation tools for calculating the effects of optical surface errors in the performances of an optical instrument, such as a synchrotron beamline. A typical case is the degradation of the intensity profile at the focal position in a beamline due to mirror surface errors. This database for metrology (DABAM) aims to provide to the users of simulation tools the data of real mirrors. The data included in the database are described in this paper, with details of how the mirror parameters are stored. An accompanying software is provided to allow simple access and processing of these data, calculate the most usual statistical parameters, and also include the option of creating input files for most used simulation codes. Some optics simulations are presented and discussed to illustrate the real use of the profiles from the database.

  4. Overlay metrology for double patterning processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leray, Philippe; Cheng, Shaunee; Laidler, David; Kandel, Daniel; Adel, Mike; Dinu, Berta; Polli, Marco; Vasconi, Mauro; Salski, Bartlomiej

    2009-03-01

    The double patterning (DPT) process is foreseen by the industry to be the main solution for the 32 nm technology node and even beyond. Meanwhile process compatibility has to be maintained and the performance of overlay metrology has to improve. To achieve this for Image Based Overlay (IBO), usually the optics of overlay tools are improved. It was also demonstrated that these requirements are achievable with a Diffraction Based Overlay (DBO) technique named SCOLTM [1]. In addition, we believe that overlay measurements with respect to a reference grid are required to achieve the required overlay control [2]. This induces at least a three-fold increase in the number of measurements (2 for double patterned layers to the reference grid and 1 between the double patterned layers). The requirements of process compatibility, enhanced performance and large number of measurements make the choice of overlay metrology for DPT very challenging. In this work we use different flavors of the standard overlay metrology technique (IBO) as well as the new technique (SCOL) to address these three requirements. The compatibility of the corresponding overlay targets with double patterning processes (Litho-Etch-Litho-Etch (LELE); Litho-Freeze-Litho-Etch (LFLE), Spacer defined) is tested. The process impact on different target types is discussed (CD bias LELE, Contrast for LFLE). We compare the standard imaging overlay metrology with non-standard imaging techniques dedicated to double patterning processes (multilayer imaging targets allowing one overlay target instead of three, very small imaging targets). In addition to standard designs already discussed [1], we investigate SCOL target designs specific to double patterning processes. The feedback to the scanner is determined using the different techniques. The final overlay results obtained are compared accordingly. We conclude with the pros and cons of each technique and suggest the optimal metrology strategy for overlay control in double

  5. Advanced metrology by offline SEM data processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakcher, Amine; Schneider, Loïc.; Le-Gratiet, Bertrand; Ducoté, Julien; Farys, Vincent; Besacier, Maxime

    2017-06-01

    Today's technology nodes contain more and more complex designs bringing increasing challenges to chip manufacturing process steps. It is necessary to have an efficient metrology to assess process variability of these complex patterns and thus extract relevant data to generate process aware design rules and to improve OPC models. Today process variability is mostly addressed through the analysis of in-line monitoring features which are often designed to support robust measurements and as a consequence are not always very representative of critical design rules. CD-SEM is the main CD metrology technique used in chip manufacturing process but it is challenged when it comes to measure metrics like tip to tip, tip to line, areas or necking in high quantity and with robustness. CD-SEM images contain a lot of information that is not always used in metrology. Suppliers have provided tools that allow engineers to extract the SEM contours of their features and to convert them into a GDS. Contours can be seen as the signature of the shape as it contains all the dimensional data. Thus the methodology is to use the CD-SEM to take high quality images then generate SEM contours and create a data base out of them. Contours are used to feed an offline metrology tool that will process them to extract different metrics. It was shown in two previous papers that it is possible to perform complex measurements on hotspots at different process steps (lithography, etch, copper CMP) by using SEM contours with an in-house offline metrology tool. In the current paper, the methodology presented previously will be expanded to improve its robustness and combined with the use of phylogeny to classify the SEM images according to their geometrical proximities.

  6. Profile variation impact on FIB cross-section metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, Aaron; Bunday, Benjamin; Nadeau, Jim

    2012-03-01

    The focused ion beam (FIB) milling tool is an important component of reference metrology and process characterization, both as a supporting instrument for bulk sample preparation before forwarding to the transmission electron microscope (TEM) and other instruments and as an in situ measurement instrument using angled scanning electron microscopy. As features grow denser, deeper and more demanding, full-profile reference metrology is needed, and this methodology will only grow in importance. Thus, the ability to extract accurate dimensional and profile information out of the crosssectional faces produced by FIB milling is critical. For features that demonstrate perfect symmetry in the plane of the cross section, analyzing images and extracting metrology data are straightforward. However, for industrial materials, symmetry is not a safe assumption: as features shrink, the line edge and sidewall roughness increases as a percentage of the overall feature dimension. Furthermore, with the introduction of more complex architectures such as 3D memory and FinFETs, the areas of greatest interest, such as the intersections of wrap-around gates, cannot be assumed to be symmetrical in any given plane if cut placement is not precisely controlled. Therefore it is important to establish the exact location and repeatability of the cross-section plane, both in terms of coordinate placement and effective angle of the milled surface. To this end, we prepared designed-in line edge roughness samples in the Albany Nanotech facility using SEMATECH's AMAG6 metrology reticle. The samples were thoroughly characterized before being milled by a non-destructive, sidewall-scanning atomic force microscope (AFM). These samples are then milled and measured under varying process and setup parameters using a single-beam FIB with angled SEM. We established methodologies that allow precise alignment of the cut planes of slice-and-view FIB milling to 3D-AFM scan lines to compare repeated sections

  7. An alternative method to achieve metrological confirmation in measurement process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeta, M.; Rubio, E. M.; Sanz, A.; Sevilla, L.

    2012-04-01

    Metrological confirmation process must be designed and implemented to ensure that metrological characteristics of the measurement system meet metrological requirements of the measurement process. The aim of this paper is to present an alternative method to the traditional metrological requirements about the relationship between tolerance and measurement uncertainty, to develop such confirmation processes. The proposed way to metrological confirmation considers a given inspection task of the measurement process into the manufacturing system, and it is based on the Index of Contamination of the Capability, ICC. Metrological confirmation process is then developed taking into account the producer risks and economic considerations on this index. As a consequence, depending on the capability of the manufacturing process, the measurement system will be or will not be in adequate state of metrological confirmation for the measurement process.

  8. An Assessment of Critical Dimension Small Angle X-ray Scattering Metrology for Advanced Semiconductor Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Settens, Charles M. [State Univ. of New York (SUNY), Albany, NY (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous migration of planar transistors to FinFET architectures, the introduction of a plurality of materials to ensure suitable electrical characteristics, and the establishment of reliable multiple patterning lithography schemes to pattern sub-10 nm feature sizes imposes formidable challenges to current in-line dimensional metrologies. Because the shape of a FinFET channel cross-section immediately influences the electrical characteristics, the evaluation of 3D device structures requires measurement of parameters beyond traditional critical dimension (CD), including their sidewall angles, top corner rounding and footing, roughness, recesses and undercuts at single nanometer dimensions; thus, metrologies require sub-nm and approaching atomic level measurement uncertainty. Synchrotron critical dimension small angle X-ray scattering (CD-SAXS) has unique capabilities to non-destructively monitor the cross-section shape of surface structures with single nanometer uncertainty and can perform overlay metrology to sub-nm uncertainty. In this dissertation, we perform a systematic experimental investigation using CD-SAXS metrology on a hierarchy of semiconductor 3D device architectures including, high-aspect-ratio contact holes, H2 annealed Si fins, and a series of grating type samples at multiple points along a FinFET fabrication process increasing in structural intricacy and ending with fully fabricated FinFET. Comparative studies between CD-SAXS metrology and other relevant semiconductor dimensional metrologies, particularly CDSEM, CD-AFM and TEM are used to determine physical limits of CD-SAXS approach for advanced semiconductor samples. CD-SAXS experimental tradeoffs, advice for model-dependent analysis and thoughts on the compatibility with a semiconductor manufacturing environment are discussed.

  9. Surface enhanced Raman scattering of gold nanoparticles supported on copper foil with graphene as a nanometer gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, Quan; Zhu, Xupeng; Chen, Yiqin; Duan, Huigao

    2016-01-01

    Gaps with single-nanometer dimensions (<10 nm) between metallic nanostructures enable giant local field enhancements for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Monolayer graphene is an ideal candidate to obtain a sub-nanometer gap between plasmonic nanostructures. In this work, we demonstrate a simple method to achieve a sub-nanometer gap by dewetting a gold film supported on monolayer graphene grown on copper foil. The Cu foil can serve as a low-loss plasmonically active metallic film that supports the imaginary charge oscillations, while the graphene can not only create a stable sub-nanometer gap for massive plasmonic field enhancements but also serve as a chemical enhancer. We obtained higher SERS enhancements in this graphene-gapped configuration compared to those in Au nanoparticles on Cu film or on graphene–SiO 2 –Si. Also, the Raman signals measured maintained their fine features and intensities over a long time period, indicating the stability of this Au–graphene–Cu hybrid configuration as an SERS substrate. (paper)

  10. Machine tool metrology an industrial handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Graham T

    2016-01-01

    Maximizing reader insights into the key scientific disciplines of Machine Tool Metrology, this text will prove useful for the industrial-practitioner and those interested in the operation of machine tools. Within this current level of industrial-content, this book incorporates significant usage of the existing published literature and valid information obtained from a wide-spectrum of manufacturers of plant, equipment and instrumentation before putting forward novel ideas and methodologies. Providing easy to understand bullet points and lucid descriptions of metrological and calibration subjects, this book aids reader understanding of the topics discussed whilst adding a voluminous-amount of footnotes utilised throughout all of the chapters, which adds some additional detail to the subject. Featuring an extensive amount of photographic-support, this book will serve as a key reference text for all those involved in the field. .

  11. Quantum metrology foundation of units and measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Goebel, Ernst O

    2015-01-01

    The International System of Units (SI) is the world's most widely used system of measurement, used every day in commerce and science, and is the modern form of the metric system. It currently comprises the meter (m), the kilogram (kg), the second (s), the ampere (A), the kelvin (K), the candela (cd) and the mole (mol)). The system is changing though, units and unit definitions are modified through international agreements as the technology of measurement progresses, and as the precision of measurements improves. The SI is now being redefined based on constants of nature and their realization by quantum standards. Therefore, the underlying physics and technologies will receive increasing interest, and not only in the metrology community but in all fields of science. This book introduces and explains the applications of modern physics concepts to metrology, the science and the applications of measurements. A special focus is made on the use of quantum standards for the realization of the forthcoming new SI (the...

  12. Metrology for fire experiments in outdoor conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Silvani, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Natural fires can be considered as scale-dependant, non-linear processes of mass, momentum and heat transport, resulting from a turbulent reactive and radiative fluid medium flowing over a complex medium, the vegetal fuel. In natural outdoor conditions, the experimental study of natural fires at real scale needs the development of an original metrology, one able to capture the large range of time and length scales involved in its dynamic nature and also able to resist the thermal, mechanical and chemical aggression of flames on devices. Robust, accurate and poorly intrusive tools must be carefully set-up and used for gaining very fluctuating data over long periods. These signals also need the development of original post-processing tools that take into account the non-steady nature of their stochastic components. Metrology for Fire Experiments in Outdoor Conditions closely analyzes these features, and also describes measurements techniques, the thermal insulation of fragile electronic systems, data acquisitio...

  13. Coordinate Metrology by Traceable Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Pavel

    is an important factor for decision making about manufactured parts. However, due to many influences in CT, estimation of the uncertainty is a challenge, also because standardized procedures and guidelines are not available yet. In this thesis, several methods for uncertainty estimation were applied in connection......, characterization and correction of measurement errors in the CT volume. Their application appeared to be suitable for this task. Because the two objects consist of ruby spheres and carbon fibre, CT scans did not produce image artifacts, and evaluation of sphere-to-sphere distances was robust. Several methods...... metrology and coordinate metrology and is currently becoming more and more important measuring technique for dimensional measurements. This is mainly due to the fact that with CT, a complete three-dimensional model of the scanned part is in a relatively short time visualized using a computer...

  14. Efficiency improvements of offline metrology job creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga, Victor J.; Carlson, Alan; Podlesny, John C.; Knutrud, Paul C.

    1999-06-01

    Progress of the first lot of a new design through the production line is watched very closely. All performance metrics, cycle-time, in-line measurement results and final electrical performance are critical. Rapid movement of this lot through the line has serious time-to-market implications. Having this material waiting at a metrology operation for an engineer to create a measurement job plan wastes valuable turnaround time. Further, efficient use of a metrology system is compromised by the time required to create and maintain these measurement job plans. Thus, having a method to develop metrology job plans prior to the actual running of the material through the manufacture area can significantly improve both cycle time and overall equipment efficiency. Motorola and Schlumberger have worked together to develop and test such a system. The Remote Job Generator (RJG) created job plans for new device sin a manufacturing process from an NT host or workstation, offline. This increases available system tim effort making production measurements, decreases turnaround time on job plan creation and editing, and improves consistency across job plans. Most importantly this allows job plans for new devices to be available before the first wafers of the device arrive at the tool for measurement. The software also includes a database manager which allows updates of existing job plans to incorporate measurement changes required by process changes or measurement optimization. This paper will review the result of productivity enhancements through the increased metrology utilization and decreased cycle time associated with the use of RJG. Finally, improvements in process control through better control of Job Plans across different devices and layers will be discussed.

  15. Measurement capabilities of the Bendix Metrology Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, L.M.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this manual is to communicate the measurement and calibration capabilities of the Metrology Organization of the Bendix Kansas City Division. Included is a listing of the measurement types and ranges available, and the accuracies normally attainable under conditions at the Kansas City Division. Also described are currently used standards and measurement devices. The manual is divided into four major sections, each describing a broad general area of measurement: mechanical; environmental, gas, liquid; electrical; and optical and radiation

  16. Digital holography for MEMS and microsystem metrology

    CERN Document Server

    Asundi, Anand

    2011-01-01

    Approaching the topic of digital holography from the practical perspective of industrial inspection, Digital Holography for MEMS and Microsystem Metrology describes the process of digital holography and its growing applications for MEMS characterization, residual stress measurement, design and evaluation, and device testing and inspection. Asundi also provides a thorough theoretical grounding that enables the reader to understand basic concepts and thus identify areas where this technique can be adopted. This combination of both practical and theoretical approach will ensure the

  17. Implementation of the Brazilian radiation metrology network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Manoel M.O.; Araujo, Margareth M. de

    1998-01-01

    The ever increasing need for calibration of survey, personal, and contamination meters in Brazil are not completely satisfied by the two operating laboratories. To overcome this deficiency a radiation metrology network is being implemented with the support of IAEA. In a near future this network will count other three calibration laboratories which are being installed in different regions of the country, and accredited through INMETRO. (author)

  18. Traceability and uncertainty estimation in coordinate metrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Savio, Enrico; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2001-01-01

    National and international standards have defined performance verification procedures for coordinate measuring machines (CMMs) that typically involve their ability to measure calibrated lengths and to a certain extent form. It is recognised that, without further analysis or testing, these results...... are required. Depending on the requirements for uncertainty level, different approaches may be adopted to achieve traceability. Especially in the case of complex measurement situations and workpieces the procedures are not trivial. This paper discusses the establishment of traceability in coordinate metrology...

  19. Manufacturing and metrology for IR conformal windows and domes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferralli, Ian; Blalock, Todd; Brunelle, Matt; Lynch, Timothy; Myer, Brian; Medicus, Kate

    2017-05-01

    Freeform and conformal optics have the potential to dramatically improve optical systems by enabling systems with fewer optical components, reduced aberrations, and improved aerodynamic performance. These optical components differ from standard components in their surface shape, typically a non-symmetric equation based definition, and material properties. Traditional grinding and polishing tools are unable to handle these freeform shapes. Additionally, standard metrology tools cannot measure these surfaces. Desired substrates are typically hard ceramics, including poly-crystalline alumina or aluminum oxynitride. Notwithstanding the challenges that the hardness provides to manufacturing, these crystalline materials can be highly susceptible to grain decoration creating unacceptable scatter in optical systems. In this presentation, we will show progress towards addressing the unique challenges of manufacturing conformal windows and domes. Particular attention is given to our robotic polishing platform. This platform is based on an industrial robot adapted to accept a wide range of tooling and parts. The robot's flexibility has provided us an opportunity to address the unique challenges of conformal windows. Slurries and polishing active layers can easily be changed to adapt to varying materials and address grain decoration. We have the flexibility to change tool size and shape to address the varying sizes and shapes of conformal optics. In addition, the robotic platform can be a base for a deflectometry-based metrology tool to measure surface form error. This system, whose precision is independent of the robot's positioning accuracy, will allow us to measure optics in-situ saving time and reducing part risk. In conclusion, we will show examples of the conformal windows manufactured using our developed processes.

  20. Metrology Techniques for the Assembly of NCSX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priniski, C.; Dodson, T.; Duco, M.; Raftopoulos, S.; Ellis, R.; Brooks, A.

    2009-01-01

    In support of the National Compact Stellerator Experiment (NCSX), stellerator assembly activities continued this past year at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in partnership with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The construction program saw the completion of the first two Half Field-Period Assemblies (HPA), each consisting of three modular coils. The full machine includes six such sub-assemblies. A single HPA consists of three of the NCSX modular coils wound and assembled at PPPL. These geometrically-complex three dimensional coils were wound using computer-aided metrology and CAD models to tolerances within +/- 0.5mm. The assembly of these coils required similar accuracy on a larger scale with the added complexity of more individual parts and fewer degrees of freedom for correction. Several new potential positioning issues developed for which measurement and control techniques were developed. To accomplish this, CAD coordinate-based computer metrology equipment and software similar to the solutions employed for winding the modular coils was used. Given the size of the assemblies, the primary tools were both interferometer aided and Absolute Distance Measurement (ADM)-only based laser trackers. In addition, portable Coordinate Measurement Machine (CMM) arms and some novel indirect measurement techniques were employed. This paper will detail both the use of CAD coordinate-based metrology technology and the techniques developed and employed for dimensional control of NSCX subassemblies. The results achieved and possible improvements to techniques will be discussed.

  1. Optical metrology tools for the Virgo projet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loriette, V.

    For more than thirty years the search for gravitationnal waves, predicted by Einstein's relativistic theory of gravitation, has been an intense research field in experimental as well as theoretical physics. Today, with the constant advance of technology in optics, lasers, data analysis and processing, ... a promising way of directly detecting gravitationnal waves with earth-based instruments is optical interferometry. Before the end of this century many experiments will be carried on in Australia, Europe, Japan and the United States to detect the passage of a gravitationnal wave through giant Michelson-type interferometers. The effects predicted are so small, (a gravitationnal wave changes the length of three kilometer long arms by one thousandth of a fermi) that the need for “perfect” optical components is a key to the success of these experiments. Still a few years ago it would have been impossible to make optical components that would satisfy the required specifications for such interferometric detectors. For nearly ten years constant R&D efforts in optical coating manufacturing, optical material fabrication and optical metrology, allow us today to make such components. This text is intended to describe the field of optical metrology as it is needed for the testing of optical parts having performances far beyond than everything previously made. The first chapter is an introduction to gravitationnal waves, their sources and their effects on detectors. Starting by newtonian mechanics we jump rapidly to the general theory of relativity and describe particular solutions of Einstein's equations in the case of weak gravitationnal fields, which are periodic perturbations of the space-time metric in the form of plane waves, the so-called gravitationnal waves. We present various candidate sources, terrestrial and extra-terrestrial and give a short description of the two families of detectors: resonnant bars and optical interferometers. The second part of this chapter

  2. Slovak Office of Standards, Metrology and Testing. Annual Report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    A brief account of activities carried out by the Slovak Office of Standards, Metrology and Testing of the Slovak Republic in 2001 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) Introduction by the President of the Slovak Office of Standards, Metrology and Testing; (2) The Vice-president's Unit Standardization and Quality; (3) The President's Office; (4) Chief Inspector Department; (5) Legislative-juridical Department; (6) Department of Economy; (7) Department of International Co-operation; (8) Department of European Integration; (9) Department of Metrology; (10) Department of Testing; (11) Department of the Cyclotron Centre SR; (12) Slovak Institute of Metrology; (13) Slovak Standards Institution; (14) Slovak Metrology Inspectorate; (15) Slovak Legal Metrology; (16) Measuring Techniques - Technocentre - MTT; Abbreviations; (17) Technical Testing Institute Piestany; (18) Testing Institute of Transport and Earthmoving Machinery - SUDST

  3. 7th International Workshop on Advanced Optical Imaging and Metrology

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    In continuation of the FRINGE Workshop Series this Proceeding contains all contributions presented at the 7. International Workshop on Advanced Optical Imaging and Metrology. The FRINGE Workshop Series is dedicated to the presentation, discussion and dissemination of recent results in Optical Imaging and Metrology. Topics of particular interest for the 7. Workshop are: - New methods and tools for the generation, acquisition, processing, and evaluation of data in Optical Imaging and Metrology (digital wavefront engineering, computational imaging, model-based reconstruction, compressed sensing, inverse problems solution) - Application-driven technologies in Optical Imaging and Metrology (high-resolution, adaptive, active, robust, reliable, flexible, in-line, real-time) - High-dynamic range solutions in Optical Imaging and Metrology (from macro to nano) - Hybrid technologies in Optical Imaging and Metrology (hybrid optics, sensor and data fusion, model-based solutions, multimodality) - New optical sensors, imagi...

  4. Speckle-based at-wavelength metrology of X-ray mirrors with super accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Yogesh; Wang, Hongchang; Sawhney, Kawal

    2016-05-01

    X-ray active mirrors, such as bimorph and mechanically bendable mirrors, are increasingly being used on beamlines at modern synchrotron source facilities to generate either focused or "tophat" beams. As well as optical tests in the metrology lab, it is becoming increasingly important to optimise and characterise active optics under actual beamline operating conditions. Recently developed X-ray speckle-based at-wavelength metrology technique has shown great potential. The technique has been established and further developed at the Diamond Light Source and is increasingly being used to optimise active mirrors. Details of the X-ray speckle-based at-wavelength metrology technique and an example of its applicability in characterising and optimising a micro-focusing bimorph X-ray mirror are presented. Importantly, an unprecedented angular sensitivity in the range of two nanoradians for measuring the slope error of an optical surface has been demonstrated. Such a super precision metrology technique will be beneficial to the manufacturers of polished mirrors and also in optimization of beam shaping during experiments.

  5. Speckle-based at-wavelength metrology of X-ray mirrors with super accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashyap, Yogesh; Wang, Hongchang; Sawhney, Kawal, E-mail: kawal.sawhney@diamond.ac.uk [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-15

    X-ray active mirrors, such as bimorph and mechanically bendable mirrors, are increasingly being used on beamlines at modern synchrotron source facilities to generate either focused or “tophat” beams. As well as optical tests in the metrology lab, it is becoming increasingly important to optimise and characterise active optics under actual beamline operating conditions. Recently developed X-ray speckle-based at-wavelength metrology technique has shown great potential. The technique has been established and further developed at the Diamond Light Source and is increasingly being used to optimise active mirrors. Details of the X-ray speckle-based at-wavelength metrology technique and an example of its applicability in characterising and optimising a micro-focusing bimorph X-ray mirror are presented. Importantly, an unprecedented angular sensitivity in the range of two nanoradians for measuring the slope error of an optical surface has been demonstrated. Such a super precision metrology technique will be beneficial to the manufacturers of polished mirrors and also in optimization of beam shaping during experiments.

  6. Speckle-based at-wavelength metrology of X-ray mirrors with super accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashyap, Yogesh; Wang, Hongchang; Sawhney, Kawal

    2016-01-01

    X-ray active mirrors, such as bimorph and mechanically bendable mirrors, are increasingly being used on beamlines at modern synchrotron source facilities to generate either focused or “tophat” beams. As well as optical tests in the metrology lab, it is becoming increasingly important to optimise and characterise active optics under actual beamline operating conditions. Recently developed X-ray speckle-based at-wavelength metrology technique has shown great potential. The technique has been established and further developed at the Diamond Light Source and is increasingly being used to optimise active mirrors. Details of the X-ray speckle-based at-wavelength metrology technique and an example of its applicability in characterising and optimising a micro-focusing bimorph X-ray mirror are presented. Importantly, an unprecedented angular sensitivity in the range of two nanoradians for measuring the slope error of an optical surface has been demonstrated. Such a super precision metrology technique will be beneficial to the manufacturers of polished mirrors and also in optimization of beam shaping during experiments.

  7. Metrology for radioactive waste management. (WP2, WP3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suran, J.

    2014-01-01

    The three-year European research project M etrology for Radioactive Waste Management' was launched in October 2011 under the EMRP (European Metrology Research Programme). It involves 13 European national metrology institutes and a total budget exceeds four million Euros. The project is coordinated by the Czech Metrology Institute and is divided into five working groups. In this presentation the Project is described. (author)

  8. PREFACE: Fundamental Constants in Physics and Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, Volkmar; Kramer, Bernhard

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains the papers presented at the 70th PTB Seminar which, the second on the subject "Fundamental Constants in Physics and Metrology", was held at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt in Braunschweig from October 21 to 22, 1985. About 100 participants from the universities and various research institutes of the Federal Republic of Germany participated in the meeting. Besides a number of review lectures on various broader subjects there was a poster session which contained a variety of topical contributed papers ranging from the theory of the quantum Hall effect to reports on the status of the metrological experiments at the PTB. In addition, the participants were also offered the possibility to visit the PTB laboratories during the course of the seminar. During the preparation of the meeting we noticed that even most of the general subjects which were going to be discussed in the lectures are of great importance in connection with metrological experiments and should be made accessible to the scientific community. This eventually resulted in the idea of the publication of the papers in a regular journal. We are grateful to the editor of Metrologia for providing this opportunity. We have included quite a number of papers from basic physical research. For example, certain aspects of high-energy physics and quantum optics, as well as the many-faceted role of Sommerfeld's fine-structure constant, are covered. We think that questions such as "What are the intrinsic fundamental parameters of nature?" or "What are we doing when we perform an experiment?" can shed new light on the art of metrology, and do, potentially, lead to new ideas. This appears to be especially necessary when we notice the increasing importance of the role of the fundamental constants and macroscopic quantum effects for the definition and the realization of the physical units. In some cases we have reached a point where the limitations of our knowledge of a fundamental constant and

  9. Design, fabrication and metrological evaluation of wearable pressure sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goy, C B; Menichetti, V; Yanicelli, L M; Lucero, J B; López, M A Gómez; Parodi, N F; Herrera, M C

    2015-04-01

    Pressure sensors are valuable transducers that are necessary in a huge number of medical application. However, the state of the art of compact and lightweight pressure sensors with the capability of measuring the contact pressure between two surfaces (contact pressure sensors) is very poor. In this work, several types of wearable contact pressure sensors are fabricated using different conductive textile materials and piezo-resistive films. The fabricated sensors differ in size, the textile conductor used and/or the number of layers of the sandwiched piezo-resistive film. The intention is to study, through the obtaining of their calibration curves, their metrological properties (repeatability, sensitivity and range) and determine which physical characteristics improve their ability for measuring contact pressures. It has been found that it is possible to obtain wearable contact pressure sensors through the proposed fabrication process with satisfactory repeatability, range and sensitivity; and that some of these properties can be improved by the physical characteristics of the sensors.

  10. Silver nanoparticles: technological advances, societal impacts, and metrological challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Jiménez, Bryan; Johnson, Monique E.; Montoro Bustos, Antonio R.; Murphy, Karen E.; Winchester, Michael R.; Vega Baudrit, José R.

    2017-02-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) show different physical and chemical properties compared to their macroscale analogs. This is primarily due to their small size and, consequently, the exceptional surface area of these materials. Presently, advances in the synthesis, stabilization, and production of AgNPs have fostered a new generation of commercial products and intensified scientific investigation within the nanotechnology field. The use of AgNPs in commercial products is increasing and impacts on the environment and human health are largely unknown. This article discusses advances in AgNP production and presents an overview of the commercial, societal, and environmental impacts of this emerging nanoparticle (NP), and nanomaterials in general. Finally, we examine the challenges associated with AgNP characterization, discuss the importance of the development of NP reference materials (RMs) and explore their role as a metrological mechanism to improve the quality and comparability of NP measurements.

  11. Development of Electromechanical Architectures for AC Voltage Metrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre BOUNOUH

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of work undertaken for exploring MEMS capabilities to fabricate AC voltage references for electrical metrology and high precision instrumentation through the mechanical-electrical coupling in MEMS. From first MEMS test structures previously realized, a second set of devices with improved characteristics has been developed and fabricated with Silicon on Insulator (SOI Surface Micromachining process. These MEMS exhibit pull-in voltages of 5 V and 10 V to match with the best performance of the read-out electronics developed for driving the MEMS. Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy measurements carried out on the new design show resonance frequencies of about only some kHz, and the stability of the MEMS output voltage measured at 100 kHz has been found very promising for the best samples where the relative deviation from the mean value over almost 12 hours showed a standard deviation of about 6.3 ppm.

  12. Silver Nanoparticles: Technological Advances, Societal Impacts, and Metrological Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Jiménez, Bryan; Johnson, Monique E; Montoro Bustos, Antonio R; Murphy, Karen E; Winchester, Michael R; Vega Baudrit, José R

    2017-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) show different physical and chemical properties compared to their macroscale analogs. This is primarily due to their small size and, consequently, the exceptional surface area of these materials. Presently, advances in the synthesis, stabilization, and production of AgNPs have fostered a new generation of commercial products and intensified scientific investigation within the nanotechnology field. The use of AgNPs in commercial products is increasing and impacts on the environment and human health are largely unknown. This article discusses advances in AgNP production and presents an overview of the commercial, societal, and environmental impacts of this emerging nanoparticle (NP), and nanomaterials in general. Finally, we examine the challenges associated with AgNP characterization, discuss the importance of the development of NP reference materials (RMs) and explore their role as a metrological mechanism to improve the quality and comparability of NP measurements.

  13. Problems of metrological supply of carbon materials production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belov, G.V.; Bazilevskij, L.P.; Cherkashina, N.V.

    1989-01-01

    Carbon materials and products contain internal residual stresses and have an anisotropy of properties therefore special methods of tests are required to control their quality. The main metrological problems during development, production and application of carbon products are: metrological supply of production forms and records during the development of production conditions; metrological supply of quality control of the product; metrological supply of methods for the tests of products and the methods to forecast the characteristics of product quality for the period of quaranteed service life

  14. 222Rn gas metrology in Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogucarska, T.; Lapenas, A.

    2004-01-01

    The measurements of radon gas provides in Latvia according with the State radiation monitoring program. The national standard/reference level for the protection of employees and population from exposure to radon Latvia has been accepted. The facilities for calibration of the radon gas measurement instruments and detectors have been established on basic of the Radiation Metrology and Testing Center which is the local SSDL for Baltic Region. The radon measurement instruments and detectors calibration can be performed at the 170-4000 Bq/m 3 range. (author)

  15. Quantum metrology for gravitational wave astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabel, Roman; Mavalvala, Nergis; McClelland, David E; Lam, Ping K

    2010-11-16

    Einstein's general theory of relativity predicts that accelerating mass distributions produce gravitational radiation, analogous to electromagnetic radiation from accelerating charges. These gravitational waves (GWs) have not been directly detected to date, but are expected to open a new window to the Universe once the detectors, kilometre-scale laser interferometers measuring the distance between quasi-free-falling mirrors, have achieved adequate sensitivity. Recent advances in quantum metrology may now contribute to provide the required sensitivity boost. The so-called squeezed light is able to quantum entangle the high-power laser fields in the interferometer arms, and could have a key role in the realization of GW astronomy.

  16. Aerosol metrology: aerodynamic and electrostatic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prodi, V.

    1988-01-01

    Aerosols play an ever increasing role in science, engineering and especially in industrial and environmental hygiene. They are being studied since a long time, but only recently the progress in aerosol instrumentation has made it possible to pose of aerosol metrology, especially the problem of absolute measurements, as based directly on measurements of fundamental quantities. On the basis of absolute measurements, the hierarchy of standards can be prepared and adequately disseminated. In the aerosol field, the quantities to be measured are mainly size, charge, density, and shape. In this paper a possible standardisation framework for aerosols is proposed, for the main physical quantities

  17. Metrology for γ-radiation spectrometry in a radiation monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaikovich, I.M.; Shevrygin, O.N.; Fominykh, V.I.

    1993-01-01

    The rapid measurement of the characteristics of radionuclides is a priority when utilizing nuclear energy because of the needs of environmental conservation. This is particularly the case for long-lived nuclear-fuel fission products, 137,137 Cs, 144 Ce, 60 Co, etc., which as a rule are sources of high-energy γ-radiation. These can be measured by γ-ray spectrometry using scintillation or semiconductor devices. When choosing the metrological models, the starting points are the real characteristics of the distribution of the radionuclides in the soil (rock) and the need to estimate their surface activity and the reserves per unit area, i.e., the parameters from which one can estimate the influence of the radioactivity on nature and can decide the use of land areas. The methodology and the calculations presented show that a single metrological system for radiation monitoring can be constructed using multichannel geophysical radiometers (gamma spectrometers) while relying on a system of initial standard samples of small size. Such a metrological system at present provides all the necessary initial means for measuring the effective γ-radiation surface activity of 137,134 Cs and the mass fraction of the natural radioactive elements. Using these initial means of measurement, surveyed areas in the Leningrad and Tula provinces have been certified as State standard samples in terms of the eight parameters: the surface contamination activity of 137,134 Cs, the reserves of these per unit area, the mass fraction of the natural radioactive elements (potassium, uranium and thorium), the power of the equivalent (exposed) γ-radiation dose at a height of 1 m above the surface. It is intended to use the certified metrological surveyed areas to provide traceability and the required measurement accuracy when studying the contamination in European territories resulting from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station

  18. Virtual overlay metrology for fault detection supported with integrated metrology and machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hong-Goo; Schmitt-Weaver, Emil; Kim, Min-Suk; Han, Sang-Jun; Kim, Myoung-Soo; Kwon, Won-Taik; Park, Sung-Ki; Ryan, Kevin; Theeuwes, Thomas; Sun, Kyu-Tae; Lim, Young-Wan; Slotboom, Daan; Kubis, Michael; Staecker, Jens

    2015-03-01

    While semiconductor manufacturing moves toward the 7nm node for logic and 15nm node for memory, an increased emphasis has been placed on reducing the influence known contributors have toward the on product overlay budget. With a machine learning technique known as function approximation, we use a neural network to gain insight to how known contributors, such as those collected with scanner metrology, influence the on product overlay budget. The result is a sufficiently trained function that can approximate overlay for all wafers exposed with the lithography system. As a real world application, inline metrology can be used to measure overlay for a few wafers while using the trained function to approximate overlay vector maps for the entire lot of wafers. With the approximated overlay vector maps for all wafers coming off the track, a process engineer can redirect wafers or lots with overlay signatures outside the standard population to offline metrology for excursion validation. With this added flexibility, engineers will be given more opportunities to catch wafers that need to be reworked, resulting in improved yield. The quality of the derived corrections from measured overlay metrology feedback can be improved using the approximated overlay to trigger, which wafers should or shouldn't be, measured inline. As a development or integration engineer the approximated overlay can be used to gain insight into lots and wafers used for design of experiments (DOE) troubleshooting. In this paper we will present the results of a case study that follows the machine learning function approximation approach to data analysis, with production overlay measured on an inline metrology system at SK hynix.

  19. Deep sub-wavelength metrology for advanced defect classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Walle, P.; Kramer, E.; van der Donck, J. C. J.; Mulckhuyse, W.; Nijsten, L.; Bernal Arango, F. A.; de Jong, A.; van Zeijl, E.; Spruit, H. E. T.; van den Berg, J. H.; Nanda, G.; van Langen-Suurling, A. K.; Alkemade, P. F. A.; Pereira, S. F.; Maas, D. J.

    2017-06-01

    Particle defects are important contributors to yield loss in semi-conductor manufacturing. Particles need to be detected and characterized in order to determine and eliminate their root cause. We have conceived a process flow for advanced defect classification (ADC) that distinguishes three consecutive steps; detection, review and classification. For defect detection, TNO has developed the Rapid Nano (RN3) particle scanner, which illuminates the sample from nine azimuth angles. The RN3 is capable of detecting 42 nm Latex Sphere Equivalent (LSE) particles on XXX-flat Silicon wafers. For each sample, the lower detection limit (LDL) can be verified by an analysis of the speckle signal, which originates from the surface roughness of the substrate. In detection-mode (RN3.1), the signal from all illumination angles is added. In review-mode (RN3.9), the signals from all nine arms are recorded individually and analyzed in order to retrieve additional information on the shape and size of deep sub-wavelength defects. This paper presents experimental and modelling results on the extraction of shape information from the RN3.9 multi-azimuth signal such as aspect ratio, skewness, and orientation of test defects. Both modeling and experimental work confirm that the RN3.9 signal contains detailed defect shape information. After review by RN3.9, defects are coarsely classified, yielding a purified Defect-of-Interest (DoI) list for further analysis on slower metrology tools, such as SEM, AFM or HIM, that provide more detailed review data and further classification. Purifying the DoI list via optical metrology with RN3.9 will make inspection time on slower review tools more efficient.

  20. La metrología en nuestras vidas

    OpenAIRE

    Jaramillo, Zaira

    2010-01-01

    A primera vista, la palabra "Metrología" nos trae a la mente la idea de condiciones meteorológicas. Nada más alejado de la realidad, porque la Meteorología es la disciplina que se encarga de estudiar las condiciones del tiempo y la Metrología se encarga de estudiar las mediciones.

  1. National Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation Metrology - Brazilian CNEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The activities of the Brazilian National Laboratory of Ionizing Radiations Metrology are described. They include research and development of metrological techniques and procedures, the calibration of area radiation monitors, clinical dosemeters and other instruments and the preparation and standardization of reference radioactive sources. 4 figs., 13 tabs

  2. Differential Evolution for Many-Particle Adaptive Quantum Metrology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lovett, N.B.; Crosnier, C.; Perarnau- Llobet, M.; Sanders, B.

    2013-01-01

    We devise powerful algorithms based on differential evolution for adaptive many-particle quantum metrology. Our new approach delivers adaptive quantum metrology policies for feedback control that are orders-of-magnitude more efficient and surpass the few-dozen-particle limitation arising in methods

  3. Consultative committee on ionizing radiation: Impact on radionuclide metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karam, L.R.; Ratel, G.

    2016-01-01

    In response to the CIPM MRA, and to improve radioactivity measurements in the face of advancing technologies, the CIPM's consultative committee on ionizing radiation developed a strategic approach to the realization and validation of measurement traceability for radionuclide metrology. As a consequence, measurement institutions throughout the world have devoted no small effort to establish radionuclide metrology capabilities, supported by active quality management systems and validated through prioritized participation in international comparisons, providing a varied stakeholder community with measurement confidence. - Highlights: • Influence of CIPM MRA on radionuclide metrology at laboratories around the world. • CCRI strategy: to be the “undisputed hub for ionizing radiation global metrology.” • CCRI Strategic Plan stresses importance of measurement confidence for stakeholder. • NMIs increasing role in radionuclide metrology by designating institutions (DIs). • NMIs and DIs establish quality systems; validate capabilities through comparisons.

  4. High pressure metrology for industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabuga, Wladimir; Rabault, Thierry; Wüthrich, Christian; Pražák, Dominik; Chytil, Miroslav; Brouwer, Ludwig; Ahmed, Ahmed D. S.

    2017-12-01

    To meet the needs of industries using high pressure technologies, in traceable, reliable and accurate pressure measurements, a joint research project of the five national metrology institutes and the university was carried out within the European Metrology Research Programme. In particular, finite element methods were established for stress-strain analysis of elastic and nonlinear elastic-plastic deformation, as well as of contact processes in pressure-measuring piston-cylinder assemblies, and high-pressure components at pressures above 1 GPa. New pressure measuring multipliers were developed and characterised, which allow realisation of the pressure scale up to 1.6 GPa. This characterisation is based on research including measurements of material elastic constants by the resonant ultrasound spectroscopy, hardness of materials of high pressure components, density and viscosity of pressure transmitting liquids at pressures up to 1.4 GPa and dimensional measurements on piston-cylinders. A 1.6 GPa pressure system was created for operation of the 1.6 GPa multipliers and calibration of high pressure transducers. A transfer standard for 1.5 GPa pressure range, based on pressure transducers, was built and tested. Herewith, the project developed the capability of measuring pressures up to 1.6 GPa, from which industrial users can calibrate their pressure measurement devices for accurate measurements up to 1.5 GPa.

  5. Optics for Processes, Products and Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, George

    1999-04-01

    Optical physics has a variety of applications in industry, including process inspection, coatings development, vision instrumentation, spectroscopy, and many others. Optics has been used extensively in the design of solar energy collection systems and coatings, for example. Also, with the availability of good CCD cameras and fast computers, it has become possible to develop real-time inspection and metrology devices that can accommodate the high throughputs encountered in modern production processes. More recently, developments in moiré interferometry show great promise for applications in the basic metals and electronics industries. The talk will illustrate applications of optics by discussing process inspection techniques for defect detection, part dimensioning, birefringence measurement, and the analysis of optical coatings in the automotive, glass, and optical disc industries. In particular, examples of optical techniques for the quality control of CD-R, MO, and CD-RW discs will be presented. In addition, the application of optical concepts to solar energy collector design and to metrology by moiré techniques will be discussed. Finally, some of the modern techniques and instruments used for qualitative and quantitative material analysis will be presented.

  6. A metrology solution for the orthopaedic industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bills, P; Brown, L; Jiang, X; Blunt, L

    2005-01-01

    Total joint replacement is one of the most common elective surgical procedures performed worldwide, with an estimate of 1.5 million operations performed annually. Currently joint replacements are expected to function for 10-15 years, however, with an increase in life expectancy, and a greater call for knee replacement due to increased activity levels, there is a requirement to improve their function to offer longer term improved quality of life for patients. The amount of wear that a joint incurs is seen as a good indicator of performance, with higher wear rates typically leading to reduced function and premature failure. New technologies and materials are pushing traditional wear assessment methods to their limits, and novel metrology solutions are required to assess wear of joints following in vivo and in vitro use. This paper presents one such measurement technique; a scanning co-ordinate metrology machine for geometrical assessment. A case study is presented to show the application of this technology to a real orthopaedic measurement problem: the wear of components in total knee replacement. This technique shows good results and provides a basis for further developing techniques for geometrical wear assessment of total joint replacements

  7. Metrological challenges introduced by new tolerancing standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, Edward; Peng, Yue; Srinivasan, Vijay; Shakarji, Craig

    2014-01-01

    The recent release of ISO 14405-1 has provided designers with a richer set of specification tools for the size of part features, so that various functional requirements can be captured with greater fidelity. However, these tools also bring new challenges and pitfalls to an inspector using a coordinate metrology system. A sampling strategy that might have worked well in the past could lead to erroneous results that go undetected when used to evaluate these new specifications. In this paper we investigate how measurement strategies for sampled coordinate metrology systems influence different algorithms for the evaluation of these new specifications. Of particular interest are those specifications where the order statistics of feature cross-sections are required. Here the inspector must decide not only how many points are required for an individual cross-section, but the number and spacing of cross-sections measured on the feature. The results of these decisions are compared with an analytic estimate of the ‘true value’ of the measurand specified using this new standard. (paper)

  8. Regional metrology organisations and the JCRB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetherington, Paul

    2004-01-01

    In 1999, National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) from some 39 countries signed the International Committee of Weights and Measures (CIPM) Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA) in Paris. The MRA, drawn up by the CIPM, under the authority given to it in the Metre Convention, was in response to requirements of Governments and Regulators to provide a sound technical foundation for trade agreements. Core objectives of the MRA are to allow for the establishment of the degree of equivalence of national measurement standards and to provide for mutual recognition of calibration certificates issued by NMIs. This presentation will detail the evolution of the MRA. Globally, NMIs are affiliated to Regional Metrology Organisations (RMOs). The key role of the RMOs in the MRA process will be discussed along with the structure and objectives of the various RMOs worldwide. The Joint Committee of the RMOs and the BIPM (JCRB) plays a central part in the effective operation of the MRA. Its tasks, membership and output will also be described

  9. UPWIND Metrology, Deliverable D 1A2.1, List of measurement Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose

    performance measurements - Improvement of aerodynamic codes - Assessment of wind resources In general terms the uncertainty of the testing techniques and methods are typically much higher than the need. Since this problem covers many areas of wind energy, the work package is de-fined as a crosscutting...... activity. The problem is especially relevant for the following areas: Production related - Power performance testing especially in wind farms - Testing of turbine improvements in the order of several percent - Testing of aerodynamic codes - Testing of turbine response to effects such as turbulence...... profiles, turbulence, surface shear recovery distances etc) - Measurements of the interaction wind farms and microclimate The objectives of the metrology work package are to develop metrology tools in wind energy to significantly enhance the quality of measurement and testing techniques. The development...

  10. Advanced applications of scatterometry based optical metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Dhairya; Keller, Nick; Kagalwala, Taher; Recchia, Fiona; Lifshitz, Yevgeny; Elia, Alexander; Todi, Vinit; Fronheiser, Jody; Vaid, Alok

    2017-03-01

    The semiconductor industry continues to drive patterning solutions that enable devices with higher memory storage capacity, faster computing performance, and lower cost per transistor. These developments in the field of semiconductor manufacturing along with the overall minimization of the size of transistors require continuous development of metrology tools used for characterization of these complex 3D device architectures. Optical scatterometry or optical critical dimension (OCD) is one of the most prevalent inline metrology techniques in semiconductor manufacturing because it is a quick, precise and non-destructive metrology technique. However, at present OCD is predominantly used to measure the feature dimensions such as line-width, height, side-wall angle, etc. of the patterned nano structures. Use of optical scatterometry for characterizing defects such as pitch-walking, overlay, line edge roughness, etc. is fairly limited. Inspection of process induced abnormalities is a fundamental part of process yield improvement. It provides process engineers with important information about process errors, and consequently helps optimize materials and process parameters. Scatterometry is an averaging technique and extending it to measure the position of local process induced defectivity and feature-to-feature variation is extremely challenging. This report is an overview of applications and benefits of using optical scatterometry for characterizing defects such as pitch-walking, overlay and fin bending for advanced technology nodes beyond 7nm. Currently, the optical scatterometry is based on conventional spectroscopic ellipsometry and spectroscopic reflectometry measurements, but generalized ellipsometry or Mueller matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry data provides important, additional information about complex structures that exhibit anisotropy and depolarization effects. In addition the symmetry-antisymmetry properties associated with Mueller matrix (MM) elements

  11. Analysis of key technologies for virtual instruments metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guixiong; Xu, Qingui; Gao, Furong; Guan, Qiuju; Fang, Qiang

    2008-12-01

    Virtual instruments (VIs) require metrological verification when applied as measuring instruments. Owing to the software-centered architecture, metrological evaluation of VIs includes two aspects: measurement functions and software characteristics. Complexity of software imposes difficulties on metrological testing of VIs. Key approaches and technologies for metrology evaluation of virtual instruments are investigated and analyzed in this paper. The principal issue is evaluation of measurement uncertainty. The nature and regularity of measurement uncertainty caused by software and algorithms can be evaluated by modeling, simulation, analysis, testing and statistics with support of powerful computing capability of PC. Another concern is evaluation of software features like correctness, reliability, stability, security and real-time of VIs. Technologies from software engineering, software testing and computer security domain can be used for these purposes. For example, a variety of black-box testing, white-box testing and modeling approaches can be used to evaluate the reliability of modules, components, applications and the whole VI software. The security of a VI can be assessed by methods like vulnerability scanning and penetration analysis. In order to facilitate metrology institutions to perform metrological verification of VIs efficiently, an automatic metrological tool for the above validation is essential. Based on technologies of numerical simulation, software testing and system benchmarking, a framework for the automatic tool is proposed in this paper. Investigation on implementation of existing automatic tools that perform calculation of measurement uncertainty, software testing and security assessment demonstrates the feasibility of the automatic framework advanced.

  12. Metrology for WEST components design and integration optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, C.; Archambeau, G.; Blanc, L.; Bucalossi, J.; Chantant, M.; Gargiulo, L.; Hermenier, A.; Le, R.; Pilia, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Metrology methods. • Interests of metrology campaign to optimize margins by reducing uncertainties. • Assembly problems are solved and validated on a numerical mock up. • Post treatment of full 3DScan of the vacuum vessel. - Abstract: On WEST new components will be implemented in an existing environment, emphasis has to be put on the metrology to optimize the design and the assembly. Hence, at a particular stage of the project, several components have to coexist in the limited vessel. Therefore, all the difficulty consists in validating the mechanical interfaces between existing components and new one; minimize the risk of the assembling and to maximize the plasma volume. The CEA/IRFM takes the opportunity of the ambitious project to sign a partnership with an industrial specialized in multipurpose metrology domains. To optimize the assembly procedure, the IRFM Assembly group works in strong collaboration with its industrial, to define and plan the campaigns of metrology. The paper will illustrate the organization, methods and results of the dedicated metrology campaigns have been defined and carried out in the WEST dis/assembly phase. To conclude, the future needs of metrology at CEA/IRFM will be exposed to define the next steps.

  13. Metrology network: a case study on the metrology network of defense and security from SIBRATEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Marisa Ferraz Figueira

    2016-01-01

    This study is focused on understanding the effects of the infrastructure improvement of these laboratories and the role of network management in offering support and metrological services to the defense and security sector enterprises, within the project purposes. It is also aimed identify gaps on offering calibration and, or testing services to supply demands of the defense and security industries, and analyze adequacy of RDS project to demands of defense and security industries, with the purpose to contribute with information for future actions. The experimental research is qualitative type, with exploratory research characteristics, based on case study. It was structured in two parts, involving primary data collection and secondary data. In order to collect the primary data two questionnaires were prepared, one (Questionnaire A) to the five RDS laboratories representatives and other (Questionnaire B) to the contacts of 63 defense and security enterprises which need calibration and test services, possible customers of RDS laboratories. Answers from four representatives of RDS laboratories and from 26 defense and security enterprises were obtained. The collection of secondary data was obtained from documentary research. The analysis was made based on five dimensions defined in order to organize and improve the understanding of the research setting. They are RDS project coverage, regional, network management, metrological traceability and importance and visibility of RDS. The results indicated that the performance of RDS does not interfere, by that time, in the metrological traceability of the products of the defense and security enterprises that participated in the research. (author)

  14. Radionuclide metrology research for nuclear site decommissioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, S. M.; Regan, P. H.

    2017-11-01

    The safe and cost-effective decommissioning of legacy nuclear sites relies on accurate measurement of the radioactivity content of the waste materials, so that the waste can be assigned to the most appropriate disposal route. Such measurements are a new challenge for the science of radionuclide metrology which was established largely to support routine measurements on operating nuclear sites and other applications such as nuclear medicine. In this paper, we provide a brief summary of the international measurement system that is established to enable nuclear site operators to demonstrate that measurements are accurate, independent and fit for purpose, and highlight some of the projects that are underway to adapt the measurement system to meet the changing demands from the industry.

  15. Plant equipment services with laser metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, J.H.; Kreitman, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    A new industrial metrology process is now being applied to support PWR Nuclear Plant Steam Generator Replacement Projects. The method uses laser tracking interferometry to perform as built surveys of existing and replacement plant equipment. This method provides precision data with a minimum of setup when compared to alternative methods available. In addition there is no post processing required to ascertain validity. The data is obtained quickly, processed in real time and displayed during the survey in the desired coordinate system. These capabilities make this method of industrial measure ideal for various data acquisition needs throughout the power industry, from internal/external equipment templating to area mapping. Laser tracking interferometry is an improvement on the present use of optical instruments and surveying technique. In order to describe the laser tracking interferometry measurement process, previous methods of templating and surveying are first reviewed

  16. Coordinate metrology accuracy of systems and measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Sładek, Jerzy A

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on effective methods for assessing the accuracy of both coordinate measuring systems and coordinate measurements. It mainly reports on original research work conducted by Sladek’s team at Cracow University of Technology’s Laboratory of Coordinate Metrology. The book describes the implementation of different methods, including artificial neural networks, the Matrix Method, the Monte Carlo method and the virtual CMM (Coordinate Measuring Machine), and demonstrates how these methods can be effectively used in practice to gauge the accuracy of coordinate measurements. Moreover, the book includes an introduction to the theory of measurement uncertainty and to key techniques for assessing measurement accuracy. All methods and tools are presented in detail, using suitable mathematical formulations and illustrated with numerous examples. The book fills an important gap in the literature, providing readers with an advanced text on a topic that has been rapidly developing in recent years. The book...

  17. Ionising radiation metrology for the metallurgical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Toraño E.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Every year millions tons of steel are produced worldwide from recycled scrap loads. Although the detection systems in the steelworks prevent most orphan radioactive sources from entering the furnace, there is still the possibility of accidentally melting a radioactive source. The MetroMetal project, carried out in the frame of the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP, addresses this problem by studying the existing measurement systems, developing sets of reference sources in various matrices (cast steel, slag, fume dust and proposing new detection instruments. This paper presents the key lines of the project and describes the preparation of radioactive sources as well as the intercomparison exercises used to test the calibration and correction methods proposed within the project.

  18. X-ray metrology for ULSI structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, D. K.; Matney, K. M.; Wormington, M.

    1998-01-01

    Non-destructive X-ray metrological methods are discussed for application to both process development and process control of ULSI structures. X-ray methods can (a) detect the unacceptable levels of internal defects generated by RTA processes in large wafers, (b) accurately measure the thickness and roughness of layers between 1 and 1000 nm thick and (c) can monitor parameters such as crystallographic texture and the roughness of buried interfaces. In this paper we review transmission X-ray topography, thin film texture measurement, grazing-incidence X-ray reflectivity and high-resolution X-ray diffraction. We discuss in particular their suitability as on-line sensors for process control

  19. Plutonium glove boxes - metrology and operational states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyer, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The main objective was to undertake a literature review in support of NII's ongoing work in improving safety in the nuclear industry to help define suitable standards of cleanliness for plutonium glove boxes. This is to cover the following areas: existing or proposed national/international standards relating to plutonium glove box cleanliness management; practicable metrology options for assessing the plutonium content of glove boxes; any available dose information relating to the operation of modern and 'old design'; current contamination levels of specific significance (i.e. any accepted level in decommissioning/waste terms, typical criticality limits (if available), any box plutonium loadings that are documented with corresponding operator doses etc.); and, techniques for the decontamination of plutonium glove boxes and their relative effectiveness. This should then form the basis of any further development work undertaken by the UK nuclear industry. Main recommendations are as follows: 1) No information could be found in open literature on acceptable levels of contamination in boxes and action levels for cleanup. If these are not available in closed publications the 2) Where possible, the decontamination methods identified should be tested and dose information recorded against each method to allow informed decisions on which is the optimum technique for a particular form of contamination. 3) Consideration should be given to utilisation of metrology options which have the lowest potential for exposure of operators. Preferred options, may be detection from the outside of boxes using hand-held or permanently located radiation detectors, or semi-intrusive methods such as air-ionisation readings which would require one-off installation of detectors in ductwork

  20. IT Security Standards and Legal Metrology - Transfer and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, F.; Hartmann, V.; Grottker, U.; Richter, D.

    2014-08-01

    Legal Metrology's requirements can be transferred into the IT security domain applying a generic set of standardized rules provided by the Common Criteria (ISO/IEC 15408). We will outline the transfer and cross validation of such an approach. As an example serves the integration of Legal Metrology's requirements into a recently developed Common Criteria based Protection Profile for a Smart Meter Gateway designed under the leadership of the Germany's Federal Office for Information Security. The requirements on utility meters laid down in the Measuring Instruments Directive (MID) are incorporated. A verification approach to check for meeting Legal Metrology's requirements by their interpretation through Common Criteria's generic requirements is also presented.

  1. Trapped atomic ions for quantum-limited metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wineland, David

    2017-04-01

    Laser-beam-manipulated trapped ions are a candidate for large-scale quantum information processing and quantum simulation but the basic techniques used can also be applied to quantum-limited metrology and sensing. Some examples being explored at NIST are: 1) As charged harmonic oscillators, trapped ions can be used to sense electric fields; this can be used to characterize the electrode-surface-based noisy electric fields that compromise logic-gate fidelities and may eventually be used as a tool in surface science. 2) Since typical qubit logic gates depend on state-dependent forces, we can adapt the gate dynamics to sensitively detect additional forces. 3) We can use extensions of Bell inequality measurements to further restrict the degree of local realism possessed by Bell states. 4) We also briefly describe experiments for creation of Bell states using Hilbert space engineering. This work is a joint effort including the Ion-Storage group, the Quantum processing group, and the Computing and Communications Theory group at NIST, Boulder. Supported by IARPA, ONR, and the NIST Quantum Information Program.

  2. Performance-based gear metrology kinematic, transmission, error computation and diagnosis

    CERN Document Server

    Mark, William D

    2012-01-01

    A mathematically rigorous explanation of how manufacturing deviations and damage on the working surfaces of gear teeth cause transmission-error contributions to vibration excitations Some gear-tooth working-surface manufacturing deviations of significant amplitude cause negligible vibration excitation and noise, yet others of minuscule amplitude are a source of significant vibration excitation and noise.   Presently available computer-numerically-controlled dedicated gear metrology equipment can measure such error patterns on a gear in a few hours in sufficient detail to enable

  3. Metrology of variable-line-spacing x-ray gratings using the APS Long Trace Profiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheung, Janet; Qian, Jun; Sullivan, Joseph; Thomasset, Muriel; Manton, Jonathan; Bean, Sunil; Takacs, Peter; Dvorak, Joseph; Assoufid, Lahsen

    2017-09-01

    As resolving power targets have increased with each generation of beamlines commissioned in synchrotron radiation facilities worldwide, diffraction gratings are quickly becoming crucial optical components for meeting performance targets. However, the metrology of variable-line-spacing (VLS) gratings for high resolution beamlines is not widespread; in particular, no metrology facility at any US DOE facility is currently equipped to fully characterize such gratings. To begin to address this issue, the Optics Group at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne, in collaboration with SOLEIL and with support from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), has developed an alternative beam path addition to the Long Trace Profiler (LTP) at Argonne's Advanced Photon Source. This significantly expands the functionality of the LTP not only to measure mirrors surface slope profile at normal incidence, but also to characterize the groove density of VLS diffraction gratings in the Littrow incidence up to 79°, which covers virtually all diffraction gratings used at synchrotrons in the first order. The LTP light source is a 20mW HeNe laser, which yields enough signal for diffraction measurements to be performed on low angle blazed gratings optimized for soft X-ray wavelengths. We will present the design of the beam path, technical requirements for the optomechanics, and our data analysis procedure. Finally, we discuss challenges still to be overcome and potential limitations with use of the LTP to perform metrology on diffraction gratings.

  4. Metrology for environment and climate; Metrologie fuer Umwelt und Klima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, Klaus-Dieter [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany). Abt. ' Chemische Physik und Explosionsschutz' ; Spitzer, Petra [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe ' Elektrochemie'

    2012-12-15

    The author describes the observation and monitoring systems developed by the EU and the Federal Republic of Germany. In this connection the metrological aims are described in connection with the activities of the PTB. (HSI)

  5. Joint Research on Scatterometry and AFM Wafer Metrology

    OpenAIRE

    Bodermann, B.; Buhr, E.; Danzebrink, H.U.; Bär, M.; Scholze, F.; Krumrey, M.; Wurm, M.; Klapetek, P.; Hansen, P.E.; Korpelainen, V.; Van Veghel, M.; Yacoot, A.; Siitonen, S.; El Gawhary, O.; Burger, S.

    2011-01-01

    Supported by the European Commission and EURAMET, a consortium of 10 participants from national metrology institutes, universities and companies has started a joint research project with the aim of overcoming current challenges in optical scatterometry for traceable linewidth metrology. Both experimental and modelling methods will be enhanced and different methods will be compared with each other and with specially adapted atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) m...

  6. Metrology of radiation protection. Pt. 1. Physical requirements and terminology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, S R

    1979-10-01

    Starting from a general consideration of the needs for radiation protection the physical requirements of a relevant metrology are developed. The expedient physical quantities are introduced and problems in the realization and dissemination of their units discussed. It is shown that owing to these difficulties, derived or operational quantities have to be developed for the construction and calibration of practical measuring instruments. Finally the relations between the metrology of radiation protection and of medical radiology are pointed out and commented. (orig.).

  7. Optical vortex metrology for non-destructive testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, W.; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2009-01-01

    Based on the phase singularities in optical fields, we introduce a new technique, referred to as Optical Vortex Metrology, and demonstrate its application to nano- displacement, flow measurements and biological kinematic analysis.......Based on the phase singularities in optical fields, we introduce a new technique, referred to as Optical Vortex Metrology, and demonstrate its application to nano- displacement, flow measurements and biological kinematic analysis....

  8. Metrology in electricity and magnetism: EURAMET activities today and tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piquemal, F.; Jeckelmann, B.; Callegaro, L.; Hällström, J.; Janssen, T. J. B. M.; Melcher, J.; Rietveld, G.; Siegner, U.; Wright, P.; Zeier, M.

    2017-10-01

    Metrology dedicated to electricity and magnetism has changed considerably in recent years. It encompasses almost all modern scientific, industrial, and societal challenges, e.g. the revision of the International System of Units, the profound transformation of industry, changes in energy use and generation, health, and environment, as well as nanotechnologies (including graphene and 2D materials) and quantum engineering. Over the same period, driven by the globalization of worldwide trade, the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (referred to as the CIPM MRA) was set up. As a result, the regional metrology organizations (RMOs) of national metrology institutes have grown in significance. EURAMET is the European RMO and has been very prominent in developing a strategic research agenda (SRA) and has established a comprehensive research programme. This paper reviews the highlights of EURAMET in electrical metrology within the European Metrology Research Programme and its main contributions to the CIPM MRA. In 2012 EURAMET undertook an extensive roadmapping exercise for proposed activities for the next decade which will also be discussed in this paper. This work has resulted in a new SRA of the second largest European funding programme: European Metrology Programme for Innovation and Research.

  9. A primary mirror metrology system for the GMT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakich, A.

    2016-07-01

    The Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT)1 is a 25 m "doubly segmented" telescope composed of seven 8.4 m "unit Gregorian telescopes", on a common mount. Each primary and secondary mirror segment will ideally lie on the geometrical surface of the corresponding rotationally symmetrical full aperture optical element. Therefore, each primary and conjugated secondary mirror segment will feed a common instrument interface, their focal planes co-aligned and cophased. First light with a subset of four unit telescopes is currently scheduled for 2022. The project is currently considering an important aspect of the assembly, integration and verification (AIV) phase of the project. This paper will discuss a dedicated system to directly characterize the on-sky performance of the M1 segments, independently of the M2 subsystem. A Primary Mirror Metrology System (PMS) is proposed. The main purpose of this system will be to he4lp determine the rotation axis of an instrument rotator (the Gregorian Instrument Rotator or GIR in this case) and then to characterize the deflections and deformations of the M1 segments with respect to this axis as a function of gravity and temperature. The metrology system will incorporate a small (180 mm diameter largest element) prime focus corrector (PFC) that simultaneously feeds a risk reduction during AIV; it allows an on-sky characterization of the primary mirror segments and cells, without the complications of other optical elements. The PMS enables a very useful alignment strategy that constrains each primary mirror segments' optical axes to follow the GIR axis to within a few arc seconds. An additional attractive feature of the incorporation of the PMS into the AIV plan, is that it allows first on-sky telescope operations to occur with a system of considerably less optical and control complexity than the final doubly segmented Gregorian telescope configuration. This paper first discusses the strategic rationale for a PMS. Next the system itself is

  10. Some answers to new challenges in optical metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osten, W.

    2008-09-01

    The visible trend in the implementation of new technologies and creation of new products is the continuous reduction of feature sizes. However, in the same way as the feature sizes are decreasing, the theoretical and practical constraints of making them and ensuring their quality are increasing. Consequently, modern production and inspection technologies are confronted with a bundle of challenges. An important barrier for optical imaging and sensing is the diffraction limited lateral resolution. The observation of this physical limitation is of increasing importance, not only for microscopic techniques but also for the application of 3D-measurement techniques on wafer scale level. A further challenge is the reliable detection of imperfections and material faults within the production chain. This means in-line metrology/defectoscopy is a must for future production systems. Only the real-time feedback of the inspection results into the production process can contribute to a consistent quality assurance in processes with high cost risk. Moreover the reliable measurement of free form surfaces, both technical and optical, the assurance of the traceability and the certified assessment of the uncertainty of the measurement results are ongoing challenges. The challenges and the physical limitations are addressed here by new approaches for testing semiconductor structures with enhanced resolution, the measurement of aspheric lenses with increased flexibility and the inspection of micro components with improved traceability.

  11. Chemical metrology, strategic job for the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gras, Nuri; Munoz, Luis; Cortes, Eduardo

    2001-01-01

    The National Standardization Institute's (INN) Metrology unit prepared a study in 1996 to evaluate the impact of metrological activity in Chile. This study was based on a survey of the supply and demand of metrological services and on studies of the behavior of the production system and technological services in Chile during the period 1990-1996. With the information obtained in this study the economic impact resulting from the lack of a national metrology system could be evaluated. This impact was estimated to be a 5% loss in gross national product equal to 125-500 million dollars because of direct product rejection in the mining, fisheries, agricultural and manufacturing sectors. Chemical measurements are responsible for 50% of these losses. In response to this need and coordinated by the INN, a metrological network of reference laboratories began to operate in 1997 for the principal physical magnitudes (mass, temperature, longitude and force) and a CORFO-FDI project began in 2001 that includes the chemical magnitudes. The Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, aware of the problem's importance and the amount of economic damage that the country may suffer, as a result of these deficiencies, has formed a Chemical Metrology Unit to provide technical support. It aims to raise the standards of local analytical laboratories by providing international recognition to the export sector. Nuclear analytical techniques are used as reference methods. This work describes the laboratories that are included in this Chemical Metrology Unit and the historical contribution to the development of local analytical chemistry. The national and international projects are described together with the publications they have generated. The quality assurance program applied to the laboratories is described as well, which has led to the accreditation of the analytical chemical assays. The procedures used for validation and calculation of uncertain nuclear methodologies are described together with

  12. Metrology Sampling Strategies for Process Monitoring Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Vincent, Tyrone L.

    2011-11-01

    Shrinking process windows in very large scale integration semiconductor manufacturing have already necessitated the development of control systems capable of addressing sub-lot-level variation. Within-wafer control is the next milestone in the evolution of advanced process control from lot-based and wafer-based control. In order to adequately comprehend and control within-wafer spatial variation, inline measurements must be performed at multiple locations across the wafer. At the same time, economic pressures prompt a reduction in metrology, for both capital and cycle-time reasons. This paper explores the use of modeling and minimum-variance prediction as a method to select the sites for measurement on each wafer. The models are developed using the standard statistical tools of principle component analysis and canonical correlation analysis. The proposed selection method is validated using real manufacturing data, and results indicate that it is possible to significantly reduce the number of measurements with little loss in the information obtained for the process control systems. © 2011 IEEE.

  13. Building versatile bipartite probes for quantum metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farace, Alessandro; De Pasquale, Antonella; Adesso, Gerardo; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    We consider bipartite systems as versatile probes for the estimation of transformations acting locally on one of the subsystems. We investigate what resources are required for the probes to offer a guaranteed level of metrological performance, when the latter is averaged over specific sets of local transformations. We quantify such a performance via the average skew information (AvSk), a convex quantity which we compute in closed form for bipartite states of arbitrary dimensions, and which is shown to be strongly dependent on the degree of local purity of the probes. Our analysis contrasts and complements the recent series of studies focused on the minimum, rather than the average, performance of bipartite probes in local estimation tasks, which was instead determined by quantum correlations other than entanglement. We provide explicit prescriptions to characterize the most reliable states maximizing the AvSk, and elucidate the role of state purity, separability and correlations in the classification of optimal probes. Our results can help in the identification of useful resources for sensing, estimation and discrimination applications when complete knowledge of the interaction mechanism realizing the local transformation is unavailable, and access to pure entangled probes is technologically limited.

  14. Metrology of ionizing radiations and environmental measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nourreddine, Abdel-Mjid

    2008-01-01

    The subject of radiation protection covers all measurements taken by the authorities to ensure protection of the population and its environment against the harmful effects of ionizing radiation. Dosimetry occupies an important place in this field, because it makes it possible to consider and to quantify the risk of using radiations in accordance with the prescribed limits. In this course, we will review the fundamental concepts used in the metrology and dosimetry of ionizing radiations. After classification of ionizing radiations according to their interactions with biological matter, we will present the various quantities and units brought into play and in particular the new operational quantities that are good estimators raising protection standards. They are directly connected to the annual limits of effective dose and of equivalent dose defined in the French regulation relating to the protection of the population and of workers against ionizing radiations. The average natural exposure of the population in France varies between 2 to 2.5 mSv per year, depending on geographic location. It comes principally from three sources: cosmic radiation, radioactive elements contained in the ground and radioactive elements that we absorb when breathing or eating. Radon, which is a naturally occurring radioactive gas, is a public health risk and represents 30% of the exposure. Finally, we will give some applications of dosimetry and environmental measurements developed recently at RaMsEs/IPHC laboratory of Strasbourg. (author)

  15. Metrological characterization of 3D imaging devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidi, G.

    2013-04-01

    Manufacturers often express the performance of a 3D imaging device in various non-uniform ways for the lack of internationally recognized standard requirements for metrological parameters able to identify the capability of capturing a real scene. For this reason several national and international organizations in the last ten years have been developing protocols for verifying such performance. Ranging from VDI/VDE 2634, published by the Association of German Engineers and oriented to the world of mechanical 3D measurements (triangulation-based devices), to the ASTM technical committee E57, working also on laser systems based on direct range detection (TOF, Phase Shift, FM-CW, flash LADAR), this paper shows the state of the art about the characterization of active range devices, with special emphasis on measurement uncertainty, accuracy and resolution. Most of these protocols are based on special objects whose shape and size are certified with a known level of accuracy. By capturing the 3D shape of such objects with a range device, a comparison between the measured points and the theoretical shape they should represent is possible. The actual deviations can be directly analyzed or some derived parameters can be obtained (e.g. angles between planes, distances between barycenters of spheres rigidly connected, frequency domain parameters, etc.). This paper shows theoretical aspects and experimental results of some novel characterization methods applied to different categories of active 3D imaging devices based on both principles of triangulation and direct range detection.

  16. Building versatile bipartite probes for quantum metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farace, Alessandro; Pasquale, Antonella De; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Adesso, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    We consider bipartite systems as versatile probes for the estimation of transformations acting locally on one of the subsystems. We investigate what resources are required for the probes to offer a guaranteed level of metrological performance, when the latter is averaged over specific sets of local transformations. We quantify such a performance via the average skew information (AvSk), a convex quantity which we compute in closed form for bipartite states of arbitrary dimensions, and which is shown to be strongly dependent on the degree of local purity of the probes. Our analysis contrasts and complements the recent series of studies focused on the minimum, rather than the average, performance of bipartite probes in local estimation tasks, which was instead determined by quantum correlations other than entanglement. We provide explicit prescriptions to characterize the most reliable states maximizing the AvSk, and elucidate the role of state purity, separability and correlations in the classification of optimal probes. Our results can help in the identification of useful resources for sensing, estimation and discrimination applications when complete knowledge of the interaction mechanism realizing the local transformation is unavailable, and access to pure entangled probes is technologically limited. (paper)

  17. Nanomanufacturing metrology for cellulosic nanomaterials: an update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postek, Michael T.

    2014-08-01

    The development of the metrology and standards for advanced manufacturing of cellulosic nanomaterials (or basically, wood-based nanotechnology) is imperative to the success of this rising economic sector. Wood-based nanotechnology is a revolutionary technology that will create new jobs and strengthen America's forest-based economy through industrial development and expansion. It allows this, previously perceived, low-tech industry to leap-frog directly into high-tech products and processes and thus improves its current economic slump. Recent global investments in nanotechnology programs have led to a deeper appreciation of the high performance nature of cellulose nanomaterials. Cellulose, manufactured to the smallest possible-size ( 2 nm x 100 nm), is a high-value material that enables products to be lighter and stronger; have less embodied energy; utilize no catalysts in the manufacturing, are biologically compatible and, come from a readily renewable resource. In addition to the potential for a dramatic impact on the national economy - estimated to be as much as $250 billion worldwide by 2020 - cellulose-based nanotechnology creates a pathway for expanded and new markets utilizing these renewable materials. The installed capacity associated with the US pulp and paper industry represents an opportunity, with investment, to rapidly move to large scale production of nano-based materials. However, effective imaging, characterization and fundamental measurement science for process control and characterization are lacking at the present time. This talk will discuss some of these needed measurements and potential solutions.

  18. Advanced overlay analysis through design based metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Sunkeun; Yoo, Gyun; Jo, Gyoyeon; Kang, Hyunwoo; Park, Minwoo; Kim, Jungchan; Park, Chanha; Yang, Hyunjo; Yim, Donggyu; Maruyama, Kotaro; Park, Byungjun; Yamamoto, Masahiro

    2015-03-01

    As design rule shrink, overlay has been critical factor for semiconductor manufacturing. However, the overlay error which is determined by a conventional measurement with an overlay mark based on IBO and DBO often does not represent the physical placement error in the cell area. The mismatch may arise from the size or pitch difference between the overlay mark and the cell pattern. Pattern distortion caused by etching or CMP also can be a source of the mismatch. In 2014, we have demonstrated that method of overlay measurement in the cell area by using DBM (Design Based Metrology) tool has more accurate overlay value than conventional method by using an overlay mark. We have verified the reproducibility by measuring repeatable patterns in the cell area, and also demonstrated the reliability by comparing with CD-SEM data. We have focused overlay mismatching between overlay mark and cell area until now, further more we have concerned with the cell area having different pattern density and etch loading. There appears a phenomenon which has different overlay values on the cells with diverse patterning environment. In this paper, the overlay error was investigated from cell edge to center. For this experiment, we have verified several critical layers in DRAM by using improved(Better resolution and speed) DBM tool, NGR3520.

  19. TSOM Method for Nanoelectronics Dimensional Metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attota, Ravikiran

    2011-01-01

    Through-focus scanning optical microscopy (TSOM) is a relatively new method that transforms conventional optical microscopes into truly three-dimensional metrology tools for nanoscale to microscale dimensional analysis. TSOM achieves this by acquiring and analyzing a set of optical images collected at various focus positions going through focus (from above-focus to under-focus). The measurement resolution is comparable to what is possible with typical light scatterometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). TSOM method is able to identify nanometer scale difference, type of the difference and magnitude of the difference between two nano/micro scale targets using a conventional optical microscope with visible wavelength illumination. Numerous industries could benefit from the TSOM method--such as the semiconductor industry, MEMS, NEMS, biotechnology, nanomanufacturing, data storage, and photonics. The method is relatively simple and inexpensive, has a high throughput, provides nanoscale sensitivity for 3D measurements and could enable significant savings and yield improvements in nanometrology and nanomanufacturing. Potential applications are demonstrated using experiments and simulations.

  20. Evaluation of metrology technologies for free form surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arámbula, K.; Siller, H.R.; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    equipment when measuring free form components. Results demonstrate that there is the imperative need to assess the uncertainty and reproducibility of CT and photogrammetry measurements by applying some calibration procedures taking into account some recommendations for work piece alignment. This article...

  1. Radionuclide metrology: traceability and response to a radiological accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tauhata, L.; Cruz, P.A.L. da; Silva, C.J. da; Delgado, J.U.; Oliveira, A.E. de; Oliveira, E.M. de; Poledna, R.; Loureiro, J. dos S.; Ferreira Filho, A.L.; Silva, R.L. da; Filho, O. L.T.; Santos, A.R.L. dos; Veras, E.V. de; Rangel, J. de A.; Quadros, A.L.L.; Araújo, M.T.F. de; Souza, P.S. de; Ruzzarim, A.; Conceição, D.A. da; Iwahara, A., E-mail: palcruz@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (LNMRI/IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. Nacional de Metrologia das Radiações Ionizantes

    2017-07-01

    In the case of a radiological accident, there are characteristic phases: discovery and initial assistance with first aid; the triage and monitoring of the affected population; the release of the affected people; forward the victims to medical care; as well as the preparation of the report on the accident. In addition, studies and associated researches performed in the later period. Monitors, dosimeters and measuring systems should be calibrated by contaminating radionuclide standards. The radioactive sources used must be metrologically reliable. In Brazil, this function is performed by LNMRI/IRD/CNEN, designated by INMETRO, which Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory is responsible for the standardization and supply of radioactive sources in diverse geometries and matrices. This laboratory has a stock of radionuclide solutions with controlled environmental variables for the preparation of sources, which are calibrated and standardized by mean of primary and secondary systems. It is also responsible for the dissemination of standards and, in order to establish the metrological traceability of national standards, participates in international key-comparisons promoted by BIPM and regional metrology organizations. Internally, it promotes the National Comparison Programs for laboratories for the analysis of environmental samples and the traceability for producing centers of radiopharmaceuticals and Nuclear Medicine Services in the country. The paper presents the demand for {sup 137}Cs related to the radioactive accident in Goiania/Brazil and the significant results for the main radionuclides standardized by the Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory for international key-comparisons and national comparisons to provide metrological traceability. With the obtained results, the LNMRI of Brazil integrates the international metrology BIPM network and fulfills its function of supplying, with about a hundred of radioactive standards, the country's needs in different applications

  2. Radionuclide metrology: traceability and response to a radiological accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauhata, L.; Cruz, P.A.L. da; Silva, C.J. da; Delgado, J.U.; Oliveira, A.E. de; Oliveira, E.M. de; Poledna, R.; Loureiro, J. dos S.; Ferreira Filho, A.L.; Silva, R.L. da; Filho, O. L.T.; Santos, A.R.L. dos; Veras, E.V. de; Rangel, J. de A.; Quadros, A.L.L.; Araújo, M.T.F. de; Souza, P.S. de; Ruzzarim, A.; Conceição, D.A. da; Iwahara, A.

    2017-01-01

    In the case of a radiological accident, there are characteristic phases: discovery and initial assistance with first aid; the triage and monitoring of the affected population; the release of the affected people; forward the victims to medical care; as well as the preparation of the report on the accident. In addition, studies and associated researches performed in the later period. Monitors, dosimeters and measuring systems should be calibrated by contaminating radionuclide standards. The radioactive sources used must be metrologically reliable. In Brazil, this function is performed by LNMRI/IRD/CNEN, designated by INMETRO, which Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory is responsible for the standardization and supply of radioactive sources in diverse geometries and matrices. This laboratory has a stock of radionuclide solutions with controlled environmental variables for the preparation of sources, which are calibrated and standardized by mean of primary and secondary systems. It is also responsible for the dissemination of standards and, in order to establish the metrological traceability of national standards, participates in international key-comparisons promoted by BIPM and regional metrology organizations. Internally, it promotes the National Comparison Programs for laboratories for the analysis of environmental samples and the traceability for producing centers of radiopharmaceuticals and Nuclear Medicine Services in the country. The paper presents the demand for 137 Cs related to the radioactive accident in Goiania/Brazil and the significant results for the main radionuclides standardized by the Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory for international key-comparisons and national comparisons to provide metrological traceability. With the obtained results, the LNMRI of Brazil integrates the international metrology BIPM network and fulfills its function of supplying, with about a hundred of radioactive standards, the country's needs in different applications

  3. Effect of measurement error budgets and hybrid metrology on qualification metrology sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendelbach, Matthew; Sarig, Niv; Wakamoto, Koichi; Kim, Hyang Kyun (Helen); Isbester, Paul; Asano, Masafumi; Matsuki, Kazuto; Osorio, Carmen; Archie, Chas

    2014-10-01

    Until now, metrologists had no statistics-based method to determine the sampling needed for an experiment before the start that accuracy experiment. We show a solution to this problem called inverse total measurement uncertainty (TMU) analysis, by presenting statistically based equations that allow the user to estimate the needed sampling after providing appropriate inputs, allowing him to make important "risk versus reward" sampling, cost, and equipment decisions. Application examples using experimental data from scatterometry and critical dimension scanning electron microscope tools are used first to demonstrate how the inverse TMU analysis methodology can be used to make intelligent sampling decisions and then to reveal why low sampling can lead to unstable and misleading results. One model is developed that can help experimenters minimize sampling costs. A second cost model reveals the inadequacy of some current sampling practices-and the enormous costs associated with sampling that provides reasonable levels of certainty in the result. We introduce the strategies on how to manage and mitigate these costs and begin the discussion on how fabs are able to manufacture devices using minimal reference sampling when qualifying metrology steps. Finally, the relationship between inverse TMU analysis and hybrid metrology is explored.

  4. Calibration of radioprotection equipment gamma radiation at the Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation Metrology - DEN/UFPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazario, Macilene; Khoury, Helen; Hazin, Clovis

    2003-01-01

    This work presents aspects of the radioprotection equipment calibration service of the Laboratory for Metrology of Ionizing Radiations (LMRI) of the DEN/UFPE related to the calibration procedures, characteristics of the radiation beam and the evaluation of equipment calibrated in the period of 2001-2002. The LMRI-DEN/UFPE is one of the four laboratories in Brazil licensed by the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission for the execution of calibration services on area, surface contamination and personal monitors used by industries, hospitals, universities and research institutes using radioactive sources

  5. Radiation effects on optical components of a laser radar sensor designed for remote metrology in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, M.M.; Grann, E.B.; Slotwinski, A.

    1997-09-01

    A frequency modulated laser radar is being developed for in-vessel metrology and viewing of plasma-facing surfaces. Some optical components of this sensor must withstand intense gamma radiation (3 x 10 6 rad/h) during operation. The authors have tested the effect of radiation on a silica core polarization maintaining optical fiber and on TeO 2 crystals at doses up to ∼ 10 9 rad. Additional tests are planned for evaluating the performance of a complete acousto-optic (AO) scanning device. The progress made in these tests is also described

  6. Integration of mask and silicon metrology in DFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ryoichi; Mito, Hiroaki; Sugiyama, Akiyuki; Toyoda, Yasutaka

    2009-03-01

    We have developed a highly integrated method of mask and silicon metrology. The method adopts a metrology management system based on DBM (Design Based Metrology). This is the high accurate contouring created by an edge detection algorithm used in mask CD-SEM and silicon CD-SEM. We have inspected the high accuracy, stability and reproducibility in the experiments of integration. The accuracy is comparable with that of the mask and silicon CD-SEM metrology. In this report, we introduce the experimental results and the application. As shrinkage of design rule for semiconductor device advances, OPC (Optical Proximity Correction) goes aggressively dense in RET (Resolution Enhancement Technology). However, from the view point of DFM (Design for Manufacturability), the cost of data process for advanced MDP (Mask Data Preparation) and mask producing is a problem. Such trade-off between RET and mask producing is a big issue in semiconductor market especially in mask business. Seeing silicon device production process, information sharing is not completely organized between design section and production section. Design data created with OPC and MDP should be linked to process control on production. But design data and process control data are optimized independently. Thus, we provided a solution of DFM: advanced integration of mask metrology and silicon metrology. The system we propose here is composed of followings. 1) Design based recipe creation: Specify patterns on the design data for metrology. This step is fully automated since they are interfaced with hot spot coordinate information detected by various verification methods. 2) Design based image acquisition: Acquire the images of mask and silicon automatically by a recipe based on the pattern design of CD-SEM.It is a robust automated step because a wide range of design data is used for the image acquisition. 3) Contour profiling and GDS data generation: An image profiling process is applied to the acquired image based

  7. [The EFS metrology: From the production to the reason].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifenberg, J-M; Riout, E; Leroy, A; Begue, S

    2014-06-01

    In order to answer statutory requirements and to anticipate the future needs and standards, the EFS is committed, since a few years, in a process of harmonization of its metrology function. In particular, the institution has opted for the skills development by internalizing the metrological traceability of the main critical quantities (temperature, volumetric) measurements. The development of metrology so resulted in a significant increase in calibration and testing activities. Methods are homogenized and improved through accreditations. The investment strategies are based on more and more demanding specifications. The performance of the equipments is better known and mastered. Technical expertise and maturity of the national metrology function today are assets to review in more informed ways the appropriateness of the applied periodicities. Analysis of numerous information and data in the calibration and testing reports could be pooled and operated on behalf of the unique establishment. The objective of this article is to illustrate these reflections with a few examples from of a feedback of the EFS Pyrénées Méditerranée. The analysis of some methods of qualification, the exploitation of the historical metrology in order to quantify the risk of non-compliance, and to adapt the control strategy, analysis of the criticality of an instrument in a measurement process, risk analyses are tools that deserve to be more widely exploited for that discipline wins in efficiency at the national level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Introduction to quantum metrology quantum standards and instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Nawrocki, Waldemar

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the theory of quantum effects used in metrology and results of the author’s own research in the field of quantum electronics. The book provides also quantum measurement standards used in many branches of metrology for electrical quantities, mass, length, time and frequency. This book represents the first comprehensive survey of quantum metrology problems. As a scientific survey, it propagates a new approach to metrology with more emphasis on its connection with physics. This is of importance for the constantly developing technologies and nanotechnologies in particular. Providing a presentation of practical applications of the effects used in quantum metrology for the construction of quantum standards and sensitive electronic components, the book is useful for a wide audience of physicists and metrologists in the broad sense of both terms. In 2014 a new system of units, the so called  Quantum SI, is introduced. This book helps to understand and approve the new system to both technology a...

  9. Laser metrology for a next generation gravimetric mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottini, Sergio; Biondetti, Giorgio; Cesare, Stefano; Castorina, Giuseppe; Musso, Fabio; Pisani, Marco; Leone, Bruno

    2017-11-01

    Within the ESA technology research project "Laser Interferometer High Precision tracking for LEO", Thales Alenia Space Italia is developing a laser metrology system for a Next Generation Gravimetric Mission (NGGM) based on satellite-to-satellite tracking. This technique is based on the precise measurement of the displacement between two satellites flying in formation at low altitude for monitoring the variations of Earth's gravity field at high resolution over a long time period. The laser metrology system that has been defined for this mission consists of the following elements: • an heterodyne Michelson interferometer for measuring the distance variation between retroreflectors positioned on the two satellites; • an angle metrology for measuring the orientation of the laser beam in the reference frames of the two satellites; • a lateral displacement metrology for measuring the deviations of the laser beam axis from the target retro-reflector. The laser interferometer makes use of a chopped measurement beam to avoid spurious signals and nonlinearity caused by the unbalance between the strong local beam and the weak return beam. The main results of the design, development and test activities performed on the breadboard of the metrology system are summarized in this paper.

  10. Advanced X-ray Optics Metrology for Nanofocusing and Coherence Preservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Yashchuk, Valeriy

    2007-12-01

    What is the point of developing new high-brightness light sources if beamline optics won't be available to realize the goals of nano-focusing and coherence preservation? That was one of the central questions raised during a workshop at the 2007 Advanced Light Source Users Meeting. Titled, 'Advanced X-Ray Optics Metrology for Nano-focusing and Coherence Preservation', the workshop was organized by Kenneth Goldberg and Valeriy Yashchuk (both of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, LBNL), and it brought together industry representatives and researchers from Japan, Europe, and the US to discuss the state of the art and to outline the optics requirements of new light sources. Many of the presentations are viewable on the workshop website http://goldberg.lbl.gov/MetrologyWorkshop07/. Many speakers shared the same view of one of the most significant challenges facing the development of new high-brightness third and fourth generation x-ray, soft x-ray, and EUV light sources: these sources place extremely high demands on the surface quality of beamline optics. In many cases, the 1-2-nm surface error specs that define the outer bounds of 'diffraction-limited' quality are beyond the reach of leading facilities and optics vendors. To focus light to 50-nm focal spots, or smaller, from reflective optics and to preserve the high coherent flux that new sources make possible, the optical surface quality and alignment tolerances must be measured in nano-meters and nano-radians. Without a significant, well-supported research effort, including the development of new metrology techniques for use both on and off the beamline, these goals will likely not be met. The scant attention this issue has garnered is evident in the stretched budgets and limited manpower currently dedicated to metrology. With many of the world's leading groups represented at the workshop, it became clear that Japan and Europe are several steps ahead of the US in this critical area

  11. The coming of age of the first hybrid metrology software platform dedicated to nanotechnologies (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucher, Johann; Labrosse, Aurelien; Dervillé, Alexandre; Zimmermann, Yann; Bernard, Guilhem; Martinez, Sergio; Grönqvist, Hanna; Baderot, Julien; Pinzan, Florian

    2017-03-01

    The development and integration of new materials and structures at the nanoscale require multiple parallel characterizations in order to control mostly physico-chemical properties as a function of applications. Among all properties, we can list physical properties such as: size, shape, specific surface area, aspect ratio, agglomeration/aggregation state, size distribution, surface morphology/topography, structure (including crystallinity and defect structure), solubility and chemical properties such as: structural formula/molecular structure, composition (including degree of purity, known impurities or additives), phase identity, surface chemistry (composition, charge, tension, reactive sites, physical structure, photocatalytic properties, zeta potential), hydrophilicity/lipophilicity. Depending on the final material formulation (aerosol, powder, nanostructuration…) and the industrial application (semiconductor, cosmetics, chemistry, automotive…), a fleet of complementary characterization equipments must be used in synergy for accurate process tuning and high production yield. The synergy between equipment so-called hybrid metrology consists in using the strength of each technique in order to reduce the global uncertainty for better and faster process control. The only way to succeed doing this exercise is to use data fusion methodology. In this paper, we will introduce the work that has been done to create the first generic hybrid metrology software platform dedicated to nanotechnologies process control. The first part will be dedicated to process flow modeling that is related to a fleet of metrology tools. The second part will introduce the concept of entity model which describes the various parameters that have to be extracted. The entity model is fed with data analysis as a function of the application (automatic analysis or semi-automated analysis). The final part will introduce two ways of doing data fusion on real data coming from imaging (SEM, TEM, AFM

  12. Dynamic Length Metrology (DLM) for measurements with sub-micrometre uncertainty in a production environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2016-01-01

    Conventional length metrology for traceable accurate measurements requires costly temperature controlled facilities, long waiting time for part acclimatisation, and separate part material characterisation. This work describes a method called Dynamic Length Metrology (DLM) developed to achieve sub...

  13. Laser metrology and optic active control system for GAIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, F.; Bonino, L.; Cesare, S.; Castorina, G.; Mottini, S.; Bertinetto, F.; Bisi, M.; Canuto, E.; Musso, F.

    2017-11-01

    The Laser Metrology and Optic Active Control (LM&OAC) program has been carried out under ESA contract with the purpose to design and validate a laser metrology system and an actuation mechanism to monitor and control at microarcsec level the stability of the Basic Angle (angle between the lines of sight of the two telescopes) of GAIA satellite. As part of the program, a breadboard (including some EQM elements) of the laser metrology and control system has been built and submitted to functional, performance and environmental tests. In the followings we describe the mission requirements, the system architecture, the breadboard design, and finally the performed validation tests. Conclusion and appraisals from this experience are also reported.

  14. Automation of testing the metrological reliability of nondestructive control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukov, Yu.A.; Isakov, V.B.; Karlov, Yu.K.; Kovalevskij, Yu.A.

    1987-01-01

    Opportunities of microcomputers are used to solve the problem of testing control-measuring systems. Besides the main program the program of data processing when characterizing the nondestructive control systems is written in the microcomputer. The program includes two modules. The first module contains tests-programs, by which accuracy of functional elements of the microcomputer and interface elements with issuing a message to the operator on readiness of the elements for operation and failure of a certain element are determined. The second module includes: calculational programs when determining metrological reliability of measuring channel reliability, a calculational subprogram for random statistical measuring error, time instability and ''dead time''. Automation of testing metrological reliability of the nondestructive control systems increases reliability of determining metrological parameters and reduces time of system testing

  15. Joint Research on Scatterometry and AFM Wafer Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodermann, Bernd; Buhr, Egbert; Danzebrink, Hans-Ulrich; Bär, Markus; Scholze, Frank; Krumrey, Michael; Wurm, Matthias; Klapetek, Petr; Hansen, Poul-Erik; Korpelainen, Virpi; van Veghel, Marijn; Yacoot, Andrew; Siitonen, Samuli; El Gawhary, Omar; Burger, Sven; Saastamoinen, Toni

    2011-11-01

    Supported by the European Commission and EURAMET, a consortium of 10 participants from national metrology institutes, universities and companies has started a joint research project with the aim of overcoming current challenges in optical scatterometry for traceable linewidth metrology. Both experimental and modelling methods will be enhanced and different methods will be compared with each other and with specially adapted atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurement systems in measurement comparisons. Additionally novel methods for sophisticated data analysis will be developed and investigated to reach significant reductions of the measurement uncertainties in critical dimension (CD) metrology. One final goal will be the realisation of a wafer based reference standard material for calibration of scatterometers.

  16. The Act of 17 March 2000 on metrology and on changes and amendments of some acts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This act metrology for organization of unity and correctness of mensuration adapts (a) the law measurement units, (b) the requests on committed gauges and their metrological control, (c) the conditions of official mensuration, (d) the requests on consumptive packages articles; (e) the conditions of authorization and registration, (f) operation of organs of the state administration for metrology, (g) the metrological authority (h) putting of fines. This act shall into effect on 1 July 2000

  17. Metrology and analytical chemistry: Bridging the cultural gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Bernard

    2002-01-01

    Metrology in general and issues such as traceability and measurement uncertainty in particular are new to most analytical chemists and many remain to be convinced of their value. There is a danger of the cultural gap between metrologists and analytical chemists widening with unhelpful consequences and it is important that greater collaboration and cross-fertilisation is encouraged. This paper discusses some of the similarities and differences in the approaches adopted by metrologists and analytical chemists and indicates how these approaches can be combined to establish a unique metrology of chemical measurement which could be accepted by both cultures. (author)

  18. Mycotoxin metrology: Gravimetric production of zearalenone calibration solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rego, E. C. P.; Simon, M. E.; Li, Xiuqin; Li, Xiaomin; Daireaux, A.; Choteau, T.; Westwood, S.; Josephs, R. D.; Wielgosz, R. I.; Cunha, V. S.

    2018-03-01

    Food safety is a major concern for countries developing metrology and quality assurance systems, including the contamination of food and feed by mycotoxins. To improve the mycotoxin analysis and ensure the metrological traceability, CRM of calibration solution should be used. The production of certified mycotoxin solutions is a major challenge due to the limited amount of standard for conducting a proper purity study and due to the cost of standards. The CBKT project was started at BIPM and Inmetro produced gravimetrically one batch of zearelenone in acetronitrile (14.708 ± 0.016 μg/g, k=2) and conducted homogeneity, stability and value assignment studies.

  19. Forum metrology 2009: control of optics, targets and optical analyzers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desenne, D.; Andre, R.

    2010-01-01

    The 1. 'Forum Metrologie' of the CEA/DAM has been held in the 'Institut Laser et Plasma' on the December 9, 2009, close to the 'Centre d'etudes Scientifiques et Techniques d'Aquitaine'. It has been set up by the 'Departement Lasers de Puissance'. The chosen thematic was the metrology around laser experiments, with a special focus on the metrology of the dedicated optics, targets and optical analysers. The talks have shown the progress and difficulties in each of these fields. (authors)

  20. Metrology in CNEN NN 3.05/13 standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello, Marina Santiago de

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear medicine exams are widely used tools in health services for a reliable clinical and functional diagnosis of a disease. In Brazil, the National Nuclear Energy Commission, through the norm CNEN-NN 3:05/13, provides for the requirements of safety and radiological protection in nuclear medicine services. The objective of this review article was to emphasize the importance of metrology in compliance with this norm. We observed that metrology plays a vital role as it ensures the quality, accuracy, reproducibility and consistency of the measurements in the field of nuclear medicine. (author)

  1. Handbook of 3D machine vision optical metrology and imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Song

    2013-01-01

    With the ongoing release of 3D movies and the emergence of 3D TVs, 3D imaging technologies have penetrated our daily lives. Yet choosing from the numerous 3D vision methods available can be frustrating for scientists and engineers, especially without a comprehensive resource to consult. Filling this gap, Handbook of 3D Machine Vision: Optical Metrology and Imaging gives an extensive, in-depth look at the most popular 3D imaging techniques. It focuses on noninvasive, noncontact optical methods (optical metrology and imaging). The handbook begins with the well-studied method of stereo vision and

  2. Improved capacity in ionizing radiation metrology at SANAEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yucel, U.

    2014-01-01

    Full text : Turkey is planning to build nuclear power plants in the south and north coasts to supply the ever-increasing energy demand. The nuclear power plants based on old soviet technology in Armenia and Bulgaria close to Turkey's borders also makes constant monitoring of environmental radioactivity extremely important due to public health and environment contamination concerns. Radiation Metrology Division at SANAEM has been established in 2012 to provide uniformity and reliability of the measurements in the field of ionizing radiation metrology by R and D studies and by constituting, developing, keeping and extending internationally accepted reference measurement standards and techniques

  3. Dark matter: a problem in relativistic metrology?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lusanna, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Besides the tidal degrees of freedom of Einstein general relativity (GR) (namely the two polarizations of gravitational waves after linearization of the theory) there are the inertial gauge ones connected with the freedom in the choice of the 4-coordinates of the space-time, i.e. in the choice of the notions of time and 3-space (the 3+1 splitting of space-time) and in their use to define a non-inertial frame (the inertial ones being forbidden by the equivalence principle) by means of a set of conventions for the relativistic metrology of the space-time (like the GPS ones near the Earth). The canonical York basis of canonical ADM gravity allows us to identify the Hamiltonian inertial gauge variables in globally hyperbolic asymptotically Minkowskian space-times without super-translations and to define the family of non-harmonic Schwinger time gauges. In these 3+1 splittings of space-time the freedom in the choice of time (the problem of clock synchronization) is described by the inertial gauge variable York time (the trace of the extrinsic curvature of the instantaneous 3-spaces). This inertial gauge freedom and the non-Euclidean nature of the instantaneous 3-spaces required by the equivalence principle need to be incorporated as metrical conventions in a relativistic suitable extension of the existing (essentially Galilean) ICRS celestial reference system. In this paper I make a short review of the existing possibilities to explain the presence of dark matter (or at least of part of it) as a relativistic inertial effect induced by the non- Euclidean nature of the 3-spaces. After a Hamiltonian Post-Minkowskian (HPM) linearization of canonical ADM tetrad gravity with particles, having equal inertial and gravitational masses, as matter, followed by a Post-Newtonian (PN) expansion, we find that the Newtonian equality of inertial and gravitational masses breaks down and that the inertial gauge York time produces an increment of the inertial masses explaining at least

  4. Metrological evaluation of characterization methods applied to nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faeda, Kelly Cristina Martins; Lameiras, Fernando Soares; Camarano, Denise das Merces; Ferreira, Ricardo Alberto Neto; Migliorini, Fabricio Lima; Carneiro, Luciana Capanema Silva; Silva, Egonn Hendrigo Carvalho

    2010-01-01

    In manufacturing the nuclear fuel, characterizations are performed in order to assure the minimization of harmful effects. The uranium dioxide is the most used substance as nuclear reactor fuel because of many advantages, such as: high stability even when it is in contact with water at high temperatures, high fusion point, and high capacity to retain fission products. Several methods are used for characterization of nuclear fuels, such as thermogravimetric analysis for the ratio O / U, penetration-immersion method, helium pycnometer and mercury porosimetry for the density and porosity, BET method for the specific surface, chemical analyses for relevant impurities, and the laser flash method for thermophysical properties. Specific tools are needed to control the diameter and the sphericity of the microspheres and the properties of the coating layers (thickness, density, and degree of anisotropy). Other methods can also give information, such as scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, microanalysis, and mass spectroscopy of secondary ions for chemical analysis. The accuracy of measurement and level of uncertainty of the resulting data are important. This work describes a general metrological characterization of some techniques applied to the characterization of nuclear fuel. Sources of measurement uncertainty were analyzed. The purpose is to summarize selected properties of UO 2 that have been studied by CDTN in a program of fuel development for Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). The selected properties are crucial for thermalhydraulic codes to study basic design accidents. The thermal characterization (thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity) and the penetration immersion method (density and open porosity) of UO 2 samples were focused. The thermal characterization of UO 2 samples was determined by the laser flash method between room temperature and 448 K. The adaptive Monte Carlo Method was used to obtain the endpoints of the

  5. Progress in the specification of optical instruments for the measurement of surface form and texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Peter J.

    2014-05-01

    Specifications for confocal microscopes, optical interferometers and other methods of measuring areal surface topography can be confusing and misleading. The emerging ISO 25178 standards, together with the established international vocabulary of metrology, provide a foundation for improved specifications for 3D surface metrology instrumentation. The approach in this paper links instrument specifications to metrological characteristics that can influence a measurement, using consistent definitions of terms, and reference to verification procedures.

  6. 8th Brazilian Congress on Metrology (Metrologia 2015)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    THE EIGHTH BRAZILIAN CONGRESS ON METROLOGY (METROLOGIA 2015) The United Nations celebrated 2015 as the International Year of Light. By a curious coincidence, many notable events in science and technology completed a multiple of 50 or 100 years in 2015. From the pioneering work of the wise Ibn Al-Haytham in 1015, through Fresnel, Maxwell, Einstein, the discovery of the cosmic microwave background, to the use of optical fibres in communications in 1965. Electromagnetic radiation is present in our daily lives in countless applications. It is remarkable that there is no way to think about these applications without thinking of measurements. From entangled photons to more prosaic public illumination of our daily life, we are intrinsically connected all the time with the luminous phenomena. Among other things, the light allows global communication on a large scale. It strengthens the internationalization of production processes, which brings considerable changes in relations, processes and economic structures, as well as it orients the social, political and cultural behaviour of any country. These conditions of this internationalization require interchangeability of parts of complex systems, translated into strict adherence to the standards and specifications that use increasingly accurate measurement techniques, as well as the growing demand from consumer markets for products and higher quality services. They also require innovation and improvements in domestic production to boost the competitiveness of industries in domestic and foreign markets. Thus, if the Science of Measurements is taken as a serious concern, countries are better prepared to evolve towards economic and social development. In this 8"t"h edition of the Brazilian Congress on Metrology (METROLOGIA 2015), in addition to the thematic sessions in various areas of Metrology and Conformity Assessment, we hold several satellite events. They are already traditional events or highlight important current issues

  7. Control and metrology of high harmonic generation on plasma mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monchoce, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    When an ultra intense femtosecond laser with high contrast is focused on a solid target, the laser field at focus is sufficient enough to completely ionize the target surface during the rising edge of the laser pulse and form a plasma. This dense plasma entirely reflects the incident beam in the specular direction: this is a so-called plasma mirror. As the interaction between the laser and the plasma mirror is highly non-linear, it thus leads to the high harmonic generation (HHG) in the reflected beam. In the temporal domain, this harmonic spectrum is associated to a train of atto-second pulses. The aim of my PhD were to experimentally control this HHG and to measure the properties of the harmonics. We first studied the optimization of the harmonic signal, and then the spatial characterization of the harmonic beam in the far-field (harmonic divergence). These characterizations are not only important to develop an intense XUV/atto-second light source, but also to get a better understanding of the laser-matter interaction at very high intensity. We have thus been able to get crucial information of the electrons and ions dynamics of the plasma, showing that the harmonics can also be used as a diagnostic of the laser-plasma interaction. We then developed a new general approach for optically-controlled spatial structuring of overdense plasmas generated at the surface of initially plain solid targets. We demonstrate it experimentally by creating sinusoidal plasma gratings of adjustable spatial periodicity and depth, and study the interaction of these transient structures with an ultra-intense laser pulse to establish their usability at relativistically high intensities. We then show how these gratings can be used as a 'spatial ruler' to determine the source size of the high-order harmonic beams produced at the surface of an overdense plasma. These results open new directions both for the metrology of laser-plasma interactions and the emerging field of ultrahigh

  8. CONFERENCE NOTE: European Optical Society, Topical Meeting Optical Metrology and Nanotechnology, Engelberg, Switzerland, 27 30 March 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This meeting, organized by the Paul Scherrer Institute's Department of Applied Solid State Physics, will be held from 27 30 March 1994 at the Hotel Regina-Titlis, Engelberg, Switzerland. The aim is to bring together scientists from two important fields of current research and increasing industrial relevance. Optical metrology is a traditional discipline of applied optics which reached the nanometre scale a long time ago. Nanotechnology is setting new limits and represents a major challenge to metrology, as well as offering new opportunities to optics. The meeting is intended to help define a common future for optical metrology and nanotechnology. Topics to be covered include: nanometre position control and measuring techniques ultrahigh precision interferometry scanning probe microscopy (AFM, SNOM, etc.) surface modification by scanning probe methods precision surface fabrication and characterization nanolithography micro-optics, diffractive optics components, including systems and applications subwavelength optical structures synthetic optical materials structures and technologies for X-ray optics. For further information please contact: Jens Gobrecht (Secretary), Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen-PSI, Switzerland.Tel. (41)56992529; Fax (41) 5698 2635.

  9. X-diffraction technique applied for nano system metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Alexei Yu.; Machado, Rogerio; Robertis, Eveline de; Campos, Andrea P.C.; Archanjo, Braulio S.; Gomes, Lincoln S.; Achete, Carlos A.

    2009-01-01

    The application of nano materials are fast growing in all industrial sectors, with a strong necessity in nano metrology and normalizing in the nano material area. The great potential of the X-ray diffraction technique in this field is illustrated at the example of metals, metal oxides and pharmaceuticals

  10. Information system planning work on maintenance metrological equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry V. Shtoller

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Computerization has entered into all human activities. Important role in the work now is a workstation, which increases productivity. Did not remain without attention and work of the metrological services of enterprises. Electronic records can help solve many problems for the organization of data.

  11. Optical antennas for far and near field metrology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvestri, F.; Bernal Arango, F.; Vendel, K.J.A.; Gerini, G.; Bäumer, S.M.B.; Koenderink, A.F.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the use of optical antennas in metrology scenarios. Two design concepts are presented: dielectric nanoresonator arrays and plasmonic nanoantennas arrays. The first ones are able to focus an incident light beam at an arbitrary focal plane. The nanoantennas arrays can be employed

  12. Accuracy and Metrological Reliability Enhancing of Thermoelectric Transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Stadnyk

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to development and use of thermoelectric thermotransducers with an enhanced accuracy and metrological reliability. The actuality of a problem is stipulated. Investigating changes at typical external environments, the mechanisms of transformation function instability are considered; possibilities of thermodynamic presentation use are analyzed concerning a thermometric substance. The algorithm of thermotransducer instrumental errors’ minimization is developed.

  13. Coherence enhanced quantum metrology in a nonequilibrium optical molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhihai; Wu, Wei; Cui, Guodong; Wang, Jin

    2018-03-01

    We explore the quantum metrology in an optical molecular system coupled to two environments with different temperatures, using a quantum master equation beyond secular approximation. We discover that the steady-state coherence originating from and sustained by the nonequilibrium condition can enhance quantum metrology. We also study the quantitative measures of the nonequilibrium condition in terms of the curl flux, heat current and entropy production at the steady state. They are found to grow with temperature difference. However, an apparent paradox arises considering the contrary behaviors of the steady-state coherence and the nonequilibrium measures in relation to the inter-cavity coupling strength. This paradox is resolved by decomposing the heat current into a population part and a coherence part. Only the latter, the coherence part of the heat current, is tightly connected to the steady-state coherence and behaves similarly with respect to the inter-cavity coupling strength. Interestingly, the coherence part of the heat current flows from the low-temperature reservoir to the high-temperature reservoir, opposite to the direction of the population heat current. Our work offers a viable way to enhance quantum metrology for open quantum systems through steady-state coherence sustained by the nonequilibrium condition, which can be controlled and manipulated to maximize its utility. The potential applications go beyond quantum metrology and extend to areas such as device designing, quantum computation and quantum technology in general.

  14. 7/5nm logic manufacturing capabilities and requirements of metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunday, Benjamin; Bello, A. F.; Solecky, Eric; Vaid, Alok

    2018-03-01

    This paper will provide an update to previous works [2][4][9] to our view of the future for in-line high volume manufacturing (HVM) metrology for the semiconductor industry, concentrating on logic technology for foundries. First, we will review of the needs of patterned defect, critical dimensional (CD/3D), overlay and films metrology, and present the extensive list of applications for which metrology solutions are needed. We will then update the industry's progress towards addressing gating technical limits of the most important of these metrology solutions, highlighting key metrology technology gaps requiring industry attention and investment.

  15. La Metrología Óptica y sus Aplicaciones La Metrología Óptica y sus Aplicaciones

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Malacara Hernández

    2012-01-01

    En este trabajo se presenta una introducción al campo de la metrología óptica y de su herramienta principal que es la interferometría. También se presenta un panorama de los diferentes métodos empleados en metrología describiendo con especial detalle los avances más recientes en este campo. In this work an introduction to optical metrology is presented with a brief description of its main tool which is interferometry. Also, a survey of the main different methods used in optical metrology is ...

  16. Toward reliable and repeatable automated STEM-EDS metrology with high throughput

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhenxin; Donald, Jason; Dutrow, Gavin; Roller, Justin; Ugurlu, Ozan; Verheijen, Martin; Bidiuk, Oleksii

    2018-03-01

    New materials and designs in complex 3D architectures in logic and memory devices have raised complexity in S/TEM metrology. In this paper, we report about a newly developed, automated, scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) based, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (STEM-EDS) metrology method that addresses these challenges. Different methodologies toward repeatable and efficient, automated STEM-EDS metrology with high throughput are presented: we introduce the best known auto-EDS acquisition and quantification methods for robust and reliable metrology and present how electron exposure dose impacts the EDS metrology reproducibility, either due to poor signalto-noise ratio (SNR) at low dose or due to sample modifications at high dose conditions. Finally, we discuss the limitations of the STEM-EDS metrology technique and propose strategies to optimize the process both in terms of throughput and metrology reliability.

  17. DLP-based 3D metrology by structured light or projected fringe technology for life sciences and industrial metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankowski, G.; Hainich, R.

    2009-02-01

    Since the mid-eighties, a fundamental idea for achieving measuring accuracy in projected fringe technology was to consider the projected fringe pattern as an interferogram and evaluate it on the basis of advanced algorithms widely used for phase measuring in real-time interferometry. A fundamental requirement for obtaining a sufficiently high degree of measuring accuracy with this so-called "phase measuring projected fringe technology" is that the projected fringes, analogous to interference fringes, must have a cos2-shaped intensity distribution. Until the mid-nineties, this requirement for the projected fringe pattern measurement technology presented a basic handicap for its wide application in 3D metrology. This situation changed abruptly, when in the nineties Texas Instruments introduced to the market advanced digital light projection on the basis of micro mirror based projection systems, socalled DLP technology, which also facilitated the generation and projection of cos2-shaped intensity and/or fringe patterns. With this DLP technology, which from its original approach was actually oriented towards completely different applications such as multimedia projection, Texas Instruments boosted phase-measuring fringe projection in optical 3D metrology to a worldwide breakthrough both for medical as well as industrial applications. A subject matter of the lecture will be to present the fundamental principles and the resulting advantages of optical 3D metrology based on phase-measuring fringe projection using DLP technology. Further will be presented and discussed applications of the measurement technology in medical engineering and industrial metrology.

  18. Metrology and quality assurance for European XFEL long flat mirrors installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freijo Martín, Idoia; Vannoni, Maurizio; Sinn, Harald

    2017-06-01

    The European XFEL is a large-scale user facility under construction in Hamburg, Germany. It will provide a transversally fully coherent X-ray radiation with outstanding characteristics: high repetition rate (up to 2700 pulses with a 0.6 milliseconds long pulse train at 10Hz), short wavelength (down to 0.05 nm), short pulses (in the femtoseconds scale) and high average brilliance (1.6x1025 photons / s / mm2 / mrad2/ 0.1% bandwidth)1. Due to the short wavelength and high pulse energies, mirrors need to have a high-quality surface, have to be very long (1 m), and at the same time an effective cooling system has to be implemented. Matching these tight specifications and assessing them with high precision optical measurements is very challenging. The mirrors go through a complicated and long process, starting from classical polishing to deterministic polishing, ending with a special coating and a final metrology assessment inside their mechanical mounts just before the installation. The installation itself is also difficult for such big mirrors and needs special care. In this contribution we will explain how we implemented the installation process, how we used the metrology information to optimize the installation procedure and we will show some preliminary results with the first mirrors installed in the European XFEL beam transport.

  19. Development of an ultrasensitive interferometry system as a key to precision metrology applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohlke, Martin; Schuldt, Thilo; Weise, Dennis; Johann, Ulrich; Peters, Achim; Braxmaier, Claus

    2009-06-01

    We present a symmetric heterodyne interferometer as a prototype of a highly sensitive translation and tilt measurement system. This compact optical metrology system was developed over the past several years by EADS Astrium (Friedrichshafen) in cooperation with the Humboldt-University (Berlin) and the university of applied science Konstanz (HTWG-Konstanz). The noise performance was tested at frequencies between 10-4 and 3 Hz, the noise levels are below 1 nm/Hz 1/2 for translation and below 1 μrad/Hz1/2, for tilt measurements. For frequencies higher than 10 mHz noise levels below 5pm/Hz1/2 and 4 nrad/Hz1/2 respectively, were demonstrated. Based on this highly sensitive metrology system we also developed a dilatometer for the characterization of the CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion) of various materials, i.e. CFRP (carbon fiber reinforced plastic) or Zerodur. The currently achieved sensitivity of these measurements is better than 10-7 K-1. Future planned applications of the interferometer include ultra-high-precision surface profiling and characterization of actuator noise in low-noise opto-mechanics setups. We will give an overview of the current experimental setup and the latest measurement results.

  20. International symposium on in situ nuclear metrology as a tool for radioecology INSINUME

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Full Text: This symposium, which is the natural continuation of the previous INSINUME conferences, held in Fleurus-Belgium, Albena-Bulgaria and Kusadasi-Turkey, has a dual purpose. First of all, it wants to bring together Radioecologists, Regulatory Authorities as well as Radiological Monitoring System Operators, in order to allow a wide exchange of information regarding practical experience and difficulties encountered in daily radiological monitoring of environment. On the other hand, the symposium intends to focus on the modern nuclear metrological tools, which could be used nowadays to ease the direct remote surveillance of the radiological status of seas, rivers, lakes and earth surface. In the past, these tools were suffering from a lack of sensitivity and reliability and were for that reason mainly used for health physics control that didn't require such a high accuracy. New systems are now at the disposal of the mathematical model users and radioecologists for investigating radioactive contaminants dispersion in normal conditions as well as in case of incidents. On basis of acquired experience and metrology progress, the final object of the symposium is to help the environment radioprotection world, to harmonise its rules, and thus to perform in the future a realistic and useful radiological monitoring. [fr

  1. Means to verify the accuracy of CT systems for metrology applications (In the Absence of Established International Standards)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lettenbauer, H.; Georgi, B.; Weib, D.

    2007-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) reconstructs an unknown object from X-ray projections and has long been used for qualitative investigation of internal structures in industrial applications. Recently there has been increased interest in applying X-ray cone beam CT to the task of high-precision dimensional measurements of machined parts, since it is a relatively fast method of measuring both inner and outer geometries of arbitrary complexity. The important information for the user in dimensional metrology is if measured elements of a machined part are within the defined tolerances or not. In order to qualify cone beam CT as an established measurement technology, it must be qualified in the same manner as established measurement technologies such as coordinate measurement machines (CMMs) with tactile or optical sensors. In international standards artefacts are defined that are calibrated by certified institutions. These artefacts are defined by certain geometrical elements. CT measurements are performed on the reconstructed object volume, either directly or using an intermediate surface-extraction step. The results of these measurements have to be compared to the values of the calibrated elements; the level of agreement of the results defines the accuracy of the measurements. By using established methods to define measurement uncertainty a very high level of acceptance in dimensional metrology can be reached for the user. Only if results are comparable to standards of the established technologies the barriers of entry into metrology will be removed and all benefits of this technology will be available for the user. (authors)

  2. Metrological approach to quantitative analysis of clinical samples by LA-ICP-MS: A critical review of recent studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajnóg, Adam; Hanć, Anetta; Barałkiewicz, Danuta

    2018-05-15

    Analysis of clinical specimens by imaging techniques allows to determine the content and distribution of trace elements on the surface of the examined sample. In order to obtain reliable results, the developed procedure should be based not only on the properly prepared sample and performed calibration. It is also necessary to carry out all phases of the procedure in accordance with the principles of chemical metrology whose main pillars are the use of validated analytical methods, establishing the traceability of the measurement results and the estimation of the uncertainty. This review paper discusses aspects related to sampling, preparation and analysis of clinical samples by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) with emphasis on metrological aspects, i.e. selected validation parameters of the analytical method, the traceability of the measurement result and the uncertainty of the result. This work promotes the introduction of metrology principles for chemical measurement with emphasis to the LA-ICP-MS which is the comparative method that requires studious approach to the development of the analytical procedure in order to acquire reliable quantitative results. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Metrological evaluation of characterization methods applied to nuclear fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faeda, Kelly Cristina Martins; Lameiras, Fernando Soares; Camarano, Denise das Merces; Ferreira, Ricardo Alberto Neto; Migliorini, Fabricio Lima; Carneiro, Luciana Capanema Silva; Silva, Egonn Hendrigo Carvalho, E-mail: kellyfisica@gmail.co, E-mail: fernando.lameiras@pq.cnpq.b, E-mail: dmc@cdtn.b, E-mail: ranf@cdtn.b, E-mail: flmigliorini@hotmail.co, E-mail: lucsc@hotmail.co, E-mail: egonn@ufmg.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    In manufacturing the nuclear fuel, characterizations are performed in order to assure the minimization of harmful effects. The uranium dioxide is the most used substance as nuclear reactor fuel because of many advantages, such as: high stability even when it is in contact with water at high temperatures, high fusion point, and high capacity to retain fission products. Several methods are used for characterization of nuclear fuels, such as thermogravimetric analysis for the ratio O / U, penetration-immersion method, helium pycnometer and mercury porosimetry for the density and porosity, BET method for the specific surface, chemical analyses for relevant impurities, and the laser flash method for thermophysical properties. Specific tools are needed to control the diameter and the sphericity of the microspheres and the properties of the coating layers (thickness, density, and degree of anisotropy). Other methods can also give information, such as scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, microanalysis, and mass spectroscopy of secondary ions for chemical analysis. The accuracy of measurement and level of uncertainty of the resulting data are important. This work describes a general metrological characterization of some techniques applied to the characterization of nuclear fuel. Sources of measurement uncertainty were analyzed. The purpose is to summarize selected properties of UO{sub 2} that have been studied by CDTN in a program of fuel development for Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). The selected properties are crucial for thermalhydraulic codes to study basic design accidents. The thermal characterization (thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity) and the penetration immersion method (density and open porosity) of UO{sub 2} samples were focused. The thermal characterization of UO{sub 2} samples was determined by the laser flash method between room temperature and 448 K. The adaptive Monte Carlo Method was used to obtain the endpoints of

  4. An OCD perspective of line edge and line width roughness metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonam, Ravi; Muthinti, Raja; Breton, Mary; Liu, Chi-Chun; Sieg, Stuart; Seshadri, Indira; Saulnier, Nicole; Shearer, Jeffrey; Patlolla, Raghuveer; Huang, Huai

    2017-03-01

    Metrology of nanoscale patterns poses multiple challenges that range from measurement noise, metrology errors, probe size etc. Optical Metrology has gained a lot of significance in the semiconductor industry due to its fast turn around and reliable accuracy, particularly to monitor in-line process variations. Apart from monitoring critical dimension, thickness of films, there are multiple parameters that can be extracted from Optical Metrology models3. Sidewall angles, material compositions etc., can also be modeled to acceptable accuracy. Line edge and Line Width roughness are much sought of metrology following critical dimension and its uniformity, although there has not been much development in them with optical metrology. Scanning Electron Microscopy is still used as a standard metrology technique for assessment of Line Edge and Line Width roughness. In this work we present an assessment of Optical Metrology and its ability to model roughness from a set of structures with intentional jogs to simulate both Line edge and Line width roughness at multiple amplitudes and frequencies. We also present multiple models to represent roughness and extract relevant parameters from Optical metrology. Another critical aspect of optical metrology setup is correlation of measurement to a complementary technique to calibrate models. In this work, we also present comparison of roughness parameters extracted and measured with variation of image processing conditions on a commercially available CD-SEM tool.

  5. Improved Beam Angle Control with SPV Metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steeples, K.; Tsidilkovski, E.; Bertuch, A.; Ishida, E.; Agarwal, A.

    2008-01-01

    A method of real-time monitoring of implant angle for state-of-the-art ion implant doping in integrated circuit manufacturing has been developed using Surface Photo Voltage measurements on conventional monitor wafers. Measurement results are analyzed and compared to other techniques.

  6. Development of the metrology and imaging of cellulose nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postek, Michael T; Vladár, András; Dagata, John; Farkas, Natalia; Ming, Bin; Wagner, Ryan; Raman, Arvind; Moon, Robert J; Sabo, Ronald; Wegner, Theodore H; Beecher, James

    2011-01-01

    The development of metrology for nanoparticles is a significant challenge. Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are one group of nanoparticles that have high potential economic value but present substantial challenges to the development of the measurement science. Even the largest trees owe their strength to this newly appreciated class of nanomaterials. Cellulose is the world's most abundant natural, renewable, biodegradable polymer. Cellulose occurs as whisker-like microfibrils that are biosynthesized and deposited in plant material in a continuous fashion. The nanocrystals are isolated by hydrolyzing away the amorphous segments leaving the acid resistant crystalline fragments. Therefore, the basic raw material for new nanomaterial products already abounds in nature and is available to be utilized in an array of future materials. However, commercialization requires the development of efficient manufacturing processes and nanometrology to monitor quality. This paper discusses some of the instrumentation, metrology and standards issues associated with the ramping up for production and use of CNCs

  7. Development of the metrology and imaging of cellulose nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postek, Michael T.; Vladár, András; Dagata, John; Farkas, Natalia; Ming, Bin; Wagner, Ryan; Raman, Arvind; Moon, Robert J.; Sabo, Ronald; Wegner, Theodore H.; Beecher, James

    2011-02-01

    The development of metrology for nanoparticles is a significant challenge. Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are one group of nanoparticles that have high potential economic value but present substantial challenges to the development of the measurement science. Even the largest trees owe their strength to this newly appreciated class of nanomaterials. Cellulose is the world's most abundant natural, renewable, biodegradable polymer. Cellulose occurs as whisker-like microfibrils that are biosynthesized and deposited in plant material in a continuous fashion. The nanocrystals are isolated by hydrolyzing away the amorphous segments leaving the acid resistant crystalline fragments. Therefore, the basic raw material for new nanomaterial products already abounds in nature and is available to be utilized in an array of future materials. However, commercialization requires the development of efficient manufacturing processes and nanometrology to monitor quality. This paper discusses some of the instrumentation, metrology and standards issues associated with the ramping up for production and use of CNCs.

  8. Development of ITER in-vessel viewing and metrology systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obara, Kenjiro; Kakudate, Satoshi; Nakahira, Masataka; Ito, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-04-01

    The ITER in-vessel viewing system is vital for detecting and locating damage to in-vessel components such as the blankets and divertors and in monitoring and assisting in-vessel maintenance. This system must be able to operate at high temperature (200degC) under intense gamma radiation ({approx}30 kGy/h) in a high vacuum or 1 bar inert gas. A periscope viewing system was chosen as a reference due to its clear, wide view and a fiberscope viewing system chosen as a backup for viewing in narrow confines. According to the ITER R and D program, both systems and a metrology system are being developed through the joint efforts of Japan, the U.S., and RF Home Teams. This paper outlines design and technology development mainly on periscope in-vessel viewing and laser metrology contributed by the Japan Home Team. (author)

  9. Development of ITER in-vessel viewing and metrology systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obara, Kenjiro; Kakudate, Satoshi; Nakahira, Masataka; Ito, Akira

    1998-01-01

    The ITER in-vessel viewing system is vital for detecting and locating damage to in-vessel components such as the blankets and divertors and in monitoring and assisting in-vessel maintenance. This system must be able to operate at high temperature (200degC) under intense gamma radiation (∼30 kGy/h) in a high vacuum or 1 bar inert gas. A periscope viewing system was chosen as a reference due to its clear, wide view and a fiberscope viewing system chosen as a backup for viewing in narrow confines. According to the ITER R and D program, both systems and a metrology system are being developed through the joint efforts of Japan, the U.S., and RF Home Teams. This paper outlines design and technology development mainly on periscope in-vessel viewing and laser metrology contributed by the Japan Home Team. (author)

  10. Nonlinear Quantum Metrology of Many-Body Open Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beau, M.; del Campo, A.

    2017-07-01

    We introduce general bounds for the parameter estimation error in nonlinear quantum metrology of many-body open systems in the Markovian limit. Given a k -body Hamiltonian and p -body Lindblad operators, the estimation error of a Hamiltonian parameter using a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state as a probe is shown to scale as N-[k -(p /2 )], surpassing the shot-noise limit for 2 k >p +1 . Metrology equivalence between initial product states and maximally entangled states is established for p ≥1 . We further show that one can estimate the system-environment coupling parameter with precision N-(p /2 ), while many-body decoherence enhances the precision to N-k in the noise-amplitude estimation of a fluctuating k -body Hamiltonian. For the long-range Ising model, we show that the precision of this parameter beats the shot-noise limit when the range of interactions is below a threshold value.

  11. Metrology for industrial quantum communications: the MIQC project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastello, M. L.; Degiovanni, I. P.; Sinclair, A. G.; Kück, S.; Chunnilall, C. J.; Porrovecchio, G.; Smid, M.; Manoocheri, F.; Ikonen, E.; Kubarsepp, T.; Stucki, D.; Hong, K. S.; Kim, S. K.; Tosi, A.; Brida, G.; Meda, A.; Piacentini, F.; Traina, P.; Natsheh, A. Al; Cheung, J. Y.; Müller, I.; Klein, R.; Vaigu, A.

    2014-12-01

    The ‘Metrology for Industrial Quantum Communication Technologies’ project (MIQC) is a metrology framework that fosters development and market take-up of quantum communication technologies and is aimed at achieving maximum impact for the European industry in this area. MIQC is focused on quantum key distribution (QKD) technologies, the most advanced quantum-based technology towards practical application. QKD is a way of sending cryptographic keys with absolute security. It does this by exploiting the ability to encode in a photon's degree of freedom specific quantum states that are noticeably disturbed if an eavesdropper trying to decode it is present in the communication channel. The MIQC project has started the development of independent measurement standards and definitions for the optical components of QKD system, since one of the perceived barriers to QKD market success is the lack of standardization and quality assurance.

  12. Characteristics of the radiation prevention metrology laboratory 'Cajavec' - Banjaluka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomljenovic, I.; Ninkovic, M.; Kolonic, Dz.

    2004-01-01

    Radiation metrology laboratory built in the factory 'Cajavec' in Banja Luka, planed for gauge the detectors of ionization radiation. Laboratory as part of the large factory building , thus projected and formed according to positive radiation principles. Walls are constructed of basic concrete, main entrance of lead, approaching the radiation bench from the back side. Sound and light signal system connected with dosemeter for showing mini dose of radiation creating conditions for safe work of the dosemeterists. (author) [sr

  13. Clean focus, dose and CD metrology for CD uniformity improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Honggoo; Han, Sangjun; Hong, Minhyung; Kim, Seungyoung; Lee, Jieun; Lee, DongYoung; Oh, Eungryong; Choi, Ahlin; Kim, Nakyoon; Robinson, John C.; Mengel, Markus; Pablo, Rovira; Yoo, Sungchul; Getin, Raphael; Choi, Dongsub; Jeon, Sanghuck

    2018-03-01

    Lithography process control solutions require more exacting capabilities as the semiconductor industry goes forward to the 1x nm node DRAM device manufacturing. In order to continue scaling down the device feature sizes, critical dimension (CD) uniformity requires continuous improvement to meet the required CD error budget. In this study we investigate using optical measurement technology to improve over CD-SEM methods in focus, dose, and CD. One of the key challenges is measuring scanner focus of device patterns. There are focus measurement methods based on specially designed marks on scribe-line, however, one issue of this approach is that it will report focus of scribe line which is potentially different from that of the real device pattern. In addition, scribe-line marks require additional design and troubleshooting steps that add complexity. In this study, we investigated focus measurement directly on the device pattern. Dose control is typically based on using the linear correlation behavior between dose and CD. The noise of CD measurement, based on CD-SEM for example, will not only impact the accuracy, but also will make it difficult to monitor dose signature on product wafers. In this study we will report the direct dose metrology result using an optical metrology system which especially enhances the DUV spectral coverage to improve the signal to noise ratio. CD-SEM is often used to measure CD after the lithography step. This measurement approach has the advantage of easy recipe setup as well as the flexibility to measure critical feature dimensions, however, we observe that CD-SEM metrology has limitations. In this study, we demonstrate within-field CD uniformity improvement through the extraction of clean scanner slit and scan CD behavior by using optical metrology.

  14. Innovative Ge Quantum Dot Functional Sensing and Metrology Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-21

    Sensing/Metrology Devices Period: May 26th 2015May 25th 2017 Investigators: Pei-Wen Li Affiliation: Department of Electrical Engineering , National...light sources as well as low-power, high-speed Ge photodetectors indeed requires the growth of direct-gap Ge, heterostructure engineering for...All these tasks cannot be simply conducted in terms of bulk Ge technology, and it is no doubt that nanoscience and nanotechnology would offer

  15. Metrology and Proportion in the Ecclesiastical Architecture of Medieval Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Behan, Avril; Moss, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the extent to which detailed empirical analysis of the metrology and proportional systems used in the design of Irish ecclesiastical architecture can be analysed to provide historical information not otherwise available. Focussing on a relatively limited sample of window tracery designs as a case study, it will first set out to establish what, if any, systems were in use, and then what light these might shed on the background, training and work practices of...

  16. A blueprint for radioanalytical metrology CRMs, intercomparisons, and PE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inn, Kenneth G.W.; Kurosaki, Hiromu; Frechou, Carole; Gilligan, Chris; Jones, Robert; LaMont, Stephen; Leggitt, Jeff; Li Chunsheng; McCroan, Keith; Swatski, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    A workshop was held from 28 February to 2 March 2006 at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to evaluate the needs for new directions for complex matrix reference materials certified for radionuclide content, interlaboratory comparisons and performance evaluation (PE) programs. The workshop identified new radioanalytical metrology thrust areas needed for environmental, radiobioassay, emergency consequence management, and nuclear forensics, attribution, nonproliferation, and safeguards

  17. Overlay improvement methods with diffraction based overlay and integrated metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Young-Sun; Kim, Sunny; Shin, Ju Hee; Choi, Young Sin; Yun, Sang Ho; Kim, Young Hoon; Shin, Si Woo; Kong, Jeong Heung; Kang, Young Seog; Ha, Hun Hwan

    2015-03-01

    To accord with new requirement of securing more overlay margin, not only the optical overlay measurement is faced with the technical limitations to represent cell pattern's behavior, but also the larger measurement samples are inevitable for minimizing statistical errors and better estimation of circumstance in a lot. From these reasons, diffraction based overlay (DBO) and integrated metrology (IM) were mainly proposed as new approaches for overlay enhancement in this paper.

  18. Metrological characterization methods for confocal chromatic line sensors and optical topography sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppä, Jeremias; Niemelä, Karri; Lassila, Antti

    2018-05-01

    The increasing use of chromatic confocal technology for, e.g. fast, in-line optical topography, and measuring thickness, roughness and profiles implies a need for the characterization of various aspects of the sensors. Single-point, line and matrix versions of chromatic confocal technology, encoding depth information into wavelength, have been developed. Of these, line sensors are particularly suitable for in-line process measurement. Metrological characterization and development of practical methods for calibration and checking is needed for new optical methods and devices. Compared to, e.g. tactile methods, optical topography measurement techniques have limitations related to light wavelength and coherence, optical properties of the sample including reflectivity, specularity, roughness and colour, and definition of optical versus mechanical surfaces. In this work, metrological characterization methods for optical line sensors were developed for scale magnification and linearity, sensitivity to sample properties, and dynamic characteristics. An accurate depth scale calibration method using a single prototype groove depth sample was developed for a line sensor and validated with laser-interferometric sample tracking, attaining (sub)micrometre level or better than 0.1% scale accuracy. Furthermore, the effect of different surfaces and materials on the measurement and depth scale was studied, in particular slope angle, specularity and colour. In addition, dynamic performance, noise, lateral scale and resolution were measured using the developed methods. In the case of the LCI1200 sensor used in this study, which has a 11.3 mm  ×  2.8 mm measurement range, the instrument depth scale was found to depend only minimally on sample colour, whereas measuring steeply sloped specular surfaces in the peripheral measurement area, in the worst case, caused a somewhat larger relative sample-dependent change (1%) in scale.

  19. World wide matching of registration metrology tools of various generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laske, F.; Pudnos, A.; Mackey, L.; Tran, P.; Higuchi, M.; Enkrich, C.; Roeth, K.-D.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Adam, D.; Bender, J.

    2008-10-01

    Turn around time/cycle time is a key success criterion in the semiconductor photomask business. Therefore, global mask suppliers typically allocate work loads based on fab capability and utilization capacity. From a logistical point of view, the manufacturing location of a photomask should be transparent to the customer (mask user). Matching capability of production equipment and especially metrology tools is considered a key enabler to guarantee cross site manufacturing flexibility. Toppan, with manufacturing sites in eight countries worldwide, has an on-going program to match the registration metrology systems of all its production sites. This allows for manufacturing flexibility and risk mitigation.In cooperation with Vistec Semiconductor Systems, Toppan has recently completed a program to match the Vistec LMS IPRO systems at all production sites worldwide. Vistec has developed a new software feature which allows for significantly improved matching of LMS IPRO(x) registration metrology tools of various generations. We will report on the results of the global matching campaign of several of the leading Toppan sites.

  20. An active pixels spectrometers for neutronic fields metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taforeau, Julien

    2013-01-01

    The fundamental metrology is responsible for the sustainability of the measurement systems and handles to supply the reference standards. Concerning the metrology of ionizing radiations and, in particular the neutron metrology, detectors standards are used to characterize reference fields, in terms of energy and fluence. The dosimeters or particle detectors are calibrated on these reference fields. This thesis presents the development of a neutron spectrometer neutron candidate to the status of primary standard for the characterization of neutron fields in the range from 5 to 20 MeV. The spectrometer uses the recoil proton telescope as detection principle; the CMOS technology, through three sensor positions, is taking advantage to realize the tracking of protons. A Si(Li) detector handles the measure of the residual proton energy. The device simulations, realized under MCNPX, allow to estimate its performances and to validate the neutron energy reconstruction. An essential step of characterization of the telescope elements and in particular of CMOS sensors is also proposed to guarantee the validity of posterior experimental measurements. The tests realized as well in mono-energy fields as in radionuclide source show the very good performances of the system. The quantification of uncertainties indicates an energy estimation with 1.5 % accuracy and a resolution of less than 6 %. The fluence measurement is performed with an uncertainty about 4 to 6%. (author)

  1. The Remarkable Metrological History of Radiocarbon Dating [II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Lloyd A

    2004-01-01

    This article traces the metrological history of radiocarbon, from the initial breakthrough devised by Libby, to minor (evolutionary) and major (revolutionary) advances that have brought (14)C measurement from a crude, bulk [8 g carbon] dating tool, to a refined probe for dating tiny amounts of precious artifacts, and for "molecular dating" at the 10 µg to 100 µg level. The metrological advances led to opportunities and surprises, such as the non-monotonic dendrochronological calibration curve and the "bomb effect," that gave rise to new multidisciplinary areas of application, ranging from archaeology and anthropology to cosmic ray physics to oceanography to apportionment of anthropogenic pollutants to the reconstruction of environmental history. Beyond the specific topic of natural (14)C, it is hoped that this account may serve as a metaphor for young scientists, illustrating that just when a scientific discipline may appear to be approaching maturity, unanticipated metrological advances in their own chosen fields, and unanticipated anthropogenic or natural chemical events in the environment, can spawn new areas of research having exciting theoretical and practical implications.

  2. The future of 2D metrology for display manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstrom, Tor; Wahlsten, Mikael; Park, Youngjin

    2016-10-01

    The race to 800 PPI and higher in mobile devices and the transition to OLED displays are driving a dramatic development of mask quality: resolution, CDU, registration, and complexity. 2D metrology for large area masks is necessary and must follow the roadmap. Driving forces in the market place point to continued development of even more dense displays. State-of-the-art metrology has proven itself capable of overlay below 40 nm and registration below 65 nm for G6 masks. Future developments include incoming and recurrent measurements of pellicalized masks at the panel maker's factory site. Standardization of coordinate systems across supplier networks is feasible. This will enable better yield and production economy for both mask and panel maker. Better distortion correction methods will give better registration on the panels and relax the flatness requirements of the mask blanks. If panels are measured together with masks and the results are used to characterize the aligners, further quality and yield improvements are possible. Possible future developments include in-cell metrology and integration with other instruments in the same platform.

  3. Experimental realization of the quantum metrological triangle experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenaud, B; Devoille, L; Steck, B; Feltin, N; Gonzalez-Cano, A; Poirier, W; Schopfer, F; Spengler, G; Djordjevic, S; Seron, O; Piquemal, F [Laboratoire national de metrologie et d' essais (LNE), Trappes (France); Lotkhov, S [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany)], E-mail: laurent.devoille@lne.fr

    2009-02-01

    The quantum metrological triangle experiment (QMTE) consists in realizing Ohm's law with Josephson (JE), quantum Hall (QHE) and single electron tunneling (SET) effects. The aim is to check the consistency of the link among the phenomenological constants K {sub J}, R{sub K} and Q {sub X} involved in these effects and theoretically expressed with the fundamental constants e and h. Such an experiment could be a contribution for a new definition of the systeme international d'unites (SI) base units. In the QMTE, a current generated by a SET device flows through a resistor calibrated against QHE standard and the voltage induced at its terminals is compared to the metrological voltage generated by a Josephson junctions array. At LNE, the studied SET devices are 3 junctions single electron pumps with on chip resistors. The quantized current generated by this pump is theoretically equal to ef (f is the frequency of the driving signals applied on the gates) and is measured through a cryogenic current comparator (CCC), which allows to amplify the low pumping current with a metrological accuracy. We will present and discuss the experimental set-up developed at LNE and the first results. In addition to the main aim of QMTE described above, these preliminary results are also a first step towards a determination of e.

  4. Relativistic quantum metrology: exploiting relativity to improve quantum measurement technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mehdi; Bruschi, David Edward; Sabín, Carlos; Adesso, Gerardo; Fuentes, Ivette

    2014-05-22

    We present a framework for relativistic quantum metrology that is useful for both Earth-based and space-based technologies. Quantum metrology has been so far successfully applied to design precision instruments such as clocks and sensors which outperform classical devices by exploiting quantum properties. There are advanced plans to implement these and other quantum technologies in space, for instance Space-QUEST and Space Optical Clock projects intend to implement quantum communications and quantum clocks at regimes where relativity starts to kick in. However, typical setups do not take into account the effects of relativity on quantum properties. To include and exploit these effects, we introduce techniques for the application of metrology to quantum field theory. Quantum field theory properly incorporates quantum theory and relativity, in particular, at regimes where space-based experiments take place. This framework allows for high precision estimation of parameters that appear in quantum field theory including proper times and accelerations. Indeed, the techniques can be applied to develop a novel generation of relativistic quantum technologies for gravimeters, clocks and sensors. As an example, we present a high precision device which in principle improves the state-of-the-art in quantum accelerometers by exploiting relativistic effects.

  5. Metrological traceability of carbon dioxide measurements in atmosphere and seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolle, F; Pessana, E; Sega, M

    2017-01-01

    The accurate determination of gaseous pollutants is fundamental for the monitoring of the trends of these analytes in the environment and the application of the metrological concepts to this field is necessary to assure the reliability of the measurement results. In this work, an overview of the activity carried out at Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica to establish the metrological traceability of the measurements of gaseous atmospheric pollutants, in particular of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), is presented. Two primary methods, the gravimetry and the dynamic dilution, are used for the preparation of reference standards for composition which can be used to calibrate sensors and analytical instrumentation. At present, research is carried out to lower the measurement uncertainties of the primary gas mixtures and to extend their application to the oceanic field. The reason of such investigation is due to the evidence of the changes occurring in seawater carbonate chemistry, connected to the rising level of CO 2 in the atmosphere. The well established activity to assure the metrological traceability of CO 2 in the atmosphere will be applied to the determination of CO 2 in seawater, by developing suitable reference materials for calibration and control of the sensors during their routine use. (paper)

  6. Utilization of the research and measurement reactor Braunschweig for neutron metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberts, W.G.

    1982-01-01

    The objectives of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) with regard to neutron metrology are briefly described. The use of the PTB's Research and Measuring Reactor as neutron source for metrological purposes is discussed. Reference neutron beams are described which serve as irradiation facilities for the calibration of detectors for radiation protection purposes in the frame of the legal metrology work in the PTB. (orig.) [de

  7. European research project 'Metrology for radioactive waste management'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suran, J.

    2014-01-01

    The three-year European research project M etrology for Radioactive Waste Management' was launched in October 2011 under the EMRP (European Metrology Research Programme). It involves 13 European national metrology institutes and a total budget exceeds four million Euros. The project is coordinated by the Czech Metrology Institute and is divided into five working groups. This poster presents impact, excellence, relevance to EMPR objectives, and implementation and management of this project.(author)

  8. Comparison of two metrological approaches for the prediction of human haptic perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Annika; Frank, Daniel; Vondenhoff, Thomas; Schmitt, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Haptic perception is regarded as a key component of customer appreciation and acceptance for various products. The prediction of customers’ haptic perception is of interest both during product development and production phases. This paper presents the results of a multivariate analysis between perceived roughness and texture related surface measurements, to examine whether perceived roughness can be accurately predicted using technical measurements. Studies have shown that standardized measurement parameters, such as the roughness coefficients (e.g. Rz or Ra), do not show a one-dimensional linear correlation with the human perception (of roughness). Thus, an alternative measurement method was compared to standard measurements of roughness, in regard to its capability of predicting perceived roughness through technical measurements. To estimate perceived roughness, an experimental study was conducted in which 102 subjects evaluated four sets of 12 different geometrical surface structures regarding their relative perceived roughness. The two different metrological procedures were examined in relation to their capability to predict the perceived roughness of the subjects stated within the study. The standardized measurements of the surface roughness were made using a structured light 3D-scanner. As an alternative method, surface induced vibrations were measured by a finger-like sensor during robot-controlled traverse over a surface. The presented findings provide a better understanding of the predictability of human haptic perception using technical measurements.

  9. Spectroscopic metrology for isotope composition measurements and transfer standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyangwe Nwaboh, Javis; Balslev-Harder, David; Kääriäinen, Teemu; Richmond, Craig; Manninen, Albert; Mohn, Joachim; Kiseleva, Maria; Petersen, Jan C.; Werhahn, Olav; Ebert, Volker

    2017-04-01

    The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) has identified greenhouse gases such as CO2, CH4 and N2O as critical for global climate monitoring. Other molecules such as CO that has an indirect effect of enhancing global warming are also monitored. WMO has stated compatibility goals for atmospheric concentration and isotope ratio measurements of these gases, e.g. 0.1 ppm for CO2 concentration measurements in the northern hemisphere and 0.01 ‰ for δ13C-CO2. For measurements of the concentration of greenhouse gases, gas analysers are typically calibrated with static gas standards e.g. traceable to the WMO scale or to the International System of Units (SI) through a national metrology institute. However, concentrations of target components, e.g. CO, in static gas standards have been observed to drift, and typically the gas matrix as well as the isotopic composition of the target component does not always reflect field gas composition, leading to deviations of the analyser response, even after calibration. The deviations are dependent on the measurement technique. To address this issue, part of the HIGHGAS (Metrology for high-impact greenhouse gases) project [1] focused on the development of optical transfer standards (OTSs) for greenhouse gases, e.g. CO2 and CO, potentially complementing gas standards. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) [2] is currently used to provide state-of-the-art high precision (in the 0.01 ‰ range) measurements for the isotopic composition of greenhouse gases. However, there is a need for field-deployable techniques such as optical isotope ratio spectroscopy (OIRS) that can be combined with metrological measurement methods. Within the HIGHGAS project, OIRS methods and procedures based on e.g. cavity enhanced spectroscopy (CES) and tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS), matched to metrological principles have been established for the measurement of 13C/12C and 18O/16O ratios in CO2, 15N/14N ratios in N2O, and 13C/12C and 2H

  10. Figuring and Polishing Precision Optical Surfaces, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The requirements for cost effective manufacturing and metrology of large optical surfaces is instrumental for the success of future NASA programs such as LISA,...

  11. Metrology of human-based and other qualitative measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendrill, Leslie; Petersson, Niclas

    2016-09-01

    The metrology of human-based and other qualitative measurements is in its infancy—concepts such as traceability and uncertainty are as yet poorly developed. This paper reviews how a measurement system analysis approach, particularly invoking as performance metric the ability of a probe (such as a human being) acting as a measurement instrument to make a successful decision, can enable a more general metrological treatment of qualitative observations. Measures based on human observations are typically qualitative, not only in sectors, such as health care, services and safety, where the human factor is obvious, but also in customer perception of traditional products of all kinds. A principal challenge is that the usual tools of statistics normally employed for expressing measurement accuracy and uncertainty will probably not work reliably if relations between distances on different portions of scales are not fully known, as is typical of ordinal or other qualitative measurements. A key enabling insight is to connect the treatment of decision risks associated with measurement uncertainty to generalized linear modelling (GLM). Handling qualitative observations in this way unites information theory, the perceptive identification and choice paradigms of psychophysics. The Rasch invariant measure psychometric GLM approach in particular enables a proper treatment of ordinal data; a clear separation of probe and item attribute estimates; simple expressions for instrument sensitivity; etc. Examples include two aspects of the care of breast cancer patients, from diagnosis to rehabilitation. The Rasch approach leads in turn to opportunities of establishing metrological references for quality assurance of qualitative measurements. In psychometrics, one could imagine a certified reference for knowledge challenge, for example, a particular concept in understanding physics or for product quality of a certain health care service. Multivariate methods, such as Principal Component

  12. Metrology of human-based and other qualitative measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendrill, Leslie; Petersson, Niclas

    2016-01-01

    The metrology of human-based and other qualitative measurements is in its infancy—concepts such as traceability and uncertainty are as yet poorly developed. This paper reviews how a measurement system analysis approach, particularly invoking as performance metric the ability of a probe (such as a human being) acting as a measurement instrument to make a successful decision, can enable a more general metrological treatment of qualitative observations. Measures based on human observations are typically qualitative, not only in sectors, such as health care, services and safety, where the human factor is obvious, but also in customer perception of traditional products of all kinds. A principal challenge is that the usual tools of statistics normally employed for expressing measurement accuracy and uncertainty will probably not work reliably if relations between distances on different portions of scales are not fully known, as is typical of ordinal or other qualitative measurements. A key enabling insight is to connect the treatment of decision risks associated with measurement uncertainty to generalized linear modelling (GLM). Handling qualitative observations in this way unites information theory, the perceptive identification and choice paradigms of psychophysics. The Rasch invariant measure psychometric GLM approach in particular enables a proper treatment of ordinal data; a clear separation of probe and item attribute estimates; simple expressions for instrument sensitivity; etc. Examples include two aspects of the care of breast cancer patients, from diagnosis to rehabilitation. The Rasch approach leads in turn to opportunities of establishing metrological references for quality assurance of qualitative measurements. In psychometrics, one could imagine a certified reference for knowledge challenge, for example, a particular concept in understanding physics or for product quality of a certain health care service. Multivariate methods, such as Principal Component

  13. Target-Tracking Camera for a Metrology System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebe, Carl; Bartman, Randall; Chapsky, Jacob; Abramovici, Alexander; Brown, David

    2009-01-01

    An analog electronic camera that is part of a metrology system measures the varying direction to a light-emitting diode that serves as a bright point target. In the original application for which the camera was developed, the metrological system is used to determine the varying relative positions of radiating elements of an airborne synthetic aperture-radar (SAR) antenna as the airplane flexes during flight; precise knowledge of the relative positions as a function of time is needed for processing SAR readings. It has been common metrology system practice to measure the varying direction to a bright target by use of an electronic camera of the charge-coupled-device or active-pixel-sensor type. A major disadvantage of this practice arises from the necessity of reading out and digitizing the outputs from a large number of pixels and processing the resulting digital values in a computer to determine the centroid of a target: Because of the time taken by the readout, digitization, and computation, the update rate is limited to tens of hertz. In contrast, the analog nature of the present camera makes it possible to achieve an update rate of hundreds of hertz, and no computer is needed to determine the centroid. The camera is based on a position-sensitive detector (PSD), which is a rectangular photodiode with output contacts at opposite ends. PSDs are usually used in triangulation for measuring small distances. PSDs are manufactured in both one- and two-dimensional versions. Because it is very difficult to calibrate two-dimensional PSDs accurately, the focal-plane sensors used in this camera are two orthogonally mounted one-dimensional PSDs.

  14. Scientific language and metrology; El lenguaje cientificio y la metrologia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campo Maldonado, D. del; Martin Blasco, B.; Prieto Esteban, E.

    2011-07-01

    The International System of Units (SI) reflects all the decisions and recommendations regarding units of measurement issued by the General Conference on Weights and Measures, including rules for writing the names and symbols of measurement units and for expressing the values of quantities. Even though the SI is internationally accepted and is the declared legal system whose use is obligatory in Spain, the Spanish Metrology Centre has been detecting an incorrect use of the units of measurement both in textbooks at all levels and in scientific articles. (Author) 5 refs.

  15. Metrology-based control and profitability in the semiconductor industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Charles

    2001-06-01

    This paper summarizes three studies of the semiconductor industry conducted at SEMATECH and MIT's Sloan School of Management. In conjunction they lead to the conclusion that rapid problem solving is an essential component of profitability in the semiconductor industry, and that metrology-based control is instrumental to rapid problem solving. The studies also identify the need for defect attribution. Once a source of a defect has been identified, the appropriate resources--human and technological--need to be brought into the physically optimal location for corrective action. The Internet is likely to enable effective defect attribution by inducing collaboration between different companies.

  16. Ultrabroadband optical chirp linearization for precision metrology applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Peter A; Reibel, Randy R; Berg, Trenton; Kaylor, Brant; Barber, Zeb W; Babbitt, Wm Randall

    2009-12-01

    We demonstrate precise linearization of ultrabroadband laser frequency chirps via a fiber-based self-heterodyne technique to enable extremely high-resolution, frequency-modulated cw laser-radar (LADAR) and a wide range of other metrology applications. Our frequency chirps cover bandwidths up to nearly 5 THz with frequency errors as low as 170 kHz, relative to linearity. We show that this performance enables 31-mum transform-limited LADAR range resolution (FWHM) and 86 nm range precisions over a 1.5 m range baseline. Much longer range baselines are possible but are limited by atmospheric turbulence and fiber dispersion.

  17. A focal plane metrology system and PSF centroiding experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haitao; Li, Baoquan; Cao, Yang; Li, Ligang

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we present an overview of a detector array equipment metrology testbed and a micro-pixel centroiding experiment currently under development at the National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences. We discuss on-going development efforts aimed at calibrating the intra-/inter-pixel quantum efficiency and pixel positions for scientific grade CMOS detector, and review significant progress in achieving higher precision differential centroiding for pseudo star images in large area back-illuminated CMOS detector. Without calibration of pixel positions and intrapixel response, we have demonstrated that the standard deviation of differential centroiding is below 2.0e-3 pixels.

  18. Fringe pattern analysis for optical metrology theory, algorithms, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Servin, Manuel; Padilla, Moises

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this book is to present the basic theoretical principles and practical applications for the classical interferometric techniques and the most advanced methods in the field of modern fringe pattern analysis applied to optical metrology. A major novelty of this work is the presentation of a unified theoretical framework based on the Fourier description of phase shifting interferometry using the Frequency Transfer Function (FTF) along with the theory of Stochastic Process for the straightforward analysis and synthesis of phase shifting algorithms with desired properties such

  19. Laser metrology in fluid mechanics granulometry, temperature and concentration measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Boutier, Alain

    2013-01-01

    In fluid mechanics, non-intrusive measurements are fundamental in order to improve knowledge of the behavior and main physical phenomena of flows in order to further validate codes.The principles and characteristics of the different techniques available in laser metrology are described in detail in this book.Velocity, temperature and concentration measurements by spectroscopic techniques based on light scattered by molecules are achieved by different techniques: laser-induced fluorescence, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering using lasers and parametric sources, and absorption sp

  20. Metrology measurements for large-aperture VPH gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jessica R.; Gers, Luke; Heijmans, Jeroen

    2013-09-01

    The High Efficiency and Resolution Multi Element Spectrograph (HERMES) for the Australian Astronomical Observatory (AAO) uses four large aperture, high angle of incidence volume phase holographic gratings (VPHG) for high resolution `Galactic archaeology' spectroscopy. The large clear aperture, the high diffraction efficiency, the line frequency homogeneity, and mosaic alignment made manufacturing and testing challenging. We developed new metrology systems at the AAO to verify the performance of these VPH gratings. The measured diffraction efficiencies and line frequency of the VPH gratings received so far meet the vendor's provided data. The wavefront quality for the Blue VPH grating is good but the Green and Red VPH gratings need to be post polishing.

  1. Advanced Metrology for Characterization of Magnetic Tunnel Junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Daniel

    -plane tunneling (CIPT) for characterization of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs), which constitutes the key component not only in MRAM but also the read-heads of modern hard disk drives. MTJs are described by their tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR), which is the relative difference of the resistance area products (RA...... of this project has been to provide cheaper, faster and more precise metrology for MTJs. This goal has been achieved in part by the demonstration of a static field CIPT method, which allows us to reduce the measurement time by a factor of 5, by measuring only RA thus excluding TMR. This enhancement is obtained...

  2. LISA Pathfinder: Optical Metrology System monitoring during operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audley, Heather E.; LISA Pathfinder Collaboration

    2017-05-01

    The LISA Pathfinder (LPF) mission has demonstrated excellent performance. In addition to having surpassed the main mission goals, data has been collected from the various subsystems throughout the duration of the mission. This data is a valuable resource, both for a more complete understanding of the LPF satellite and the differential acceleration measurements, as well as for the design of the future Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission. Initial analysis of the Optical Metrology System (OMS) data was performed as part of daily system monitoring, and more in-depth analyses are ongoing. This contribution presents an overview of these activities along with an introduction to the OMS.

  3. Accreditation experience of radioisotope metrology laboratory of Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglicki, A. [Laboratorio de Metrologia de Radioisotopos, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina)]. E-mail: iglicki@cae.cnea.gov.ar; Mila, M.I. [Laboratorio de Metrologia de Radioisotopos, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina)]. E-mail: mila@cae.cnea.gov.ar; Furnari, J.C. [Laboratorio de Metrologia de Radioisotopos, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina); Arenillas, P. [Laboratorio de Metrologia de Radioisotopos, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina); Cerutti, G. [Laboratorio de Metrologia de Radioisotopos, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina); Carballido, M. [Laboratorio de Metrologia de Radioisotopos, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina); Guillen, V. [Laboratorio de Metrologia de Radioisotopos, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina); Araya, X. [Laboratorio de Metrologia de Radioisotopos, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina); Bianchini, R. [Laboratorio de Metrologia de Radioisotopos, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina)

    2006-10-15

    This work presents the experience developed by the Radioisotope Metrology Laboratory (LMR), of the Argentine National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), as result of the accreditation process of the Quality System by ISO 17025 Standard. Considering the LMR as a calibration laboratory, services of secondary activity determinations and calibration of activimeters used in Nuclear Medicine were accredited. A peer review of the ({alpha}/{beta})-{gamma} coincidence system was also carried out. This work shows in detail the structure of the quality system, the results of the accrediting audit and gives the number of non-conformities detected and of observations made which have all been resolved.

  4. Accreditation experience of radioisotope metrology laboratory of Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglicki, A.; Mila, M.I.; Furnari, J.C.; Arenillas, P.; Cerutti, G.; Carballido, M.; Guillen, V.; Araya, X.; Bianchini, R.

    2006-01-01

    This work presents the experience developed by the Radioisotope Metrology Laboratory (LMR), of the Argentine National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), as result of the accreditation process of the Quality System by ISO 17025 Standard. Considering the LMR as a calibration laboratory, services of secondary activity determinations and calibration of activimeters used in Nuclear Medicine were accredited. A peer review of the (α/β)-γ coincidence system was also carried out. This work shows in detail the structure of the quality system, the results of the accrediting audit and gives the number of non-conformities detected and of observations made which have all been resolved

  5. Industrial, agricultural, and medical applications of radiation metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbell, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    Photon and particle radiations (gamma rays, X-rays, bremsstrahlung, electrons and other charged particles, neutrons) from radioactive isotopes, X-ray tubes, and accelerators are now widely used in gauging, production control, and other monitoring and metrology devices where avoidance of mechanical contact is desirable. The general principles of radiation gauges, which rely on detection of radiation transmitted by the sample, or on detection of scattered or other secondary radiations produced in the sample, are discussed. Examples of such devices currently used in industrial, agricultural, and medical situations are presented, and some anticipated developments are mentioned. (author)

  6. Development of a free software for laboratory of metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, Renata R. da; Benevides, Clayton A.

    2014-01-01

    The Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE) has a Metrology Laboratory to realize radioactive assays and calibrations in X and gamma radiation. This job, realized before in a manual way, had only paper recording and a hard-working data recovery. The objective of this job was to develop an application with free software to manage the laboratory activities, as service recording, rastreability control and environmental conditions monitoring, beyond automate the certificates and reports. As result, we have obtained the optimization of the routine and the management of the laboratory. (author)

  7. The Quality Control of Reference Standards in Metrology Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarevic, Dj.; Ciraj Bjelac, O.; Kovacevic, M.; Vukcevic, M.

    2008-01-01

    This works presents the quality control tests applied to two types of ionization chambers with suitable electrometers. Measuring assemblies were tested in order to assess their performance and adequacy for use as reference standards in ionising radiation metrology laboratory for calibrations in the field of radiotherapy and radiation protection. Two types of ionizing chambers (Farmer type, 0.6 cm 3 and spherical ionizing chamber, 1 l) with suitable electrometers were tested. Following test were performed: repeatability, long term stability, polarity and leakage current measurement. All tested measuring assemblies demonstrated proper performance, correctness and high reliance of measurements, since all implemented quality control test results were within acceptable limits. (author)

  8. A universal quantum module for quantum communication, computation, and metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Michael; Lo Piparo, Nicolò; Trupke, Michael; Schmiedmayer, Jorg; Munro, William J.; Nemoto, Kae

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we describe a simple module that could be ubiquitous for quantum information based applications. The basic modules comprises a single NV- center in diamond embedded in an optical cavity, where the cavity mediates interactions between photons and the electron spin (enabling entanglement distribution and efficient readout), while the nuclear spins constitutes a long-lived quantum memories capable of storing and processing quantum information. We discuss how a network of connected modules can be used for distributed metrology, communication and computation applications. Finally, we investigate the possible use of alternative diamond centers (SiV/GeV) within the module and illustrate potential advantages.

  9. Dimensional Metrology of Non-rigid Parts Without Specialized Inspection Fixtures =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, Vahid

    Quality control is an important factor for manufacturing companies looking to prosper in an era of globalization, market pressures and technological advances. Functionality and product quality cannot be guaranteed without this important aspect. Manufactured parts have deviations from their nominal (CAD) shape caused by the manufacturing process. Thus, geometric inspection is a very important element in the quality control of mechanical parts. We will focus here on the geometric inspection of non-rigid (flexible) parts which are widely used in the aeronautic and automotive industries. Non-rigid parts can have different forms in a free-state condition compared with their nominal models due to residual stress and gravity loads. To solve this problem, dedicated inspection fixtures are generally used in industry to compensate for the displacement of such parts for simulating the use state in order to perform geometric inspections. These fixtures and the installation and inspection processes are expensive and time-consuming. Our aim in this thesis is therefore to develop an inspection method which eliminates the need for specialized fixtures. This is done by acquiring a point cloud from the part in a free-state condition using a contactless measuring device such as optical scanning and comparing it with the CAD model for the deviation identification. Using a non-rigid registration method and finite element analysis, we numerically inspect the profile of a non-rigid part. To do so, a simulated displacement is performed using an improved definition of displacement boundary conditions for simulating unfixed parts. In addition, we propose a numerical method for dimensional metrology of non-rigid parts in a free-state condition based on the arc length measurement by calculating the geodesic distance using the Fast Marching Method (FMM). In this thesis, we apply our developed methods on industrial non-rigid parts with free-form surfaces simulated with different types of

  10. National Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation Metrology - Brazilian CNEN; Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    The activities of the Brazilian National Laboratory of Ionizing Radiations Metrology are described. They include research and development of metrological techniques and procedures, the calibration of area radiation monitors, clinical dosemeters and other instruments and the preparation and standardization of reference radioactive sources. 4 figs., 13 tabs.

  11. Management of metrology in measuring of the displacement of building construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Kratochvíl

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The metrology management of the measurement of the displacement of building construction is not regulated in the standard ČSN ISO 73 0405 - Measurement of the displacement of building construction. But the metrology management has to be included in the project of measurement of the displacement (Stage of project. Then we have to pay an attention to the metrological management during this measurement (Stage of realization and during the evaluation of this measurement (Stage of evaluation. We have to insist on the subsequent improving of metrology management within the frame of the next project (so-called feedback. The metrology management in the measurement of the displacement during the stages should be based on an application of statutory instruments and technical standards. We should insist especially on the system of standards for the quality control ISO 9000. Considering specialities of geodetic measurements it is necessary to adapt the metrology management. That is why it will differ from the metrology management in other fields of knowledge. This paper includes some steps of metrological provision which must not be ignored.

  12. Quantum interference metrology at deep-UV wavelengths using phase-controlled ultrashort laser pulses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zinkstok, R. Th; Witte, S.; Ubachs, W.; Hogervorst, W.; Eikema, K. S E

    2005-01-01

    High-resolution metrology at wavelengths shorter than ultraviolet is in general hampered by a limited availability of appropriate laser sources. It is demonstrated that this limitation can be overcome by quantum-interference metrology with frequency up-converted ultrafast laser pulses. The required

  13. Issues of Teaching Metrology in Higher Education Institutions of Civil Engineering in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukharenko, Yurii Vladimirovich; Norin, Veniamin Aleksandrovich

    2017-01-01

    The work analyses the training process condition in teaching the discipline "Metrology, Standardization, Certification and Quality Control." It proves that the current educational standard regarding the instruction of the discipline "Metrology, Standardization, Certification and Quality Control" does not meet the needs of the…

  14. National Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation Metrology - Brazilian CNEN; Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    The activities of the Brazilian National Laboratory of Ionizing Radiations Metrology are described. They include research and development of metrological techniques and procedures, the calibration of area radiation monitors, clinical dosemeters and other instruments and the preparation and standardization of reference radioactive sources. 4 figs., 13 tabs.

  15. Industrial Photogrammetry - Accepted Metrology Tool or Exotic Niche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bösemann, Werner

    2016-06-01

    New production technologies like 3D printing and other adaptive manufacturing technologies have changed the industrial manufacturing process, often referred to as next industrial revolution or short industry 4.0. Such Cyber Physical Production Systems combine virtual and real world through digitization, model building process simulation and optimization. It is commonly understood that measurement technologies are the key to combine the real and virtual worlds (eg. [Schmitt 2014]). This change from measurement as a quality control tool to a fully integrated step in the production process has also changed the requirements for 3D metrology solutions. Key words like MAA (Measurement Assisted Assembly) illustrate that new position of metrology in the industrial production process. At the same time it is obvious that these processes not only require more measurements but also systems to deliver the required information in high density in a short time. Here optical solutions including photogrammetry for 3D measurements have big advantages over traditional mechanical CMM's. The paper describes the relevance of different photogrammetric solutions including state of the art, industry requirements and application examples.

  16. The origins of the metrology of ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschoa, Anselmo S. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica]. E-mail: aspas@itaipu.vdg.fis.puc-rio.br

    2000-07-01

    Metrology of ionizing radiation started soon after the discovery of radioactivity. However, the modern metrology of ionizing radiation can be considered a by product of the Manhattan Project. When this mammoth effort to produce the first nuclear weapons was initiated, little was known about some of the properties of natural elements, though the phenomenon of natural radioactivity was already known for almost half a century. Less was known about the radioactive materials involved in that project. The amount of those materials which had to be handled were higher than any amount of {sup 226} Ra and {sup 228} Ra ever used thus far. The first atomic piles produced concentration levels of radioactivity much higher than any level known before. There was then a threat not only for the health of hundred of technicians and scientists, but also for thousands of workers. The secrecy involving that project would not allow much to be told about the radioactive hazards. There was, however, the need to protect workers and the public in General against unnecessary exposures to ionizing radiation. The origin of the standards used in radiological protection from pre-world war II and their remarkable evolution during and immediately after this war will be discussed in the paper. (author)

  17. The origins of the metrology of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoa, Anselmo S.

    2000-01-01

    Metrology of ionizing radiation started soon after the discovery of radioactivity. However, the modern metrology of ionizing radiation can be considered a by product of the Manhattan Project. When this mammoth effort to produce the first nuclear weapons was initiated, little was known about some of the properties of natural elements, though the phenomenon of natural radioactivity was already known for almost half a century. Less was known about the radioactive materials involved in that project. The amount of those materials which had to be handled were higher than any amount of 226 Ra and 228 Ra ever used thus far. The first atomic piles produced concentration levels of radioactivity much higher than any level known before. There was then a threat not only for the health of hundred of technicians and scientists, but also for thousands of workers. The secrecy involving that project would not allow much to be told about the radioactive hazards. There was, however, the need to protect workers and the public in General against unnecessary exposures to ionizing radiation. The origin of the standards used in radiological protection from pre-world war II and their remarkable evolution during and immediately after this war will be discussed in the paper. (author)

  18. The place of highly accurate methods by RNAA in metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dybczynski, R.; Danko, B.; Polkowska-Motrenko, H.; Samczynski, Z.

    2006-01-01

    With the introduction of physical metrological concepts to chemical analysis which require that the result should be accompanied by uncertainty statement written down in terms of Sl units, several researchers started to consider lD-MS as the only method fulfilling this requirement. However, recent publications revealed that in certain cases also some expert laboratories using lD-MS and analyzing the same material, produced results for which their uncertainty statements did not overlap, what theoretically should not have taken place. This shows that no monopoly is good in science and it would be desirable to widen the set of methods acknowledged as primary in inorganic trace analysis. Moreover, lD-MS cannot be used for monoisotopic elements. The need for searching for other methods having similar metrological quality as the lD-MS seems obvious. In this paper, our long-time experience on devising highly accurate ('definitive') methods by RNAA for the determination of selected trace elements in biological materials is reviewed. The general idea of definitive methods based on combination of neutron activation with the highly selective and quantitative isolation of the indicator radionuclide by column chromatography followed by gamma spectrometric measurement is reminded and illustrated by examples of the performance of such methods when determining Cd, Co, Mo, etc. lt is demonstrated that such methods are able to provide very reliable results with very low levels of uncertainty traceable to Sl units

  19. X-ray pulse wavefront metrology using speckle tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berujon, Sebastien; Ziegler, Eric; Cloetens, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The theoretical description and experimental implementation of a speckle-tracking-based instrument which permits the characterisation of X-ray pulse wavefronts. An instrument allowing the quantitative analysis of X-ray pulsed wavefronts is presented and its processing method explained. The system relies on the X-ray speckle tracking principle to accurately measure the phase gradient of the X-ray beam from which beam optical aberrations can be deduced. The key component of this instrument, a semi-transparent scintillator emitting visible light while transmitting X-rays, allows simultaneous recording of two speckle images at two different propagation distances from the X-ray source. The speckle tracking procedure for a reference-less metrology mode is described with a detailed account on the advanced processing schemes used. A method to characterize and compensate for the imaging detector distortion, whose principle is also based on speckle, is included. The presented instrument is expected to find interest at synchrotrons and at the new X-ray free-electron laser sources under development worldwide where successful exploitation of beams relies on the availability of an accurate wavefront metrology

  20. Elements for successful sensor-based process control {Integrated Metrology}

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, Stephanie Watts

    1998-01-01

    Current productivity needs have stimulated development of alternative metrology, control, and equipment maintenance methods. Specifically, sensor applications provide the opportunity to increase productivity, tighten control, reduce scrap, and improve maintenance schedules and procedures. Past experience indicates a complete integrated solution must be provided for sensor-based control to be used successfully in production. In this paper, Integrated Metrology is proposed as the term for an integrated solution that will result in a successful application of sensors for process control. This paper defines and explores the perceived four elements of successful sensor applications: business needs, integration, components, and form. Based upon analysis of existing successful commercially available controllers, the necessary business factors have been determined to be strong, measurable industry-wide business needs whose solution is profitable and feasible. This paper examines why the key aspect of integration is the decision making process. A detailed discussion is provided of the components of most importance to sensor based control: decision-making methods, the 3R's of sensors, and connectivity. A metric for one of the R's (resolution) is proposed to allow focus on this important aspect of measurement. A form for these integrated components which synergistically partitions various aspects of control at the equipment and MES levels to efficiently achieve desired benefits is recommended

  1. Elements for successful sensor-based process control {Integrated Metrology}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Stephanie Watts

    1998-11-01

    Current productivity needs have stimulated development of alternative metrology, control, and equipment maintenance methods. Specifically, sensor applications provide the opportunity to increase productivity, tighten control, reduce scrap, and improve maintenance schedules and procedures. Past experience indicates a complete integrated solution must be provided for sensor-based control to be used successfully in production. In this paper, Integrated Metrology is proposed as the term for an integrated solution that will result in a successful application of sensors for process control. This paper defines and explores the perceived four elements of successful sensor applications: business needs, integration, components, and form. Based upon analysis of existing successful commercially available controllers, the necessary business factors have been determined to be strong, measurable industry-wide business needs whose solution is profitable and feasible. This paper examines why the key aspect of integration is the decision making process. A detailed discussion is provided of the components of most importance to sensor based control: decision-making methods, the 3R's of sensors, and connectivity. A metric for one of the R's (resolution) is proposed to allow focus on this important aspect of measurement. A form for these integrated components which synergistically partitions various aspects of control at the equipment and MES levels to efficiently achieve desired benefits is recommended.

  2. Ensuring Food Integrity by Metrology and FAIR Data Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Rychlik

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Food integrity is a general term for sound, nutritive, healthy, tasty, safe, authentic, traceable, as well as ethically, safely, environment-friendly, and sustainably produced foods. In order to verify these properties, analytical methods with a higher degree of accuracy, sensitivity, standardization and harmonization and a harmonized system for their application in analytical laboratories are required. In this view, metrology offers the opportunity to achieve these goals. In this perspective article the current global challenges in food analysis and the principles of metrology to fill these gaps are presented. Therefore, the pan-European project METROFOOD-RI within the framework of the European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI was developed to establish a strategy to allow reliable and comparable analytical measurements in foods along the whole process line starting from primary producers until consumers and to make all data findable, accessible, interoperable, and re-usable according to the FAIR data principles. The initiative currently consists of 48 partners from 18 European Countries and concluded its “Early Phase” as research infrastructure by organizing its future structure and presenting a proof of concept by preparing, distributing and comprehensively analyzing three candidate Reference Materials (rice grain, rice flour, and oyster tissue and establishing a system how to compile, process, and store the generated data and how to exchange, compare them and make them accessible in data bases.

  3. INDUSTRIAL PHOTOGRAMMETRY - ACCEPTED METROLOGY TOOL OR EXOTIC NICHE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Bösemann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available New production technologies like 3D printing and other adaptive manufacturing technologies have changed the industrial manufacturing process, often referred to as next industrial revolution or short industry 4.0. Such Cyber Physical Production Systems combine virtual and real world through digitization, model building process simulation and optimization. It is commonly understood that measurement technologies are the key to combine the real and virtual worlds (eg. [Schmitt 2014]. This change from measurement as a quality control tool to a fully integrated step in the production process has also changed the requirements for 3D metrology solutions. Key words like MAA (Measurement Assisted Assembly illustrate that new position of metrology in the industrial production process. At the same time it is obvious that these processes not only require more measurements but also systems to deliver the required information in high density in a short time. Here optical solutions including photogrammetry for 3D measurements have big advantages over traditional mechanical CMM’s. The paper describes the relevance of different photogrammetric solutions including state of the art, industry requirements and application examples.

  4. Metrology challenges for high-rate nanomanufacturing of polymer structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Joey; Barry, Carol; Busnaina, Ahmed; Isaacs, Jacqueline

    2012-10-01

    The transfer of nanoscience accomplishments into commercial products is hindered by the lack of understanding of barriers to nanoscale manufacturing. We have developed a number of nanomanufacturing processes that leverage available high-rate plastics fabrication technologies. These processes include directed assembly of a variety of nanoelements, such as nanoparticles and nanotubes, which are then transferred onto a polymer substrate for the fabrication of conformal/flexible electronic materials, among other applications. These assembly processes utilize both electric fields and/or chemical functionalization. Conducting polymers and carbon nanotubes have been successfully transferred to a polymer substrate in times less than 5 minutes, which is commercially relevant and can be utilized in a continuous (reel to reel/roll to roll) process. Other processes include continuous high volume mixing of nanoelements (CNTs, etc) into polymers, multi-layer extrusion and 3D injection molding of polymer structures. These nanomanufacturing processes can be used for wide range of applications, including EMI shielding, flexible electronics, structural materials, and novel sensors (specifically for chem/bio detection). Current techniques to characterize the quality and efficacy of the processes are quite slow. Moreover, the instrumentation and metrology needs for these manufacturing processes are varied and challenging. Novel, rapid, in-line metrology to enable the commercialization of these processes is critically needed. This talk will explore the necessary measurement needs for polymer based nanomanufacturing processes for both step and continuous (reel to reel/roll to roll) processes.

  5. Development of laser materials processing and laser metrology techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Chung, Chin Man; Kim, Jeong Mook; Kim, Min Suk; Kim, Kwang Suk; Baik, Sung Hoon; Kim, Seong Ouk; Park, Seung Kyu

    1997-09-01

    The applications of remote laser materials processing and metrology have been investigated in nuclear industry from the beginning of laser invention because they can reduce the risks of workers in the hostile environment by remote operation. The objective of this project is the development of laser material processing and metrology techniques for repairing and inspection to improve the safety of nuclear power plants. As to repairing, we developed our own laser sleeve welding head and innovative optical laser weld monitoring techniques to control the sleeve welding process. Furthermore, we designed and fabricated a 800 W Nd:YAG and a 150 W Excimer laser systems for high power laser materials processing in nuclear industry such as cladding and decontamination. As to inspection, we developed an ESPI and a laser triangulation 3-D profile measurement system for defect detection which can complement ECT and UT inspections. We also developed a scanning laser vibrometer for remote vibration measurement of large structures and tested its performance. (author). 58 refs., 16 tabs., 137 figs

  6. Diffraction-based overlay metrology for double patterning technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasari, Prasad; Korlahalli, Rahul; Li, Jie; Smith, Nigel; Kritsun, Oleg; Volkman, Cathy

    2009-03-01

    The extension of optical lithography to 32nm and beyond is made possible by Double Patterning Techniques (DPT) at critical levels of the process flow. The ease of DPT implementation is hindered by increased significance of critical dimension uniformity and overlay errors. Diffraction-based overlay (DBO) has shown to be an effective metrology solution for accurate determination of the overlay errors associated with double patterning [1, 2] processes. In this paper we will report its use in litho-freeze-litho-etch (LFLE) and spacer double patterning technology (SDPT), which are pitch splitting solutions that reduce the significance of overlay errors. Since the control of overlay between various mask/level combinations is critical for fabrication, precise and accurate assessment of errors by advanced metrology techniques such as spectroscopic diffraction based overlay (DBO) and traditional image-based overlay (IBO) using advanced target designs will be reported. A comparison between DBO, IBO and CD-SEM measurements will be reported. . A discussion of TMU requirements for 32nm technology and TMU performance data of LFLE and SDPT targets by different overlay approaches will be presented.

  7. Adhesive Bonding for Optical Metrology Systems in Space Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohlke, Martin; Schuldt, Thilo; Braxmaier, Claus; Döringshoff, Klaus; Peters, Achim; Johann, Ulrich; Weise, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Laser based metrology systems become more and more attractive for space applications and are the core elements of planned missions such as LISA (NGO, eLISA) or NGGM where laser interferometry is used for distance measurements between satellites. The GRACE-FO mission will for the first time demonstrate a Laser Ranging Instrument (LRI) in space, starting 2017. Laser based metrology also includes optical clocks/references, either as ultra-stable light source for high sensitivity interferometry or as scientific payload e.g. proposed in fundamental physics missions such as mSTAR (mini SpaceTime Asymmetry Research), a mission dedicated to perform a Kennedy-Thorndike experiment on a satellite in a low-Earth orbit. To enable the use of existing optical laboratory setups, optimization with respect to power consumption, weight and dimensions is necessary. At the same time the thermal and structural stability must be increased. Over the last few years we investigated adhesive bonding of optical components to thermally highly stable glass ceramics as an easy-to-handle assembly integration technology. Several setups were implemented and tested for potential later use in space applications. We realized a heterodyne LISA related interferometer with demonstrated noise levels in the pm-range for translation measurement and nano-radiant-range for tilt measurements and two iodine frequency references on Elegant Breadboard (EBB) and Engineering Model (EM) level with frequency stabilities in the 10 -15 range for longer integration times. The EM setup was thermally cycled and vibration tested. (paper)

  8. How to measure atomic diffusion processes in the sub-nanometer range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, H.; Gupta, M.; Gutberlet, T.; Stahn, J.; Bruns, M.

    2008-01-01

    Self-diffusion of the atomic constituents in the solid state is a fundamental transport process that controls various materials properties. With established methods of diffusivity determination it is only possible to measure diffusion processes on a length scale down to 10 nm at corresponding diffusivities of 10 -23 m 2 s -1 . However, for complex materials like amorphous or nano-structured solids the given values are often not sufficient for a proper characterization. Consequently, it is necessary to detect diffusion length well below 1 nm. Here, we present the method of neutron reflectometry on isotope multilayers. For two model systems, an amorphous semiconductor and an amorphous metallic alloy, the efficiency of this method is demonstrated to detect minimum diffusion lengths of only 0.6-0.7 nm. It is further shown that diffusivities can be derived which are more than two orders of magnitude lower than those obtainable with conventional methods. Prospects of this method in order to solve actual kinetic problems in materials science are given

  9. Study of vibrations and stabilization of linear collider final doublets at the sub-nanometer scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolzon, B.

    2007-11-01

    CLIC is one of the current projects of high energy linear colliders. Vertical beam sizes of 0.7 nm at the time of the collision and fast ground motion of a few nanometers impose an active stabilization of the final doublets at a fifth of nanometer above 4 Hz. The majority of my work concerned vibrations and active stabilization study of cantilever and slim beams in order to be representative of the final doublets of CLIC. In a first part, measured performances of different types of vibration sensors associated to an appropriate instrumentation showed that accurate measurements of ground motion are possible from 0.1 Hz up to 2000 Hz on a quiet site. Also, electrochemical sensors answering a priori the specifications of CLIC can be incorporated in the active stabilization at a fifth of nanometer. In a second part, an experimental and numerical study of beam vibrations enabled to validate the efficiency of the numerical prediction incorporated then in the simulation of the active stabilization. Also, a study of the impact of ground motion and of acoustic noise on beam vibrations showed that an active stabilization is necessary at least up to 1000 Hz. In a third part, results on the active stabilization of a beam at its two first resonances are shown down to amplitudes of a tenth of nanometer above 4 Hz by using in parallel a commercial system performing passive and active stabilization of the clamping. The last part is related to a study of a support for the final doublets of a linear collider prototype in phase of finalization, the ATF2 prototype. This work showed that relative motion between this support and the ground is below imposed tolerances (6 nm above 0.1 Hz) with appropriate boundary conditions. (author)

  10. Sub-nanometer emittance monitor for high brightness synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, K.

    1991-01-01

    Method of measuring a very small beam emittance in electron storage rings is presented. The monitor can sense an intrinsic emittance of beam particles by detecting the angular distribution of Compton scatterings of laser photons on beam electrons. It is possible to achieve measurement resolution smaller than 10 -9 m-rad without difficulty. (author)

  11. Product Surfaces in Precision Engineering, Micorengineering and Nanotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Kunzmann, H.; Peggs, G. N.

    2005-01-01

    This paper is and excerpt from a recently published CIRP Key-Note paper on surfaces in Precision Engineering, Micorengineering and Nanotechnology [1]. It is focussed on the relevance of surface metrology at the micrometric and nanometric length scales. The applied measurement technologies...... are strongly dependent from the functional requirements on those surfaces. Examples of surfaces obtained with precision engineering, microengineering and nanotechnology are mentioned, encompassing surfaces in computers, MEMS, biomedical systems, ligth and X-ray optics, as well as in chemical systems. Surface...... in surface metrology at micro and nanoscale are strongly required for future progress of Precision Engineering, Microengineering, and Nanotechnology; and their fundamental importance can not be overestimated....

  12. Reducing measurement uncertainty drives the use of multiple technologies for supporting metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banke, Bill, Jr.; Archie, Charles N.; Sendelbach, Matthew; Robert, Jim; Slinkman, James A.; Kaszuba, Phil; Kontra, Rick; DeVries, Mick; Solecky, Eric P.

    2004-05-01

    Perhaps never before in semiconductor microlithography has there been such an interest in the accuracy of measurement. This interest places new demands on our in-line metrology systems as well as the supporting metrology for verification. This also puts a burden on the users and suppliers of new measurement tools, which both challenge and complement existing manufacturing metrology. The metrology community needs to respond to these challenges by using new methods to assess the fab metrologies. An important part of this assessment process is the ability to obtain accepted reference measurements as a way of determining the accuracy and Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) of an in-line critical dimension (CD). In this paper, CD can mean any critical dimension including, for example, such measures as feature height or sidewall angle. This paper describes the trade-offs of in-line metrology systems as well as the limitations of Reference Measurement Systems (RMS). Many factors influence each application such as feature shape, material properties, proximity, sampling, and critical dimension. These factors, along with the metrology probe size, interaction volume, and probe type such as e-beam, optical beam, and mechanical probe, are considered. As the size of features shrinks below 100nm some of the stalwarts of reference metrology come into question, such as the electrically determined transistor gate length. The concept of the RMS is expanded to show how multiple metrologies are needed to achieve the right balance of accuracy and sampling. This is also demonstrated for manufacturing metrology. Various comparisons of CDSEM, scatterometry, AFM, cross section SEM, electrically determined CDs, and TEM are shown. An example is given which demonstrates the importance in obtaining TMU by balancing accuracy and precision for selecting manufacturing measurement strategy and optimizing manufacturing metrology. It is also demonstrated how the necessary supporting metrology will

  13. The need for LWR metrology standardization: the imec roughness protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorusso, Gian Francesco; Sutani, Takumichi; Rutigliani, Vito; van Roey, Frieda; Moussa, Alain; Charley, Anne-Laure; Mack, Chris; Naulleau, Patrick; Constantoudis, Vassilios; Ikota, Masami; Ishimoto, Toru; Koshihara, Shunsuke

    2018-03-01

    As semiconductor technology keeps moving forward, undeterred by the many challenges ahead, one specific deliverable is capturing the attention of many experts in the field: Line Width Roughness (LWR) specifications are expected to be less than 2nm in the near term, and to drop below 1nm in just a few years. This is a daunting challenge and engineers throughout the industry are trying to meet these targets using every means at their disposal. However, although current efforts are surely admirable, we believe they are not enough. The fact is that a specification has a meaning only if there is an agreed methodology to verify if the criterion is met or not. Such a standardization is critical in any field of science and technology and the question that we need to ask ourselves today is whether we have a standardized LWR metrology or not. In other words, if a single reference sample were provided, would everyone measuring it get reasonably comparable results? We came to realize that this is not the case and that the observed spread in the results throughout the industry is quite large. In our opinion, this makes the comparison of LWR data among institutions, or to a specification, very difficult. In this paper, we report the spread of measured LWR data across the semiconductor industry. We investigate the impact of image acquisition, measurement algorithm, and frequency analysis parameters on LWR metrology. We review critically some of the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) metrology guidelines (such as measurement box length larger than 2μm and the need to correct for SEM noise). We compare the SEM roughness results to AFM measurements. Finally, we propose a standardized LWR measurement protocol - the imec Roughness Protocol (iRP) - intended to ensure that every time LWR measurements are compared (from various sources or to specifications), the comparison is sensible and sound. We deeply believe that the industry is at a point where it is

  14. Parametric boundary reconstruction algorithm for industrial CT metrology application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhye; Khare, Kedar; De Man, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    High-energy X-ray computed tomography (CT) systems have been recently used to produce high-resolution images in various nondestructive testing and evaluation (NDT/NDE) applications. The accuracy of the dimensional information extracted from CT images is rapidly approaching the accuracy achieved with a coordinate measuring machine (CMM), the conventional approach to acquire the metrology information directly. On the other hand, CT systems generate the sinogram which is transformed mathematically to the pixel-based images. The dimensional information of the scanned object is extracted later by performing edge detection on reconstructed CT images. The dimensional accuracy of this approach is limited by the grid size of the pixel-based representation of CT images since the edge detection is performed on the pixel grid. Moreover, reconstructed CT images usually display various artifacts due to the underlying physical process and resulting object boundaries from the edge detection fail to represent the true boundaries of the scanned object. In this paper, a novel algorithm to reconstruct the boundaries of an object with uniform material composition and uniform density is presented. There are three major benefits in the proposed approach. First, since the boundary parameters are reconstructed instead of image pixels, the complexity of the reconstruction algorithm is significantly reduced. The iterative approach, which can be computationally intensive, will be practical with the parametric boundary reconstruction. Second, the object of interest in metrology can be represented more directly and accurately by the boundary parameters instead of the image pixels. By eliminating the extra edge detection step, the overall dimensional accuracy and process time can be improved. Third, since the parametric reconstruction approach shares the boundary representation with other conventional metrology modalities such as CMM, boundary information from other modalities can be directly

  15. Experimental Demonstration of Higher Precision Weak-Value-Based Metrology Using Power Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Tao; Tang, Jian-Shun; Hu, Gang; Wang, Jian; Yu, Shang; Zhou, Zong-Quan; Cheng, Ze-Di; Xu, Jin-Shi; Fang, Sen-Zhi; Wu, Qing-Lin; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2016-12-01

    The weak-value-based metrology is very promising and has attracted a lot of attention in recent years because of its remarkable ability in signal amplification. However, it is suggested that the upper limit of the precision of this metrology cannot exceed that of classical metrology because of the low sample size caused by the probe loss during postselection. Nevertheless, a recent proposal shows that this probe loss can be reduced by the power-recycling technique, and thus enhance the precision of weak-value-based metrology. Here we experimentally realize the power-recycled interferometric weak-value-based beam-deflection measurement and obtain the amplitude of the detected signal and white noise by discrete Fourier transform. Our results show that the detected signal can be strengthened by power recycling, and the power-recycled weak-value-based signal-to-noise ratio can surpass the upper limit of the classical scheme, corresponding to the shot-noise limit. This work sheds light on higher precision metrology and explores the real advantage of the weak-value-based metrology over classical metrology.

  16. Metrology and process control: dealing with measurement uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potzick, James

    2010-03-01

    Metrology is often used in designing and controlling manufacturing processes. A product sample is processed, some relevant property is measured, and the process adjusted to bring the next processed sample closer to its specification. This feedback loop can be remarkably effective for the complex processes used in semiconductor manufacturing, but there is some risk involved because measurements have uncertainty and product specifications have tolerances. There is finite risk that good product will fail testing or that faulty product will pass. Standard methods for quantifying measurement uncertainty have been presented, but the question arises: how much measurement uncertainty is tolerable in a specific case? Or, How does measurement uncertainty relate to manufacturing risk? This paper looks at some of the components inside this process control feedback loop and describes methods to answer these questions.

  17. On in-vivo skin topography metrology and replication techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, B-G; Blunt, L; Thomas, T R

    2005-01-01

    Human skin metrology is an area of growing interest for many disciplines both in research and for commercial purposes. Changes in the skin topography are an early stage diagnosis tool not only for diseases but also give indication of the response to medical and cosmetic treatment. This paper focuses on the evaluation of in vivo and in vitro methodologies for accurate measurements of skin and outlines the quantitative characterisation of the skin topography. The study shows the applicability of in-vivo skin topography characterisation and also the advantages and limitations compared to conventional replication techniques. Finally, aspects of stripe projection methodology and 3D characterisation are discussed as a background to the proposed methodology in this paper

  18. Generic distortion model for metrology under optical microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingjian; Li, Zhongwei; Zhong, Kai; Chao, YuhJin; Miraldo, Pedro; Shi, Yusheng

    2018-04-01

    For metrology under optical microscopes, lens distortion is the dominant source of error. Previous distortion models and correction methods mostly rely on the assumption that parametric distortion models require a priori knowledge of the microscopes' lens systems. However, because of the numerous optical elements in a microscope, distortions can be hardly represented by a simple parametric model. In this paper, a generic distortion model considering both symmetric and asymmetric distortions is developed. Such a model is obtained by using radial basis functions (RBFs) to interpolate the radius and distortion values of symmetric distortions (image coordinates and distortion rays for asymmetric distortions). An accurate and easy to implement distortion correction method is presented. With the proposed approach, quantitative measurement with better accuracy can be achieved, such as in Digital Image Correlation for deformation measurement when used with an optical microscope. The proposed technique is verified by both synthetic and real data experiments.

  19. A decade of innovation with laser speckle metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettemeyer, Andreas

    2003-05-01

    Speckle Pattern Interferometry has emerged from the experimental substitution of holographic interferometry to become a powerful problem solving tool in research and industry. The rapid development of computer and digital imaging techniques in combination with minaturization of the optical equipment led to new applications which had not been anticipated before. While classical holographic interferometry had always required careful consideration of the environmental conditions such as vibration, noise, light, etc. and could generally only be performed in the optical laboratory, it is now state of the art, to handle portable speckle measuring equipment at almost any place. During the last decade, the change in design and technique has dramatically influenced the range of applications of speckle metrology and opened new markets. The integration of recent research results into speckle measuring equipment has led to handy equipment, simplified the operation and created high quality data output.

  20. Characterization and Metrology for ULSI Technology: 1998 International Conference. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiler, D.G. [NIST, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Diebold, A.C. [SEMATECH, Austin, TX 78741 (United States); Bullis, W.M. [SEMI, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Schaffner, T.J. [Texas Instruments, Dallas, TX 75221 (United States); McDonald, R. [Intel Corp., Santa Clara, CA 95050 (United States); Walters, E.J. [NIST, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    1998-11-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the 1998 International Conference on Characterization and Metrology for ULSI Technology (INIST) in March 1998. The Conference reviewed important semiconductor techniques that are crucial to continued advancements in the semiconductor industry. It brought together leaders, scientists, and engineers concerned with all aspects of the technology and characterization techniques for silicon research. The topics covered included front end processes consisting of modeling, materials, gate dielectrics, doping and wafer issues. Interconnects were discussed in detail including deposition technology. Lithography and patterning was also discussed. Finally, packaging/assembly of the integrated circuits and materials characterization including dopant profiling was discussed. The papers provide an effective portrayal of industry characterization needs and point out some of the problems that must be addressed by industry, academia, and government to continue the dramatic progress in semiconductor technology. There were 141 papers included in these proceedings, out of which 9 have been abstracted for the Energy,Science and Technology database.(AIP)

  1. Present status of metrology of electro-optical surveillance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrzanowski, K.

    2017-10-01

    There has been a significant progress in equipment for testing electro-optical surveillance systems over the last decade. Modern test systems are increasingly computerized, employ advanced image processing and offer software support in measurement process. However, one great challenge, in form of relative low accuracy, still remains not solved. It is quite common that different test stations, when testing the same device, produce different results. It can even happen that two testing teams, while working on the same test station, with the same tested device, produce different results. Rapid growth of electro-optical technology, poor standardization, limited metrology infrastructure, subjective nature of some measurements, fundamental limitations from laws of physics, tendering rules and advances in artificial intelligence are major factors responsible for such situation. Regardless, next decade should bring significant improvements, since improvement in measurement accuracy is needed to sustain fast growth of electro-optical surveillance technology.

  2. The At-Wavelength Metrology Facility at BESSY-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Schäfers

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The At-Wavelength Metrology Facility at BESSY-II is dedicated to short-term characterization of novel UV, EUV and XUV optical elements, such as diffraction gratings, mirrors, multilayers and nano-optical devices like reflection zone plates. It consists of an Optics Beamline PM-1 and a Reflectometer in a clean-room hutch as a fixed end station. The bending magnet Beamline is a Plane Grating Monochromator beamline (c-PGM equipped with an SX700 monochromator. The beamline is specially tailored for efficient high-order suppression and stray light reduction. The versatile 11-axes UHV-Reflectometer can house life-sized optical elements, which are fully adjustable and of which the reflection properties can be measured in the full incidence angular range as well as in the full azimuthal angular range to determine polarization properties.

  3. Metrological provision in radiometry of long-lived radionuclide aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkina, S.K.; Zalmanzon, Yu.E.; Kuznetsov, Yu.V.; Fertman, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    An optimal, as regards expenditures and resulting effect in development, production and operation, scheme is given for metrological provision of working means to measure radioactive aerosols. Model solid sources are recommended to be used for testing calibration and certification of aerosol radiometers when no losses or distortions of information take place. A model radiometer for long-lived radionuclides operating in the 3x10 -2 - 4x10 4 BK/m 3 range of volumetric activity of α-active nuclides and 5-2x10 5 BK/m 3 range of β-active nuclides is successfully utilized at present. Recommendations on reducing the measurement errors by means of different means are given

  4. Metrological provision in radiometry of long-lived radionuclide aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belkina, S.K.; Zalmanzon, Yu.E.; Kuznetsov, Yu.V.; Fertman, D.E.

    1984-05-01

    An optimal, as regards expenditures and resulting effect in development, production and operation, scheme is given for metrological provision of working means to measure radioactive aerosols. Model solid sources are recommended to be used for testing calibration and certification of aerosol radiometers when no losses or distortions of information take place. A model radiometer for long-lived radionuclides operating in the 3 x 10/sup -2/ - 4 x 10/sup 4/ BK/m/sup 3/ range of volumetric activity of ..cap alpha..-active nuclides and 5-2 x 10/sup 5/ BK/m/sup 3/ range of ..beta..-active nuclides is successfully utilized at present. Recommendations on reducing the measurement errors by means of different means are given.

  5. Digital instrumentation and dead-time processing for radionuclide metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Censier, B.; Bobin, Ch.; Bouchard, J.

    2010-01-01

    Most of the acquisition chains used in radionuclide metrology are based on NIM modules. These analogue setups have been thoroughly tested for decades now, becoming a reference in the field. Nevertheless, the renewal of ageing modules and the need for extra features both call for the development of new acquisition schemes based on digital processing. In this article, several technologies usable for instrumentation are first presented. A review of past and present projects is made in the second part, highlighting the fundamental role of dead-time management. The last part is dedicated to the description of two digital systems developed at LNE-LNHB. The first one has been designed for the instrumentation of a NaI(Tl) well-type crystal set-up, while the second one is used for the management of three photomultipliers in the framework of the TDCR method and as a part of the development of a digital platform for coincidence counting. (authors)

  6. Applying Metrological Techniques to Satellite Fundamental Climate Data Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolliams, Emma R.; Mittaz, Jonathan PD; Merchant, Christopher J.; Hunt, Samuel E.; Harris, Peter M.

    2018-02-01

    Quantifying long-term environmental variability, including climatic trends, requires decadal-scale time series of observations. The reliability of such trend analysis depends on the long-term stability of the data record, and understanding the sources of uncertainty in historic, current and future sensors. We give a brief overview on how metrological techniques can be applied to historical satellite data sets. In particular we discuss the implications of error correlation at different spatial and temporal scales and the forms of such correlation and consider how uncertainty is propagated with partial correlation. We give a form of the Law of Propagation of Uncertainties that considers the propagation of uncertainties associated with common errors to give the covariance associated with Earth observations in different spectral channels.

  7. 3-D metrology applied to superconducting dipole magnets for LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupont, M.; Missiaen, D.; Peguiron, L.

    1999-01-01

    The construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) requires the manufacture of 1232 superconducting dipole magnets containing two beam channels in a common mechanical structure. These dipole magnets, which produce the required magnetic field to deflect the particles along a circular trajectory, have to be bent in their horizontal plane in order to ensure the largest mechanical aperture. Very tight tolerances on the geometry of these magnets have to be imposed during their fabrication in order to minimise, during operation, the possible losses of particles, which circulate in rather small channels and to ensure the alignment of the adjacent magnets in the ring tunnel. This necessitates a thorough metrological inspection of the magnet geometry and an accurate positioning of some of its components. This paper presents the measuring system and the developed methodology to realize these operations. The results on the first 15 m long dipole magnet are shown. (author)

  8. New method of 2-dimensional metrology using mask contouring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ryoichi; Yamagata, Yoshikazu; Sugiyama, Akiyuki; Toyoda, Yasutaka

    2008-10-01

    We have developed a new method of accurately profiling and measuring of a mask shape by utilizing a Mask CD-SEM. The method is intended to realize high accuracy, stability and reproducibility of the Mask CD-SEM adopting an edge detection algorithm as the key technology used in CD-SEM for high accuracy CD measurement. In comparison with a conventional image processing method for contour profiling, this edge detection method is possible to create the profiles with much higher accuracy which is comparable with CD-SEM for semiconductor device CD measurement. This method realizes two-dimensional metrology for refined pattern that had been difficult to measure conventionally by utilizing high precision contour profile. In this report, we will introduce the algorithm in general, the experimental results and the application in practice. As shrinkage of design rule for semiconductor device has further advanced, an aggressive OPC (Optical Proximity Correction) is indispensable in RET (Resolution Enhancement Technology). From the view point of DFM (Design for Manufacturability), a dramatic increase of data processing cost for advanced MDP (Mask Data Preparation) for instance and surge of mask making cost have become a big concern to the device manufacturers. This is to say, demands for quality is becoming strenuous because of enormous quantity of data growth with increasing of refined pattern on photo mask manufacture. In the result, massive amount of simulated error occurs on mask inspection that causes lengthening of mask production and inspection period, cost increasing, and long delivery time. In a sense, it is a trade-off between the high accuracy RET and the mask production cost, while it gives a significant impact on the semiconductor market centered around the mask business. To cope with the problem, we propose the best method of a DFM solution using two-dimensional metrology for refined pattern.

  9. 5th Conference on Advanced Mathematical and Computational Tools in Metrology

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, M G; Filipe, E; Pavese, F; Richter, D

    2001-01-01

    Advances in metrology depend on improvements in scientific and technical knowledge and in instrumentation quality, as well as on better use of advanced mathematical tools and development of new ones. In this volume, scientists from both the mathematical and the metrological fields exchange their experiences. Industrial sectors, such as instrumentation and software, will benefit from this exchange, since metrology has a high impact on the overall quality of industrial products, and applied mathematics is becoming more and more important in industrial processes.This book is of interest to people

  10. Replication of micro and nano surface geometries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Hocken, R.J.; Tosello, Guido

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes the state-of-the-art in replication of surface texture and topography at micro and nano scale. The description includes replication of surfaces in polymers, metals and glass. Three different main technological areas enabled by surface replication processes are presented......: manufacture of net-shape micro/nano surfaces, tooling (i.e. master making), and surface quality control (metrology, inspection). Replication processes and methods as well as the metrology of surfaces to determine the degree of replication are presented and classified. Examples from various application areas...... are given including replication for surface texture measurements, surface roughness standards, manufacture of micro and nano structured functional surfaces, replicated surfaces for optical applications (e.g. optical gratings), and process chains based on combinations of repeated surface replication steps....

  11. A Novel Low Energy Electron Microscope for DNA Sequencing and Surface Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankos, M.; Shadman, K.; Persson, H.H.J.; N’Diaye, A.T.; Schmid, A.K.; Davis, R.W.

    2014-01-01

    Monochromatic, aberration-corrected, dual-beam low energy electron microscopy (MAD-LEEM) is a novel technique that is directed towards imaging nanostructures and surfaces with sub-nanometer resolution. The technique combines a monochromator, a mirror aberration corrector, an energy filter, and dual beam illumination in a single instrument. The monochromator reduces the energy spread of the illuminating electron beam, which significantly improves spectroscopic and spatial resolution. Simulation results predict that the novel aberration corrector design will eliminate the second rank chromatic and third and fifth order spherical aberrations, thereby improving the resolution into the sub-nanometer regime at landing energies as low as one hundred electron-Volts. The energy filter produces a beam that can extract detailed information about the chemical composition and local electronic states of non-periodic objects such as nanoparticles, interfaces, defects, and macromolecules. The dual flood illumination eliminates charging effects that are generated when a conventional LEEM is used to image insulating specimens. A potential application for MAD-LEEM is in DNA sequencing, which requires high resolution to distinguish the individual bases and high speed to reduce the cost. The MAD-LEEM approach images the DNA with low electron impact energies, which provides nucleobase contrast mechanisms without organometallic labels. Furthermore, the micron-size field of view when combined with imaging on the fly provides long read lengths, thereby reducing the demand on assembling the sequence. Experimental results from bulk specimens with immobilized single-base oligonucleotides demonstrate that base specific contrast is available with reflected, photo-emitted, and Auger electrons. Image contrast simulations of model rectangular features mimicking the individual nucleotides in a DNA strand have been developed to translate measurements of contrast on bulk DNA to the detectability of

  12. A novel low energy electron microscope for DNA sequencing and surface analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankos, M; Shadman, K; Persson, H H J; N'Diaye, A T; Schmid, A K; Davis, R W

    2014-10-01

    Monochromatic, aberration-corrected, dual-beam low energy electron microscopy (MAD-LEEM) is a novel technique that is directed towards imaging nanostructures and surfaces with sub-nanometer resolution. The technique combines a monochromator, a mirror aberration corrector, an energy filter, and dual beam illumination in a single instrument. The monochromator reduces the energy spread of the illuminating electron beam, which significantly improves spectroscopic and spatial resolution. Simulation results predict that the novel aberration corrector design will eliminate the second rank chromatic and third and fifth order spherical aberrations, thereby improving the resolution into the sub-nanometer regime at landing energies as low as one hundred electron-Volts. The energy filter produces a beam that can extract detailed information about the chemical composition and local electronic states of non-periodic objects such as nanoparticles, interfaces, defects, and macromolecules. The dual flood illumination eliminates charging effects that are generated when a conventional LEEM is used to image insulating specimens. A potential application for MAD-LEEM is in DNA sequencing, which requires high resolution to distinguish the individual bases and high speed to reduce the cost. The MAD-LEEM approach images the DNA with low electron impact energies, which provides nucleobase contrast mechanisms without organometallic labels. Furthermore, the micron-size field of view when combined with imaging on the fly provides long read lengths, thereby reducing the demand on assembling the sequence. Experimental results from bulk specimens with immobilized single-base oligonucleotides demonstrate that base specific contrast is available with reflected, photo-emitted, and Auger electrons. Image contrast simulations of model rectangular features mimicking the individual nucleotides in a DNA strand have been developed to translate measurements of contrast on bulk DNA to the detectability of

  13. INNOVATIVE NON-CONTACT METROLOGY SOLUTIONS FOR LARGE OPTICAL TELESCOPES, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has unique non-contact precision metrology requirements for dimensionally inspecting the global position and orientation of large and highly-polished...

  14. In-line CD metrology with combined use of scatterometry and CD-SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Masafumi; Ikeda, Takahiro; Koike, Toru; Abe, Hideaki

    2006-03-01

    Measurement characteristics in scatterometry and CD-SEM for lot acceptance sampling of inline critical dimension (CD) metrology were investigated by using a statistical approach with Monte Carlo simulation. By operation characteristics curve analysis, producer's risk and consumer's risk arising from sampling were clarified. Single use of scatterometry involves a higher risk, such risk being particularly acute in the case of large intra-chip CD variation because it is unable to sufficiently monitor intra-chip CD variation including local CD error. Substituting scatterometry for conventional SEM metrology is accompanied with risks, resulting in the increase of unnecessary cost. The combined use of scatterometry and SEM metrology in which the sampling plan for SEM is controlled by scatterometry is a promising metrology from the viewpoint of the suppression of risks and cost. This is due to the effect that CD errors existing in the distribution tails are efficiently caught.

  15. Vendor-based laser damage metrology equipment supporting the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J. H; Jennings, R. T.; Kimmons, J. F.; Kozlowski, M. R.; Mouser, R. P.; Schwatz, S.; Stolz, C. J.; Weinzapfel, C. L.

    1998-01-01

    A sizable laser damage metrology effort is required as part of optics production and installation for the 192 beam National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser. The large quantities, high damage thresholds, and large apertures of polished and coated optics necessitates vendor-based metrology equipment to assure component quality during production. This equipment must be optimized to provide the required information as rapidly as possible with limited operator experience. The damage metrology tools include: (1) platinum inclusion damage test systems for laser amplifier slabs, (2) laser conditioning stations for mirrors and polarizers, and (3) mapping and damage testing stations for UV transmissive optics. Each system includes a commercial Nd:YAG laser, a translation stage for the optics, and diagnostics to evaluate damage. The scanning parameters, optical layout, and diagnostics vary with the test fluences required and the damage morphologies expected. This paper describes the technical objectives and milestones involved in fulfilling these metrology requirements

  16. Metrological management evaluation based on ISO10012: an empirical study in ISO-14001-certified Spanish companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltran, Jaime; Rivas, Miguel; Munuzuri, Jesus; Gonzalez, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    Environmental management systems based on the ISO 14001 standard rely strongly on metrological measurement and confirmation processes to certify the extent to which organizations monitor and improve their environmental behavior. Nevertheless, the literature lacks in studies that assess the influence of these metrological processes on the performance of environmental management in organizations, even now that the international standard ISO 10012 is already available to establish requisites and guidelines for the development of a metrological management system that is compatible with any other standardized management system. This work seeks to assess that influence through the development of an evaluation model for metrological management, which is then validated through an experimental analysis of the results obtained from the application of an audit process in 11 Spanish companies, all ISO-14001-certified and operating in different industrial sectors. (author)

  17. A method for standardizing the metrological unit of α-track

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Xingzhong; Li Qingyang; Li Dianshu

    1989-01-01

    The conversion from the specialized unit of α-track into the legal metrological unit is described. A circulative method for measuring the transform coefficient is discussed. An experiment about the transform coefficient on a uranium deposit has made

  18. Coherent Laser Radar Metrology System for Large Scale Optical Systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A new type of laser radar metrology inspection system is proposed that incorporates a novel, dual laser coherent detection scheme capable of eliminating both...

  19. Material synthesis and evaluation of metrological characteristics of potassium fluozirconate certified reference material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Lisienko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the study. For metrological support of control methods for composition ofpotassium fluozirconate, used in the production of metallic zirconium, applied in various technical fields, including nuclear power, electronics, chemical engineering. The purpose: development of synthesis technology, and determination of metrological characteristics of certified reference material for composition ofpotassium fluozirconate (set, intended for metrological support of measuring element mass fraction: hafnium (Hf, silicon (Si, iron (Fe, aluminium (Al, chromium (Cr, tin (Sn, titanium (Ti in potassium fluozirconate. Research methods: X-ray diffraction, differential scanning colorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, atomic-emission spectral analysis with arc excitation, mass spectral analysis, X-ray fluorescence analysis. Results. As a result of research a set of certified reference materials for composition of potassium fluozirconate is developed and produced. The CRM type is approved by Federal Agency on Technical Regulating and Metrology and registered in State Register of Approved Reference Material Types under number GSO 10593-2015.

  20. High Performance Computing-Accelerated Metrology for Large Optical Telescopes, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has unique non-contact precision metrology requirements for dimensionally inspecting the global position and orientation of large and highly-polished...

  1. Metrological analysis of a virtual flowmeter-based transducer for cryogenic helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arpaia, P., E-mail: pasquale.arpaia@unina.it [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, University of Napoli Federico II, Naples (Italy); Technology Department, European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Girone, M., E-mail: mario.girone@cern.ch [Technology Department, European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Department of Engineering, University of Sannio, Benevento (Italy); Liccardo, A., E-mail: annalisa.liccardo@unina.it [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, University of Napoli Federico II, Naples (Italy); Pezzetti, M., E-mail: marco.pezzetti@cern.ch [Technology Department, European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Piccinelli, F., E-mail: fabio.piccinelli@cern.ch [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Brescia, Brescia (Italy)

    2015-12-15

    The metrological performance of a virtual flowmeter-based transducer for monitoring helium under cryogenic conditions is assessed. At this aim, an uncertainty model of the transducer, mainly based on a valve model, exploiting finite-element approach, and a virtual flowmeter model, based on the Sereg-Schlumberger method, are presented. The models are validated experimentally on a case study for helium monitoring in cryogenic systems at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). The impact of uncertainty sources on the transducer metrological performance is assessed by a sensitivity analysis, based on statistical experiment design and analysis of variance. In this way, the uncertainty sources most influencing metrological performance of the transducer are singled out over the input range as a whole, at varying operating and setting conditions. This analysis turns out to be important for CERN cryogenics operation because the metrological design of the transducer is validated, and its components and working conditions with critical specifications for future improvements are identified.

  2. Metrology with synchrotron radiation. A short introduction; Metrologie mit Synchrotronstrahlung. Eine kurze Einfuehrung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Mathias [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Berlin (Germany). Fachbereich ' Radiometrie mit Synchrotronstrahlung' ; Ulm, Gerhard

    2014-09-15

    The beam tubes and measuring places at the Metrology Light Source and BESSY II are listed together with their monochromator types, spectral ranges, spectral resolution powers, photon fluxes, beam sizes, and divergences. (HSI)

  3. Adjustment method for embedded metrology engine in an EM773 series microcontroller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazinšek, Iztok; Kotnik, Bojan; Chowdhury, Amor; Kačič, Zdravko

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents the problems of implementation and adjustment (calibration) of a metrology engine embedded in NXP's EM773 series microcontroller. The metrology engine is used in a smart metering application to collect data about energy utilization and is controlled with the use of metrology engine adjustment (calibration) parameters. The aim of this research is to develop a method which would enable the operators to find and verify the optimum parameters which would ensure the best possible accuracy. Properly adjusted (calibrated) metrology engines can then be used as a base for variety of products used in smart and intelligent environments. This paper focuses on the problems encountered in the development, partial automatisation, implementation and verification of this method. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Thermal healing of the sub-surface damage layer in sapphire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkas, Malki; Lotem, Haim; Golan, Yuval; Einav, Yeheskel; Golan, Roxana; Chakotay, Elad; Haim, Avivit; Sinai, Ela; Vaknin, Moshe; Hershkovitz, Yasmin; Horowitz, Atara

    2010-01-01

    The sub-surface damage layer formed by mechanical polishing of sapphire is known to reduce the mechanical strength of the processed sapphire and to degrade the performance of sapphire based components. Thermal annealing is one of the methods to eliminate the sub-surface damage layer. This study focuses on the mechanism of thermal healing by studying its effect on surface topography of a- and c-plane surfaces, on the residual stresses in surface layers and on the thickness of the sub-surface damage layer. An atomically flat surface was developed on thermally annealed c-plane surfaces while a faceted roof-top topography was formed on a-plane surfaces. The annealing resulted in an improved crystallographic perfection close to the sample surface as was indicated by a noticeable decrease in X-ray rocking curve peak width. Etching experiments and surface roughness measurements using white light interferometry with sub-nanometer resolution on specimens annealed to different extents indicate that the sub-surface damage layer of the optically polished sapphire is less than 3 μm thick and it is totally healed after thermal treatment at 1450 deg. C for 72 h.

  5. National Defense Center of Excellence for Industrial Metrology and 3D Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    Appendices) W911NF-08-2-0057 - Metrology - FinalReport 100 m to 200 m. For volume determination (e.g., mining , excavations) and topographic mapping...infrastructure, rail systems, mining ), mobile mapping, and security applications. Lockheed Martin has selected the HDL-64E as the main perception...Appendices) W911NF-08-2-0057 - Metrology - FinalReport The Obscurant Penetrating Autosynchronous Lidar ( OPAL ) has been developed as a variant ofNeptec ’s

  6. The Opportunities and Challenges of Bringing New Metrology Equipment to Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perloff, David S.

    2005-09-01

    This paper provides an overview of the economic and technological factors which are driving the demand for new metrology and inspection equipment, the challenges and opportunities facing new companies in bringing such equipment to market, and the funding environment in which new companies must raise capital to finance their efforts. Seven metrology companies and one inspection equipment company that have received first-time venture backing since 2000 are used to illustrate how these specialized businesses are launched and funded.

  7. Metrological inspection of ionization chamber radioactivity meters used in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szoerenyi, A.; Vagvoelgyi, J.

    1983-01-01

    According to the Hungarian legislation on legal metrology, any measurement involving legal effects (e.g. measurements in nuclear medicine) can only be performed by calibrated measuring instruments. The paper outlines the method and results of calibration for 125 I and 131 I radionuclide standard references used in Hungarian nuclear medical practice. The experiences proved that the radionuclide standards, similarly to radiation dosemeters, should be submitted for metrological inspection. (author)

  8. State preparation for quantum information science and metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samblowski, Aiko

    2012-01-01

    The precise preparation of non-classical states of light is a basic requirement for performing quantum information tasks and quantum metrology. Depending on the assignment, the range of required states varies from preparing and modifying squeezed states to generating bipartite entanglement and establishing multimode entanglement networks. Every state needs special preparation techniques and hence it is important to develop the experimental expertise to generate all states with the desired degree of accuracy. In this thesis, the experimental preparation of different kinds of non-classical states of light is demonstrated. Starting with a multimode entangled state, the preparation of an unconditionally generated bound entangled state of light of unprecedented accuracy is shown. Its existence is of fundamental interest, since it certifies an intrinsic irreversibility of entanglement and suggests a connection with thermodynamics. The state is created in a network of linear optics, utilizing optical parametric amplifiers, operated below threshold, beam splitters and phase gates. The experimental platform developed here afforded the precise and stable control of all experimental parameters. Focusing on the aspect of quantum information networks, the generation of suitable bipartite entangled states of light is desirable. The optical connection between atomic transitions and light that can be transmitted via telecommunications fibers opens the possibility to employ quantum memories within fiber networks. For this purpose, a non-degenerate optical parametric oscillator is operated above threshold and the generation of bright bipartite entanglement between its twin beams at the wavelengths of 810 nm and 1550 nm is demonstrated. In the field of metrology, quantum states are used to enhance the measurement precision of interferometric gravitational wave (GW) detectors. Recently, the sensitivity of a GW detector operated at a wavelength of 1064 nm was increased using squeezed

  9. State preparation for quantum information science and metrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samblowski, Aiko

    2012-06-08

    The precise preparation of non-classical states of light is a basic requirement for performing quantum information tasks and quantum metrology. Depending on the assignment, the range of required states varies from preparing and modifying squeezed states to generating bipartite entanglement and establishing multimode entanglement networks. Every state needs special preparation techniques and hence it is important to develop the experimental expertise to generate all states with the desired degree of accuracy. In this thesis, the experimental preparation of different kinds of non-classical states of light is demonstrated. Starting with a multimode entangled state, the preparation of an unconditionally generated bound entangled state of light of unprecedented accuracy is shown. Its existence is of fundamental interest, since it certifies an intrinsic irreversibility of entanglement and suggests a connection with thermodynamics. The state is created in a network of linear optics, utilizing optical parametric amplifiers, operated below threshold, beam splitters and phase gates. The experimental platform developed here afforded the precise and stable control of all experimental parameters. Focusing on the aspect of quantum information networks, the generation of suitable bipartite entangled states of light is desirable. The optical connection between atomic transitions and light that can be transmitted via telecommunications fibers opens the possibility to employ quantum memories within fiber networks. For this purpose, a non-degenerate optical parametric oscillator is operated above threshold and the generation of bright bipartite entanglement between its twin beams at the wavelengths of 810 nm and 1550 nm is demonstrated. In the field of metrology, quantum states are used to enhance the measurement precision of interferometric gravitational wave (GW) detectors. Recently, the sensitivity of a GW detector operated at a wavelength of 1064 nm was increased using squeezed

  10. Entanglement and Metrology with Singlet-Triplet Qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Michael Dean

    Electron spins confined in semiconductor quantum dots are emerging as a promising system to study quantum information science and to perform sensitive metrology. Their weak interaction with the environment leads to long coherence times and robust storage for quantum information, and the intrinsic tunability of semiconductors allows for controllable operations, initialization, and readout of their quantum state. These spin qubits are also promising candidates for the building block for a scalable quantum information processor due to their prospects for scalability and miniaturization. However, several obstacles limit the performance of quantum information experiments in these systems. For example, the weak coupling to the environment makes inter-qubit operations challenging, and a fluctuating nuclear magnetic field limits the performance of single-qubit operations. The focus of this thesis will be several experiments which address some of the outstanding problems in semiconductor spin qubits, in particular, singlet-triplet (S-T0) qubits. We use these qubits to probe both the electric field and magnetic field noise that limit the performance of these qubits. The magnetic noise bath is probed with high bandwidth and precision using novel techniques borrowed from the field of Hamiltonian learning, which are effective due to the rapid control and readout available in S-T 0 qubits. These findings allow us to effectively undo the undesired effects of the fluctuating nuclear magnetic field by tracking them in real-time, and we demonstrate a 30-fold improvement in the coherence time T2*. We probe the voltage noise environment of the qubit using coherent qubit oscillations, which is partially enabled by control of the nuclear magnetic field. We find that the voltage noise bath is frequency-dependent, even at frequencies as high as 1MHz, and it shows surprising and, as of yet, unexplained temperature dependence. We leverage this knowledge of the voltage noise environment, the

  11. Real cell overlay measurement through design based metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Gyun; Kim, Jungchan; Park, Chanha; Lee, Taehyeong; Ji, Sunkeun; Jo, Gyoyeon; Yang, Hyunjo; Yim, Donggyu; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Maruyama, Kotaro; Park, Byungjun

    2014-04-01

    Until recent device nodes, lithography has been struggling to improve its resolution limit. Even though next generation lithography technology is now facing various difficulties, several innovative resolution enhancement technologies, based on 193nm wavelength, were introduced and implemented to keep the trend of device scaling. Scanner makers keep developing state-of-the-art exposure system which guarantees higher productivity and meets a more aggressive overlay specification. "The scaling reduction of the overlay error has been a simple matter of the capability of exposure tools. However, it is clear that the scanner contributions may no longer be the majority component in total overlay performance. The ability to control correctable overlay components is paramount to achieve the desired performance.(2)" In a manufacturing fab, the overlay error, determined by a conventional overlay measurement: by using an overlay mark based on IBO and DBO, often does not represent the physical placement error in the cell area of a memory device. The mismatch may arise from the size or pitch difference between the overlay mark and the cell pattern. Pattern distortion, caused by etching or CMP, also can be a source of the mismatch. Therefore, the requirement of a direct overlay measurement in the cell pattern gradually increases in the manufacturing field, and also in the development level. In order to overcome the mismatch between conventional overlay measurement and the real placement error of layer to layer in the cell area of a memory device, we suggest an alternative overlay measurement method utilizing by design, based metrology tool. A basic concept of this method is shown in figure1. A CD-SEM measurement of the overlay error between layer 1 and 2 could be the ideal method but it takes too long time to extract a lot of data from wafer level. An E-beam based DBM tool provides high speed to cover the whole wafer with high repeatability. It is enabled by using the design as a

  12. Towards a Uniform Metrological Assessment of Grating-Based Optical Fiber Sensors: From Refractometers to Biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavaioli, Francesco; Gouveia, Carlos A J; Jorge, Pedro A S; Baldini, Francesco

    2017-06-21

    A metrological assessment of grating-based optical fiber sensors is proposed with the aim of providing an objective evaluation of the performance of this sensor category. Attention was focused on the most common parameters, used to describe the performance of both optical refractometers and biosensors, which encompassed sensitivity, with a distinction between volume or bulk sensitivity and surface sensitivity, resolution, response time, limit of detection, specificity (or selectivity), reusability (or regenerability) and some other parameters of generic interest, such as measurement uncertainty, accuracy, precision, stability, drift, repeatability and reproducibility. Clearly, the concepts discussed here can also be applied to any resonance-based sensor, thus providing the basis for an easier and direct performance comparison of a great number of sensors published in the literature up to now. In addition, common mistakes present in the literature made for the evaluation of sensor performance are highlighted, and lastly a uniform performance assessment is discussed and provided. Finally, some design strategies will be proposed to develop a grating-based optical fiber sensing scheme with improved performance.

  13. Laser damage in optical components: metrology, statistical and photo-induced analysis of precursor centres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallais, L.

    2002-11-01

    This thesis deals with laser damage phenomena for nanosecond pulses, in optical components such as glasses, dielectric and metallic thin films. Firstly, a work is done on the laser damage metrology, in order to obtain accurate and reliable measurement of laser-induced damage probabilities, with a rigorous control of test parameters. Then, with the use of a specific model, we find densities of laser damage precursors in the case of bulk glasses (few tens by (100μm) 3 ) and in the case of glass surfaces (one precursor by μm 3 ). Our analysis is associated to morphology studies by Atomic Force Microscope to discuss about precursor nature and damage process. Influence of wavelength (from 355 to 1064 nm) and cumulated shots is also studied. Simulations are performed to study initiation mechanisms on these inclusions. This work gives an estimation of complex index and size of the precursor, which permits to discuss about possible detection by non-destructive tools. (author)

  14. Measurement configuration optimization for dynamic metrology using Stokes polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiamin; Zhang, Chuanwei; Zhong, Zhicheng; Gu, Honggang; Chen, Xiuguo; Jiang, Hao; Liu, Shiyuan

    2018-05-01

    As dynamic loading experiments such as a shock compression test are usually characterized by short duration, unrepeatability and high costs, high temporal resolution and precise accuracy of the measurements is required. Due to high temporal resolution up to a ten-nanosecond-scale, a Stokes polarimeter with six parallel channels has been developed to capture such instantaneous changes in optical properties in this paper. Since the measurement accuracy heavily depends on the configuration of the probing beam incident angle and the polarizer azimuth angle, it is important to select an optimal combination from the numerous options. In this paper, a systematic error propagation-based measurement configuration optimization method corresponding to the Stokes polarimeter was proposed. The maximal Frobenius norm of the combinatorial matrix of the configuration error propagating matrix and the intrinsic error propagating matrix is introduced to assess the measurement accuracy. The optimal configuration for thickness measurement of a SiO2 thin film deposited on a Si substrate has been achieved by minimizing the merit function. Simulation and experimental results show a good agreement between the optimal measurement configuration achieved experimentally using the polarimeter and the theoretical prediction. In particular, the experimental result shows that the relative error in the thickness measurement can be reduced from 6% to 1% by using the optimal polarizer azimuth angle when the incident angle is 45°. Furthermore, the optimal configuration for the dynamic metrology of a nickel foil under quasi-dynamic loading is investigated using the proposed optimization method.

  15. Automated CD-SEM metrology for efficient TD and HVM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starikov, Alexander; Mulapudi, Satya P.

    2008-03-01

    CD-SEM is the metrology tool of choice for patterning process development and production process control. We can make these applications more efficient by extracting more information from each CD-SEM image. This enables direct monitors of key process parameters, such as lithography dose and focus, or predicting the outcome of processing, such as etched dimensions or electrical parameters. Automating CD-SEM recipes at the early stages of process development can accelerate technology characterization, segmentation of variance and process improvements. This leverages the engineering effort, reduces development costs and helps to manage the risks inherent in new technology. Automating CD-SEM for manufacturing enables efficient operations. Novel SEM Alarm Time Indicator (SATI) makes this task manageable. SATI pulls together data mining, trend charting of the key recipe and Operations (OPS) indicators, Pareto of OPS losses and inputs for root cause analysis. This approach proved natural to our FAB personnel. After minimal initial training, we applied new methods in 65nm FLASH manufacture. This resulted in significant lasting improvements of CD-SEM recipe robustness, portability and automation, increased CD-SEM capacity and MT productivity.

  16. Presentation of the Nuclear Material Metrology Laboratory (LAMMAN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arpigny, S.; Biscarrat, C.; Ruas, A.; Viallesoubranne, C.; Hanssens, A.; Roche, C.

    2008-01-01

    The EQRAIN Uranium or Plutonium programmes (Evaluation of the Quality of Analysis Results in the Nuclear Industry) have led to the creation of round-robins, which require reference solutions of uranyl nitrate or of plutonium nitrate to be made available. The samples are fabricated and packaged, and their benchmark values determined, by the Nuclear Material Metrology Laboratory in the Atalante facility. All the operations are carried out by highly precise weighing, including correction for air buoyancy. In order to guarantee the preservation of reference samples, a laser-sealing apparatus is used to condition the final solutions in ampoules. Random tests to check the concentration of uranium or plutonium are carried out on a certain number of ampoules after the sealing step. The analysis are performed on a photo-gravimetric analysis line (in glove box for Pu) based on the titanium potentiometric analysis method. The ampoules are then packaged and delivered to the participating laboratories. The French nuclear laboratories participating in the EQRAIN programs belong to the Cea and to the AREVA Group, with activities covering the entire fuel cycle. They have been joined by new participants from European, Japanese and South American laboratories

  17. Presentation of the Nuclear Material Metrology Laboratory (LAMMAN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arpigny, S.; Biscarrat, C.; Ruas, A.; Viallesoubranne, C. [CEA/DEN/DRCP/SE2A/LAMM, Marcoule, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Hanssens, A.; Roche, C. [CEA/DEN/DRCP/CETAMA Marcoule, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France)

    2008-07-01

    The EQRAIN Uranium or Plutonium programmes (Evaluation of the Quality of Analysis Results in the Nuclear Industry) have led to the creation of round-robins, which require reference solutions of uranyl nitrate or of plutonium nitrate to be made available. The samples are fabricated and packaged, and their benchmark values determined, by the Nuclear Material Metrology Laboratory in the Atalante facility. All the operations are carried out by highly precise weighing, including correction for air buoyancy. In order to guarantee the preservation of reference samples, a laser-sealing apparatus is used to condition the final solutions in ampoules. Random tests to check the concentration of uranium or plutonium are carried out on a certain number of ampoules after the sealing step. The analysis are performed on a photo-gravimetric analysis line (in glove box for Pu) based on the titanium potentiometric analysis method. The ampoules are then packaged and delivered to the participating laboratories. The French nuclear laboratories participating in the EQRAIN programs belong to the Cea and to the AREVA Group, with activities covering the entire fuel cycle. They have been joined by new participants from European, Japanese and South American laboratories.

  18. Intranet and Internet metrological workstation with photonic sensors and transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.; Pozniak, Krzysztof T.; Dybko, Artur

    1999-05-01

    We describe in this paper a part of a telemetric network which consists of a workstation with photonic measurement and communication interfaces, structural fiber optic cabling (10/100BaseFX and CAN-FL), and photonic sensors with fiber optic interfaces. The station is equipped with direct photonic measurement interface and most common measuring standards converter (RS, GPIB) with fiber optic I/O CAN bus, O/E converters, LAN and modem ports. The station was connected to the Intranet (ipx/spx) and Internet (tcp/ip) with separate IP number and DNS, WINS names. Virtual measuring environment system program was written specially for such an Intranet and Internet station. The measurement system program communicated with the user via a Graphical User's Interface (GUI). The user has direct access to all functions of the measuring station system through appropriate layers of GUI: telemetric, transmission, visualization, processing, information, help and steering of the measuring system. We have carried out series of thorough simulation investigations and tests of the station using WWW subsystem of the Internet. We logged into the system through the LAN and via modem. The Internet metrological station works continuously under the address http://nms.ipe.pw.edu.pl/nms. The station and the system hear the short name NMS (from Network Measuring System).

  19. Fluid-flow-rate metrology: laboratory uncertainties and traceabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattingly, G. E.

    1991-03-01

    Increased concerns for improved fluid flowrate measurement are driving the fluid metering community-meter manufacturers and users alike-to search for better verification and documentation for their fluid measurements. These concerns affect both our domestic and international market places they permeate our technologies - aerospace chemical processes automotive bioengineering etc. They involve public health and safety and they impact our national defense. These concerns are based upon the rising value of fluid resources and products and the importance of critical material accountability. These values directly impact the accuracy needs of fluid buyers and sellers in custody transfers. These concerns impact the designers and operators of chemical process systems where control and productivity optimization depend critically upon measurement precision. Public health and safety depend upon the quality of numerous pollutant measurements - both liquid and gaseous. The performance testing of engines - both automotive and aircraft are critically based upon accurate fuel measurements - both liquid and oxidizer streams. Fluid flowrate measurements are established differently from counterparts in length and mass measurement systems because these have the benefits of " identity" standards. For rate measurement systems the metrology is based upon " derived standards" . These use facilities and transfer standards which are designed built characterized and used to constitute basic measurement capabilities and quantify performance - accuracy and precision. Because " identity standards" do not exist for flow measurements facsimiles or equivalents must

  20. Two-mode bosonic quantum metrology with number fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pasquale, Antonella; Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Matsuoka, Koji; Yuasa, Kazuya

    2015-10-01

    We search for the optimal quantum pure states of identical bosonic particles for applications in quantum metrology, in particular, in the estimation of a single parameter for the generic two-mode interferometric setup. We consider the general case in which the total number of particles is fluctuating around an average N with variance Δ N2 . By recasting the problem in the framework of classical probability, we clarify the maximal accuracy attainable and show that it is always larger than the one reachable with a fixed number of particles (i.e., Δ N =0 ). In particular, for larger fluctuations, the error in the estimation diminishes proportionally to 1 /Δ N , below the Heisenberg-like scaling 1 /N . We also clarify the best input state, which is a quasi-NOON state for a generic setup and, for some special cases, a two-mode Schrödinger-cat state with a vacuum component. In addition, we search for the best state within the class of pure Gaussian states with a given average N , which is revealed to be a product state (with no entanglement) with a squeezed vacuum in one mode and the vacuum in the other.

  1. Geodesy and metrology with a transportable optical clock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotti, Jacopo; Koller, Silvio; Vogt, Stefan; Häfner, Sebastian; Sterr, Uwe; Lisdat, Christian; Denker, Heiner; Voigt, Christian; Timmen, Ludger; Rolland, Antoine; Baynes, Fred N.; Margolis, Helen S.; Zampaolo, Michel; Thoumany, Pierre; Pizzocaro, Marco; Rauf, Benjamin; Bregolin, Filippo; Tampellini, Anna; Barbieri, Piero; Zucco, Massimo; Costanzo, Giovanni A.; Clivati, Cecilia; Levi, Filippo; Calonico, Davide

    2018-05-01

    Optical atomic clocks, due to their unprecedented stability1-3 and uncertainty3-6, are already being used to test physical theories7,8 and herald a revision of the International System of Units9,10. However, to unlock their potential for cross-disciplinary applications such as relativistic geodesy11, a major challenge remains: their transformation from highly specialized instruments restricted to national metrology laboratories into flexible devices deployable in different locations12-14. Here, we report the first field measurement campaign with a transportable 87Sr optical lattice clock12. We use it to determine the gravity potential difference between the middle of a mountain and a location 90 km away, exploiting both local and remote clock comparisons to eliminate potential clock errors. A local comparison with a 171Yb lattice clock15 also serves as an important check on the international consistency of independently developed optical clocks. This campaign demonstrates the exciting prospects for transportable optical clocks.

  2. Beyond the GUM: variance-based sensitivity analysis in metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lira, I

    2016-01-01

    Variance-based sensitivity analysis is a well established tool for evaluating the contribution of the uncertainties in the inputs to the uncertainty in the output of a general mathematical model. While the literature on this subject is quite extensive, it has not found widespread use in metrological applications. In this article we present a succinct review of the fundamentals of sensitivity analysis, in a form that should be useful to most people familiarized with the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM). Through two examples, it is shown that in linear measurement models, no new knowledge is gained by using sensitivity analysis that is not already available after the terms in the so-called ‘law of propagation of uncertainties’ have been computed. However, if the model behaves non-linearly in the neighbourhood of the best estimates of the input quantities—and if these quantities are assumed to be statistically independent—sensitivity analysis is definitely advantageous for gaining insight into how they can be ranked according to their importance in establishing the uncertainty of the measurand. (paper)

  3. Nuclear forensics-metrological basis for legal defensibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leggitt, J.; Inn, K.; Goldberg, S.; Essex, R.; LaMont, S.; Chase, S.

    2009-01-01

    The admissibility of nuclear forensics measurements and opinions derived from them in US Federal and State courts are based on criteria established by the US Supreme Court in the case of Daubert v. Merrell Dow and the 2000 Amendment of Rule 702 of the Federal Rules of Evidence. These criteria are being addressed by new efforts that include the development of certified reference materials (CRMs) to provide the basis for analytical method development, optimization, calibration, validation, quality control, testing, readiness, and declaration of measurement uncertainties. Quality data is crucial for all stages of the program, from R and D, and database development, to actual casework. Weakness at any point in the program can propagate to reduce the confidence of final conclusions. The new certified reference materials will provide the necessary means to demonstrate a high level of metrological rigor for nuclear forensics evidence and will form a foundation for legally defensible nuclear chemical analysis. The CRMs will allow scientists to devise validated analytical methods, which can be corroborated by independent analytical laboratories. CRMs are required for ISO accreditation of many different analytical techniques which may be employed in the analysis of interdicted nuclear materials. (author)

  4. Bayesian statistics in radionuclide metrology: measurement of a decaying source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochud, F. O.; Bailat, C.J.; Laedermann, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    The most intuitive way of defining a probability is perhaps through the frequency at which it appears when a large number of trials are realized in identical conditions. The probability derived from the obtained histogram characterizes the so-called frequentist or conventional statistical approach. In this sense, probability is defined as a physical property of the observed system. By contrast, in Bayesian statistics, a probability is not a physical property or a directly observable quantity, but a degree of belief or an element of inference. The goal of this paper is to show how Bayesian statistics can be used in radionuclide metrology and what its advantages and disadvantages are compared with conventional statistics. This is performed through the example of an yttrium-90 source typically encountered in environmental surveillance measurement. Because of the very low activity of this kind of source and the small half-life of the radionuclide, this measurement takes several days, during which the source decays significantly. Several methods are proposed to compute simultaneously the number of unstable nuclei at a given reference time, the decay constant and the background. Asymptotically, all approaches give the same result. However, Bayesian statistics produces coherent estimates and confidence intervals in a much smaller number of measurements. Apart from the conceptual understanding of statistics, the main difficulty that could deter radionuclide metrologists from using Bayesian statistics is the complexity of the computation. (authors)

  5. Dual frequency comb metrology with one fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Takeshi, Yasui; Zheng, Zheng

    2016-11-01

    Optical metrology techniques based on dual optical frequency combs have emerged as a hotly studied area targeting a wide range of applications from optical spectroscopy to microwave and terahertz frequency measurement. Generating two sets of high-quality comb lines with slightly different comb-tooth spacings with high mutual coherence and stability is the key to most of the dual-comb schemes. The complexity and costs of such laser sources and the associated control systems to lock the two frequency combs hinder the wider adoption of such techniques. Here we demonstrate a very simple and rather different approach to tackle such a challenge. By employing novel laser cavity designs in a mode-locked fiber laser, a simple fiber laser setup could emit dual-comb pulse output with high stability and good coherence between the pulse trains. Based on such lasers, comb-tooth-resolved dual-comb optical spectroscopy is demonstrated. Picometer spectral resolving capability could be realized with a fiber-optic setup and a low-cost data acquisition system and standard algorithms. Besides, the frequency of microwave signals over a large range can be determined based on a simple setup. Our results show the capability of such single-fiber-laser-based dual-comb scheme to reduce the complexity and cost of dual-comb systems with excellent quality for different dual-comb applications.

  6. Using RF Smart Points for the Improvement of Metrological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio de Capua

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the realization of a “radio-frequency identification system” for the improvement of the activities of a metrological laboratory. Some radio-frequency modules, called by the authors RF Smart Points (“radio-frequency smart points”, have been designed to store into their memories all data which are necessary for the instruments tracking (the type of instruments, their identification numbers or serial numbers, the manufacturer, the date when they have been admitted to the installed base of the laboratory, their working state, the elapsed time from the last calibration procedure. The insertion of the data and the inquiry of the instruments are executed by the technical staff of the laboratory through a PDA (Personal Digital Assistant or a PC, which manage the radio-frequency communication by using the RS 232 interface for sending messages to a RF Transceiver. The executable software for managing the communication between the Smart Points and the “PDA/PC-Controllers” is realized in LabVIEW graphical programming environment.

  7. Metrology aspects of SIMS depth profiling for advanced ULSI processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budrevich, Andre; Hunter, Jerry

    1998-01-01

    As the semiconductor industry roadmap passes through the 0.1 μm technology node, the junction depth of the transistor source/drain extension will be required to be less than 20 nm and the well doping will be near 1.0 μm in depth. The development of advanced ULSI processing techniques requires the evolution of new metrology tools to ensure process capability. High sensitivity (ppb) coupled with excellent depth resolution (1 nm) makes SIMS the technique of choice for measuring the in-depth chemical distribution of these dopants with high precision and accuracy. This paper will discuss the issues, which impact the accuracy and precision of SIMS measurements of ion implants (both shallow and deep). First this paper will discuss common uses of the SIMS technique in the technology development and manufacturing of advanced ULSI processes. In the second part of this paper the ability of SIMS to make high precision measurements of ion implant depth profiles will be studied

  8. Assembly and metrology of first wall components of SST-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parekh, Tejas; Santra, Prosenjit; Biswas, Prabal

    2015-01-01

    First Wall components (FWC) of SST-1 tokamak, which are in the immediate vicinity of plasma comprises of limiters, divertors, baffles, passive stabilizers are designed to operate long duration (1000 s) discharges of elongated plasma. All FWC consists of a copper alloy heat sink modules with SS cooling tubes brazed onto it, graphite tiles acting as armour material facing the plasma, and are mounted to the vacuum vessels with suitable Inconel support structures at ring and port locations. The FWC are very recently assembled and commissioned successfully inside the vacuum vessel of SST-1 under going a meticulous planning of assembly sequence, quality checks at every stage of the assembly process. This paper will present the metrology aspects and procedure of each FWC, both outside the vacuum vessel, and inside the vessel, assembly tolerances, tools, equipment and jig/fixtures, used at each stage of assembly, starting from location of support bases on vessel rings, fixing of copper modules on support structures, around 3800 graphite tile mounting on 136 copper modules with proper tightening torques, till final toroidal and poloidal geometry of the in-vessel components are obtained within acceptable limits, also ensuring electrical continuity of passive stabilizers to form a closed saddle loop, electrical isolation of passive stabilizers from vacuum vessel. (author)

  9. METROLOGICAL PERFORMANCES OF BOMB CALORIMETERS AT REAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Maksimuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The high-usage measurement equipment for heat of combustion of organic fuels are bomb isoperibol calorimeters with a water thermostat. The stability of work of calorimeters at real conditions is important for maintenance of reliability of measurement results. The article purpose – the analysis of stability for parameters of calorimeters to environment changes. In this work influence room temperature (Тк and heat exchange conditions on metrological characteristics of two models of calorimeters is considered with different degree of thermal protection: V-08МА and BIC 100. For calorimeters V-08МА the increase in a effective heat capacity (W on 0,1 % by growth of Tк on everyone 5 °С is established. To use value W in all interval laboratory temperatures Tк = 14–28 °С it is necessary to correct W on 2,8 J/°C on everyone 1 °С changes of Tк. Updating W is required, if the correction exceeds error in determination W. For calorimeter BIC 100 it is not revealed dependences W from Tк. BIC 100 have constant-temperature cap, high stability a temperature in thermostat and stabilized heat exchange. It is established that an standard deviation of cooling constant for all calorimeters in direct proportional to standard deviation W. 

  10. metrological performance improvement of a superconducting cable test station

    CERN Document Server

    Montenero, Giuseppe; Ballarino, Amalia

    The work presented in this PhD thesis concerns the metrological performance improvement of a superconducting cable test station based on superconducting transformers. The main cable’s parameter to be assessed –as a function of temperature and magnetic field– is the critical current, i.e. beyond this limit the phase transition to the normal state occurs. Ramping the current at levels in the order of the tens of kA can be achieved with superconducting transformers at moderate capital and operational cost. But, issues such as (i) accurate/precise measurements and (ii) monitoring of the secondary current during the device operation have to be addressed. In this regard, the goals of the thesis are the design, prototyping, and validation of a new cryogenic current transducer and effective monitoring system for test stations transformer-based. Among the available transducers for current sensing at room temperature, the DC current transformer (DCCT) provides measurement accuracy in the order of the hundreds of ...

  11. Assembly & Metrology of First Wall Components of SST-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Tejas; Santra, Prosenjit; Biswas, Prabal; Patel, Hiteshkumar; Paravastu, Yuvakiran; Jaiswal, Snehal; Chauhan, Pradeep; Babu, Gattu Ramesh; A, Arun Prakash; Bhavsar, Dhaval; Raval, Dilip C.; Khan, Ziauddin; Pradhan, Subrata

    2017-04-01

    First Wall Components (FWC) of SST-1 tokamak, which are in the immediate vicinity of plasma comprises of limiters, divertors, baffles, passive stabilizers are designed to operate long duration (1000 s) discharges of elongated plasma. All FWC consists of a copper alloy heat sink modules with SS cooling tubes brazed onto it, graphite tiles acting as armour material facing the plasma, and are mounted to the vacuum vessels with suitable Inconel support structures at ring & port locations. The FWC are very recently assembled and commissioned successfully inside the vacuum vessel of SST-1 undergoing a meticulous planning of assembly sequence, quality checks at every stage of the assembly process. This paper will present the metrology aspects & procedure of each FWC, both outside the vacuum vessel, and inside the vessel, assembly tolerances, tools, equipment and jig/fixtures, used at each stage of assembly, starting from location of support bases on vessel rings, fixing of copper modules on support structures, around 3800 graphite tile mounting on 136 copper modules with proper tightening torques, till final toroidal and poloidal geometry of the in-vessel components are obtained within acceptable limits, also ensuring electrical continuity of passive stabilizers to form a closed saddle loop, electrical isolation of passive stabilizers from vacuum vessel.

  12. Reference nano-dimensional metrology by scanning transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Gaoliang; Fluegge, Jens; Bosse, Harald; Heidelmann, Markus; Kübel, Christian; Prang, Robby

    2013-01-01

    Traceable and accurate reference dimensional metrology of nano-structures by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) is introduced in the paper. Two methods, one based on the crystal lattice constant and the other based on the pitch of a feature pair, were applied to calibrate the TEM magnification. The threshold value, which was defined as the half-intensity of boundary materials, is suggested to extract the boundary position of features from the TEM image. Experimental investigations have demonstrated the high potential of the proposed methods. For instance, the standard deviation from ten repeated measurements of a line structure with a nominal 100 nm critical dimension (CD) reaches 1σ = 0.023 nm, about 0.02%. By intentionally introduced defocus and larger sample alignment errors, the investigation shows that these influences may reach 0.20 and 1.3 nm, respectively, indicating the importance of high-quality TEM measurements. Finally, a strategy for disseminating the destructive TEM results is introduced. Using this strategy, the CD of a reference material has been accurately determined. Its agreement over five independent TEM measurements is below 1.2 nm. (paper)

  13. A simulation-based study on the influence of beam hardening in X-ray computed tomography for dimensional metrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifton, Joseph J; Malcolm, Andrew A; McBride, John W

    2015-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) is a radiographic scanning technique for visualising cross-sectional images of an object non-destructively. From these cross-sectional images it is possible to evaluate internal dimensional features of a workpiece which may otherwise be inaccessible to tactile and optical instruments. Beam hardening is a physical process that degrades the quality of CT images and has previously been suggested to influence dimensional measurements. Using a validated simulation tool, the influence of spectrum pre-filtration and beam hardening correction are evaluated for internal and external dimensional measurements. Beam hardening is shown to influence internal and external dimensions in opposition, and to have a greater influence on outer dimensions compared to inner dimensions. The results suggest the combination of spectrum pre-filtration and a local gradient-based surface determination method are able to greatly reduce the influence of beam hardening in X-ray CT for dimensional metrology.

  14. Surface plasmon-enhanced molecular fluorescence induced by gold nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, Y.; Ueno, K.; Shi, X.; Aoyo, D.; Misawa, H.; Qiu, J.

    2012-01-01

    The authors report on surface plasmon-enhanced fluorescence of Eosin Y molecules induced by gold nanostructures. Al 2 O 3 films deposited by atomic layer deposition with sub-nanometer resolution were used as the spacer layer to control the distance between molecules and the gold surface. As the thickness of the Al 2 O 3 film increased, the fluorescence intensity first increased and then decreased. The highest enhancement factor is achieved with a 1 nm Al 2 O 3 film. However, the trend for the fluorescence lifetime is the opposite. It first decreased and then increased. The changes in the fluorescence quantum yield were also calculated. The yield shows a similar trend to the fluorescence intensity. The competition between the surface plasmon-induced increase in the radiative decay rate and the gold-induced fluorescence quenching is responsible for the observed phenomenon. In addition, this competition strongly depends on the thickness of the spacer layer between Eosin Y molecules and the gold surface. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Application of Vision Metrology to In-Orbit Measurement of Large Reflector Onboard Communication Satellite for Next Generation Mobile Satellite Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akioka, M.; Orikasa, T.; Satoh, M.; Miura, A.; Tsuji, H.; Toyoshima, M.; Fujino, Y.

    2016-06-01

    measurement for large structure with similar dimension with large deployable reflector to confirm the validity of the network design and instrumentation. In this report, the overview of this R&D project and the results of feasibility study of network design based on simulations on vision metrology and beam pattern compensation of antenna with very large reflector in orbit is discussed. The feasibility of assumed network design for vision metrology and satisfaction of accuracy requirements are discussed. The feasibility of beam pattern compensation by using accurately measured reflector shape is confirmed with antenna pattern simulation for deformed parabola reflector. If reflector surface of communication satellite can be measured routinely in orbit, the antenna pattern can be compensated and maintain the high performance every moment.

  16. The cell pattern correction through design-based metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yonghyeon; Lee, Kweonjae; Chang, Jinman; Kim, Taeheon; Han, Daehan; Lee, Kyusun; Hong, Aeran; Kang, Jinyoung; Choi, Bumjin; Lee, Joosung; Yeom, Kyehee; Lee, Jooyoung; Hong, Hyeongsun; Lee, Kyupil; Jin, Gyoyoung

    2015-03-01

    Starting with the sub 2Xnm node, the process window becomes smaller and tighter than before. Pattern related error budget is required for accurate critical-dimension control of Cell layers. Therefore, lithography has been faced with its various difficulties, such as weird distribution, overlay error, patterning difficulty etc. The distribution of cell pattern and overlay management are the most important factors in DRAM field. We had been experiencing that the fatal risk is caused by the patterns located in the tail of the distribution. The overlay also induces the various defect sources and misalignment issues. Even though we knew that these elements are important, we could not classify the defect type of Cell patterns. Because there is no way to gather massive small pattern CD samples in cell unit block and to compare layout with cell patterns by the CD-SEM. The CD- SEM is used in order to gather these data through high resolution, but CD-SEM takes long time to inspect and extract data because it measures the small FOV. (Field Of View) However, the NGR(E-beam tool) provides high speed with large FOV and high resolution. Also, it's possible to measure an accurate overlay between the target layout and cell patterns because they provide DBM. (Design Based Metrology) By using massive measured data, we extract the result that it is persuasive by applying the various analysis techniques, as cell distribution and defects, the pattern overlay error correction etc. We introduce how to correct cell pattern, by using the DBM measurement, and new analysis methods.

  17. Self-mixing interferometry: a novel yardstick for mechanical metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Silvano

    2016-11-01

    A novel configuration of interferometry, SMI (self-mixing interferometry), is described in this paper. SMI is attractive because it doesn't require any optical part external to the laser and can be employed in a variety of measurements - indeed it is sometimes indicated as the "interferometer for measuring without an interferometer". On processing the phase carried by the optical field upon propagation to the target under test, a number of applications have been developed, including traditional measurements related to metrology and mechanical engineering - like displacement, distance, small-amplitude vibrations, attitude angles, velocity, as well as new measurements, like mechanical stress-strain hysterisis and microstructure/MEMS electro-mechanical response. In another field, sensing of motility finds direct application in a variety of biophysical measurements, like blood pulsation, respiratory sounds, chest acoustical impedance, and blood velocity profile. And, we may also look at the amplitude of the returning signal in a SMI, and we can measure weak optical echoes - for return loss and isolation factor measurements, CD readout and scroll sensing, and THz-wave detection. Last, the fine details of the SMI waveform reveal physical parameters of the laser like the laser linewidth, coherence length, and alpha factor. Worth to be noted, SMI is also a coherent detection scheme, and measurement close to the quantum limit of received field with minimum detectable displacements of 100 pm/√Hz are currently achieved upon operation on diffusive targets, whereas in detection mode returning signal can be sensed down to attenuations of -80dB.

  18. Using Vision Metrology System for Quality Control in Automotive Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostofi, N.; Samadzadegan, F.; Roohy, Sh.; Nozari, M.

    2012-07-01

    The need of more accurate measurements in different stages of industrial applications, such as designing, producing, installation, and etc., is the main reason of encouraging the industry deputy in using of industrial Photogrammetry (Vision Metrology System). With respect to the main advantages of Photogrammetric methods, such as greater economy, high level of automation, capability of noncontact measurement, more flexibility and high accuracy, a good competition occurred between this method and other industrial traditional methods. With respect to the industries that make objects using a main reference model without having any mathematical model of it, main problem of producers is the evaluation of the production line. This problem will be so complicated when both reference and product object just as a physical object is available and comparison of them will be possible with direct measurement. In such case, producers make fixtures fitting reference with limited accuracy. In practical reports sometimes available precision is not better than millimetres. We used a non-metric high resolution digital camera for this investigation and the case study that studied in this paper is a chassis of automobile. In this research, a stable photogrammetric network designed for measuring the industrial object (Both Reference and Product) and then by using the Bundle Adjustment and Self-Calibration methods, differences between the Reference and Product object achieved. These differences will be useful for the producer to improve the production work flow and bringing more accurate products. Results of this research, demonstrate the high potential of proposed method in industrial fields. Presented results prove high efficiency and reliability of this method using RMSE criteria. Achieved RMSE for this case study is smaller than 200 microns that shows the fact of high capability of implemented approach.

  19. Simulation-based artifact correction (SBAC) for metrological computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Joscha; Leinweber, Carsten; Sawall, Stefan; Stoschus, Henning; Ballach, Frederic; Müller, Tobias; Hammer, Michael; Christoph, Ralf; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2017-06-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is a valuable tool for the metrolocical assessment of industrial components. However, the application of CT to the investigation of highly attenuating objects or multi-material components is often restricted by the presence of CT artifacts caused by beam hardening, x-ray scatter, off-focal radiation, partial volume effects or the cone-beam reconstruction itself. In order to overcome this limitation, this paper proposes an approach to calculate a correction term that compensates for the contribution of artifacts and thus enables an appropriate assessment of these components using CT. Therefore, we make use of computer simulations of the CT measurement process. Based on an appropriate model of the object, e.g. an initial reconstruction or a CAD model, two simulations are carried out. One simulation considers all physical effects that cause artifacts using dedicated analytic methods as well as Monte Carlo-based models. The other one represents an ideal CT measurement i.e. a measurement in parallel beam geometry with a monochromatic, point-like x-ray source and no x-ray scattering. Thus, the difference between these simulations is an estimate for the present artifacts and can be used to correct the acquired projection data or the corresponding CT reconstruction, respectively. The performance of the proposed approach is evaluated using simulated as well as measured data of single and multi-material components. Our approach yields CT reconstructions that are nearly free of artifacts and thereby clearly outperforms commonly used artifact reduction algorithms in terms of image quality. A comparison against tactile reference measurements demonstrates the ability of the proposed approach to increase the accuracy of the metrological assessment significantly.

  20. USING VISION METROLOGY SYSTEM FOR QUALITY CONTROL IN AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mostofi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The need of more accurate measurements in different stages of industrial applications, such as designing, producing, installation, and etc., is the main reason of encouraging the industry deputy in using of industrial Photogrammetry (Vision Metrology System. With respect to the main advantages of Photogrammetric methods, such as greater economy, high level of automation, capability of noncontact measurement, more flexibility and high accuracy, a good competition occurred between this method and other industrial traditional methods. With respect to the industries that make objects using a main reference model without having any mathematical model of it, main problem of producers is the evaluation of the production line. This problem will be so complicated when both reference and product object just as a physical object is available and comparison of them will be possible with direct measurement. In such case, producers make fixtures fitting reference with limited accuracy. In practical reports sometimes available precision is not better than millimetres. We used a non-metric high resolution digital camera for this investigation and the case study that studied in this paper is a chassis of automobile. In this research, a stable photogrammetric network designed for measuring the industrial object (Both Reference and Product and then by using the Bundle Adjustment and Self-Calibration methods, differences between the Reference and Product object achieved. These differences will be useful for the producer to improve the production work flow and bringing more accurate products. Results of this research, demonstrate the high potential of proposed method in industrial fields. Presented results prove high efficiency and reliability of this method using RMSE criteria. Achieved RMSE for this case study is smaller than 200 microns that shows the fact of high capability of implemented approach.

  1. Hybrid overlay metrology with CDSEM in a BEOL patterning scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leray, Philippe; Jehoul, Christiane; Inoue, Osamu; Okagawa, Yutaka

    2015-03-01

    Overlay metrology accuracy is a major concern for our industry. Advanced logic process require more tighter overlay control for multipatterning schemes. TIS (Tool Induced Shift) and WIS (Wafer Induced Shift) are the main issues for IBO (Image Based Overlay) and DBO (Diffraction Based Overlay). Methods of compensation have been introduced, some are even very efficient to reduce these measured offsets. Another related question is about the overlay target designs. These targets are never fully representative of the design rules, strong efforts have been achieved, but the device cannot be completely duplicated. Ideally, we would like to measure in the device itself to verify the real overlay value. Top down CDSEM can measure critical dimensions of any structure, it is not dependent of specific target design. It can also measure the overlay errors but only in specific cases like LELE (Litho Etch Litho Etch) after final patterning. In this paper, we will revisit the capability of the CDSEM at final patterning by measuring overlay in dedicated targets as well as inside a logic and an SRAM design. In the dedicated overlay targets, we study the measurement differences between design rules gratings and relaxed pitch gratings. These relaxed pitch which are usually used in IBO or DBO targets. Beyond this "simple" LELE case, we will explore the capability of the CDSEM to measure overlay even if not at final patterning, at litho level. We will assess the hybridization of DBO and CDSEM for reference to optical tools after final patterning. We will show that these reference data can be used to validate the DBO overlay results (correctables and residual fingerprints).

  2. Enhacement of intrafield overlay using a design based metrology system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Gyoyeon; Ji, Sunkeun; Kim, Shinyoung; Kang, Hyunwoo; Park, Minwoo; Kim, Sangwoo; Kim, Jungchan; Park, Chanha; Yang, Hyunjo; Maruyama, Kotaro; Park, Byungjun

    2016-03-01

    As the scales of the semiconductor devices continue to shrink, accurate measurement and control of the overlay have been emphasized for securing more overlay margin. Conventional overlay analysis methods are based on the optical measurement of the overlay mark. However, the overlay data obtained from these optical methods cannot represent the exact misregistration between two layers at the circuit level. The overlay mismatch may arise from the size or pitch difference between the overlay mark and the real pattern. Pattern distortion, caused by CMP or etching, could be a source of the overlay mismatch as well. Another issue is the overlay variation in the real circuit pattern which varies depending on its location. The optical overlay measurement methods, such as IBO and DBO that use overlay mark on the scribeline, are not capable of defining the exact overlay values of the real circuit. Therefore, the overlay values of the real circuit need to be extracted to integrate the semiconductor device properly. The circuit level overlay measurement using CDSEM is time-consuming in extracting enough data to indicate overall trend of the chip. However DBM tool is able to derive sufficient data to display overlay tendency of the real circuit region with high repeatability. An E-beam based DBM(Design Based Metrology) tool can be an alternative overlay measurement method. In this paper, we are going to certify that the overlay values extracted from optical measurement cannot represent the circuit level overlay values. We will also demonstrate the possibility to correct misregistration between two layers using the overlay data obtained from the DBM system.

  3. Perspectives in absorbed dose metrology with regard to the technical evolutions of external beam radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvenet, B.; Bordy, J.M.; Barthe, J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents several R and D axes in absorbed close metrology to meet the needs resulting from the technical evolutions of external beam radiotherapy. The facilities in operation in France have considerably evolved under the impulse of the plan Cancer launched in 2003: replacements and increase of the number of accelerators, substitution of accelerators for telecobalt almost completed and acquisition of innovative facilities for tomo-therapy and stereotaxy. The increasing versatility of facilities makes possible the rapid evolution of treatment modalities, allowing to better delimit irradiation to tumoral tissues and spare surrounding healthy tissues and organs at risk. This leads to a better treatment efficacy through dose escalation. National metrology laboratories must offer responses adapted to the new need, i.e. not restrict themselves to the establishment of references under conventional conditions defined at international level, contribute to the improvement of uncertainties at all levels of reference transfer to practitioners: primary measurements under conditions as close as possible to those of treatment, characterization of transfer and treatment control dosimeters., metrological validation of treatment planning tools... Those axes have been identified as priorities for the next years in ionizing radiation metrology at the European level and included in the European. Metrology Research Programme. A project dealing with some of those topics has been selected in the frame of the Eranet+ Call EMRP 2007 and is now starting. The LNE-LAM is strongly engaged in it. (authors)

  4. Metrology for New Generation Nuclear Power Plants - MetroFission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Lena; Dinsdale, Alan; Keightley, John; Filtz, Jean-Remy; Hay, Bruno; DeFelice, Pierino; Sadli, Mohamed; Plompen, Arjan; Heyse, Jan; Pomme, Stefaan; Cassette, Philippe

    2013-06-01

    MetroFission project has been looking at solving metrological problems related to a new generation of NPPs. The proposed Gen. IV NPPs are designed to run safely, make efficient use of natural resources, minimize the waste and maintain proliferation resistance. In order to reach these goals, the reactor operation involves higher temperatures, high-energy neutron fluence, different types of fuel where the minor actinides are included etc. The work has focused on improved temperature measurements, investigation of thermal properties of advanced materials, determination of new and relevant nuclear data and development of measurement techniques for radionuclides suitable for Gen. IV NPPs. The improved temperature measurement for nuclear power plant applications includes the development of a new Fe-C fixed point. Robust, repeatable and versatile cells have been constructed and compared with success among the project participants and their melting temperatures have been determined. Methodology of self-validating thermocouples has proven efficient at several fixed point temperatures using different designs. A practical acoustic thermometer has been tested at 1000 deg. C with success thanks to the use of innovative signal processing methods. Mo/Nb thermocouples have been obtained with different sheath materials and tested with the aim to achieve for the first time a reference function determined with the best possible uncertainties. Following reviews of designs and technology proposed for fourth generation nuclear plants effort within this project, with regards to thermal properties of advanced materials for nuclear design, has concentrated on provision of thermodynamic data to support the development of the sodium cooled fast reactor. Data has been critically assessed to represent the potential interaction between the Na coolant and the nuclear fuel taken to be based on (U, Pu)O 2 but incorporating minor actinides such as Np and Am. Data for the fission products and

  5. Visualizing Surface Plasmons with Photons, Photoelectrons, and Electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Khoury, Patrick Z.; Abellan Baeza, Patricia; Gong, Yu; Hage, F. S.; Cottom, J.; Joly, Alan G.; Brydson, R.; Ramasse, Q. M.; Hess, Wayne P.

    2016-06-21

    Both photons and electrons may be used to excite surface plasmon polaritons, the collective charge density fluctuations at the surface of metal nanostructures. By virtue of their nanoscopic and dissipative nature, a detailed characterization of surface plasmon (SP) eigenmodes in real space-time ultimately requires joint sub-nanometer spatial and sub-femtosecond temporal resolution. The latter realization has driven significant developments in the past few years, aimed at interrogating both localized and propagating SP modes over the relevant length and time scales. In this mini-review, we briefly highlight different techniques we employ to visualize the enhanced electric fields associated with SPs. Specifically, we discuss recent hyperspectral optical microscopy, tip-enhanced Raman nano-spectroscopy, nonlinear photoemission electron microscopy, as well as correlated scanning transmission electron microscopy-electron energy loss spectroscopy measurements targeting prototypical plasmonic nanostructures and constructs. Through selected practical examples, we examine the information content in multidimensional images recorded by taking advantage of each of the aforementioned techniques. In effect, we illustrate how SPs can be visualized at the ultimate limits of space and time.

  6. Quantifying Human Response: Linking metrological and psychometric characterisations of Man as a Measurement Instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendrill, L R; Fisher, William P Jr

    2013-01-01

    A better understanding of how to characterise human response is essential to improved person-centred care and other situations where human factors are crucial. Challenges to introducing classical metrological concepts such as measurement uncertainty and traceability when characterising Man as a Measurement Instrument include the failure of many statistical tools when applied to ordinal measurement scales and a lack of metrological references in, for instance, healthcare. The present work attempts to link metrological and psychometric (Rasch) characterisation of Man as a Measurement Instrument in a study of elementary tasks, such as counting dots, where one knows independently the expected value because the measurement object (collection of dots) is prepared in advance. The analysis is compared and contrasted with recent approaches to this problem by others, for instance using signal error fidelity

  7. Phase shifting white light interferometry using colour CCD for optical metrology and bio-imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upputuri, Paul Kumar; Pramanik, Manojit

    2018-02-01

    Phase shifting white light interferometry (PSWLI) has been widely used for optical metrology applications because of their precision, reliability, and versatility. White light interferometry using monochrome CCD makes the measurement process slow for metrology applications. WLI integrated with Red-Green-Blue (RGB) CCD camera is finding imaging applications in the fields optical metrology and bio-imaging. Wavelength dependent refractive index profiles of biological samples were computed from colour white light interferograms. In recent years, whole-filed refractive index profiles of red blood cells (RBCs), onion skin, fish cornea, etc. were measured from RGB interferograms. In this paper, we discuss the bio-imaging applications of colour CCD based white light interferometry. The approach makes the measurement faster, easier, cost-effective, and even dynamic by using single fringe analysis methods, for industrial applications.

  8. Phase-locking to a free-space terahertz comb for metrological-grade terahertz lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolino, L; Taschin, A; Bartolini, P; Bartalini, S; Cancio, P; Tredicucci, A; Beere, H E; Ritchie, D A; Torre, R; Vitiello, M S; De Natale, P

    2012-01-01

    Optical frequency comb synthesizers have represented a revolutionary approach to frequency metrology, providing a grid of frequency references for any laser emitting within their spectral coverage. Extending the metrological features of optical frequency comb synthesizers to the terahertz domain would be a major breakthrough, due to the widespread range of accessible strategic applications and the availability of stable, high-power and widely tunable sources such as quantum cascade lasers. Here we demonstrate phase-locking of a 2.5 THz quantum cascade laser to a free-space comb, generated in a LiNbO(3) waveguide and covering the 0.1-6 THz frequency range. We show that even a small fraction (quantum cascade laser is sufficient to generate a beat note suitable for phase-locking to the comb, paving the way to novel metrological-grade terahertz applications, including high-resolution spectroscopy, manipulation of cold molecules, astronomy and telecommunications.

  9. Remote laboratory for phase-aided 3D microscopic imaging and metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Yin, Yongkai; Liu, Zeyi; He, Wenqi; Li, Boqun; Peng, Xiang

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, the establishment of a remote laboratory for phase-aided 3D microscopic imaging and metrology is presented. Proposed remote laboratory consists of three major components, including the network-based infrastructure for remote control and data management, the identity verification scheme for user authentication and management, and the local experimental system for phase-aided 3D microscopic imaging and metrology. The virtual network computer (VNC) is introduced to remotely control the 3D microscopic imaging system. Data storage and management are handled through the open source project eSciDoc. Considering the security of remote laboratory, the fingerprint is used for authentication with an optical joint transform correlation (JTC) system. The phase-aided fringe projection 3D microscope (FP-3DM), which can be remotely controlled, is employed to achieve the 3D imaging and metrology of micro objects.

  10. Two-dimensional in situ metrology of X-ray mirrors using the speckle scanning technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hongchang, E-mail: hongchang.wang@diamond.ac.uk; Kashyap, Yogesh; Laundy, David; Sawhney, Kawal [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-06

    The two-dimensional slope error of an X-ray mirror has been retrieved by employing the speckle scanning technique, which will be valuable at synchrotron radiation facilities and in astronomical telescopes. In situ metrology overcomes many of the limitations of existing metrology techniques and is capable of exceeding the performance of present-day optics. A novel technique for precisely characterizing an X-ray bimorph mirror and deducing its two-dimensional (2D) slope error map is presented. This technique has also been used to perform fast optimization of a bimorph mirror using the derived 2D piezo response functions. The measured focused beam size was significantly reduced after the optimization, and the slope error map was then verified by using geometrical optics to simulate the focused beam profile. This proposed technique is expected to be valuable for in situ metrology of X-ray mirrors at synchrotron radiation facilities and in astronomical telescopes.

  11. Methodology for implementation of a national metrology net of radionuclides used in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Joyra Amaral dos

    2004-01-01

    The National Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation Metrology, of the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry, of the National Commission on Nuclear Energy (IRD/CNEN), comes leading a comparison program for activity measurements of radiopharmaceuticals administered to patients in the Nuclear Medicine Services (NMS) with the purpose to promote the quality control. This work presents a quality assurance program for the performance of such measurements, evaluated in the comparison runs between hospitals and LNMRI, under the statistic point of view and the compliment of regulatory authority norms. The performance of the radionuclides 67 Ga, 123 I, 131 I, 99m Tc and 210 Tl were evaluated and 201 TI have been standardized by absolute methods. Besides, it was established the traceability of the radioactivity standards used in nuclear medicine and a methodology for implementation of a national metrology net of radionuclides. The comparison results prove that the implementation of a radionuclide metrology net is viable, important and feasible. (author)

  12. Surface characterization protocol for precision aspheric optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarepaka, RamaGopal V.; Sakthibalan, Siva; Doodala, Somaiah; Panwar, Rakesh S.; Kotaria, Rajendra

    2017-10-01

    In Advanced Optical Instrumentation, Aspherics provide an effective performance alternative. The aspheric fabrication and surface metrology, followed by aspheric design are complementary iterative processes for Precision Aspheric development. As in fabrication, a holistic approach of aspheric surface characterization is adopted to evaluate actual surface error and to aim at the deliverance of aspheric optics with desired surface quality. Precision optical surfaces are characterized by profilometry or by interferometry. Aspheric profiles are characterized by contact profilometers, through linear surface scans to analyze their Form, Figure and Finish errors. One must ensure that, the surface characterization procedure does not add to the resident profile errors (generated during the aspheric surface fabrication). This presentation examines the errors introduced post-surface generation and during profilometry of aspheric profiles. This effort is to identify sources of errors and is to optimize the metrology process. The sources of error during profilometry may be due to: profilometer settings, work-piece placement on the profilometer stage, selection of zenith/nadir points of aspheric profiles, metrology protocols, clear aperture - diameter analysis, computational limitations of the profiler and the software issues etc. At OPTICA, a PGI 1200 FTS contact profilometer (Taylor-Hobson make) is used for this study. Precision Optics of various profiles are studied, with due attention to possible sources of errors during characterization, with multi-directional scan approach for uniformity and repeatability of error estimation. This study provides an insight of aspheric surface characterization and helps in optimal aspheric surface production methodology.

  13. A survey on coordinate metrology using dimensional X-ray CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzaki, Kazuya

    2016-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT) has been occupying indispensable position in geometrical and dimensional measurements in industry, which is capable of measuring both external and internal dimensions of industrial products. Since dimensional X-ray CT has problems about ensuring traceability and estimating uncertainty, requirement of developing measurement standard for dimensional X-ray CT is increasing. Some of national metrology institutes (NMIs) including NMIJ have been working on developing measurement standard. In this report, the background of coordinate metrology using dimensional X-ray CT is reviewed. Then, measurement error sources are discussed. Finally, the plan to develop high accuracy dimensional X-ray CT is presented. (author)

  14. Development of a metrology method for composition and thickness of barium strontium titanate thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remmel, Thomas; Werho, Dennis; Liu, Ran; Chu, Peir

    1998-01-01

    Thin films of barium strontium titanate (BST) are being investigated as the charge storage dielectric in advanced memory devices, due to their promise for high dielectric constant. Since the capacitance of BST films is a function of both stoichiometry and thickness, implementation into manufacturing requires precise metrology methods to monitor both of these properties. This is no small challenge, considering the BST film thicknesses are 60 nm or less. A metrology method was developed based on X-ray Fluorescence and applied to the measurement of stoichiometry and thickness of BST thin films in a variety of applications

  15. Dimensional quality control of Ti-Ni dental file by optical coordinate metrology and computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yagüe-Fabra, J.A.; Tosello, Guido; Ontiveros, S.

    2014-01-01

    Endodontic dental files usually present complex 3D geometries, which make the complete measurement of the component very challenging with conventional micro metrology tools. Computed Tomography (CT) can represent a suitable alternative solution to micro metrology tools based on optical and tactile...... techniques. However, the establishment of CT systems traceability when measuring 3D complex geometries is still an open issue. In this work, to verify the quality of the CT dimensional measurements, the dental file has been measured both with a μCT system and an optical CMM (OCMM). The uncertainty...

  16. Radiation protection metrology in Austria: status and needs in a European perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maringer, F. J.; Leitner, A.; Tschurlovits, M.

    2005-01-01

    A global harmonised system of radiation protection and radiation dosimetry metrology is required to assure quality and accuracy in exchange of ideas, science, technologies and products. Accurate and high-grade measurements of ionising radiation are required in a wide range of industrial and medical applications where they are critical for human health and safety. This paper presents current work of international and Austrian metrological institutions in the field of ionising radiation and briefly discusses the future need and perspectives in the European context.(author)

  17. Breakthrough In Current In Plane Metrology For Monitoring Large Scale MRAM Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cagliani, Alberto; Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Hansen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    The current-in-plane tunneling technique (CIPT) has been a crucial tool in the development of magnetic tunnel junction stacks suitable for Magnetic Random Access Memories (MRAM) for more than a decade. The MRAM development has now reached the maturity to make the transition from R&D to large...... of the Resistance Area product (RA) and the Tunnel Magnetoresistance (TMR) measurements, compared to state of the art CIPT metrology tools dedicated to R&D. On two test wafers, the repeatability of RA and MR was improved up to 350% and the measurement reproducibility up to 1700%. We believe that CIPT metrology now...

  18. Preface: The 5th International Workshop on X-ray Mirror Design, Fabrication, and Metrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assoufid, Lahsen [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Lemont, Illinois 60439 (United States); Goldberg, Kenneth; Yashchuk, Valeriy V. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Recent developments in synchrotron storage rings and free-electron laser-based x-ray sources with ever-increasing brightness and coherent flux have pushed x-ray optics requirements to new frontiers. This Special Topic gathers a set of articles derived from a subset of the key presentations of the International Workshop on X-ray Mirrors Fabrication (IWXM-2015) and Metrology held at Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California, USA, July 14–16, 2015. The workshop objective was to report on recent progress in x-ray synchrotron radiation mirrors fabrication as well as on new developments in related metrology tools and methods.

  19. Remote photonic metrology in the conservation of cultural heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornari, Vivi; Pedrini, G.; Osten, W.

    2013-05-01

    not only remote research, inspection and evaluation, but also providing the results to the members and the public with instant and simultaneous access to necessary information, knowledge and technologies. In this paper it is presented the concept and first results confirming the potential of implementing metrology techniques as remote digital laboratory facilities in artwork structural assessment. The method paves the way of the general objective to introduce remote photonic technologies in the sensitive field of Cultural Heritage.

  20. Metrological aspects to quality control for natural gas analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Claudia Cipriano; Borges, Cleber Nogueira; Cunha, Valnei S. [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalizacao e Qualidade Industrial (INMETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Augusto, Cristiane R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Augusto, Marco Ignazio [Companhia Estadual de Gas do Rio de Janeiro (CEG), RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Product's Quality and Services are fundamental topics in the globalized commercial relationship inclusive concern the measurements in natural gas. Considerable investments were necessary for industry especially about the quality control in the commercialized gas with an inclusion of the natural gas in Brazilian energetic resources The Brazilian Regulatory Agency, ANP - Agencia Nacional de Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis - created the Resolution ANP no.16. This Resolution defines the natural gas specification, either national or international source, for commercialization in Brazil and list the tolerance concentration for some components. Between of this components are the inert compounds like the CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}. The presence of this compounds reduce the calorific power, apart from increase the resistance concern the detonation in the case of vehicular application, and occasion the reduction in the methane concentration in the gas. Controls charts can be useful to verify if the process are or not under Statistical Control. The process can be considerate under statistical control if the measurements have it values between in lower and upper limits stated previously The controls charts can be approach several characteristics in each subgroup: means, standard deviations, amplitude or proportion of defects. The charts are draws for a specific characteristic and to detect some deviate in the process under specific environment conditions. The CEG - Companhia de Distribuicao de Gas do Rio de Janeiro and the DQUIM - Chemical Metrology Division has an agreement for technical cooperation in research and development of gas natural composition Concern the importance of the natural gas in the Nation development, as well as the question approaching the custody transference, the objective of this work is demonstrate the control quality of the natural gas composition between the CEG laboratory and the DQUIM laboratory aiming the quality increase of the

  1. Application Of The SPV-based Surface Lifetime Technique To In-Line Monitoring Of Surface Cu Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, John; Savtchouk, Alexandre; Wilson, Matthew; Kim, Chul Hong; Yoo, Hyung Won; Lee, Chang Hwan; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Son, Sang Hoon

    2009-09-01

    Implementation of Cu interconnects into Silicon Integrated Circuits (IC's) has been instrumental in the continuing improvement of IC device performance. Copper as a well known Gate Oxide Integrity (GOI) killer [1, 2] requires extensive protocols to minimize the possibility of cross contamination. Despite such protocols the risk for cross contamination exists, and consequently there is the need for in-line Cu cross-contamination detection metrology. Preferably the metrology will be non-destructive, fast, and capable of mapping on product wafers. Up to now the most common approaches for monitoring Cu contamination in IC fabrication lines either measure Cu in the bulk Si, which is not applicable to Cu cross-contamination monitoring because Back-End-of-the-Line thermal budgets restrict the ability to diffuse the surface Cu into the bulk Si; or the techniques are not optimal for in-line monitoring due to their destructive, time-consuming, or costly nature. In this work we demonstrate for the first time the application of the ac-Surface Photo Voltage (ac-SPV) surface lifetime approach [3] to in-line, full wafer coverage mapping of low level (metrology system. Furthermore, because the metrology is non-contact (utilizing edge-grip handling) and non-destructive, it is directly applicable to measurement of production wafers. In-line fab data acquired using this metrology is presented and compared to data from Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS).

  2. Metrological data and risk assessment in France during the Chernobyl accident (26 april 1986)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galle, P.; Paulin, R.; Coursaget, J.

    2005-01-01

    Three world famous radio biologists have presented in june 2003 a communication entitled ' metrological data and risk assessment in France during the Chernobyl accident. Historical statement'. This text is published at the tome 326, fsc. 8, page 699-715 at the 'Comptes Rendus de Biologie de l'Academie'. The digest is presented here. (N.C.)

  3. Application of virtual distances methodology to laser tracker verification with an indexed metrology platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acero, R; Pueo, M; Santolaria, J; Aguilar, J J; Brau, A

    2015-01-01

    High-range measuring equipment like laser trackers need large dimension calibrated reference artifacts in their calibration and verification procedures. In this paper, a new verification procedure for portable coordinate measuring instruments based on the generation and evaluation of virtual distances with an indexed metrology platform is developed. This methodology enables the definition of an unlimited number of reference distances without materializing them in a physical gauge to be used as a reference. The generation of the virtual points and reference lengths derived is linked to the concept of the indexed metrology platform and the knowledge of the relative position and orientation of its upper and lower platforms with high accuracy. It is the measuring instrument together with the indexed metrology platform one that remains still, rotating the virtual mesh around them. As a first step, the virtual distances technique is applied to a laser tracker in this work. The experimental verification procedure of the laser tracker with virtual distances is simulated and further compared with the conventional verification procedure of the laser tracker with the indexed metrology platform. The results obtained in terms of volumetric performance of the laser tracker proved the suitability of the virtual distances methodology in calibration and verification procedures for portable coordinate measuring instruments, broadening and expanding the possibilities for the definition of reference distances in these procedures. (paper)

  4. Application of virtual distances methodology to laser tracker verification with an indexed metrology platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acero, R.; Santolaria, J.; Pueo, M.; Aguilar, J. J.; Brau, A.

    2015-11-01

    High-range measuring equipment like laser trackers need large dimension calibrated reference artifacts in their calibration and verification procedures. In this paper, a new verification procedure for portable coordinate measuring instruments based on the generation and evaluation of virtual distances with an indexed metrology platform is developed. This methodology enables the definition of an unlimited number of reference distances without materializing them in a physical gauge to be used as a reference. The generation of the virtual points and reference lengths derived is linked to the concept of the indexed metrology platform and the knowledge of the relative position and orientation of its upper and lower platforms with high accuracy. It is the measuring instrument together with the indexed metrology platform one that remains still, rotating the virtual mesh around them. As a first step, the virtual distances technique is applied to a laser tracker in this work. The experimental verification procedure of the laser tracker with virtual distances is simulated and further compared with the conventional verification procedure of the laser tracker with the indexed metrology platform. The results obtained in terms of volumetric performance of the laser tracker proved the suitability of the virtual distances methodology in calibration and verification procedures for portable coordinate measuring instruments, broadening and expanding the possibilities for the definition of reference distances in these procedures.

  5. Metrological Traceability in the Social Sciences: A Model from Reading Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenner, A Jackson; Fisher, William P Jr

    2013-01-01

    The central importance of reading ability in learning makes it the natural place to start in formative and summative assessments in education. The Lexile Framework for Reading constitutes a commercial metrological traceability network linking books, test results, instructional materials, and students in elementary and secondary English and Spanish language reading education in the U.S., Canada, Mexico, and Australia

  6. The role of metrology in mediating and mobilizing the language and culture of scientific facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, W. P., Jr.; Stenner, A. J.

    2015-02-01

    The self-conscious awareness of language and its use is arguably nowhere more intense than in metrology. The careful and deliberate coordination and alignment of shared metrological frames of reference for theory, experiment, and practical application have been characteristics of scientific culture at least since the origins of the SI units in revolutionary France. Though close attention has been focused on the logical and analytical aspects of language use in science, little concern has been shown for understanding how the social and historical aspects of everyday language may have foreshadowed and influenced the development and character of metrological language, especially relative to the inevitably partial knowledge possessed by any given stakeholder participating in the scientific enterprise. Insight in this regard may be helpful in discerning how and if an analogous role for metrology might be created in psychology and the social sciences. It may be that the success of psychology as a science will depend less on taking physics as the relevant model than on attending to the interplay of concepts, models, and social organization that make any culture effective.

  7. 3D-SEM Metrology for Coordinate Measurements at the Nanometer Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carli, Lorenzo

    to be addressed concerning uncertainty evaluation have been discussed. Most recent developments in the field of micro and nano-metrology, in terms of measuring machines and techniques, are described pointing out advantages and limitations. The importance of multi-sensor and multi-orientation strategy...

  8. EQ-10 electrodeless Z-pinch EUV source for metrology applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Deborah; Horne, Stephen F.; Partlow, Matthew J.; Besen, Matthew M.; Smith, Donald K.; Blackborow, Paul A.

    2011-11-01

    With EUV Lithography systems shipping, the requirements for highly reliable EUV sources for mask inspection and resist outgassing are becoming better defined, and more urgent. The sources needed for metrology applications are very different than that needed for lithography; brightness (not power) is the key requirement. Suppliers for HVM EUV sources have all resources working on high power and have not entered the smaller market for metrology. Energetiq Technology has been shipping the EQ-10 Electrodeless Z-pinchTM light source since 19951. The source is currently being used for metrology, mask inspection, and resist development2-4. These applications require especially stable performance in both output power and plasma size and position. Over the last 6 years Energetiq has made many source modifications which have included better thermal management to increase the brightness and power of the source. We now have introduced a new source that will meet requirements of some of the mask metrology first generation tools; this source will be reviewed.

  9. Laser metrology applied to the nuclear maintenance; Metrologia laser aplicada al mantenimiento nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrido Garcia, J.; Sarti Fernandez, F.

    2012-07-01

    The development of this paper focuses on providing an overview of the state of the art about laser metrology. This type of equipment combines the measurement philosophy of laser scanning with the great precision of the robotic equipment of auscultation. Getting micron.

  10. Magnetic properties comparison of mass standards among seventeen national metrology institutes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Becerra, LO

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available ), 1, Rue Gaston Boissier, 75015 Paris, France 13 Centro Espa?nol de Metrologia (CEM), c/ del Alfar, 2 ? Apartado 37, 28760 Tres Cantos (Madrid), Spain 14 National Metrology Institute of Japan, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science...

  11. Ambient Optomechanical Alignment and Pupil Metrology for the Flight Instruments Aboard the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Phillip; Beaton, Alexander; Gum, Jeffrey S.; Hadjimichael, Theodore J.; Hayden, Joseph E.; Hummel, Susann; Hylan, Jason E.; Lee, David; Madison, Timothy J.; Maszkiewicz, Michael; hide

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope science instruments are in the final stages of being integrated into the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) element. Each instrument is tied into a common coordinate system through mechanical references that are used for optical alignment and metrology within ISIM after element-level assembly. In addition, a set of ground support equipment (GSE) consisting of large, precisely calibrated, ambient, and cryogenic structures are used as alignment references and gauges during various phases of integration and test (I&T). This GSE, the flight instruments, and ISIM structure feature different types of complimentary metrology targeting. These GSE targets are used to establish and track six degrees of freedom instrument alignment during I&T in the vehicle coordinate system (VCS). This paper describes the optomechanical metrology conducted during science instrument integration and alignment in the Spacecraft Systems Development and Integration Facility (SSDIF) cleanroom at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The measurement of each instrument's ambient entrance pupil location in the telescope coordinate system is discussed. The construction of the database of target locations and the development of metrology uncertainties is also discussed.

  12. Metrology as part and parcel of training programmes for science and engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regtien, Paulus P.L.

    2007-01-01

    At many universities and training institutes education in metrology or measurement science is in strong competition with upcoming disciplines. Its importance for science and engineering remains, however, evident. Advanced instruments make measuring almost a routine activity, but it is shown that a

  13. Activities of the IPEN laboratory (CNEN/SP - Brazil) of nuclear metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, M.S.; Koskinas, M.F.; Pocobi, E.; Silva, C.A.M.; Machado, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    The determination of radionuclide activity for radioactive sources and standardized solutions is reported as the main purpose of the IPEN laboratory of nuclear metrology. The measurement systems installed in the laboratory, the measurable activity intervals and some of the standardized radionuclides (emphasizing the ones used in nuclear medicine) are presented. (M.A.C.) [pt

  14. Whispering gallery mode resonators for frequency metrology applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartel, Lukas

    This dissertation describes an investigation into the use of whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators for applications towards frequency reference and metrology. Laser stabilization and the measurement of optical frequencies have enabled myriad technologies of both academic and commercial interest. A technology which seems to span both motivations is optical atomic clocks. These devices are virtually unimaginable without the ultra stable lasers plus frequency measurement and down-conversion afforded by Fabry Perot (FP) cavities and model-locked laser combs, respectively. However, WGM resonators can potentially perform both of these tasks while having the distinct advantages of compactness and simplicity. This work represents progress towards understanding and mitigating the performance limitations of WGM cavities for such applications. A system for laser frequency stabilization to a the cavity via the Pound-Drever-Hall (PDH) method is described. While the laser lock itself is found to perform at the level of several parts in 1015, a variety of fundamental and technical mechanisms destabilize the WGM frequency itself. Owing to the relatively large thermal expansion coefficients in optical crystals, environmental temperature drifts set the stability limit at time scales greater than the thermal relaxation time of the crystal. Uncompensated, these drifts pull WGM frequencies about 3 orders of magnitude more than they would in an FP cavity. Thus, two temperature compensation schemes are developed. An active scheme measures and stabilizes the mode volume temperature to the level of several nK, reducing the effective temperature coefficient of the resonator to 1.7x10-7 K-1; simulations suggest that the value could eventually be as low as 3.5x10-8 K-1, on par with the aforementioned FP cavities. A second, passive scheme is also described, which employs a heterogeneous resonator structure that capitalizes on the thermo-mechanical properties of one material and the optical

  15. Metrology requirements for the serial production of ELT primary mirror segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Paul C. T.; Gray, Caroline

    2015-08-01

    The manufacture of the next generation of large astronomical telescopes, the extremely large telescopes (ELT), requires the rapid manufacture of greater than 500 1.44m hexagonal segments for the primary mirror of each telescope. Both leading projects, the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) and the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), have set highly demanding technical requirements for each fabricated segment. These technical requirements, when combined with the anticipated construction schedule for each telescope, suggest that more than one optical fabricator will be involved in the delivery of the primary mirror segments in order to meet the project schedule. For one supplier, the technical specification is challenging and requires highly consistent control of metrology in close coordination with the polishing technologies used in order to optimize production rates. For production using multiple suppliers, however the supply chain is structured, consistent control of metrology along the supply chain will be required. This requires a broader pattern of independent verification than is the case of a single supplier. This paper outlines the metrology requirements for a single supplier throughout all stages of the fabrication process. We identify and outline those areas where metrology accuracy and duration have a significant impact on production efficiency. We use the challenging ESO E-ELT technical specification as an example of our treatment, including actual process data. We further develop this model for the case of a supply chain consisting of multiple suppliers. Here, we emphasize the need to control metrology throughout the supply chain in order to optimize net production efficiency.

  16. Reference metrology in a research fab: the NIST clean calibrations thrust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixson, Ronald; Fu, Joe; Orji, Ndubuisi; Renegar, Thomas; Zheng, Alan; Vorburger, Theodore; Hilton, Al; Cangemi, Marc; Chen, Lei; Hernandez, Mike; Hajdaj, Russell; Bishop, Michael; Cordes, Aaron

    2009-03-01

    In 2004, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) commissioned the Advanced Measurement Laboratory (AML) - a state-of-the-art, five-wing laboratory complex for leading edge NIST research. The NIST NanoFab - a 1765 m2 (19,000 ft2) clean room with 743 m2 (8000 ft2) of class 100 space - is the anchor of this facility and an integral component of the new Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology (CNST) at NIST. Although the CNST/NanoFab is a nanotechnology research facility with a different strategic focus than a current high volume semiconductor fab, metrology tools still play an important role in the nanofabrication research conducted here. Some of the metrology tools available to users of the NanoFab include stylus profiling, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Since 2001, NIST has collaborated with SEMATECH to implement a reference measurement system (RMS) using critical dimension atomic force microscopy (CD-AFM). NIST brought metrology expertise to the table and SEMATECH provided access to leading edge metrology tools in their clean room facility in Austin. Now, in the newly launched "clean calibrations" thrust at NIST, we are implementing the reference metrology paradigm on several tools in the CNST/NanoFab. Initially, we have focused on calibration, monitoring, and uncertainty analysis for a three-tool set consisting of a stylus profiler, an SEM, and an AFM. Our larger goal is the development of new and supplemental calibrations and standards that will benefit from the Class 100 environment available in the NanoFab and offering our customers calibration options that do not require exposing their samples to less clean environments. Toward this end, we have completed a preliminary evaluation of the performance of these instruments. The results of these evaluations suggest that the achievable uncertainties are generally consistent with our measurement goals.

  17. Empirical Models For The Correlation With Sunshine Duration of Metrological Data For Tikrit-TuzKhurmato and Kirkuk-IRAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayadh M. Abed Al-Dulaimy

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of metrological data of maximum, minimum ambient temperature, humidity and sunshine duration for a period of 23 years during the period of 1977-2000, at Tikrit (34. 35°N, 43.37°E, TuzKurmato (34.88°N, 44.64°E, and Kirkuk (35.30°N, 44. 21°E, were used to established an Angstrom type corrélation équations for direct global solar radiation. The diffuse radiation was estimated by using klien and Page Models. This calculation appears to be sufficient to discriminate each station from the others due to it’s local characteristic of the sites. The overall results shown for TuzKurmato, the received radiation on the plane surface is higher than Tikrit and Kirkuk while the diffuse radiation reversely behaved as for Tiktit is the highest. The developed model can be used for estimating global solar radiation on horizontal surfaces. The monthly average total solar radiation was estimated. The value of correlation coefficient (r and value of Root Mean Square Error (RMSE, Mean Bias Error (MBE and Mean Percentage Error (MPE were determined for each equation

  18. Enabling CD SEM metrology for 5nm technology node and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorusso, Gian Francesco; Ohashi, Takeyoshi; Yamaguchi, Astuko; Inoue, Osamu; Sutani, Takumichi; Horiguchi, Naoto; Bömmels, Jürgen; Wilson, Christopher J.; Briggs, Basoene; Tan, Chi Lim; Raymaekers, Tom; Delhougne, Romain; Van den Bosch, Geert; Di Piazza, Luca; Kar, Gouri Sankar; Furnémont, Arnaud; Fantini, Andrea; Donadio, Gabriele Luca; Souriau, Laurent; Crotti, Davide; Yasin, Farrukh; Appeltans, Raf; Rao, Siddharth; De Simone, Danilo; Rincon Delgadillo, Paulina; Leray, Philippe; Charley, Anne-Laure; Zhou, Daisy; Veloso, Anabela; Collaert, Nadine; Hasumi, Kazuhisa; Koshihara, Shunsuke; Ikota, Masami; Okagawa, Yutaka; Ishimoto, Toru

    2017-03-01

    The CD SEM (Critical Dimension Scanning Electron Microscope) is one of the main tools used to estimate Critical Dimension (CD) in semiconductor manufacturing nowadays, but, as all metrology tools, it will face considerable challenges to keep up with the requirements of the future technology nodes. The root causes of these challenges are not uniquely related to the shrinking CD values, as one might expect, but to the increase in complexity of the devices in terms of morphology and chemical composition as well. In fact, complicated threedimensional device architectures, high aspect ratio features, and wide variety of materials are some of the unavoidable characteristics of the future metrology nodes. This means that, beside an improvement in resolution, it is critical to develop a CD SEM metrology capable of satisfying the specific needs of the devices of the nodes to come, needs that sometimes will have to be addressed through dramatic changes in approach with respect to traditional CD SEM metrology. In this paper, we report on the development of advanced CD SEM metrology at imec on a variety of device platform and processes, for both logic and memories. We discuss newly developed approaches for standard, IIIV, and germanium FinFETs (Fin Field Effect Transistors), for lateral and vertical nanowires (NW), 3D NAND (three-dimensional NAND), STT-MRAM (Spin Transfer Magnetic Torque Random-Access Memory), and ReRAM (Resistive Random Access Memory). Applications for both front-end of line (FEOL) and back-end of line (BEOL) are developed. In terms of process, S/D Epi (Source Drain Epitaxy), SAQP (Self-Aligned Quadruple Patterning), DSA (Dynamic Self-Assembly), and EUVL (Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography) have been used. The work reported here has been performed on Hitachi CG5000, CG6300, and CV5000. In terms of logic, we discuss here the S/D epi defect classification, the metrology optimization for STI (Shallow Trench Isolation) Ge FinFETs, the defectivity of III-V STI Fin

  19. The energy landscape of glassy dynamics on the amorphous hafnium diboride surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duc; Mallek, Justin; Cloud, Andrew N.; Abelson, John R.; Girolami, Gregory S.; Lyding, Joseph; Gruebele, Martin

    2014-11-01

    Direct visualization of the dynamics of structural glasses and amorphous solids on the sub-nanometer scale provides rich information unavailable from bulk or conventional single molecule techniques. We study the surface of hafnium diboride, a conductive ultrahigh temperature ceramic material that can be grown in amorphous films. Our scanning tunneling movies have a second-to-hour dynamic range and single-point current measurements extend that to the millisecond-to-minute time scale. On the a-HfB2 glass surface, two-state hopping of 1-2 nm diameter cooperatively rearranging regions or "clusters" occurs from sub-milliseconds to hours. We characterize individual clusters in detail through high-resolution (single cluster vertical displacements, we can reconstruct the local free energy landscape of individual clusters, complete with activation barrier height, a reaction coordinate in nanometers, and the shape of the free energy landscape basins between which hopping occurs. The experimental images are consistent with the compact shape of α-relaxors predicted by random first order transition theory, whereas the rapid hopping rate, even taking less confined motion at the surface into account, is consistent with β-relaxations. We make a proposal of how "mixed" features can show up in surface dynamics of glasses.

  20. Imaging and Information Processing of Pitting-Corroded Aluminum Alloy Panels with Surface Metrology Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-23

    positioned outside the sealed chamber by passing extension cables through the bulkhead in the chamber. Temperature and relative humidity were acquired at...inside the chamber was varied in temperature and humidity to promote corrosion. Panels 1-3 were removed 133, 209 and 286 hours from the experiment...indicated that, the nucleated pits, as those general non- visible ones in Panel 1, usually took regular morphological forms, such as hemi-spherical, near

  1. Very large computer generated holograms for precision metrology of aspheric optical surfaces, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Both ground and space telescopes employ aspheric mirrors. A particular example is the X-ray telescope where primary and secondary mirrors have nearly cylindrical...

  2. When size does matter:Dimensional metrology of nanostructured layers and surfaces using x-rays

    OpenAIRE

    Wernecke, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Ein Gebiet der Nanotechnologie ist die dimensionelle Nanometrologie, die sich mit der Messung von Längen in vertikale und laterale Richtung im nm-Bereich befasst. Messungen der Röntgenkleinwinkelstreuung unter streifendem Einfall (GISAXS) sind zerstörungsfrei, bedürfen keiner Probenpräparation, bieten Mittelung über einen makroskopischen Bereich und liefern tiefenaufgelöste Information von vergrabenen Nanostrukturen. In dieser Arbeit sind GISAXS-Messungen an Reflektionsgittern mit Strukturgrö...

  3. Metrology for the persevering production, distribution, and usage of energy; Metrologie fuer die nachhaltige Erzeugung, Verteilung und Nutzung von Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, Klaus-Dieter [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany). Abt. ' Chemische Physik und Explosionsschutz'

    2012-12-15

    The author describes the metrological challenges given by the necessarily effective production, transport, distribution, consumption, conservation, and storage of energy, the latter is considered in connection with mobility. Finally the activities of the PTB in this connection are listed. (HSI)

  4. Physics colloquium: Single-electron counting in quantum metrology and in statistical mechanics

    CERN Multimedia

    Geneva University

    2011-01-01

    GENEVA UNIVERSITY Ecole de physique Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 Genève 4 Tél.: (022) 379 62 73 Fax: (022) 379 69 92olé   Lundi 17 octobre 2011 17h00 - Ecole de Physique, Auditoire Stueckelberg PHYSICS COLLOQUIUM « Single-electron counting in quantum metrology and in statistical mechanics » Prof. Jukka Pekola Low Temperature Laboratory, Aalto University Helsinki, Finland   First I discuss the basics of single-electron tunneling and its potential applications in metrology. My main focus is in developing an accurate source of single-electron current for the realization of the unit ampere. I discuss the principle and the present status of the so-called single- electron turnstile. Investigation of errors in transporting electrons one by one has revealed a wealth of observations on fundamental phenomena in mesoscopic superconductivity, including individual Andreev...

  5. Metrological assurance and traceability for Industry 4.0 and additive manufacturing in Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skliarov, Volodymyr; Neyezhmakov, Pavel; Prokopov, Alexander

    2018-03-01

    The national measurement standards from the point of view of traceability of the results of measurement in additive manufacturing in Ukraine are considered in the paper. The metrological characteristics of the national primary measurement standards in the field of geometric, temperature, optical-physical and time-frequency measurements, which took part in international comparisons within COOMET projects, are presented. The accurate geometric, temperature, optical-physical and time-frequency measurements are the key ones in controlling the quality of additive manufacturing. The use of advanced CAD/CAE/CAM systems allows to simulate the process of additive manufacturing at each stage. In accordance with the areas of the technology of additive manufacturing, the ways of improving the national measurement standards of Ukraine for the growing needs of metrology of additive manufacturing are considered.

  6. Nano-metrology: The art of measuring X-ray mirrors with slope errors <100 nrad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcock, Simon G., E-mail: simon.alcock@diamond.ac.uk; Nistea, Ioana; Sawhney, Kawal [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-15

    We present a comprehensive investigation of the systematic and random errors of the nano-metrology instruments used to characterize synchrotron X-ray optics at Diamond Light Source. With experimental skill and careful analysis, we show that these instruments used in combination are capable of measuring state-of-the-art X-ray mirrors. Examples are provided of how Diamond metrology data have helped to achieve slope errors of <100 nrad for optical systems installed on synchrotron beamlines, including: iterative correction of substrates using ion beam figuring and optimal clamping of monochromator grating blanks in their holders. Simulations demonstrate how random noise from the Diamond-NOM’s autocollimator adds into the overall measured value of the mirror’s slope error, and thus predict how many averaged scans are required to accurately characterize different grades of mirror.

  7. Nano-metrology: The art of measuring X-ray mirrors with slope errors <100 nrad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcock, Simon G.; Nistea, Ioana; Sawhney, Kawal

    2016-01-01

    We present a comprehensive investigation of the systematic and random errors of the nano-metrology instruments used to characterize synchrotron X-ray optics at Diamond Light Source. With experimental skill and careful analysis, we show that these instruments used in combination are capable of measuring state-of-the-art X-ray mirrors. Examples are provided of how Diamond metrology data have helped to achieve slope errors of <100 nrad for optical systems installed on synchrotron beamlines, including: iterative correction of substrates using ion beam figuring and optimal clamping of monochromator grating blanks in their holders. Simulations demonstrate how random noise from the Diamond-NOM’s autocollimator adds into the overall measured value of the mirror’s slope error, and thus predict how many averaged scans are required to accurately characterize different grades of mirror.

  8. Nano-metrology: The art of measuring X-ray mirrors with slope errors <100 nrad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcock, Simon G; Nistea, Ioana; Sawhney, Kawal

    2016-05-01

    We present a comprehensive investigation of the systematic and random errors of the nano-metrology instruments used to characterize synchrotron X-ray optics at Diamond Light Source. With experimental skill and careful analysis, we show that these instruments used in combination are capable of measuring state-of-the-art X-ray mirrors. Examples are provided of how Diamond metrology data have helped to achieve slope errors of <100 nrad for optical systems installed on synchrotron beamlines, including: iterative correction of substrates using ion beam figuring and optimal clamping of monochromator grating blanks in their holders. Simulations demonstrate how random noise from the Diamond-NOM's autocollimator adds into the overall measured value of the mirror's slope error, and thus predict how many averaged scans are required to accurately characterize different grades of mirror.

  9. Ionising radiation metrology : Physical basis for the radiation protection in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcos, J. M. los; Brosed, A.; Fernandez, F.

    2004-01-01

    Applying radiological protection principles and, in particular optimisation, requires a system of metrological references internationally traceable and to which be traced at the national level, through a well defined calibration chain. In this paper on overview of the activities done in the national standards laboratory and in the calibration laboratories existing in Spain is presented. As a conclusion it is established that, although the necessities at the protection level are reasonably covered for α, β, X and γ radiation, the lack of a neutronic reference laboratory is detected, to give metrological support to the two laboratories with capability for making irradiations or determinations of neutronic doses, currently operating in the country. (Author) 19 refs

  10. Theory-based metrological traceability in education: A reading measurement network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, William P; Stenner, A Jackson

    2016-10-01

    Huge resources are invested in metrology and standards in the natural sciences, engineering, and across a wide range of commercial technologies. Significant positive returns of human, social, environmental, and economic value on these investments have been sustained for decades. Proven methods for calibrating test and survey instruments in linear units are readily available, as are data- and theory-based methods for equating those instruments to a shared unit. Using these methods, metrological traceability is obtained in a variety of commercially available elementary and secondary English and Spanish language reading education programs in the U.S., Canada, Mexico, and Australia. Given established historical patterns, widespread routine reproduction of predicted text-based and instructional effects expressed in a common language and shared frame of reference may lead to significant developments in theory and practice. Opportunities for systematic implementations of teacher-driven lean thinking and continuous quality improvement methods may be of particular interest and value.

  11. Tests of operating conditions for metrological application of HTS Josephson arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosso, A; Lacquaniti, V; Andreone, D; Cerri, R; Klushin, A M

    2006-01-01

    We report on an experimental study of metrological properties of High Temperature Superconductor arrays, made of shunted bicrystal YBCO Josephson junctions, to assess their accuracy. A detailed analysis of measurement errors is presented, mainly based on a direct comparison of an HTS array against a low temperature array. Owing to the high sensitivity of the comparison, we were able to measure the changes in the HTS array voltage on a step at nanovolt level. A precise estimate of the dependence of the HTS array step width on operating conditions was obtained. Differences were observed with respect to the results provided by the usual, low sensitivity, techniques, confirming that the method we adopted is necessary in the study of HTS arrays for metrology. The high sensitivity analysis was applied in the derivation of the temperature dependence of the critical current as well, providing some insights on the behaviour of the HTS array

  12. Study and operating conditions of HTS Josephson arrays for metrological application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosso, A.; Lacquaniti, V.; Andreone, D.; Cerri, R.; Klushin, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    We report an experimental study of metrological properties of high-temperature superconductor arrays, made of shunted bicrystal YBCO Josephson junctions. The work is mainly based on a direct comparison against a low temperature array. Owing to the high sensitivity of the measurements, we observed at nanovolt level the changes in the HTS array voltage on a step. A precise estimate of the dependence of the HTS array step width on operating conditions was obtained. Differences were observed with respect to the results of low sensitivity techniques, confirming that our method is necessary in the study of HTS arrays for metrology. The high sensitivity analysis was also applied in the derivation of the temperature dependence of the critical current, providing insights on the behavior of the HTS array

  13. A Laser Metrology/Viewing System for ITER In-Vessel Inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spampinato, P.T.; Barry, R.E.; Chesser, J.B.; Menon, M.M.; Dagher, M.A.; Slotwinski, A.

    1997-10-01

    This paper identifies the requirements for a remotely operated precision laser ranging system for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. The inspection system is used for metrology and viewing, and must be capable of achieving submillimeter accuracy and operation in a reactor vessel that has high gamma radiation, high vacuum, elevated temperature, and magnetic field levels. A coherent, frequency modulated laser radar system is under development to meet these requirements. The metrology/viewing sensor consists of a compact laser-optic module linked through fiberoptics to the laser source and imaging units, located outside the harsh environment. The deployment mechanism is a remotely operated telescopic mast. Gamma irradiation up to 10 7 Gy was conducted on critical sensor components with no significant impact to data transmission, and analysis indicates that critical sensor components can operate in a magnetic field with certain design modifications. Plans for testing key components in a magnetic field are underway

  14. Dimensional metrology for process and part quality control in micro manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tosello, Guido; Gasparin, Stefania

    2011-01-01

    dimensions are scaled down and geometrical complexity of objects is increased, the available measurement technologies appear not sufficient. New solutions for measuring principles and instrumentation, tolerancing rules and procedures as well as traceability and calibration are necessary if micro......Micro manufacturing has gained interest over the last decade as the demand for micro mechanical components has increased. The need for dimensional metrology at micro scale is evident both in terms of quality assurance of components and products and in terms of process control. As critical...... manufacturing is to develop into industrial manufacturing solutions. In this paper the application of dimensional precision metrology to both component and process quality control will be demonstrated. The parts investigated are micro injection moulded polymer parts, typical for the field of micro manufacturing....

  15. Sub-atomic dimensional metrology: developments in the control of x-ray interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoot, Andrew; Kuetgens, Ulrich

    2012-07-01

    Within the European Metrology Research Programme funded project NANOTRACE, the nonlinearity of the next generation of optical interferometers has been measured using x-ray interferometry. The x-ray interferometer can be regarded as a ruler or translation stage whose graduations or displacement steps are based on the lattice spacing of the crystallographic planes from which the x-rays are diffracted: in this case the graduations are every 192 pm corresponding to the spacing between the (2 2 0) planes in silicon. Precise displacement of the x-ray interferometer's monolithic translation stage in steps corresponding to discrete numbers of x-ray fringes requires servo positioning capability at the picometre level. To achieve this very fine control, a digital control system has been developed which has opened up the potential for advances in metrology using x-ray interferometry that include quadrature counting of x-ray fringes.

  16. Sub-atomic dimensional metrology: developments in the control of x-ray interferometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yacoot, Andrew; Kuetgens, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Within the European Metrology Research Programme funded project NANOTRACE, the nonlinearity of the next generation of optical interferometers has been measured using x-ray interferometry. The x-ray interferometer can be regarded as a ruler or translation stage whose graduations or displacement steps are based on the lattice spacing of the crystallographic planes from which the x-rays are diffracted: in this case the graduations are every 192 pm corresponding to the spacing between the (2 2 0) planes in silicon. Precise displacement of the x-ray interferometer's monolithic translation stage in steps corresponding to discrete numbers of x-ray fringes requires servo positioning capability at the picometre level. To achieve this very fine control, a digital control system has been developed which has opened up the potential for advances in metrology using x-ray interferometry that include quadrature counting of x-ray fringes. (paper)

  17. The UK National Quantum Technologies Hub in sensors and metrology (Keynote Paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongs, K.; Boyer, V.; Cruise, M. A.; Freise, A.; Holynski, M.; Hughes, J.; Kaushik, A.; Lien, Y.-H.; Niggebaum, A.; Perea-Ortiz, M.; Petrov, P.; Plant, S.; Singh, Y.; Stabrawa, A.; Paul, D. J.; Sorel, M.; Cumming, D. R. S.; Marsh, J. H.; Bowtell, R. W.; Bason, M. G.; Beardsley, R. P.; Campion, R. P.; Brookes, M. J.; Fernholz, T.; Fromhold, T. M.; Hackermuller, L.; Krüger, P.; Li, X.; Maclean, J. O.; Mellor, C. J.; Novikov, S. V.; Orucevic, F.; Rushforth, A. W.; Welch, N.; Benson, T. M.; Wildman, R. D.; Freegarde, T.; Himsworth, M.; Ruostekoski, J.; Smith, P.; Tropper, A.; Griffin, P. F.; Arnold, A. S.; Riis, E.; Hastie, J. E.; Paboeuf, D.; Parrotta, D. C.; Garraway, B. M.; Pasquazi, A.; Peccianti, M.; Hensinger, W.; Potter, E.; Nizamani, A. H.; Bostock, H.; Rodriguez Blanco, A.; Sinuco-Leon, G.; Hill, I. R.; Williams, R. A.; Gill, P.; Hempler, N.; Malcolm, G. P. A.; Cross, T.; Kock, B. O.; Maddox, S.; John, P.

    2016-04-01

    The UK National Quantum Technology Hub in Sensors and Metrology is one of four flagship initiatives in the UK National of Quantum Technology Program. As part of a 20-year vision it translates laboratory demonstrations to deployable practical devices, with game-changing miniaturized components and prototypes that transform the state-of-the-art for quantum sensors and metrology. It brings together experts from the Universities of Birmingham, Glasgow, Nottingham, Southampton, Strathclyde and Sussex, NPL and currently links to over 15 leading international academic institutions and over 70 companies to build the supply chains and routes to market needed to bring 10-1000x improvements in sensing applications. It seeks, and is open to, additional partners for new application development and creates a point of easy open access to the facilities and supply chains that it stimulates or nurtures.

  18. Metrological characteristics of the new BSS2 beta secondary standard system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaldo, Sibele R.

    2005-01-01

    Due to the increased interest and the importance of beta radiation dosimetry for radiation protection purposes, the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear. MG, Brazil, acquired the newest Beta Secondary Standard system (BSS2) in order to replace the old BSS1 model, with the goal of implement a beta radiation metrology laboratory and provide the corresponding reference radiation. The new system BSS2, unique in Latin America, requires operational testing and metrological characterization for reliability purposes. For this, some comparative investigations of the two systems were made. The influence of opening and closing the shutter in the final dose of radiation was identified as the highest in the BSS2 in relation to the one founded in BSS1, justified by the structural difference of the shutters of the systems and the reproducibility of source-detector geometry was better in BSS2, because of the robustness of the same

  19. OBSERVATIONS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF X-RAY COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY FOR DIMENSIONAL METROLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Corcoran

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available X-ray computed tomography (XCT is a rising technology within many industries and sectors with a demand for dimensional metrology, defect, void analysis and reverse engineering. There are many variables that can affect the dimensional metrology of objects imaged using XCT, this paper focusses on the effects of beam hardening due to the orientation of the workpiece, in this case a holeplate, and the volume of material the X-rays travel through. Measurements discussed include unidirectional and bidirectional dimensions, radii of cylinders, fit point deviations of the fitted shapes and cylindricity. Results indicate that accuracy and precision of these dimensional measurements are affected in varying amounts, both by the amount of material the X-rays have travelled through and the orientation of the object.

  20. Overcoming the Invisibility of Metrology: A Reading Measurement Network for Education and the Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, William P., Jr.; Stenner, A. Jackson

    2013-09-01

    The public and researchers in psychology and the social sciences are largely unaware of the huge resources invested in metrology and standards in science and commerce, for understandable reasons, but with unfortunate consequences. Measurement quality varies widely in fields lacking uniform standards, making it impossible to coordinate local behaviours and decisions in tune with individually observed instrument readings. However, recent developments in reading measurement have effectively instituted metrological traceability methods within elementary and secondary English and Spanish language reading education in the U.S., Canada, Mexico, and Australia. Given established patterns in the history of science, it may be reasonable to expect that widespread routine reproduction of controlled effects expressed in uniform units in the social sciences may lead to significant developments in theory and practice.

  1. Observations on the Performance of X-Ray Computed Tomography for Dimensional Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, H. C.; Brown, S. B.; Robson, S.; Speller, R. D.; McCarthy, M. B.

    2016-06-01

    X-ray computed tomography (XCT) is a rising technology within many industries and sectors with a demand for dimensional metrology, defect, void analysis and reverse engineering. There are many variables that can affect the dimensional metrology of objects imaged using XCT, this paper focusses on the effects of beam hardening due to the orientation of the workpiece, in this case a holeplate, and the volume of material the X-rays travel through. Measurements discussed include unidirectional and bidirectional dimensions, radii of cylinders, fit point deviations of the fitted shapes and cylindricity. Results indicate that accuracy and precision of these dimensional measurements are affected in varying amounts, both by the amount of material the X-rays have travelled through and the orientation of the object.

  2. Metrological Array of Cyber-Physical Systems. Part 11. Remote Error Correction of Measuring Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy YATSUK

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The multi-channel measuring instruments with both the classical structure and the isolated one is identified their errors major factors basing on general it metrological properties analysis. Limiting possibilities of the remote automatic method for additive and multiplicative errors correction of measuring instruments with help of code-control measures are studied. For on-site calibration of multi- channel measuring instruments, the portable voltage calibrators structures are suggested and their metrological properties while automatic errors adjusting are analysed. It was experimentally envisaged that unadjusted error value does not exceed ± 1 mV that satisfies most industrial applications. This has confirmed the main approval concerning the possibilities of remote errors self-adjustment as well multi- channel measuring instruments as calibration tools for proper verification.

  3. Overcoming the Invisibility of Metrology: A Reading Measurement Network for Education and the Social Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, William P Jr; Stenner, A Jackson

    2013-01-01

    The public and researchers in psychology and the social sciences are largely unaware of the huge resources invested in metrology and standards in science and commerce, for understandable reasons, but with unfortunate consequences. Measurement quality varies widely in fields lacking uniform standards, making it impossible to coordinate local behaviours and decisions in tune with individually observed instrument readings. However, recent developments in reading measurement have effectively instituted metrological traceability methods within elementary and secondary English and Spanish language reading education in the U.S., Canada, Mexico, and Australia. Given established patterns in the history of science, it may be reasonable to expect that widespread routine reproduction of controlled effects expressed in uniform units in the social sciences may lead to significant developments in theory and practice

  4. Contribution of the SLDC to the metrology of the ionizing radiations dosimetry in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez R, J. T.

    2010-01-01

    The Secondary Laboratory of Dosimetric Calibration (SLDC), assigned to the Metrology Department of Ionizing Radiations of the ININ had its beginnings in the eighties, with the purpose of having a specialized area to develop and to establish measure patterns of the dosimetric magnitudes and units. In the year 2000 the National Center of Metrology of the country, delegated its functions to the SLDC, as regards to develop and to maintain the national patterns in the area of ionizing radiations. In this chapter a brief review is presented on the magnitudes and units used in dosimetry and and absorbed dose, as well as some of the activities of dosimetric calibration that have been made by part of the SLDC to the radiotherapy centers in Mexico and some applications to the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde. (Author)

  5. Determination of the elementary charge and the quantum metrological triangle experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feltin, N.; Piquemal, F. [Laboratoire National de Metrologie et d' Essais (LNE), 78 - Trappes (France)

    2009-06-15

    The elementary charge e is of fundamental importance in physics. The determination of its value, which is closely linked to progress of the measurement techniques, started in the beginning of the twentieth century and is still on-going. Today, in the frame of the CODATA adjustment, the evaluation of the fundamental constant, e, is derived from a complex calculation and is no more related to a single experiment. But the development of single electron tunneling (SET) devices, started in the early nineties, has opened the path towards modern metrological systems as quantum current sources. Thus a new direct determination of e is possible by implementing an electron pump and the set-up of the quantum metrological triangle (QMT) in combination with the experiments linking mechanical and electrical units. Furthermore, we show how the QMT experiment can contribute to the establishment of a new system of units based on fundamental constants of physics. (authors)

  6. Alignment of KB mirrors with at-wavelength metrology tool simulated using SRW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idir, Mourad; Rakitin, Maksim; Gao, Bo; Xue, Junpeng; Huang, Lei; Chubar, Oleg

    2017-08-01

    Synchrotron Radiation Workshop (SRW) is a powerful synchrotron radiation simulation tool and has been widely used at synchrotron facilities all over the world. During the last decade, many types of X-ray wavefront sensors have been developed and used. In this work, we present our recent effort on the development of at-wavelength metrology simulation based on SRW mainly focused on the Hartmann Wavefront Sensor (HWS). Various conditions have been studied to verify that the simulated HWS is performing as expected in terms of accuracy. This at-wavelength metrology simulation tool is then used to align KB mirrors by minimizing the wavefront aberrations. We will present our optimization process to perform an `in situ' alignment using conditions as close as possible to the real experiments (KB mirrors with different levels of figure errors or different misalignment geometry).

  7. Metrology in the Bolivia-Brazil Pipeline; Medicao no gasoduro Bolivia-Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palhares, Julio C.C.M.; Nunes, Ildemar Pinto [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    measurement guideline of TBG seeks to be always assisting to the customer's needs and aligned with the changes of the market of natural gas. In five years of existence, TBG attended the forming regulatory legislation and the establishment of the contract fiscal, important marks of the evolution of the market. This work presents the definitions that orientated the metrological issues of TBG, making use of efficient tools in the answers to each demand and seeking to satisfy its own needs, its customers' needs and all the new regulatory demands. This paper approaches, the calibration procedures, the qualification of suppliers, maintenance of the metrological reliability, the daily confirmation of the delivered volumes, the fail treatment, and the unaccounted gas monitoring in rigorous limits practiced in world class companies in foreigner countries. (author)

  8. Quantum metrology subject to spatially correlated Markovian noise: restoring the Heisenberg limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeske, Jan; Cole, Jared H; Huelga, Susana F

    2014-01-01

    Environmental noise can hinder the metrological capabilities of entangled states. While the use of entanglement allows for Heisenberg-limited resolution, the largest permitted by quantum mechanics, deviations from strictly unitary dynamics quickly restore the standard scaling dictated by the central limit theorem. Product and maximally entangled states become asymptotically equivalent when the noisy evolution is both local and strictly Markovian. However, temporal correlations in the noise have been shown to lift this equivalence while fully (spatially) correlated noise allows for the identification of decoherence-free subspaces. Here we analyze precision limits in the presence of noise with finite correlation length and show that there exist robust entangled state preparations which display persistent Heisenberg scaling despite the environmental decoherence, even for small correlation length. Our results emphasize the relevance of noise correlations in the study of quantum advantage and could be relevant beyond metrological applications. (paper)

  9. Comparative advantages and limitations of the basic metrology methods applied to the characterization of nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkov, Pavel; Artemyev, Mikhail; Efimov, Anton E; Nabiev, Igor

    2013-10-07

    Fabrication of modern nanomaterials and nanostructures with specific functional properties is both scientifically promising and commercially profitable. The preparation and use of nanomaterials require adequate methods for the control and characterization of their size, shape, chemical composition, crystalline structure, energy levels, pathways and dynamics of physical and chemical processes during their fabrication and further use. In this review, we discuss different instrumental methods for the analysis and metrology of materials and evaluate their advantages and limitations at the nanolevel.

  10. System for automatic gauge block length measurement optimized for secondary length metrology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buchta, Zdeněk; Šarbort, Martin; Čížek, Martin; Hucl, Václav; Řeřucha, Šimon; Pikálek, Tomáš; Dvořáčková, Š.; Dvořáček, F.; Kůr, J.; Konečný, P.; Weigl, M.; Lazar, Josef; Číp, Ondřej

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 49, JULY (2017), s. 322-331 ISSN 0141-6359 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TA03010663; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : low-coherence interferometry * laser interferometry * Gauge block * metrology Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Laser s OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 2.237, year: 2016

  11. Statistical metrology - measurement and modeling of variation for advanced process development and design rule generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boning, Duane S.; Chung, James E.

    1998-01-01

    Advanced process technology will require more detailed understanding and tighter control of variation in devices and interconnects. The purpose of statistical metrology is to provide methods to measure and characterize variation, to model systematic and random components of that variation, and to understand the impact of variation on both yield and performance of advanced circuits. Of particular concern are spatial or pattern-dependencies within individual chips; such systematic variation within the chip can have a much larger impact on performance than wafer-level random variation. Statistical metrology methods will play an important role in the creation of design rules for advanced technologies. For example, a key issue in multilayer interconnect is the uniformity of interlevel dielectric (ILD) thickness within the chip. For the case of ILD thickness, we describe phases of statistical metrology development and application to understanding and modeling thickness variation arising from chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP). These phases include screening experiments including design of test structures and test masks to gather electrical or optical data, techniques for statistical decomposition and analysis of the data, and approaches to calibrating empirical and physical variation models. These models can be integrated with circuit CAD tools to evaluate different process integration or design rule strategies. One focus for the generation of interconnect design rules are guidelines for the use of 'dummy fill' or 'metal fill' to improve the uniformity of underlying metal density and thus improve the uniformity of oxide thickness within the die. Trade-offs that can be evaluated via statistical metrology include the improvements to uniformity possible versus the effect of increased capacitance due to additional metal

  12. Metrological Array of Cyber-Physical Systems. Part 10. Foundations of Objective Qualimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svyatoslav YATSYSHYN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary trend of Cyber-Physical Systems evolution considers as promising line the metrology science development ability for estimation the quality of final or intermediate product. The reliability and perfection of smart and flexible operation of mentioned systems could be permanently improved if determination of critical characteristics would be performed correctly, and particular coordinated assessment would be non-correlatively fulfilled. Last is guaranteed at applying thermodynamic principles of coordinates’ choice.

  13. An interferometer for high-resolution optical surveillance from GEO - internal metrology breadboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonino, L.; Bresciani, F.; Piasini, G.; Pisani, M.; Cabral, A.; Rebordão, J.; Musso, F.

    2017-11-01

    This paper describes the internal metrology breadboard development activities performed in the frame of the EUCLID CEPA 9 RTP 9.9 "High Resolution Optical Satellite Sensor" project of the WEAO Research Cell by AAS-I and INETI. The Michelson Interferometer Testbed demonstrates the possibility of achieving a cophasing condition between two arms of the optical interferometer starting from a large initial white light Optical Path Difference (OPD) unbalance and of maintaining the fringe pattern stabilized in presence of disturbances.

  14. On-Line Metrology with Conoscopic Holography: Beyond Triangulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Álvarez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available On-line non-contact surface inspection with high precision is still an open problem. Laser triangulation techniques are the most common solution for this kind of systems, but there exist fundamental limitations to their applicability when high precisions, long standoffs or large apertures are needed, and when there are difficult operating conditions. Other methods are, in general, not applicable in hostile environments or inadequate for on-line measurement. In this paper we review the latest research in Conoscopic Holography, an interferometric technique that has been applied successfully in this kind of applications, ranging from submicrometric roughness measurements, to long standoff sensors for surface defect detection in steel at high temperatures.

  15. The manufacturing and metrology of off-axis mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penzkofer, Karlheinz; Rascher, Rolf; Küpper, Lutz; Liebl, Johannes

    2015-10-01

    Especially in the area of the large mirror manufacturing only a few manufacturers are capable to produce optical surfaces of high quality. Therefore a deterministic process should be developed in the project IFasO. In the field of telescope optics off-axis optical systems are becoming increasingly important. These systems try to avoid an obstructing of the incoming light by moving the secondary mirror out of the primary mirror's optical axis. This advantage leads to an increasing market for this type of optical surface. Until now off-axis mirrors were difficult or almost impossible to produce. With the processes developed in IFasO, high quality mirrors become possible. For this reason, this paper describes the manufacturing of off-axis surfaces and its problems. The mirror production used in the project IFasO is based on the specific design of the CNC center developed by the company Optotech. This center UPG2000 is capable of grinding, polishing, sagitta measurement and interferometric measurement in one mounting of the specimen. Usually a large optics has to be transported during their manufacturing after every individual process step. There is always a risk of damage of the specimen. The exact orientation of the surface relatively to the tool position is also required. This takes a huge amount of time and makes up most of the production time. In this presentation the use of UPG2000 and the next steps within the process development are described. In the current status the manufacturing of large off-axis elements with a PV < λ/10 rms is reproducible.

  16. Sclero-topometry Metrology in Valorisation of Waste Oil for Micro-machining of Ductile Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eymard S.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During the time, the specific characteristics and the efficient lifetime of oil progressively decrease, due to complex pollution, ultimately making the oil unsuitable for the initial applications. The strategy to regenerate and to valorise waste oils is investigated using improved combinations of sclerometric and topometric tests on ductile nodular cast iron. Tribo-abrasive tests are performed in critical conditions, with base oil, waste oil and regenerated oil, of similar viscosities in order to discriminate their interfacial performances. The forms of the scratch traces indicate wear resistance and tendency to elasto-plastic deformation. The mechanisms of deformation and frictional behaviours were evaluated using optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy and measured for various tribological conditions with tactile and optical profilometry. The Energy Dispersive X ray Spectroscopy completes the chemical superficial distribution of pertinent elements. The surface topography metrology is used to characterize the scratch profiles and to determine the volume of the displaced and removed material, as well as maximum pit height. The originality of this paper is that it is a unique approach specifically devoted to transformer oil concerning tribological conditions.

  17. Machine learning and predictive data analytics enabling metrology and process control in IC fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Narender; Zhang, Yunlin; Wall, Donald; Dirahoui, Bachir; Bailey, Todd C.

    2015-03-01

    Integrate circuit (IC) technology is going through multiple changes in terms of patterning techniques (multiple patterning, EUV and DSA), device architectures (FinFET, nanowire, graphene) and patterning scale (few nanometers). These changes require tight controls on processes and measurements to achieve the required device performance, and challenge the metrology and process control in terms of capability and quality. Multivariate data with complex nonlinear trends and correlations generally cannot be described well by mathematical or parametric models but can be relatively easily learned by computing machines and used to predict or extrapolate. This paper introduces the predictive metrology approach which has been applied to three different applications. Machine learning and predictive analytics have been leveraged to accurately predict dimensions of EUV resist patterns down to 18 nm half pitch leveraging resist shrinkage patterns. These patterns could not be directly and accurately measured due to metrology tool limitations. Machine learning has also been applied to predict the electrical performance early in the process pipeline for deep trench capacitance and metal line resistance. As the wafer goes through various processes its associated cost multiplies. It may take days to weeks to get the electrical performance readout. Predicting the electrical performance early on can be very valuable in enabling timely actionable decision such as rework, scrap, feedforward, feedback predicted information or information derived from prediction to improve or monitor processes. This paper provides a general overview of machine learning and advanced analytics application in the advanced semiconductor development and manufacturing.

  18. At-wavelength metrology of x-ray optics at Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongchang; Berujon, Sebastien; Sutter, John; Alcock, Simon G.; Sawhney, Kawal

    2014-09-01

    Modern, third-generation synchrotron radiation sources provide coherent and extremely bright beams of X-ray radiation. The successful exploitation of such beams depends to a significant extent on imperfections and misalignment of the optics employed on the beamlines. This issue becomes even more critical with the increasing use of active optics, and the desire to achieve diffraction-limited and coherence-preserving X-ray beams. In recent years, significant progress has been made to improve optic testing and optimization techniques, especially those using X-rays for so-called atwavelength metrology. These in-situ and at-wavelength metrology methods can be used not only to optimize the performance of X-ray optics, but also to correct and minimize the collective distortions of upstream beamline optics, including monochromators, and transmission windows. An overview of at-wavelength metrology techniques implemented at Diamond Light Source is presented, including grating interferometry and X-ray near-field speckle based techniques. Representative examples of the application of these techniques are also given, including in-situ and atwavelength calibration and optimization of: active, piezo bimorph mirrors; Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirrors; and refractive optics such as compound refractive lenses.

  19. Mathematical calibration procedure of a capacitive sensor-based indexed metrology platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brau-Avila, A; Valenzuela-Galvan, M; Herrera-Jimenez, V M; Santolaria, J; Aguilar, J J; Acero, R

    2017-01-01

    The demand for faster and more reliable measuring tasks for the control and quality assurance of modern production systems has created new challenges for the field of coordinate metrology. Thus, the search for new solutions in coordinate metrology systems and the need for the development of existing ones still persists. One example of such a system is the portable coordinate measuring machine (PCMM), the use of which in industry has considerably increased in recent years, mostly due to its flexibility for accomplishing in-line measuring tasks as well as its reduced cost and operational advantages compared to traditional coordinate measuring machines. Nevertheless, PCMMs have a significant drawback derived from the techniques applied in the verification and optimization procedures of their kinematic parameters. These techniques are based on the capture of data with the measuring instrument from a calibrated gauge object, fixed successively in various positions so that most of the instrument measuring volume is covered, which results in time-consuming, tedious and expensive verification and optimization procedures. In this work the mathematical calibration procedure of a capacitive sensor-based indexed metrology platform (IMP) is presented. This calibration procedure is based on the readings and geometric features of six capacitive sensors and their targets with nanometer resolution. The final goal of the IMP calibration procedure is to optimize the geometric features of the capacitive sensors and their targets in order to use the optimized data in the verification procedures of PCMMs. (paper)

  20. Metrological and operational performance of measuring systems used in vehicle compressed natural gas filling stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velosa, Jhonn F.; Abril, Henry; Garcia, Luis E. [CDT de GAS (Venezuela). Gas Technological Development Center Corporation

    2008-07-01

    Corporation CDT GAS financially supported by the Colombian government through COLCIENCIAS, carried out a study aimed at designing, developing and implementing in Colombia a calibration and metrological verification 'specialized service' for gas meters installed at dispensers of filling stations using compressed natural gas. The results permitted the identification of improving opportunities (in measuring systems, equipment and devices used to deliver natural gas) which are focused on achieving the highest security and reliability of trading processes of CNG for vehicles. In the development of the first stage of the project, metrological type variables were initially considered, but given the importance of the measuring system and its interaction with the various elements involving gas supply to the filling station, the scope of the work done included aspects related to the operational performance, that is, those influencing the security of the users and the metrological performance of the measuring system. The development of the second stage counted on the collaboration of national companies from the sector of CNG for vehicles, which permitted the carrying out of multiple calibrations to the measuring systems installed in the CNG dispensers, thus achieving, in a concrete way, valid and reliable technological information of the implemented procedures. (author)